National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for highly efficient catalyst

  1. Selective ammonia slip catalyst enabling highly efficient NOx...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    slip catalyst enabling highly efficient NOx removal requirements of the future Selective ammonia slip catalyst enabling highly efficient NOx removal requirements of the future A ...

  2. Transmural Catalysis - High Efficiency Catalyst Systems for NOx...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Transmural Catalysis - High Efficiency Catalyst Systems for NOx Adsorbers and SCR Transmural Catalysis - High Efficiency Catalyst Systems for NOx Adsorbers and SCR Presentation ...

  3. Process and apparatus for split feed of spent catalyst to high efficiency

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    catalyst regenerator (Patent) | SciTech Connect Process and apparatus for split feed of spent catalyst to high efficiency catalyst regenerator Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Process and apparatus for split feed of spent catalyst to high efficiency catalyst regenerator This patent describes a fluidized catalytic cracking process for catalytic cracking of a heavy hydrocarbon feed. It comprises hydrocarbons having a boiling point above about 650{degrees} F to lighter products by

  4. Highly efficient nonprecious metal catalyst prepared with metal–organic framework in a continuous carbon nanofibrous network

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Shui, Jianglan; Chen, Chen; Grabstanowicz, Lauren; Zhao, Dan; Liu, Di -Jia

    2015-08-25

    Fuel cell vehicles, the only all-electric technology with a demonstrated >300 miles per fill travel range, use Pt as the electrode catalyst. The high price of Pt creates a major cost barrier for large-scale implementation of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells. Nonprecious metal catalysts (NPMCs) represent attractive low-cost alternatives. However, a significantly lower turnover frequency at the individual catalytic site renders the traditional carbon-supported NPMCs inadequate in reaching the desired performance afforded by Pt. Unconventional catalyst design aiming at maximizing the active site density at much improved mass and charge transports is essential for the next-generation NPMC. We report heremore » a method of preparing highly efficient, nanofibrous NPMC for cathodic oxygen reduction reaction by electrospinning a polymer solution containing ferrous organometallics and zeolitic imidazolate framework followed by thermal activation. The catalyst offers a carbon nanonetwork architecture made of microporous nanofibers decorated by uniformly distributed high-density active sites. In a single-cell test, the membrane electrode containing such a catalyst delivered unprecedented volumetric activities of 3.3 A∙cm-3 at 0.9 V or 450 A∙cm-3 extrapolated at 0.8 V, representing the highest reported value in the literature. Improved fuel cell durability was also observed.« less

  5. Highly efficient nonprecious metal catalyst prepared with metal–organic framework in a continuous carbon nanofibrous network

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shui, Jianglan; Chen, Chen; Grabstanowicz, Lauren; Zhao, Dan; Liu, Di -Jia

    2015-08-25

    Fuel cell vehicles, the only all-electric technology with a demonstrated >300 miles per fill travel range, use Pt as the electrode catalyst. The high price of Pt creates a major cost barrier for large-scale implementation of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells. Nonprecious metal catalysts (NPMCs) represent attractive low-cost alternatives. However, a significantly lower turnover frequency at the individual catalytic site renders the traditional carbon-supported NPMCs inadequate in reaching the desired performance afforded by Pt. Unconventional catalyst design aiming at maximizing the active site density at much improved mass and charge transports is essential for the next-generation NPMC. We report here a method of preparing highly efficient, nanofibrous NPMC for cathodic oxygen reduction reaction by electrospinning a polymer solution containing ferrous organometallics and zeolitic imidazolate framework followed by thermal activation. The catalyst offers a carbon nanonetwork architecture made of microporous nanofibers decorated by uniformly distributed high-density active sites. In a single-cell test, the membrane electrode containing such a catalyst delivered unprecedented volumetric activities of 3.3 A∙cm-3 at 0.9 V or 450 A∙cm-3 extrapolated at 0.8 V, representing the highest reported value in the literature. Improved fuel cell durability was also observed.

  6. Selective ammonia slip catalyst enabling highly efficient NOx removal requirements of the future

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A low precious metal loading ammonia-slip catalyst was developed that is able to oxidize the ammonia that slips past the SCR catalyst to nitrogen.

  7. High Impact Technology Catalyst: Technology Deployment Strategies...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Catalyst: Technology Deployment Strategies High Impact Technology Catalyst: Technology Deployment Strategies The Energy Department released the High Impact Technology Catalyst: ...

  8. High Impact Technology Catalyst | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Commercial Buildings » High Impact Technology Catalyst High Impact Technology Catalyst High impact technologies (HITs) are cost-effective, underutilized energy-efficient commercial building technologies. Through the High Impact Technology Catalyst program, initiated in 2014, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) identifies and guides HITs through their early market introduction phases, ultimately leading them to the broader market through partnerships with the commercial buildings industry via

  9. The generation of efficient supported (Heterogeneous) olefin metathesis catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grubbs, Robert H

    2013-04-05

    Over the past decade, a new family of homogeneous metathesis catalysts has been developed that will tolerate most organic functionalities as well as water and air. These homogeneous catalysts are finding numerous applications in the pharmaceutical industry as well as in the production of functional polymers. In addition the catalysts are being used to convert seed oils into products that can substitute for those that are now made from petroleum products. Seed oils are unsaturated, contain double bonds, and are a ready source of linear hydrocarbon fragments that are specifically functionalized. To increase the number of applications in the area of biomaterial conversion to petrol chemicals, the activity and efficiency of the catalysts need to be as high as possible. The higher the efficiency of the catalysts, the lower the cost of the conversion and a larger number of practical applications become available. Active supported catalysts were prepared and tested in the conversion of seed oils and other important starting materials. The outcome of the work was successful and the technology has been transferred to a commercial operation to develop viable applications of the discovered systems. A biorefinery that converts seed oils is under construction in Indonesia. The catalysts developed in this study will be considered for the next generation of operations.

  10. High Impact Technology Catalyst | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Catalyst High Impact Technology Catalyst High Impact Technology Catalyst Lead Performers: -- Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) - Lemont, IL -- Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) - Berkeley, CA -- National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) - Golden, CO -- Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) - Oak Ridge, TN -- Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) - Richland, WA Project Term: Ongoing Program Funding Type: Direct Lab Funding Program Webpage: High Impact Technology Catalyst

  11. Synergies of High-Efficiency Clean Combustion and Lean NOx Trap...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Synergies of High-Efficiency Clean Combustion and Lean NOx Trap Catalysts Synergies of High-Efficiency Clean Combustion and Lean NOx Trap Catalysts investigation of potential ...

  12. High Impact Technology Catalyst | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    non-profits, utilities and efficiency organizations. HIT Catalyst also serves as the umbrella program under which all of the Commercial Buildings Integration program's technology...

  13. High Impact Technology Catalyst: Technology Deployment Strategies |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Catalyst: Technology Deployment Strategies High Impact Technology Catalyst: Technology Deployment Strategies The Energy Department released the High Impact Technology Catalyst: Technology Deployment Strategies to serve as an overview of the HIT Catalyst program activities, including a summary of the selection process undertaken to identify, evaluate and prioritize the current HITs, descriptions of the technologies and markets for each HIT, and plans for deployment. PDF

  14. Highly Dispersed Metal Catalyst - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Advanced Materials Advanced Materials Find More Like This Return to Search Highly Dispersed Metal Catalyst Method for full dispersion...

  15. High Impact Technology (HIT) Catalyst

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Impact Technology (HIT) Catalyst Images courtesy CREE, True Manufacturing, A.O. Smith, Bernstein Associates, Cambridge Engineering, Alliance Laundry Systems, NREL Commercial ...

  16. Ultra-High Resolution Electron Microscopy for Catalyst Characterizatio...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High Resolution Electron Microscopy for Catalyst Characterization Ultra-High Resolution Electron Microscopy for Catalyst Characterization 2011 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, ...

  17. Ultra-high Resolution Electron Microscopy for Catalyst Characterizatio...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    high Resolution Electron Microscopy for Catalyst Characterization Ultra-high Resolution Electron Microscopy for Catalyst Characterization 2009 DOE Hydrogen Program and Vehicle ...

  18. Ultra-High Resolution Electron Microscopy for Catalyst Characterizatio...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    pm029allard2010p.pdf More Documents & Publications Ultra-High Resolution Electron Microscopy for Catalyst Characterization Ultra-high Resolution Electron Microscopy for Catalyst...

  19. High Impact Technology Catalyst Industry Roundtable

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Please join the Department of Energy Commercial Buildings Integration Program for an Industry Roundtable discussion on the High Impact Technology Catalyst. The Roundtable will be part of the BTO...

  20. HIGH EFFICIENCY SYNGAS GENERATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert J. Copeland; Yevgenia Gershanovich; Brian Windecker

    2005-02-01

    This project investigated an efficient and low cost method of auto-thermally reforming natural gas to hydrogen and carbon monoxide. Reforming is the highest cost step in producing products such as methanol and Fisher Tropsch liquids (i.e., gas to liquids); and reducing the cost of reforming is the key to reducing the cost of these products. Steam reforming is expensive because of the high cost of the high nickel alloy reforming tubes (i.e., indirectly fired reforming tubes). Conventional auto-thermal or Partial Oxidation (POX) reforming minimizes the size and cost of the reformers and provides a near optimum mixture of CO and hydrogen. However POX requires pure oxygen, which consumes power and significantly increases the cost to reforming. Our high efficiency process extracts oxygen from low-pressure air with novel oxygen sorbent and transfers the oxygen to a nickel-catalyzed reformer. The syngas is generated at process pressure (typically 20 to 40 bar) without nitrogen dilution and has a 1CO to 2H{sub 2} ratio that is near optimum for the subsequent production of Fisher-Tropsch liquid to liquids and other chemicals (i.e., Gas to Liquids, GTL). Our high process efficiency comes from the way we transfer the oxygen into the reformer. All of the components of the process, except for the oxygen sorbent, are commonly used in commercial practice. A process based on a longlived, regenerable, oxygen transfer sorbent could substantially reduce the cost of natural gas reforming to syngas. Lower cost syngas (CO + 2H{sub 2}) that is the feedstock for GTL would reduce the cost of GTL and for other commercial applications (e.g., methanol, other organic chemicals). The vast gas resources of Alaska's North Slope (ANS) offer more than 22 Tcf of gas and GTL production in this application alone, and could account for as much as 300,000 to 700,000 bpd for 20 to 30+ years. We developed a new sorbent, which is an essential part of the High Efficiency Oxygen Process (HOP). We tested the sorbent and observed that it has both a good oxygen capacity and operates as a highly effective reforming catalyst. We conducted a long duration tests of the sorbent (1,500 hours of continuous operation in the HOP cycle). Although the sorbent lost some oxygen capacity with cycling, the sorbent oxygen capacity stabilized after 1,000 hours and remained constant to the end of the test, 1,500 hour. The activity of the catalyst to reform methane to a hydrogen and carbon monoxide mixture was unchanged through the oxidation/reduction cycling. Our cost and performance analyses indicated a significant reduction in the cost of GTL production when using the HOP process integrated into a GTL plant.

  1. Highly Dispersed Alloy Catalyst for Durability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vivek S. Murthi , Elise Izzo, Wu Bi, Sandra Guerrero and Lesia Protsailo

    2013-01-08

    Achieving DOE?¢????s stated 5000-hr durability goal for light-duty vehicles by 2015 will require MEAs with characteristics that are beyond the current state of the art. Significant effort was placed on developing advanced durable cathode catalysts to arrive at the best possible electrode for high performance and durability, as well as developing manufacturing processes that yield significant cost benefit. Accordingly, the overall goal of this project was to develop and construct advanced MEAs that will improve performance and durability while reducing the cost of PEMFC stacks. The project, led by UTC Power, focused on developing new catalysts/supports and integrating them with existing materials (membranes and gas diffusion layers (GDLs)) using state-of-the-art fabrication methods capable of meeting the durability requirements essential for automotive applications. Specifically, the project work aimed to lower platinum group metals (PGM) loading while increasing performance and durability. Appropriate catalysts and MEA configuration were down-selected that protects the membrane, and the layers were tailored to optimize the movements of reactants and product water through the cell to maximize performance while maintaining durability.

  2. Nanostructured Cobalt Oxide Clusters in Mesoporous Silica as Efficient Oxygen-Evolving Catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jiao, Feng; Frei, Heinz

    2009-01-01

    The development of integrated artificial photosynthetic systems for the direct conversion of carbon dioxide and water to fuel depends on the availability of efficient and robust catalysts for the chemical transformations. Catalysts need to exhibit turnover frequency (TOF) and density (hence size) commensurate with the solar flux at ground level (1000Wm2, airmass (AM) 1.5)[1]to avoid wasting of incidentsolar photons. For example, a catalyst with a TOF of 100 s1 requires a density of one catalytic site per square nanometer. Catalysts with lower rates or taking up a larger space will require a high-surface-area, nanostructured support that affords tens to hundreds of catalytic sites per square nanometer. Furthermore, catalysts need to operate close to the thermodynamic potential of the redox reaction so that amaximum fraction of the solar photon energy is converted to chemical energy. Stability considerations favor all-inorganic oxide materials, as does avoidance of harsh reaction conditions of pH value or temperature.

  3. Highly Dispersed Alloy Cathode Catalyst for Durability

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This presentation, which focuses on alloy cathode catalysts, was given by T. D. Jarvi of UTC Power at a February 2007 meeting on new fuel cell projects.

  4. High efficiency incandescent lighting

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bermel, Peter; Ilic, Ognjen; Chan, Walker R.; Musabeyoglu, Ahmet; Cukierman, Aviv Ruben; Harradon, Michael Robert; Celanovic, Ivan; Soljacic, Marin

    2014-09-02

    Incandescent lighting structure. The structure includes a thermal emitter that can, but does not have to, include a first photonic crystal on its surface to tailor thermal emission coupled to, in a high-view-factor geometry, a second photonic filter selected to reflect infrared radiation back to the emitter while passing visible light. This structure is highly efficient as compared to standard incandescent light bulbs.

  5. Microwave and Beam Activation of Nanostructured Catalysts for Environmentally Friendly, Energy Efficient Heavy Crude Oil Processing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2009-03-01

    This factsheet describes a study whose goal is initial evaluation and development of energy efficient processes which take advantage of the benefits offered by nanostructured catalysts which can be activated by microwave, RF, or radiation beams.

  6. Identification of Catalysts and Materials for a High-Energy Density Biochemical Fuel Cell: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-09-345

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ghirardi, M.; Svedruzic, D.

    2013-07-01

    The proposed research attempted to identify novel biochemical catalysts, catalyst support materials, high-efficiency electron transfer agents between catalyst active sites and electrodes, and solid-phase electrolytes in order to maximize the current density of biochemical fuel cells that utilize various alcohols as substrates.

  7. High Efficiency, Clean Combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Donald Stanton

    2010-03-31

    Energy use in trucks has been increasing at a faster rate than that of automobiles within the U.S. transportation sector. According to the Energy Information Administration (EIA) Annual Energy Outlook (AEO), a 23% increase in fuel consumption for the U.S. heavy duty truck segment is expected between 2009 to 2020. The heavy duty vehicle oil consumption is projected to grow between 2009 and 2050 while light duty vehicle (LDV) fuel consumption will eventually experience a decrease. By 2050, the oil consumption rate by LDVs is anticipated to decrease below 2009 levels due to CAFE standards and biofuel use. In contrast, the heavy duty oil consumption rate is anticipated to double. The increasing trend in oil consumption for heavy trucks is linked to the vitality, security, and growth of the U.S. economy. An essential part of a stable and vibrant U.S. economy is a productive U.S. trucking industry. Studies have shown that the U.S. gross domestic product (GDP) is strongly correlated to freight transport. Over 90% of all U.S. freight tonnage is transported by diesel power and over 75% is transported by trucks. Given the vital role that the trucking industry plays in the economy, improving the efficiency of the transportation of goods was a central focus of the Cummins High Efficient Clean Combustion (HECC) program. In a commercial vehicle, the diesel engine remains the largest source of fuel efficiency loss, but remains the greatest opportunity for fuel efficiency improvements. In addition to reducing oil consumption and the dependency on foreign oil, this project will mitigate the impact on the environment by meeting US EPA 2010 emissions regulations. Innovation is a key element in sustaining a U.S. trucking industry that is competitive in global markets. Unlike passenger vehicles, the trucking industry cannot simply downsize the vehicle and still transport the freight with improved efficiency. The truck manufacturing and supporting industries are faced with numerous challenges to reduce oil consumption and greenhouse gases, meet stringent emissions regulations, provide customer value, and improve safety. The HECC program successfully reduced engine fuel consumption and greenhouse gases while providing greater customer valve. The US EPA 2010 emissions standard poses a significant challenge for developing clean diesel powertrains that meet the DoE Vehicle Technologies Multi-Year Program Plan (MYPP) for fuel efficiency improvement while remaining affordable. Along with exhaust emissions, an emphasis on heavy duty vehicle fuel efficiency is being driven by increased energy costs as well as the potential regulation of greenhouse gases. An important element of the success of meeting emissions while significantly improving efficiency is leveraging Cummins component technologies such as fuel injection equipment, aftertreatment, turbomahcinery, electronic controls, and combustion systems. Innovation in component technology coupled with system integration is enabling Cummins to move forward with the development of high efficiency clean diesel products with a long term goal of reaching a 55% peak brake thermal efficiency for the engine plus aftertreatment system. The first step in developing high efficiency clean products has been supported by the DoE co-sponsored HECC program. The objectives of the HECC program are: (1) To design and develop advanced diesel engine architectures capable of achieving US EPA 2010 emission regulations while improving the brake thermal efficiency by 10% compared to the baseline (a state of the art 2007 production diesel engine). (2) To design and develop components and subsystems (fuel systems, air handling, controls, etc) to enable construction and development of multi-cylinder engines. (3) To perform an assessment of the commercial viability of the newly developed engine technology. (4) To specify fuel properties conducive to improvements in emissions, reliability, and fuel efficiency for engines using high-efficiency clean combustion (HECC) technologies. To demonstrate the technology is compatible with B20 (biodiesel). (5) To further improve the brake thermal efficiency of the engine as integrated into the vehicle. To demonstrate robustness and commercial viability of the HECC engine technology as integrated into the vehicles. The Cummins HECC program supported the Advanced Combustion Engine R&D and Fuels Technology initiatives of the DoE Vehicle Technologies Multi-Year Program Plan (MYPP). In particular, the HECC project goals enabled the DoE Vehicle Technologies Program (VTP) to meet energy-efficiency improvement targets for advanced combustion engines suitable for passenger and commercial vehicles, as well as addressing technology barriers and R&D needs that are common between passenger and commercial vehicle applications of advanced combustion engines.

  8. Highly Dispersed Alloy Cathode Catalyst for Durability | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Part of a 100 million fuel cell award announced by DOE Secretary Bodman on Oct. 25, 2006. PDF icon 3utc.pdf More Documents & Publications Highly Dispersed Alloy Cathode Catalyst ...

  9. High performance, high durability non-precious metal fuel cell catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wood, Thomas E.; Atanasoski, Radoslav; Schmoeckel, Alison K.

    2016-03-15

    This invention relates to non-precious metal fuel cell cathode catalysts, fuel cells that contain these catalysts, and methods of making the same. The fuel cell cathode catalysts are highly nitrogenated carbon materials that can contain a transition metal. The highly nitrogenated carbon materials can be supported on a nanoparticle substrate.

  10. High efficiency photoionization detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, David F.

    1984-01-01

    A high efficiency photoionization detector using tetraaminoethylenes in a gaseous state having a low ionization potential and a relative photoionization cross section which closely matches the emission spectrum of xenon gas. Imaging proportional counters are also disclosed using the novel photoionization detector of the invention. The compound of greatest interest is TMAE which comprises tetrakis(dimethylamino)ethylene which has a measured ionization potential of 5.36.+-.0.02 eV, and a vapor pressure of 0.35 torr at 20.degree. C.

  11. High efficiency photoionization detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, D.F.

    1984-01-31

    A high efficiency photoionization detector is described using tetraaminoethylenes in a gaseous state having a low ionization potential and a relative photoionization cross section which closely matches the emission spectrum of xenon gas. Imaging proportional counters are also disclosed using the novel photoionization detector of the invention. The compound of greatest interest is TMAE which comprises tetrakis(dimethylamino)ethylene which has a measured ionization potential of 5.36 [+-] 0.02 eV, and a vapor pressure of 0.35 torr at 20 C. 6 figs.

  12. High-efficiency CARM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bratman, V.L.; Kol`chugin, B.D.; Samsonov, S.V.; Volkov, A.B.

    1995-12-31

    The Cyclotron Autoresonance Maser (CARM) is a well-known variety of FEMs. Unlike the ubitron in which electrons move in a periodical undulator field, in the CARM the particles move along helical trajectories in a uniform magnetic field. Since it is much simpler to generate strong homogeneous magnetic fields than periodical ones for a relatively low electron energy ({Brit_pounds}{le}1-3 MeV) the period of particles` trajectories in the CARM can be sufficiently smaller than in the undulator in which, moreover, the field decreases rapidly in the transverse direction. In spite of this evident advantage, the number of papers on CARM is an order less than on ubitron, which is apparently caused by the low (not more than 10 %) CARM efficiency in experiments. At the same time, ubitrons operating in two rather complicated regimes-trapping and adiabatic deceleration of particles and combined undulator and reversed guiding fields - yielded efficiencies of 34 % and 27 %, respectively. The aim of this work is to demonstrate that high efficiency can be reached even for a simplest version of the CARM. In order to reduce sensitivity to an axial velocity spread of particles, a short interaction length where electrons underwent only 4-5 cyclotron oscillations was used in this work. Like experiments, a narrow anode outlet of a field-emission electron gun cut out the {open_quotes}most rectilinear{close_quotes} near-axis part of the electron beam. Additionally, magnetic field of a small correcting coil compensated spurious electron oscillations pumped by the anode aperture. A kicker in the form of a sloping to the axis frame with current provided a control value of rotary velocity at a small additional velocity spread. A simple cavity consisting of a cylindrical waveguide section restricted by a cut-off waveguide on the cathode side and by a Bragg reflector on the collector side was used as the CARM-oscillator microwave system.

  13. High Efficiency Integrated Package

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ibbetson, James

    2013-09-15

    Solid-state lighting based on LEDs has emerged as a superior alternative to inefficient conventional lighting, particularly incandescent. LED lighting can lead to 80 percent energy savings; can last 50,000 hours – 2-50 times longer than most bulbs; and contains no toxic lead or mercury. However, to enable mass adoption, particularly at the consumer level, the cost of LED luminaires must be reduced by an order of magnitude while achieving superior efficiency, light quality and lifetime. To become viable, energy-efficient replacement solutions must deliver system efficacies of ≥ 100 lumens per watt (LPW) with excellent color rendering (CRI > 85) at a cost that enables payback cycles of two years or less for commercial applications. This development will enable significant site energy savings as it targets commercial and retail lighting applications that are most sensitive to the lifetime operating costs with their extended operating hours per day. If costs are reduced substantially, dramatic energy savings can be realized by replacing incandescent lighting in the residential market as well. In light of these challenges, Cree proposed to develop a multi-chip integrated LED package with an output of > 1000 lumens of warm white light operating at an efficacy of at least 128 LPW with a CRI > 85. This product will serve as the light engine for replacement lamps and luminaires. At the end of the proposed program, this integrated package was to be used in a proof-of-concept lamp prototype to demonstrate the component’s viability in a common form factor. During this project Cree SBTC developed an efficient, compact warm-white LED package with an integrated remote color down-converter. Via a combination of intensive optical, electrical, and thermal optimization, a package design was obtained that met nearly all project goals. This package emitted 1295 lm under instant-on, room-temperature testing conditions, with an efficacy of 128.4 lm/W at a color temperature of ~2873K and 83 CRI. As such, the package’s performance exceeds DOE’s warm-white phosphor LED efficacy target for 2013. At the end of the program, we assembled an A19 sized demonstration bulb housing the integrated package which met Energy Star intensity variation requirements. With further development to reduce overall component cost, we anticipate that an integrated remote converter package such as developed during this program will find application in compact, high-efficacy LED-based lamps, particularly those requiring omnidirectional emission.

  14. Computationally Efficient Modeling of High-Efficiency Clean Combustion...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    More Documents & Publications Computationally Efficient Modeling of High-Efficiency Clean Combustion Engines Computationally Efficient Modeling of High-Efficiency Clean Combustion ...

  15. High Efficiency Recoil

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Efficiency Recoil Spectrometer for Superheavy Element Factory Super H eavy N uclei 2 015, C ollege S ta8on, T exas, M arch 3 1 - A pril 0 2, 2 015 G. Chubarian T exas A &M U niversity, C yclotron I ns7tute Signal / Noise Efficiency Super H eavy N uclei 2 015, C ollege S ta8on, T exas, M arch 3 1 - A pril 0 2, 2 015 Peter J . T win a nd F rancis B eck --- Eurogam P roject (late 8 0's) Signal Number of Events Energy Resolution Time Resolution Space Resolution etc. Noise Background Counts and

  16. Palladium-tin catalysts for the direct synthesis of H2O2 with high selectivity

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Freakley, Simon J.; He, Qian; Harrhy, Jonathan H.; Lu, Li; Crole, David A.; Morgan, David J.; Ntainjua, Edwin N.; Edwards, Jennifer K.; Carley, Albert F.; Borisevich, Albina Y.; et al

    2016-02-25

    The direct synthesis of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 ) from H2 and O2 represents a potentially atom-efficient alternative to the current industrial indirect process. We show that the addition of tin to palladium catalysts coupled with an appropriate heat treatment cycle switches off the sequential hydrogenation and decomposition reactions, enabling selectivities of >95% toward H2O2 . This effect arises from a tin oxide surface layer that encapsulates small Pd-rich particles while leaving larger Pd-Sn alloy particles exposed. In conclusion, we show that this effect is a general feature for oxide-supported Pd catalysts containing an appropriate second metal oxide component, and wemore » set out the design principles for producing high-selectivity Pd-based catalysts for direct H2O2 production that do not contain gold.« less

  17. Improving Catalyst Efficiency in Bio-Based Hydrocarbon Fuels; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2015-06-01

    This article investigates upgrading biomass pyrolysis vapors to form hydrocarbon fuels and chemicals using catalysts with different concentrations of acid sites. It shows that greater separation of acid sites makes catalysts more efficient at producing hydrocarbon fuels and chemicals. The conversion of biomass into liquid transportation fuels has attracted significant attention because of depleting fossil fuel reserves and environmental concerns resulting from the use of fossil fuels. Biomass is a renewable resource, which is abundant worldwide and can potentially be exploited to produce transportation fuels that are less damaging to the environment. This renewable resource consists of cellulose (40–50%), hemicellulose (25–35%), and lignin (16–33%) biopolymers in addition to smaller quantities of inorganic materials such as silica and alkali and alkaline earth metals (calcium and potassium). Fast pyrolysis is an attractive thermochemical technology for converting biomass into precursors for hydrocarbon fuels because it produces up to 75 wt% bio-oil,1 which can be upgraded to feedstocks and/or blendstocks for further refining to finished fuels. Bio-oil that has not been upgraded has limited applications because of the presence of oxygen-containing functional groups, derived from cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin, which gives rise to high acidity, high viscosity, low heating value, immiscibility with hydrocarbons and aging during storage. Ex situ catalytic vapor phase upgrading is a promising approach for improving the properties of bio-oil. The goal of this process is to reject oxygen and produce a bio-oil with improved properties for subsequent downstream conversion to hydrocarbons.

  18. High efficiency gas burner

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schuetz, Mark A.

    1983-01-01

    A burner assembly provides for 100% premixing of fuel and air by drawing the air into at least one high velocity stream of fuel without power assist. Specifically, the nozzle assembly for injecting the fuel into a throat comprises a plurality of nozzles in a generally circular array. Preferably, swirl is imparted to the air/fuel mixture by angling the nozzles. The diffuser comprises a conical primary diffuser followed by a cusp diffuser.

  19. CATALYSTS FOR HIGH CETANE ETHERS AS DIESEL FUELS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kamil Klier; Richard G. Herman; James G.C. Shen; Qisheng Ma

    2000-08-31

    A novel 1,2-ethanediol, bis(hydrogen sulfate), disodium salt precursor-based solid acid catalyst with a zirconia substrate was synthesized and demonstrated to have significantly enhanced activity and high selectivity in producing methyl isobutyl ether (MIBE) or isobutene from methanol-isobutanol mixtures. The precursor salt was synthesized and provided by Dr. T. H. Kalantar of the M.E. Pruitt Research Center, Dow Chemical Co., Midland, MI 48674. Molecular modeling of the catalyst synthesis steps and of the alcohol coupling reaction is being carried out. A representation of the methyl transfer from the surface activated methanol molecule (left) to the activated oxygen of the isobutanol molecule (right) to form an ether linkage to yield MIBE is shown.

  20. High surface area ThO/sub 2/ catalyst

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Colmenares, C.A.; Somorjai, G.A.; Maj, J.J.

    1983-06-21

    A ThO/sub 2/ catalyst having a high surface area of about 80 to 125m/sup 2//g is synthesized. The compound is synthesized by simultaneously mixing an aqueous solution of ThNO/sub 3/(NO/sub 3/)/sub 4/.4H/sub 2/O with an aqueous solution of Na/sub 2/CO/sub 3/.H/sub 2/O, to produce a solution and solid ThOCO/sub 3/. The solid ThOCO/sub 3/ is separated from the solution, and then calcined at a temperature of about 225 to 300/sup 0/C for about 40 to 55 hours to produce ThO/sub 2/. The ThO/sub 2/ catalyst produced includes Na present as a substitutional cation in an amount equal to about 5 to 10 at. %.

  1. Enhanced High Temperature Performance of NOx Reduction Catalyst Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gao, Feng; Kim, Do Heui; Luo, Jinyong; Muntean, George G.; Peden, Charles HF; Howden, Ken; Currier, Neal; Kamasamudram, Krishna; Kumar, Ashok; Li, Junhui; Stafford, Randy; Yezerets, Aleksey; Castagnola, Mario; Chen, Hai Ying; Hess, Howard ..

    2012-12-31

    Two primary NOx after-treatment technologies have been recognized as the most promising approaches for meeting stringent NOx emission standards for diesel vehicles within the Environmental Protection Agencys (EPAs) 2007/2010 mandated limits, NOx Storage Reduction (NSR) and NH3 selective catalytic reduction (SCR); both are, in fact being commercialized for this application. However, in looking forward to 2015 and beyond with expected more stringent regulations, the continued viability of the NSR technology for controlling NOx emissions from lean-burn engines such as diesels will require at least two specific, significant and inter-related improvements. First, it is important to reduce system costs by, for example, minimizing the precious metal content while maintaining, even improving, performance and long-term stability. A second critical need for future NSR systems, as well as for NH3 SCR, will be significantly improved higher and lower temperature performance and stability. Furthermore, these critically needed improvements will contribute significantly to minimizing the impacts to fuel economy of incorporating these after-treatment technologies on lean-burn vehicles. To meet these objectives will require, at a minimum an improved scientific understanding of the following things: i) the various roles for the precious and coinage metals used in these catalysts; ii) the mechanisms for these various roles; iii) the effects of high temperatures on the active metal performance in their various roles; iv) mechanisms for higher temperature NOx storage performance for modified and/or alternative storage materials; v) the interactions between the precious metals and the storage materials in both optimum NOx storage performance and long term stability; vi) the sulfur adsorption and regeneration mechanisms for NOx reduction materials; vii) materials degradation mechanisms in CHA-based NH3 SCR catalysts. The objective of this CRADA project between PNNL and Cummins, Inc. is to develop a fundamental understanding of the above-listed issues. Model catalysts that are based on literature formulations are the focus of the work being carried out at PNNL. In addition, the performance and stability of more realistic high temperature NSR catalysts, supplied by JM, are being studied in order to provide baseline data for the model catalysts that are, again, based on formulations described in the open literature. For this short summary, we will primarily highlight representative results from our recent studies of the stability of candidate high temperature NSR materials.

  2. Reducing fischer-tropsch catalyst attrition losses in high agitation reaction systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Singleton, Alan H.; Oukaci, Rachid; Goodwin, James G.

    2001-01-01

    A method for reducing catalyst attrition losses in hydrocarbon synthesis processes conducted in high agitation reaction systems; a method of producing an attrition-resistant catalyst; a catalyst produced by such method; a method of producing an attrition-resistant catalyst support; and a catalyst support produced by such method. The inventive method of reducing catalyst attrition losses comprises the step of reacting a synthesis gas in a high agitation reaction system in the presence of a catalyst. In one aspect, the catalyst preferably comprises a .gamma.-alumina support including an amount of titanium effective for increasing the attrition resistance of the catalyst. In another aspect, the catalyst preferably comprises a .gamma.-alumina support which has been treated, after calcination, with an acidic, aqueous solution. The acidic aqueous solution preferably has a pH of not more than about 5. In another aspect, the catalyst preferably comprises cobalt on a .gamma.-alumina support wherein the cobalt has been applied to the .gamma.-alumina support by totally aqueous, incipient wetness-type impregnation. In another aspect, the catalyst preferably comprises cobalt on a .gamma.-alumina support with an amount of a lanthana promoter effective for increasing the attrition resistance of the catalyst. In another aspect, the catalyst preferably comprises a .gamma.-alumina support produced from boehmite having a crystallite size, in the 021 plane, in the range of from about 30 to about 55 .ANG.ngstrons. In another aspect, the inventive method of producing an attrition-resistant catalyst comprises the step of treating a .gamma.-alumina support, after calcination of and before adding catalytic material to the support, with an acidic solution effective for increasing the attrition resistance of the catalyst. In another aspect, the inventive method of producing an attrition-resistant catalyst support comprises the step of treating calcined .gamma.-alumina with an acidic, aqueous solution effective for increasing the attrition resistance of the .gamma.-alumina.

  3. High Efficiency Engine Technologies Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rich Kruiswyk

    2010-07-13

    Caterpillar's Product Development and Global Technology Division carried out a research program on waste heat recovery with support from DOE (Department of Energy) and the DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory. The objective of the program was to develop a new air management and exhaust energy recovery system that would demonstrate a minimum 10% improvement in thermal efficiency over a base heavy-duty on-highway diesel truck engine. The base engine for this program was a 2007 C15 15.2L series-turbocharged on-highway truck engine with a LPL (low-pressure loop) exhaust recirculation system. The focus of the program was on the development of high efficiency turbomachinery and a high efficiency turbocompound waste heat recovery system. The focus of each area of development was as follows: (1) For turbine stages, the focus was on investigation and development of technologies that would improve on-engine exhaust energy utilization compared to the conventional radial turbines in widespread use today. (2) For compressor stages, the focus was on investigating compressor wheel design parameters beyond the range typically utilized in production, to determine the potential efficiency benefits thereof. (3) For turbocompound, the focus was on the development of a robust bearing system that would provide higher bearing efficiencies compared to systems used in turbocompound power turbines in production. None of the turbocharger technologies investigated involved addition of moving parts, actuators, or exotic materials, thereby increasing the likelihood of a favorable cost-value tradeoff for each technology. And the turbocompound system requires less hardware addition than competing bottoming cycle technologies, making it a more attractive solution from a cost and packaging standpoint. Main outcomes of the program are as follows: (1) Two turbine technologies that demonstrated up to 6% improvement in turbine efficiency on gas stand and 1-3% improvement in thermal efficiency in on-engine testing. (2) A compressor technology that demonstrated 1.5% improvement in compressor efficiency on gas stand compared to production available compressors. (3) A power turbine with high efficiency bearing system that demonstrated excellent rotordynamic stability throughout the required speed range, up to 60,000 rpm. (4) A predicted improvement (using engine simulation) in engine thermal efficiency of 7% at the peak torque design point, when combining the technologies developed in this program.

  4. High efficiency and high concentration in photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yamaguchi, Masafumi; Luque, A.

    1999-10-01

    In this paper, the authors present the state-of-the-art of multijunction solar cells and the future prospects of this technology. Their use in terrestrial applications will likely be for concentrators operating at very high concentrations. Some trends are also discussed and the authors present a cost calculation showing that highly efficient cells under very high concentration would be able to produce electricity at costs competitive with electricity generation costs for some utilities.

  5. Evaluation of High Efficiency Clean Combustion (HECC) Strategies for

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Meeting Future Emissions Regulations in Light-Duty Engines | Department of Energy Presentation given at DEER 2006, August 20-24, 2006, Detroit, Michigan. Sponsored by the U.S. DOE's EERE FreedomCar and Fuel Partnership and 21st Century Truck Programs. PDF icon 2006_deer_wagner.pdf More Documents & Publications Synergies of High-Efficiency Clean Combustion and Lean NOx Trap Catalysts High Efficiency Clean Combustion in Multi-Cylinder Light-Duty Engines Measurement and Characterization of

  6. Enabling High Efficiency Ethanol Engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Szybist, J.; Confer, K.

    2011-03-01

    Delphi Automotive Systems and ORNL established this CRADA to explore the potential to improve the energy efficiency of spark-ignited engines operating on ethanol-gasoline blends. By taking advantage of the fuel properties of ethanol, such as high compression ratio and high latent heat of vaporization, it is possible to increase efficiency with ethanol blends. Increasing the efficiency with ethanol-containing blends aims to remove a market barrier of reduced fuel economy with E85 fuel blends, which is currently about 30% lower than with petroleum-derived gasoline. The same or higher engine efficiency is achieved with E85, and the reduction in fuel economy is due to the lower energy density of E85. By making ethanol-blends more efficient, the fuel economy gap between gasoline and E85 can be reduced. In the partnership between Delphi and ORNL, each organization brought a unique and complementary set of skills to the project. Delphi has extensive knowledge and experience in powertrain components and subsystems as well as overcoming real-world implementation barriers. ORNL has extensive knowledge and expertise in non-traditional fuels and improving engine system efficiency for the next generation of internal combustion engines. Partnering to combine these knowledge bases was essential towards making progress to reducing the fuel economy gap between gasoline and E85. ORNL and Delphi maintained strong collaboration throughout the project. Meetings were held regularly, usually on a bi-weekly basis, with additional reports, presentations, and meetings as necessary to maintain progress. Delphi provided substantial hardware support to the project by providing components for the single-cylinder engine experiments, engineering support for hardware modifications, guidance for operational strategies on engine research, and hardware support by providing a flexible multi-cylinder engine to be used for optimizing engine efficiency with ethanol-containing fuels.

  7. Computationally Efficient Modeling of High-Efficiency Clean Combustion

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Engines | Department of Energy 2 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting PDF icon ace012_flowers_2012_o.pdf More Documents & Publications Computationally Efficient Modeling of High-Efficiency Clean Combustion Engines Computationally Efficient Modeling of High-Efficiency Clean Combustion Engines Simulation of High Efficiency Clean Combustion Engines and Detailed Chemical Kinetic Mechanisms Development

  8. Highly Efficient Solar Thermochemical Reaction Systems

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Highly Efficient, Solar Thermochemical Reaction Systems (2014 R&D 100 Award Winner) U.S. ...andfuelcells.energy.gov HIGHLY EFFICIENT, SOLAR THERMOCHEMICAL REACTION SYSTEMS Robert S ...

  9. "Tuning" microalgae for high photosynthesis efficiency

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    "Tuning" Microalgae For High Photosynthesis Efficiency "Tuning" microalgae for high photosynthesis efficiency Los Alamos scientist Richard Sayre and his team of researchers have...

  10. High Efficiency Room Air Conditioner

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bansal, Pradeep

    2015-01-01

    This project was undertaken as a CRADA project between UT-Battelle and Geberal Electric Company and was funded by Department of Energy to design and develop of a high efficiency room air conditioner. A number of novel elements were investigated to improve the energy efficiency of a state-of-the-art WAC with base capacity of 10,000 BTU/h. One of the major modifications was made by downgrading its capacity from 10,000 BTU/hr to 8,000 BTU/hr by replacing the original compressor with a lower capacity (8,000 BTU/hr) but high efficiency compressor having an EER of 9.7 as compared with 9.3 of the original compressor. However, all heat exchangers from the original unit were retained to provide higher EER. The other subsequent major modifications included- (i) the AC fan motor was replaced by a brushless high efficiency ECM motor along with its fan housing, (ii) the capillary tube was replaced with a needle valve to better control the refrigerant flow and refrigerant set points, and (iii) the unit was tested with a drop-in environmentally friendly binary mixture of R32 (90% molar concentration)/R125 (10% molar concentration). The WAC was tested in the environmental chambers at ORNL as per the design rating conditions of AHAM/ASHRAE (Outdoor- 95F and 40%RH, Indoor- 80F, 51.5%RH). All these modifications resulted in enhancing the EER of the WAC by up to 25%.

  11. Highly Active and Selective Metal-modified Zeolite Catalysts...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Active and Selective Metal-modified Zeolite Catalysts for Low Temperature Conversion of Methanol and Dimethyl Ether to Gasoline-range Branched Hydrocarbons National Renewable...

  12. Development of Highly Selective Oxidation Catalysts by Atomic Layer Deposition

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This factsheet describes a research project whose goal is to use Atomic Layer Deposition to construct nanostructured catalysts to improve the effectiveness of oxidative dehydrogenation of alkanes. More effective catalysts could enable higher specific conversion rates and result in drastic energy savings - up to 25 trillion Btu per year by 2020.

  13. Low-temperature CO oxidation over a ternary oxide catalyst with high resistance to hydrocarbon inhibition

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Binder, Andrew J.; Toops, Todd J.; Unocic, Raymond R.; Parks, II, James E.; Dai, Sheng

    2015-09-11

    Platinum group metal (PGM) catalysts are the current standard for control of pollutants in automotive exhaust streams. Aside from their high cost, PGM catalysts struggle with CO oxidation at low temperatures (<200 °C) due to inhibition by hydrocarbons in exhaust streams. Here we present a ternary mixed oxide catalyst composed of copper oxide, cobalt oxide, and ceria (dubbed CCC) that outperforms synthesized and commercial PGM catalysts for CO oxidation in simulated exhaust streams while showing no signs of inhibition by propene. Diffuse reflectance IR (DRIFTS) and light-off data both indicate low interaction between propene and the CO oxidation active sitemore » on this catalyst, and a separation of adsorption sites is proposed as the cause of this inhibition resistance. In conclusion, this catalyst shows great potential as a low-cost component for low temperature exhaust streams that are expected to be a characteristic of future automotive systems.« less

  14. High-efficiency photovoltaic cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yang, H.T.; Zehr, S.W.

    1982-06-21

    High efficiency solar converters comprised of a two cell, non-lattice matched, monolithic stacked semiconductor configuration using optimum pairs of cells having bandgaps in the range 1.6 to 1.7 eV and 0.95 to 1.1 eV, and a method of fabrication thereof, are disclosed. The high band gap subcells are fabricated using metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD), liquid phase epitaxy (LPE) or molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) to produce the required AlGaAs layers of optimized composition, thickness and doping to produce high performance, heteroface homojunction devices. The low bandgap subcells are similarly fabricated from AlGa(As)Sb compositions by LPE, MBE or MOCVD. These subcells are then coupled to form a monolithic structure by an appropriate bonding technique which also forms the required transparent intercell ohmic contact (IOC) between the two subcells. Improved ohmic contacts to the high bandgap semiconductor structure can be formed by vacuum evaporating to suitable metal or semiconductor materials which react during laser annealing to form a low bandgap semiconductor which provides a low contact resistance structure.

  15. High efficiency laser spectrum conditioner

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Greiner, Norman R.

    1980-01-01

    A high efficiency laser spectrum conditioner for generating a collinear parallel output beam containing a predetermined set of frequencies from a multifrequency laser. A diffraction grating and spherical mirror are used in combination, to disperse the various frequencies of the input laser beam and direct these frequencies along various parallel lines spatially separated from one another to an apertured mask. Selection of the desired frequencies is accomplished by placement of apertures at locations on the mask where the desired frequencies intersect the mask. A recollimated parallel output beam with the desired set of frequencies is subsequently generated utilizing a mirror and grating matched and geometrically aligned in the same manner as the input grating and mirror.

  16. Subnanometer platinum clusters highly active and selective catalysts for the oxidative dehydrogenation of propane.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vajda, S; Pellin, M. J.; Greeley, J. P.; Marshall, C. L.; Curtiss, L. A.; Ballentine, G. A.; Elam, J. W.; Catillon-Mucherie, S.; Redfern, P. C.; Mehmood, F.; Zapol, P.; Yale Univ.

    2009-03-01

    Small clusters are known to possess reactivity not observed in their bulk analogues, which can make them attractive for catalysis. Their distinct catalytic properties are often hypothesized to result from the large fraction of under-coordinated surface atoms. Here, we show that size-preselected Pt{sub 8-10} clusters stabilized on high-surface-area supports are 40-100 times more active for the oxidative dehydrogenation of propane than previously studied platinum and vanadia catalysts, while at the same time maintaining high selectivity towards formation of propylene over by-products. Quantum chemical calculations indicate that under-coordination of the Pt atoms in the clusters is responsible for the surprisingly high reactivity compared with extended surfaces. We anticipate that these results will form the basis for development of a new class of catalysts by providing a route to bond-specific chemistry, ranging from energy-efficient and environmentally friendly synthesis strategies to the replacement of petrochemical feedstocks by abundant small alkanes.

