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1

Higher order terms in the inflation potential and the lower bound on the tensor to scalar ratio r  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Research Highlights: > In Ginsburg-Landau (G-L) approach data favors new inflation over chaotic inflation. > n{sub s} and r fall inside a universal banana-shaped region in G-L new inflation. > The banana region for the observed value n{sub s}=0.964 implies 0.021 Fermion condensate inflaton potential is a double well in the G-L class. - Abstract: The MCMC analysis of the CMB + LSS data in the context of the Ginsburg-Landau approach to inflation indicated that the fourth degree double-well inflaton potential in new inflation gives an excellent fit of the present CMB and LSS data. This provided a lower bound for the ratio r of the tensor to scalar fluctuations and as most probable value r {approx_equal} 0.05, within reach of the forthcoming CMB observations. In this paper we systematically analyze the effects of arbitrarily higher order terms in the inflaton potential on the CMB observables: spectral index n{sub s} and ratio r. Furthermore, we compute in close form the inflaton potential dynamically generated when the inflaton field is a fermion condensate in the inflationary universe. This inflaton potential turns out to belong to the Ginsburg-Landau class too. The theoretical values in the (n{sub s}, r) plane for all double well inflaton potentials in the Ginsburg-Landau approach (including the potential generated by fermions) fall inside a universal banana-shaped region B. The upper border of the banana-shaped region B is given by the fourth order double-well potential and provides an upper bound for the ratio r. The lower border of B is defined by the quadratic plus an infinite barrier inflaton potential and provides a lower bound for the ratio r. For example, the current best value of the spectral index n{sub s} = 0.964, implies r is in the interval: 0.021 < r < 0.053. Interestingly enough, this range is within reach of forthcoming CMB observations.

Destri, C., E-mail: Claudio.Destri@mib.infn.it [Dipartimento di Fisica G. Occhialini, Universita Milano-Bicocca and INFN, sezione di Milano-Bicocca, Piazza della Scienza 3, 20126 Milano (Italy); Vega, H.J. de, E-mail: devega@lpthe.jussieu.fr [LPTHE, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie (Paris VI) et Denis Diderot (Paris VII), Laboratoire Associe au CNRS UMR 7589, Tour 24, 5eme. etage, Boite 126, 4, Place Jussieu, 75252 Paris, Cedex 05 (France); Observatoire de Paris, LERMA, Laboratoire Associe au CNRS UMR 8112, 61, Avenue de l'Observatoire, 75014 Paris (France); Sanchez, N.G., E-mail: Norma.Sanchez@obspm.fr [Observatoire de Paris, LERMA, Laboratoire Associe au CNRS UMR 8112, 61, Avenue de l'Observatoire, 75014 Paris (France)

2011-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

2

Lateral flow strip assay  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A lateral flow strip assay apparatus comprising a housing; a lateral flow strip in the housing, the lateral flow strip having a receiving portion; a sample collection unit; and a reagent reservoir. Saliva and/or buccal cells are collected from an individual using the sample collection unit. The sample collection unit is immersed in the reagent reservoir. The tip of the lateral flow strip is immersed in the reservoir and the reagent/sample mixture wicks up into the lateral flow strip to perform the assay.

Miles, Robin R. (Danville, CA); Benett, William J. (Livermore, CA); Coleman, Matthew A. (Oakland, CA); Pearson, Francesca S. (Livermore, CA); Nasarabadi, Shanavaz L. (Livermore, CA)

2011-03-08T23:59:59.000Z

3

Purposes of Strip Development  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

...arriving at the most economical use of material. Economy of material usage must be considered so as to obtain fully the possible reductions of manufacturing costs through use of progressive dies. The strip development should be studied with a view toward using the narrowest possible carrier strips...

4

Strip Development for Progressive Dies  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Figure: ...Fig. 2 Strip development for a ring-shaped part (two at a time). Note idle stage for die strength, layout of strip for material economy....

5

Strip Mine Law (Missouri)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This law authorizes the Land Reclamation Commission of the Department of Natural Resources to adopt and promulgate rules and regulations pertaining to strip mining of coal and reclamation, review...

6

Retractable barrier strip  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A portable barrier strip is described having retractable tire-puncture means for puncturing a vehicle tire. The tire-puncture means, such as spikes, have an armed position for puncturing a tire and a retracted position for not puncturing a tire. The strip comprises a plurality of barrier blocks having the tire-puncture means removably disposed in a shaft that is rotatably disposed in each barrier block. The shaft removably and pivotally interconnects the plurality of barrier blocks. Actuation cables cause the shaft to rotate the tire-puncture means to the armed position for puncturing a vehicle tire and to the retracted position for not puncturing the tire. Each tire-puncture means is received in a hollow-bed portion of its respective barrier block when in the retracted position. The barrier strip rests in its deployed position and substantially motionless as a tire rolls thereon and over. The strip is rolled up for retrieval, portability, and storage purposes, and extended and unrolled in its deployed position for use. 13 figs.

Marts, D.J.; Barker, S.G.; McQueen, M.A.

1996-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

7

Retractable barrier strip  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A portable barrier strip having retractable tire-puncture means for puncturing a vehicle tire. The tire-puncture means, such as spikes, have an armed position for puncturing a tire and a retracted position for not puncturing a tire. The strip comprises a plurality of barrier blocks having the tire-puncture means removably disposed in a shaft that is rotatably disposed in each barrier block. The shaft removably and pivotally interconnects the plurality of barrier blocks. Actuation cables cause the shaft to rotate the tire-puncture means to the armed position for puncturing a vehicle tire and to the retracted position for not puncturing the tire. Each tire-puncture means is received in a hollow-bed portion of its respective barrier block when in the retracted position. The barrier strip rests stable in its deployed position and substantially motionless as a tire rolls thereon and over. The strip is rolled up for retrieval, portability, and storage purposes, and extended and unrolled in its deployed position for use.

Marts, Donna J. (Idaho Falls, ID); Barker, Stacey G. (Idaho Falls, ID); McQueen, Miles A. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

8

Retractable barrier strip  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A portable barrier strip having retractable tire-puncture spikes for puncturing a vehicle tire. The tire-puncture spikes have an armed position for puncturing a tire and a retracted position for not puncturing a tire. The strip comprises a plurality of barrier blocks having the tire-puncture spikes removably disposed in a shaft that is rotatably disposed in each barrier block. The plurality of barrier blocks hare hingedly interconnected by complementary hinges integrally formed into the side of each barrier block which allow the strip to be rolled for easy storage and retrieval, but which prevent irregular or back bending of the strip. The shafts of adjacent barrier blocks are pivotally interconnected via a double hinged universal joint to accommodate irregularities in a roadway surface and to transmit torsional motion of the shaft from block to block. A single flexshaft cable is connected to the shaft of an end block to allow a user to selectively cause the shafts of a plurality of adjacently connected barrier blocks to rotate the tire-puncture spikes to the armed position for puncturing a vehicle tire, and to the retracted position for not puncturing the tire. The flexshaft is provided with a resiliently biased retracting mechanism, and a release latch for allowing the spikes to be quickly retracted after the intended vehicle tire is punctured.

Marts, Donna J. (Idaho Falls, ID); Barker, Stacey G. (Idaho Falls, ID); Wowczuk, Andrew (Wheeling, WV); Vellenoweth, Thomas E. (Wheeling, WV)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

9

Gated strip proportional detector  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A gated strip proportional detector includes a gas tight chamber which encloses a solid ground plane, a wire anode plane, a wire gating plane, and a multiconductor cathode plane. The anode plane amplifies the amount of charge deposited in the chamber by a factor of up to 10/sup 6/. The gating plane allows only charge within a narrow strip to reach the cathode. The cathode plane collects the charge allowed to pass through the gating plane on a set of conductors perpendicular to the open-gated region. By scanning the open-gated region across the chamber and reading out the charge collected on the cathode conductors after a suitable integration time for each location of the gate, a two-dimensional image of the intensity of the ionizing radiation incident on the detector can be made.

Morris, C.L.; Idzorek, G.C.; Atencio, L.G.

1985-02-19T23:59:59.000Z

10

Gated strip proportional detector  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A gated strip proportional detector includes a gas tight chamber which encloses a solid ground plane, a wire anode plane, a wire gating plane, and a multiconductor cathode plane. The anode plane amplifies the amount of charge deposited in the chamber by a factor of up to 10.sup.6. The gating plane allows only charge within a narrow strip to reach the cathode. The cathode plane collects the charge allowed to pass through the gating plane on a set of conductors perpendicular to the open-gated region. By scanning the open-gated region across the chamber and reading out the charge collected on the cathode conductors after a suitable integration time for each location of the gate, a two-dimensional image of the intensity of the ionizing radiation incident on the detector can be made.

Morris, Christopher L. (Los Alamos, NM); Idzorek, George C. (Los Alamos, NM); Atencio, Leroy G. (Espanola, NM)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

11

Strip edge cracking simulation in cold rolling  

SciTech Connect

This research work focuses on a specific defect which occurs during cold rolling of steel strips: edge-serration. Investigations on the industrial processes have led to the conclusion that this defect is the result of the edge-trimming and cold rolling sequences. The aim of this research work is to analyze the effect of the cutting process and the cold rolling on cracks occurrence, especially on strip edges.This study is performed using an experimental testing stand called Upsetting Rolling Test (URT). It allows to reproduce cold rolling contact parameters such as forward slip, reduction ratio and friction coefficients. Specimens sampled near trimmed industrial strip edges are deformed using the URT stand. Two sets of specimens with different stress states, obtained by annealing, are submitted to two reduction passes with extreme forward slips.Scanning electron microscopy observations added to 3D optical surface profiler topographies show that on one hand, forward slip has a major effect on cracks opening. On the other hand, cracks opening decreases according to high roll strip speed gradient. Concerning the heat-treated specimens, no crack appeared after all reduction passes, showing a large influence of the cutting process and consequently of the local stress state in the vicinity of the burnish and fracture regions.

Hubert, C.; Dubar, L.; Dubar, M.; Dubois, A. [Univ Lille Nord de France, F-59000 Lille (France); UVHC, TEMPO EA 4542, F-59313 Valenciennes (France)

2011-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

12

Spray Rolling Aluminum Strip  

SciTech Connect

Spray forming is a competitive low-cost alternative to ingot metallurgy for manufacturing ferrous and non-ferrous alloy shapes. It produces materials with a reduced number of processing steps, while maintaining materials properties, with the possibility of near-net-shape manufacturing. However, there are several hurdles to large-scale commercial adoption of spray forming: 1) ensuring strip is consistently flat, 2) eliminating porosity, particularly at the deposit/substrate interface, and 3) improving material yield. Through this program, a new strip/sheet casting process, termed spray rolling, has been developed, which is an innovative manufacturing technique to produce aluminum net-shape products. Spray rolling combines the benefits of twin-roll casting and conventional spray forming, showing a promising potential to overcome the above hurdles associated with spray forming. Spray rolling requires less energy and generates less scrap than conventional processes and, consequently, enables the development of materials with lower environmental impacts in both processing and final products. Spray Rolling was developed as a collaborative project between the University of California-Davis, the Colorado School of Mines, the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, and an industry team. The following objectives of this project were achieved: (1) Demonstration of the feasibility of the spray rolling process at the bench-scale level and evaluation of the materials properties of spray rolled aluminum strip alloys; and (2) Demonstration of 2X scalability of the process and documentation of technical hurdles to further scale up and initiate technology transfer to industry for eventual commercialization of the process.

Lavernia, E.J.; Delplanque, J-P; McHugh, K.M.

2006-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

13

Range gated strip proximity sensor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A range gated strip proximity sensor uses one set of sensor electronics and a distributed antenna or strip which extends along the perimeter to be sensed. A micro-power RF transmitter is coupled to the first end of the strip and transmits a sequence of RF pulses on the strip to produce a sensor field along the strip. A receiver is coupled to the second end of the strip, and generates a field reference signal in response to the sequence of pulse on the line combined with received electromagnetic energy from reflections in the field. The sensor signals comprise pulses of radio frequency signals having a duration of less than 10 nanoseconds, and a pulse repetition rate on the order of 1 to 10 MegaHertz or less. The duration of the radio frequency pulses is adjusted to control the range of the sensor. An RF detector feeds a filter capacitor in response to received pulses on the strip line to produce a field reference signal representing the average amplitude of the received pulses. When a received pulse is mixed with a received echo, the mixing causes a fluctuation in the amplitude of the field reference signal, providing a range-limited Doppler type signature of a field disturbance. 6 figs.

McEwan, T.E.

1996-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

14

Range gated strip proximity sensor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A range gated strip proximity sensor uses one set of sensor electronics and a distributed antenna or strip which extends along the perimeter to be sensed. A micro-power RF transmitter is coupled to the first end of the strip and transmits a sequence of RF pulses on the strip to produce a sensor field along the strip. A receiver is coupled to the second end of the strip, and generates a field reference signal in response to the sequence of pulse on the line combined with received electromagnetic energy from reflections in the field. The sensor signals comprise pulses of radio frequency signals having a duration of less than 10 nanoseconds, and a pulse repetition rate on the order of 1 to 10 MegaHertz or less. The duration of the radio frequency pulses is adjusted to control the range of the sensor. An RF detector feeds a filter capacitor in response to received pulses on the strip line to produce a field reference signal representing the average amplitude of the received pulses. When a received pulse is mixed with a received echo, the mixing causes a fluctuation in the amplitude of the field reference signal, providing a range-limited Doppler type signature of a field disturbance.

McEwan, Thomas E. (Livermore, CA)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

15

Intrabeam stripping in H- Linacs  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A beam loss in the superconducting part of the SNS linac has been observed during its commissioning and operation. Although the loss does not prevent the SNS high power operation, it results in an almost uniform irradiation of linac components and increased radiation levels in the tunnel. Multi-particle tracking could neither account for the magnitude of the observed loss nor its dependence on machine parameters. It was recently found that the loss is consistent with the intrabeam particle collisions resulting in stripping of H{sup -} ions. The paper describes experimental observations and corresponding analytical estimates of the intrabeam stripping.

Lebedev, V.; Solyak, N.; Ostigy, J.-F.; /Fermilab; Alexandrov, A.; Shishlo, A.; /Oak Ridge

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

16

Antenna structure with distributed strip  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An antenna comprises electrical conductors arranged to form a radiating element including a folded line configuration and a distributed strip configuration, where the radiating element is in proximity to a ground conductor. The folded line and the distributed strip can be electrically interconnected and substantially coplanar. The ground conductor can be spaced from, and coplanar to, the radiating element, or can alternatively lie in a plane set at an angle to the radiating element. Embodiments of the antenna include conductor patterns formed on a printed wiring board, having a ground plane, spacedly adjacent to and coplanar with the radiating element. Other embodiments of the antenna comprise a ground plane and radiating element on opposed sides of a printed wiring board. Other embodiments of the antenna comprise conductors that can be arranged as free standing "foils". Other embodiments include antennas that are encapsulated into a package containing the antenna.

Rodenbeck, Christopher T. (Albuquerque, NM)

2008-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

17

Antenna structure with distributed strip  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An antenna comprises electrical conductors arranged to form a radiating element including a folded line configuration and a distributed strip configuration, where the radiating element is in proximity to a ground conductor. The folded line and the distributed strip can be electrically interconnected and substantially coplanar. The ground conductor can be spaced from, and coplanar to, the radiating element, or can alternatively lie in a plane set at an angle to the radiating element. Embodiments of the antenna include conductor patterns formed on a printed wiring board, having a ground plane, spacedly adjacent to and coplanar with the radiating element. Other embodiments of the antenna comprise a ground plane and radiating element on opposed sides of a printed wiring board. Other embodiments of the antenna comprise conductors that can be arranged as free standing "foils". Other embodiments include antennas that are encapsulated into a package containing the antenna.

Rodenbeck, Christopher T. (Albuquerque, NM)

2008-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

18

An Analysis of the Effect of Local Heat Advection on Evaporation over Wet and Dry Surface Strips  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The effect of local advection on evaporation and Bowen ratio over alternating crosswind infinite dry-warm and wet-cool surface strips (patches), by redistribution of surface heat, is analysed. The analysis shows that evaporation over the region ...

Ya Guo; Peter H. Schuepp

1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

19

Method of stripping metals from organic solvents  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A new method to strip metals from organic solvents in a manner that allows for the recycle of the stripping agent. The method utilizes carbonate solutions of organic amines with complexants, in low concentrations, to strip metals from organic solvents. The method allows for the distillation and reuse of organic amines. The concentrated metal/complexant fraction from distillation is more amenable to immobilization than solutions resulting from current practice.

Todd, Terry A. (Aberdeen, ID); Law, Jack D. (Pocatello, ID); Herbst, R. Scott (Idaho Falls, ID); Romanovskiy, Valeriy N. (St. Petersburg, RU); Smirnov, Igor V. (St.-Petersburg, RU); Babain, Vasily A. (St-Petersburg, RU); Esimantovski, Vyatcheslav M. (St-Petersburg, RU)

2009-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

20

Caulking/Weather-stripping | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Incentives Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleCaulkingWeather-stripping&oldid267150" Category: Articles with outstanding TODO tasks What links...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "higher stripping ratios" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Möbius Graphene Strip as Topological Insulator  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We study the electronic properties of M\\"{o}bius graphene strip with a zigzag edge. We show that such graphene strip behaves as a topological insulator with a gapped bulk and a robust metallic surface, which enjoys some features due to its nontrivial topology of the spatial configuration, such as the existence of edge states and the non-Abelian induced gauge field. We predict that the topological properties of the M\\"{o}bius graphene strip can be experimentally displayed by the destructive interference in the transmission spectrum, and the robustness of edge states under certain perturbations.

Z. L. Guo; Z. R. Gong; H. Dong; C. P. Sun

2009-06-09T23:59:59.000Z

22

Saving Energy Through Advanced Power Strips (Poster)  

SciTech Connect

Advanced Power Strips (APS) look just like ordinary power strips, except that they have built-in features that are designed to reduce the amount of energy used by many consumer electronics. There are several different types of APSs on the market, but they all operate on the same basic principle of shutting off the supply power to devices that are not in use. By replacing your standard power strip with an APS, you can signifcantly cut the amount of electricity used by your home office and entertainment center devices, and save money on your electric bill. This illustration summarizes the different options.

Christensen, D.

2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

23

A novel approach to heat transfer enhancement using trapezoid shaped spiral strips to promote tumble and swirl in a slot shaped channel used in heat exchangers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Heat transfer results for a given slot shaped channel with a 3:1 aspect ratio are presented using various configurations of a trapezoid shaped spiral wound strips to enhance swirl and tumble motion in the channel. The Reynolds numbers investigated range from 10,000 to 50,000 and are based on the characteristics of the fluid at the channel inlet. The ratio of absolute temperatures between the wall and fluid are on the order of 0.8 to 0.9. A combination of thermochromic liquid crystal techniques and thermocouples were used to create a temperature vs. time map. Duhamel's superposition theorem was then used to determine the local heat transfer coefficients (h) and heat transfer enhancement factors (Nu/Nuo). In one series of testing a straight center inlet with a radiused entry was used to reduce entry effects. In a second series of test a 90 degree inlet geometry was used to enhance turbulence at the entry. Three combinations of helical strips were tested using a single, double, and pentuple spiral design. The pitch of the helix remained constant in all tests at 0.75” (18 mm) as well as the height of the strip at 0.0625” (1.6 mm), yielding a p/e (pitch/rib height) ratio of 12. The resulting flow in the channel creates a tumble motion as the main channel fluid encounters the strips and a swirl motion as the fluid is directed through the spiraling helix. Many studies involving heat transfer using swirl enhancement have been presented in literature using round passages with wire spring inserts or twisted tapes, typically used in heat exchangers. In turbine aero foils, particularly in the mid-span region, rectangular channels with various configurations of trip strips are used to enhance heat transfer. The results of the tests presented in this paper show local heat transfer enhancement (Nu/Nuo) values greater than seven and subsequent average values for the entire channel greater than three at the higher Reynolds numbers along with relatively low normalized friction factors.

Segura, D.; Acharya, S.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

24

A video strip chart program  

SciTech Connect

A strip chart recorder has been utilized for trend analysis of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory EN tandem since 1987. At the EN, the author could not afford the nice eight channel thermal pen recorder that was used at the 25 URC. He had to suffice with two channel fiber tip or capillary pen type recorders retrieved from salvage and maintained with parts from other salvaged recorders. After cycling through several machines that eventually became completely unserviceable, a search for a new thermal recorder was begun. As much as he hates to write computer code, he decided to try his hand at getting an old data acquisition unit, that had been retrieved several years ago from salvage, to meet his needs. A BASIC language compiler was used because time was not available to learn a more advanced language. While attempting to increase acquisition and scroll speed on the 6 MHz 80286 that the code was first developed on, it became apparent that scrolling only the first small portion of the screen at high speed and then averaging that region and histogramming the average provided both the speed necessary for capturing fairly short duration events, and a trend record without use of back scrolling and disk storage routines. This turned out to be quite sufficient.

Jones, N.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Accelerator-Based Atomic Physics

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

25

Higher Education  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Higher Education Higher Education Explore the multiple dimensions of a career at LANL: work with brilliant minds in an inclusive environment rich in intellectual vitality and...

26

Category:StripMall | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

StripMall StripMall Jump to: navigation, search Go Back to PV Economics By Building Type Media in category "StripMall" The following 77 files are in this category, out of 77 total. SVStripMall Bismarck ND Montana-Dakota Utilities Co (North Dakota).png SVStripMall Bismarck N... 69 KB SVStripMall International Falls MN Northern States Power Co (Minnesota) Excel Energy.png SVStripMall Internatio... 89 KB SVStripMall LA CA City of Los Angeles California (Utility Company).png SVStripMall LA CA City... 89 KB SVStripMall Memphis TN City of Memphis Tennessee (Utility Company).png SVStripMall Memphis TN... 64 KB SVStripMall Minneapolis MN Northern States Power Co (Minnesota) Excel Energy.png SVStripMall Minneapoli... 91 KB SVStripMall Minot ND Montana-Dakota Utilities Co (North Dakota).png

27

Pulsed LASER for testing silicon strip detectors  

SciTech Connect

This DO Note describes a pulsed LASER setup for testing silicon strip detectors at the Silicon Detector Facility (SiDet) of Fermilab supporting the related projects and, in particular, the DO Silicon Tracker Upgrade. It will be used in the measurements of the efficiency of individual strips and their coupling. The LASER wavelength is 1060 nm, at which the absorption length in silicon is about 2 mm. The LASER setup is capable of producing light pulses with rise time of less than 1 ns, allowing the measurement of charge pulse shaping at individual strips and their capacitive couplings. Due to the high power output of the LASER, safety considerations are included. Also discussed are precautions for the safety of the LASER itself, and how to limit the light to an area smaller than 50,pm of diameter.

Vaz, M.; Cihangir, S.; Rapidis, P.

1993-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

28

Spray forming lead strip. Final report  

SciTech Connect

A cooperative research project was conducted between the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) and Johnson Controls, Inc. (JCI) to adapt the INEL spray forming process to produce near-net-shape lead alloy strip. The emphasis of the work was to spray form lead strip samples at INEL, using a variety of spray conditions, for characterization at JCI. An existing glove box apparatus was modified at INEL to spray form lead. The main spray forming components were housed inside the glove box. They included a spray nozzle, tundish (crucible), substrate assembly, gas heater and furnaces to heat the nozzle and tundish. To spray form metal strip, liquid metal was pressure-fed at a controlled rate through a series of circular orifices that span the width of the nozzle. There the metal contacted high velocity, high temperature inert gas (nitrogen) which atomized the molten material into fine droplets, entrained the droplets in a directed flow, and deposited them onto glass plates that were swept through the spray plume to form strip samples. In-flight convection cooling of the droplets followed by conduction and convection cooling at the substrate resulted in rapid solidification of the deposit. During operation, the inside of the glove box was purged with an inert gas to limit the effects of in-flight oxidation of the particles and spray-formed strips, as well as to protect personnel from exposure to airborne lead particulate. Remote controls were used to start/stop the spray and control the speed and position of the substrate. In addition, substrate samples were loaded into the substrate translator manually using the gloved side ports of the box. In this way, the glove box remained closed during a series of spray trials, and was opened only when loading the crucible with a lead charge or when removing lead strip samples for shipment to JCI.

McHugh, K.

1996-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

29

Spray Rolling Aluminum Strip for Transportation Applications  

SciTech Connect

Spray rolling is a novel strip casting technology in which molten aluminum alloy is atomized and deposited into the roll gap of mill rolls to produce aluminum strip. A combined experimental/modeling approach has been followed in developing this technology with active participation from industry. The feasibility of this technology has been demonstrated at the laboratory scale and it is currently being scaled-up. This paper provides an overview of the process and compares the microstructure and properties of spray-rolled 2124 aluminum alloy with commercial ingot-processed material

Kevin M. McHugh; Y. Lin; Y. Zhou; E. J. Lavernia; J.-P. Delplanque; S. B. Johnson

2005-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

Urine Test Strips to Exclude Cerebral Spinal Fluid Blood  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

two Pearson Chi-Square tests. The first compared samplesO riginal R esearch Urine Test Strips to Exclude CerebralBayer Multistix ® urine test strips are designed to test

Marshall, Robin A; Hejamanowski, Chris

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

Creating intense polarized electron beam via laser stripping and spin-orbit interaction  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The recent advance in laser field make it possible to excite and strip electrons with definite spin from hydrogen atoms. The sources of hydrogen atoms with orders of magnitude higher currents (than that of the conventional polarized electron cathods) can be obtained from H{sup -} sources with good monochromatization. With one electron of H{sup -} stripped by a laser, the remained electron is excited to upper state (2P{sup 3/2} and 2P{sup 1/2}) by a circular polarization laser light from FEL. Then, it is excited to a high quantum number (n=7) with mostly one spin direction due to energy level split of the states with a definite direction of spin and angular momentum in an applied magnetic field and then it is stripped by a strong electric field of an RF cavity. This paper presents combination of lasers and fields to get high polarization and high current electron source.

Danilov, V.; Ptitsyn, V.; Gorlov, T.

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

32

Lab Tests Demonstrate Effectiveness of Advanced Power Strips (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect

NREL engineers evaluate the functionalities of advanced power strips and help consumers choose the right one for their plug loads.

Not Available

2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

A generic study of strip mining impacts on groundwater resources  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This report evaluates the influence of strip mining features, commonly found in the Northern Great Plains Coal Region, on ground

Hamilton, David Andrew

1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

34

Conveyorized Photoresist Stripping Replacement for Flex Circuit Fabrication  

SciTech Connect

A replacement conveyorized photoresist stripping system was characterized to replace the ASI photoresist stripping system. This system uses the qualified ADF-25c chemistry for the fabrication of flex circuits, while the ASI uses the qualified potassium hydroxide chemistry. The stripping process removes photoresist, which is used to protect the copper traces being formed during the etch process.

Megan Donahue

2009-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

35

Higher Education  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Education » Education » Higher Education Higher Education Explore the multiple dimensions of a career at LANL: work with brilliant minds in an inclusive environment rich in intellectual vitality and opportunities for growth. Contact Education Janelle Vigil-Maestas Community Programs Office (505) 665-4329 Email "The partnership between LANL and regional colleges creates opportunities for students like me to attain challenging and rewarding careers." - Sherry Salas Bachicha Higher Education Resources for Undergraduates, Graduates & Postdocs Opportunities LANL Foundation Scholarships LANL Post Doc Program Programs Certificate in Environmental Monitoring (pdf) Community College Institute (CCI) (pdf) Computer Science and Information Technology Pipeline Program (ADIT/HPC Division) (pdf)

36

Optimal Cluster Mill Pass Scheduling With an Accurate and Rapid New Strip Crown Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Besides the requirement to roll coiled sheet at high levels of productivity, the optimal pass scheduling of cluster-type reversing cold mills presents the added challenge of assigning mill parameters that facilitate the best possible strip flatness. The pressures of intense global competition, and the requirements for increasingly thinner, higher quality specialty sheet products that are more difficult to roll, continue to force metal producers to commission innovative flatness-control technologies. This means that during the on-line computerized set-up of rolling mills, the mathematical model should not only determine the minimum total number of passes and maximum rolling speed, it should simultaneously optimize the pass-schedule so that desired flatness is assured, either by manual or automated means. In many cases today, however, on-line prediction of strip crown and corresponding flatness for the complex cluster-type rolling mills is typically addressed either by trial and error, by approximate deflection models for equivalent vertical roll-stacks, or by non-physical pattern recognition style models. The abundance of the aforementioned methods is largely due to the complexity of cluster-type mill configurations and the lack of deflection models with sufficient accuracy and speed for on-line use. Without adequate assignment of the pass-schedule set-up parameters, it may be difficult or impossible to achieve the required strip flatness. In this paper, we demonstrate optimization of cluster mill pass-schedules using a new accurate and rapid strip crown model. This pass-schedule optimization includes computations of the predicted strip thickness profile to validate mathematical constraints. In contrast to many of the existing methods for on-line prediction of strip crown and flatness on cluster mills, the demonstrated method requires minimal prior tuning and no extensive training with collected mill data. To rapidly and accurately solve the multi-contact problem and predict the strip crown, a new customized semi-analytical modeling technique that couples the Finite Element Method (FEM) with classical solid mechanics was developed to model the deflection of the rolls and strip while under load. The technique employed offers several important advantages over traditional methods to calculate strip crown, including continuity of elastic foundations, non-iterative solution when using predetermined foundation moduli, continuous third-order displacement fields, simple stress-field determination, and a comparatively faster solution time.

Malik, Arif S.; Grandhi, Ramana V. [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Wright State University, 3640 Col. Glenn Hwy., Dayton, OH 45435 (United States); Zipf, Mark E. [Intergrated Industrial Systems, Inc., 475 Main St., Yalesville, CT 06492 (United States)

2007-05-17T23:59:59.000Z

37

List of Caulking/Weather-stripping Incentives | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

stripping Incentives stripping Incentives Jump to: navigation, search The following contains the list of 289 Caulking/Weather-stripping Incentives. CSV (rows 1 - 289) Incentive Incentive Type Place Applicable Sector Eligible Technologies Active AEP (Central and North) - Residential Energy Efficiency Programs (Texas) Utility Rebate Program Texas Construction Installer/Contractor Multi-Family Residential Building Insulation Caulking/Weather-stripping Comprehensive Measures/Whole Building Custom/Others pending approval Duct/Air sealing Unspecified technologies Yes AEP (SWEPCO) - Residential Energy Efficiency Programs (Texas) Utility Rebate Program Texas Construction Installer/Contractor Multi-Family Residential Building Insulation Caulking/Weather-stripping Comprehensive Measures/Whole Building

38

Pf/Zeolite Catalyst for Tritium Stripping  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report described promising hydrogen (protium and tritium) stripping results obtained with a Pd/zeolite catalyst at ambient temperature. Preliminary results show 90-99+ percent tritium stripping efficiency may be obtained, with even better performance expected as bed configuration and operating conditions are optimized. These results suggest that portable units with single beds of the Pd/zeolite catalyst may be utilized as ''catalytic absorbers'' to clean up both tritium gas and tritiated water. A cart-mounted prototype stripper utilizing this catalyst has been constructed for testing. This portable stripper has potential applications in maintenance-type jobs such as tritium line breaks. This catalyst can also potentially be utilized in an emergency stripper for the Replacement Tritium Facility.

Hsu, R.H.

2001-03-26T23:59:59.000Z

39

Antenna with distributed strip and integrated electronic components  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An antenna comprises electrical conductors arranged to form a radiating element including a folded line configuration and a distributed strip configuration, where the radiating element can be in proximity to a ground conductor and/or arranged as a dipole. Embodiments of the antenna include conductor patterns formed on a printed wiring board, having a ground plane, spacedly adjacent to and coplanar with the radiating element. An antenna can comprise a distributed strip patterned on a printed wiring board, integrated with electronic components mounted on top of or below the distributed strip, and substantially within the extents of the distributed strip. Mounting of electronic components on top of or below the distributed strip has little effect on the performance of the antenna, and allows for realizing the combination of the antenna and integrated components in a compact form. An embodiment of the invention comprises an antenna including a distributed strip, integrated with a battery mounted on the distributed strip.

Rodenbeck, Christopher T. (Albuquerque, NM); Payne, Jason A. (Albuquerque, NM); Ottesen, Cory W. (Albuquerque, NM)

2008-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

40

High ratio recirculating gas compressor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A high ratio positive displacement recirculating rotary compressor is disclosed. The compressor includes an integral heat exchanger and recirculation conduits for returning cooled, high pressure discharge gas to the compressor housing to reducing heating of the compressor and enable higher pressure ratios to be sustained. The compressor features a recirculation system which results in continuous and uninterrupted flow of recirculation gas to the compressor with no direct leakage to either the discharge port or the intake port of the compressor, resulting in a capability of higher sustained pressure ratios without overheating of the compressor.

Weinbrecht, John F. (601 Oakwood Pl., NE., Albuquerque, NM 87123)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "higher stripping ratios" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

High ratio recirculating gas compressor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A high ratio positive displacement recirculating rotary compressor is disclosed. The compressor includes an integral heat exchanger and recirculation conduits for returning cooled, high pressure discharge gas to the compressor housing to reducing heating of the compressor and enable higher pressure ratios to be sustained. The compressor features a recirculation system which results in continuous and uninterrupted flow of recirculation gas to the compressor with no direct leakage to either the discharge port or the intake port of the compressor, resulting in a capability of higher sustained pressure ratios without overheating of the compressor. 10 figs.

Weinbrecht, J.F.

1989-08-22T23:59:59.000Z

42

Wakes of ram pressure stripped disc galaxies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Spiral galaxies that move through the intracluster medium lose a substantial amount of their gas discs due to ram pressure stripping. The recent observations of NGC 4388 by Oosterloo & van Gorkom 2005 reveal a tail of stripped gas of ~ 100 kpc behind the source galaxy. We present first 3D hydrodynamical simulations of the evolution of such ram pressure stripped tails. We find that if the ICM wind does not vary significantly over a period of a few 100 Myr, subsonic galaxies produce a tail with regular features similar to a von-Karman vortex street. In this case, the tail widens systematically by about 45 kpc per 100 kpc distance behind the source galaxy. The widening rate is independent of the galaxy's inclination for a large range of inclinations. For supersonic galaxies, the tail is more irregular than for subsonic ones. The tail observed for NGC 4388 is narrower than the tails in our simulations. Reasons for this difference may be additional physical processes such as heat conduction or viscosity. In addition, we conclude that the observed S-shape of this tail is not due to von Karman oscillations, because this galaxy is likely to move supersonically. A reason for the observed shape may be motions in the ambient ICM. Finally, we discuss implications for the distribution of metals in the ICM due to ram pressure stipping.

E. Roediger; M. Brueggen; M. Hoeft

2006-03-21T23:59:59.000Z

43

Multiple Electron Stripping of Heavy Ion Beams  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

One approach being explored as a route to practical fusion energy uses heavy ion beams focused on an indirect drive target. Such beams will lose electrons while passing through background gas in the target chamber, and therefore it is necessary to assess the rate at which the charge state of the incident beam evolves on the way to the target. Accelerators designed primarily for nuclear physics or high energy physics experiments utilize ion sources that generate highly stripped ions in order to achieve high energies economically. As a result, accelerators capable of producing heavy ion beams of 10 to 40 Mev/amu with charge state 1 currently do not exist. Hence, the stripping cross-sections used to model the performance of heavy ion fusion driver beams have, up to now, been based upon theoretical calculations. We have investigated experimentally the stripping of 3.4 Mev/amu Kr 7+ and Xe +11 in N2; 10.2 MeV/amu Ar +6 in He, N2, Ar and Xe; 19 MeV/amu Ar +8 in He, N2, Ar and Xe; 30 MeV He 1 + in He, N2, Ar and Xe; and 38 MeV/amu N +6 in He, N2, Ar and Xe. The results of these measurements are compared with the theoretical calculations to assess their applicability over a wide range of parameters.

