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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "highly enriched uranium" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
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1

NNSA Authorizes Start-Up of Highly Enriched Uranium Materials...  

National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

Releases NNSA Authorizes Start-Up of Highly Enriched Uranium ... NNSA Authorizes Start-Up of Highly Enriched Uranium Materials Facility at Y-12 applicationmsword icon R-10-01...

2

Surplus Highly Enriched Uranium Disposition Program plan  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this document is to provide upper level guidance for the program that will downblend surplus highly enriched uranium for use as commercial nuclear reactor fuel or low-level radioactive waste. The intent of this document is to outline the overall mission and program objectives. The document is also intended to provide a general basis for integration of disposition efforts among all applicable sites. This plan provides background information, establishes the scope of disposition activities, provides an approach to the mission and objectives, identifies programmatic assumptions, defines major roles, provides summary level schedules and milestones, and addresses budget requirements.

NONE

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

3

German Pebble Bed Research Reactor Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Potential Acceptance and Disposition of German Pebble Bed Research Reactor Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU) Fuel Environmental Assessment Maxcine Maxted, DOE-SR Used Nuclear Fuel...

4

Disposition of Surplus Highly Enriched Uranium  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

@ @ Printed with soy ink on recycled paper. ,, ,, This report has been reproduced directly from the best available copy. Available to DOE and DOE contractors horn the Office of Scientific and Technical Information, P.O. Box 62, Oak Ridge, TN 37831; telephone (423) 576-8401 for prices, Available to the public from the National Technical Information Service, 5285 Port Royal Road, Springfield, VA 22161. Copies of this document are available (while supplies last) upon written request to: Office of Fissile Materials Disposition, MD-4 ' Forrestal Building United States Department of Energy 1000 Independence Avenue, SW Washington, DC 20585 Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 June 1996 Dear hterested Party: The Disposition of Surplus Highly Enriched Uranium Final Environmental Impact Statemnt is enclosed for your information. This document has been prepared in accordance

5

GTRI's Convert Program: Minimizing the Use of Highly Enriched Uranium |  

National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

Program: Minimizing the Use of Highly Enriched Uranium | Program: Minimizing the Use of Highly Enriched Uranium | National Nuclear Security Administration Our Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing Proliferation Powering the Nuclear Navy Emergency Response Recapitalizing Our Infrastructure Continuing Management Reform Countering Nuclear Terrorism About Us Our Programs Our History Who We Are Our Leadership Our Locations Budget Our Operations Media Room Congressional Testimony Fact Sheets Newsletters Press Releases Speeches Events Social Media Video Gallery Photo Gallery NNSA Archive Federal Employment Apply for Our Jobs Our Jobs Working at NNSA Blog Home > Media Room > Fact Sheets > GTRI's Convert Program: Minimizing the Use of ... Fact Sheet GTRI's Convert Program: Minimizing the Use of Highly Enriched Uranium Apr 12, 2013

6

Special Nuclear Materials: EM Manages Plutonium, Highly Enriched Uranium  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Nuclear Materials & Waste » Nuclear Materials & Waste » Special Nuclear Materials: EM Manages Plutonium, Highly Enriched Uranium and Uranium-233 Special Nuclear Materials: EM Manages Plutonium, Highly Enriched Uranium and Uranium-233 105-K building houses the K-Area Material Storage (KAMS) facility, designated for the consolidated storage of surplus plutonium at Savannah River Site pending disposition. The plutonium shipped to KAMS is sealed inside a welded 3013 containers that are nested in 9975 shipping containers. 105-K building houses the K-Area Material Storage (KAMS) facility, designated for the consolidated storage of surplus plutonium at Savannah River Site pending disposition. The plutonium shipped to KAMS is sealed inside a welded 3013 containers that are nested in 9975 shipping

7

Examination of the conversion of the U.S. submarine fleet from highly enriched uranium to low enriched uranium  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The nuclear reactors used by the U.S. Navy for submarine propulsion are currently fueled by highly enriched uranium (HEU), but HEU brings administrative and political challenges. This issue has been studied by the Navy ...

McCord, Cameron (Cameron Liam)

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

8

Conversion and Blending Facility highly enriched uranium to low enriched uranium as metal. Revision 1  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The mission of this Conversion and Blending Facility (CBF) will be to blend surplus HEU metal and alloy with depleted uranium metal to produce an LEU product. The primary emphasis of this blending operation will be to destroy the weapons capability of large, surplus stockpiles of HEU. The blended LEU product can only be made weapons capable again by the uranium enrichment process. The blended LEU will be produced as a waste suitable for storage or disposal.

NONE

1995-07-05T23:59:59.000Z

9

Disposition of excess highly enriched uranium status and update  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper presents the status of the US DOE program charged with the disposition of excess highly enriched uranium (HEU). Approximately 174 metric tonnes of HEU, with varying assays above 20 percent, has been declared excess from US nuclear weapons. A progress report on the identification and characterization of specific batches of excess HEU is provided, and plans for processing it into commercial nuclear fuel or low-level radioactive waste are described. The resultant quantities of low enriched fuel material expected from processing are given, as well as the estimated schedule for introducing the material into the commercial reactor fuel market. 2 figs., 3 tabs.

Williams, C.K. III; Arbital, J.G.

1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

10

Conversion and Blending Facility highly enriched uranium to low enriched uranium as oxide. Revision 1  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This Conversion and Blending Facility (CBF) will have two missions: (1) convert HEU materials into pure HEU oxide and (2) blend the pure HEU oxide with depleted and natural uranium oxide to produce an LWR grade LEU product. The primary emphasis of this blending operation will be to destroy the weapons capability of large, surplus stockpiles of HEU. The blended LEU product can only be made weapons capable again by the uranium enrichment process. To the extent practical, the chemical and isotopic concentrations of blended LEU product will be held within the specifications required for LWR fuel. Such blended LEU product will be offered to the United States Enrichment Corporation (USEC) to be sold as feed material to the commercial nuclear industry. Otherwise, blended LEU will be produced as a waste suitable for storage or disposal.

NONE

1995-07-05T23:59:59.000Z

11

Report on the Effect the Low Enriched Uranium Delivered Under the Highly  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Report on the Effect the Low Enriched Uranium Delivered Under the Report on the Effect the Low Enriched Uranium Delivered Under the Highly Enriched Uranium Agreement Between the USA and the Russian Federation has on the Domestic Uranium Mining, Conversion, and Enrichment Industries and the Ops of the Gaseous Diffusion Report on the Effect the Low Enriched Uranium Delivered Under the Highly Enriched Uranium Agreement Between the USA and the Russian Federation has on the Domestic Uranium Mining, Conversion, and Enrichment Industries and the Ops of the Gaseous Diffusion The successful implementation of the HEU Agreement remains a high priority of the U.S. Government. The agreement also serves U.S. and Russian commercial interests. HEU Agreement deliveries are an important source of supply in meeting requirements for U.S. utility uranium, conversion, and

12

Report on the Effect the Low Enriched Uranium Delivered Under the Highly  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

on the Effect the Low Enriched Uranium Delivered Under the on the Effect the Low Enriched Uranium Delivered Under the Highly Enriched Uranium Agreement Between the USA and the Russian Federation has on the Domestic Uranium Mining, Conversion, and Enrichment Industries and the Ops of the Gaseous Diffusion Report on the Effect the Low Enriched Uranium Delivered Under the Highly Enriched Uranium Agreement Between the USA and the Russian Federation has on the Domestic Uranium Mining, Conversion, and Enrichment Industries and the Ops of the Gaseous Diffusion The successful implementation of the HEU Agreement remains a high priority of the U.S. Government. The agreement also serves U.S. and Russian commercial interests. HEU Agreement deliveries are an important source of supply in meeting requirements for U.S. utility uranium, conversion, and

13

Uranium Mining and Enrichment  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Overview Presentation » Uranium Mining and Enrichment Overview Presentation » Uranium Mining and Enrichment Uranium Mining and Enrichment Uranium is a radioactive element that occurs naturally in the earth's surface. Uranium is used as a fuel for nuclear reactors. Uranium-bearing ores are mined, and the uranium is processed to make reactor fuel. In nature, uranium atoms exist in several forms called isotopes - primarily uranium-238, or U-238, and uranium-235, or U-235. In a typical sample of natural uranium, most of the mass (99.3%) would consist of atoms of U-238, and a very small portion of the total mass (0.7%) would consist of atoms of U-235. Uranium Isotopes Isotopes of Uranium Using uranium as a fuel in the types of nuclear reactors common in the United States requires that the uranium be enriched so that the percentage of U-235 is increased, typically to 3 to 5%.

14

Accelerating the Reduction of Excess Russian Highly Enriched Uranium  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper presents the latest information on one of the Accelerated Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU) Disposition initiatives that resulted from the May 2002 Summit meeting between Presidents George W. Bush and Vladimir V. Putin. These initiatives are meant to strengthen nuclear nonproliferation objectives by accelerating the disposition of nuclear weapons-useable materials. The HEU Transparency Implementation Program (TIP), within the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) is working to implement one of the selected initiatives that would purchase excess Russian HEU (93% 235U) for use as fuel in U.S. research reactors over the next ten years. This will parallel efforts to convert the reactors' fuel core from HEU to low enriched uranium (LEU) material, where feasible. The paper will examine important aspects associated with the U.S. research reactor HEU purchase. In particular: (1) the establishment of specifications for the Russian HEU, and (2) transportation safeguard considerations for moving the HEU from the Mayak Production Facility in Ozersk, Russia, to the Y-12 National Security Complex in Oak Ridge, TN.

Benton, J; Wall, D; Parker, E; Rutkowski, E

2004-02-18T23:59:59.000Z

15

High Accuracy U-235 Enrichment Verification Station for Low Enriched Uranium Alloys  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Y-12 National Security Complex is playing a role in the U.S. High Performance Research Reactor (USHPRR) Conversion program sponsored by the U.S. National Nuclear Security Administration's Office of Global Threat Reduction. The USHPRR program has a goal of converting remaining U.S. reactors that continue to use highly enriched uranium (HEU) fuel to low enriched uranium (LEU) fuel. The USHPRR program is currently developing a LEU Uranium-Molybdenum (U-Mo) monolithic fuel for use in the U.S. high performance research reactors.Y-12 is supporting both the fuel development and fuel fabrication efforts by fabricating low enriched U-Mo foils from its own source material for irradiation experiments and for optimizing the fabrication process in support of scaling up the process to a commercial production scale. Once the new fuel is qualified, Y-12 will produce and ship U-Mo coupons with verified 19.75% +0.2% - 0.3% U-235 enrichment to be fabricated into fuel elements for the USHPRRs. Considering this small enrichment tolerance and the transition into HEU being set strictly at 20% U-235, a characterization system with a measurement uncertainty of less than or equal to 0.1% in enrichment is desired to support customer requirements and minimize production costs. Typical uncertainty for most available characterization systems today is approximately 1-5%; therefore, a specialized system must be developed which results in a reduced measurement uncertainty. A potential system using a High-Purity Germanium (HPGe) detector has been procured, and tests have been conducted to verify its capabilities with regards to the requirements. Using four U-Mo enrichment standards fabricated with complete isotopic and chemical characterization, infinite thickness and peak-ratio enrichment measurement methods have been considered for use. As a result of inhomogeneity within the U-Mo samples, FRAM, an isotopic analysis software, has been selected for initial testing. A systematic approach towards observing effects on FRAM's enrichment analysis has been conducted with regards to count and dead time.

Lillard, C. R.; Hayward, J. P.; Williamson, M. R.

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

16

International Atomic Energy Agency support of research reactor highly enriched uranium to low enriched uranium fuel conversion projects  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The IAEA has been involved for more than twenty years in supporting international nuclear non- proliferation efforts associated with reducing the amount of highly enriched uranium (HEU) in international commerce. IAEA projects and activities have directly supported the Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors (RERTR) programme, as well as directly assisted efforts to convert research reactors from HEU to LEU fuel. HEU to LEU fuel conversion projects differ significantly depending on several factors including the design of the reactor and fuel, technical needs of the member state, local nuclear infrastructure, and available resources. To support such diverse endeavours, the IAEA tailors each project to address the relevant constraints. This paper presents the different approaches taken by the IAEA to address the diverse challenges involved in research reactor HEU to LEU fuel conversion projects. Examples of conversion related projects in different Member States are fully detailed. (author)

Bradley, E.; Adelfang, P.; Goldman, I.N. [Research Reactors Unit, Division of Nuclear Fuel Cycle and Waste Technology, International Atomic Energy Agency, Wagramer Strasse 5, P.O. Box 100, A-1400 Vienna (Austria)

2008-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

17

Unallocated Off-Specification Highly Enriched Uranium: Recommendations for Disposition  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has made significant progress with regard to disposition planning for 174 metric tons (MTU) of surplus Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU). Approximately 55 MTU of this 174 MTU are ''offspec'' HEU. (''Off-spec'' signifies that the isotopic or chemical content of the material does not meet the American Society for Testing and Materials standards for commercial nuclear reactor fuel.) Approximately 33 of the 55 MTU have been allocated to off-spec commercial reactor fuel per an Interagency Agreement between DOE and the Tennessee Valley Authority (1). To determine disposition plans for the remaining {approx}22 MTU, the DOE National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) Office of Fissile Materials Disposition (OFMD) and the DOE Office of Environmental Management (EM) co-sponsored this technical study. This paper represents a synopsis of the formal technical report (NNSA/NN-0014). The {approx} 22 MTU of off-spec HEU inventory in this study were divided into two main groupings: one grouping with plutonium (Pu) contamination and one grouping without plutonium. This study identified and evaluated 26 potential paths for the disposition of this HEU using proven decision analysis tools. This selection process resulted in recommended and alternative disposition paths for each group of HEU. The evaluation and selection of these paths considered criteria such as technical maturity, programmatic issues, cost, schedule, and environment, safety and health compliance. The primary recommendations from the analysis are comprised of 7 different disposition paths. The study recommendations will serve as a technical basis for subsequent programmatic decisions as disposition of this HEU moves into the implementation phase.

Bridges, D. N.; Boeke, S. G.; Tousley, D. R.; Bickford, W.; Goergen, C.; Williams, W.; Hassler, M.; Nelson, T.; Keck, R.; Arbital, J.

2002-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

18

Quadrilateral Cooperation on High-density Low-enriched Uranium Fuel  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Quadrilateral Cooperation on High-density Low-enriched Uranium Fuel Quadrilateral Cooperation on High-density Low-enriched Uranium Fuel Production: Fact Sheet | National Nuclear Security Administration Our Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing Proliferation Powering the Nuclear Navy Emergency Response Recapitalizing Our Infrastructure Continuing Management Reform Countering Nuclear Terrorism About Us Our Programs Our History Who We Are Our Leadership Our Locations Budget Our Operations Media Room Congressional Testimony Fact Sheets Newsletters Press Releases Speeches Events Social Media Video Gallery Photo Gallery NNSA Archive Federal Employment Apply for Our Jobs Our Jobs Working at NNSA Blog Home > Media Room > Fact Sheets > Quadrilateral Cooperation on High-density Low-enriched Uranium Fuel ... Fact Sheet Quadrilateral Cooperation on High-density Low-enriched Uranium Fuel

19

NNSA Highly Enriched Uranium Removal Featured on The Rachel Maddow Show |  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Highly Enriched Uranium Removal Featured on The Rachel Maddow Highly Enriched Uranium Removal Featured on The Rachel Maddow Show NNSA Highly Enriched Uranium Removal Featured on The Rachel Maddow Show March 22, 2012 - 11:37am Addthis NNSA Administrator Thomas D’Agostino appeared live last night to break the news with Rachel Maddow that all remaining weapons-usable material has been successfully removed from Mexico. | Photo courtesy of the NNSA. NNSA Administrator Thomas D'Agostino appeared live last night to break the news with Rachel Maddow that all remaining weapons-usable material has been successfully removed from Mexico. | Photo courtesy of the NNSA. Michael Hess Michael Hess Former Digital Communications Specialist, Office of Public Affairs What's the difference between HEU and LEU? Highly enriched uranium (HEU) has a greater than 20 percent

20

DOE to Remove 200 Metric Tons of Highly Enriched Uranium from U.S. Nuclear  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

to Remove 200 Metric Tons of Highly Enriched Uranium from U.S. to Remove 200 Metric Tons of Highly Enriched Uranium from U.S. Nuclear Weapons Stockpile DOE to Remove 200 Metric Tons of Highly Enriched Uranium from U.S. Nuclear Weapons Stockpile November 7, 2005 - 12:38pm Addthis Will Be Redirected to Naval Reactors, Down-blended or Used for Space Programs WASHINGTON, DC - Secretary of Energy Samuel W. Bodman today announced that the Department of Energy's (DOE) National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) will remove up to 200 metric tons (MT) of Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU), in the coming decades, from further use as fissile material in U.S. nuclear weapons and prepare this material for other uses. Secretary Bodman made this announcement while addressing the 2005 Carnegie International Nonproliferation Conference in Washington, DC.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "highly enriched uranium" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Quadrilateral Cooperation on High-density Low-enriched Uranium Fuel  

National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

Quadrilateral Cooperation on High-density Low-enriched Uranium Fuel Quadrilateral Cooperation on High-density Low-enriched Uranium Fuel Production: Fact Sheet | National Nuclear Security Administration Our Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing Proliferation Powering the Nuclear Navy Emergency Response Recapitalizing Our Infrastructure Continuing Management Reform Countering Nuclear Terrorism About Us Our Programs Our History Who We Are Our Leadership Our Locations Budget Our Operations Media Room Congressional Testimony Fact Sheets Newsletters Press Releases Speeches Events Social Media Video Gallery Photo Gallery NNSA Archive Federal Employment Apply for Our Jobs Our Jobs Working at NNSA Blog Home > Media Room > Fact Sheets > Quadrilateral Cooperation on High-density Low-enriched Uranium Fuel ... Fact Sheet Quadrilateral Cooperation on High-density Low-enriched Uranium Fuel

22

Initial report on characterization of excess highly enriched uranium  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

DOE`s Office of Fissile Materials Disposition assigned to this Y-12 division the task of preparing a report on the 174.4 metric tons of excess highly enriched U. Characterization included identification by category, gathering existing data (assay), defining the likely needed processing steps for prepping for transfer to a blending site, and developing a range of preliminary cost estimates for those steps. Focus is on making commercial reactor fuel as a final disposition path.

NONE

1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

23

Compact reaction cell for homogenizing and down-blending highly enriched uranium metal  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The invention is a specialized reaction cell for converting uranium metal to uranium oxide. In a preferred form, the reaction cell comprises a reaction chamber with increasing diameter along its length (e.g. a cylindrical chamber having a diameter of about 2 inches in a lower portion and having a diameter of from about 4 to about 12 inches in an upper portion). Such dimensions are important to achieve the necessary conversion while at the same time affording criticality control and transportability of the cell and product. The reaction chamber further comprises an upper port and a lower port, the lower port allowing for the entry of reactant gases into the reaction chamber, the upper port allowing for the exit of gases from the reaction chamber. A diffuser plate is attached to the lower port of the reaction chamber and serves to shape the flow of gas into the reaction chamber. The reaction cell further comprises means for introducing gases into the reaction chamber and a heating means capable of heating the contents of the reaction chamber. The present invention also relates to a method for converting uranium metal to uranium oxide in the reaction cell of the present invention. The invention is useful for down-blending highly enriched uranium metal by the simultaneous conversion of highly enriched uranium metal and natural or depleted uranium metal to uranium oxide within the reaction cell. 4 figs.

McLean, W. II; Miller, P.E.; Horton, J.A.

1995-05-02T23:59:59.000Z

24

Compact reaction cell for homogenizing and down-blanding highly enriched uranium metal  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The invention is a specialized reaction cell for converting uranium metal to uranium oxide. In a preferred form, the reaction cell comprises a reaction chamber with increasing diameter along its length (e.g. a cylindrical chamber having a diameter of about 2 inches in a lower portion and having a diameter of from about 4 to about 12 inches in an upper portion). Such dimensions are important to achieve the necessary conversion while at the same time affording criticality control and transportability of the cell and product. The reaction chamber further comprises an upper port and a lower port, the lower port allowing for the entry of reactant gasses into the reaction chamber, the upper port allowing for the exit of gasses from the reaction chamber. A diffuser plate is attached to the lower port of the reaction chamber and serves to shape the flow of gas into the reaction chamber. The reaction cell further comprises means for introducing gasses into the reaction chamber and a heating means capable of heating the contents of the reaction chamber. The present invention also relates to a method for converting uranium metal to uranium oxide in the reaction cell of the present invention. The invention is useful for down-blending highly enriched uranium metal by the simultaneous conversion of highly enriched uranium metal and natural or depleted uranium metal to uranium oxide within the reaction cell.

McLean, II, William (Oakland, CA); Miller, Philip E. (Livermore, CA); Horton, James A. (Livermore, CA)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

25

Conversion and Blending Facility highly enriched uranium to low enriched uranium as uranyl nitrate hexahydrate. Revision 1  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This Conversion and Blending Facility (CBF) will have two missions: (1) convert HEU materials to pure HEU uranyl nitrate (UNH) and (2) blend pure HEU UNH with depleted and natural UNH to produce HEU UNH crystals. The primary emphasis of this blending operation will be to destroy the weapons capability of large, surplus stockpiles of HEU. The blended LEU product can only be made weapons capable again by the uranium enrichment process. To the extent practical, the chemical and isotopic concentrations of blended LEU product will be held within the specifications required for LWR fuel. Such blended LEU product will be offered to the United States Enrichment Corporation (USEC) to be sold as feed material to the commercial nuclear industry. Otherwise, blended LEU Will be produced as a waste suitable for storage or disposal.

NONE

1995-07-05T23:59:59.000Z

26

Examination of the conversion of the U.S. submarine fleet from highly enriched uranium to low enriched uranium ; Examination of the conversion of the United States submarine fleet from HEU to low LEU .  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??The nuclear reactors used by the U.S. Navy for submarine propulsion are currently fueled by highly enriched uranium (HEU), but HEU brings administrative and political (more)

McCord, Cameron (Cameron Liam)

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

Report on the Effect the Low Enriched Uranium Delivered Under the Highly Enriched Uranium Agreement Between the Government of the United States and the Government of the Russian Federation has on the  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Report on the Effect the Low Enriched Uranium Delivered Report on the Effect the Low Enriched Uranium Delivered Under the Highly Enriched Uranium Agreement Between the Government of the United States of America and the Government of the Russian Federation has on the Domestic Uranium Mining, Conversion, and Enrichment Industries and the Operation of the Gaseous Diffusion Plant 2008 Information Date: December 31, 2008 1 Introduction The Agreement Between the Government of the United States of America and the Government of the Russian Federation Concerning the Disposition of Highly Enriched Uranium Extracted from Nuclear Weapons (HEU Agreement) was signed on February 18, 1993. The HEU Agreement provides for the purchase over a 20-year period (1994-2013) of 500 metric tons (MT) of weapons-origin highly enriched uranium (HEU) from the Russian Federation

28

Pajarito Monitor: a high-sensitivity monitoring system for highly enriched uranium  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Pajarito Monitor for Special Nuclear Material is a high-sensitivity gamma-ray monitoring system for detecting small quantities of highly enriched uranium transported by pedestrians or motor vehicles. The monitor consists of two components: a walk-through personnel monitor and a vehicle monitor. The personnel monitor has a plastic-scintillator detector portal, a microwave occupancy monitor, and a microprocessor control unit that measures the radiation intensity during background and monitoring periods to detect transient diversion signals. The vehicle monitor examines stationary motor vehicles while the vehicle's occupants pass through the personnel portal to exchange their badges. The vehicle monitor has four groups of large plastic scintillators that scan the vehicle from above and below. Its microprocessor control unit measures separate radiation intensities in each detector group. Vehicle occupancy is sensed by a highway traffic detection system. Each monitor's controller is responsible for detecting diversion as well as serving as a calibration and trouble-shooting aid. Diversion signals are detected by a sequential probability ratio hypothesis test that minimizes the monitoring time in the vehicle monitor and adapts itself well to variations in individual passage speed in the personnel monitor. Designed to be highly sensitive to diverted enriched uranium, the monitoring system also exhibits exceptional sensitivity for plutonium. 6 references, 9 figures, 2 tables.

Fehlau, P.E.; Coop, K.; Garcia, C. Jr.; Martinez, J.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

29

Establishing Specifications for Low Enriched Uranium Fuel Operations Conducted Outside the High Flux Isotope Reactor Site  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) has funded staff at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to study the conversion of the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) from the current, high enriched uranium fuel to low enriched uranium fuel. The LEU fuel form is a metal alloy that has never been used in HFIR or any HFIR-like reactor. This report provides documentation of a process for the creation of a fuel specification that will meet all applicable regulations and guidelines to which UT-Battelle, LLC (UTB) the operating contractor for ORNL - must adhere. This process will allow UTB to purchase LEU fuel for HFIR and be assured of the quality of the fuel being procured.

Pinkston, Daniel [ORNL; Primm, Trent [ORNL; Renfro, David G [ORNL; Sease, John D [ORNL

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

Fuel Grading Study on a Low-Enriched Uranium Fuel Design for the High Flux Isotope Reactor  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An engineering design study that would enable the conversion of the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) from high-enriched uranium to low-enriched uranium fuel is ongoing at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The computational models used to search for a low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel design that would meet the requirements for the conversion study, and the recent results obtained with these models during FY 2009, are documented and discussed in this report. Estimates of relevant reactor performance parameters for the LEU fuel core are presented and compared with the corresponding data for the currently operating high-enriched uranium fuel core. These studies indicate that the LEU fuel design would maintain the current performance of the HFIR with respect to the neutron flux to the central target region, reflector, and beam tube locations.

Ilas, Germina [ORNL; Primm, Trent [ORNL

2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

Prompt Neutron Decay for Delayed Critical Bare and Natural-Uranium-Reflected Metal Spheres of Plutonium and Highly Enriched Uranium  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Prompt neutron decay at delayed criticality was measured by Oak Ridge National Laboratory for uranium-reflected highly enriched uranium (HEU) and Pu metal spheres (FLATTOP), for an unreflected Pu metal (4.5% {sup 240}Pu) sphere (JEZEBEL) at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and for an unreflected HEU metal sphere at Oak Ridge Critical Experiments Facility. The average prompt neutron decay constants from hundreds of Rossi-{alpha} and randomly pulsed neutron measurements with {sup 252}Cf at delayed criticality are as follows: 3.8458 {+-} 0.0016 x 10{sup 5} s{sup -1}, 2.2139 {+-} 0.0022 x 10{sup 5} s{sup -1}, 6.3126 {+-} 0.0100 x 10{sup 5} s{sup -1}, and 1.1061 {+-} 0.0009 x 10{sup 6} s{sup -1}, respectively. These values agree with previous measurements by LANL for FLATTOP, JEZEBEL, and GODIVA I as follows: 3.82 {+-} 0.02 x 10{sup 5} s{sup -1} for a uranium core; 2.14 {+-} 0.05 x 10{sup 5} s{sup -1} and 2.29 x 10{sup 5} s{sup -1} (uncertainty not reported) for a plutonium core; 6.4 {+-} 0.1 x 10{sup 5} s{sup -1}, and 1.1 {+-} 0.1 x 10{sup 6} s{sup -1}, respectively, but have smaller uncertainties because of the larger number of measurements. For the FLATTOP and JEZEBEL assemblies, the measurements agree with calculations. Traditionally, the calculated decay constants for the bare uranium metal sphere GODIVA I and the Oak Ridge Uranium Metal Sphere were higher than experimental by {approx}10%. Other energy-dependent quantities for the bare uranium sphere agree within 1%.

Mihalczo, John T [ORNL

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

32

Fusion solution to dispose of spent nuclear fuel, transuranic elements, and highly enriched uranium  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The disposal of the nuclear spent fuel, the transuranic elements, and the highly enriched uranium represents a major problem under investigation by the international scientific community to identify the most promising solutions. The investigation of this paper focused on achieving the top rated solution for the problem, the elimination goal, which requires complete elimination for the transuranic elements or the highly enriched uranium, and the long-lived fission products. To achieve this goal, fusion blankets with liquid carrier, molten salts or liquid metal eutectics, for the transuranic elements and the uranium isotopes are utilized. The generated energy from the fusion blankets is used to provide revenue for the system. The long-lived fission products are fabricated into fission product targets for transmutation utilizing the neutron leakage from the fusion blankets. This paper investigated the fusion blanket designs for small fusion devices and the system requirements for such application. The results show that 334 MW of fusion power from DT plasma for 30 years with an availability factor of 0.75 can dispose of the 70,000 tons of the U.S. inventory of spent nuclear fuel generated up to the year 2015. In addition, this fusion solution eliminates the need for a geological repository site, which is a major advantage. Meanwhile, such utilization of the fusion power will provide an excellent opportunity to develop fusion energy for the future.

Yousry Gohar

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

Design Study for a Low-Enriched Uranium Core for the High Flux Isotope Reactor, Annual Report for FY 2008  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report documents progress made during FY 2008 in studies of converting the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) from highly enriched uranium (HEU) fuel to low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel. Conversion from HEU to LEU will require a change in fuel form from uranium oxide to a uranium-molybdenum alloy. With axial and radial grading of the fuel foil and an increase in reactor power to 100 MW, calculations indicate that the HFIR can be operated with LEU fuel with no degradation in reactor performance from the current level. Results of selected benchmark studies imply that calculations of LEU performance are accurate. Scoping experiments with various manufacturing methods for forming the LEU alloy profile are presented.

Primm, Trent [ORNL; Chandler, David [ORNL; Ilas, Germina [ORNL; Miller, James Henry [ORNL; Sease, John D [ORNL; Jolly, Brian C [ORNL

2009-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

34

RUSSIAN-ORIGIN HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL SHIPMENT FROM BULGARIA  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In July 2008, the Global Threat Reduction Initiative and the IRT 2000 research reactor in Sofia, Bulgaria, operated by the Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy (INRNE), safely shipped 6.4 kilograms of Russian origin highly enriched uranium (HEU) spent nuclear fuel (SNF) to the Russian Federation. The shipment, which resulted in the removal of all HEU from Bulgaria, was conducted by truck, barge, and rail modes of transport across two transit countries before reaching the final destination at the Production Association Mayak facility in Chelyabinsk, Russia. This paper describes the work, equipment, organizations, and approvals that were required to complete the spent fuel shipment and provides lessons learned that might assist other research reactor operators with their own spent nuclear fuel shipments.

Kelly Cummins; Igor Bolshinsky; Ken Allen; Tihomir Apostolov; Ivaylo Dimitrov

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

35

MOBILE SYSTEMS FOR DILUTION OF HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM AND URANIUM CONTAINING COMPONENTS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A mobile melt-dilute (MMD) module for the treatment of aluminum research reactor spent fuel is being developed. The process utilizes a closed system approach to retain fission products/gases inside a sealed canister after treatment. The MMD process melts and dilutes spent fuel with depleted uranium to obtain a fissile fraction of less than 0.2. The final ingot is solidified inside the sealed canister and can be stored safely either wet or dry until final disposition or reprocessing. The MMD module can be staged at or near the research reactor fuel storage sites to facilitate the melt-dilute treatment of the spent fuel into a stable non-proliferable form.

Adams, T

2007-05-02T23:59:59.000Z

36

Possibility of nuclear pumped laser experiment using low enriched uranium  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Possibility to perform experiments for nuclear pumped laser oscillation by using low enriched uranium is investigated. Kinetic analyses are performed for two types of reactor design, one is using highly enriched uranium and the other is using low enriched uranium. The reactor design is based on the experiment reactor in IPPE. The results show the oscillation of nuclear pumped laser in the case of low enriched uranium reactor is also possible. The use of low enriched uranium in the experiment will make experiment easier.

Obara, Toru; Takezawa, Hiroki [Center for Research into Innovative Nuclear Energy Systems Tokyo Institute of Technology 2-12-1-N1-19, Ookayama Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8550 (Japan)

2012-06-06T23:59:59.000Z

37

IPNS enriched uranium booster target  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Since startup in 1981, IPNS has operated on a fully depleted /sup 238/U target. With the booster as in the present system, high energy protons accelerated to 450 MeV by the Rapid Cycling Synchrotron are directed at the target and by mechanisms of spallation and fission of the uranium, produce fast neutrons. The neutrons from the target pass into adjacent moderator where they slow down to energies useful for spectroscopy. The target cooling systems and monitoring systems have operated very reliably and safely during this period. To provide higher neutron intensity, we have developed plans for an enriched uranium (booster) target. HETC-VIM calculations indicate that the target will produce approx.90 kW of heat, with a nominal x5 gain (k/sub eff/ = 0.80). The neutron beam intensity gain will be a factor of approx.3. Thermal-hydraulic and heat transport calculations indicate that approx.1/2 in. thick /sup 235/U discs are subject to about the same temperatures as the present /sup 238/U 1 in. thick discs. The coolant will be light demineralized water (H/sub 2/O) and the coolant flow rate must be doubled. The broadening of the fast neutron pulse width should not seriously affect the neutron scattering experiments. Delayed neutrons will appear at a level about 3% of the total (currently approx.0.5%). This may affect backgrounds in some experiments, so that we are assessing measures to control and correct for this (e.g., beam tube choppers). Safety analyses and neutronic calculations are nearing completion. Construction of the /sup 235/U discs at the ORNL Y-12 facility is scheduled to begin late 1985. The completion of the booster target and operation are scheduled for late 1986. No enriched uranium target assembly operating at the projected power level now exists in the world. This effort thus represents an important technological experiment as well as being a ''flux enhancer''.

Schulke, A.W. Jr.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

38

ZPR-3 Assembly 12 : A cylindrical assembly of highly enriched uranium, depleted uranium and graphite with an average {sup 235}U enrichment of 21 atom %.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Over a period of 30 years, more than a hundred Zero Power Reactor (ZPR) critical assemblies were constructed at Argonne National Laboratory. The ZPR facilities, ZPR-3, ZPR-6, ZPR-9 and ZPPR, were all fast critical assembly facilities. The ZPR critical assemblies were constructed to support fast reactor development, but data from some of these assemblies are also well suited for nuclear data validation and to form the basis for criticality safety benchmarks. A number of the Argonne ZPR/ZPPR critical assemblies have been evaluated as ICSBEP and IRPhEP benchmarks. Of the three classes of ZPR assemblies, engineering mockups, engineering benchmarks and physics benchmarks, the last group tends to be most useful for criticality safety. Because physics benchmarks were designed to test fast reactor physics data and methods, they were as simple as possible in geometry and composition. The principal fissile species was {sup 235}U or {sup 239}Pu. Fuel enrichments ranged from 9% to 95%. Often there were only one or two main core diluent materials, such as aluminum, graphite, iron, sodium or stainless steel. The cores were reflected (and insulated from room return effects) by one or two layers of materials such as depleted uranium, lead or stainless steel. Despite their more complex nature, a small number of assemblies from the other two classes would make useful criticality safety benchmarks because they have features related to criticality safety issues, such as reflection by soil-like material. ZPR-3 Assembly 12 (ZPR-3/12) was designed as a fast reactor physics benchmark experiment with an average core {sup 235}U enrichment of approximately 21 at.%. Approximately 68.9% of the total fissions in this assembly occur above 100 keV, approximately 31.1% occur below 100 keV, and essentially none below 0.625 eV - thus the classification as a 'fast' assembly. This assembly is Fast Reactor Benchmark No. 9 in the Cross Section Evaluation Working Group (CSEWG) Benchmark Specifications and has historically been used as a data validation benchmark assembly. Loading of ZPR-3 Assembly 12 began in late Jan. 1958, and the Assembly 12 program ended in Feb. 1958. The core consisted of highly enriched uranium (HEU) plates, depleted uranium plates and graphite plates loaded into stainless steel drawers which were inserted into the central square stainless steel tubes of a 31 x 31 matrix on a split table machine. The core unit cell consisted of two columns of 0.125 in.-wide (3.175 mm) HEU plates, seven columns of 0.125 in.-wide depleted uranium plates and seven columns of 0.125 in.-wide graphite plates. The length of each column was 9 in. (228.6 mm) in each half of the core. The graphite plates were included to produce a softer neutron spectrum that would be more characteristic of a large power reactor. The axial blanket consisted of 12 in. (304.8 mm) of depleted uranium behind the core. The thickness of the radial blanket was approximately 12 in. and the length of the radial blanket in each half of the matrix was 21 in. (533.4 mm). The assembly geometry approximated a right circular cylinder as closely as the square matrix tubes allowed. According to the logbook and loading records for ZPR-3/12, the reference critical configuration was loading 10 which was critical on Feb. 5, 1958. The subsequent loadings were very similar but less clean for criticality because there were modifications made to accommodate reactor physics measurements other than criticality. Accordingly, ZPR-3/12 loading 10 was selected as the only configuration for this benchmark. As documented below, it was determined to be acceptable as a criticality safety benchmark experiment. An accurate transformation to a simplified model is needed to make any ZPR assembly a practical criticality-safety benchmark. There is simply too much geometric detail in an exact (as-built) model of a ZPR assembly, even a clean core such as ZPR-3/12 loading 10. The transformation must reduce the detail to a practical level without masking any of the important features of the critical experiment. And it must d

Lell, R. M.; McKnight, R. D.; Perel, R. L.; Wagschal, J. J.; Nuclear Engineering Division; Racah Inst. of Physics

2010-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

39

Low-Enriched Uranium Fuel Design with Two-Dimensional Grading for the High Flux Isotope Reactor  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An engineering design study of the conversion of the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) from high-enriched uranium (HEU) to low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel is ongoing at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The computational models developed during fiscal year 2010 to search for an LEU fuel design that would meet the requirements for the conversion and the results obtained with these models are documented and discussed in this report. Estimates of relevant reactor performance parameters for the LEU fuel core are presented and compared with the corresponding data for the currently operating HEU fuel core. The results obtained indicate that the LEU fuel design would maintain the current performance of the HFIR with respect to the neutron flux to the central target region, reflector, and beam tube locations under the assumption that the operating power for the reactor fueled with LEU can be increased from the current value of 85 MW to 100 MW.

Ilas, Germina [ORNL; Primm, Trent [ORNL

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

40

DOE/EIS-0240-SA-1: Supplement Analysis for the Disposition of Surplus Highly Enriched Uranium (October 2007)  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

0-SA1 0-SA1 SUPPLEMENT ANALYSIS DISPOSITION OF SURPLUS HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM October 2007 U.S. Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration Office of Fissile Materials Disposition Washington, D.C. i TABLE OF CONTENTS 1.0 Introduction and Purpose .................................................................................................................1 2.0 Background......................................................................................................................................1 2.1 Scope of the HEU EIS............................................................................................................ 2 2.2 Status of Surplus HEU Disposition Activities .......................................................................

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "highly enriched uranium" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Thermal hydraulics analysis of the MIT research reactor in support of a low enrichment uranium (LEU) core conversion .  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??The MIT research reactor (MITR) is converting from the existing high enrichment uranium (HEU) core to a low enrichment uranium (LEU) core using a high-density (more)

Ko, Yu-Chih, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

Disposition of highly enriched uranium obtained from the Republic of Kazakhstan. Environmental assessment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This EA assesses the potential environmental impacts associated with DOE`s proposal to transport 600 kg of Kazakhstand-origin HEU from Y-12 to a blending site (B&W Lynchburg or NFS Erwin), transport low-enriched UF6 blending stock from a gaseous diffusion plant to GE Wilmington and U oxide blending stock to the blending site, blending the HEU and uranium oxide blending stock to produce LEU in the form of uranyl nitrate, and transport the uranyl nitrate from the blending site to USEC Portsmouth.

NONE

1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

EVALUATION OF FLOWSHEET CHANGES FOR THE HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM BLENDDOWN PROGRAM  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

H Canyon is considering a flowsheet change for Plutonium (Pu) Contaminated Scrap (PuCS) material. The proposed change is to route dissolved PuCS material directly to a uranium (U) storage tank. As a result, the PuCS solution will bypass Head End and First U Cycle, and will be purified by solvent extraction in Second U Cycle. The PuCS solution contains appreciable amounts of boron (B) and fluoride (F{sup -}), which are currently at trace levels in the U storage tank. Though unlikely, if the B concentration in the U storage tank were to reach 1.8 g B/g U, the entire contents of the U storage tank would likely require a second pass through Second U Cycle to provide sufficient decontamination to meet the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) Blend Grade Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU) specification for B, which is 30 {micro}g/g U. In addition, Second U Cycle is expected to provide sufficient decontamination of F{sup -} and Pu regardless of the amount of PuCS solution sent to the storage tank. Though aluminum (Al) is not present in the PuCS solution, B can be credited as a complexant of F{sup -}. Both stability constants from the literature and Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) corrosion studies were documented to demonstrate that B complexation of F{sup -} in nitric acid solutions is sufficient to prevent excessive corrosion. Though B and Al complex F{sup -} to a similar degree, neither completely eliminates the presence of free F{sup -} in solution. Therefore, a limited amount of corrosion is expected even with complexed F{sup -} solutions. Tanks maintained at ambient temperature are not expected to experience significant corrosion. However, the Low Activity Waste (LAW) evaporators may be subjected to a corrosion rate of about 25 mils per year (mpy) as they reach their highest F{sup -} concentrations. The feed adjustment evaporator would only be subjected to the corrosion rate of about 25 mpy in the latter stages of the PuCS campaign. An issue that must be addressed as part of the proposed PuCS flowsheet change is that B has limited solubility in concentrated nitric acid solutions. As the proposed PuCS campaign progresses, the B concentration will increase in the U storage tank, in Second U Cycle feed, and in the 1DW stream sent to the LAW evaporators. Limitations on the B concentration in the LAW evaporators will be needed to prevent formation of boron-containing solids.

Crowder, M.; Rudisill, T.; Laurinat, J.; Mickalonis, J.

2007-10-22T23:59:59.000Z

44

Transmutation Analysis of Enriched Uranium and Deep Burn High Temperature Reactors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

High temperature reactors (HTRs) have been under consideration for production of electricity, process heat, and for destruction of transuranics for decades. As part of the transmutation analysis efforts within the Fuel Cycle Research and Development (FCR&D) campaign, a need was identified for detailed discharge isotopics from HTRs for use in the VISION code. A conventional HTR using enriched uranium in UCO fuel was modeled having discharge burnup of 120 GWd/MTiHM. Also, a deep burn HTR (DB-HTR) was modeled burning transuranic (TRU)-only TRU-O2 fuel to a discharge burnup of 648 GWd/MTiHM. For each of these cases, unit cell depletion calculations were performed with SCALE/TRITON. Unit cells were used to perform this analysis using SCALE 6.1. Because of the long mean free paths (and migration lengths) of neutrons in HTRs, using a unit cell to represent a whole core can be non-trivial. The sizes of these cells were first set by using Serpent calculations to match a spectral index between unit cell and whole core domains. In the case of the DB-HTR, the unit cell which was arrived at in this way conserved the ratio of fuel to moderator found in a single block of fuel. In the conventional HTR case, a larger moderator-to-fuel ratio than that of a single block was needed to simulate the whole core spectrum. Discharge isotopics (for 500 nuclides) and one-group cross-sections (for 1022 nuclides) were delivered to the transmutation analysis team. This report provides documentation for these calculations. In addition to the discharge isotopics, one-group cross-sections were provided for the full list of 1022 nuclides tracked in the transmutation library.

Michael A. Pope

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

Design Study for a Low-Enriched Uranium Core for the High Flux Isotope Reactor, Annual Report for FY 2006  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Neutronics and thermal-hydraulics studies show that, for equivalent operating power [85 MW(t)], a low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel cycle based on uranium-10 wt % molybdenum (U-10Mo) metal foil with radially, continuously graded fuel meat thickness results in a 15% reduction in peak thermal flux in the beryllium reflector of the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) as compared to the current highly enriched uranium (HEU) cycle. The uranium-235 content of the LEU core is almost twice the amount of the HEU core when the length of the fuel cycle is kept the same for both fuels. Because the uranium-238 content of an LEU core is a factor of 4 greater than the uranium-235 content, the LEU HFIR core would weigh 30% more than the HEU core. A minimum U-10Mo foil thickness of 84 ?m is required to compensate for power peaking in the LEU core although this value could be increased significantly without much penalty. The maximum U-10Mo foil thickness is 457?m. Annual plutonium production from fueling the HFIR with LEU is predicted to be 2 kg. For dispersion fuels, the operating power for HFIR would be reduced considerably below 85 MW due to thermal considerations and due to the requirement of a 26-d fuel cycle. If an acceptable fuel can be developed, it is estimated that $140 M would be required to implement the conversion of the HFIR site at Oak Ridge National Laboratory from an HEU fuel cycle to an LEU fuel cycle. To complete the conversion by fiscal year 2014 would require that all fuel development and qualification be completed by the end of fiscal year 2009. Technological development areas that could increase the operating power of HFIR are identified as areas for study in the future.

Primm, R. T. [ORNL] [ORNL; Ellis, R. J. [ORNL] [ORNL; Gehin, J. C. [ORNL] [ORNL; Clarno, K. T. [ORNL] [ORNL; Williams, K. A. [ORNL] [ORNL; Moses, D. L. [ORNL] [ORNL

2006-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

46

Assuaging Nuclear Energy Risks: The Angarsk International Uranium Enrichment Center  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The recent nuclear renaissance has motivated many countries, especially developing nations, to plan and build nuclear power reactors. However, domestic low enriched uranium demands may trigger nations to construct indigenous enrichment facilities, which could be redirected to fabricate high enriched uranium for nuclear weapons. The potential advantages of establishing multinational uranium enrichment sites are numerous including increased low enrichment uranium access with decreased nuclear proliferation risks. While multinational nuclear initiatives have been discussed, Russia is the first nation to actualize this concept with their Angarsk International Uranium Enrichment Center (IUEC). This paper provides an overview of the historical and modern context of the multinational nuclear fuel cycle as well as the evolution of Russia's IUEC, which exemplifies how international fuel cycle cooperation is an alternative to domestic facilities.

Myers, Astasia [Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA and MonAme Scientific Research Center, Ulaanbaatar (Mongolia)

2011-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

47

An integrated video- and weight-monitoring system for the surveillance of highly enriched uranium blend down operations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An integrated video-surveillance and weight-monitoring system has been designed and constructed for tracking the blending down of weapons-grade uranium by the US Department of Energy. The instrumentation is being used by the International Atomic Energy Agency in its task of tracking and verifying the blended material at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Portsmouth, Ohio. The weight instrumentation developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory monitors and records the weight of cylinders of the highly enriched uranium as their contents are fed into the blending facility while the video equipment provided by Sandia National Laboratory records periodic and event triggered images of the blending area. A secure data network between the scales, cameras, and computers insures data integrity and eliminates the possibility of tampering. The details of the weight monitoring instrumentation, video- and weight-system interaction, and the secure data network is discussed.

Lenarduzzi, R.; Castleberry, K. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Whitaker, M. [Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Martinez, R. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1998-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

48

NUCLEAR ISOTOPIC DILUTION OF HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM BY DRY BLENDING VIA THE RM-2 MILL TECHNOLOGY  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

DOE has initiated numerous activities to focus on identifying material management strategies to disposition various excess fissile materials. In particular the INEEL has stored 1,700 Kg of offspec HEU at INTEC in CPP-651 vault facility. Currently, the proposed strategies for dispositioning are (a) aqueous dissolution and down blending to LEU via facilities at SRS followed by shipment of the liquid LEU to NFS for fabrication into LWR fuel for the TVA reactors and (b) dilution of the HEU to 0.9% for discard as a waste stream that would no longer have a criticality or proliferation risk without being processed through some type of enrichment system. Dispositioning this inventory as a waste stream via aqueous processing at SRS has been determined to be too costly. Thus, dry blending is the only proposed disposal process for the uranium oxide materials in the CPP-651 vault. Isotopic dilution of HEU to typically less than 20% by dry blending is the key to solving the dispositioning issue (i.e., proliferation) posed by HEU stored at INEEL. RM-2 mill is a technology developed and successfully tested for producing ultra-fine particles by dry grinding. Grinding action in RM-2 mill produces a two million-fold increase in the number of particles being blended in a centrifugal field. In a previous study, the concept of achieving complete and adequate blending and mixing (i.e., no methods were identified to easily separate and concentrate one titanium compound from the other) in remarkably short processing times was successfully tested with surrogate materials (titanium dioxide and titanium mono-oxide) with different particle sizes, hardness and densities. In the current project, the RM-2 milling technology was thoroughly tested with mixtures of natural uranium oxide (NU) and depleted uranium oxide (DU) stock to prove its performance. The effects of mill operating and design variables on the blending of NU/DU oxides were evaluated. First, NU and DU both made of the same oxide, UO{sub 3}, was used in the testing. Next, NU made up of UO{sub 3} and DU made up of UO{sub 2} was used in the test work. In every test, the blend achieved was characterized by spatial sampling of the ground product and analyzing for {sup 235}U concentration. The test work proved that these uranium oxide materials can be blended successfully. The spatial concentration was found to be uniform. Next, sintered thorium oxide pellets were used as surrogate for light water breeder reactor pellets (LWBR). To simulate LWBR pellet dispositioning, the thorium oxide pellets were first ground to a powder form and then the powder was blended with NU. In these tests also the concentration of {sup 235}U and {sup 232}Th in blended products fell within established limits proving the success of RM-2 milling technology. RM-2 milling technology is applicable to any dry radioactive waste, especially brittle solids that can be ground up and mixed with the non-radioactive stock.