  17. High efficiency shale oil recovery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adams, D.C.

    1992-01-01

    The overall project objective is to demonstrate the high efficiency of the Adams Counter-Current shale oil recovery process. The efficiency will first be demonstrated on a small scale, in the current phase, after which the demonstration will be extended to the operation of a small pilot plant. Thus the immediate project objective is to obtain data on oil shale retorting operations in a small batch rotary kiln that will be representative of operations in the proposed continuous process pilot plant. Although an oil shale batch sample is sealed in the batch kiln from the start until the end of the run, the process conditions for the batch are the same as the conditions that an element of oil shale would encounter in a continuous process kiln. Similar chemical and physical (heating, mixing) conditions exist in both systems. The two most important data objectives in this phase of the project are to demonstrate (1) that the heat recovery projected for this project is reasonable and (2) that an oil shale kiln will run well and not plug up due to sticking and agglomeration. The following was completed and is reported on this quarter: (1) A software routine was written to eliminate intermittently inaccurate temperature readings. (2) We completed the quartz sand calibration runs, resolving calibration questions from the 3rd quarter. (3) We also made low temperature retorting runs to identify the need for certain kiln modifications and kiln modifications were completed. (4) Heat Conductance data on two Pyrolysis runs were completed on two samples of Occidental oil shale.

  18. Structurally ordered Pt–Zn/C series nanoparticles as efficient anode catalysts for formic acid electrooxidation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhu, Jing; Zheng, Xin; Wang, Jie; Wu, Zexing; Han, Lili; Lin, Ruoqian; Xin, Huolin L.; Wang, Deli

    2015-09-15

    Controlling the size, composition, and structure of bimetallic nanoparticles is of particular interest in the field of electrocatalysts for fuel cells. In the present work, structurally ordered nanoparticles with intermetallic phases of Pt3Zn and PtZn have been successfully synthesized via an impregnation reduction method, followed by post heat-treatment. The Pt3Zn and PtZn ordered intermetallic nanoparticles are well dispersed on a carbon support with ultrasmall mean particle sizes of ~5 nm and ~3 nm in diameter, respectively, which are credited to the evaporation of the zinc element at high temperature. These catalysts are less susceptible to CO poisoning relative to Pt/C and exhibited enhanced catalytic activity and stability toward formic acid electrooxidation. The mass activities of the as-prepared catalysts were approximately 2 to 3 times that of commercial Pt at 0.5 V (vs. RHE). As a result, this facile synthetic strategy is scalable for mass production of catalytic materials.

  19. Structurally ordered Pt–Zn/C series nanoparticles as efficient anode catalysts for formic acid electrooxidation

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhu, Jing; Zheng, Xin; Wang, Jie; Wu, Zexing; Han, Lili; Lin, Ruoqian; Xin, Huolin L.; Wang, Deli

    2015-09-15

    Controlling the size, composition, and structure of bimetallic nanoparticles is of particular interest in the field of electrocatalysts for fuel cells. In the present work, structurally ordered nanoparticles with intermetallic phases of Pt3Zn and PtZn have been successfully synthesized via an impregnation reduction method, followed by post heat-treatment. The Pt3Zn and PtZn ordered intermetallic nanoparticles are well dispersed on a carbon support with ultrasmall mean particle sizes of ~5 nm and ~3 nm in diameter, respectively, which are credited to the evaporation of the zinc element at high temperature. These catalysts are less susceptible to CO poisoning relative to Pt/Cmore » and exhibited enhanced catalytic activity and stability toward formic acid electrooxidation. The mass activities of the as-prepared catalysts were approximately 2 to 3 times that of commercial Pt at 0.5 V (vs. RHE). As a result, this facile synthetic strategy is scalable for mass production of catalytic materials.« less

  20. Enhanced photocatalytic efficiency of NiS/TiO{sub 2} composite catalysts using sunset yellow, an azo dye under day light illumination

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rajamanickam, D.; Dhatshanamurthi, P.; Shanthi, M.

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: NiS/TiO{sub 2} was successfully synthesized by solgel method. This new method of preparation gives a homogeneous dispersion of NiS on TiO{sub 2}. Degradation activity of NiS/TiO{sub 2} is found to be more efficient than other catalysts. Addition of oxidants enhances the degradation efficiency significantly. COD measurements reveal the complete mineralization of dye molecules. The catalyst is found to be reusable. - Abstract: To improve the solar light induced photocatalytic application performances of TiO{sub 2}, in this study, the NiS modified TiO{sub 2} composite photocatalysts with various ratios of NiS to TiO{sub 2} were prepared by solgel method. The catalyst was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), high resolution scanning electron microscope (HR-SEM), high resolution transmission electron microscope (HR-TEM), energy dispersive spectra (EDS), diffuse reflectance spectra (DRS), photoluminescence spectra (PL), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and BrunauerEmmettTeller (BET) surface area measurement methods. The photocatalytic activity of NiS/TiO{sub 2} was investigated for the degradation of sunset yellow (SY) in aqueous solution using solar light. The NiS/TiO{sub 2} is found to be more efficient than prepared TiO{sub 2} and TiO{sub 2}P25 at pH 7 for the mineralization of SY. The effects of operational parameters such as the amount of photocatalyst, dye concentration and initial pH on photo mineralization of SY have been analyzed. The degradation was strongly enhanced in the presence of oxidants such as H{sub 3}K{sub 5}O{sub 18}S{sub 4} (Oxone), KIO{sub 4}, and KBrO{sub 3}. The mineralization of SY has been identified by COD measurements. The catalyst is found to be reusable.

  1. Method for generating a highly reactive plasma for exhaust gas aftertreatment and enhanced catalyst reactivity

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Whealton, John H.; Hanson, Gregory R.; Storey, John M.; Raridon, Richard J.; Armfield, Jeffrey S.; Bigelow, Timothy S.; Graves, Ronald L.

    2002-01-01

    A method for non-thermal plasma aftertreatment of exhaust gases the method comprising the steps of providing short risetime, high frequency, high power bursts of low-duty factor microwaves sufficient to generate a plasma discharge and passing a gas to be treated through the discharge so as to cause dissociative reduction of the exhaust gases and enhanced catalyst reactivity through application of the pulsed microwave fields directly to the catalyst material sufficient to cause a polarizability catastrophe and enhanced heating of the metal crystallite particles of the catalyst, and in the presence or absence of the plasma. The invention also includes a reactor for aftertreatment of exhaust gases.

  2. High efficiency turbine blade coatings.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Youchison, Dennis L.; Gallis, Michail A.

    2014-06-01

    The development of advanced thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) of yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) that exhibit lower thermal conductivity through better control of electron beam - physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD) processing is of prime interest to both the aerospace and power industries. This report summarizes the work performed under a two-year Lab-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project (38664) to produce lower thermal conductivity, graded-layer thermal barrier coatings for turbine blades in an effort to increase the efficiency of high temperature gas turbines. This project was sponsored by the Nuclear Fuel Cycle Investment Area. Therefore, particular importance was given to the processing of the large blades required for industrial gas turbines proposed for use in the Brayton cycle of nuclear plants powered by high temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGRs). During this modest (~1 full-time equivalent (FTE)) project, the processing technology was developed to create graded TBCs by coupling ion beam-assisted deposition (IBAD) with substrate pivoting in the alumina-YSZ system. The Electron Beam - 1200 kW (EB-1200) PVD system was used to deposit a variety of TBC coatings with micron layered microstructures and reduced thermal conductivity below 1.5 W/m.K. The use of IBAD produced fully stoichiometric coatings at a reduced substrate temperature of 600 oC and a reduced oxygen background pressure of 0.1 Pa. IBAD was also used to successfully demonstrate the transitioning of amorphous PVD-deposited alumina to the -phase alumina required as an oxygen diffusion barrier and for good adhesion to the substrate Ni2Al3 bondcoat. This process replaces the time consuming thermally grown oxide formation required before the YSZ deposition. In addition to the process technology, Direct Simulation Monte Carlo plume modeling and spectroscopic characterization of the PVD plumes were performed. The project consisted of five tasks. These included the production of layered periodic microstructures in the coating, the Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) modeling of particle transport in the PVD plume, functional graded layer development, the deposition of all layers to form a complete coating, and materials characterization including thermal testing. Ion beam-assisted deposition, beam sharing through advanced digital rastering, substrate pivoting, hearth calorimetry, infrared imaging, fiber optic-enabled optical emission spectroscopy and careful thermal management were used to achieve all the milestones outlined in the FY02 LDRD proposal.

  3. Commercial Buildings High Impact Technology (HIT) Catalyst Overview — 2016 BTO Peer Review

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This presentation at the 2016 Peer Review provided an overview of the Building Technologies Office’s Commercial Buildings High Impact Technology (HIT) Catalyst Program. Through robust feedback, the BTO Program Peer Review enhances existing efforts and improves future designs.

  4. Commercial Buildings High Impact Technology (HIT) Catalyst — 2016 BTO Peer Review

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This presentation at the 2016 Peer Review provided an overview of the Building Technologies Office’s Commercial Buildings High Impact Technology (HIT) Catalyst Program. Through robust feedback, the BTO Program Peer Review enhances existing efforts and improves future designs.

  5. High Energy Efficiency Air Conditioning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edward McCullough; Patrick Dhooge; Jonathan Nimitz

    2003-12-31

    This project determined the performance of a new high efficiency refrigerant, Ikon B, in a residential air conditioner designed to use R-22. The refrigerant R-22, used in residential and small commercial air conditioners, is being phased out of production in developed countries beginning this year because of concerns regarding its ozone depletion potential. Although a replacement refrigerant, R-410A, is available, it operates at much higher pressure than R-22 and requires new equipment. R-22 air conditioners will continue to be in use for many years to come. Air conditioning is a large part of expensive summer peak power use in many parts of the U.S. Previous testing and computer simulations of Ikon B indicated that it would have 20 - 25% higher coefficient of performance (COP, the amount of cooling obtained per energy used) than R-22 in an air-cooled air conditioner. In this project, a typical new R-22 residential air conditioner was obtained, installed in a large environmental chamber, instrumented, and run both with its original charge of R-22 and then with Ikon B. In the environmental chamber, controlled temperature and humidity could be maintained to obtain repeatable and comparable energy use results. Tests with Ikon B included runs with and without a power controller, and an extended run for several months with subsequent analyses to check compatibility of Ikon B with the air conditioner materials and lubricant. Baseline energy use of the air conditioner with its original R-22 charge was measured at 90 deg F and 100 deg F. After changeover to Ikon B and a larger expansion orifice, energy use was measured at 90 deg F and 100 deg F. Ikon B proved to have about 19% higher COP at 90 deg F and about 26% higher COP at 100 deg F versus R-22. Ikon B had about 20% lower cooling capacity at 90 deg F and about 17% lower cooling capacity at 100 deg F versus R-22 in this system. All results over multiple runs were within 1% relative standard deviation (RSD). All of these values agree well with previous results and computer simulations of Ikon B performance versus R-22. The lower cooling capacity of Ikon B is not a concern unless a particular air conditioner is near its maximum cooling capacity in application. Typically, oversized A/C systems are installed by contractors to cover contingencies. In the extended run with Ikon B, which lasted about 4.5 months at 100 deg F ambient temperature and 68% compressor on time, the air conditioner performed well with no significant loss of energy efficiency. Post-run analysis of the refrigerant, compressor lubricant oil, compressor, compressor outlet tubing, and the filter/dryer showed minor effects but nothing that was considered significant. The project was very successful. All objectives were achieved, and the performance of Ikon B indicates that it can easily be retrofitted into R-22 air conditioners to give 15 - 20% energy savings and a 1 - 3 year payback of retrofit costs depending on location and use. Ikon B has the potential to be a successful commercial product.

  6. Webinar: Highly Efficient Solar Thermochemical Reaction Systems |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Highly Efficient Solar Thermochemical Reaction Systems Webinar: Highly Efficient Solar Thermochemical Reaction Systems Below is the text version of the webinar titled "Highly Efficient Solar Thermochemical Reaction Systems," originally presented on January 13, 2015. In addition to this text version of the audio, you can access the presentation slides. Amit Talapatra: Hello, everyone, and thanks for joining today's webinar. Today's webinar is being recorded, so

  7. Highly Efficient Solar Thermochemical Reaction Systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Download presentation slides from the DOE Fuel Cell Technologies Office webinar "Highly Efficient Solar Thermochemical Reaction Systems" held on January 13, 2015.

  8. Pt monolayer shell on nitrided alloy core — A path to highly stable oxygen reduction catalyst

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Hu, Jue; Kuttiyiel, Kurian A.; Sasaki, Kotaro; Su, Dong; Yang, Tae -Hyun; Park, Gu -Gon; Zhang, Chengxu; Chen, Guangyu; Adzic, Radoslav R.

    2015-07-22

    The inadequate activity and stability of Pt as a cathode catalyst under the severe operation conditions are the critical problems facing the application of the proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). Here we report on a novel route to synthesize highly active and stable oxygen reduction catalysts by depositing Pt monolayer on a nitrided alloy core. The prepared PtMLPdNiN/C catalyst retains 89% of the initial electrochemical surface area after 50,000 cycles between potentials 0.6 and 1.0 V. By correlating electron energy-loss spectroscopy and X-ray absorption spectroscopy analyses with electrochemical measurements, we found that the significant improvement of stability of themore » PtMLPdNiN/C catalyst is caused by nitrogen doping while reducing the total precious metal loading.« less

  9. Pt monolayer shell on nitrided alloy core — A path to highly stable oxygen reduction catalyst

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hu, Jue; Kuttiyiel, Kurian A.; Sasaki, Kotaro; Su, Dong; Yang, Tae -Hyun; Park, Gu -Gon; Zhang, Chengxu; Chen, Guangyu; Adzic, Radoslav R.

    2015-07-22

    The inadequate activity and stability of Pt as a cathode catalyst under the severe operation conditions are the critical problems facing the application of the proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). Here we report on a novel route to synthesize highly active and stable oxygen reduction catalysts by depositing Pt monolayer on a nitrided alloy core. The prepared PtMLPdNiN/C catalyst retains 89% of the initial electrochemical surface area after 50,000 cycles between potentials 0.6 and 1.0 V. By correlating electron energy-loss spectroscopy and X-ray absorption spectroscopy analyses with electrochemical measurements, we found that the significant improvement of stability of the PtMLPdNiN/C catalyst is caused by nitrogen doping while reducing the total precious metal loading.

  10. Efficient high density train operations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gordon, Susanna P.; Evans, John A.

    2001-01-01

    The present invention provides methods for preventing low train voltages and managing interference, thereby improving the efficiency, reliability, and passenger comfort associated with commuter trains. An algorithm implementing neural network technology is used to predict low voltages before they occur. Once voltages are predicted, then multiple trains can be controlled to prevent low voltage events. Further, algorithms for managing inference are presented in the present invention. Different types of interference problems are addressed in the present invention such as "Interference. During Acceleration", "Interference Near Station Stops", and "Interference During Delay Recovery." Managing such interference avoids unnecessary brake/acceleration cycles during acceleration, immediately before station stops, and after substantial delays. Algorithms are demonstrated to avoid oscillatory brake/acceleration cycles due to interference and to smooth the trajectories of closely following trains. This is achieved by maintaining sufficient following distances to avoid unnecessary braking/accelerating. These methods generate smooth train trajectories, making for a more comfortable ride, and improve train motor reliability by avoiding unnecessary mode-changes between propulsion and braking. These algorithms can also have a favorable impact on traction power system requirements and energy consumption.

  11. Promising Technology: High-Efficiency Rooftop Units

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    High-efficiency rooftop air conditioning units (RTUs) can significantly reduce heating, cooling, and ventilation energy consumption. High efficiency RTUs incorporate variable speed controls to minimize fan and compressor energy while capturing and reusing heat, cold, and humidity from a building’s exhaust air.

  12. Development of the High Efficiency X1 Rotary Diesel Engine | Department of

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Energy This poster describes the design, modeling, and build of a 70-hp prototype of a high efficiency hybrid cycle engine that is expected to attain 57 percent efficiency across a range of loads. PDF icon p-23_shkolnik.pdf More Documents & Publications DEER 2007 ACES Status Report Poster: P-23 Effectiveness of a Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC) to control CO and hydrocarbon emissions from Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) combustion Vehicle Technologies Office Merit

  13. Supported metal catalysts for alcohol/sugar alcohol steam reforming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davidson, Stephen; Zhang, He; Sun, Junming; Wang, Yong

    2014-08-21

    Despite extensive studies on hydrogen production via steam reforming of alcohols and sugar alcohols, catalysts typically suffer a variety of issues from poor hydrogen selectivity to rapid deactivation. Here, we summarize recent advances in fundamental understanding of functionality and structure of catalysts for alcohol/sugar alcohol steam reforming, and provide perspectives on further development required to design highly efficient steam reforming catalysts.

  14. Multicolor, High Efficiency, Nanotextured LEDs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jung Han; Arto Nurmikko

    2011-09-30

    We report on research results in this project which synergize advanced material science approaches with fundamental optical physics concepts pertaining to light-matter interaction, with the goal of solving seminal problems for the development of very high performance light emitting diodes (LEDs) in the blue and green for Solid State Lighting applications. Accomplishments in the duration of the contract period include (i) heteroepitaxy of nitrogen-polar LEDs on sapphire, (ii) heteroepitaxy of semipolar (11{bar 2}2) green LEDs on sapphire, (iii) synthesis of quantum-dot loaded nanoporous GaN that emits white light without phosphor conversion, (iv) demonstration of the highest quality semipolar (11{bar 2}2) GaN on sapphire using orientation-controlled epitaxy, (v) synthesis of nanoscale GaN and InGaN medium, and (vi) development of a novel liftoff process for manufacturing GaN thin-film vertical LEDs. The body of results is presented in this report shows how a solid foundation has been laid, with several noticeable accomplishments, for innovative research, consistent with the stated milestones.

  15. Advanced CFD Models for High Efficiency Compression Ignition...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    CFD Models for High Efficiency Compression Ignition Engines Advanced CFD Models for High Efficiency Compression Ignition Engines Advanced CFD models for high efficiency ...

  16. Fe-porphyrin-based metal–organic framework films as high-surface concentration, heterogeneous catalysts for electrochemical reduction of CO2

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Hod, Idan; Sampson, Matthew D.; Deria, Pravas; Kubiak, Clifford P.; Farha, Omar K.; Hupp, Joseph T.

    2015-09-18

    Realization of heterogeneous electrochemical CO2-to-fuel conversion via molecular catalysis under high-flux conditions requires the assembly of large quantities of reactant-accessible catalysts on conductive surfaces. As a proof of principle, we demonstrate that electrophoretic deposition of thin films of an appropriately chosen metal–organic framework (MOF) material is an effective method for immobilizing the needed quantity of catalyst. For electrocatalytic CO2 reduction, we used a material that contains functionalized Fe-porphyrins as catalytically competent, redox-conductive linkers. The approach yields a high effective surface coverage of electrochemically addressable catalytic sites (~1015 sites/cm2). The chemical products of the reduction, obtained with ~100% Faradaic efficiency, aremore » mixtures of CO and H2. The results validate the strategy of using MOF chemistry to obtain porous, electrode-immobilized, networks of molecular catalysts having competency for energy-relevant electrochemical reactions.« less

  17. Computationally Efficient Modeling of High-Efficiency Clean Combustion

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Engines | Department of Energy 1 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation PDF icon ace012_aceves_2011_o.pdf More Documents & Publications Simulation of High Efficiency Clean Combustion Engines and Detailed Chemical Kinetic Mechanisms Development Improving Combustion Software to Solve Detailed Chemical Kinetics for HECC Improved Solvers for Advanced Engine Combustion Simulation

  18. Liberty Utilities Iowa High Efficiency Equipment Rebate

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Liberty Utilities offers a rebate to its Iowa residential and small business customers for the purchase of high efficiency ENERGY STAR natural gas home heating and water heating equipment....

  19. Webinar: Highly Efficient Solar Thermochemical Reaction Systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Fuel Cell Technologies Office will present a live webinar titled "Highly Efficient Solar Thermochemical Reaction Systems" on Tuesday, January 13, from 12:00 to 1:00 p.m. Eastern Standard Time.

  20. Thermal Strategies for High Efficiency Thermoelectric Power Generation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Strategies for High Efficiency Thermoelectric Power Generation Thermal Strategies for High Efficiency Thermoelectric Power Generation Developing integrated TE system configurations ...

  1. Technology Development for Light Duty High Efficient Diesel Engines...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Light Duty High Efficient Diesel Engines Technology Development for Light Duty High Efficient Diesel Engines Improve the efficiency of diesel engines for light duty applications ...

  2. Measure Guideline: High Efficiency Natural Gas Furnaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brand, L.; Rose, W.

    2012-10-01

    This Measure Guideline covers installation of high-efficiency gas furnaces. Topics covered include when to install a high-efficiency gas furnace as a retrofit measure, how to identify and address risks, and the steps to be used in the selection and installation process. The guideline is written for Building America practitioners and HVAC contractors and installers. It includes a compilation of information provided by manufacturers, researchers, and the Department of Energy as well as recent research results from the Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit (PARR) Building America team.

  3. Measure Guideline. High Efficiency Natural Gas Furnaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brand, L.; Rose, W.

    2012-10-01

    This measure guideline covers installation of high-efficiency gas furnaces, including: when to install a high-efficiency gas furnace as a retrofit measure; how to identify and address risks; and the steps to be used in the selection and installation process. The guideline is written for Building America practitioners and HVAC contractors and installers. It includes a compilation of information provided by manufacturers, researchers, and the Department of Energy as well as recent research results from the Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit (PARR) Building America team.

  4. Better Enzymes for Carbon Capture: Low-Cost Biological Catalyst to Enable Efficient Carbon Dioxide Capture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-07-01

    IMPACCT Project: Codexis is developing new and efficient forms of enzymes known as carbonic anhydrases to absorb CO2 more rapidly and under challenging conditions found in the gas exhaust of coal-fired power plants. Carbonic anhydrases are common and are among the fastest enzymes, but they are not robust enough to withstand the harsh environment found in the power plant exhaust steams. In this project, Codexis will be using proprietary technology to improve the enzymes’ ability to withstand high temperatures and large swings in chemical composition. The project aims to develop a carbon-capture process that uses less energy and less equipment than existing approaches. This would reduce the cost of retrofitting today’s coal-fired power plants.

  5. Implications of Low Particulate Matter Emissions on System Fuel Efficiency for High Efficiency Clean Combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parks, II, James E; Prikhodko, Vitaly Y

    2009-01-01

    Advanced diesel combustion regimes such as High Efficiency Clean Combustion (HECC) offer the benefits of reduced engine out NOX and particulate matter (PM) emissions. Lower PM emissions during advanced combustion reduce the demand on diesel particulate filters (DPFs) and can, thereby, reduce the fuel penalty associated with DPF regeneration. In this study, a SiC DPF was loaded and regenerated on a 1.7-liter 4-cylinder diesel engine operated in conventional and advanced combustion modes at different speed and load conditions. A diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) and a lean NOX trap (LNT) were also installed in the exhaust stream. Five steady-state speed and load conditions were weighted to estimate Federal Test Procedure (FTP) fuel efficiency. The DPF was loaded using lean-rich cycling with frequencies that resulted in similar levels of NOX emissions downstream of the LNT. The pressure drop across the DPF was measured at a standard point (1500 rpm, 5.0 bar) before and after loading, and a P rise rate was determined for comparison between conventional and advanced combustion modes. Higher PM emissions in conventional combustion resulted in a higher rate of backpressure rise across the DPF at all of the load points leading to more frequent DPF regenerations and higher fuel penalty. The fuel penalty during conventional combustion was 4.2% compared with 3.1% for a mixture of conventional and advanced modes.

  6. High efficiency novel window air conditioner

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bansal, Pradeep

    2015-07-24

    This paper presents the technical development of a high efficiency window air conditioner. In order to achieve higher energy efficiency ratio (EER), the original capacity of the R410A unit was downgraded by replacing the original compressor with a lower capacity but higher EER compressor, while all heat exchangers and the chassis from the original unit were retained. The other subsequent major modifications included – the AC fan motor being replaced with a brushless high efficiency electronically commuted motor (ECM) motor, the capillary tube being replaced with a needle valve to better control the refrigerant flow and refrigerant set points, and R410A being replaced with drop-in environmentally friendly binary mixture of R32 (85% molar concentration)/R125 (15% molar concentration). All these modifications resulted in significant EER enhancement of the modified unit.

  7. High efficiency novel window air conditioner

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Bansal, Pradeep

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the technical development of a high efficiency window air conditioner. In order to achieve higher energy efficiency ratio (EER), the original capacity of the R410A unit was downgraded by replacing the original compressor with a lower capacity but higher EER compressor, while all heat exchangers and the chassis from the original unit were retained. The other subsequent major modifications included – the AC fan motor being replaced with a brushless high efficiency electronically commuted motor (ECM) motor, the capillary tube being replaced with a needle valve to better control the refrigerant flow and refrigerant set points, andmore » R410A being replaced with drop-in environmentally friendly binary mixture of R32 (85% molar concentration)/R125 (15% molar concentration). All these modifications resulted in significant EER enhancement of the modified unit.« less

  8. High efficiency novel window air conditioner

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bansal, Pradeep

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the technical development of a high efficiency window air conditioner. In order to achieve higher energy efficiency ratio (EER), the original capacity of the R410A unit was downgraded by replacing the original compressor with a lower capacity but higher EER compressor, while all heat exchangers and the chassis from the original unit were retained. The other subsequent major modifications included – the AC fan motor being replaced with a brushless high efficiency electronically commuted motor (ECM) motor, the capillary tube being replaced with a needle valve to better control the refrigerant flow and refrigerant set points, and R410A being replaced with drop-in environmentally friendly binary mixture of R32 (85% molar concentration)/R125 (15% molar concentration). All these modifications resulted in significant EER enhancement of the modified unit.

  9. Nanostructured Thermoelectric Materials and High Efficiency Power

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Generation Modules | Energy Frontier Research Centers Nanostructured Thermoelectric Materials and High Efficiency Power Generation Modules Home Author: T. Hogan, A. Downey, J. Short, S. D. Mahanti, H. Schock, E. Case Year: 2007 Abstract: For thermoelectric applications, the best materials have high electrical conductivity and thermopower and, simultaneously, low thermal conductivity. Such a combination of properties is usually found in heavily doped semiconductors. Renewed interest in this

  10. Low Cost, High Efficiency Tandem Silicon Solar Cells and LEDs...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Building Energy Efficiency Building Energy ... Return to Search Low Cost, High Efficiency Tandem Silicon Solar Cells and LEDs ... gaps will lead to efficient power conversion. ...

  11. High Efficiency Solar Integrated Roof Membrane Product

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Partyka, Eric; Shenoy, Anil

    2013-05-15

    This project was designed to address the Solar Energy Technology Program objective, to develop new methods to integrate photovoltaic (PV) cells or modules within a building-integrated photovoltaic (BIPV) application that will result in lower installed cost as well as higher efficiencies of the encapsulated/embedded PV module. The technology assessment and development focused on the evaluation and identification of manufacturing technologies and equipment capable of producing such low-cost, high-efficiency, flexible BIPV solar cells on single-ply roofing membranes.

  12. High-Temperature High-Efficiency Solar Thermoelectric Generators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baranowski, LL; Warren, EL; Toberer, ES

    2014-03-01

    Inspired by recent high-efficiency thermoelectric modules, we consider thermoelectrics for terrestrial applications in concentrated solar thermoelectric generators (STEGs). The STEG is modeled as two subsystems: a TEG, and a solar absorber that efficiently captures the concentrated sunlight and limits radiative losses from the system. The TEG subsystem is modeled using thermoelectric compatibility theory; this model does not constrain the material properties to be constant with temperature. Considering a three-stage TEG based on current record modules, this model suggests that 18% efficiency could be experimentally expected with a temperature gradient of 1000A degrees C to 100A degrees C. Achieving 15% overall STEG efficiency thus requires an absorber efficiency above 85%, and we consider two methods to achieve this: solar-selective absorbers and thermally insulating cavities. When the TEG and absorber subsystem models are combined, we expect that the STEG modeled here could achieve 15% efficiency with optical concentration between 250 and 300 suns.

  13. A general method for multimetallic platinum alloy nanowires as highly active and stable oxygen reduction catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bu, Lingzheng; Ding, Jiabao; Yao, Jianlin; Huang, Xiaoqing; Guo, Shaojun; Zhang, Xu; Lu, Gang; Su, Dong; Zhu, Xing; Guo, Jun

    2015-10-13

    The production of inorganic nanoparticles (NPs) with precise control over structures has always been a central target in various fields of chemistry and physics because the properties of NPs can be desirably manipulated by their structure.[1-4] There has been an intense search for high-performance noble metal NP catalysts particular for Pt.[5-9] Precious platinum (Pt) NPs are active catalysts for various heterogeneous reactions and show particularly superior performance in both the anodic oxidation reaction and the cathodic ORR in the fuel cells, but their rare content and high cost largely impede the practical application.[10-12] A potential strategy to address this tremendous challenge is alloying Pt NPs with the transition metals (TM).[13-16]

  14. A general method for multimetallic platinum alloy nanowires as highly active and stable oxygen reduction catalysts

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Bu, Lingzheng; Ding, Jiabao; Yao, Jianlin; Huang, Xiaoqing; Guo, Shaojun; Zhang, Xu; Lu, Gang; Su, Dong; Zhu, Xing; Guo, Jun

    2015-10-13

    The production of inorganic nanoparticles (NPs) with precise control over structures has always been a central target in various fields of chemistry and physics because the properties of NPs can be desirably manipulated by their structure.[1-4] There has been an intense search for high-performance noble metal NP catalysts particular for Pt.[5-9] Precious platinum (Pt) NPs are active catalysts for various heterogeneous reactions and show particularly superior performance in both the anodic oxidation reaction and the cathodic ORR in the fuel cells, but their rare content and high cost largely impede the practical application.[10-12] A potential strategy to address this tremendousmore » challenge is alloying Pt NPs with the transition metals (TM).[13-16]« less

  15. Sulfide catalysts for reducing SO2 to elemental sulfur

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jin, Yun; Yu, Qiquan; Chang, Shih-Ger

    2001-01-01

    A highly efficient sulfide catalyst for reducing sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur, which maximizes the selectivity of elemental sulfur over byproducts and has a high conversion efficiency. Various feed stream contaminants, such as water vapor are well tolerated. Additionally, hydrogen, carbon monoxide, or hydrogen sulfides can be employed as the reducing gases while maintaining high conversion efficiency. This allows a much wider range of uses and higher level of feed stream contaminants than prior art catalysts.

  16. Highly dispersed catalysts for coal liquefaction. Phase 1 final report, August 23--November 22, 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hirschon, A.S.; Wilson, R.B.; Ghaly, O.

    1995-03-22

    The ultimate goal of this project is to develop novel processes for making the conversion of coal into distillable liquids competitive to that of petroleum products in the range of $25/bbl. The objectives of Phase 1 were to determine the utility of new precursors to highly dispersed catalysts for use of syngas atmospheres in coal liquefaction, and to estimate the effect of such implementation on the cost of the final product. The project is divided into three technical tasks. Tasks 1 and 2 are the analyses and liquefaction experiments, respectively, and Task 3 deals with the economic effects of using these methods during coal liquefaction. Results are presented on the following: Analytical Support--screening tests and second-stage conversions; Laboratory-Scale Operations--catalysts, coal conversion in synthetic solvents, Black Thunder screening studies, and two-stage liquefaction experiments; and Technical and economic Assessment--commercial liquefaction plant description, liquefaction plant cost; and economic analysis.

  17. High surface area ThO.sub.2 catalyst and method of preparing it

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Colmenares, Carlos A. (Alamo, CA); Somorjai, Gabor A. (Berkeley, CA); Maj, Joseph J. (Walnut Creek, CA)

    1985-01-01

    A ThO.sub.2 catalyst having a high surface area of about 80-125 m.sup.2 /g is synthesized. The compound is synthesized by simultaneously mixing an aqueous solution of ThNO.sub.3 (NO.sub.3).sub.4.4H.sub.2 O with an aqueous solution of Na.sub.2 CO.sub.3.H.sub.2 O, to produce a solution and solid ThOCO.sub.3. The solid ThOCO.sub.3 is separated from the solution, and then calcined at a temperature of about 225.degree.-300.degree. C. for about 40-55 hours to produce ThO.sub.2. The ThO.sub.2 catalyst produced includes Na present as a substitutional cation in an amount equal to about 5-10 atom percent.

  18. Electrical and Thermal Transport Optimization of High Efficient...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Electrical and Thermal Transport Optimization of High Efficient n-type Skutterudites Electrical and Thermal Transport Optimization of High Efficient n-type Skutterudites Work on ...

  19. Department of Energy Lauds Highly Efficient Industrial Technology...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Lauds Highly Efficient Industrial Technology Department of Energy Lauds Highly Efficient Industrial Technology November 30, 2007 - 4:45pm Addthis DOE Celebrates One-Year ...

  20. Technology and System Level Demonstration of Highly Efficient...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Technology and System Level Demonstration of Highly Efficient and Clean, Diesel Powered Class 8 Trucks Technology and System Level Demonstration of Highly Efficient and Clean, ...

  1. Band Alignment Engineering in Highly Efficient Planar Perovskite...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Band Alignment Engineering in Highly Efficient Planar Perovskite Solar Cells* September ... In this study, I show a low-temperature process for producing highly efficient planar ...

  2. Materials-Enabled High-Efficiency Diesel Engines (CRADA with...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Engines (CRADA with Caterpillar) Materials-Enabled High-Efficiency Diesel Engines (CRADA ... More Documents & Publications Materials-Enabled High-Efficiency Diesel Engines ...

  3. Progress toward Development of a High-Efficiency Zonal Thermoelectric...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    toward Development of a High-Efficiency Zonal Thermoelectric HVAC System for Automotive Applications Progress toward Development of a High-Efficiency Zonal Thermoelectric HVAC...

  4. Tailored Materials for High Efficiency CIDI Engines (Caterpillar...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High Efficiency CIDI Engines (Caterpillar CRADA) Tailored Materials for High Efficiency CIDI Engines (Caterpillar CRADA) 2009 DOE Hydrogen Program and Vehicle Technologies Program ...

  5. Glass-like thermal conductivity in high efficiency thermoelectric...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    thermal conductivity in high efficiency thermoelectric materials Glass-like thermal conductivity in high efficiency thermoelectric materials Discusses strategies to design ...

  6. High-Efficiency Window Air Conditioners - Building America Top...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High-Efficiency Window Air Conditioners - Building America Top Innovation High-Efficiency Window Air Conditioners - Building America Top Innovation This photo shows a window air ...

  7. Los Alamos develops new technique for growing high-efficiency...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    technique for growing high-efficiency perovskite ... growth of highly efficient and reproducible solar cells from large-area ... clean global energy solutions for the ...

  8. Low-Temperature Combustion Demonstrator for High-Efficiency Clean...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    for High-Efficiency Clean Combustion Low-Temperature Combustion Demonstrator for High-Efficiency Clean Combustion 2010 DOE Vehicle Technologies and Hydrogen Programs Annual...

  9. Enabling High Efficiency Ethanol Engines | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Enabling High Efficiency Ethanol Engines Enabling High Efficiency Ethanol Engines 2009 DOE Hydrogen Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation...

  10. High Efficiency Microturbine with Integral Heat Recovery - Fact...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High Efficiency Microturbine with Integral Heat Recovery - Fact Sheet, 2014 High Efficiency Microturbine with Integral Heat Recovery - Fact Sheet, 2014 Capstone Turbine...

  11. White LED with High Package Extraction Efficiency (Technical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Technical Report: White LED with High Package Extraction Efficiency Citation Details In-Document Search Title: White LED with High Package Extraction Efficiency The goal of this ...

  12. Challenging Conventional Wisdom: A Clean and Highly Efficient...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Challenging Conventional Wisdom: A Clean and Highly Efficient Opposed-Piston Two-Stroke Engine Challenging Conventional Wisdom: A Clean and Highly Efficient Opposed-Piston ...

  13. Syngas Enhanced High Efficiency Low Temperature Combustion for...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Enhanced High Efficiency Low Temperature Combustion for Clean Diesel Engines Syngas Enhanced High Efficiency Low Temperature Combustion for Clean Diesel Engines A significant ...

  14. Technology Development for High Efficiency Clean Diesel Engines...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    deer09stanton.pdf More Documents & Publications High Efficient Clean Combustion for SuperTruck Advanced Diesel Engine Technology Development for HECC Enabling High Efficiency...

  15. Novel Materials for High Efficiency Direct Methanol Fuel Cells...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Materials for High Efficiency Direct Methanol Fuel Cells Novel Materials for High Efficiency Direct Methanol Fuel Cells Presented at the Department of Energy Fuel Cell Projects ...

  16. Integrated Solar Thermochemical Reaction System for High Efficiency...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Integrated Solar Thermochemical Reaction System for High Efficiency Production of Electricity Integrated Solar Thermochemical Reaction System for High Efficiency Production of ...

  17. 2008 Annual Merit Review Results Summary - 8. High Efficiency...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    8. High Efficiency Clean Combustion and Enabling Technologies 2008 Annual Merit Review Results Summary - 8. High Efficiency Clean Combustion and Enabling Technologies DOE Vehicle...

  18. Developments in High Efficiency Engine Technologies and an Introductio...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Developments in High Efficiency Engine Technologies and an Introduction to SwRI's Dedicated EGR Concept Developments in High Efficiency Engine Technologies and an Introduction to...

  19. Energy Efficiency Opportunities in Federal High Performance Computing...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Efficiency Opportunities in Federal High Performance Computing Data Centers Energy Efficiency Opportunities in Federal High Performance Computing Data Centers Case study describes...

  20. High Efficiency Colloidal Quantum Dot Phosphors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kahen, Keith

    2013-12-31

    The project showed that non-Cd containing, InP-based nanocrystals (semiconductor materials with dimensions of ~6 nm) have high potential for enabling next-generation, nanocrystal-based, on chip phosphors for solid state lighting. Typical nanocrystals fall short of the requirements for on chip phosphors due to their loss of quantum efficiency under the operating conditions of LEDs, such as, high temperature (up to 150 C) and high optical flux (up to 200 W/cm2). The InP-based nanocrystals invented during this project maintain high quantum efficiency (>80%) in polymer-based films under these operating conditions for emission wavelengths ranging from ~530 to 620 nm. These nanocrystals also show other desirable attributes, such as, lack of blinking (a common problem with nanocrystals which limits their performance) and no increase in the emission spectral width from room to 150 C (emitters with narrower spectral widths enable higher efficiency LEDs). Prior to these nanocrystals, no nanocrystal system (regardless of nanocrystal type) showed this collection of properties; in fact, other nanocrystal systems are typically limited to showing only one desirable trait (such as high temperature stability) but being deficient in other properties (such as high flux stability). The project showed that one can reproducibly obtain these properties by generating a novel compositional structure inside of the nanomaterials; in addition, the project formulated an initial theoretical framework linking the compositional structure to the list of high performance optical properties. Over the course of the project, the synthetic methodology for producing the novel composition was evolved to enable the synthesis of these nanomaterials at a cost approximately equal to that required for forming typical conventional nanocrystals. Given the above results, the last major remaining step prior to scale up of the nanomaterials is to limit the oxidation of these materials during the tens of thousands of hours of LED operation. Once the LED phosphor lifetime specifications are met, these nanocrystals will enable white LEDs for solid state lighting to simultaneously have increased efficiency and improved light quality, in addition to enabling the creation of custom light spectrums. These improvements to white LEDs will help accelerate the adoption of SSL, leading to large savings in US and worldwide energy costs.

  1. The effect of fuel sulfur level on the HC, CO and NOX conversion efficiencies of PD/RH, PT/RH, PD-only and tri-metal catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DiCircco, D.M.; Adamczyk, A.A.; Patel, K.S.

    1995-12-31

    Due to additional requirements imposed by the 1990 amendments to the Clean Air Act, automotive emissions systems must perform at high efficiencies for 100,000 miles. However, fuels containing sulfur, can reduce the efficiency of many modern catalyst formulations. Additionally, the Northeast Ozone Transport Commission (OTC) has petitioned the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to require region-wide adaptation of the California Low-Emission Vehicle standards without the application of California`s reformulated gasoline program which is necessary to keep the level of fuel sulfur low. As will be seen, this will result in reduced catalyst activity in the OTC, since typical gasolines contain sulfur levels which vary considerably. Gasolines containing 50ppmS and 500ppmS only represent the 10th and 75th percentile of US commercial summer fuels. As will be shown, these high levels of fuel sulfur will lower the performance of high activity catalyst formulations and may make compliance with LEV/ULEV emissions levels extremely difficult if not impossible without the adaptation of low-sulfur fuels.

  2. High Quantum Efficiency OLED Lighting Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shiang, Joseph [General Electric (GE) Global Research, Fairfield, CT (United States)

    2011-09-30

    The overall goal of the program was to apply improvements in light outcoupling technology to a practical large area plastic luminaire, and thus enable the product vision of an extremely thin form factor high efficiency large area light source. The target substrate was plastic and the baseline device was operating at 35 LPW at the start of the program. The target LPW of the program was a >2x improvement in the LPW efficacy and the overall amount of light to be delivered was relatively high 900 lumens. Despite the extremely difficult challenges associated with scaling up a wet solution process on plastic substrates, the program was able to make substantial progress. A small molecule wet solution process was successfully implemented on plastic substrates with almost no loss in efficiency in transitioning from the laboratory scale glass to large area plastic substrates. By transitioning to a small molecule based process, the LPW entitlement increased from 35 LPW to 60 LPW. A further 10% improvement in outcoupling efficiency was demonstrated via the use of a highly reflecting cathode, which reduced absorptive loss in the OLED device. The calculated potential improvement in some cases is even larger, ~30%, and thus there is considerable room for optimism in improving the net light coupling efficacy, provided absorptive loss mechanisms are eliminated. Further improvements are possible if scattering schemes such as the silver nanowire based hard coat structure are fully developed. The wet coating processes were successfully scaled to large area plastic substrate and resulted in the construction of a 900 lumens luminaire device.

  3. White LED with High Package Extraction Efficiency

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    WHITE LED WITH HIGH PACKAGE EXTRACTION EFFICIENCY Final Report Report Period Start Date: 10/01/2006 Report Period End Date: 09/30/2008 Authors: Yi Zheng and Matthew Stough Report Submission Date: November 2008 DOE Award Number: DE-FC26-06NT42935 Project Manager: Ryan Egidi OSRAM SYLVANIA Product Inc Central Research and Service Laboratory 71 Cherry Hill Dr., Beverly, MA 01915 2 DISCLAIMER This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government.

  4. Highly Dispersed Pseudo-Homogeneous and Heterogeneous Catalysts Synthesized via Inverse Micelle Solutions for the Liquefaction of Coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hampden-Smith, M.; Kawola, J.S.; Martino, A.; Sault, A.G.; Yamanaka, S.A.

    1999-01-05

    The mission of this project was to use inverse micelle solutions to synthesize nanometer sized metal particles and test the particles as catalysts in the liquefaction of coal and other related reactions. The initial focus of the project was the synthesis of iron based materials in pseudo-homogeneous form. The frost three chapters discuss the synthesis, characterization, and catalyst testing in coal liquefaction and model coal liquefaction reactions of iron based pseudo-homogeneous materials. Later, we became interested in highly dispersed catalysts for coprocessing of coal and plastic waste. Bifunctional catalysts . to hydrogenate the coal and depolymerize the plastic waste are ideal. We began studying, based on our previously devised synthesis strategies, the synthesis of heterogeneous catalysts with a bifunctional nature. In chapter 4, we discuss the fundamental principles in heterogeneous catalysis synthesis with inverse micelle solutions. In chapter 5, we extend the synthesis of chapter 4 to practical systems and use the materials in catalyst testing. Finally in chapter 6, we return to iron and coal liquefaction now studied with the heterogeneous catalysts.

  5. High Efficiency Microturbine with Integral Heat Recovery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-10-01

    Fact sheet: this project will develop a clean, cost-effective 370 kW microturbine with 42% net electrical efficiency and 85% total CHP efficiency.