D. Mueller; L. Grisham; I. Kaganovich; R. L. Watson; V. Horvat; K. E. Zaharakis; Y. Peng

2002-06-25T23:59:59.000Z

44

Spray-formed tooling and aluminum strip  

SciTech Connect

Spray forming is an advanced materials processing technology that converts a bulk liquid metal to a near-net-shape solid by depositing atomized droplets onto a suitably shaped substrate. By combining rapid solidification processing with product shape control, spray forming can reduce manufacturing costs while improving product quality. De Laval nozzles offer an alternative method to the more conventional spray nozzle designs. Two applications are described: high-volume production of aluminum alloy strip, and the production of specialized tooling, such as injection molds and dies, for rapid prototyping.

McHugh, K.M.

1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

Energy Fuels Nuclear, Inc. Arizona Strip Operations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Founded in 1975 by uranium pioneer, Robert W. Adams, Energy Fuels Nuclear, Inc. (EFNI) emerged as the largest US uranium mining company by the mid-1980s. Confronting the challenges of declining uranium market prices and the development of high-grade ore bodies in Australia and Canada, EFNI aggressively pursued exploration and development of breccia-pipe ore bodies in Northwestern Arizona. As a result, EFNI's production for the Arizona Strip of 18.9 million pounds U[sub 3]O[sub 8] over the period 1980 through 1991, maintained the company's status as a leading US uranium producer.

Pool, T.C.

1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

46

Fermilab silicon strip readout chip for BTev  

SciTech Connect

A chip has been developed for reading out the silicon strip detectors in the new BTeV colliding beam experiment at Fermilab. The chip has been designed in a 0.25 {micro}m CMOS technology for high radiation tolerance. Numerous programmable features have been added to the chip, such as setup for operation at different beam crossing intervals. A full size chip has been fabricated and successfully tested. The design philosophy, circuit features, and test results are presented in this paper.

Yarema, Raymond; Hoff, Jim; Mekkaoui, Abderrezak; Manghisoni, Massimo; Re, Valerio; Angeleri, Valentina; Manfredi, Pier Francesco; Ratti, Lodovico; Speziali, Valeria; /Fermilab /Bergamo U. /INFN, Pavia /Pavia U.

2005-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

47

THREE-DIMENSIONAL EXPLOSION GEOMETRY OF STRIPPED-ENVELOPE CORE-COLLAPSE SUPERNOVAE. I. SPECTROPOLARIMETRIC OBSERVATIONS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We study the multi-dimensional geometry of supernova (SN) explosions by means of spectropolarimetric observations of stripped-envelope SNe, i.e., SNe without a hydrogen-rich layer. We perform spectropolarimetric observations of two stripped-envelope SNe, Type Ib SN 2009jf and Type Ic SN 2009mi. Both objects show non-zero polarization at the wavelength of the strong lines. They also show a loop in the Stokes Q - U diagram, which indicates a non-axisymmetric, three-dimensional ion distribution in the ejecta. We show that five out of six stripped-envelope SNe, which have been observed spectropolarimetrically so far, show such a loop. This implies that a three-dimensional geometry is common in stripped-envelope SNe. We find that stronger lines tend to show higher polarization. This effect is not related to the geometry, and must be corrected for to compare the polarization of different lines or different objects. Even after the correction, however, there remains a dispersion of polarization degree among different objects. Such a dispersion might be caused by three-dimensional clumpy ion distributions viewed from different directions.

Tanaka, Masaomi; Iye, Masanori [National Astronomical Observatory, Mitaka, Tokyo (Japan); Kawabata, Koji S.; Yamanaka, Masayuki [Hiroshima Astrophysical Science Center, Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima (Japan); Hattori, Takashi; Aoki, Kentaro; Sasaki, Toshiyuki [Subaru Telescope, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Mazzali, Paolo A. [Max-Planck Institut fuer Astrophysik, Karl-Schwarzschild-Strasse 2 D-85748 Garching bei Muenchen (Germany); Maeda, Keiichi; Nomoto, Ken'ichi [Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa (Japan); Pian, Elena, E-mail: masaomi.tanaka@nao.ac.jp [Istituto Naz. di Astrofisica-Oss. Astron., Via Tiepolo, 11, 34131 Trieste (Italy)

2012-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

48

Influence of Hot-strip Coiling Temperature on Microstructure and ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Influence of Hot-strip Coiling Temperature on Microstructure and Properties of Ultra-low C Ti-bearing Enamel Steel Produced by Ultra-fast ...

49

Stripping Ethanol from Ethanol-Blended Diesel Fuels for Reductant ...  

Stripping Ethanol from Ethanol-Blended Diesel Fuels for Reductant Use in N0x Catalytic Reduction Note: The technology described above is an early stage opportunity.

50

Recent Product Developments with Ultra-Thin Cast Strip Products ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... low-carbon steel type, offering yield strengths covering the range 275 to 380 MPa and strip .... Process Window Study for Heat Resistant Nanocoated Steel.

51

Ecology of Sulfur Cycling in Flooded Strip Mines.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Habitat restoration efforts in reclaimed coal mining areas have included the flooding of shallow strip mines, creating patches of wetland with special chemical characteristics, like… (more)

Wham, Breanna Michelle

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

52

Smart-Grid electricity allocation via strip packing with slicing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

One advantage of smart grids is that they can reduce the peak load by distributing electricity-demands over multiple short intervals. Finding a schedule that minimizes the peak load corresponds to a variant of a strip packing problem. Normally, for strip ...

Soroush Alamdari, Therese Biedl, Timothy M. Chan, Elyot Grant, Krishnam Raju Jampani, Srinivasan Keshav, Anna Lubiw, Vinayak Pathak

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

53

The Strip and Underground Mine Reclamation Act (Montana) | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

The Strip and Underground Mine Reclamation Act (Montana) The Strip and Underground Mine Reclamation Act (Montana) The Strip and Underground Mine Reclamation Act (Montana) < Back Eligibility Utility Investor-Owned Utility Industrial Construction Municipal/Public Utility Installer/Contractor Rural Electric Cooperative Program Info State Montana Program Type Siting and Permitting Provider Montana Department of Environmental Quality The policy of the state is to provide adequate remedies to protect the environmental life support system from degradation and to prevent unreasonable depletion and degradation of natural resources from strip and underground mining. This Act imposes permitting and operating restrictions on strip and underground mining activities for coal and uranium, and authorizes the Department of Environmental Quality to administer a

54

System Tests with DC-DC Converters for the CMS Silicon Strip Tracker at SLHC  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The delivery of power is considered to be one of the major challenges for the upgrade of the CMS silicon strip tracker for SLHC. The inevitable increase in granularity and complexity of the device is expected to result in a power consumption comparable or even higher than the power consumption of todays' strip tracker. However, the space available for cables will remain the same. In addition, a further increase of the tracker material budget due to cables and cooling is considered inacceptable, as the performance of the CMS detector must not be compromised for the upgrade. Novel powering schemes such as serial powering or usage of DC-DC converters have been proposed to solve the problem. To test the second option, substructures of the current CMS silicon strip tracker have been operated for the first time with off-the-shelf DC-DC buck converters as well as with first prototypes of custom-designed DC-DC converters. The tests are described and the results are discussed.

Klein, K; Karpinski, W; Merz, J; Sammet, J

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

Applicability of fan spray nozzles to stripping insoluble gases from viscous liquids  

SciTech Connect

Fan spray nozzle stripping appears to be a practical technique for separating dilute volatile solutes from nonvolatile solvents. In particular this technique can be used to strip molecular tritium and tritium fluoride at extremely small concentration (in the parts per million range) from molten salts used as blanket materials in a fusion reactor. Under adjusted operating conditions of the fan spray as it leaves the nozzle, a high percentage of the theoretically maximum achievable stripping would take place from the expanding sheet of the fan spray as it leaves the nozzle and before it breaks up. Although the only available experimental data are for aqueous solutions, a new theoretical analysis of the fan spray sheet demonstrates the applicability of this technique to nonaqueous liquids. The equation derived from this analysis relates the theoretically achievable mass transfer efficiency to the properties of the liquid flowing through the fan spray nozzle and to the operating conditions of the nozzle. Any fluid with viscosity higher than or equal to that of water would be expected to follow this equation as long as a fan-shaped sheet is formed under the operating conditions of the nozzle.

Tseng, H.H.; Johnson, E.F.

1983-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

The Strip: Las Vegas and the Symbolic Destruction of Spectacle  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

was emblematic of the atomic age Las Vegas participatedwas a monument to the Atomic Age and the fervor of Sputniktheme to the Strip: space age. Atomic imagery had become an

Al, Stefan Johannes

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

57

Surface Mounted Under Counter Dimmable LED Strip-STR8  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The product under assessment is an advanced lighting technologya controllable, surface mounted under-counter light emitting diode (LED) strip lighting system that is designed to provide various levels of direct and indirect white light.

2008-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

58

Results of Laboratory Testing of Advanced Power Strips: Preprint  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper describes the results of a laboratory investigation to evaluate the technical performance of advanced power strip (APS) devices when subjected to a range of home entertainment center and home office usage scenarios.

Earle, L.; Sparn, B.

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

Reducing Office Plug Loads through Simple and Inexpensive Advanced Power Strips: Preprint  

SciTech Connect

This paper documents the process (and results) of applying Advanced Power Strips with various control approaches.

Metzger, I.; Sheppy, M.; Cutler, D.

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

Design And Evaluation Of A Portable Electronic Flight Progress Strip System  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

There has been growing interest in using electronic alternatives to the paper Flight Progress Strip

Doble, Nathan

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "higher stripping ratios" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Analysis of mass transfer performance in an air stripping tower  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The carryover of working solution in a traditional stripping tower is of serious concern in real applications. A U-shaped spray tower to prevent carryover has been designed to study the stripping of water vapor from aqueous desiccant solutions of 91.8 to 95.8 wt% triethylene glycol. In this study, water vapor was removed from the diluted desiccant solution by heating the solution and stripping it with the ambient air. Therefore, the solution was concentrated to a desired concentration. This spray tower was capable of handling air flow rates from 3.2 to 5.13 kg/min and liquid flow rates from 1.6 to 2.76 kg/min. Since the literature data on air stripping towers are limited, studies on the mass transfer coefficient and other mass transfer parameters were carried out in this study. Under the operating conditions, the overall mass transfer coefficient calculated from the experimental data varied from 0.053 to 0.169 mol/m{sup 3}{center{underscore}dot}s. These corresponded to heights of a transfer unit of 2.3 to 0.71 m, respectively. The rates of stripping in this spray tower were typically varied from 2.28 to 12.15 kg H{sub 2}O/h. A correlation of the mass transfer coefficient for the air stripping process was also developed in this study.

Chung, T.W.; Lai, C.H.; Wu, H.

1999-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

62

Dynamic response of guardrail systems encased in pavement mow strips  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Strong post guardrail systems have long been employed to keep misguided vehicles on the roadway. In order to combat vegetation growth around the posts, many new guardrail installations are being encased in pavement mow strips. By increasing material stiffness of the confining layers around the posts, this practice changes the dynamic response of the guardrail system to the impact of a vehicle. This research aims to analyze existing mow strip configurations by using experimental testing and numerical simulation and to develop predictive, full-scale simulations that enable assessment of the performance of guardrail systems encased in mow strips. To develop a test matrix of mow strip designs in preparation for possible testing, a state of practice survey of Texas Department of Transportation districts is performed. Current mow strip construction methods and designs are gathered. Mow strip dimensions, materials, and depths are considered in addition to the presence of asphalt and grout "leave-out" layers around posts. Seventeen configurations using wood and steel posts embedded in asphalt, concrete, soil, and grout are subjected to dynamic impact testing with a bogie vehicle. Dynamic impact tests from the test matrix are numerically simulated using the nonlinear, dynamic, explicit code LS-DYNA. Modeling of soil, steel, concrete, and grout components is investigated. Results from numerical simulation are validated using experimental test results. Four full-scale mow strip system simulations are assembled using subcomponent models. Impact of a vehicle with a G4(1S) guardrail system is simulated. Results are compared to a full-scale crash test for validation. Enhancements to the simulation are made to increase numerical stability of the vehicle model and improve interaction between the vehicle and guardrail system. In addition, three mow strip guardrail systems are modeled using the G4(1S) system as a baseline case. Concrete mow strip and grout leave-out encasements are also examined. Through numerical simulation of a full-scale crash test it is shown that a concrete mow strip with 457x457 mm (18x18 in.) grout leave-outs performs at a similar level in a full-scale crash test to an equivalent system with posts embedded only in soil. This system is recommended for a full-scale crash test.

Seckinger, Nathaniel Ryan

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

63

Transformer Ratio Enhancement Experiment  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

TRANSFORMER RATIO ENHANCEMENT EXPERIMENT A. Kanareykin, Euclid Concepts LLC, Solon, OH 44139, USA W. Gai, J. G. Power. ANL, Argonne, IL, 60439, USA E. Nenasheva, Ceramics Ltd., St....

64

Prototype indicator strip for tank ammunition. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Combustible nitrocellulose ordnance casings offer advantages of: light weight, low cost, low detectability, and quick cycling of rounds by immediate disposal. However, mechanical strength is degraded with time by the action of humidity and nitroester diffusion through the casing to adhesives. The primary development effort of this study is a means to detect nitroester migration to the crucial skive joint which binds an assortment of warhead choices to propellant casings. This work has developed a prototype colorimetric indicator strip which, when applied in a field environment, produces a purple tint proportional to casing nitroester concentration, and inversely proportional to remaining adhesive joint strength. This work addressed the three steps in indicator strip use: (1) A suggested protocol for indicator strip preparation was developed. Various coatings, support reagents, and backings were examined resulting in a choice of polyethylene tape coating over separate AB- and C-impregnated cellulose punches. Various methods of punch creation and impregnation were tried resulting in stirred aqueous solutions and suspensions of AB and C, respectively. (2) Suggested protocols for indicator strip application to lab backings and field casings were developed. After chemical stripper was applied to the alumina-polyurethane paint on casings, C and AB punches were stacked and double-tape sealed. (3) A means for indicator strip monitoring was developed. From known time of indicator reaction, casing humidity, and indicator color, a means for field concentration determination was determined. Lab time-lapse photography was used to calibrate the indicator at a single level of humidity.

Bates, B.; Griest, W.

1993-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

65

Strip casting with fluxing agent applied to casting roll  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A strip caster (10) for producing a continuous strip (24) includes a tundish (12) for containing a melt (14), a pair of horizontally disposed water cooled casting rolls (22) and devices (29) for electrostatically coating the outer peripheral chill surfaces (44) of the casting rolls with a powder flux material (56). The casting rolls are juxtaposed relative to one another for forming a pouting basin (18) for receiving the melt through a teeming tube (16) thereby establishing a meniscus (20) between the rolls for forming the strip. The melt is protected from the outside air by a non-oxidizing gas passed through a supply line (28) to a sealing chamber (26). A preferred flux is boron oxide having a melting point of about 550.degree. C. The flux coating enhances wetting of the steel melt to the casting roll and dissolves any metal oxide formed on the roll.

Williams, Robert S. (Fairfield, OH); O' Malley, Ronald J. (Miamisburg, OH); Sussman, Richard C. (West Chester, OH)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

Strip casting with fluxing agent applied to casting roll  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A strip caster for producing a continuous strip includes a tundish for containing a melt, a pair of horizontally disposed water cooled casting rolls and devices for electrostatically coating the outer peripheral chill surfaces of the casting rolls with a powder flux material. The casting rolls are juxtaposed relative to one another for forming a pouting basin for receiving the melt through a teeming tube thereby establishing a meniscus between the rolls for forming the strip. The melt is protected from the outside air by a non-oxidizing gas passed through a supply line to a sealing chamber. A preferred flux is boron oxide having a melting point of about 550 C. The flux coating enhances wetting of the steel melt to the casting roll and dissolves any metal oxide formed on the roll. 3 figs.

Williams, R.S.; O`Malley, R.J.; Sussman, R.C.

1997-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

67

ARM - Measurement - Isotope ratio  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

govMeasurementsIsotope ratio govMeasurementsIsotope ratio ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Isotope ratio Ratio of stable isotope concentrations. Categories Atmospheric Carbon, Atmospheric State Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. ARM Instruments FLASK : Flask Samplers for Carbon Cycle Gases and Isotopes Field Campaign Instruments FLASK : Flask Samplers for Carbon Cycle Gases and Isotopes Datastreams FLASK : Flask Samplers for Carbon Cycle Gases and Isotopes

68

WEDGE-AND-STRIP ANODES FOR CENTROID-FINDING POSITION-SENSITIVE PHOTOM AND PARTICLE DETECTORS  

SciTech Connect

We discuss new anode geometries, employing position-dependent charge partitioning, which can be used with microchannel plates, planar proportional counters, and mesh dynode electron multipliers to obtain a two-dimensional position signal from each detected photon or particle. Only three or four anode electrodes and signal paths are required, yet images comprised of a number of detected events have little geometric distortion and the resolution is not limited by thermal noise inherent in resistive sheet anodes. We present an analysis of the geometrical image nonlinearity in the relationship between event centroid location and the charge partition ratios. Fabrication and testing of two wedge-and-strip anode systems are discussed. Images obtained with EUV radiation and microchannel plates that verify the predicted performance of this readout system are shown. We emphasize that the spatial resolution of the wedge-and-strip anode is in no way limited by the coarseness of the anode conductor pattern. The resolution is of the order of 0.4% of the image field size, and could be further improved by adopting low noise signal circuitry. Tradeoffs encountered in the design of practical x-ray, EUV, and charge particle image systems are discussed.

Martin, C.; Jelinsky, P.; Lampto, M.; Malina, R.F.; Anger, H.O.

1981-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

Automatic Curve Extraction for Digitizing Rainfall Strip Charts  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A method has been developed that largely automates the labor-intensive extraction work for large amounts of rainfall strip charts and paper rolls. The method consists of the following five basic steps: 1) scanning the charts and rolls to high-...

H. E. van Piggelen; T. Brandsma; H. Manders; J. F. Lichtenauer

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

High Transformer ratios in collinear wakefield accelerators.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Based on our previous experiment that successfully demonstrated wakefield transformer ratio enhancement in a 13.625 GHz dielectric-loaded collinear wakefield accelerator using the ramped bunch train technique, we present here a redesigned experimental scheme for even higher enhancement of the efficiency of this accelerator. Design of a collinear wakefield device with a transformer ratio R2, is presented. Using a ramped bunch train (RBT) rather than a single drive bunch, the enhanced transformer ratio (ETR) technique is able to increase the transformer ratio R above the ordinary limit of 2. To match the wavelength of the fundamental mode of the wakefield with the bunch length (sigmaz=2 mm) of the new Argonne wakefield accelerator (AWA) drive gun (where the experiment will be performed), a 26.625 GHz dielectric based accelerating structure is required. This transformer ratio enhancement technique based on our dielectric-loaded waveguide design will result in a compact, high efficiency accelerating structures for future wakefield accelerators.

Power, J. G.; Conde, M.; Yusof, Z.; Gai, W.; Jing, C.; Kanreykin, A.; Schoessow, P.; High Energy Physics; Euclid Techlabs, LLC

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

Commercial Reference Building: Strip Mall | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Strip Mall Strip Mall Dataset Summary Description Commercial reference buildings provide complete descriptions for whole building energy analysis using EnergyPlus simulation software. Included here is data pertaining to the reference building type Strip Mall for each of the 16 climate zones, and each of three construction categories: new construction, post-1980 construction existing buildings, pre-1980 construction existing buildings.The dataset includes four key components: building summary, zone summary, location summary and a picture. Building summary includes details about: form, fabric, and HVAC. Zone summary includes details such as: area, volume, lighting, and occupants for all types of zones in the building. Location summary includes key building information as it pertains to each climate zone, including: fabric and HVAC details, utility costs, energy end use, and peak energy demand.In total, DOE developed 16 reference building types that represent approximately 70% of commercial buildings in the U.S.; for each type, building models are available for the three construction categories. The commercial reference buildings (formerly known as commercial building benchmark models) were developed by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), in conjunction with three of its national laboratories.Additional data is available directly from DOE's Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE) Website, including EnergyPlus software input files (.idf) and results of the EnergyPlus simulations (.html).

72

In-situ conditioning of a strip casting roll  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A strip caster (10) for producing a continuous strip (24) has a tundish (12) for containing a melt (14) and a pair of horizontally disposed water cooled casting rolls (22). The casting rolls are juxtaposed relative to one another for forming a pouring basin (18) for receiving the melt through a teeming tube (16) thereby establishing a meniscus (20) between the rolls for forming a strip (24). The melt is protected from the outside air by a non-oxidizing gas passed through a supply line (28) to a sealing chamber (26). Devices (29) for conditioning the outer peripheral chill surfaces of the casting rolls includes grit blasting nozzles (30A, 30B, 30C, 30D), a collection trough (32) for gathering the grit, a line (34) for recycling the grit to a bag house (36), a feeder (38) and a pressurized distributor (40) for delivering the grit to the nozzles. The conditioning nozzles remove dirt, metal oxides and surface imperfections providing a clean surface readily wetted by the melt.

Williams, R.S.; Campbell, S.L.

1997-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

73

In-situ conditioning of a strip casting roll  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A strip caster (10) for producing a continuous strip (24) has a tundish (12) for containing a melt (14) and a pair of horizontally disposed water cooled casting rolls (22). The casting rolls are juxtaposed relative to one another for forming a pouring basin (18) for receiving the melt through a teeming tube (16) thereby establishing a meniscus (20) between the rolls for forming a strip (24). The melt is protected from the outside air by a non-oxidizing gas passed through a supply line (28) to a sealing chamber (26). Devices (29) for conditioning the outer peripheral chill surfaces of the casting rolls includes grit blasting nozzles (30A, 30B, 30C, 30D), a collection trough (32) for gathering the grit, a line (34) for recycling the grit to a bag house (36), a feeder (38) and a pressurized distributor (40) for delivering the grit to the nozzles. The conditioning nozzles remove dirt, metal oxides and surface imperfections providing a clean surface readily wetted by the melt.

Williams, Robert S. (Fairfield, OH); Campbell, Steven L. (Middletown, OH)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

Magnetic Fe3O4@TiO2 Nanoparticles-based Test Strip Immunosensing Device for Rapid Detection of Phosphorylated Butyrylcholinesterase  

SciTech Connect

An integrated magnetic nanoparticles-based test-strip immunosensing device was developed for rapid and sensitive quantification of phosphorylated butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), the biomarker of exposure to organophosphous pesticides (OP), in human plasma. In order to overcome the difficulty in scarce availability of OP-specific antibody, here magnetic Fe3O4@TiO2 nanoparticles were used and adsorbed on the test strip through a small magnet inserted in the device to capture target OP-BChE through selective binding between TiO2 and OP moiety. Further recognition was completed by horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and anti-BChE antibody (Ab) co-immobilized gold nanoparticles (GNPs). Their strong affinities among Fe3O4@TiO2, OP-BChE and HRP/Ab-GNPs were characterized by quartz crystal microbalance (QCM), surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and square wave voltammetry (SWV) measurements. After cutting off from test strip, the resulted immunocomplex (HRP/Ab-GNPs/OP-BChE/Fe3O4@TiO2) was measured by SWV using a screen printed electrode under the test zone. Greatly enhanced sensitivity was achieved by introduction of GNPs to link enzyme and antibody at high ratio, which amplifies electrocatalytic signal significantly. Moreover, the use of test strip for fast immunoreactions reduces analytical time remarkably. Coupling with a portable electrochemical detector, the integrated device with advanced nanotechnology displays great promise for sensitive, rapid and in-filed on-site evaluation of OP poisoning.

Ge, Xiaoxiao; Zhang, Weiying; Lin, Yuehe; Du, Dan

2013-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

75

Envera Variable Compression Ratio Engine  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Aggressive engine downsizing, variable compression ratio and use of the Atkinson cycle are being combined to improve fuel economy by up to 40 percent relative to port fuel injected gasoline engines, while maintaining full engine power. Approach Engine downsizing is viewed by US and foreign automobile manufacturers as one of the best options for improving fuel economy. While this strategy has already demonstrated a degree of success, downsizing and fuel economy gains are currently limited. With new variable compression ratio technology however, the degree of engine downsizing and fuel economy improvement can be greatly increased. A small variable compression ratio (VCR) engine has the potential to return significantly higher vehicle fuel economy while also providing high power. Affordability and potential for near term commercialization are key attributes of the Envera VCR engine. VCR Technology To meet torque and power requirements, a smaller engine needs to do more work per stroke. This is typically accomplished by boosting the incoming charge with either a turbo or supercharger so that more energy is present in the cylinder per stroke to do the work. With current production engines the degree of engine boosting (which correlates to downsizing) is limited by detonation (combustion knock) at high boost levels. Additionally, the turbo or supercharger needs to be responsive and efficient while providing the needed boost. VCR technology eliminates the limitation of engine knock at high load levels by reducing compression ratio to {approx}9:1 (or whatever level is appropriate) when high boost pressures are needed. By reducing the compression ratio during high load demand periods there is increased volume in the cylinder at top dead center (TDC) which allows more charge (or energy) to be present in the cylinder without increasing the peak pressure. Cylinder pressure is thus kept below the level at which the engine would begin to knock. When loads on the engine are low the compression ratio can be raised (to as much as 18:1) providing high engine efficiency. It is important to recognize that for a well designed VCR engine cylinder pressure does not need to be higher than found in current production turbocharged engines. As such, there is no need for a stronger crankcase, bearings and other load bearing parts within the VCR engine. The Envera VCR mechanism uses an eccentric carrier approach to adjust engine compression ratio. The crankshaft main bearings are mounted in this eccentric carrier or 'crankshaft cradle' and pivoting the eccentric carrier 30 degrees adjusts compression ratio from 9:1 to 18:1. The eccentric carrier is made up of a casting that provides rigid support for the main bearings, and removable upper bearing caps. Oil feed to the main bearings transits through the bearing cap fastener sockets. The eccentric carrier design was chosen for its low cost and rigid support of the main bearings. A control shaft and connecting links are used to pivot the eccentric carrier. The control shaft mechanism features compression ratio lock-up at minimum and maximum compression ratio settings. The control shaft method of pivoting the eccentric carrier was selected due to its lock-up capability. The control shaft can be rotated by a hydraulic actuator or an electric motor. The engine shown in Figures 3 and 4 has a hydraulic actuator that was developed under the current program. In-line 4-cylinder engines are significantly less expensive than V engines because an entire cylinder head can be eliminated. The cost savings from eliminating cylinders and an entire cylinder head will notably offset the added cost of the VCR and supercharging. Replacing V6 and V8 engines with in-line VCR 4-cylinder engines will provide high fuel economy at low cost. Numerous enabling technologies exist which have the potential to increase engine efficiency. The greatest efficiency gains are realized when the right combination of advanced and new technologies are packaged together to provide the greatest gains at the least cost. Aggressive engine downsiz

Charles Mendler

2011-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

76

Choose the Right Advanced Power Strip for You | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Choose the Right Advanced Power Strip for You Choose the Right Advanced Power Strip for You Choose the Right Advanced Power Strip for You October 28, 2013 - 11:33am Addthis Choose the right advanced power strip based on your habits to reduce the electricity wasted when your electronic devices are idle. Choose the right advanced power strip based on your habits to reduce the electricity wasted when your electronic devices are idle. Lieko Earle, Ph.D. Senior Engineer, Residential Buildings, National Renewable Energy Laboratory Bethany Sparn, M.S. Engineer, Residential Buildings, National Renewable Energy Laboratory What are the key facts? Advanced power strips (APS) can help reduce the electricity wasted when electronics are idle, without changing habits or how you use devices Choose the right APS based on your habits and the devices you want

77

Container lid gasket protective strip for double door transfer system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An apparatus and a process for forming a protective barrier seal along a "ring of concern" of a transfer container used with double door systems is provided. A protective substrate is supplied between a "ring of concern" and a safety cover in which an adhesive layer of the substrate engages the "ring of concern". A compressive foam strip along an opposite side of the substrate engages a safety cover such that a compressive force is maintained between the "ring of concern" and the adhesive layer of the substrate.

Allen, Jr., Burgess M

2013-02-19T23:59:59.000Z

78

AEGIS20: a radio survey of the Extended Groth Strip  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We describe AEGIS20 - a radio survey of the Extended Groth Strip (EGS) conducted with the Very Large Array (VLA) at 1.4GHz. The resulting catalog contains 1,123 emitters and is sensitive to ultraluminous starbursts to z1 where correcting for contamination by radio-loud active galactic nuclei (AGN) comes at the price of rejecting luminous starbursts. Whilst stacking radio images is a useful technique, accurate radio-based SFRs for z>>1 galaxies require precise redshifts and extraordinarily high-fidelity radio data to identify and remove accretion-related emission.

R. J. Ivison; S. C. Chapman; S. M. Faber; Ian Smail; A. D. Biggs; C. J. Conselice; G. Wilson; S. Salim; J. -S. Huang; S. P. Wilner

2006-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

79

Cryogenic fractionator gas as stripping gas of fines slurry in a coking and gasification process  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

In an integrated coking and gasification process wherein a stream of fluidized solids is passed from a fluidized bed coking zone to a second fluidized bed and wherein entrained solid fines are recovered by a scrubbing process and wherein the resulting solids-liquid slurry is stripped with a stripping gas to remove acidic gases, at least a portion of the stripping gas comprises a gas comprising hydrogen, nitrogen and methane separated from the coker products.

DeGeorge, Charles W. (Chester, NJ)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

Preparation of anisotropic Nd(Fe,Mo){sub 12}N{sub 1.0} magnetic materials by strip casting technique and direct nitrogenation for the strips  

SciTech Connect

The Nd(Fe,Mo){sub 12}-type alloys are prepared by strip casting technique, and direct nitrogenation of the strips without precrushing is executed in this paper. It is found that 6 h annealing treatment at 1050 deg. C for the strips is enough to obtain the single-phase Nd(Fe,Mo){sub 12} compounds. The strips can be directly nitrogenated at 620 deg. C to obtain interstitial Nd(Fe,Mo){sub 12}N{sub 1.0} materials, and a spontaneous pulverization phenomenon in the strips induced by nitrogenation is found. The results indicate that the nitrogenation process of the strips can be used to prepare Nd(Fe,Mo){sub 12}N{sub 1.0} interstitial nitrides and pulverize the casted strips into fine particles simultaneously. Base on this, we propose a new technical route of preparing Nd(Fe,Mo){sub 12}N{sub X} magnetic powders without precrushing and obtain anisotropic NdFe{sub 10.5}Mo{sub 1.5}N{sub 1.0} powders with a remanence of B{sub r} = 1.08 T, a coercivity of {sub i}H{sub c} = 400 kA/m, and a maximum energy product of (BH){sub max} = 144 kJ/m{sup 3}.

Han Jingzhi; Liu Shunquan; Xing Meiying; Lin Zhong; Kong Xiangpeng; Wang Changsheng; Du Honglin; Yang Yingchang [School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Yang Jinbo [School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); State Key Laboratory for Artificial Microstructure and Mesoscopic Physics, School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "higher stripping ratios" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Integration of stripping of fines slurry in a coking and gasification process  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

In an integrated fluid coking and gasification process wherein a stream of fluidized solids is passed from a fluidized bed coking zone to a second fluidized bed and wherein entrained solid fines are recovered by a wet scrubbing process and wherein the resulting solids-liquid slurry is stripped to remove acidic gases, the stripped vapors of the stripping zone are sent to the gas cleanup stage of the gasification product gas. The improved stripping integration is particularly useful in the combination coal liquefaction process, fluid coking of bottoms of the coal liquefaction zone and gasification of the product coke.

DeGeorge, Charles W. (Chester, NJ)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

82

Solidification Heat Transfer Analysis of AZ91D Cast Strip by Using a ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The heat transfer coefficient between the molten magnesium ally and copper roll is important to cast magnesium strip. In the present study investigate the heat ...

83

An Analysis of the environmental content of Las Vegas Strip hotels.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This study examines the environmental content of hotel properties websites. The central question of this study is whether Las Vegas Strip properties have gone green,… (more)

Levey, Andrew M.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

84

Available Technologies: Compression Ratio Dehumidification  

The Compression Ratio Dehumidification technology will address a growing concern since energy efficiency standards became broadly adopted nationwide.

85

Comparative Detoxification of Vacuum Evaporation/Steam Stripping Combined with Overliming on Corn Stover Prehydrolyzate  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Tow kinds of physical methods, vacuum evaporation and steam stripping, combined with overliming (calcium hydroxide) were applied to remove inhibitors which were produced simultaneously during the pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass. Corn stover was ... Keywords: vacuum evaporation, steam stripping, overliming, corn stover prehydrolyzate, detoxification

Jun-jun Zhu; Qiang Yong; Yong Xu; Shi-yuan Yu

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

TRENDS AND INNOVATIONS IN HIGHER EDUCATION REFORM: Worldwide, Latin America and in the Caribbean  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

2008). MAIN FIGURES OF LATIN AMERICAN HIGHER EDUCATIONHigher Education Institutions in Latin America: 1995 : 812 (in Latin America Higher Education Gross Enrolments Ratio (

Francisco López Segrera

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

Charge exchange stripping cell measurements over a wide pressure range  

SciTech Connect

The efficiency of the stripping cell incorporated in a charge exchange analyzer has been measured over a pressure range of 1.8 to 130 mtorr and over an energy range of 1 to 130 keV/amu. In these measurements, a beam of hydrogen atoms was ionized by helium gas. As a by-product of the measurements, the scattering cross section was also measured. At the lowest pressure, the scattering cross section compared well with those measured previously; at high pressure, the cross section no longer followed an energy power law. The analyzer efficiency (defined as the fraction of the atoms that is ionized and not lost through scattering) can be modeled over the entire range of energy and pressure by including the measured scattering cross sections.

Colchin, R.J.; Roquemore, A.L.; Scott, S.D.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

88

Advanced manufacturing by spray forming: Aluminum strip and microelectromechanical systems  

SciTech Connect

Spray forming is an advanced materials processing technology that converts a bulk liquid metal to a near-net-shape solid by depositing atomized droplets onto a suitably shaped substrate. By combining rapid solidification processing with product shape control, spray forming can reduce manufacturing costs while improving product quality. INEL is developing a unique spray-forming method based on de Laval (converging/diverging) nozzle designs to produce near-net-shape solids and coatings of metals, polymers, and composite materials. Properties of the spray-formed material are tailored by controlling the characteristics of the spray plume and substrate. Two examples are described: high-volume production of aluminum alloy strip, and the replication of micron-scale features in micropatterned polymers during the production of microelectromechanical systems.

McHugh, K.M.

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

89

The Strip and Underground Mine Siting Act (Montana) | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

The Strip and Underground Mine Siting Act (Montana) The Strip and Underground Mine Siting Act (Montana) The Strip and Underground Mine Siting Act (Montana) < Back Eligibility Utility Investor-Owned Utility Industrial Construction Municipal/Public Utility Installer/Contractor Rural Electric Cooperative Program Info State Montana Program Type Siting and Permitting Provider Montana Department of Environmental Quality The policy of the state is to provide adequate remedies to protect the environmental life support system from degradation and to prevent unreasonable depletion and degradation of natural resources from strip and underground mining. This Act grants the Department of Environmental Quality the authority to review and approve or disapprove new strip-mine and new underground-mine site locations and reclamation plans and to adopt relevant

90

Spray-forming monolithic aluminum alloy and metal matrix composite strip  

SciTech Connect

Spray forming with de Laval nozzles is an advanced materials processing technology that converts a bulk liquid metal to a near-net-shape solid by depositing atomized droplets onto a suitably shaped substrate. Using this approach, aluminum alloys have been spray formed as strip, with technoeconomic advantages over conventional hot mill processing and continuous casting. The spray-formed strip had a flat profile, minimal porosity, high yield, and refined microstructure. In an adaptation to the technique, 6061 Al/SiC particulate-reinforced metal matrix composite strip was produced by codeposition of the phases.