Raj K. Rajamani; Sanjeeva Latchireddi; Vikas Devrani; Harappan Sethi; Roger Henry; Nate Chipman

2003-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

ZPR-3 Assembly 11 : A cylindrical sssembly of highly enriched uranium and depleted uranium with an average {sup 235}U enrichment of 12 atom % and a depleted uranium reflector.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Over a period of 30 years, more than a hundred Zero Power Reactor (ZPR) critical assemblies were constructed at Argonne National Laboratory. The ZPR facilities, ZPR-3, ZPR-6, ZPR-9 and ZPPR, were all fast critical assembly facilities. The ZPR critical assemblies were constructed to support fast reactor development, but data from some of these assemblies are also well suited for nuclear data validation and to form the basis for criticality safety benchmarks. A number of the Argonne ZPR/ZPPR critical assemblies have been evaluated as ICSBEP and IRPhEP benchmarks. Of the three classes of ZPR assemblies, engineering mockups, engineering benchmarks and physics benchmarks, the last group tends to be most useful for criticality safety. Because physics benchmarks were designed to test fast reactor physics data and methods, they were as simple as possible in geometry and composition. The principal fissile species was {sup 235}U or {sup 239}Pu. Fuel enrichments ranged from 9% to 95%. Often there were only one or two main core diluent materials, such as aluminum, graphite, iron, sodium or stainless steel. The cores were reflected (and insulated from room return effects) by one or two layers of materials such as depleted uranium, lead or stainless steel. Despite their more complex nature, a small number of assemblies from the other two classes would make useful criticality safety benchmarks because they have features related to criticality safety issues, such as reflection by soil-like material. ZPR-3 Assembly 11 (ZPR-3/11) was designed as a fast reactor physics benchmark experiment with an average core {sup 235}U enrichment of approximately 12 at.% and a depleted uranium reflector. Approximately 79.7% of the total fissions in this assembly occur above 100 keV, approximately 20.3% occur below 100 keV, and essentially none below 0.625 eV - thus the classification as a 'fast' assembly. This assembly is Fast Reactor Benchmark No. 8 in the Cross Section Evaluation Working Group (CSEWG) Benchmark Specificationsa and has historically been used as a data validation benchmark assembly. Loading of ZPR-3 Assembly 11 began in early January 1958, and the Assembly 11 program ended in late January 1958. The core consisted of highly enriched uranium (HEU) plates and depleted uranium plates loaded into stainless steel drawers, which were inserted into the central square stainless steel tubes of a 31 x 31 matrix on a split table machine. The core unit cell consisted of two columns of 0.125 in.-wide (3.175 mm) HEU plates, six columns of 0.125 in.-wide (3.175 mm) depleted uranium plates and one column of 1.0 in.-wide (25.4 mm) depleted uranium plates. The length of each column was 10 in. (254.0 mm) in each half of the core. The axial blanket consisted of 12 in. (304.8 mm) of depleted uranium behind the core. The thickness of the depleted uranium radial blanket was approximately 14 in. (355.6 mm), and the length of the radial blanket in each half of the matrix was 22 in. (558.8 mm). The assembly geometry approximated a right circular cylinder as closely as the square matrix tubes allowed. According to the logbook and loading records for ZPR-3/11, the reference critical configuration was loading 10 which was critical on January 21, 1958. Subsequent loadings were very similar but less clean for criticality because there were modifications made to accommodate reactor physics measurements other than criticality. Accordingly, ZPR-3/11 loading 10 was selected as the only configuration for this benchmark. As documented below, it was determined to be acceptable as a criticality safety benchmark experiment. A very accurate transformation to a simplified model is needed to make any ZPR assembly a practical criticality-safety benchmark. There is simply too much geometric detail in an exact (as-built) model of a ZPR assembly, even a clean core such as ZPR-3/11 loading 10. The transformation must reduce the detail to a practical level without masking any of the important features of the critical experiment. And it must do this without increasing the total uncertain

Lell, R. M.; McKnight, R. D.; Tsiboulia, A.; Rozhikhin, Y.; National Security; Inst. of Physics and Power Engineering

2010-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

50

Development of a low enrichment uranium core for the MIT reactor  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

An investigation has been made into converting the MIT research reactor from using high enrichment uranium (HEU) to low enrichment uranium (LEU) with a newly developed fuel material. The LEU fuel introduces negative ...

Newton, Thomas Henderson

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

51

U.S. forms uranium enrichment corporation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

After almost 40 years of operation, the federal government is withdrawing from the uranium enrichment business.On July 1, the Department of Energy turned over to a new government-owned entitythe U.S. Enrichment Corp. (USEC)both the DOE enrichment ...

RICHARD SELTZER

1993-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

52

Design Study for a Low-enriched Uranium Core for the High Flux Isotope Reactor, Annual Report for FY 2007  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report documents progress made during fiscal year 2007 in studies of converting the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) from highly enriched uranium (HEU) fuel to low enriched uranium fuel (LEU). Conversion from HEU to LEU will require a change in fuel form from uranium oxide to a uranium-molybdenum alloy. A high volume fraction U/Mo-in-Al fuel could attain the same neutron flux performance as with the current, HEU fuel but materials considerations appear to preclude production and irradiation of such a fuel. A diffusion barrier would be required if Al is to be retained as the interstitial medium and the additional volume required for this barrier would degrade performance. Attaining the high volume fraction (55 wt. %) of U/Mo assumed in the computational study while maintaining the current fuel plate acceptance level at the fuel manufacturer is unlikely, i.e. no increase in the percentage of plates rejected for non-compliance with the fuel specification. Substitution of a zirconium alloy for Al would significantly increase the weight of the fuel element, the cost of the fuel element, and introduce an as-yet untried manufacturing process. A monolithic U-10Mo foil is the choice of LEU fuel for HFIR. Preliminary calculations indicate that with a modest increase in reactor power, the flux performance of the reactor can be maintained at the current level. A linearly-graded, radial fuel thickness profile is preferred to the arched profile currently used in HEU fuel because the LEU fuel media is a metal alloy foil rather than a powder. Developments in analysis capability and nuclear data processing techniques are underway with the goal of verifying the preliminary calculations of LEU flux performance. A conceptual study of the operational cost of an LEU fuel fabrication facility yielded the conclusion that the annual fuel cost to the HFIR would increase significantly from the current, HEU fuel cycle. Though manufacturing can be accomplished with existing technology, several engineering proof-of-principle tests would be required. The RERTR program is currently conducting a series of generic fuel qualification tests at the Advanced Test Reactor. A review of these tests and a review of the safety basis for the current, HEU fuel cycle led to the identification of a set of HFIR-specific fuel qualification tests. Much additional study is required to formulate a HFIR-specific fuel qualification plan from this set. However, one such test - creating a graded fuel profile across a flat foil - has been initiated with promising results.

Primm, Trent [ORNL; Ellis, Ronald James [ORNL; Gehin, Jess C [ORNL; Ilas, Germina [ORNL; Miller, James Henry [ORNL; Sease, John D [ORNL

2007-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

53

Aseismic design criteria for uranium enrichment plants  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this paper technological, economical, and safety issues of aseismic design of uranium enrichment plants are presented. The role of management in the decision making process surrounding these issues is also discussed. The resolution of the issues and the decisions made by management are controlling factors in developing aseismic design criteria for any facility. Based on past experience in developing aseismic design criteria for the GCEP various recommendations are made for future enrichment facilities, and since uranium enrichment plants are members of the nuclear fuel cycle the discussion and recommendations presented herein are applicable to other nonreactor nuclear facilities.

Beavers, J.E.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

Assumptions and Criteria for Performing a Feasability Study of the Conversion of the High Flux Isotope Reactor Core to Use Low-Enriched Uranium Fuel  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A computational study will be initiated during fiscal year 2006 to examine the feasibility of converting the High Flux Isotope Reactor from highly enriched uranium fuel to low-enriched uranium. The study will be limited to steady-state, nominal operation, reactor physics and thermal-hydraulic analyses of a uranium-molybdenum alloy that would be substituted for the current fuel powder--U{sub 3}O{sub 8} mixed with aluminum. The purposes of this document are to (1) define the scope of studies to be conducted, (2) define the methodologies to be used to conduct the studies, (3) define the assumptions that serve as input to the methodologies, (4) provide an efficient means for communication with the Department of Energy and American research reactor operators, and (5) expedite review and commentary by those parties.

Primm, R.T., III; Ellis, R.J.; Gehin, J.C.; Moses, D.L.; Binder, J.L.; Xoubi, N. (U. of Cincinnati)

2006-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

U. S. forms uranium enrichment corporation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

After almost 40 years of operation, the federal government is withdrawing from the uranium enrichment business. On July 1, the Department of Energy turned over to a new government-owned entity--the US Enrichment Corp. (USEC)--both the DOE enrichment plants at Paducah, Ky., and Portsmouth, Ohio, and domestic and international marketing of enriched uranium from them. Pushed by the inability of DOE's enrichment operations to meet foreign competition, Congress established USEC under the National Energy Policy Act of 1992, envisioning the new corporation as the first step to full privatization. With gross revenues of $1.5 billion in fiscal 1992, USEC would rank 275th on the Fortune 500 list of top US companies. USEC will lease from DOE the Paducah and Portsmouth facilities, built in the early 1950s, which use the gaseous diffusion process for uranium enrichment. USEC's stock is held by the US Treasury, to which it will pay annual dividends. Martin Marietta Energy Systems, which has operated Paducah since 1984 and Portsmouth since 1986 for DOE, will continue to operate both plants for USEC. Closing one of the two facilities will be studied, especially in light of a 40% world surplus of capacity over demand. USEC also will consider other nuclear-fuel-related ventures. USEC will produce only low-enriched uranium, not weapons-grade material. Indeed, USEC will implement a contract now being completed under which the US will purchase weapons-grade uranium from dismantled Russian nuclear weapons and convert it into low-enriched uranium for power reactor fuel.

Seltzer, R.

1993-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

56

Uranium Enrichment's $7-Billion Uncertainty  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...229 : 1407 ( 1985 ). Uranium...claims John R. Longenecker, who heads...because it be-John Longenecker '"ou have...based on gas centrifuges Finally...research on the centrifuge technology...21 June 1985, p. 1407...

COLIN NORMAN

1986-04-18T23:59:59.000Z

57

SciTech Connect: enriched uranium  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

enriched uranium Find enriched uranium Find How should I search Scitech Connect ... Basic or Advanced? Basic Search Advanced × Advanced Search Options Full Text: Bibliographic Data: Creator / Author: Name Name ORCID Title: Subject: Identifier Numbers: Research Org.: Sponsoring Org.: Site: All Alaska Power Administration, Juneau, Alaska (United States) Albany Research Center (ARC), Albany, OR (United States) Albuquerque Complex - NNSA Albuquerque Operations Office, Albuquerque, NM (United States) Amarillo National Resource Center for Plutonium, Amarillo, TX (United States) Ames Laboratory (AMES), Ames, IA (United States) Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States) Argonne National Laboratory-Advanced Photon Source (United States) Atlanta Regional Office, Atlanta, GA (United States) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM)

59

RERTR program reduces use of enriched uranium in research reactors  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

RERTR program reduces use of enriched uranium in research reactors RERTR program reduces use of enriched uranium in research reactors worldwide Director's Welcome Organization Achievements Highlights Fact Sheets, Brochures & Other Documents Multimedia Library About Nuclear Energy Nuclear Reactors Designed by Argonne Argonne's Nuclear Science and Technology Legacy Opportunities within NE Division Visit Argonne Work with Argonne Contact us For Employees Site Map Help Join us on Facebook Follow us on Twitter NE on Flickr Celebrating the 70th Anniversary of Chicago Pile 1 (CP-1) Argonne OutLoud on Nuclear Energy Argonne Energy Showcase 2012 Highlights Bookmark and Share RERTR program reduces use of enriched uranium in research reactors worldwide The High Flux Reactor in Petten, the Netherlands READY TO CONVERT - The High Flux Reactor in Petten, the Netherlands, has

60

EA-1977: Acceptance and Disposition of Used Nuclear Fuel Containing U.S.-Origin Highly Enriched Uranium from the Federal Republic of Germany  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This environmental assessment (EA) will evaluate the potential environmental impacts of a DOE proposal to accept used nuclear fuel from the Federal Republic of Germany at DOEs Savannah River Site (SRS) for processing and disposition. This used nuclear fuel is composed of kernels containing thorium and U.S.-origin highly enriched uranium (HEU) embedded in small graphite spheres that were irradiated in nuclear reactors used for research and development purposes.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "highly enriched uranium" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Uncertainty clouds uranium enrichment corporation's plans  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An expected windfall to the US Treasury from the sale of the Energy Dept.'s commercial fuel enrichment facilities may evaporate in the next few weeks when the Clinton administration submits its fiscal 1994 budget proposal to Congress, according to congressional and administration officials. Under the Energy Policy Act of 1992, DOE is required to lease two uranium enrichment facilities, Portsmouth, Ohio, and Paducah, KY., to the government-owned US Enrichment Corp. (USEC) by July 1. Estimates by OMB and Treasury indicate a potential yearly payoff of $300 million from the government-owned company's sale of fuel for commercial reactors. Those two facilities use a process of gaseous diffusion to enrich uranium to about 3 percent for use as fuel in commercial power plants. DOE has contracts through at least 1996 to provide about 12 million separative work units (SWUs) yearly to US utilities and others world-wide. But under an agreement signed between the US and Russia last August, at least 10 metric tons, or 1.5 million SWUs, of low-enriched uranium (LEU) blended down from Russia warheads is expected to be delivered to the US starting in 1994. It could be sold at $50 to $60 per SWU, far below what DOE currently charges for its SWUs - $135 per SWU for 70 percent of the contract price and $90 per SWU for the remaining 30 percent.

Lane, E.

1993-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

62

Uranium enrichment management review: summary of analysis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In May 1980, the Assistant Secretary for Resource Applications within the Department of Energy requested that a group of experienced business executives be assembled to review the operation, financing, and management of the uranium enrichment enterprise as a basis for advising the Secretary of Energy. After extensive investigation, analysis, and discussion, the review group presented its findings and recommendations in a report on December 2, 1980. The following pages contain background material on which that final report was based. This report is arranged in chapters that parallel those of the uranium enrichment management review final report - chapters that contain summaries of the review group's discussion and analyses in six areas: management of operations and construction; long-range planning; marketing of enrichment services; financial management; research and development; and general management. Further information, in-depth analysis, and discussion of suggested alternative management practices are provided in five appendices.

Not Available

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

63

Feasibility and options for purchasing nuclear weapons, highly enriched uranium (HEU) and plutonium from the former Soviet Union (FSU)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In response to a recent tasking from the National Security Council, this report seeks to analyze the possible options open to the US for purchasing, from the former Soviet Union (FSU) substantial quantities of plutonium and highly enriched uranium recovered from the accelerated weapons retirements and dismantlements that will soon be taking place. The purpose of this paper is to identify and assess the implications of some of the options that now appear to be open to the United States, it being recognized that several issues might have to be addressed in further detail if the US Government, on its own, or acting with others seeks to negotiate any such purchases on an early basis. As an outgrowth of the dissolution of the Soviet Union three of the C.I.S. republics now possessing nuclear weapons, namely the Ukraine, Belarus, and Kazakhstan, have stated that it is their goal, without undue delay, to become non-nuclear weapon states as defined in the Non-Proliferation Treaty. Of overriding US concern is the proliferation of nuclear weapons in the Third World, and the significant opportunity that the availability of such a large quantity of surplus weapons grade material might present in this regard, especially to a cash-starved FSU Republic. Additionally, the US, in its endeavor to drawdown its own arsenal, needs to assure itself that these materials are not being reconfigured into more modern weapons within the CIS in a manner which would be inconsistent with the stated intentions and publicized activities. The direct purchase of these valuable materials by the US government or by interested US private enterprises could alleviate these security concerns in a straightforward and very expeditious manner, while at the same time pumping vitally needed hard currency into the struggling CIS economy. Such a purchase would seem to be entirely consistent with the Congressional mandate indicated by the Soviet Nuclear Threat Reduction Act of 1991.

NONE

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

64

DOE/EA-1471: Environmental Assessment for the Transportation of Highly Enriched Uranium from the Russian Federation to the Y-12 National Security Complex and Finding of No Significant Impact (January 2004)  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

EA for the Transportation of Highly Enriched Uranium from the Russian Federation to the Y-12 National Security Complex EA for the Transportation of Highly Enriched Uranium from the Russian Federation to the Y-12 National Security Complex i FINDING OF NO SIGNIFICANT IMPACT FOR THE TRANSPORTATION OF HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM FROM THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION TO THE Y-12 NATIONAL SECURITY COMPLEX ISSUED BY: United States Department of Energy ACTION: Finding of No Significant Impact SUMMARY: The United States (U.S.) Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to transport highly enriched uranium (HEU) from Russia to a secure storage facility in Oak Ridge, TN. This proposed action would allow the United States and Russia to accelerate the disposition of excess nuclear weapons materials in the interest of promoting nuclear disarmament, strengthening nonproliferation, and combating terrorism. The HEU

65

Evaporation of Enriched Uranium Solutions Containing Organophosphates  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Savannah River Site has enriched uranium (EU) solution which has been stored for almost 10 years since being purified in the second uranium cycle of the H area solvent extraction process. The preliminary SRTC data, in conjunction with information in the literature, is promising. However, very few experiments have been run, and none of the results have been confirmed with repeat tests. As a result, it is believed that insufficient data exists at this time to warrant Separations making any process or program changes based on the information contained in this report. When this data is confirmed in future testing, recommendations will be presented.

Pierce, R.A.

1999-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

66

Engineering analysis of low enriched uranium fuel using improved zirconium hydride cross sections  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for the change out of the existing high enriched uranium fuel to this high-burnup, low enriched uranium fuel design. The codes MCNP and Monteburns were utilized for the neutronic analysis while the code PARET was used to determine fuel and cladding temperatures...

Candalino, Robert Wilcox

2006-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

67

CRAD, Criticality Safety - Y-12 Enriched Uranium Operations Oxide  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

CRAD, Criticality Safety - Y-12 Enriched Uranium Operations Oxide CRAD, Criticality Safety - Y-12 Enriched Uranium Operations Oxide Conversion Facility CRAD, Criticality Safety - Y-12 Enriched Uranium Operations Oxide Conversion Facility January 2005 A section of Appendix C to DOE G 226.1-2 "Federal Line Management Oversight of Department of Energy Nuclear Facilities." Consists of Criteria Review and Approach Documents (CRADs) used for a January 2005 assessment of the Criticality Safety program at the Y-12 - Enriched Uranium Facility. CRADs provide a recommended approach and the types of information to gather to assess elements of a DOE contractor's programs. CRAD, Criticality Safety - Y-12 Enriched Uranium Operations Oxide Conversion Facility More Documents & Publications CRAD, DOE Oversight - Y-12 Enriched Uranium Operations Oxide Conversion

68

CRAD, Management - Y-12 Enriched Uranium Operations Oxide Conversion  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Y-12 Enriched Uranium Operations Oxide Y-12 Enriched Uranium Operations Oxide Conversion Facility CRAD, Management - Y-12 Enriched Uranium Operations Oxide Conversion Facility January 2005 A section of Appendix C to DOE G 226.1-2 "Federal Line Management Oversight of Department of Energy Nuclear Facilities." Consists of Criteria Review and Approach Documents (CRADs) used for a January 2005 assessment of Management program at the Y-12 - Enriched Uranium Operations Oxide Conversion Facility. CRADs provide a recommended approach and the types of information to gather to assess elements of a DOE contractor's programs. CRAD, Management - Y-12 Enriched Uranium Operations Oxide Conversion Facility More Documents & Publications CRAD, DOE Oversight - Y-12 Enriched Uranium Operations Oxide Conversion

69

CRAD, Emergency Management - Y-12 Enriched Uranium Operations Oxide  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Emergency Management - Y-12 Enriched Uranium Operations Oxide Emergency Management - Y-12 Enriched Uranium Operations Oxide Conversion Facility CRAD, Emergency Management - Y-12 Enriched Uranium Operations Oxide Conversion Facility January 2005 A section of Appendix C to DOE G 226.1-2 "Federal Line Management Oversight of Department of Energy Nuclear Facilities." Consists of Criteria Review and Approach Documents (CRADs) used for a January 2005 assessment of Emergency Management program at the Y-12 Enriched Uranium Operations Oxide Conversion Facility. CRADs provide a recommended approach and the types of information to gather to assess elements of a DOE contractor's programs. CRAD, Emergency Management - Y-12 Enriched Uranium Operations Oxide Conversion Facility More Documents & Publications CRAD, Conduct of Operations - Y-12 Enriched Uranium Operations Oxide

70

CRAD, Conduct of Operations - Y-12 Enriched Uranium Operations Oxide  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Conduct of Operations - Y-12 Enriched Uranium Operations Conduct of Operations - Y-12 Enriched Uranium Operations Oxide Conversion Facility CRAD, Conduct of Operations - Y-12 Enriched Uranium Operations Oxide Conversion Facility January 2005 A section of Appendix C to DOE G 226.1-2 "Federal Line Management Oversight of Department of Energy Nuclear Facilities." Consists of Criteria Review and Approach Documents (CRADs) used for a January, 2005 assessment of Conduct of Operations program at the Y-12 - Enriched Uranium Operations Oxide Conversion Facility. CRADs provide a recommended approach and the types of information to gather to assess elements of a DOE contractor's programs. CRAD, Conduct of Operations - Y-12 Enriched Uranium Operations Oxide Conversion Facility More Documents & Publications CRAD, DOE Oversight - Y-12 Enriched Uranium Operations Oxide Conversion

71

CRAD, Training - Y-12 Enriched Uranium Operations Oxide Conversion Facility  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Y-12 Enriched Uranium Operations Oxide Conversion Y-12 Enriched Uranium Operations Oxide Conversion Facility CRAD, Training - Y-12 Enriched Uranium Operations Oxide Conversion Facility January 2005 A section of Appendix C to DOE G 226.1-2 "Federal Line Management Oversight of Department of Energy Nuclear Facilities." Consists of Criteria Review and Approach Documents (CRADs) used for a January 2005 assessment of the Training Program at the Y-12 - Enriched Uranium Operations Oxide Conversion Facility. CRADs provide a recommended approach and the types of information to gather to assess elements of a DOE contractor's programs. CRAD, Training - Y-12 Enriched Uranium Operations Oxide Conversion Facility More Documents & Publications CRAD, Conduct of Operations - Y-12 Enriched Uranium Operations Oxide

72

US developments in technology for uranium enrichment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this paper is to review recent progress and the status of the work in the United States on that part of the fuel cycle concerned with uranium enrichment. The United States has one enrichment process, gaseous diffusion, which has been continuously operated in large-scale production for the past 37 years; another process, gas centrifugation, which is now in the construction phase; and three new processes, molecular laser isotope separation, atomic vapor laser isotope separation, plasma separation process, in which the US has also invested sizable research and development efforts over the last few years. The emphasis in this paper is on the technical aspects of the various processes, but the important economic factors which will define the technological mix which may be applied in the next two decades are also discussed.

Wilcox, W.J. Jr.; McGill, R.M.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

Chapter 20 - Uranium Enrichment Decontamination & Decommissioning Fund  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

0. Uranium Enrichment Decontamination and Decommissioning Fund 20-1 0. Uranium Enrichment Decontamination and Decommissioning Fund 20-1 CHAPTER 20 URANIUM ENRICHMENT DECONTAMINATION AND DECOMMISSIONING FUND 1. INTRODUCTION. a. Purpose. To establish policies and procedures for the financial management, accounting, budget preparation, cash management of the Uranium Enrichment Decontamination and Decommissioning Fund, referred to hereafter as the Fund. b. Applicability. This chapter applies to all Departmental elements, including the National Nuclear Security Administration, and activities that are directly or indirectly involved with the Fund. c. Requirements and Sources of the Fund. (1) The Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPACT) requires DOE to establish and administer the Fund. EPACT authorizes that the

74

Progress in alkaline peroxide dissolution of low-enriched uranium metal and silicide targets  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper reports recent progress on two alkaline peroxide dissolution processes: the dissolution of low-enriched uranium metal and silicide (U{sub 3}Si{sub 2}) targets. These processes are being developed to substitute low-enriched for high-enriched uranium in targets used for production of fission-product {sup 99}Mo. Issues that are addressed include (1) dissolution kinetics of silicide targets, (2) {sup 99}Mo lost during aluminum dissolution, (3) modeling of hydrogen peroxide consumption, (4) optimization of the uranium foil dissolution process, and (5) selection of uranium foil barrier materials. Future work associated with these two processes is also briefly discussed.

Chen, L.; Dong, D.; Buchholz, B.A.; Vandegrift, G.F. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Chemical Technology Div.; Wu, D. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States)

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

75

The uranium cylinder assay system for enrichment plant safeguards  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Safeguarding sensitive fuel cycle technology such as uranium enrichment is a critical component in preventing the spread of nuclear weapons. A useful tool for the nuclear materials accountancy of such a plant would be an instrument that measured the uranium content of UF{sub 6} cylinders. The Uranium Cylinder Assay System (UCAS) was designed for Japan Nuclear Fuel Limited (JNFL) for use in the Rokkasho Enrichment Plant in Japan for this purpose. It uses total neutron counting to determine uranium mass in UF{sub 6} cylinders given a known enrichment. This paper describes the design of UCAS, which includes features to allow for unattended operation. It can be used on 30B and 48Y cylinders to measure depleted, natural, and enriched uranium. It can also be used to assess the amount of uranium in decommissioned equipment and waste containers. Experimental measurements have been carried out in the laboratory and these are in good agreement with the Monte Carlo modeling results.

Miller, Karen A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Swinhoe, Martyn T [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Marlow, Johnna B [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Menlove, Howard O [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rael, Carlos D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Iwamoto, Tomonori [JNFL; Tamura, Takayuki [JNFL; Aiuchi, Syun [JNFL

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

CRAD, Environmental Protection - Y-12 Enriched Uranium Operations Oxide  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Environmental Protection - Y-12 Enriched Uranium Operations Environmental Protection - Y-12 Enriched Uranium Operations Oxide Conversion Facility CRAD, Environmental Protection - Y-12 Enriched Uranium Operations Oxide Conversion Facility January 2005 A section of Appendix C to DOE G 226.1-2 "Federal Line Management Oversight of Department of Energy Nuclear Facilities." Consists of Criteria Review and Approach Documents (CRADs) used for a January 2005 assessment of Environmental Compliance program at the Y-12 - Enriched Uranium Operations Oxide Conversion Facility. CRADs provide a recommended approach and the types of information to gather to assess elements of a DOE contractor's programs. CRAD, Environmental Protection - Y-12 Enriched Uranium Operations Oxide Conversion Facility More Documents & Publications

77

CRAD, DOE Oversight - Y-12 Enriched Uranium Operations Oxide Conversion  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

DOE Oversight - Y-12 Enriched Uranium Operations Oxide DOE Oversight - Y-12 Enriched Uranium Operations Oxide Conversion Facility CRAD, DOE Oversight - Y-12 Enriched Uranium Operations Oxide Conversion Facility January 2005 A section of Appendix C to DOE G 226.1-2 "Federal Line Management Oversight of Department of Energy Nuclear Facilities." Consists of Criteria Review and Approach Documents (CRADs) used for a DOE independent oversight assessment of the Y-12 Site Office's programs for oversight of its contractors at the Y-12 Enriched Uranium Operations Oxide Conversion Facility. CRADs provide a recommended approach and the types of information to gather to assess elements of a DOE contractor's programs. CRAD, DOE Oversight - Y-12 Enriched Uranium Operations Oxide Conversion Facility More Documents & Publications

78

Gamma/neutron time-correlation for special nuclear material characterization %3CU%2B2013%3E active stimulation of highly enriched uranium.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A series of simulations and experiments were undertaken to explore and evaluate the potential for a novel new technique for fissile material detection and characterization, the timecorrelated pulse-height (TCPH) method, to be used concurrent with active stimulation of potential nuclear materials. In previous work TCPH has been established as a highly sensitive method for the detection and characterization of configurations of fissile material containing Plutonium in passive measurements. By actively stimulating fission with the introduction of an external radiation source, we have shown that TCPH is also an effective method of detecting and characterizing configurations of fissile material containing Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU). The TCPH method is shown to be robust in the presence of the proper choice of external radiation source. An evaluation of potential interrogation sources is presented.

Marleau, Peter; Nowack, Aaron B.; Clarke, Shaun D. [University of Michigan; Monterial, Mateusz [University of Michigan; Paff, Marc [University of Michigan; Pozzi, Sara A. [University of Michigan

2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

Oak Ridge, Tenn. Selected as Uranium Enrichment Site | National Nuclear  

National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

Oak Ridge, Tenn. Selected as Uranium Enrichment Site | National Nuclear Oak Ridge, Tenn. Selected as Uranium Enrichment Site | National Nuclear Security Administration Our Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing Proliferation Powering the Nuclear Navy Emergency Response Recapitalizing Our Infrastructure Continuing Management Reform Countering Nuclear Terrorism About Us Our Programs Our History Who We Are Our Leadership Our Locations Budget Our Operations Media Room Congressional Testimony Fact Sheets Newsletters Press Releases Speeches Events Social Media Video Gallery Photo Gallery NNSA Archive Federal Employment Apply for Our Jobs Our Jobs Working at NNSA Blog Home > About Us > Our History > NNSA Timeline > Oak Ridge, Tenn. Selected as Uranium Enrichment Site Oak Ridge, Tenn. Selected as Uranium Enrichment Site September 19, 1942 Oak Ridge, TN

80

Toxic Substances Control Act Uranium Enrichment Federal Facilities...  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

Thomas L. McCall, Jr. http:www.em.doe.govffaaortsca.html 4252001 Toxic Substances Control Act Uranium Enrichment Federal Facilities Compliance Agree.. Page 12 of 26 Deputy...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "highly enriched uranium" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Standard specification for uranium hexafluoride enriched to less than 5 % 235U  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1.1 This specification covers nuclear grade uranium hexafluoride (UF6) that either has been processed through an enrichment plant, or has been produced by the blending of Highly Enriched Uranium with other uranium to obtain uranium of any 235U concentration below 5 % and that is intended for fuel fabrication. The objectives of this specification are twofold: (1) To define the impurity and uranium isotope limits for Enriched Commercial Grade UF6 so that, with respect to fuel design and manufacture, it is essentially equivalent to enriched uranium made from natural UF6; and (2) To define limits for Enriched Reprocessed UF6 to be expected if Reprocessed UF6 is to be enriched without dilution with Commercial Natural UF6. For such UF6, special provisions, not defined herein, may be needed to ensure fuel performance and to protect the work force, process equipment, and the environment. 1.2 This specification is intended to provide the nuclear industry with a standard for enriched UF6 that is to be used in the pro...

American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

82

Development of a core design optimization tool and analysis in support of the planned LEU conversion of the MIT Research Reactor (MITR-II) ; Development of a core design optimization tool and analysis in support of the planned low enriched uranium conversion of the MIT Research Reactor (MITR-II) .  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??The MIT Research Reactor (MITR-II) is currently undergoing analysis for the planned conversion from high enriched uranium (HEU) to low enriched uranium (LEU), as part (more)

Connaway, Heather M. (Heather Moira)

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

83

CALIBRATION OF THE HB LINE ACTIVE WELL NEUTRON COINCIDENCE COUNTER FOR MEASUREMENT OF LANL 3013 HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM PRODUCT SPLITS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this paper we describe set-up, calibration, and testing of the F-Area Analytical Labs active well neutron coincidence counter(HV-221000-NDA-X-1-DK-AWCC-1)in SRNL for use in HB-Line to enable assay of 3013EU/Pu metal product. The instrument was required within a three-month window for availability upon receipt of LANL Category IV uranium oxide samples into the SRS HB-Line facility. We describe calibration of the instrument in the SRNL nuclear nondestructive assay facility in the range 10-400 g HEU for qualification and installation in HB-Line for assay of the initial suite of product samples.

Dewberry, R; Donald02 Williams, D; Rstephen Lee, R; David-W Roberts, D; Leah Arrigo, L

2008-01-22T23:59:59.000Z

84

Environmental monitoring for detection of uranium enrichment operations: Comparison of LEU and HEU facilities  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In 1994, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) initiated an ambitious program of worldwide field trials to evaluate the utility of environmental monitoring for safeguards. Part of this program involved two extensive United States field trials conducted at the large uranium enrichment facilities. The Paducah operation involves a large low-enriched uranium (LEU) gaseous diffusion plant while the Portsmouth facilities include a large gaseous diffusion plant that has produced both LEU and high-enriched uranium (HEU) as well as an LEU centrifuge facility. As a result of the Energy Policy Act of 1992, management of the uranium enrichment operations was assumed by the US Enrichment Corporation (USEC). The facilities are operated under contract by Martin Marietta Utility Services. Martin Marietta Energy Systems manages the environmental restoration and waste management programs at Portsmouth and Paducah for DOE. These field trials were conducted. Samples included swipes from inside and outside process buildings, vegetation and soil samples taken from locations up to 8 km from main sites, and hydrologic samples taken on the sites and at varying distances from the sites. Analytical results from bulk analysis were obtained using high abundance sensitivity thermal ionization mm spectrometers (TIMS). Uranium isotopics altered from the normal background percentages were found for all the sample types listed above, even on vegetation 5 km from one of the enrichment facilities. The results from these field trials demonstrate that dilution by natural background uranium does not remove from environmental samples the distinctive signatures that are characteristic of enrichment operations. Data from swipe samples taken within the enrichment facilities were particularly revealing. Particulate analysis of these swipes provided a detailed ``history`` of both facilities, including the assays of the end product and tails for both facilities.

Hembree, D.M. Jr.; Carter, J.A.; Ross, H.H.

1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

SciTech Connect: "enriched uranium"  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

enriched uranium" Find enriched uranium" Find How should I search Scitech Connect ... Basic or Advanced? Basic Search Advanced × Advanced Search Options Full Text: Bibliographic Data: Creator / Author: Name Name ORCID Title: Subject: Identifier Numbers: Research Org.: Sponsoring Org.: Site: All Alaska Power Administration, Juneau, Alaska (United States) Albany Research Center (ARC), Albany, OR (United States) Albuquerque Complex - NNSA Albuquerque Operations Office, Albuquerque, NM (United States) Amarillo National Resource Center for Plutonium, Amarillo, TX (United States) Ames Laboratory (AMES), Ames, IA (United States) Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States) Argonne National Laboratory-Advanced Photon Source (United States) Atlanta Regional Office, Atlanta, GA (United States) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM)

86

CRAD, Training- Y-12 Enriched Uranium Operations Oxide Conversion Facility  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

A section of Appendix C to DOE G 226.1-2 "Federal Line Management Oversight of Department of Energy Nuclear Facilities." Consists of Criteria Review and Approach Documents (CRADs) used for a January 2005 assessment of the Training Program at the Y-12 - Enriched Uranium Operations Oxide Conversion Facility.

87

CRAD, Management- Y-12 Enriched Uranium Operations Oxide Conversion Facility  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

A section of Appendix C to DOE G 226.1-2 "Federal Line Management Oversight of Department of Energy Nuclear Facilities." Consists of Criteria Review and Approach Documents (CRADs) used for a January 2005 assessment of Management program at the Y-12 - Enriched Uranium Operations Oxide Conversion Facility.

88

DOE hands over uranium enrichment duties to government corporation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In an effort to renew the United States' competitiveness in the world market for uranium enrichment services, the Department of Energy (DOE) is turning over control of its Paducah, KY, and Portsmouth, OH, enrichment facilities to a for-profit organization, the United States Enrichment Corp. (USEC), which was created by last year's Energy Policy Act. William H. Timbers, Jr., a former investment banker who was appointed acting CEO in March, said the Act's mandate will mean more competitive prices for enriched reactor fuel and greater responsiveness to utility customers. As a government corporation, USEC, with current annual revenues estimated at $1.5 billion, will no longer be part of the federal budget appropriations process, but will use business management techniques, set market-based prices for enriched uranium, and pay annual dividends to the US Treasury-its sole stockholder-from earnings. The goal is to finish privatizing the corporation within two years, and to sell its stock to investors for an estimated $1 to $3 billion. USEC's success will depend in part on developing short- and long-term marketing plants to help stanch the flow of enriched-uranium customers to foreign suppliers. (DOE already has received notice from a number of US utilities that they want to be let out of their long-term enrichment contracts as they expire over the next several years).USEC's plans likely will include exploring new joint ventures with other businesses in the nuclear fuel cycle-such as suppliers, fabricators, and converters-and offering a broader range of enrichment services than DOE provided. The corporation will have to be responsive to utilities on an individual basis.

Simpson, J.

1993-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

89

Environmental Assessment DOE/EA-1172 DOE Sale of Surplus Natural and Low Enriched Uranium  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

DOE/EA-1172 DOE Sale of Surplus Natural and Low Enriched Uranium | October 1996 | For additional information contact: Office of Nuclear Energy, Science and Technology U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 ii October 1996 | Table of Contents 1.0 Purpose and Need for Agency Action . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-1 1.1 Purpose and Need for Action . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-1 1.2 Relationship to Other DOE NEPA Documents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-2 1.2.1 Environmental Assessment for the Purchase of Russian Low Enriched Uranium Derived from the Dismantlement of Nuclear Weapons in the | Countries of the Former Soviet Union . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-2 | 1.2.2 Disposition of Surplus Highly Enriched Uranium Final EIS . . . . . . . . 1-2 1.3 Public Comments on the Draft EA

90

Two U.S. University Research Reactors to be Converted From Highly Enriched  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

U.S. University Research Reactors to be Converted From Highly U.S. University Research Reactors to be Converted From Highly Enriched Uranium to Low-Enriched Uranium Two U.S. University Research Reactors to be Converted From Highly Enriched Uranium to Low-Enriched Uranium April 11, 2005 - 11:34am Addthis WASHINGTON, D.C. - As part of the Bush administration's aggressive effort to reduce the amount of weapons-grade nuclear material worldwide, Secretary of Energy Samuel W. Bodman announced today that the Department of Energy (DOE) has begun to convert research reactors from using highly-enriched uranium (HEU) to low-enriched uranium fuel (LEU) at the University of Florida and Texas A&M University. This effort, by DOE's National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) and the Office of Nuclear Energy, Science and Technology, are the latest steps

91

Uranium Enrichment Standards of the Y-12 Nuclear Detection and Sensor Testing Center  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Y-12 National Security Complex has recently fabricated and characterized a new series of metallic uranium standards for use in the Nuclear Detection and Sensor Testing Center (NDSTC). Ten uranium metal disks with enrichments varying from 0.2 to 93.2% {sup 235}U were designed to provide researchers access to a wide variety of measurement scenarios in a single testing venue. Special care was taken in the selection of the enrichments in order to closely bracket the definitions of reactor fuel at 4% {sup 235}U and that of highly enriched uranium (HEU) at 20% {sup 235}U. Each standard is well characterized using analytical chemistry as well as a series of gamma-ray spectrometry measurements. Gamma-ray spectra of these standards are being archived in a reference library for use by customers of the NDSTC. A software database tool has been created that allows for easier access and comparison of various spectra. Information provided through the database includes: raw count data (including background spectra), regions of interest (ROIs), and full width half maximum calculations. Input is being sought from the user community on future needs including enhancements to the spectral database and additional Uranium standards, shielding configurations and detector types. A related presentation are planned for the INMM 53rd Annual Meeting (Hull, et al.), which describe new uranium chemical compound standards and testing opportunities at Y-12 Nuclear Detection and Sensor Testing Center (NDSTC).

Cantrell, J.

2012-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

92

Laser and gas centrifuge enrichment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Principles of uranium isotope enrichment using various laser and gas centrifuge techniques are briefly discussed. Examples on production of high enriched uranium are given. Concerns regarding the possibility of using low end technologies to produce weapons grade uranium are explained. Based on current assessments commercial enrichment services are able to cover the global needs of enriched uranium in the foreseeable future.

Heinonen, Olli [Senior Fellow, Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs, Harvard Kennedy School, Cambridge, Massachusetts (United States)

2014-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

93

Uranium enrichment. Printed at the request of the Committee on Energy and Natural Resources, United States Senate, May 1982  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Two congressional reports outline the need for new uranium-enrichment plants and their costs. Part I, The Need for Additional Uranium Enrichment Capacity to Meet Demand, examines DOE's case for continuing construction of the Portsmouth, Ohio gas centrifuge plant on the basis of projected demand. The report concludes that DOE projections are high and that future demand can be met through preproduction and stockpiling. Part II, Necessity for GCEP (Gas Centrifuge Enrichment Plant) Under Low Nuclear Power Growth Conditions, concludes that continued construction is economically valid because of the uncertainty of demand forecasts. 79 references, 12 tables. (DCK)

Not Available

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

94

Critical experiments on low-enriched uranium oxide systems with H/U = 2. 03  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Seven critical experiments were performed on a horizontal split table machine using 4.48% enriched /sup 235/U uranium oxide (U/sub 3/O/sub 8/). The oxide was compacted to a density of 4.68 g/cm/sup 3/ and placed in 152-mm cubical aluminum cans. Water was added to achieve an H/U atomic ratio of 2.03. Various arrays of oxide cans were distributed on each half of the split table and the separation between halves reduced until criticality occurred. The critical table separation varied from 4.3 mm to 29.3 mm. These experiments were performed in both plastic and concrete reflectors. The first five experiments required the addition of a high-enriched (approx. 93% /sup 235/U) metal driver to achieve criticality. Critical uranium driver masses ranged from 2.765 kg to 13.730 kg for 5 x 5 x 5 arrays of uranium oxide cans. In all five cases, the center can of the array was deleted to accommodate the driver. The uranium oxide mass was 1859.6 kg. Two additional experiments in the plastic reflector contained either 9.3-mm- or 24.3-mm-thick plastic moderator material between the oxide cans. These latter experiments did not require a driver to achieve criticality; and the uranium oxide mass was 723.9 kg for the configuration having the thinner interstitial moderator and 452.4 kg for the other.

Rothe, R E; Goebel, G R

1982-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

95

Uranium mineralization in fluorine-enriched volcanic rocks  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Several uranium and other lithophile element deposits are located within or adjacent to small middle to late Cenozoic, fluorine-rich rhyolitic dome complexes. Examples studied include Spor Mountain, Utah (Be-U-F), the Honeycomb Hills, Utah (Be-U), the Wah Wah Mountains, Utah (U-F), and the Black Range-Sierra Cuchillo, New Mexico (Sn-Be-W-F). The formation of these and similar deposits begins with the emplacement of a rhyolitic magma, enriched in lithophile metals and complexing fluorine, that rises to a shallow crustal level, where its roof zone may become further enriched in volatiles and the ore elements. During initial explosive volcanic activity, aprons of lithicrich tuffs are erupted around the vents. These early pyroclastic deposits commonly host the mineralization, due to their initial enrichment in the lithophile elements, their permeability, and the reactivity of their foreign lithic inclusions (particularly carbonate rocks). The pyroclastics are capped and preserved by thick topaz rhyolite domes and flows that can serve as a source of heat and of additional quantities of ore elements. Devitrification, vapor-phase crystallization, or fumarolic alteration may free the ore elements from the glassy matrix and place them in a form readily leached by percolating meteoric waters. Heat from the rhyolitic sheets drives such waters through the system, generally into and up the vents and out through the early tuffs. Secondary alteration zones (K-feldspar, sericite, silica, clays, fluorite, carbonate, and zeolites) and economic mineral concentrations may form in response to this low temperature (less than 200 C) circulation. After cooling, meteoric water continues to migrate through the system, modifying the distribution and concentration of the ore elements (especially uranium).

Burt, D.M.; Sheridan, M.F.; Bikun, J.; Christiansen, E.; Correa, B.; Murphy, B.; Self, S.

1980-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

96

New Prototype Safeguards Technology Offers Improved Confidence and Automation for Uranium Enrichment Facilities  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An important requirement for the international safeguards community is the ability to determine the enrichment level of uranium in gas centrifuge enrichment plants and nuclear fuel fabrication facilities. This is essential to ensure that countries with nuclear nonproliferation commitments, such as States Party to the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty, are adhering to their obligations. However, current technologies to verify the uranium enrichment level in gas centrifuge enrichment plants or nuclear fuel fabrication facilities are technically challenging and resource-intensive. NNSAs Office of Nonproliferation and International Security (NIS) supports the development, testing, and evaluation of future systems that will strengthen and sustain U.S. safeguards and security capabilitiesin this case, by automating the monitoring of uranium enrichment in the entire inventory of a fuel fabrication facility. One such system is HEVAhybrid enrichment verification array. This prototype was developed to provide an automated, nondestructive assay verification technology for uranium hexafluoride (UF6) cylinders at enrichment plants.

Brim, Cornelia P.

2013-03-04T23:59:59.000Z

97

CRAD, Occupational Safety & Health - Y-12 Enriched Uranium Operations Oxide  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Y-12 Enriched Uranium Y-12 Enriched Uranium Operations Oxide Conversion Facility CRAD, Occupational Safety & Health - Y-12 Enriched Uranium Operations Oxide Conversion Facility January 2005 A section of Appendix C to DOE G 226.1-2 "Federal Line Management Oversight of Department of Energy Nuclear Facilities." Consists of Criteria Review and Approach Documents (CRADs) used for a January 2005 assessment of Industrial Safety and Industrial Health programs at the Y-12 - Enriched Uranium Operations Oxide Conversion Facility. CRADs provide a recommended approach and the types of information to gather to assess elements of a DOE contractor's programs. CRAD, Occupational Safety & Health - Y-12 Enriched Uranium Operations Oxide Conversion Facility More Documents & Publications

98

Environmental Survey preliminary report, Portsmouth Uranium Enrichment Complex, Piketon, Ohio  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report presents the preliminary findings from the first phase of the Environmental Survey of the United States Department of Energy (DOE) Portsmouth Uranium Enrichment Complex (PUEC), conducted August 4 through August 15, 1986. The Survey is being conducted by an interdisciplinary team of environmental specialists, led and managed by the Office of Environment, Safety and Health's Office of Environmental Audit. Team specialists are being supplied by a private contractor. The objective of the Survey is to identify environmental problems and areas of environmental regulation. It is being performed in accordance with the DOE Environmental Survey Manual. This phase of the Survey involves the review of existing site environmental data, observations of the operations performed at PUEC, and interviews with site personnel. The Survey team developed a Sampling and Analysis Plan to assist in further assessing certain of the environmental problems identified during its on-site activities. The Sampling and Analysis Plan will be executed by Argonne National Laboratory. When completed, the results will be incorporated into the PUEC Environmental Survey Interim Report. The Interim Report will reflect the final determinations of the PUEC Survey. 55 refs., 22 figs., 21 tabs.

Not Available

1987-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

DOE/EA-1607: Final Environmental Assessment for Disposition of DOE Excess Depleted Uranium, Natural Uranium, and Low-Enriched Uranium (June 2009)  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

μCi/cc microcuries per cubic centimeter μCi/cc microcuries per cubic centimeter MAP mitigation action plan MEI maximally exposed individual mg/kg milligrams per kilogram mrem millirem mSv millisievert MT metric ton MTCA Model Toxics Control Act MTU metric tons of uranium N/A not applicable Final Environmental Assessment: Disposition of DOE Excess Depleted Uranium, Natural Uranium, and Low-Enriched Uranium vi NAAQS National Ambient Air Quality Standards NEF National Enrichment Facility NEPA National Environmental Policy Act NRC U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission NU natural uranium NUF 6 natural uranium hexafluoride pCi/g picocuries per gram PEIS programmatic environmental impact statement PM 2.5 particulate matter with a diameter of 2.5 microns or less PM 10 particulate matter with a diameter of 10 microns or less

100

Containment and storage of uranium hexafluoride at US Department of Energy uranium enrichment plants  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Isotopically depleted UF{sub 6} (uranium hexafluoride) accumulates at a rate five to ten times greater than the enriched product and is stored in steel vessels at the enrichment plant sites. There are approximately 55,000 large cylinders now in storage at Paducah, Kentucky; Portsmouth, Ohio; and Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Most of them contain a nominal 14 tons of depleted UF{sub 6}. Some of these cylinders have been in the unprotected outdoor storage environment for periods approaching 40 years. Storage experience, supplemented by limited corrosion data, suggests a service life of about 70 years under optimum conditions for the 48-in. diameter, 5/16-in.-wall pressure vessels (100 psi working pressure), using a conservative industry-established 1/4-in.-wall thickness as the service limit. In the past few years, however, factors other than atmospheric corrosion have become apparent that adversely affect the serviceability of small numbers of the storage containers and that indicate the need for a managed program to ensure maintenance ofcontainment integrity for all the cylinders in storage. The program includes periodic visual inspections of cylinders and storage yards with documentation for comparison with other inspections, a group of corrosion test programs to permit cylinder life forecasts, and identification of (and scheduling for remedial action) situations in which defects, due to handling damage or accelerated corrosion, can seriously shorten the storage life or compromise the containment integrity of individual cylinders. The program also includes rupture testing to assess the effects of certain classes of damage on overall cylinder strength, aswell as ongoing reviews of specifications, procedures, practices, and inspection results to effect improvements in handling safety, containment integrity, and storage life.

Barlow, C.R.; Alderson, J.H.; Blue, S.C.; Boelens, R.A.; Conkel, M.E.; Dorning, R.E.; Ecklund, C.D.; Halicks, W.G.; Henson, H.M.; Newman, V.S.; Philpot, H.E.; Taylor, M.S.; Vournazos, J.P. [Oak Ridge K-25 Site, TN (United States). UEO Enrichment Technical Operations Div.; Russell, J.R. [USDOE Oak Ridge Field Office, TN (United States); Pryor, W.A. [PAI Corp., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Ziehlke, K.T. [MJB Technical Associates (United States)

1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "highly enriched uranium" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Disposition of Surplus Highly Enriched Uranium  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

EIS-0240-S EIS-0240-S For Further Information Contact: U.S. Departmel>t of Energy Office of Fissile Materials Disposition, 1000 Independence Ave., SW, Washington, D.C. 20585 . This report has been reproduced directly from the best available copy. Available to DOE and DOE contractors from the Office of Scientific and Technical Information, P.O. Box 62, Oak Ridge, TN 37831; telephone (423) 576-8401 for prices, Available to the public from the National Technical Information Service, 5285 Port Royal Road, Springfield, VA 22161. Copies of this document are available (while supplies last) upon written request to: Office of Fissile Materials Disposition, MD-4 Forrestal Building United States Department of Energy 1000 Independence Avenue, SW Washington, DC 20585 @ Printed with soy ink on recycled paper. .__- -. @ .: Depafimmt of Energy . i i~t " Wastin@on, DC 20585 June 1996 Dear hterested

102

Disposition of Surplus Highly Enriched Uranium  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

. . ------- .--- --. ---- DOE/EIS-0240 I United States Department of Energy I For Further Information Contact: U.S. Department of Energy Otice of Fissile Materials Disposition, 1000 Independence Ave., SW, Washington, D.C. 20585 1 I ---- I I . I I I I This report has been reproduced directly from the best available copy. Available to DOE and DOE contractors from the Office of Scientific and Technical Information, P.O. Box 62, Oak Ridge, TN 37831; telephone (423) 576-8401 for prices. Available to the public from the National Technical Information Service, 5285 Port Royal Road, Springfield, VA 22161. Copies of this document are available (while supplies last) upon written request to: I Office of Fissile Materials Disposition, MD-4 Forrestal Building United States Department of Energy 1000 Independence Avenue, SW Washington, DC 20585 , @ Printed with soy ink on recycled paper. -_. - COVERS~ET

103

CRAD, Criticality Safety- Y-12 Enriched Uranium Operations Oxide Conversion Facility  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

A section of Appendix C to DOE G 226.1-2 "Federal Line Management Oversight of Department of Energy Nuclear Facilities." Consists of Criteria Review and Approach Documents (CRADs) used for a January 2005 assessment of the Criticality Safety program at the Y-12 - Enriched Uranium Facility.