  6. Thermal Strategies for High Efficiency Thermoelectric Power Generation

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Developing integrated TE system configurations that can achieve high heat exchange effectiveness and thus, high TE system efficiency

  7. Charge Trapping in High Efficiency Alternating Copolymers: Implications in

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Organic Photovoltaic Device Efficiency | ANSER Center | Argonne-Northwestern National Laboratory Charge Trapping in High Efficiency Alternating Copolymers: Implications in Organic Photovoltaic Device Efficiency Home > Research > ANSER Research Highlights > Charge Trapping in High Efficiency Alternating Copolymers: Implications in Organic Photovoltaic Device Efficiency

  8. High Efficiency, Illumination Quality OLEDs for Lighting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joseph Shiang; James Cella; Kelly Chichak; Anil Duggal; Kevin Janora; Chris Heller; Gautam Parthasarathy; Jeffery Youmans; Joseph Shiang

    2008-03-31

    The goal of the program was to demonstrate a 45 lumen per watt white light device based upon the use of multiple emission colors through the use of solution processing. This performance level is a dramatic extension of the team's previous 15 LPW large area illumination device. The fundamental material system was based upon commercial polymer materials. The team was largely able to achieve these goals, and was able to deliver to DOE a 90 lumen illumination source that had an average performance of 34 LPW a 1000 cd/m{sup 2} with peak performances near 40LPW. The average color temperature is 3200K and the calculated CRI 85. The device operated at a brightness of approximately 1000cd/m{sup 2}. The use of multiple emission colors particularly red and blue, provided additional degrees of design flexibility in achieving white light, but also required the use of a multilayered structure to separate the different recombination zones and prevent interconversion of blue emission to red emission. The use of commercial materials had the advantage that improvements by the chemical manufacturers in charge transport efficiency, operating life and material purity could be rapidly incorporated without the expenditure of additional effort. The program was designed to take maximum advantage of the known characteristics of these material and proceeded in seven steps. (1) Identify the most promising materials, (2) assemble them into multi-layer structures to control excitation and transport within the OLED, (3) identify materials development needs that would optimize performance within multilayer structures, (4) build a prototype that demonstrates the potential entitlement of the novel multilayer OLED architecture (5) integrate all of the developments to find the single best materials set to implement the novel multilayer architecture, (6) further optimize the best materials set, (7) make a large area high illumination quality white OLED. A photo of the final deliverable is shown. In 2003, a large area, OLED based illumination source was demonstrated that could provide light with a quality, quantity, and efficiency on par with what can be achieved with traditional light sources. The demonstration source was made by tiling together 16 separate 6-inch x 6-inch blue-emitting OLEDs. The efficiency, total lumen output, and lifetime of the OLED based illumination source were the same as what would be achieved with an 80 watt incandescent bulb. The devices had an average efficacy of 15 LPW and used solution-processed OLEDs. The individual 6-inch x 6-inch devices incorporated three technology strategies developed specifically for OLED lighting -- downconversion for white light generation, scattering for outcoupling efficiency enhancement, and a scalable monolithic series architecture to enable large area devices. The downconversion approach consists of optically coupling a blue-emitting OLED to a set of luminescent layers. The layers are chosen to absorb the blue OLED emission and then luminescence with high efficiency at longer wavelengths. The composition and number of layers are chosen so that the unabsorbed blue emission and the longer wavelength re-emission combine to make white light. A downconversion approach has the advantage of allowing a wide variety of colors to be made from a limited set of blue emitters. In addition, one does not have to carefully tune the emission wavelength of the individual electro-luminescent species within the OLED device in order to achieve white light. The downconversion architecture used to develop the 15LPW large area light source consisted of a polymer-based blue-emitting OLED and three downconversion layers. Two of the layers utilized perylene based dyes from BASF AG of Germany with high quantum efficiency (>98%) and one of the layers consisted of inorganic phosphor particles (Y(Gd)AG:Ce) with a quantum efficiency of {approx}85%. By independently varying the optical density of the downconversion layers, the overall emission spectrum could be adjusted to maximize performance for lighting (e.g. blackbody temperature, color rendering and luminous efficacy) while keeping the properties of the underlying blue OLED constant. The success of the downconversion approach is ultimately based upon the ability to produce efficient emission in the blue. Table 1 presents a comparison of the current performance of the conjugated polymer, dye-doped polymer, and dendrimer approaches to making a solution-processed blue OLED as 2006. Also given is the published state of the art performance of a vapor-deposited blue OLED. One can see that all the approaches to a blue OLED give approximately the same external quantum efficiency at 500 cd/m{sup 2}. However, due to its low operating voltage, the fluorescent conjugated polymer approach yields a superior power efficiency at the same brightness.

  9. DOE FACT SHEET: Transition to High Efficiency Space Heating

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    DOE FACT SHEET: Transition to High Efficiency Space Heating Overview The City of Seattle ... in spring of 2015 of advanced efficient space heating options available for commercial ...

  10. Unregulated Emissions from High-Efficiency Clean Combustion Modes...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Unregulated Emissions from High-Efficiency Clean Combustion Modes - ORNL-FEERC Poster presentation at the 2007 Diesel Engine-Efficiency & Emissions Research Conference (DEER 2007). ...

  11. High-Efficiency Multijunction Photovoltaics | Center for Energy...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    high photovoltaic energy conversion efficiencies. This goal requires development of new techniques for the efficient ... design of multijunction cells, yielding a very rich ...

  12. Technology and System Level Demonstration of Highly Efficient...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Highly Efficient and Clean, Diesel Powered Class 8 Trucks Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Volvo SuperTruck - Powertrain Technologies for Efficiency Improvement...

  13. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy study of carbon deposited on the NiO/MgO solid solution catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hu, Y.H.; Ruckenstein, E.

    1999-05-15

    The carbon deposition due to the CH{sub 4} decomposition at 790 C over NiO/MgO catalysts was investigated by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. While no deposits could be detected over the catalysts with a NiO content smaller than 9.1 wt%, they were detected over the catalysts with NiO contents of 23 and 50 wt%. The carbon deposits are composed of platelets located at distances of about 0.34 nm, corresponding to the graphitic carbon. Various structures of the deposited carbon were observed: (a) carbon consisting of platelets parallel to the surface of the particle, which covers a catalyst particle, (b) nanotubes composed of platelets parallel to their axis, and (c) carbon vortexes consisting of platelets parallel to their axis.

  14. High efficiency Brayton cycles using LNG

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morrow, Charles W.

    2006-04-18

    A modified, closed-loop Brayton cycle power conversion system that uses liquefied natural gas as the cold heat sink media. When combined with a helium gas cooled nuclear reactor, achievable efficiency can approach 68 76% (as compared to 35% for conventional steam cycle power cooled by air or water). A superheater heat exchanger can be used to exchange heat from a side-stream of hot helium gas split-off from the primary helium coolant loop to post-heat vaporized natural gas exiting from low and high-pressure coolers. The superheater raises the exit temperature of the natural gas to close to room temperature, which makes the gas more attractive to sell on the open market. An additional benefit is significantly reduced costs of a LNG revaporization plant, since the nuclear reactor provides the heat for vaporization instead of burning a portion of the LNG to provide the heat.

  15. Tailored Materials for High Efficiency CIDI Engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grant, G.J.; Jana, S.

    2012-03-30

    The overall goal of the project, Tailored Materials for High Efficiency Compression Ignition Direct Injection (CIDI) Engines, is to enable the implementation of new combustion strategies, such as homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI), that have the potential to significantly increase the energy efficiency of current diesel engines and decrease fuel consumption and environmental emissions. These strategies, however, are increasing the demands on conventional engine materials, either from increases in peak cylinder pressure (PCP) or from increases in the temperature of operation. The specific objective of this project is to investigate the application of a new material processing technology, friction stir processing (FSP), to improve the thermal and mechanical properties of engine components. The concept is to modify the surfaces of conventional, low-cost engine materials. The project focused primarily on FSP in aluminum materials that are compositional analogs to the typical piston and head alloys seen in small- to mid-sized CIDI engines. Investigations have been primarily of two types over the duration of this project: (1) FSP of a cast hypoeutectic Al-Si-Mg (A356/357) alloy with no introduction of any new components, and (2) FSP of Al-Cu-Ni alloys (Alloy 339) by physically stirring-in various quantities of carbon nanotubes/nanofibers or carbon fibers. Experimental work to date on aluminum systems has shown significant increases in fatigue lifetime and stress-level performance in aluminum-silicon alloys using friction processing alone, but work to demonstrate the addition of carbon nanotubes and fibers into aluminum substrates has shown mixed results due primarily to the difficulty in achieving porosity-free, homogeneous distributions of the particulate. A limited effort to understand the effects of FSP on steel materials was also undertaken during the course of this project. Processed regions were created in high-strength, low-alloyed steels up to 0.5 in. deep that showed significant grain refinement and homogeneous microstructures favorable to increased fracture toughness and fatigue performance. The final tasks of the project demonstrated that the FSP concept can be applied to a relevant part geometry by fabricating diesel piston crowns with FSP regions applied selectively to the edge of the bowl rim. This area of the piston typically suffers from conditions at high PCP that cause severe thermal fatigue issues. It is expected that, given the data from coupon testing, the durability of pistons modified by FSP will allow much higher fatigue lifetime and potentially also greater resistance to elevated stress-level effects on fatigue.

  16. High efficiency stoichiometric internal combustion engine system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Winsor, Richard Edward; Chase, Scott Allen

    2009-06-02

    A power system including a stoichiometric compression ignition engine in which a roots blower is positioned in the air intake for the engine to control air flow. Air flow is decreased during part power conditions to maintain the air-fuel ratio in the combustion chamber of the engine at stoichiometric, thus enabling the use of inexpensive three-way catalyst to reduce oxides of nitrogen. The roots blower is connected to a motor generator so that when air flow is reduced, electrical energy is stored which is made available either to the roots blower to temporarily increase air flow or to the system electrical load and thus recapture energy that would otherwise be lost in reducing air flow.

  17. Fe-porphyrin-based metal–organic framework films as high-surface concentration, heterogeneous catalysts for electrochemical reduction of CO2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hod, Idan; Sampson, Matthew D.; Deria, Pravas; Kubiak, Clifford P.; Farha, Omar K.; Hupp, Joseph T.

    2015-09-18

    Realization of heterogeneous electrochemical CO2-to-fuel conversion via molecular catalysis under high-flux conditions requires the assembly of large quantities of reactant-accessible catalysts on conductive surfaces. As a proof of principle, we demonstrate that electrophoretic deposition of thin films of an appropriately chosen metal–organic framework (MOF) material is an effective method for immobilizing the needed quantity of catalyst. For electrocatalytic CO2 reduction, we used a material that contains functionalized Fe-porphyrins as catalytically competent, redox-conductive linkers. The approach yields a high effective surface coverage of electrochemically addressable catalytic sites (~1015 sites/cm2). The chemical products of the reduction, obtained with ~100% Faradaic efficiency, are mixtures of CO and H2. The results validate the strategy of using MOF chemistry to obtain porous, electrode-immobilized, networks of molecular catalysts having competency for energy-relevant electrochemical reactions.

  18. "Tuning" microalgae for high photosynthesis efficiency

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    efficiencies. This makes them attractive candidates for producing green chemical feedstocks and biofuels, particularly oil-based aviation fuels. However, there...

  19. High-Efficiency Engine Technologies Session Introduction

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given at the 16th Directions in Engine-Efficiency and Emissions Research (DEER) Conference in Detroit, MI, September 27-30, 2010.

  20. High-Efficiency Solar Cogeneration with Thermophotovoltaic &...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    targeted 'Solar Cogeneration' technologies to maximize energy generation & energy efficiency from the building's solar insolation resources. Project presents a novel, low-cost...

  1. High efficiency, radiation-hard solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ager III, J.W.; Walukiewicz, W.

    2004-10-22

    The direct gap of the In{sub 1-x}Ga{sub x}N alloy system extends continuously from InN (0.7 eV, in the near IR) to GaN (3.4 eV, in the mid-ultraviolet). This opens the intriguing possibility of using this single ternary alloy system in single or multi-junction (MJ) solar cells of the type used for space-based surveillance satellites. To evaluate the suitability of In{sub 1-x}Ga{sub x}N as a material for space applications, high quality thin films were grown with molecular beam epitaxy and extensive damage testing with electron, proton, and alpha particle radiation was performed. Using the room temperature photoluminescence intensity as a indirect measure of minority carrier lifetime, it is shown that In{sub 1-x}Ga{sub x}N retains its optoelectronic properties at radiation damage doses at least 2 orders of magnitude higher than the damage thresholds of the materials (GaAs and GaInP) currently used in high efficiency MJ cells. This indicates that the In{sub 1-x}Ga{sub x}N is well-suited for the future development of ultra radiation-hard optoelectronics. Critical issues affecting development of solar cells using this material system were addressed. The presence of an electron-rich surface layer in InN and In{sub 1-x}Ga{sub x}N (0 < x < 0.63) was investigated; it was shown that this is a less significant effect at large x. Evidence of p-type activity below the surface in Mg-doped InN was obtained; this is a significant step toward achieving photovoltaic action and, ultimately, a solar cell using this material.

  2. Excitons in Highly Efficient Organic Devices | MIT-Harvard Center...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Excitons in Highly Efficient Organic Devices November 29, 2012 at 3pm36-428 Karl Leo ... In this talk, I will discuss some of the recent progress on highly efficient OLED and ...

  3. Development of High-Efficiency Clean Combustion Engines Designs...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High-Efficiency Clean Combustion Engines Designs for SI and CI Engines Development of High-Efficiency Clean Combustion Engines Designs for SI and CI Engines 2010 DOE Vehicle...

  4. High-efficiency Low Global-Warming Potential (GWP) Compressor...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    to demonstrate a high-efficiency compressor design that is critical to enabling low direct-GWP high-efficiency small-commercial rooftop and residential systems (1.5 TR to 10 TR). ...

  5. Development of a New Generation, High Efficiency PEM Fuel Cell...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    a New Generation, High Efficiency PEM Fuel Cell Based, CHP System Development of a New Generation, High Efficiency PEM Fuel Cell Based, CHP System Part of a 100 million fuel cell ...

  6. High-Efficiency Receivers for Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Cycles...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications High-Efficiency Low-Cost Solar Receiver for Use in a Supercritical CO2 Recompression Cycle - FY13 Q1 High-Efficiency Receivers for...

  7. High Efficiency Multiple-Junction Solar Cells

    Energy Innovation Portal (Marketing Summaries) [EERE]

    2013-03-19

    Single junction solar cells have limited efficiency and fail to extract maximum energy from photons outside of a specific spectral region. Higher efficiency and optical to electrical energy conversion is achieved by stacking semiconductor p-n junction layers to capture energy from all spectral regions. ...

  8. Energy Efficiency Opportunities in Federal High Performance Computing Data Centers

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Case study describes an outline of energy efficiency opportunities in federal high-performance computing data centers.

  9. High Efficiency Organic Light Emitting Devices for Lighting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    So, Franky; Tansu, Nelson; Gilchrist, James

    2013-06-30

    Incorporate internal scattering layers and microlens arrays in high efficiency OLED to achieve up to 70% EQE.

  10. High Engine Efficiency at 2010 Emissions | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    More Documents & Publications Achieving High Efficiency at 2010 Emissions Heavy-Duty Truck Engine: 2007 Emissions with Excellent Fuel Economy Technology Development for High ...

  11. Finding the Next Big Thing(s) in Building Energy Efficiency: HIT Catalyst and the Technology Demo Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Learn how the Department prioritizes high impact technologies (HITs) to advance energy efficiency. Hear from a Better Buildings program participant who is working with Department staff to test promising technologies in buildings. Learn what they are finding and how you can get involved.

  12. High Efficiency Driving Electronics for General Illumination LED Luminaires

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect SciTech Connect Search Results Technical Report: High Efficiency Driving Electronics for General Illumination LED Luminaires Citation Details In-Document Search Title: High Efficiency Driving Electronics for General Illumination LED Luminaires New generation of standalone LED driver platforms developed, which are more efficient These LED Drivers are more efficient (≥90%), smaller in size ( 0.15 in3/watt), lower in cost ( 12 cents/watt in high volumes in

  13. High Efficiency Multiple-Junction Solar Cells - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect High Efficiency Driving Electronics for General Illumination LED Luminaires Citation Details In-Document Search Title: High Efficiency Driving Electronics for General Illumination LED Luminaires New generation of standalone LED driver platforms developed, which are more efficient These LED Drivers are more efficient (≥90%), smaller in size ( 0.15 in3/watt), lower in cost ( 12 cents/watt in high volumes in millions of units). And these products are very

  14. Oxidation catalyst

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ceyer, Sylvia T.; Lahr, David L.

    2010-11-09

    The present invention generally relates to catalyst systems and methods for oxidation of carbon monoxide. The invention involves catalyst compositions which may be advantageously altered by, for example, modification of the catalyst surface to enhance catalyst performance. Catalyst systems of the present invention may be capable of performing the oxidation of carbon monoxide at relatively lower temperatures (e.g., 200 K and below) and at relatively higher reaction rates than known catalysts. Additionally, catalyst systems disclosed herein may be substantially lower in cost than current commercial catalysts. Such catalyst systems may be useful in, for example, catalytic converters, fuel cells, sensors, and the like.

  15. Technology Development for High Efficiency Clean Diesel Engines and a

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Pathway to 50% Thermal Efficiency | Department of Energy Cost reduction is a key area of emphasis for the Cummins 2nd Generation ORC WHR System. PDF icon deer09_stanton.pdf More Documents & Publications High Efficient Clean Combustion for SuperTruck Advanced Diesel Engine Technology Development for HECC Enabling High Efficiency Clean Combustion

  16. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: High-Efficiency...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High-Efficiency High-Density GaN-Based 6.6kW Bidirectional On-Board Charger for PEVs Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: High-Efficiency High-Density GaN-Based 6.6kW ...

  17. Energy efficiency indicators for high electric-load buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aebischer, Bernard; Balmer, Markus A.; Kinney, Satkartar; Le Strat, Pascale; Shibata, Yoshiaki; Varone, Frederic

    2003-06-01

    Energy per unit of floor area is not an adequate indicator for energy efficiency in high electric-load buildings. For two activities, restaurants and computer centres, alternative indicators for energy efficiency are discussed.

  18. High Efficiency Solar Fuels Reactor Concept | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    | Department of Energy Capstone Turbine Corporation, in collaboration with Oak Ridge National Laboratory and NASA Glenn Research Center, is developing a clean, cost-effective 370 kW microturbine with 42% net electrical efficiency and 85% total CHP efficiency. The microturbine technology will maximize usable exhaust energy and achieve ultra-low emissions levels. PDF icon High Efficiency Microturbine with Integral Heat Recovery More Documents & Publications High Efficiency Microturbine

  19. High Temperature Electrolysis for Efficient Hydrogen Production...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High Temperature Electrolysis Project History and Background * INL served as the lead ... technology for continued development toward early deployment (based on the ...

  20. Nanostructured Thermoelectric Materials and High Efficiency Power...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Abstract: For thermoelectric applications, the best materials have high electrical conductivity and thermopower and, simultaneously, low thermal conductivity. Such a combination...

  1. Vehicle Technologies Office: Materials for High-Efficiency Combustion

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Engines | Department of Energy High-Efficiency Combustion Engines Vehicle Technologies Office: Materials for High-Efficiency Combustion Engines The Vehicle Technologies Office (VTO) is supporting work to improve the efficiency of advanced internal combustion engines for automotive, light trucks, and heavy-truck applications by 25% to 50%. However, many of these combustion strategies require high operating temperatures and pressures that exceed current materials' abilities to reliably operate

  2. New methods for tightly regulated gene expression and highly efficient

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    chromosomal integration of cloned genes for Methanosarcina species (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect New methods for tightly regulated gene expression and highly efficient chromosomal integration of cloned genes for Methanosarcina species Citation Details In-Document Search Title: New methods for tightly regulated gene expression and highly efficient chromosomal integration of cloned genes for Methanosarcina species A highly efficient method for chromosomal integration of cloned DNA into

  3. High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) Filter Test Facility (FTF) |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) Filter Test Facility (FTF) High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) Filter Test Facility (FTF) DOE-STD-3020-2015 Specification for HEPA Filters Used by DOE Contractors The purpose of this standard is to establish specifications and quality assurance (QA) requirements for the procurement, packaging, shipping and storage of high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters. DOE-STD-3025-2007 Quality Assurance Inspection and Testing of HEPA

  4. Enabling High Efficiency Ethanol Engines | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Enabling High Efficiency Ethanol Engines Enabling High Efficiency Ethanol Engines 2009 DOE Hydrogen Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, May 18-22, 2009 -- Washington D.C. PDF icon vssp_12_wagner.pdf More Documents & Publications Ignition Control for HCCI High-Efficiency Clean Combustion in Light-Duty Multi-Cylinder Diesel Engines Expanding Robust HCCI Operation (Delphi CRADA)

  5. Catalyst system comprising a first catalyst system tethered to a supported catalyst

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Angelici, R.J.; Gao, H.

    1998-08-04

    The present invention provides new catalyst formats which comprise a supported catalyst tethered to a second and different catalyst by a suitable tethering ligand. A preferred system comprises a heterogeneous supported metal catalyst tethered to a homogeneous catalyst. This combination of homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysts has a sufficient lifetime and unusually high catalytic activity in arene hydrogenations, and potentially many other reactions as well, including, but not limited to hydroformylation, hydrosilication, olefin oxidation, isomerization, hydrocyanidation, olefin metathesis, olefin polymerization, carbonylation, enantioselective catalysis and photoduplication. These catalysts are easily separated from the products, and can be reused repeatedly, making these systems very economical. 2 figs.

  6. Catalyst system comprising a first catalyst system tethered to a supported catalyst

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Angelici, Robert J.; Gao, Hanrong

    1998-08-04

    The present invention provides new catalyst formats which comprise a supported catalyst tethered to a second and different catalyst by a suitable tethering ligand. A preferred system comprises a heterogeneous supported metal catalyst tethered to a homogeneous catalyst. This combination of homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysts has a sufficient lifetime and unusually high catalytic activity in arene hydrogenations, and potentially many other reactions as well, including, but not limited to hydroformylation, hydrosilation, olefin oxidation, isomerization, hydrocyanation, olefin metathesis, olefin polymerization, carbonylation, enantioselective catalysis and photoduplication. These catalysts are easily separated from the products, and can be reused repeatedly, making these systems very economical.

  7. Hydroprocessing of solvent-refined coal: catalyst-screening results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stiegel, G.J.; Tischer, R.E.; Polinski, L.M.

    1982-03-01

    This report presents the results of screening four catalysts for hydroprocessing a 50 wt% mixture of SRC-I in a prehydrogenated creosote oil using a continuous flow unit. All catalysts employed were nickel-molybdates with varying properties. Reaction conditions were 2000 psi, 8 SCFH of hydrogen, volume hourly space velocity of 0.6 to 1.0 cc of SRC-I/hr/cc of catalyst, and 48 hours at 750/sup 0/F followed by 72 hours at 780/sup 0/F. The results indicate that the Shell 324 catalyst is best for hydrogenation of the feedstock but only marginally better than CB 81-44 for denitrogenation. The CB 81-44 catalyst may be slightly better than Shell 324 for the conversion of the +850/sup 0/F fraction of the feedstock. Desulfurization was uniformly high for all catalysts. Catalysts with a bimodal pore size distribution (i.e., SMR7-6137(1)) appear to be better for denitrogenation than unimodal catalysts (i.e., SMR7-6137(4)) containing the same metals loading. Unimodal catalysts (i.e., Shell 324) with higher metals loadings are comparable to bimodal catalysts (i.e., CB 81-44) containing less metals. The results indicate that pore size distribution and metals loading are important parameters for high activity. Catalysts with a unimodal pore volume distribution are capable of being restored to their original state, while bimodal ones experience a loss in surface area and pore volume and an increase in pellet density. This is attributed to the more efficient use of the interior surface area of the catalyst, which results in higher accumulation of coke and metals. Since coke can be removed via controlled oxidation, the irreversible loss is due to the higher concentrations of metals in the catalyst.

  8. Technology and System Level Demonstration of Highly Efficient...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Evaluation Meeting arravt081vssnewhouse2012o.pdf More Documents & Publications Technology and System Level Demonstration of Highly Efficient and Clean, Diesel Powered Class 8...

  9. Highly Efficient, Scalable Microbial Fuel Cell - Energy Innovation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Biomass and Biofuels Biomass and Biofuels Advanced Materials Advanced Materials Find More Like This Return to Search Highly Efficient, ...

  10. High Efficiency Clean Combustion Engine Designs for Gasoline...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Engine Designs for Gasoline and Diesel Engines High Efficiency Clean Combustion Engine Designs for Gasoline and Diesel Engines 2009 DOE Hydrogen Program and Vehicle Technologies ...

  11. Development of Enabling Technologies for High Efficiency, Low...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Development of Enabling Technologies for High Efficiency, Low Emissions Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) Engines 2009 DOE Hydrogen Program and Vehicle Technologies ...

  12. High Efficiency Combustion and Controls | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Combustion and Controls High Efficiency Combustion and Controls 2010 DOE Vehicle Technologies and Hydrogen Programs Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, June 7-11, 2010...

  13. Evaluation of High Efficiency Clean Combustion (HECC) Strategies...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Evaluation of High Efficiency Clean Combustion (HECC) Strategies for Meeting Future Emissions Regulations in Light-Duty Engines Presentation given at DEER 2006, August 20-24, 2006, ...

  14. High Efficiency Microturbine with Integral Heat Recovery - Presentatio...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    by Capstone Turbine Corporation, June 2011 High Efficiency Microturbine with Integral Heat Recovery - Presentation by Capstone Turbine Corporation, June 2011 Presentation on ...

  15. Achieving High Efficiency at 2010 Emissions | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    PDF icon 2006deernelson.pdf More Documents & Publications High Engine Efficiency at 2010 Emissions Heavy-Duty Truck Engine: 2007 Emissions with Excellent Fuel Economy Exhaust ...

  16. Simulation of High Efficiency Clean Combustion Engines and Detailed...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    ongoing work exploring fuel chemistry, analysis of and improving simulation methodologies for high efficiency clean combustion regimes, and computational performance PDF icon ...

  17. Low Temperature Combustion Demonstrator for High Efficiency Clean...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Low-Temperature Combustion Demonstrator for High-Efficiency Clean Combustion Impact of Variable Valve Timing on Low Temperature Combustion Multicylinder Diesel Engine Design for ...

  18. High-Efficiency Commercial Cold Climate Heat Pump

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High-Efficiency Commercial Cold Climate Heat Pump 2014 Building Technologies Office Peer ... performance cold climate commercial heat pump system 2) Execute a Technology Readiness ...

  19. Enabling High Efficiency Clean Combustion with Micro-Variable...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Combustion with Micro-Variable Circular-Orifice (MVCO) Fuel Injector and Adaptive PCCI Enabling High Efficiency Clean Combustion with Micro-Variable Circular-Orifice (MVCO) Fuel ...

  20. High-Efficiency Rooftop Air Conditioners: Innovative Procurement...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Advances in Technology Citation Details In-Document Search Title: High-Efficiency Rooftop Air Conditioners: Innovative Procurement to Achieve Advances in Technology The U.S. ...

  1. Los Alamos develops new technique for growing high-efficiency...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Los Alamos develops new technique for growing high-efficiency perovskite solar cells Alumni Link: Opportunities, News and Resources for Former Employees Latest Issue:September 2015 ...

  2. Greensburg Implements High-Efficiency Building Codes to Achieve...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Greensburg Implements High-Efficiency Building Codes to Achieve Long-Term Energy Savings ... would sustain the local economy for the long term, the city began working with ...

  3. Project Profile: High-Efficiency Thermal Energy Storage System...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Project Profile: High-Efficiency Thermal Energy Storage ... partner Ohio Aerospace Institute, under the National ... the capital costs. Publications, Patents, and Awards At ...

  4. DOE Catalyst Demo Day

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Department of Energy is organizing Catalyst Demo Day at the Franklin Institute in Philadelphia to showcase the next big startups in building energy efficiency and solar energy. Demo Day...

  5. High Efficiency Engine Systems Development and Evaluation | Department of

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Energy 1 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation PDF icon ace017_briggs_2011_o.pdf More Documents & Publications Achieving and Demonstrating Vehicle Technologies Engine Fuel Efficiency Milestones Identification and Evaluation of Near-term Opportunities for Efficiency Improvement High Efficiency Engine Systems Development and Evaluation

  6. Enabling High Efficiency Clean Combustion | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    9 DOE Hydrogen Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, May 18-22, 2009 -- Washington D.C. PDF icon ace_40_stanton.pdf More Documents & Publications Advanced Diesel Engine Technology Development for HECC Technology Development for High Efficiency Clean Diesel Engines and a Pathway to 50% Thermal Efficiency Light Duty Efficient Clean Combustion

  7. A Natural Gas, High Compression Ratio, High Efficiency ICRE

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Using natural gas and gasoline modeling, indications are that a free piston-floating stroke engine configuration can realize engine efficiency greater than 60 percent.

  8. High-Resolution Structure of the Photosynthetic Mn4Ca Catalyst from X-ray Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yachandra, Vittal; Yano, Junko; Kern, Jan; Pushkar, Yulia; Sauer, Kenneth; Glatzel, Pieter; Bergmann, Uwe; Messinger, Johannes; Zouni, Athina; Yachandra, Vittal K.

    2007-08-01

    The application of high-resolution X-ray spectroscopy methods to study the photosynthetic water oxidizing complex, which contains a unique hetero-nuclear catalytic Mn4Ca cluster, are described. Issues of X-ray damage especially at the metal sites in the Mn4Ca cluster are discussed. The structure of the Mn4Ca catalyst at high-resolution which has so far eluded attempts of determination by X-ray diffraction, EXAFS and other spectroscopic techniques has been addressed using polarized EXAFS techniques applied to oriented PS II membrane preparations and PS II single crystals. A review of how the resolution of traditional EXAFS techniques can be improved, using methods such as range-extended EXAFS is presented, and the changes that occur in the structure of the cluster as it advances through the catalytic cycle are described. X-ray absorption and emission techniques (XANES and K? emission) have been used earlier to determine the oxidation states of the Mn4Ca cluster, and in this report we review the use of X-ray resonant Raman spectroscopy to understand the electronic structure of the Mn4Ca cluster as it cycles through the intermediate S-states.

  9. High Efficiency Cold Climate Heat Pump

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Problem Statement: * Typical HPs don't work well at low ambient temps due to very high discharge temp and pressure ratio * HP heating capacity not sufficient to match ...

  10. High Efficiency Cold Climate Heat Pump

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Problem Statement: 1. Typical HPs don't work well at low ambient temps due to very high discharge temp and pressure ratio 2. HP heating capacity not sufficient to match ...

  11. Zirconium Catalyst Follows a Low Energy Pathway for Carbon-Nitrogen Bond

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Formation | The Ames Laboratory Zirconium Catalyst Follows a Low Energy Pathway for Carbon-Nitrogen Bond Formation Chemists have synthesized a highly selective and highly efficient zirconium catalyst that makes new carbon-nitrogen bonds by adding a nitrogen-hydrogen bond to a carbon-carbon double bond. Nitrogen-containing chemicals are important as agrichemicals, pharmaceuticals, and specialty chemicals. These zirconium catalysts are expected to show greater tolerance to other functionality

  12. Zirconium Catalyst Follows a Low Energy Pathway for Carbon-Nitrogen Bond

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Formation | The Ames Laboratory Zirconium Catalyst Follows a Low Energy Pathway for Carbon-Nitrogen Bond Formation Chemists have synthesized a highly selective and highly efficient zirconium catalyst that makes new carbon-nitrogen bonds by adding a nitrogen-hydrogen bond to a carbon-carbon double bond. Nitrogen-containing chemicals are important as agrichemicals, pharmaceuticals, and specialty chemicals. These zirconium catalysts are expected to show greater tolerance to other functionality

  13. Highly aligned vertical GaN nanowires using submonolayer metal catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wang, George T.; Li, Qiming; Creighton, J. Randall

    2010-06-29

    A method for forming vertically oriented, crystallographically aligned nanowires (nanocolumns) using monolayer or submonolayer quantities of metal atoms to form uniformly sized metal islands that serve as catalysts for MOCVD growth of Group III nitride nanowires.

  14. Improving Catalyst Efficiency in Bio-Based Hydrocarbon Fuels (Fact Sheet), NREL Highlights in Science, NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    New study determines the effect of catalyst structure on product yields and coking during vapor phase upgrading of biomass pyrolysis products. Converting biomass, an abun- dant and renewable resource, into liquid transportation fuels has attracted significant atten- tion because of depleting fossil fuel reserves and associated environmental concerns. In the quest for sustainable and eco-friendly fuel alternatives, much research is focusing on improving the properties of bio-oil. Scientists at

  15. Highly-basic large-pore zeolite catalysts for NOx reduction at low temperatures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Penetrante, Bernardino M.; Brusasco, Raymond M.; Merritt, Bernard T.; Vogtlin, George E.

    2004-02-03

    A high-surface-area (greater than 600 m2/g), large-pore (pore size diameter greater than 6.5 angstroms), basic zeolite having a structure such as an alkali metal cation-exchanged Y-zeolite is employed to convert NO.sub.x contained in an oxygen-rich engine exhaust to N.sub.2 and O.sub.2. Preferably, the invention relates to a two-stage method and apparatus for NO.sub.x reduction in an oxygen-rich engine exhaust such as diesel engine exhaust that includes a plasma oxidative stage and a selective reduction stage. The first stage employs a non-thermal plasma treatment of NO.sub.x gases in an oxygen-rich exhaust and is intended to convert NO to NO.sub.2 in the presence of O.sub.2 and added hydrocarbons. The second stage employs a lean-NO.sub.x catalyst including the basic zeolite at relatively low temperatures to convert such NO.sub.2 to environmentally benign gases that include N.sub.2, CO.sub.2, and H.sub.2 O.

  16. A highly-active and stable hydrogen evolution catalyst based on pyrite-structured cobalt phosphosulfide

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Liu, Wen; Hu, Enyuan; Jiang, Hong; Xiang, Yingjie; Weng, Zhe; Li, Min; Fan, Qi; Yu, Xiqian; Altman, Eric I.; Wang, Hailiang

    2016-02-19

    Rational design and controlled synthesis of hybrid structures comprising multiple components with distinctive functionalities are an intriguing and challenging approach to materials development for important energy applications like electrocatalytic hydrogen production, where there is a great need for cost effective, active and durable catalyst materials to replace the precious platinum. Here we report a structure design and sequential synthesis of a highly active and stable hydrogen evolution electrocatalyst material based on pyrite-structured cobalt phosphosulfide nanoparticles grown on carbon nanotubes. The three synthetic steps in turn render electrical conductivity, catalytic activity and stability to the material. The hybrid material exhibits superiormore » activity for hydrogen evolution, achieving current densities of 10 mA cm–2 and 100 mA cm–2 at overpotentials of 48 mV and 109 mV, respectively. Lastly, phosphorus substitution is crucial for the chemical stability and catalytic durability of the material, the molecular origins of which are uncovered by X-ray absorption spectroscopy and computational simulation.« less

  17. Compact and highly efficient laser pump cavity

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chang, Jim J.; Bass, Isaac L.; Zapata, Luis E.

    1999-01-01

    A new, compact, side-pumped laser pump cavity design which uses non-conventional optics for injection of laser-diode light into a laser pump chamber includes a plurality of elongated light concentration channels. In one embodiment, the light concentration channels are compound parabolic concentrators (CPC) which have very small exit apertures so that light will not escape from the pumping chamber and will be multiply reflected through the laser rod. This new design effectively traps the pump radiation inside the pump chamber that encloses the laser rod. It enables more uniform laser pumping and highly effective recycle of pump radiation, leading to significantly improved laser performance. This new design also effectively widens the acceptable radiation wavelength of the diodes, resulting in a more reliable laser performance with lower cost.

  18. Ultra-high-performance core–shell structured Ru@Pt/C catalyst prepared by a facile pulse electrochemical deposition method

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Chen, Dan; Li, Yuexia; Liao, Shijun; Su, Dong; Song, Huiyu; Li, Yingwei; Yang, Lijun; Li, Can

    2015-08-03

    Core–shell structured catalysts, made by placing either a monolayer or a thin layer of a noble metal on relatively cheap core-metal nanoparticles, are fascinating and promising fuel cell catalysts due to their high utilization of noble metals. Here, we report our development of a core–shell structured catalyst, Ru@Pt/C, generated by a novel and facile pulse electrochemical deposition (PED) approach. We demonstrate that compared with a commercial Pt/C catalyst, this novel catalyst achieves over four times higher mass activity towards the anodic oxidation of methanol, and 3.6 times higher mass activity towards the cathodic reduction of oxygen. Importantly, we find thatmore » the intrinsic activity of Pt in this Ru@Pt/C catalyst is doubled due to the formation of the core–shell structure. The catalyst also shows superior stability: even after 2000 scans, it still retains up to 90% of the peak current. As a result, our findings demonstrate that this novel PED approach is a promising method for preparing high-performance core–shell catalysts for fuel cell applications.« less

  19. Ultra-high-performance core–shell structured Ru@Pt/C catalyst prepared by a facile pulse electrochemical deposition method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Dan; Li, Yuexia; Liao, Shijun; Su, Dong; Song, Huiyu; Li, Yingwei; Yang, Lijun; Li, Can

    2015-08-03

    Core–shell structured catalysts, made by placing either a monolayer or a thin layer of a noble metal on relatively cheap core-metal nanoparticles, are fascinating and promising fuel cell catalysts due to their high utilization of noble metals. Here, we report our development of a core–shell structured catalyst, Ru@Pt/C, generated by a novel and facile pulse electrochemical deposition (PED) approach. We demonstrate that compared with a commercial Pt/C catalyst, this novel catalyst achieves over four times higher mass activity towards the anodic oxidation of methanol, and 3.6 times higher mass activity towards the cathodic reduction of oxygen. Importantly, we find that the intrinsic activity of Pt in this Ru@Pt/C catalyst is doubled due to the formation of the core–shell structure. The catalyst also shows superior stability: even after 2000 scans, it still retains up to 90% of the peak current. As a result, our findings demonstrate that this novel PED approach is a promising method for preparing high-performance core–shell catalysts for fuel cell applications.

  20. High-performance, low Pt content catalysts for the electroreduction of oxygen in polymer-electrolyte fuel cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fournier, J.; Faubert, G.; Tilquin, J.Y.; Cote, R.; Guay, D.; Dodelet, J.P.

    1997-01-01

    Pt-included and Pt-supported catalysts have been synthesized using graphite and carbon black supports of various specific areas. The graphites are KS6 (20 m{sup 2}/g), HS100 (110 m{sup 2}/g), and HS300 (305 m{sup 2}/g) from Lonza, and the carbon blacks are Vulcan (254 m{sup 2}/g) and Black Pearls (1475 m{sup 2}/g) from Cabot. The Pt-included and Pt-supported catalysts were used at the cathode of a H{sub 2}/O{sub 2} fuel cell, and their polarization curves were compared to each other and to those of various Pt-supported catalysts from E-TEK. In the high current region of interest to fuel cell developers, it is shown that Pt-supported catalysts perform better than Pt-included ones when the specific area of the support is small. The contrary is true when the specific area of the support is large. The best catalysts are HS300-Pti [8.3 weight percent (w/o) Pt included in HS300 graphite] and Vu-Pti (6.1 w/o Pt included in Vulcan XC-72R). These catalysts display very high mass and specific activities for O{sub 2} reduction. Furthermore, the iR-corrected polarization curves of both HS300-Pti (with a Pt loading of 0.110 mg/cm{sup 2}) and Vu-Pti (with a Pt loading of 0.070 mg/cm{sup 2}) cross at high current the polarization curve of the electrode prepared with E-TEK20 (20 w/o of supported Pt, with a Pt loading of 0.287 mg/cm{sup 2}). Pt inclusion in graphite or carbon black is therefore an interesting way of reducing the Pt loading of fuel cell cathodes without lowering electrochemical performance. HS300-Pti have been characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. These analyses indicate that they both contain metallic Pt and Pt(II and IV) oxides and/or hydroxides.

  1. Developments in High Efficiency Engine Technologies and an Introduction to

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    SwRI's Dedicated EGR Concept | Department of Energy Provides overview of high efficiency engine technologies and introduces a dedicated exhaust gas recirculation concept where EGR production and gas stream is separate from the rest of the exhaust2012-11-06 PDF icon deer12_alger.pdf More Documents & Publications SwRI's HEDGE Technology for High Efficiency, Low Emissions Gasoline Engines The Application of High Energy Ignition and Boosting/Mixing Technology to Increase Fuel Economy in

  2. Utilization of Common Automotive Three-Way NO{sub x} Reduction Catalyst for Managing Off- Gas from Thermal Treatment of High-Nitrate Waste - 13094

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Foster, Adam L.; Ki Song, P.E.

    2013-07-01

    Studsvik's Thermal Organic Reduction (THOR) steam reforming process has been tested and proven to effectively treat radioactive and hazardous wastes streams with high nitrate contents to produce dry, stable mineral products, while providing high conversion (>98%) of nitrates and nitrites directly to nitrogen gas. However, increased NO{sub x} reduction may be desired for some waste streams under certain regulatory frameworks. In order to enhance the NO{sub x} reduction performance of the THOR process, a common Three-Way catalytic NO{sub x} reduction unit was installed in the process gas piping of a recently completed Engineering Scale Technology Demonstration (ESTD). The catalytic DeNO{sub x} unit was located downstream of the main THOR process vessel, and it was designed to catalyze the reduction of residual NO{sub x} to nitrogen gas via the oxidation of the hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and volatile organic compounds that are inherent to the THOR process gas. There was no need for auxiliary injection of a reducing gas, such as ammonia. The unit consisted of four monolith type catalyst sections positioned in series with a gas mixing section located between each catalyst section. The process gas was monitored for NO{sub x} concentration upstream and downstream of the catalytic DeNO{sub x} unit. Conversion efficiencies ranged from 91% to 97% across the catalytic unit, depending on the composition of the inlet gas. Higher concentrations of hydrogen and carbon monoxide in the THOR process gas increased the NO{sub x} reduction capability of the catalytic DeNO{sub x} unit. The NO{sub x} destruction performance of THOR process in combination with the Three-Way catalytic unit resulted in overall system NO{sub x} reduction efficiencies of greater than 99.9% with an average NO{sub x} reduction efficiency of 99.94% for the entire demonstration program. This allowed the NO{sub x} concentration in the ESTD exhaust gas to be maintained at less than 40 parts per million (ppm), dry basis with an average concentration of approximately 17 ppm, dry basis. There were no signs of catalyst deactivation throughout the 6 day demonstration program, even under the high steam (>50%) content and chemically reducing conditions inherent to the THOR process. Utilization of the common Three-Way automotive catalyst may prove to be a cost effective method for improving NO{sub x} emissions from thermal treatment processes that utilize similar processing conditions. This paper will discuss the details of the implementation and performance of the Three-Way catalytic DeNO{sub x} unit at the THOR ESTD, as well as a discussion of future work to determine the long-term durability of the catalyst in the THOR process. (authors)

  3. Stabilization void-fill encapsulation high-efficiency particulate filters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alexander, R.G.; Stewart, W.E.; Phillips, S.J.; Serkowski, M.M.; England, J.L.; Boynton, H.C.

    1994-05-01

    This report discusses high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter systems that which are contaminated with radionuclides are part of the nuclear fuel processing systems conducted by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and require replacement and safe and efficient disposal for plant safety. Two K-3 HEPA filters were removed from service, placed burial boxes, buried, and safely and efficiently stabilized remotely which reduced radiation exposure to personnel and the environment.

  4. Cr-free Fe-based metal oxide catalysts for high temperature water gas shift reaction of fuel processor using LPG

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    lee, Joon Y.; Lee, Dae-Won; Lee, Kwan Young; Wang, Yong

    2009-08-15

    The goal of this study was to identify the most suitable chromium-free iron-based catalysts for the HTS (high temperature shift) reaction of a fuel processor using LPG. Hexavalent chromium (Cr6+) in the commercial HTS catalyst has been regarded as hazardous material. We selected Ni and Co as the substitution for chromium in the Fe-based HTS catalyst and investigated the HTS activities of these Crfree catalysts at LPG reformate condition. Cr-free Fe-based catalysts which contain Ni, Zn, or Co instead of Cr were prepared by coprecipitation method and the performance of the catalysts in HTS was evaluated under gas mixture conditions (42% H2, 10% CO, 37% H2O, 8% CO2, and 3% CH4; R (reduction factor): about 1.2) similar to the gases from steam reforming of LPG (100% conversion at steam/carbon ratio = 3), which is higher than R (under 1) of typically studied LNG reformate condition. Among the prepared Cr-free Febased catalysts, the 5 wt%-Co/Fe/20 wt%-Ni and 5 wt%-Zn/Fe/20 wt%-Ni catalysts showed good catalytic activity under this reaction condition simulating LPG reformate gas.

  5. City of High Point Electric- Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The City of High Point offers the Hometown Green Program to help customers reduce energy use. Under this program, rebates are available for newly constructed energy efficient homes, heat pumps, and...

  6. Webinar January 13: Highly Efficient Solar Thermochemical Reaction Systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Energy Department will present a live webinar entitled "Highly Efficient Solar Thermochemical Reaction Systems" on Tuesday, January 13, from 12:00 to 1:00 p.m. Eastern Standard Time.

  7. High Efficiency Clean Combustion for Heavy-Duty Engine | Department...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    PDF icon deer09zhang.pdf More Documents & Publications Heavy Truck Engine Development & HECC High Efficiency Clean Combustion for Heavy-Duty Engine Heavy-Duty Engine Combustion ...

  8. Heavy-Duty Engine Combustion Optimization for High Thermal Efficiency...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    PDF icon deer07zhang.pdf More Documents & Publications High Efficiency Clean Combustion for Heavy-Duty Engine Heavy Truck Engine Development & HECC A Micro-Variable Circular ...

  9. Path to High Efficiency Gasoline Engine | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Partially Premixed Combustion High-Efficiency, Ultra-Low Emission Combustion in a Heavy-Duty Engine via Fuel Reactivity Control Advanced Lean-Burn DI ...

  10. III-V High-Efficiency Multijunction Photovoltaics (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2011-06-01

    Capabilities fact sheet that includes scope, core competencies and capabilities, and contact/web information for III-V High-Efficiency Multijunction Photovoltaics at the National Center for Photovoltaics.

  11. High-Efficiency Receivers for Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Cycles...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    2012. progressreportsunshotbraytonfy12q4.pdf More Documents & Publications High-Efficiency Low-Cost Solar Receiver for Use in a Supercritical CO2 Recompression Cycle - FY13 Q1...

  12. Recent developments in high-efficiency PV cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deb, S.

    2000-05-22

    Enormous progress has been made in recent years on a number of photovoltaic (PV) materials and devices in terms of conversion efficiencies. Ultrahigh-efficiency (>30{percent}) PV cells have been fabricated from gallium arsenide (GaAs) and its ternary alloys such as gallium indium phosphide (GaInP{sub 2}). The high-efficiency GaAs-based solar cells are being produced on a commercial scale, particularly for space applications. Efficiencies in the range of 18{percent} to 24{percent} have been achieved in traditional silicon-based devices fabricated from both multicrystalline and single-crystal materials. Major advances in efficiency have also been made on various thin-film solar cells based on amorphous silicon (aSi:H), copper gallium indium diselenide (CIGS), and cadmium telluride materials. This paper gives a brief overview of the recent progress in PV cell efficiencies based on these materials and devices.