McHugh, K.M.

1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

91

Higher powers in gravitation  

SciTech Connect

We consider the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker cosmologies of theories of gravity that generalize the Einstein-Hilbert action by replacing the Ricci scalar R with some function f(R). The general asymptotic behavior of these cosmologies is found, at both early and late times, and the effects of adding higher and lower powers of R to the Einstein-Hilbert action is investigated. The assumption that the highest powers of R should dominate the Universe's early history, and that the lowest powers should dominate its future is found to be inaccurate. The behavior of the general solution is complicated, and while it can be the case that single powers of R dominate the dynamics at late times, it can be either the higher or lower powers that do so. It is also shown that it is often the lowest powers of R that dominate at early times, when approach to a bounce or a Tolman solution are generic possibilities. Various examples are considered, and both vacuum and perfect fluid solutions are investigated.

Clifton, Timothy [Department of Astrophysics, University of Oxford, Oxford, OX1 3RH (United Kingdom)

2008-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

92

Arizona strip breccia pipe program: exploration, development, and production  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

As part of the long-range plans for the Energy Fuels Corporation, they have embarked on one of the most active and aggressive uranium exploration programs in the US. These exploration efforts are located in the northwestern part of Arizona in an area referred to as the Arizona Strip. At a time when the domestic uranium industry is staggering to recover from its worst economic slump, Energy Fuels is spending millions of dollars a year on exploration, development, production, and milling. The reason for Energy Fuels' commitment to uranium exploration and production lies in the ground of Arizona in unique geologic formations called breccia pipes. Some of these structures, generally no more than 300 to 350 ft in diameter, contain uranium that is, on the average, five to ten times richer than ore found elsewhere in the US. The richness of this Arizona ore makes it the only conventionally mined uranium in the US that can compete in today's market of cheaper, high-grade foreign sources. Between January 1980 and December 1986, Energy Fuels has mined more than 10 billion lb of uranium from breccia pipe deposits at an average grade of 0.65% U/sub 3/O/sub 8/. Currently, Energy Fuels is operating six breccia pipe mines, and a plan of operations on a seventh mine has been submitted to the appropriate government agencies for the necessary mining permits.

Mathisen, I.W. Jr.

1987-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

93

ARM - Measurement - Backscatter depolarization ratio  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

govMeasurementsBackscatter depolarization ratio govMeasurementsBackscatter depolarization ratio ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Backscatter depolarization ratio The ratio of cross polarized to co-polarized elastic backscatter. Categories Aerosols Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. ARM Instruments HSRL : High Spectral Resolution Lidar RL : Raman Lidar Field Campaign Instruments HSRL : High Spectral Resolution Lidar MIRAI : JAMSTEC Research Vessel Mirai MPL-AIR : Micropulse Lidar- Airborne

94

Science Taking Higher  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

4, 1997 4, 1997 Number 7 f Science Taking Higher Profile in Capital continued on page 8 INSIDE 2 Computers and Accelerators 4 Inventions 6 Sloan Digital Sky Survey upon the Clinton Administration and the 105th Congress to increase the nation's investment in scientific research and education. This awareness of science issues emanating from the nation's capital has heartened many of those toiling in the country's laboratories and universities; however, researchers interviewed for this article also said they are closely observing how the rhetoric translates into increased funding as the appropriations process plays out. "I see these [initiatives] as demonstrations of the underlying support of basic science in the community and in Congress," said Jeffrey Photo courtesy

95

Performance potential of the coal strip mining in the east of Russia  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The potentialities of the leading mining districts in Russia to improve coal production by strip mining are analyzed. The operational issues of the Erunakovskiy (Kuzbass), Kansko-Achinskiy and South Yakutia territorial production complexes are considered.

Cheskidov, V.I. [Russian Academy of Science, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation). Inst. of Mining

2007-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

96

A study of certain trace metals in sea water using anodic stripping voltammetry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Anodic stripping voltammetry utilizing a thin film mercury composite graphite electrode has been evaluated and applied for the direct analysis of the metals, Zn,J Cu, Pb, and Cd in sea water. The electrode was observed to ...

Fitzgerald, William Francis, 1926-

1970-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

Regeneration of an aqueous solution from an acid gas absorption process by matrix stripping  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Carbon dioxide and other acid gases are removed from gaseous streams using aqueous absorption and stripping processes. By replacing the conventional stripper used to regenerate the aqueous solvent and capture the acid gas with a matrix stripping configuration, less energy is consumed. The matrix stripping configuration uses two or more reboiled strippers at different pressures. The rich feed from the absorption equipment is split among the strippers, and partially regenerated solvent from the highest pressure stripper flows to the middle of sequentially lower pressure strippers in a "matrix" pattern. By selecting certain parameters of the matrix stripping configuration such that the total energy required by the strippers to achieve a desired percentage of acid gas removal from the gaseous stream is minimized, further energy savings can be realized.

Rochelle, Gary T. (Austin, TX); Oyenekan, Babatunde A. (Katy, TX)

2011-03-08T23:59:59.000Z

98

Americium separation from nuclear fuel dissolution using higher oxidation states.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Much of the complexity in current AFCI proposals is driven by the need to separate the minor actinides from the lanthanides. Partitioning and recycling Am, but not Cm, would allow for significant simplification because Am has redox chemistry that may be exploited while Cm does not. Here, we have explored methods based on higher oxidation states of Am (AmV and AmVI) to partition Am from the lanthanides. In a separate but related approach we have also initiated an investigation of the utility of TRUEX Am extraction from thiocyanate solution. The stripping of loaded TRUEX by Am oxidation or SCN- has not yet proved successful; however, the partitioning of inextractable AmV by TRUEX shows promise.

Bruce J. Mincher

2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

DEVELOPMENT OF CHEMICAL REDUCTION AND AIR STRIPPING PROCESSES TO REMOVE MERCURY FROM WASTEWATER  

SciTech Connect

This study evaluates the removal of mercury from wastewater using chemical reduction and air stripping using a full-scale treatment system at the Savannah River Site. The existing water treatment system utilizes air stripping as the unit operation to remove organic compounds from groundwater that also contains mercury (C ~ 250 ng/L). The baseline air stripping process was ineffective in removing mercury and the water exceeded a proposed limit of 51 ng/L. To test an enhancement to the existing treatment modality a continuous dose of reducing agent was injected for 6-hours at the inlet of the air stripper. This action resulted in the chemical reduction of mercury to Hg(0), a species that is removable with the existing unit operation. During the injection period a 94% decrease in concentration was observed and the effluent satisfied proposed limits. The process was optimized over a 2-day period by sequentially evaluating dose rates ranging from 0.64X to 297X stoichiometry. A minimum dose of 16X stoichiometry was necessary to initiate the reduction reaction that facilitated the mercury removal. Competing electron acceptors likely inhibited the reaction at the lower 1 doses, which prevented removal by air stripping. These results indicate that chemical reduction coupled with air stripping can effectively treat large-volumes of water to emerging part per trillion regulatory standards for mercury.

Jackson, D.; Looney, B.; Craig, B.; Thompson, M.; Kmetz, T.

2013-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

100

Higher Education Tuition Assistance And  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of Tables 1. Summary Statistics for W.Va. Public Higher Education Graduates Receiving PROMISE and HEGP .................................................................................................1 Summary Data For PROMISE Scholarship And West Virginia Higher Education Grant Recipients................................................................................................................13 Appendix I: Detailed Description Of Employment Data .........................................14

Mohaghegh, Shahab

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "higher stripping ratios" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Dynamic Underground Stripping: In situ steam sweeping and electrical heating to remediate a deep hydrocarbon spill  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Dynamic Underground Stripping is a combination of in situ steam injection, electrical resistance heating, and fluid extraction for rapid removal and recovery of subsurface contaminants such as solvents or fuels. Underground imaging and other measurement techniques monitor the system in situ for process control. Field tests at a deep gasoline spill at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory recovered over 7000 gallons of gasoline during several months of field operations. Preliminary analysis of system cost and performance indicate that Dynamic Underground Stripping compares favorably with conventional pump-and-treat and vacuum extraction schemes for removing non-aqueous phase liquids such as gasoline from deep subsurface plumes.

Yow, J.L. Jr.; Aines, R.D.; Newmark, R.L.; Udell, K.S.; Ziagos, J.P.

1994-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

102

Dual initiation strip charge apparatus and methods for making and implementing the same  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A Dual Initiation Strip Charge (DISC) apparatus is initiated by a single initiation source and detonates a strip of explosive charge at two separate contacts. The reflection of explosively induced stresses meet and create a fracture and breach a target along a generally single fracture contour and produce generally fragment-free scattering and no spallation. Methods for making and implementing a DISC apparatus provide numerous advantages over previous methods of creating explosive charges by utilizing steps for rapid prototyping; by implementing efficient steps and designs for metering consistent, repeatable, and controlled amount of high explosive; and by utilizing readily available materials.

Jakaboski, Juan-Carlos (Albuquerque, NM); Todd,; Steven N. (Rio Rancho, NM); Polisar, Stephen (Albuquerque, NM); Hughs, Chance (Tijeras, NM)

2011-03-22T23:59:59.000Z

103

Method for separating actinides. [Patent application; stripping of Np from organic extractant  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An organic solution used for processing spent nuclear reactor fuels is contacted with an aqueous nitric acid solution to strip Np(VI), U(VI), and Pu(IV) from the organic solution into the acid solution. The acid solution is exposed to ultraviolet light, which reduces Np(VI) to Np(V) without reducing U(VI) and Pu(IV). Since the solubility of Np(V) in the organic solution is much lower than that of Np(VI), U(VI), and Pu(IV), a major part of the Np is stripped from the organic solution while leaving most of the U and Pu therein.

Friedman, H.A.; Toth, L.M.

1980-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

104

A Link Between Black Holes and the Golden Ratio  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We consider a variational formalism to describe black holes solution in higher dimensions. Our procedure clarifies the arbitrariness of the radius parameter and, in particular, the meaning of the event horizon of a black hole. Moreover, our formalism enables us to find a surprising link between black holes and the golden ratio.

J. A. Nieto

2011-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

105

HIGHER EDUCATION AND DEVELOPMENT The Evolving Role of Higher Education  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Higher, especially university level, education has a distinctly important role in the education system and in the knowledge acquisition system in general. However, the deteriorating state of higher education in Arab countries, particularly in quality, has become one of the hallmarks of underdevelopment by contemporary criteria. If such deterioration were to continue, it is feared that higher education would become a mechanism for perpetuating the backwardness of Arab countries in the 21 st century.

Nader Fergany

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

106

Implications of Fast Reactor Transuranic Conversion Ratio  

SciTech Connect

Theoretically, the transuranic conversion ratio (CR), i.e. the transuranic production divided by transuranic destruction, in a fast reactor can range from near zero to about 1.9, which is the average neutron yield from Pu239 minus 1. In practice, the possible range will be somewhat less. We have studied the implications of transuranic conversion ratio of 0.0 to 1.7 using the fresh and discharge fuel compositions calculated elsewhere. The corresponding fissile breeding ratio ranges from 0.2 to 1.6. The cases below CR=1 (“burners”) do not have blankets; the cases above CR=1 (“breeders”) have breeding blankets. The burnup was allowed to float while holding the maximum fluence to the cladding constant. We graph the fuel burnup and composition change. As a function of transuranic conversion ratio, we calculate and graph the heat, gamma, and neutron emission of fresh fuel; whether the material is “attractive” for direct weapon use using published criteria; the uranium utilization and rate of consumption of natural uranium; and the long-term radiotoxicity after fuel discharge. For context, other cases and analyses are included, primarily once-through light water reactor (LWR) uranium oxide fuel at 51 MWth-day/kg-iHM burnup (UOX-51). For CR<1, the heat, gamma, and neutron emission increase as material is recycled. The uranium utilization is at or below 1%, just as it is in thermal reactors as both types of reactors require continuing fissile support. For CR>1, heat, gamma, and neutron emission decrease with recycling. The uranium utilization exceeds 1%, especially as all the transuranic elements are recycled. exceeds 1%, especially as all the transuranic elements are recycled. At the system equilibrium, heat and gamma vary by somewhat over an order of magnitude as a function of CR. Isotopes that dominate heat and gamma emission are scattered throughout the actinide chain, so the modest impact of CR is unsurprising. Neutron emitters are preferentially found among the higher actinides, so the neutron emission varies much stronger with CR, about three orders of magnitude.

Steven J. Piet; Edward A. Hoffman; Samuel E. Bays

2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

Variable ratio regenerative braking device  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Disclosed is a regenerative braking device (10) for an automotive vehicle. The device includes an energy storage assembly (12) having a plurality of rubber rollers (26, 28) mounted for rotation between an input shaft (36) and an output shaft (42), clutches (38, 46) and brakes (40, 48) associated with each shaft, and a continuously variable transmission (22) connectable to a vehicle drivetrain and to the input and output shafts by the respective clutches. The rubber rollers are torsionally stressed to accumulate energy from the vehicle when the input shaft is clutched to the transmission while the brake on the output shaft is applied, and are torsionally relaxed to deliver energy to the vehicle when the output shaft is clutched to the transmission while the brake on the input shaft is applied. The transmission ratio is varied to control the rate of energy accumulation and delivery for a given rotational speed of the vehicle drivetrain.

Hoppie, Lyle O. (Birmingham, MI)

1981-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

108

Weather-Corrected Performance Ratio  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Photovoltaic (PV) system performance depends on both the quality of the system and the weather. One simple way to communicate the system performance is to use the performance ratio (PR): the ratio of the electricity generated to the electricity that would have been generated if the plant consistently converted sunlight to electricity at the level expected from the DC nameplate rating. The annual system yield for flat-plate PV systems is estimated by the product of the annual insolation in the plane of the array, the nameplate rating of the system, and the PR, which provides an attractive way to estimate expected annual system yield. Unfortunately, the PR is, again, a function of both the PV system efficiency and the weather. If the PR is measured during the winter or during the summer, substantially different values may be obtained, making this metric insufficient to use as the basis for a performance guarantee when precise confidence intervals are required. This technical report defines a way to modify the PR calculation to neutralize biases that may be introduced by variations in the weather, while still reporting a PR that reflects the annual PR at that site given the project design and the project weather file. This resulting weather-corrected PR gives more consistent results throughout the year, enabling its use as a metric for performance guarantees while still retaining the familiarity this metric brings to the industry and the value of its use in predicting actual annual system yield. A testing protocol is also presented to illustrate the use of this new metric with the intent of providing a reference starting point for contractual content.

Dierauf, T.; Growitz, A.; Kurtz, S.; Cruz, J. L. B.; Riley, E.; Hansen, C.

2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

109

Beam Test of a Large Area nonn Silicon Strip Detector with Fast Binary Readout Electronics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Beam Test of a Large Area n­on­n Silicon Strip Detector with Fast Binary Readout Electronics Y test was carried out for the non­irradiated and the irradiated detector modules. Efficiency, noise occupancy and performance in the edge regions were analyzed using the beam test data. High efficiency

110

Beam Test of a Large Area nonn Silicon Strip Detector with Fast Binary Readout Electronics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Beam Test of a Large Area n­on­n Silicon Strip Detector with Fast Binary Readout Electronics Y modules was irradiated with protons to a fluence of 1.2 � 10 14 p/cm 2 . A beam test was carried out in the edge regions were analyzed using the beam test data. High efficiency both for the non

111

Direct observation of the current distribution in thin superconducting strips using magneto-optic imaging  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

study of the flux and current distribution of a long thin strip of YBa2Cu3O7 placed in a perpendicular to the magneto-optically found field map we find on a model-independent basis the current distribution across critical field is negli- gible, they obtained explicit expressions for the field and current distributions

Johansen, Tom Henning

112

Physical processes involved in strip electrode welding using the method of slatted splicing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Physical processes that take place in a strip electrode during welding using the slatted splicing technique are considered. Flowing of the welding current in the electrode is shown to be the key process which determines electrode heating and melting. Technological receipts are proposed that allow obtaining high-quality welds by the method of slatted splicing.

Bushma, V. O. [Moscow State Technological University 'Stankin' (Russian Federation)

2010-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

113

Tracking Stripped Proton Particles in SNS Ring Injection Momentum Dump Line  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

3D computer simulations are performed to study magnetic field distributions and particle trajectories along the SNS ring injection momentum dump line. Optical properties and transfer maps along the dump line are calculated. The stripped proton particle distributions on the dump window are analyzed. The study has provided useful information for the redesign of the SNS ring injection beam dump.

Wang, Jian-Guang [ORNL

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

114

CAST STONE FORMULATION AT HIGHER SODIUM CONCENTRATIONS  

SciTech Connect

A low temperature waste form known as Cast Stone is being considered to provide supplemental Low Activity Waste (LAW) immobilization capacity for the Hanford site. Formulation of Cast Stone at high sodium concentrations is of interest since a significant reduction in the necessary volume of Cast Stone and subsequent disposal costs could be achieved if an acceptable waste form can be produced with a high sodium molarity salt solution combined with a high water to premix (or dry blend) ratio. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the factors involved with increasing the sodium concentration in Cast Stone, including production and performance properties and the retention and release of specific components of interest. Three factors were identified for the experimental matrix: the concentration of sodium in the simulated salt solution, the water to premix ratio, and the blast furnace slag portion of the premix. The salt solution simulants used in this study were formulated to represent the overall average waste composition. The cement, blast furnace slag, and fly ash were sourced from a supplier in the Hanford area in order to be representative. The test mixes were prepared in the laboratory and fresh properties were measured. Fresh density increased with increasing sodium molarity and with decreasing water to premix ratio, as expected given the individual densities of these components. Rheology measurements showed that all of the test mixes produced very fluid slurries. The fresh density and rheology data are of potential value in designing a future Cast Stone production facility. Standing water and density gradient testing showed that settling is not of particular concern for the high sodium compositions studied. Heat of hydration measurements may provide some insight into the reactions that occur within the test mixes, which may in turn be related to the properties and performance of the waste form. These measurements showed that increased sodium concentration in the salt solution reduced the time to peak heat flow, and reducing the amount of slag in the premix increased the time to peak heat flow. These observations may help to describe some of the cured properties of the samples, in particular the differences in compressive strength observed after 28 and 90 days of curing. Samples were cured for at least 28 days at ambient temperature in the laboratory prior to cured properties analyses. The low activity waste form for disposal at the Hanford Site is required to have a compressive strength of at least 500 psi. After 28 days of curing, several of the test mixes had mean compressive strengths that were below the 500 psi requirement. Higher sodium concentrations and higher water to premix ratios led to reduced compressive strength. Higher fly ash concentrations decreased the compressive strength after 28 days of curing. This may be explained in that the cementitious phases matured more quickly in the mixes with higher concentrations of slag, as evidenced by the data for the time to peak heat generation. All of the test mixes exhibited higher mean compressive strengths after 90 days of curing, with only one composition having a mean compressive strength of less than 500 psi. Leach indices were determined for the test mixes for contaminants of interest. The leaching performance of the mixes evaluated in this study was not particularly sensitive to the factors used in the experimental design. This may be beneficial in demonstrating that the performance of the waste form is robust with respect to changes in the mix composition. The results of this study demonstrate the potential to achieve significantly higher waste loadings in Cast Stone and other low temperature, cementitious waste forms. Additional work is needed to elucidate the hydration mechanisms occurring in Cast Stone formulated with highly concentrated salt solutions since these reactions are responsible for determining the performance of the cured waste form. The thermal analyses completed in this study provide some preliminary insight, although the limited

Fox, K.; Edwards, T.; Roberts, K.

2013-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

115

CAST STONE FORMULATION AT HIGHER SODIUM CONCENTRATIONS  

SciTech Connect

A low temperature waste form known as Cast Stone is being considered to provide supplemental Low Activity Waste (LAW) immobilization capacity for the Hanford site. Formulation of Cast Stone at high sodium concentrations is of interest since a significant reduction in the necessary volume of Cast Stone and subsequent disposal costs could be achieved if an acceptable waste form can be produced with a high sodium molarity salt solution combined with a high water to premix (or dry blend) ratio. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the factors involved with increasing the sodium concentration in Cast Stone, including production and performance properties and the retention and release of specific components of interest. Three factors were identified for the experimental matrix: the concentration of sodium in the simulated salt solution, the water to premix ratio, and the blast furnace slag portion of the premix. The salt solution simulants used in this study were formulated to represent the overall average waste composition. The cement, blast furnace slag, and fly ash were sourced from a supplier in the Hanford area in order to be representative. The test mixes were prepared in the laboratory and fresh properties were measured. Fresh density increased with increasing sodium molarity and with decreasing water to premix ratio, as expected given the individual densities of these components. Rheology measurements showed that all of the test mixes produced very fluid slurries. The fresh density and rheology data are of potential value in designing a future Cast Stone production facility. Standing water and density gradient testing showed that settling is not of particular concern for the high sodium compositions studied. Heat of hydration measurements may provide some insight into the reactions that occur within the test mixes, which may in turn be related to the properties and performance of the waste form. These measurements showed that increased sodium concentration in the salt solution reduced the time to peak heat flow, and reducing the amount of slag in the premix increased the time to peak heat flow. These observations may help to describe some of the cured properties of the samples, in particular the differences in compressive strength observed after 28 and 90 days of curing. Samples were cured for at least 28 days at ambient temperature in the laboratory prior to cured properties analyses. The low activity waste form for disposal at the Hanford Site is required to have a compressive strength of at least 500 psi. After 28 days of curing, several of the test mixes had mean compressive strengths that were below the 500 psi requirement. Higher sodium concentrations and higher water to premix ratios led to reduced compressive strength. Higher fly ash concentrations decreased the compressive strength after 28 days of curing. This may be explained in that the cementitious phases matured more quickly in the mixes with higher concentrations of slag, as evidenced by the data for the time to peak heat generation. All of the test mixes exhibited higher mean compressive strengths after 90 days of curing, with only one composition having a mean compressive strength of less than 500 psi. Leach indices were determined for the test mixes for contaminants of interest. The leaching performance of the mixes evaluated in this study was not particularly sensitive to the factors used in the experimental design. This may be beneficial in demonstrating that the performance of the waste form is robust with respect to changes in the mix composition. The results of this study demonstrate the potential to achieve significantly higher waste loadings in Cast Stone and other low temperature, cementitious waste forms. Additional work is needed to elucidate the hydration mechanisms occurring in Cast Stone formulated with highly concentrated salt solutions since these reactions are responsible for determining the performance of the cured waste form. The thermal analyses completed in this study provide some preliminary insight, although the limited

Fox, K.; Roberts, K.; Edwards, T.

2013-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

116

Increasing the transformer ratio at the Argonne wakefield accelerator.  

SciTech Connect

The transformer ratio is defined as the ratio of the maximum energy gain of the witness bunch to the maximum energy loss experienced by the drive bunch (or a bunch within a multidrive bunch train). This plays an important role in the collinear wakefield acceleration scheme. A high transformer ratio is desirable since it leads to a higher overall efficiency under similar conditions (e.g. the same beam loading, the same structure, etc.). One technique to enhance the transformer ratio beyond the ordinary limit of 2 is to use a ramped bunch train. The first experimental demonstration observed a transformer ratio only marginally above 2 due to the mismatch between the drive microbunch length and the frequency of the accelerating structure [C. Jing, A. Kanareykin, J. Power, M. Conde, Z. Yusof, P. Schoessow, and W. Gai, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 144801 (2007)]. Recently, we revisited this experiment with an optimized microbunch length using a UV laser stacking technique at the Argonne Wakefield Accelerator facility and measured a transformer ratio of 3.4. Measurements and data analysis from these experiments are presented in detail.

Power, J.G.; Conde, M.; Liu, W.; Yusof, Z.; Gai, W.; Jing, C.; Kanareykin, A. (High Energy Physics); (Euclid Techlabs, LLC)

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

117

West Virginia Higher Education Graduate  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1. Work Participation And Annualized Wages Of West Virginia Public Higher Education Graduates From This report analyzes the West Virginia industry of employment (and wages) of graduates from state public .................................................................................................1 Results By Industry And Summary Degree

Mohaghegh, Shahab

118

90.1 Prototype Building Models Strip Mall | Building Energy Codes Program  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Strip Mall Strip Mall The ASHRAE Standard 90.1 prototype building models were developed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory in support of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Building Energy Codes Program. These prototype buildings were derived from DOE's Commercial Reference Building Models. This suite of ASHRAE Standard 90.1 prototype buildings covers all the Reference Building types except supermarket, and also adds a new building prototype representing high-rise apartment buildings.The prototype models include 16 building types in 17 climate locations for ASHRAE Standards 90.1-2004, 90.1-2007 and 90.1-2010. This combination leads to a set of 816 building models (in EnergyPlus Version 6.0). Also included is a scorecard for each prototype building. The scorecard is a spreadsheet that summarizes the

119

Dynamic underground stripping: steam and electric heating for in situ decontamination of soils and groundwater  

SciTech Connect

A dynamic underground stripping process removes localized underground volatile organic compounds from heterogeneous soils and rock in a relatively short time. This method uses steam injection and electrical resistance heating to heat the contaminated underground area to increase the vapor pressure of the contaminants, thus speeding the process of contaminant removal and making the removal more complete. The injected steam passes through the more permeable sediments, distilling the organic contaminants, which are pumped to the surface. Large electrical currents are also applied to the contaminated area, which heat the impermeable subsurface layers that the steam has not penetrated. The condensed and vaporized contaminants are withdrawn by liquid pumping and vacuum extraction. The steam injection and electrical heating steps are repeated as necessary. Geophysical imaging methods can be used to map the boundary between the hot, dry, contamination-free underground zone and the cool, damp surrounding areas to help monitor the dynamic stripping process.

Daily, William D. (Livermore, CA); Ramirez, Abelardo L. (Pleasanton, CA); Newmark, Robin L. (Pleasanton, CA); Udell, Kent (Berkeley, CA); Buetnner, Harley M. (Livermore, CA); Aines, Roger D. (Livermore, CA)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

120

Determining the Mechanisms of Cationic Contamination Affecting PEMFCs Using a Strip Cell Configuration  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Cationic contamination of polymer electrolyte fuel cells has been shown to cause serious performance degradation but the exact mechanisms of this degradation are not fully understood. A strip cell configuration was devised to study the mechanisms of performance degradation due to cationic contamination by changing the time and length scales of traditional fuel cells while providing a suitable reference electrode. This 'strip cell' configuration utilizes traditional Nafion{reg_sign} membranes in an in-plane configuration with electrodes painted on each end. Using this cell it was determined that cationic contaminants collect near the cathode of the fuel cell under load and that this profile leads to increased losses primarily in the cathode region. These results can be directly related to performance losses in a typical PEMFC contaminated by foreign cations.

Kienitz, B. L.; Zawodzinski, T. A.; Pivovar, B. S.; Garzon, F. H.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "higher stripping ratios" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Dynamic underground stripping: steam and electric heating for in situ decontamination of soils and groundwater  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A dynamic underground stripping process removes localized underground volatile organic compounds from heterogeneous soils and rock in a relatively short time. This method uses steam injection and electrical resistance heating to heat the contaminated underground area to increase the vapor pressure of the contaminants, thus speeding the process of contaminant removal and making the removal more complete. The injected steam passes through the more permeable sediments, distilling the organic contaminants, which are pumped to the surface. Large electrical currents are also applied to the contaminated area, which heat the impermeable subsurface layers that the steam has not penetrated. The condensed and vaporized contaminants are withdrawn by liquid pumping and vacuum extraction. The steam injection and electrical heating steps are repeated as necessary. Geophysical imaging methods can be used to map the boundary between the hot, dry, contamination-free underground zone and the cool, damp surrounding areas to help monitor the dynamic stripping process. 4 figs.

Daily, W.D.; Ramirez, A.L.; Newmark, R.L.; Udell, K.; Buetnner, H.M.; Aines, R.D.

1995-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

122

Method and apparatus for improved melt flow during continuous strip casting  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The continuous casting of metal strip using the melt overflow process is improved by controlling the weir conditions in the nozzle to provide a more uniform flow of molten metal across the width of the nozzle and reducing the tendency for freezing of metal along the interface with refractory surfaces. A weir design having a sloped rear wall and tapered sidewalls and critical gap controls beneath the weir has resulted in the drastic reduction in edge tearing and a significant improvement in strip uniformity. The floor of the container vessel is preferably sloped and the gap between the nozzle and the rotating substrate is critically controlled. The resulting flow patterns observed with the improved casting process have reduced thermal gradients in the bath, contained surface slag and eliminated undesirable solidification near the discharge area by increasing the flow rates at those points.

Follstaedt, Donald W. (Middletown, OH); King, Edward L. (Trenton, OH); Schneider, Ken C. (Dayton, OH)

1991-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

123

Stripping ethanol from ethanol-blended fuels for use in NO.sub.x SCR  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method to use diesel fuel alchohol micro emulsions (E-diesel) to provide a source of reductant to lower NO.sub.x emissions using selective catalytic reduction. Ethanol is stripped from the micro emulsion and entered into the exhaust gasses upstream of the reducing catalyst. The method allows diesel (and other lean-burn) engines to meet new, lower emission standards without having to carry separate fuel and reductant tanks.

Kass, Michael Delos (Oak Ridge, TN); Graves, Ronald Lee (Knoxville, TN); Storey, John Morse Elliot (Oak Ridge, TN); Lewis, Sr., Samuel Arthur (Andersonville, TN); Sluder, Charles Scott (Knoxville, TN); Thomas, John Foster (Powell, TN)

2007-08-21T23:59:59.000Z

124

Search for particle-bound 26-O and 28-F in p-stripping reactions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We have searched for particle-bound 26-O and 28-F isotopes in the reaction products of secondary 27-F and 29-Ne beams, respectively. No events have been observed. Upper limits for the respective production cross sections by one-p-stripping reactions are established under the assumption that 26-O and 28-F are particle bound. Since the experimental upper limits are much lower than common estimates we conclude that neither 26-O nor 28-F are likely particle bound.

A. Schiller; T. Baumann; J. Dietrich; S. Kaiser; W. Peters; M. Thoennessen

2005-04-05T23:59:59.000Z

125

Higher Yields Can Be Achieved  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

8 8 Notes: While the current forecast is showing higher distillate production than last year, there is room for yet more volume through refiners switching to higher yields than those being forecast. This will only happen if economic incentives evolve to encourage this change. Current high spreads indicate those incentives may occur. This graph shows the distillate yield pattern over the last few years. Generally yields rise in the fall to build stocks for winter distillate use. On average, the yield increase during the fourth quarter is about 2% higher than the yield average of the lowest yield months of June, July and August. (Recognize that a 1% change in yield is about a 150 MB/D change in distillate production, which is about 4% of winter demand.) During the fall of 1996, the winter season began with very low

126

Complex higher order derivative theories  

SciTech Connect

In this work is considered a complex scalar field theory with higher order derivative terms and interactions. A procedure is developed to quantize consistently this system avoiding the presence of negative norm states. In order to achieve this goal the original real scalar high order field theory is extended to a complex space attaching a complex total derivative to the theory. Next, by imposing reality conditions the complex theory is mapped to a pair of interacting real scalar field theories without the presence of higher derivative terms.

Margalli, Carlos A.; Vergara, J. David [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apartado Postal 70-543, Mexico 04510 DF (Mexico)

2012-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

127

NETL: Development of a Novel Gas Pressurized Stripping Process-Based  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Development of a Novel Gas Pressurized Stripping Process-Based Technology for CO2 Capture Development of a Novel Gas Pressurized Stripping Process-Based Technology for CO2 Capture Project No.: DE-FE0007567 Carbon Capture Scientific is developing and testing a novel, proprietary, Gas Pressurized Stripping (GPS) process-based technology for CO2 capture from post-combustion flue gases. GPS process-based technology has many advantages. For the solvent based process it will be able to: Reduce the energy penalty associated with solvent regeneration Increase the CO2 desorption pressure Integrate CO2 capture and compression into one step Reduce CO2 compression needs Reduce solvent degradation These advantages could potentially eliminate CO2 compression entirely, hence reducing the total parasitic power load of a CO2 capture process to about 0.14kWh/kgCO2. This power load is a 60 percent reduction compared to the baseline case of 0.38kWh/kgCO2. The economic impact of this parasitic power reduction is a reduction in the incremental cost of electricity (COE) by about 21 mills/kWh.

128

Use of a Radon Stripping Algorithm for Retrospective Assessment of Air Filter Samples  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An evaluation of a large number of air sample filters was undertaken using a commercial alpha and beta spectroscopy system employing a passive implanted planar silicon (PIPS) detector. Samples were only measured after air flow through the filters had ceased. Use of a commercial radon stripping algorithm was implemented to discriminate anthropogenic alpha and beta activity on the filters from the radon progeny. When uncontaminated air filters were evaluated, the results showed that there was a time-dependent bias in both average estimates and measurement dispersion with the relative bias being small compared to the dispersion. By also measuring environmental air sample filters simultaneously with electroplated alpha and beta sources, use of the radon stripping algorithm demonstrated a number of substantial unexpected deviations. Use of the current algorithm is therefore not recommended for assay applications and so use of the PIPS detector should only be utilized for gross counting without appropriate modifications to the curve fitting algorithm. As a screening method, the radon stripping algorithm might be expected to see elevated alpha and beta activities on air sample filters (not due to radon progeny) around the 200 dpm level.

Robert Hayes

2009-01-23T23:59:59.000Z

129

Problems Found Using a Radon Stripping Algorithm for Retrospective Assessment of Air Filter Samples  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An evaluation of a large number of air sample filters was undertaken using a commercial alpha and beta spectroscopy system employing a passive implanted planar silicon (PIPS) detector. Samples were only measured after air flow through the filters had ceased. Use of a commercial radon stripping algorithm was implemented to discriminate anthropogenic alpha activity on the filters from the radon progeny. When uncontaminated air filters were evaluated, the results showed that there was a time-dependent bias in both average estimates and measurement dispersion of anthropogenic activity estimates with the relative bias being small compared to the dispersion, indicating that the system would not give false positive indications for an appropriately set decision level. By also measuring environmental air sample filters simultaneously with electroplated alpha filters, use of the radon stripping algorithm demonstrated a number of substantial unexpected deviations from calibrated values indicating that the system would give false negative indications. Use of the current algorithm is, therefore, not recommended for general assay applications. Use of the PIPS detector should only be utilized for gross counting without appropriate modifications to the curve-fitting algorithm. As a screening method, the radon stripping algorithm might be expected to see elevated alpha activities on air sample filters (not due to radon progeny) around the 200 disintegrations per minute level.

Robert Hayes

2008-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

130

KINEMATICS AND EXCITATION OF THE RAM PRESSURE STRIPPED IONIZED GAS FILAMENTS IN THE COMA CLUSTER OF GALAXIES  

SciTech Connect

We present the results of deep imaging and spectroscopic observations of very extended ionized gas (EIG) around four member galaxies of the Coma Cluster of galaxies: RB 199, IC 4040, GMP 2923, and GMP 3071. The EIGs were serendipitously found in an H{alpha} narrowband imaging survey of the central region of the Coma Cluster. The relative radial velocities of the EIGs with respect to the systemic velocities of the parent galaxies from which they emanate increase almost monotonically with the distance from the nucleus of the respective galaxies, reaching {approx} - 400 to - 800 km s{sup -1} at around 40-80 kpc from the galaxies. The one-sided morphologies and the velocity fields of the EIGs are consistent with the predictions of numerical simulations of ram pressure stripping. We found a very low velocity filament (v{sub rel} {approx} -1300 km s{sup -1}) at the southeastern edge of the disk of IC 4040. Some bright compact knots in the EIGs of RB 199 and IC 4040 exhibit blue continuum and strong H{alpha} emission. The equivalent widths of the H{alpha} emission exceed 200 A and are greater than 1000 Angstrom-Sign for some knots. The emission-line intensity ratios of the knots are basically consistent with those of sub-solar abundance H II regions. These facts indicate that intensive star formation occurs in the knots. Some filaments, including the low-velocity filament of the IC 4040 EIG, exhibit shock-like emission-line spectra, suggesting that shock heating plays an important role in ionization and excitation of the EIGs.