104

CRAD, Conduct of Operations- Y-12 Enriched Uranium Operations Oxide Conversion Facility  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

A section of Appendix C to DOE G 226.1-2 "Federal Line Management Oversight of Department of Energy Nuclear Facilities." Consists of Criteria Review and Approach Documents (CRADs) used for a January, 2005 assessment of Conduct of Operations program at the Y-12 - Enriched Uranium Operations Oxide Conversion Facility.

105

CRAD, Occupational Safety & Health- Y-12 Enriched Uranium Operations Oxide Conversion Facility  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

A section of Appendix C to DOE G 226.1-2 "Federal Line Management Oversight of Department of Energy Nuclear Facilities." Consists of Criteria Review and Approach Documents (CRADs) used for a January 2005 assessment of Industrial Safety and Industrial Health programs at the Y-12 - Enriched Uranium Operations Oxide Conversion Facility.

106

CRAD, Radiological Controls- Y-12 Enriched Uranium Operations Oxide Conversion Facility  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

A section of Appendix C to DOE G 226.1-2 "Federal Line Management Oversight of Department of Energy Nuclear Facilities." Consists of Criteria Review and Approach Documents (CRADs) used for a January 2005 assessment of the Radiation Protection Program at the Y-12 - Enriched Uranium Operations Oxide Conversion Facility.

107

CRAD, Environmental Protection- Y-12 Enriched Uranium Operations Oxide Conversion Facility  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

A section of Appendix C to DOE G 226.1-2 "Federal Line Management Oversight of Department of Energy Nuclear Facilities." Consists of Criteria Review and Approach Documents (CRADs) used for a January 2005 assessment of Environmental Compliance program at the Y-12 - Enriched Uranium Operations Oxide Conversion Facility.

108

CRAD, DOE Oversight- Y-12 Enriched Uranium Operations Oxide Conversion Facility  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

A section of Appendix C to DOE G 226.1-2 "Federal Line Management Oversight of Department of Energy Nuclear Facilities." Consists of Criteria Review and Approach Documents (CRADs) used for a DOE independent oversight assessment of the Y-12 Site Office's programs for oversight of its contractors at the Y-12 Enriched Uranium Operations Oxide Conversion Facility.

109

CRAD, Emergency Management- Y-12 Enriched Uranium Operations Oxide Conversion Facility  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

A section of Appendix C to DOE G 226.1-2 "Federal Line Management Oversight of Department of Energy Nuclear Facilities." Consists of Criteria Review and Approach Documents (CRADs) used for a January 2005 assessment of Emergency Management program at the Y-12 Enriched Uranium Operations Oxide Conversion Facility.

110

CRAD, Safety Basis- Y-12 Enriched Uranium Operations Oxide Conversion Facility  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

A section of Appendix C to DOE G 226.1-2 "Federal Line Management Oversight of Department of Energy Nuclear Facilities." Consists of Criteria Review and Approach Documents (CRADs) used for a January 2005 assessment of the Safety Basis at the Y-12 - Enriched Uranium Operations Oxide Conversion Facility.

111

Uranium Enrichment Decontamination and Decommissioning Fund's Fiscal Year 2011 Financial Statement Audit  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Uranium Uranium Enrichment Decontamination and Decommissioning Fund's Fiscal Year 2011 Financial Statement Audit OAS-FS-13-02 October 2012 September 7, 2012 Mr. Gregory Friedman Inspector General U.S. Department of Energy 1000 Independence Avenue, S.W. Room 5D-039 Washington, DC 20585 Dear Mr. Friedman: We have audited the financial statements of the Department of Energy's (the Department) Uranium Enrichment Decontamination and Decommissioning Fund (D&D Fund) as of and for the year ended September 30, 2011, and have issued our report thereon dated September 7, 2012. In planning and performing our audit of the consolidated financial statements, in accordance with auditing standards generally accepted in the United States of America, we considered the Department's internal control

112

Monte Carlo modeling and analyses of YALINA booster subcritical assembly, Part III : low enriched uranium conversion analyses.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This study investigates the performance of the YALINA Booster subcritical assembly, located in Belarus, during operation with high (90%), medium (36%), and low (21%) enriched uranium fuels in the assembly's fast zone. The YALINA Booster is a zero-power, subcritical assembly driven by a conventional neutron generator. It was constructed for the purpose of investigating the static and dynamic neutronics properties of accelerator driven subcritical systems, and to serve as a fast neutron source for investigating the properties of nuclear reactions, in particular transmutation reactions involving minor-actinides. The first part of this study analyzes the assembly's performance with several fuel types. The MCNPX and MONK Monte Carlo codes were used to determine effective and source neutron multiplication factors, effective delayed neutron fraction, prompt neutron lifetime, neutron flux profiles and spectra, and neutron reaction rates produced from the use of three neutron sources: californium, deuterium-deuterium, and deuterium-tritium. In the latter two cases, the external neutron source operates in pulsed mode. The results discussed in the first part of this report show that the use of low enriched fuel in the fast zone of the assembly diminishes neutron multiplication. Therefore, the discussion in the second part of the report focuses on finding alternative fuel loading configurations that enhance neutron multiplication while using low enriched uranium fuel. It was found that arranging the interface absorber between the fast and the thermal zones in a circular rather than a square array is an effective method of operating the YALINA Booster subcritical assembly without downgrading neutron multiplication relative to the original value obtained with the use of the high enriched uranium fuels in the fast zone.

Talamo, A.; Gohar, Y. (Nuclear Engineering Division) [Nuclear Engineering Division

2011-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

113

Operating limit evaluation for disposal of uranium enrichment plant wastes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A proposed solid waste landfill at Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) will accept wastes generated during normal plant operations that are considered to be non-radioactive. However, nearly all solid waste from any source or facility contains small amounts of radioactive material, due to the presence in most materials of trace quantities of such naturally occurring radionuclides as uranium and thorium. This paper describes an evaluation of operating limits, which are protective of public health and the environment, that would allow waste materials containing small amounts of radioactive material to be sent to a new solid waste landfill at PGDP. The operating limits are expressed as limits on concentrations of radionuclides in waste materials that could be sent to the landfill based on a site-specific analysis of the performance of the facility. These limits are advantageous to PGDP and DOE for several reasons. Most importantly, substantial cost savings in the management of waste is achieved. In addition, certain liabilities that could result from shipment of wastes to a commercial off-site solid waste landfill are avoided. Finally, assurance that disposal operations at the PGDP landfill are protective of public health and the environment is provided by establishing verifiable operating limits for small amounts of radioactive material; rather than relying solely on administrative controls. The operating limit determined in this study has been presented to the Commonwealth of Kentucky and accepted as a condition to be attached to the operating permit for the solid waste landfill.

Lee, D.W.; Kocher, D.C.; Wang, J.C.

1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

114

EA-1123: Transfer of Normal and Low-Enriched Uranium Billets to the United Kingdom, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This EA evaluates the environmental impacts of the proposal to transfer approximately 710,000 kilograms (1,562,000 pounds) of unneeded normal and low-enriched uranium to the United Kingdom; thus,...

115

Methods for nondestructive assay holdup measurements in shutdown uranium enrichment facilities  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Measurement surveys of uranium holdup using nondestructive assay (NDA) techniques are being conducted for shutdown gaseous diffusion facilities at the Oak Ridge K-25 Site (formerly the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant). When in operation, these facilities processed UF{sub 6} with enrichments ranging from 0.2 to 93 wt % {sup 235}U. Following final shutdown of all process facilities, NDA surveys were initiated to provide process holdup data for the planning and implementation of decontamination and decommissioning activities. A three-step process is used to locate and quantify deposits: (1) high-resolution gamma-ray measurements are performed to generally define the relative abundances of radioisotopes present, (2) sizable deposits are identified using gamma-ray scanning methods, and (3) the deposits are quantified using neutron measurement methods. Following initial quantitative measurements, deposit sizes are calculated; high-resolution gamma-ray measurements are then performed on the items containing large deposits. The quantitative estimates for the large deposits are refined on the basis of these measurements. Facility management is using the results of the survey to support a variety of activities including isolation and removal of large deposits; performing health, safety, and environmental analyses; and improving facility nuclear material control and accountability records. 3 refs., 1 tab.

Hagenauer, R.C.; Mayer, R.L. II.

1991-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

MCNP5 CRITICALITY VALIDATION AND BIAS FOR INTERMEDIATE ENRICHED URANIUM SYSTEMS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this analysis is to validate the Monte Carlo N-Particle 5 (MCNP5) code Version 1.40 (LA-UR-03-1987, 2005) and its cross-section database for k-code calculations of intermediate enriched uranium systems on INTEL{reg_sign} processor based PC's running any version of the WINDOWS operating system. Configurations with intermediate enriched uranium were modeled with the moderator range of 39 {le} H/Fissile {le} 1438. See Table 2-1 for brief descriptions of selected cases and Table 3-1 for the range of applicability for this validation. A total of 167 input cases were evaluated including bare and reflected systems in a single body or arrays. The 167 cases were taken directly from the previous (Version 4C [Lan 2005]) validation database. Section 2.0 list data used to calculate k-effective (k{sub eff}) for the 167 experimental criticality benchmark cases using the MCNP5 code v1.40 and its cross section database. Appendix B lists the MCNP cross-section database entries validated for use in evaluating the intermediate enriched uranium systems for criticality safety. The dimensions and atom densities for the intermediate enriched uranium experiments were taken from NEA/NSC/DOC(95)03, September 2005, which will be referred to as the benchmark handbook throughout the report. For these input values, the experimental benchmark k{sub eff} is approximately 1.0. The MCNP validation computer runs ran to an accuracy of approximately {+-} 0.001. For the cases where the reported benchmark k{sub eff} was not equal to 1.0000 the MCNP calculational results were normalized. The difference between the MCNP validation computer runs and the experimentally measured k{sub eff} is the MCNP5 v1.40 bias. The USLSTATS code (ORNL 1998) was utilized to perform the statistical analysis and generate an acceptable maximum k{sub eff} limit for calculations of the intermediate enriched uranium type systems.

FINFROCK SH

2009-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

117

Preliminary Evaluation of Alternate Designs for HFIR Low-Enriched Uranium Fuel  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Engineering design studies of the feasibility of conversion of the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) from high-enriched uranium (HEU) to low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel are ongoing at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) as part of an effort sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energys Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI)/Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors (RERTR) program. The fuel type selected by the program for the conversion of the five high-power research reactors in the U.S. that still use HEU fuel is a new U-Mo monolithic fuel. Studies by ORNL have previously indicated that HFIR can be successfully converted using the new fuel provided (1) the reactor power can be increased from 85 MW to 100 MW and (2) the fuel can be fabricated to a specific reference design. Fabrication techniques for the new fuel are under development by the program but are still immature, especially for the complex aspects of the HFIR fuel design. In FY 2012, the program underwent a major shift in focus to emphasize developing and qualifying processes for the fabrication of reliable and affordable LEU fuel. In support of this new focus and in an effort to ensure that the HFIR fuel design is as suitable for reliable fabrication as possible, ORNL undertook the present study to propose and evaluate several alternative design features. These features include (1) eliminating the fuel zone axial contouring in the previous reference design by substituting a permanent neutron absorber in the lower unfueled region of all of the fuel plates, (2) relocating the burnable neutron absorber from the fuel plates of the inner fuel element to the side plates of the inner fuel element (the fuel plates of the outer fuel element do not contain a burnable absorber), (3) relocating the fuel zone inside the fuel plate to be centered on the centerline of the depth of the plate, and (4) reshaping the radial contour of the relocated fuel zone to be symmetric about this centerline. The present studies used current analytical tools to evaluate the various alternate designs for cycle length, scientific performance (e.g., neutron scattering), and steady-state and transient thermal performance using both safety limit and nominal parameter assumptions. The studies concluded that a new reference design combining a permanent absorber in the lower unfueled region of all of the fuel plates, a burnable absorber in the inner element side plates, and a relocated and reshaped (but still radially contoured) fuel zone will allow successful conversion of HFIR. Future collaboration with the program will reveal whether the new reference design can be fabricated reliably and affordably. Following this feedback, additional studies using state-of-the-art developmental analytical tools are proposed to optimize the design of the fuel zone radial contour and the amount and location of both types of neutron absorbers to further flatten thermal peaks while maximizing the performance of the reactor.

Renfro, David [ORNL; Chandler, David [ORNL; Cook, David [ORNL; Ilas, Germina [ORNL; Jain, Prashant [ORNL; Valentine, Jennifer [ORNL

2014-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

118

Minimum mass of moderator required for criticality of homogeneous low-enriched uranium systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A parametric calculational analysis has been performed in order to estimate the minimum mass of moderator required for criticality of homogeneous low-enriched uranium systems. The analysis was performed using a version of the SCALE-4.0 code system and the 27-group ENDF/B-IV cross-section library. Water-moderated uranyl fluoride (UO[sub 2]F[sub 2] and H[sub 2]O) and hydrofluoric-acid-moderated uranium hexaflouride (UF[sub 6] and HF) systems were considered in the analysis over enrichments of 1.4 to 5 wt % [sup 235]U. Estimates of the minimum critical volume, minimum critical mass of uranium, and the minimum mass of moderator required for criticality are presented. There was significant disagreement between the values generated in this study when compared with a similar undocumented study performed in 1983 using ANISN and the Knight-modified Hansen-Roach cross sections. An investigation into the cause of the disagreement was made, and the results are presented.

Jordan, W.C.; Turner, J.C.

1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

119

Minimum mass of moderator required for criticality of homogeneous low-enriched uranium systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A parametric calculational analysis has been performed in order to estimate the minimum mass of moderator required for criticality of homogeneous low-enriched uranium systems. The analysis was performed using a version of the SCALE-4.0 code system and the 27-group ENDF/B-IV cross-section library. Water-moderated uranyl fluoride (UO{sub 2}F{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O) and hydrofluoric-acid-moderated uranium hexaflouride (UF{sub 6} and HF) systems were considered in the analysis over enrichments of 1.4 to 5 wt % {sup 235}U. Estimates of the minimum critical volume, minimum critical mass of uranium, and the minimum mass of moderator required for criticality are presented. There was significant disagreement between the values generated in this study when compared with a similar undocumented study performed in 1983 using ANISN and the Knight-modified Hansen-Roach cross sections. An investigation into the cause of the disagreement was made, and the results are presented.

Jordan, W.C.; Turner, J.C.

1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

120

Environmental assessment for the purchase of Russian low enriched uranium derived from the dismantlement of nuclear weapons in the countries of the former Soviet Union  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The United States is proposing to purchase from the Russian Federation low enriched uranium (LEU) derived from highly enriched uranium (HEU) resulting from the dismantlement of nuclear weapons in the countries of the former Soviet Union. The purchase would be accomplished through a proposed contract requiring the United States to purchase 15,250 metric tons (tonnes) of LEU (or 22,550 tonnes of UF{sub 6}) derived from blending 500 metric tones uranium (MTU) of HEU from nuclear warheads. The LEU would be in the form of uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) and would be converted from HEU in Russia. The United States Enrichment Corporation (USEC) is the entity proposing to undertake the contract for purchase, sale, and delivery of the LEU from the Russian Federation. The US Department of Energy (DOE) is negotiating the procedure for gaining confidence that the LEU is derived from HEU that is derived from dismantled nuclear weapons (referred to as ``transparency),`` and would administer the transparency measures for the contract. There are six environments that could potentially be affected by the proposed action; marine (ocean); US ports of entry; truck or rail transportation corridors; the Portsmouth GDP; the electric power industry; and the nuclear fuel cycle industry. These environmental impacts are discussed.

Not Available

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

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121

Compton DIV: Using a Compton-Based Gamma-Ray Imager for Design Information Verification of Uranium Enrichment Plants  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A feasibility study has been performed to determine the potential usefulness of Compton imaging as a tool for design information verification (DIV) of uranium enrichment plants. Compton imaging is a method of gamma-ray imaging capable of imaging with a 360-degree field of view over a broad range of energies. These systems can image a room (with a time span on the order of one hour) and return a picture of the distribution and composition of radioactive material in that room. The effectiveness of Compton imaging depends on the sensitivity and resolution of the instrument as well the strength and energy of the radioactive material to be imaged. This study combined measurements and simulations to examine the specific issue of UF{sub 6} gas flow in pipes, at various enrichment levels, as well as hold-up resulting from the accumulation of enriched material in those pipes. It was found that current generation imagers could image pipes carrying UF{sub 6} in less than one hour at moderate to high enrichment. Pipes with low enriched gas would require more time. It was also found that hold-up was more amenable to this technique and could be imaged in gram quantities in a fraction of an hour. another questions arises regarding the ability to separately image two pipes spaced closely together. This depends on the capabilities of the instrument in question. These results are described in detail. In addition, suggestions are given as to how to develop Compton imaging as a tool for DIV.

Burks, M; Verbeke, J; Dougan, A; Wang, T; Decman, D

2009-07-04T23:59:59.000Z

122

Process for producing enriched uranium having a {sup 235}U content of at least 4 wt. % via combination of a gaseous diffusion process and an atomic vapor laser isotope separation process to eliminate uranium hexafluoride tails storage  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An uranium enrichment process capable of producing an enriched uranium, having a {sup 235}U content greater than about 4 wt. %, is disclosed which will consume less energy and produce metallic uranium tails having a lower {sup 235}U content than the tails normally produced in a gaseous diffusion separation process and, therefore, eliminate UF{sub 6} tails storage and sharply reduce fluorine use. The uranium enrichment process comprises feeding metallic uranium into an atomic vapor laser isotope separation process to produce an enriched metallic uranium isotopic mixture having a {sup 235} U content of at least about 2 wt. % and a metallic uranium residue containing from about 0.1 wt. % to about 0.2 wt. % {sup 235} U; fluorinating this enriched metallic uranium isotopic mixture to form UF{sub 6}; processing the resultant isotopic mixture of UF{sub 6} in a gaseous diffusion process to produce a final enriched uranium product having a {sup 235}U content of at least 4 wt. %, and up to 93.5 wt. % or higher, of the total uranium content of the product, and a low {sup 235}U content UF{sub 6} having a {sup 235}U content of about 0.71 wt. % of the total uranium content of the low {sup 235}U content UF{sub 6}; and converting this low {sup 235}U content UF{sub 6} to metallic uranium for recycle to the atomic vapor laser isotope separation process. 4 figs.

Horton, J.A.; Hayden, H.W. Jr.

1995-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

123

Process for producing enriched uranium having a .sup.235 U content of at least 4 wt. % via combination of a gaseous diffusion process and an atomic vapor laser isotope separation process to eliminate uranium hexafluoride tails storage  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An uranium enrichment process capable of producing an enriched uranium, having a .sup.235 U content greater than about 4 wt. %, is disclosed which will consume less energy and produce metallic uranium tails having a lower .sup.235 U content than the tails normally produced in a gaseous diffusion separation process and, therefore, eliminate UF.sub.6 tails storage and sharply reduce fluorine use. The uranium enrichment process comprises feeding metallic uranium into an atomic vapor laser isotope separation process to produce an enriched metallic uranium isotopic mixture having a .sup.235 U content of at least about 2 wt. % and a metallic uranium residue containing from about 0.1 wt. % to about 0.2 wt. % .sup.235 U; fluorinating this enriched metallic uranium isotopic mixture to form UF.sub.6 ; processing the resultant isotopic mixture of UF.sub.6 in a gaseous diffusion process to produce a final enriched uranium product having a .sup.235 U content of at least 4 wt. %, and up to 93.5 wt. % or higher, of the total uranium content of the product, and a low .sup.235 U content UF.sub.6 having a .sup.235 U content of about 0.71 wt. % of the total uranium content of the low .sup.235 U content UF.sub.6 ; and converting this low .sup.235 U content UF.sub.6 to metallic uranium for recycle to the atomic vapor laser isotope separation process.

Horton, James A. (Livermore, CA); Hayden, Jr., Howard W. (Oakridge, TN)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

124

Using low-enriched uranium in research reactors: The RERTR program  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The goal of the RERTR program is to minimize and eventually eliminate use of highway enriched uranium (HEU) in research and test reactors. The program has been very successful, and has developed low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel materials and designs which can be used effectively in approximately 90 percent of the research and test reactors which used HEU when the program began. This progress would not have been possible without active international cooperation among fuel developers, commercial vendors, and reactor operators. The new tasks which the RERTR program is undertaking at this time include development of new and better fuels that will allow use of LEU fuels in all research and test reactors; cooperation with Russian laboratories, which will make it possible to minimize and eventually eliminate use of HEU in research reactors throughout the world, irrespective of its origin; and development of an LEU-based process for the production of {sup 99}Mo. Continuation and intensification of international cooperation are essential to the achievement of the ultimate goals of the RERTR program.

Travelli, A.

1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

Office of Environmental Management Uranium Enrichment Decontamination and Decommissioning Fund financial statements, September 30, 1995 and 1994  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Energy Policy Act of 1992 (Act) requires the Department of Energy to retain ownership and responsibility for the costs of environmental cleanup resulting from the Government`s operation of the three gaseous diffusion facilities located at the K-25 site in Oak Ridge, Tennessee; Paducah, Kentucky; and Portsmouth, Ohio. The Act transferred the uranium enrichment enterprise to the United States Enrichment Corporation (USEC) as of July 1, 1993, and established the Uranium Enrichment Decontamination and Decommissioning Fund (D&D Fund) to: Pay for the costs of decontamination and decommissioning at the diffusion facilities; pay the annual costs for remedial action at the diffusion facilities to the extent that the amount in the Fund is sufficient; and reimburse uranium/thorium licensees for the costs of decontamination, decommissioning, reclamation, and other remedial actions which are incident to sales to the Government.

NONE

1996-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

126

RADIO FREQUENCY IDENTIFICATION DEVICES: EFFECTIVENESS IN IMPROVING SAFEGUARDS AT GAS-CENTRIFUGE URANIUM-ENRICHMENT PLANTS.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Recent advances in radio frequency identification devices (RFIDs) have engendered a growing interest among international safeguards experts. Potentially, RFIDs could reduce inspection work, viz. the number of inspections, number of samples, and duration of the visits, and thus improve the efficiency and effectiveness of international safeguards. This study systematically examined the applications of RFIDs for IAEA safeguards at large gas-centrifuge enrichment plants (GCEPs). These analyses are expected to help identify the requirements and desirable properties for RFIDs, to provide insights into which vulnerabilities matter most, and help formulate the required assurance tests. This work, specifically assesses the application of RFIDs for the ''Option 4'' safeguards approach, proposed by Bruce Moran, U. S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), for large gas-centrifuge uranium-enrichment plants. The features of ''Option 4'' safeguards include placing RFIDs on all feed, product and tails (F/P/T) cylinders, along with WID readers in all FP/T stations and accountability scales. Other features of Moran's ''Option 4'' are Mailbox declarations, monitoring of load-cell-based weighing systems at the F/P/T stations and accountability scales, and continuous enrichment monitors. Relevant diversion paths were explored to evaluate how RFIDs improve the efficiency and effectiveness of safeguards. Additionally, the analysis addresses the use of RFIDs in conjunction with video monitoring and neutron detectors in a perimeter-monitoring approach to show that RFIDs can help to detect unidentified cylinders.

JOE,J.

2007-07-08T23:59:59.000Z

127

BLENDING LOW ENRICHED URANIUM WITH DEPLETED URANIUM TO CREATE A SOURCE MATERIAL ORE THAT CAN BE PROCESSED FOR THE RECOVERY OF YELLOWCAKE AT A CONVENTIONAL URANIUM MILL  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Throughout the United States Department of Energy (DOE) complex, there are a number of streams of low enriched uranium (LEU) that contain various trace contaminants. These surplus nuclear materials require processing in order to meet commercial fuel cycle specifications. To date, they have not been designated as waste for disposal at the DOE's Nevada Test Site (NTS). Currently, with no commercial outlet available, the DOE is evaluating treatment and disposal as the ultimate disposition path for these materials. This paper will describe an innovative program that will provide a solution to DOE that will allow disposition of these materials at a cost that will be competitive with treatment and disposal at the NTS, while at the same time recycling the material to recover a valuable energy resource (yellowcake) for reintroduction into the commercial nuclear fuel cycle. International Uranium (USA) Corporation (IUSA) and Nuclear Fuel Services, Inc. (NFS) have entered into a commercial relationship to pursue the development of this program. The program involves the design of a process and construction of a plant at NFS' site in Erwin, Tennessee, for the blending of contaminated LEU with depleted uranium (DU) to produce a uranium source material ore (USM Ore{trademark}). The USM Ore{trademark} will then be further processed at IUC's White Mesa Mill, located near Blanding, Utah, to produce conventional yellowcake, which can be delivered to conversion facilities, in the same manner as yellowcake that is produced from natural ores or other alternate feed materials. The primary source of feed for the business will be the significant sources of trace contaminated materials within the DOE complex. NFS has developed a dry blending process (DRYSM Process) to blend the surplus LEU material with DU at its Part 70 licensed facility, to produce USM Ore{trademark} with a U235 content within the range of U235 concentrations for source material. By reducing the U235 content to source material levels in this manner, the material will be suitable for processing at a conventional uranium mill under its existing Part 40 license to remove contaminants and enable the product to re-enter the commercial fuel cycle. The tailings from processing the USM Ore{trademark} at the mill will be permanently disposed of in the mill's tailings impoundment as 11e.(2) byproduct material. Blending LEU with DU to make a uranium source material ore that can be returned to the nuclear fuel cycle for processing to produce yellowcake, has never been accomplished before. This program will allow DOE to disposition its surplus LEU and DU in a cost effective manner, and at the same time provide for the recovery of valuable energy resources that would be lost through processing and disposal of the materials. This paper will discuss the nature of the surplus LEU and DU materials, the manner in which the LEU will be blended with DU to form a uranium source material ore, and the legal means by which this blending can be accomplished at a facility licensed under 10 CFR Part 70 to produce ore that can be processed at a conventional uranium mill licensed under 10 CFR Part 40.

Schutt, Stephen M.; Hochstein, Ron F.; Frydenlund, David C.; Thompson, Anthony J.

2003-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

128

Depleted Uranium  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Depleted Uranium Depleted Uranium Depleted Uranium line line Uranium Enrichment Depleted Uranium Health Effects Depleted Uranium Depleted uranium is uranium that has had some of its U-235 content removed. Over the last four decades, large quantities of uranium were processed by gaseous diffusion to produce uranium having a higher concentration of uranium-235 than the 0.72% that occurs naturally (called "enriched" uranium) for use in U.S. national defense and civilian applications. "Depleted" uranium is also a product of the enrichment process. However, depleted uranium has been stripped of some of its natural uranium-235 content. Most of the Department of Energy's (DOE) depleted uranium inventory contains between 0.2 to 0.4 weight-percent uranium-235, well

129

E-Print Network 3.0 - anthropogenic uranium enrichments Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Ecology ; Engineering 99 geology and Ranger 1 open-pit uranium mine in Australia Summary: Uranium geology and mining Ranger 1 open-pit uranium mine in Australia Mikael Hk UHDSG...

130

Effect of short-term material balances on the projected uranium measurement uncertainties for the gas centrifuge enrichment plant  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A program is under way to design an effective International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguards system that could be applied to the Portsmouth Gas Centrifuge Enrichment Plant (GCEP). This system would integrate nuclear material accountability with containment and surveillance. Uncertainties in material balances due to errors in the measurements of the declared uranium streams have been projected on a yearly basis for GCEP under such a system in a previous study. Because of the large uranium flows, the projected balance uncertainties were, in some cases, greater than the IAEA goal quantity of 75 kg of U-235 contained in low-enriched uranium. Therefore, it was decided to investigate the benefits of material balance periods of less than a year in order to improve the sensitivity and timeliness of the nuclear material accountability system. An analysis has been made of projected uranium measurement uncertainties for various short-term material balance periods. To simplify this analysis, only a material balance around the process area is considered and only the major UF/sub 6/ stream measurements are included. That is, storage areas are not considered and uranium waste streams are ignored. It is also assumed that variations in the cascade inventory are negligible compared to other terms in the balance so that the results obtained in this study are independent of the absolute cascade inventory. This study is intended to provide information that will serve as the basis for the future design of a dynamic materials accounting component of the IAEA safeguards system for GCEP.

Younkin, J.M.; Rushton, J.E.

1980-02-05T23:59:59.000Z

131

Recommendations to the NRC on acceptable standard format and content for the Fundamental Nuclear Material Control (FNMC) Plan required for low-enriched uranium enrichment facilities  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A new section, 10 CFR 74.33, has been added to the material control and accounting (MC A) requirements of 10 CFR Part 74. This new section pertains to US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC)-licensed uranium enrichment facilities that are authorized to produce and to possess more than one effective kilogram of special nuclear material (SNM) of low strategic significance. The new section is patterned after 10 CFR 74.31, which pertains to NRC licensees (other than production or utilization facilities licensed pursuant to 10 CFR Part 50 and 70 and waste disposal facilities) that are authorized to possess and use more than one effective kilogram of unencapsulated SNM of low strategic significance. Because enrichment facilities have the potential capability of producing SNM of moderate strategic significance and also strategic SNM, certain performance objectives and MC A system capabilities are required in 10 CFR 74.33 that are not contained in 10 CFR 74.31. This document recommends to the NRC information that the licensee or applicant should provide in the fundamental nuclear material control (FNMC) plan. This document also describes methods that should be acceptable for compliance with the general performance objectives. While this document is intended to cover various uranium enrichment technologies, the primary focus at this time is gas centrifuge and gaseous diffusion.

Moran, B.W.; Belew, W.L. (Oak Ridge K-25 Site, TN (United States)); Hammond, G.A.; Brenner, L.M. (21st Century Industries, Inc., Gaithersburg, MD (United States))

1991-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

132

High-purity, isotopically enriched bulk silicon  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The synthesis and characterization of dislocation-free, undoped, single crystals of Si enriched in all 3 stable isotopes is reported: {sup 28}Si (99.92%), {sup 29}Si (91.37%), and {sup 30}Si (89.8%). A silane-based process compatible with the relatively small amounts of isotopically enriched precursors that are practically available was used. The silane is decomposed to silicon on a graphite starter rod heated to 700-750 C in a recirculating flow reactor. A typical run produces 35 gm of polycrystalline Si at a growth rates of 5 {micro}m/min and conversion efficiency >95%. Single crystals are grown by the floating zone method and characterized by electrical and optical measurements. Concentrations of shallow dopants (P and B) are as low as mid-10{sup 13} cm{sup -3}. Concentrations of C and O lie below 10{sup 16} and 10{sup 15} cm{sup -3}, respectively.

Ager III, J.W.; Beeman, J.W.; Hansen, W.L.; Haller, E.E.; Sharp, I.D.; Liao, C.; Yang, A.; Thewalt, M.L.W.; Riemann, H.

2004-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

133

SUB-LEU-METAL-THERM-001 SUBCRITICAL MEASUREMENTS OF LOW ENRICHED TUBULAR URANIUM METAL FUEL ELEMENTS BEFORE & AFTER IRRADIATION  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

With the shutdown of the Hanford PUREX (Plutonium-Uranium Extraction Plant) reprocessing plant in the 1970s, adequate storage capacity for spent Hanford N Reactor fuel elements in the K and N Reactor pools became a concern. To maximize space utilization in the pools, accounting for fuel burnup was considered. Calculations indicated that at typical fuel exposures for N Reactor, the spent-fuel critical mass would be twice the critical mass for green fuel. A decision was reached to test the calculational result with a definitive experiment. If the results proved positive, storage capacity could be increased and N Reactor operation could be prolonged. An experiment to be conducted in the N Reactor spent-fuel storage pool was designed and assembled and the services of the Battelle Northwest Laboratories (BNWL) (now Pacific Northwest National Laboratory [PNNL]) critical mass laboratory were procured for the measurements. The experiments were performed in April 1975 in the Hanford N Reactor fuel storage pool. The fuel elements were MKIA fuel assemblies, comprising two concentric tubes of low-enriched metallic uranium. Two separate sets of measurements were performed: one with ''green'' (fresh) fuel and one with spent fuel. Both the green and spent fuel, were measured in the same geometry. The spent-fuel MKIA assemblies had an average burnup of 2865 MWd (megawatt days)/t. A constraint was imposed restricting the measurements to a subcritical limit of k{sub eff} = 0.97. Subcritical count rate data was obtained with pulsed-neutron and approach-to-critical measurements. Ten (10) configurations with green fuel and nine (9) configurations with spent fuel are described and evaluated. Of these, 3 green fuel and 4 spent fuel loading configurations were considered to serve as benchmark models. However, shortcomings in experimental data failed to meet the high standards for a benchmark problem. Nevertheless, the data provided by these subcritical measurements can supply useful information to analysts evaluating spent fuel subcriticality. The original purpose of the subcritical measurements was to validate computer model predictions that spent N Reactor fuel of a particular, typical exposure (2740 MWd/t) had a critical mass equal to twice that of unexposed fuel of the same type. The motivation for performing this work was driven by the need to increase spent fuel storage limits. These subcritical measurements confirmed the computer model predictions.

SCHWINKENDORF, K.N.

2006-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

134

RELAP5 model of the high flux isotope reactor with low enriched fuel thermal flux profiles  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) currently uses highly enriched uranium (HEU) fabricated into involute-shaped fuel plates. It is desired that HFIR be able to use low enriched uranium (LEU) fuel while preserving the current performance capability for its diverse missions in material irradiation studies, isotope production, and the use of neutron beam lines for basic research. Preliminary neutronics and depletion simulations of HFIR with LEU fuel have arrived to feasible fuel loadings that maintain the neutronics performance of the reactor. This article illustrates preliminary models developed for the analysis of the thermal-hydraulic characteristics of the LEU core to ensure safe operation of the reactor. The beginning of life (BOL) LEU thermal flux profile has been modeled in RELAP5 to facilitate steady state simulation of the core cooling, and of anticipated and unanticipated transients. Steady state results are presented to validate the new thermal power profile inputs. A power ramp, slow depressurization at the outlet, and flow coast down transients are also evaluated. (authors)

Banfield, J.; Mervin, B.; Hart, S.; Ritchie, J.; Walker, S.; Ruggles, A.; Maldonado, G. I. [Dept. of Nuclear Engineering, Univ. of Tennessee Knoxville, Knoxville, TN 37996-2300 (United States)

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

NNSA helps eliminate highly enriched uranium from Kazakhstan...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Kazakhstan. The HEU was transported via two air shipments to a secure facility in Russia for permanent disposition. This complex operation was the culmination of a multi-year...

136

US, Kazakhstan Cooperate to Eliminate Highly Enriched Uranium...  

National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

effort between the United States, Kazakhstan, Russia and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). "The removal of this HEU is yet another example of how the...

137

Highly Enriched Uranium Materials Facility, Major Design Changes...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

EIS-0387: Draft Site-Wide Environmental Impact Statement EIS-0387: Final Site-Wide Environmental Impact Statement EIS-0236-S4: Final Supplemental Programmatic Environmental...

138

In Situ Biological Uranium Remediation within a Highly Contaminated Aquifer  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

In Situ Biological Uranium Remediation In Situ Biological Uranium Remediation within a Highly Contaminated Aquifer Matthew Ginder-Vogel1, Wei-Min Wu1, Jack Carley2, Phillip Jardine2, Scott Fendorf1 and Craig Criddle1 1Stanford University, Stanford, CA 2Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN Microbial Respiration Figure 1. Uranium(VI) reduction is driven by microbial respiration resulting in the precipitation of uraninite. Uranium contamination of ground and surface waters has been detected at numerous sites throughout the world, including agricultural evaporation ponds (1), U.S. Department of Energy nuclear weapons manufacturing areas, and mine tailings sites (2). In oxygen-containing groundwater, uranium is generally found in the hexavalent oxidation state (3,4), which is a relatively soluble chemical form. As U(VI) is transported through

139

A new fast neutron collar for safeguards inspection measurements of fresh low enriched uranium fuel assemblies containing burnable poison rods  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Safeguards inspection measurements must be performed in a timely manner in order to detect the diversion of significant quantities of nuclear material. A shorter measurement time can increase the number of items that a nuclear safeguards inspector can reliably measure during a period of access to a nuclear facility. In turn, this improves the reliability of the acquired statistical sample, which is used to inform decisions regarding compliance. Safeguards inspection measurements should also maintain independence from facility operator declarations. Existing neutron collars employ thermal neutron interrogation for safeguards inspection measurements of fresh fuel assemblies. A new fast neutron collar has been developed for safeguards inspection measurements of fresh low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel assemblies containing gadolinia (Gd2O3) burnable poison rods. The Euratom Fast Collar (EFC) was designed with high neutron detection efficiency to make a fast (Cd) mode measurement viable whilst meeting the high counting precision and short assay time requirements of the Euratom safeguards inspectorate. A fast mode measurement reduces the instrument sensitivity to burnable poison rod content and therefore reduces the applied poison correction, consequently reducing the dependence on the operator declaration of the poison content within an assembly. The EFC non-destructive assay (NDA) of typical modern European pressurized water reactor (PWR) fresh fuel assembly designs have been simulated using Monte Carlo N-particle extended transport code (MCNPX) simulations. Simulations predict that the EFC can achieve 2% relative statistical uncertainty on the doubles neutron counting rate for a fast mode measurement in an assay time of 600s (10min) with the available 241AmLi (?,n) interrogation source strength of 5.7104s?1. Furthermore, the calibration range of the new collar has been extended to verify 235U content in variable PWR fuel designs in the presence of up to 32 gadolinia burnable poison rods with Gd concentrations of up to 12wt%. Monte Carlo calculations predict that the EFC has a lower statistical uncertainty for measurements performed in the fast neutron mode than its predecessor neutron collar design. This paper describes the physics design and calculated performance characteristics of the EFC. The Gd response is presented over a realistic range for modern PWR fuel designs.

Louise G. Evans; Martyn T. Swinhoe; Howard O. Menlove; Peter Schwalbach; Paul De Baere; Michael C. Browne

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

In-Situ Measurements of Low Enrichment Uranium Holdup Process Gas Piping at K-25 - Paper for Waste Management Symposia 2010 East Tennessee Technology Park Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document is the final version of a paper submitted to the Waste Management Symposia, Phoenix, 2010, abstract BJC/OR-3280. The primary document from which this paper was condensed is In-Situ Measurement of Low Enrichment Uranium Holdup in Process Gas Piping at K-25 Using NaI/HMS4 Gamma Detection Systems, BJC/OR-3355. This work explores the sufficiency and limitations of the Holdup Measurement System 4 (HJVIS4) software algorithms applied to measurements of low enriched uranium holdup in gaseous diffusion process gas piping. HMS4 has been used extensively during the decommissioning and demolition project of the K-25 building for U-235 holdup quantification. The HMS4 software is an integral part of one of the primary nondestructive assay (NDA) systems which was successfully tested and qualified for holdup deposit quantification in the process gas piping of the K-25 building. The initial qualification focused on the measurement of highly enriched UO{sub 2}F{sub 2} deposits. The purpose of this work was to determine if that qualification could be extended to include the quantification of holdup in UO{sub 2}F{sub 2} deposits of lower enrichment. Sample field data are presented to provide evidence in support of the theoretical foundation. The HMS4 algorithms were investigated in detail and found to sufficiently compensate for UO{sub 2}F{sub 2} source self-attenuation effects, over the range of expected enrichment (4-40%), in the North and East Wings of the K-25 building. The limitations of the HMS4 algorithms were explored for a described set of conditions with respect to area source measurements of low enriched UO{sub 2}F{sub 2} deposits when used in conjunction with a 1 inch by 1/2 inch sodium iodide (NaI) scintillation detector. The theoretical limitations of HMS4, based on the expected conditions in the process gas system of the K-25 building, are related back to the required data quality objectives (DQO) for the NBA measurement system established for the K-25 demolition project. The combined review of the HMS software algorithms and supporting field measurements lead to the conclusion that the majority of process gas pipe measurements are adequately corrected for source self-attenuation using HMS4. While there will be instances where the UO{sub 2}F{sub 2} holdup mass presents an infinitely thick deposit to the NaI-HMS4 system these situations are expected to be infrequent. This work confirms that the HMS4 system can quantify UO{sub 2}F{sub 2} holdup, in its current configuration (deposition, enrichment, and geometry), below the DQO levels for the K-25 building decommissioning and demolition project. For an area measurement of process gas pipe in the K-25 building, if an infinitely thick UO{sub 2}F{sub 2} deposit is identified in the range of enrichment of {approx}4-40%, the holdup quantity exceeds the corresponding DQO established for the K-25 building demolition project.

Rasmussen B.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "highly enriched uranium" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

RERTR program activities related to the development and application of new LEU fuels. [Reduced Enrichment Research and Test Reactor; low-enriched uranium  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The statue of the U.S. Reduced Enrichment Research and Test Reactor (RERTR) Program is reviewed. After a brief outline of RERTR Program objectives and goals, program accomplishments are discussed with emphasis on the development, demonstration and application of new LEU fuels. Most program activities have proceeded as planned, and a combination of two silicide fuels (U/sub 3/Si/sub 2/-Al and U/sub 3/Si-Al) holds excellent promise for achieving the long-term program goals. Current plans and schedules project the uranium density of qualified RERTR fuels for plate-type reactors to grow by approximately 1 g U/cm/sup 3/ each year, from the current 1.7 g U/cm/sup 3/ to the 7.0 g U/cm/sup 3/ which will be reached in late 1988. The technical needs of research and test reactors for HEU exports are also forecasted to undergo a gradual but dramatic decline in the coming years.

Travelli, A.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

Monte Carlo analysis of the slightly enriched uranium-D/sub 2/O critical experiment LTRIIA (AWBA Development Program)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Savannah River Laboratory LTRIIA slightly-enriched uranium-D/sub 2/O critical experiment was analyzed with ENDF/B-IV data and the RCP01 Monte Carlo program, which modeled the entire assembly in explicit detail. The integral parameters delta/sup 25/ and delta/sup 28/ showed good agreement with experiment. However, calculated K/sub eff/ was 2 to 3% low, due primarily to an overprediction of U238 capture. This is consistent with results obtained in similar analyses of the H/sub 2/O-moderated TRX critical experiments. In comparisons with the VIM and MCNP2 Monte Carlo programs, good agreement was observed for calculated reeaction rates in the B/sup 2/=0 cell.

Hardy, J. Jr.; Shore, J.M.

1981-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

143

SUB-LEU-METAL-THERM-001 SUBCRITICAL MEASUREMENTS OF LOW ENRICHED TUBULAR URANIUM METAL FUEL ELEMENTS BEFORE & AFTER IRRADIATION  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

With the shutdown of the Hanford PUREX (Plutonium-Uranium Extraction Plant) reprocessing plant in the 1970s, adequate storage capacity for spent Hanford N Reactor fuel elements in the K and N Reactor pools became a concern. To maximize space utilization in the pools, accounting for fuel burnup was considered. Fuel that had experienced a neutron environment in a reactor is known as spent, exposed, or irradiated fuel. In contrast fuel that has not yet been placed in a reactor is known as green, unexposed, or unirradiated fuel. Calculations indicated that at typical fuel exposures for N Reactor, the spent-fuel critical mass would be twice the critical mass for green fuel. A decision was reached to test the calculational result with a definitive experiment. If the results proved positive, storage capacity could be increased and N Reactor operation could be prolonged. An experiment to be conducted in the N Reactor spent-fuel storage pool was designed and assembled (References 1 and 2) and the services of the Battelle Northwest Laboratories (BNWL) (now Pacific Northwest National Laboratory [PNNL]) critical mass laboratory were procured for the measurements (Reference 3). The experiments were performed in April 1975 in the Hanford N Reactor fuel storage pool. The fuel elements were MKIA fuel assemblies, comprised of two concentric tubes of low-enriched metallic uranium. Two separate sets of measurements were performed: one with unirradiated fuel and one with irradiated fuel. Both the unirradiated and irradiated fuel, were measured in the same geometry. The spent-fuel MKIA assemblies had an average burnup of 2865 MWd (megawatt days)/t. A constraint was imposed restricting the measurements to a subcritical limit of k{sub eff} = 0.97. Subcritical count rate data was obtained with pulsed-neutron and approach-to-critical measurements. Ten (10) configurations with green fuel and nine (9) configurations with spent fuel are described and evaluated. Of these, three (3) green fuel and four (4) spent fuel loading configurations were considered to serve as benchmark models. However, shortcomings in experimental data, such as the uncertainty in fuel exposure impact on reactivity and the pulse neutron data evaluation methodology, failed to meet the high standards for a benchmark problem. Nevertheless, the data provided by these subcritical measurements supply useful information to analysts evaluating spent fuel subcriticality. The original purpose of the subcritical measurements was to validate computer model predictions that spent N Reactor fuel of a particular, typical exposure (2740 MWd/t) had a critical mass equal to twice that of unexposed fuel of the same type. The motivation for performing this work was driven by the need to increase spent fuel storage limits. These subcritical measurements confirmed the computer model predictions.

TOFFER, H.

2006-07-18T23:59:59.000Z

144

Fabrication and Characterization of Uranium-based High Temperature Reactor  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Fabrication and Characterization of Uranium-based High Temperature Reactor Fabrication and Characterization of Uranium-based High Temperature Reactor Fuel June 01, 2013 The Uranium Fuel Development Laboratory is a modern R&D scale lab for the fabrication and characterization of uranium-based high temperature reactor fuel. A laboratory-scale coater manufactures tri-isotropic (TRISO) coated fuel particles (CFPs), state-of-the-art materials property characterization is performed, and the CFPs are then pressed into fuel compacts for irradiation testing, all under a NQA-1 compliant Quality Assurance Program. After fuel kernel size and shape are measured by optical shadow imaging, the TRISO coatings are deposited via fluidized bed chemical vapor deposition in a 50-mm diameter conical chamber within the coating furnace. Computer control of temperature and gas composition ensures reproducibility

145

DOE Announces Policy for Managing Excess Uranium Inventory | Department of  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Policy for Managing Excess Uranium Inventory Policy for Managing Excess Uranium Inventory DOE Announces Policy for Managing Excess Uranium Inventory March 12, 2008 - 10:52am Addthis WASHINGTON, DC - U.S. Secretary of Energy Samuel W. Bodman today released a Policy Statement on the management of the Department of Energy's (DOE) excess uranium inventory, providing the framework within which DOE will make decisions concerning future use and disposition of its inventory. During the coming year, DOE will continue its ongoing program for downblending excess highly enriched uranium (HEU) into low enriched uranium (LEU), evaluate the benefits of enriching a portion of its excess natural uranium into LEU, and complete an analysis on enriching and/or selling some of its depleted uranium. Specific transactions are expected to occur in

146

Excess Uranium Management  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Department is issuing a Request for Information on the effects of DOE transfers of excess uranium on domestic uranium mining, conversion, and enrichment industries.

147

Assessment of enriched uranium storage safety issues at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document is an assessment of the technical safety issues pertaining to the storage of EU at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. The purpose of the assessment is to serve as the basis for defining the technical standards for storage of EU at Y-12. A formal assessment of the Y-12 materials acceptance criteria for EU is currently being conducted by a task force cochaired by B. G. Eddy of DOE Oak Ridge Operations and S. 0. Cox of Y-12 Defense Programs. The mission of this technical assessment for storage is obviously dependent on results of the acceptance assessment. Clearly, the two efforts require coordination to avoid inconsistencies. In addition, both these Assessments must be consistent with the Environmental Assessment for EU storage at Y-12.1 Both the Storage Assessment and the Criteria for Acceptance must take cognizance of the fact that a portion of the EU to be submitted for storage in the future is expected to be derived from foreign sources and to include previously irradiated uranium containing significant levels of transuranics, radioactive daughter products, and unstable uranium isotopes that do not occur in the EU stream of the DOE weapons complex. National security considerations may dictate that these materials be accepted despite the fact that they fail to conform to the Acceptance Criteria. This document will attempt to address the complexities inherent in this situation.

NONE

1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

Direct fissile assay of enriched uranium using random self-interrogation and neutron coincidence response  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Apparatus and method for the direct, nondestructive evaluation of the .sup.235 U nuclide content of samples containing UF.sub.6, UF.sub.4, or UO.sub.2 utilizing the passive neutron self-interrogation of the sample resulting from the intrinsic production of neutrons therein. The ratio of the emitted neutron coincidence count rate to the total emitted neutron count rate is determined and yields a measure of the bulk fissile mass. The accuracy of the method is 6.8% (1.sigma.) for cylinders containing UF.sub.6 with enrichments ranging from 6% to 98% with measurement times varying from 3-6 min. The samples contained from below 1 kg to greater than 16 kg. Since the subject invention relies on fast neutron self-interrogation, complete sampling of the UF.sub.6 takes place, reducing difficulties arising from inhomogeneity of the sample which adversely affects other assay procedures.

Menlove, Howard O. (Los Alamos, NM); Stewart, James E. (Los Alamos, NM)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

Uranium Oxide as a Highly Reflective Coating from 150-350 eV  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of depleted uranium metal (less than 0.2% U-235). After sputtering, the uranium was allowed to oxidize1 Uranium Oxide as a Highly Reflective Coating from 150-350 eV Richard L. Sandberg, David D. Allred.byu.edu ABSTRACT We present the measured reflectances (beamline 6.3.2, ALS at LBNL) of naturally oxidized uranium

Hart, Gus

150

Department of Energy`s Uranium Enrichment Decontamination and Decommissioning Fund fiscal year 1997 financial statement audit  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report presents the results of the independent certified public accountants` audit of the Department of Energy`s Uranium Enrichment Decontamination and Decommissioning Fund (D&D Fund) financial statements as of September 30, 1997. The auditors have expressed an unqualified opinion on the 1997 statement of financial position and the related statements of operations and changes in net position and cash flows. The 1997 financial statement audit was made under provisions of the Inspector General Act (5 U.S.C. App.) as amended, the Government Management Reform Act (31 U.S.C. 3515), and Office of Management and Budget implementing guidance. The auditor`s work was conducted in accordance with generally accepted government auditing standards. To fulfill our audit responsibilities, we contracted with the independent public accounting firm of KPMG Peat Marwick LLP (KPMG) to conduct the audit for us, subject to our review. The auditors` report on the D&D Fund`s internal control structure disclosed no reportable conditions. The auditors` report on compliance with laws and regulations disclosed one instance of noncompliance. This instance of noncompliance relates to the shortfall in Government appropriations. Since this instance was addressed in a previous audit, no further recommendation is made at this time. During the course of the audit, KPMG also identified other matters that, although not material to the financial statements, nevertheless, warrant management`s attention. These items are fully discussed in a separate letter to management.