  13. High-Efficiency Rooftop Air Conditioners: Innovative Procurement to Achieve

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Advances in Technology (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Journal Article: High-Efficiency Rooftop Air Conditioners: Innovative Procurement to Achieve Advances in Technology Citation Details In-Document Search Title: High-Efficiency Rooftop Air Conditioners: Innovative Procurement to Achieve Advances in Technology The U.S. Department of Energy, Defense Logistics Agency, and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory recently conducted a technology procurement to increase the availability of

  14. High-Efficiency Window Air Conditioners - Building America Top Innovation |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy High-Efficiency Window Air Conditioners - Building America Top Innovation High-Efficiency Window Air Conditioners - Building America Top Innovation This photo shows a window air conditioning unit in place in a window frame. Window air conditioners are inexpensive, portable, and can be installed by home occupants, making them a good solution for spot cooling and for installing air conditioning into homes that lack ductwork. However, window air conditioners have low

  15. Field Demonstration of High Efficiency Gas Heaters | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Field Demonstration of High Efficiency Gas Heaters Field Demonstration of High Efficiency Gas Heaters For many buildings that do not require space cooling, non-centralized equipment such as unit heaters provide space heating to building occupants. Unit heaters are a major source of energy use nationally, accounting for nearly 18% of primary space heating energy use for commercial buildings, and most prominently appear in warehouses, distribution centers, loading docks, etc. Several

  16. Carrier Selective, Passivated Contacts for High Efficiency Silicon Solar

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Cells based on Transparent Conducting Oxides (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Carrier Selective, Passivated Contacts for High Efficiency Silicon Solar Cells based on Transparent Conducting Oxides Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Carrier Selective, Passivated Contacts for High Efficiency Silicon Solar Cells based on Transparent Conducting Oxides We describe the design, fabrication and results of passivated contacts to n-type silicon utilizing thin SiO2 and transparent conducting

  17. High Efficiency Clean Combustion Engine Designs for Gasoline and Diesel

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Engines | Department of Energy 2009 DOE Hydrogen Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, May 18-22, 2009 -- Washington D.C. PDF icon ace_35_patton.pdf More Documents & Publications High Efficiency Clean Combustion Engine Designs for Gasoline and Diesel Engines Development of High-Efficiency Clean Combustion Engines Designs for SI and CI Engines Expanding Robust HCCI Operation (Delphi CRADA)

  18. Polycrystalline silicon passivated tunneling contacts for high efficiency

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    silicon solar cells (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Journal Article: Polycrystalline silicon passivated tunneling contacts for high efficiency silicon solar cells Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Polycrystalline silicon passivated tunneling contacts for high efficiency silicon solar cells Authors: Nemeth, Bill ; Young, David L. ; Page, Matthew R. ; LaSalvia, Vincenzo ; Johnston, Steve ; Reedy, Robert ; Stradins, Paul Publication Date: 2016-03-01 OSTI Identifier: 1247961 Report

  19. Advanced CFD Models for High Efficiency Compression Ignition Engines |

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Department of Energy Advanced CFD models for high efficiency compression-ignition engines can be used to show how turbulence-chemistry interactions influence autoignition and combustion. PDF icon p-19_raja.pdf More Documents & Publications Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: High Efficiency GDI Engine Research, with Emphasis on Ignition Systems Advanced Combustion Modeling with STAR-CD using Transient Flemelet Models: TIF and TPV Numerical Modeling of PCCI Combustion

  20. A versatile elevated-pressure reactor combined with an ultrahigh vacuum surface setup for efficient testing of model and powder catalysts under clean gas-phase conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morfin, Franck; Piccolo, Laurent

    2013-09-15

    A small-volume reaction cell for catalytic or photocatalytic testing of solid materials at pressures up to 1000 Torr has been coupled to a surface-science setup used for standard sample preparation and characterization under ultrahigh vacuum (UHV). The reactor and sample holder designs allow easy sample transfer from/to the UHV chamber, and investigation of both planar and small amounts of powder catalysts under the same conditions. The sample is heated with an infrared laser beam and its temperature is measured with a compact pyrometer. Combined in a regulation loop, this system ensures fast and accurate temperature control as well as clean heating. The reaction products are automatically sampled and analyzed by mass spectrometry and/or gas chromatography (GC). Unlike previous systems, our GC apparatus does not use a recirculation loop and allows working in clean conditions at pressures as low as 1 Torr while detecting partial pressures smaller than 10{sup ?4} Torr. The efficiency and versatility of the reactor are demonstrated in the study of two catalytic systems: butadiene hydrogenation on Pd(100) and CO oxidation over an AuRh/TiO{sub 2} powder catalyst.

  1. Hierarchically structured catalysts for cascade and selective steam reforming/hydrodeoxygenation reactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Junming; Karim, Ayman M.; Li, Xiaohong S.; Rainbolt, James E.; Kovarik, Libor; Shin, Yongsoon; Wang, Yong

    2015-09-29

    We report a hierarchically structured catalyst with steam reforming and hydrodeoxygenation functionalities being deposited in the micropores and macropores, respectively. The catalyst is highly efficient to upgrade the pyrolysis vapors of pine forest product residual, resulting in a dramatically decreased acid content and increased hydrocarbon yield without external H2 supply.

  2. High-Efficiency Receivers for Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Cycles

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This fact sheet describes a project awarded under the DOE's 2012 SunShot Concentrating Solar Power R&D award program. The team, led by Brayton Energy, aims to develop and demonstrate a low-cost, high-efficiency solar receiver that is compatible with s-CO2 cycles and modern thermal storage subsystems. Supercritical CO2 Brayton-cycle engines have the potential to increase conversion efficiency to more than 50%. This high conversion efficiency drives down the cost of the supporting solar field, tower, and thermal storage systems, which could significantly reduce the lifetime costs of a CSP system to achieve the SunShot goal.

  3. "Tuning" microalgae for high photosynthesis efficiency

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    "Tuning" Microalgae For High Photosynthesis Efficiency "Tuning" microalgae for high photosynthesis efficiency Los Alamos scientist Richard Sayre and his team of researchers have recently developed more efficient microalgae. March 25, 2013 Shown here is a model for light absorption and use by algae as a function of antenna size. Shown here is a model for light absorption and use by algae as a function of antenna size. The team's work in this area is reported in a paper

  4. "Tuning" microalgae for high photosynthesis efficiency

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    "Tuning" Microalgae For High Photosynthesis Efficiency "Tuning" microalgae for high photosynthesis efficiency Los Alamos scientist Richard Sayre and his team of researchers have recently developed more efficient microalgae. March 25, 2013 Shown here is a model for light absorption and use by algae as a function of antenna size. Shown here is a model for light absorption and use by algae as a function of antenna size. The team's work in this area is reported in a paper

  5. Modeling and Analysis of Natural Gas and Gasoline In A High Compression Ratio High Efficiency ICRE

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    performance of a high compression ratio (32:1 to 74:1) high efficiency (50 to 60% BTE) ICRE operating on natural gas and gasoline

  6. Development of Highly Reactive Nanometer Fe-Based Catalysts for Coal Liquefaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Franz, James A.; Linehan, John C.; Matson, Dean W.; Smurthwaite, Tricia D.; Bekhazi, Jacky; Alnajjar, Mikhail S.

    2008-03-01

    This paper describes research involving the liquefaction of coal and the removal of oxygen from coal product constituents. Subbituminous Coal and early stage coal liquefaction products contain a substantial fraction of hydroxy-substituted aromatic hydrocarbons (phenols). An important reaction for upgrading of coal-derived organic materials is to remove oxygen groups. This paper describes the hydro-deoxygenation of naphthols and the liquefaction of subbituminous Wyodak coal using a catalyst prepared by in-situ sulfidation of nanometer scale 6-line iron ferrihydrite. The FeS catalyst enables the conversion of naphthol in substantial yields to tetralin and naphthalene at 400 degrees C in 9,10-dihydrophenanthrene. The kinetics and procedures to observe coal liquefaction and hydro-deoxygenation, and the effects of in-situ sulfidation on conversion kinetics are described.

  7. High-Throughput Program for the Discovery of NOx Reduction Catalysts |

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Department of Energy 04 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference Presentation: General Motors Corporation PDF icon 2004_deer_blint.pdf More Documents & Publications WA_02_042_GENERAL_MOTORS_POWER_TRAIN_DIV_Waiver_of_Domestic_.pdf Heavy-Duty NOx Emissions Control: Reformer-Assisted vs. Plasma-Facilitated Lean NOx Catalysis Lean-NOx Catalyst Development for Diesel Engine Applications

  8. High-Efficiency Nitride-Based Photonic Crystal Light Sources

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The University of California Santa Barbara (UCSB) is maximizing the efficiency of a white LED by enhancing the external quantum efficiency using photonic crystals to extract light that would normally be confined in a conventional structure. Ultimate efficiency can only be achieved by looking at the internal structure of light. To do this, UCSB is focusing on maximizing the light extraction efficiency and total light output from light engines driven by Gallium Nitride (GaN)-based LEDs. The challenge is to engineer large overlap (interaction) between modes and photonic crystals. The project is focused on achieving high extraction efficiency in LEDs, controlled directionality of emitted light, integrated design of vertical device structure, and nanoscale patterning of lateral structure.

  9. Highly active non-PGM catalysts prepared from metal organic frameworks

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Barkholtz, Heather M.; Chong, Lina; Kaiser, Zachary B.; Xu, Tao; Liu, Di -Jia

    2015-06-11

    Finding inexpensive alternatives to platinum group metals (PGMs) is essential for reducing the cost of proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs). Numerous materials have been investigated as potential replacements of Pt, of which the transition metal and nitrogen-doped carbon composites (TM/Nx/C) prepared from iron doped zeolitic imidazolate frameworks (ZIFs) are among the most active ones in catalyzing the oxygen reduction reaction based on recent studies. In this report, we demonstrate that the catalytic activity of ZIF-based TM/Nx/C composites can be substantially improved through optimization of synthesis and post-treatment processing conditions. Ultimately, oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) electrocatalytic activity must be demonstratedmore » in membrane-electrode assemblies (MEAs) of fuel cells. The process of preparing MEAs using ZIF-based non-PGM electrocatalysts involves many additional factors which may influence the overall catalytic activity at the fuel cell level. Evaluation of parameters such as catalyst loading and perfluorosulfonic acid ionomer to catalyst ratio were optimized. Our overall efforts to optimize both the catalyst and MEA construction process have yielded impressive ORR activity when tested in a fuel cell system.« less

  10. Highly active non-PGM catalysts prepared from metal organic frameworks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barkholtz, Heather M.; Chong, Lina; Kaiser, Zachary B.; Xu, Tao; Liu, Di -Jia

    2015-06-11

    Finding inexpensive alternatives to platinum group metals (PGMs) is essential for reducing the cost of proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs). Numerous materials have been investigated as potential replacements of Pt, of which the transition metal and nitrogen-doped carbon composites (TM/Nx/C) prepared from iron doped zeolitic imidazolate frameworks (ZIFs) are among the most active ones in catalyzing the oxygen reduction reaction based on recent studies. In this report, we demonstrate that the catalytic activity of ZIF-based TM/Nx/C composites can be substantially improved through optimization of synthesis and post-treatment processing conditions. Ultimately, oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) electrocatalytic activity must be demonstrated in membrane-electrode assemblies (MEAs) of fuel cells. The process of preparing MEAs using ZIF-based non-PGM electrocatalysts involves many additional factors which may influence the overall catalytic activity at the fuel cell level. Evaluation of parameters such as catalyst loading and perfluorosulfonic acid ionomer to catalyst ratio were optimized. Our overall efforts to optimize both the catalyst and MEA construction process have yielded impressive ORR activity when tested in a fuel cell system.

  11. High Efficiency Adsorption Chillers: High Efficiency Adsorption Cooling Using Metal Organic Heat Carriers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-10-01

    BEETIT Project: PNNL is incorporating significant improvements in materials that adsorb liquids or gases to design more efficient adsorption chillers. An adsorption chiller is a type of air conditioner that is powered by heat, solar or waste heat, or combustion of natural gas. Unlike typical chillers, this type has few moving parts and uses almost no electricity to operate. PNNL is designing adsorbent materials at the molecular level with at least 3 times higher refrigerant capacity and up to 20 times faster kinetics than adsorbents used in current chillers. By using the new adsorbent, PNNL is able to create a chiller that is significantly smaller, has twice the energy efficiency, and lower costs for materials and assembly time compared to conventional adsorption chillers.

  12. DOE FACT SHEET: Transition to High Efficiency Space Heating

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    DOE FACT SHEET: Transition to High Efficiency Space Heating Overview The City of Seattle was recognized as a Climate Action Champion (CAC) by The White House and the Department of Energy (DOE) in December 2014. In 2015, DOE released a Notice of Technical Assistance (NOTA) to provide CACs with additional opportunities for financial and technical assistance to support and advance their greenhouse gas emissions reduction and climate resilience objectives. DOE's Office of Energy Efficiency and

  13. Transmural Catalysis- High Efficiency Catalyst Systems for NOx Adsorbers and SCR

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given at DEER 2006, August 20-24, 2006, Detroit, Michigan. Sponsored by the U.S. DOE's EERE FreedomCar and Fuel Partnership and 21st Century Truck Programs.

  14. Synergies of High-Efficiency Clean Combustion and Lean NOx Trap Catalysts

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    investigation of potential synergies of low emission advanced combustion techniques and advanced lean exhaust catalytic aftertreatment.

  15. LBNL High-Tech Buildings Energy Efficiency Activities

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    LBNL High-tech Buildings Energy Efficiency Activities August 14, 2007 Dale Sartor & Bill Tschudi LBNL High LBNL High - - tech Building tech Building Sponsors Sponsors „ „ California Energy Commission California Energy Commission - - PIER program PIER program „ „ Pacific Gas and Electric Company Pacific Gas and Electric Company „ „ New York State Energy and Development New York State Energy and Development Agency (NYSERDA) Agency (NYSERDA) „ „ US US - - Environmental Protection Agency

  16. High efficiency III-nitride light-emitting diodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Crawford, Mary; Koleske, Daniel; Cho, Jaehee; Zhu, Di; Noemaun, Ahmed; Schubert, Martin F; Schubert, E. Fred

    2013-05-28

    Tailored doping of barrier layers enables balancing of the radiative recombination among the multiple-quantum-wells in III-Nitride light-emitting diodes. This tailored doping enables more symmetric carrier transport and uniform carrier distribution which help to reduce electron leakage and thus reduce the efficiency droop in high-power III-Nitride LEDs. Mitigation of the efficiency droop in III-Nitride LEDs may enable the pervasive market penetration of solid-state-lighting technologies in high-power lighting and illumination.

  17. Investigation of beat-waves generation with high efficiency

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Song, W.; Shi, Y. C.; Deng, Y. Q.; Zhu, X. X.; Zhang, Z. Q.; Hu, X. G.

    2013-10-21

    A method for generating high power beating radio-frequency wave with high conversion efficiency is proposed. Based on Cherenkov radiation, two longitudinal resonant modes are excited simultaneously and interacted with intense electron beam synchronously. An experiment was carried out and beat-waves with an average power of about 2.3 GW, frequencies of 9.29 GHz and 10.31 GHz, and efficiency of about 40% were obtained. Through controlling the electron energy, the amplitude proportions of the two resonant modes are altered, and different beat-wave patterns are formed.

  18. Low Cost, High Efficiency, High Pressure Hydrogen Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mark Leavitt

    2010-03-31

    A technical and design evaluation was carried out to meet DOE hydrogen fuel targets for 2010. These targets consisted of a system gravimetric capacity of 2.0 kWh/kg, a system volumetric capacity of 1.5 kWh/L and a system cost of $4/kWh. In compressed hydrogen storage systems, the vast majority of the weight and volume is associated with the hydrogen storage tank. In order to meet gravimetric targets for compressed hydrogen tanks, 10,000 psi carbon resin composites were used to provide the high strength required as well as low weight. For the 10,000 psi tanks, carbon fiber is the largest portion of their cost. Quantum Technologies is a tier one hydrogen system supplier for automotive companies around the world. Over the course of the program Quantum focused on development of technology to allow the compressed hydrogen storage tank to meet DOE goals. At the start of the program in 2004 Quantum was supplying systems with a specific energy of 1.1-1.6 kWh/kg, a volumetric capacity of 1.3 kWh/L and a cost of $73/kWh. Based on the inequities between DOE targets and Quantums then current capabilities, focus was placed first on cost reduction and second on weight reduction. Both of these were to be accomplished without reduction of the fuel systems performance or reliability. Three distinct areas were investigated; optimization of composite structures, development of smart tanks that could monitor health of tank thus allowing for lower design safety factor, and the development of Cool Fuel technology to allow higher density gas to be stored, thus allowing smaller/lower pressure tanks that would hold the required fuel supply. The second phase of the project deals with three additional distinct tasks focusing on composite structure optimization, liner optimization, and metal.

  19. High extraction efficiency ultraviolet light-emitting diode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wierer, Jonathan; Montano, Ines; Allerman, Andrew A.

    2015-11-24

    Ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with tailored AlGaN quantum wells can achieve high extraction efficiency. For efficient bottom light extraction, parallel polarized light is preferred, because it propagates predominately perpendicular to the QW plane and into the typical and more efficient light escape cones. This is favored over perpendicular polarized light that propagates along the QW plane which requires multiple, lossy bounces before extraction. The thickness and carrier density of AlGaN QW layers have a strong influence on the valence subband structure, and the resulting optical polarization and light extraction of ultraviolet light-emitting diodes. At Al>0.3, thinner QW layers (<2.5 nm are preferred) result in light preferentially polarized parallel to the QW plane. Also, active regions consisting of six or more QWs, to reduce carrier density, and with thin barriers, to efficiently inject carriers in all the QWs, are preferred.

  20. Bandgap Engineering in High-Efficiency Multijunction Concentrator Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    King, R. R.; Sherif, R. A.; Kinsey, G. S.; Kurtz, S.; Fetzer, C. M.; Edmondson, K. M.; Law, D. C.; Cotal, H. L.; Krut, D. D.; Ermer, J. H.; Karam, N. H.

    2005-08-01

    This paper discusses semiconductor device research paths under investigation with the aim of reaching the milestone efficiency of 40%. A cost analysis shows that achieving very high cell efficiencies is crucial for the realization of cost-effective photovoltaics, because of the strongly leveraging effect of efficiency on module packaging and balance-of systems costs. Lattice-matched (LM) GaInP/ GaInAs/ Ge 3-junction cells have achieved the highest independently confirmed efficiency at 175 suns, 25?C, of 37.3% under the standard AM1.5D, low-AOD terrestrial spectrum. Lattice-mismatched, or metamorphic (MM), materials offer still higher potential efficiencies, if the crystal quality can be maintained. Theoretical efficiencies well over 50% are possible for a MM GaInP/ 1.17-eV GaInAs/ Ge 3-junction cell limited by radiative recombination at 500 suns. The bandgap - open circuit voltage offset, (Eg/q) - Voc, is used as a valuable theoretical and experimental tool to characterize multijunction cells with subcell bandgaps ranging from 0.7 to 2.1 eV. Experimental results are presented for prototype 6-junction cells employing an active {approx}1.1-eV dilute nitride GaInNAs subcell, with active-area efficiency greater than 23% and over 5.3 V open-circuit voltage under the 1-sun AM0 space spectrum. Such cell designs have theoretical efficiencies under the terrestrial spectrum at 500 suns concentration exceeding 55% efficiency, even for lattice-matched designs.

  1. ATTRITION RESISTANT IRON-BASED FISCHER-TROPSCH CATALYSTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K. Jothimurugesan; James G. Goodwin, Jr.; Santosh K. Gangwal

    1999-10-01

    Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis to convert syngas (CO + H{sub 2}) derived from natural gas or coal to liquid fuels and wax is a well-established technology. For low H{sub 2} to CO ratio syngas produced from CO{sub 2} reforming of natural gas or from gasification of coal, the use of Fe catalysts is attractive because of their high water gas shift activity in addition to their high FT activity. Fe catalysts are also attractive due to their low cost and low methane selectivity. Because of the highly exothermic nature of the FT reaction, there has been a recent move away from fixed-bed reactors toward the development of slurry bubble column reactors (SBCRs) that employ 30 to 90 {micro}m catalyst particles suspended in a waxy liquid for efficient heat removal. However, the use of FeFT catalysts in an SBCR has been problematic due to severe catalyst attrition resulting in fines that plug the filter employed to separate the catalyst from the waxy product. Fe catalysts can undergo attrition in SBCRs not only due to vigorous movement and collisions but also due to phase changes that occur during activation and reaction.

  2. Palladium was supported on superparamagnetic nanoparticles: A magnetically recoverable catalyst for Heck reaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Fengwei; Niu, Jianrui; Wang, Haibo; Yang, Honglei; Jin, Jun; Liu, Na; Zhang, Yubin; Li, Rong; Ma, Jiantai

    2012-02-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Palladium-based heterogeneous catalyst was prepared facilely via the co-precipitation method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The particles are nearly spherical in shape with an average size of 20 {+-} 1.0 nm. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The developed magnetic catalyst showed high activity for Heck reaction. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The catalyst was easily recovered from the reaction mixture with external magnetic field. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The catalytic efficiency for Heck reaction remains unaltered even after 6 repeated cycles. -- Abstract: A novel and high-performance palladium-based catalyst for Heck reaction was prepared easily by the co-precipitation method. The catalyst was characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS). The catalyst afforded a fast conversion of the 4-bromonitrobenzene to 4-nitrostilbene at a catalyst loading of 5 mol%, and the efficiency of the catalyst remains unaltered even after 6 repeated cycles. The excellent catalytic performance of the Pd/Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} catalyst might be attributed to the enhanced synergistic effect between Pd nanoparticles and magnetite.

  3. High-quantum efficiency, long-lived luminescing refractory oxides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, Y.; Gonzalez, R.; Summers, G.P.

    A crystal having a high-quantum efficiency and a long period of luminescence is formed of MgO or CaO and possessing a concentration ratio of H/sup -/ ions to F centers in the range of about 0.05 to about 10.

  4. High-quantum efficiency, long-lived luminescing refractory oxides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, Yok; Gonzalez, Roberto; Summers, Geoffrey P.

    1984-01-01

    A crystal having a high-quantum efficiency and a long period of luminescence is formed of an oxide selected from the group consisting of magnesium oxide and calcium oxide and possessing a concentration ratio of H.sup.- ions to F centers in the range of about 0.05 to about 10.

  5. Super Boiler: First Generation, Ultra-High Efficiency Firetube Boiler

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2006-06-01

    This factsheet describes a research project whose goal is to develop and demonstrate a first-generation ultra-high-efficiency, ultra-low emissions, compact gas-fired package boiler (Super Boiler), and formulate a long-range RD&D plan for advanced boiler technology out to the year 2020.

  6. Combustion Targets for Low Emissions and High Efficiency | Department of

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Energy 2005 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference Presentations and Posters PDF icon 2005_deer_ryan.pdf More Documents & Publications Diesel Engine Alternatives An Experimental Investigation of Low Octane Gasoline in Diesel Engines SwRI's HEDGE Technology for High Efficiency, Low Emissions Gasoline Engines

  7. Research on stable, high-efficiency amorphous silicon multijunction modules

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guha, S. )

    1991-12-01

    This report describes research to improve the understanding of amorphous silicon alloys and other relevant non-semiconductor materials for use in high-efficiency, large-area multijunction modules. The research produced an average subcell initial efficiency of 8.8% over a 1-ft{sup 2} area using same-band-gap, dual-junction cells deposited over a ZnO/AlSi back reflector. An initial efficiency of 9.6% was achieved using a ZnO/Ag back reflector over smaller substrates. A sputtering machine will be built to deposit a ZnO/Ag back reflector over a 1-ft{sup 2} area so that a higher efficiency can also be obtained on larger substrates. Calculations have been performed to optimize the grid pattern, bus bars, and cell interconnects on modules. With our present state of technology, we expect a difference of about 6% between the aperture-area and active-area efficiencies of modules. Preliminary experiments show a difference of about 8%. We can now predict the performance of single-junction cells after long-term light exposure at 50{degree}C by exposing cells to short-term intense light at different temperatures. We find that single-junction cells deposited on a ZnO/Ag back reflector show the highest stabilized efficiency when the thickness of the intrinsic layers is about 2000 {angstrom}. 8 refs.

  8. Ultra-Compact High-Efficiency Luminaire for General Illumination

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ted Lowes

    2012-04-08

    Cree has developed a new ultra-compact light emitting diode (LED) luminaire capable of providing high efficacy with excellent color quality that can lead to significant energy savings in today??s commercial and retail applications. This success was based on an integrated development effort tailoring the LED component characteristics, optics, thermal management and driver design for the small footprint to achieve an overall system efficiency of ? 70%. A new LED component was designed to provide high brightness and efficacy in a form factor that allowed for a small directional beam with a luminaire housing design able to dissipate the heat effectively using a small physical envelope. A very compact, 90% efficient driver was developed to meet the system performance while not taking away any thermal mass from the heat sink. A 91% efficient secondary optics was designed to maximize efficiency while providing a smooth beam. The reliability of the new LED component was robust under accelerated testing conditions. Luminaires were assembled integrating the novel LED component, secondary optics, heat sink and driver technology to demonstrate the system improvement. Cree has successfully completed this project by developing an ultra-compact LED luminaire that provided 380 lumens at a correlated color temperature (CCT) of 2822 K and color rendering index (CRI) of 94 with an efficacy of 94 lumens per watt (LPW) when operating at 4 W input power (steady state) with an overall system efficiency of 81%. At a higher input power of 9 Watts, the lamp provided 658 lumens at 71 LPW.

  9. High Efficiency LED Lamp for Solid-State Lighting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James Ibbetson

    2006-12-31

    This report contains a summary of technical achievements during a three-year project to demonstrate high efficiency, solid-state lamps based on gallium nitride/silicon carbide light-emitting diodes. Novel chip designs and fabrication processes are described for a new type of nitride light-emitting diode with the potential for very high efficiency. This work resulted in the demonstration of blue light-emitting diodes in the one watt class that achieved up to 495 mW of light output at 350 mA drive current, corresponding to quantum and wall plug efficiencies of 51% and 45%, respectively. When combined with a phosphor in Cree's 7090 XLamp package, these advanced blue-emitting devices resulted in white light-emitting diodes whose efficacy exceeded 85 lumens per watt. In addition, up to 1040 lumens at greater than 85 lumens per watt was achieved by combining multiple devices to make a compact white lamp module with high optical efficiency.

  10. Catalysts for emerging energy applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bruce C. Gates; George W. Huber; Christopher L. Marshall; Phillip N. Ross; Jeffrey Siirola; Yong Wang

    2008-04-15

    Catalysis is the essential technology for chemical transformation, including production of fuels from the fossil resources petroleum, natural gas, and coal. Typical catalysts for these conversions are robust porous solids incorporating metals, metal oxides, and/or metal sulfides. As efforts are stepping up to replace fossil fuels with biomass, new catalysts for the conversion of the components of biomass will be needed. Although the catalysts for biomass conversion might be substantially different from those used in the conversion of fossil feedstocks, the latter catalysts are a starting point in today's research. Major challenges lie ahead in the discovery of efficient biomass conversion catalysts, as well as in the discovery of catalysts for conversion of CO{sub 2} and possibly water into liquid fuels. 16 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  11. A Perspective on the Future of High Efficiency Engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wagner, Robert M; Curran, Scott; Green Jr, Johney Boyd

    2013-01-01

    New fuel economy standards and emissions regulations are accelerating the development of new engine technologies, sensors, and on-board computing. These developments will enable unprecedented engine control, which will in turn enable real-world implementations of low temperature combustion, high-speed controls, and other high efficiency engine technologies. With this expanded flexibility in engine design and control, the challenge will now be the exponential increase in the design and calibration space and the need for the development of new simulations, optimization methods, and self-learning control methodologies. This manuscript provides historical and future perspectives on the opportunities and challenges of this unparalleled technology growth on the next generation of high efficiency engines.

  12. High Quality Down Lighting Luminaire with 73% Overall System Efficiency

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert Harrison; Steven C. Allen; Joseph Bernier; Robert Harrison

    2010-08-31

    This report summarizes work to develop a high flux, high efficiency LED-based downlight at OSRAM SYLVANIA under US Department of Energy contract DE-FC26-08NT01582. A new high power LED and electronic driver were developed for these downlights. The LED achieved 100 lumens per watt efficacy and 1700 lumen flux output at a correlated color temperature of 3500K. The driver had 90% electrical conversion efficiency while maintaining excellent power quality with power factor >0.99, and total harmonic distortion <10%. Two styles of downlights using the LED and driver were shown to exceed the project targets for steady-state luminous efficacy and flux of 70 lumens per watt and 1300 lumens, respectively. Compared to similar existing downlights using compact fluorescent or LED sources, these downlights had much higher efficacy at nearly the same luminous flux.

  13. Epoxidation catalyst and process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Linic, Suljo; Christopher, Phillip

    2010-10-26

    Disclosed herein is a catalytic method of converting alkenes to epoxides. This method generally includes reacting alkenes with oxygen in the presence of a specific silver catalyst under conditions suitable to produce a yield of the epoxides. The specific silver catalyst is a silver nanocrystal having a plurality of surface planes, a substantial portion of which is defined by Miller indices of (100). The reaction is performed by charging a suitable reactor with this silver catalyst and then feeding the reactants to the reactor under conditions to carry out the reaction. The reaction may be performed in batch, or as a continuous process that employs a recycle of any unreacted alkenes. The specific silver catalyst has unexpectedly high selectivity for epoxide products. Consequently, this general method (and its various embodiments) will result in extraordinarily high epoxide yields heretofore unattainable.

  14. Oxyhydrochlorination catalyst

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Taylor, Charles E.; Noceti, Richard P.

    1992-01-01

    An improved catalyst and method for the oxyhydrochlorination of methane is disclosed. The catalyst includes a pyrogenic porous support on which is layered as active material, cobalt chloride in major proportion, and minor proportions of an alkali metal chloride and of a rare earth chloride. On contact of the catalyst with a gas flow of methane, HCl and oxygen, more than 60% of the methane is converted and of that converted more than 40% occurs as monochloromethane. Advantageously, the monochloromethane can be used to produce gasoline boiling range hydrocarbons with the recycle of HCl for further reaction. This catalyst is also of value for the production of formic acid as are analogous catalysts with lead, silver or nickel chlorides substituted for the cobalt chloride.

  15. Advanced Klystrons for High Efficiency Accelerator Systems - Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Read, Michael; Ives, Robert Lawrence

    2014-03-26

    This program explored tailoring of RF pulses used to drive accelerator cavities. Simulations indicated that properly shaping the pulse risetime to match accelerator cavity characteristics reduced reflected power and increased total efficiency. Tailoring the pulse requires a high power, gridded, klystron to shape the risetime while also controlling the beam current. The Phase I program generated a preliminary design of a gridded electron gun for a klystron producing 5-10 MW of RF power. This required design of a segmented cathode using Controlled Porosity Reservoir cathodes to limit power deposition on the grid. The program was successful in computationally designing a gun producing a high quality electron beam with grid control. Additional analysis of pulse tailoring indicated that technique would only be useful for cavity drive pulses that were less than approximately 2-3 times the risetime. Otherwise, the efficiency gained during the risetime of the pulse became insignificant when considering the efficiency over the entire pulse. Consequently, it was determined that a Phase II program would not provide sufficient return to justify the cost. Never the less, other applications for a high power gridded gun are currently being pursued. This klystron, for example, would facilitate development inverse Comptom x-ray sources by providing a high repetition rate (10 -100 kHz) RF source.

  16. Test Program for High Efficiency Gas Turbine Exhaust Diffuser

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Norris, Thomas R.

    2009-12-31

    This research relates to improving the efficiency of flow in a turbine exhaust, and thus, that of the turbine and power plant. The Phase I SBIR project demonstrated the technical viability of “strutlets” to control stalls on a model diffuser strut. Strutlets are a novel flow-improving vane concept intended to improve the efficiency of flow in turbine exhausts. Strutlets can help reduce turbine back pressure, and incrementally improve turbine efficiency, increase power, and reduce greenhouse gas emmission. The long-term goal is a 0.5 percent improvement of each item, averaged over the US gas turbine fleet. The strutlets were tested in a physical scale model of a gas turbine exhaust diffuser. The test flow passage is a straight, annular diffuser with three sets of struts. At the end of Phase 1, the ability of strutlets to keep flow attached to struts was demonstrated, but the strutlet drag was too high for a net efficiency advantage. An independently sponsored followup project did develop a highly-modified low-drag strutlet. In combination with other flow improving vanes, complicance to the stated goals was demonstrated for for simple cycle power plants, and to most of the goals for combined cycle power plants using this particular exhaust geometry. Importantly, low frequency diffuser noise was reduced by 5 dB or more, compared to the baseline. Appolicability to other diffuser geometries is yet to be demonstrated.

  17. High-efficiency solar cell and method for fabrication

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hou, H.Q.; Reinhardt, K.C.

    1999-08-31

    A high-efficiency 3- or 4-junction solar cell is disclosed with a theoretical AM0 energy conversion efficiency of about 40%. The solar cell includes p-n junctions formed from indium gallium arsenide nitride (InGaAsN), gallium arsenide (GaAs) and indium gallium aluminum phosphide (InGaAlP) separated by n-p tunnel junctions. An optional germanium (Ge) p-n junction can be formed in the substrate upon which the other p-n junctions are grown. The bandgap energies for each p-n junction are tailored to provide substantially equal short-circuit currents for each p-n junction, thereby eliminating current bottlenecks and improving the overall energy conversion efficiency of the solar cell. Additionally, the use of an InGaAsN p-n junction overcomes super-bandgap energy losses that are present in conventional multi-junction solar cells. A method is also disclosed for fabricating the high-efficiency 3- or 4-junction solar cell by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). 4 figs.

  18. High-efficiency solar cell and method for fabrication

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hou, Hong Q.; Reinhardt, Kitt C.

    1999-01-01

    A high-efficiency 3- or 4-junction solar cell is disclosed with a theoretical AM0 energy conversion efficiency of about 40%. The solar cell includes p-n junctions formed from indium gallium arsenide nitride (InGaAsN), gallium arsenide (GaAs) and indium gallium aluminum phosphide (InGaAlP) separated by n-p tunnel junctions. An optional germanium (Ge) p-n junction can be formed in the substrate upon which the other p-n junctions are grown. The bandgap energies for each p-n junction are tailored to provide substantially equal short-circuit currents for each p-n junction, thereby eliminating current bottlenecks and improving the overall energy conversion efficiency of the solar cell. Additionally, the use of an InGaAsN p-n junction overcomes super-bandgap energy losses that are present in conventional multi-junction solar cells. A method is also disclosed for fabricating the high-efficiency 3- or 4-junction solar cell by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD).

  19. High-efficiency silicon heterojunction solar cells: Status and perspectives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    De Wolf, S.; Geissbuehler, J.; Loper, P.; Martin de Nicholas, S.; Seif, J.; Tomasi, A.; Ballif, C.

    2015-05-11

    Silicon heterojunction technology (HJT) uses silicon thin-film deposition techniques to fabricate photovoltaic devices from mono-crystalline silicon wafers (c-Si). This enables energy-conversion efficiencies above 21 %, also at industrial-production level. In this presentation we review the present status of this technology and point out recent trends. We first discuss how the properties of thin hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) films can be exploited to fabricate passivating contacts, which is the key to high- efficiency HJT solar cells. Such contacts enable very high operating voltages, approaching the theoretical limits, and yield small temperature coefficients. With this approach, an increasing number of groups are reporting devices with conversion efficiencies well over 20 % on both-sides contacted n-type cells, Panasonic leading the field with 24.7 %. Exciting results have also been obtained on p-type wafers. Despite these high voltages, important efficiency gains can still be made in fill factor and optical design. This requires improved understanding of carrier transport across device interfaces and reduced parasitic absorption in HJT solar cells. For the latter, several strategies can be followed: Short-wavelength losses can be reduced by replacing the front a-Si:H films with wider-bandgap window layers, such as silicon alloys or even metal oxides. Long- wavelength losses are mitigated by introducing new high-mobility TCO’s such as hydrogenated indium oxide, and also by designing new rear reflectors. Optical shadow losses caused by the front metallization grid are significantly reduced by replacing printed silver electrodes with fine-line plated copper contacts, leading also to possible cost advantages. The ultimate approach to minimize optical losses is the implementation of back-contacted architectures, which are completely devoid of grid shadow losses and parasitic absorption in the front layers can be minimized irrespective of electrical transport requirements. The validity of this approach was convincingly demonstrated by Panasonic, Japan in 2014, reporting on an interdigitated back-contacted HJT cell with an efficiency of 25.6%, setting the new single-junction c-Si record. Finally, given the virtually perfect surface passivation and excellent red response of HJT solar cells, we anticipate these devices will also become the preferred bottom cell in ultra-high efficiency c-Si-based tandem devices, exploiting better the solar spectrum. Such tandem cells have the potential to overcome the fundamental single-junction limit of silicon solar cells (29.4%). Combining HJT cells with perovskite solar cells as top cell appears to be particularly appealing.

  20. High-efficiency silicon heterojunction solar cells: Status and perspectives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    De Wolf, S.

    2015-04-27

    Silicon heterojunction technology (HJT) uses silicon thin-film deposition techniques to fabricate photovoltaic devices from mono-crystalline silicon wafers (c-Si). This enables energy-conversion efficiencies above 21 %, also at industrial-production level. In this presentation we review the present status of this technology and point out recent trends. We first discuss how the properties of thin hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) films can be exploited to fabricate passivating contacts, which is the key to high- efficiency HJT solar cells. Such contacts enable very high operating voltages, approaching the theoretical limits, and yield small temperature coefficients. With this approach, an increasing number of groups are reporting devices with conversion efficiencies well over 20 % on n-type wafers, Panasonic leading the field with 24.7 %. Exciting results have also been obtained on p-type wafers. Despite these high voltages, important efficiency gains can still be made in fill factor and optical design. This requires improved understanding of carrier transport across device interfaces and reduced parasitic absorption in HJT solar cells. For the latter, several strategies can be followed: Short- wavelength losses can be reduced by replacing the front a-Si:H films with wider-bandgap window layers, such as silicon alloys or even metal oxides. Long-wavelength losses are mitigated by introducing new high-mobility TCO’s such as hydrogenated indium oxide, and also by designing new rear reflectors. Optical shadow losses caused by the front metalisation grid are significantly reduced by replacing printed silver electrodes with fine-line plated copper contacts, leading also to possible cost advantages. The ultimate approach to minimize optical losses is the implementation of back-contacted architectures, which are completely devoid of grid shadow losses and parasitic absorption in the front layers can be minimized irrespective of electrical transport requirements. The validity of this approach was convincingly demonstrated by Panasonic, Japan in 2014, reporting on an interdigitated back-contacted HJT cell with an efficiency of 25.6%, setting the new single-junction c-Si record. Finally, given the virtually perfect surface passivation and excellent red response of HJT solar cells, we anticipate these devices will also become the preferred bottom cell in ultra-high efficiency c-Si-based tandem devices, exploiting better the solar spectrum. Such tandem cells have the potential to overcome the fundamental single-junction limit of silicon solar cells (29.4%). Combining HJT cells with perovskite solar cells as top cell appears to be particularly appealing.

  1. Modelling and fabrication of high-efficiency silicon solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rohatgi, A.; Smith, A.W.; Salami, J.

    1991-10-01

    This report covers the research conducted on modelling and development of high-efficiency silicon solar cells during the period May 1989 to August 1990. First, considerable effort was devoted toward developing a ray-tracing program for the photovoltaic community to quantify and optimize surface texturing for solar cells. Second, attempts were made to develop a hydrodynamic model for device simulation. Such a model is somewhat slower than drift-diffusion type models like PC-1D, but it can account for more physical phenomena in the device, such as hot carrier effects, temperature gradients, thermal diffusion, and lattice heat flow. In addition, Fermi-Dirac statistics have been incorporated into the model to deal with heavy doping effects more accurately. Third and final component of the research includes development of silicon cell fabrication capabilities and fabrication of high-efficiency silicon cells. 84 refs., 46 figs., 10 tabs.

  2. Blanket options for high-efficiency fusion power

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Usher, J L; Lazareth, O W; Fillo, J A; Horn, F L; Powell, J R

    1980-01-01

    The efficiencies of blankets for fusion reactors are usually in the range of 30 to 40%, limited by the operating temperatures (500/sup 0/C) of conventional structural materials such as stainless steels. In this project two-zone blankets are proposed; these blankets consist of a low-temperature shell surrounding a high-temperature interior zone. A survey of nucleonics and thermal hydraulic parameters has led to a reference blanket design consisting of a water-cooled stainless steel shell around a BeO, ZrO/sub 2/ interior (cooled by argon) utilizing Li/sub 2/O for tritium breeding. In this design, approximately 60% of the fusion energy is deposited in the high-temperature interior. The maximum argon temperature is 2230/sup 0/C leading to an overall efficiency estimate of 55 to 60% for this reference case.

  3. High resolution PET breast imager with improved detection efficiency

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Majewski, Stanislaw

    2010-06-08

    A highly efficient PET breast imager for detecting lesions in the entire breast including those located close to the patient's chest wall. The breast imager includes a ring of imaging modules surrounding the imaged breast. Each imaging module includes a slant imaging light guide inserted between a gamma radiation sensor and a photodetector. The slant light guide permits the gamma radiation sensors to be placed in close proximity to the skin of the chest wall thereby extending the sensitive region of the imager to the base of the breast. Several types of photodetectors are proposed for use in the detector modules, with compact silicon photomultipliers as the preferred choice, due to its high compactness. The geometry of the detector heads and the arrangement of the detector ring significantly reduce dead regions thereby improving detection efficiency for lesions located close to the chest wall.

  4. High-Efficiency Solar Cell Concepts: Physics, Materials, and Devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mascarenhas, A.; Francoeur, S.; Seong, M. J.; Fluegel, B.; Zhang, Y.; Wanlass, M. W.

    2005-01-01

    Over the past three decades, significant progress has been made in the area of high-efficiency multijunction solar cells, with the effort primarily directed at current-matched solar cells in tandem. The key materials issues here have been obtaining semiconductors with the required bandgaps for sequential absorption of light in the solar spectrum and that are lattice matched to readily available substrates. The GaInP/GaAs/Ge cell is a striking example of success achieved in this area. Recently, several new approaches for high-efficiency solar cell design have emerged, that involve novel methods for tailoring alloy bandgaps, as well as alternate technologies for hetero-epitaxy of III-V's on Si. The advantages and difficulties expected to be encountered with each approach will be discussed, addressing both the materials issues and device physics whilst contrasting them with other fourth-generation solar cell concepts.

  5. Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of a Working Catalyst

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    catalysts for maximum selectivity and efficiency in a wide range of chemical processes. ... The measurements generated chemical contour maps for the species present. Quantitative ...

  6. Aluminium doped ceriazirconia supported palladium-alumina catalyst with high oxygen storage capacity and CO oxidation activity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dong, Qiang; Yin, Shu Guo, Chongshen; Wu, Xiaoyong; Kimura, Takeshi; Sato, Tsugio

    2013-12-15

    Graphical abstract: Ce{sub 0.5}Zr{sub 0.3}Al{sub 0.2}O{sub 1.9}/Pd/?-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} possessed high OSC and CO oxidation activity at low temperature. - Highlights: A new OSC material of Ce{sub 0.5}Zr{sub 0.3}Al{sub 0.2}O{sub 1.9}/Pd/?-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} is prepared via a mechanochemical method. Ce{sub 0.5}Zr{sub 0.3}Al{sub 0.2}O{sub 1.9}/Pd/?-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} showed high OSC even after calcination at 1000 C for 20 h. Ce{sub 0.5}Zr{sub 0.3}Al{sub 0.2}O{sub 1.9}/Pd/?-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} exhibited the highest CO oxidation activity at low temperature correlates with enhanced OSC. - Abstract: The Ce{sub 0.5}Zr{sub 0.3}Al{sub 0.2}O{sub 1.9}/Pd-?-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst prepared by a mechanochemical route and calcined at 1000 C for 20 h in air atmosphere to evaluate the thermal stability. The prepared Ce{sub 0.5}Zr{sub 0.3}Al{sub 0.2}O{sub 1.9}/Pd-?-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst was characterized for the oxygen storage capacity (OSC) and CO oxidation activity in automotive catalysis. For the characterization, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and the BrunauerEmmetTeller (BET) technique were employed. The OSC values of all samples were measured at 600 C using thermogravimetric-differential thermal analysis. Ce{sub 0.5}Zr{sub 0.3}Al{sub 0.2}O{sub 1.9}/Pd-?-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst calcined at 1000 C for 20 h with a BET surface area of 41 m{sup 2} g{sup ?1} exhibited the considerably high OSC of 583 ?mol-O g{sup ?1} and good OSC performance stability. The same synthesis route was employed for the preparation of the CeO{sub 2}/Pd-?-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Ce{sub 0.5}Zr{sub 0.5}O{sub 2}/Pd-?-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} for comparison.