Yoshida, Michitoshi [Hiroshima Astrophysical Science Center, Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8526 (Japan); Yagi, Masafumi; Komiyama, Yutaka; Kashikawa, Nobunari [Optical and Infrared Astronomy Division, National Astronomical Observatory, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Furusawa, Hisanori [Astronomical Data Center, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Hattori, Takashi [Subaru Telescope, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 650 North A'Ohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Okamura, Sadanori, E-mail: yoshidam@hiroshima-u.ac.jp [Department of Astronomy, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan)

2012-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

131

Design of passive decay heat removal system for the lead cooled flexible conversion ratio fast reactor  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The lead-cooled flexible conversion ratio fast reactor shows many benefits over other fast-reactor designs; however, the higher power rating and denser primary coolant present difficulties for the design of a passive decay ...

Whitman, Joshua (Joshua J.)

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

132

RE-IMAGINING CALIFORNIA HIGHER EDUCATION  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Re-Imagining California Higher Education * October 2010 Johnfamed Master Plan for Higher Education, arguably the singlethe future of a system of higher education in the annals of

John Aubrey Douglass

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

133

Essays on the Economics of Higher Education  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

3 Does Higher Education Cause Political Participation? 3.1on enrolling into higher education and college. Using 2measures of higher education on the instrument . . . . . .

SOLIS VIVALLOS, ALEX

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

134

Class, Race, and Higher Education in America  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

many more questions for higher education, but at the leastthey overcome. But higher education in America has already1989), Review of Higher Education Policy In California,

Trow, Martin

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

WHAT FUTURE FOR UK HIGHER EDUCATION?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

2009) “Students ask if higher education is really worth itrising social costs of higher education are not matched bystandards? ” Times Higher Education 17 July. Alderman, G.

Roger Brown

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

136

PROMOTED ZINC CHROMITE CATALYSTS FOR HIGHER ALCOHOL SYNTHESIS  

SciTech Connect

During this reporting period, a ''zinc chromite'' catalyst promoted with 6 wt.% cesium (Cs) was evaluated at the following operating conditions: Temperature - 375 C and 400 C; Total Pressure--13.6 MPa (2000 psig); Gas Hourly Space Velocity (GHSV) - 5000 standard liters/kg(cat)-hr; and H{sub 2}/CO feed ratio--0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 mole/mole. Decahydronaphthalene (DHN) was used as the slurry liquid. The experiment lasted for twelve days of continuous operation. Unpromoted zinc chromite catalyst then was re-examined under the same operating conditions. Reproducible data was achieved with a continuous liquid make-up. Compared with unpromoted zinc chromite catalyst, 6 wt.% Cs-promoted catalyst shifted the product distribution from methanol to higher alcohols, even though methanol was still the major product. The effect of operating conditions was less important than the addition of promoter. However, it was observed that higher temperature favors higher alcohol synthesis, and that a higher H{sub 2}/CO ratio leads to lower oxygenates selectivity and higher hydrocarbons selectivity. These trends showed clearly with the Cs-promoted catalyst, but were not as prominent with the unpromoted catalyst. The slurry liquid did not decompose or alkylate to a measurable extent during either continuous, 12 - day experiment, even with the higher reactor temperature (400 C). There was a relatively significant loss of catalyst surface area during the experiment with the promoted catalyst, but not with the unpromoted catalyst.

Ms. Xiaolei Sun; Professor George W. Roberts

2000-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

137

The performance of a double sided silicon strip detector as a transmission detector for heavy ions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The performance of a double sided silicon strip detector (DSSSD), used for position and energy detection of heavy ions, is reported. The analysis shows that the incomplete charge collection (ICC) and charge sharing (CS) effects of the DSSSD give rise to a loss of energy resolution, however the position information is recorded without ambiguity. Representations of ICC/CS events in the energy spectra are shown and their origins are confirmed by correlation analysis of the spectra from both junction side and ohmic side of the DSSSD.

J L Han; J B Ma; X G Cao; Q Wang; J S Wang; Y Y Yang; P Ma; M R Huang; S L Jin; X J Rong; Z Bai; F Fu; Q Hu; R F Chen; S W Xu; J B Chen; L Jin; Y Li; M H Zhao; H S Xu

2013-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

138

Transient Thermal, Hydraulic, and Mechanical Analysis of a Counter Flow Offset Strip Fin Intermediate Heat Exchanger using an Effective Porous Media Approach.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This work presents a comprehensive thermal hydraulic analysis of a compact heat exchanger using offset strip fins. The thermal hydraulics analysis in this work is… (more)

Urquiza, Eugenio

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

High Aspect Ratio Semiconductor Heterojunction Solar Cells  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

High Aspect Ratio Semiconductor Heterojunction Solar Cells Haoting Shen Prof. Redwing's Research and in-situ dopant for Si nanowires Y. Ke, X.J. Weng, J.M. Redwing, C.M. Eichfeld, T.R. Swisher, S

Yener, Aylin

140

Sulfate Washout Ratios in Winter Storms  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Washout ratios for sulfate were computed from simultaneous measurements of sulfate in precipitation and in the air below cloud base. Stratification of the data according to predominant mode of precipitation growth (growth primarily by accretion ...

B. C. Scott

1981-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

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they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
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141

Investigation of Knock limited Compression Ratio of Ethanol Gasoline Blends  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Ethanol offers significant potential for increasing the compression ratio of SI engines resulting from its high octane number and high latent heat of vaporization. A study was conducted to determine the knock limited compression ratio of ethanol gasoline blends to identify the potential for improved operating efficiency. To operate an SI engine in a flex fuel vehicle requires operating strategies that allow operation on a broad range of fuels from gasoline to E85. Since gasoline or low ethanol blend operation is inherently limited by knock at high loads, strategies must be identified which allow operation on these fuels with minimal fuel economy or power density tradeoffs. A single cylinder direct injection spark ignited engine with fully variable hydraulic valve actuation (HVA) is operated at WOT conditions to determine the knock limited compression ratio (CR) of ethanol fuel blends. The geometric compression ratio is varied by changing pistons, producing CR from 9.2 to 13.66. The effective CR is varied using an electro-hydraulic valvetrain that changed the effective trapped displacement using both Early Intake Valve Closing (EIVC) and Late Intake Valve Closing (LIVC). The EIVC and LIVC strategies result in effective CR being reduced while maintaining the geometric expansion ratio. It was found that at substantially similar engine conditions, increasing the ethanol content of the fuel results in higher engine efficiency and higher engine power. These can be partially attributed to a charge cooling effect and a higher heating valve of a stoichiometric mixture for ethanol blends (per unit mass of air). Additional thermodynamic effects on and a mole multiplier are also explored. It was also found that high CR can increase the efficiency of ethanol fuel blends, and as a result, the fuel economy penalty associated with the lower energy content of E85 can be reduced by about a third. Such operation necessitates that the engine be operated in a de-rated manner for gasoline, which is knock-prone at these high CR, in order to maintain compatibility. By using EIVC and LIVC strategies, good efficiency is maintained with gasoline, but power is reduced by about 34%.

Szybist, James P [ORNL; Youngquist, Adam D [ORNL; Wagner, Robert M [ORNL; Moore, Wayne [Delphi; Foster, Matthew [Delphi; Confer, Keith [Delphi

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

Plutonium isotope ratio variations in North America  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Historically, approximately 12,000 TBq of plutonium was distributed throughout the global biosphere by thermo nuclear weapons testing. The resultant global plutonium fallout is a complex mixture whose {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atom ratio is a function of the design and yield of the devices tested. The average {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atom ratio in global fallout is 0.176 + 014. However, the {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atom ratio at any location may differ significantly from 0.176. Plutonium has also been released by discharges and accidents associated with the commercial and weapons related nuclear industries. At many locations contributions from this plutonium significantly alters the {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atom ratios from those observed in global fallout. We have measured the {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atom ratios in environmental samples collected from many locations in North America. This presentation will summarize the analytical results from these measurements. Special emphasis will be placed on interpretation of the significance of the {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atom ratios measured in environmental samples collected in the Arctic and in the western portions of the United States.

Steiner, Robert E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; La Mont, Stephen P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Eisele, William F [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Fresquez, Philip R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mc Naughton, Michael [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Whicker, Jeffrey J [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2010-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

143

A Forward Silicon Strip System for the ATLAS HL-LHC Upgrade  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The LHC is successfully accumulating luminosity at a centre-of-mass energy of 8 TeV this year. At the same time, plans are rapidly progressing for a series of upgrades, culminating roughly eight years from now in the High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) project. The HL-LHC is expected to deliver approximately five times the LHC nominal instantaneous luminosity, resulting in a total integrated luminosity of around 3000 fb-1 by 2030. The ATLAS experiment has a rather well advanced plan to build and install a completely new Inner Tracker (IT) system entirely based on silicon detectors by 2020. This new IT will be made from several pixel and strip layers. The silicon strip detector system will consist of single-sided p-type detectors with five barrel layers and six endcap (EC) disks on each forward side. Each disk will consist of 32 trapezoidal objects dubbed “petals”, with all services (cooling, read-out, command lines, LV and HV power) integrated into the petal. Each petal will contain 18 silicon sensors grouped in...

Wonsak, S; The ATLAS collaboration

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

144

Electrochemical Immunoassay of Cotinine in Serum Based on Nanoparticle Probe and Immunochromatographic Strip  

SciTech Connect

A disposable sensor for the determination of cotinine in human serum was developed based on immunochromatographic test strip and quantum dot label. In this assay, cotinine modified on quantum dot competes with cotinine in sample to bind to anti-cotinine antibody in the test strip and the quantum dots serve as signal vehicles for electrochemical readout. Some parameters governing the performance of the sensor were optimized. The sensor shows a wide linear range from 1 ng mL-1 to 100 ng mL-1 cotinine with a detection limit of 1.0 ng mL-1. The relative standard deviation (R.S.D.) of the sensor was less than 2% for cotinine. The sensor was validated with spiked human serum samples and it was found that this method was reliable in measuring cotinine in human serum with average recovery of 100.99%. The results demonstrate that this sensor is a rapid, clinically accurate, and less expensive and has the potential for point of care (POC) detection of cotinine and fast screening of tobacco smoke exposure.

Nian, Hung-Chi; Wang, Jun; Wu, Hong J.; Lo, Jiunn-Guang; Chiu, Kong-Hwa; Pounds, Joel G.; Lin, Yuehe

2012-02-03T23:59:59.000Z

145

H- Beam Loss and Evidence for Intrabeam Stripping in the LANSCE Linac  

SciTech Connect

The LANSCE accelerator complex is a multi-beam, multi-user facility that provides high-intensity H{sup +} and H{sup -} particle beams for a variety of user programs. At the heart of the facility is a room temperature linac that is comprised of 100-MeV drift tube and 800-MeV coupled cavity linac (CCL) structures. Although both beams are similar in intensity and emittance at 100 MeV, the beam-loss monitors along the CCL show a trend of increased loss for H{sup -} that is not present for H{sup +}. This difference is attributed to stripping mechanisms that affect H{sup -} and not H{sup +}. We present the results of an analysis of H{sup -} beam loss along the CCL that incorporates beam spill measurements, beam dynamics simulations, analytical models and radiation transport estimates using the MCNPX code. The results indicate a significant fraction of these additional losses result from intrabeam stripping.

Rybarcyk, Lawrence J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kelsey, Charles T. IV [Los Alamos National Laboratory; McCrady, Rodney C. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Pang, Xiaoying [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

146

The All-wavelength Extended Groth Strip International Survey (AEGIS) Data Sets  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this the first of a series of Letters, we present a description of the panchromatic data sets that have been acquired in the Extended Groth Strip region of the sky. Our survey, the All-wavelength Extended Groth strip International Survey (AEGIS), is intended to study the physical properties and evolutionary processes of galaxies at z ~ 1. It includes the following deep, wide-field imaging data sets: Chandra/ACIS X-ray (0.5 - 10 keV), GALEX ultraviolet (1200 - 2500 Angstrom), CFHT/MegaCam Legacy Survey optical (3600 - 9000 Angstroms), CFHT/CFH12K optical (4500 - 9000 Angstroms), Hubble Space Telescope/ACS optical (4400 - 8500 Angstroms), Palomar/WIRC near-infrared (1.2 - 2.2 microns), Spitzer/IRAC mid-infrared (3.6 - 8.0 microns), Spitzer/MIPS far-infrared (24 - 70 microns), and VLA radio continuum (6 - 20 cm). In addition, this region of the sky has been targeted for extensive spectroscopy using the DEIMOS spectrograph on the Keck II 10 m telescope. Our survey is compared to other large multiwavelength surveys in terms of depth and sky coverage.

M. Davis; P. Guhathakurta; N. Konidaris; J. A. Newman; M. L. N. Ashby; A. D. Biggs; P. Barmby; K. Bundy; S. Chapman; A. L. Coil; C. Conselice; M. Cooper; D. Croton; P. Eisenhardt; R. Ellis; S. Faber; T. Fang; G. G. Fazio; A. Georgakakis; B. Gerke; W. M. Goss; S. Gwyn; J. Harker; A. Hopkins; J. -S. Huang; R. J. Ivison; S. A. Kassin; E. Kirby; A. Koekemoer; D. C. Koo; E. Laird; E. Le Floc'h; L. Lin; J. Lotz; P. J. Marshall; D. C. Martin; A. Metevier; L. A. Moustakas; K. Nandra; K. Noeske; C. Papovich; A. C. Phillips; R. M. Rich; G. H. Rieke; D. Rigopoulou; S. Salim; D. Schiminovich; L. Simard; I. Smail; T. A. Small; B. Weiner; C. N. A. Willmer; S. P. Willner; G. Wilson; E. Wright; R. Yan

2006-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

147

The All-wavelength Extended Groth Strip International Survey (AEGIS) Data Sets  

SciTech Connect

In this the first of a series of ''Letters'', we present a description of the panchromatic data sets that have been acquired in the Extended Groth Strip region of the sky. Our survey, the All-wavelength Extended Groth Strip International Survey (AEGIS), is intended to study the physical properties and evolutionary processes of galaxies at z {approx} 1. It includes the following deep, wide-field imaging data sets: Chandra/ACIS{sup 30} X-ray (0.5-10 keV), GALEX{sup 31} ultraviolet (1200-2500 A), CFHT/MegaCam Legacy Survey{sup 32} optical (3600-9000 {angstrom}), CFHT/CFH12K optical (4500-9000 {angstrom}), Hubble Space Telescope/ACS{sup 33} optical (4400-8500 {angstrom}), Palomar/WIRC{sup 34} near-infrared (1.2-2.2 {micro}m), Spitzer/IRAC{sup 35} mid-infrared (3.6-8.0 {micro}m), Spitzer/MIPS far-infrared (24-70 {micro}m), and VLA{sup 36} radio continuum (6-20 cm). In addition, this region of the sky has been targeted for extensive spectroscopy using the DEIMOS spectrograph on the Keck II 10 m telescope{sup 37}. Our survey is compared to other large multiwavelength surveys in terms of depth and sky coverage.

Davis, M.; Guhathakurta, P.; Konidaris, N.; Newman, J.A.; Ashby, M.L.N.; Biggs, A.D.; Barmby, P.; Bundy, K.; Chapman, S.; Coil, A.L.; Conselice, C.; Cooper, M.; Croton, D.; Eisenhardt, P.; Ellis, R.; Faber, S.; Fang, T.; Fazio, G.G.; Georgakakis, A.; Gerke, B.; Goss, W.M.; /UC, Berkeley, Astron. Dept. /Lick Observ. /LBL, Berkeley /Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys. /Royal Observ., Edinburgh /Caltech /Arizona U., Astron. Dept. - Steward Observ. /Nottingham U. /Caltech, JPL /Imperial Coll., London /UC, Berkeley /NRAO, Socorro /Victoria U. /Sydney U. /Baltimore, Space Telescope Sci. /Taiwan, Natl. Taiwan U. /NOAO, Tucson /KIPAC, Menlo Park /UCLA /Oxford U. /Columbia U., Astron. Astrophys.

2006-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

148

The All-Wavelength Extended Groth Strip International Survey(AEGIS) Data Sets  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this the first of a series of Letters, we present a description of the panchromatic data sets that have been acquired in the Extended Groth Strip region of the sky. Our survey, the All-wavelength Extended Groth Strip International Survey (AEGIS), is intended to study the physical properties and evolutionary processes of galaxies at z{approx}1. It includes the following deep, wide-field imaging data sets: Chandra/ACIS X-ray (0.5-10 keV), GALEX ultraviolet (1200-2500 Angstroms), CFHT/MegaCam Legacy Survey optical (3600-9000 Angstroms), CFHT/CFH12K optical (4500-9000 Angstroms), Hubble Space Telescope/ACS optical (4400-8500 Angstroms), Palomar/WIRC near-infrared (1.2-2.2 {micro}m), Spitzer/IRAC mid-infrared (3.6-8.0 {micro}m), Spitzer/MIPS far-infrared (24-70 {micro}m), and VLA radio continuum (6-20 cm). In addition, this region of the sky has been targeted for extensive spectroscopy using the DEIMOS spectrograph on the Keck II 10 m telescope. Our survey is compared to other large multiwavelength surveys in terms of depth and sky coverage.

Davis, M.; Guhathakurta, P.; Konidaris, N.P.; Newman, J.A.; Ashby, M.L.N.; Biggs, A.D.; Barmby, P.; Bundy, K.; Chapman, S.C.; Coil,A.L.; Conselice, C.J.; Cooper, M.C.; Croton, D.J.; Eisenhardt, P.R.M.; Ellis, R.S.; Faber, S.M.; Fang, T.; Fazio, G.G.; Georgakakis, A.; Gerke,B.F.; Goss, W.M.; Gwyn, S.; Harker, J.; Hopkins, A.M.; Huang, J.-S.; Ivison, R.J.; Kassin, S.A.; Kirby, E.N.; Koekemoer, A.M.; Koo, D.C.; Laird, E.S.; Le Floc'h, E.; Lin, L.; Lotz, J.M.; Marshall, P.J.; Martin,D.C.; Metevier, A.J.; Moustakas, L.A.; Nandra, K.; Noeske, K.G.; Papovich, C.; Phillips, A.C.; Rich,R. M.; Rieke, G.H.; Rigopoulou, D.; Salim, S.; Schiminovich, D.; Simard, L.; Smail, I.; Small,T.A.; Weiner,B.J.; Willmer, C.N.A.; Willner, S.P.; Wilson, G.; Wright, E.L.; Yan, R.

2006-10-13T23:59:59.000Z

149

Silicon strip prototypes for the Phase-II upgrade of the ATLAS tracker for the HL-LHC  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper describes the integration structures for the silicon strips tracker of the ATLAS detector proposed for the Phase-II upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), also referred to as High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC). In this proposed detector Silicon strip sensors are arranged in highly modular structures, called `staves' and `petals'. This paper presents performance results from the latest prototype stave built at Berkeley. This new, double-sided prototype is composed of a specialized core structure, in which a shield-less bus tape is embedded in between carbon fiber lay-ups. A detailed description of the prototype and its electrical performance are discussed in detail.

Diez, Sergio

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

150

Silicon strip prototypes for the Phase-II upgrade of the ATLAS tracker for the HL-LHC  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper describes the integration structures for the silicon strips tracker of the ATLAS detector proposed for the Phase-II upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), also referred to as High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC). In this proposed detector Silicon strip sensors are arranged in highly modular structures, called `staves' and `petals'. This paper presents performance results from the latest prototype stave built at Berkeley. This new, double-sided prototype is composed of a specialized core structure, in which a shield-less bus tape is embedded in between carbon fiber lay-ups. A detailed description of the prototype and its electrical performance are discussed in detail.

Sergio Diez

2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

151

Particle decay branching ratios for states of astrophysical importance in 19Ne  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We have measured proton and alpha-particle branching ratios of excited states in 19Ne formed using the 19F(3He,t) reaction at a beam energy of 25 MeV. These ratios have a large impact on the astrophysical reaction rates of 15O(alpha,gamma), 18F(p,gamma) and 18F(p,alpha), which are of interest in understanding energy generation in x-ray bursts and in interpreting anticipated gamma-ray observations of novae. We detect decay protons and alpha-particles using a silicon detector array in coincidence with tritons measured in the focal plane detector of our Enge split-pole spectrograph. The silicon array consists of five strip detectors of the type used in the Louvain-Edinburgh Detector Array, subtending angles from 130 degrees to 165 degrees with approximately 14% lab efficiency. The correlation angular distributions give additional confidence in some prior spin-parity assignments that were based on gamma branchings. We measure Gamma_p/Gamma=0.387+-0.016 for the 665 keV proton resonance, which agrees well with the direct measurement of Bardayan et al.

D. W. Visser; J. A. Caggiano; R. Lewis; W. B. Handler; A. Parikh; P. D. Parker

2003-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

152

Current Transformations in Norwegian Higher Education  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

from Thatcher's higher education reforms in the early 1980'Idea and American Higher Education: 1850 to the 1960 MasterIN NORWEGIAN HIGHER EDUCATION 1 March 2002 Kim Gunnar

Helsvig, Kim Gunnar

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

153

Blowing Ratio Effects on Film Cooling Effectiveness  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The research focuses on testing the film cooling effectiveness on a gas turbine blade suction side surface. The test is performed on a five bladed cascade with a blow down facility. Four different blowing ratios are used in this study, which are 0.5, 1.0, 1.6, and 2.0; mainstream flow conditions are maintained at exit Mach number of 0.7, 1.1 and 1.3. Nitrogen is injected as the coolant so that the oxygen concentration levels can be obtained for the test surface. Based on mass transfer analogy, film cooling effectiveness can be computed with pressure sensitive paint (PSP) technique. The effect of blowing ratio on film cooling effectiveness is presented for each testing condition. The spanwise averaged effectiveness for each case is also presented to compare the blowing ratio and mainstream effect on film cooling effectiveness. Results show that due to effects of shock, the optimum blowing ratio is 1.6 for exit Mach number of 1.1 and 1.3; however; without the effects of shock, the optimum blowing ratio is 1.0 for exit Mach number of 0.7.

Liu, Kuo-Chun

2009-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

Radioactive anomaly discrimination from spectral ratios  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for discriminating a radioactive anomaly from naturally occurring radioactive materials includes detecting a first number of gamma photons having energies in a first range of energy values within a predetermined period of time and detecting a second number of gamma photons having energies in a second range of energy values within the predetermined period of time. The method further includes determining, in a controller, a ratio of the first number of gamma photons having energies in the first range and the second number of gamma photons having energies in the second range, and determining that a radioactive anomaly is present when the ratio exceeds a threshold value.

Maniscalco, James; Sjoden, Glenn; Chapman, Mac Clements

2013-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

155

A Generalized Savage-Dickey Ratio  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this brief research note I present a generalized version of the Savage-Dickey Density Ratio for representation of the Bayes factor (or marginal likelihood ratio) of nested statistical models; the new version takes the form of a Radon-Nikodym derivative and is thus applicable to a wider family of probability spaces than the original (restricted to those admitting an ordinary Lebesgue density). A derivation is given following the measure-theoretic construction of Marin & Robert (2010), and the equivalent estimator is demonstrated in application to a distributional modeling problem.

Cameron, Ewan

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

Indicator strip and portable instrument technologies for determining nitroesters or moisture in combustible cartridge cases  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The sometimes large round-to-round variability observed in accelerated environmental testing, plus difficulties in quantifying the environmental histories of a given round suggest the need for nondestructive rapid tests of munitions to supplement lifetime prediction models in quality assurance of munitions. Technologies are being developed for reagent strips which can be affixed to rounds and which will visually indicate the presence and extent of nitroester migration by a visible color change. A solid state adaptation of a modified Griess reagent develops a red-purple color in the presence of nitroesters. Performance of current designs tested in the laboratory suggest a short-term (ca. one month) single usage. Dielectric capacitance is a promising means for rapid, nondestructive moisture determinations using a portable battery-powered instrument. Laboratory studies with a modified, inexpensive, commercial device have demonstrated fast (a few seconds) detection of case wall moisture content.

Griest, W.H.; Ho, C.H.; Moneyhun, J.H.; Agouridis, D.C.; Gayle, T.M.; Bates, B.E.

1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

157

The First Observation of Intra Beam Stripping of Negative Hydrogen in a Superconducting Linear Accelerator  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We report on an experiment in which a negative hydrogen ions beam in the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) linear accelerator was replaced with a beam of protons with similar size and dynamics. Beam loss in the superconducting part of the SNS accelerator was at least an order of magnitude lower for the proton beam. Also beam loss has a stronger dependence on intensity with H- than with proton beams. These measurements verify a recent theoretical explanation of unexpected beam losses in the SNS superconducting linear accelerator based on an intra beam stripping mechanism for negative hydrogen ions. An identification of the new physics mechanism for beam loss is important for the design of new high current linear ion accelerators and the performance improvement of existing machines

Aleksandrov, Alexander V [ORNL; Plum, Michael A [ORNL; Shishlo, Andrei P [ORNL; Galambos, John D [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

A catalog of mid-infrared sources in the Extended Groth Strip  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Extended Groth Strip (EGS) is one of the premier fields for extragalactic deep surveys. Deep observations of the EGS with the Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) on the Spitzer Space Telescope cover an area of 0.38 square degrees to a 50% completeness limit of 1.5 uJy at 3.6 um. The catalog comprises 57434 objects detected at 3.6 um, with 84%, 28%, and 24% also detected at 4.5, 5.8, and 8.0 um. Number counts are consistent with results from other Spitzer surveys. Color distributions show that the EGS IRAC sources comprise a mixture of populations: low-redshift star-forming galaxies, quiescent galaxies dominated by stellar emission at a range of redshifts, and high redshift galaxies and AGN.

P. Barmby; J. -S. Huang; M. L. N. Ashby; P. R. M. Eisenhardt; G. G. Fazio; E. L. Wright

2008-03-05T23:59:59.000Z

159

How Responsive is Higher Education? The Linkages between Higher Education and the Labor Market  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

establishment (at the higher education level). Our analysisEconomic Value of Higher Education in Developed Economies: AWeiss. 2008. “From Higher Education to Work: Patterns of

Bardhan, Ashok Deo; Hicks, Daniel; Jaffee, Dwight M.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

Higher Power Energy LLC | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Higher Power Energy LLC Higher Power Energy LLC Jump to: navigation, search Name Higher Power Energy, LLC Place Flower Mound, Texas Zip 78028 Sector Renewable Energy, Wind energy Product Higher Power Energy is focused on the development and management of renewable wind energy across North America. References Higher Power Energy, LLC[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Higher Power Energy, LLC is a company located in Flower Mound, Texas . References ↑ "Higher Power Energy, LLC" Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Higher_Power_Energy_LLC&oldid=346535" Categories: Clean Energy Organizations Companies Organizations Stubs What links here

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "higher stripping ratios" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Variation of equivalence ratio and element ratios in low-pressure premixed flames of aliphatic fuels  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In previously published work it was found that the element ratios (such as C/O, H/O, H/C) and the equivalence ratio all varied in the flame zone of a low-pressure premixed fuel-rich benzene/oxygen/argon laminar flat flame. These variations were seen from analyses of both the data and detailed kinetic modeling. In the present work, seven additional flames were analyzed in the same manner, including five flames with a single hydrocarbon fuel (methane, acetylene, ethylene, allene, and propene) and two flames with a mixture of fuels (acetylene/allene, hydrogen/allene). All the flames had argon as the diluent, with pressures between 20 and 37.5 Torr, equivalence ratios between 1.6 and 2.5, cold gas velocities between 42 and 126 cm/sec. All of these flames showed variations in the element ratios and equivalence ratios. Furthermore, these variations changed in a consistent pattern with respect to the molecular weight of the fuel. In the flame zone, the percent change in the H/O, C/O and equivalence ratios increased with increasing molecular weight of the fuel, except for the hydrogen/allene flame in which the C/O ratio first increases, then decreases in the flame zone. Also, unlike all the other hydrocarbon flames, the C/O ratio decreases below its inlet value for the methane flame. The H/O and equivalence ratios decrease below their inlet values for the hydrogen/allene flame. These results are explained in terms of differential diffusion effects between the products and the reactants, which increase as the fuel becomes increasingly heavier than the major carbon- and hydrogen-containing products.

C. J. Pope; J. A. Miller

2000-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

162

Feedstocks with Reduced Acetylation for Higher Product ...  

Biomass and Biofuels Feedstocks with Reduced Acetylation for Higher Product Yields and Improved Properties Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory.

163

Higher order invariants, cohomology, and automorphic forms  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A general structure theorem on higher order invariants is proven. For an arithmetic group, the structure of the corresponding Hecke module is determined. It is shown that the module does not contain any irreducible submodule. This explains the fact that L-functions of higher order forms have no Euler-product. Higher order cohomology is introduced, classical results of Borel are generalized and a higher order version of Borel's conjecture is stated.

Deitmar, Anton

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

Designing ontologies for higher level fusion  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The purpose of higher level fusion is to produce contextual understanding of the states of the environment and prediction of their impact in relation to specific goals of decision makers. One of the main challenges of designing higher level fusion processes ... Keywords: Basic formal ontology (BFO), Higher level fusion, Mereotopology, Ontology, Postdisaster environment, Relations

Eric G. Little; Galina L. Rogova

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

165

Higher-order symbolic execution via contracts  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We present a new approach to automated reasoning about higher-order programs by extending symbolic execution to use behavioral contracts as symbolic values, thus enabling symbolic approximation of higher-order behavior. Our approach is based on the idea ... Keywords: higher-order contracts, reduction semantics, symbolic execution

Sam Tobin-Hochstadt; David Van Horn

2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

166

Isotopic ratio method for determining uranium contamination  

SciTech Connect

The presence of high concentrations of uranium in the subsurface can be attributed either to contamination from uranium processing activities or to naturally occurring uranium. A mathematical method has been employed to evaluate the isotope ratios from subsurface soils at the Rocky Flats Nuclear Weapons Plant (RFP) and demonstrates conclusively that the soil contains uranium from a natural source and has not been contaminated with enriched uranium resulting from RFP releases. This paper describes the method used in this determination which has widespread application in site characterizations and can be adapted to other radioisotopes used in manufacturing industries. The determination of radioisotope source can lead to a reduction of the remediation effort.

Miles, R.E.; Sieben, A.K.

1994-02-03T23:59:59.000Z

167

CO (Carbon Monoxide Mixing Ratio System) Handbook  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The main function of the CO instrument is to provide continuous accurate measurements of carbon monoxide mixing ratio at the ARM SGP Central Facility (CF) 60-meter tower (36.607 °N, 97.489 °W, 314 meters above sea level). The essential feature of the control and data acquisition system is to record signals from a Thermo Electron 48C and periodically calibrate out zero and span drifts in the instrument using the combination of a CO scrubber and two concentrations of span gas (100 and 300 ppb CO in air). The system was deployed on May 25, 2005.

Biraud, S

2011-02-23T23:59:59.000Z

168

High aspect ratio, remote controlled pumping assembly  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A miniature dual syringe-type pump assembly is described which has a high aspect ratio and which is remotely controlled, for use such as in a small diameter penetrometer cone or well packer used in water contamination applications. The pump assembly may be used to supply and remove a reagent to a water contamination sensor, for example, and includes a motor, gearhead and motor encoder assembly for turning a drive screw for an actuator which provides pushing on one syringe and pulling on the other syringe for injecting new reagent and withdrawing used reagent from an associated sensor. 4 figs.

Brown, S.B.; Milanovich, F.P.

1995-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

169

Energy Balance Bowen Ratio Station (EBBR) Handbook  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The energy balance Bowen ratio (EBBR) system produces 30-minute estimates of the vertical fluxes of sensible and latent heat at the local surface. Flux estimates are calculated from observations of net radiation, soil surface heat flux, and the vertical gradients of temperature and relative humidity (RH). Meteorological data collected by the EBBR are used to calculate bulk aerodynamic fluxes, which are used in the Bulk Aerodynamic Technique (BA) EBBR value-added product (VAP) to replace sunrise and sunset spikes in the flux data. A unique aspect of the system is the automatic exchange mechanism (AEM), which helps to reduce errors from instrument offset drift.

Cook, DR

2011-02-23T23:59:59.000Z

170

Generalized structure of higher order nonclassicality  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A generalized notion of higher order nonclassicality (in terms of higher order moments) is introduced. Under this generalized framework of higher order nonclassicality, conditions of higher order squeezing and higher order subpoissonian photon statistics are derived. A simpler form of the Hong-Mandel higher order squeezing criterion is derived under this framework by using an operator ordering theorem introduced by us in [J. Phys. A. 33 (2000) 5607]. It is also generalized for multi-photon Bose operators of Brandt and Greenberg. Similarly, condition for higher order subpoissonian photon statistics is derived by normal ordering of higher powers of number operator. Further, with the help of simple density matrices, it is shown that the higher order antibunching (HOA) and higher order subpoissonian photon statistics (HOSPS) are not the manifestation of the same phenomenon and consequently it is incorrect to use the condition of HOA as a test of HOSPS. It is also shown that the HOA and HOSPS may exist even in absence of the corresponding lower order phenomenon. Binomial state, nonlinear first order excited squeezed state (NLESS) and nonlinear vacuum squeezed state (NLVSS) are used as examples of quantum state and it is shown that these states may show higher order nonclssical characteristics. It is observed that the Binomial state which is always antibunched, is not always higher order squeezed and NLVSS which shows higher order squeezing does not show HOSPS and HOA. The opposite is observed in NLESS and consequently it is established that the HOSPS and HOS are two independent signatures of higher order nonclassicality

Amit Verma; Anirban Pathak

2009-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

171

Measurement of the Branching Ratio for  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We have measured the branching ratio B(\\Upsilon(1S) ! + \\Gamma ) using the CLEO II detector. A clean sample of tau pair events is identified via events containing two charged particles where exactly one of the particles is an identified electron. We find B(\\Upsilon(1S) ! + \\Gamma ) = (2:59 \\Sigma 0:12 +0:13 \\Gamma0:16 )%. The result is consistent with expectations from lepton universality. Permanent address: INP, Novosibirsk, Russia y Permanent address: University of Hawaii at Manoa 1 One of the interesting aspects of heavy quarkonia is that in the lower energy states the electromagnetic decays compete with the strong decays due to OZI suppression. In the b b system, the first three \\Upsilon resonances all lie below the threshold for strong decay into pairs of B mesons, and the measured leptonic decays are of the order of a few percent. For the \\Upsilon(1S), the world average of the branching ratio into tau pairs is (2:97 \\Sigma 0:35)% [1] based on two measureme...

Upsilon Gamma Cinabro; Ichep Ref; Gls Cleo Conf; M. Saulnier; G. Gollin

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

172

Flexible Conversion Ratio Fast Reactor Systems Evaluation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Conceptual designs of lead-cooled and liquid salt-cooled fast flexible conversion ratio reactors were developed. Both concepts have cores reated at 2400 MWt placed in a large-pool-type vessel with dual-free level, which also contains four intermediate heat exchanges coupling a primary coolant to a compact and efficient supercritical CO2 Brayton cycle power conversion system. Decay heat is removed passively using an enhanced Reactor Vessel Auxiliary Cooling System and a Passive Secondary Auxiliary Cooling System. The most important findings were that (1) it is feasible to design the lead-cooled and salt-cooled reactor with the flexible conversion ratio (CR) in the range of CR=0 and CR=1 n a manner that achieves inherent reactor shutdown in unprotected accidents, (2) the salt-cooled reactor requires Lithium thermal Expansion Modules to overcme the inherent salt coolant's large positive coolant temperature reactivity coefficient, (3) the preferable salt for fast spectrum high power density cores is NaCl-Kcl-MgCl2 as opposed to fluoride salts due to its better themal-hydraulic and neutronic characteristics, and (4) both reactor, but attain power density 3 times smaller than that of the sodium-cooled reactor.