NONE

1998-08-21T23:59:59.000Z

151

Neurotoxicity of depleted uranium  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Depleted uranium (DU) is a byproduct of the enrichment process of uranium for its more radioactive isotopes to be ... neurotoxicity of DU. This review reports on uranium uses and its published health effects, wit...

George C. -T. Jiang; Michael Aschiner

2006-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

152

Feasibility studies to establish at the Kazakhstan Ulba metallurgical plant the manufacturing capability to produce low-enriched uranium certified reference materials  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

One of the salient features of the transition plan that the United States Department of Energy/National Nuclear Security Administration (DOE/NNSA) is presently implementing in the Former Soviet Union countries is the availability of uranium certified reference materials for calibration of nondestructive assay (NDA) measurement equipment. To address this challenge, DOE/NNSA and U.S. national laboratories have focused their cooperative efforts on establishing a reliable source for manufacturing, certifying, and supplying of such standards. The Ulba Metallurgical Plant (UMP), Kazakhstan, which processes large quantities of low-enriched uranium to produce ceramic fuel pellets for nuclear-powered reactors, is well situated to become a key supplier of low-enriched uranium certified reference materials for the country and Central Asia region. We have recently completed Phase I of a feasibility study to establish at UMP capabilities of manufacturing these standards. In this paper we will discuss details of a proposed methodology for uranium down-blending, material selection and characterization, and a proposed methodology of measurement by destructive (DA) and non-destructive (NDA) analysis to form a database for material certification by the competent State authorities in the Republic of Kazakhstan. In addition, we will discuss the prospect for manufacturing of such standards at UMP.

Kuzminski, Jozef [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Nesuhoff, J [NBL; Cratto, P [NBL; Pfennigwerth, G [Y12 NATIONAL SEC. COMPLEX; Mikhailenko, A [ULBA METALLURGICAL PLANT; Maliutina, I [ULBA METALLURGICAL PLANT; Nations, J [GREGG PROTECTION SERVICES

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

153

Uranium Management and Policy | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Test Program, and reporting annually to Congress on the impact of the U.S.-Russia Highly Enriched Uranium Purchase Agreement on the U.S. nuclear fuel industry. NE-54's...

154

Uranium: Environmental Pollution and Health Effects  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Uranium is found ubiquitously in nature in low concentrations in soil, rock, and water. Naturally occurring uranium contains three isotopes, namely 238U, 235U, and 234U. All uranium isotopes have the same chemical properties, but they have different radiological properties. The main civilian use of uranium is to fuel nuclear power plants, whereas high enriched (in 235U) uranium is used in the military sector as nuclear explosives and depleted uranium (DU) as penetrators or tank shielding. Exposure to uranium may cause health problems due to its radiological (uranium is predominantly emitting alpha-particles) and chemical actions (heavy metal toxicity). Uranium uptake may occur by ingestion, inhalation, contaminated wounds, and embedded fragments especially for soldiers. Inhalation of dust is considered the major pathway for uranium uptake in workplaces. Soluble uranium compounds tend to quickly pass through the body, whereas insoluble uranium compounds pose a more serious inhalation exposure hazard. The kidney is the most sensitive organ for uranium chemotoxicity. An important indirect radiological effect of uranium is the increased risk of lung cancers from inhalation of the daughter products of radon, a noble gas in the uranium decay chains that transports uranium-derived radioactivity from soil into the indoor environment. No direct evidence about the carcinogenic effect of DU in humans is available yet.

D. Melo; W. Burkart

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

S. 2415: Title I may be cited as the Uranium Enrichment Act of 1990; Title II may be cited as the Uranium Security and Tailings Reclamation Act of 1989; and Title III may be cited as The Solar, Wind, Waste, and Geothermal Power Production Incentives Act of 1990, introduced in the Senate, One Hundred First Congress, Second Session, April 4, 1990  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

S. 2415 (which started out as a bill to encourage solar and geothermal power generation) now would amend the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 to redirect uranium enrichment enterprises to further the national interest, respond to competitive market forces, and to ensure the nation's common defense and security. It would establish a United States Enrichment Corporation for the following purposes: to acquire feed materials, enriched uranium, and enrichment facilities; to operate these facilities; to market enriched uranium for governmental purposes and qualified domestic and foreign persons; to conduct research into uranium enrichment; and to operate as a profitable, self-financing, reliable corporation and in a manner consistent with the health and safety of the public. The bill describes powers and duties of the corporation; the organization, finance, and management; decontamination and decommissioning. The second part of the bill would ensure an adequate supply of domestic uranium for defense and power production; provide assistance to the domestic uranium industry; and establish, facilitate, and expedite a comprehensive system for financing reclamation and remedial action at active uranium and thorium processing sites. The third part of the bill would remove the size limitations on power production facilities now part of the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978. Solar, wind, waste, or geothermal power facilities would no longer have to be less than 80 MW to qualify as a small power production facility.

Not Available

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

Disposition of DOE Excess Depleted Uranium, Natural Uranium, and  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Disposition of DOE Excess Depleted Uranium, Natural Uranium, and Disposition of DOE Excess Depleted Uranium, Natural Uranium, and Low-Enriched Uranium Disposition of DOE Excess Depleted Uranium, Natural Uranium, and Low-Enriched Uranium The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) owns and manages an inventory of depleted uranium (DU), natural uranium (NU), and low-enriched uranium (LEU) that is currently stored in large cylinders as depleted uranium hexafluoride (DUF6), natural uranium hexafluoride (NUF6), and low-enriched uranium hexafluoride (LEUF6) at the DOE Paducah site in western Kentucky (DOE Paducah) and the DOE Portsmouth site near Piketon in south-central Ohio (DOE Portsmouth)1. This inventory exceeds DOE's current and projected energy and defense program needs. On March 11, 2008, the Secretary of Energy issued a policy statement (the

157

2013 Uranium Marketing Annual Survey  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

for inflation. Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-858 "Uranium Marketing Annual Survey" (2013). UF 6 is uranium hexafluoride. The natural UF 6 and enriched...

158

Uranium industry annual 1996  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Uranium Industry Annual 1996 (UIA 1996) provides current statistical data on the US uranium industry`s activities relating to uranium raw materials and uranium marketing. The UIA 1996 is prepared for use by the Congress, Federal and State agencies, the uranium and nuclear electric utility industries, and the public. Data on uranium raw materials activities for 1987 through 1996 including exploration activities and expenditures, EIA-estimated reserves, mine production of uranium, production of uranium concentrate, and industry employment are presented in Chapter 1. Data on uranium marketing activities for 1994 through 2006, including purchases of uranium and enrichment services, enrichment feed deliveries, uranium fuel assemblies, filled and unfilled market requirements, uranium imports and exports, and uranium inventories are shown in Chapter 2. A feature article, The Role of Thorium in Nuclear Energy, is included. 24 figs., 56 tabs.

NONE

1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

159

Fiscal Year 1985 Department of Energy Authorization: uranium enrichment, electric energy systems, and storage programs. Volume VI. Hearings before the Subcommittee on Energy Research and Production of the Committee on Science and Technology, US House of Representatives, Ninety-Eighth Congress, Second Session, February 22, 28; March 1984  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Volume VI of the hearing record covers three days of testimony on uranium enrichment, electric energy systems, and storage problems. DOE Assistant Secretary for Nuclear Energy Shelby Brewer reviewed the current market crisis which threatens the US capability of continuing as a reliable enrichment supplier, and outlined DOE's response to the problem. Laboratory and non-DOE witnesses from the nuclear industry followed with their assessments of the problem. Witnesses on the third day described research on high-voltage electric fields, how electromagnetic pulses affect the electric grid, and ways to improve the delivery of electric power, as well as efficient, cost-effective energy-storage systems.

Not Available

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

Results from a "Proof-of-Concept" Demonstration of RF-Based Tracking of UF6 Cylinders during a Processing Operation at a Uranium Enrichment Plant  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Approved industry-standard cylinders are used globally for processing, storing, and transporting uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) at uranium enrichment plants. To ensure that cylinder movements at enrichment facilities occur as declared, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) must conduct time-consuming periodic physical inspections to validate facility records, cylinder identity, and containment. By using a robust system design that includes the capability for real-time unattended monitoring (of cylinder movements), site-specific rules-based event detection algorithms, and the capability to integrate with other types of monitoring technologies, one can build a system that will improve overall inspector effectiveness. This type of monitoring system can provide timely detection of safeguard events that could be used to ensure more timely and appropriate responses by the IAEA. It also could reduce reliance on facility records and have the additional benefit of enhancing domestic safeguards at the installed facilities. This paper will discuss the installation and evaluation of a radio-frequency- (RF-) based cylinder tracking system that was installed at a United States Enrichment Corporation Centrifuge Facility. This system was installed primarily to evaluate the feasibility of using RF technology at a site and the operational durability of the components under harsh processing conditions. The installation included a basic system that is designed to support layering with other safeguard system technologies and that applies fundamental rules-based event processing methodologies. This paper will discuss the fundamental elements of the system design, the results from this site installation, and future efforts needed to make this technology ready for IAEA consideration.

Pickett, Chris A [ORNL] [ORNL; Kovacic, Donald N [ORNL] [ORNL; Whitaker, J Michael [ORNL] [ORNL; Younkin, James R [ORNL] [ORNL; Hines, Jairus B [ORNL] [ORNL; Laughter, Mark D [ORNL] [ORNL; Morgan, Jim [Innovative Solutions] [Innovative Solutions; Carrick, Bernie [USEC] [USEC; Boyer, Brian [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL)] [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Whittle, K. [USEC] [USEC

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "highly enriched uranium" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Highly Enriched Uranyl Nitrate in Annular Tanks with Concrete Reflection: 1 x 3 Line Array of Nested Pairs of Tanks  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A series of seven experiments were performed at the Rocky Flats Critical Mass Laboratory beginning in August, 1980 (References 1 and 2). Highly enriched uranyl nitrate solution was introduced into a 1-3 linear array of nested stainless steel annular tanks. The tanks were inside a concrete enclosure, with various moderator and absorber materials placed inside and/or between the tanks. These moderators and absorbers included boron-free concrete, borated concrete, borated plaster, and cadmium. Two configurations included placing bottles of highly enriched uranyl nitrate between tanks externally. Another experiment involved nested hemispheres of highly enriched uranium placed between tanks externally. These three configurations are not evaluated in this report. The experiments evaluated here are part of a series of experiments, one set of which is evaluated in HEU-SOL-THERM-033. The experiments in this and HEU-SOL-THERM-033 were performed similarly. They took place in the same room and used the same tanks, some of the same moderators and absorbers, some of the same reflector panels, and uranyl nitrate solution from the same location. There are probably additional similarities that existed that are not identified here. Thus, many of the descriptions in this report are either the same or similar to those in the HEU-SOL-THERM-033 report. Seventeen configurations (sixteen of which were critical) were performed during seven experiments; six of those experiments are evaluated here with thirteen configurations. Two configurations were identical, except for solution height, and were conducted to test repeatability. The solution heights were averaged and the two were evaluated as one configuration, which gives a total of twelve evaluated configurations. One of the seventeen configurations was subcritical. Of the twelve critical configurations evaluated, nine were judged as acceptable as benchmarks.

James Cleaver; John D. Bess; Nathan Devine; Fitz Trumble

2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

162

Depleted Uranium Health Effects  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Depleted Uranium Health Effects Depleted Uranium Health Effects Depleted Uranium line line Uranium Enrichment Depleted Uranium Health Effects Depleted Uranium Health Effects Discussion of health effects of external exposure, ingestion, and inhalation of depleted uranium. Depleted uranium is not a significant health hazard unless it is taken into the body. External exposure to radiation from depleted uranium is generally not a major concern because the alpha particles emitted by its isotopes travel only a few centimeters in air or can be stopped by a sheet of paper. Also, the uranium-235 that remains in depleted uranium emits only a small amount of low-energy gamma radiation. However, if allowed to enter the body, depleted uranium, like natural uranium, has the potential for both chemical and radiological toxicity with the two important target organs

163

High grade uranium resources in the United States : an overview  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A time analysis of uranium exploration, production and known reserves in the United States is employed to reveal industry trends. The

Graves, Richard E.

1974-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

New generation enrichment monitoring technology for gas centrifuge enrichment plants  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The continuous enrichment monitor, developed and fielded in the 1990s by the International Atomic Energy Agency, provided a go-no-go capability to distinguish between UF{sub 6} containing low enriched (approximately 4% {sup 235}U) and highly enriched (above 20% {sup 235}U) uranium. This instrument used the 22-keV line from a {sup 109}Cd source as a transmission source to achieve a high sensitivity to the UF{sub 6} gas absorption. The 1.27-yr half-life required that the source be periodically replaced and the instrument recalibrated. The instrument's functionality and accuracy were limited by the fact that measured gas density and gas pressure were treated as confidential facility information. The modern safeguarding of a gas centrifuge enrichment plant producing low-enriched UF{sub 6} product aims toward a more quantitative flow and enrichment monitoring concept that sets new standards for accuracy stability, and confidence. An instrument must be accurate enough to detect the diversion of a significant quantity of material, have virtually zero false alarms, and protect the operator's proprietary process information. We discuss a new concept for advanced gas enrichment assay measurement technology. This design concept eliminates the need for the periodic replacement of a radioactive source as well as the need for maintenance by experts. Some initial experimental results will be presented.

Ianakiev, Kiril D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Alexandrov, Boian, S. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Boyer, Brian, D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hill, Thomas, R. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Macarthur, Duncan, W. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Marks, Thomas [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Moss, Calvin, E. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sheppard, Gregory, A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Swinhoe, Martyn, T. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

165

Uranium Industry Annual, 1992  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Uranium Industry Annual provides current statistical data on the US uranium industry for the Congress, Federal and State agencies, the uranium and electric utility industries, and the public. The feature article, ``Decommissioning of US Conventional Uranium Production Centers,`` is included. Data on uranium raw materials activities including exploration activities and expenditures, resources and reserves, mine production of uranium, production of uranium concentrate, and industry employment are presented in Chapter 1. Data on uranium marketing activities including domestic uranium purchases, commitments by utilities, procurement arrangements, uranium imports under purchase contracts and exports, deliveries to enrichment suppliers, inventories, secondary market activities, utility market requirements, and uranium for sale by domestic suppliers are presented in Chapter 2.

Not Available

1993-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

166

THE MELTING OF HIGH PURITY URANIUM | OSTI, US Dept of Energy...  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

OF HIGH PURITY URANIUM Re-direct Destination: Temp Data Fields Blumenthal, B. Temp Data Storage 3: Argonne National Lab., Lemont, Ill. Short URL for this Page http:t.osti.gov3rL...

167

SPERT Destructive Test - I on Aluminum, Highly Enriched Plate Type Core  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

SPERT - Special Power Excursion Reactor Tests Destructive Test number 1 On Aluminum, Highly Enriched Plate Type Core. A test studying the behavior of the reactor under destructive conditions on a light water moderated pool-type reactor with a plate-type core.

None

2014-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

168

John G. Hinchey Ke iko H. Hattori Magmatic mineralization and hydrothermal enrichment of the High Grade  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ARTICLE John G. Hinchey ? Ke´ iko H. Hattori Magmatic mineralization and hydrothermal enrichment; millerite + siegenite ± chalcopyrite ± pyrite co-existing with hornblende + plagioclase ± quartz ± carbonate, and pyrite ± chalcopyrite with chlorite + actinolite ± albite ± quartz ± carbonate. The ore is high in Pd

169

Safeguards Guidance Document for Designers of Commercial Nuclear Facilities: International Nuclear Safeguards Requirements and Practices For Uranium Enrichment Plants  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report is the second in a series of guidelines on international safeguards requirements and practices, prepared expressly for the designers of nuclear facilities. The first document in this series is the description of generic international nuclear safeguards requirements pertaining to all types of facilities. These requirements should be understood and considered at the earliest stages of facility design as part of a new process called Safeguards-by-Design. This will help eliminate the costly retrofit of facilities that has occurred in the past to accommodate nuclear safeguards verification activities. The following summarizes the requirements for international nuclear safeguards implementation at enrichment plants, prepared under the Safeguards by Design project, and funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Office of NA-243. The purpose of this is to provide designers of nuclear facilities around the world with a simplified set of design requirements and the most common practices for meeting them. The foundation for these requirements is the international safeguards agreement between the country and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), pursuant to the Treaty on the Non-proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT). Relevant safeguards requirements are also cited from the Safeguards Criteria for inspecting enrichment plants, found in the IAEA Safeguards Manual, Part SMC-8. IAEA definitions and terms are based on the IAEA Safeguards Glossary, published in 2002. The most current specification for safeguards measurement accuracy is found in the IAEA document STR-327, International Target Values 2000 for Measurement Uncertainties in Safeguarding Nuclear Materials, published in 2001. For this guide to be easier for the designer to use, the requirements have been restated in plainer language per expert interpretation using the source documents noted. The safeguards agreement is fundamentally a legal document. As such, it is written in a legalese that is understood by specialists in international law and treaties, but not by most outside of this field, including designers of nuclear facilities. For this reason, many of the requirements have been simplified and restated. However, in all cases, the relevant source document and passage is noted so that readers may trace the requirement to the source. This is a helpful living guide, since some of these requirements are subject to revision over time. More importantly, the practices by which the requirements are met are continuously modernized by the IAEA and nuclear facility operators to improve not only the effectiveness of international nuclear safeguards, but also the efficiency. As these improvements are made, the following guidelines should be updated and revised accordingly.

Robert Bean; Casey Durst

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

Effect of reduced enrichment on the fuel cycle for research reactors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The new fuels developed by the RERTR Program and by other international programs for application in research reactors with reduced uranium enrichment (<20% EU) are discussed. It is shown that these fuels, combined with proper fuel-element design and fuel-management strategies, can provide at least the same core residence time as high-enrichment fuels in current use, and can frequently significantly extend it. The effect of enrichment reduction on other components of the research reactor fuel cycle, such as uranium and enrichment requirements, fuel fabrication, fuel shipment, and reprocessing are also briefly discussed with their economic implications. From a systematic comparison of HEU and LEU cores for the same reference research reactor, it is concluded that the new fuels have a potential for reducing the research reactor fuel cycle costs while reducing, at the same time, the uranium enrichment of the fuel.

Travelli, A.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

R and D of crystal scintillators from enriched isotopes for high sensitivity double ? decay experiments  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Experiments to search for neutrinoless double beta decay enters to a new phase when a sensitivity on the level of T{sub 1/2}?10{sup 26}?10{sup 28} yr is required. Scintillating low temperature detectors possess important properties required for high-sensitivity double beta decay experiments: presence of elements of interest, high energy resolution and detection efficiency, low level of background thanks to excellent particle discrimination ability. High concentration of isotope of interest and as low as possible radioactive contamination are important requirements to crystal scintillators. Other crucial issues are maximal output of detectors and minimal loss of enriched materials. Prospects of several scintillation materials, enriched in isotopes promising for double beta decay experiments, are discussed.

Danevich, F. A. [Institute for Nuclear Research, Kyiv (Ukraine)

2013-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

172

EA-1290: Disposition of Russian Federation Titled Natural Uranium |  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

290: Disposition of Russian Federation Titled Natural Uranium 290: Disposition of Russian Federation Titled Natural Uranium EA-1290: Disposition of Russian Federation Titled Natural Uranium SUMMARY This EA evaluates the potential environmental impacts of a proposal to transport up to an average of 9,000 metric tons per year of natural uranium as uranium hexafluoride (UF6) from the United States to the Russian Federation. This amount of uranium is equivalent to 13,3000 metric tons of UF6. The EA also examines the impacts of this action on the global commons. Transfer of natural UF6 to the Russian Federation is part of a joint U.S./Russian program to dispose of highly enriched uranium (HEU) from dismantled Russian nuclear weapons. PUBLIC COMMENT OPPORTUNITIES None available at this time. DOCUMENTS AVAILABLE FOR DOWNLOAD

173

Examination of the proposed conversion of the U.S. Navy nuclear fleet from highly enriched Uranium to low enriched Uranium .  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??.The Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons creates a loophole that allows a non-nuclear-weapon country to avoid international safeguards governing fissile materials if it (more)

McCord, Cameron (Cameron Liam)

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

174

Uranium industry annual 1998  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Uranium Industry Annual 1998 (UIA 1998) provides current statistical data on the US uranium industry`s activities relating to uranium raw materials and uranium marketing. It contains data for the period 1989 through 2008 as collected on the Form EIA-858, ``Uranium Industry Annual Survey.`` Data provides a comprehensive statistical characterization of the industry`s activities for the survey year and also include some information about industry`s plans and commitments for the near-term future. Data on uranium raw materials activities for 1989 through 1998, including exploration activities and expenditures, EIA-estimated reserves, mine production of uranium, production of uranium concentrate, and industry employment, are presented in Chapter 1. Data on uranium marketing activities for 1994 through 2008, including purchases of uranium and enrichment services, enrichment feed deliveries, uranium fuel assemblies, filled and unfilled market requirements, and uranium inventories, are shown in Chapter 2. The methodology used in the 1998 survey, including data edit and analysis, is described in Appendix A. The methodologies for estimation of resources and reserves are described in Appendix B. A list of respondents to the ``Uranium Industry Annual Survey`` is provided in Appendix C. The Form EIA-858 ``Uranium Industry Annual Survey`` is shown in Appendix D. For the readers convenience, metric versions of selected tables from Chapters 1 and 2 are presented in Appendix E along with the standard conversion factors used. A glossary of technical terms is at the end of the report. 24 figs., 56 tabs.

NONE

1999-04-22T23:59:59.000Z

175

Uranium industry annual 1994  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Uranium Industry Annual 1994 (UIA 1994) provides current statistical data on the US uranium industry`s activities relating to uranium raw materials and uranium marketing during that survey year. The UIA 1994 is prepared for use by the Congress, Federal and State agencies, the uranium and nuclear electric utility industries, and the public. It contains data for the 10-year period 1985 through 1994 as collected on the Form EIA-858, ``Uranium Industry Annual Survey.`` Data collected on the ``Uranium Industry Annual Survey`` (UIAS) provide a comprehensive statistical characterization of the industry`s activities for the survey year and also include some information about industry`s plans and commitments for the near-term future. Where aggregate data are presented in the UIA 1994, care has been taken to protect the confidentiality of company-specific information while still conveying accurate and complete statistical data. A feature article, ``Comparison of Uranium Mill Tailings Reclamation in the United States and Canada,`` is included in the UIA 1994. Data on uranium raw materials activities including exploration activities and expenditures, EIA-estimated resources and reserves, mine production of uranium, production of uranium concentrate, and industry employment are presented in Chapter 1. Data on uranium marketing activities, including purchases of uranium and enrichment services, and uranium inventories, enrichment feed deliveries (actual and projected), and unfilled market requirements are shown in Chapter 2.

NONE

1995-07-05T23:59:59.000Z

176

Challenges dealing with depleted uranium in Germany - Reuse or disposal  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

During enrichment large amounts of depleted Uranium are produced. In Germany every year 2.800 tons of depleted uranium are generated. In Germany depleted uranium is not classified as radioactive waste but a resource for further enrichment. Therefore since 1996 depleted Uranium is sent to ROSATOM in Russia. However it still has to be dealt with the second generation of depleted Uranium. To evaluate the alternative actions in case a solution has to be found in Germany, several studies have been initiated by the Federal Ministry of the Environment. The work that has been carried out evaluated various possibilities to deal with depleted uranium. The international studies on this field and the situation in Germany have been analyzed. In case no further enrichment is planned the depleted uranium has to be stored. In the enrichment process UF{sub 6} is generated. It is an international consensus that for storage it should be converted to U{sub 3}O{sub 8}. The necessary technique is well established. If the depleted Uranium would have to be characterized as radioactive waste, a final disposal would become necessary. For the planned Konrad repository - a repository for non heat generating radioactive waste - the amount of Uranium is limited by the licensing authority. The existing license would not allow the final disposal of large amounts of depleted Uranium in the Konrad repository. The potential effect on the safety case has not been roughly analyzed. As a result it may be necessary to think about alternatives. Several possibilities for the use of depleted uranium in the industry have been identified. Studies indicate that the properties of Uranium would make it useful in some industrial fields. Nevertheless many practical and legal questions are open. One further option may be the use as shielding e.g. in casks for transport or disposal. Possible techniques for using depleted Uranium as shielding are the use of the metallic Uranium as well as the inclusion in concrete. Another possibility could be the use of depleted uranium for the blending of High enriched Uranium (HEU) or with Plutonium to MOX-elements. (authors)

Moeller, Kai D. [Federal Office for Radiation Protection, Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz - BFS, Postfach 10 01 49, D-38201 Salzgitter (Germany)

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

177

The Next Generation Safeguards Initiative s High-Purity Uranium-233 Preservation Effort  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

High-purity 233U serves as a crucial reference material for accurately quantifying and characterizing uranium. The most accurate analytical results which can be obtained only with high-purity 233U certified reference material (CRM) are required when used to confirm compliance with international safeguards obligations and international nonproliferation agreements. The U.S. supply of 233U CRM is almost depleted, and existing domestic stocks of this synthetic isotope are scheduled to be down-blended for disposition with depleted uranium beginning in 2015. Down blending batches of high-purity 233U will permanently eliminate the value of this material as a CRM. Furthermore, no replacement 233U stocks are expected to be produced in the future due to a lack of operating production capability and the high cost of replacing such capability. Therefore, preserving select batches of high-purity 233U is of great value and will assist in retaining current analytical capabilities for uranium-bearing samples. Any organization placing a priority on accurate results of uranium analyses, or on the confirmation of trace uranium in environmental samples, has a vested interest in preserving this material. This paper describes the need for high-purity 233U, the consequences organizations and agencies face if this material is not preserved, and the progress and future plans for preserving select batches of the purest 233U materials from disposition. This work is supported by the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative, Office of Nonproliferation and International Security, National Nuclear Security Administration.

Krichinsky, Alan M [ORNL] [ORNL; Bostick, Debra A [ORNL] [ORNL; Giaquinto, Joseph [ORNL] [ORNL; Bayne, Charles [Hazelwood Services and Manufacturing] [Hazelwood Services and Manufacturing; Goldberg, Dr. Steven A. [DOE SC - Chicago Office] [DOE SC - Chicago Office; Humphrey, Dr. Marc [U.S. Department of Energy, NNSA] [U.S. Department of Energy, NNSA; Hutcheon, Dr. Ian D. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL)] [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Sobolev, Taissa [U.S. Department of Energy, NNSA] [U.S. Department of Energy, NNSA

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

High-Resolution Triple Resonance Autoionization of Uranium Isotopes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The near-threshold autoionization (AI) spectrum of uranium has been investigated by triple-resonance excitation with single-mode continuous lasers. Spectra were recorded over the first {approx}30 cm-1 above the first ionization limit at a resolution of 3x10-4 cm 1 using intermediate states with different J values (6, 7, 8) to assign AI level total angular momentum JAI = 5 to 9. Resonances with widths ranging from 8 MHz to 30 GHz were observed; the strongest ones have JAI = 9 and widths of {approx} 60 MHz. Hyperfine structures for 235U and isotope shifts for 234,235U have been measured in the two intermediate levels and in the final AI level for the most favorable excitation path. These measurements were performed using aqueous samples containing sub-milligram quantities of uranium at natural isotopic abundances, indicating the potential of this approach for trace isotope ratio determinations.

Schumann, Philipp G.; Wendt, K; Bushaw, Bruce A.

2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

179

DOE to Remove 200 Metric Tons of Highly Enriched Uranium from...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

of Energy and NTI Announce Key Nonproliferation Project with Kazakhstan U.S.-Russia Twenty-Year Partnership Completes Final Milestone in Converting 20,000 Russian Nuclear...

180

PIK-2 Reactor with a Low Consumption of High-Enrichment Uranium  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Calculations of the possibility of switching the matrix of the fuel-element cores and the vessel with the reactor envelope to weakly neutron-absorbing aluminum and lowering at the same time the fuel content in...

Yu. V. Petrov; A. N. Erykalov; L. M. Kotova; M. S. Onegin

2003-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "highly enriched uranium" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Secretarial Determination for the Sale or Transfer of Uranium...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

of Uranium.pdf More Documents & Publications Secretarial Determination Pursuant to USEC Privatization Act for the Sale or Transfer of Low-Enriched Uranium Secretarial...

182

RERTR 2009 (Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The U.S. Department of Energy/National Nuclear Security Administration's Office of Global Threat Reduction in cooperation with the China Atomic Energy Authority and International Atomic Energy Agency hosted the 'RERTR 2009 International Meeting on Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors.' The meeting was organized by Argonne National Laboratory, China Institute of Atomic Energy and Idaho National Laboratory and was held in Beijing, China from November 1-5, 2009. This was the 31st annual meeting in a series on the same general subject regarding the conversion of reactors within the Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI). The Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors (RERTR) Program develops technology necessary to enable the conversion of civilian facilities using high enriched uranium (HEU) to low enriched uranium (LEU) fuels and targets.

Totev, T.; Stevens, J.; Kim, Y. S.; Hofman, G.; Matos, J.; Hanan, N.; Garner, P.; Dionne, B.; Olson, A.; Feldman, E.; Dunn, F.; Nuclear Engineering Division; Atomic Research Center; Inst. of Nuclear Physics; LLNL; INL; Korea Atomic Energy Research Inst.; Comisi?n Nacional de Energ?a At?mica; Nuclear Reactor Lab.; Inst. of Atomic Energy-Poland; AECL-Canada; Hungarian Academy of Sciences KFKI Atomic Energy Research Inst.; Japan Atomic Energy Agency; Nuclear Power Inst. of China; Kyoto Univ. Research Reactor Inst.

2010-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

183

Investigation of the low enrichment conversion of the Texas A and M Nuclear Science Center Reactor  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The use of highly enriched uranium as a fuel research reactors is of concern due to the possibility of diversion for nuclear weapons applications. The Texas A M TRIGA reactor currently uses 70% enriched uranium in a FLIP (Fuel Life Improvement Program) fuel element manufactured by General Atomics. Thus fuel also contains 1.5 weight percent of erbium as a burnable poison to prolong useful core life. US university reactors that use highly enriched uranium will be required to covert to 20% or less enrichment to satisfy Nuclear Regulatory Commission requirements for the next core loading if the fuel is available. This investigation examined the feasibility of a material alternate to uranium-zirconium hydride for LEU conversion of a TRIGA reactor. This material is a beryllium oxide uranium dioxide based fuel. The theoretical aspects of core physics analyses were examined to assess the potential advantages of the alternative fuel. A basic model was developed for the existing core configuration since it is desired to use the present fuel element grid for the replacement core. The computing approach was calibrated to the present core and then applied to a core of BeO-UO{sub 2} fuel elements. Further calculations were performed for the General Atomics TRIGA low-enriched uranium zirconium hydride fuel.

Reuscher, J.A.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

Uranium in the Oatman Creek granite of Central Texas and its economic potential  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

granitic rocks are enriched in uranium. Although at present uranium in granites cannot b compared w1th the h1gh grade concentrat1ons of uran1um in sedimentary rocks, as these h1gh grade ore deposits become depleted, however, gr anites will become a..., however, the need to explore for new materials containing uranium will incr ease as the high grade sedimentary uranium deposits become depleted. A logical place to begin this search lies with the source rock for many of the known sedimentary uranium...

Conrad, Curtis Paul

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

185

Uranium Hexafluoride (UF6)  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Hexafluoride (UF6) Hexafluoride (UF6) Uranium Hexafluoride (UF6) line line Properties of UF6 UF6 Health Effects Uranium Hexafluoride (UF6) Physical and chemical properties of UF6, and its use in uranium processing. Uranium Hexafluoride and Its Properties Uranium hexafluoride is a chemical compound consisting of one atom of uranium combined with six atoms of fluorine. It is the chemical form of uranium that is used during the uranium enrichment process. Within a reasonable range of temperature and pressure, it can be a solid, liquid, or gas. Solid UF6 is a white, dense, crystalline material that resembles rock salt. UF6 crystals in a glass vial image UF6 crystals in a glass vial. Uranium hexafluoride does not react with oxygen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, or dry air, but it does react with water or water vapor. For this reason,

186

The development of uranium foil farication technology utilizing twin roll method for Mo-99 irradiation target  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

MDS Nordion in Canada, occupying about 75% of global supply of Mo-99 isotope, has provided the irradiation target of Mo-99 using the rod-type UAl sub x alloys with HEU(High Enrichment Uranium). ANL (Argonne National Laboratory) through co-operation with BATAN in Indonesia, leading RERTR (Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors) program substantially for nuclear non-proliferation, has designed and fabricated the annular cylinder of uranium targets, and successfully performed irradiation test, in order to develop the fabrication technology of fission Mo-99 using LEU(Low Enrichment Uranium). As the uranium foils could be fabricated in laboratory scale, not in commercialized scale by hot rolling method due to significant problems in foil quality, productivity and economic efficiency, attention has shifted to the development of new technology. Under these circumstances, the invention of uranium foil fabrication technology utilizing twin-roll casting method in KAERI is found to be able to fabricate LEU or...

Kim, C K; Park, H D

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

Unattended Environmental Sampling and Laser-based Enrichment Assay for Detection of Undeclared HEU Production in Enrichment Plants  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Nuclear power is enjoying rapid growth as government energy policies and public demand shift toward carbon neutral energy production. Accompanying the growth in nuclear power is the requirement for increased nuclear fuel production, including a significant expansion in uranium enrichment capacity. Essential to the success of the nuclear energy renaissance is the development and implementation of sustainable, proliferation-resistant nuclear power generation. Unauthorized production of highly enriched uranium (HEU) remains the primary proliferation concern for modern gaseous centrifuge enrichment plants (GCEPs). While to date there has been no indication of declared, safeguarded GCEPs producing HEU, the massive separative work unit (SWU) processing power of modern GCEPs presents a significant latent risk of nuclear breakout and suggests the need for more timely detection of potential facility misuse. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is developing an unattended safeguards instrument, combining continuous aerosol particulate collection with uranium isotope assay, to provide timely HEU detection within a GCEP. This approach is based on laser vaporization of aerosol particulates, followed by laser spectroscopy to characterize the uranium enrichment level. We demonstrate enrichment assay, with relative isotope abundance uncertainty <5%, on individual micron-sized particles that are trace components within a mixture background particles

Anheier, Norman C.; Bushaw, Bruce A.

2010-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

188

Hard Times in Uranium Enrichment  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...either advanced centrifuges or an entirely...of an advanced centrifuge with three times...in the summer of 1985. If DOE chooses...with the advanced centrifuge, the new machines...decisions." But John Longenecker, the head of the...

COLIN NORMAN

1984-03-09T23:59:59.000Z

189

Uranium Enrichment's $7-Billion Uncertainty  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...John R. Longenecker, who heads...because it be-John Longenecker '"ou have...based on gas centrifuges Finally...21 June 1985, p. 1407...final form, Congress will have...concluded John F. Eager...in recent testimony on be-half...

COLIN NORMAN

1986-04-18T23:59:59.000Z

190

SORPTION OF URANIUM, PLUTONIUM AND NEPTUNIUM ONTO SOLIDS PRESENT IN HIGH CAUSTIC NUCLEAR WASTE STORAGE TANKS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Solids such as granular activated carbon, hematite and sodium phosphates, if present as sludge components in nuclear waste storage tanks, have been found to be capable of precipitating/sorbing actinides like plutonium, neptunium and uranium from nuclear waste storage tank supernatant liqueur. Thus, the potential may exists for the accumulation of fissile materials in such nuclear waste storage tanks during lengthy nuclear waste storage and processing. To evaluate the nuclear criticality safety in a typical nuclear waste storage tank, a study was initiated to measure the affinity of granular activated carbon, hematite and anhydrous sodium phosphate to sorb plutonium, neptunium and uranium from alkaline salt solutions. Tests with simulated and actual nuclear waste solutions established the affinity of the solids for plutonium, neptunium and uranium upon contact of the solutions with each of the solids. The removal of plutonium and neptunium from the synthetic salt solution by nuclear waste storage tank solids may be due largely to the presence of the granular activated carbon and transition metal oxides in these storage tank solids or sludge. Granular activated carbon and hematite also showed measurable affinity for both plutonium and neptunium. Sodium phosphate, used here as a reference sorbent for uranium, as expected, exhibited high affinity for uranium and neptunium, but did not show any measurable affinity for plutonium.

Oji, L; Bill Wilmarth, B; David Hobbs, D

2008-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

191

Uranium: Prices, rise, then fall  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Uranium prices hit eight-year highs in both market tiers, $16.60/lb U{sub 3}O{sub 8} for non-former Soviet Union (FSU) origin and $15.50 for FSU origin during mid 1996. However, they declined to $14.70 and $13.90, respectively, by the end of the year. Increased uranium prices continue to encourage new production and restarts of production facilities presently on standby. Australia scrapped its {open_quotes}three-mine{close_quotes} policy following the ouster of the Labor party in a March election. The move opens the way for increasing competition with Canada`s low-cost producers. Other events in the industry during 1996 that have current or potential impacts on the market include: approval of legislation outlining the ground rules for privatization of the US Enrichment Corp. (USEC) and the subsequent sales of converted Russian highly enriched uranium (HEU) from its nuclear weapons program, announcement of sales plans for converted US HEU and other surplus material through either the Department of Energy or USEC, and continuation of quotas for uranium from the FSU in the United States and Europe. In Canada, permitting activities continued on the Cigar Lake and McArthur River projects; and construction commenced on the McClean Lake mill.

Pool, T.C.

1997-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

192

Uranium purchases report 1994  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

US utilities are required to report to the Secretary of Energy annually the country of origin and the seller of any uranium or enriched uranium purchased or imported into the US, as well as the country of origin and seller of any enrichment services purchased by the utility. This report compiles these data and also contains a glossary of terms and additional purchase information covering average price and contract duration. 3 tabs.

NONE

1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

193

Uranium industry annual 1995  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Uranium Industry Annual 1995 (UIA 1995) provides current statistical data on the U.S. uranium industry`s activities relating to uranium raw materials and uranium marketing. The UIA 1995 is prepared for use by the Congress, Federal and State agencies, the uranium and nuclear electric utility industries, and the public. It contains data for the period 1986 through 2005 as collected on the Form EIA-858, ``Uranium Industry Annual Survey``. Data collected on the ``Uranium Industry Annual Survey`` provide a comprehensive statistical characterization of the industry`s plans and commitments for the near-term future. Where aggregate data are presented in the UIA 1995, care has been taken to protect the confidentiality of company-specific information while still conveying accurate and complete statistical data. Data on uranium raw materials activities for 1986 through 1995 including exploration activities and expenditures, EIA-estimated reserves, mine production of uranium, production of uranium concentrate, and industry employment are presented in Chapter 1. Data on uranium marketing activities for 1994 through 2005, including purchases of uranium and enrichment services, enrichment feed deliveries, uranium fuel assemblies, filled and unfilled market requirements, uranium imports and exports, and uranium inventories are shown in Chapter 2. The methodology used in the 1995 survey, including data edit and analysis, is described in Appendix A. The methodologies for estimation of resources and reserves are described in Appendix B. A list of respondents to the ``Uranium Industry Annual Survey`` is provided in Appendix C. For the reader`s convenience, metric versions of selected tables from Chapters 1 and 2 are presented in Appendix D along with the standard conversion factors used. A glossary of technical terms is at the end of the report. 14 figs., 56 tabs.

NONE

1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

194

Unattended Monitoring of HEU Production in Gaseous Centrifuge Enrichment Plants using Automated Aerosol Collection and Laser-based Enrichment Assay  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Nuclear power is enjoying rapid growth as government energy policies and public demand shift toward low carbon energy production. Pivotal to the global nuclear power renaissance is the development and deployment of robust safeguards instrumentation that allows the limited resources of the IAEA to keep pace with the expansion of the nuclear fuel cycle. Undeclared production of highly enriched uranium (HEU) remains a primary proliferation concern for modern gaseous centrifuge enrichment plants (GCEPs), due to their massive separative work unit (SWU) processing power and comparably short cascade equilibrium timescale. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is developing an unattended safeguards instrument, combining continuous aerosol particulate collection with uranium isotope assay, to provide timely detection of HEU production within a GCEP. This approach is based on laser vaporization of aerosol particulates, followed by laser spectroscopy to characterize the uranium enrichment level. Our prior investigation demonstrated single-shot detection sensitivity approaching the femtogram range and relative isotope ratio uncertainty better than 10% using gadolinium as a surrogate for uranium. In this paper we present measurement results on standard samples containing traces of depleted, natural, and low enriched uranium, as well as measurements on aerodynamic size uranium particles mixed in background materials (e.g., dust, minerals, soils). Improvements and optimizations in the detection electronics, signal timing, calibration, and laser alignment have lead to significant improvements in detection sensitivity and enrichment accuracy, contributing to an overall reduction in the false alarm probability. The sample substrate media was also found to play a significant role in facilitating laser-induced vaporization and the production of energetic plasma conditions, resulting in ablation optimization and further improvements in the isotope abundance sensitivity.

Anheier, Norman C.; Bushaw, Bruce A.

2010-08-11T23:59:59.000Z

195

8 - Uranium  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Release of uranium (U) to the environment is mainly through the nuclear fuel cycle. In oxic waters, U(VI) is the predominant redox state, while U(IV) is likely to be encountered in anoxic waters. The free uranyl ion ( UO 2 2 + ) dominates dissolved U speciation at low pH while complexes with hydroxides and carbonates prevail in neutral and alkaline conditions. Whether the toxicity of U(VI) to fish can be predicted based on its free ion concentration remains to be demonstrated but a strong influence of pH has been shown. In the field, U accumulates in bone, liver, and kidney, but does not biomagnify. There is certainly potential for uptake of U via the gill based on laboratory studies; however, diet and/or sediment may be the major route of uptake, and may vary with feeding strategy. Uranium toxicity is low relative to many other metals, and is further reduced by increased calcium, magnesium, carbonates, phosphate, and dissolved organic matter in the water. Inside fish, U produces reactive oxygen species and causes oxidative damage at the cellular level. The radiotoxicity of enriched U has been compared with chemical toxicity and it has been postulated that both may work through a mechanism of production of reactive oxygen species. In practical terms, the potential for chemotoxicity of U outweighs the potential for radiotoxicity. The toxicokinetics and toxicodynamics of U are well understood in mammals, where bone is a stable repository and the kidney the target organ for toxic effects from high exposure concentrations. Much less is known about fish, but overall, U is one of the less toxic metals.

Richard R. Goulet; Claude Fortin; Douglas J. Spry

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

196

Sizing particles of natural uranium and nuclear fuels using poly-allyl-diglycol carbonate autoradiography  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......particles of natural uranium and nuclear fuels...low enriched, depleted and natural uranium and also aged...committed doses and cancer risks(4...Bristol, UK, sized uranium fragments found...nuclear fuels of depleted uranium (depUO2......

G. Hegyi; R. B. Richardson

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

197

Proposed subcritical measurements for fresh and spent highly enriched plate type fuel assemblies  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A collaborative experimental research program has been established between industry and university partners to evaluate the subcritical behavior of fresh and spent highly enriched fuel assemblies at the University of Missouri Research Reactor (MURR). This proposed program will involve a series of subcritical measurements using the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) developed {sup 252}Cf source-driven noise technique. Measurements evaluating the subcritical behavior of simple arrays of fresh MURR assemblies will be performed for evaluating the spectral effects of materials typically found in shipping casks such as lead, steel, aluminum, and boron. Also, measurements will be performed on spent assemblies to characterize physics parameters which may be useful in determining the subcritical behavior of fuels for reactivity credit of actinide burnup and fission product poisoning.

Zino, J.F.; Williamson, T.G. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, Aiken, SC (United States); Mihalczo, J.T. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)] [and others

1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

198

Depleted uranium hexafluoride technogenic raw material for obtaining high-purity inorganic fluorides  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The problem of handling depleted uranium hexafluoride is discussed. An effective and ecologically safe variant of complex recycling of depleted uranium hexafluoride with uranium oxides, organic compounds, and hig...

E. P. Magomedbekov; S. V. Chizhevskaya; O. M. Klimenko; A. V. Davydov

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

Depleted uranium  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The potential health effects arising from exposure to depleted uranium have been much in the news of late. Naturally occurring uranium contains the radioisotopes 238U (which dominates, at a current molar proportion of 99.3%), 235U and a small amount of 234U. Depleted uranium has an isotopic concentration of 235U that is below the 0.7% found naturally. This is either because the uranium has passed through a nuclear reactor which uses up some of the fissile 235U that fuels the fission chain-reaction, or because it is the uranium that remains when enriched uranium with an elevated concentration of 235U is produced in an enrichment plant, or because of a combination of these two processes. Depleted uranium has a lower specific activity than naturally occurring uranium because of the lower concentrations of the more radioactive isotopes 235U and 234U, but account must be taken of any contaminating radionuclides or exotic radioisotopes of uranium if the uranium has been irradiated. Uranium is a particularly dense element (about twice as dense as lead), and this property makes it useful in certain military applications, such as armour-piercing munitions. Depleted uranium, rather than natural uranium, is used because of its availability and, since the demise of the fast breeder reactor programme, the lack of alternative use. Depleted uranium weapons were used in the Gulf War of 1990 and also, to a lesser extent, more recently in the Balkans. This has led to speculation that depleted uranium may be associated with `Gulf War Syndrome', or other health effects that have been reported by military and civilian personnel involved in these conflicts and their aftermath. Although, on the basis of present scientific knowledge, it seems most unlikely that exposure to depleted uranium at the levels concerned could produce a detectable excess of adverse health effects, and in such a short timescale, the issue has become one of general concern and contention. As a consequence, any investigation needs to be thorough to produce sufficiently comprehensive evidence to stand up to close scrutiny and gain the support of the public, whatever the conclusions. Unfortunately, it is the nature of such inquiries that they take time, which is frustrating for some. In the UK, the Royal Society has instigated an independent investigation into the health effects of depleted uranium by a working group chaired by Professor Brian Spratt. This inquiry has been underway since the beginning of 2000. The working group's findings will be reviewed by a panel appointed by the Council of the Royal Society, and it is anticipated that the final report will be published in the summer of 2001. Further details can be found at www.royalsoc.ac.uk/templates/press/showpresspage.cfm?file=2001010801.txt. Nick Priest has summarised current knowledge on the toxicity (both radiological and chemical) of depleted uranium in a commentary in The Lancet (27 January 2001, 357 244-6). For those wanting to read a comprehensive review of the literature, in 1999 RAND published `A Review of the Scientific Literature as it Pertains to Gulf War Illnesses, Volume 7: Depleted Uranium' by Naomi Harley and her colleagues, which can be found at www.rand.org/publications/MR/MR1018.7/MR1018.7.html. An interesting article by Jan Olof Snihs and Gustav Akerblom entitled `Use of depleted uranium in military conflicts and possible impact on health and environment' was published in the December 2000 issue of SSI News (pp 1-8), and can be found at the website of the Swedish Radiation Protection Institute: www.ssi.se/tidningar/PDF/lockSSIn/SSI-news2000.pdf. Last year, a paper was published in the June issue of this Journal that is of some relevance to depleted uranium. McGeoghegan and Binks (2000 J. Radiol. Prot. 20 111-37) reported the results of their epidemiological study of the health of workers at the Springfields uranium production facility near Preston during 1946-95. This study included almost 14 000 radiation workers. Although organ-specific doses due to uranium are not yet available for these worker

Richard Wakeford

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

200

PHASE ANALYSES OF URANIUM-BEARING MINERALS FROM THE HIGH GRADE ORE, NOPAL I, PENA BLANCA, MEXICO  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Nopal I uranium deposit is located in the Pena Blanca district, approximately 40 miles north of Chihuahua City, Mexico. The deposit was formed by hydrothermal processes within the fracture zone of welded silicic volcanic tuff. The ages of volcanic formations are between 35 to 44 m.y. and there was secondary silicification of most of the formations. After the formation of at least part of the uranium deposit, the ore body was uplifted above the water table and is presently exposed at the surface. Detailed petrographic characterization, electron microprobe backscatter electron (BSE) imagery, and selected x-ray maps for the samples from Nopal I high-grade ore document different uranium phases in the ore. There are at least two stages of uranium precipitation. A small amount of uraninite is encapsulated in silica. Hexavalent uranium may also have been a primary precipitant. The uranium phases were precipitated along cleavages of feldspars, and along fractures in the tuff. Energy dispersive spectrometer data and x-ray maps suggest that the major uranium phases are uranophane and weeksite. Substitutions of Ca and K occur in both phases, implying that conditions were variable during the mineralization/alteration process, and that compositions of the original minerals have a major influence on later stage alteration. Continued study is needed to fully characterize uranium behavior in these semi-arid to arid conditions.

M. Ren; P. Goodell; A. Kelts; E.Y. Anthony; M. Fayek; C. Fan; C. Beshears

2005-07-11T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "highly enriched uranium" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Detection of illicit HEU production in gaseous centrifuge enrichment plants using neutron counting techniques on product cylinders  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Innovative and novel safeguards approaches are needed for nuclear energy to meet global energy needs without the threat of nuclear weapons proliferation. Part of these efforts will include creating verification techniques that can monitor uranium enrichment facilities for illicit production of highly-enriched uranium (HEU). Passive nondestructive assay (NDA) techniques will be critical in preventing illicit HEU production because NDA offers the possibility of continuous and unattended monitoring capabilities with limited impact on facility operations. Gaseous centrifuge enrichment plants (GCEP) are commonly used to produce low-enriched uranium (LEU) for reactor fuel. In a GCEP, gaseous UF{sub 6} spins at high velocities in centrifuges to separate the molecules containing {sup 238}U from those containing the lighter {sup 235}U. Unfortunately, the process for creating LEU is inherently the same as HEU, creating a proliferation concern. Insuring that GCEPs are producing declared enrichments poses many difficult challenges. In a GCEP, large cascade halls operating thousands of centrifuges work together to enrich the uranium which makes effective monitoring of the cascade hall economically prohibitive and invasive to plant operations. However, the enriched uranium exiting the cascade hall fills product cylinders where the UF{sub 6} gas sublimes and condenses for easier storage and transportation. These product cylinders hold large quantities of enriched uranium, offering a strong signal for NDA measurement. Neutrons have a large penetrability through materials making their use advantageous compared to gamma techniques where the signal is easily attenuated. One proposed technique for detecting HEU production in a GCEP is using neutron coincidence counting at the product cylinder take off stations. This paper discusses findings from Monte Carlo N-Particle eXtended (MCNPX) code simulations that examine the feasibility of such a detector.