  7. Catalytic Synthesis of Oxygenates: Mechanisms, Catalysts and Controlling Characteristics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klier, Kamil; Herman, Richard G

    2005-11-30

    This research focused on catalytic synthesis of unsymmetrical ethers as a part of a larger program involving oxygenated products in general, including alcohols, ethers, esters, carboxylic acids and their derivatives that link together environmentally compliant fuels, monomers, and high-value chemicals. The catalysts studied here were solid acids possessing strong Brnsted acid functionalities. The design of these catalysts involved anchoring the acid groups onto inorganic oxides, e.g. surface-grafted acid groups on zirconia, and a new class of mesoporous solid acids, i.e. propylsulfonic acid-derivatized SBA-15. The former catalysts consisted of a high surface concentration of sulfate groups on stable zirconia catalysts. The latter catalyst consists of high surface area, large pore propylsulfonic acid-derivatized silicas, specifically SBA-15. In both cases, the catalyst design and synthesis yielded high concentrations of acid sites in close proximity to one another. These materials have been well-characterization in terms of physical and chemical properties, as well as in regard to surface and bulk characteristics. Both types of catalysts were shown to exhibit high catalytic performance with respect to both activity and selectivity for the bifunctional coupling of alcohols to form ethers, which proceeds via an efficient SN2 reaction mechanism on the proximal acid sites. This commonality of the dual-site SN2 reaction mechanism over acid catalysts provides for maximum reaction rates and control of selectivity by reaction conditions, i.e. pressure, temperature, and reactant concentrations. This research provides the scientific groundwork for synthesis of ethers for energy applications. The synthesized environmentally acceptable ethers, in part derived from natural gas via alcohol intermediates, exhibit high cetane properties, e.g. methylisobutylether with cetane No. of 53 and dimethylether with cetane No. of 55-60, or high octane properties, e.g. diisopropylether with blending octane No. of 105, and can replace aromatics in liquid fuels.

  8. Catalysts for Fischer-Tropsch

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Srivastava, R.D. ); Rao, V.U.S.; Cinquegrane, G.; Stiegel, G.J. )

    1990-02-01

    The slurry-phase Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) process has attracted considerable attention recently. The process can make liquid fuels by reacting hydrogen-lean synthesis gas produced from modern energy-efficient gasifiers. continuing assessment of Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis (FTS) has a high priority within an indirect liquefaction program, a part of the liquid fuels program sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and executed by the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC). Funding for the indirect liquefaction program in 1990:0090 is anticipated to be about $8.5 million compared to $6.6 million in 1989 and a like amount in the year before. The studies within the program are conducted by industry, universities, national laboratories and in-house PETC research and development. This article reviews preparation and properties of iron-based catalysts, including recent patent activities and in-depth process analysis of slurry-phase FTS. The review provides an analysis of Fischer-Tropsch catalyst research and development trends and describes options to increase selectivity for iron-based catalysts in a slurry phase.

  9. Highly Efficient Multigap Solar Cell Materials - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Highly Efficient Multigap Solar Cell Materials Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Contact LBL About This Technology Publications: PDF Document Publication Yu, K. M., Walukeiwicz, W., Wu J., Shan, W., Beeman, J. W., Scarpulla, M. A., Dubon, O. D., Becla, P. "Diluted II-VI Oxide Semiconductors with Multiple Band Gaps," Physical Review Letters, Vo. 91, No. 24, Dec. 12, 2003. (178 KB) Technology Marketing Summary Scientists at Berkeley Lab have invented multiband gap semiconducting

  10. OSRAM SYLVANIA Develops High-Efficiency LED Troffer Replacement

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    With the help of DOE funding, OSRAM SYLVANIA is developing a high-efficiency LED 2'x2' troffer replacement that is expected to be commercially available in the spring of 2012 and to be cost-competitive with existing troffers of that size. It is projected to have a light output of up to 4,000 lumens, an efficacy of more than 100 lm/W, and a CCT of 3500K.

  11. Recent Progress in the Development of High Efficiency Thermoelectrics |

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Department of Energy PDF icon 2003_deer_bass.pdf More Documents & Publications High-Efficiency Quantum-Well Thermoelectrics for Waste Heat Power Generation Quantum Well Thermoelectrics and Waste Heat Recovery Scale Up of Si/Si0.8GE0.2 and B4C/B9C Superlattices for Harvesting of Waste Heat in Diesel Engines

  12. Highly efficient electron vortex beams generated by nanofabricated phase holograms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grillo, Vincenzo; Mafakheri, Erfan; Frabboni, Stefano

    2014-01-27

    We propose an improved type of holographic-plate suitable for the shaping of electron beams. The plate is fabricated by a focused ion beam on a silicon nitride membrane and introduces a controllable phase shift to the electron wavefunction. We adopted the optimal blazed-profile design for the phase hologram, which results in the generation of highly efficient (25%) electron vortex beams. This approach paves the route towards applications in nano-scale imaging and materials science.

  13. High-Efficiency Absorber for Damping the Transverse Wake Fields

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Novokhatski, A.; Seeman, J.; Weathersby, S.; /SLAC

    2007-02-28

    Transverse wake fields generated by intense beams may propagate long distances in the vacuum chamber and dissipate power in different shielded elements such as bellows, vacuum valves or vacuum pumps. Induced heating in these elements may be high enough to deteriorate vacuum conditions. We have developed a broadband water-cooled bellows-absorber to capture and damp these harmful transverse fields without impacting the longitudinal beam impedance. Experimental results at the PEP-II SLAC B-factory demonstrate high efficiency of this device. This absorber may be useful in other machines like synchrotron light sources or International Linear Collider.

  14. Fuels and Combustion Strategies for High-Efficiency Clean-Combustion...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Combustion Strategies for High-Efficiency Clean-Combustion Engines Fuels and Combustion Strategies for High-Efficiency Clean-Combustion Engines 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells ...

  15. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center Saves Water with High-Efficiency...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center Saves Water with High-Efficiency Toilet and Urinal Program NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center Saves Water with High-Efficiency Toilet and ...

  16. HIGH EFFICIENCY FOSSIL POWER PLANT (HEFPP) CONCEPTUALIZATION PROGRAM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J.L. Justice

    1999-03-25

    This study confirms the feasibility of a natural gas fueled, 20 MW M-C Power integrated pressurized molten carbonate fuel cell combined in a topping cycle with a gas turbine generator plant. The high efficiency fossil power plant (HEFPP) concept has a 70% efficiency on a LHV basis. The study confirms the HEFPP has a cost advantage on a cost of electricity basis over the gas turbine based combined cycle plants in the 20 MW size range. The study also identifies the areas of further development required for the fuel cell, gas turbine generator, cathode blower, inverter, and power module vessel. The HEFPP concept offers an environmentally friendly power plant with minuscule emission levels when compared with the combined cycle power plant.

  17. Photo-oxidation catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pitts, J. Roland; Liu, Ping; Smith, R. Davis

    2009-07-14

    Photo-oxidation catalysts and methods for cleaning a metal-based catalyst are disclosed. An exemplary catalyst system implementing a photo-oxidation catalyst may comprise a metal-based catalyst, and a photo-oxidation catalyst for cleaning the metal-based catalyst in the presence of light. The exposure to light enables the photo-oxidation catalyst to substantially oxidize absorbed contaminants and reduce accumulation of the contaminants on the metal-based catalyst. Applications are also disclosed.

  18. Challenging Conventional Wisdom: A Clean and Highly Efficient

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Opposed-Piston Two-Stroke Engine | Department of Energy Measured indicated TE values of an opposed-piston, two-stroke engine are all near or exceeding 50%fuel; engine-out emissions levels are well within range, with modern aftertreatment systems, of 2010 EPA levels. PDF icon p-11_wahl.pdf More Documents & Publications The Opposed-Piston Two-Stroke Engine Alternative: Performance and Emissions Results in a Medium-Duty Application Two-Stroke Engines: New Frontier in Engine Efficiency High

  19. A High Efficiency PSOFC/ATS-Gas Turbine Power System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    W.L. Lundberg; G.A. Israelson; M.D. Moeckel; S.E. Veyo; R.A. Holmes; P.R. Zafred; J.E. King; R.E. Kothmann

    2001-02-01

    A study is described in which the conceptual design of a hybrid power system integrating a pressurized Siemens Westinghouse solid oxide fuel cell generator and the Mercury{trademark} 50 gas turbine was developed. The Mercury{trademark} 50 was designed by Solar Turbines as part of the US. Department of Energy Advanced Turbine Systems program. The focus of the study was to develop the hybrid power system concept that principally would exhibit an attractively-low cost of electricity (COE). The inherently-high efficiency of the hybrid cycle contributes directly to achieving this objective, and by employing the efficient, power-intensive Mercury{trademark} 50, with its relatively-low installed cost, the higher-cost SOFC generator can be optimally sized such that the minimum-COE objective is achieved. The system cycle is described, major system components are specified, the system installed cost and COE are estimated, and the physical arrangement of the major system components is discussed. Estimates of system power output, efficiency, and emissions at the system design point are also presented. In addition, two bottoming cycle options are described, and estimates of their effects on overall-system performance, cost, and COE are provided.

  20. Analysis of highly-efficient electric residential HPWHs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baxter, Van D; Murphy, Richard W; Rice, C Keith; Shen, Bo; Gao, Zhiming

    2011-09-01

    A scoping level analysis was conducted to identify electric HPWH concepts that have the potential to achieve or exceed 30% source energy savings compared to a gas tankless water heater (GTWH) representative of the type represented in version 0.9.5.2 beta of the BEopt software developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. The analysis was limited to evaluation of options to improve the energy efficiency of electric HPWH product designs currently on the market in the US. The report first defines the baseline GTWH system and determines its efficiency (source-energy-based adjusted or derated EF of ~0.71). High efficiency components (compressors, pumps, fans, heat exchangers, etc.) were identified and applied to current US HPWH products and analyzed to determine the viability of reaching the target EF. The target site-based energy factor (EF) required for an electric HPWH necessary to provide 30% source energy savings compared to the GTWH baseline unit is then determined to be ~3.19.

  1. Capture and isotopic exchange method for water and hydrogen isotopes on zeolite catalysts up to technical scale for pre-study of processing highly tritiated water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michling, R.; Braun, A.; Cristescu, I.; Dittrich, H.; Gramlich, N.; Lohr, N.; Glugla, M.; Shu, W.; Willms, S.

    2015-03-15

    Highly tritiated water (HTW) may be generated at ITER by various processes and, due to the excessive radio toxicity, the self-radiolysis and the exceedingly corrosive property of HTW, a potential hazard is associated with its storage and process. Therefore, the capture and exchange method for HTW utilizing Molecular Sieve Beds (MSB) was investigated in view of adsorption capacity, isotopic exchange performance and process parameters. For the MSB, different types of zeolite were selected. All zeolite materials were additionally coated with platinum. The following work comprised the selection of the most efficient zeolite candidate based on detailed parametric studies during the H{sub 2}/D{sub 2}O laboratory scale exchange experiments (about 25 g zeolite per bed) at the Tritium Laboratory Karlsruhe (TLK). For the zeolite, characterization analytical techniques such as Infrared Spectroscopy, Thermogravimetry and online mass spectrometry were implemented. Followed by further investigation of the selected zeolite catalyst under full technical operation, a MSB (about 22 kg zeolite) was processed with hydrogen flow rates up to 60 mol*h{sup -1} and deuterated water loads up to 1.6 kg in view of later ITER processing of arising HTW. (authors)

  2. HIGH EFFICIENCY GENERATION OF HYDROGEN FUELS USING NUCLEAR POWER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    BROWN,LC; BESENBRUCH,GE; LENTSCH,RD; SCHULTZ,KR; FUNK,JF; PICKARD,PS; MARSHALL,AC; SHOWALTER,SK

    2003-06-01

    OAK B202 HIGH EFFICIENCY GENERATION OF HYDROGEN FUELS USING NUCLEAR POWER. Combustion of fossil fuels, used to power transportation, generate electricity, heat homes and fuel industry provides 86% of the world's energy. Drawbacks to fossil fuel utilization include limited supply, pollution, and carbon dioxide emissions. Carbon dioxide emissions, thought to be responsible for global warming, are now the subject of international treaties. Together, these drawbacks argue for the replacement of fossil fuels with a less-polluting potentially renewable primary energy such as nuclear energy. Conventional nuclear plants readily generate electric power but fossil fuels are firmly entrenched in the transportation sector. Hydrogen is an environmentally attractive transportation fuel that has the potential to displace fossil fuels. Hydrogen will be particularly advantageous when coupled with fuel cells. Fuel cells have higher efficiency than conventional battery/internal combustion engine combinations and do not produce nitrogen oxides during low-temperature operation. Contemporary hydrogen production is primarily based on fossil fuels and most specifically on natural gas. When hydrogen is produced using energy derived from fossil fuels, there is little or no environmental advantage. There is currently no large scale, cost-effective, environmentally attractive hydrogen production process available for commercialization, nor has such a process been identified. The objective of this work is to find an economically feasible process for the production of hydrogen, by nuclear means, using an advanced high-temperature nuclear reactor as the primary energy source. Hydrogen production by thermochemical water-splitting (Appendix A), a chemical process that accomplishes the decomposition of water into hydrogen and oxygen using only heat or, in the case of a hybrid thermochemical process, by a combination of heat and electrolysis, could meet these goals. Hydrogen produced from fossil fuels has trace contaminants (primarily carbon monoxide) that are detrimental to precious metal catalyzed fuel cells, as is now recognized by many of the world's largest automobile companies. Thermochemical hydrogen will not contain carbon monoxide as an impurity at any level. Electrolysis, the alternative process for producing hydrogen using nuclear energy, suffers from thermodynamic inefficiencies in both the production of electricity and in electrolytic parts of the process. The efficiency of electrolysis (electricity to hydrogen) is currently about 80%. Electric power generation efficiency would have to exceed 65% (thermal to electrical) for the combined efficiency to exceed the 52% (thermal to hydrogen) calculated for one thermochemical cycle. Thermochemical water-splitting cycles have been studied, at various levels of effort, for the past 35 years. They were extensively studied in the late 70s and early 80s but have received little attention in the past 10 years, particularly in the U.S. While there is no question about the technical feasibility and the potential for high efficiency, cycles with proven low cost and high efficiency have yet to be developed commercially. Over 100 cycles have been proposed, but substantial research has been executed on only a few. This report describes work accomplished during a three-year project whose objective is to ''define an economically feasible concept for production of hydrogen, by nuclear means, using an advanced high temperature nuclear reactor as the energy source.'' The emphasis of the first phase was to evaluate thermochemical processes which offer the potential for efficient, cost-effective, large-scale production of hydrogen from water in which the primary energy input is high temperature heat from an advanced nuclear reactor and to select one (or, at most three) for further detailed consideration. During Phase 1, an exhaustive literature search was performed to locate all cycles previously proposed. The cycles located were screened using objective criteria to determine which could benefit, in terms of efficiency and cost, from the high-temperature capabilities of advanced nuclear reactors. The more promising cycles were then analyzed in depth as to their adaptability to advanced high-temperature nuclear reactors. As a result, the Sulfur-Iodine (S-I) cycle was selected for integration into the advanced nuclear reactor system. In Phases 2 and 3, alternative flowsheets were developed and compared. This effort entailed a considerable effort into developing the solution thermodynamics pertinent to the S-I cycle.

  3. Oxidation State Optimization for Maximum Efficiency of NOx Adsorber...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    State Optimization for Maximum Efficiency of NOx Adsorber Catalysts Oxidation State Optimization for Maximum Efficiency of NOx Adsorber Catalysts Presentation given at the 16th ...

  4. High Efficiency Microturbine with Integral Heat Recovery- Fact Sheet, 2014

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Fact sheet: this project will develop a clean, cost-effective 370 kW microturbine with 42% net electrical efficiency and 85% total CHP efficiency

  5. Design of Bulk Nanocomposites as High Efficiency Thermoelectric...

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    that more efficiently convert heat to electricity. Research Details Thermoelectric materials directly generate electrical power from heat, but suffer from low efficiency, ...

  6. High-Efficiency Deflection of High-Energy Protons through Axial Channeling

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    in a Bent Crystal (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect High-Efficiency Deflection of High-Energy Protons through Axial Channeling in a Bent Crystal Citation Details In-Document Search Title: High-Efficiency Deflection of High-Energy Protons through Axial Channeling in a Bent Crystal Beam deflection due to axial channeling in a silicon crystal bent along the <111> axis was observed with 400 GeV/c protons at the CERN Super Proton Synchrotron. The condition for doughnut scattering of

  7. Nanocoatings for High-Efficiency Industrial Hydraulic and Tooling Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clifton B. Higdon III

    2011-01-07

    Industrial manufacturing in the U.S. accounts for roughly one third of the 98 quadrillion Btu total energy consumption. Motor system losses amount to 1.3 quadrillion Btu, which represents the largest proportional loss of any end-use category, while pumps alone represent over 574 trillion BTU (TBTU) of energy loss each year. The efficiency of machines with moving components is a function of the amount of energy lost to heat because of friction between contacting surfaces. The friction between these interfaces also contributes to downtime and the loss of productivity through component wear and subsequent repair. The production of new replacement parts requires additional energy. Among efforts to reduce energy losses, wear-resistant, low-friction coatings on rotating and sliding components offer a promising approach that is fully compatible with existing equipment and processes. In addition to lubrication, one of the most desirable solutions is to apply a protective coating or surface treatment to rotating or sliding components to reduce their friction coefficients, thereby leading to reduced wear. Historically, a number of materials such as diamond-like carbon (DLC), titanium nitride (TiN), titanium aluminum nitride (TiAlN), and tungsten carbide (WC) have been examined as tribological coatings. The primary objective of this project was the development of a variety of thin film nanocoatings, derived from the AlMgB14 system, with a focus on reducing wear and friction in both industrial hydraulics and cutting tool applications. Proof-of-concept studies leading up to this project had shown that the constituent phases, AlMgB14 and TiB2, were capable of producing low-friction coatings by pulsed laser deposition. These coatings combine high hardness with a low friction coefficient, and were shown to substantially reduce wear in laboratory tribology tests. Selection of the two applications was based largely on the concept of improved mechanical interface efficiencies for energy conservation. In mobile hydraulic systems, efficiency gains through low friction would translate into improved fuel economy and fewer greenhouse gas emissions. Stationary hydraulic systems, accordingly, would consume less electrical power. Reduced tooling wear in machining operations would translate to greater operating yields, while lowering the energy consumed during processing. The AlMgB14 nanocoatings technology progressed beyond baseline laboratory tests into measurable energy savings and enhancements to product durability. Three key hydraulic markets were identified over the course of the project that will benefit from implementation: industrial vane pumps, orbiting valve-in-star hydraulic motors, and variable displacement piston pumps. In the vane pump application, the overall product efficiency was improved by as much as 11%. Similar results were observed with the hydraulic motors tested, where efficiency gains of over 10% were noted. For variable displacement piston pumps, overall efficiency was improved by 5%. For cutting tools, the most significant gains in productivity (and, accordingly, the efficiency of the machining process as a whole) were associated with the roughing and finishing of titanium components for aerospace systems. Use of the AlMgB14 nanocoating in customer field tests has shown that the coated tools were able to withstand machining rates as high as 500sfm (limited only by the substrate material), with relatively low flank wear when compared to other industrial offerings. AlMgB14 coated tools exhibited a 60% improvement over similarly applied TiAlN thin films. Furthermore, AlMgB14-based coatings in these particular tests lasted twice as long than their TiAlN counterparts at the 500sfm feed rates. Full implementation of the technology into the industrial hydraulic and cutting tool markets equates to a worldwide energy savings of 46 trillion BTU/year by 2030. U.S.-based GHG emissions associated with the markets identified would fall accordingly, dropping by as much as 50,000 tonnes annually.

  8. Preparation, catalysis, and characterization of highly dispersed molybdenum sulfide catalysts supported on a NaY zeolite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Okamoto, Yasuaki; Katsuyama, Hiromoto [Osaka Univ., Toyonaka, Osaka (Japan)] [Osaka Univ., Toyonaka, Osaka (Japan)

    1996-06-01

    The structure and dispersion of the molybdenum sulfides supported on a NaY zeolite were studied using XAFS techniques. It was found that molybdenum sulfide species prepared by sulfiding vapor deposited Mo(CO){sub 6} or by sulfiding molybdenum oxide dimer species encaged in the zeolite are highly dispersed and thermally stabilized against sintering or restructuring. These molybdenum species are formed via molybdenum sulfide dimer species as an intermediate. On the other hand, with the molybdenum sulfide catalysts prepared by an impregnation method, the sulfidation of molybdenum oxides was incomplete. The molybdenum oxide species are suggested to be mainly located in the zeolite cavities after calcination, forming isolated molybdenum oxides in tetrahedral configurations. The molybdenum sulfide species prepared from Mo(CO){sub 6} showed much higher catalytic activities for thiophene hydrodesulfurization and butadiene hydrogenation than the molybdenum sulfides prepared by the impregnation, in conformity with a higher dispersion and higher fraction of the molybdenum sulfide species. It is demonstrated that in combination with metal carbonyl techniques, zeolite supports are very suitable for the preparation of highly dispersed molybdenum sulfides at a high Mo loading.

  9. Novel bimetallic dispersed catalysts for temperature-programmed coal liquefaction. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chunshan Song; Schobert, H.H.; Parfitt, D.P.

    1997-11-01

    Development of new catalysts is a promising approach to more efficient coal liquefaction. It has been recognized that dispersed catalysts are superior to supported catalysts for primary liquefaction of coals, because the control of initial coal dissolution or depolymerization requires intimate contact between the catalyst and coal. This research is a fundamental and exploratory study on catalytic coal liquefaction, with the emphasis on exploring novel bimetallic dispersed catalysts for coal liquefaction and the effectiveness of temperature-programmed liquefaction using dispersed catalysts. The primary objective of this research was to explore novel bimetallic dispersed catalysts from organometallic molecular precursors, that could be used in low concentrations but exhibit relatively high activity for efficient hydroliquefaction of coals under temperature-programmed conditions. We have synthesized and tested various catalyst precursors in liquefaction of subbituminous and bituminous coals and in model compound studies to examine how do the composition and structure of the catalytic precursors affect their effectiveness for coal liquefaction under different reaction conditions, and how do these factors affect their catalytic functions for hydrogenation of polyaromatic hydrocarbons, for cleavage of C-C bonds in polycyclic systems such as 4-(1-naphthylmethyl)bibenzyl, for hydrogenolysis of C-O bond such as that in dinaphthylether, for hydrodeoxygenation of phenolic compounds and other oxygen-containing compounds such as xanthene, and for hydrodesulfurization of polycyclic sulfur compounds such as dibenzothiophene. The novel bimetallic and monometallic precursors synthesized and tested in this project include various Mo- and Fe-based compounds.

  10. High Efficiency, Low Emissions Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) Engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2011-01-31

    This is the final report of the High Efficiency Clean Combustion (HECC) Research Program for the U.S. Department of Energy. Work under this co-funded program began in August 2005 and finished in July 2010. The objective of this program was to develop and demonstrate a low emission, high thermal efficiency engine system that met 2010 EPA heavy-duty on-highway truck emissions requirements (0.2g/bhp-hr NOx, 0.14g/bhp-hr HC and 0.01g/bhp-hr PM) with a thermal efficiency of 46%. To achieve this goal, development of diesel homogenous charge compression ignition (HCCI) combustion was the chosen approach. This report summarizes the development of diesel HCCI combustion and associated enabling technologies that occurred during the HECC program between August 2005 and July 2010. This program showed that although diesel HCCI with conventional US diesel fuel was not a feasible means to achieve the program objectives, the HCCI load range could be increased with a higher volatility, lower cetane number fuel, such as gasoline, if the combustion rate could be moderated to avoid excessive cylinder pressure rise rates. Given the potential efficiency and emissions benefits, continued research of combustion with low cetane number fuels and the effects of fuel distillation are recommended. The operation of diesel HCCI was only feasible at part-load due to a limited fuel injection window. A 4% fuel consumption benefit versus conventional, low-temperature combustion was realized over the achievable operating range. Several enabling technologies were developed under this program that also benefited non-HCCI combustion. The development of a 300MPa fuel injector enabled the development of extended lifted flame combustion. A design methodology for minimizing the heat transfer to jacket water, known as precision cooling, will benefit conventional combustion engines, as well as HCCI engines. An advanced combustion control system based on cylinder pressure measurements was developed. A Well-to-wheels analysis of the energy flows in a mobile vehicle system and a 2nd Law thermodynamic analysis of the engine system were also completed under this program.

  11. Technology Development for Light Duty High Efficient Diesel Engines

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Improve the efficiency of diesel engines for light duty applications through technical advances in system optimization.

  12. Volume 1, 1st Edition, Multiscale Tailoring of Highly Active and Stable Nanocomposite Catalysts, Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Veser, Goetz

    2009-08-31

    Nanomaterials have gained much attention as catalysts since the discovery of exceptional CO oxidation activity of nanoscale gold by Haruta. However, many studies avoid testing nanomaterials at the high-temperatures relevant to reactions of interest for the production of clean energy (T > 700C). The generally poor thermal stability of catalytically active noble metals has thus far prevented significant progress in this area. We have recently overcome the poor thermal stability of nanoparticles by synthesizing a platinum barium-hexaaluminate (Pt-BHA) nanocomposite which combines the high activity of noble metal nanoparticles with the thermal stability of hexaaluminates. This Pt-BHA nanocomposite demonstrates excellent activity, selectivity, and long-term stability in CPOM. Pt-BHA is anchored onto a variety of support structures in order to improve the accessibility, safety, and reactivity of the nanocatalyst. Silica felts prove to be particularly amenable to this supporting procedure, with the resulting supported nanocatalyst proving to be as active and stable for CPOM as its unsupported counterpart. Various pre-treatment conditions are evaluated to determine their effectiveness in removing residual surfactant from the active nanoscale platinum particles. The size of these particles is measured across a wide temperature range, and the resulting plateau of stability from 600-900C can be linked to a particle caging effect due to the structure of the supporting ceramic framework. The nanocomposites are used to catalyze the combustion of a dilute methane stream, and the results indicate enhanced activity for both Pt-BHA as well as ceria-doped BHA, as well as an absence of internal mass transfer limitations at the conditions tested. In water-gas shift reaction, nanocomposite Pt-BHA shows stability during prolonged WGS reaction and no signs of deactivation during start-up/shut-down of the reactor. The chemical and thermal stability, low molecular weight, and wealth of literature on the formation of mesoporous silica materials motivated investigations of nanocomposite silica catalysts. High surface area silicas are synthesized via sol-gel methods, and the addition of metal-salts lead to the formation of stable nanocomposite Ni- and Fe- silicates. The results of these investigations have increased the fundamental understanding and improved the applicability of nanocatalysts for clean energy applications.

  13. Magnetic Refrigeration Technology for High Efficiency Air Conditioning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boeder, A; Zimm, C

    2006-09-30

    Magnetic refrigeration was investigated as an efficient, environmentally friendly, flexible alternative to conventional residential vapor compression central air conditioning systems. Finite element analysis (FEA) models of advanced geometry active magnetic regenerator (AMR) beds were developed to minimize bed size and thus magnet mass by optimizing geometry for fluid flow and heat transfer and other losses. Conventional and magnetocaloric material (MCM) regenerator fabrication and assembly techniques were developed and advanced geometry passive regenerators were built and tested. A subscale engineering prototype (SEP) magnetic air conditioner was designed, constructed and tested. A model of the AMR cycle, combined with knowledge from passive regenerator experiments and FEA results, was used to design the regenerator beds. A 1.5 Tesla permanent magnet assembly was designed using FEA and the bed structure and plenum design was extensively optimized using FEA. The SEP is a flexible magnetic refrigeration platform, with individually instrumented beds and high flow rate and high frequency capability, although the current advanced regenerator geometry beds do not meet performance expectations, probably due to manufacturing and assembly tolerances. A model of the AMR cycle was used to optimize the design of a 3 ton capacity magnetic air conditioner, and the system design was iterated to minimize external parasitic losses such as heat exchanger pressure drop and fan power. The manufacturing cost for the entire air conditioning system was estimated, and while the estimated SEER efficiency is high, the magnetic air conditioning system is not cost competitive as currently configured. The 3 ton study results indicate that there are other applications where magnetic refrigeration is anticipated to have cost advantages over conventional systems, especially applications where magnetic refrigeration, through the use of its aqueous heat transfer fluid, could eliminate intermediate heat exchangers or oil distribution issues found in traditional vapor compression systems.

  14. Subnanometer and nanometer catalysts, method for preparing size-selected catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vajda, Stefan , Pellin, Michael J.; Elam, Jeffrey W.; Marshall, Christopher L.; Winans, Randall A.; Meiwes-Broer, Karl-Heinz

    2012-04-03

    Highly uniform cluster based nanocatalysts supported on technologically relevant supports were synthesized for reactions of top industrial relevance. The Pt-cluster based catalysts outperformed the very best reported ODHP catalyst in both activity (by up to two orders of magnitude higher turn-over frequencies) and in selectivity. The results clearly demonstrate that highly dispersed ultra-small Pt clusters precisely localized on high-surface area supports can lead to affordable new catalysts for highly efficient and economic propene production, including considerably simplified separation of the final product. The combined GISAXS-mass spectrometry provides an excellent tool to monitor the evolution of size and shape of nanocatalyst at action under realistic conditions. Also provided are sub-nanometer gold and sub-nanometer to few nm size-selected silver catalysts which possess size dependent tunable catalytic properties in the epoxidation of alkenes. Invented size-selected cluster deposition provides a unique tool to tune material properties by atom-by-atom fashion, which can be stabilized by protective overcoats.

  15. Subnanometer and nanometer catalysts, method for preparing size-selected catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vajda, Stefan; Pellin, Michael J.; Elam, Jeffrey W.; Marshall, Christopher L.; Winans, Randall A.; Meiwes-Broer, Karl-Heinz

    2012-03-27

    Highly uniform cluster based nanocatalysts supported on technologically relevant supports were synthesized for reactions of top industrial relevance. The Pt-cluster based catalysts outperformed the very best reported ODHP catalyst in both activity (by up to two orders of magnitude higher turn-over frequencies) and in selectivity. The results clearly demonstrate that highly dispersed ultra-small Pt clusters precisely localized on high-surface area supports can lead to affordable new catalysts for highly efficient and economic propene production, including considerably simplified separation of the final product. The combined GISAXS-mass spectrometry provides an excellent tool to monitor the evolution of size and shape of nanocatalyst at action under realistic conditions. Also provided are sub-nanometer gold and sub-nanometer to few nm size-selected silver catalysts which possess size dependent tunable catalytic properties in the epoxidation of alkenes. Invented size-selected cluster deposition provides a unique tool to tune material properties by atom-by-atom fashion, which can be stabilized by protective overcoats.

  16. Catalyst by Design - Theoretical, Nanostructural, and Experimental Studies

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    of Emission Treatment Catalyst | Department of Energy Poster presented at the 16th Directions in Engine-Efficiency and Emissions Research (DEER) Conference in Detroit, MI, September 27-30, 2010. PDF icon p-08_narula.pdf More Documents & Publications Catalyst by Design - Theoretical, Nanostructural, and Experimental Studies of Oxidation Catalyst for Diesel Engine Emission Treatment Catalysts via First Principles Catalysts via First Principles

  17. Processes for producing low cost, high efficiency silicon solar cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rohatgi, Ajeet; Doshi, Parag; Tate, John Keith; Mejia, Jose; Chen, Zhizhang

    1998-06-16

    Processes which utilize rapid thermal processing (RTP) are provided for inexpensively producing high efficiency silicon solar cells. The RTP processes preserve minority carrier bulk lifetime .tau. and permit selective adjustment of the depth of the diffused regions, including emitter and back surface field (bsf), within the silicon substrate. In a first RTP process, an RTP step is utilized to simultaneously diffuse phosphorus and aluminum into the front and back surfaces, respectively, of a silicon substrate. Moreover, an in situ controlled cooling procedure preserves the carrier bulk lifetime .tau. and permits selective adjustment of the depth of the diffused regions. In a second RTP process, both simultaneous diffusion of the phosphorus and aluminum as well as annealing of the front and back contacts are accomplished during the RTP step. In a third RTP process, the RTP step accomplishes simultaneous diffusion of the phosphorus and aluminum, annealing of the contacts, and annealing of a double-layer antireflection/passivation coating SiN/SiO.sub.x. In a fourth RTP process, the process of applying front and back contacts is broken up into two separate respective steps, which enhances the efficiency of the cells, at a slight time expense. In a fifth RTP process, a second RTP step is utilized to fire and adhere the screen printed or evaporated contacts to the structure.

  18. Processes for producing low cost, high efficiency silicon solar cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rohatgi, A.; Doshi, P.; Tate, J.K.; Mejia, J.; Chen, Z.

    1998-06-16

    Processes which utilize rapid thermal processing (RTP) are provided for inexpensively producing high efficiency silicon solar cells. The RTP processes preserve minority carrier bulk lifetime {tau} and permit selective adjustment of the depth of the diffused regions, including emitter and back surface field (bsf), within the silicon substrate. In a first RTP process, an RTP step is utilized to simultaneously diffuse phosphorus and aluminum into the front and back surfaces, respectively, of a silicon substrate. Moreover, an in situ controlled cooling procedure preserves the carrier bulk lifetime {tau} and permits selective adjustment of the depth of the diffused regions. In a second RTP process, both simultaneous diffusion of the phosphorus and aluminum as well as annealing of the front and back contacts are accomplished during the RTP step. In a third RTP process, the RTP step accomplishes simultaneous diffusion of the phosphorus and aluminum, annealing of the contacts, and annealing of a double-layer antireflection/passivation coating SiN/SiO{sub x}. In a fourth RTP process, the process of applying front and back contacts is broken up into two separate respective steps, which enhances the efficiency of the cells, at a slight time expense. In a fifth RTP process, a second RTP step is utilized to fire and adhere the screen printed or evaporated contacts to the structure. 28 figs.

  19. Processes for producing low cost, high efficiency silicon solar cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rohatgi, Ajeet; Chen, Zhizhang; Doshi, Parag

    1996-01-01

    Processes which utilize rapid thermal processing (RTP) are provided for inexpensively producing high efficiency silicon solar cells. The RTP processes preserve minority carrier bulk lifetime .tau. and permit selective adjustment of the depth of the diffused regions, including emitter and back surface field (bsf), within the silicon substrate. Silicon solar cell efficiencies of 16.9% have been achieved. In a first RTP process, an RTP step is utilized to simultaneously diffuse phosphorus and aluminum into the front and back surfaces, respectively, of a silicon substrate. Moreover, an in situ controlled cooling procedure preserves the carrier bulk lifetime .tau. and permits selective adjustment of the depth of the diffused regions. In a second RTP process, both simultaneous diffusion of the phosphorus and aluminum as well as annealing of the front and back contacts are accomplished during the RTP step. In a third RTP process, the RTP step accomplishes simultaneous diffusion of the phosphorus and aluminum, annealing of the contacts, and annealing of a double-layer antireflection/passivation coating SiN/SiO.sub.x.

  20. Highly Efficient Small Form Factor LED Retrofit Lamp

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steven Allen; Fred Palmer; Ming Li

    2011-09-11

    This report summarizes work to develop a high efficiency LED-based MR16 lamp downlight at OSRAM SYLVANIA under US Department of Energy contract DE-EE0000611. A new multichip LED package, electronic driver, and reflector optic were developed for these lamps. At steady-state, the lamp luminous flux was 409 lumens (lm), luminous efficacy of 87 lumens per watt (LPW), CRI (Ra) of 87, and R9 of 85 at a correlated color temperature (CCT) of 3285K. The LED alone achieved 120 lumens per watt efficacy and 600 lumen flux output at 25 C. The driver had 90% electrical conversion efficiency while maintaining excellent power quality with power factor >0.90 at a power of only 5 watts. Compared to similar existing MR16 lamps using LED sources, these lamps had much higher efficacy and color quality. The objective of this work was to demonstrate a LED-based MR16 retrofit lamp for replacement of 35W halogen MR16 lamps having (1) luminous flux of 500 lumens, (2) luminous efficacy of 100 lumens per watt, (3) beam angle less than 40{sup o} and center beam candlepower of at least 1000 candelas, and (4) excellent color quality.

  1. Mixed Alcohol Synthesis Catalyst Screening

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gerber, Mark A.; White, James F.; Stevens, Don J.

    2007-09-03

    National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) are conducting research to investigate the feasibility of producing mixed alcohols from biomass-derived synthesis gas (syngas). PNNL is tasked with obtaining commercially available or preparing promising mixed-alcohol catalysts and screening them in a laboratory-scale reactor system. Commercially available catalysts and the most promising experimental catalysts are provided to NREL for testing using a slipstream from a pilot-scale biomass gasifier. From the standpoint of producing C2+ alcohols as the major product, it appears that the rhodium catalyst is the best choice in terms of both selectivity and space-time yield (STY). However, unless the rhodium catalyst can be improved to provide minimally acceptable STYs for commercial operation, mixed alcohol synthesis will involve significant production of other liquid coproducts. The modified Fischer-Tropsch catalyst shows the most promise for providing both an acceptable selectivity to C2+ alcohols and total liquid STY. However, further optimization of the Fischer-Tropsch catalysts to improve selectivity to higher alcohols is highly desired. Selection of a preferred catalyst will likely entail a decision on the preferred coproduct slate. No other catalysts tested appear amenable to the significant improvements needed for acceptable STYs.

  2. Accelerated deployment of nanostructured hydrotreating catalysts. Final CRADA Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Libera, J.A.; Snyder, S.W.; Mane, A.; Elam, J.W.; Cronauer, D.C.; Muntean, J.A.; Wu, T.; Miller, J.T.

    2012-08-27

    Nanomanufacturing offers an opportunity to create domestic jobs and facilitate economic growth. In response to this need, U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy issued a Research Call to develop nanomanufacturing capabilities at the National Laboratories. High performance catalysts represent a unique opportunity to deploy nanomanufacturing technologies. Re-refining of used lube oil offers an opportunity to create manufacturing jobs and decrease dependence on imported petroleum. Improved catalysts are required to produce a better quality product, decrease environmental impact, extend catalyst life, and improve overall economics of lube oil re-refining. Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne) in cooperation with Universal Lubricants, Inc. (ULI) and Chemical Engineering Partners (CEP) have carried out a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) to prepare nanostructured hydrotreating catalysts using atomic layer deposition (ALD) to exhibit superior performance for the re-refining of used lube oil. We investigated the upgrading of recycled lube oil by hydrogenation using commercial, synthetically-modified commercial catalysts, and synthesized catalysts. A down-flow (trickle bed) catalytic unit was used for the hydrogenation experiments. In addition to carrying out elemental analyses of the various feed and product fractions, characterization was undertaken using H{sup 1} and C{sup 13} NMR. Initially commercial were evaluated. Second these commercial catalysts were promoted with precious metals using atomic layer deposition (ALD). Performance improvements were observed that declined with catalyst aging. An alternate approach was undertaken to deeply upgrade ULI product oils. Using a synthesized catalyst, much lower hydrogenation temperatures were required than commercial catalysts. Other performance improvements were also observed. The resulting lube oil fractions were of high purity even at low reaction severity. The products recovered from both the ALD and other processes were water-white (even those from the low temperature, low residence time (high space velocity), low conversion runs). These results indicate that highly upgraded recycle lube oils can be produced using ALD-deposited active metal catalysts. The use of H{sup 1} and C{sup 13} NMR for the characterization of the treated lube oils has been shown to be effective.

  3. Nano Catalysts for Diesel Engine Emission Remediation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Narula, Chaitanya Kumar; Yang, Xiaofan; Debusk, Melanie Moses; Mullins, David R; Mahurin, Shannon Mark; Wu, Zili

    2012-06-01

    The objective of this project was to develop durable zeolite nanocatalysts with broader operating temperature windows to treat diesel engine emissions to enable diesel engine based equipment and vehicles to meet future regulatory requirements. A second objective was to improve hydrothermal durability of zeolite catalysts to at least 675 C. The results presented in this report show that we have successfully achieved both objectives. Since it is accepted that the first step in NO{sub x} conversion under SCR (selective catalytic reduction) conditions involves NO oxidation to NO{sub 2}, we reasoned that catalyst modification that can enhance NO oxidation at low-temperatures should facilitate NO{sub x} reduction at low temperatures. Considering that Cu-ZSM-5 is a more efficient catalyst than Fe-ZSM-5 at low-temperature, we chose to modify Cu-ZSM-5. It is important to point out that the poor low-temperature efficiency of Fe-ZSM-5 has been shown to be due to selective absorption of NH{sub 3} at low-temperatures rather than poor NO oxidation activity. In view of this, we also reasoned that an increased electron density on copper in Cu-ZSM-5 would inhibit any bonding with NH{sub 3} at low-temperatures. In addition to modified Cu-ZSM-5, we synthesized a series of new heterobimetallic zeolites, by incorporating a secondary metal cation M (Sc{sup 3+}, Fe{sup 3+}, In{sup 3+}, and La{sup 3+}) in Cu exchanged ZSM-5, zeolite-beta, and SSZ-13 zeolites under carefully controlled experimental conditions. Characterization by diffuse-reflectance ultra-violet-visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (EXAFS) and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy (EPR) does not permit conclusive structural determination but supports the proposal that M{sup 3+} has been incorporated in the vicinity of Cu(II). The protocols for degreening catalysts, testing under various operating conditions, and accelerated aging conditions were provided by our collaborators at John Deere Power Systems. Among various zeolites reported here, CuFe-SSZ-13 offers the best NO{sub x} conversion activity in 150-650 C range and is hydrothermally stable when tested under accelerated aging conditions. It is important to note that Cu-SSZ-13 is now a commercial catalyst for NO{sub x} treatment on diesel passenger vehicles. Thus, our catalyst performs better than the commercial catalyst under fast SCR conditions. We initially focused on fast SCR tests to enable us to screen catalysts rapidly. Only the catalysts that exhibit high NO{sub x} conversion at low temperatures are selected for screening under varying NO{sub 2}:NO{sub x} ratio. The detailed tests of CuFe-SSZ-13 show that CuFe-SSZ-13 is more effective than commercial Cu-SSZ-13 even at NO{sub 2}:NO{sub x} ratio of 0.1. The mechanistic studies, employing stop-flow diffuse reflectance FTIR spectroscopy (DRIFTS), suggest that high concentration of NO{sup +}, generated by heterobimetallic zeolites, is probably responsible for their superior low temperature NO{sub x} activity. The results described in this report clearly show that we have successfully completed the first step in a new emission treatment catalyst which is synthesis and laboratory testing employing simulated exhaust. The next step in the catalyst development is engine testing. Efforts are in progress to obtain follow-on funding to carry out scale-up and engine testing to facilitate commercialization of this technology.

  4. Efficient binning for bitmap indices on high-cardinality attributes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rotem, Doron; Stockinger, Kurt; Wu, Kesheng

    2004-11-17

    Bitmap indexing is a common technique for indexing high-dimensional data in data warehouses and scientific applications. Though efficient for low-cardinality attributes, query processing can be rather costly for high-cardinality attributes due to the large storage requirements for the bitmap indices. Binning is a common technique for reducing storage costs of bitmap indices. This technique partitions the attribute values into a number of ranges, called bins, and uses bitmap vectors to represent bins (attribute ranges) rather than distinct values. Although binning may reduce storage costs, it may increase the access costs of queries that do not fall on exact bin boundaries (edge bins). For this kind of queries the original data values associated with edge bins must be accessed, in order to check them against the query constraints.In this paper we study the problem of finding optimal locations for the bin boundaries in order to minimize these access costs subject to storage constraints. We propose a dynamic programming algorithm for optimal partitioning of attribute values into bins that takes into account query access patterns as well as data distribution statistics. Mathematical analysis and experiments on real life data sets show that the optimal partitioning achieved by this algorithm can lead to a significant improvement in the access costs of bitmap indexing systems for high-cardinality attributes.

  5. Tunable Catalysts - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Vehicles and Fuels Vehicles and Fuels Advanced Materials Advanced Materials Find More Like This Return to Search Tunable Catalysts Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Contact LBL About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary For automobile manufacturers using expensive noble metals to make vehicle catalytic converters, often with limited lifetimes, Berkeley Lab Tunable Catalysts, made with affordable metals, utilize graphene to electrically tune the converting rate efficacy and efficiency

  6. High-Efficiency, Wide-Band Three-Phase Rectifiers and Adaptive...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Efficiency, Wide-Band Three-Phase Rectifiers and Adaptive Rectifier Management High-Efficiency, Wide-Band Three-Phase Rectifiers and Adaptive Rectifier Management Higher-Efficiency...

  7. High Efficiency Clean Combustion for Heavy-Duty Engine

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Innovative dual mode combustion strategy enabled by variable fuel injection offers emission reduction and efficiency improvement advantages.

  8. Method for generating a highly reactive plasma for exhaust gas aftertreatment and enhanced catalyst reactivity

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Whealton, John H.; Hanson, Gregory R.; Storey, John M.; Raridon, Richard J.; Armfield, Jeffrey S.; Bigelow, Timothy S.; Graves, Ronald L.

    2001-01-01

    A method for non-thermal plasma aftertreatment of exhaust gases the method comprising the steps of providing short risetime (about 40 ps), high frequency (about 5G hz), high power bursts of low-duty factor microwaves sufficient to generate a dielectric barrier discharge and passing a gas to treated through the discharge so as to cause dissociative reduction of the exhaust gases. The invention also includes a reactor for generating the non-thermal plasma.