Neil Todreas; Pavel Hejzlar

2008-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

173

Hydraulic system for a ratio change transmission  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Disclosed is a drive assembly (10) for an electrically powered vehicle (12). The assembly includes a transaxle (16) having a two-speed transmission (40) and a drive axle differential (46) disposed in a unitary housing assembly (38), an oil-cooled prime mover or electric motor (14) for driving the transmission input shaft (42), an adapter assembly (24) for supporting the prime mover on the transaxle housing assembly, and a hydraulic system (172) providing pressurized oil flow for cooling and lubricating the electric motor and transaxle and for operating a clutch (84) and a brake (86) in the transmission to shift between the two-speed ratios of the transmission. The adapter assembly allows the prime mover to be supported in several positions on the transaxle housing. The brake is spring-applied and locks the transmission in its low-speed ratio should the hydraulic system fail. The hydraulic system pump is driven by an electric motor (212) independent of the prime mover and transaxle.

Kalns, Ilmars (Northville, MI)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

174

Aerosol organic carbon to black carbon ratios: Analysis of published...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Aerosol organic carbon to black carbon ratios: Analysis of published data and implications for climate forcing Title Aerosol organic carbon to black carbon ratios: Analysis of...

175

Table E7.1. Consumption Ratios of Fuel, 1998  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

1. Consumption Ratios of Fuel, 1998;" " Level: National and Regional Data; " " Row: Values of Shipments and Employment Sizes;" " Column: Energy-Consumption Ratios;" " Unit:...

176

CO2 Capture by Aqueous Absorption/Stripping Opportunities for Better Technology  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Capture Capture by Aqueous Absorption/Stripping Opportunities for Better Technology by Gary Rochelle Department of Chemical Engineering University of Texas CO 2 Emissions by Source (1998) C o a l E l e c G a s E l e c . P e t r o . E l e c . I n d . C o a l I n d . G a s I n d . P e t r o . T r a n s . O t h e r MMTCE 0 100 200 300 400 500 Comparison of Power Technologies (500 MW Power Plant) P F & F G D G T C C I G C C CO 2 Wet Vol. % 5 15 0 10 20 Flue Gas (scfm) 0.0 5.0e+5 1.0e+6 1.5e+6 2.0e+6 2.5e+6 The Plan * Base Case MEA * Thermodynamics: Solvents for Reduced Energy: * CO2 Kinetics: Solvents for Increased Rates * Energy Integration * Amine Makeup: Degradation, Corrosion * Contactor Innovations * Four Promising Solvent Systems Typical Absorber / Stripper Flue Gas 2-10% O 2 3-10% CO 2 Rich Amine HX Lean Amine AB SO RB ER STRIPPER 100-120 o C CO 2 H 2 O (O 2 ) CO 2 < 2% Reboiler 1-2 atm

177

TABLES FOR USE IN AN IMPROVED METHOD OF AIRSCREW STRIP THEORY CALCULATION  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Summary.-An improved method of calculating the performance of an airscrew has been described in prcv:ious reports (Refs. I and 2), which includes an allowance for tip loss. The present report contains tables of a parameter (xl required in the calculation of the blade interference by the new method; these tabl ~ l>t:illg available, Utt: lawUl iuvolvoo is IlO g~eateT than in a calculation by the standard vortex theory. A simplified method of calculation involving the use of charts is described in a separate report (Ref. 6). The tables given here cover the case of two-, three-, and four-bladed airscrews at a series of standard radii Rud for all values of pitch. Details of the method of calculation (due to Goldstein, Ref. 3) are given in an Appendix together with a method of interpolation which can be used to extend the results to any other number of blades. The results for three blades were interpolated by this method but are probably quite accurate enough for practical purpo5CS. All formulae required in the present method of strip theory calculation are given here, together with complete details of a specimen

C. N. H. Lock; D. Yeatman Of

1934-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

The pulsational behaviour of variable stars in the lower part of the instability strip  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The lower part of the classical instability strip and the surrounding main sequence are populated by a large variety of pulsating variable stars. In the past years a great effort was made by the stellar group of Brera Observatory to collect a large amount of photometric and spectroscopic data on Delta Sct stars, the more numerous class. In this paper I will describe our approach to this study. In Sect. 2.1 I show as the light curves of high-amplitude Delta Sct stars can be described in a synthetic and powerful way by using the Fourier decomposition. In Sect. 2.2 some interesting cases are presented, i.e. the peculiar light curves of some double-mode pulsators and the multiperiodicity of V974 Oph. As regards the small amplitude Delta Sct stars, the results which can be extracted from the photometry and (high-resolution) spectroscopy are discussed in Sect. 3; the importance of combining the two techniques into the synergic approach is stressed. As a final step, an excursus on the Gamma Dor stars is presented in Sect.4; the rich pulsational content makes these stars very similar to Delta Sct variables.

Ennio Poretti

1999-05-03T23:59:59.000Z

179

Cross strip microchannel plate imaging photon counters with high time resolution  

SciTech Connect

We have implemented cross strip readout microchannel plate detectors in 18 mm active area format including open face (UV/particle) and sealed tube (optical) configurations. These have been tested with a field programmable gate array based parallel channel electronics for event encoding which can process high input event rates (> 5 MHz) with high spatial resolution. Using small pore MCPs (6 {micro}m) operated in a pair, we achieve gains of >5 x 10{sup 5} which is sufficient to provide spatial resolution of <35 {micro}m FHWM, with self triggered event timing accuracy of {approx}2 ns for sealed tube optical sensors. A peak quantum efficiency of {approx}19% at 500 nm has been achieved with SuperGenII photocathodes that have response over the 400 nm to 900 nm range. Local area counting rates of up to >200 events/mcp pore sec{sup -1} have been attained, along with image linearity and stability to better than 50 {micro}m.

Stonehill, Laura C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Shirey, Robert [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rabin, Michael W [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Thompson, David C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Siegmund, Oswald H W [U.C. BERKELEY; Vallerga, John V [U.C. BERKELEY; Tremsin, Anton S [U.C. BERKELEY

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

180

SiO2 aerogel ultra low k dielectric patterning using different hard mask concepts and stripping processes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The patterning of porous SiO"2 aerogel as ultra low k dielectric has been investigated. Three different concepts were examined to etch this material without damage and to finally integrate it into a copper damascene metallization. Oxygen containing etching ... Keywords: Dielectric thin films, H2/N2 strip, Integrated circuit interconnections, Low dielectric constant, Plasma etching, Porous materials, SiO2 aerogel

F. Blaschta; K. Schulze; S. E. Schulz; T. Gessner

2004-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "higher stripping ratios" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
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181

Higher Spin Black Holes from CFT  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Higher spin gravity in three dimensions has explicit black holes solutions, carrying higher spin charge. We compute the free energy of a charged black hole from the holographic dual, a 2d CFT with extended conformal symmetry, and find exact agreement with the bulk thermodynamics. In the CFT, higher spin corrections to the free energy can be calculated at high temperature from correlation functions of W-algebra currents.

Gaberdiel, Matthias R; Jin, Kewang

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

Higher Spin Black Holes from CFT  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Higher spin gravity in three dimensions has explicit black holes solutions, carrying higher spin charge. We compute the free energy of a charged black hole from the holographic dual, a 2d CFT with extended conformal symmetry, and find exact agreement with the bulk thermodynamics. In the CFT, higher spin corrections to the free energy can be calculated at high temperature from correlation functions of W-algebra currents.

Matthias R. Gaberdiel; Thomas Hartman; Kewang Jin

2012-02-29T23:59:59.000Z

183

Transient Thermal, Hydraulic, and Mechanical Analysis of a Counter Flow Offset Strip Fin Intermediate Heat Exchanger using an Effective Porous Media Approach  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

M. and A. L. London. Compact Heat Exchangers. 3 rd ed. , NewOffset Strip Fin Compact Heat Exchanger. ” ExperimentalKays, W. M. , “Compact Heat Exchangers,” AGARD Lecture Ser.

Urquiza, Eugenio

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

DOE Connects with Higher Education Community  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

EDUconnections is a year old project, and through it we celebrate our university partners, spotlighting a different higher education institution every month.

185

FCT Education: Competitions for Higher Education Students  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

& Educators Grades 5-12 Higher Education Energy Education Links Careers in Hydrogen & Fuel Cells Quick Links Hydrogen Production Hydrogen Delivery Hydrogen Storage Fuel Cells...

186

Electronic branching ratio of the. tau. lepton  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Using data accumulated by the CLEO I detector operating at the Cornell Electron Storage Ring, we have measured the ratio {ital R}={Gamma}({tau}{r arrow}{ital e}{bar {nu}}{sub {ital e}}{nu}{sub {tau}})/{Gamma}{sub 1}, where {Gamma}{sub 1} is the {tau} decay rate to final states with one charged particle. We find {ital R}=0.2231{plus minus}0.0044{plus minus}0.0073 where the first error is statistical and the second is systematic. Together with the measured topological one-charged-particle branching fraction, this yields the branching fraction of the {tau} lepton to electrons, {ital B}{sub {ital e}}=0.192{plus minus}0.004{plus minus}0.006.

Ammar, R.; Baringer, P.; Coppage, D.; Davis, R.; Kelly, M.; Kwak, N.; Lam, H.; Ro, S.; Kubota, Y.; Lattery, M.; Nelson, J.K.; Perticone, D.; Poling, R.; Schrenk, S.; Wang, R.; Alam, M.S.; Kim, I.J.; Nemati, B.; Romero, V.; Sun, C.R.; Wang, P.; Zoeller, M.M.; Crawford, G.; Fulton, R.; Gan, K.K.; Kagan, H.; Kass, R.; Lee, J.; Malchow, R.; Morrow, F.; Sung, M.K.; Whitmore, J.; Wilson, P.; Butler, F.; Fu, X.; Kalbfleisch, G.; Lambrecht, M.; Skubic, P.; Snow, J.; Wang, P.; Bortoletto, D.; Brown, D.N.; Dominick, J.; McIlwain, R.L.; Miller, D.H.; Modesitt, M.; Shibata, E.I.; Schaffner, S.F.; Shipsey, I.P.J.; Battle, M.; Ernst, J.; Kroha, H.; Roberts, S.; Sparks, K.; Thorndike, E.H.; Wang, C.; Stroynowski, R.; Artuso, M.; Goldberg, M.; Haupt, T.; Horwitz, N.; Kennett, R.; Moneti, G.C.; Playfer, S.; Rozen, Y.; Rubin, P.; Skwarnicki, T.; Stone, S.; Thulasidas, M.; Yao, W.; Zhu, G.; Barnes, A.V.; Bartelt, J.; Csorna, S.E.; Jain, V.; Letson, T.; Mestayer, M.D.; Akerib, D.S.; Barish, B.; Chadha, M.; (CLEO Collaboration)

1992-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

SURVEYING THE AGENTS OF GALAXY EVOLUTION IN THE TIDALLY STRIPPED, LOW METALLICITY SMALL MAGELLANIC CLOUD (SAGE-SMC). II. COOL EVOLVED STARS  

SciTech Connect

We investigate the infrared (IR) properties of cool, evolved stars in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC), including the red giant branch (RGB) stars and the dust-producing red supergiant (RSG) and asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars using observations from the Spitzer Space Telescope Legacy program entitled 'Surveying the Agents of Galaxy Evolution in the Tidally Stripped, Low Metallicity SMC', or SAGE-SMC. The survey includes, for the first time, full spatial coverage of the SMC bar, wing, and tail regions at IR wavelengths (3.6-160 {mu}m). We identify evolved stars using a combination of near-IR and mid-IR photometry and point out a new feature in the mid-IR color-magnitude diagram that may be due to particularly dusty O-rich AGB stars. We find that the RSG and AGB stars each contribute {approx}20% of the global SMC flux (extended + point-source) at 3.6 {mu}m, which emphasizes the importance of both stellar types to the integrated flux of distant metal-poor galaxies. The equivalent SAGE survey of the higher-metallicity Large Magellanic Cloud (SAGE-LMC) allows us to explore the influence of metallicity on dust production. We find that the SMC RSG stars are less likely to produce a large amount of dust (as indicated by the [3.6] - [8] color). There is a higher fraction of carbon-rich stars in the SMC, and these stars appear to reach colors as red as their LMC counterparts, indicating that C-rich dust forms efficiently in both galaxies. A preliminary estimate of the dust production in AGB and RSG stars reveals that the extreme C-rich AGB stars dominate the dust input in both galaxies, and that the O-rich stars may play a larger role in the LMC than in the SMC.

Boyer, Martha L.; Meixner, Margaret; Gordon, Karl D.; Shiao, Bernie [STScI, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Srinivasan, Sundar [Institut d'Astrophysique de Paris, CNRS UPR 341, Paris F-75014 (France); Van Loon, Jacco Th. [Astrophysics Group, Lennard-Jones Laboratories, Keele University, Staffordshire ST5 5BG (United Kingdom); McDonald, Iain; Kemper, F. [Jodrell Bank Centre for Astrophysics, University of Manchester, M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Zaritsky, Dennis; Block, Miwa; Engelbracht, Charles W.; Misselt, Karl [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Babler, Brian; Bracker, Steve; Meade, Marilyn; Whitney, Barbara [Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Madison, WI 53706-1582 (United States); Hora, Joe; Robitaille, Thomas [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138-1516 (United States); Indebetouw, Remy [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22903-0818 (United States); Sewilo, Marta, E-mail: mboyer@stsci.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The Johns Hopkins University, Homewood Campus, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)

2011-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

188

Class, Race, and Higher Education in America  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Century New England, St. Martin's Press, New York Fay, J.S.Higher Education in America Martin Trow Goldman School ofH.M. Laslett and Seymour Martin Lipset, eds (1974). provided

Trow, Martin

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

189

Modelling higher-order dual nondeterminacy  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We investigate models for programming and specifying in which higher-order functions and nondeterminacy (both demonic and angelic) coexist. The models are built using predicate transformers, binary multirelations, state transformers, and free lattices ...

Joseph M. Morris; Malcolm Tyrrell

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

190

Refinement of higher-order logic programs  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A refinement calculus provides a method for transforming specifications to executable code, maintaining the correctness of the code with respect to its specification. In this paper we extend the refinement calculus for logic programs to include higher-order ...

Robert Colvin; Ian Hayes; David Hemer; Paul Strooper

2002-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

From Higher Education To Work In West  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1. Work Participation And Average Annualized Wages Of Graduates From West Virginia Public Higher .................................................................................................1 Results By Year And Residency ........................................................................................22 Appendix I: Detailed Description Of Employment Data .........................................29

Mohaghegh, Shahab

192

Firm Size And Higher Education Graduate  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of Tables 1. West Virginia Public Higher Education Graduate Work Participation By Area Of Concentration .................................................................................................1 Employment And Annualized Wages By West Virginia Firm Employment Size.....................................................18 Appendix I: Detailed Description Of Employment Data .........................................19

Mohaghegh, Shahab

193

From Higher Education To Work In West  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1. Number Of Graduates By Area Of Concentration And Degree From W.Va. Public Higher Education .................................................................................................1 Results By Year, Experience, Residency, And Degree............................................4.....................................................34 Appendix I: Detailed Description Of Employment Data .........................................36

Mohaghegh, Shahab

194

Rotating Black Holes in Higher Dimensions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The properties of higher-dimensional black holes can differ significantly from those of black holes in four dimensions, since neither the uniqueness theorem, nor the staticity theorem or the topological censorship theorem generalize to higher dimensions. We first discuss black holes of Einstein-Maxwell theory and Einstein-Maxwell-Chern-Simons theory with spherical horizon topology. Here new types of stationary black holes are encountered. We then discuss nonuniform black strings and present evidence for a horizon topology changing transition.

Burkhard Kleihaus; Jutta Kunz; Francisco Navarro-Lerida

2007-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

195

Investigations on the use of anodic stripping voltammetry for the analyses of lead in saline environments  

SciTech Connect

Research is reported directed to modification of the anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV) analytic method in order to acquire data for lead from ambient sea water conditions, and development of a chemical model which uses these data to identify inorganic lead species for saline environments. Laboratory and field samples were analyzed for lead partitioning in: (a) KCl electrolyte solutions; (b) I.A.P.S.O. Standard Sea Water; (c) seawater samples from Quatsino Sound, British Columbia; (d) a series of seawater samples from San Francisco Bay; and (e) seawater samples from the Gulf of Mexico. The electrochemical traits of the lead species and the ASV oxidation potential expression are the fundamental constituents of the chemical model. The model uses the data from the analyses to provide the mass balance relationships for lead partitioned among the major anions in seawater. The laboratory analyses of KCl electrolyte and Standard Seawater give the following results. The modified ASV method and chemical model provide information on ambient labile and non-labile inorganic lead complexes in these saline solutions down to the parts-per-billion level. No purge and the simple electrodes cause some erratic behavior and spurious potentials, but the data are reproducible. In addition to Pb/sup 2 +/, the most dominant measured lead species in order include PbCO/sub 3//sup 0/, PbSO/sub 4//sup 0/, PbCl/sup +/, and Pb(NO/sub 3/)/sub 2//sup 0/ from the lead additions solution. The analyses of the field samples give the following results. Samples were taken from the partially anoxic basin in Quatsino Sound, British Columbia with one successful analysis which is for somewhat normal dissolved oxygen conditions. Data show that lead is partitioned among Pb/sup 2 +/, Pb(OH)/sub 2//sup 0/, PbCO/sub 3//sup 0/, and PbSO/sub 4//sup 0/. The analyses with purge for the San Francisco Bay water partitions lead among Pb/sup 2 +/, PbCO/sub 3//sup 0/, PbSO/sub 4//sup 0/, PbCl/sup +/, and PbOH/sup +/. With successive lead additions Pb(NO/sub 3/)/sub 2//sup 0/ is decidedly the dominant species.

Case, C.W.

1978-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

196

Catalysts for conversion of methane to higher hydrocarbons  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Catalysts for converting methane to higher hydrocarbons such as ethane and ethylene in the presence of oxygen at temperatures in the range of about 700.degree. to 900.degree. C. are described. These catalysts comprise calcium oxide or gadolinium oxide respectively promoted with about 0.025-0.4 mole and about 0.1-0.7 mole sodium pyrophosphate. A preferred reaction temperature in a range of about 800.degree. to 850.degree. C. with a preferred oxygen-to-methane ratio of about 2:1 provides an essentially constant C.sub.2 hydrocarbon yield in the range of about 12 to 19 percent over a period of time greater than about 20 hours.

Siriwardane, Ranjani V. (Morgantown, WV)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

197

Higher moments of net-proton multiplicity distributions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Higher moments of event-by-event net-proton multiplicity distributions have been applied to search for the QCD critical point. Model results are used to provide a baseline for this search. The measured moment products, {kappa}{sigma}{sup 2} and S{sigma} of net-proton distributions, which are directly connected to the thermodynamical baryon number susceptibility ratio in Lattice QCD and Hadron Resonance Gas (HRG) model, are compared to the transport and thermal model results. We argue that a non-monotonic dependence of {kappa}{sigma}{sup 2} and S{sigma} as a function of beam energy can be used to search for the QCD critical point.

Luo Xiaofeng, E-mail: xfluo@lbl.gov [Central China Normal University, Institute of Particle Physics (China); Mohanty, Bedangadas [Variable Energy Cyclotron Center (India); Ritter, Hans Georg; Xu Nu [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (United States)

2012-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

198

Catalysts for conversion of methane to higher hydrocarbons  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Catalysts for converting methane to higher hydrocarbons such as ethane and ethylene in the presence of oxygen at temperatures in the range of about 700 to 900{degrees}C are described. These catalysts comprise calcium oxide or gadolinium oxide respectively promoted with about 0.025--0.4 mole and about 0.1--0.7 mole sodium pyrophosphate. A preferred reaction temperature in a range of about 800 to 850{degrees}C with a preferred oxygen-to-methane ratio of about 2:1 provides an essentially constant C{sub 2} hydrocarbon yield in the range of about 12 to 19 percent over a period of time greater than about 20 hours.

Siriwardane, R.V.

1991-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

199

Ratio Statistics for Randomized Experiments in Precipitation Stimulation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A variety of ratio statistics has been used in the design and evaluation of weather modification experiments and their significance has usually been estimated by rerandomization. These ratios, and especially their logarithms, are asymptotically ...

K. Ruben Gabriel

1999-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

200

The CALIPSO Automated Aerosol Classification and Lidar Ratio Selection Algorithm  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Descriptions are provided of the aerosol classification algorithms and the extinction-to-backscatter ratio (lidar ratio) selection schemes for the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO) aerosol products. One ...

Ali H. Omar; David M. Winker; Mark A. Vaughan; Yongxiang Hu; Charles R. Trepte; Richard A. Ferrare; Kam-Pui Lee; Chris A. Hostetler; Chieko Kittaka; Raymond R. Rogers; Ralph E. Kuehn; Zhaoyan Liu

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "higher stripping ratios" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Discretely-observable continuous time quantum walks on Möbius strips and other exotic structures in 3D integrated photonics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We theoretically analyze the dynamical evolution of photonic quantum walks on M\\"obius strips and other exotic structures in 3D integrated photonics. Our flexible design allows discrete observations of continuous time quantum walks of photons in a variety of waveguide arrays. Furthermore, our design allows one to inject photons during the evolution, allowing the possibility of interacting with the photons as they are 'walking'. We find that non-trivial array topologies introduce novel time-dependent symmetries of the two-photon correlations. These properties allow a large degree of control for quantum state engineering of multimode entangled states in these devices.

Michael Delanty; M. J. Steel

2012-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

202

Final Report on Isotope Ratio Techniques for Light Water Reactors  

SciTech Connect

The Isotope Ratio Method (IRM) is a technique for estimating the energy or plutonium production in a fission reactor by measuring isotope ratios in non-fuel reactor components. The isotope ratios in these components can then be directly related to the cumulative energy production with standard reactor modeling methods.

Gerlach, David C.; Gesh, Christopher J.; Hurley, David E.; Mitchell, Mark R.; Meriwether, George H.; Reid, Bruce D.

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

203

A higher limit approach to homology theories.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A lot of well-known functors such as group homology, cyclic homology of algebras can be described as limits of certain simply defined functors over categories of presentations. In this paper, we develop technique for the description of the higher limits over categories of presentations and show that certain homological functors can be described in this way. In particular, we give a description of Hochschild homology and the derived functors of tensor, symmetric and exterior powers in the sense of Dold and Puppe as higher limits.

Sergei O. Ivanov; Roman Mikhailov

204

QSO hosts and companions at higher redshifts  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This review presents the current state of work on QSO hosts and companions at redshifts above 1. This includes the properties of QSO host galaxies, such as size, scale length, and luminosity, and morphology, as they appear to change with redshift and radio activity. This leads to a view of how the properties of galaxies that host QSOs change with cosmic time. I also review studies of the galaxy companions to QSOs at higher redshifts, and studies of the emission line gas in and around higher redshift QSOs. These topics should see great progress in the next decade.

J. B. Hutchings

2001-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

205

General quantum key distribution in higher dimension  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We study a general quantum key distribution protocol in higher dimension. In this protocol, quantum states in arbitrary g+1 (1?g?d) out of all d+1 mutually unbiased bases in a d-dimensional system can be used for the key ...

Shi, Han-Duo

206

Higher Order Differential Attack of Camellia (II)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Camellia is a 128-bit block cipher, proposed by NTT and Mitsubishi in 2000. It has been shown that 10 round variant without FL function under a 256-bit secret key is attackable by Higher Order Differential Attack and even if FL function is included, ...

Yasuo Hatano; Hiroki Sekine; Toshinobu Kaneko

2002-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

Complexity of the higher order matching  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We use the standard encoding of Boolean values in simply typed lambda calculus to develop a method of translating SAT problems for various logics into higher order matching. We obtain this way already known NP-hardness bounds for the order two and three ...

Tomasz Wierzbicki

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

208

Measurement of the Neutron Magnetic Form Factor at Using the Ratio Method on Deuterium  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the magnetic form factor of the neutron using the 11 GeV electron beam in the upgraded CEBAF and CLAS12 to the higher Q2 that will be available with the 12-GeV upgrade of CEBAF. We will use the ratio]). With the 12-GeV upgrade of CEBAF, Gp E/Gp M and Gn M can be measured up to Q2 14 GeV2 and for Gn E up to Q2

Gilfoyle, Jerry

209

Lower Cost, Higher Performance Carbon Fiber  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

David (Dave) Warren David (Dave) Warren Field Technical Manager Transportation Materials Research Oak Ridge National Laboratory P.O. Box 2009, M/S 8050 Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-8050 Phone: 865-574-9693 Fax: 865-574-0740 Email: WarrenCD@ORNL.GOV Lower Cost, Higher Performance Carbon Fiber 14 February 2011 2 Managed by UT-Battelle for the U.S. Department of Energy Presentation_name Questions for Today Materials How can the cost of carbon fiber suitable for higher performance applications (H 2 Storage) be developed? H 2 Storage requirements implies Aerospace grade fibers. Can we build off of work previously done for more modest structural applications? To accurately answer: We need to know the minimum performance and maximum cost requirements of the fiber not simply the properties of current fiber.

210

Higher modulus compositions incorporating particulate rubber  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Rubber particles, to be used as fillers or extenders for various composite polymer systems, are chlorinated by a gas-solid phase reaction with a chlorine-containing gas. A composite polymer containing the chlorinated rubber fillers or extenders exhibits a higher flexural modulus than if prepared using an unchlorinated rubber filler or extender. Chlorination of the rubber particles is carried out by contacting the finely divided rubber particles with a chlorine-containing gas comprising at least about 5 volume percent chlorine. Advantageously, the chlorine can be diluted with air, nitrogen or other essentially inert gases and may contain minor amounts of fluorine. Improved performance is obtained with nitrogen dilution of the chlorine gas over air dilution. Improved polymer composite systems having higher flexural modulus result from the use of the chlorinated rubber particles as fillers instead of unchlorinated rubber particles.

Bauman, Bernard D. (Emmaus, PA); Williams, Mark A. (Souderton, PA); Bagheri, Reza (Bethlehem, PA)

1997-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

211

Higher modulus compositions incorporating particulate rubber  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Rubber particles, to be used as fillers or extenders for various composite polymer systems, are chlorinated by a gas-solid phase reaction with a chlorine-containing gas. A composite polymer containing the chlorinated rubber fillers or extenders exhibits a higher flexural modulus than if prepared using an unchlorinated rubber filler or extender. Chlorination of the rubber particles is carried out by contacting the finely divided rubber particles with a chlorine-containing gas comprising at least about 5 volume percent chlorine. Advantageously, the chlorine can be diluted with air, nitrogen or other essentially inert gases and may contain minor amounts of fluorine. Improved performance is obtained with nitrogen dilution of the chlorine gas over air dilution. Improved polymer composite systems having higher flexural modulus result from the use of the chlorinated rubber particles as fillers instead of unchlorinated rubber particles. 2 figures.

McInnis, E.L.; Scharff, R.P.; Bauman, B.D.; Williams, M.A.

1995-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

212

Higher modulus compositions incorporating particulate rubber  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Rubber particles, to be used as fillers or extenders for various composite polymer systems, are chlorinated by a gas-solid phase reaction with a chlorine-containing gas. A composite polymer containing the chlorinated rubber fillers or extenders exhibits a higher flexural modulus than if prepared using an unchlorinated rubber filler or extender. Chlorination of the rubber particles is carried out by contacting the finely divided rubber particles with a chlorine-containing gas comprising at least about 5 volume percent chlorine. Advantageously, the chlorine can be diluted with air, nitrogen or other essentially inert gases and may contain minor amounts of fluorine. Improved performance is obtained with nitrogen dilution of the chlorine gas over air dilution. Improved polymer composite systems having higher flexural modulus result from the use of the chlorinated rubber particles as fillers instead of unchlorinated rubber particles. 2 figs.

Bauman, B.D.; Williams, M.A.; Bagheri, R.

1997-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

213

Higher modulus compositions incorporating particulate rubber  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Rubber particles, to be used as fillers or extenders for various composite polymer systems, are chlorinated by a gas-solid phase reaction with a chlorine-containing gas. A composite polymer containing the chlorinated rubber fillers or extenders exhibits a higher flexural modulus than if prepared using an unchlorinated rubber filler or extender. Chlorination of the rubber particles is carried out by contacting the finely divided rubber particles with a chlorine-containing gas comprising at least about 5 volume percent chlorine. Advantageously, the chlorine can be diluted with air, nitrogen or other essentially inert gases and may contain minor amounts of fluorine. Improved performance is obtained with nitrogen dilution of the chlorine gas over air dilution. Improved polymer composite systems having higher flexural modulus result from the use of the chlorinated rubber particles as fillers instead of unchlorinated rubber particles.

McInnis, Edwin L. (Allentown, PA); Bauman, Bernard D. (Emmaus, PA); Williams, Mark A. (Souderton, PA)

1996-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

214

Higher modulus compositions incorporating particulate rubber  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Rubber particles, to be used as fillers or extenders for various composite polymer systems, are chlorinated by a gas-solid phase reaction with a chlorine-containing gas. A composite polymer containing the chlorinated rubber fillers or extenders exhibits a higher flexural modulus than if prepared using an unchlorinated rubber filler or extender. Chlorination of the rubber particles is carried out by contacting the finely divided rubber particles with a chlorine-containing gas comprising at least about 5 volume percent chlorine. Advantageously, the chlorine can be diluted with air, nitrogen or other essentially inert gases and may contain minor amounts of fluorine. Improved performance is obtained with nitrogen dilution of the chlorine gas over air dilution. Improved polymer composite systems having higher flexural modulus result from the use of the chlorinated rubber particles as fillers instead of unchlorinated rubber particles. 2 figs.

McInnis, E.L.; Bauman, B.D.; Williams, M.A.

1996-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

215

Higher modulus compositions incorporating particulate rubber  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Rubber particles, to be used as fillers or extenders for various composite polymer systems, are chlorinated by a gas-solid phase reaction with a chlorine-containing gas. A composite polymer containing the chlorinated rubber fillers or extenders exhibits a higher flexural modulus than if prepared using an unchlorinated rubber filler or extender. Chlorination of the rubber particles is carried out by contacting the finely divided rubber particles with a chlorine-containing gas comprising at least about 5 volume percent chlorine. Advantageously, the chlorine can be diluted with air, nitrogen or other essentially inert gases and may contain minor amounts of fluorine. Improved performance is obtained with nitrogen dilution of the chlorine gas over air dilution. Improved polymer composite systems having higher flexural modulus result from the use of the chlorinated rubber particles as fillers instead of unchlorinated rubber particles.

McInnis, Edwin L. (Allentown, PA); Scharff, Robert P. (Louisville, KY); Bauman, Bernard D. (Emmaus, PA); Williams, Mark A. (Souderton, PA)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

216

Higher Education: Who Benefits? WHAT IS THE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Little argument exists about the societal and personal value of education. The more complicated question is who benefits from, and therefore who pays for, higher education. Both the community and the individual benefit from education; this complicates the funding equation as to how much society and the individual should pay. If students had to pay the full price of education, too few would be able or willing to pay because the immediate personal

unknown authors

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

217

Poisson's ratio and porosity at Coso geothermal area, California | Open  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Poisson's ratio and porosity at Coso geothermal area, California Poisson's ratio and porosity at Coso geothermal area, California Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Journal Article: Poisson's ratio and porosity at Coso geothermal area, California Details Activities (1) Areas (1) Regions (0) Abstract: High-resolution, three-dimensional, compressional and shear wave velocity models, derived from microearthquake traveltimes, are used to map the distribution of Poisson's ratio and porosity at Coso Geothermal Area, Inyo County, California. Spatial resolution of the three-dimensional Poisson's ratio and porosity distributions is estimated to be 0.5 km horizontally and 0.8 km vertically. Model uncertainties, + or -1% in the interior and + or -2.3% around the edge of the model, are estimated by a jackknife method. We use perturbations of r = V p /V s ratio and Psi = V p

218

Observation of Enhanced Transformer Ratio in Collinear Wakefield Acceleration  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

One approach to future high energy particle accelerators is based on the wakefield principle: a leading high-charge drive bunch is used to excite fields in an accelerating structure or plasma that in turn accelerates a trailing low-charge witness bunch. The transformer ratio R is defined as the ratio of the maximum energy gain of the witness bunch to the maximum energy loss of the drive bunch. In general, Rtransformer ratio limitation. We report here the first experimental study of the ramped bunch train (RBT) technique in a dielectric based accelerating structure. A single drive bunch was replaced by two bunches with charge ratio of 1 ratio 2.5 and a separation of 10.5 wavelengths of the fundamental mode. An average measured transformer ratio enhancement by a factor of 1.31 over the single drive bunch case was obtained.

Jing, C.; Kanareykin, A.; Schoessow, P. [Euclid Techlabs LLC, Solon, Ohio 44139 (United States); Power, J. G.; Conde, M.; Yusof, Z.; Gai, W. [High Energy Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois-60439 (United States)

2007-04-06T23:59:59.000Z

219

Trust, Markets and Accountability in Higher Education: A Comparative Perspective  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

that European and American higher education are currentlyfor Studies in Higher Education UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA,AND ACCOUNTABILITY IN HIGHER EDUCATION: A COMPARATIVE

Trow, Martin

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

The Carnegie Commission and Council on Higher Education: A Retrospective  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

AND COUNCIL ON HIGHER EDUCATION: A RETROSPECTIVE * Novemberfor Studies in Higher Education, UC Berkeley Copyright 2005Carnegie Commission on Higher Education under the auspices

Douglass, John Aubrey

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "higher stripping ratios" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Recent Racial Incidents in Higher Education: A Contemporary Perspective  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Racial Incidents in Higher Education 1987b. "King Wants1988. "Hispanics Higher Education's Missing People." Change12-65. Chronicle of Higher Education. 1987. "Racial Brawl

Farrell, Walter C. Jr.; Jones, Cloyzelle K.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

222

AFTER BROWNE: The New Competitive Regime for English Higher Education  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

s Proposals for Higher Education Funding and StudentAn Analysis Oxford: Higher Education Policy Institute.and Medow, J. (2010) Global Higher Education Rankings 2010:

Roger Brown

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

An Emerging View on Accountability in American Higher Education  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Accountability in Higher Education: Lessons from the PastStates and Public Higher Education Policy: Affordability,and Privatization in Public Higher Education. ” Washington,

Leveille, David E.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

224

International Trends in Higher Education and the Indian Scenario  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

International Higher Education, Spring. CSHE Research &Dynamics of Private Higher Education in the United States:and Public Policy. ” Higher Education Policy 3(2): 9-12.