Freeman, Corey R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Geist, William H [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

FAQ 7-How is depleted uranium produced?  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

How is depleted uranium produced? How is depleted uranium produced? How is depleted uranium produced? Depleted uranium is produced during the uranium enrichment process. In the United States, uranium is enriched through the gaseous diffusion process in which the compound uranium hexafluoride (UF6) is heated and converted from a solid to a gas. The gas is then forced through a series of compressors and converters that contain porous barriers. Because uranium-235 has a slightly lighter isotopic mass than uranium-238, UF6 molecules made with uranium-235 diffuse through the barriers at a slightly higher rate than the molecules containing uranium-238. At the end of the process, there are two UF6 streams, with one stream having a higher concentration of uranium-235 than the other. The stream having the greater uranium-235 concentration is referred to as enriched UF6, while the stream that is reduced in its concentration of uranium-235 is referred to as depleted UF6. The depleted UF6 can be converted to other chemical forms, such as depleted uranium oxide or depleted uranium metal.

203

Towards a desalination initiative using cogeneration with an advanced reactor type and uranium recovered from Moroccan phosphoric acid production  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Morocco is known to be among the first few countries to produce phosphate and phosphoric acid. Moroccan phosphate contains substantial amounts of uranium. This uranium can be recovered from the phosphate ore as a by-product during the production of phosphoric acid. Uranium extraction processes linked with phosphoric acid fabrication have been used industrially in some countries. This is done mainly by solvent extraction. Although, the present price of uranium is low in the international market, such uranium recovery could be considered as a side product of phosphoric acid production. The price of uranium has a very small impact on the cost of nuclear energy obtained from it. This paper focuses on the extraction of uranium salt from phosphate rock. If uranium is recovered in Morocco in the proposed manner, it could serve as feed for a number of nuclear power plants. The natural uranium product would have to be either enriched or blended as mixed-oxide fuel to manufacture adequate nuclear fuel. Part of this fuel would feed a desalination initiative using a high temperature reactor of the new generation, chosen for its intrinsic safety, sturdiness, ease of maintenance, thermodynamic characteristics and long fuel life between reloads, that is, good economy. ?n international cooperation based on commercial contract schemes would concern: the general project and uranium extraction; uranium enrichment and fuel fabrication services; the nuclear power plant; and the desalination plant. This paper presents the overall feasibility of the general project with some quantitative preliminary figures and cost estimates.

Michel Lung; Abdelaali Kossir; Driss Msatef

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

Uranium purchases report 1992  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Data reported by domestic nuclear utility companies in their responses to the 1991 and 1992 ``Uranium Industry Annual Survey,`` Form EIA-858, Schedule B ``Uranium Marketing Activities,are provided in response to the requirements in the Energy Policy Act 1992. Data on utility uranium purchases and imports are shown on Table 1. Utility enrichment feed deliveries and secondary market acquisitions of uranium equivalent of US DOE separative work units are shown on Table 2. Appendix A contains a listing of firms that sold uranium to US utilities during 1992 under new domestic purchase contracts. Appendix B contains a similar listing of firms that sold uranium to US utilities during 1992 under new import purchase contracts. Appendix C contains an explanation of Form EIA-858 survey methodologies with emphasis on the processing of Schedule B data.

Not Available

1993-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

205

Consideration of critically when directly disposing highly enriched spent nuclear fuel in unsaturated tuff: Bounding estimates  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report presents one of 2 approaches (bounding calculations) which were used in a 1994 study to examine the possibility of a criticality in a repository. Bounding probabilities, although rough, point to the difficulty of creating conditions under which a critical mass could be assembled (container corrosion, separation of neutron absorbers from fissile material, collapse or precipitation of fissile material) and how significant the geochemical and hydrologic phenomena are. The study could not conceive of a mechanism consistent with conditions under which an atomic explosion could occur. Should a criticality occur in or near a container in the future, boundary consequence calculations showed that fissions from one critical event (<10{sup 20} fissions, if similar to aqueous and metal accidents and experiments) are quite small compared to the amount of fissions represented by the spent fuel itself. If it is assumed that the containers necessary to hold the highly enriched spent fuel went critical once per day for 1 million years, creating an energy release of about 10{sup 20} fissions, the number of fissions equals about 10{sup 28}, which corresponds to only 1% of the fission inventory in a repository containing 70,000 metric tons of heavy metal, the expected size for the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada.

Rechard, R.P.; Tierney, M.S.; Sanchez, L.C.; Martell, M.-A.

1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

Active Interrogation Observables for Enrichment Determination of DU Shielded HEU Metal Assemblies with Limited Geometrical Information  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Determining the enrichment of highly enriched uranium (HEU) metal assemblies shielded by depleted uranium (DU) proves a unique challenge to currently employed measurement techniques. Efforts to match time-correlated neutron distributions obtained through active interrogation to Monte Carlo simulations of the assemblies have shown promising results, given that the exact geometries of both the HEU metal assemblies and DU shields are known from imaging and fission site mapping. In certain situations, however, it is desirable to obtain enrichment with limited or no geometrical information of the assemblies being measured. This paper explores the possibility that the utilization of observables in the interrogation of assemblies by time-tagged D-T neutrons, including time-correlated distribution of neutrons and gammas using liquid scintillators operating on the fission chain time scale, can lead to enrichment determination without a complete set of geometrical information.

Pena, Kirsten E [ORNL] [ORNL; McConchie, Seth M [ORNL] [ORNL; Crye, Jason Michael [ORNL] [ORNL; Mihalczo, John T [ORNL] [ORNL

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

Automated UF6 Cylinder Enrichment Assay: Status of the Hybrid Enrichment Verification Array (HEVA) Project: POTAS Phase II  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) intends to automate the UF6 cylinder nondestructive assay (NDA) verification currently performed by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) at enrichment plants. PNNL is proposing the installation of a portal monitor at a key measurement point to positively identify each cylinder, measure its mass and enrichment, store the data along with operator inputs in a secure database, and maintain continuity of knowledge on measured cylinders until inspector arrival. This report summarizes the status of the research and development of an enrichment assay methodology supporting the cylinder verification concept. The enrichment assay approach exploits a hybrid of two passively-detected ionizing-radiation signatures: the traditional enrichment meter signature (186-keV photon peak area) and a non-traditional signature, manifested in the high-energy (3 to 8 MeV) gamma-ray continuum, generated by neutron emission from UF6. PNNL has designed, fabricated, and field-tested several prototype assay sensor packages in an effort to demonstrate proof-of-principle for the hybrid assay approach, quantify the expected assay precision for various categories of cylinder contents, and assess the potential for unsupervised deployment of the technology in a portal-monitor form factor. We refer to recent sensor-package prototypes as the Hybrid Enrichment Verification Array (HEVA). The report provides an overview of the assay signatures and summarizes the results of several HEVA field measurement campaigns on populations of Type 30B UF6 cylinders containing low-enriched uranium (LEU), natural uranium (NU), and depleted uranium (DU). Approaches to performance optimization of the assay technique via radiation transport modeling are briefly described, as are spectroscopic and data-analysis algorithms.

Jordan, David V.; Orton, Christopher R.; Mace, Emily K.; McDonald, Benjamin S.; Kulisek, Jonathan A.; Smith, Leon E.

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

208

Fiscal year 1986 Department of Energy Authorization (uranium enrichment and electric energy systems, energy storage and small-scale hydropower programs). Volume VI. Hearings before the Subcommittee on Energy Research and Production of the Committee on Science and Technology, US House of Representatives, Ninety-Ninth Congress, First Session, February 28; March 5, 7, 1985  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Volume VI of the hearing record covers three days of testimony on the future of US uranium enrichment and on programs involving electric power and energy storage. There were four areas of concern about uranium enrichment: the choice between atomic vapor laser isotope separation (AVLIS) and the advanced gas centrifuge (AGC) technologies, cost-effective operation of gaseous diffusion plants, plans for a gas centrifuge enrichment plant, and how the DOE will make its decision. The witnesses represented major government contractors, research laboratories, and energy suppliers. The discussion on the third day focused on the impact of reductions in funding for electric energy systems and energy storage and a small budget increase to encourage small hydropower technology transfer to the private sector. Two appendices with additional statements and correspondence follow the testimony of 17 witnesses.

Not Available

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

209

Characteristics of a Mixed Thorium-Uranium Dioxide High-Burnup Fuel  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Future nuclear fuels must satisfy three sets of requirements: longer times between refueling; concerns for weapons proliferation; and development of a spent fuel form more suitable for direct geologic disposal. This project has investigated a fuel consisting of mixed thorium and uranium dioxide to satisfy these requirements. Results using the SCALE 4.3 code system indicated that the mixed Th-U fuel could be burned to 72 MWD/kg or 100 MWD/kg using 25% of 35% UO2 respectively. The uranium remained below 20% total fissile fraction throughout the cycle, making it unusable for weapons. Total plutonium production per MWD was a factor of 4.5 less in the Th-U fuel than in the conventional fuel; Pu-239 production per MWD was a factor of 6.5 less; and the plutonium produced was high in Pu-238, leading to a decay heat 5 times greater than that from plutonium derived from conventional fuel and 40 times greater than weapons grade plutonium. High decay heat would require active cooling of any crude weapon, lest the components surrounding the plutonium be melted. Spontaneous neutron production for plutonium from Th-U fuel was 2.3 times greater than that from conventional fuel and 15 times greater than that from weapons grade plutonium. High spontaneous neutron production drastically limits the probable yield of a crude weapon. Because ThO2 is the highest oxide of thorium, while UO2 can be oxidized further to U3O8, ThO2-UO2 fuel may be a superior wasteform if the spent fuel is ever to be exposed to oxygenated water. Even if the cost of fabricating the mixed Th-U fuel is $100/kg greater, the cost of the Th-U fuel is 13% to 15% less than that of the fuels using uranium only.

J. S. Herring; P. E. MacDonald

1999-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

210

Characteristics of a Mixed Thorium - Uranium Dioxide High-Burnup Fuel  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Future nuclear fuel must satisfy three sets of requirements: longer times between refueling; concerns for weapons proliferation; and development of a spent fuel form more suitable for direct geologic disposal. This project has investigated a fuel consisting of mixed thorium and uranium dioxide to satisfy these requirements. Results using the SCALE 4.3 code system indicated that the mixed Th-U fuel could be burned to 72 MWD/kg or 100 MWD/kg using 25% and 35% UO2 respectively. The uranium remained below 20 % total fissile fraction throughout the cycle, making it unusable for weapons. Total plutonium production per MWD was a factor of 4.5 less in the Th-U fuel than in the conventional fuel; Pu-239 production per MWD was a factor of 6.5 less; and the plutonium produced was high in Pu-238, leading to a decay heat 5 times greater than that from plutonium derived from conventional fuel and 40 times greater than weapons grade plutonium. High decay heat would require active cooling of any crude weapon, lest the components surrounding the plutonium be melted. Spontaneous neutron production for plutonium from Th-U fuel was 2.3 times greater than that from conventional fuel and 15 times greater than that from weapons grade plutonium. High spontaneous neutron production drastically limits the probable yield of a crude weapon. Because ThO2 is the highest oxide of thorium, while UO2 can be oxidized further to U3O8, ThO2- UO2 fuel may be a superior wasteform if the spent fuel is ever to be exposed to oxygenated water. Even if the cost of fabricating the mixed Th-U fuel is $100/kg greater, the cost of the Th-U fuel is 13% to 25% less than that of the fuels using uranium only.

Herring, James Stephen; Mac Donald, Philip Elsworth

1999-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

Sizing particles of natural uranium and nuclear fuels using poly-allyl-diglycol carbonate autoradiography  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......University Health Center, Montreal...Biology and Health Physics Branch...enriched, depleted and natural uranium and also aged...fiberglass filter. Health Phys (2000...of natural uranium and nuclear...enriched, depleted and natural......

G. Hegyi; R. B. Richardson

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

Estimation of internal exposure to uranium with uncertainty from urinalysis data using the InDEP computer code  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......assumed specific activity of uranium from depleted (0.2 wt.% 235U) to low...Natural Uranium (Bq d1) Depleted Uranium (Bq d1) Enriched Uranium...calculated assuming exposure to depleted uranium and exposure to 2.0 % enriched......

Jeri L. Anderson; A. Iulian Apostoaei; Brian A. Thomas

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

Criticality safety concerns of uranium deposits in cascade equipment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Paducah and Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plants enrich uranium in the {sup 235}U isotope by diffusing gaseous uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) through a porous barrier. The UF{sub 6} gaseous diffusion cascade utilized several thousand {open_quotes}stages{close_quotes} of barrier to produce highly enriched uranium (HEU). Historically, Portsmouth has enriched the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant`s product (typically 1.8 wt% {sup 235}U) as well as natural enrichment feed stock up to 97 wt%. Due to the chemical reactivity of UF{sub 6}, particularly with water, the formation of solid uranium deposits occur at a gaseous diffusion plant. Much of the equipment operates below atmospheric pressure, and deposits are formed when atmospheric air enters the cascade. Deposits may also be formed from UF{sub 6} reactions with oil, UF{sub 6} reactions with the metallic surfaces of equipment, and desublimation of UF{sub 6}. The major deposits form as a result of moist air in leakage due to failure of compressor casing flanges, blow-off plates, seals, expansion joint convolutions, and instrument lines. This report describes criticality concerns and deposit disposition.

Plaster, M.J. [Lockheed Martin Utility Services, Inc., Piketon, OH (United States)

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

214

The Uranium Institute 24th Annual Symposium  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the waste U-238 into Pu-239 for burning. By this means 100 times as much energy can be obtained from it to extract the uranium, enriching the natural uranium in the fissile isotope U-235, burning the U-235 than the uranium fuel it burns, leading to a breeder reactor. In addition, if the reactor is a fast

Laughlin, Robert B.

215

Assessment of occupational exposure to uranium by indirect methods needs information on natural background variations  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......contamination is due to natural, depleted or enriched uranium. The exposure to natural...Gastrointestinal absorption of uranium in humans. Health Phys. (2002) 83...indicators for ingestion of uranium in drinking water. Health Phys. (2005) 88......

M. Muikku; T. Heikkinen; M. Puhakainen; T. Rahola; L. Salonen

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

216

EA-1255: Project Partnership Transportation of Foreign-Owned Enriched  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

5: Project Partnership Transportation of Foreign-Owned 5: Project Partnership Transportation of Foreign-Owned Enriched Uranium from the Republic of Georgia EA-1255: Project Partnership Transportation of Foreign-Owned Enriched Uranium from the Republic of Georgia SUMMARY This EA evaluates the environmental impacts for the proposal to transport 5.26 kilograms of enriched uranium-23 5 in the form of nuclear fuel, from the Republic of Georgia to the United Kingdom. PUBLIC COMMENT OPPORTUNITIES None available at this time. DOCUMENTS AVAILABLE FOR DOWNLOAD April 30, 1998 EA-1255: Finding of No Significant Impact Project Partnership Transportation of Foreign-Owned Enriched Uranium from the Republic of Georgia April 30, 1998 EA- 1255: Finding of No Significant Impact Project Partnership Transportation of Foreign-Owned Enriched Uranium from

217

Nuclear non-proliferation regime effectiveness : an integrated methodology for analyzing highly enriched uranium production scenarios at gas centrifuge enrichment plants  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The dramatic change in the international security environment after the collapse of the bipolar system has had a negative impact on the effectiveness of the existing nuclear non-proliferation regime. Furthermore, the success ...

Kwak, Taeshin (Taeshin S.)

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

218

Depleted uranium mobility and fractionation in contaminated soil (Southern Serbia)  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

During the Balkan conflict in 1999, soil in contaminated areas was enriched in depleted uranium (DU) isotopic signature, relative to the in-situ natural uranium present. After the military activities, most...

Mirjana B. Radenkovi?; Svjetlana A. Cupa?

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

219

Development of Novel Sorbents for Uranium Extraction from Seawater  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

As the uranium resource in terrestrial ores is limited, it is difficult to ensure a long-term sustainable nuclear energy technology. The oceans contain approximately 4.5 billion tons of uranium, which is one thousand times the amount of uranium in terrestrial ores. Development of technologies to recover the uranium from seawater would greatly improve the uranium resource availability, sustaining the fuel supply for nuclear energy. Several methods have been previously evaluated including solvent extraction, ion exchange, flotation, biomass collection, and adsorption; however, none have been found to be suitable for reasons such as cost effectiveness, long term stability, and selectivity. Recent research has focused on the amidoxime functional group as a promising candidate for uranium sorption. Polymer beads and fibers have been functionalized with amidoxime functional groups, and uranium adsorption capacities as high as 1.5 g U/kg adsorbent have recently been reported with these types of materials. As uranium concentration in seawater is only ~3 ppb, great improvements to uranium collection systems must be made in order to make uranium extraction from seawater economically feasible. This proposed research intends to develop transformative technologies for economic uranium extraction from seawater. The Lin group will design advanced porous supports by taking advantage of recent breakthroughs in nanoscience and nanotechnology and incorporate high densities of well-designed chelators into such nanoporous supports to allow selective and efficient binding of uranyl ions from seawater. Several classes of nanoporous materials, including mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs), mesoporous carbon nanoparticles (MCNs), meta-organic frameworks (MOFs), and covalent-organic frameworks (COFs), will be synthesized. Selective uranium-binding liagnds such as amidoxime will be incorporated into the nanoporous materials to afford a new generation of sorbent materials that will be evaluated for their uranium extraction efficiency. The initial testing of these materials for uranium binding will be carried out in the Lin group, but more detailed sorption studies will be carried out by Dr. Taylor-Pashow of Savannah River National Laboratory in order to obtain quantitative uranyl sorption selectivity and kinetics data for the proposed materials. The proposed nanostructured sorbent materials are expected to have higher binding capacities, enhanced extraction kinetics, optimal stripping efficiency for uranyl ions, and enhanced mechanical and chemical stabilities. This transformative research will significantly impact uranium extraction from seawater as well as benefit DOEs efforts on environmental remediation by developing new materials and providing knowledge for enriching and sequestering ultralow concentrations of other metals.

Lin, Wenbin; Taylor-Pashow, Kathryn

2014-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

220

Uranium at Y-12: Inspection | Y-12 National Security Complex  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

radiography. Inspectors examine enriched uranium products using coordinate measuring machines, microscopy, laser inspection machines and other instruments. Technicians use X-rays...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "highly enriched uranium" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Gas centrifuge enrichment plants inspection frequency and remote monitoring issues for advanced safeguards implementation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Current safeguards approaches used by the IAEA at gas centrifuge enrichment plants (GCEPs) need enhancement in order to verify declared low enriched uranium (LEU) production, detect undeclared LEU production and detect high enriched uranium (BEU) production with adequate probability using non destructive assay (NDA) techniques. At present inspectors use attended systems, systems needing the presence of an inspector for operation, during inspections to verify the mass and {sup 235}U enrichment of declared cylinders of uranium hexafluoride that are used in the process of enrichment at GCEPs. This paper contains an analysis of how possible improvements in unattended and attended NDA systems including process monitoring and possible on-site destructive analysis (DA) of samples could reduce the uncertainty of the inspector's measurements providing more effective and efficient IAEA GCEPs safeguards. We have also studied a few advanced safeguards systems that could be assembled for unattended operation and the level of performance needed from these systems to provide more effective safeguards. The analysis also considers how short notice random inspections, unannounced inspections (UIs), and the concept of information-driven inspections can affect probability of detection of the diversion of nuclear material when coupled to new GCEPs safeguards regimes augmented with unattended systems. We also explore the effects of system failures and operator tampering on meeting safeguards goals for quantity and timeliness and the measures needed to recover from such failures and anomalies.

Boyer, Brian David [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Erpenbeck, Heather H [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Miller, Karen A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Ianakiev, Kiril D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Reimold, Benjamin A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Ward, Steven L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Howell, John [GLASGOW UNIV.

2010-09-13T23:59:59.000Z

222

Environmental acceptability of high-performance alternatives for depleted uranium penetrators  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Army`s environmental strategy for investigating material substitution and management is to measure system environmental gains/losses in all phases of the material management life cycle from cradle to grave. This study is the first in a series of new investigations, applying material life cycle concepts, to evaluate whether there are environmental benefits from increasing the use of tungsten as an alternative to depleted uranium (DU) in Kinetic Energy Penetrators (KEPs). Current military armor penetrators use DU and tungsten as base materials. Although DU alloys have provided the highest performance of any high-density alloy deployed against enemy heavy armor, its low-level radioactivity poses a number of environmental risks. These risks include exposures to the military and civilian population from inhalation, ingestion, and injection of particles. Depleted uranium is well known to be chemically toxic (kidney toxicity), and workplace exposure levels are based on its renal toxicity. Waste materials containing DU fragments are classified as low-level radioactive waste and are regulated by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. These characteristics of DU do not preclude its use in KEPs. However, long-term management challenges associated with KEP deployment and improved public perceptions about environmental risks from military activities might be well served by a serious effort to identify, develop, and substitute alternative materials that meet performance objectives and involve fewer environmental risks. Tungsten, a leading candidate base material for KEPS, is potentially such a material because it is not radioactive. Tungsten is less well studied, however, with respect to health impacts and other environmental risks. The present study is designed to contribute to the understanding of the environmental behavior of tungsten by synthesizing available information that is relevant to its potential use as a penetrator.

Kerley, C.R.; Easterly, C.E.; Eckerman, K.F. [and others

1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

Uranium purchases report 1993  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Data reported by domestic nuclear utility companies in their responses to the 1991 through 1993 ``Uranium Industry Annual Survey,`` Form EIA-858, Schedule B,`` Uranium Marketing Activities,`` are provided in response to the requirements in the Energy Policy Act 1992. Appendix A contains an explanation of Form EIA-858 survey methodologies with emphasis on the processing of Schedule B data. Additional information published in this report not included in Uranium Purchases Report 1992, includes a new data table. Presented in Table 1 are US utility purchases of uranium and enrichment services by origin country. Also, this report contains additional purchase information covering average price and contract duration. Table 2 is an update of Table 1 and Table 3 is an update of Table 2 from the previous year`s report. The report contains a glossary of terms.

Not Available

1994-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

224

Modifications of the Expression of Genes Involved in Cerebral Cholesterol Metabolism in the Rat Following Chronic Ingestion of Depleted Uranium  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Depleted uranium results from the enrichment of natural uranium for energetic purpose. Its potential dispersion in ... at risk of being contaminated through ingestion. Uranium can build up in the brain and ... as...

Radjini Racine; Yann Gueguen; Patrick Gourmelon

2009-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

Oxygen pumping II: Probing the Inhomogeneous Metal Enrichment at the Epoch of Reionization with High Frequency CMB Observations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

At the epoch of reionization, when the high-redshift inter-galactic medium (IGM) is being enriched with metals, the 63.2 micron fine structure line of OI is pumped by the ~ 1300 AA soft UV background and introduces a spectral distortion in the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB). Here we use a toy model for the spatial distribution of neutral oxygen, assuming metal bubbles surround dark matter halos, and compute the fluctuations of this distortion, and the angular power spectrum it imprints on the CMB. We discuss the dependence of the power spectrum on the velocity of the winds polluting the IGM with metals, the minimum mass of the halos producing these winds, and on the cosmic epoch when the OI pumping occurs. We find that, although the clustering signal of the CMB distortion is weak \\delta y_{rms} ~ 10^{-7} (roughly corresponding to a temperature anisotropy of few nK), it may be reachable in deep integrations with high-sensitivity infrared detectors. Even without a detection, these instruments should be able to useful constraints on the heavy element enrichment history of the IGM.

Carlos Hernandez-Monteagudo; Zoltan Haiman; Licia Verde; Raul Jimenez

2007-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

226

Equations of state and phase transformation of depleted uranium DU-238 by high pressure-temperature diffraction studies  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We have conducted in situ high-pressure diffraction experiments on depleted uranium (DU-238) at pressures up to 8.5GPa and temperatures up to 1123K. From the pressure (P)-volume (V)-temperature (T) measurements, thermoelastic parameters were derived for ?-uranium based on a modified high-T Birch-Murnaghan equation of state and a thermal-pressure approach. With the pressure derivative of the bulk modulus K0? fixed at 4.0, we obtained ambient bulk modulus K0=117(2)GPa, temperature derivative of bulk modulus at constant pressure (?K??T)P=?3.4(4)10?2GPa?K and at constant volume (?K??T)v=?1.1(6)10?2GPa?K, volumetric thermal expansivity ?T=a+bT, with a=1.2(0.4)10?5K?1 and b=8.0(0.7)10?8K?2, and the pressure derivative of thermal expansion (????P)T=?2.5(5)10?6GPa?1K?1. Within the experimental errors, the ambient bulk modulus and volumetric thermal expansion derived from this work are in good agreement with previous experimental results, whereas all other thermoelastic parameters represent the first determinations for the ? phase of uranium. We also studied the ?-? phase transformation and obtained a phase boundary described by T (inK)=1032+7.4P(inGPa). Although the ?-phase uranium cannot be pressure quenched to ambient conditions, it was observed to be stable upon cooling from 1123to300K at pressures of 78GPa. These observations indicate that pressure, in addition to the commonly utilized alloying techniques, provides an alternative route for stabilizing the ?-uranium at room temperature.

Yusheng Zhao; Jianzhong Zhang; Donald W. Brown; Deniece R. Korzekwa; Robert S. Hixson; Liping Wang

2007-05-11T23:59:59.000Z

227

E-Print Network 3.0 - aluminum-enriched high-density compositions...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Mathematics 2 Selected Physical Characteristics of PolystyreneHigh Density Polyethylene Composites Prepared from Virgin Summary: Selected Physical Characteristics of...

228

DOE Signs Advanced Enrichment Technology License and Facility Lease |  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Advanced Enrichment Technology License and Facility Lease Advanced Enrichment Technology License and Facility Lease DOE Signs Advanced Enrichment Technology License and Facility Lease December 8, 2006 - 9:34am Addthis Announces Agreements with USEC Enabling Deployment of Advanced Domestic Technology for Uranium Enrichment WASHINGTON, DC - U.S. Secretary of Energy Samuel W. Bodman today announced the signing of a lease agreement with the United States Enrichment Corporation, Inc. (USEC) for their use of the Department's gas centrifuge enrichment plant (GCEP) facilities in Piketon, OH for their American Centrifuge Plant. The Department of Energy (DOE) also granted a non-exclusive patent license to USEC for use of DOE's centrifuge technology for uranium enrichment at the plant, which will initiate the first successful deployment of advanced domestic enrichment technology in the

229

Safeguards Verification Measurements using Laser Ablation, Absorbance Ratio Spectrometry in Gaseous Centrifuge Enrichment Plants  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Laser Ablation Absorbance Ratio Spectrometry (LAARS) is a new verification measurement technology under development at the US Department of Energy (DOE) Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). LAARS uses three lasers to ablate and then measure the relative isotopic abundance of uranium compounds. An ablation laser is tightly focused on uranium-bearing solids, producing a small atomic uranium vapor plume. Two collinear wavelength-tuned spectrometry lasers transit through the plume and the absorbance of U-235 and U-238 isotopes are measured to determine U-235 enrichment. The measurement is independent of chemical form and degree of dilution with nuisance dust and other materials. LAARS has high relative precision and detection limits approaching the femtogram range for U-235. The sample is scanned and assayed point-by-point at rates reaching 1 million measurements/hour, enabling LAARS to detect and analyze uranium in trace samples. The spectrometer is assembled using primarily commercially available components and features a compact design and automated analysis.Two specific gaseous centrifuge enrichment plant (GCEP) applications of the spectrometer are currently under development: 1) LAARS-Environmental Sampling (ES), which collects and analyzes aerosol particles for GCEP misuse detection and 2) LAARS-Destructive Assay (DA), which enables onsite enrichment DA sample collection and analysis for protracted diversion detection. The two applications propose game-changing technological advances in GCEP safeguards verification.

Anheier, Norman C.; Cannon, Bret D.; Kulkarni, Gourihar R.; Munley, John T.; Nelson, Danny A.; Qiao, Hong (Amy) [Amy; Phillips, Jon R.

2012-07-17T23:59:59.000Z

230

Uranium Metal: Potential for Discovering Commercial Uses  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Uranium Metal Uranium Metal Potential for Discovering Commercial Uses Steven M. Baker, Ph.D. Knoxville Tn 5 August 1998 Summary Uranium Metal is a Valuable Resource 3 Large Inventory of "Depleted Uranium" 3 Need Commercial Uses for Inventory  Avoid Disposal Cost  Real Added Value to Society 3 Uranium Metal Has Valuable Properties  Density  Strength 3 Market will Come if Story is Told Background The Nature of Uranium Background 3 Natural Uranium: 99.3% U238; 0.7% U 235 3 U235 Fissile  Nuclear Weapons  Nuclear Reactors 3 U238 Fertile  Neutron Irradiation of U238 Produces Pu239  Neutrons Come From U235 Fission  Pu239 is Fissile (Weapons, Reactors, etc.) Post World War II Legacy Background 3 "Enriched" Uranium Product  Weapons Program 

231

Uranium at Y-12: Rolling and Forming | Y-12 National Security Complex  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Rolling ... Rolling ... Uranium at Y-12: Rolling and Forming Posted: July 22, 2013 - 3:40pm | Y-12 Report | Volume 10, Issue 1 | 2013 Rolling involves preheating a uranium or uranium alloy workpiece and passing it through a mill to reduce its thickness. This is useful in creating reactor fuel element foils and other products. Rolling mill operators possess a strong grasp of thickness-reduction limits, reheating intervals and temperatures, metallurgical phases, rolling speed and force, impurity influences and other techniques. Forming of enriched uranium is done through a process called hydroforming, a way of shaping malleable metals. Y-12 hydroform operators are highly skilled and trained machinists. Forming requires knowledge of friction on the workpiece, high-pressure application, tooling temperature and other

232

Withdrawal assay monitoring at US Enrichment Facilities  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The United States Enrichment Corporation (USEC) controls two uranium enrichment facilities that produce enriched uranium for both military and commercial use. The process requires both feed and withdrawal operations. The withdrawal process requires both product (enriched uranium) withdrawal stations and tails (depleted uranium) withdrawal stations. A previous prototype system, ``X-330 Tails Cylinder Assay Monitor,`` was developed as a demonstration for the tails withdrawal station at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS). The prototype system was done in response to potential problems with the original method for determining the hourly weighted assay averages that are used to calculate the final weighted assay of the cylinder. In the original method the {sup 235}U assay of uranium hexaflouride withdrawn from PORTS cascade into tails cylinders is determined every 5 min by measurements from an in-line assay mass spectrometer. An average value for a 1-h period is then calculated by area control room personnel and assigned to the accumulated weight in the cylinder for the period. A potential problem with this method is that cylinder weight is not automatically recorded as often as the assay. The assay and withdrawal rate can both vary during the given period. This variation results in inaccuracies in the hourly weighted assays that are used to calculate the final weighted assay of the cylinder. Laboratory analysis is considered to be the most accurate method for determining the final cylinder assay; however, the cost and safety considerations of redundant cylinder handling limit the number of cylinders sampled to less than 10%.

Smith, D.E.

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

Mineralogic investigation into occurrence of high uranium well waters in upstate South Carolina, USA  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

High levels of U (up to 5570?g/L) have been discovered in well waters near Simpsonville, South Carolina, USA. In order to characterize the mineralogical source of the U and possible structural controls on its presence, a deep (214m) well was cored adjacent to one of the enriched wells. The highest gamma-ray emissions in the recovered core occur in coarse biotite granite at a depth just below 52m. A slickenlined fault plane at 48.6m and narrow pegmatite layers at depths of 113, 203 and 207m also yield high gamma-ray counts. Thin sections were made from the above materials and along several subvertical healed fractures. Uraninite and coffinite are the principal U-rich minerals in the core. Other U-bearing minerals include thorite and thorogummite, monazite, zircon and allanite. Primary uraninite occurs in the biotite granite and in pegmatite layers. Secondary coffinite is present as tiny (<5?m) crystals dispersed along fractures in the granite and pegmatites. Coffinite also occurs along the slickenlined fault plane, where it is associated with calcite and calcic zeolite and also replaces allanite. Coffinite lacks radiogenic Pb, hence is considerably younger than the uraninite. Dissolution of partially oxidized Ca-rich uraninite occurring in the surficial biotite granite (or secondary coffinite in fracture zones) is likely the main source for the current high levels of U in nearby area wells. The high-U well waters have a carbonate signature, consistent with pervasive calcite vein mineralization in the core. Aqueous speciation calculations suggest U transport as an uranyl (U6+) hydroxyl-carbonate complex. Later reduction resulted in secondary precipitation along fractures as a U4+ mineral (i.e., coffinite).

Richard Warner; Jason Meadows; Scott Sojda; Van Price; Tom Temples; Yuji Arai; Chris Fleisher; Bruce Crawford; Peter Stone

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

234

Irradiation behavior of miniature experimental uranium silicide fuel plates  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Uranium silicides, because of their relatively high uranium density, were selected as candidate dispersion fuels for the higher fuel densities required in the Reduced Enrichment Research and Test Reactor (RERTR) Program. Irradiation experience with this type of fuel, however, was limited to relatively modest fission densities in the bulk from, on the order of 7 x 10/sup 20/ cm/sup -3/, far short of the approximately 20 x 10/sup 20/ cm/sup -3/ goal established for the RERTR program. The purpose of the irradiation experiments on silicide fuels on the ORR, therefore, was to investigate the intrinsic irradiation behavior of uranium silicide as a dispersion fuel. Of particular interest was the interaction between the silicide particles and the aluminum matrix, the swelling behavior of the silicide particles, and the maximum volume fraction of silicide particles that could be contained in the aluminum matrix.

Hofman, G.L.; Neimark, L.A.; Mattas, R.F.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

235

HIGH-DENSITY CONCRETE WITH CERAMIC AGGREGATE BASED ON DEPLETED URANIUM DIOXIDE  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

DENSITY CONCRETE WITH CERAMIC AGGREGATE BASED ON DEPLETED URANIUM DENSITY CONCRETE WITH CERAMIC AGGREGATE BASED ON DEPLETED URANIUM DIOXIDE S.G. Ermichev, V.I. Shapovalov, N.V.Sviridov (RFNC-VNIIEF, Sarov, Russia) V.K. Orlov, V.M. Sergeev, A. G. Semyenov, A.M. Visik, A.A. Maslov, A. V. Demin, D.D. Petrov, V.V. Noskov, V. I. Sorokin, O. I. Uferov (VNIINM, Moscow, Russia) L. Dole (ORNL, Oak Ridge, USA) Abstract - Russia is researching the production and testing of concretes with ceramic aggregate based on depleted uranium dioxide (UO 2 ). These DU concretes are to be used as structural and radiation-shielded material for casks for A-plant spent nuclear fuel transportation and storage. This paper presents the results of studies aimed at selection of ceramics and concrete composition, justification of their production technology, investigation of mechanical properties, and chemical stability.

236

Uranium Enrichment: Heading for a Cliff?  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...pay TVA," says Longenecker, who adds that...disgrace," says Longenecker. The charge has...industrial customers John Longenecker. "The only way...more efficient gas centrifuge process. By the...not until early 1985 that DOE took drastic...

COLIN NORMAN

1987-05-22T23:59:59.000Z

237

Uranium Enrichment: Heading for a Cliff?  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...key Senate energy subcommit-tee...at recent hearings. Unless...1960s, when energy consumption...or 7% a year. DOE anticipated...charge for fiscal year 1987...until early 1985 that DOE...enabled the department to reduce...over the years-about...Treasury in fiscal year 1988...the Senate Energy Committee...separation, or AVLIS, the pro-cess...

COLIN NORMAN

1987-05-22T23:59:59.000Z

238

Uranium at Y-12: Accountability | Y-12 National Security Complex  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

... ... Uranium at Y-12: Accountability Posted: July 22, 2013 - 3:37pm | Y-12 Report | Volume 10, Issue 1 | 2013 Accountability of enriched uranium is facilitated by the ability to put uranium into well-blended aqueous, organic, crystalline, powder, granular, metallic and compound forms that can be sampled and analyzed. Periodic inventories are necessary to find and account for all the enriched uranium that hides in equipment corners and crevices. This allows enriched uranium to be processed in large quantities and accounted for by the gram. Y-12 employees know where uranium resides in large, complex facilities and how to use computer tools to track and monitor its movement (see Uranium Track Team). Learn more about some of the complexities in reprocessing and safeguarding

239

Welding of uranium and uranium alloys  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The major reported work on joining uranium comes from the USA, Great Britain, France and the USSR. The driving force for producing this technology base stems from the uses of uranium as a nuclear fuel for energy production, compact structures requiring high density, projectiles, radiation shielding, and nuclear weapons. This review examines the state-of-the-art of this technology and presents current welding process and parameter information. The welding metallurgy of uranium and the influence of microstructure on mechanical properties is developed for a number of the more commonly used welding processes.

Mara, G.L.; Murphy, J.L.

1982-03-26T23:59:59.000Z

240

Paducah Plant Begins Enrichment Operations after Five Parties Strike  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Plant Begins Enrichment Operations after Five Parties Plant Begins Enrichment Operations after Five Parties Strike Agreement Paducah Plant Begins Enrichment Operations after Five Parties Strike Agreement May 1, 2012 - 12:00pm Addthis This cylinder hauler at Paducah’s Babcock & Wilcox Conversion Services plant delivers the first of DOE’s 14-ton depleted uranium cylinders to USEC for re-enrichment as part of a five-party agreement that is extending enrichment operations at the 60-year-old plant for another year, delaying increased costs at the site for DOE. This cylinder hauler at Paducah's Babcock & Wilcox Conversion Services plant delivers the first of DOE's 14-ton depleted uranium cylinders to USEC for re-enrichment as part of a five-party agreement that is extending enrichment operations at the 60-year-old plant for another year, delaying

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241

A Robust Infrastructure Design for Gas Centrifuge Enrichment Plant Unattended Online Enrichment Monitoring  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An online enrichment monitor (OLEM) is being developed to continuously measure the relative isotopic composition of UF6 in the unit header pipes of a gas centrifuge enrichment plant (GCEP). From a safeguards perspective, OLEM will provide early detection of a facility being misused for production of highly enriched uranium. OLEM may also reduce the number of samples collected for destructive assay and if coupled with load cell monitoring can provide isotope mass balance verification. The OLEM design includes power and network connections for continuous monitoring of the UF6 enrichment and state of health of the instrument. Monitoring the enrichment on all header pipes at a typical GCEP could require OLEM detectors on each of the product, tails, and feed header pipes. If there are eight process units, up to 24 detectors may be required at a modern GCEP. Distant locations, harsh industrial environments, and safeguards continuity of knowledge requirements all place certain demands on the network robustness and power reliability. This paper describes the infrastructure and architecture of an OLEM system based on OLEM collection nodes on the unit header pipes and power and network support nodes for groupings of the collection nodes. A redundant, self-healing communications network, distributed backup power, and a secure communications methodology. Two candidate technologies being considered for secure communications are the Object Linking and Embedding for Process Control Unified Architecture cross-platform, service-oriented architecture model for process control communications and the emerging IAEA Real-time And INtegrated STream-Oriented Remote Monitoring (RAINSTORM) framework to provide the common secure communication infrastructure for remote, unattended monitoring systems. The proposed infrastructure design offers modular, commercial components, plug-and-play extensibility for GCEP deployments, and is intended to meet the guidelines and requirements for unattended and remotely monitored safeguards systems.

Younkin, James R [ORNL; Rowe, Nathan C [ORNL; Garner, James R [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

242

Kr ion irradiation study of the depleted-uranium alloys.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Fuel development for the reduced enrichment research and test reactor (RERTR) program is tasked with the development of new low enrichment uranium nuclear fuels that can be employed to replace existing high enrichment uranium fuels currently used in some research reactors throughout the world. For dispersion type fuels, radiation stability of the fuel-cladding interaction product has a strong impact on fuel performance. Three depleted-uranium alloys are cast for the radiation stability studies of the fuel-cladding interaction product using Kr ion irradiation to investigate radiation damage from fission products. SEM analysis indicates the presence of the phases of interest: U(Al, Si){sub 3}, (U, Mo)(Al, Si){sub 3}, UMo{sub 2}Al{sub 20}, U{sub 6}Mo{sub 4}Al{sub 43} and UAl{sub 4}. Irradiations of TEM disc samples were conducted with 500 keV Kr ions at 200 C to ion doses up to 2.5 x 10{sup 19} ions/m{sup 2} ({approx}10 dpa) with an Kr ion flux of 10{sup 16} ions/m{sup 2}/s ({approx}4.0 x 10{sup -3} dpa/s). Microstructural evolution of the phases relevant to fuel-cladding interaction products was investigated using transmission electron microscopy.

Gan, J.; Keiser, D. D.; Miller, B. D.; Kirk, M. A.; Rest, J.; Allen, T. R.; Wachs, D. M. (Materials Science Division); (INL); (Univ. of Wisconsin)

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

243

Kr Ion Irradiation Study of the Depleted-Uranium Alloys  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Fuel development for the Reduced Enrichment Research and Test Reactor program is tasked with the development of new low-enriched uranium nuclear fuels that can be employed to replace existing highly enriched uranium fuels currently used in some research reactors throughout the world. For dispersion-type fuels, radiation stability of the fuel/cladding interaction product has a strong impact on fuel performance. Three depleted uranium alloys are cast for the radiation stability studies of the fuel/cladding interaction product using Kr ion irradiation to investigate radiation damage from fission products. SEM analysis indicates the presence of the phases of interest: U(Si, Al)3, (U, Mo)(Si, Al)3, UMo2Al20, U6Mo4Al43, and UAl4. Irradiations of TEM disc samples were conducted with 500 keV Kr ions at 200C to ion doses up to 2.5 1015 ions/cm2 (~ 10 dpa) with an Kr ion flux of 1012 ions/cm2-sec (~ 4.0 10-3 dpa/sec). Microstructural evolution of the phases relevant to fuel-cladding interaction products was investigated using transmission electron microscopy.

J. Gan; D. Keiser; B. Miller; M. Kirk; J. Rest; T. Allen; D. Wachs

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

244

Analysis of the effectiveness of gas centrifuge enrichment plants advanced safeguards  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Current safeguards approaches used by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) at gas centrifuge enrichment plants (GCEPs) need enhancement in order to verify declared low-enriched uranium (LEU) production, detect undeclared LEU production and detect highly enriched uranium (HEU) production with adequate detection probability using non destructive assay (NDA) techniques. At present inspectors use attended systems, systems needing the presence of an inspector for operation, during inspections to verify the mass and 235U enrichment of declared UF6 containers used in the process of enrichment at GCEPs. This paper contains an analysis of possible improvements in unattended and attended NDA systems including process monitoring and possible on-site destructive assay (DA) of samples that could reduce the uncertainty of the inspector's measurements. These improvements could reduce the difference between the operator's and inspector's measurements providing more effective and efficient IAEA GCEPs safeguards. We also explore how a few advanced safeguards systems could be assembled for unattended operation. The analysis will focus on how unannounced inspections (UIs), and the concept of information-driven inspections (IDS) can affect probability of detection of the diversion of nuclear materials when coupled to new GCEPs safeguards regimes augmented with unattended systems.

Boyer, Brian David [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Erpenbeck, Heather H [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Miller, Karen A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Swinjoe, Martyn T [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Ianakiev, Kiril D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Marlow, Johnna B [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

245

Standard test methods for chemical, mass spectrometric, spectrochemical, nuclear, and radiochemical analysis of uranium hexafluoride  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1.1 These test methods cover procedures for subsampling and for chemical, mass spectrometric, spectrochemical, nuclear, and radiochemical analysis of uranium hexafluoride UF6. Most of these test methods are in routine use to determine conformance to UF6 specifications in the Enrichment and Conversion Facilities. 1.2 The analytical procedures in this document appear in the following order: Note 1Subcommittee C26.05 will confer with C26.02 concerning the renumbered section in Test Methods C761 to determine how concerns with renumbering these sections, as analytical methods are replaced with stand-alone analytical methods, are best addressed in subsequent publications. Sections Subsampling of Uranium Hexafluoride 7 - 10 Gravimetric Determination of Uranium 11 - 19 Titrimetric Determination of Uranium 20 Preparation of High-Purity U3O 8 21 Isotopic Analysis 22 Isotopic Analysis by Double-Standard Mass-Spectrometer Method 23 - 29 Determination of Hydrocarbons, Chlorocarbons, and Partially Substitut...

American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

246

Fabrication of Cerium Oxide and Uranium Oxide Microspheres for Space Nuclear Power Applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Cerium oxide and uranium oxide microspheres are being produced via an internal gelation sol-gel method to investigate alternative fabrication routes for space nuclear fuels. Depleted uranium and non-radioactive cerium are being utilized as surrogates for plutonium-238 (Pu-238) used in radioisotope thermoelectric generators and for enriched uranium required by nuclear thermal rockets. While current methods used to produce Pu-238 fuels at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) involve the generation of fine powders that pose a respiratory hazard and have a propensity to contaminate glove boxes, the sol-gel route allows for the generation of oxide microsphere fuels through an aqueous route. The sol-gel method does not generate fine powders and may require fewer processing steps than the LANL method with less operator handling. High-quality cerium dioxide microspheres have been fabricated in the desired size range and equipment is being prepared to establish a uranium dioxide microsphere production capability.

Jeffrey A. Katalenich; Michael R. Hartman; Robert C. O'Brien

2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

247

Depleted Uranium Disturbs Immune Parameters in Zebrafish, Danio rerio: An Ex Vivo/In Vivo Experiment  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this study, we investigated the effects of depleted uranium (DU), the byproduct of nuclear enrichment of uranium, on several parameters related to defence system...Danio rerio, using flow cytometry. Several im...

Batrice Gagnaire; Anne Bado-Nilles

2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

248

Geological conditions of safe long-term storage and disposal of depleted uranium hexafluoride  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The production of enriched uranium used in nuclear weapons and fuel for ... power plants is accompanied by the formation of depleted uranium (DU), the amount of which annually ... DU mass is stored as environ-men...

N. P. Laverov; V. I. Velichkin; B. I. Omelyanenko

2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

249

Effects of Depleted Uranium on Oxidative Stress, Detoxification, and Defence Parameters of Zebrafish Danio rerio  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this study, we investigated the effects of depleted uranium (DU), the by-product of nuclear enrichment of uranium, on several parameters related to oxidative stress...Danio rerio. Several parameters were recor...

Beatrice Gagnaire; Isabelle Cavalie

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

250

Soliton mechanism of the uranium nitride microdynamics and heat conductivity at high temperatures  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The microdynamics of soliton waves and localized modes of nonlinear acoustic and optical oscillations in uranium nitride has been investigated. It is shown that, upon heating, the energies of solitons in the gap between the optical and acoustic phonon bands increase, while the energies of local modes decrease. The experimentally observed quasi-resonance features, which are shifted in the gap with a change in temperature, can be manifestations of the revealed soliton waves and local modes. The microdynamics of uranium nitride heat conductivity with the stochastic generation of the observed solitons and local modes at remote energy absorption have been investigated. The temperature dependence of the heat conductivity coefficient has been determined from the temperature gradient and energy flux within the standard approach (which is to be generalized).

Semenov, V. A.; Dubovsky, O. A., E-mail: dubov@ippe.ru; Orlov, A. V. [State Scientific Center of the Russian Federation Leipunsky Institute for Physics and Power Engineering (Russian Federation)

2011-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

251

Influence of uranium hydride oxidation on uranium metal behaviour  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This work addresses concerns that the rapid, exothermic oxidation of active uranium hydride in air could stimulate an exothermic reaction (burning) involving any adjacent uranium metal, so as to increase the potential hazard arising from a hydride reaction. The effect of the thermal reaction of active uranium hydride, especially in contact with uranium metal, does not increase in proportion with hydride mass, particularly when considering large quantities of hydride. Whether uranium metal continues to burn in the long term is a function of the uranium metal and its surroundings. The source of the initial heat input to the uranium, if sufficient to cause ignition, is not important. Sustained burning of uranium requires the rate of heat generation to be sufficient to offset the total rate of heat loss so as to maintain an elevated temperature. For dense uranium, this is very difficult to achieve in naturally occurring circumstances. Areas of the uranium surface can lose heat but not generate heat. Heat can be lost by conduction, through contact with other materials, and by convection and radiation, e.g. from areas where the uranium surface is covered with a layer of oxidised material, such as burned-out hydride or from fuel cladding. These rates of heat loss are highly significant in relation to the rate of heat generation by sustained oxidation of uranium in air. Finite volume modelling has been used to examine the behaviour of a magnesium-clad uranium metal fuel element within a bottle surrounded by other un-bottled fuel elements. In the event that the bottle is breached, suddenly, in air, it can be concluded that the bulk uranium metal oxidation reaction will not reach a self-sustaining level and the mass of uranium oxidised will likely to be small in relation to mass of uranium hydride oxidised. (authors)

Patel, N.; Hambley, D. [National Nuclear Laboratory (United Kingdom); Clarke, S.A. [Sellafield Ltd (United Kingdom); Simpson, K.