  9. High Efficiency Engine Systems Development and Evaluation | Department of

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Energy 2 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting PDF icon ace017_edwards_2012_o.pdf More Documents & Publications Defining engine efficiency limits Identification and Evaluation of Near-term Opportunities for Efficiency Improvement Achieving and Demonstrating Vehicle Technologies Engine Fuel Efficiency Milestones

  10. Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of a Working Catalyst

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of a Working Catalyst Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of a Working Catalyst Print Wednesday, 28 January 2009 00:00 The heterogeneous catalysts used in most chemical processes typically consist of nanoscale metal or metal oxide particles dispersed on high-surface-area supports. While these particles are the active elements of the catalyst, the overall performance depends not only on their size and composition but also on their multiple interactions with the support,

  11. Pyrochem Catalysts for Diesel Fuel Reforming

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Pyrochem Catalysts for Diesel Fuel Reforming Success Story Converting heavy hydrocarbons, such as diesel and coal-based fuels, into hydrogen-rich synthesis gas is a necessary step for fuel cells and other applications. The high sulfur and aromatic content of these fuels poses a major technical challenge since these components can deactivate reforming catalysts. Taking on this challenge, NETL researchers invented a novel fuel-reforming catalyst that overcomes limitations of current catalysts by

  12. Metal-Oxo Catalysts for Generating Hydrogen from Water - Energy Innovation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Portal Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Find More Like This Return to Search Metal-Oxo Catalysts for Generating Hydrogen from Water Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Contact LBL About This Technology Technology Marketing SummaryScientists at Berkeley Lab have developed an inexpensive, highly efficient catalyst that can be used in the electrolysis of water to generate H2-a source of clean fuel, a reducing agent for metal ores, and a reactant used to produce hydrochloric acid

  13. Catalyst activator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McAdon, Mark H.; Nickias, Peter N.; Marks, Tobin J.; Schwartz, David J.

    2001-01-01

    A catalyst activator particularly adapted for use in the activation of metal complexes of metals of Group 3-10 for polymerization of ethylenically unsaturated polymerizable monomers, especially olefins, comprising two Group 13 metal or metalloid atoms and a ligand structure including at least one bridging group connecting ligands on the two Group 13 metal or metalloid atoms.

  14. High-efficiency photovoltaics based on semiconductor nanostructures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu, Paul K.L.; Yu, Edward T.; Wang, Deli

    2011-10-31

    The objective of this project was to exploit a variety of semiconductor nanostructures, specifically semiconductor quantum wells, quantum dots, and nanowires, to achieve high power conversion efficiency in photovoltaic devices. In a thin-film device geometry, the objectives were to design, fabricate, and characterize quantum-well and quantum-dot solar cells in which scattering from metallic and/or dielectric nanostructures was employed to direct incident photons into lateral, optically confined paths within a thin (~1-3um or less) device structure. Fundamental issues concerning nonequilibrium carrier escape from quantum-confined structures, removal of thin-film devices from an epitaxial growth substrate, and coherent light trapping in thin-film photovoltaic devices were investigated. In a nanowire device geometry, the initial objectives were to engineer vertical nanowire arrays to optimize optical confinement within the nanowires, and to extend this approach to core-shell heterostructures to achieve broadspectrum absorption while maintaining high opencircuit voltages. Subsequent work extended this approach to include fabrication of nanowire photovoltaic structures on low-cost substrates.

  15. Graphene Oxide Interlayers for Robust, High-Efficiency Organic Photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murray, Ian P.; Lou, Sylvia J.; Cote, Laura J.; Loser, Stephen; Kadleck, Cameron J.; Xu, Tao; Szarko, Jodi M.; Rolczynski, Brian S.; Johns, James E.; Huang, Jiaxing; Yu, Luping; Chen, Lin X.; Marks, Tobin J.; Hersam, Mark C.

    2012-02-07

    Organic photovoltaic (OPV) materials have recently garnered significant attention as enablers of high power conversion efficiency (PCE), low-cost, mechanically flexible solar cells. Nevertheless, further understanding-based materials developments will be required to achieve full commercial viability. In particular, the performance and durability of many current generation OPVs are limited by poorly understood interfacial phenomena. Careful analysis of typical OPV architectures reveals that the standard electron-blocking layer, poly-3,4-ethylenedioxy-thiophene:poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS), is likely a major factor limiting the device durability and possibly performance. Here we report that a single layer of electronically tuned graphene oxide is an effective replacement for PEDOT:PSS and that it significantly enhances device durability while concurrently templating a performance-optimal active layer {pi}-stacked face-on microstructure. Such OPVs based on graphene oxide exhibit PCEs as high as 7.5% while providing a 5x enhancement in thermal aging lifetime and a 20x enhancement in humid ambient lifetime versus analogous PEDOT:PSS-based devices.

  16. Aerogel derived catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reynolds, J. G., LLNL

    1996-12-11

    Aerogels area class of colloidal materials which have high surface areas and abundant mesoporous structure. SiO{sub 2} aerogels show unique physical, optical and structural properties. When catalytic metals are incorporated in the aerogel framework, the potential exists for new and very effective catalysts for industrial processes. Three applications of these metal-containing SiO{sub 2} aerogels as catalysts are briefly reviewed in this paper--NO{sub x} reduction, volatile organic compound destruction, and partial oxidation of methane.

  17. Designing and optimizing highly efficient grating for high-brightness laser based on spectral beam combining

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Ying-Ying E-mail: yangyy@semi.ac.cn; Zhao, Ya-Ping; Wang, Li-Rong; Zhang, Ling; Lin, Xue-Chun E-mail: yangyy@semi.ac.cn

    2015-03-14

    A highly efficient nano-periodical grating is theoretically investigated for spectral beam combining (SBC) and is experimentally implemented for attaining high-brightness laser from a diode laser array. The rigorous coupled-wave analysis with the S matrix method is employed to optimize the parameters of the grating. According the optimized parameters, the grating is fabricated and plays a key role in SBC cavity. The diffraction efficiency of this grating is optimized to 95% for the output laser which is emitted from the diode laser array. The beam parameter product of 3.8 mm mrad of the diode laser array after SBC is achieved at the output power of 46.3 W. The optical-to-optical efficiency of SBC cavity is measured to be 93.5% at the maximum operating current in the experiment.

  18. Low Temperature Combustion Demonstrator for High Efficiency Clean Combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ojeda, William de

    2010-07-31

    The project which extended from November 2005 to May of 2010 demonstrated the application of Low Temperature Combustion (LTC) with engine out NOx levels of 0.2 g/bhp-hr throughout the program target load of 12.6bar BMEP. The project showed that the range of loads could be extended to 16.5bar BMEP, therefore matching the reference lug line of the base 2007 MY Navistar 6.4L V8 engine. Results showed that the application of LTC provided a dramatic improvement over engine out emissions when compared to the base engine. Furthermore LTC improved thermal efficiency by over 5% from the base production engine when using the steady state 13 mode composite test as a benchmark. The key enablers included improvements in the air, fuel injection, and cooling systems made in Phases I and II. The outcome was the product of a careful integration of each component under an intelligent control system. The engine hardware provided the conditions to support LTC and the controller provided the necessary robustness for a stable combustion. Phase III provided a detailed account on the injection strategy used to meet the high load requirements. During this phase, the control strategy was implemented in a production automotive grade ECU to perform cycle-by-cycle combustion feedback on each of the engine cylinders. The control interacted on a cycle base with the injection system and with the Turbo-EGR systems according to their respective time constants. The result was a unique system that could, first, help optimize the combustion system and maintain high efficiency, and secondly, extend the steady state results to the transient mode of operation. The engine was upgraded in Phase IV with a Variable Valve Actuation system and a hybrid EGR loop. The impact of the more versatile EGR loop did not provide significant advantages, however the application of VVA proved to be an enabler to further extend the operation of LTC and gain considerable benefits in fuel economy and soot reduction. Finally, the transient demonstration was performed in Phase IV. The project demonstrated the achievement of meeting US10 emissions without NOx aftertreatment. The successful execution of the project has served to highlight the effectiveness of closely matched combustion predictive tools to engine testing. It has further served to highlight the importance of key technologies and future areas of research and development. In this regard, recommendations are made towards further improvements in the areas of engine hardware, fuel injection systems, controls and fuels.

  19. SUNSHOT - CATALYST ENERGY INNOVATION PRIZE | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    SUNSHOT - CATALYST ENERGY INNOVATION PRIZE SUNSHOT - CATALYST ENERGY INNOVATION PRIZE The Catalyst Energy Innovation Prize is an open innovation program in the Energy Department's (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy and aims to catalyze the rapid creation and development of products and solutions that address near-term challenges in the U.S. solar and energy efficiency marketplaces. Through a series of contests, Catalyst makes it faster and easier for American innovators to

  20. High Efficiency Microturbine Leads to Increased Market Share

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    EERE-supported microturbine research and development for a device that increased electrical efficiency of the unit from about 17%-22% to 33%.

  1. High-Efficiency Receivers for Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Cycles

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Brayton Energy's supercritical carbon dioxide (s-CO 2 ) solar receiver has the potential to significantly improve reliability, increase efficiency, and reduce costs of CSP systems. ...

  2. High Efficiency Microturbine Leads to Increased Market Share...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    supported microturbine research and development for a combined heat and power system that led to the commercialization of that product. Capstone increased electrical efficiency of...

  3. EERE Success Story-High Efficiency Microturbine Leads to Increased...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    manufacturing jobs and enhance the global competitiveness of the United States. The Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) success stories highlight the ...

  4. Missouri Gas Energy (MGE)- Residential High Efficiency Heating Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Missouri Gas Energy (MGE), a division of Laclede Gas Company, offers various rebates to residential customers for investing in energy efficient equipment and appliances. All individually metered...

  5. High Efficiency Motors for Refrigerated Open Display Cases

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... Distinctive Characteristics: Q-Sync obtains the efficiency advantages of permanent magnets without the losses associated with continual power conversions from ECM designs. 5 Real ...

  6. Field Demonstration of High-Efficiency Ultra-Low-Temperature...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Better Buildings Alliance Building Technologies Office Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy U.S. Department of Energy By: Rebecca Legett, Navigant Consulting, Inc....

  7. High Efficient Clean Combustion for SuperTruck

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given at the 16th Directions in Engine-Efficiency and Emissions Research (DEER) Conference in Detroit, MI, September 27-30, 2010.

  8. Development of a High-Efficiency Zonal Thermoelectric HVAC System...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Identify a technical and business approach to accelerate the deployment of light-duty automotive TE HVAC technology, maintain occupant comfort, and improve energy efficiency. PDF ...

  9. CdTe portfolio offers commercial ready high efficiency solar...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The combination of low cost and increasing efficiencies have ... both by radio frequency sputtering at ambient temperature. ... telluride, and heat treatment to convert the cadmium ...

  10. Carrier Selective, Passivated Contacts for High Efficiency Silicon...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Research Org: National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States) Sponsoring Org: USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Solar Energy Technologies ...

  11. Carrier Selective, Passivated Contacts for High Efficiency Silicon...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... Research Org: National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States) Sponsoring Org: USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Solar Energy Technologies ...

  12. Building America Top Innovations 2013 Profile … High-Efficiency...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Comprehensive performance tests lead to affordable methods for increasing the energy efficiency of window air conditioners. Window air conditioners are an inexpensive, portable ...

  13. Research on stable, high-efficiency amorphous silicon multijunction modules

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ghosh, M.; DelCueto, J.: Kampas, F.; Xi, J. )

    1993-02-01

    This report describes results from the first phase of a three-phase contract for the development of stable, high-efficiency, same-band-gap, amorphous silicon (a-Si) multijunction photovoltaic (PV) modules. The program involved improving the properties of individual layers of semiconductor and non-semiconductor materials and small-area single-junction and multijunction devices, as well as the multijunction modules. The semiconductor materials research was performed on a-Si p, i, and n layers, and on microcrystalline silicon n layers. These were deposited using plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition. The non-semiconductor materials studied were tin oxide, for use as a transparent-conducting-oxide (TCO), and zinc oxide, for use as a back reflector and as a buffer layer between the TCO and the semiconductor layers. Tin oxide was deposited using atmospheric-pressure chemical vapor deposition. Zinc oxide was deposited using magnetron sputtering. The research indicated that the major challenge in the fabrication of a-Si multijunction PV modules is the contact between the two p-i-n cells. A structure that has low optical absorption but that also facilitates the recombination of electrons from the first p-i-n structure with holes from the second p-i-n structure is required. Non-semiconductor layers and a-Si semiconductor layers were tested without achieving the desired result.

  14. High efficient ZnO nanowalnuts photocatalyst: A case study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yan, Feng; Zhang, Siwen; Liu, Yang; Liu, Hongfeng; Qu, Fengyu; Cai, Xue; Wu, Xiang

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: Walnut-like ZnO nanostructures are synthesized through a facile hydrothermal method. Morphologies and microstructures of the as-obtained ZnO products were investigated. The photocatalytic results demonstrate that methyl orange (MO) aqueous solution can be degraded over 97% after 45 min under UV light irradiation. - Abstract: Walnut-like ZnO nanostructures are successfully synthesized through a facile hydrothermal method. The structure and morphology of the as-synthesized products were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The photocatalytic properties of ZnO nanowalnuts are investigated by photodegradating several organic dyes, such as Congo red (CR), methyl orange (MO) and eosin red aqueous solutions under UV irradiation, respectively. The results demonstrate that methyl orange (MO) aqueous solution can be degraded over 97% after 45 min under UV light irradiation. In addition, eosin red and Congo red (CR) aqueous solution degradation experiments are also conducted in the same condition, respectively. It showed that ZnO nanowalnuts represent high photocatalytic activities with a degradation efficiency of 87% for CR with 115 min of irradiation and 97% for eosin red with 55 min of irradiation. The reported ZnO products may be promising candidates as the photocatalysts in waste water treatment.

  15. High efficiency proportional neutron detector with solid liner internal structures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kisner, Roger Allen; Holcomb, David Eugene; Brown, Gilbert M.

    2014-08-05

    A tube-style neutron detector, a panel-style neutron detector incorporating a plurality of tube-style neutron detectors, and a panel-style neutron detector including a plurality of anode wires are provided. A plurality of channels is provided in a neutron detector such that each channel has an inner surface of a coating layer including a neutron-absorbing material. A wire anode is provided at end of each channel so that electrons generated by a charged daughter particle generated by a neutron are collected to detect a neutron-matter interaction. Moderator units can be incorporated into a neutron detector to provide improved detection efficiencies and/or to determine neutron energy spectrum. Gas-based proportional response from the neutron detectors can be employed for special nuclear material (SNM) detection. This neutron detector can provide similar performance to .sup.3He-based detectors without requiring .sup.3He and without containing toxic, flammable, or high-pressure materials.

  16. Deactivation of methanol synthesis catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roberts, G.W.; Brown, D.M.; Hsiung, T.H.; Lewnard, J.J. (Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., Allentown, PA (United States))

    1993-08-01

    A novel methanol synthesis process, the liquid-phase methanol (LPMEOH) process, has been developed and scaled up to a nominal 380 kg/h (10 ton/day) pilot plant. The process is based on a gas-sparged slurry reactor instead of a conventional, fixed-bed reactor. The use of slurry reactors, which are essentially gradientless, greatly facilitated the interpretation and quantification of catalyst deactivation phenomena. With a poison-free, CO-rich feedstream, the rate of deactivation of the Cu/ZnO catalyst increased rapidly with temperature. At constant temperature, in the absence of poisons, the decline with time in the rate constant for methanol synthesis correlated with the loss of BET surface area. Iron carbonyl, nickel carbonyl, and carbonyl sulfide are severe and highly specific poisons for methanol-synthesis catalyst. There was a linear relationship between the catalyst activity loss and the concentration of metal or sulfur on the catalyst.

  17. Break-up of Pt catalyst surfaces by high CO coverage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tao, Feng; Dag, Sefa; Wang, Lin-Wang; Liu, Zhi; Butcher, Derek; Bluhm, Henrik; Salmeron, Miquel; Somorjai, Gabor

    2009-09-16

    Stepped Platinum surfaces were found to undergo extensive and reversible restructuring when exposed to CO at pressures above 0.1 Torr. This radically new and previously unknown restructuring phenomenon, has important implications for Pt based catalytic reactions. Novel Scanning Tunneling Microscopy and Photoelectron Spectroscopy techniques operating under gaseous environments near ambient pressure and temperature revealed that as the CO surface coverage approaches 100percent, the originally flat terraces of stepped Pt crystals break up into nanometer size clusters. At room temperature the crystal surface reverts to its initial flat morphology after pumping away the gas phase CO. Density Functional Theory energy calculations provide a rationale for the observations whereby the creation of increased concentrations of low coordination Pt sites at the edges of the formed nanoclusters relieves the strong CO-CO repulsion in the highly compressed adsorbate film.

  18. Microsoft PowerPoint - 15.1130_Jeff Baker_Final Ultra-High Efficiency...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    130Jeff BakerFinal Ultra-High Efficiency Commercial Buildings Microsoft PowerPoint - 15.1130Jeff BakerFinal Ultra-High Efficiency Commercial Buildings PDF icon Microsoft...

  19. Low-Temperature Combustion for High-Efficiency, Ultra-Low Emission...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Low-Temperature Combustion for High-Efficiency, Ultra-Low Emission Engines Low-Temperature Combustion for High-Efficiency, Ultra-Low Emission Engines Presentation given at DEER ...

  20. Advanced Nanomaterials for High-Efficiency Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Junhong

    2013-11-29

    Energy supply has arguably become one of the most important problems facing humankind. The exponential demand for energy is evidenced by dwindling fossil fuel supplies and record-high oil and gas prices due to global population growth and economic development. This energy shortage has significant implications to the future of our society, in addition to the greenhouse gas emission burden due to consumption of fossil fuels. Solar energy seems to be the most viable choice to meet our clean energy demand given its large scale and clean/renewable nature. However, existing methods to convert sun light into electricity are not efficient enough to become a practical alternative to fossil fuels. This DOE project aims to develop advanced hybrid nanomaterials consisting of semiconductor nanoparticles (quantum dots or QDs) supported on graphene for cost-effective solar cells with improved conversion efficiency for harvesting abundant, renewable, clean solar energy to relieve our global energy challenge. Expected outcomes of the project include new methods for low-cost manufacturing of hybrid nanostructures, systematic understanding of their properties that can be tailored for desired applications, and novel photovoltaic cells. Through this project, we have successfully synthesized a number of novel nanomaterials, including vertically-oriented graphene (VG) sheets, three-dimensional (3D) carbon nanostructures comprising few-layer graphene (FLG) sheets inherently connected with CNTs through sp{sup 2} carbons, crumpled graphene (CG)-nanocrystal hybrids, CdSe nanoparticles (NPs), CdS NPs, nanohybrids of metal nitride decorated on nitrogen-doped graphene (NG), QD-carbon nanotube (CNT) and QD-VG-CNT structures, TiO{sub 2}-CdS NPs, and reduced graphene oxide (RGO)-SnO{sub 2} NPs. We further assembled CdSe NPs onto graphene sheets and investigated physical and electronic interactions between CdSe NPs and the graphene. Finally we have demonstrated various applications of these nanomaterials in solar cells (both as photoanodes and counter electrodes), gas sensors, and energy storage devices. This research is potentially transformative since the availability of affordable hybrid nanostructures and their fundamental properties will enable various innovative applications of the multifunctional hybrid nanostructures and thus will accelerate new discoveries and inventions in nanoscience and nanotechnology.

  1. DEVELOPMENT OF ATTRITION RESISTANT IRON-BASED FISCHER-TROPSCH CATALYSTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adeyinka A. Adeyiga

    2003-12-01

    Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis to convert syngas (CO + H{sub 2}) derived from natural gas or coal to liquid fuels and wax is a well-established technology. For low H{sub 2} to CO ratio syngas produced from CO{sub 2} reforming of natural gas or from gasification of coal, the use of Fe catalysts is attractive because of their high water gas shift activity in addition to their high FT activity. Fe catalysts are also attractive due to their low cost and low methane selectivity. Because of the highly exothermic nature of the FT reaction, there has been a recent move away from fixed-bed reactors toward the development of slurry bubble column reactors (SBCRs) that employ 30 to 90 {micro}m catalyst particles suspended in a waxy liquid for efficient heat removal. However, the use of Fe FT catalysts in an SBCR has been problematic due to severe catalyst attrition resulting in fines that plug the filter employed to separate the catalyst from the waxy product. Fe catalysts can undergo attrition in SBCRs not only due to vigorous movement and collisions but also due to phase changes that occur during activation and reaction. The objectives of this research were to develop a better understanding of the parameters affecting attrition of Fe F-T catalysts suitable for use in SBCRs and to incorporate this understanding into the design of novel Fe catalysts having superior attrition resistance. The catalysts were prepared by co-precipitation, followed by binder addition and spray drying at 250 C in a 1 m diameter, 2 m tall spray dryer. The binder silica content was varied from 0 to 20 wt %. The results show that use of small amounts of precipitated SiO{sub 2} alone in spray-dried Fe catalysts can result in good attrition resistance. All catalysts investigated with SiO{sub 2} wt% {le} 12 produced fines less than 10 wt% during the jet cup attrition test, making them suitable for long-term use in a slurry bubble column reactor. Thus, concentration rather than type of SiO{sub 2} incorporated into catalyst has a more critical impact on catalyst attrition resistance of spray-dried Fe catalysts. Lower amounts of SiO{sub 2} added to a catalyst give higher particle densities and therefore higher attrition resistances. In order to produce a suitable SBCR catalyst, however, the amount of SiO{sub 2} added has to be optimized to provide adequate surface area, particle density, and attrition resistance. Two of the catalysts with precipitated and binder silica were tested in Texas A&M University's CSTR (Autoclave Engineers). Spray-dried catalysts with compositions 100 Fe/5 Cu/4.2 K/11 (P) SiO{sub 2} and 100 Fe/5 Cu/4.2 K/1.1 (B) SiO{sub 2} have excellent selectivity characteristics (low methane and high C{sub 5}{sup +} yields), but their productivity and stability (deactivation rate) need to be improved. Mechanical integrity (attrition strength) of these two catalysts was markedly dependent upon their morphological features. The attrition strength of the catalyst made out of largely spherical particles (1.1 (B) SiO{sub 2}) was considerably higher than that of the catalyst consisting of irregularly shaped particles (11 (P) SiO{sub 2}).

  2. EVALUATION OF A LOW FRICTION - HIGH EFFICIENCY ROLLER BEARING ENGINE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kolarik, Robert V. II; Shattuck, Charles W.; Copper, Anthony P.

    2009-06-30

    This Low Friction (High Efficiency Roller Bearing) Engine (LFE) report presents the work done by The Timken Company to conduct a technology demonstration of the benefits of replacing hydrodynamic bearings with roller bearings in the crankshaft and camshaft assemblies of an internal combustion engine for the purpose of collecting data sufficient to prove merit. The engines in the present study have been more extensively converted to roller bearings than any previous studies (40 needle roller bearings per engine) to gain understanding of the full potential of application of bearing technology. The project plan called for comparative testing of a production vehicle which was already respected for having demonstrated low engine friction levels with a rollerized version of that engine. Testing was to include industry standard tests for friction, emissions and fuel efficiency conducted on instrumented dynamometers. Additional tests for fuel efficiency, cold start resistance and other measures of performance were to be made in the actual vehicle. Comparative measurements of noise, vibration and harshness (NVH), were planned, although any work to mitigate the suspected higher NVH level in the rollerized engine was beyond the scope of this project. Timken selected the Toyota Avalon with a 3.5L V-6 engine as the test vehicle. In an attempt to minimize cost and fabrication time, a ‘made-from’ approach was proposed in which as many parts as possible would be used or modified from production parts to create the rollerized engine. Timken commissioned its test partner, FEV Engine Technology, to do a feasibility study in which they confirmed that using such an approach was possible to meet the required dimensional restrictions and tolerances. In designing the roller bearing systems for the crank and cam trains, Timken utilized as many production engine parts as possible. The crankshafts were produced from production line forgings, which use Timken steel, modified with special machining and heat treatment. Timken designed and manufactured all of the roller bearing related components such as the thrust bearing package. The production connecting rods and camshafts could not be used for the roller bearing engine, so new ones were produced according to the team’s designs using Timken steel. The remaining miscellaneous components were designed and procured by FEV. Timken prepared a display version of the crankshaft portion of the production engine without connecting rods which could be driven by a motor through a cogged-belt and electrically actuated clutch arrangement. A modified version was also made in which the engine was outfitted with roller bearings on the main bearing positions. Preliminary tests showed that the rollerized engine was running with 1/3 less friction than the standard display engine. Additional friction testing and noise characterization was cut short because of shipping damage to the rollerized engine display and because of other project priorities. The team did successfully demonstrate the ability to package roller bearings satisfactorily in numerous locations in a typical automotive engine. The scope of this project did not include durability demonstration and that subject would have to be addressed in any follow-on work. In the actual test phase, the rollerized engine did show significantly less friction in motored dynamometer tests compared to its production equivalent. The 5-10% improvement measured in this study was about half that seen in other studies. However, the fired test results did not show a reduction in friction which did not match prior experience or expectations. Subsequent teardown and inspection of the rollerized engine revealed potential sources of excessive friction in the experimental application. These features would be eliminated in a design not based on modification of production parts. The team is confident (based on experience) that friction reduction would be realized with proper modifications.

  3. High Efficiency Full Expansion (FEx) Engine for Automotive Applications

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Large increases in engine thermal efficiency result from a new method of large reductions in both heat energy normally lost to the cooling medium and in heat energy in the exhaust system.

  4. High Efficiency Full Expansion (FEx) Engine for Automotive Application...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    PDF icon p-18taylor.pdf More Documents & Publications Two-Stroke Uniflow Turbo-Compound IC Engine Two-Stroke Engines: New Frontier in Engine Efficiency Challenging Conventional ...

  5. Webinar January 13: Highly Efficient Solar Thermochemical Reaction...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    efficiency, converting methane and water into syngas-a mix of hydrogen and carbon monoxide-and the technology received an R&D 100 Award in 2014. As the solar energy is stored...

  6. High Efficiency Clean Combustion in Multi-Cylinder Light-Duty...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    09 DOE Hydrogen Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer ... High-Efficiency Clean Combustion in Light-Duty Multi-Cylinder Diesel Engines High ...

  7. High-Efficiency Solar Thermochemical Reactor for Hydrogen Production

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Efficiency Solar Thermochemical Reactor for Hydrogen Production - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle

  8. Approach towards high efficiency polycrystalline silicon solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rohatgi, A.; Sana, P.; Chen, Z.; Salami, J. )

    1992-12-01

    A combination of theoretical modelling, gettering and passivation, and cell fabrication is presented in this paper to provide guidelines for improving efficiency of polycrystalline solar cells. Theoretical modelling was performed to show that grain boundary barrier height decreases and carrier diffusion length increases with illumination level ([le]50 suns) in those polycrystalline materials where grain boundary dominates the recombination. Model calculations show that the efficiency spread due to grain boundary defect density ([ital N][sub [ital st

  9. Autothermal reforming catalyst having perovskite structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Krumpel, Michael; Liu, Di-Jia

    2009-03-24

    The invention addressed two critical issues in fuel processing for fuel cell application, i.e. catalyst cost and operating stability. The existing state-of-the-art fuel reforming catalyst uses Rh and platinum supported over refractory oxide which add significant cost to the fuel cell system. Supported metals agglomerate under elevated temperature during reforming and decrease the catalyst activity. The catalyst is a perovskite oxide or a Ruddlesden-Popper type oxide containing rare-earth elements, catalytically active firs row transition metal elements, and stabilizing elements, such that the catalyst is a single phase in high temperature oxidizing conditions and maintains a primarily perovskite or Ruddlesden-Popper structure under high temperature reducing conditions. The catalyst can also contain alkaline earth dopants, which enhance the catalytic activity of the catalyst, but do not compromise the stability of the perovskite structure.

  10. Oxygen Reduction at Very Low Overpotential on Nanoporous Ag Catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, Yang; Lu, Qi; Zhuang, Zhongbin; Hutchings, Gregory S.; Kattel, Shyam; Yan, Yushan; Chen, Jingguang G.; Xiao, John Q.; Jiao, Feng

    2015-05-07

    Here we report a monolithic nanoporous Ag (np-Ag) material, synthesized using the dealloying method, as high-performance catalysts for ORR in alkaline media. As shown in Scheme 1, when there is insufficient potential input, the O2 molecules are more likely to rebound off from a planar electrode surface (i.e. bulk polycrystalline metal, films made from nanoparticles or nanowires) before they could be reduced. In contrast, they are more likely to be trapped inside the monolithic nanoporous structure, contacting with catalytic surface for multiple time, which greatly enhances the chance for them to be fully reduced. As a result, the np-Ag catalyst is able to achieve an equivalent or better ORR performance than the state-of the-art Pt/C catalyst at low overpotentials, which is most desired in electrochemical energy applications for maximizing efficiency.

  11. Sensitivity of Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis and Water-Gas Shift Catalystes to Poisons form High-Temperature High-Pressure Entrained-Flow (EF) Oxygen-Blown Gasifier Gasification of Coal/Biomass Mixtures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burton Davis; Gary Jacobs; Wenping Ma; Khalid Azzam; Janet ChakkamadathilMohandas; Wilson Shafer

    2009-09-30

    There has been a recent shift in interest in converting not only natural gas and coal derived syngas to Fischer-Tropsch synthesis products, but also converting biomass-derived syngas, as well as syngas derived from coal and biomass mixtures. As such, conventional catalysts based on iron and cobalt may not be suitable without proper development. This is because, while ash, sulfur compounds, traces of metals, halide compounds, and nitrogen-containing chemicals will likely be lower in concentration in syngas derived from mixtures of coal and biomass (i.e., using entrained-flow oxygen-blown gasifier gasification gasification) than solely from coal, other compounds may actually be increased. Of particular concern are compounds containing alkali chemicals like the chlorides of sodium and potassium. In the first year, University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research (UK-CAER) researchers completed a number of tasks aimed at evaluating the sensitivity of cobalt and iron-based Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FT) catalysts and a commercial iron-chromia high temperature water-gas shift catalyst (WGS) to alkali halides. This included the preparation of large batches of 0.5%Pt-25%Co/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and 100Fe: 5.1Si: 3.0K: 2.0Cu (high alpha) catalysts that were split up among the four different entities participating in the overall project; the testing of the catalysts under clean FT and WGS conditions; the testing of the Fe-Cr WGS catalyst under conditions of co-feeding NaCl and KCl; and the construction and start-up of the continuously stirred tank reactors (CSTRs) for poisoning investigations.

  12. Sensitivity of Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis and Water-Gas Shift Catalysts to Poisons from High-Temperature High-Pressure Entrained-Flow (EF) Oxygen-Blown Gasifier Gasification of Coal/Biomass Mixtures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burton Davis; Gary Jacobs; Wenping Ma; Dennis Sparks; Khalid Azzam; Janet Chakkamadathil Mohandas; Wilson Shafer; Venkat Ramana Rao Pendyala

    2011-09-30

    There has been a recent shift in interest in converting not only natural gas and coal derived syngas to Fischer-Tropsch synthesis products, but also converting biomass-derived syngas, as well as syngas derived from coal and biomass mixtures. As such, conventional catalysts based on iron and cobalt may not be suitable without proper development. This is because, while ash, sulfur compounds, traces of metals, halide compounds, and nitrogen-containing chemicals will likely be lower in concentration in syngas derived from mixtures of coal and biomass (i.e., using entrained-flow oxygen-blown gasifier gasification gasification) than solely from coal, other compounds may actually be increased. Of particular concern are compounds containing alkali chemicals like the chlorides of sodium and potassium. In the first year, University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research (UK-CAER) researchers completed a number of tasks aimed at evaluating the sensitivity of cobalt and iron-based Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FT) catalysts and a commercial iron-chromia high temperature water-gas shift catalyst (WGS) to alkali halides. This included the preparation of large batches of 0.5%Pt-25%Co/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and 100Fe: 5.1Si: 3.0K: 2.0Cu (high alpha) catalysts that were split up among the four different entities participating in the overall project; the testing of the catalysts under clean FT and WGS conditions; the testing of the Fe-Cr WGS catalyst under conditions of co-feeding NaCl and KCl; and the construction and start-up of the continuously stirred tank reactors (CSTRs) for poisoning investigations. In the second and third years, researchers from the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research (UK-CAER) continued the project by evaluating the sensitivity of a commercial iron-chromia high temperature water-gas shift catalyst (WGS) to a number of different compounds, including KHCO{sub 3}, NaHCO{sub 3}, HCl, HBr, HF, H{sub 2}S, NH{sub 3}, and a combination of H{sub 2}S and NH{sub 3}. Cobalt and iron-based Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FT) catalysts were also subjected to a number of the same compounds in order to evaluate their sensitivities at different concentration levels of added contaminant.

  13. High Bandgap III-V Alloys for High Efficiency Optoelectronics - Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Innovation Portal 221326 Site Map Printable Version Share this resource About Search Categories (15) Advanced Materials Biomass and Biofuels Building Energy Efficiency Electricity Transmission Energy Analysis Energy Storage Geothermal Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Hydropower, Wave and Tidal Industrial Technologies Solar Photovoltaic Solar Thermal Startup America Vehicles and Fuels Wind Energy Partners (27) Visual Patent Search Success Stories Find More Like This Return to Search High Bandgap III-V

  14. Combined Heat and Power Systems Technology Development and Demonstration 370 kW High Efficiency Microturbine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2015-10-14

    The C370 Program was awarded in October 2010 with the ambitious goal of designing and testing the most electrically efficient recuperated microturbine engine at a rated power of less than 500 kW. The aggressive targets for electrical efficiency, emission regulatory compliance, and the estimated price point make the system state-of-the-art for microturbine engine systems. These goals will be met by designing a two stage microturbine engine identified as the low pressure spool and high pressure spool that are based on derivative hardware of Capstone’s current commercially available engines. The development and testing of the engine occurred in two phases. Phase I focused on developing a higher power and more efficient engine, that would become the low pressure spool which is based on Capstone’s C200 (200kW) engine architecture. Phase II integrated the low pressure spool created in Phase I with the high pressure spool, which is based on Capstone’s C65 (65 kW) commercially available engine. Integration of the engines, based on preliminary research, would allow the dual spool engine to provide electrical power in excess of 370 kW, with electrical efficiency approaching 42%. If both of these targets were met coupled with the overall CHP target of 85% total combined heating and electrical efficiency California Air Resources Board (CARB) level emissions, and a price target of $600 per kW, the system would represent a step change in the currently available commercial generation technology. Phase I of the C370 program required the development of the C370 low pressure spool. The goal was to increase the C200 engine power by a minimum of 25% — 250 kW — and efficiency from 32% to 37%. These increases in the C200 engine output were imperative to meet the power requirements of the engine when both spools were integrated. An additional benefit of designing and testing the C370 low pressure spool was the possibility of developing a stand-alone product for possible commercialization. The low pressure spool design activity focused on an aeropath derivative of the current C200 engine. The aeropath derivative included changes to the compressor section —compressor and inducer — and to the turbine nozzle. The increased power also necessitated a larger, more powerful generator and generator controller to support the increased power requirements. These two major design changes were completed by utilizing both advanced 3D modeling and computational fluid dynamics modelling. After design, modeling, and analysis, the decision was made to acquire and integrate the components for testing. The second task of Phase I was to integrate and test the components of the low pressure spool to validate power and efficiency. Acquisition of the components for the low pressure spool was completed utilizing Capstone’s current supplier base. Utilization of Capstone’s supply base for integration of the test article would allow — if the decision was made —expedited commercialization of the product. After integration of the engine components, the engine was tested and evaluated for performance and emissions. Test data analysis confirmed that the engine met all power and efficiency requirements and did so while maintaining CARB level emissions. The emissions were met without the use of any post processing or catalyst. After testing was completed, the DOE authorized — via a milestone review — proceeding to Phase II: the development of the integrated C370 engine. The C370 high pressure spool design activity required significant changes to the C65 engine architecture. The engine required a high power density generator, completely redesigned compressor stage, turbine section, recuperator, controls architecture, and intercooler stage asThe two most critical design challenges were the turbine section (the nozzle and turbine) and the controls architecture. The design and analysis of all of the components was completed and integrated into a system model. The system model — after numerous iterations — indicated that, once integrated, the engine will meet or exceed all system requirements. Unfortunately, the turbine section’s life requirements remain a technical challenge and will require continued refinement of the bi-metallic turbine wheel design and manufacturing approach to meet the life requirement at theses high temperatures. The current controls architecture requires substantial effort to develop a system capable of handling the high-speed, near real-time controls requirement, but it was determined not to be a technical roadblock for the project. The C370 Program has been a significant effort with state-of-the-art technical targets. The targets have pushed Capstone’s designers to the limits of current technology. The program has been fortunate to see many successes: the successful testing of the low pressure spool (C250), the development of new material processes, and the implementation of new design practices. The technology and practices learned during the program will be utilized in Capstone’s current product lines and future products. The C370 Program has been a resounding success on many fronts for the DOE and for Capstone.

  15. High temperature performance of high-efficiency, multi-layer solar selective coatings for tower applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gray, M. H.; Tirawat, R.; Kessinger, K. A.; Ndione, P. F.

    2015-05-01

    The roadmap to next-generation concentrating solar power plants anticipates a progression to central towers with operating temperatures in excess of 650C. These higher temperatures are required to drive higher power-cycle efficiencies, resulting in lower cost energy. However, these conditions also place a greater burden on the materials making up the receiver. Any novel absorber material developed for next-generation receivers must be stable in air, cost effective, and survive thousands of heating and cooling cycles. The collection efficiency of a power tower plant can be increased if the energy absorbed by the receiver is maximized while the heat loss from the receiver to the environment is minimized. Thermal radiation losses can be significant (>7% annual energy loss) with receivers at temperatures above 650C. We present progress toward highly efficient and durable solar selective absorbers (SSAs) intended for operating temperatures from 650C to 1000C. Selective efficiency (?sel) is defined as the energy retained by the absorber, accounting for both absorptance and emittance, relative to the energy incident on the surface. The low emittance layers of multilayer SSAs are binary compounds of refractory metals whose material properties indicate that coatings formed of these materials should be oxidation resistant in air to 800-1200C. On this basis, we initially developed a solar selective coating for parabolic troughs. This development has been successfully extended to meet the absorptance and emittance objectives for the more demanding, high temperature regime. We show advancement in coating materials, processing and designs resulting in the initial attainment of target efficiencies ?sel > 0.91 for proposed tower conditions. Additionally, spectral measurements show that these coatings continue to perform at targeted levels after cycling to temperatures of 1000C in environments of nitrogen and forming gas.

  16. High temperature performance of high-efficiency, multi-layer solar selective coatings for tower applications

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Gray, M. H.; Tirawat, R.; Kessinger, K. A.; Ndione, P. F.

    2015-05-01

    The roadmap to next-generation concentrating solar power plants anticipates a progression to central towers with operating temperatures in excess of 650°C. These higher temperatures are required to drive higher power-cycle efficiencies, resulting in lower cost energy. However, these conditions also place a greater burden on the materials making up the receiver. Any novel absorber material developed for next-generation receivers must be stable in air, cost effective, and survive thousands of heating and cooling cycles. The collection efficiency of a power tower plant can be increased if the energy absorbed by the receiver is maximized while the heat loss from themore » receiver to the environment is minimized. Thermal radiation losses can be significant (>7% annual energy loss) with receivers at temperatures above 650°C. We present progress toward highly efficient and durable solar selective absorbers (SSAs) intended for operating temperatures from 650°C to 1000°C. Selective efficiency (ηsel) is defined as the energy retained by the absorber, accounting for both absorptance and emittance, relative to the energy incident on the surface. The low emittance layers of multilayer SSAs are binary compounds of refractory metals whose material properties indicate that coatings formed of these materials should be oxidation resistant in air to 800-1200°C. On this basis, we initially developed a solar selective coating for parabolic troughs. This development has been successfully extended to meet the absorptance and emittance objectives for the more demanding, high temperature regime. We show advancement in coating materials, processing and designs resulting in the initial attainment of target efficiencies ηsel > 0.91 for proposed tower conditions. Additionally, spectral measurements show that these coatings continue to perform at targeted levels after cycling to temperatures of 1000°C in environments of nitrogen and forming gas.« less

  17. High temperature performance of high-efficiency, multi-layer solar selective coatings for tower applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gray, M. H.; Tirawat, R.; Kessinger, K. A.; Ndione, P. F.

    2015-05-01

    The roadmap to next-generation concentrating solar power plants anticipates a progression to central towers with operating temperatures in excess of 650°C. These higher temperatures are required to drive higher power-cycle efficiencies, resulting in lower cost energy. However, these conditions also place a greater burden on the materials making up the receiver. Any novel absorber material developed for next-generation receivers must be stable in air, cost effective, and survive thousands of heating and cooling cycles. The collection efficiency of a power tower plant can be increased if the energy absorbed by the receiver is maximized while the heat loss from the receiver to the environment is minimized. Thermal radiation losses can be significant (>7% annual energy loss) with receivers at temperatures above 650°C. We present progress toward highly efficient and durable solar selective absorbers (SSAs) intended for operating temperatures from 650°C to 1000°C. Selective efficiencysel) is defined as the energy retained by the absorber, accounting for both absorptance and emittance, relative to the energy incident on the surface. The low emittance layers of multilayer SSAs are binary compounds of refractory metals whose material properties indicate that coatings formed of these materials should be oxidation resistant in air to 800-1200°C. On this basis, we initially developed a solar selective coating for parabolic troughs. This development has been successfully extended to meet the absorptance and emittance objectives for the more demanding, high temperature regime. We show advancement in coating materials, processing and designs resulting in the initial attainment of target efficiencies ηsel > 0.91 for proposed tower conditions. Additionally, spectral measurements show that these coatings continue to perform at targeted levels after cycling to temperatures of 1000°C in environments of nitrogen and forming gas.

  18. High-Efficiency, Commercial Ready CdTe Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sites, James R.

    2015-11-19

    Colorado State’s F-PACE project explored several ways to increase the efficiency of CdTe solar cells and to better understand the device physics of those cells under study. Increases in voltage, current, and fill factor resulted in efficiencies above 17%. The three project tasks and additional studies are described in detail in the final report. Most cells studied were fabricated at Colorado State using an industry-compatible single-vacuum closed-space-sublimation (CSS) chamber for deposition of the key semiconductor layers. Additionally, some cells were supplied by First Solar for comparison purposes, and a small number of modules were supplied by Abound Solar.

  19. Combined UHV/high-pressure catalysis setup for depth-resolved near-surface spectroscopic characterization and catalytic testing of model catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mayr, Lukas; Kltzer, Bernhard; Penner, Simon; Rameshan, Raffael; Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Fritz Haber Institute of the Max Planck Society, Faradayweg 4-6, 14195 Berlin ; Rameshan, Christoph; Institute of Materials Chemistry, Vienna University of Technology, Getreidemarkt 9/BC/01, 1060 Vienna

    2014-05-15

    An ultra-high vacuum (UHV) setup for real and inverse model catalyst preparation, depth-resolved near-surface spectroscopic characterization, and quantification of catalytic activity and selectivity under technologically relevant conditions is described. Due to the all-quartz reactor attached directly to the UHV-chamber, transfer of the catalyst for in situ testing without intermediate contact to the ambient is possible. The design of the UHV-compatible re-circulating batch reactor setup allows the study of reaction kinetics under close to technically relevant catalytic conditions up to 1273 K without contact to metallic surfaces except those of the catalyst itself. With the attached differentially pumped exchangeable evaporators and the quartz-microbalance thickness monitoring equipment, a reproducible, versatile, and standardised sample preparation is possible. For three-dimensional near-surface sample characterization, the system is equipped with a hemispherical analyser for X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), electron-beam or X-ray-excited Auger-electron spectroscopy, and low-energy ion scattering measurements. Due the dedicated geometry of the X-ray gun (54.7, magic angle) and the rotatable sample holder, depth analysis by angle-resolved XPS measurements can be performed. Thus, by the combination of characterisation methods with different information depths, a detailed three-dimensional picture of the electronic and geometric structure of the model catalyst can be obtained. To demonstrate the capability of the described system, comparative results for depth-resolved sample characterization and catalytic testing in methanol steam reforming on PdGa and PdZn near-surface intermetallic phases are shown.

  20. Characterization of Catalysts for Aftertreatment and Biomass...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    for Aftertreatment and Biomass-derived Fuels: Success Stories from the High Temperature Materials Laboratory (HTML) User Program Characterization of Catalysts for Aftertreatment...

  1. Highly efficient 6-stroke engine cycle with water injection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Szybist, James P; Conklin, James C

    2012-10-23

    A six-stroke engine cycle having improved efficiency. Heat is recovered from the engine combustion gases by using a 6-stroke engine cycle in which combustion gases are partially vented proximate the bottom-dead-center position of the fourth stroke cycle, and water is injected proximate the top-dead-center position of the fourth stroke cycle.

  2. High efficiency thin-film multiple-gap photovoltaic device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dalal, Vikram L.

    1983-01-01

    A photovoltaic device includes at least two solar cells made from Group IV elements or their alloys in the amorphous state mounted on a substrate. The outermost or first cell has a larger bandgap than the second cell. Various techniques are utilized to improve the efficiency of the device.

  3. Webinar: Award-Winning LEEP Campaign Sites Demonstrate Big Savings in High Efficiency Parking Lighting

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Lighting Energy Efficiency in Parking (LEEP) Campaign is saving nearly 45 million kilowatt-hours and $4 million annually by upgrading its partners to high efficiency lighting in over 500,000 parking spaces.

  4. Highly Active and Stable MgAl2O4 Supported Rh and Ir Catalysts for Methane Steam Reforming: A Combined Experimental and Theoretical Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mei, Donghai; Glezakou, Vassiliki Alexandra; Lebarbier, Vanessa MC; Kovarik, Libor; Wan, Haiying; Albrecht, Karl O.; Gerber, Mark A.; Rousseau, Roger J.; Dagle, Robert A.