Gupta, Asha

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

European Responses to Global Competitiveness in Higher Education  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Adaptations of European Higher Education Systems in theDiversity in Higher Education. Jossey-Bass Publishers,2005). The European Higher Education and Research Landscape

Marijk van der Wende

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

226

From Mass Higher Education to Universal Access: The American Advantage  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Transition from Elite to Mass Higher Education”, op. cit.impact of mass on elite higher education, see Trow, M. , “Elite Higher Education: An Endangered Species? ”, Minerva,

Trow, Martin A

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

227

The Disruptive Dialogue Project: Crafting Critical Space in Higher Education  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

faculty work: Higher education’s strategic imperative. Sanfor the Study of Higher Education, Anaheim, CA. *Carducci,the public agenda for higher education. Symposium presented

Carducci, Rozana; Kuntz, Aaron M.; Gildersleeve, Ryan Evely; Pasque, Penny A.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

228

Table 6.2 Consumption Ratios of Fuel, 2002  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

2 Consumption Ratios of Fuel, 2002;" 2 Consumption Ratios of Fuel, 2002;" " Level: National and Regional Data; " " Row: Values of Shipments and Employment Sizes;" " Column: Energy-Consumption Ratios;" " Unit: Varies." ,,,"Consumption" " ",,"Consumption","per Dollar"," " " ","Consumption","per Dollar","of Value","RSE" "Economic","per Employee","of Value Added","of Shipments","Row" "Characteristic(a)","(million Btu)","(thousand Btu)","(thousand Btu)","Factors"

229

" Column: Energy-Consumption Ratios;"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

3 Consumption Ratios of Fuel, 2006;" 3 Consumption Ratios of Fuel, 2006;" " Level: National Data; " " Row: Values of Shipments within NAICS Codes;" " Column: Energy-Consumption Ratios;" " Unit: Varies." ,,,,"Consumption" ,,,"Consumption","per Dollar" ,,"Consumption","per Dollar","of Value" "NAICS",,"per Employee","of Value Added","of Shipments" "Code(a)","Economic Characteristic(b)","(million Btu)","(thousand Btu)","(thousand Btu)" ,,"Total United States" " 311 - 339","ALL MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES"

230

" Column: Energy-Consumption Ratios;"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

3 Consumption Ratios of Fuel, 2002;" 3 Consumption Ratios of Fuel, 2002;" " Level: National Data; " " Row: Values of Shipments within NAICS Codes;" " Column: Energy-Consumption Ratios;" " Unit: Varies." " "," ",,,"Consumption"," " " "," ",,"Consumption","per Dollar" " "," ","Consumption","per Dollar","of Value","RSE" "NAICS",,"per Employee","of Value Added","of Shipments","Row" "Code(a)","Economic Characteristic(b)","(million Btu)","(thousand Btu)","(thousand Btu)","Factors"

231

CONVERSION RATIOS IN SLIGHTLY ENRICHED URANIUM, WATER MODERATED LATTICES  

SciTech Connect

An experiment is described in which the conversion ratios were measured using highly enriched U-Al foils as catchers. Data are included on the ratios of epi-cadmium to sub-cadmium fission rates of U/sup 235/ in l% enriched U light water moderated lattices, and on conversion ratios of 1% enriched U light water moderated lattices. (J.R.D.)

Tassan, S.

1963-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

232

Rotating Heat Transfer in High Aspect Ratio Rectangular Cooling...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Reynolds Number (Nu Nu o ) (f f o ) 24% Increase in Cooling Performance Rotating Heat Transfer in High Aspect Ratio Rectangular Cooling Passages with Shaped Turbulators...

233

Figure 34. Ratio of average per megawatthour fuel costs ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Title: Figure 34. Ratio of average per megawatthour fuel costs for natural gas combined-cycle plants to coal-fired steam turbines in the RFC west ...

234

Transformer Ratio Enhancement Using A Ramped Bunch Train In A...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

wakefleld accelerator - i.e. with either plasma or structure based wakefield accelerators. It is known that the transformer ratio cannot generally be greater than 2 for a...

235

Measurement of Magnetic Quadrupole-electric Dipole Mixing Ratios ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Measurement of Magnetic Quadrupole-electric Dipole Mixing Ratios and Angular Distribution Parameters in Atomic Inner-shell Transitions.

236

HIGH LATITUDE ULYSSES OBSERVATIONS OF THE H/HE INTENSITY RATIO UNDER SOLAR MINIMUM AND SOLAR MAXIMUM CONDITIONS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

We analyze measurements of the 0.5-1.0 MeV/nucleon H/He intensity ratio from the Ulysses spacecraft during its first (1992-94) and second (1999-2000) ascent to southern high latitude regions of the heliosphere. These cover a broad range of heliocentric distances (from 5.2 to 2.0 AU) and out-of-ecliptic latitudes (from 18{degree}S to 80{degree}S). During Ulysses' first southern pass, the HI-SCALE instrument measured a series of enhanced particle fluxes associated with the passage of a recurrent corotating interaction region (CIR). Low values ({approximately}6) of the H/He ratio were observed in these recurrent corotating events, with a clear minimum following the passage of the corotating reverse shock. When Ulysses reached high southern latitudes (>40{degree}S), the H/He ratio always remained below {approximately}10 except during two transient solar events that brought the ratio to high (>20) values. Ulysses' second southern pass was characterized by a higher average value of the H/He ratio. No recurrent pattern was observed in the energetic ion intensity which was dominated by the occurrence of transient events of solar origin. Numerous CIRs, many of which were bounded by forward and reverse shock pairs, were still observed in the solar wind and magnetic field data. The arrival of those CIRs at Ulysses did not always result in a decrease of the H/He ratio; on the contrary, many CIRs showed a higher H/He ratio than some transient events. Within a CIR, however, the H/He ratio usually increased around the forward shock and decreased towards the reverse shock. Throughout the second ascent to southern heliolatitudes, the H/He ratio seldom decreased below {approximately}10 even at high latitudes (>40{degree}S). We interpret these higher values of the H/He ratio in terms of the increasing level of solar activity together with the poor definition and short life that corotating solar wind structures have under solar maximum conditions. The global filling of the heliosphere by transient solar events and the fact that in 1999-2000 Ulysses observed only intermediate (<650 km s{sup {minus}1}) solar wind speed (whose contents in pick-up He is less energetic than in the fast solar wind streams observed in 1992-1994) favored the protons with respect to alpha particles. Hence the fact that the average values of the H/He ratio observed by Ulysses during the rising phase of the solar cycle (1999-2000) were higher than those observed during the declining phase (1992-1994).

J. GOSLING; D. LARIO; ET AL

2001-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

237

A DOZEN NEW GALAXIES CAUGHT IN THE ACT: GAS STRIPPING AND EXTENDED EMISSION LINE REGIONS IN THE COMA CLUSTER  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We present images of extended H{alpha} clouds associated with 14 member galaxies in the Coma cluster obtained from deep narrowband imaging observations with the Suprime-Cam at the Subaru Telescope. The parent galaxies of the extended H{alpha} clouds are distributed farther than 0.2 Mpc from the peak of the X-ray emission of the cluster. Most of the galaxies are bluer than g - r {approx} 0.5 and they account for 57% of the blue (g - r < 0.5) bright (r < 17.8 mag) galaxies in the central region of the Coma cluster. They reside near the red- and blueshifted edges of the radial velocity distribution of Coma cluster member galaxies. Our findings suggest that most of the parent galaxies were recently captured by the Coma cluster potential and are now infalling toward the cluster center with their disk gas being stripped off and producing the observed H{alpha} clouds.

Yagi, Masafumi; Komiyama, Yutaka; Kashikawa, Nobunari [Optical and Infrared Astronomy Division, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1, Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Yoshida, Michitoshi [Hiroshima Astrophysical Science Center, Hiroshima University, 1-3-1, Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8526 (Japan); Furusawa, Hisanori [Astronomy Data Center, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1, Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Okamura, Sadanori [Department of Astronomy, School of Science, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Graham, Alister W. [Centre for Astrophysics and Supercomputing, Swinburne University of Technology, Hawthorn, Victoria 3122 (Australia); Miller, Neal A. [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742-2421 (United States); Carter, David [Astronomical Research Institute, Liverpool John Moores University, Twelve Quays House, Egerton Warf, Birkenhead CH41 1LD (United Kingdom); Mobasher, Bahram [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States); Jogee, Shardha, E-mail: YAGI.Masafumi@nao.ac.j [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas at Austin, 1 University Station C1400, Austin, TX 78712 (United States)

2010-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

238

Assisted thermal stripping (ATS) for removal of PCBs from contaminated soils. Design of experiments modeling of the ATS process  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In a companion report, the Assisted Thermal Stripping (ATS) process for enhanced removal of PCBs from PCB-contaminated soil is described. In studies directed toward achieving residual PCB levels of {le}2 ppm, it was found that four factors were particularly important -- (1) process temperature; (2) process time; (3) the amount of additive (for enhancing the removal of PCBs); and (4) steam flow rate. In order to optimize the ATS process, it was deemed crucial to ascertain the relative effect exerted by each of those process factors and the reproducibility of the process. To accomplish that, we have relied on the technique {open_quotes}Design of Experiments{close_quotes} (DOE) to mathematically model the ATS process. After considering the findings from our previous investigations, it was decided to employ formic acid as the additive for enhancing the removal of PCBs.

Krabbenhoft, H.O.; Webb, J.L.; Gascoyne, D.G. [GE Corporate Research & Development, Schenectady, NY (United States); Cawse, J.N. [GE Plastics, Pittsfield, MA (United States)

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

239

Implementation of a Large Scale Control System for a High-Energy Physics Detector: The CMS Silicon Strip Tracker  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Control systems for modern High-Energy Physics (HEP) detectors are large distributed software systems managing a significant data volume and implementing complex operational procedures. The control software for the LHC experiments at CERN is built on top of a commercial software used in industrial automation. However, HEP specific requirements call for extended functionalities. This thesis focuses on the design and implementation of the control system for the CMS Silicon Strip Tracker but presents some general strategies that have been applied in other contexts. Specific design solutions are developed to ensure acceptable response times and to provide the operator with an effective summary of the status of the devices. Detector safety is guaranteed by proper configuration of independent hardware systems. A software protection mechanism is used to avoid the widespread intervention of the hardware safety and to inhibit dangerous commands. A wizard approach allows non expert operators to recover error situations...

Masetti, Lorenzo; Fischer, Peter

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

The WISE Gamma-Ray Strip Parametrization: The Nature of the Gamma-Ray Active Galactic Nuclei of Uncertain Type  

SciTech Connect

Despite the large number of discoveries made recently by Fermi, the origins of the so called unidentified {gamma}-ray sources remain unknown. The large number of these sources suggests that among them there could be a population that significantly contributes to the isotropic gamma-ray background and is therefore crucial to understand their nature. The first step toward a complete comprehension of the unidentified {gamma}-ray source population is to identify those that can be associated with blazars, the most numerous class of extragalactic sources in the {gamma}-ray sky. Recently, we discovered that blazars can be recognized and separated from other extragalactic sources using the infrared (IR) WISE satellite colors. The blazar population delineates a remarkable and distinctive region of the IR color-color space, the WISE blazar strip. In particular, the subregion delineated by the {gamma}-ray emitting blazars is even narrower and we named it as the WISE Gamma-ray Strip (WGS). In this paper we parametrize the WGS on the basis of a single parameter s that we then use to determine if {gamma}-ray Active Galactic Nuclei of the uncertain type (AGUs) detected by Fermi are consistent with the WGS and so can be considered blazar candidates. We find that 54 AGUs out of a set 60 analyzed have IR colors consistent with the WGS; only 6 AGUs are outliers. This result implies that a very high percentage (i.e., in this sample about 90%) of the AGUs detected by Fermi are indeed blazar candidates.

Massaro, F.; /SLAC; D'Abrusco, R.; /Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys.; Tosti, G.; /Perugia U. /INFN, Perugia; Ajello, M.; /SLAC; Gasparrini, D.; /ESRIN, Frascati; Grindlay, J.E.; Smith, Howard A.; /Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys.

2012-04-02T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "higher stripping ratios" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Integrated Lateral Flow Test Strip with Electrochemical Sensor for Quantification of Phosphorylated Cholinesterase: Biomarker of Exposure to Organophosphorus Agents  

SciTech Connect

An integrated lateral flow test strip with electrochemical sensor (LFTSES) device with rapid, selective and sensitive response for quantification of exposure to organophosphorus (OP) pesticides and nerve agents has been developed. The principle of this approach is based on parallel measurements of post-exposure and baseline acetylcholinesterase (AChE) enzyme activity, where reactivation of the phosphorylated AChE is exploited to enable measurement of total amount of AChE (including inhibited and active) which is used as a baseline for calculation of AChE inhibition. Quantitative measurement of phosphorylated adduct (OP-AChE) was realized by subtracting the active AChE from the total amount of AChE. The proposed LFTSES device integrates immunochromatographic test strip technology with electrochemical measurement using a disposable screen printed electrode which is located under the test zone. It shows linear response between AChE enzyme activity and enzyme concentration from 0.05 to 10 nM, with detection limit of 0.02 nM. Based on this reactivation approach, the LFTSES device has been successfully applied for in vitro red blood cells inhibition studies using chlorpyrifos oxon as a model OP agent. This approach not only eliminates the difficulty in screening of low-dose OP exposure because of individual variation of normal AChE values, but also avoids the problem in overlapping substrate specificity with cholinesterases and avoids potential interference from other electroactive species in biological samples. It is baseline free and thus provides a rapid, sensitive, selective and inexpensive tool for in-field and point-of-care assessment of exposures to OP pesticides and nerve agents.

Du, Dan; Wang, Jun; Wang, Limin; Lu, Donglai; Lin, Yuehe

2012-02-08T23:59:59.000Z

242

Mixed Layer Density Ratio from the Levitus Data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An analysis of the Levitus data is employed to examine Stommel's mixed layer density ratio regulator hypothesis. Three different methods of computing the lateral density ratio (Rl???T/??S) are used and the least squares method was found to have ...

Liang Gui Chen

1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

243

Rapid and Sensitive Detection of Protein Biomarker Using a Portable Fluorescence Biosensor based on Quantum Dots and a Lateral Flow Test Strip  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A portable fluorescence biosensor with rapid and ultrasensitive response for trace protein has been built up with quantum dots and lateral flow test strip. The superior signal brightness and high photostability of quantum dots are combined with the promising advantages of lateral flow test strip and resulted in high sensitivity, selectivity and speedy for protein detection. Nitrated ceruloplasmin, a significant biomarker for cardiovascular disease, lung cancer and stress response to smoking, was used as model protein to demonstrate the good performances of this proposed Qdot-based lateral flow test strip. Quantitative detection of nitrated ceruloplasmin was realized by recording the fluorescence intensity of quantum dots captured on the test line. Under optimal conditions, this portable fluorescence biosensor displays rapid responses for nitrated ceruloplasmin in wide dynamic range with a detection limit of 0.1ng/mL (S/N=3). Furthermore, the biosensor was successfully utilized for spiked human plasma sample detection with the concentration as low as 1ng/mL. The results demonstrate that the quantum dot-based lateral flow test strip is capable for rapid, sensitive, and quantitative detection of nitrated ceruloplasmin and hold a great promise for point-of-care and in field analysis of other protein biomarkers.

Li, Zhaohui; Wang, Ying; Wang, Jun; Tang, Zhiwen; Pounds, Joel G.; Lin, Yuehe

2010-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

244

HIGHER EDUCATION FACILITIES MANAGEMENT: READY FOR INTERNATIONALIZATION?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The last ten years has seen dramatic growth in Facilities Management (FM) activities worldwide, including Malaysia. Facilities Management is responsible for coordinating all efforts related to planning, designing and managing physical structure and it equipment, furniture and fixtures to improve the organization’s ability to compete successfully in a fast changing world. The facilities of a Higher Education Institution (HEI) like Universiti Teknologi Malaysia are one of its most valuable assets and must be manage properly in order to meet the need of the Institution’s end-user (Local and International students). This research provides essential concept on the application of facility management in general and specific emphasis on Higher Education facilities like library, class rooms, transportation services, catering services among others. The purpose of this study is to identify and assess whether the facilities provided in Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM) meet the International students’ requirement and recommend measure necessary to meet the shortfalls of these requirements. 210 questionnaires were administered to seven colleges and quantitative analysis technique was used in the analysis of the result. The finding shows 70% of the respondents (male and female) are satisfied and comfortable with the academic facilities which include (Library, class rooms) however, 30% were not. Similarly, 65% of the respondents said the transportation service (bus) on campus is inefficient. Finding also shows that 55% and 85% of the respondents complained on road signage and catering services. On college facilities, between 58% and 70% of the respondents are satisfied with the college facilities (rooms, desk, bed, sport facilities, parking space). Results indicate that 70% of the respondents complained of the chair provided in their rooms (not to ergonomic standards). Overall result shows that 65% of the respondents are satisfied with the campus facilities while 35% are not satisfied.

Aizuddin, N.; Yahya, M.

2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

245

RESULTS FROM ANALYSIS OF THE FIRST AND SECOND STRIP EFFLUENT COALESCER ELEMENTS FROM RADIOACTIVE OPERATIONS OF THE MODULAR CAUSTIC-SIDE SOLVENT EXTRACTION UNIT  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The coalescer elements for the Strip Effluent (SE) acid within the Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) experienced elevated differential pressure drop during radioactive operations. Following the end of operations for the first Macrobatch campaign and soon after start of the second Macrobatch campaign, personnel removed the coalescer media and provided to Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) for diagnostic investigation of the causes of reduced flow. This report summarizes those studies. Two Strip Effluent (SE) coalescers were delivered to the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). One was removed from the Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) between processing of Macrobatch 1 and 2 (coalescer 'Alpha'), and the second was removed from MCU after processing of {approx}24,000 gallons of salt solution (coalescer 'Beta'). Both coalescers underwent the same general strip acid flush program to reduce the dose and were delivered to SRNL for analysis of potential occluding solids. Analysis of Coalescer Alpha indicates the presence of aluminum hydroxide solids and aluminosilicate solids, while analysis of Coalescer Beta indicates the presence of aluminum hydroxide solids, but no aluminosilicates. Leaching studies on sections of both coalescers were performed. The results indicate that the coalescers had different amounts of solids present on them at the time of removal. Finally, samples of free liquids retrieved from both coalescers indicate no excessive amounts of CSSX solvent present. Given the strip acid flushing that occurred in the SE coalescers, the solids we detected on the coalescers are probably indicative of a larger quantity of these solids present before the strip acid flushing. Under this scenario, the excessive pressure drops are due to the solids and not from organic fouling.

Peters, T.; Fondeur, F.; Fink, S.

2011-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

246

Guidelines and recommended terms for expression of stable-isotope-ratio and gas-ratio measurement results, {  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, geology, oceanography, and paleo- climatology. The Commission on Isotopic Abundances and Atomic WeightsGuidelines and recommended terms for expression of stable- isotope-ratio and gas-ratio measurement results, { Tyler B. Coplen* U.S. Geological Survey, 431 National Center, Reston, VA 20192, USA To minimize

247

PROMOTED ZINC CHROMITE CATALYSTS FOR HIGHER ALCOHOL SYNTHESIS  

SciTech Connect

During this reporting period, a ''zinc chromite'' catalyst promoted with 6 wt.% cesium (Cs) was evaluated at the following conditions: Temperature--375 C; Total Pressure--6.8 MPa (1000 psig); Gas Hourly Space Velocity (GHSV) - 5000 standard liters/kg(cat)-hr, and; H{sub 2}/CO feed ratio--1.0 mole/mole. Decahydronaphthalene (DHN) was used as the slurry liquid. The experiment lasted for eight days of continuous operation. Although the experimental data once again did not exhibit the desired degree of consistency, the data did show that methanol was the primary reaction product. The slurry liquid did not decompose or alkylate to a measurable extent during the continuous 8-day experiment. There was a relatively significant loss of catalyst surface area during the experiment. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis of various fractions of ''spent'' THQ was carried out. The fractions were prepared by silica gel liquid chromatography (LC). Chemical formuli and probable structures for each major compound were obtained. However, a higher degree of purification will be necessary to allow nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis to be used for definitive compound identification. A new Maxpro gas booster (DLE 15-75) was purchased because the existing Haskel gas booster once again developed a severe leak of carbon monoxide and hydrogen, and was judged to be unworthy of repair.

Ms. Xiaolei Sun; Professor George W. Roberts

2000-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

248

Transformer Ratio Enhancement for Structure-Based Wakefield Acceleration  

SciTech Connect

A limiting factor in the efficiency of wakefield accelerators is the fact that the transformer ratio R, the parameter that characterizes the energy transfer efficiency from the accelerating structure to the accelerated electron beam, is less than 2 for most technologically realizable beam-structure configurations. We are planning an experiment to study transformer ratio enhancement in a 13.625 GHz dielectric wakefield structure driven by a ramped bunch train. In this paper we present an experimental program for the demonstration of this Enhanced Transformer Ratio Dielectric Wakefield Accelerator (ETR-DWA)

Kanareykin, A. [Euclid Techlabs LLC, Solon OH 44139 (United States); Gai, W.; Power, J.G. [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne IL, 60439 (United States); Schoessow, P. [Tech-X Corp., Boulder CO, 80303 (United States)

2004-12-07T23:59:59.000Z

249

How Required Reserve Ratio Affects Distribution and Velocity of Money  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this paper the dependence of wealth distribution and the velocity of money on the required reserve ratio is examined based on a random transfer model of money and computer simulations. A fractional reserve banking system is introduced to the model where money creation can be achieved by bank loans and the monetary aggregate is determined by the monetary base and the required reserve ratio. It is shown that monetary wealth follows asymmetric Laplace distribution and latency time of money follows exponential distribution. The expression of monetary wealth distribution and that of the velocity of money in terms of the required reserve ratio are presented in a good agreement with simulation results.

Xi, N; Wang, Y; Xi, Ning; Ding, Ning; Wang, Yougui

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

250

Oxygen And Carbon Isotope Ratios Of Hydrothermal Minerals From Yellowstone  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Oxygen And Carbon Isotope Ratios Of Hydrothermal Minerals From Yellowstone Oxygen And Carbon Isotope Ratios Of Hydrothermal Minerals From Yellowstone Drill Cores Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Journal Article: Oxygen And Carbon Isotope Ratios Of Hydrothermal Minerals From Yellowstone Drill Cores Details Activities (3) Areas (1) Regions (0) Abstract: Oxygen and carbon isotope ratios were measured for hydrothermal minerals (silica, clay and calcite) from fractures and vugs in altered rhyolite, located between 28 and 129 m below surface (in situ temperatures ranging from 81 to 199°C) in Yellowstone drill holes. The purpose of this study was to investigate the mechanism of formation of these minerals. The Δ18O values of the thirty-two analyzed silica samples (quartz, chalcedony, α-cristobalite, and β-cristobalite) range from -7.5 to +2.8‰. About one

251

Figure 33. Ratio of average per megawatthour fuel costs for ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Sheet3 Sheet2 Sheet1 Figure 33. Ratio of average per megawatthour fuel costs for natural gas combined-cycle plants to coal-fired steam turbines in the SERC southeast ...

252

Figure 27. Ratio of average per megawatthour fuel costs for ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Sheet3 Sheet2 Sheet1 Figure 27. Ratio of average per megawatthour fuel costs for natural gas combined-cycle plants to coal-fired steam turbines in five cases, 2008-2040

253

Comparative Performance of Two Reversing Bowen Ratio Measurement Systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper reports on the results of a comparative experiment between two Bowen ratio measurement systems conducted at the Petawawa National Forestry Institute, Chalk River, Ontario, in 1985. Both systems interchange the positions of the ...

J. H. McCaughey; D. W. Mullins; M. Publicover

1987-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

254

A New Formulation for the Bowen Ratio over Saturated Surfaces  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Analytical expressions are presented for calculating the Bowen ratio, Bo = Hs/HL, from a quantity Bo* that is derived primarily from the surface temperature Ts and the assumption that the near-surface air is saturated (but not supersaturated) ...

Edgar L. Andreas; Beniamin A. Cash

1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

255

Asymmetry of Charge Ratio for Low Energetic Muons  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The WILLI calorimeter, installed in NIPNE Bucharest, is operated since several years for measuring charge ratio of atmospheric muons at low energies (Egeomagnetic field and also on features of the hadronic interaction.

Mitrica, Bogdan [National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Horia Hulubei, Bucharest (Romania)

2008-01-24T23:59:59.000Z

256

Predictions of Saturation Ratio for Cloud Microphysical Models  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The saturation development equation is solved analytically to give a solution that is more general than the existing analytical solution. This analytical solution provides accurate predictions of the saturation ratio and allows the use of ...

Jen-Ping Chen

1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

257

Use of the “Odds Ratio” for Diagnosing Forecast Skill  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study investigates ways of quantifying the skill in forecasts of dichotomous weather events. The odds ratio, widely used in medical studies, can provide a powerful way of testing the association between categorical forecasts and ...

David B. Stephenson

2000-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

Ne IX emission-line ratios in solar active regions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Emission-line ratios for Ne IX are derived and compared with observational data for solar active regions obtained with the SOLEX B spectrometer on the P78-1 satellite. Excellent agreement is obtained, providing support for the atomic data adopted in the calculations and resolving discrepancies between existing theoretical calculations and solar data. The calculated R-ratio for the low-density limit agrees well with the SOLEX observations. 47 references.

Keenan, F.P.; Mccann, S.M.; Kingston, A.E.; Mckenzie, D.L.

1987-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

259

System and method for high precision isotope ratio destructive analysis  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A system and process are disclosed that provide high accuracy and high precision destructive analysis measurements for isotope ratio determination of relative isotope abundance distributions in liquids, solids, and particulate samples. The invention utilizes a collinear probe beam to interrogate a laser ablated plume. This invention provides enhanced single-shot detection sensitivity approaching the femtogram range, and isotope ratios that can be determined at approximately 1% or better precision and accuracy (relative standard deviation).

Bushaw, Bruce A; Anheier, Norman C; Phillips, Jon R

2013-07-02T23:59:59.000Z

260

Cesium Isotope Ratios as Indicators of Nuclear Power Plant Operations  

SciTech Connect

There are multiple paths by which radioactive cesium can reach the effluent from reactor operations. The radioactive 135Cs/137Cs ratios are controlled by these paths. In an effort to better understand the origin of this radiation, these 135Cs/137Cs ratios in effluents from three power reactor sites have been measured in offsite samples. These ratios are different from global fallout by up to six fold and as such cannot have a significant component from this source. A cesium ratio for a sample collected outside of the plant boundary provides integration over the operating life of the reactor. A sample collected inside the plant at any given time can be much different from this lifetime ratio. The measured cesium ratios vary significantly for the three reactors and indicate that the multiple paths have widely varying levels of contributions. There are too many ways these isotopes can fractionate to be useful for quantitative evaluations of operating parameters in an offsite sample, although it may be possible to obtain limited qualitative information for an onsite sample.

Darin Snyder; James Delmore; Troy Tranter; Nick Mann; Michael Abbott; John Olson

2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "higher stripping ratios" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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261

National Association for Equal Opportunity in Higher Education...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

National Association for Equal Opportunity in Higher Education (NAFEO) National Conference National Association for Equal Opportunity in Higher Education (NAFEO) National...

262

Recovery Act: Wind Energy Consortia between Institutions of Higher...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Recovery Act: Wind Energy Consortia between Institutions of Higher Learning and Industry Recovery Act: Wind Energy Consortia between Institutions of Higher Learning and Industry A...

263

Trace metal characterization and speciation in geothermal effluent by multiple scanning anodic stripping voltammetry and atomic absorption analysis  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Recent studies have shown geothermal power plants to have a significant environmental impact on the ground water of the area. The heavy metals arsenic and mercury are special problems, as both are concentrated by flora and fauna exposed to the effluent waters. Because the toxicity of these and other metallic pollutants present in geothermal effluent depends on the chemical form, or speciation, of the particular metal, any serious study of the environmental impact of a geothermal development should include studies of trace metal speciation, in addition to trace metal concentration. This proposal details a method for determining metal speciation in dilute waters. The method is based on ion-exchange and backed by atomic absorption spectrometry and multiple scanning anodic stripping voltammetry. Special laboratory studies will be performed on mercury, arsenic and selenium speciation in synthetic geothermal water. The method will be applied to three known geothermal areas in Washington and Oregon, with emphasis on the speciation of mercury, arsenic and selenium in these waters. The computer controlled electrochemical instrumentation was built and tested. Using this instrumentation, a new experimental procedure was developed to determine the chemical form (speciation) of metal ions in very dilute solutions (ng/ml). This method was tested on model systems including Pb, Cd, and As with C1/sup -/, CO/sub 3//sup 2 -/ and glycine ligands. Finally, the speciation of lead in a geothermal water was examined and the PbC1/sup +/ complex was observed and quantified.

Kowalski, B.R.

1979-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

264

Observation of Enhanced Transformer Ratio in Collinear Wakefield Acceleration  

SciTech Connect

The transformer ratio R is a parameter that characterizes the efficiency of the energy transferred from the drive beam to the trailing witness beam passing through a wakefield accelerating structure (all metal or dielectric based) or a plasma chamber. Using a ramped bunch train (RBT) rather than a single drive bunch, the enhanced transformer ratio (ETR) technique is able to increase the transformer ratio R above the ordinary limit of 2 for a single bunch in a collinear wakefield accelerator. The RBT is a train of electron bunches separated by half integer multiples wavelength of the wakefield. The charge of the leading bunch is lowest and subsequent bunch charges are increased in such a way as to maximize R. In this article, an experimental study of this scheme is presented in which an RBT of 2 bunches with charge ratio of 1:2.5 and bunch length {sigma}z = 2 mm were used to enhance the transformer ratio. Measurement results and data analysis show good agreement with theoretical predictions. The ETR technique demonstrated here can be used in any collinear wakefield accelerator configuration, either structure- or plasma-based.

Jing, C.; Kanareykin, A. [Euclid Techlabs, LLC, Solon, OH-44139 (United States); Power, J.; Conde, M.; Yusof, Z.; Gai, W. [High Energy Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL-60439 (United States)

2006-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

265

Observation of enhanced transformer ratio in collinear Wakefield acceleration.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The transformer ratio R is a parameter that characterizes the efficiency of the energy transferred from the drive beam to the trailing witness beam passing through a wakefield accelerating structure (all metal or dielectric based) or a plasma chamber. Using a ramped bunch train (RBT) rather than a single drive bunch, the enhanced transformer ratio (ETR) technique is able to increase the transformer ratio R above the ordinary limit of 2 for a single bunch in a collinear wakefield accelerator. The RBT is a train of electron bunches separated by half integer multiples wavelength of the wakefield. The charge of the leading bunch is lowest and subsequent bunch charges are increased in such a way as to maximize R. In this article, an experimental study of this scheme is presented in which an RBT of 2 bunches with charge ratio of 1:2.5 and bunch length {sigma}{sub z} = 2 mm were used to enhance the transformer ratio. Measurement results and data analysis show good agreement with theoretical predictions. The ETR technique demonstrated here can be used in any collinear wakefield accelerator configuration, either structure- or plasma-based.

Power, J.; Conde, M.; Yusof, Z.; Gai, W.; Jing, C.; Kanareykin, A.; High Energy Physics; Euclid Techlabs, LLC

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

266

Bench-Scale Development of a Hot Carbonate Absorption Process with Crystallization-Enabled High Pressure Stripping for Post-Combustion CO2 Capture  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Development of a Hot Development of a Hot Carbonate Absorption Process with Crystallization-Enabled High Pressure Stripping for Post-Combustion CO 2 Capture Background The mission of the U.S. Department of Energy/National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE/NETL) Existing Plants, Emissions & Capture (EPEC) Research & Development (R&D) Program is to develop innovative environmental control technologies to enable full use of the nation's vast coal reserves, while at the same

267

Transformer ratio improvement for beam based plasma accelerators  

SciTech Connect

Increasing the transformer ratio of wakefield accelerating systems improves the viability of present novel accelerating schemes. The use of asymmetric bunches to improve the transformer ratio of beam based plasma systems has been proposed for some time[1, 2] but suffered from lack appropriate beam creation systems. Recently these impediments have been overcome [3, 4] and the ability now exists to create bunches with current profiles shaped to overcome the symmetric beam limit of R {<=} 2. We present here work towards experiments designed to measure the transformer ratio of such beams, including theoretical models and simulations using VORPAL (a 3D capable PIC code) [5]. Specifically we discuss projects to be carried out in the quasi-nonlinear regime [6] at the UCLA Neptune Laboratory and the Accelerator Test Facility at Brookhaven National Lab.

O'Shea, Brendan; Rosenzweig, James; Barber, Samuel; Fukasawa, Atsushi; Williams, Oliver; Muggli, Patric; Yakimenko, Vitaly; Kusche, Karl [University of California, Los Angeles, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); University of Southern California, Department of Electrical Engineering, Los Angeles, CA 90089 U.S.A. and Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Foehringer Ring 6, 80805 Muenchen (Germany); Accelerator Test Facility, Brookhaven National Lab, Upton, NY, 11973 (United States)

2012-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

268

Recent Experiment on Wakefield Transformer Ratio Enhancement at AWA  

SciTech Connect

One technique to enhance the transformer ratio beyond the ordinary limit of 2 in a collinear wakefield acceleration scheme is to use a ramped bunched train (RBT). The first experimental demonstration has been reported in [1]. However, due to the mismatch between the beam bunch length and frequency of the accelerating structure, the observed transformer ratio was only marginally above 2 in the earlier experiment. We recently revisited this experiment with an optimized bunch length using the laser stacking technique at Argonne Wakefield Accelerator (AWA) facility. A transformer ratio of 3.4 has been measured using two drive bunches. Attempting to use four drive bunches met with major challenges. In this article, measurement results and data analysis from these experiments are presented in detail.

Jing, C.; Kanareykin, A. [Euclid Techlabs, LLC, 5900 Harper Rd, Solon, OH 44139 (United States); High Energy Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Power, J. G.; Conde, M.; Liu, W.; Yusof, Z.; Gai, W. [High Energy Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)

2010-11-04T23:59:59.000Z

269

Medium effects on charged pion ratio in heavy ion collisions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We have recently studied in the delta-resonance--nucleon-hole model the dependence of the pion spectral function in hot dense asymmetric nuclear matter on the charge of the pion due to the pion p-wave interaction in nuclear medium. In a thermal model, this isospin-dependent effect enhances the ratio of negatively charged to positively charged pions in neutron-rich nuclear matter, and the effect is comparable to that due to the uncertainties in the theoretically predicted stiffness of nuclear symmetry energy at high densities. This effect is, however, reversed if we also take into account the s-wave interaction of the pion in nuclear medium as given by chiral perturbation theory, resulting instead in a slightly reduced ratio of negatively charged to positively charged pions. Relevance of our results to the determination of the nuclear symmetry energy from the ratio of negatively to positively charged pions produced in heavy ion collisions is discussed.

Che Ming Ko; Yongseok Oh; Jun Xu

2010-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

270

Measurement of Ground Level Muon Charge Ratio Using ECRS Simulation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Muon charge ratio at the Earth's surface has been studied with a Geant4 based simulation for two different geomagnetic locations: Atlanta and Lynn Lake. The simulation results are shown in excellent agreement with the data from NMSU-WIZARD/CAPRICE and BESS experiments at Lynn Lake, At low momentum, ground level muon charge ratios show latitude dependent geomagnetic effects for both Atlanta and Lynn Lake from the simulation. The simulated charge ratio is 1.20 {+-} 0.05 (without geomagnetic field), 1.12 {+-} 0.05 (with geomagnetic field) for Atlanta and 1.22 {+-} 0.04 (with geomagnetic field) for Lynn Lake. These types of studies are very important for analyzing secondary cosmic ray muon flux distribution at Earth's surface and can be used to evaluate the parameter of atmospheric neutrino oscillations.

Sanjeewa, Hakmana; He Xiaochun; Cleven, Christopher [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA 30303 (United States)

2006-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

271

Mechanism of photoreductive stripping of iron(III) in a liquid-liquid extraction system and its application for a hydrometallurgical process  

SciTech Connect

The mechanism of the photoreductive stripping of iron(III) in the liquid-liquid extraction process was investigated by employing (2-ethylhexyl)phosphonic acid mono(2-ethylhexyl) ester (EHPNA) and bis(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid (D2EHPA) as extractants, n-dodecane and kerosene as diluents, and a xenon lamp as the light source. The photoreductive stripping of iron(III) progressed by photoirradiation following an initial induction period caused by dissolved oxygen in the extraction system. The iron(III)-extractant complex was photoexcited in the organic phase and photoreduced to the iron(II) complex by electron donation from the water at the aqueous/organic interface. A kinetic study of the photoreductive stripping of iron(III) revealed that the photochemical reduction of iron(III) was the rate-determining step. The removal of iron from a simulated zinc refinery residue solution by using liquid-liquid extraction combined with photochemical reduction of iron was also investigated, showing that the rare metals in the refinery residue, gallium and indium, were recovered effectively and leaving almost all iron(III) in the aqueous phase.