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

252

Safeguards Verification Measurements using Laser Ablation, Absorbance Ratio Spectrometry in Gaseous Centrifuge Enrichment Plants  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Laser Ablation Absorbance Ratio Spectrometry (LAARS) is a new verification measurement technology under development at the US Department of Energys (DOE) Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). LAARS uses three lasers to ablate and then measure the relative isotopic abundance of uranium compounds. An ablation laser is tightly focused on uranium-bearing solids producing a small plume containing uranium atoms. Two collinear wavelength-tuned spectrometry lasers transit through the plume and the absorbance of U-235 and U-238 isotopes are measured to determine U-235 enrichment. The measurement has high relative precision and detection limits approaching the femtogram range for uranium. It is independent of chemical form and degree of dilution with nuisance dust and other materials. High speed sample scanning and pinpoint characterization allow measurements on millions of particles/hour to detect and analyze the enrichment of trace uranium in samples. The spectrometer is assembled using commercially available components at comparatively low cost, and features a compact and low power design. Future designs can be engineered for reliable, autonomous deployment within an industrial plant environment. Two specific applications of the spectrometer are under development: 1) automated unattended aerosol sampling and analysis and 2) on-site small sample destructive assay measurement. The two applications propose game-changing technological advances in gaseous centrifuge enrichment plant (GCEP) safeguards verification. The aerosol measurement instrument, LAARS-environmental sampling (ES), collects aerosol particles from the plant environment in a purpose-built rotating drum impactor and then uses LAARS-ES to quickly scan the surface of the impactor to measure the enrichments of the captured particles. The current approach to plant misuse detection involves swipe sampling and offsite analysis. Though this approach is very robust it generally requires several months to obtain results from a given sample collection. The destructive assay instrument, LAARS-destructive assay (DA), uses a simple purpose-built fixture with a sampling planchet to collect adsorbed UF6 gas from a cylinder valve or from a process line tap or pigtail. A portable LAARS-DA instrument scans the microgram quantity of uranium collected on the planchet and the assay of the uranium is measured to ~0.15% relative precision. Currently, destructive assay samples for bias defect measurements are collected in small sample cylinders for offsite mass spectrometry measurement.

Anheier, Norman C.; Cannon, Bret D.; Qiao, Hong (Amy) [Amy; Phillips, Jon R.

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

253

Overview of Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride Management Program  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

DOE's DUF DOE's DUF 6 Cylinder Inventory a Location Number of Cylinders DUF 6 (MT) b Paducah, Kentucky 36,910 450,000 Portsmouth, Ohio 16,041 198,000 Oak Ridge (ETTP), Tennessee 4,683 56,000 Total 57,634 704,000 a The DOE inventory includes DUF 6 generated by the government, as well as DUF 6 transferred from U.S. Enrichment Corporation pursuant to two memoranda of agreement. b A metric ton (MT) is equal to 1,000 kilograms, or 2,200 pounds. Overview of Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride Management Program Over the last four decades, large quantities of uranium were processed by gaseous diffusion to produce enriched uranium for U.S. national defense and civilian purposes. The gaseous diffusion process uses uranium in the form of uranium hexafluoride (UF 6 ), primarily because UF 6 can conveniently be used in

254

DOE Announces Transfer of Depleted Uranium to Advance the U.S...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

transactions under the project would not have an adverse material impact on the domestic uranium mining, enrichment, or conversion industry. The completed analysis, conducted by...

255

Enrichment Assay Methods Development for the Integrated Cylinder Verification System  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) inspectors currently perform periodic inspections at uranium enrichment plants to verify UF6 cylinder enrichment declarations. Measurements are typically performed with handheld high-resolution sensors on a sampling of cylinders taken to be representative of the facility's entire product-cylinder inventory. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is developing a concept to automate the verification of enrichment plant cylinders to enable 100 percent product-cylinder verification and potentially, mass-balance calculations on the facility as a whole (by also measuring feed and tails cylinders). The Integrated Cylinder Verification System (ICVS) could be located at key measurement points to positively identify each cylinder, measure its mass and enrichment, store the collected data in a secure database, and maintain continuity of knowledge on measured cylinders until IAEA inspector arrival. The three main objectives of this FY09 project are summarized here and described in more detail in the report: (1) Develop a preliminary design for a prototype NDA system, (2) Refine PNNL's MCNP models of the NDA system, and (3) Procure and test key pulse-processing components. Progress against these tasks to date, and next steps, are discussed.

Smith, Leon E.; Misner, Alex C.; Hatchell, Brian K.; Curtis, Michael M.

2009-10-22T23:59:59.000Z

256

Recovery and Blend-Down Uranium for Beneficial use in Commercial Reactors - 13373  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In April 2001 the Department of Energy (DOE) and the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) signed an Interagency Agreement to transfer approximately 33 MT of off-specification (off-spec) highly enriched uranium (HEU) from DOE to TVA for conversion to commercial reactor fuel. Since that time additional surplus off-spec HEU material has been added to the program, making the total approximately 46 MT off-spec HEU. The disposition path for approximately half (23 MT) of this 46 MT of surplus HEU material, was down blending through the H-canyon facility at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The HEU is purified through the H-canyon processes, and then blended with natural uranium (NU) to form low enriched uranium (LEU) solution with a 4.95% U-235 isotopic content. This material was then transported to a TVA subcontractor who converted the solution to uranium oxide and then fabricated into commercial light water reactor (LWR) fuel. This fuel is now powering TVA reactors and supplying electricity to approximately 1 million households in the TVA region. There is still in excess of approximately 10 to 14 MT of off-spec HEU throughout the DOE complex or future foreign and domestic research reactor returns that could be recovered and down blended for use in either currently designed light water reactors, ?5% enriched LEU, or be made available for use in subsequent advanced 'fast' reactor fuel designs, ?19% LEU. (authors)

Magoulas, Virginia [Savannah River National Laboratory, Savannah River Site, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States)] [Savannah River National Laboratory, Savannah River Site, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States)

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

257

Defining the needs for gas centrifuge enrichment plants advanced safeguards  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Current safeguards approaches used by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) at gas centrifuge enrichment plants (GCEPs) need enhancement in order to verify declared low-enriched (LEU) production, detect undeclared LEU production and detect highly enriched uranium (HEU) production with adequate detection probability using nondestructive assay (NDA) techniques. At present inspectors use attended systems, systems needing the presence of an inspector for operation, during inspections to verify the mass and {sup 235}U enrichment of declared UF{sub 6} containers used in the process of enrichment at GCEPs. In verifying declared LEU production, the inspectors also take samples for off-site destructive assay (DA) which provide accurate data, with 0.1% to 0.5% measurement uncertainty, on the enrichment of the UF{sub 6} feed, tails, and product. However, taking samples of UF{sub 6} for off-site analysis is a much more labor and resource intensive exercise for the operator and inspector. Furthermore, the operator must ship the samples off-site to the IAEA laboratory which delays the timeliness of results and interruptions to the continuity of knowledge (CofK) of the samples during their storage and transit. This paper contains an analysis of possible improvements in unattended and attended NDA systems such as process monitoring and possible on-site analysis of DA samples that could reduce the uncertainty of the inspector's measurements and provide more effective and efficient IAEA GCEPs safeguards. We also introduce examples advanced safeguards systems that could be assembled for unattended operation.

Boyer, Brian David [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Erpenbeck, Heather H [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Miller, Karen A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Swinhoe, Martyn T [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Ianakiev, Kiril [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Marlowe, Johnna B [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

Energy Department Selects Global Laser Enrichment for Future Operations at  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Energy Department Selects Global Laser Enrichment for Future Energy Department Selects Global Laser Enrichment for Future Operations at Paducah Site Energy Department Selects Global Laser Enrichment for Future Operations at Paducah Site November 27, 2013 - 12:00pm Addthis Workers inspect cylinders containing depleted uranium hexafluoride. Workers inspect cylinders containing depleted uranium hexafluoride. Media Contact (202) 586-4940 Washington, D.C. - The U.S. Department of Energy announced today that it will open negotiations with Global Laser Enrichment (GLE) for the sale of the depleted uranium hexafluoride inventory. The Department determined that GLE offered the greatest benefit to the government among those who responded to a Request for Offers (RFO) released earlier this year. Through the RFO review process, the Department also decided to enter into

259

Uranium Processing Facility | Y-12 National Security Complex  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

About / Transforming Y-12 / Uranium Processing Facility About / Transforming Y-12 / Uranium Processing Facility Uranium Processing Facility UPF will be a state-of-the-art, consolidated facility for enriched uranium operations including assembly, disassembly, dismantlement, quality evaluation, and product certification. An integral part of Y-12's transformation efforts and a key component of the National Nuclear Security Administration's Uranium Center of Excellence, the Uranium Processing Facility is one of two facilities at Y-12 whose joint mission will be to accomplish the storage and processing of all enriched uranium in one much smaller, centralized area. Safety, security and flexibility are key design attributes of the facility, which is in the preliminary design phase of work. UPF will be built to modern standards and engage new technologies through a responsive and agile

260

Y-12 Knows Uranium | Y-12 National Security Complex  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Knows Uranium Knows Uranium Y-12 Knows Uranium Posted: July 22, 2013 - 3:45pm | Y-12 Report | Volume 10, Issue 1 | 2013 Y-12 produces many forms of uranium. They may be used in chemical processing steps on-site or shipped elsewhere to serve as raw materials for nuclear fuel or as research tools. All of uranium's uses, defense related and otherwise, are critical to the nation. Y-12's understanding of uranium, coupled with the site's work with enriched uranium metal, alloys, oxides, compounds and solutions, is unique in the Nuclear Security Enterprise. "The Y-12 work force understands both established uranium science and the esoteric things related to uranium's behavior," said engineer Alan Moore. "Such a deep, detailed understanding comes from experience,

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "highly enriched uranium" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

TRANSPARENCY: Tracking Uranium under the U.S. / Russian HEU Purchase Agreement  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

By the end of August, 2005, the Russia Federation delivered to the United States (U.S.) more than 7,000 metric tons (MT) of low enriched uranium (LEU) containing approximately 46 million SWU and 75,000 MT of natural uranium. This uranium was blended down from weapons-grade (nominally enriched to 90% {sup 235}U) highly enriched uranium (HEU) under the 1993 HEU Purchase Agreement that provides for the blend down of 500 MT HEU into LEU for use as fuel in commercial nuclear reactors. The HEU Transparency Program, under the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), monitored the conversion and blending of the more than 250 MT HEU used to produce this LEU. The HEU represents more than half of the 500 MT HEU scheduled to be blended down through the year 2013 and is equivalent to the elimination of more than 10,000 nuclear devices. The HEU Transparency Program has made considerable progress in its mission to develop and implement transparency measures necessary to assure that Russian HEU extracted from dismantled Russian nuclear weapons is blended down into LEU for delivery to the United States. U.S. monitor observations include the inventory of in process containers, observation of plant operations, nondestructive assay measurements to determine {sup 235}U enrichment, as well as the examination of Material Control and Accountability (MC&A) documents. During 2005, HEU Transparency Program personnel will conduct 24 Special Monitoring Visits (SMVs) to four Russian uranium processing plants, in addition to staffing a Transparency Monitoring Office (TMO) at one Russian site.

Benton, J B; Decman, D J; Leich, D A

2005-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

262

Evolution of isotopic composition of reprocessed uranium during the multiple recycling in light water reactors with natural uranium feed  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A complex approach based on the consistent modeling of neutron-physics processes and processes of cascade separation of isotopes is applied for analyzing physical problems of the multiple usage of reprocessed uranium in the fuel cycle of light water reactors. A number of scenarios of multiple recycling of reprocessed uranium in light water reactors are considered. In the process, an excess absorption of neutrons by the {sup 236}U isotope is compensated by re-enrichment in the {sup 235}U isotope. Specific consumptions of natural uranium for re-enrichment of the reprocessed uranium depending on the content of the {sup 232}U isotope are obtained.

Smirnov, A. Yu., E-mail: a.y.smirnoff@rambler.ru; Sulaberidze, G. A. [National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Russian Federation); Alekseev, P. N.; Dudnikov, A. A.; Nevinitsa, V. A., E-mail: neva@dhtp.kiae.ru; Proselkov, V. N.; Chibinyaev, A. V. [Russian Research Centre Kurchatov Institute (Russian Federation)

2012-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

263

Proceedings of the 1990 International Meeting on Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The global effort to reduce, and possibly, eliminate the international traffic in highly-enriched uranium caused by its use in research reactors requires extensive cooperation and free exchange of information among all participants. To foster this free exchange of information, the Reduced Enrichment Research and Test Reactor (RERTR) Program, at Argonne National Laboratory, sponsored this meeting as the thirteenth of a series which began in 1978. The common effort brought together, past, a large number of specialists from many countries. On hundred twenty-three participants from 26 countries, including scientists, reactor operators, and personnel from commercial fuel suppliers, research centers, and government organizations, convened in Newport, Rhode Island to discuss their results, their activities, and their plans relative to converting research reactors to low-enriched fuels. As more and more reactors convert to the use of low-enriched uranium, the emphasis of our effort has begun to shift from research and development to tasks more directly related to implementation of the new fuels and technologies that have been developed, and to refinements of those fuels and technologies. It is appropriate, for this reason, that the emphasis of this meeting was placed on safety and on conversion experiences. This individual papers in this report have been cataloged separately.

Not Available

1993-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

264

Estimation of internal exposure to uranium with uncertainty from urinalysis data using the InDEP computer code  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......Uranium (Bq d1) Depleted Uranium (Bq d1) Enriched...the current NIOSH uranium mortality study...industrial hygiene, and health physics. A single chronic exposure to uranium over the course...facility varied between depleted and less than 2-wt......

Jeri L. Anderson; A. Iulian Apostoaei; Brian A. Thomas

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

Thoriumbased fuel cycles : saving uranium in a 200 MWth pebble bed high temperature reactor / S.K. Gintner.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??The predominant nuclear fuel used globally at present is uranium which is a finite resource. Thorium has been identified as an alternative nuclear fuel source (more)

Gintner, Stephan Konrad

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

266

Why does India require uranium through the 123 Agreement?  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The government of India has taken a deliberate stand that nuclear power should be one of the components of the energy mix that the country should have for sustained economic growth. A base for this was laid in the 1960s to 1970s in collaboration with USA and Canada. However, a major part of the development, in recent decades, has been indigenous. This came about after international sanctions were imposed following India's underground nuclear explosions, carried out first in 1974 and later in 1998. As a blessing in disguise, the country attained a high degree of self-reliance in all aspects of the nuclear fuel cycle, particularly with respect to Pressurised Heavy Water Reactors (PHWRs). There are plans to increase the present 4,000 MWe capacity to 20,000 by 2020. The 123 Agreement is a way out to boost scarce uranium resources and let in enriched uranium reactors with fuel, to attain the target and to go forward.

T.K.S. Murthy

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

267

The ultimate disposition of depleted uranium  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Depleted uranium (DU) is produced as a by-product of the uranium enrichment process. Over 340,000 MTU of DU in the form of UF{sub 6} have been accumulated at the US government gaseous diffusion plants and the stockpile continues to grow. An overview of issues and objectives associated with the inventory management and the ultimate disposition of this material is presented.

Lemons, T.R. [Uranium Enrichment Organization, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

268

Simulation of uranium aluminide dissolution in a continuous aluminum dissolver system  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This mission of the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) is to recover highly-enriched uranium from spent nuclear reactor fuel. One fuel type is dissolved in mercury-catalyzed nitric acid, and the uranium is extracted from the resulting dissolver product by an organic solvent. This fuel is composed of an aluminum-alloy-clad matrix of particulate uranium aluminide, which dissolves more slowly than the cladding. Because of the content of fissile {sup 235}U, suspended uranium aluminide or dissolved uranyl nitrate can form a critical mass under some circumstances. The dissolver and piping are geometrically favorable from the criticality standpoint, so the digester is where a criticality event would be most likely to occur. In the digester, the mass limit for {sup 235}U (as suspended uranium aluminide particles) is approximately 790 g. depending on the uranyl nitrate concentration. In a clear dissolver product (no suspended UAl{sub 3}), the concentration limit is 7 g {sup 235}U/L (as uranyl nitrate). Both limits are substantially below the lowest values at which a criticality event could possibly occur. This document a dynamic model of uranium aluminide dissolution in a continuous dissolver system, report typical calculated results, and advance appropriate conclusions.

Evans, D.R.; Farman, R.F.; Christian, J.D.

1990-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

269

Uranium industry annual 1997  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report provides statistical data on the U.S. uranium industry`s activities relating to uranium raw materials and uranium marketing.

NONE

1998-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

270

URANIUM IN ALKALINE ROCKS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Greenland," in Uranium Exploration Geology, Int. AtomicOklahoma," 1977 Nure Geology Uranium Symposium, Igneous HostMcNeil, M. , 1977. "Geology of Brazil's Uranium and Thorium

Murphy, M.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

271

Y-12 Uranium Exposure Study  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Following the recent restart of operations at the Y-12 Plant, the Radiological Control Organization (RCO) observed that the enriched uranium exposures appeared to involve insoluble rather than soluble uranium that presumably characterized most earlier Y-12 operations. These observations necessitated changes in the bioassay program, particularly the need for routine fecal sampling. In addition, it was not reasonable to interpret the bioassay data using metabolic parameter values established during earlier Y-12 operations. Thus, the recent urinary and fecal bioassay data were interpreted using the default guidance in Publication 54 of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP); that is, inhalation of Class Y uranium with an activity median aerodynamic diameter (AMAD) of 1 {micro}m. Faced with apparently new workplace conditions, these actions were appropriate and ensured a cautionary approach to worker protection. As additional bioassay data were accumulated, it became apparent that the data were not consistent with Publication 54. Therefore, this study was undertaken to examine the situation.

Eckerman, K.F.; Kerr, G.D.

1999-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

272

Enclosure 1 -CCP-AK-INL-004, Table 5-2 (1 page) Table 5-2. Isotopic Compositions of Rocky Flats Plutonium and Uranium  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Flats Plutonium and Uranium Weapons-Grade Plutonium Enriched Uranium Depleted Uranium Plutonium-238 0.01 ­ 0.05% Uranium-234 0.1 ­ 1.02% Uranium-234 0.0006% Plutonium-239 92.8 ­ 94.4% Uranium-235 90 ­ 94% Uranium-235 0.2 ­ 0.3% Plutonium-240 4.85 ­ 6.5% Uranium-236 0.4 ­ 0.5% Uranium-238 99.7 ­ 99.8% Plutonium

273

Uranium Marketing Annual Report - Release Date: May 31, 2011  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

4. Uranium purchased by owners and operators of U.S. civilian nuclear power reactors by origin and material type, 2012 deliveries 4. Uranium purchased by owners and operators of U.S. civilian nuclear power reactors by origin and material type, 2012 deliveries thousand pounds U3O8 equivalent; dollars per pound U3O8 equivalent Deliveries Uranium Concentrate Natural UF6 Enriched UF6 Natural UF6 and Enriched UF6 Total U.S.-Origin Uranium Purchases W W W W 9,807 Weighted-Average Price W W W W 59.44 Foreign-Origin Uranium Purchases W W W W 47,713 Weighted-Average Price W W W W 54.07 Total Purchases 28,642 W W 28,878 57,520 Weighted-Average Price 54.20 W W 55.80 54.99 W = Data withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Notes: Totals may not equal sum of components because of independent rounding. Weighted-average prices are not adjusted for inflation. Natural UF6 is uranium hexafluoride. The natural UF6 and enriched UF6 quantity represents only the U3O8 equivalent uranium-component quantity specified in the contract for each delivery of natural UF6 and enriched UF6. The natural UF6 and enriched UF6 weighted-average price represent only the U3O8 equivalent uranium-component price specified in the contract for each delivery of natural UF6 and enriched UF6, and does not include the conversion service and enrichment service components.

274

Special Training Materials | Y-12 National Security Complex  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Uranium in many forms (metal, oxides) and enrichments (highly enriched uranium, low enriched uranium, natural and depleted) Cesium-137 Cobalt-60 Strontium-90 Others as needed...

275

Description of the Portsmouth Gas Centrifuge Enrichment Plant  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Portsmouth Gas Centrifuge Enrichment Plant (GCEP) will be located at the site of the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant in Piketon, Ohio. The purpose of the facility is to provide enriching services for the production of low assay enriched uranium for civilian nuclear power reactors. The construction and operation of the GCEP is administered by the US Department of Energy. The facility will be operated under contract from the US Government. Control of the GCEP rests solely with the US Government, which holds and controls access to the technology. Construction of GCEP is expected to be completed in the mid-1990's. Many facility design and operating procedures are subject to change. Nonetheless, the design described in this report does reflect current thinking. Descriptions of the general facility and major buildings such as the process buildings, feed and withdrawal building, cylinder storage and transfer, recycle/assembly building, and a summary of the centrifuge uranium enriching process are provided in this report.

Arthur, W.B. (comp.)

1980-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

276

What is Depleted Uranium?  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

What is Uranium? What is Uranium? Uranium and Its Compounds line line What is Uranium? Chemical Forms of Uranium Properties of Uranium Compounds Radioactivity and Radiation Uranium Health Effects What is Uranium? Physical and chemical properties, origin, and uses of uranium. Properties of Uranium Uranium is a radioactive element that occurs naturally in varying but small amounts in soil, rocks, water, plants, animals and all human beings. It is the heaviest naturally occurring element, with an atomic number of 92. In its pure form, uranium is a silver-colored heavy metal that is nearly twice as dense as lead. In nature, uranium atoms exist as several isotopes, which are identified by the total number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus: uranium-238, uranium-235, and uranium-234. (Isotopes of an element have the

277

Prospects of Using Reprocessed Uranium in CANDU Reactors, in the U.S. GNEP Program  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Current Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) plans envision reprocessing spent fuel (SF) with view to minimizing high-level waste (HLW) repository use and recovering actinides (U, Np, Pu, Am, and Cm) for transmutation in reactors as fuel and targets. The reprocessed uranium (RU), however, is to be disposed of. This paper presents a limited-scope analysis of possible reuse of RU in CANDU (Canada Deuterium Uranium) Reactors, within the context of the US GNEP program. Other papers on this topic submitted to this conference discuss the possibility of RU reuse in light-water reactors (LWRs) (with enrichment) and offer an independent economic analysis of RU reuse. A representative RU uranium 'vector', from reprocessed spent LWR fuel, comprises 98.538 wt% 238U, 0.46 wt% {sup 236}U, 0.986 wt% {sup 235}U, and 0.006 wt% {sup 234}U. After multiple recyclings, the concentration of {sup 234}U can approach 0.02 wt%. The presence of {sup 234}U and {sup 236}U in RU reduces the reactivity and fuel lifetime (exit burnup), which is particularly an issue in LWRs. While in PWR analyses, the burnup penalty caused by the concentration of {sup 236}U in RU needs to be offset by additional {sup 235}U enrichment in the amount of {approx}25% to 30% of the weight percentage of the {sup 236}U; however, the effect in CANDU is much smaller. Furthermore, since the {sup 235}U content in RU exceeds that of natural uranium, CANDU offers the advantageous option of uranium recycling without reenrichment. The exit burnup of CANDU RU-derived fuel is considerably larger than that for natural uranium-fueled scenario, despite the presence of {sup 234}U and {sup 236}U.

Ellis, Ronald James [ORNL

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

278

Oxygen enriched fireflooding  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Both pure oxygen and enriched air have been considered in fireflooding for enhanced oil recovery. Laboratory and field testing have conclusively shown that oxygen is practical and cost effective for this application. For reservoirs that require a large volume of high pressure gas, oxygen is cheaper than air simply based on compression costs. Additional process benefits with oxygen include: Faster Oil Production; Lower Injection Pressure; Greater Well Spacing; Increased Carbon Dioxide Partial Pressure; Lower Gas-to-Oil Ratios; and Purer Produced Gas. These features provide a compelling case for oxygen, once the safety and materials compatibility issues are properly addressed.

Shahani, G.H.; Gunardson, H.H. [Air Products and Chemicals, Allentown, PA (United States)

1995-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

279

Report on Ultra-high Resolution Gamma- / X-ray Analysis of Uranium Skull Oxide  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have utilized the high energy resolution and high peak-to-background ratio of superconducting TES {gamma}-detectors at very low energies for non-destructive analysis of a skull oxide derived from reprocessed nuclear fuel. Specifically, we demonstrate that superconducting detectors can separate and analyze the strong actinide emission lines in the spectral region below 60 keV that are often obscured in {gamma}-measurements with conventional Ge detectors.

Friedrich, S; Velazquez, M; Drury, O; Salaymeh, S

2009-11-02T23:59:59.000Z

280

FAQ 8-What is uranium hexafluoride (UF6)?  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

is uranium hexafluoride (UF6)? is uranium hexafluoride (UF6)? What is uranium hexafluoride (UF6)? Uranium hexafluoride is a chemical compound consisting of one atom of uranium combined with six atoms of fluorine. It is the chemical form of uranium that is used during the uranium enrichment process. Within a reasonable range of temperature and pressure, it can be a solid, liquid, or gas. Solid UF6 is a white, dense, crystalline material that resembles rock salt. Liquid UF6 is formed only at temperatures greater than 147° F (64° C) and at pressures greater than 1.5 times atmospheric pressure (22 psia). At atmospheric pressure, solid UF6 will transform directly to UF6 gas (sublimation) when the temperature is raised to 134° F (57° C), without going through a liquid phase.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "highly enriched uranium" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Uranium bioaccumulation and biological disorders induced in zebrafish (Danio rerio) after a depleted uranium waterborne exposure  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Because of its toxicity and its ubiquity within aquatic compartments, uranium (U) represents a significant hazard to aquatic species such as fish. In a previous study, we investigated some biological responses in zebrafish either exposed to depleted or to enriched U (i.e., to different radiological activities). However, results required further experiments to better understand biological responses. Moreover, we failed to clearly demonstrate a significant relationship between biological effects and U radiological activity. We therefore chose to herein examine U bioaccumulation and induced effects in zebrafish according to a chemical doseresponse approach. Results showed that U is highly bioconcentrated in fish, according to a time- and concentration-dependent model. Additionally, hepatic antioxidant defenses, red blood cells DNA integrity and brain acetylcholinesterase activity were found to be significantly altered. Generally, the higher the U concentration, the sooner and/or the greater the effect, suggesting a close relationship between accumulation and effect.

Sabrina Barillet; Christelle Adam-Guillermin; Olivier Palluel; Jean-Marc Porcher; Alain Devaux

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

282

Status of the RERTR (Reduced Enrichment Research and Test Reactor) Program  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The progress of the Reduced Enrichment Research and Test Reactor (RERTR) Program is described. After a brief summary of the results which the RERTR Program, in collaboration with its many international partners, had achieved by the end of 1987, the major events, findings and activities of 1988 are reviewed. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission issued a formal and generic approval of the use of U3Si2-Al dispersion fuel in research and test reactors, with densities up to 4.8 g U/cmT. New significant findings from postirradiation examinations, from ion-beam irradiations, and from analytical modeling, have raised serious doubts about the potential of LEU U3Si-Al dispersion fuel for applications requiring very high uranium densities and high burnups (>6 g U/cmT, >50% burnup). As a result of these findings, the fuel development efforts have been redirected towards three new initiatives: (1) a systematic application of ion-beam irradiations to screen new materials; (2) application of Hot Isostatic Pressing (HIP) procedures to produce U3Si2-Al plates with high uranium densities and thin uniform cladding; and (3) application of HIP procedures to produce plates with U3Si wires imbedded in an aluminum matrix, achieving stability, high uranium density, and thin uniform cladding. The new fuel concepts hold the promise of extraordinary performance potential and require approximately five years to develop.

Travelli, A.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

283

Geographical Coincidence of High Heat Flow, High Seismicity, and Upwelling, with Hydrocarbon Deposits, Phosphorites, Evaporites, and Uranium Ores  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...sea and seismicity and geothermal heat flux. We suggest...upwelling caused by the geothermal heat (2), which brings...sedimentary rocks. High geothermal heat fluxes correlate...Lawrence River, as well as a fourth line along...Arizona, Montana, New Mexico, and Utah. Lignites...

L. M. Libby; W. F. Libby

1974-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

284

Chapter 5. Conclusion Uranium, a naturally occurring element, contributes to low levels of natural background radiation in the  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

are extracted from the earth. Protore is mined uranium ore that is not rich enough to meet the market demand conventional open-pit and underground uranium mining include overburden (although most overburden is not necessarily enriched in uranium as is protore), unreclaimed protore, waste rock, evaporites from mine water

285

The non-aqueous chemistry of uranium has been an active area of exploration in recent decades1,2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-purity depleted uranium produced as a by-product of nuclear isotope enrichment programmes. The early actinideThe non-aqueous chemistry of uranium has been an active area of exploration in recent decades1 for uranium will be created in part by the quest of researchers to understand the properties and potential

Cai, Long

286

Prompt neutron decay constants in uranium diluted with matrix material systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Rossi-Alpha measurements were performed on uranium diluted with matrix material systems to determine the prompt neutron decay constants. These constants represent an eigenvalue characteristic of these particular critical assemblies, which can be experimentally measured by the Rossi-Alpha or pulse neutron source techniques and calculated by a deterministic or Monte Carlo method. In the measurements presented in this summary, highly enriched foils diluted in various X/{sup 235}U ratios with polyethylene and SiO{sub 2}, and polyethylene and aluminum were assembled to a high multiplication and the prompt neutron decay constants were obtained by the Rossi-Alpha technique.

Sanchez, R. G. (Rene G.); Loaiza, D. J. (David J.); Brunson, G. S. (Glenn S.)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

287

Abstract B41: Depleted uranium-induced oxidative stress in human bronchial epithelial cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Science of Cancer Health Disparities- Feb...AZ Abstract B41: Depleted uranium-induced oxidative...Science of Cancer Health Disparities- Feb...high deposits of uranium or tailings. There...occupational exposures to depleted uranium via military...

Monica Yellowhair; Leigh A. Henricksen; Aneesha Hossain; Kathleen Dixon; and R. Clark Lantz

2009-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

288

Improved Irradiation Performance of Uranium-Molybdenum/Aluminum Dispersion Fuel by Silicon Addition in Aluminum  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Uranium-molybdenum fuel particle dispersion in aluminum is a form of fuel under development for conversion of high-power research and test reactors from highly enriched to low-enriched uranium in the U.S. Global Threat Reduction Initiative program (also known as the Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors program). Extensive irradiation tests have been conducted to find a solution for problems caused by interaction layer growth and pore formation between U-Mo and Al. Adding a small amount of Si (up to [approximately]5 wt%) in the Al matrix was one of the proposed remedies. The effect of silicon addition in the Al matrix was examined using irradiation test results by comparing side-by-side samples with different Si additions. Interaction layer growth was progressively reduced with increasing Si addition to the matrix Al, up to 4.8 wt%. The Si addition also appeared to delay pore formation and growth between the U-Mo and Al.

Yeon Soo Kim; G. L. Hofman; A. B. Robinson; D. M. Wachs

2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

289

Direct formation of supermassive black holes in metal-enriched gas at the heart of high-redshift galaxy mergers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present novel 3D multi-scale SPH simulations of gas-rich galaxy mergers between the most massive galaxies at $z \\sim 8 - 10$, designed to scrutinize the direct collapse formation scenario for massive black hole seeds proposed in \\citet{mayer+10}. The simulations achieve a resolution of 0.1 pc, and include both metallicity-dependent optically-thin cooling and a model for thermal balance at high optical depth. We consider different formulations of the SPH hydrodynamical equations, including thermal and metal diffusion. When the two merging galaxy cores collide, gas infall produces a compact, optically thick nuclear disk with densities exceeding $10^{-10}$ g cm$^3$. The disk rapidly accretes higher angular momentum gas from its surroundings reaching $\\sim 5$ pc and a mass of $\\gtrsim 10^9$ $M_{\\odot}$ in only a few $10^4$ yr. Outside $\\gtrsim 2$ pc it fragments into massive clumps. Instead, supersonic turbulence prevents fragmentation in the inner parsec region, which remains warm ($\\sim 3000-6000$ K) and dev...

Mayer, Lucio; Bonoli, Silvia; Quinn, Thomas; Roskar, Rok; Shen, Sijing; Wadsley, James

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

Student Science Enrichment Training Program  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Funds are requested for the science enrichment training program (emphasis on chemistry and computer science), which will be held at Claflin College during the 1990 and 1991 summers, concomitant with summer school. The thirty participants will include high school students and some college freshmen; the students will come from rural South Carolina schools with limited science and computer facilities. Focus will be on high ability minority students.

Sandhu, S.S.

1990-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

291

Numerical simulation for formed projectile of depleted uranium alloy  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The numerical simulation for forming projectile of depleted uranium alloy with the SPH (Smooth Particle Hydrodynamic ... . To describe the deformed behaviors of the depleted uranium alloy under high pressure and ...

Song Shun-cheng; Gao Ping; Cai Hong-nian

2003-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

292

Recycled Uranium Mass Balance Project Y-12 National Security Complex Site Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report has been prepared to summarize the findings of the Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12 Complex) Mass Balance Project and to support preparation of associated U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) site reports. The project was conducted in support of DOE efforts to assess the potential for health and environmental issues resulting from the presence of transuranic (TRU) elements and fission products in recycled uranium (RU) processed by DOE and its predecessor agencies. The United States government used uranium in fission reactors to produce plutonium and tritium for nuclear weapons production. Because uranium was considered scarce relative to demand when these operations began almost 50 years ago, the spent fuel from U.S. fission reactors was processed to recover uranium for recycling. The estimated mass balance for highly enriched RU, which is of most concern for worker exposure and is the primary focus of this project, is summarized in a table. A discrepancy in the mass balance between receipts and shipments (plus inventory and waste) reflects an inability to precisely distinguish between RU and non-RU shipments and receipts involving the Y-12 Complex and Savannah River. Shipments of fresh fuel (non-RU) and sweetener (also non-RU) were made from the Y-12 Complex to Savannah River along with RU shipments. The only way to distinguish between these RU and non-RU streams using available records is by enrichment level. Shipments of {le}90% enrichment were assumed to be RU. Shipments of >90% enrichment were assumed to be non-RU fresh fuel or sweetener. This methodology using enrichment level to distinguish between RU and non-RU results in good estimates of RU flows that are reasonably consistent with Savannah River estimates. Although this is the best available means of distinguishing RU streams, this method does leave a difference of approximately 17.3 MTU between receipts and shipments. Slightly depleted RU streams received by the Y-12 Complex from ORGDP and PGDP are believed to have been returned to the shipping site or disposed of as waste on the Oak Ridge Reservation. No evidence of Y-12 Complex processing of this material was identified in the historical records reviewed by the Project Team.

NONE

2000-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

293

Uranium Marketing Annual Report - Release Date: May 31, 2011  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

2. Inventories of natural and enriched uranium by material type as of end of year, 2008-2012 thousand pounds U3O8 equivalent 2. Inventories of natural and enriched uranium by material type as of end of year, 2008-2012 thousand pounds U3O8 equivalent Inventories at the End of the Year Type of Uranium Inventory 2008 2009 2010 2011 P2012 Owners and Operators of U.S. Civilian Nuclear Power Reactors Inventories 82,972 84,757 86,527 89,835 97,466 Uranium Concentrate (U3O8) 12,286 15,094 13,076 14,718 13,454 Natural UF6 46,525 38,463 35,767 35,883 30,168 Enriched UF6 13,748 18,195 25,392 19,596 38,903 Fabricated Fuel (not inserted into a reactor) 10,414 13,006 12,292 19,638 14,941 U.S. Supplier Inventories 27,010 26,774 24,732 22,269 23,264 Uranium Concentrate (U3O8) 12,264 12,132 10,153 7,057 W Natural UF6 W W W W W Enriched UF6 W W W W W

294

Uranium ores and depleted uranium in the environment, with a reference to uranium in the biosphere from the Erzgebirge/Sachsen, Germany  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The Erzgebirge (Ore Mountains) area in the eastern part of Germany was a major source of uranium for Soviet nuclear programs between 1945 and 1989. During this time, the former German Democratic Republic became the third largest uranium producer in the world. The high abundance of uranium in the geological formations of the Erzgebirge are mirrored in the discovery of uranium by M. Klaproth close to Freiberg City in 1789 and the description of the so-called Schneeberg disease, lung cancer caused in miners by the accumulation of the uranium decay product, radon, in the subsurfaces of shafts. Since 1991, remediation and mitigation of uranium at production facilities, rock piles and mill tailings has taken place. In parallel, efforts were initiated to assess the likely adverse effects of uranium mining to humans. The costs of these activities amount to about 6.5 109 Euro. A comparison with concentrations of depleted uranium at certain sites is given.

A Meinrath; P Schneider; G Meinrath

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

295

A Robust and Flexible Design for GCEP Unattended Online Enrichment Monitoring: An OLEM Collection Node Network  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Oak Ridge National Laoratory (ORNL) has engineered an on-line enrichment monitor (OLEM) to continuously measure U-235 emissions from the UF6 gas flowing through a unit header pipe of a gas centrifuge enrichment plant (GCEP) as a component of the International Atomic Energy Agency s (IAEA) new generation of technology to support enrichment plant safeguards1. In contrast to other enrichment monitoring approaches, OLEM calibrates and corrects for the pressure and temperature dependent UF6 gas-density without external radiation sources by using the inherent unit header pipe pressure dynamics and combining U-235 gamma-ray spectrometery using a shielded NaI detector with gas pressure and temperature data near the spectrum measurement point to obtain the enrichment of the gas as a function of time. From a safeguards perspective, OLEM can provide early detection of a GCEP being misused for production of highly enriched uranium, but would not detect directly the isolation and use of a cascade within the production unit to produce HEU. OLEM may also reduce the number of samples collected for destructive assay and, if coupled with load cell monitoring, could support isotope mass balance verification and unattended cylinder verification. The earlier paper presented OLEM as one component along with shared load cells and unattended cylinder verification, in the IAEA emering toolbox for unattended instruments at GCEPs1 and described the OLEM concept and how previous modeling studies and field measurements helped confirm the viability of a passive on-line enrichment monitor for meeting IAEA objectives and to support the development of performance targets. Phase I of the United States Support Program (USSP) OLEM project completed a preliminary hardware, software and communications design; phase II will build and test field prototypes in controlled laboratory settings and then at an operational facility. That paper also discussed many of the OLEM collection node commercial off the shelf (COTS) components and summarized the OLEM collection node data security provisions. This paper will discuss a secure and redundant network of OLEM collection nodes, auxiliary detection units and supporting junction boxes distributed throughout a facility for monitoring enrichment on product, feed and tails unit header pipes; the purpose and capability of the built-in Electronic Optical Sealing System (EOSS) network gateway; and a network approach for obtaining reliable and authenticated pressure measurements.

Younkin, James R [ORNL] [ORNL; March-Leuba, Jose A [ORNL] [ORNL; Garner, James R [ORNL] [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

296

Modeling Uranium-Proton Ion Exchange in Biosorption  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

threatening heavy metals because of its high toxicity and some radioactivity. Excessive amounts of uranium seaweed biomass was used to remove the heavy metal uranium from the aqueous solution. Uranium biosorption the heavy metal uptake performance of different biosorbents.LangmuirandFreundlichmodelsoftengenerally fit

Volesky, Bohumil

297

Synthesis of uranium nitride and uranium carbide powder by carbothermic reduction  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Uranium nitride and uranium carbide are being considered as high burnup fuels in next generation nuclear reactors and accelerated driven systems for the transmutation of nuclear waste. The same characteristics that make nitrides and carbides candidates for these applications (i.e. favorable thermal properties, mutual solubility of nitrides, etc.), also make these compositions candidate fuels for space nuclear reactors. In this paper, we discuss the synthesis and characterization of depleted uranium nitride and carbide for a space nuclear reactor program. Importantly, this project emphasized that to synthesize high quality uranium nitride and carbide, it is necessary to understand the exact stoichiometry of the oxide feedstock. (authors)

Dunwoody, J.T.; Stanek, C.R.; McClellan, K.J.; Voit, S.L.; Volz, H.M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico (United States); Hickman, R.R. [NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, Alabama (United States)

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

298

EIS-0471: Department of Energy Loan Guarantee to Support Proposed Eagle Rock Enrichment Facility in Bonneville County, Idaho  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This EIS evaluates the environmental impacts of construction, operation, and decommissioning of the proposed Eagle Rock Enrichment Facility (EREF), a gas centrifuge uranium enrichment facility to be located in a rural area in western Bonneville County, Idaho. (DOE adopted this EIS issued by NRC on 04/13/2007.)

299

Toxic Substances Control Act Uranium Enrichment Federal Facilities...  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

in Attachment I - Portsmouth and Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plants Remedial Implementation Plan. * EPA shall review all deliverables generated by DOE pursuant to this Agreement. *...

300

DOE and the United States enrichment market  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The US Department of Energy (DOE) and its predecessors have exerted a predominant influence in the uranium enrichment services industry since 1969, when it began to sell its services to private industry under a Requirement-Type Contract (RTC). After almost 25 years of providing these services to utilities throughout the world, DOE is now preparing to hand over responsibility to the emerging US Enrichment Corporation (USEC), which was created by the 1992 Energy Bill and will begin its tenure on July 1, 1993. DOE has had some notable successes, including revenue generation of about $25 billion from its domestic and foreign sales since 1969. Annual revenues from civilian dollars over the next several years. However, most of the sales attributed to these revenues took place in 1986-more than six years ago. Presently, US utility commitments are decreasing significantly; to date, US utilities have committed less than two percent of their total FY2002 enrichment requirements to DOE. In spite of the fact that DOE has enjoyed some success, its past actions, or sometimes inactions, have often been steeped in controversy that resulted in customer alienation and dissatisfaction. It is the legacy of past DOE contracting practices, increased competition, and massive contractual terminations, that USEC will inherit from DOE. Therefore, it is relevant to consider the major issues that have fashioned the current US market and resulted in USEC's initial position in the marketplace.

Rutkowski, E.E.

1993-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "highly enriched uranium" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Microbiological and Geochemical Heterogeneity in an In Situ Uranium Bioremediation Field Site  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Heterogeneity in an In Situ Uranium Bioremediation Field...and microbiology of a uranium-contaminated subsurface...oxides were highly depleted, groundwater sulfate...populations to in situ uranium bioremediation. Uranium...serious threat to human health and the natural environment...

Helen A. Vrionis; Robert T. Anderson; Irene Ortiz-Bernad; Kathleen R. O'Neill; Charles T. Resch; Aaron D. Peacock; Richard Dayvault; David C. White; Philip E. Long; Derek R. Lovley

2005-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

302

In-line assay monitor for uranium hexafluoride  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An in-line assay monitor for determining the content of uranium-235 in a uranium hexafluoride gas isotopic separation system is provided which removes the necessity of complete access to the operating parameters of the system for determining the uranium-235 content. The monitor is intended for uses such as safeguard applications to assure that weapons grade uranium is not being produced in an enrichment cascade. The method and monitor for carrying out the method involve cooling of a radiation pervious chamber connected in fluid communication with the selected point in the system to withdraw a specimen and solidify the specimen in the chamber. The specimen is irradiated by means of an ionizing radiation source of energy different from that of the 185 keV gamma emissions from the uranium-235 present in the specimen. Simultaneously, the gamma emissions from the uranium-235 of the specimen and the source emissions transmitted through the sample are counted and stored in a multiple channel analyzer. The uranium-235 content of the specimen is determined from the comparison of the accumulated 185 keV energy counts and the reference energy counts. The latter is used to measure the total uranium isotopic content of the specimen. The process eliminates the necessity of knowing the system operating conditions and yet obtains the necessary data without need for large scintillation crystals and sophisticated mechanical designs.

Wallace, Steven A. (Knoxville, TN)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

303

Depleted Uranium Technical Brief  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and radiological health concerns involved with depleted uranium in the environment. This technical brief was developed to address the common misconception that depleted uranium represents only a radiological healthDepleted Uranium Technical Brief United States Environmental Protection Agency Office of Air

304

Isotopic investigation of the colloidal mobility of depleted uranium in a podzolic soil  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The mobility and colloidal migration of uranium were investigated in a soil where limited amounts of anthropogenic uranium (depleted in the 235U isotope) were deposited, adding to the naturally occurring uranium. The colloidal fraction was assumed to correspond to the operational fraction between 10kDa and 1.2?m after (ultra)filtration. Experimental leaching tests indicate that approximately 815% of uranium is desorbed from the soil. Significant enrichment of the leachate in the depleted uranium (DU) content indicates that uranium from recent anthropogenic DU deposit is weakly bound to soil aggregates and more mobile than geologically occurring natural uranium (NU). Moreover, 80% of uranium in leachates was located in the colloidal fractions. Nevertheless, the percentage of DU in the colloidal and dissolved fractions suggests that NU is mainly associated with the non-mobile coarser fractions of the soil. A field investigation revealed that the calculated percentages of DU in soil and groundwater samples result in the enhanced mobility of uranium downstream from the deposit area. Colloidal uranium represents between 10% and 32% of uranium in surface water and between 68% and 90% of uranium in groundwater where physicochemical parameters are similar to those of the leachates. Finally, as observed in batch leaching tests, the colloidal fractions of groundwater contain slightly less DU than the dissolved fraction, indicating that DU is primarily associated with macromolecules in dissolved fraction.

S. Harguindeguy; P. Cranon; F. Pointurier; M. Potin-Gautier; G. Lespes

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

305

Depleted and Recyclable Uranium in the United States: Inventories and Options  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

International consumption of uranium currently outpaces production by nearly a factor of two. Secondary supplies from dismantled nuclear weapons, along with civilian and governmental stockpiles, are being used to make up the difference but supplies are limited. Large amounts of {sup 235}U are contained in spent nuclear fuel as well as in the tails left over from past uranium enrichment. The usability of these inhomogeneous uranium supplies depends on their isotopics. We present data on the {sup 235}U content of spent nuclear fuel and depleted uranium tails in the US and discuss the factors that affect its marketability and alternative uses. (authors)

Schneider, Erich; Scopatza, Anthony [The University of Texas at Austin, 1 University Station C2200, Austin TX 78712 (United States); Deinert, Mark [The University of Texas at Austin, 1 University Station C2200, Austin TX 78712 (United States); Cornell University, Ithaca NY 14853 (United States)

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

306

"2012 Uranium Marketing Annual Report"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

5. Enrichment service sellers to owners and operators of U.S. civilian nuclear power reactors, 2010-2012" 5. Enrichment service sellers to owners and operators of U.S. civilian nuclear power reactors, 2010-2012" 2010,2011,2012 "AREVA NC, Inc. (was COGEMA, Inc.)","Advance Uranium Asset Management Ltd.","Advance Uranium Asset Management Ltd." "LES, LLC (Louisiana Energy Services)","AREVA NC, Inc.","AREVA NC, Inc." "NUKEM, Inc.","CNEIC (China Nuclear Energy Industry Corporation)","CNEIC (China Nuclear Energy Industry Corporation)" "UG U.S.A., Inc.","Energy Northwest","LES, LLC (Louisiana Energy Services)" "URENCO, Inc.","LES, LLC (Louisiana Energy Services)","NextEra Energy Seabrook" "USEC, Inc. (United States Enrichment Corporation)","NUKEM, Inc.","NUKEM, Inc."

307

Uranium Marketing Annual Report - Release Date: May 31, 2011  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

5. Enrichment service sellers to owners and operators of U.S. civilian nuclear power reactors, 2010-2012 5. Enrichment service sellers to owners and operators of U.S. civilian nuclear power reactors, 2010-2012 2010 2011 2012 AREVA NC, Inc. (was COGEMA, Inc.) Advance Uranium Asset Management Ltd. Advance Uranium Asset Management Ltd. LES (Louisiana Energy Services) AREVA NC, Inc. AREVA NC, Inc. NUKEM, Inc. CNEIC (China Nuclear Energy Industry Corporation) CNEIC (China Nuclear Energy Industry Corporation) UG U.S.A., Inc. Energy Northwest LES, LLC (Louisiana Energy Services) URENCO, Inc. LES, LLC (Louisiana Energy Services) NextEra Energy Seabrook USEC, Inc. (United States Enrichment Corporation) NUKEM, Inc. NUKEM, Inc. Westinghouse Electric Company TENEX (Techsnabexport Joint Stock Company) TENEX (Techsnabexport Joint Stock Company) URENCO, Inc. UG U.S.A., Inc.

308

The RERTR (Reduced Enrichment Research and Test Reactor) Program: Progress and plans  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The progress of the Reduced Enrichment Research and Test Reactor (RERTR) Program is described. After a brief summary of the results which the RERTR Program, in collaboration with its many international partners, had achieved by the end of 1986, the activities, results, and new developments which occurred in 1987 are reviewed. Irradiation of the second miniplate series, concentrating on U/sub 3/Si/sub 2/-Al and U/sub 3/Si-Al fuels, was completed and postirradiation examinations were performed on many of its miniplates. The whole-core ORR demonstration with U/sub 3/Si/sub 2/-Al fuel at 4.8 g U/cm/sup 3/ was completed at the end of March with excellent results and with 29 elements estimated to have reached at least 40% average burnup. Good progress was made in the area of LEU usage for the production of fission /sup 99/Mo, and in the coordination of safety evaluations related to LEU conversions of US university reactors. Planned activities include testing and demonstrating advanced fuels intended to allow use of reduced enrichment uranium in very-high-performance reactors. Two candidate fuels are U/sub 3/Si-Al with 19.75% enrichment and U/sub 3/Si/sub 2/-Al with 45% enrichment. Demonstration of these fuels will include irradiation of full-size elements and, possibly, a full-core demonstration. Achievement of the final program goals is still projected for 1990. This progress could not have been possible without the close international cooperation which has existed from the beginning, and which is essential to the ultimate success of the RERTR Program.

Travelli, A.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

309

Performance and safety parameters for the high flux isotope reactor  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A Monte Carlo depletion model for the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) Cycle 400 and its use in calculating parameters of relevance to the reactor performance and safety during the reactor cycle are presented in this paper. This depletion model was developed to serve as a reference for the design of a low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel for an ongoing study to convert HFIR from high-enriched uranium (HEU) to LEU fuel; both HEU and LEU depletion models use the same methodology and ENDF/B-VII nuclear data as discussed in this paper. The calculated HFIR Cycle 400 parameters, which are compared with measurement data from critical experiments performed at HFIR, data included in the HFIR Safety Analysis Report (SAR), or data reported by previous calculations, provide a basis for verification or updating of the corresponding SAR data. (authors)

Ilas, G. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, 1 Bethel Valley Road, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6172 (United States); Primm III, T. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, 1 Bethel Valley Road, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6172 (United States); Primm Consulting, LLC, 945 Laurel Hill Road, Knoxville, TN 37923 (United States)

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

310

GC GUIDANCE ON BARTER TRANSACTIONS INVOLVING DOE-OWNED URANIUM  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

GC GUIDANCE ON BARTER TRANSACTIONS INVOLVING DOE-OWNED URANIUM GC GUIDANCE ON BARTER TRANSACTIONS INVOLVING DOE-OWNED URANIUM The Department of Energy has on a variety of occasions engaged in transactions under which it bartered uranium to which it has title for goods or services . This guidance memorializes the results of analyses previously directed to individual proposed transactions . For the reasons discussed below, we conclude that the Atomic Energy Act of 1954' , as amended, (AEA), authorizes such barter transactions. Background : DOE Barter Transactions In a number of instances, DOE has engaged in transactions involving the barter of DOE-owned uranium2 in exchange for various products or services. For example, DOE entered into a transaction with the United States Enrichment Corporation (USEC), under which USEC would

311

Experimental partitioning of uranium between liquid iron sulfide and liquid silicate: Implications for radioactivity in the Earth's core  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Experimental partitioning of uranium between liquid iron sulfide and liquid silicate: Implications Measurable uranium (U) is found in metal sulfide liquids in equilibrium with molten silicate at conditions shows that K is depleted in the Earth by $50%, while U and Th are slightly enriched (Palme and O

Minarik, William

312

PII S0016-7037(00)00886-9 Remobilization of authigenic uranium in marine sediments by bioturbation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

PII S0016-7037(00)00886-9 Remobilization of authigenic uranium in marine sediments by bioturbation in revised form November 23, 2001) Abstract--Uranium behaves as a nearly conservative element in oxygenated precip- itation in chemically reducing sediments. Pore-water depletion of U and sediment enrichment of U

van Geen, Alexander

313

FAQ 1-What is uranium?  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

What is uranium? What is uranium? What is uranium? Uranium is a radioactive element that occurs naturally in low concentrations (a few parts per million) in soil, rock, and surface and groundwater. It is the heaviest naturally occurring element, with an atomic number of 92. Uranium in its pure form is a silver-colored heavy metal that is nearly twice as dense as lead. In nature, uranium atoms exist as several isotopes: primarily uranium-238, uranium-235, and a very small amount of uranium-234. (Isotopes are different forms of an element that have the same number of protons in the nucleus, but a different number of neutrons.) In a typical sample of natural uranium, most of the mass (99.27%) consists of atoms of uranium-238. About 0.72% of the mass consists of atoms of uranium-235, and a very small amount (0.0055% by mass) is uranium-234.