    2014-07-01

    In this work we present a combined experimental and theoretical investigation of stable MgAl2O4 spinel-supported Rh and Ir catalysts for the steam methane reforming (SMR) reaction. Firstly, catalytic performance for a series of noble metal catalysts supported on MgAl2O4 spinel was evaluated for SMR at 600-850C. Turnover rate at 850C follows the order: Pd > Pt > Ir > Rh > Ru > Ni. However, Rh and Ir were found to have the best combination of activity and stability for methane steam reforming in the presence of simulated biomass-derived syngas. It was found that highly dispersed ~2 nm Rh and ~1 nm Ir clusters were formed on the MgAl2O4 spinel support. Scanning Transition Electron Microscopy (STEM) images show that excellent dispersion was maintained even under challenging high temperature conditions (e.g. at 850C in the presence of steam) while Ir and Rh catalysts supported on Al2O3 were observed to sinter at increased rates under the same conditions. These observations were further confirmed by ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) simulations which find that ~1 nm Rh and Ir particles (50-atom cluster) bind strongly to the MgAl2O4 surfaces via a redox process leading to a strong metal-support interaction, thus helping anchor the metal clusters and reduce the tendency to sinter. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations suggest that these supported smaller Rh and Ir particles have a lower work function than larger more bulk-like ones, which enables them to activate both water and methane more effectively than larger particles, yet have a minimal influence on the relative stability of coke precursors. In addition, theoretical mechanistic studies were used to probe the relationship between structure and reactivity. Consistent with the experimental observations, our theoretical modeling results also suggest that the small spinel-supported Ir particle catalyst is more active than the counterpart of Rh catalyst for SMR. This work was financially supported by the United States Department of Energy (DOE)s Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO) and performed at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). PNNL is a multi-program national laboratory operated for DOE by Battelle Memorial Institute. Computing time was granted by a user proposal at the Molecular Science Computing Facility in the William R. Wiley Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL) located at PNNL. Part of the computational time was provided by the National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC).

  5. Integrated process and dual-function catalyst for olefin epoxidation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zhou, Bing (Cranbury, NJ); Rueter, Michael (Plymouth Meeting, PA)

    2003-01-01

    The invention discloses a dual-functional catalyst composition and an integrated process for production of olefin epoxides including propylene oxide by catalytic reaction of hydrogen peroxide from hydrogen and oxygen with olefin feeds such as propylene. The epoxides and hydrogen peroxide are preferably produced simultaneously in situ. The dual-functional catalyst comprises noble metal crystallites with dimensions on the nanometer scale (on the order of <1 nm to 10 nm), specially dispersed on titanium silicalite substrate particles. The dual functional catalyst catalyzes both the direct reaction of hydrogen and oxygen to generate hydrogen peroxide intermediate on the noble metal catalyst surface and the reaction of the hydrogen peroxide intermediate with the propylene feed to generate propylene oxide product. Combining both these functions in a single catalyst provides a very efficient integrated process operable below the flammability limits of hydrogen and highly selective for the production of hydrogen peroxide to produce olefin oxides such as propylene oxide without formation of undesired co-products.

  6. Low Temperature Combustion Demonstrator for High Efficiency Clean

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Combustion | Department of Energy Applied low temperature combustion to the Navistar 6.4L V8 engine with 0.2g NOx/bhp-hr operation attained at the rated 16.5 BMEP PDF icon deer09_deojeda.pdf More Documents & Publications Multicylinder Diesel Engine for Low Temperature Combustion Operation Impact of Variable Valve Timing on Low Temperature Combustion Development of Advanced Combustion Technologies for Increased Thermal Efficiency

  7. Enabling High Efficiency Clean Combustion with Micro-Variable

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Department of Energy young man sitting on a couch, looking at the camera, dressed in jeans and polo shirt. Progressive Building Solutions, an energy efficiency contractor participating in Seattle, Washington's Community Power Works program, has an intriguing model to help its employees feel connected to the company's success-employees are part owners. The company's creator, Suraj Lobo, built Progressive Energy Solutions around three pillars: employee ownership; development of energy

  8. Enabling the Next Generation of High Efficiency Engines | Department of

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Energy Discusses challenges and opportunities for next generation internal combustion engines, and developments for further pushing the limits of engine efficiency and vehicle fuel economy PDF icon deer12_wagner.pdf More Documents & Publications Addressing the Challenges of RCCI Operation on a Light-Duty Multi-Cylinder Engine Ignition Control for HCCI Comparison of Conventional Diesel and Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) Combustion in a Light-Duty Engine

  9. Quantum Dot Solar Cells: High Efficiency through Multiple Exciton Generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hanna, M. C.; Ellingson, R. J.; Beard, M.; Yu, P.; Micic, O. I.; Nozik, A. J.; c.

    2005-01-01

    Impact ionization is a process in which absorbed photons in semiconductors that are at least twice the bandgap can produce multiple electron-hole pairs. For single-bandgap photovoltaic devices, this effect produces greatly enhanced theoretical thermodynamic conversion efficiencies that range from 45-85%, depending upon solar concentration, the cell temperature, and the number of electron-hole pairs produced per photon. For quantum dots (QDs), electron-hole pairs exist as excitons. We have observed astoundingly efficient multiple exciton generation (MEG) in QDs of PbSe (bulk Eg = 0.28 eV), ranging in diameter from 3.9 to 5.7nm (Eg = 0.73, 0.82, and 0.91 eV, respectively). The effective masses of electron and holes are about equal in PbSe, and the onset for efficient MEG occurs at about three times the QD HOMO-LUMO transition (its ''bandgap''). The quantum yield rises quickly after the onset and reaches 300% at 4 x Eg (3.64 eV) for the smallest QD; this means that every QD in the sample produces three electron-hole pairs/photon.

  10. High Performance Healthcare Buildings: A Roadmap to Improved Energy Efficiency

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singer, Brett C.; Tschudi, William F.

    2009-09-08

    This document presents a road map for improving the energy efficiency of hospitals and other healthcare facilities. The report compiles input from a broad array of experts in healthcare facility design and operations. The initial section lists challenges and barriers to efficiency improvements in healthcare. Opportunities are organized around the following ten themes: understanding and benchmarking energy use; best practices and training; codes and standards; improved utilization of existing HVAC designs and technology; innovation in HVAC design and technology; electrical system design; lighting; medical equipment and process loads; economic and organizational issues; and the design of next generation sustainable hospitals. Achieving energy efficiency will require a broad set of activities including research, development, deployment, demonstration, training, etc., organized around 48 specific objectives. Specific activities are prioritized in consideration of potential impact, likelihood of near- or mid-term feasibility and anticipated cost-effectiveness. This document is intended to be broad in consideration though not exhaustive. Opportunities and needs are identified and described with the goal of focusing efforts and resources.

  11. Supercomputers Help a Catalyst Reach its Full Potential

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Help a Catalyst Reach its Full Potential Supercomputers Help a Catalyst Reach its Full Potential Placing Protons Prevents Wasteful Profligate Reactions April 23, 2013 Contact: Linda Vu, lvu@lbl.gov +1 510 495 2402 protondeliverystory.jpg While one configuration (endo/endo) of a popular nickel catalyst can produce thousands of hydrogen molecules a second, the other forms that place the proton farther from the center are slower and less efficient. Chemical reactions facilitated by catalysts are

  12. Tethered catalysts for the hydration of carbon dioxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Valdez, Carlos A; Satcher, Jr., Joe H; Aines, Roger D; Wong, Sergio E; Baker, Sarah E; Lightstone, Felice C; Stolaroff, Joshuah K

    2014-11-04

    A system is provided that substantially increases the efficiency of CO.sub.2 capture and removal by positioning a catalyst within an optimal distance from the air-liquid interface. The catalyst is positioned within the layer determined to be the highest concentration of carbon dioxide. A hydrophobic tether is attached to the catalyst and the hydrophobic tether modulates the position of the catalyst within the liquid layer containing the highest concentration of carbon dioxide.

  13. Activity and Stability of Nanoscale Oxygen Reduction Catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shao-Horn, Yang

    2015-07-28

    Design of highly active and stable nanoscale catalysts for electro-oxidation of small organic molecules is of great importance to the development of efficient fuel cells. The amount and instability of Pt-based catalysts in the cathode limits the cost, efficiency and lifetime of proton exchange membrane fuel cells. We developed a microscopic understanding of the factors governing activity and stability in Pt and PtM alloys. Experimental efforts were focused on probing the size and shape dependence of ORR activity of Pt-based nanoparticles supported on carbon nanotubes. A microscopic understanding of the activity was achieved by correlating voltammetry and rotating ring disk electrodes to surface atomic and electronic structures, which were elucidated predominantly by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), Scanning transmission electron microscopy energy dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (STEM-EDS) and synchrotron X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS).

  14. Analyses Guided Optimization of Wide Range and High Efficiency...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    development for diesel HCCILTC applications Optimization of a turbocharger for high EGR applications Automotive Turbocharging: Industrial Requirements and Technology Developments

  15. Unique Catalyst System for NOx Reduction in Diesel Exhaust |...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Unique Catalyst System for NOx Reduction in Diesel Exhaust Poster presentation at the 2007 Diesel Engine-Efficiency & Emissions Research Conference (DEER 2007). 13-16 August, 2007, ...

  16. Development of Optimal Catalyst Designs and Operating Strategies...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    efficiency in Nox reduction. PDF icon p-06harold.pdf More Documents & Publications Development of Optimal Catalyst Designs and Operating Strategies for Lean NOx Reduction in ...

  17. Influence of Ceria on the NOx Storage/Reduction Behavior of Lean NOx Trap Catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ji, Yaying; Choi, Jae-Soon; Toops, Todd J; Crocker, Dr. Mark; Naseri, Mojghan

    2008-01-01

    The effect of La2O3-stabilized ceria incorporation on the functioning of fully formulated lean NOx trap catalysts was investigated. Monolithic catalysts were prepared, corresponding to loadings of 0, 50 and 100 g CeO2/L, together with a catalyst containing 100 g/L of ceria-zirconia (Ce0.7Zr0.3O2). Loadings of the other main components (Pt, Rh and BaO) were held constant. Catalyst evaluation was performed on a bench flow reactor under simulated diesel exhaust conditions, employing NOx storage/reduction cycles. NOx storage efficiency in the temperature range 150-350 C was observed to increase with ceria loading, resulting in higher NOx conversion levels. At 150 C, high rich phase NOx slip was observed for all of the catalysts, resulting from an imbalance in the rates of nitrate decomposition and NOx reduction. Optimal NOx conversion was obtained in the range 250-350 C for all the catalysts, while at 450 C high rich phase NOx slip from the most highly loaded ceria-containing catalyst resulted in lower NOx conversion than for the ceria-free formulation. N2O was the major NOx reduction product at 150 C over all of the catalysts, although low NOx conversion levels limited the N2O yield. At higher temperatures N2 was the main product of NOx reduction, although NH3 formation was also observed. Selectivity to NH3 decreased with increasing ceria loading, indicating that NH3 is consumed by reaction with stored oxygen in the rear of the catalyst.

  18. Solion ion source for high-efficiency, high-throughput solar cell manufacturing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koo, John Binns, Brant; Miller, Timothy; Krause, Stephen; Skinner, Wesley; Mullin, James

    2014-02-15

    In this paper, we introduce the Solion ion source for high-throughput solar cell doping. As the source power is increased to enable higher throughput, negative effects degrade the lifetime of the plasma chamber and the extraction electrodes. In order to improve efficiency, we have explored a wide range of electron energies and determined the conditions which best suit production. To extend the lifetime of the source we have developed an in situ cleaning method using only existing hardware. With these combinations, source life-times of >200 h for phosphorous and >100 h for boron ion beams have been achieved while maintaining 1100 cell-per-hour production.

  19. Efficient CO2 Fixation Pathways: Energy Plant: High Efficiency Photosynthetic Organisms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-01-01

    PETRO Project: UCLA is redesigning the carbon fixation pathways of plants to make them more efficient at capturing the energy in sunlight. Carbon fixation is the key process that plants use to convert carbon dioxide (CO2) from the atmosphere into higher energy molecules (such as sugars) using energy from the sun. UCLA is addressing the inefficiency of the process through an alternative biochemical pathway that uses 50% less energy than the pathway used by all land plants. In addition, instead of producing sugars, UCLA’s designer pathway will produce pyruvate, the precursor of choice for a wide variety of liquid fuels. Theoretically, the new biochemical pathway will allow a plant to capture 200% as much CO2 using the same amount of light. The pathways will first be tested on model photosynthetic organisms and later incorporated into other plants, thus dramatically improving the productivity of both food and fuel crops.

  20. Fabrication and analysis of high efficiency multicrystalline silicon solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rohatgi, A.; Sana, P.; Cai, L.; Doolittle, W.A.; Kamra, S.; Doshi, P.; Krygowski, T.; Crotty, G.

    1996-01-01

    A detailed investigation of quality enhancement techniques, such as plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) of SiO{sub 2}/SiN coating, forming gas anneal (FGA) and Al gettering was conducted to improve the performance of cells fabricated on several promising multicrystalline silicon (mcs) materials. A large amount of hydrogen and positive charge in the PECVD SiN antireflection (AR) coating play an important role in passivating surface and bulk defects in silicon. Appropriate post-PECVD deposition anneal was found to be important in maximizing the benefit from PECVD AR coating. Low temperature anneal at 350{degree}C/20 min improves the short wavelength response due to surface passivation along with some increase in the long wavelength response due to bulk defect passivation in certain mcs materials. Post-PECVD rapid thermal anneals (RTA) in the range of 350 to 750{degree}C significantly improve the long wavelength response of certain materials such as EFG silicon. However, this comes at the expense of short wavelength response due to increased absorption in the SiN film. Electron beam induced current (EBIC) measurements revealed significant increase in the intragrain response of these cells after post-PECVD anneal. Al gettering of mcs showed a significant improvement in bulk lifetime and cell efficiency. Forming gas anneal, after phosphorus and Al diffusions, resulted in additional improvements in bulk lifetime in certain materials due to hydrogen passivation. Cells fabricated on cast mcs from Osaka Titanium Corporation (OTC) and Crystal Systems gave cell efficiencies in the range of 17 to 18{percent}. Without the appropriate gettering and passivation techniques these materials give cell efficiencies in the range of 14.5 to 15.5{percent}. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  1. The carburization of transition metal molybdates (MxMoO₄, M= Cu, Ni or Co) and the generation of highly active metal/carbide catalysts for CO₂ hydrogenation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rodriguez, Jose A.; Xu, Wenqian; Ramirez, Pedro J.; Stachiola, Dario; Brito, Joaquin L.

    2015-05-06

    A new approach has been tested for the preparation of metal/Mo₂C catalysts using mixed-metal oxide molybdates as precursors. Synchrotron-based in situ time-resolved X-ray diffraction was used to study the reduction and carburization processes of Cu₃(MoO₄)₂(OH)₂, a-NiMoO₄ and CoMoO₄•nH₂O by thermal treatment under mixtures of hydrogen and methane. In all cases, the final product was β-Mo₂C and a metal phase (Cu, Ni, or Co), but the transition sequence varied with the different metals, and it could be related to the reduction potential of the Cu²⁺, Ni²⁺ and Co²⁺ cations inside each molybdate. The synthesized Cu/Mo₂C, Ni/Mo₂C and Co/Mo₂C catalysts were highly active for the hydrogenation of CO₂. The metal/Mo₂C systems exhibited large variations in the selectivity towards methanol, methane and CnH₂n₊₂ (n > 2) hydrocarbons depending on the nature of the supported metal and its ability to cleave C-O bonds. Cu/Mo₂C displayed a high selectivity for CO and methanol production. Ni/Mo₂C and Co/Mo₂C were the most active catalysts for the activation and full decomposition of CO₂, showing high selectivity for the production of methane (Ni case) and CnH₂n₊₂ (n > 2) hydrocarbons (Co case).

  2. High-efficiency solar cells using HEM silicon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khattak, C.P.; Schmid, F.; Schubert, W.K.

    1994-12-31

    Developments in Heat Exchanger Method (HEM) technology for production of multicrystalline silicon ingot production have led to growth of larger ingots (55 cm square cross section) with lower costs and reliability in production. A single reusable crucible has been used to produce 18 multicrystalline 33 cm square cross section 40 kg ingots, and capability to produce 44 cm ingots has been demonstrated. Large area solar cells of 16.3% (42 cm{sup 2}) and 15.3% (100 cm{sup 2}) efficiency have been produced without optimization of the material production and the solar cell processing.

  3. Overview of High-Efficiency Engine Technologies | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    11 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation PDF icon ft000_stork_2011_o.pdf More Documents & Publications Fuels & Lubricants R&D Overview of DOE Fuel & Lubricant

    Perspective on past and current status, and future directions in heavy- and light-duty diesel engines PDF icon deer11_eckerle.pdf More Documents & Publications Off-Highway Heavy Vehicle Diesel Efficiency Improvement and Emissions Reduction

  4. Current-matched high-efficiency, multijunction monolithic solar cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Olson, Jerry M.; Kurtz, Sarah R.

    1993-01-01

    The efficiency of a two-junction (cascade) tandem photovoltaic device is improved by adjusting (decreasing) the top cell thickness to achieve current matching. An example of the invention was fabricated out of Ga.sub.0.52 In.sub.0.48 P and GaAs. Additional lattice-matched systems to which the invention pertains include Al.sub.x Ga.sub.1-x /GaAS (x= 0.3-0.4), GaAs/Ge and Ga.sub.y In.sub.l-y P/Ga.sub.y+0.5 In.sub.0.5-y As (0

  5. Method and Apparatus for High-Efficiency Direct Contact Condensation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    steam during the removal of non-condensable gases and creating high back pressures that decreased turbine performance. ... modeling method for predicting the chemical, physical, ...

  6. High Thermal Efficiency and Low Emissions with Supercritical...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Gasoline Injection-Ignition in a Light Duty Engine An Experimental Investigation of Low Octane Gasoline in Diesel Engines Low Temperature Combustion Demonstrator for High ...

  7. Fabrication of Organic-inorganic Perovskites for Highly Efficient...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    solution process-ability at low temperature as well as its extraordinary device performance. ... quality films with the toluene treatment, including high surface coverage, ...

  8. High-Power Batteries | Center for Energy Efficient Materials

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Power Batteries Our goal is to develop and apply a new biologically inspired, low cost, ... exceptionally high power and stability as anodes and cathodes for lithium ion batteries. ...

  9. Multi-petascale highly efficient parallel supercomputer (Patent) | SciTech

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Connect Multi-petascale highly efficient parallel supercomputer Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Multi-petascale highly efficient parallel supercomputer A Multi-Petascale Highly Efficient Parallel Supercomputer of 100 petaOPS-scale computing, at decreased cost, power and footprint, and that allows for a maximum packaging density of processing nodes from an interconnect point of view. The Supercomputer exploits technological advances in VLSI that enables a computing model where many

  10. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center Saves Water with High-Efficiency Toilet

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and Urinal Program | Department of Energy NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center Saves Water with High-Efficiency Toilet and Urinal Program NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center Saves Water with High-Efficiency Toilet and Urinal Program NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center Saves Water with High-Efficiency Toilet and Urinal Program Case study details Marshall Space Flight Center's innovative replacement program for toilets and urinals by researching appropriate fixtures, demonstrating technologies,

  11. High-Efficiency Low-Cost Solar Receiver for Use in a Supercritical CO2

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Recompression Cycle | Department of Energy 313_sullivan.pdf More Documents & Publications High-Efficiency Low-Cost Solar Receiver for Use in a Supercritical CO2 Recompression Cycle - FY13 Q1 High-Efficiency Receivers for Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Cycles - FY13 Q3 Final Report - High-Efficiency Low-Cost Solar Receiver for use in a Supercritical CO2 Recompression Cycle

  12. Los Alamos develops new technique for growing high-efficiency perovskite

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    solar cells Growing high-efficiency perovskite solar cells Los Alamos develops new technique for growing high-efficiency perovskite solar cells Researchers reveal a new solution-based hot-casting technique that allows growth of highly efficient and reproducible solar cells from large-area perovskite crystals. January 29, 2015 Scientists Aditya Mohite, left, and Wanyi Nie are perfecting a crystal production technique to improve perovskite crystal production for solar cells at Los Alamos

  13. DOE Zero Energy Ready Home Low Load High Efficiency HVAC Webinar (Text Version)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Below is the text version of the DOE Zero Energy Ready Home webinar, Low Load High Efficiency HVAC, presented in May 2014.

  14. High-Efficiency Clean Combustion in Light-Duty Multi-Cylinder...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High-Efficiency Clean Combustion in Light-Duty Multi-Cylinder Diesel Engines 2010 DOE Vehicle Technologies and Hydrogen Programs Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, ...

  15. High Efficiency CdTe and CIGS Thin Film Solar Cells: Highlights...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    High Efficiency CdTe and CIGS Thin Film Solar Cells: Highlights of the Technologies Challenges Acknowledgement: Work performed at NREL for US DOE under contract No....

  16. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: High Efficiency GDI Engine Research, with Emphasis on Ignition Systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Argonne National Laboratory at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about high efficiency...

  17. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: High Efficiency GDI Engine Research, with Emphasis on Ignition Systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Argonne National Laboratory at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about high efficiency...

  18. Simulation of High Efficiency Clean Combustion Engines and Detailed Chemical Kinetic Mechanisms Development

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Discusses ongoing work exploring fuel chemistry, analysis of and improving simulation methodologies for high efficiency clean combustion regimes, and computational performance

  19. Final Report - High efficiency heterojunction solar cell on 30μm...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    c-Si substrates using novel exfoliation technology Final Report - High efficiency heterojunction solar cell on 30m thin c-Si substrates using novel exfoliation technology ...

  20. Multi-scale framework for the accelerated design of high-efficiency...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Multi-scale framework for the accelerated design of high-efficiency organic photovoltaic cells Organic and hybrid organicinorganic solar cells (OSC) offer a promising low-cost...

  1. Scientists Confirm Robustness of Key Component in Ultra-High-Efficiency Solar Cell (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2011-05-01

    Scientists developed and tested a new, stable 1-eV metamorphic junction for a high efficiency multijunction III-V solar cell for CPV application.

  2. New results of development on high efficiency high gradient superconducting rf cavities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Geng, Rongli; Li, Z.; Hao, K.; Liu, K.-X.; Zhao, H.-Y.; Adolphsen, C.

    2015-09-01

    We report on the latest results of development on high efficiency high gradient superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities. Several 1-cell cavities made of large-grain niobium (Nb) were built, processed and tested. Two of these cavities are of the Low Surface Field (LSF) shape. Series of tests were carried out following controlled thermal cycling. Experiments toward zero-field cooling were carried out. The best experimentally achieved results are Eacc = 41 MV/m at Q0 = 6.5×1010 at 1.4 K by a 1-cell 1.3 GHz large-grain Nb TTF shape cavity and Eacc = 49 MV/m at Q0 = 1.5×1010 at 1.8 K by a 1-cell 1.5 GHz large-grain Nb CEBAF upgrade low-loss shape cavity.

  3. Field Demonstration of High Efficiency Ultra-Low-Temperature Laboratory Freezers

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Ultra-low temperature laboratory freezers (ULTs) are some of the most energy-intensive pieces of equipment in a scientific research laboratory, yet there are several barriers to user acceptance and adoption of high-efficiency ULTs. One significant barrier is a relative lack of information on ULT efficiency to help purchasers make informed decisions with respect to efficient products.

  4. High-Efficiency Solar Cells for Large-Scale Electricity Generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kurtz, S.; Olson, J.; Geisz, J.; Friedman, D.; McMahon, W.; Ptak, A.; Wanlass, M.; Kibbler, A.; Kramer, C.; Bertness, K.; Ward, S.; Duda, A.; Young, M.; Carapella, J.; Steiner, M.

    2008-09-26

    One strategy for helping the solar industry to grow faster is to use very high efficiency cells under concentrating optics. By using lenses or mirrors to concentrate the light, very small solar cells can be used, reducing the amount of semiconductor material and allowing use of higher efficiency cells, which are now >40% efficient.

  5. High-efficiency spectral purity filter for EUV lithography

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chapman, Henry N.

    2006-05-23

    An asymmetric-cut multilayer diffracts EUV light. A multilayer cut at an angle has the same properties as a blazed grating, and has been demonstrated to have near-perfect performance. Instead of having to nano-fabricate a grating structure with imperfections no greater than several tens of nanometers, a thick multilayer is grown on a substrate and then cut at an inclined angle using coarse and inexpensive methods. Effective grating periods can be produced this way that are 10 to 100 times smaller than those produced today, and the diffraction efficiency of these asymmetric multilayers is higher than conventional gratings. Besides their ease of manufacture, the use of an asymmetric multilayer as a spectral purity filter does not require that the design of an EUV optical system be modified in any way, unlike the proposed use of blazed gratings for such systems.

  6. High-efficiency neutron detectors and methods of making same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McGregor, Douglas S.; Klann, Raymond

    2007-01-16

    Neutron detectors, advanced detector process techniques and advanced compound film designs have greatly increased neutron-detection efficiency. One embodiment of the detectors utilizes a semiconductor wafer with a matrix of spaced cavities filled with one or more types of neutron reactive material such as 10B or 6LiF. The cavities are etched into both the front and back surfaces of the device such that the cavities from one side surround the cavities from the other side. The cavities may be etched via holes or etched slots or trenches. In another embodiment, the cavities are different-sized and the smaller cavities extend into the wafer from the lower surfaces of the larger cavities. In a third embodiment, multiple layers of different neutron-responsive material are formed on one or more sides of the wafer. The new devices operate at room temperature, are compact, rugged, and reliable in design.

  7. The carburization of transition metal molybdates (MxMoO₄, M= Cu, Ni or Co) and the generation of highly active metal/carbide catalysts for CO₂ hydrogenation

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Rodriguez, Jose A.; Xu, Wenqian; Ramirez, Pedro J.; Stachiola, Dario; Brito, Joaquin L.

    2015-05-06

    A new approach has been tested for the preparation of metal/Mo₂C catalysts using mixed-metal oxide molybdates as precursors. Synchrotron-based in situ time-resolved X-ray diffraction was used to study the reduction and carburization processes of Cu₃(MoO₄)₂(OH)₂, a-NiMoO₄ and CoMoO₄•nH₂O by thermal treatment under mixtures of hydrogen and methane. In all cases, the final product was β-Mo₂C and a metal phase (Cu, Ni, or Co), but the transition sequence varied with the different metals, and it could be related to the reduction potential of the Cu²⁺, Ni²⁺ and Co²⁺ cations inside each molybdate. The synthesized Cu/Mo₂C, Ni/Mo₂C and Co/Mo₂C catalysts were highlymore » active for the hydrogenation of CO₂. The metal/Mo₂C systems exhibited large variations in the selectivity towards methanol, methane and CnH₂n₊₂ (n > 2) hydrocarbons depending on the nature of the supported metal and its ability to cleave C-O bonds. Cu/Mo₂C displayed a high selectivity for CO and methanol production. Ni/Mo₂C and Co/Mo₂C were the most active catalysts for the activation and full decomposition of CO₂, showing high selectivity for the production of methane (Ni case) and CnH₂n₊₂ (n > 2) hydrocarbons (Co case).« less

  8. Electrochemical catalyst recovery method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Silva, Laura J.; Bray, Lane A.

    1995-01-01

    A method of recovering catalyst material from latent catalyst material solids includes: a) combining latent catalyst material solids with a liquid acid anolyte solution and a redox material which is soluble in the acid anolyte solution to form a mixture; b) electrochemically oxidizing the redox material within the mixture into a dissolved oxidant, the oxidant having a potential for oxidation which is effectively higher than that of the latent catalyst material; c) reacting the oxidant with the latent catalyst material to oxidize the latent catalyst material into at least one oxidized catalyst species which is soluble within the mixture and to reduce the oxidant back into dissolved redox material; and d) recovering catalyst material from the oxidized catalyst species of the mixture. The invention is expected to be particularly useful in recovering spent catalyst material from petroleum hydroprocessing reaction waste products having adhered sulfides, carbon, hydrocarbons, and undesired metals, and as well as in other industrial applications.

  9. Electrochemical catalyst recovery method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Silva, L.J.; Bray, L.A.

    1995-05-30

    A method of recovering catalyst material from latent catalyst material solids includes: (a) combining latent catalyst material solids with a liquid acid anolyte solution and a redox material which is soluble in the acid anolyte solution to form a mixture; (b) electrochemically oxidizing the redox material within the mixture into a dissolved oxidant, the oxidant having a potential for oxidation which is effectively higher than that of the latent catalyst material; (c) reacting the oxidant with the latent catalyst material to oxidize the latent catalyst material into at least one oxidized catalyst species which is soluble within the mixture and to reduce the oxidant back into dissolved redox material; and (d) recovering catalyst material from the oxidized catalyst species of the mixture. The invention is expected to be particularly useful in recovering spent catalyst material from petroleum hydroprocessing reaction waste products having adhered sulfides, carbon, hydrocarbons, and undesired metals, and as well as in other industrial applications. 3 figs.

  10. Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of a Working Catalyst

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of a Working Catalyst Print The heterogeneous catalysts used in most chemical processes typically consist of nanoscale metal or metal oxide particles dispersed on high-surface-area supports. While these particles are the active elements of the catalyst, the overall performance depends not only on their size and composition but also on their multiple interactions with the support, reactants, and products. Probing this chemical soup in real time under realistic reaction

  11. Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of a Working Catalyst

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of a Working Catalyst Print The heterogeneous catalysts used in most chemical processes typically consist of nanoscale metal or metal oxide particles dispersed on high-surface-area supports. While these particles are the active elements of the catalyst, the overall performance depends not only on their size and composition but also on their multiple interactions with the support, reactants, and products. Probing this chemical soup in real time under realistic reaction

  12. Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of a Working Catalyst

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of a Working Catalyst Print The heterogeneous catalysts used in most chemical processes typically consist of nanoscale metal or metal oxide particles dispersed on high-surface-area supports. While these particles are the active elements of the catalyst, the overall performance depends not only on their size and composition but also on their multiple interactions with the support, reactants, and products. Probing this chemical soup in real time under realistic reaction

  13. Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of a Working Catalyst

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of a Working Catalyst Print The heterogeneous catalysts used in most chemical processes typically consist of nanoscale metal or metal oxide particles dispersed on high-surface-area supports. While these particles are the active elements of the catalyst, the overall performance depends not only on their size and composition but also on their multiple interactions with the support, reactants, and products. Probing this chemical soup in real time under realistic reaction

  14. Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of a Working Catalyst

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of a Working Catalyst Print The heterogeneous catalysts used in most chemical processes typically consist of nanoscale metal or metal oxide particles dispersed on high-surface-area supports. While these particles are the active elements of the catalyst, the overall performance depends not only on their size and composition but also on their multiple interactions with the support, reactants, and products. Probing this chemical soup in real time under realistic reaction

  15. Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of a Working Catalyst

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of a Working Catalyst Print The heterogeneous catalysts used in most chemical processes typically consist of nanoscale metal or metal oxide particles dispersed on high-surface-area supports. While these particles are the active elements of the catalyst, the overall performance depends not only on their size and composition but also on their multiple interactions with the support, reactants, and products. Probing this chemical soup in real time under realistic reaction

  16. Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of a Working Catalyst

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of a Working Catalyst Print The heterogeneous catalysts used in most chemical processes typically consist of nanoscale metal or metal oxide particles dispersed on high-surface-area supports. While these particles are the active elements of the catalyst, the overall performance depends not only on their size and composition but also on their multiple interactions with the support, reactants, and products. Probing this chemical soup in real time under realistic reaction

  17. Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of a Working Catalyst

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of a Working Catalyst Print The heterogeneous catalysts used in most chemical processes typically consist of nanoscale metal or metal oxide particles dispersed on high-surface-area supports. While these particles are the active elements of the catalyst, the overall performance depends not only on their size and composition but also on their multiple interactions with the support, reactants, and products. Probing this chemical soup in real time under realistic reaction

  18. Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of a Working Catalyst

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of a Working Catalyst Print The heterogeneous catalysts used in most chemical processes typically consist of nanoscale metal or metal oxide particles dispersed on high-surface-area supports. While these particles are the active elements of the catalyst, the overall performance depends not only on their size and composition but also on their multiple interactions with the support, reactants, and products. Probing this chemical soup in real time under realistic reaction

  19. Metal/metal oxide doped oxide catalysts having high deNOx selectivity for lean NOx exhaust aftertreatment systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Park, Paul W.

    2004-03-16

    A lean NOx catalyst and method of preparing the same is disclosed. The lean NOx catalyst includes a ceramic substrate, an oxide support material, preferably .gamma.-alumina, deposited on the substrate and a metal promoter or dopant introduced into the oxide support material. The metal promoters or dopants are selected from the group consisting of indium, gallium, tin, silver, germanium, gold, nickel, cobalt, copper, iron, manganese, molybdenum, chromium, cerium, vanadium, oxides thereof, and combinations thereof. The .gamma.-alumina preferably has a pore volume of from about 0.5 to about 2.0 cc/g; a surface area of between about 80 to 350 m.sup.2 /g; an average pore size diameter of between about 3 to 30 nm; and an impurity level of less than or equal to 0.2 weight percent. In a preferred embodiment the .gamma.-alumina is prepared by a sol-gel method, with the metal doping of the .gamma.-alumina preferably accomplished using an incipient wetness impregnation technique.

  20. EERE Success Story-High Efficiency Microturbine Leads to Increased Market

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Share | Department of Energy High Efficiency Microturbine Leads to Increased Market Share EERE Success Story-High Efficiency Microturbine Leads to Increased Market Share April 18, 2013 - 12:00am Addthis Partnering with Capstone Turbine Corporation of Chatsworth, EERE supported microturbine research and development for a combined heat and power system that led to the commercialization of that product. Capstone increased electrical efficiency of the unit from about 17%-22% to 33%, and it has

  1. Enhancement of alkylation catalysts for improved supercritical fluid regeneration

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ginosar, Daniel M. (Idaho Falls, ID); Petkovic, Lucia (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2009-09-22

    A method of modifying an alkylation catalyst to reduce the formation of condensed hydrocarbon species thereon. The method comprises providing an alkylation catalyst comprising a plurality of active sites. The plurality of active sites on the alkylation catalyst may include a plurality of weakly acidic active sites, intermediate acidity active sites, and strongly acidic active sites. A base is adsorbed to a portion of the plurality of active sites, such as the strongly acidic active sites, selectively poisoning the strongly acidic active sites. A method of modifying the alkylation catalyst by providing an alkylation catalyst comprising a pore size distribution that sterically constrains formation of the condensed hydrocarbon species on the alkylation catalyst or by synthesizing the alkylation catalyst to comprise a decreased number of strongly acidic active sites is also disclosed, as is a method of improving a regeneration efficiency of the alkylation catalyst.

  2. Enhancement of alkylation catalysts for improved supercritical fluid regeneration

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ginosar, Daniel M. (Idaho Falls, ID); Petkovic, Lucia M. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2010-12-28

    A method of modifying an alkylation catalyst to reduce the formation of condensed hydrocarbon species thereon. The method comprises providing an alkylation catalyst comprising a plurality of active sites. The plurality of active sites on the alkylation catalyst may include a plurality of weakly acidic active sites, intermediate acidity active sites, and strongly acidic active sites. A base is adsorbed to a portion of the plurality of active sites, such as the strongly acidic active sites, selectively poisoning the strongly acidic active sites. A method of modifying the alkylation catalyst by providing an alkylation catalyst comprising a pore size distribution that sterically constrains formation of the condensed hydrocarbon species on the alkylation catalyst or by synthesizing the alkylation catalyst to comprise a decreased number of strongly acidic active sites is also disclosed, as is a method of improving a regeneration efficiency of the alkylation catalyst.

  3. The Importance of Domain Size and Purity in High-Efficiency Organic...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The Importance of Domain Size and Purity in High-Effi... Why are efficient and affordable solar cells so highly coveted? Volume. The amount of solar energy lighting up ...

  4. Power efficiency for very high temperature solar thermal cavity receivers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McDougal, Allan R.; Hale, Robert R.

    1984-01-01

    This invention is an improved solar energy cavity receiver for exposing materials and components to high temperatures. The receiver includes a housing having an internal reflective surface defining a cavity and having an inlet for admitting solar radiation thereto. A photothermal absorber is positioned in the cavity to receive radiation from the inlet. A reflective baffle is positioned between the absorber and the inlet to severely restrict the re-radiation of energy through the inlet. The front surface of the baffle defines a narrow annulus with the internal reflective surface of the housing. The front surface of the baffle is contoured to reflect incoming radiation onto the internal surface of the housing, from which it is reflected through the annulus and onto the front surface of the absorber. The back surface of the baffle intercepts infrared radiation from the front of the absorber. With this arrangement, a high percentage of the solar power input is retained in the cavity; thus, high internal temperatures are attained.

  5. Materials-Enabled High-Efficiency Diesel Engines (CRADA with Caterpillar) |

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Department of Energy 09 DOE Hydrogen Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, May 18-22, 2009 -- Washington D.C. PDF icon pm_06_kass.pdf More Documents & Publications Materials-Enabled High-Efficiency Diesel Engines Materials-Enabled High-Efficiency Diesel Engines Durability of ACERT Engine Components

  6. A High Efficiency Rare Earth-Free Orange Emitting Phosphor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Polikarpov, Evgueni; Catalini, David; Padmaperuma, Asanga B.; Das, Partha; Lemmon, Teresa L.; Arey, Bruce W.; Fernandez, Carlos A.

    2015-04-01

    This work reports the synthesis at relatively low temperatures of a highly emissive AlN:Mn2+ emitter. Though the AlN matrix shows an emission peak at a similar position to the emission peak observed for AlN:Mn product, the Mn-containing species generates red emission by a different mechanism, which was supported by the emission life time studies. The PLQY of the AlN:Mn emitter was measured to be 82%, the highest ever reported on a RE free-based phosphor.

  7. High-Tech Means High-Efficiency: The Business Case for EnergyManagement in High-Tech Industries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shanshoian, Gary; Blazek, Michele; Naughton, Phil; Seese, RobertS.; Mills, Evan; Tschudi, William

    2005-11-15

    In the race to apply new technologies in ''high-tech'' facilities such as data centers, laboratories, and clean rooms, much emphasis has been placed on improving service, building capacity, and increasing speed. These facilities are socially and economically important, as part of the critical infrastructure for pharmaceuticals,electronics, communications, and many other sectors. With a singular focus on throughput, some important design issues can be overlooked, such as the energy efficiency of individual equipment (e.g., lasers, routers and switches) as well as the integration of high-tech equipment into the power distribution system and the building envelope. Among technology-based businesses, improving energy efficiency presents an often untapped opportunity to increase profits, enhance process control,maximize asset value, improve the work place environment, and manage a variety of business risks. Oddly enough, the adoption of energy efficiency improvements in this sector lags behind many others. As a result, millions of dollars are left on the table with each year ofoperation.

  8. Hydrocarbon synthesis catalyst and method of preparation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sapienza, Richard S.; Sansone, Michael J.; Slegeir, William A. R.

    1983-08-02

    A catalyst for the synthesis of hydrocarbons from carbon monoxide and hydrogen composed of palladium or platinum and cobalt supported on a solid phase is disclosed. The catalyst is prepared by heating a heterogeneous component of the palladium or platinum deposited on the solid support in a solution of cobalt carbonyl or precursors thereof. The catalyst exhibits excellent activity, stability in air, and produces highly desirable product fractions even with dilute gaseous reactants. The catalyst is preferably used in dilute slurry form, which is desirable from a heat transfer standpoint.

  9. Hydrocarbon synthesis catalyst and method of preparation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sapienza, R.S.; Sansone, M.J.; Slegeir, W.A.R.

    1983-08-02

    A catalyst for the synthesis of hydrocarbons from carbon monoxide and hydrogen composed of palladium or platinum and cobalt supported on a solid phase is disclosed. The catalyst is prepared by heating a heterogeneous component of the palladium or platinum deposited on the solid support in a solution of cobalt carbonyl or precursors thereof. The catalyst exhibits excellent activity, stability in air, and produces highly desirable product fractions even with dilute gaseous reactants. The catalyst is preferably used in dilute slurry form, which is desirable from a heat transfer standpoint. 9 figs.

  10. Catalyst containing oxygen transport membrane

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Christie, Gervase Maxwell; Wilson, Jamie Robyn; van Hassel, Bart Antonie

    2012-12-04

    A composite oxygen transport membrane having a dense layer, a porous support layer and an intermediate porous layer located between the dense layer and the porous support layer. Both the dense layer and the intermediate porous layer are formed from an ionic conductive material to conduct oxygen ions and an electrically conductive material to conduct electrons. The porous support layer has a high permeability, high porosity, and a high average pore diameter and the intermediate porous layer has a lower permeability and lower pore diameter than the porous support layer. Catalyst particles selected to promote oxidation of a combustible substance are located in the intermediate porous layer and in the porous support adjacent to the intermediate porous layer. The catalyst particles can be formed by wicking a solution of catalyst precursors through the porous support toward the intermediate porous layer.

  11. Method of depositing a catalyst on a fuel cell electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dearnaley, Geoffrey; Arps, James H.

    2000-01-01

    Fuel cell electrodes comprising a minimal load of catalyst having maximum catalytic activity and a method of forming such fuel cell electrodes. The method comprises vaporizing a catalyst, preferably platinum, in a vacuum to form a catalyst vapor. A catalytically effective amount of the catalyst vapor is deposited onto a carbon catalyst support on the fuel cell electrode. The electrode preferably is carbon cloth. The method reduces the amount of catalyst needed for a high performance fuel cell electrode to about 0.3 mg/cm.sup.2 or less.

  12. New approaches for high-efficiency solar cells. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bedair, S.M.; El-Masry, N.A.

    1997-12-01

    This report summarizes the activities carried out in this subcontract. These activities cover, first the atomic layer epitaxy (ALE) growth of GaAs, AlGaAs and InGaP at fairly low growth temperatures. This was followed by using ALE to achieve high levels of doping both n-type and p-type required for tunnel junctions (Tj) in the cascade solar cell structures. Then the authors studied the properties of AlGaAs/InGaP and AlGaAs/GaAs tunnel junctions and their performances at different growth conditions. This is followed by the use of these tunnel junctions in stacked solar cell structures. The effect of these tunnel junctions on the performance of stacked solar cells was studied at different temperatures and different solar fluences. Finally, the authors studied the effect of different types of black surface fields (BSF), both p/n and n/p GaInP solar cell structures, and their potential for window layer applications. Parts of these activities were carried in close cooperation with Dr. Mike Timmons of the Research Triangle Institute.

  13. Highly efficient greenish-blue platinum-based phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes on a high triplet energy platform

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang, Y. L. Gong, S. White, R.; Lu, Z. H.; Wang, X.; Wang, S.; Yang, C.

    2014-04-28

    We have demonstrated high-efficiency greenish-blue phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes (PHOLEDs) based on a dimesitylboryl-functionalized C^N chelate Pt(II) phosphor, Pt(m-Bptrz)(t-Bu-pytrz-Me). Using a high triplet energy platform and optimized double emissive zone device architecture results in greenish-blue PHOLEDs that exhibit an external quantum efficiency of 24.0% and a power efficiency of 55.8?lm/W. This record high performance is comparable with that of the state-of-the-art Ir-based sky-blue organic light-emitting diodes.

  14. New III-V cell design approaches for very high efficiency

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lundstrom, M.S.; Melloch, M.R.; Lush, G.B.; Patkar, M.P.; Young, M.P. )

    1993-04-01

    This report describes to examine new solar cell desip approaches for achieving very high conversion efficiencies. The program consists of two elements. The first centers on exploring new thin-film approaches specifically designed for M-III semiconductors. Substantial efficiency gains may be possible by employing light trapping techniques to confine the incident photons, as well as the photons emitted by radiative recombination. The thin-film approach is a promising route for achieving substantial performance improvements in the already high-efficiency, single-junction, III-V cell. The second element of the research involves exploring desip approaches for achieving high conversion efficiencies without requiring extremely high-quality material. This work has applications to multiple-junction cells, for which the selection of a component cell often involves a compromise between optimum band pp and optimum material quality. It could also be a benefit manufacturing environment by making the cell's efficiency less dependent on materialquality.

  15. Screen bowl centrifuge: a high-efficiency particle size separator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mohanty, M.K.; Zhang, B.; Khanna, N.; Palit, A.; Dube, B.

    2008-05-15

    Over the years, screen bowl centrifuges have been widely used for dewatering fine coal in coal preparation plants in the United States and elsewhere. It is generally recognized in the engineering and scientific communities that screen bowl centrifuges provide some degree of particle size separation while dewatering fine coal in a common application. However, the extent of differential partitioning of coarse and fine particles achievable by a screen bowl centrifuge has not been systematically studied in the past. The present investigation was aimed at conducting a parametric study using a statistically designed experimental program to better understand and optimize the size classification performance of a screen bowl centrifuge. A continuously operating screen bowl centrifuge having a bowl diameter of 0.5 m was used for this study at the Illinois Coal Development Park. Three key operating parameters, i.e., feed flow rate, feed solid content and pool depth, were varied to conduct a total of 17 experiments using a three-level factorial test matrix. Some of the best size separation performances achieved in this study may be described as having an imperfection value of 0.13 at an effective separation size (d(50c)) of 38 mu m and an imperfection value of 0.27 at an effective separation size (d(50c)) of 2.8 mu m. Due to an effective separation of ultrafine high ash materials, the ash content of the screen bowl feed was reduced from 22.3% to a minimum of 8.84% with a combustible recovery of 84.1% and an ash rejection of 71.6%. A higher combustible recovery of 92.1% was achieved at a product ash content of 12.5% with a d(50c) of 2.8 mu m and imperfection of 0.27.