Nishihama, Syouhei; Hirai, Takayuki; Komasawa, Isao

1999-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

272

Study for radionuclide transfer ratio of aerosols generated during heat cutting  

SciTech Connect

The metallic elements with a low melting point and high vapor pressure seemed to transfer in aerosols selectively at dismantling reactor internals using heat cutting. Therefore, the arc melting tests of neutron irradiated zirconium alloy were conducted to investigate the radionuclide transfer behavior of aerosols generated during the heat cutting of activated metals. The arc melting test was conducted using a tungsten inert gas welding machine in an inert gas or air atmosphere. The radioactive aerosols were collected by filter and charcoal filter. The test sample was obtained from Zry-2 fuel cladding irradiated in a Japanese boiling water reactor for five fuel cycles. The activity analysis, chemical composition measurement and scanning electron microscope observation of aerosols were carried out. Some radionuclides were enriched in the aerosols generated in an inert gas atmosphere and the radionuclide transfer ratio did not change remarkably by the presence of air. The transfer ratio of Sb-125 was almost the same as that of Co-60. It was expected that Sb-125 was enriched from other elements since Sb is an element with a low melting point and high vapor pressure compared with the base metal (Zr). In the viewpoint of the environmental impact assessment, it became clear that the influence if Sb-125 is comparable to Co-60. The transfer ratio of Mn-54 was one order higher compared with other radionuclides. The results were discussed on the basis of thermal properties and oxide formation energy of the metallic elements. (authors)

Iguchi, Yukihiro; Baba, Tsutomu; Kawakami, Hiroto [Japan Nuclear Energy Safety Organization - JNES (Japan); Kitahara, Takashi; Watanabe, Atsushi [Hitachi, Ltd. (Japan); Kodama, Mitsuhiro [Nippon Nuclear Fuel Development Co., Ltd. (Japan)

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

273

High transformer ratio drive beams for wakefield accelerator studies  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

For wakefield based acceleration schemes, use of an asymmetric (or linearly ramped) drive bunch current profile has been predicted to enhance the transformer ratio and generate large accelerating wakes. We discuss plans and initial results for producing such bunches using the 20 to 23 GeV electron beam at the FACET facility at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory and sending them through plasmas and dielectric tubes to generate transformer ratios greater than 2 (the limit for symmetric bunches). The scheme proposed utilizes the final FACET chicane compressor and transverse collimation to shape the longitudinal phase space of the beam.

England, R. J.; Ng, C.-K.; Frederico, J.; Hogan, M. J.; Litos, M.; Muggli, P.; Joshi, C.; An, W.; Andonian, G.; Mori, W.; Lu, W. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Max Planck Institute for Physics, 80805 Munich (Germany); University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Tsinghua University, Beijing (China)

2012-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

274

Optimal ratio between phase basis and bit basis in QKD  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In the original BB84 protocol, we use the bit basis and the phase basis with the equal probability. Lo et al (J. of Cryptology, 18, 133-165 (2005)) proposed to modify the ratio between two bases for increasing the final key generation rate in the asymptotic setting. In the present letter, in order to treat this problem the non-asymptotic setting, we optimize the ratio between the two bases with exponential constraints for Eve's information distinguishability and the final error probability.

Hayashi, Masahito

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

275

Stability of high. beta. large aspect ratio tokamaks  

SciTech Connect

High {beta}({beta}{much gt} {epsilon}/q{sup 2}) large aspect ratio ({epsilon} {much gt} 1) tokamak equilibria are shown to be always stable to ideal M.H.D. modes that are localized about a flux surface. Both the ballooning and interchange modes are shown to be stable. This work uses the analytic high {beta} large aspect ratio tokamak equilibria developed by Cowley et.al., which are valid for arbitrary pressure and safety factor profiles. The stability results make no assumption about these profiles or the shape of the boundary. 14 refs., 4 figs.

Cowley, S.C.

1991-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

276

Cross Section to Multiplicity Ratios at Very High Energy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Recent data from the LHC makes it possible to examine an old speculation that at very high energy the total multiplicity and the cross section in elementary particle interactions vary in parallel with energy. Using fits incorporating the new data, it appears that the ratios of the total, elastic, and inelastic cross sections to the average multiplicity N can in fact approach constants at very high energy. The approach to the limit is however quite slow for the total and inelastic cross sections and is not yet reached at LHC energies. The elastic ratio sigma^{el}/N at 7 TeV, however, is not far from its asymptotic value.

M. M. Block; L. Stodolsky

2013-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

277

Dimension-Independent Positive-Partial-Transpose Probability Ratios  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We conduct quasi-Monte Carlo numerical integrations in two very high (80 and 79)-dimensional domains -- the parameter spaces of rank-9 and rank-8 qutrit-qutrit (9 x 9) density matrices. We, then, estimate the ratio of the probability -- in terms of the Hilbert-Schmidt metric -- that a generic rank-9 density matrix has a positive partial transpose (PPT) to the probability that a generic rank-8 density matrix has a PPT (a precondition to separability/nonentanglement). Close examination of the numerical results generated -- despite certain large fluctuations -- indicates that the true ratio may, in fact, be 2. Our earlier investigation (eprint quant-ph/0410238) also yielded estimates close to 2 of the comparable ratios for qubit-qubit and qubit-qutrit pairs (the only two cases where the PPT condition fully implies separability). Therefore, it merits conjecturing (as Zyczkowski was the first to do) that such Hilbert-Schmidt (rank-NM/rank-(NM-1)) PPT probability ratios are 2 for all NM-dimensional quantum systems.

Paul B. Slater

2005-05-13T23:59:59.000Z

278

Odds Ratio Forecasts Increase Precautionary Action for Extreme Weather Events  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

What is the best way to communicate the risk of rare but extreme weather to the public? One suggestion is to communicate the relative risk of extreme weather in the form of odds ratios; but, to the authors’ knowledge, this suggestion has never ...

Jared LeClerc; Susan Joslyn

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

279

Generalized solar load ratio correlation for direct gain buildings  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A generalized solar load ratio correlation has been developed for direct gain buildings by generating relationships between the correlation parameters and two fundamental design parameters. The first design parameter is the steady state conductance of the solar aperture, U/sub c/. The second is the effective heat capacity of the solar zone, EHC.

Wray, W.O.; Best, E.D.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

280

Allowable pillar to diameter ratio for strategic petroleum reserve caverns.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report compiles 3-D finite element analyses performed to evaluate the stability of Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) caverns over multiple leach cycles. When oil is withdrawn from a cavern in salt using freshwater, the cavern enlarges. As a result, the pillar separating caverns in the SPR fields is reduced over time due to usage of the reserve. The enlarged cavern diameters and smaller pillars reduce underground stability. Advances in geomechanics modeling enable the allowable pillar to diameter ratio (P/D) to be defined. Prior to such modeling capabilities, the allowable P/D was established as 1.78 based on some very limited experience in other cavern fields. While appropriate for 1980, the ratio conservatively limits the allowable number of oil drawdowns and hence limits the overall utility and life of the SPR cavern field. Analyses from all four cavern fields are evaluated along with operating experience gained over the past 30 years to define a new P/D for the reserve. A new ratio of 1.0 is recommended. This ratio is applicable only to existing SPR caverns.

Ehgartner, Brian L.; Park, Byoung Yoon

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "higher stripping ratios" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

The proton form factor ratio results from Jefferson Lab  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The ratio of the proton form factors, GE p/GMp, has been measured extensively, from Q2 of 0.5 GeV2 to 8.5 GeV2, at the Jefferson Laboratory, using the polarization transfer method. This ratio is extracted directly from the measured ratio of the transverse and longitudinal polarization components of the recoiling proton in elastic electron-proton scattering. The polarization transfer results are of unprecedented high precision and accuracy, due in large part to the small systematic uncertainties associated with the experimental technique. There is an approved experiment at JLab, GEP(5), to continue the ratio measurements to 12 GeV2. A dedicated experimental setup, the Super Bigbite Spectrometer (SBS), will be built for this purpose. It will be equipped with a focal plane polarimeter to measure the polarization of the recoil protons. The scattered electrons will be detected in an electromagnetic calorimeter. In this presentation, I will review the status of the proton elastic electromagnetic form factors and discuss a number of theoretical approaches to describe nucleon form factors.

Vina Punjabi

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

282

Non-tracking solar concentrator with a high concentration ratio  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A nontracking solar concentrator with a high concentration ratio is provided. The concentrator includes a plurality of energy absorbers which communicate with a main header by which absorbed heat is removed. Undesired heat flow of those absorbers not being heated by radiant energy at a particular instant is impeded, improving the efficiency of the concentrator.

Hinterberger, Henry (Batavia, IL)

1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

283

Roundness and Aspect Ratio of Particles in Ice Clouds  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The frequency of occurrence of the aspect ratio and roundness of particles in ice clouds from aircraft observations have been examined. Images of cloud particles were measured by a cloud particle imager (CPI) at 2.3-?m resolution, installed on ...

Alexei Korolev; George Isaac

2003-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

284

Dynamic tracking of page miss ratio curve for memory management  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Memory can be efficiently utilized if the dynamic memory demands of applications can be determined and analyzed at run-time. The page miss ratio curve(MRC), i.e. page miss rate vs. memory size curve, is a good performance-directed metric to serve this ... Keywords: memory management, power management, resource allocation

Pin Zhou; Vivek Pandey; Jagadeesan Sundaresan; Anand Raghuraman; Yuanyuan Zhou; Sanjeev Kumar

2004-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

UPGRADING THE CEBAF INJECTOR WITH A NEW BOOSTER, HIGHER VOLTAGE GUN, AND HIGHER FINAL ENERGY  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) accelerator at Jefferson Lab will be upgraded from 6 GeV to 12 GeV in the next few years. To meet the requirement of the new machine and to take the opportunity to improve the beam quality, the CEBAF injector will be upgraded with a higher voltage gun, a new booster, and a new accelerating RF module. The CEBAF injector creates and accelerates three beams at different currents simultaneously. The beams are interleaved, each at one third of the RF frequency, traveling through the same beam line. The higher voltage gun will lower the space charge effects. The new booster with optimized beam dynamics will complete the bunching process and provide initial acceleration matched to the new gun voltage. Using our latest SRF design, the new booster has significantly lower x/y coupling effects that should improve our beam setup and operation for the highly sensitive parity experiments scheduled for the CEBAF's future. Finally, the new accelerating RF module will roughly double the injector final energy to match the rest of the 12 GeV accelerator. In this paper we will provide more detail about this upgrade.

Reza Kazimi, Arne Freyberger, Alicia Hofler, Andrew Hutton, Fay Hannon

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

286

LITERATURE SURVEY ON ISOTOPIC ABUNDANCE RATIO MEASUREMENTS - 2001-2005  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Along with my usual weekly review of the published literature for new nuclear data, I also search for new candidates for best measurements of isotopic abundances from a single source. Most of the published articles, that I previously had found in the Research Library at the Brookhaven Lab, have already been sent to the members of the Atomic Weights Commission, by either Michael Berglund or Thomas Walczyk. In the last few days, I checked the published literature for any other articles in the areas of natural variations in isotopic abundance ratios, measurements of isotopic abundance ratios on samples of extra-terrestrial material and isotopic abundance ratio measurements performed using ICPMS instruments. Hopefully this information will be of interest to members of the Commission, the sub-committee on isotopic abundance measurements (SIAM), members of the former sub-committee on natural isotopic fractionation (SNIF), the sub-committee on extra-terrestrial isotope ratios (SETIR), the RTCE Task Group and the Guidelines Task Group, who are dealing with ICPMS and TIMS comparisons. In the following report, I categorize the publications in one of four areas. Measurements performed using either positive or negative ions with Thermal Ionization Mass Spectrometer, TIMS, instruments; measurements performed on Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer, ICPMS, instruments; measurements of natural variations of the isotopic abundance ratios; and finally measurements on extra-terrestrial samples with instrumentation of either type. There is overlap in these areas. I selected out variations and ET results first and then categorized the rest of the papers by TIMS and ICPMS.

HOLDEN, N.E.

2005-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

287

RESULTS OF THE EXTRACTION-SCRUB-STRIP TESTING USING AN IMPROVED SOLVENT FORMULATION AND SALT WASTE PROCESSING FACILITY SIMULATED WASTE  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Office of Waste Processing, within the Office of Technology Innovation and Development, is funding the development of an enhanced solvent - also known as the next generation solvent (NGS) - for deployment at the Savannah River Site to remove cesium from High Level Waste. The technical effort is a collaborative effort between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). As part of the program, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has performed a number of Extraction-Scrub-Strip (ESS) tests. These batch contact tests serve as first indicators of the cesium mass transfer solvent performance with actual or simulated waste. The test detailed in this report used simulated Tank 49H material, with the addition of extra potassium. The potassium was added at 1677 mg/L, the maximum projected (i.e., a worst case feed scenario) value for the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF). The results of the test gave favorable results given that the potassium concentration was elevated (1677 mg/L compared to the current 513 mg/L). The cesium distribution value, DCs, for extraction was 57.1. As a comparison, a typical D{sub Cs} in an ESS test, using the baseline solvent formulation and the typical waste feed, is {approx}15. The Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) uses the Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) process to remove cesium (Cs) from alkaline waste. This process involves the use of an organic extractant, BoBCalixC6, in an organic matrix to selectively remove cesium from the caustic waste. The organic solvent mixture flows counter-current to the caustic aqueous waste stream within centrifugal contactors. After extracting the cesium, the loaded solvent is stripped of cesium by contact with dilute nitric acid and the cesium concentrate is transferred to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), while the organic solvent is cleaned and recycled for further use. The Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF), under construction, will use the same process chemistry. The Office of Waste Processing (EM-31) expressed an interest in investigating the further optimization of the organic solvent by replacing the BoBCalixC6 extractant with a more efficient extractant. This replacement should yield dividends in improving cesium removal from the caustic waste stream, and in the rate at which the caustic waste can be processed. To that end, EM-31 provided funding for both the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). SRNL wrote a Task Technical Quality and Assurance Plan for this work. As part of the envisioned testing regime, it was decided to perform an ESS test using a simulated waste that simulated a typical envisioned SWPF feed, but with added potassium to make the waste more challenging. Potassium interferes in the cesium removal, and its concentration is limited in the feed to <1950 mg/L. The feed to MCU has typically contained <500 mg/L of potassium.

Peters, T.; Washington, A.; Fink, S.

2012-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

288

A higher-order extension for imperative synchronous languages  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This article presents the very first effective design of higher-order modules in the synchronous programming language Esterel. Higher-order modules, together with the robust separate compilation scheme that implements it, allow us to address a yet unexplored ...

Eric Vecchié; Jean-Pierre Talpin; Sébastien Boisgérault

2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

289

The complex dynamics of wishful thinking: The critical positivity ratio  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We examine critically the claims made by Fredrickson and Losada (2005) concerning the construct known as the "positivity ratio". We find no theoretical or empirical justification for the use of differential equations drawn from fluid dynamics, a subfield of physics, to describe changes in human emotions over time; furthermore, we demonstrate that the purported application of these equations contains numerous fundamental conceptual and mathematical errors. The lack of relevance of these equations and their incorrect application lead us to conclude that Fredrickson and Losada's claim to have demonstrated the existence of a critical minimum positivity ratio of 2.9013 is entirely unfounded. More generally, we urge future researchers to exercise caution in the use of advanced mathematical tools such as nonlinear dynamics and in particular to verify that the elementary conditions for their valid application have been met.

Nicholas J. L. Brown; Alan D. Sokal; Harris L. Friedman

2013-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

290

Determination of Actinide Isotope Ratios Using Glow Discharge Optogalvanic Spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect

Diode-laser excited optogalvanic spectroscopy (OGS) of a glow discharge has been utilized to measure U-235/U-235 + U-238 isotope ratios. This ``optical mass spectrometric`` measurement has been demonstrated for a number of samples including uranium oxide, fluoride, and metal. Various diode-laser accessible atomic transitions in the 775 to 835 nm region have been evaluated; these transitions were chosen by considering OGS sensitivity and isotope shift. Using the 831.84 nm uranium line, for example, it was possible to measure the U-235/U-235 + U-238 isotope ratio (0.0026) of depleted uranium samples. A prototypical field instrument to make these measurements has been assembled and demonstrated. A U-236 spectral line was identified in a sample of enriched uranium, and an abundance sensitivity was measured.

Young, J.P.; Shaw, R.W.; Barshick, C.M.; Ramsey, J.M.

1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

Radar antenna pointing for optimized signal to noise ratio.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) of a radar echo signal will vary across a range swath, due to spherical wavefront spreading, atmospheric attenuation, and antenna beam illumination. The antenna beam illumination will depend on antenna pointing. Calculations of geometry are complicated by the curved earth, and atmospheric refraction. This report investigates optimizing antenna pointing to maximize the minimum SNR across the range swath.

Doerry, Armin Walter; Marquette, Brandeis [General Atomics Aeronautical Systems, Inc., San Diego, CA

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

292

The charge ratio of the atmospheric muons at low energy  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

From the nature of the muon production processes, it can be seen that the ratio of positive to negative cosmic muons has important information in both 'the atmospheric neutrino problem', and 'the hadronic interactions'. We have carried out an experiment for the measurement of the muon charge ratio in the cosmic ray flux in momentum range 0.112-0.178 GeV/c. The muon charge ratio is found to be 1.21{+-}0.01 with a mean zenith angle of 32 deg. {+-}5 deg. . From the measurements it has been obtained a zenithal angle distribution of muons as I({theta})=I(0)cos{sup n}{theta} with n=1.95{+-}0.13. An asymmetry has been observed in East-West directions because of the geomagnetic field. Meanwhile, in about the same momentum range, positive and negative muons have been studied on the basis of Monte Carlo simulations of the extensive air shower developement (Cosmic Ray Simulations for Kascade), using the Quark Gluon String model with JETs model as generator.

Bahmanabadi, M.; Samimi, J. [Department of Physics, Sharif University of Technology, P.O.Box 11365-9161, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); ALBORZ Observatory, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sheidaei, F. [Department of Physics, Sharif University of Technology, P.O.Box 11365-9161, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ghomi, M. Khakian [ALBORZ Observatory, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2006-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

293

STRIPPING METAL COATINGS  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is described for removing aluminumuranium-silicon alloy bonded to metallic U comprising subjecting the Al-U -Si alloy to treatment with hot concentrated HNO/sun 3/ to partially dissolve and embrittle the alloy and shot- blasting the embrittled alloy to loosen it from the U.

Siefen, H.T.; Campbell, J.M.

1959-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

294

STRIPPING PROCESS FOR PLUTONIUM  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for removing silver, nickel, cadmium, zinc, and indium coatings from plutonium objects while simultaneously rendering the plutonium object passive is described. The coated plutonium object is immersed as the anode in an electrolyte in which the plutonium is passive and the coating metal is not passive, using as a cathode a metal which does not dissolve rapidly in the electrolyte. and passing an electrical current through the electrolyte until the coating metal is removed from the plutonium body.

Kolodney, M.

1959-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

295

Mixing Ratios of CO, CO2, CH4, and Isotope Ratios of Associated 13C, 18O,  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Air Samples, Niwot Ridge, Colorado Air Samples, Niwot Ridge, Colorado Mixing Ratios of CO, CO2, CH4, and Isotope Ratios of Associated 13C, 18O, and 2H in Air Samples from Niwot Ridge, Colorado, and Montaña de Oro, California, USA (January 2004) image Abstract graphics Graphics data Data Investigator Stanley C. Tyler Department of Earth System Science University of California Irvine, CA DOI: 10.3334/CDIAC/atg.db1022 Description and Methods Air samples from Niwot Ridge, Colorado (41°N, 105°W) and Montaña de Oro, CA (35°N, 121°W) have been collected at approximately semi-monthly to monthly intervals since the mid 1990s. The beginning dates for each gas and isotope analyzed are as follows: GASLAB Flask Sampling Network Data Available (April 2003) Gas or isotope Niwot Ridge Montaña de Oro

296

Haar expectations of ratios of random characteristic polynomials  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We compute Haar ensemble averages of ratios of random characteristic polynomials for the classical Lie groups K = O(N), SO(N), and USp(N). To that end, we start from the Clifford-Weyl algebera in its canonical realization on the complex of holomorphic differential forms for a C-vector space V. From it we construct the Fock representation of an orthosymplectic Lie superalgebra osp associated to V. Particular attention is paid to defining Howe's oscillator semigroup and the representation that partially exponentiates the Lie algebra representation of sp in osp. In the process, by pushing the semigroup representation to its boundary and arguing by continuity, we provide a construction of the Shale-Weil-Segal representation of the metaplectic group. To deal with a product of n ratios of characteristic polynomials, we let V = C^n \\otimes C^N where C^N is equipped with its standard K-representation, and focus on the subspace of K-equivariant forms. By Howe duality, this is a highest-weight irreducible representation of the centralizer g of Lie(K) in osp. We identify the K-Haar expectation of n ratios with the character of this g-representation, which we show to be uniquely determined by analyticity, Weyl group invariance, certain weight constraints and a system of differential equations coming from the Laplace-Casimir invariants of g. We find an explicit solution to the problem posed by all these conditions. In this way we prove that the said Haar expectations are expressed by a Weyl-type character formula for all integers N \\ge 1. This completes earlier work by Conrey, Farmer, and Zirnbauer for the case of U(N).

A. Huckleberry; A. Puettmann; M. R. Zirnbauer

2007-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

297

Alpha and gamma radiation effects on air-water systems at high gas/liquid ratios  

SciTech Connect

Radiolysis tests were conducted on air-water systems to examine the effects of radiation on liquid phase chemistry under high gas/liquid volume (G/L) ratios that are characteristic of an unsaturated nuclear waste repository setting. Test parameters included temperatures of 25, 90, and 200{degrees}C; gamma vs. alpha radiation; dose rates of {approximately}3500 and 50,000 rad/h; and G/L ratios of 10 and 100. Formate, oxalate, and total organic carbon contents increased during irradiation of the air-water systems in gamma and alpha tests at low-dose rate ({approximately}3500 rad/h). Increases in organic components were not observed for tests run at 200{degrees}C or high-dose rates (50,000 rad/h). In the tests where increases in organics occurred, the formate and oxalate were preferentially enriched in solutions that were rinsed from the test vessel walls. Nitrate (NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}) is the dominant anion produced during the radiolysis reactions. Significant nitrite (NO{sub 2}{sup {minus}}) also occurs in some high-dose rate tests, with the reduced form of nitrogen possibly resulting from reactions with the test vessels. These results indicate that nitrogen acids are being produced and concentrated in the limited quantities of solution present in the tests. Nitrate + nitrite production varied inversely with temperature, with the lowest quantities being detected for the higher temperature tests. The G(NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} + NO{sub 2}{sup {minus}}) values for the 25, 90, and 200{degrees}C experiments with gamma radiation are 3.2 {+-} 0.7, 1.3 {+-} 1.0, and 0.4 {+-} 0.3, respectively. Thus, the elevated temperatures expected early in the life of a repository may counteract pH decreases resulting from nitrogen acid production. Little variation was observed in G values as a function of dose rate or gas/liquid ratio.

Wronkiewicz, D.J.; Bates, J.K.

1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

298

Using Financial Ratios to Identify Romanian Distressed Companies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In the context of the current financial crisis, when more companies are facing bankruptcy or insolvency, the paper aims to find methods to identify distressed firms by using financial ratios. The study will focus on identifying a group of Romanian listed companies, for which financial data for the year 2008 were available. For each company a set of 14 financial indicators was calculated and then used in a principal component analysis, followed by a cluster analysis, a logit model, and a CHAID classification tree.

Andreica, Madalina Ecaterina; Andreica, Marin

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

299

Whole-Organism Concentration Ratios for Plutonium in Wildlife from Past US Nuclear Research Data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Whole-organism concentration ratios (CR{sub wo-media}) for plutonium (Pu) in wildlife were calculated using data from the broad range of organism types and environmental settings of the US nuclear research program. Original sources included site-specific reports and scientific journal articles typically from 1960s to 80s research. Most of the calculated CR{sub wo-media} values are new to existing data sets, and, for some wildlife categories, serve to fill gaps or add to sparse data including those for terrestrial reptile; freshwater bird, crustacean and zooplankton; and marine crustacean and zooplankton. Ratios of Pu concentration in the whole-organism to that in specific tissues and organs are provided here for a range of freshwater and marine fish. The CR{sub wo-media} values in fish living in liquid discharge ponds were two orders of magnitude higher than those for similar species living in lakes receiving Pu from atmospheric fallout, suggesting the physico-chemical form of the source Pu can dominate over other factors related to transfer, such as organism size and feeding behavior. Small rodent data indicated one to two order of magnitude increases when carcass, pelt, and gastrointestinal tract were included together in the whole-organism calculation compared to that for carcass alone. Only 4% of Pu resided in the carcass of small rodents compared to 75% in the gastrointestinal tract and 21% in the pelt.

johansen, M.; Kamboj; Kuhne, W.

2012-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

300

THE INFLUENCE OF DEUTERATION AND TURBULENT DIFFUSION ON THE OBSERVED D/H RATIO  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The influence of turbulent mixing on the chemistry of the interstellar medium (ISM) has so far received little attention. Previous studies of this effect have suggested that it might play an important role in mixing the various phases of the ISM. In this paper, we examine the potential effects of turbulent diffusion on the deuterium chemistry within molecular clouds. We find that such mixing acts to reduce the efficiency of deuteration in these clouds by increasing the ionization fraction and reducing freeze-out of heavy molecules. This leads to lower abundances for many deuterated species. We also examine the influence of turbulent mixing on the transition from atomic hydrogen to H{sub 2} and from atomic deuterium to HD near the cloud edge. We find that including turbulent diffusion in our models serves to push these transitions deeper into the cloud and helps maintain a higher atomic fraction throughout the cloud envelope. Based on these findings, we propose a new process to account for the significant scatter in the observed atomic D/H ratio for galactic sightlines extending beyond the Local Bubble. Although several mechanisms have been put forward to explain this scatter, they are unable to fully account for the range in D/H values. We suggest a scenario in which turbulent mixing of atomic and molecular gas at the edges of molecular clouds causes the observed atomic D/H ratio to vary by a factor of {approx}2.

Bell, T. A.; Phillips, T. G.; Lis, D. C. [Department of Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Willacy, K.; Allen, M., E-mail: tab@caltech.edu [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States)

2011-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "higher stripping ratios" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Short-cycle higher education: Purposes and issues  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This article deals with a worldwide movement called short-cycle higher education .... lowed less than a fair share of the combined budget, college faculties had.

302

A static cost analysis for a higher-order language.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

?? We develop a static complexity analysis for a higher-order functional language with structural list recursion. The complexity of an expression is a pair consisting… (more)

Danner, Norman

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

303

Relations between Higher Education and the Labour Market  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A high quality and socially responsive higher education is crucial for social equity, economic and social development and the existence of a vibrant democracy and civil society. Without higher education producing knowledgeable, competent and skilled graduates, research and knowledge and being responsive to economic and social needs, equity, democracy and development will all be constrained. The challenges of reconstruction, social transformation and development are tremendous. Higher education must not fail in meeting the new priorities and needs of South Africa The Council on Higher Education (CHE) is an independent statutory body established by the Higher Education Act of 1997. Its mandate is to advise the Minister of Education on all matters of higher education so that the system becomes characterised by equity, quality, responsiveness to economic and social development needs, and effective and efficient provision and management and also contributes to the public good. The CHE is also responsible, through its Higher Education Quality Committee (HEQC), for quality assurance in higher education. One specific responsibility allocated to the CHE is to advise the Minister of Education on stimulating greater responsiveness on the part of higher education to societal needs, especially those

The Tramshed

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

304

Improved Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell (DSSC) for Higher Energy ...  

solar cells to potentially compete with fossil fuels. Improved Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell (DSSC) for Higher Energy Conversion Efficiency Page 1 of 1 Data Update

305

Heat wave contributes to higher summer electricity demand in...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

contributes to higher summer electricity demand in the Northeast In its new energy forecast, the U.S. Energy Information Administration expects summer retail electricity prices...

306

A remark on higher order RUE-resolution with EXTRUE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We show that a prominent counterexample for the completeness of first order RUE-resolution does not apply to the higher order RUE-resolution approach EXTRUE.

Benzmueller, Christoph

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

Knotting and higher order linking in physical systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We discuss physical systems with topologies more complicated than simple gaussian linking. Our examples of these higher topologies are in non-relativistic quantum mechanics and in QCD.

Roman V. Buniy; Martha J. Holmes; Thomas W. Kephart

2010-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

308

Haar expectations of ratios of random characteristic polynomials  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We compute Haar ensemble averages of ratios of random characteristic polynomials for the classical Lie groups K = O(N), SO(N), and USp(N). To that end, we start from the Clifford-Weyl algebera in its canonical realization on the complex of holomorphic differential forms for a C-vector space V. From it we construct the Fock representation of an orthosymplectic Lie superalgebra osp associated to V. Particular attention is paid to defining Howe's oscillator semigroup and the representation that partially exponentiates the Lie algebra representation of sp in osp. In the process, by pushing the semigroup representation to its boundary and arguing by continuity, we provide a construction of the Shale-Weil-Segal representation of the metaplectic group. To deal with a product of n ratios of characteristic polynomials, we let V = C^n \\otimes C^N where C^N is equipped with its standard K-representation, and focus on the subspace of K-equivariant forms. By Howe duality, this is a highest-weight irreducible representatio...

Huckleberry, A; Zirnbauer, M R

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

309

Influence of Transport Variables on Isospin Transport Ratios  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The symmetry energy in the nuclear equation of state affects many aspects of nuclear astrophysics, nuclear structure, and nuclear reactions. Recent constraints from heavy ion collisions, including isospin diffusion observables, have started to put constraints on the symmetry energy below nuclear saturation density, but these constraints depend on the employed transport model and input physics other than the symmetry energy. To understand these dependencies, we study the influence of the symmetry energy, isoscaler mean field compressibility and momentum dependence, in-medium nucleon-nucleon cross sections, and light cluster production on isospin diffusion within the pBUU transport code. In addition to the symmetry energy, several uncertain issues strongly affect isospin diffusion, most notably the cross sections and cluster production. In addition, there is a difference in the calculated isospin transport ratios, depending upon whether they are computed using the isospin asymmetry of either the residue or of all forward moving fragments. Measurements that compare the isospin transport ratios of these two quantities would help place constraints on the input physics, such as the density dependence of the symmetry energy.

D. D. S. Coupland; W. G. Lynch; M. B. Tsang; P. Danielewicz; Yingxun Zhang

2011-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

310

Terrace housing : providing quality in higher-density housing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The higher demand of higher-density housing in Bangkok due to the rapid growth of the economy and the use of high-performance materials and modern construction methods has changed the forms of housing from low-rise buildings ...

Atthakor, Songpol

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

311

An evaluation framework for higher education ERP systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A Higher Education ERP system can be used as a solution to integrate and increase the efficiency of the Romanian university processes. This paper examines the application of ERP software in Romanian Universities. We made an SWOT analysis for implementing ... Keywords: ERP systems, evaluation framework, higher education, integration, quality services, university management

Gheorghe Sabau; Mihaela Munten; Ana-Ramona Bologa; Razvan Bologa; Traian Surcel

2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

Aspects of metric-like higher-spin geometry  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We consider the higher-derivative equations obtained setting to zero the divergence of the higher-spin curvatures in metric-like form, showing their equivalence to the second-order equations emerging from the tensionless limit of open string field theory, propagating reducible spectra of particles with different spins. This result can be viewed as complementary to the possibility of setting to zero a single trace of the higher-spin field strengths, yielding an equation known to imply Fronsdal's equation in the compensator form. We review the general context and results obtained in the investigation of metric-like higher-spin geometry, the structure of the corresponding non-local actions, together with their links to more conventional, local forms including a recently proposed one for higher-spin theories with transverse gauge invariance.

Francia, D. [Centro Studi e Ricerche E. Fermi, piazza del Viminale 1, I-00184 Roma, Italy and Scuola Normale Superiore and INFN, Piazza dei Cavalieri 7, I-56126 Pisa (Italy)

2012-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

313

All Metal Iron Core For A Low Aspect Ratio Tokamak  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A novel concept for incorporating a iron core transformer within a axisymmetric toroidal plasma containment device with a high neutron flux is described. This design enables conceptual design of low aspect ratio devices which employ standard transformer-driven plasma startup by using all-metal high resistance separators between the toroidal field windings. This design avoids the inherent problems of a multiturn air core transformer which will inevitably suffer from strong neutron bombardment and hence lose the integrity of its insulation, both through long term material degradation and short term neutron- induced conductivity.. A full 3-dimensional model of the concept has been developed within the MAXWELL program and the resultant loop voltage calculated. The utility of the result is found to be dependent on the resistivity of the high resistance separators. Useful loop voltage time histories have been obtained using achievable resistivities.

D.A. Gates, C. Jun, I. Zatz, A. Zolfaghari

2010-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

314

Energy Spectra, Altitude Profiles and Charge Ratios of Atmospheric Muons  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present a new measurement of air shower muons made during atmospheric ascent of the High Energy Antimatter Telescope balloon experiment. The muon charge ratio mu+ / mu- is presented as a function of atmospheric depth in the momentum interval 0.3-0.9 GeV/c. The differential mu- momentum spectra are presented between 0.3 and about 50 GeV/c at atmospheric depths between 13 and 960 g/cm^2. We compare our measurements with other recent data and with Monte Carlo calculations of the same type as those used in predicting atmospheric neutrino fluxes. We find that our measured mu- fluxes are smaller than the predictions by as much as 70% at shallow atmospheric depths, by about 20% at the depth of shower maximum, and are in good agreement with the predictions at greater depths. We explore the consequences of this on the question of atmospheric neutrino production.

S. Coutu; J. J. Beatty; M. A. DuVernois; S. W. Barwick; E. Schneider; A. Bhattacharyya; C. R. Bower; J. A. Musser; A. Labrador; D. Muller; S. P. Swordy; E. Torbet; C. Chaput; S. McKee; G. Tarle; A. D. Tomasch; S. L. Nutter; G. A. deNolfo

2000-04-07T23:59:59.000Z

315

Modular low-aspect-ratio high-beta torsatron  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A fusion-reactor device is described which the toroidal magnetic field and at least a portion of the poloidal magnetic field are provided by a single set of modular coils. The coils are arranged on the surface of a low-aspect-ratio toroid in planed having the cylindrical coordinate relationship phi = phi/sub i/ + kz, where k is a constant equal to each coil's pitch and phi/sub i/ is the toroidal angle at which the i'th coil intersects the z = o plane. The toroid defined by the modular coils preferably has a race track minor cross section. When vertical field coils and, preferably, a toroidal plasma current are provided for magnetic-field-surface closure within the toroid, a vacuum magnetic field of racetrack-shaped minor cross section with improved stability and beta valves is obtained.

Sheffield, G.V.