314

EPA Update: NESHAP Uranium Activities  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for underground uranium mining operations (Subpart B) EPA regulatory requirements for operating uranium mill for Underground Uranium Mining Operations (Subpart B) #12;5 EPA Regulatory Requirements for Underground Uranium uranium mines include: · Applies to 10,000 tons/yr ore production, or 100,000 tons/mine lifetime · Ambient

315

Uranium hexafluoride public risk  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The limiting value for uranium toxicity in a human being should be based on the concentration of uranium (U) in the kidneys. The threshold for nephrotoxicity appears to lie very near 3 {mu}g U per gram kidney tissue. There does not appear to be strong scientific support for any other improved estimate, either higher or lower than this, of the threshold for uranium nephrotoxicity in a human being. The value 3 {mu}g U per gram kidney is the concentration that results from a single intake of about 30 mg soluble uranium by inhalation (assuming the metabolism of a standard person). The concentration of uranium continues to increase in the kidneys after long-term, continuous (or chronic) exposure. After chronic intakes of soluble uranium by workers at the rate of 10 mg U per week, the concentration of uranium in the kidneys approaches and may even exceed the nephrotoxic limit of 3 {mu}g U per gram kidney tissue. Precise values of the kidney concentration depend on the biokinetic model and model parameters assumed for such a calculation. Since it is possible for the concentration of uranium in the kidneys to exceed 3 {mu}g per gram tissue at an intake rate of 10 mg U per week over long periods of time, we believe that the kidneys are protected from injury when intakes of soluble uranium at the rate of 10 mg U per week do not continue for more than two consecutive weeks. For long-term, continuous occupational exposure to low-level, soluble uranium, we recommend a reduced weekly intake limit of 5 mg uranium to prevent nephrotoxicity in workers. Our analysis shows that the nephrotoxic limit of 3 {mu}g U per gram kidney tissues is not exceeded after long-term, continuous uranium intake at the intake rate of 5 mg soluble uranium per week.

Fisher, D.R.; Hui, T.E.; Yurconic, M.; Johnson, J.R.

1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

316

Occurrence of naturally enriched {sup 235}U: Implications for plutonium behavior in natural environments  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

It is generally accepted that uranium and most of the fission products, with the exception of the alkalis, alkaline earths and rare gases, remained in the irradiated uranium oxides during the nuclear reactions that took place 2.0 Ga ago in the Oklo uranium deposit (Gabon). New isotope investigations show that clay minerals from argillaceous rocks neighboring the natural fission reactor 10 at Oklo have depleted {sup 235}U with {sup 235}U/{sup 238}U ratios ranging between 0.00560 and the common natural value of 0.00725. One sample, however, is enriched in {sup 235}U with a {sup 235}U/{sup 238}U ratio of 0.007682. Leach experiments of this sample with dilute 1N HCl revealed that the {sup 235}U enrichment is actually restricted to the insoluble residue ({sup 235}U/{sup 238}U = 0.010511), whereas the leachate remains depleted in {sup 235}U. This unique discovery of very enriched uranium, together with samarium, neodymium, rubidium, and strontium isotopic analyses, indicate that a small amount of plutonium could have been more mobile than uranium in the reactor 10, and it is suggested that plutonium was incorporated in the crystallographic structure of clay minerals such as the chlorites. 28 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

Bros, R.; Gauthier-Lafaye, F.; Stille, P. [CNRS, Strasbourg (FR)] [CNRS, Strasbourg (FR); Turpin, L. [CNRS, Gif-sur-Yvette (FR)] [CNRS, Gif-sur-Yvette (FR); Holliger, Ph. [Centre d`Etudes Nucleaires, Grenoble (FR)] [Centre d`Etudes Nucleaires, Grenoble (FR)

1993-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

317

Safety of CANDU reactors utilizing plutonium-enriched mixed-oxide fuel  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Substantial quantities of plutonium have become available as a result of nuclear arms reduction agreements. Irradiation of plutonium enriched fuel in Canadian deuterium uranium (CANDU) heavy water moderated and cooled reactors, of which there are 22 in operation in Canada, has been evaluated as a means of managing it. This paper summarizes the results of a study of reactor safety.

Chan, P.; Feinroth, H.; Luxat, J.; Pendergast, D.

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

318

Standard test method for measurement of 235U fraction using enrichment meter principle  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1.1 This test method covers the quantitative determination of the fraction of 235U in uranium using measurement of the 185.7 keV gamma-ray produced during the decay of 235U. 1.2 This test method is applicable to items containing homogeneous uranium-bearing materials of known chemical composition in which the compound is considered infinitely thick with respect to 185.7 keV gamma-rays. 1.3 This test method can be used for the entire range of 235U fraction as a weight percent, from depleted (0.2 % 235U) to highly enriched (97.5 % 235U). 1.4 Measurement of items that have not reached secular equilibrium between 238U and 234Th may not produce the stated bias when low-resolution detectors are used with the computational method listed in Annex A2. 1.5 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. 1.6 This standard may involve hazardous materials, operations, and equipment. This standard does not purport to address all of the safety co...

American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

319

A Non-Proliferating Fuel Cycle: No Enrichment, Reprocessing or Accessible Spent Fuel - 12375  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Current fuel cycles offer a number of opportunities for access to plutonium, opportunities to create highly enriched uranium and access highly radioactive wastes to create nuclear weapons and 'dirty' bombs. The non-proliferating fuel cycle however eliminates or reduces such opportunities and access by eliminating the mining, milling and enrichment of uranium. The non-proliferating fuel cycle also reduces the production of plutonium per unit of energy created, eliminates reprocessing and the separation of plutonium from the spent fuel and the creation of a stream of high-level waste. It further simplifies the search for land based deep geologic repositories and interim storage sites for spent fuel in the USA by disposing of the spent fuel in deep sub-seabed sediments after storing the spent fuel at U.S. Navy Nuclear Shipyards that have the space and all of the necessary equipment and security already in place. The non-proliferating fuel cycle also reduces transportation risks by utilizing barges for the collection of spent fuel and transport to the Navy shipyards and specially designed ships to take the spent fuel to designated disposal sites at sea and to dispose of them there in deep sub-seabed sediments. Disposal in the sub-seabed sediments practically eliminates human intrusion. Potential disposal sites include Great Meteor East and Southern Nares Abyssal Plain. Such sites then could easily become international disposal sites since they occur in the open ocean. It also reduces the level of human exposure in case of failure because of the large physical and chemical dilution and the elimination of a major pathway to man-seawater is not potable. Of course, the recovery of uranium from sea water and the disposal of spent fuel in sub-seabed sediments must be proven on an industrial scale. All other technologies are already operating on an industrial scale. If externalities, such as reduced terrorist threats, environmental damage (including embedded emissions), long term care, reduced access to 'dirty' bomb materials, the social and political costs of siting new facilities and the psychological impact of no solution to the nuclear waste problem, were taken into account, the costs would be far lower than those of the present fuel cycle. (authors)

Parker, Frank L. [Vanderbilt University (United States)

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

320

Environmental and health consequences of depleted uranium use in the 1991 Gulf War  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Depleted uranium (DU) is a by-product of the 235U radionuclide enrichment processes for nuclear reactors or nuclear weapons. DU in the metallic form has high density and hardness as well as pyrophoric properties, which makes it superior to the classical tungsten armour-piercing munitions. Military use of DU has been recently a subject of considerable concern, not only to radioecologists but also public opinion in terms of possible health hazards arising from its radioactivity and chemical toxicity. In this review, the results of uranium content measurements in different environmental samples performed by authors in Kuwait after Gulf War are presented with discussion concerning possible environmental and health effects for the local population. It was found that uranium concentration in the surface soil samples ranged from 0.3 to 2.5 ?g g?1 with an average value of 1.1 ?g g?1, much lower than world average value of 2.8 ?g g?1. The solid fallout samples showed similar concentrations varied from 0.3 to 1.7 ?g g?1 (average 1.47 ?g g?1). Only the average concentration of U in solid particulate matter in surface air equal to 0.24 ng g?1 was higher than the usually observed values of ?0.1 ng g?1 but it was caused by the high dust concentration in the air in that region. Calculated on the basis of these measurements, the exposure to uranium for the Kuwait and southern Iraq population does not differ from the world average estimation. Therefore, the widely spread information in newspapers and Internet (see for example: [CADU NEWS, 2003. http://www.cadu.org.uk/news/index.htm (313)]) concerning dramatic health deterioration for Iraqi citizens should not be linked directly with their exposure to DU after the Gulf War.

Henryk Bem; Firyal Bou-Rabee

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "highly enriched uranium" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Uranium Marketing Annual Report  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

4. Uranium sellers to owners and operators of U.S. civilian nuclear power reactors, 2010-2012 2010 2011 2012 4. Uranium sellers to owners and operators of U.S. civilian nuclear power reactors, 2010-2012 2010 2011 2012 American Fuel Resources, LLC Advance Uranium Asset Management Ltd. (was Uranium Asset Management) Advance Uranium Asset Management Ltd. (was Uranium Asset Management) AREVA NC, Inc. (was COGEMA, Inc.) American Fuel Resources, LLC American Fuel Resources, LLC BHP Billiton Olympic Dam Corporation Pty Ltd AREVA NC, Inc. AREVA NC, Inc. CAMECO BHP Billiton Olympic Dam Corporation Pty Ltd BHP Billiton Olympic Dam Corporation Pty Ltd ConverDyn CAMECO CAMECO Denison Mines Corp. ConverDyn ConverDyn Energy Resources of Australia Ltd. Denison Mines Corp. Energy Fuels Resources Energy USA, Inc. Effective Energy N.V. Energy Resources of Australia Ltd.

322

Process for continuous production of metallic uranium and uranium alloys  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method is described for forming metallic uranium, or a uranium alloy, from uranium oxide in a manner which substantially eliminates the formation of uranium-containing wastes. A source of uranium dioxide is first provided, for example, by reducing uranium trioxide (UO{sub 3}), or any other substantially stable uranium oxide, to form the uranium dioxide (UO{sub 2}). This uranium dioxide is then chlorinated to form uranium tetrachloride (UCl{sub 4}), and the uranium tetrachloride is then reduced to metallic uranium by reacting the uranium chloride with a metal which will form the chloride of the metal. This last step may be carried out in the presence of another metal capable of forming one or more alloys with metallic uranium to thereby lower the melting point of the reduced uranium product. The metal chloride formed during the uranium tetrachloride reduction step may then be reduced in an electrolysis cell to recover and recycle the metal back to the uranium tetrachloride reduction operation and the chlorine gas back to the uranium dioxide chlorination operation. 4 figs.

Hayden, H.W. Jr.; Horton, J.A.; Elliott, G.R.B.

1995-06-06T23:59:59.000Z

323

Uranium Marketing Annual Report - Release Date: May 31, 2011  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

S2. Uranium feed deliveries, enrichment services, and uranium loaded by owners and operators of U.S. civilian nuclear power reactors, 1994-2012 S2. Uranium feed deliveries, enrichment services, and uranium loaded by owners and operators of U.S. civilian nuclear power reactors, 1994-2012 Million Pounds U3O8 Equivalent 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 Feed Deliveries by Owners and Operators of U.S. Civilian Nuclear Power Reactors 37.6 44.3 49.1 40.3 40.6 43.9 47.8 47.3 54.7 49.3 53.4 52.9 56.6 49.0 43.4 51.9 45.5 51.3 52.1 Uranium in Fuel Assemblies Loaded into U.S. Civilian Nuclear Power Reactors 40.4 51.1 46.2 48.2 38.2 58.8 51.5 52.7 57.2 62.3 50.1 58.3 51.7 45.5 51.3 49.4 44.3 50.9 49.5 Million Separative Work Units (SWU)

324

THE ENERGY SPECTRA OF URANIUM ATOMS SPUTTERED FROM URANIUM METAL AND URANIUM DIOXIDE TARGETS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

THE ENERGY SPECTRA OF URANIUM ATOMS SPUTTERED FROM URANIUM METAL AND URANIUM DIOXIDE TARGETS Thesis. I have benefitted from conversations with many persons w~ile engaged in this project. I would like

Winfree, Erik

325

Uranium - thorium series study on Yucatan slope cores  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

substance and a corresponding enrichment in another. Soils, on being eroded, 14 adhorb dissolved uranium from runoff and ocean water and show a progressive change in U "/U activity ratios from 0. 9 in soils to 0, 95 in river muds to 1. 15 in recently... URANIUM ? THORIUM SERIES STUDY ON YUCATAN SLOPE CORES A Thesis by Mary Elizabeth Exner Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August, 1972...

Exner, Mary Elizabeth

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

326

A novel hohlraum with ultrathin depleted-uranium-nitride coating layer for low hard x-ray emission and high radiation temperature  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

An ultra-thin layer of uranium nitrides (UN) has been coated on the inner surface of the depleted uranium hohlraum (DUH), which has been proved by our experiment can prevent the oxidization of Uranium (U) effectively. Comparative experiments between the novel depleted uranium hohlraum and pure golden (Au) hohlraum are implemented on Shenguang III prototype laser facility. Under the laser intensity of 6*10^14 W/cm2, we observe that, the hard x-ray (> 1.8 keV) fraction of this uranium hohlraum decreases by 61% and the peak intensity of total x-ray flux (0.1 keV ~ 5 keV) increases by 5%. Two dimensional radiation hydrodynamic code LARED are exploited to interpret the above observations. Our result for the first time indicates the advantage of the UN-coated DUH in generating the uniform x-ray field with a quasi Planckian spectrum and thus has important implications in optimizing the ignition hohlraum design.

Guo, Liang; Xing, Peifeng; Li, Sanwei; Yi, Taimin; Kuang, Longyu; Li, Zhichao; Li, Renguo; Wu, Zheqing; Jing, Longfei; Zhang, Wenhai; Zhan, Xiayu; Yang, Dong; Jiang, Bobi; Yang, Jiamin; Liu, Shenye; Jiang, Shaoen; Li, Yongsheng; Liu, Jie; Huo, Wenyi; Lan, Ke

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

327

Uranium contamination of the Aral Sea  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Located in an endorrheic basin, the Aral Sea is mainly fed by water from two large rivers, the Syrdarya and the Amudarya. As a result, contaminants in dissolved and suspended form discharged by the rivers are accumulating in the lake. The northern Small Aral water contained 37g l?1uranium and water in the western basin of the Large Aral up to 141g l?1uranium in 2002, 2004 and 2006. The present day uranium concentrations in Aral Sea water mainly originate from the Syrdarya River due to uranium mining and tailings in the river watershed, and have been elevated up to 5 times compared to the pre-desiccation times by the ongoing desiccation in the western basin of the Large Aral. Current data indicate that groundwater does not seem to contribute much to the uranium budget. The uranium concentration in the lake is controlled by internal lake processes. Due to the high ionic strength of the Aral Sea water uranium is kept soluble. 238U/Cl?mass ratios range from 5.88 to 6.15g g?1in the Small Aral and from 3.00 to 3.32g g?1in the Large Aral. Based on the238U/Cl?mass ratios, a removal rate of 8% uranium from the water column inventory to the sediments has been estimated for anoxic waters, and it ranges between 2% and 5% in oxic waters, over periods of time without mixing. Most of the uranium removal seems to occur by co-precipitation with calcite and gypsum both in anoxic and oxic waters. According to simulations with PHREEQC, uraninite precipitation contributes little to the removal from anoxic Aral Sea water. In most of the sampled locations, water column removal of uranium matches the sediment inventory. Based on budget calculations, the future development of uranium load in the Aral Sea has been estimated for different scenarios. If the Syrdarya River discharge is below or in balance with the loss by evaporation, the uranium concentration in the Small Aral will increase from 37 g l1to 55g l?1in 20years time. When the river discharge is larger than loss by evaporation, present-day uranium concentration in the lake may be kept at the current level or even decrease slightly. From the ecotoxicological point of view, an increase in Syrdarya River discharge as the major water source will be crucial for the water quality of the Small Aral, despite its high uranium load. However, as it is intended to restore fishery in the Small Aral, accumulation of uranium in fish has to be monitored. Since the western basin of the Large Aral received no Syrdarya River water since 2005, and may become disconnected from the eastern basin, the slightly higher observed uranium removal from anoxic waters may result in a decrease in uranium concentrations in the western basin by 20% in 20years time.

Jana Friedrich

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

328

Uranium industry annual 1993  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Uranium production in the United States has declined dramatically from a peak of 43.7 million pounds U{sub 3}O{sub 8} (16.8 thousand metric tons uranium (U)) in 1980 to 3.1 million pounds U{sub 3}O{sub 8} (1.2 thousand metric tons U) in 1993. This decline is attributed to the world uranium market experiencing oversupply and intense competition. Large inventories of uranium accumulated when optimistic forecasts for growth in nuclear power generation were not realized. The other factor which is affecting U.S. uranium production is that some other countries, notably Australia and Canada, possess higher quality uranium reserves that can be mined at lower costs than those of the United States. Realizing its competitive advantage, Canada was the world`s largest producer in 1993 with an output of 23.9 million pounds U{sub 3}O{sub 8} (9.2 thousand metric tons U). The U.S. uranium industry, responding to over a decade of declining market prices, has downsized and adopted less costly and more efficient production methods. The main result has been a suspension of production from conventional mines and mills. Since mid-1992, only nonconventional production facilities, chiefly in situ leach (ISL) mining and byproduct recovery, have operated in the United States. In contrast, nonconventional sources provided only 13 percent of the uranium produced in 1980. ISL mining has developed into the most cost efficient and environmentally acceptable method for producing uranium in the United States. The process, also known as solution mining, differs from conventional mining in that solutions are used to recover uranium from the ground without excavating the ore and generating associated solid waste. This article describes the current ISL Yang technology and its regulatory approval process, and provides an analysis of the factors favoring ISL mining over conventional methods in a declining uranium market.

Not Available

1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

329

DUSCOBS - a depleted-uranium silicate backfill for transport, storage, and disposal of spent nuclear fuel  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A Depleted Uranium Silicate COntainer Backfill System (DUSCOBS) is proposed that would use small, isotopically-depleted uranium silicate glass beads as a backfill material inside storage, transport, and repository waste packages containing spent nuclear fuel (SNF). The uranium silicate glass beads would fill all void space inside the package including the coolant channels inside SNF assemblies. Based on preliminary analysis, the following benefits have been identified. DUSCOBS improves repository waste package performance by three mechanisms. First, it reduces the radionuclide releases from SNF when water enters the waste package by creating a local uranium silicate saturated groundwater environment that suppresses (1) the dissolution and/or transformation of uranium dioxide fuel pellets and, hence, (2) the release of radionuclides incorporated into the SNF pellets. Second, the potential for long-term nuclear criticality is reduced by isotopic exchange of enriched uranium in SNF with the depleted uranium (DU) in the glass. Third, the backfill reduces radiation interactions between SNF and the local environment (package and local geology) and thus reduces generation of hydrogen, acids, and other chemicals that degrade the waste package system. In addition, the DUSCOBS improves the integrity of the package by acting as a packing material and ensures criticality control for the package during SNF storage and transport. Finally, DUSCOBS provides a potential method to dispose of significant quantities of excess DU from uranium enrichment plants at potential economic savings. DUSCOBS is a new concept. Consequently, the concept has not been optimized or demonstrated in laboratory experiments.

Forsberg, C.W.; Pope, R.B.; Ashline, R.C.; DeHart, M.D.; Childs, K.W.; Tang, J.S.

1995-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

330

The geochemistry of uranium in the Orca Basin  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

inhibit=. vertical mixing between basin brine and overlying seawater. This severely limits the transport of hexa- valent uranium across this boundary. Second, the major depositional process in the basin is mass transport of sediments from... The continuing growth of nuclear power combined with the steady depletion of existing high-grade uranium ore has brought about an increase in the use of and search for lower-grade uranium deposits. According to Lieberman (1976), there is little undiscovered...

Weber, Frederick Fewell

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

331

Overview of enrichment plant safeguards  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The relationship of enrichment plant safeguards to US nonproliferation objectives and to the operation and management of enrichment facilities is reviewed. During the review, the major components of both domestic and international safeguards systems for enrichment plants are discussed. In discussing domestic safeguards systems, examples of the technology currently in use to support nuclear materials accountability are described including the measurement methods, procedures and equipment used for weighing, sampling, chemical and isotopic analyses and nondestructive assay techniques. Also discussed is how the information obtained as part of the nuclear material accountancy task is useful to enrichment plant operations. International material accountancy verification and containment/surveillance concepts for enrichment plants are discussed, and the technologies presently being developed for international safeguards in enrichment plants are identified and the current development status is reported.

Swindle, D.W. Jr.; Wheeler, L.E.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

332

Domestic Uranium Production Report  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

2 W W W W W W W W W W W Total Mill Feed W W W W W W W W W W W Uranium Concentrate Produced at U.S. Mills (thousand pounds U3O8) W W W W W W W W W W W Uranium Concentrate...

333

Polyethylene Encapsulated Depleted Uranium  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Poly DU Poly DU Polyethylene Encapsulated Depleted Uranium Technology Description: Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) has completed preliminary work to investigate the feasibility of encapsulating DU in low density polyethylene to form a stable, dense product. DU loadings as high as 90 wt% were achieved. A maximum product density of 4.2 g/cm3 was achieved using UO3, but increased product density using UO2 is estimated at 6.1 g/cm3. Additional product density improvements up to about 7.2 g/cm3 were projected using DU aggregate in a hybrid technique known as micro/macroencapsulation.[1] A U.S. patent for this process has been received.[2] Figure 1 Figure 1: DU Encapsulated in polyethylene samples produced at BNL containing 80 wt % depleted UO3 A recent DU market study by Kapline Enterprises, Inc. for DOE thoroughly identified and rated potential applications and markets for DU metal and oxide materials.[3] Because of its workability and high DU loading capability, the polyethylene encapsulated DU could readily be fabricated as counterweights/ballast (for use in airplanes, helicopters, ships and missiles), flywheels, armor, and projectiles. Also, polyethylene encapsulated DU is an effective shielding material for both gamma and neutron radiation, with potential application for shielding high activity waste (e.g., ion exchange resins, glass gems), spent fuel dry storage casks, and high energy experimental facilities (e.g., accelerator targets) to reduce radiation exposures to workers and the public.

334

Uranium Marketing Annual Report  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Uranium Marketing Uranium Marketing Annual Report May 2011 www.eia.gov U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 This report was prepared by the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), the statistical and analytical agency within the U.S. Department of Energy. By law, EIA's data, analyses, and forecasts are independent of approval by any other officer or employee of the United States Government. The views in this report therefore should not be construed as representing those of the Department of Energy or other Federal agencies. U.S. Energy Information Administration | 2010 Uranium Marketing Annual Report ii Contacts This report was prepared by the staff of the Renewables and Uranium Statistics Team, Office of Electricity, Renewables, and Uranium Statistics. Questions about the preparation and content of this report may be directed to Michele Simmons, Team Leader,

335

recycled_uranium.cdr  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

Recycled Uranium and Transuranics: Recycled Uranium and Transuranics: Their Relationship to Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project Introduction Historical Perspective On August 8, 1999, Energy Secretary Bill Richardson announced a comprehensive set of actions to address issues raised at the Paducah, Kentucky, Gaseous Diffusion Plant that may have had the potential to affect the health of the workers. One of the issues addressed the need to determine the extent and significance of radioactive fission products and transuranic elements in the uranium feed and waste products throughout the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) national complex. Subsequently, a DOE agency-wide Recycled Uranium Mass Balance Project (RUMBP) was initiated. For the Weldon Spring Uranium Feed Materials Plant (WSUFMP or later referred to as Weldon Spring),

336

Study of Transients in an Enrichment Closed Loop  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In the present thesis a mathematic model is presented in order to describe the dynamic behavior inside a closed enrichment loop, the latter representing a single stage of an uranium gaseous diffusion enrichment cascade.The analytical model is turned into a numerical model, and implemented through a computational code.For the verification of the model, measurements were taken in an experimental circuit using air as the process fluid.This circuit was instrumented so as to register its characteristic thermohydraulic variables.The measured transients were simulated, comparing the numerical results with the experimental measurements.A good agreement between the characteristic setting times and the thermohydraulic parameters evolution was observed.Besides, other transients of two species separation were numerically analyzed, including setting times of each magnitude, behavior of each one of them during different transients, and redistribution of concentrations.

Fernandino, M

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

337

Laser Isotope Enrichment for Medical and Industrial Applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Laser Isotope Enrichment for Medical and Industrial Applications by Jeff Eerkens (University of Missouri), Jay Kunze (Idaho State University), and Leonard Bond (Idaho National Laboratory) The principal isotope enrichment business in the world is the enrichment of uranium for commercial power reactor fuels. However, there are a number of other needs for separated isotopes. Some examples are: 1) Pure isotopic targets for irradiation to produce medical radioisotopes. 2) Pure isotopes for semiconductors. 3) Low neutron capture isotopes for various uses in nuclear reactors. 4) Isotopes for industrial tracer/identification applications. Examples of interest to medicine are targets to produce radio-isotopes such as S-33, Mo-98, Mo-100, W-186, Sn-112; while for MRI diagnostics, the non-radioactive Xe-129 isotope is wanted. For super-semiconductor applications some desired industrial isotopes are Si-28, Ga-69, Ge-74, Se-80, Te-128, etc. An example of a low cross section isotope for use in reactors is Zn-68 as a corrosion inhibitor material in nuclear reactor primary systems. Neutron activation of Ar isotopes is of interest in industrial tracer and diagnostic applications (e.g. oil-logging). . In the past few years there has been a sufficient supply of isotopes in common demand, because of huge Russian stockpiles produced with old electromagnetic and centrifuge separators previously used for uranium enrichment. Production of specialized isotopes in the USA has been largely accomplished using old calutrons (electromagnetic separators) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. These methods of separating isotopes are rather energy inefficient. Use of lasers for isotope separation has been considered for many decades. None of the proposed methods have attained sufficient proof of principal status to be economically attractive to pursue commercially. Some of the authors have succeeded in separating sulfur isotopes using a rather new and different method, known as condensation repression. In this scheme a gas, of the selected isotopes for enrichment, is irradiated with a laser at a particular wavelength that would excite only one of the isotopes. The entire gas is subject to low temperatures sufficient to cause condensation on a cold surface. Those molecules in the gas that the laser excited are not as likely to condense as are the unexcited molecules. Hence the gas drawn out of the system will be enriched in the isotope that was excited by the laser. We have evaluated the relative energy required in this process if applied on a commercial scale. We estimate the energy required for laser isotope enrichment is about 20% of that required in centrifuge separations, and 2% of that required by use of "calutrons".

Leonard Bond

2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

338

Depleted uranium: A DOE management guide  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has a management challenge and financial liability in the form of 50,000 cylinders containing 555,000 metric tons of depleted uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) that are stored at the gaseous diffusion plants. The annual storage and maintenance cost is approximately $10 million. This report summarizes several studies undertaken by the DOE Office of Technology Development (OTD) to evaluate options for long-term depleted uranium management. Based on studies conducted to date, the most likely use of the depleted uranium is for shielding of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) or vitrified high-level waste (HLW) containers. The alternative to finding a use for the depleted uranium is disposal as a radioactive waste. Estimated disposal costs, utilizing existing technologies, range between $3.8 and $11.3 billion, depending on factors such as applicability of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and the location of the disposal site. The cost of recycling the depleted uranium in a concrete based shielding in SNF/HLW containers, although substantial, is comparable to or less than the cost of disposal. Consequently, the case can be made that if DOE invests in developing depleted uranium shielded containers instead of disposal, a long-term solution to the UF{sub 6} problem is attained at comparable or lower cost than disposal as a waste. Two concepts for depleted uranium storage casks were considered in these studies. The first is based on standard fabrication concepts previously developed for depleted uranium metal. The second converts the UF{sub 6} to an oxide aggregate that is used in concrete to make dry storage casks.

NONE

1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

339

Uranium isotopes in ground water as a prospecting technique  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The isotopic concentrations of dissolved uranium were determined for 300 ground water samples near eight known uranium accumulations to see if new approaches to prospecting could be developed. It is concluded that a plot of /sup 234/U//sup 238/U activity ratio (A.R.) versus uranium concentration (C) can be used to identify redox fronts, to locate uranium accumulations, and to determine whether such accumulations are being augmented or depleted by contemporary aquifer/ground water conditions. In aquifers exhibiting flow-through hydrologic systems, up-dip ground water samples are characterized by high uranium concentration values (> 1 to 4 ppB) and down-dip samples by low uranium concentration values (less than 1 ppB). The boundary between these two regimes can usually be identified as a redox front on the basis of regional water chemistry and known uranium accumulations. Close proximity to uranium accumulations is usually indicated either by very high uranium concentrations in the ground water or by a combination of high concentration and high activity ratio values. Ground waters down-dip from such accumulations often exhibit low uranium concentration values but retain their high A.R. values. This serves as a regional indicator of possible uranium accumulations where conditions favor the continued augmentation of the deposit by precipitation from ground water. Where the accumulation is being dispersed and depleted by the ground water system, low A.R. values are observed. Results from the Gulf Coast District of Texas and the Wyoming districts are presented.

Cowart, J.B.; Osmond, J.K.

1980-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

340

U.S. Energy Information Administration / 2012 Uranium Marketing Annual Report  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

9 9 2012 Uranium Marketing Annual Report Release Date: May 16, 2013 Next Release Date: May 2014 Deliveries Uranium Concentrate Natural UF 6 Enriched UF 6 Natural UF 6 and Enriched UF 6 Total Purchases W W W W 9,807 Weighted-Average Price W W W W 59.44 Purchases W W W W 47,713 Weighted-Average Price W W W W 54.07 Purchases 28,642 W W 28,878 57,520 Weighted-Average Price 54.20 W W 55.80 54.99 Notes: Totals may not equal sum of components because of independent rounding. Weighted-average prices are not adjusted for inflation. Natural UF 6 is uranium hexafluoride. The natural UF 6 and enriched UF 6 quantity represents only the U 3 O 8 equivalent uranium-component quantity specified in the contract for each delivery of natural UF 6 and enriched UF 6 . The natural UF 6 and enriched UF 6 weighted-average price represent only the U

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "highly enriched uranium" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Pulsed DD Neutron Generator Measurements for HEU Oxide Fuel Pins Using Liquid Scintillators with Pulse Shape Discrimination  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

measurements have been performed on high-enriched uranium (HEU) oxide fuel pins and depleted uranium metal

Pennycook, Steve

342

Depleted uranium management alternatives  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report evaluates two management alternatives for Department of Energy depleted uranium: continued storage as uranium hexafluoride, and conversion to uranium metal and fabrication to shielding for spent nuclear fuel containers. The results will be used to compare the costs with other alternatives, such as disposal. Cost estimates for the continued storage alternative are based on a life-cycle of 27 years through the year 2020. Cost estimates for the recycle alternative are based on existing conversion process costs and Capital costs for fabricating the containers. Additionally, the recycle alternative accounts for costs associated with intermediate product resale and secondary waste disposal for materials generated during the conversion process.

Hertzler, T.J.; Nishimoto, D.D.

1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

343

Fernald vacuum transfer system for uranium materials repackaging  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) is the site of a former Department of Energy (DOE) uranium processing plant. When production was halted, many materials were left in an intermediate state. Some of this product material included enriched uranium compounds that had to be repackaged for shipment of off-site storage. This paper provides an overview, technical description, and status of a new application of existing technology, a vacuum transfer system, to repackage the uranium bearing compounds for shipment. The vacuum transfer system provides a method of transferring compounds from their current storage configuration into packages that meet the Department of Transportation (DOT) shipping requirements for fissile materials. This is a necessary activity, supporting removal of nuclear materials prior to site decontamination and decommissioning, key to the Fernald site's closure process.

Kaushiva, Shirley; Weekley, Clint; Molecke, Martin; Polansky, Gary

2002-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

344

A review of the environmental corrosion, fate and bioavailability of munitions grade depleted uranium  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Depleted uranium (DU) is a by-product of nuclear fuel enrichment and is used in antitank penetrators due to its high density, self-sharpening, and pyrophoric properties. Military activities have left a legacy of DU waste in terrestrial and marine environments, and there have been only limited attempts to clean up affected environments. Ten years ago, very little information was available on the dispersion of DU as penetrators hit their targets or the fate of DU penetrators left behind in environmental systems. However, the marked increase in research since then has improved our knowledge of the environmental impact of firing DU and the factors that control the corrosion of DU and its subsequent migration through the environment. In this paper, the literature is reviewed and consolidated to provide a detailed overview of the current understanding of the environmental behaviour of DU and to highlight areas that need further consideration.

Stephanie Handley-Sidhu; Miranda J. Keith-Roach; Jonathan R. Lloyd; David J. Vaughan

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

EIS-0360: Depleted Uranium Oxide Conversion Product at the Portsmouth, Ohio  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

60: Depleted Uranium Oxide Conversion Product at the 60: Depleted Uranium Oxide Conversion Product at the Portsmouth, Ohio Site EIS-0360: Depleted Uranium Oxide Conversion Product at the Portsmouth, Ohio Site Summary This site-specific EIS analyzes the construction, operation, maintenance, and decontamination and decommissioning of the proposed depleted uranium hexafluoride (DUF6) conversion facility at three alternative locations within the Portsmouth site; transportation of all cylinders (DUF6, enriched, and empty) currently stored at the East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP) near Oak Ridge, Tennessee, to Portsmouth; construction of a new cylinder storage yard at Portsmouth (if required) for ETTP cylinders; transportation of depleted uranium conversion products and waste materials to a disposal facility; transportation and sale of the hydrogen fluoride

346

Uranium in Runoff from the Gulf of Mexico Distributive Province: Anomalous Concentrations  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...calcium silicate hydrate zones. This densification...the two hydrated phases and makes the properties...calcium silicate hydrate zones and around...production and of the behavior of uranium during...illustrate the chemical behavior of ura-nium during...the phosphori,te sand. High uranium concentrations...

Roy F. Spalding; William M. Sackett

1972-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

347

Measurement and Analysis of Fission Rates in a Spherical Mockup of Uranium and Polyethylene  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Measurements of the reaction rate distribution were carried out using two kinds of Plate Micro Fission Chamber(PMFC). The first is a depleted uranium chamber and the second an enriched uranium chamber. The material in the depleted uranium chamber is strictly the same as the material in the uranium assembly. With the equation solution to conduct the isotope contribution correction, the fission rate of 238U and 235U were obtained from the fission rate of depleted uranium and enriched uranium. And then, the fission count of 238U and 235U in an individual uranium shell was obtained. In this work, MCNP5 and continuous energy cross sections ENDF/BV.0 were used for the analysis of fission rate distribution and fission count. The calculated results were compared with the experimental ones. The calculation of fission rate of DU and EU were found to agree with the measured ones within 10% except at the positions in polyethylene region and the two positions near the outer surface. Beacause the fission chamber was not co...

Tong-Hua, Zhu; Xin-Xin, Lu; Rong, Liu; Zi-Jie, Han; Li, Jiang; Mei, Wang

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

348

Ultraslow Wave Nuclear Burning of Uranium-Plutonium Fissile Medium on Epithermal Neutrons  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

For a fissile medium, originally consisting of uranium-238, the investigation of fulfillment of the wave burning criterion in a wide range of neutron energies is conducted for the first time, and a possibility of wave nuclear burning not only in the region of fast neutrons, but also for cold, epithermal and resonance ones is discovered for the first time. For the first time the results of the investigation of the Feoktistov criterion fulfillment for a fissile medium, originally consisting of uranium-238 dioxide with enrichments 4.38%, 2.00%, 1.00%, 0.71% and 0.50% with respect to uranium-235, in the region of neutron energies 0.015-10.0eV are presented. These results indicate a possibility of ultraslow wave neutron-nuclear burning mode realization in the uranium-plutonium media, originally (before the wave initiation by external neutron source) having enrichments with respect to uranium-235, corresponding to the subcritical state, in the regions of cold, thermal, epithermal and resonance neutrons. In order to validate the conclusions, based on the slow wave neutron-nuclear burning criterion fulfillment depending on the neutron energy, the numerical modeling of ultraslow wave neutron-nuclear burning of a natural uranium in the epithermal region of neutron energies (0.1-7.0eV) was conducted for the first time. The presented simulated results indicate the realization of the ultraslow wave neutron-nuclear burning of the natural uranium for the epithermal neutrons.

V. D. Rusov; V. A. Tarasov; M. V. Eingorn; S. A. Chernezhenko; A. A. Kakaev; V. M. Vashchenko; M. E. Beglaryan

2014-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

349

Domestic Uranium Production Report  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

4. U.S. uranium mills by owner, location, capacity, and operating status at end of the year, 2008-2012 4. U.S. uranium mills by owner, location, capacity, and operating status at end of the year, 2008-2012 Mill Owner Mill Name County, State (existing and planned locations) Milling Capacity (short tons of ore per day) Operating Status at End of the Year 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 Cotter Corporation Canon City Mill Fremont, Colorado 0 Standby Standby Standby Reclamation Demolished Denison White Mesa LLC White Mesa Mill San Juan, Utah 2,000 Operating Operating Operating Operating Operating Energy Fuels Resources Corporation Piñon Ridge Mill Montrose, Colorado 500 Developing Developing Developing Permitted And Licensed Partially Permitted And Licensed Kennecott Uranium Company/Wyoming Coal Resource Company Sweetwater Uranium Project Sweetwater, Wyoming 3,000 Standby Standby Standby Standby Standby

350

Domestic Uranium Production Report  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

6. Employment in the U.S. uranium production industry by category, 2003-13 person-years Year Exploration Mining Milling Processing Reclamation Total 2003 W W W W 117 321 2004 18...

351

Uranium Marketing Annual Report -  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

1. Foreign sales of uranium from U.S. suppliers and owners and operators of U.S. civilian nuclear power reactors by origin and delivery year, 2009-13 thousands pounds U3O8...

352

Uranium Marketing Annual Report  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

a. Uranium purchased by owners and operators of U.S. civilian nuclear power reactors, 1994-2013 million pounds U3O8 equivalent Delivery year Total purchased Purchased from U.S....

353

Uranium Marketing Annual Report -  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

9. Contracted purchases of uranium by owners and operators of U.S. civilian nuclear power reactors, signed in 2013, by delivery year, 2014-23 thousand pounds U3O8 equivalent Year...

354

DOE's General Counsel Determines Sudan Act Does Not Bar Areva Enrichment  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

DOE's General Counsel Determines Sudan Act Does Not Bar Areva DOE's General Counsel Determines Sudan Act Does Not Bar Areva Enrichment Services LLC Loan Application DOE's General Counsel Determines Sudan Act Does Not Bar Areva Enrichment Services LLC Loan Application December 28, 2009 - 10:57am Addthis Washington, DC - The Office of General Counsel was recently asked whether the Sudan Accountability and Divestment Act of 2007 barred the Department from considering a loan guarantee application submitted by Areva Enrichment Services LLC to help fund a uranium enrichment facility in Idaho. The simple answer is no. The Act, as passed by Congress, applies only to government procurements. It does not apply to financial assistance programs or loan guarantee programs. The Act, as passed by Congress, also applies only to the investments of the actual offerors (or contractors) for

355

Relative performance properties of the ORNL Advanced Neutron Source Reactor with reduced enrichment fuels  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Three cores for the Advanced Neutron Source reactor, differing in size, enrichment, and uranium density in the fuel meat, have been analyzed. Performance properties of the reduced enrichment cores are compared with those of the HEU reference configuration. Core lifetime estimates suggest that none of these configurations will operate for the design goal of 17 days at 330 MW. With modes increases in fuel density and/or enrichment, however, the operating lifetimes of the HEU and MEU designs can be extended to the desired length. Achieving this lifetime with LEU fuel in any of the three studies cores, however, will require the successful development of denser fuels and/or structural materials with thermal neutron absorption cross sections substantially less than that of Al-6061. Relative to the HEU reference case, the peak thermal neutron flux in cores with reduced enrichment will be diminished by about 25--30%.

Bretscher, M.M.; Deen, J.R.; Hanan, N.A.; Matos, J.E.; Mo, S.C.; Pond, R.B.; Travelli, A.; Woodruff, W.L.

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

356

Uranium pinhole collimators for I-131 SPECT imaging  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Pinhole apertures made of depleted uranium were evaluated for high-resolution SPECT brain tumor imaging of therapeutic doses (30--100 mCi) of intratumorally administered I-131 radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies. High resolution is required for imaging residual tumor tissue, although for therapeutic doses, high collimator sensitivity is less important. Resolution of uranium and tungsten pinhole apertures was compared in planar and SPECT images of I-131 sources. Planar sensitivity was studied on- and off-axis. On-axis planar resolution for uranium pinholes is higher than that of tungsten pinholes for all cases examined; full-width-half-max (FWHM) is narrower for a 3 mm uranium pinhole than for a 1 mm tungsten pinhole, indicating significantly lower penetration at pinhole edges for uranium than for tungsten. Collimator sensitivity is higher for tungsten than for uranium, which also indicates higher edge penetration for tungsten. On-axis SPECT (14.4 cm radius) scans also show better resolution for a 2 mm uranium pinhole (7.8 mm FWHM) than for a 2 mm tungsten pinhole (9.5 mm FWHM). Background radiation from a uranium collimator (102 cts/sec) is acceptably low compared to expected clinical count rates.

Tenney, C.R.; Greer, K.L.; Jaszczak, R.J. [Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States)] [Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Smith, M.F. [National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States)] [National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States)

1999-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

357

Domestic Uranium Production Report  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

10. Uranium reserve estimates at the end of 2012 10. Uranium reserve estimates at the end of 2012 million pounds U3O8 Forward Cost2 Uranium Reserve Estimates1 by Mine and Property Status, Mining Method, and State(s) $0 to $30 per pound $0 to $50 per pound $0 to $100 per pound Properties with Exploration Completed, Exploration Continuing, and Only Assessment Work W W 102.0 Properties Under Development for Production W W W Mines in Production W 21.4 W Mines Closed Temporarily and Closed Permanently W W 133.1 In-Situ Leach Mining W W 128.6 Underground and Open Pit Mining W W 175.4 Arizona, New Mexico and Utah 0 W 164.7 Colorado, Nebraska and Texas W W 40.8 Wyoming W W 98.5 Total 51.8 W 304.0 1 Sixteen respondents reported reserve estimates on 71 mines and properties. These uranium reserve estimates cannot be compared with the much larger historical data set of uranium reserves that were published in the July 2010 report U.S. Uranium Reserves Estimates at http://www.eia.gov/cneaf/nuclear/page/reserves/ures.html. Reserves, as reported here, do not necessarily imply compliance with U.S. or Canadian government definitions for purposes of investment disclosure.

358

FAQ 5-Is uranium radioactive?  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Is uranium radioactive? Is uranium radioactive? Is uranium radioactive? All isotopes of uranium are radioactive, with most having extremely long half-lives. Half-life is a measure of the time it takes for one half of the atoms of a particular radionuclide to disintegrate (or decay) into another nuclear form. Each radionuclide has a characteristic half-life. Half-lives vary from millionths of a second to billions of years. Because radioactivity is a measure of the rate at which a radionuclide decays (for example, decays per second), the longer the half-life of a radionuclide, the less radioactive it is for a given mass. The half-life of uranium-238 is about 4.5 billion years, uranium-235 about 700 million years, and uranium-234 about 25 thousand years. Uranium atoms decay into other atoms, or radionuclides, that are also radioactive and commonly called "decay products." Uranium and its decay products primarily emit alpha radiation, however, lower levels of both beta and gamma radiation are also emitted. The total activity level of uranium depends on the isotopic composition and processing history. A sample of natural uranium (as mined) is composed of 99.3% uranium-238, 0.7% uranium-235, and a negligible amount of uranium-234 (by weight), as well as a number of radioactive decay products.

359

The ultimate disposition of depleted uranium  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Significant amounts of the depleted uranium (DU) created by past uranium enrichment activities have been sold, disposed of commercially, or utilized by defense programs. In recent years, however, the demand for DU has become quite small compared to quantities available, and within the US Department of Energy (DOE) there is concern for any risks and/or cost liabilities that might be associated with the ever-growing inventory of this material. As a result, Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems), was asked to review options and to develop a comprehensive plan for inventory management and the ultimate disposition of DU accumulated at the gaseous diffusion plants (GDPs). An Energy Systems task team, under the chairmanship of T. R. Lemons, was formed in late 1989 to provide advice and guidance for this task. This report reviews options and recommends actions and objectives in the management of working inventories of partially depleted feed (PDF) materials and for the ultimate disposition of fully depleted uranium (FDU). Actions that should be considered are as follows. (1) Inspect UF{sub 6} cylinders on a semiannual basis. (2) Upgrade cylinder maintenance and storage yards. (3) Convert FDU to U{sub 3}O{sub 8} for long-term storage or disposal. This will include provisions for partial recovery of costs to offset those associated with DU inventory management and the ultimate disposal of FDU. Another recommendation is to drop the term tails'' in favor of depleted uranium'' or DU'' because the tails'' label implies that it is waste.'' 13 refs.

Not Available

1990-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

360

Status Report on the Passive Neutron Enrichment Meter (PNEM) for UF6 Cylinder Assay  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Passive Neutron Enrichment Meter (PNEM) is a nondestructive assay (NDA) system being developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). It was designed to determine {sup 235}U mass and enrichment of uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) in product, feed, and tails cylinders (i.e., 30B and 48Y cylinders). These cylinders are found in the nuclear fuel cycle at uranium conversion, enrichment, and fuel fabrication facilities. The PNEM is a {sup 3}He-based neutron detection system that consists of two briefcase-sized detector pods. A photograph of the system during characterization at LANL is shown in Fig. 1. Several signatures are currently being studied to determine the most effective measurement and data reduction technique for unfolding {sup 235}U mass and enrichment. The system collects total neutron and coincidence data for both bare and cadmium-covered detector pods. The measurement concept grew out of the success of the Uranium Cylinder Assay System (UCAS), which is an operator system at Rokkasho Enrichment Plant (REP) that uses total neutron counting to determine {sup 235}U mass in UF{sub 6} cylinders. The PNEM system was designed with higher efficiency than the UCAS in order to add coincidence counting functionality for the enrichment determination. A photograph of the UCAS with a 48Y cylinder at REP is shown in Fig. 2, and the calibration measurement data for 30B product and 48Y feed and tails cylinders is shown in Fig. 3. The data was collected in a low-background environment, meaning there is very little scatter in the data. The PNEM measurement concept was first presented at the 2010 Institute of Nuclear Materials Management (INMM) Annual Meeting. The physics design and uncertainty analysis were presented at the 2010 International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Safeguards Symposium, and the mechanical and electrical designs and characterization measurements were published in the ESARDA Bulletin in 2011.

Miller, Karen A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Swinhoe, Martyn T. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Menlove, Howard O. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Marlow, Johnna B. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-05-02T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "highly enriched uranium" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Estimation of 235U concentration in some depleted uranium samples by high resolution gamma-ray spectrometry using 185 keV and 1001 keV gamma-energies of 235U and 234mPa  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The identification of isotopic composition of depleted uranium obtained after the reprocessing of spent fuel...235U in the reprocessed uranium will be lower and their depletion depends ... of the reactor and burn...

S. Anilkumar; A. K. Deepa; K. Narayani

2007-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

362

Department of Energy and USEC Announce Decision to Delay USEC...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

especially the ongoing operations of the Highly Enriched Uranium agreement with Russia and the reliable uranium enrichment operations at Paducah, should not be affected by...

363

Quantification of the Potential Impact on Commercial Markets...  

Energy Savers [EERE]

domestic enrichment industry, taking into account the sales of uranium under the U.S.-Russia Highly Enriched Uranium Agreement (HEU Agreement) and the Suspension Agreement. DOE -...

364

The Extended Finite Element Method for High Gradient Solutions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Outline Enrichment functions for high gradient solutions Motivation High gradient inside the domain (Shocks) High gradient at the boundary (boundary layers) Optimal set of enrichment functions Numerical for high gradient solutions Outline Enrichment functions for high gradient solutions Motivation High

365

Chapter 1. Introduction Uranium is a common element in nature that has for centuries been used as a coloring agent in  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

boom starting immediately after World War II, making uranium the most important commodity in the mining). Some uranium mining continues in the United States, and relatively high-grade resources in other parts contained in the uranium nucleus.1 Another legacy of uranium exploration, mining, and ore processing were

366

Controlling uranium reactivity March 18, 2008  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for the last decade. Most of their work involves depleted uranium, a more common form of uraniumMarch 2008 Controlling uranium reactivity March 18, 2008 Uranium is an often misunderstood metal uranium research. In reality, uranium presents a wealth of possibilities for funda- mental chemistry. Many

Meyer, Karsten

367

Depleted uranium hexafluoride: Waste or resource?  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

the US Department of Energy is evaluating technologies for the storage, disposal, or re-use of depleted uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}). This paper discusses the following options, and provides a technology assessment for each one: (1) conversion to UO{sub 2} for use as mixed oxide duel, (2) conversion to UO{sub 2} to make DUCRETE for a multi-purpose storage container, (3) conversion to depleted uranium metal for use as shielding, (4) conversion to uranium carbide for use as high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) fuel. In addition, conversion to U{sub 3}O{sub 8} as an option for long-term storage is discussed.