  16. Catalyst and method for production of methylamines

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Klier, Kamil; Herman, Richard G.; Vedage, Gamini A.

    1987-01-01

    This invention relates to an improved catalyst and method for the selective production of methylamines. More particularly, it is concerned with the preparation of stable highly active catalysts for producing methylamines by a catalytic reaction of ammonia or substituted amines and binary synthesis gas (CO+H.sub.2).

  17. High-efficiency Low Global-Warming Potential (GWP) Compressor | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy efficiency Low Global-Warming Potential (GWP) Compressor High-efficiency Low Global-Warming Potential (GWP) Compressor Lead Performer: United Technologies Research Center - East Hartford, CT DOE Total Funding: $974,000 Cost Share: $417,000 Project Term: September 2015 - August 2017 Funding Opportunity: Building Energy Efficiency Frontiers and Innovation Technologies (BENEFIT) - 2015, DE-FOA-0001166 Project Objective United Technologies Research Center (UTRC) proposes to demonstrate

  18. DOE ZERH Webinar: Low Load High Efficiency HVAC (Text Version) | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy Low Load High Efficiency HVAC (Text Version) DOE ZERH Webinar: Low Load High Efficiency HVAC (Text Version) Below is the text version of the DOE Zero Energy Ready Home webinar, Low Load High Efficiency HVAC, presented in May 2014. Watch the presentation. GoToWebinar voice: The broadcast is now starting. All attendees are in listen-only mode. Lindsay Parker: Hi, everyone. Welcome to the Department of Energy Zero Energy Ready Home Technical Training Webinar Series. We're really

  19. High-efficiency white organic light-emitting diodes using thermally activated delayed fluorescence

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nishide, Jun-ichi; Hiraga, Yasuhide; Nakanotani, Hajime; Adachi, Chihaya

    2014-06-09

    White organic light-emitting diodes (WOLEDs) have attracted much attention recently, aimed for next-generation lighting sources because of their high potential to realize high electroluminescence efficiency, flexibility, and low-cost manufacture. Here, we demonstrate high-efficiency WOLED using red, green, and blue thermally activated delayed fluorescence materials as emissive dopants to generate white electroluminescence. The WOLED has a maximum external quantum efficiency of over 17% with Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage coordinates of (0.30, 0.38).

  20. Catalyst Characterization | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    The second cycle of the Catalyst Prize Program is moving forward. The Business Innovation contest-designed to help teams form and explore software solutions to the most compelling problems facing building energy efficiency-is complete and finalists have been selected for the next competition phase, the Prototyping contest. The buildings finalists are: Building DataCloud, Livable Analytics, BuiltSpectrum, Inc., Kinetic Buildings, and One Oak Systems. These teams will represent the first

  1. High efficiency multijunction amorphous silicon alloy-based solar cells and modules

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guha, S.; Yang, J.; Banerjeee, A.; Glatfelter, T.; Hoffman, K.; Xu, X. )

    1994-06-30

    We have achieved initial efficiency of 11.4% as confirmed by National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) on a multijunction amorphous silicon alloy photovoltaic module of one-square-foot-area. [bold This] [bold is] [bold the] [bold highest] [bold initial] [bold efficiency] [bold confirmed] [bold by] [bold NREL] [bold for] [bold any] [bold thin] [bold film] [bold photovoltaic] [bold module]. After light soaking for 1000 hours at 50 [degree]C under one-sun illumination, a module with initial efficiency of 11.1% shows a stabilized efficiency of 9.5%. Key factors that led to this high performance are discussed.

  2. High Efficiency Microturbine with Integral Heat Recovery- Presentation by Capstone Turbine Corporation, June 2011

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation on High Efficiency Microturbine with Integral Heat Recovery, given by John Nourse of Capstone Turbine Corporation, at the U.S. DOE Industrial Distributed Energy Portfolio Review Meeting in Washington, D.C. on June 1-2, 2011.

  3. High Efficiency CdTe Ink-Based Solar Cells Using Nanocrystals (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2015-01-01

    This NREL Highlight is being developed for the 2015 February Alliance S&T Board meeting and describes a solution-processable ink to produce high-efficiency solar cells using low temperature and simple processing.

  4. Conversion Tower for Dispatchable Solar Power: High-Efficiency Solar-Electric Conversion Power Tower

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-01-11

    HEATS Project: Abengoa Solar is developing a high-efficiency solar-electric conversion tower to enable low-cost, fully dispatchable solar energy generation. Abengoa’s conversion tower utilizes new system architecture and a two-phase thermal energy storage media with an efficient supercritical carbon dioxide (CO2) power cycle. The company is using a high-temperature heat-transfer fluid with a phase change in between its hot and cold operating temperature. The fluid serves as a heat storage material and is cheaper and more efficient than conventional heat-storage materials, like molten salt. It also allows the use of a high heat flux solar receiver, advanced high thermal energy density storage, and more efficient power cycles.

  5. Project Profile: High-Efficiency Thermal Storage System for Solar Plants

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    SENER, under the Baseload CSP FOA, aims to develop a highly efficient, low-maintenance and economical thermal energy storage (TES) system using solid graphite modular blocks for CSP plants.

  6. Scalable Light Module for Low-Cost, High Efficiency LED Luminaires

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Award DE-EE0006264 Paul Fini, paulfini@cree.com CREE, Inc. Scalable Light Module for Low-Cost, High Efficiency LED Luminaires 2015 Building Technologies Office Peer Review 2 ...

  7. High-Efficiency Low-Cost Solar Receiver for Use in a Supercritical...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Low-Cost Solar Receiver for Use in a Supercritical CO2 Recompression Cycle - FY13 Q1 High-Efficiency Low-Cost Solar Receiver for Use in a Supercritical CO2 Recompression Cycle - ...

  8. Los Alamos catalyst could jumpstart e-cars, green energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Catalyst could jumpstart e-cars, green energy Los Alamos catalyst could jumpstart e-cars, green energy The new material has the highest oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) activity in alkaline media of any non-precious metal catalyst developed to date. June 4, 2013 A high-resolution microscopic image of a new type of nanostructured-carbon-based catalyst developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory that could pave the way for reliable, economical next-generation batteries and alkaline fuel cells.

  9. Los Alamos catalyst could jumpstart e-cars, green energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Catalyst could jumpstart e-cars, green energy Los Alamos catalyst could jumpstart e-cars, green energy The new material has the highest oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) activity in alkaline media of any non-precious metal catalyst developed to date. June 4, 2013 A high-resolution microscopic image of a new type of nanostructured-carbon-based catalyst developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory that could pave the way for reliable, economical next-generation batteries and alkaline fuel cells.

  10. Los Alamos catalyst could jumpstart e-cars, green energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Catalyst could jumpstart e-cars, green energy Los Alamos catalyst could jumpstart e-cars, green energy The new material has the highest oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) activity in alkaline media of any non-precious metal catalyst developed to date. June 4, 2013 A high-resolution microscopic image of a new type of nanostructured-carbon-based catalyst developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory that could pave the way for reliable, economical next-generation batteries and alkaline fuel cells.

  11. The Approach to Low-Cost High-Efficiency OLED Lighting | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy The Approach to Low-Cost High-Efficiency OLED Lighting The Approach to Low-Cost High-Efficiency OLED Lighting Lead Performer: University of California - Los Angeles - Los Angeles, CA Partners: Polyradiant Corp. - Calabasas, CA DOE Total Funding: $612,733 Cost Share: $153,183 Project Term: September 4, 2014 - August 31, 2016 Funding Opportunity: SSL R&D Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) (DE-FOA-0000973) Project Objective This project will develop an integrated plastic

  12. Issue #4: Are High Efficiency Hot Water Heating Systems Worth the Cost? |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy 4: Are High Efficiency Hot Water Heating Systems Worth the Cost? Issue #4: Are High Efficiency Hot Water Heating Systems Worth the Cost? What are realistic energy savings associated with the latest advanced and forthcoming water heating technologies and are they cost effective? PDF icon issue4_gasfired_waterheater.pdf PDF icon issue4_tankless_wh.pdf PDF icon issue4_waterhtg_solutions.pdf More Documents & Publications Cost Effective Water Heating Solutions Tankless

  13. Multi-petascale highly efficient parallel supercomputer (Patent) | SciTech

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Connect Multi-petascale highly efficient parallel supercomputer Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Multi-petascale highly efficient parallel supercomputer × You are accessing a document from the Department of Energy's (DOE) SciTech Connect. This site is a product of DOE's Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) and is provided as a public service. Visit OSTI to utilize additional information resources in energy science and technology. A paper copy of this document is

  14. Low-Cost, High Efficiency Integration of SSL and Building Controls using a

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    PET Power Distribution System | Department of Energy High Efficiency Integration of SSL and Building Controls using a PET Power Distribution System Low-Cost, High Efficiency Integration of SSL and Building Controls using a PET Power Distribution System Lead Performer: VoltServer Inc. - East Greenwich, RI DOE Total Funding: $999,122 Project Term: July 28, 2015 - July 27, 2017 Funding Opportunity: FY2015 Phase II Release 2 SBIR Awards PROJECT OBJECTIVE This project will demonstrate a novel

  15. Development of A Self Biased High Efficiency Solid-State Neutron Detector

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    for MPACT Applications (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Development of A Self Biased High Efficiency Solid-State Neutron Detector for MPACT Applications Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Development of A Self Biased High Efficiency Solid-State Neutron Detector for MPACT Applications Neutron detection is an important aspect of materials protection, accounting, and control for transmutation (MPACT). Currently He-3 filled thermal neutron detectors are utilized in many applications;

  16. High-efficiency solid-state lighting and superconductor research receives

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    funding High-efficiency solid-state lighting and superconductor High-efficiency solid-state lighting and superconductor research receives funding Each project will be funded for up to three years. August 28, 2009 Los Alamos National Laboratory sits on top of a once-remote mesa in northern New Mexico with the Jemez mountains as a backdrop to research and innovation covering multi-disciplines from bioscience, sustainable energy sources, to plasma physics and new materials. Los Alamos National

  17. Development of a New Generation, High Efficiency PEM Fuel Cell Based, CHP

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    System | Department of Energy a New Generation, High Efficiency PEM Fuel Cell Based, CHP System Development of a New Generation, High Efficiency PEM Fuel Cell Based, CHP System Part of a $100 million fuel cell award announced by DOE Secretary Bodman on Oct. 25, 2006. PDF icon 7_intelligent.pdf More Documents & Publications 2012 Pathways to Commercial Success: Technologies and Products Supported by the Fuel Cell Technologies Program 2011 Pathways to Commercial Success: Technologies and

  18. Fuels and Combustion Strategies for High-Efficiency Clean-Combustion

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Engines | Department of Energy 12 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting PDF icon ft004_mueller_2012_o.pdf More Documents & Publications Fuel Effects on Mixing-Controlled Combustion Strategies for High-Efficiency Clean-Combustion Engines Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Fuel Effects on Mixing-Controlled Combustion Strategies for High-Efficiency Clean-Combustion Engines Optical-Engine and

  19. The Importance of Domain Size and Purity in High-Efficiency Organic Solar

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Cells The Importance of Domain Size and Purity in High-Efficiency Organic Solar Cells The Importance of Domain Size and Purity in High-Efficiency Organic Solar Cells Print Wednesday, 27 March 2013 00:00 The efficiency of polymer/organic photovoltaic cells hinges on excitons-electron/hole pairs energized by sunlight-getting to the interfaces of donor and acceptor domains quickly, before recombining. At the interfaces, they become free charges that must then reach device electrodes. With the

  20. PROJECT PROFILE: High-Efficiency, Low-Cost, One-Sun, III-V Photovoltaics |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy PROJECT PROFILE: High-Efficiency, Low-Cost, One-Sun, III-V Photovoltaics PROJECT PROFILE: High-Efficiency, Low-Cost, One-Sun, III-V Photovoltaics Funding Opportunity: SuNLaMP SunShot Subprogram: Photovoltaics Location: National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO Amount Awarded: $4,000,000 Low-cost III-V photovoltaics have the potential to lower the levelized cost of energy (LCOE) because III-V cells outperform silicon in terms of efficiency and annual energy

  1. Opening New Avenues for High-Efficiency, Low-Emission Coal Gasification |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Opening New Avenues for High-Efficiency, Low-Emission Coal Gasification Opening New Avenues for High-Efficiency, Low-Emission Coal Gasification April 10, 2012 - 1:00pm Addthis A rendering of the Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne high pressure, dry-solids feed pump. A rendering of the Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne high pressure, dry-solids feed pump. Washington, DC - Gasification. It's a versatile technology that uses coal to produce power, chemicals, and fuels. Inherently

  2. Highly efficient terahertz wave modulators by photo-excitation of organics/silicon bilayers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yoo, Hyung Keun; Kang, Chul; Hwang, In-Wook; Yoon, Youngwoon; Lee, Kiejin; Kee, Chul-Sik; Lee, Joong Wook

    2014-07-07

    Using hybrid bilayer systems comprising a molecular organic semiconductor and silicon, we achieve optically controllable active terahertz (THz) modulators that exhibit extremely high modulation efficiencies. A modulation efficiency of 98% is achieved from thermally annealed C{sub 60}/silicon bilayers, due to the rapid photo-induced electron transfer from the excited states of the silicon onto the C{sub 60} layer. Furthermore, we demonstrate the broadband modulation of THz waves. The cut-off condition of the system that is determined by the formation of efficient charge separation by the photo-excitation is highly variable, changing the system from insulating to metallic. The phenomenon enables an extremely high modulation bandwidth and rates of electromagnetic waves of interest. The realization of near-perfect modulation efficiency in THz frequencies opens up the possibilities of utilizing active modulators for THz spectroscopy and communications.

  3. System for reactivating catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ginosar, Daniel M.; Thompson, David N.; Anderson, Raymond P.

    2010-03-02

    A method of reactivating a catalyst, such as a solid catalyst or a liquid catalyst is provided. The method comprises providing a catalyst that is at least partially deactivated by fouling agents. The catalyst is contacted with a fluid reactivating agent that is at or above a critical point of the fluid reactivating agent and is of sufficient density to dissolve impurities. The fluid reactivating agent reacts with at least one fouling agent, releasing the at least one fouling agent from the catalyst. The at least one fouling agent becomes dissolved in the fluid reactivating agent and is subsequently separated or removed from the fluid reactivating agent so that the fluid reactivating agent may be reused. A system for reactivating a catalyst is also disclosed.

  4. High Efficiency, Low Cost Solar Cells Manufactured Using 'Silicon Ink' on Thin Crystalline Silicon Wafers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Antoniadis, H.

    2011-03-01

    Reported are the development and demonstration of a 17% efficient 25mm x 25mm crystalline Silicon solar cell and a 16% efficient 125mm x 125mm crystalline Silicon solar cell, both produced by Ink-jet printing Silicon Ink on a thin crystalline Silicon wafer. To achieve these objectives, processing approaches were developed to print the Silicon Ink in a predetermined pattern to form a high efficiency selective emitter, remove the solvents in the Silicon Ink and fuse the deposited particle Silicon films. Additionally, standard solar cell manufacturing equipment with slightly modified processes were used to complete the fabrication of the Silicon Ink high efficiency solar cells. Also reported are the development and demonstration of a 18.5% efficient 125mm x 125mm monocrystalline Silicon cell, and a 17% efficient 125mm x 125mm multicrystalline Silicon cell, by utilizing high throughput Ink-jet and screen printing technologies. To achieve these objectives, Innovalight developed new high throughput processing tools to print and fuse both p and n type particle Silicon Inks in a predetermined pat-tern applied either on the front or the back of the cell. Additionally, a customized Ink-jet and screen printing systems, coupled with customized substrate handling solution, customized printing algorithms, and a customized ink drying process, in combination with a purchased turn-key line, were used to complete the high efficiency solar cells. This development work delivered a process capable of high volume producing 18.5% efficient crystalline Silicon solar cells and enabled the Innovalight to commercialize its technology by the summer of 2010.

  5. High Quantum Efficiency AlGaN/InGaN Photodetectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buckley, James H; Leopold, Daniel

    2009-11-24

    High efficiency photon counting detectors in use today for high energy particle detection applications have a significant spectral mismatch with typical sources and have a number of practical problems compared with conventional bialkali photomultiplier tubes. Numerous high energy physics experiments that employ scintillation light detectors or Cherenkov detectors would benefit greatly from photomultipliers with higher quantum efficiencies. The need for extending the sensitivity of photon detectors to the blue and UV wavebands comes from the fact that both Cherenkov light and some scintillators have an emission spectrum which is peaked at short wavelengths. This research involves the development of high quantum efficiency, high gain, UV/blue photon counting detectors based on AlGaN/InGaN photocathode heterostructures grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). The work could eventually lead to nearly ideal light detectors with a number of distinct advantages over existing technologies for numerous applications in high-energy physics and particle astrophysics. Potential advantages include much lower noise detection, better stability and radiation resistance than other cathode structures, very low radioactive background levels for deep underground experiments and high detection efficiency of individual UV-visible photons. We are also working on the development of photocathodes with intrinsic gain, initially improving the detection efficiency of hybrid semiconductor-vacuum tube devices, and eventually leading to an all-solid-state photomultiplier device.

  6. Oxygen Reduction at Very Low Overpotential on Nanoporous Ag Catalysts

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhou, Yang; Lu, Qi; Zhuang, Zhongbin; Hutchings, Gregory S.; Kattel, Shyam; Yan, Yushan; Chen, Jingguang G.; Xiao, John Q.; Jiao, Feng

    2015-05-07

    Here we report a monolithic nanoporous Ag (np-Ag) material, synthesized using the dealloying method, as high-performance catalysts for ORR in alkaline media. As shown in Scheme 1, when there is insufficient potential input, the O2 molecules are more likely to rebound off from a planar electrode surface (i.e. bulk polycrystalline metal, films made from nanoparticles or nanowires) before they could be reduced. In contrast, they are more likely to be trapped inside the monolithic nanoporous structure, contacting with catalytic surface for multiple time, which greatly enhances the chance for them to be fully reduced. As a result, the np-Ag catalystmore » is able to achieve an equivalent or better ORR performance than the state-of the-art Pt/C catalyst at low overpotentials, which is most desired in electrochemical energy applications for maximizing efficiency.« less

  7. Catalyst by Design - Theoretical, Nanostructural, and Experimental...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Oxidation Catalyst for Diesel Engine Emission Treatment Catalyst by Design - Theoretical, ... More Documents & Publications Catalyst by Design - Theoretical, Nanostructural, and ...

  8. Process for magnetic beneficiating petroleum cracking catalyst

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Doctor, Richard D.

    1993-01-01

    A process for beneficiating a particulate zeolite petroleum cracking catalyst having metal values in excess of 1000 ppm nickel equivalents. The particulate catalyst is passed through a magnetic field in the range of from about 2 Tesla to about 5 Tesla generated by a superconducting quadrupole open-gradient magnetic system for a time sufficient to effect separation of said catalyst into a plurality of zones having different nickel equivalent concentrations. A first zone has nickel equivalents of about 6,000 ppm and greater, a second zone has nickel equivalents in the range of from about 2000 ppm to about 6000 ppm, and a third zone has nickel equivalents of about 2000 ppm and less. The zones of catalyst are separated and the second zone material is recycled to a fluidized bed of zeolite petroleum cracking catalyst. The low nickel equivalent zone is treated while the high nickel equivalent zone is discarded.

  9. Process for magnetic beneficiating petroleum cracking catalyst

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Doctor, R.D.

    1993-10-05

    A process is described for beneficiating a particulate zeolite petroleum cracking catalyst having metal values in excess of 1000 ppm nickel equivalents. The particulate catalyst is passed through a magnetic field in the range of from about 2 Tesla to about 5 Tesla generated by a superconducting quadrupole open-gradient magnetic system for a time sufficient to effect separation of said catalyst into a plurality of zones having different nickel equivalent concentrations. A first zone has nickel equivalents of about 6,000 ppm and greater, a second zone has nickel equivalents in the range of from about 2000 ppm to about 6000 ppm, and a third zone has nickel equivalents of about 2000 ppm and less. The zones of catalyst are separated and the second zone material is recycled to a fluidized bed of zeolite petroleum cracking catalyst. The low nickel equivalent zone is treated while the high nickel equivalent zone is discarded. 1 figures.

  10. Membrane catalyst layer for fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wilson, Mahlon S.

    1993-01-01

    A gas reaction fuel cell incorporates a thin catalyst layer between a solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) membrane and a porous electrode backing. The catalyst layer is preferably less than about 10 .mu.m in thickness with a carbon supported platinum catalyst loading less than about 0.35 mgPt/cm.sup.2. The film is formed as an ink that is spread and cured on a film release blank. The cured film is then transferred to the SPE membrane and hot pressed into the surface to form a catalyst layer having a controlled thickness and catalyst distribution. Alternatively, the catalyst layer is formed by applying a Na.sup.+ form of a perfluorosulfonate ionomer directly to the membrane, drying the film at a high temperature, and then converting the film back to the protonated form of the ionomer. The layer has adequate gas permeability so that cell performance is not affected and has a density and particle distribution effective to optimize proton access to the catalyst and electronic continuity for electron flow from the half-cell reaction occurring at the catalyst.

  11. Rational Catalyst Design Applied to Development of Advanced Oxidation

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Catalysts for Diesel Emission Control | Department of Energy Presentation given at the 2007 Diesel Engine-Efficiency & Emissions Research Conference (DEER 2007). 13-16 August, 2007, Detroit, Michigan. Sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies (OFCVT). PDF icon deer07_fujdala.pdf More Documents & Publications Overcoming Hydrocarbon Inhibition on Pd-based Diesel Oxidation Catalysts with Rational Catalyst Design Approach Application

  12. Design of a high efficiency 30 kW boost composite converter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Hyeokjin; Chen, Hua; Maksimovic, Dragan; Erickson, Robert W.

    2015-09-20

    An experimental 30 kW boost composite converter is described in this paper. The composite converter architecture, which consists of a buck module, a boost module, and a dual active bridge module that operates as a DC transformer (DCX), leads to substantial reductions in losses at partial power points, and to significant improvements in weighted efficiency in applications that require wide variations in power and conversion ratio. A comprehensive loss model is developed, accounting for semiconductor conduction and switching losses, capacitor losses, as well as dc and ac losses in magnetic components. Based on the developed loss model, the module and system designs are optimized to maximize efficiency at a 50% power point. Experimental results for the 30 kW prototype demonstrate 98.5%peak efficiency, very high efficiency over wide ranges of power and voltage conversion ratios, as well as excellent agreements between model predictions and measured efficiency curves.

  13. Pf/Zeolite Catalyst for Tritium Stripping

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hsu, R.H.

    2001-03-26

    This report described promising hydrogen (protium and tritium) stripping results obtained with a Pd/zeolite catalyst at ambient temperature. Preliminary results show 90-99+ percent tritium stripping efficiency may be obtained, with even better performance expected as bed configuration and operating conditions are optimized. These results suggest that portable units with single beds of the Pd/zeolite catalyst may be utilized as ''catalytic absorbers'' to clean up both tritium gas and tritiated water. A cart-mounted prototype stripper utilizing this catalyst has been constructed for testing. This portable stripper has potential applications in maintenance-type jobs such as tritium line breaks. This catalyst can also potentially be utilized in an emergency stripper for the Replacement Tritium Facility.

  14. Bio-inspired MOF-based Catalysts for Lignin Valorization.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allendorf, Mark D.; Stavila, Vitalie; Ramakrishnan, Parthasarathi; Davis, Ryan Wesley

    2014-09-01

    Lignin is a potentially plentiful source of renewable organics, with ~50Mtons/yr produced by the pulp/paper industry and 200-300 Mtons/yr projected production by a US biofuels industry. This industry must process approximately 1 billion tons of biomass to meet the US Renewable Fuel goals. However, there are currently no efficient processes for converting lignin to value-added chemicals and drop-in fuels. Lignin is therefore an opportunity for production of valuable renewable chemicals, but presents staggering technical and economic challenges due to the quantities of material involved and the strong chemical bonds comprising this polymer. Aggressive chemistries and high temperatures are required to degrade lignin without catalysts. Moreover, chemical non-uniformity among lignins leads to complex product mixtures that tend to repolymerize. Conventional petrochemical approaches (pyrolysis, catalytic cracking, gasification) are energy intensive (400-800 degC), require complicated separations, and remove valuable chemical functionality. Low-temperature (25-200 degC) alternatives are clearly desirable, but enzymes are thermally fragile and incompatible with liquid organic compounds, making them impractical for large-scale biorefining. Alternatively, homogeneous catalysts, such as recently developed vanadium complexes, must be separated from product mixtures, while many heterogenous catalysts involve costly noble metals. The objective of this project is to demonstrate proof of concept that an entirely new class of biomimetic, efficient, and industrially robust synthetic catalysts based on nanoporous Metal- Organic Frameworks (MOFs) can be developed. Although catalytic MOFs are known, catalysis of bond cleavage reactions needed for lignin degradation is completely unexplored. Thus, fundamental research is required that industry and most sponsoring agencies are currently unwilling to undertake. We introduce MOFs infiltrated with titanium and nickel species as catalysts for the C-O bond hydrogenolysis in model compounds, which mimic the b-O-4, a-O-4, and 4-O-5 linkages of natural lignin. The versatile IRMOF-74(n) series is proposed as a platform for creating efficient hydrogenolysis catalysts as it not only displays tunable pore sizes, but also has the required thermal and chemical stability. The catalytic C-O bond cleavage occurs at 10 bar hydrogen pressure and temperatures as low as 120 degC. The conversion efficiency of the aromatic ether substrates into the corresponding hydrocarbons and phenols varies as PhCH 2 CH 2 OPh > PhCH 2 OPh > PhOPh (Ph = phenyl), while the catalytic activity generally follows the following trend Ni%40IRMOF-74>Ti%40IRMOF-74>IRMOF-74. Conversions as high as 80%, coupled with good selectivity for hydrogenolysis vs. hydrogenation, highlight the potential of MOF-based catalysts for the selective cleavage of recalcitrant aryl-ether bonds found in lignin and other biopolymers. This project supports the DOE Integrated Biorefinery Program goals, the objective of which is to convert biomass to fuels and high-value chemicals, by addressing an important technology gap: the lack of low-temperature catalysts suitable for industrial lignin degradation. Biomass, which is ~30 wt% lignin, constitutes a potentially major source of platform chemicals that could improve overall profitability and productivity of all energy-related products, thereby benefiting consumers and reducing national dependence on imported oil. Additionally, DoD has a strong interest in low-cost drop-in fuels (Navy Biofuel Initiative) and has signed a Memorandum of Understanding with DOE and USDA to develop a sustainable biofuels industry.

  15. The Importance of Domain Size and Purity in High-Efficiency Organic Solar

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Cells The Importance of Domain Size and Purity in High-Efficiency Organic Solar Cells Print The efficiency of polymer/organic photovoltaic cells hinges on excitons-electron/hole pairs energized by sunlight-getting to the interfaces of donor and acceptor domains quickly, before recombining. At the interfaces, they become free charges that must then reach device electrodes. With the discovery of mixed domains of donor and acceptor molecules, many have pictured the excitons' journey as easy

  16. The Importance of Domain Size and Purity in High-Efficiency Organic Solar

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Cells The Importance of Domain Size and Purity in High-Efficiency Organic Solar Cells Print The efficiency of polymer/organic photovoltaic cells hinges on excitons-electron/hole pairs energized by sunlight-getting to the interfaces of donor and acceptor domains quickly, before recombining. At the interfaces, they become free charges that must then reach device electrodes. With the discovery of mixed domains of donor and acceptor molecules, many have pictured the excitons' journey as easy

  17. The Importance of Domain Size and Purity in High-Efficiency Organic Solar

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Cells The Importance of Domain Size and Purity in High-Efficiency Organic Solar Cells Print The efficiency of polymer/organic photovoltaic cells hinges on excitons-electron/hole pairs energized by sunlight-getting to the interfaces of donor and acceptor domains quickly, before recombining. At the interfaces, they become free charges that must then reach device electrodes. With the discovery of mixed domains of donor and acceptor molecules, many have pictured the excitons' journey as easy

  18. The Importance of Domain Size and Purity in High-Efficiency Organic Solar

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Cells The Importance of Domain Size and Purity in High-Efficiency Organic Solar Cells Print The efficiency of polymer/organic photovoltaic cells hinges on excitons-electron/hole pairs energized by sunlight-getting to the interfaces of donor and acceptor domains quickly, before recombining. At the interfaces, they become free charges that must then reach device electrodes. With the discovery of mixed domains of donor and acceptor molecules, many have pictured the excitons' journey as easy

  19. High-Efficiency Solar Cogeneration with Thermophotovoltaic & Fiber-Optic

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Daylighting | Department of Energy Efficiency Solar Cogeneration with Thermophotovoltaic & Fiber-Optic Daylighting High-Efficiency Solar Cogeneration with Thermophotovoltaic & Fiber-Optic Daylighting Credit: Creative Light Source, Inc. Credit: Creative Light Source, Inc. Lead Performer: Creative Light Source, Inc. DOE Funding: $1,724,521 (total for SBIR Phases I and 2) Cost Share: N/A Project Term: 7/28/14 - 7/28/16 Funding Opportunity Announcement: 2013 - Small Business Innovation

  20. The Importance of Domain Size and Purity in High-Efficiency Organic Solar

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Cells The Importance of Domain Size and Purity in High-Efficiency Organic Solar Cells Print The efficiency of polymer/organic photovoltaic cells hinges on excitons-electron/hole pairs energized by sunlight-getting to the interfaces of donor and acceptor domains quickly, before recombining. At the interfaces, they become free charges that must then reach device electrodes. With the discovery of mixed domains of donor and acceptor molecules, many have pictured the excitons' journey as easy

  1. The Importance of Domain Size and Purity in High-Efficiency Organic Solar

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Cells The Importance of Domain Size and Purity in High-Efficiency Organic Solar Cells Print The efficiency of polymer/organic photovoltaic cells hinges on excitons-electron/hole pairs energized by sunlight-getting to the interfaces of donor and acceptor domains quickly, before recombining. At the interfaces, they become free charges that must then reach device electrodes. With the discovery of mixed domains of donor and acceptor molecules, many have pictured the excitons' journey as easy

  2. The Importance of Domain Size and Purity in High-Efficiency Organic Solar

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Cells The Importance of Domain Size and Purity in High-Efficiency Organic Solar Cells Print The efficiency of polymer/organic photovoltaic cells hinges on excitons-electron/hole pairs energized by sunlight-getting to the interfaces of donor and acceptor domains quickly, before recombining. At the interfaces, they become free charges that must then reach device electrodes. With the discovery of mixed domains of donor and acceptor molecules, many have pictured the excitons' journey as easy

  3. ENGINEERED ELECTRODES AND ELECTRODE-ORGANIC INTERFACES FOR HIGH-EFFICIENCY ORGANIC PHOTOVOLTAICS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tobin J. Marks; R.P.H. Chang; Tom Mason; Ken Poeppelmeier; Arthur J. Freeman

    2008-11-13

    Organic photovoltaic (OPV) cells offer the ultimate promise of low cost, readily manufacturable, and durable solar power. While recent advances have led to cells with impressive performance levels, OPV cells have yet to break the double-digit efficiency barrier. Further gains in efficiency and durability, to that competitive with high-performance inorganic photovoltaics will require breakthroughs in transparent electrode and interfacial materials science and engineering. This project involved an integrated basic research effort carried out by an experienced and highly collaborative interdisciplinary team to address in unconventional ways, critical electrode-interfacial issues underlying OPV performance--controlling band offsets between transparent electrodes and organics, addressing current loss/leakage problems at interfaces, enhancing adhesion, interfacial stability, and device durability while minimizing cost. It synergistically combined materials and interfacial reagent synthesis, nanostructural and photovoltaic characterization, and high level quantum theory. The research foci were: 1) understanding of/development of superior transparent electrode materials and materials morphologies--i.e., better matched electronically and chemically to organic active layers, 2) understanding-based development of inorganic interfacial current-collecting/charge-blocking layers, and 3) understanding-based development of self-assembled adhesion/current-collecting/charge-blocking/cross-linking layers for high-efficiency OPV interfaces. Pursing the goal of developing the fundamental scientific understanding needed to design, fabricate, prototype and ultimately test high-efficiency OPV cells incorporating these new concepts, we achieved a record power conversion efficiency of 5.2% for an organic bulk-heterjunction solar cell.

  4. Toward Molecular Catalysts by Computer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Raugei, Simone; DuBois, Daniel L.; Rousseau, Roger J.; Chen, Shentan; Ho, Ming-Hsun; Bullock, R. Morris; Dupuis, Michel

    2015-02-17

    Rational design of molecular catalysts requires a systematic approach to designing ligands with specific functionality and precisely tailored electronic and steric properties. It then becomes possible to devise computer protocols to predict accurately the required properties and ultimately to design catalysts by computer. In this account we first review how thermodynamic properties such as oxidation-reduction potentials (E0), acidities (pKa), and hydride donor abilities (ΔGH-) form the basis for a systematic design of molecular catalysts for reactions that are critical for a secure energy future (hydrogen evolution and oxidation, oxygen and nitrogen reduction, and carbon dioxide reduction). We highlight how density functional theory allows us to determine and predict these properties within “chemical” accuracy (~ 0.06 eV for redox potentials, ~ 1 pKa unit for pKa values, and ~ 1.5 kcal/mol for hydricities). These quantities determine free energy maps and profiles associated with catalytic cycles, i.e. the relative energies of intermediates, and help us distinguish between desirable and high-energy pathways and mechanisms. Good catalysts have flat profiles that avoid high activation barriers due to low and high energy intermediates. We illustrate how the criterion of a flat energy profile lends itself to the prediction of design points by computer for optimum catalysts. This research was carried out in the Center for Molecular Electro-catalysis, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is operated for the DOE by Battelle.

  5. Methods of making textured catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Werpy, Todd; Frye, Jr., John G.; Wang, Yong; Zacher, Alan H.

    2010-08-17

    A textured catalyst having a hydrothermally-stable support, a metal oxide and a catalyst component is described. Methods of conducting aqueous phase reactions that are catalyzed by a textured catalyst are also described. The invention also provides methods of making textured catalysts and methods of making chemical products using a textured catalyst.

  6. Note: High-efficiency broadband acoustic energy harvesting using Helmholtz resonator and dual piezoelectric cantilever beams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Aichao; Li, Ping Wen, Yumei; Lu, Caijiang; Peng, Xiao; He, Wei; Zhang, Jitao; Wang, Decai; Yang, Feng

    2014-06-15

    A high-efficiency broadband acoustic energy harvester consisting of a compliant-top-plate Helmholtz resonator (HR) and dual piezoelectric cantilever beams is proposed. Due to the high mechanical quality factor of beams and the strong multimode coupling of HR cavity, top plate and beams, the high efficiency in a broad bandwidth is obtained. Experiment exhibits that the proposed harvester at 170–206 Hz has 28–188 times higher efficiency than the conventional harvester using a HR with a piezoelectric composite diaphragm. For input acoustic pressure of 2.0 Pa, the proposed harvester exhibits 0.137–1.43 mW output power corresponding to 0.035–0.36 μW cm{sup −3} volume power density at 170–206 Hz.

  7. Oxidation catalyst systems for emission control of LPG-powered forklift trucks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Majewski, W.A.; Martin, E.P.; Pietrasz, E.

    1994-10-01

    An oxidation catalyst was installed on an industrial LPG-powered forklift truck. For high conversion efficiency in an oxidation system on a rich burning engine a secondary air supply to the catalyst is necessary. Two simple and cost-effective ways of secondary air supply were tested: an air valve and a venturi type injector. The amount of secondary air supplied by both devices was measured under a variety of conditions - different engine speed, load and exhaust system pressure. Carbon monoxide emissions and the catalyst performance were measured and evaluated in terms of the secondary air flow. Advantages and drawbacks of the air valve and venturi injector systems are discussed and compared. 1 refs., 11 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. The role of CO2 as a soft oxidant for dehydrogenation of ethylbenzene to styrene over a high-surface-area ceria catalyst

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Li; Wu, Zili; Nelson, Nicholas; Sadow, Aaron D.; Slowing, Igor I.; Overbury, Steven H.

    2015-09-22

    Catalytic performance and the nature of surface adsorbates were investigated for high-surface-area ceria during ethylbenzene oxidative dehydrogenation (ODH) reaction using CO2 as a soft oxidant. A template assisted method was used to synthesize the high-surface-area ceria. The interactions between ethylbenzene, styrene and CO2 on the surface of ceria and the role of CO2 for the ethylbenzene ODH reaction have been investigated in detail by using activity test, in situ Diffuse Reflectance Infrared and Raman spectroscopy. Not only did CO2 as an oxidant favor the higher yield of styrene, but it also inhibited the deposition of coke during the ethylbenzene ODH reaction. Ethylbenzene ODH reaction over ceria followed a two-step pathway: Ethylbenzene is first dehydrogenated to styrene with H2 formed simultaneously, and then CO2 reacts with H2 via the reverse water gas shift. The styrene produced can easily polymerize to form polystyrene, a key intermediate for coke formation. In the absence of CO2, the polystyrene transforms into graphite-like coke at temperatures above 500 C, which leads to catalyst deactivation. While in the presence of CO2, the coke deposition can be effectively removed via oxidation with CO2.

  9. The role of CO2 as a soft oxidant for dehydrogenation of ethylbenzene to styrene over a high-surface-area ceria catalyst

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhang, Li; Wu, Zili; Nelson, Nicholas; Sadow, Aaron D.; Slowing, Igor I.; Overbury, Steven H.

    2015-09-22

    Catalytic performance and the nature of surface adsorbates were investigated for high-surface-area ceria during ethylbenzene oxidative dehydrogenation (ODH) reaction using CO2 as a soft oxidant. A template assisted method was used to synthesize the high-surface-area ceria. The interactions between ethylbenzene, styrene and CO2 on the surface of ceria and the role of CO2 for the ethylbenzene ODH reaction have been investigated in detail by using activity test, in situ Diffuse Reflectance Infrared and Raman spectroscopy. Not only did CO2 as an oxidant favor the higher yield of styrene, but it also inhibited the deposition of coke during the ethylbenzene ODHmore » reaction. Ethylbenzene ODH reaction over ceria followed a two-step pathway: Ethylbenzene is first dehydrogenated to styrene with H2 formed simultaneously, and then CO2 reacts with H2 via the reverse water gas shift. The styrene produced can easily polymerize to form polystyrene, a key intermediate for coke formation. In the absence of CO2, the polystyrene transforms into graphite-like coke at temperatures above 500 °C, which leads to catalyst deactivation. While in the presence of CO2, the coke deposition can be effectively removed via oxidation with CO2.« less

  10. New hydroprocessing catalysts prepared from molecular complexes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ho, T.C.

    1994-12-31

    Current commercial hydroprocessing catalysts are transition metal sulfides (TMS) based on Group 8 and 11 metals. They are prepared by dispersing MoO{sub 3} and a promoter metal oxide, either CoO or NiO, on {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} or SiO{sub 2}-modified Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. This is followed by sulfiding with a sulfur-bearing stream such as H{sub 2}S at high temperatures. The thus formed MoS{sub 2} crystallites are the backbone of the working catalysts. A potentially fruitful approach to new catalysts would be to molecularly incorporate promoter metals into the structure of MoS{sub 2} edge planes. As a first step, it would seem reasonable to exploit the use of heterometallic metal sulfur complexes as hydroprocessing catalyst precursors. The authors have developed several families of new catalysts along this line. In this paper the authors restrict themselves to the metal amine thiomolybdate-derived catalysts. Specifically, they give an overview of the performance of the bulk (unsupported) FeMo sulfide prepared from MAT. This low-surface-area catalyst shows a high HDN-to-HDS volumetric activity ratio and is also active for HDA. While most of the results are taken from their previous publications, some new results are reported here.

  11. Long term experiences with HDD SCR Catalysts | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Test bench results and on-road experiences of more than 1 million km offer comparisons of fresh and used catalyst activity and NOx conversion capability using appropriate methods of catalyst analysis. PDF icon deer08_hofmann.pdf More Documents & Publications BLUETEC - Heading for 50 State Diesel Fuel Efficiency of New European HD Vehicles The PUREM SCR System with AdBlue

  12. Liquefaction with microencapsulated catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weller, Sol W. (Williamsville, NY)

    1985-01-01

    A method of dispersing a liquefaction catalyst within coal or other carbonaceous solids involves providing a suspension in oil of microcapsules containing the catalyst. An aqueous solution of a catalytic metal salt is emulsified in the water-immiscible oil and the resulting minute droplets microencapsulated in polymeric shells by interfacial polycondensation. The catalyst is subsequently blended and dispersed throughout the powdered carbonaceous material to be liquefied. At liquefaction temperatures the polymeric microcapsules are destroyed and the catalyst converted to minute crystallites in intimate contact with the carbonaceous material.

  13. Greensburg Implements High-Efficiency Building Codes to Achieve Long-Term

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Savings | Department of Energy Greensburg Implements High-Efficiency Building Codes to Achieve Long-Term Energy Savings Greensburg Implements High-Efficiency Building Codes to Achieve Long-Term Energy Savings The LEED Platinum K-12 school in Greensburg, Kansas. <em>Photo from Joah Bussert, Greensburg GreenTown, NREL 19952</em> The LEED Platinum K-12 school in Greensburg, Kansas. Photo from Joah Bussert, Greensburg GreenTown, NREL 19952 On May 4, 2007, a massive tornado

  14. Fundamental understanding and development of low-cost, high-efficiency silicon solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    ROHATGI,A.; NARASIMHA,S.; MOSCHER,J.; EBONG,A.; KAMRA,S.; KRYGOWSKI,T.; DOSHI,P.; RISTOW,A.; YELUNDUR,V.; RUBY,DOUGLAS S.

    2000-05-01

    The overall objectives of this program are (1) to develop rapid and low-cost processes for manufacturing that can improve yield, throughput, and performance of silicon photovoltaic devices, (2) to design and fabricate high-efficiency solar cells on promising low-cost materials, and (3) to improve the fundamental understanding of advanced photovoltaic devices. Several rapid and potentially low-cost technologies are described in this report that were developed and applied toward the fabrication of high-efficiency silicon solar cells.

  15. Refractory oxide hosts for a high power, broadly tunable laser with high quantum efficiency and method of making same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, Yok; Gonzalez, Roberto

    1986-01-01

    Refractory oxide crystals having high-quantum efficiency and high thermal stability for use as broadly tunable laser host materials. The crystals are formed by removing hydrogen from a single crystal of the oxide material to a level below about 10.sup.12 protons per cm.sup.3 and subsequently thermochemically reducing the oxygen content of the crystal to form sufficient oxygen anion vacancies so that short-lived F.sup.+ luminescence is produced when the crystal is optically excited.

  16. Refractory oxide hosts for a high power, broadly tunable laser with high quantum efficiency and method of making same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, Yok; Gonzalez, R.

    1985-07-03

    Refractory oxide crystals having high-quantum efficiency and high thermal stability for use as broadly tunable laser host materials. The crystals are formed by removing hydrogen from a single crystal of the oxide material to a level below about 10/sup 12/ protons per cm/sup 3/ and subsequently thermochemically reducing the oxygen content of the crystal to form sufficient oxygen anion vacancies so that short-lived F/sup +/ luminescence is produced when the crystal is optically excited.

  17. High-Efficiency Deflection of High-Energy Protons through Axial Channeling in a Bent Crystal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scandale, Walter; Vomiero, Alberto; Baricordi, Stefano; Dalpiaz, Pietro; Fiorini, Massimiliano; Guidi, Vincenzo; Mazzolari, Andrea; Della Mea, Gianantonio; Milan, Riccardo; Ambrosi, Giovanni; Bertucci, Bruna; Burger, William J.; Zuccon, Paolo; Cavoto, Gianluca; Luci, Claudio; Santacesaria, Roberta; Valente, Paolo; Vallazza, Erik; Afonin, Alexander G.; Chesnokov, Yury A.

    2008-10-17

    Beam deflection due to axial channeling in a silicon crystal bent along the <111> axis was observed with 400 GeV/c protons at the CERN Super Proton Synchrotron. The condition for doughnut scattering of protons by the atomic strings of the crystal was attained. Such a condition allowed one to observe a beam deflection of 50 {mu}rad with about 30% efficiency. The contribution of hyperchanneled states of protons to the observed beam deflection was less than 2% according to simulation results.

  18. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: High Temperature Materials for High Efficiency Engines

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Oak Ridge National Laboratory at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about high...

  19. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: High Temperature Materials for High Efficiency Engines

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Oak Ridge National Laboratory at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about high...

  20. Highly efficient terahertz wave filter for high-power laser beam separation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guo, Bo; Cai, Bin E-mail: ymzhu@usst.edu.cn; Zhu, YiMing E-mail: ymzhu@usst.edu.cn; Tang, Jun

    2014-12-01

    In this study, we design and fabricate a two-layer device based on the Rayleigh scattering theory for effectively separating high-energy pump-laser-generated terahertz (THz) waves. The basic layer is comprised of cyclo olefin polymer and silicon nanoparticles, which can obstruct the propagation of the 800-nm, high-energy pump laser through scattering and absorption effects while permitting THz waves to pass through. In order to improve the laser damage threshold of the basic layer, an additional layer, which is composed of hollow silica nanoparticles, is used to diffuse the incident high-energy laser beam. Through this two-layer structure, a high 800-nm laser threshold and highly transparent THz region filter are fabricated.