Schwertz, N.; Zoller, J.; Rosen, R.; Patton, S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Bradley, C. [USDOE Office of Nuclear Energy, Science, Technology, Washington, DC (United States); Murray, A. [SAIC (United States)

1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

368

Method for fluorination of uranium oxide  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Highly pure uranium hexafluoride is made from uranium oxide and fluorine. The uranium oxide, which includes UO.sub.3, UO.sub.2, U.sub.3 O.sub.8 and mixtures thereof, is introduced together with a small amount of a fluorine-reactive substance, selected from alkali chlorides, silicon dioxide, silicic acid, ferric oxide, and bromine, into a constant volume reaction zone. Sufficient fluorine is charged into the zone at a temperature below approximately 0.degree. C. to provide an initial pressure of at least approximately 600 lbs/sq. in. at the ambient atmospheric temperature. The temperature is then allowed to rise in the reaction zone until reaction occurs.

Petit, George S. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

369

Uranium hexafluoride handling. Proceedings  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The United States Department of Energy, Oak Ridge Field Office, and Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., are co-sponsoring this Second International Conference on Uranium Hexafluoride Handling. The conference is offered as a forum for the exchange of information and concepts regarding the technical and regulatory issues and the safety aspects which relate to the handling of uranium hexafluoride. Through the papers presented here, we attempt not only to share technological advances and lessons learned, but also to demonstrate that we are concerned about the health and safety of our workers and the public, and are good stewards of the environment in which we all work and live. These proceedings are a compilation of the work of many experts in that phase of world-wide industry which comprises the nuclear fuel cycle. Their experience spans the entire range over which uranium hexafluoride is involved in the fuel cycle, from the production of UF{sub 6} from the naturally-occurring oxide to its re-conversion to oxide for reactor fuels. The papers furnish insights into the chemical, physical, and nuclear properties of uranium hexafluoride as they influence its transport, storage, and the design and operation of plant-scale facilities for production, processing, and conversion to oxide. The papers demonstrate, in an industry often cited for its excellent safety record, continuing efforts to further improve safety in all areas of handling uranium hexafluoride. Selected papers were processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

Not Available

1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

370

2013 Uranium Marketing Annual Report  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

year, 2009-13 Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration: Form EIA-858 "Uranium Marketing Annual Survey" (2009-13). Table 19. Foreign purchases of uranium by U.S. suppliers...

371

U.S. Energy Information Administration / 2012 Uranium Marketing Annual Report  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

1 1 2012 Uranium Marketing Annual Report Release Date: May 16, 2013 Next Release Date: May 2014 2010 2011 2012 AREVA NC, Inc. (was COGEMA, Inc.) Advance Uranium Asset Management Ltd. Advance Uranium Asset Management Ltd. LES, LLC (Louisiana Energy Services) AREVA NC, Inc. AREVA NC, Inc. NUKEM, Inc. CNEIC (China Nuclear Energy Industry Corporation) CNEIC (China Nuclear Energy Industry Corporation) UG U.S.A., Inc. Energy Northwest LES, LLC (Louisiana Energy Services) URENCO, Inc. LES, LLC (Louisiana Energy Services) NextEra Energy Seabrook USEC, Inc. (United States Enrichment Corporation) NUKEM, Inc. NUKEM, Inc. Westinghouse Electric Company TENEX (Techsnabexport Joint Stock Company) TENEX (Techsnabexport Joint Stock Company) URENCO, Inc. UG U.S.A., Inc. USEC, Inc. (United States Enrichment Corporation)

372

Removal of residual uranium in simulated radwaste solution by TBP extraction  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The extraction behavior of uranium in a multicomponent system simulated on the basis of high-level liquid waste was examined in order to find effective conditions for the removal of residual uranium in a simulated radwaste solution by the TBP solvent extraction method. While the conventional semiempirical equation for the distribution coefficient of uranium could be used in a system composed of only uranium and nitric acid, it was found to be unsuitable for a multicomponent system where the concentration of uranium is not dominant. Uranium extractability by TBP was found to be limited in multicomponents systems regardless of high TBP concentration, phase ratio, and extraction times because of the presence of neodymium and iron together with uranium in the systems.

Kim, Kwang-Wook; Lee, Eil-Hee; Shin, Young-Joon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)] [and others

1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

373

Corrosion-resistant uranium  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention is directed to the protecting of uranium and uranium alloy articles from corrosion by providing the surfaces of the articles with a layer of an ion-plated metal selected from aluminum and zinc to a thickness of at least 60 microinches and then converting at least the outer surface of the ion-plated layer of aluminum or zinc to aluminum chromate or zinc chromate. This conversion of the aluminum or zinc to the chromate form considerably enhances the corrosion resistance of the ion plating so as to effectively protect the coated article from corrosion.

Hovis, Jr., Victor M. (Kingston, TN); Pullen, William C. (Knoxville, TN); Kollie, Thomas G. (Oak Ridge, TN); Bell, Richard T. (Knoxville, TN)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

374

Corrosion-resistant uranium  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention is directed to the protecting of uranium and uranium alloy articles from corrosion by providing the surfaces of the articles with a layer of an ion-plated metal selected from aluminum and zinc to a thickness of at least 60 microinches and then converting at least the outer surface of the ion-plated layer of aluminum or zinc to aluminum chromate or zinc chromate. This conversion of the aluminum or zinc to the chromate form considerably enhances the corrosion resistance of the ion plating so as to effectively protect the coated article from corrosion.

Hovis, V.M. Jr.; Pullen, W.C.; Kollie, T.G.; Bell, R.T.

1981-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

375

FEMO, A FLOW AND ENRICHMENT MONITOR FOR VERIFYING COMPLIANCE WITH INTERNATIONAL SAFEGUARDS REQUIREMENTS AT A GAS CENTRIFUGE ENRICHMENT FACILITY  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A number of countries have received construction licenses or are contemplating the construction of large-capacity gas centrifuge enrichment plants (GCEPs). The capability to independently verify nuclear material flows is a key component of international safeguards approaches, and the IAEA does not currently have an approved method to continuously monitor the mass flow of 235U in uranium hexafluoride (UF6) gas streams. Oak Ridge National Laboratory is investigating the development of a flow and enrichment monitor, or FEMO, based on an existing blend-down monitoring system (BDMS). The BDMS was designed to continuously monitor both 235U mass flow and enrichment of UF6 streams at the low pressures similar to those which exists at GCEPs. BDMSs have been installed at three sites-the first unit has operated successfully in an unattended environment for approximately 10 years. To be acceptable to GCEP operators, it is essential that the instrument be installed and maintained without interrupting operations. A means to continuously verify flow as is proposed by FEMO will likely be needed to monitor safeguards at large-capacity plants. This will enable the safeguards effectiveness that currently exists at smaller plants to be maintained at the larger facilities and also has the potential to reduce labor costs associated with inspections at current and future plants. This paper describes the FEMO design requirements, operating capabilities, and development work required before field demonstration.

Gunning, John E [ORNL; Laughter, Mark D [ORNL; March-Leuba, Jose A [ORNL

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

376

Enrichment of light hydrocarbon mixture  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Light hydrocarbon enrichment is accomplished using a vertically oriented distillation column having a plurality of vertically oriented, nonselective micro/mesoporous hollow fibers. Vapor having, for example, both propylene and propane is sent upward through the distillation column in between the hollow fibers. Vapor exits neat the top of the column and is condensed to form a liquid phase that is directed back downward through the lumen of the hollow fibers. As vapor continues to ascend and liquid continues to countercurrently descend, the liquid at the bottom of the column becomes enriched in a higher boiling point, light hydrocarbon (propane, for example) and the vapor at the top becomes enriched in a lower boiling point light hydrocarbon (propylene, for example). The hollow fiber becomes wetted with liquid during the process.

Yang, Dali (Los Alamos, NM); Devlin, David (Santa Fe, NM); Barbero, Robert S. (Santa Cruz, NM); Carrera, Martin E. (Naperville, IL); Colling, Craig W. (Warrenville, IL)

2011-11-29T23:59:59.000Z

377

Uranium hexafluoride liquid thermal expansion, elusive eutectic with hydrogen fluoride, and very first production using chlorine trifluoride  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Three unusual incidents and case histories involving uranium hexafluoride in the enrichment facilities of the USA in the late 1940`s and early 1950`s are presented. The history of the measurements of the thermal expansion of liquids containing fluorine atoms within the molecule is reviewed with special emphasis upon uranium hexafluoride. A comparison is made between fluorinated esters, fluorocarbons, and uranium hexafluoride. The quantitative relationship between the thermal expansion coefficient, a, of liquids and the critical temperature, T{sub c} is presented. Uranium hexafluoride has an a that is very high in a temperature range that is used by laboratory and production workers - much higher than any other liquid measured. This physical property of UF{sub 6} has resulted in accidents involving filling the UF{sub 6} containers too full and then heating with a resulting rupture of the container. Such an incident at a uranium gaseous diffusion plant is presented. Production workers seldom {open_quotes}see{close_quotes} uranium hexafluoride. The movement of UF{sub 6} from one container to another is usually trailed by weight, not sight. Even laboratory scientists seldom {open_quotes}see{close_quotes} solid or liquid UF{sub 6} and this can be a problem at times. This inability to {open_quotes}see{close_quotes} the UF{sub 6}-HF mixtures in the 61.2{degrees}C to 101{degrees}C temperature range caused a delay in the understanding of the phase diagram of UF{sub 6}-HF which has a liquid - liquid immiscible region that made the eutectic composition somewhat elusive. Transparent fluorothene tubes solved the problem both for the UF{sub 6}-HF phase diagram as well as the UF{sub 6}-HF-CIF{sub 3} phase diagram with a miscibility gap starting at 53{degrees}C. The historical background leading to the first use of CIF{sub 3} to produce UF{sub 6} in both the laboratory and plant at K-25 is presented.

Rutledge, G.P. [Central Environmental, Inc., Anchorage, AK (United States)

1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

378

300 Area Uranium Stabilization Through Polyphosphate Injection: Final Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of the treatability test was to evaluate the efficacy of using polyphosphate injections to treat uranium-contaminated groundwater in situ. A test site consisting of an injection well and 15 monitoring wells was installed in the 300 Area near the process trenches that had previously received uranium-bearing effluents. This report summarizes the work on the polyphosphate injection project, including bench-scale laboratory studies, a field injection test, and the subsequent analysis and interpretation of the results. Previous laboratory tests have demonstrated that when a soluble form of polyphosphate is injected into uranium-bearing saturated porous media, immobilization of uranium occurs due to formation of an insoluble uranyl phosphate, autunite [Ca(UO2)2(PO4)2nH2O]. These tests were conducted at conditions expected for the aquifer and used Hanford soils and groundwater containing very low concentrations of uranium (10-6 M). Because autunite sequesters uranium in the oxidized form U(VI) rather than forcing reduction to U(IV), the possibility of re-oxidation and subsequent re-mobilization is negated. Extensive testing demonstrated the very low solubility and slow dissolution kinetics of autunite. In addition to autunite, excess phosphorous may result in apatite mineral formation, which provides a long-term source of treatment capacity. Phosphate arrival response data indicate that, under site conditions, the polyphosphate amendment could be effectively distributed over a relatively large lateral extent, with wells located at a radial distance of 23 m (75 ft) reaching from between 40% and 60% of the injection concentration. Given these phosphate transport characteristics, direct treatment of uranium through the formation of uranyl-phosphate mineral phases (i.e., autunite) could likely be effectively implemented at full field scale. However, formation of calcium-phosphate mineral phases using the selected three-phase approach was problematic. Although amendment arrival response data indicate some degree of overlap between the reactive species and thus potential for the formation of calcium-phosphate mineral phases (i.e., apatite formation), the efficiency of this treatment approach was relatively poor. In general, uranium performance monitoring results support the hypothesis that limited long-term treatment capacity (i.e., apatite formation) was established during the injection test. Two separate overarching issues affect the efficacy of apatite remediation for uranium sequestration within the 300 Area: 1) the efficacy of apatite for sequestering uranium under the present geochemical and hydrodynamic conditions, and 2) the formation and emplacement of apatite via polyphosphate technology. In addition, the long-term stability of uranium sequestered via apatite is dependent on the chemical speciation of uranium, surface speciation of apatite, and the mechanism of retention, which is highly susceptible to dynamic geochemical conditions. It was expected that uranium sequestration in the presence of hydroxyapatite would occur by sorption and/or surface complexation until all surface sites have been depleted, but that the high carbonate concentrations in the 300 Area would act to inhibit the transformation of sorbed uranium to chernikovite and/or autunite. Adsorption of uranium by apatite was never considered a viable approach for in situ uranium sequestration in and of itself, because by definition, this is a reversible reaction. The efficacy of uranium sequestration by apatite assumes that the adsorbed uranium would subsequently convert to autunite, or other stable uranium phases. Because this appears to not be the case in the 300 Area aquifer, even in locations near the river, apatite may have limited efficacy for the retention and long-term immobilization of uranium at the 300 Area site..

Vermeul, Vincent R.; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Fritz, Brad G.; Fruchter, Jonathan S.; Mackley, Rob D.; Newcomer, Darrell R.; Mendoza, Donaldo P.; Rockhold, Mark L.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Williams, Mark D.

2009-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

379

AVLIS enrichment of medical isotopes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Under the Sponsorship of the United states Enrichment Corporation (USEC), we are currently investigating the large scale separation of several isotopes of medical interest using atomic vapor isotope separation (AVLIS). This work includes analysis and experiments in the enrichment of thallium 203 as a precursor to the production of thallium 201 used in cardiac imaging following heart attacks, on the stripping of strontium 84 from natural strontium as precursor to the production of strontium 89, and on the stripping of lead 210 from lead used in integrated circuits to reduce the number of alpha particle induced logic errors.

Haynam, C.A.; Scheibner, K.F.; Stern, R.C.; Worden, E.F. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, CA (United States)

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

380

From the Lab to the real world : sources of error in UF {sub 6} gas enrichment monitoring  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Safeguarding uranium enrichment facilities is a serious concern for the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). Safeguards methods have changed over the years, most recently switching to an improved safeguards model that calls for new technologies to help keep up with the increasing size and complexity of todays gas centrifuge enrichment plants (GCEPs). One of the primary goals of the IAEA is to detect the production of uranium at levels greater than those an enrichment facility may have declared. In order to accomplish this goal, new enrichment monitors need to be as accurate as possible. This dissertation will look at the Advanced Enrichment Monitor (AEM), a new enrichment monitor designed at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Specifically explored are various factors that could potentially contribute to errors in a final enrichment determination delivered by the AEM. There are many factors that can cause errors in the determination of uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) gas enrichment, especially during the period when the enrichment is being measured in an operating GCEP. To measure enrichment using the AEM, a passive 186-keV (kiloelectronvolt) measurement is used to determine the {sup 235}U content in the gas, and a transmission measurement or a gas pressure reading is used to determine the total uranium content. A transmission spectrum is generated using an x-ray tube and a notch filter. In this dissertation, changes that could occur in the detection efficiency and the transmission errors that could result from variations in pipe-wall thickness will be explored. Additional factors that could contribute to errors in enrichment measurement will also be examined, including changes in the gas pressure, ambient and UF{sub 6} temperature, instrumental errors, and the effects of uranium deposits on the inside of the pipe walls will be considered. The sensitivity of the enrichment calculation to these various parameters will then be evaluated. Previously, UF{sub 6} gas enrichment monitors have required empty pipe measurements to accurately determine the pipe attenuation (the pipe attenuation is typically much larger than the attenuation in the gas). This dissertation reports on a method for determining the thickness of a pipe in a GCEP when obtaining an empty pipe measurement may not be feasible. This dissertation studies each of the components that may add to the final error in the enrichment measurement, and the factors that were taken into account to mitigate these issues are also detailed and tested. The use of an x-ray generator as a transmission source and the attending stability issues are addressed. Both analytical calculations and experimental measurements have been used. For completeness, some real-world analysis results from the URENCO Capenhurst enrichment plant have been included, where the final enrichment error has remained well below 1% for approximately two months.

Lombardi, Marcie L.

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "highly enriched uranium" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Accumulation and Distribution of Uranium in Rats after Implantation with Depleted Uranium Fragments  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......Rats after Implantation with Depleted Uranium Fragments Guoying Zhu 1 * Mingguang...and distribution of uranium in depleted uranium (DU) implanted rats. Materials...of chronic exposure to DU. Depleted uranium|Bone|Kidney|Distribution......

Guoying Zhu; Mingguang Tan; Yulan Li; Xiqiao Xiang; Heping Hu; Shuquan Zhao

2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

382

Uranium Marketing Annual Report - Release Date: May 31, 2011  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

3. Deliveries of uranium feed by owners and operators of U.S. civilian nuclear power reactors by enrichment country and delivery year, 2010-2012 3. Deliveries of uranium feed by owners and operators of U.S. civilian nuclear power reactors by enrichment country and delivery year, 2010-2012 thousand pounds U3O8 equivalent Feed Deliveries in 2010 Feed Deliveries in 2011 Feed Deliveries in 2012 Enrichment Country U.S.-Origin Foreign-Origin Total U.S.-Origin Foreign-Origin Total U.S.-Origin Foreign-Origin Total China 0 0 0 0 W W 0 W W France 0 2,831 2,831 0 2,126 2,126 0 4,578 4,578 Germany 0 W W W W 2,665 W W 1,904 Netherlands W W W 0 W W W W 2,674 Russia 0 2,112 2,112 W W W W W 3,794 United Kingdom W W 4,353 W W 3,816 W W 3,930 Europe1 0 5,367 5,367 1,116 7,617 8,733 W W W Foreign Total W W 19,372 2,137 18,977 21,113 157 19,757 19,914

383

Nopal I uranium deposit: A study of radionuclide migration  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This summary reports on activities of naturally-occurring radionuclides for the Nopal I uranium deposit located in the Pena Blanca Uranium District, Chihuahua, Mexico. Activities were determined using gamma-ray spectroscopy. In addition, data reduction procedures and sample preparation (for Rn retention) will be discussed here. Nopal I uranium deposit has been identified as one of the most promising sites for analogue studies to the proposed high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The objective of this research is to study the potential for radionuclide migration by testing whether any portion of the deposit is in secular equilibrium.

Wong, V.; Anthony, E.; Goodell, P. [Univ. of Texas, El Paso, TX (United States)

1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

384

Nuclear Fuel Facts: Uranium | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Uranium Management and Uranium Management and Policy » Nuclear Fuel Facts: Uranium Nuclear Fuel Facts: Uranium Nuclear Fuel Facts: Uranium Uranium is a silvery-white metallic chemical element in the periodic table, with atomic number 92. It is assigned the chemical symbol U. A uranium atom has 92 protons and 92 electrons, of which 6 are valence electrons. Uranium has the highest atomic weight (19 kg m) of all naturally occurring elements. Uranium occurs naturally in low concentrations in soil, rock and water, and is commercially extracted from uranium-bearing minerals such as uraninite. Uranium ore can be mined from open pits or underground excavations. The ore can then be crushed and treated at a mill to separate the valuable uranium from the ore. Uranium may also be dissolved directly from the ore deposits

385

D0 Decomissioning : Storage of Depleted Uranium Modules Inside D0 Calorimeters after the Termination of D0 Experiment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Dzero liquid Argon calorimeters contain hadronic modules made of depleted uranium plates. After the termination of DO detector's operation, liquid Argon will be transferred back to Argon storage Dewar, and all three calorimeters will be warmed up. At this point, there is no intention to disassemble the calorimeters. The depleted uranium modules will stay inside the cryostats. Depleted uranium is a by-product of the uranium enrichment process. It is slightly radioactive, emits alpha, beta and gamma radiation. External radiation hazards are minimal. Alpha radiation has no external exposure hazards, as dead layers of skin stop it; beta radiation might have effects only when there is a direct contact with skin; and gamma rays are negligible - levels are extremely low. Depleted uranium is a pyrophoric material. Small particles (such as shavings, powder etc.) may ignite with presence of Oxygen (air). Also, in presence of air and moisture it can oxidize. Depleted uranium can absorb moisture and keep oxidizing later, even after air and moisture are excluded. Uranium oxide can powder and flake off. This powder is also pyrographic. Uranium oxide may create health problems if inhaled. Since uranium oxide is water soluble, it may enter the bloodstream and cause toxic effects.

Sarychev, Michael; /Fermilab

2011-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

386

Uranium Marketing Annual Report - Release Date: May 31, 2011  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

3. Inventories of uranium by owner as of end of year, 2008-2012 3. Inventories of uranium by owner as of end of year, 2008-2012 thousand pounds U3O8 equivalent Inventories at the End of the Year Owner of Uranium Inventory 2008 2009 2010 2011 P2012 Owners and Operators of U.S. Civilian Nuclear Power Reactors 82,972 84,757 86,527 89,835 97,466 U.S. Brokers and Traders 14,104 13,362 11,125 6,841 5,653 U.S. Converter, Enrichers, Fabricators, and Producers 12,907 13,412 13,608 15,428 17,611 Total Commercial Inventories 109,983 111,531 111,259 112,104 120,730 P = Preliminary data. Final 2011 inventory data reported in the 2012 survey. Note: Totals may not equal sum of components because of independent rounding. Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-858 "Uranium Marketing Annual Survey" (2009-2012).

387

Manhattan Project: The Uranium Path to the Bomb, 1942-1944  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

Alpha Racetrack, Y-12 Electromagnetic Plant, Oak Ridge THE URANIUM PATH TO THE BOMB Alpha Racetrack, Y-12 Electromagnetic Plant, Oak Ridge THE URANIUM PATH TO THE BOMB (1942-1944) Events > The Uranium Path to the Bomb, 1942-1944 Y-12: Design, 1942-1943 Y-12: Construction, 1943 Y-12: Operation, 1943-1944 Working K-25 into the Mix, 1943-1944 The Navy and Thermal Diffusion, 1944 The uranium path to the atomic bomb ran through Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Only if the new plants built at Oak Ridge produced enough enriched uranium-235 would a uranium bomb be possible. General Groves placed two methods into production: 1) electromagnetic, based on the principle that charged particles of the lighter isotope would be deflected more when passing through a magnetic field; and 2) gaseous diffusion, based on the principle that molecules of the lighter isotope, uranium-235, would pass more readily through a porous barrier. Full-scale electromagnetic and gaseous diffusion production plants were built at Oak Ridge at sites designated as "Y-12" and "K-25", respectively.

388

Long-term criticality control in radioactive waste disposal facilities using depleted uranium  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Plant photosynthesis has created a unique planetary-wide geochemistry - an oxidizing atmosphere with oxidizing surface waters on a planetary body with chemically reducing conditions near or at some distance below the surface. Uranium is four orders of magnitude more soluble under chemically oxidizing conditions than it is under chemically reducing conditions. Thus, uranium tends to leach from surface rock and disposal sites, move with groundwater, and concentrate where chemically reducing conditions appear. Earth`s geochemistry concentrates uranium and can separate uranium from all other elements except oxygen, hydrogen (in water), and silicon (silicates, etc). Fissile isotopes include {sup 235}U, {sup 233}U, and many higher actinides that eventually decay to one of these two uranium isotopes. The potential for nuclear criticality exists if the precipitated uranium from disposal sites has a significant fissile enrichment, mass, and volume. The earth`s geochemistry suggests that isotopic dilution of fissile materials in waste with {sup 238}U is a preferred strategy to prevent long-term nuclear criticality in and beyond the boundaries of waste disposal facilities because the {sup 238}U does not separate from the fissile uranium isotopes. Geological, laboratory, and theoretical data indicate that the potential for nuclear criticality can be minimized by diluting fissile materials with-{sup 238}U to 1 wt % {sup 235}U equivalent.

Forsberg, C.W.

1997-02-19T23:59:59.000Z

389

An investigation on recycling the recovered uranium from electro-refining process in a CANDU reactor  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Feasibility studies for recycling the recovered uranium from electro-refining process of pyroprocessing into a Canada Deuterium Uranium (CANDU) reactor have been carried out with a source term analysis code ORIGEN-S, a reactor lattice analysis code WIMS-AECL, and a Monte Carlo analysis code MCNPX. The uranium metal can be recovered in a solid cathode during an electro-refining process and has a form of a dendrite phase with about 99.99% expecting recovery purity. Considering some impurities of transuranic (TRU) elements and fission products in the recovered uranium, sensitivity calculations were also performed for the compositions of impurities. For a typical spent PWR fuel of 3.0wt.% of uranium enrichment, 30GWD/tU burnup and 10years cooling, the recovered uranium exhibited an extended burnup up to 14GWD/tU. And among the several safety parameters, the void reactivity at the equilibrium state was estimated 15mk. Additionally, a simple sphere model was constructed to analyze surface dose rates with the Monte Carlo calculations. It was found that the recovered uranium from the spent PWR fuel by electro-refining process has a significant radioactivity depending on the impurities such as fission products.

Chang Je Park; Kweon Ho Kang; Jung Won Lee; Ki Seog Seo

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

390

file://\\\\fs-f1\\shared\\uranium\\uranium.html  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

The initial uranium property reserves estimates were based on bore hole radiometric data validated by chemical analysis of samples from cores and drill cuttings. The...

391

Method for fabricating uranium foils and uranium alloy foils  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of producing thin foils of uranium or an alloy. The uranium or alloy is cast as a plate or sheet having a thickness less than about 5 mm and thereafter cold rolled in one or more passes at substantially ambient temperatures until the uranium or alloy thereof is in the shape of a foil having a thickness less than about 1.0 mm. The uranium alloy includes one or more of Zr, Nb, Mo, Cr, Fe, Si, Ni, Cu or Al.

Hofman, Gerard L. (Downers Grove, IL); Meyer, Mitchell K. (Idaho Falls, ID); Knighton, Gaven C. (Moore, ID); Clark, Curtis R. (Idaho Falls, ID)

2006-09-05T23:59:59.000Z

392

Uranium from Seawater Program Review; Fuel Resources Uranium from Seawater Program DOE Office of Nuclear Energy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

For nuclear energy to remain sustainable in the United States, economically viable sources of uranium beyond terrestrial ores must be developed. The goal of this program is to develop advanced adsorbents that can extract uranium from seawater at twice the capacity of the best adsorbent developed by researchers at the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), 1.5 mg U/g adsorbent. A multidisciplinary team from Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, and the University of Texas at Austin was assembled to address this challenging problem. Polymeric adsorbents, based on the radiation grafting of acrylonitrile and methacrylic acid onto high surface-area polyethylene fibers followed by conversion of the nitriles to amidoximes, have been developed. These poly(acrylamidoxime-co-methacrylic acid) fibers showed uranium adsorption capacities for the extraction of uranium from seawater that exceed 3 mg U/g adsorbent in testing at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Marine Sciences Laboratory. The essence of this novel technology lies in the unique high surface-area trunk material that considerably increases the grafting yield of functional groups without compromising its mechanical properties. This technology received an R&D100 Award in 2012. In addition, high surface area nanomaterial adsorbents are under development with the goal of increasing uranium adsorption capacity by taking advantage of the high surface areas and tunable porosity of carbon-based nanomaterials. Simultaneously, de novo structure-based computational design methods are being used to design more selective and stable ligands and the most promising candidates are being synthesized, tested and evaluated for incorporation onto a support matrix. Fundamental thermodynamic and kinetic studies are being carried out to improve the adsorption efficiency, the selectivity of uranium over other metals, and the stability of the adsorbents. Understanding the rate-limiting step of uranium uptake from seawater is also essential in designing an effective uranium recovery system. Finally, economic analyses have been used to guide these studies and highlight what parameters, such as capacity, recyclability, and stability, have the largest impact on the cost of extraction of uranium from seawater. Initially, the cost estimates by the JAEA for extraction of uranium from seawater with braided polymeric fibers functionalized with amidoxime ligands were evaluated and updated. The economic analyses were subsequently updated to reflect the results of this project while providing insight for cost reductions in the adsorbent development through cradle-to-grave case studies for the extraction process. This report highlights the progress made over the last three years on the design, synthesis, and testing of new materials to extract uranium for seawater. This report is organized into sections that highlight the major research activities in this project: (1) Chelate Design and Modeling, (2) Thermodynamics, Kinetics and Structure, (3) Advanced Polymeric Adsorbents by Radiation Induced Grafting, (4) Advanced Nanomaterial Adsorbents, (5) Adsorbent Screening and Modeling, (6) Marine Testing, and (7) Cost and Energy Assessment. At the end of each section, future research directions are briefly discussed to highlight the challenges that still remain to reduce the cost of extractions of uranium for seawater. Finally, contributions from the Nuclear Energy University Programs (NEUP), which complement this research program, are included at the end of this report.

none,

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

393

"2012 Uranium Marketing Annual Report"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

7. Uranium purchased by owners and operators of U.S. civilian nuclear power reactors by contract type and material type, 2012 deliveries" 7. Uranium purchased by owners and operators of U.S. civilian nuclear power reactors by contract type and material type, 2012 deliveries" "thousand pounds U3O8 equivalent; dollars per pound U3O8 equivalent" "Material Type","Spot Contracts 1",,"Long-Term Contracts 2",,"Total" ,"Quantity with Reported Price","Weighted-Average Price","Quantity with Reported Price","Weighted-Average Price","Quantity with Reported Price","Weighted-Average Price" "U3O8",3364,54,25279,54.22,28642,54.2 "Natural UF6","W","W","W","W","W","W" "Enriched UF6","W","W","W","W","W","W"

394

Fissile sample worths in the Uranium/Iron Benchmark  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

One of the long-standing problems from LMFBR critical experiments is the central worth discrepancy, the consistent overprediction of the reactivity associated with introducing a small material sample near the center of an assembly. Reactivity (sample worth) experiments in ZPR-9, assembly 34, the Uranium/Iron Benchmark (U/Fe), were aimed at investigating this discrepancy. U/Fe had a large, single-region core whose neutronics was governed almost entirely by /sup 235/U and iron. The essentially one-dimensional plate unit cell had one 1.6 mm-wide column of 93% enriched uranium (U(93)) near the center, imbedded in about 50 mm of iron and stainless steel. The neutron spectrum was roughly comparable to that of an LMFBR, but the adjoint spectrum was much flatter than an LMFBR's. The worths of four different fissile materials were measured and the worth of U(93) was measured using several different experimental techniques.

Schaefer, R.W.; Bucher, R.G.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

395

Uranium mononitride as a potential commercial LWR fuel  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper evaluated uranium mononitride (UN) as a potential replacement for 5% enriched UO{sub 2} fuel in Generation III and III+ commercial light water reactors (LWRs). Significant improvement in LWR performance depends on developing and implementing changes in the nuclear fuel used in these reactors. Compared to UO{sub 2}, UN offers several advantages such as higher uranium loading and better thermal conductivity. In this paper, the thermal safety margin of UN was evaluated at both normal and accident conditions using a readily available coupled CFD model developed for the US DOE CASL program. One of the prime technical challenges in utilization of UN as LWR fuel is the water compatibility because pure phase UN is not stable in water at 350 deg. C. The water corrosion resistance of UN and the corrosion mechanism were reviewed and mitigation methods were proposed. (authors)

Xu, P.; Yan, J.; Lahoda, E. J.; Ray, S. [Westinghouse Electric Company, LLC, 5801 Bluff Rd, Columbia, SC 29209 (United States)

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

396

Domestic Uranium Production Report  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

9. Summary production statistics of the U.S. uranium industry, 1993-2012 9. Summary production statistics of the U.S. uranium industry, 1993-2012 Item 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 E2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 Exploration and Development Surface Drilling (million feet) 1.1 0.7 1.3 3.0 4.9 4.6 2.5 1.0 0.7 W W 1.2 1.7 2.7 5.1 5.1 3.7 4.9 6.3 7.2 Drilling Expenditures (million dollars)1 5.7 1.1 2.6 7.2 20.0 18.1 7.9 5.6 2.7 W W 10.6 18.1 40.1 67.5 81.9 35.4 44.6 53.6 66.6 Mine Production of Uranium (million pounds U3O8) 2.1 2.5 3.5 4.7 4.7 4.8 4.5 3.1 2.6 2.4 2.2 2.5 3.0 4.7 4.5 3.9 4.1 4.2 4.1 4.3 Uranium Concentrate Production (million pounds U3O8) 3.1 3.4 6.0 6.3 5.6 4.7 4.6 4.0 2.6 2.3 2.0 2.3 2.7 4.1 4.5 3.9 3.7 4.2 4.0 4.1

397

Domestic Uranium Production Report  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

8. U.S. uranium expenditures, 2003-2012 8. U.S. uranium expenditures, 2003-2012 million dollars Year Drilling Production Land and Other Total Expenditures Total Land and Other Land Exploration Reclamation 2003 W W 31.3 NA NA NA W 2004 10.6 27.8 48.4 NA NA NA 86.9 2005 18.1 58.2 59.7 NA NA NA 136.0 2006 40.1 65.9 115.2 41.0 23.3 50.9 221.2 2007 67.5 90.4 178.2 77.7 50.3 50.2 336.2 2008 81.9 221.2 164.4 65.2 50.2 49.1 467.6 2009 35.4 141.0 104.0 17.3 24.2 62.4 280.5 2010 44.6 133.3 99.5 20.2 34.5 44.7 277.3 2011 53.6 168.8 96.8 19.6 43.5 33.7 319.2 2012 66.6 186.9 99.4 16.8 33.3 49.3 352.9 Drilling: All expenditures directly associated with exploration and development drilling. Production: All expenditures for mining, milling, processing of uranium, and facility expense.

398

Assessment of exposure to depleted uranium  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......ingestion of natural uranium in food and drink, and...for the measurement of uranium in urine samples, DU...respect to potential health hazards can be detected...Assessment of exposure to depleted uranium. | In most circumstances......

P. Roth; V. Hllriegl; E. Werner; P. Schramel

2003-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

399

Assessment of exposure to depleted uranium  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......Article Assessment of exposure to depleted uranium P. Roth V. Hollriegl E. Werner...for determining the amount of depleted uranium (DU) incorporated. The problems...Assessment of exposure to depleted uranium. | In most circumstances......

P. Roth; V. Hllriegl; E. Werner; P. Schramel

2003-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

400

2013 Uranium Marketing Annual Report  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

accounted for 32%. The remaining 16% originated from Brazil, China, Czech Republic, Germany, Hungary, Malawi, Namibia, Niger, Portugal, and South Africa. COOs purchased uranium...

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401

U.S.Uranium Reserves  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

conditions. The uranium property reserves estimates were based on bore hole radiometric data validated by chemical analysis of samples from cores and drill cuttings. The...

402

2013 Uranium Marketing Annual Report  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Note: Totals may not equal sum of components because of independent rounding. Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-858 "Uranium Marketing Annual Survey" (2013)....

403

2013 Uranium Marketing Annual Report  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Industry Annual, Tables 10, 11 and 16. 2003-2013-Form EIA-858, "Uranium Marketing Annual Survey". million pounds U 3 O 8 equivalent 1 Includes purchases between...

404

Marathon/Vitro to seek uranium  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Marathon/Vitro to seek uranium ... Last week, Marathon Oil agreed with Vitro Corp. of America to explore jointly for uranium in North America. ...

1967-03-13T23:59:59.000Z

405

Final Uranium Leasing Program Programmatic Environmental Impact...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

for DOE's Uranium Leasing Program, under which DOE administers tracts of land in western Colorado for exploration, development, and the extraction of uranium and vanadium...

406

Conversion of depleted uranium hexafluoride to a solid uranium compound  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process for converting UF.sub.6 to a solid uranium compound such as UO.sub.2 and CaF. The UF.sub.6 vapor form is contacted with an aqueous solution of NH.sub.4 OH at a pH greater than 7 to precipitate at least some solid uranium values as a solid leaving an aqueous solution containing NH.sub.4 OH and NH.sub.4 F and remaining uranium values. The solid uranium values are separated from the aqueous solution of NH.sub.4 OH and NH.sub.4 F and remaining uranium values which is then diluted with additional water precipitating more uranium values as a solid leaving trace quantities of uranium in a dilute aqueous solution. The dilute aqueous solution is contacted with an ion-exchange resin to remove substantially all the uranium values from the dilute aqueous solution. The dilute solution being contacted with Ca(OH).sub.2 to precipitate CaF.sub.2 leaving dilute NH.sub.4 OH.

Rothman, Alan B. (Willowbrook, IL); Graczyk, Donald G. (Lemont, IL); Essling, Alice M. (Elmhurst, IL); Horwitz, E. Philip (Naperville, IL)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

407

Uranio impoverito: perch? (Depleted uranium: why?)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this paper we develop a simple model of the penetration process of a long rod through an uniform target. Applying the momentum and energy conservation laws, we derive an analytical relation which shows how the penetration depth depends upon the density of the rod, given a fixed kinetic energy. This work was sparked off by the necessity of understanding the effectiveness of high density penetrators (e.g. depleted uranium penetrators) as anti-tank weapons.

Germano D'Abramo

2003-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

408

Selective leaching of uranium from uranium-contaminated soils: Progress report 1  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Three soils and a sediment contaminated with uranium were used to determine the effectiveness of sodium carbonate and citric acid leaching to decontaminated or remove uranium to acceptable regulatory levels. Two of the soils were surface soils from the DOE facility formerly called the Feed Materials Production Center (FMPC) at Fernald, Ohio. This facility is presently called the Femald Environmental Management Project (FEMP). Carbonate extractions generally removed from 70 to 90% of the uranium from the Fernald storage pad soil. Uranium was slightly more difficult to extract from the Fernald incinerator and the Y-12 landfarm soils. Very small amounts of uranium could be extracted from the storm sewer sediment. Extraction with carbonate at high solution-to-soil ratios were as effective as extractions at low solution-to-soil ratios, indicating attrition by the paddle mixer was not significantly different than that provided in a rotary extractor. Also, pretreatments such as milling or pulverizing the soil sample did not appear to increase extraction efficiency when carbonate extractions were carried out at elevated temperatures (60[degree]C) or long extraction times (23 h). Adding KMnO[sub 4] in the carbonate extraction appeared to increase extraction efficiency from the Fernald incinerator soil but not the Fernald storage pad soil. The most effective leaching rates (> 90 % from both Fernald soils) were obtained using a citrate/dithionite extraction procedure designed to remove amorphous (noncrystalline) iron/aluminum sesquioxides from surfaces of clay minerals. Citric acid also proved to be a very good extractant for uranium.

Francis, C.W.; Mattus, A.J.; Farr, L.L.; Elless, M.P.; Lee, S.Y.

1993-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

409

Selective leaching of uranium from uranium-contaminated soils: Progress report 1  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Three soils and a sediment contaminated with uranium were used to determine the effectiveness of sodium carbonate and citric acid leaching to decontaminated or remove uranium to acceptable regulatory levels. Two of the soils were surface soils from the DOE facility formerly called the Feed Materials Production Center (FMPC) at Fernald, Ohio. This facility is presently called the Femald Environmental Management Project (FEMP). Carbonate extractions generally removed from 70 to 90% of the uranium from the Fernald storage pad soil. Uranium was slightly more difficult to extract from the Fernald incinerator and the Y-12 landfarm soils. Very small amounts of uranium could be extracted from the storm sewer sediment. Extraction with carbonate at high solution-to-soil ratios were as effective as extractions at low solution-to-soil ratios, indicating attrition by the paddle mixer was not significantly different than that provided in a rotary extractor. Also, pretreatments such as milling or pulverizing the soil sample did not appear to increase extraction efficiency when carbonate extractions were carried out at elevated temperatures (60{degree}C) or long extraction times (23 h). Adding KMnO{sub 4} in the carbonate extraction appeared to increase extraction efficiency from the Fernald incinerator soil but not the Fernald storage pad soil. The most effective leaching rates (> 90 % from both Fernald soils) were obtained using a citrate/dithionite extraction procedure designed to remove amorphous (noncrystalline) iron/aluminum sesquioxides from surfaces of clay minerals. Citric acid also proved to be a very good extractant for uranium.

Francis, C.W.; Mattus, A.J.; Farr, L.L.; Elless, M.P.; Lee, S.Y.

1993-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

410

Uranium and other heavy metals in the plant-animal-human food chain near abandoned mining sites and structures in an American Indian community in northwestern New Mexico  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Uranium and thorium isotopic conference on high levels of natural radiation sector inductively coupled mass spectrometry. Chemical Geology,Uranium industry in New Mexico--history, production and present status. New Mexico Geology,

Samuel-Nakamura, Christine

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

411

2012 Domestic Uranium Production Report  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

7 7 2012 Domestic Uranium Production Report Release Date: June 6, 2013 Next Release Date: May 2014 Milling Capacity (short tons of ore per day) 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 Cotter Corporation Canon City Mill Fremont, Colorado 0 Standby Standby Standby Reclamation Demolished EFR White Mesa LLC White Mesa Mill San Juan, Utah 2,000 Operating Operating Operating Operating Operating Energy Fuels Resources Corporation Piñon Ridge Mill Montrose, Colorado 500 Developing Developing Developing Permitted And Licensed Partially Permitted And Licensed Kennecott Uranium Company/Wyoming Coal Resource Company Sweetwater Uranium Project Sweetwater, Wyoming 3,000 Standby Standby Standby Standby Standby Uranium One Americas, Inc. Shootaring Canyon Uranium Mill Garfield, Utah 750 Changing License To Operational Standby

412

Novel Membranes and Processes for Oxygen Enrichment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The overall goal of this project is to develop a membrane process that produces air containing 25-35% oxygen, at a cost of $25-40/ton of equivalent pure oxygen (EPO2). Oxygen-enriched air at such a low cost will allow existing air-fueled furnaces to be converted economically to oxygen-enriched furnaces, which in turn will improve the economic and energy efficiency of combustion processes significantly, and reduce the cost of CO{sub 2} capture and sequestration from flue gases throughout the U.S. manufacturing industries. During the 12-month Concept Definition project: We identified a series of perfluoropolymers (PFPs) with promising oxygen/nitrogen separation properties, which were successfully made into thin film composite membranes. The membranes showed oxygen permeance as high as 1,200 gpu and oxygen/nitrogen selectivity of 3.0, and the permeance and selectivity were stable over the time period tested (60 days). We successfully scaled up the production of high-flux PFP-based membranes, using MTR's commercial coaters. Two bench-scale spiral-wound modules with countercurrent designs were made and parametric tests were performed to understand the effect of feed flow rate and pressure, permeate pressure and sweep flow rate on the membrane module separation properties. At various operating conditions that modeled potential industrial operating conditions, the module separation properties were similar to the pure-gas separation properties in the membrane stamps. We also identified and synthesized new polymers [including polymers of intrinsic microporosity (PIMs) and polyimides] with higher oxygen/nitrogen selectivity (3.5-5.0) than the PFPs, and made these polymers into thin film composite membranes. However, these membranes were susceptible to severe aging; pure-gas permeance decreased nearly six-fold within two weeks, making them impractical for industrial applications of oxygen enrichment. We tested the effect of oxygen-enriched air on NO{sub x} emissions using a Bloom baffle burner at GTI. The results are positive and confirm that oxygen-enriched combustion can be carried out without producing higher levels of NOx than normal air firing, if lancing of combustion air is used and the excess air levels are controlled. A simple economic study shows that the membrane processes can produce O{sub 2} at less than $40/ton EPO{sub 2} and an energy cost of 1.1-1.5 MMBtu/ton EPO{sub 2}, which are very favorable compared with conventional technologies such as cryogenics and vacuum pressure swing adsorption processes. The benefits of integrated membrane processes/combustion process trains have been evaluated, and show good savings in process costs and energy consumption, as well as reduced CO{sub 2} emissions. For example, if air containing 30% oxygen is used in natural gas furnaces, the net natural gas savings are an estimated 18% at a burner temperature of 2,500 F, and 32% at a burner temperature of 3,000 F. With a 20% market penetration of membrane-based oxygen-enriched combustion in all combustion processes by 2020, the energy savings would be 414-736 TBtu/y in the U.S. The comparable net cost savings are estimated at $1.2-2.1 billion per year by 2020, calculated as the value of fuel savings subtracted from the cost of oxygen production. The fuel savings of 18%-32% by the membrane/oxygen-enriched combustion corresponds to an 18%-32% reduction in CO{sub 2} emissions, or 23-40 MM ton/y less CO{sub 2} from natural gas-fired furnaces by 2020. In summary, results from this project (Concept Definition phase) are highly promising and clearly demonstrate that membrane processes can produce oxygen-enriched air in a low cost manner that will lower operating costs and energy consumption in industrial combustion processes. Future work will focus on proof-of-concept bench-scale demonstration in the laboratory.

Lin, Haiqing

2011-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

413

Experimental Research of the Oxygen-Enriched Combustion of Sewage Sludge and Coal in CFB  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Sewage sludge is the by-products of sewage treatment, and it is a fuel of high moisture, high ash and low caloric. Oxygen-enriched combustion technology is one of the new and clean coal combustion technologies...

S. W. Xin; X. F. Lu; H. Z. Liu

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

414

Domestic Uranium Production Report  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

2. U.S. uranium mine production and number of mines and sources, 2003-2012 2. U.S. uranium mine production and number of mines and sources, 2003-2012 Production / Mining Method 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 Underground (estimated contained thousand pounds U3O8) W W W W W W W W W W Open Pit (estimated contained thousand pounds U3O8) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 In-Situ Leaching (thousand pounds U3O8) W W 2,681 4,259 W W W W W W Other1 (thousand pounds U3O8) W W W W W W W W W W Total Mine Production (thousand pounds U3O8) E2,200 2,452 3,045 4,692 4,541 3,879 4,145 4,237 4,114 4,335 Number of Operating Mines Underground 1 2 4 5 6 10 14 4 5 6 Open Pit 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 In-Situ Leaching 2 3 4 5 5 6 4 4 5 5 Other Sources1 1 1 2 1 1 1 2 1 1 1

415

Domestic Uranium Production Report  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

5. U.S. uranium in-situ-leach plants by owner, location, capacity, and operating status at end of the year, 2008-2012 5. U.S. uranium in-situ-leach plants by owner, location, capacity, and operating status at end of the year, 2008-2012 In-Situ-Leach Plant Owner In-Situ-Leach Plant Name County, State (existing and planned locations) Production Capacity (pounds U3O8 per year) Operating Status at End of the Year 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 Cameco Crow Butte Operation Dawes, Nebraska 1,000,000 Operating Operating Operating Operating Operating Hydro Resources, Inc. Crownpoint McKinley, New Mexico 1,000,000 Partially Permitted And Licensed Partially Permitted And Licensed Partially Permitted And Licensed Partially Permitted And Licensed Partially Permitted And Licensed Hydro Resources,Inc. Church Rock McKinley, New Mexico 1,000,000 Partially Permitted And Licensed Partially Permitted And Licensed Partially Permitted And Licensed Partially Permitted And Licensed Partially Permitted And Licensed

416

Modeling of UF{sub 6} enrichment with gas centrifuges for nuclear safeguards activities  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The physical modeling of uranium isotopes ({sup 235}U, {sup 238}U) separation process by centrifugation of is a key aspect for predicting the nuclear fuel enrichment plant performances under surveillance by the Nuclear Safeguards Authorities. In this paper are illustrated some aspects of the modeling of fast centrifuges for UF{sub 6} gas enrichment and of a typical cascade enrichment plant with the Theoretical Centrifuge and Cascade Simulator (TCCS). The background theory for reproducing the flow field characteristics of a centrifuge is derived from the work of Cohen where the separation parameters are calculated using the solution of a differential enrichment equation. In our case we chose to solve the hydrodynamic equations for the motion of a compressible fluid in a centrifugal field using the Berman - Olander vertical velocity radial distribution and the solution was obtained using the Matlab software tool. The importance of a correct estimation of the centrifuge separation parameters at different flow regimes, lies in the possibility to estimate in a reliable way the U enrichment plant performances, once the separation external parameters are set (feed flow rate and feed, product and tails assays). Using the separation parameters of a single centrifuge allow to determine the performances of an entire cascade and, for this purpose; the software Simulink was used. The outputs of the calculation are the concentrations (assays) and the flow rates of the enriched (product) and depleted (tails) gas mixture. These models represent a valid additional tool, in order to verify the compliance of the U enrichment plant operator declarations with the 'on site' inspectors' measurements.

Mercurio, G.; Peerani, P.; Richir, P.; Janssens, W.; Eklund, G. [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Transuranium Elements Via Fermi, 2749-TP181,20127 Ispra (Italy)

2012-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

417

Determination of uranium concentration in surface soil samples of Iran  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The use of uranium-tipped antitank shells during the Iraq war (2003) caused serious concerns in Iran and the international media over possible contamination of the Iranian environment and consequent long-term health effects. After a shell explosion, uranium is discharged by fire into the air in the form of oxidised particles, which can be dispersed over a radius of several kilometres. Gamma ray spectrometry was used to determine uranium concentrations in soil samples collected from ten sites in Iranian sectors near the Iraqi border. All surface soil samples were taken from the top 5 cm from each site. The concentrations of 238U were assessed from 63 keV and 92 keV emissions of its first daughter nuclide, 234Th. To assess the isotopic ratio of 238U/235U, a secular equilibrium was ensured and the concentration of 235U under 186 keV was deduced. The 226Ra was determined through 295 keV and 352 keV gamma rays of 214Pb. The concentrations of 238U and activity ratios of 238U/235U were determined. The average of measurement activity ratio was 20.0, very close to the value of 21.5 for natural uranium, while the activity ratio of depleted uranium can be as high as 76.9. The analysis of ten surface soil samples from Iranian sites near the Iraqi border showed that uranium isotopes are in natural abundances.

A.A. Fathivand; J. Amidi

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

418

Uranyl Protoporphyrin: a New Uranium Complex  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...received 3 times the LD50 of uranium as uranyl protoporphyrin...nitrate, had showed livers depleted of glycogen and kidneys...destruc-tion typical of uranium poisoning. The uranium-damaged...T. Godwin et al., Cancer 8, 601 (1954). 5...excretion of hexavalent uranium in man," in Proc...

ROBERT E. BASES

1957-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

419

High energy neutron Computed Tomography developed  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

be observed behind high-density materials, such as depleted uranium or tungsten. Comparison of the high (bottom half) and foam (center teeth) phantom could be viewed through 76 mm of depleted uranium. Some ~ 3