1982-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

316

Minimal Neutrino Texture with Neutrino Mass Ratio and Cabibbo Angle  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present neutrino mass matrix textures in a minimal framework of the type-I seesaw mechanism where two right-handed Majorana neutrinos are introduced in order to reproduce experimental results of neutrino oscillations. The textures can lead to experimentally favored leptonic mixing angles described by the tri-bimaximal mixing with one additional rotation. We present minimal and next to minimal textures for the normal mass hierarchy case in a context of the texture zero. A minimal texture in the inverted hierarchy case is also constructed, which does not have any vanishing entries in a Dirac neutrino mass matrix. We also discuss some cases that model parameters in the textures are supposed to be a neutrino mass ratio and/or the Cabibbo angle. Predicted regions of mixing angles, a leptonic CP-violation parameter, and an effective mass for the neutrino-less double beta decay are presented in all textures.

Yusuke Shimizu; Ryo Takahashi; Morimitsu Tanimoto

2012-12-24T23:59:59.000Z

317

Additional solar/load ratio correlations for direct gain buildings  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Solar/load ratio (SLR) correlations have been developed for two new reference direct gain designs. The new reference designs are identical to the originals except that the glazing air gap has been increased from 1/4 in. to 1/2 in. and a vector average of the local hourly windspeed was used in the thermal network calculations rather than an assumed average value of 15 m.p.h. Both of these modifications are realistic and enhance the predicted performance of direct gain buildings. A comprehensive set of mass sensitivity calculations has been performed in order to provide information needed to select an appropriate set of parameters for new lightweight direct gain designs for which additional SLR correlations will be developed. Representative results are reported.

Wray, W.O.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

Improved load ratio method for predicting crack length  

SciTech Connect

The elastic compliance from unloading/reloading sequences in a load-displacement record estimates well crack length in elastic-plastic fracture toughness tests of compact tension [C(T)] and bending type specimens. The need for partial unloading of the specimen makes it difficult to run the test under static loading and impossible under either dynamic loading or very high temperatures. Furthermore, fracture toughness testing in which crack length is determined from elastic compliance requires high precision testing equipment and highly skilled technicians. As a result, such tests are confined usually to research laboratories and seldom used under production settings. To eliminate these problems, an improved load ratio method of predicting crack length is proposed that utilizes only the recorded load versus load-line displacement curve (or load versus crack-mouth-opening displacement curve) without unloading/reloading sequences. As a result, the instrumentation is much simpler than in the elastic compliance or potential drop methods. If only a monotonic load-displacement record is to be measured the fracture toughness test becomes almost as simple to perform as a tension test. The method described here improves in three ways the ``original load ratio method`` proposed by Hu et al. First, a blunting term is added to the crack length before maximum load. Second, a strain hardening correction is included after maximum load. And, third, the initial crack length and the physical (final) crack length measured at the end of the test serve to anchor the predicted crack lengths, forcing agreement between predicted and measured values. The method predicts crack extension with excellent accuracy in specimens fabricated from A302, A508, and A533B piping and pressure vessel steels, A588 and A572 structural steels, and HY-80 ship steel.

Chen, X.; Albrecht, P. [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States). Inst. for Systems Research; Wright, W. [Federal Highway Administration, McLean, VA (United States). Turner-Fairbank Highway Research Center; Joyce, J.A. [Naval Academy, Annapolis, MD (United States). Mechanical Engineering Dept.

1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

319

ARM: 2-minute Raman Lidar: aerosol scattering ratio and backscattering coefficient profiles, from first Ferrare algorithm  

DOE Data Explorer (OSTI)

2-minute Raman Lidar: aerosol scattering ratio and backscattering coefficient profiles, from first Ferrare algorithm

Chitra Sivaraman; Connor Flynn

320

ARM: 10-minute Raman Lidar: aerosol scattering ratio and backscattering coefficient profiles, from first Ferrare algorithm  

DOE Data Explorer (OSTI)

10-minute Raman Lidar: aerosol scattering ratio and backscattering coefficient profiles, from first Ferrare algorithm

Rob Newsom; John Goldsmith

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "higher stripping ratios" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

ARM: 1-minute Raman Lidar: aerosol scattering ratio and backscattering coefficient profiles, from first Ferrare algorithm  

DOE Data Explorer (OSTI)

1-minute Raman Lidar: aerosol scattering ratio and backscattering coefficient profiles, from first Ferrare algorithm

Chitra Sivaraman; Connor Flynn

322

ARM: 10-second Raman Lidar: aerosol scattering ratio and backscattering coefficient profiles, from first Ferrare algorithm  

DOE Data Explorer (OSTI)

10-second Raman Lidar: aerosol scattering ratio and backscattering coefficient profiles, from first Ferrare algorithm

Chitra Sivaraman; Connor Flynn

323

ARM: 10-second Raman Lidar: aerosol scattering ratio and backscattering coefficient profiles, from first Ferrare algorithm  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

10-second Raman Lidar: aerosol scattering ratio and backscattering coefficient profiles, from first Ferrare algorithm

Chitra Sivaraman; Connor Flynn

2010-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

324

ARM: 1-minute Raman Lidar: aerosol scattering ratio and backscattering coefficient profiles, from first Ferrare algorithm  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

1-minute Raman Lidar: aerosol scattering ratio and backscattering coefficient profiles, from first Ferrare algorithm

Chitra Sivaraman; Connor Flynn

2010-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

325

Do Solar system tests permit higher dimensional general relativity?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We perform a survey whether higher dimensional Schwarzschild space-time is compatible with some of the solar system phenomena. As a test we examine five well known solar system effects, viz., (1) Perihelion shift, (2) Bending of light, (3) Gravitational redshift, (4) Gravitational time delay and (5) Motion of test particle in the framework of general relativity with higher dimensions. It is shown that the results related to all these physical phenomena are mostly incompatible with the higher dimensional version of general relativity except that of Motion of test particle. We compare all these results with the available data in the literature.

F. Rahaman; Saibal Ray; M. Kalam; M. Sarker

2007-07-06T23:59:59.000Z

326

241Am (n,gamma) isomer ratio measurement  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is to improve the accuracy of the {sup 242}Cm/{sup 241}Am radiochemistry ratio. We have performed an activation experiment to measure the {sup 241}Am(n,{gamma}) cross section leading to either the ground state of {sup 242g}Am (t{sub 1/2} = 16 hr) which decays to {sup 242}Cm (t{sub 1/2} = 163 d) or the long-lived isomer {sup 242m}Am (t{sub 1/2} = 141 yr). This experiment will develop a new set of americium cross section evaluations that can be used with a measured {sup 242}Cm/{sup 241}Am radiochemical measurement for nuclear forensic purposes. This measurement is necessary to interpret the {sup 242}Cm/{sup 241}Am ratio because a good measurement of this neutron capture isomer ratio for {sup 241}Am does not exist. The targets were prepared in 2007 from {sup 241}Am purified from LANL stocks. Gold was added to the purified {sup 241}Am as an internal neutron fluence monitor. These targets were placed into a holder, packaged, and shipped to Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, where they were irradiated at their Van de Graff facility in February 2008. One target was irradiated with {approx}25 keV quasimonoenergetic neutrons produced by the {sup 7}Li(p,n) reaction for 3 days and a second target was also irradiated for 3 days with {approx}500 keV neutrons. Because it will be necessary to separate the {sup 242}Cm from the {sup 241}Am in order to measure the amount of {sup 242}Cm by alpha spectrometry, research into methods for americium/curium separations were conducted concurrently. We found that anion exchange chromatography in methanol/nitric acid solutions produced good separations that could be completed in one day resulting in a sample with no residue. The samples were returned from Germany in July 2009 and were counted by gamma spectrometry. Chemical separations have commenced on the blank sample. Each sample will be spiked with {sup 244}Cm, dissolved and digested in nitric acid solutions. One third of each sample will be processed at a time. First, the gold will be removed by anion exchange chromatography. Then the {sup 242}Cm will be separated from the {sup 241}Am using the methanol/nitric acid anion exchange method. When a sufficient separation has been achieved, a deposit will be prepared and the {sup 242}Cm will be counted by alpha spectrometry. The purified {sup 241}Am fraction containing the long lived {sup 242m}Am will be allowed to decay into {sup 242}Cm for a period of {approx}6 months. After this time, the americium/curium separations will be repeated and the {sup 242}Cm that has grown in will be counted by alpha spectrometry. At the conclusion of the experiment, we will have cross section measurements for {sup 241}Am (n,{gamma}) {sup 242g}Am and {sup 241}Am (n,V) {sup 242m}Am at two energies.

Bond, Evelyn M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Vieira, David J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Moody, Walter A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Slemmons, Alice K [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2011-01-05T23:59:59.000Z

327

ISOTOPIC RATIOS IN TITAN's METHANE: MEASUREMENTS AND MODELING  

SciTech Connect

The existence of methane in Titan's atmosphere ({approx}6% level at the surface) presents a unique enigma, as photochemical models predict that the current inventory will be entirely depleted by photochemistry in a timescale of {approx}20 Myr. In this paper, we examine the clues available from isotopic ratios ({sup 12}C/{sup 13}C and D/H) in Titan's methane as to the past atmosphere history of this species. We first analyze recent infrared spectra of CH{sub 4} collected by the Cassini Composite Infrared Spectrometer, measuring simultaneously for the first time the abundances of all three detected minor isotopologues: {sup 13}CH{sub 4}, {sup 12}CH{sub 3}D, and {sup 13}CH{sub 3}D. From these we compute estimates of {sup 12}C/{sup 13}C = 86.5 {+-} 8.2 and D/H = (1.59 {+-} 0.33) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -4}, in agreement with recent results from the Huygens GCMS and Cassini INMS instruments. We also use the transition state theory to estimate the fractionation that occurs in carbon and hydrogen during a critical reaction that plays a key role in the chemical depletion of Titan's methane: CH{sub 4} + C{sub 2}H {yields} CH{sub 3} + C{sub 2}H{sub 2}. Using these new measurements and predictions we proceed to model the time evolution of {sup 12}C/{sup 13}C and D/H in Titan's methane under several prototypical replenishment scenarios. In our Model 1 (no resupply of CH{sub 4}), we find that the present-day {sup 12}C/{sup 13}C implies that the CH{sub 4} entered the atmosphere 60-1600 Myr ago if methane is depleted by chemistry and photolysis alone, but much more recently-most likely less than 10 Myr ago-if hydrodynamic escape is also occurring. On the other hand, if methane has been continuously supplied at the replenishment rate then the isotopic ratios provide no constraints, and likewise for the case where atmospheric methane is increasing. We conclude by discussing how these findings may be combined with other evidence to constrain the overall history of the atmospheric methane.

Nixon, C. A.; Achterberg, R. K. [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Temelso, B. [Dean's Office, College of Arts and Sciences, Department of Chemistry, Bucknell University, Lewisburg, PA 17837 (United States); Vinatier, S.; Bezard, B.; Coustenis, A. [LESIA, Observatoire de Paris, CNRS, 5 Place Jules Janssen, 92195 Meudon Cedex (France); Teanby, N. A. [School of Earth Sciences, University of Bristol, Wills Memorial Building, Queen's Road, Bristol BS8 1RJ (United Kingdom); Mandt, K. E. [Space Science and Engineering Division, Southwest Research Institute, 6220 Culebra Road, San Antonio, TX 78228 (United States); Sherrill, C. D. [School of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Georgia Institute of Technology, 901 Atlantic Drive NW, Atlanta, GA 30332-0400 (United States); Irwin, P. G. J. [Atmospheric, Oceanic and Planetary Physics, University of Oxford, Clarendon Laboratory, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PU (United Kingdom); Jennings, D. E.; Romani, P. N.; Flasar, F. M. [Planetary Systems Laboratory, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

2012-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

328

Higher education as a relatively autonomous field: the impact of  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

accompanying massification ensures the survival of elite forms (Bowles & Gintis, 1979; Brint & Karabel, 1986 of the Ofsted inspection. ... In higher education, an academic becomes the creator of research and is expected

Dixon, Peter

329

The Palatini formalism for higher?curvature gravity theories  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We compare the metric and the Palatini formalism to obtain the Einstein equations in the presence of higher?order curvature corrections that consist of contractions of the Riemann tensor

Mar Bastero?Gil; Mónica Borunda; Bert Janssen

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

330

A geometrizing higher twist effect on nuclear target  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The higher twist effects in deep inelastic scattering on the nuclear target are studied using time ordered perturbation theory. We showed that the collinear rescattering of the outgoing quark on the extra nucleons via the contacting gluon-pair is dominant in nuclear size-dependent effects. The Qiu-Vitev resummation is proved by using the geometric properties of the higher twist amplitudes. The leading contributions of nuclear-enhanced effect to the DGLAP evolution equation are resummed in the same framework.

Wei Zhu

2004-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

331

A blueprint for higher-level fusion systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper contends that demands on the data fusion community are beginning to exceed its historical roots in sensor fusion, by requiring greater development of automated situation and impact assessments and more appropriate integration with humans engaged ... Keywords: Cognitive machines, Data fusion, Higher-level fusion, Higher-level fusion interfaces, Impact assessment, Information fusion, JDL model, Object assessment, Semantic machines, Sensor fusion, Situation assessment, Situation awareness, Social machines

Dale A. Lambert

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

332

Modular low aspect ratio-high beta torsatron  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A fusion reactor device in which the toroidal magnetic field and at least a portion of the poloidal magnetic field are provided by a single set of modular coils. The coils are arranged on the surface of a low aspect ratio toroid in planes having the cylindrical coordinate relationship .phi.=.phi..sub.i +kz where k is a constant equal to each coil's pitch and .phi..sub.i is the toroidal angle at which the i'th coil intersects the z=o plane. The device may be described as a modular, high beta torsation whose screw symmetry is pointed along the systems major (z) axis. The toroid defined by the modular coils preferably has a racetrack minor cross section. When vertical field coils and preferably a toroidal plasma current are provided for magnetic field surface closure within the toroid, a vacuum magnetic field of racetrack shaped minor cross section with improved stability and beta valves is obtained.

Sheffield, George V. (Hopewell, NJ); Furth, Harold P. (Princeton, NJ)

1984-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

333

Perspectives on Higher Education in Africa: Fieldnotes on Trends, Themes, Challenges and Opportunities  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Sector. ” In Higher Education in Africa: Achievements,A History of African Higher Education from Antiquity to theand Challenges of Higher Education in Africa. ” In Higher

Bulfin, Michael Patrick

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

334

Elimination of higher-order diffraction using zigzag transmission grating in soft x-ray region  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We present a realization of the sinusoidal transmission function using a series of zigzag-profiled strips where the transmission takes on the binary values 0 and 1 in a two-dimensional distribution. A zigzag transmission grating of 1000 line/mm has been fabricated and demonstrated on the soft x-ray beam of synchrotron radiation. The axial single-order diffraction indicates that the zigzag transmission grating is adequate for spectroscopic application.

Zang, H. P.; Wang, C. K. [Research Center of Laser Fusion, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang, Sichuan 621900 (China); Institute of Atomic and Molecular Physics, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065 (China); Gao, Y. L.; Zhou, W. M.; Kuang, L. Y.; Wei, L.; Fan, W.; Zhang, W. H.; Zhao, Z. Q.; Cao, L. F.; Gu, Y. Q.; Zhang, B. H. [Research Center of Laser Fusion, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang, Sichuan 621900 (China); Jiang, G. [Institute of Atomic and Molecular Physics, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065 (China); Zhu, X. L.; Xie, C. Q. [Institute of Microelectronics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100029 (China); Zhao, Y. D.; Cui, M. Q. [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China)

2012-03-12T23:59:59.000Z

335

Self-force on extreme mass ratio inspirals via curved spacetime effective field theory  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this series we construct an effective field theory (EFT) in curved spacetime to study gravitational radiation and backreaction effects. We begin in this paper with a derivation of the self-force on a compact object moving in the background spacetime of a supermassive black hole. The EFT approach utilizes the disparity between two length scales, which in this problem are the size of the compact object and the radius of curvature of the background spacetime, to treat the orbital dynamics of the compact object, described as an effective point particle, separately from its tidal deformations. Ultraviolet divergences are regularized using Hadamard's {\\it partie finie} to isolate the non-local finite part from the quasi-local divergent part. The latter is constructed from a momentum space representation for the graviton retarded propagator and is evaluated using dimensional regularization in which only logarithmic divergences are relevant for renormalizing the parameters of the theory. As a first important application of this framework we explicitly derive the first order self-force given by Mino, Sasaki, Tanaka, Quinn and Wald. Going beyond the point particle approximation, to account for the finite size of the object, we demonstrate that for extreme mass ratio inspirals the motion of a compact object is affected by tidally induced moments at $O(\\epsilon^4)$, in the form of an Effacement Principle. The relatively large radius-to-mass ratio of a white dwarf star allows for these effects to be enhanced until the white dwarf becomes tidally disrupted, a potentially $O(\\epsilon^2)$ process, or plunges into the supermassive black hole. This work provides a new foundation for further exploration of higher order self force corrections, gravitational radiation and spinning compact objects.

Chad R. Galley; B. L. Hu

2008-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

336

The Use of Fuel Chemistry and Property Variations to Evaluate the Robustness of Variable Compression Ratio as a Control Method for Gasoline HCCI  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

On a gasoline engine platform, homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) holds the promise of improved fuel economy and greatly reduced engine-out NOx emissions, without an increase in particulate matter emissions. In this investigation, a variable compression ratio (CR) engine equipped with a throttle and intake air heating was used to test the robustness of these control parameters to accommodate a series of fuels blended from reference gasoline, straight run refinery naptha, and ethanol. Higher compression ratios allowed for operation with higher octane fuels, but operation could not be achieved with the reference gasoline, even at the highest compression ratio. Compression ratio and intake heat could be used separately or together to modulate combustion. A lambda of 2 provided optimum fuel efficiency, even though some throttling was necessary to achieve this condition. Ethanol did not appear to assist combustion, although only two ethanol-containing fuels were evaluated. The increased pumping work from throttling was minimal compared to the efficiency increases that were the result of lower unburned hydrocarbon (HC) and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions. Low temperature heat release was present for all the fuels, but could be suppressed with a higher intake air temperature. Results will be used to design future fuels and combustion studies with this research platform.

Szybist, James P [ORNL; Bunting, Bruce G [ORNL

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

337

DOE Proposes Higher Efficiency Standards for Refrigerators | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

DOE Proposes Higher Efficiency Standards for Refrigerators DOE Proposes Higher Efficiency Standards for Refrigerators DOE Proposes Higher Efficiency Standards for Refrigerators September 28, 2010 - 12:00am Addthis WASHINGTON, DC - U.S. Energy Secretary Steven Chu today announced the release of a new proposed energy efficiency standard for residential refrigerators, refrigerator-freezers, and freezers. The standard, as proposed, could save consumers as much as $18.6 billion over thirty years. The Obama Administration has made efficiency standards a major priority as a way to save energy and money for American families and businesses. Since January 2009, the Department of Energy has finalized new efficiency standards for more than twenty household and commercial products, which will cumulatively save consumers between $250 billion and

338

A higher chromatic analogue of the image of J.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We prove a higher chromatic analogue of Snaith's theorem which identifies the K-theory spectrum as the localisation of the suspension spectrum of CP^\\infty away from the Bott class; in this result, higher Eilenberg-MacLane spaces play the role of CP^\\infty = K(Z,2). Using this, we obtain a partial computation of the part of the Picard-graded homotopy of the K(n)-local sphere indexed by powers of a spectrum which for large primes is a shift of the Gross-Hopkins dual of the sphere. Our main technical tool is a K(n)-local notion generalising complex orientation to higher Eilenberg-MacLane spaces. As for complex-oriented theories, such an orientation produces a one-dimensional formal group law as an invariant of the cohomology theory. As an application, we prove a theorem that gives evidence for the chromatic redshift conjecture.

Craig Westerland

339

Equity, quality and relevance in higher education in Brazil  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Brazilian higher education has doubled its size in the 1990s, going from 1.5 million to more than 3 million students in the period. This expansion was mostly due to the growth of private education, which, in 2002, accounted for about two thirds of the enrollment. Is expansion making higher education more accessible to persons coming from the poorer segments of society? Is the quality of higher education suffering by the speed of this expansion? Is Brazil educating enough qualified persons to attend to the country’s needs to participate in the new, knowledge-intensive and global economy? What public policies should be implemented, in order to foster the values of social equity and relevance? What are the policy implications of these developments? This article looks at the available evidence, and suggests some answers to these questions.

Simon Schwartzman

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

340

Higher-order discrete variational problems with constraints  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An interesting family of geometric integrators for Lagrangian systems can be defined using discretizations of the Hamilton's principle of critical action. This family of geometric integrators is called variational integrators. In this paper, we derive new variational integrators for higher-order lagrangian mechanical system subjected to higher-order constraints. From the discretization of the variational principles, we show that our methods are automatically symplectic and, in consequence, with a very good energy behavior. Additionally, the symmetries of the discrete Lagrangian imply that momenta is conserved by the integrator. Moreover, we extend our construction to variational integrators where the lagrangian is explicitly time-dependent. Finally, some motivating applications of higher-order problems are considered; in particular, optimal control problems for explicitly time-dependent underactuated systems and an interpolation problem on Riemannian manifolds.

Leonardo Colombo; David Martín de Diego; Marcela Zuccalli

2013-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "higher stripping ratios" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Black Holes in Higher Dimensions (Black Strings and Black Rings)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The main focus of this session was the presentation of new higher-dimensional black hole solutions, including black rings, black strings, and multi black holes, and the study of their properties. Besides new asymptotically flat and locally asymptotically flat black objects also new black holes with anti-de Sitter asymptotics were reported. The studies of their properties included the investigation of their stability, their thermodynamics, their analyticity and their existence. Furthermore, the geodesics in such higher-dimensional space-times were investigated.

Kunz, Jutta

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

342

Origin of higher temperatures in multidipolar plasma devices  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Hot-filament discharge devices with multidipolar surface magnetic fields have densities and temperatures higher than in these devices without multidipolar fields. Probe data show a much higher density of secondary electrons from the wall with multidipolar fields that is best explained by the wall secondaries being confined by the magnetic mirror effect. A relatively simple mathematical model for energy balance shows that the heating of the bulk plasma electrons by collisions with the greater number of secondaries from the wall accounts quantitatively for the increased temperature.

Knappmiller, Scott [Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309-0392 (United States); Robertson, Scott [Center for Integrated Plasma Studies, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309-0390 (United States)

2011-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

343

FUEL CELLS IN SHIPPING: HIGHER CAPITAL COSTS AND REDUCED FLEXIBILITY  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract: The paper discusses some main economic characteristics of fuel cell power production technology applied to shipping. Whenever competitive fuel cell systems enter the market, they are likely to have higher capital costs and lower operating costs than systems based on traditional combustion technology. Implications of the difference are investigated with respect to investment flexibility by the use of a real options model of ship investment, lay-up and scrapping decisions under freight rate uncertainty. A higher capital share of total expected costs can represent a significant opportunity cost in uncertain markets. The paper highlights the significance of accounting properly for value of flexibility prior to investment in new technology.

Sigbjørn Sødal

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

344

The Impression to Drop Size Ratio for the Raindrop Foil Impactor  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A general calibration equation has been developed for the raindrop foil impactor. From experimental data the impression to drop size ratio is related to a nondimensional impact parameter and to the drop diameter to groove spacing ratio. These ...

R. L. Hobbs

1981-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

Figure 87. Ratio of Brent crude oil price to Henry Hub spot ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Sheet3 Sheet2 Sheet1 Figure 87. Ratio of Brent crude oil price to Henry Hub spot natural gas price in energy-equivalent terms, 1990-2040 Ratio Released:April 15, 2013

346

Effects of operating conditions, compression ratio, and gasoline reformate on SI engine knock limits  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A set of experiments was performed to investigate the effects of air-fuel ratio, inlet boost pressure, hydrogen rich fuel reformate, and compression ratio on engine knock behavior. For each condition the effect of spark ...

Gerty, Michael D

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

347

A Microdrop Generator for the Calibration of a Water Vapor Isotope Ratio Spectrometer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A microdrop generator is described that produces water vapor with a known isotopic composition and volume mixing ratio for the calibration of a near-infrared diode laser water isotope ratio spectrometer. The spectrometer is designed to measure in ...

Rosario Q. Iannone; Daniele Romanini; Samir Kassi; Harro A. J. Meijer; Erik R. Th Kerstel

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

348

Statistical Continuum Theory for the Effective Conductivity of Fiber Filled Polymer Composites: Effect of Orientation Distribution and Aspect Ratio  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Effective conductivity of polymer composites, filled with conducting fibers such as carbon nanotubes, is studied using statistical continuum theory. The fiber orientation distribution in the matrix plays a very important role on their effective properties. To take into account their orientation, shape and distribution, two-point and three-point probability distribution functions are used. The effect of fibers orientation is illustrated by comparing the effective conductivity of microstructures with oriented and non-oriented fibers. The randomly oriented fibers result in an isotropic effective conductivity. The increased fiber orientation distribution can lead to higher anisotropy in conductivity. The effect of fiber’s aspect ratio on the effective conductivity is studied by comparing microstructures with varying degrees of fiber orientation distribution. Results show that the increase in anisotropy leads to higher conductivity in the maximum fiber orientation distribution direction and lower conductivity in the transverse direction. These results are in agreement with various models from the literature that show the increase of the aspect ratio of fibers improves the electrical and thermal conductivity.

Mikdam, Amed; Makradi, A.; Ahzi, Said; Garmestani, Hamid; Li, Dongsheng; Remond, Y.

2010-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

349

An application of a game development framework in higher education  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper describes how a game development framework was used as a learning aid in a software engineering. Games can be used within higher education in various ways to promote student participation, enable variation in how lectures are taught, and improve ...

Alf Inge Wang; Bian Wu

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

350

Higher Order Recurrences for Analytical Functions of Tchebysheff Type  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

One parameter subgroups of the group of hyperbolons of volume one when exploited accurately allow one to define and investigate higher order hyperbolic-trigonometric generalization of corresponding polynomials. In parallel functions of roots of polynomials of any degree are studied as possible extension of symmetric functions considered one hundred twenty six years ago in the inspiring famous lucasian paper.

A. K. Kwasniewski

2004-02-29T23:59:59.000Z

351

Simulating option prices and sensitivities by higher rank lattice rules  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper we introduce the intermediate rank or higher rank lattice rule for the general case when the number of quadrature points is ntm, where m is a composite integer, t is the rank of the rule, n is an integer ... Keywords: Monte Carlo and Quasi-Monte Carlo methods, lattice rules, option pricing, simulation of multivariate integrations

Yongzeng Lai

2006-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

352

AdS Twistors for Higher Spin Theory  

SciTech Connect

We construct spectra of supersymmetric higher spin theories in D = 4, 5 and 7 from twistors describing massless (super-)particles on AdS spaces. A massless twistor transform is derived in a geometric way from classical kinematics. Relaxing the spin-shell constraints on twistor space gives an infinite tower of massless states of a 'higher spin particle', generalizing previous work of Bandos et al.. This can generically be done in a number of ways, each defining the states of a distinct higher spin theory, and the method provides a systematic way of finding these. We reproduce known results in D = 4, minimal supersymmetric 5- and 7-dimensional models, as well as supersymmetrisations of Vasiliev's Sp-models as special cases. In the latter models a dimensional enhancement takes place, meaning that the theory lives on a space of higher dimension than the original AdS space, and becomes a theory of doubletons. This talk was presented at the XIX-th Max Born Symposium 'Fundamental Interactions and Twistor-Like Methods', September 2004, in Wroclaw, Poland.

Cederwall, M. [Department of Theoretical Physics Goeteborg University, S-412 96 Goeteborg (Sweden); Chalmers University of Technology, S-412 96 Goeteborg (Sweden)

2005-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

353

Economic Impact of West Virginia Higher Education Institutions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of Technology) The economic impacts estimated in this report are for fiscal year (FY) 2008 (July 1, 2007 ­ June West Virginia University May 2010 Funding for this report was provided by the West Virginia Higher Education Policy Commission. The report includes financial and other data provided by member HEPC

Mohaghegh, Shahab

354

Introspective pushdown analysis of higher-order programs  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In the static analysis of functional programs, pushdown flow analysis and abstract garbage collection skirt just inside the boundaries of soundness and decidability. Alone, each method reduces analysis times and boosts precision by orders of magnitude. ... Keywords: abstract garbage collection, abstract interpretation, abstract machines, cfa2, higher-order languages, program analysis, pushdown analysis, pushdown systems

Christopher Earl; Ilya Sergey; Matthew Might; David Van Horn

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

355

Extraction of signals with higher order temporal structure using Correntropy  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper addresses the problem of semi-blindly extracting one single desired signal using a priori information about its higher order temporal structure. Our approach is based on the maximization of the autocorrentropy function for a given time delay. ... Keywords: Blind source extraction, Correntropy, Information Theoretic Learning (ITL)

Eder Santana; Jose C. Principe; Ewaldo Santana; Allan Kardec Barros

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

356

Are Precipitation Levels Getting Higher? Statistical Evidence for the Netherlands  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

One of the possible consequences of global warming is that there will be more days with precipitation throughout the year, and also that the level of precipitation will be higher. In this paper a detailed statistical analysis of a century of ...

Alex J. Koning; Philip Hans Franses

2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

357

LOCAL ANISOTROPY, HIGHER ORDER STATISTICS, AND TURBULENCE SPECTRA  

SciTech Connect

Correlation anisotropy emerges dynamically in magnetohydrodynamics (MHD), producing stronger gradients across the large-scale mean magnetic field than along it. This occurs both globally and locally, and has significant implications in space and astrophysical plasmas, including particle scattering and transport, and theories of turbulence. Properties of local correlation anisotropy are further documented here by showing through numerical experiments that the effect is intensified in more localized estimates of the mean field. The mathematical formulation of this property shows that local anisotropy mixes second-order with higher order correlations. Sensitivity of local statistical estimates to higher order correlations can be understood in connection with the stochastic coordinate system inherent in such formulations. We demonstrate this in specific cases, and illustrate the connection to higher order statistics by showing the sensitivity of local anisotropy to phase randomization, after which the global measure of anisotropy is recovered at all scales of averaging. This establishes that anisotropy of the local structure function is not a measure of anisotropy of the energy spectrum. Evidently, the local enhancement of correlation anisotropy is of substantial fundamental interest and must be understood in terms of higher order correlations, specifically fourth-order and above.

Matthaeus, W. H.; Wan, M.; Osman, K. T. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Delaware, DE (United States); Servidio, S.; Carbone, V. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita della Calabria, I-87036 Cosenza (Italy); Dmitruk, P. [Departamento de Fisica (FCEN-UBA and IFIBA-CONICET), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Oughton, S. [Department of Mathematics, University of Waikato, Hamilton 3240 (New Zealand)

2012-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

358

Valuation Ratios and the Long-Run Stock Market Outlook: An Update  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The use of price--earnings ratios and dividend-price ratios as forecasting variables for the stock market is examined using aggregate annual US data 1871 to 2000 and aggregate quarterly data for twelve countries since 1970. Various simple efficient-markets models of financial markets imply that these ratios should be useful in forecasting future dividend growth, future earnings growth, or future productivity growth. We conclude that, overall, the ratios do poorly in forecasting any of these.

John Campbell; John Y. Campbell; Robert Shiller; Robert J. Shiller

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

359

Helioseismic Constraints on the Solar Ne/O Ratio and Heavy Element Abundances  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We examine the constraints imposed by helioseismic data on the solar heavy element abundances. In prior work we argued that the measured depth of the surface convection zone R_CZ and the surface helium abundance Y_surf were good metallicity indicators which placed separable constraints on light metals (CNONe) and the heavier species with good relative meteoritic abundances. The resulting interiors-based abundance scale was higher than some published studies based on 3D model atmospheres at a highly significant level. In this paper we explore the usage of the solar sound speed in the radiative interior as an additional diagnostic, and find that it is sensitive to changes in the Ne/O ratio even for models constructed to have the same R_CZ and Y_surf. Three distinct helioseismic tests (opacity in the radiative core, ionization in the convection zone, and the core mean molecular weight) yield consistent results. Our preferred O, Ne and Fe abundances are 8.86 +/-0.04, 8.15 +/-0.17 and 7.50 +/-0.05 respectively. Th...

Delahaye, F; Pinsonneault, L; Zeippen, C J

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

360

HIGH-GRADIENT, HIGH-TRANSFORMER-RATIO, DIELECTRIC WAKE FIELD ACCELERATOR  

SciTech Connect

The Phase I work reported here responds to DoE'ss stated need "...to develop improved accelerator designs that can provide very high gradient (>200 MV/m for electrons...) acceleration of intense bunches of particles." Omega-P'�s approach to this goal is through use of a ramped train of annular electron bunches to drive a coaxial dielectric wakefield accelerator (CDWA) structure. This approach is a direct extension of the CDWA concept from acceleration in wake fields caused by a single drive bunch, to the more efficient acceleration that we predict can be realized from a tailored (or ramped) train of several drive bunches. This is possible because of a much higher transformer ratio for the latter. The CDWA structure itself has a number of unique features, including: a high accelerating gradient G, potentially with G > 1 GeV/m; continuous energy coupling from drive to test bunches without transfer structures; inherent transverse focusing forces for particles in the accelerated bunch; highly stable motion of high charge annular drive bunches; acceptable alignment tolerances for a multi-section system. What is new in the present approach is that the coaxial dielectric structure is now to be energized by-not one-�but by a short train of ramped annular-shaped drive bunches moving in the outer coaxial channel of the structure. We have shown that this allows acceleration of an electron bunch traveling along the axis in the inner channel with a markedly higher transformer ratio T than for a single drive bunch. As described in this report, the structure will be a GHz-scale prototype with cm-scale transverse dimensions that is expected to confirm principles that can be applied to the design of a future THz-scale high gradient (> 500 MV/m) accelerator with mm-scale transverse dimensions. We show here a new means to significantly increase the transformer ratio T of the device, and thereby to significantly improve its suitability as a flexible and effective component in a future high energy, high gradient accelerator facility. We predict that the T of a high gradient CDWA can be increased by a substantial factor; this enhancement is dramatically greater than what has been demonstrated heretofore. This large enhancement in T that we predict arises from using a train of three or four drive bunches in which the spacing of the bunches and their respective charges are selected according to a simple principle that requires each bunch lose energy to the wakefields at the same rate, so as not to sacrifice drive beam efficiency�¢����as would be the case if one bunch exhausted its available energy while others had not. It is anticipated that results from the study proposed here can have a direct impact on design of the dielectric accelerator in a TeV-scale collider concept, and in the accelerator for an x-ray FEL.

Jay L. Hirshfield

2012-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "higher stripping ratios" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

BAYESIAN ESTIMATION OF HARDNESS RATIOS: MODELING AND COMPUTATIONS Taeyoung Park, 1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

BAYESIAN ESTIMATION OF HARDNESS RATIOS: MODELING AND COMPUTATIONS Taeyoung Park, 1 Vinay L. Kashyap the nature of a photon spectrum is the so­called hardness ratio, which compares the numbers of counts observed in different passbands. The hardness ratio is especially useful to distinguish between

Wargelin, Bradford J.

362

BAYESIAN ESTIMATION OF HARDNESS RATIOS: MODELING AND COMPUTATIONS Taeyoung Park,1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

BAYESIAN ESTIMATION OF HARDNESS RATIOS: MODELING AND COMPUTATIONS Taeyoung Park,1 Vinay L. Kashyap of a photon spectrum is the so-called hardness ratio, which compares the numbers of counts observed in different passbands. The hardness ratio is especially useful to distinguish between and categorize weak

Wargelin, Bradford J.

363

A case study on financial ratios via cross-graph quasi-bicliques  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Stocks with similar financial ratio values across years have similar price movements. We investigate this hypothesis by clustering groups of stocks that exhibit homogeneous financial ratio values across years, and then study their price movements. We ... Keywords: 3D subspace clustering, Financial data mining, Financial ratios analysis, Quasi-bicliques

Kelvin Sim; Guimei Liu; Vivekanand Gopalkrishnan; Jinyan Li

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

364

Higher coronary heart disease and heart attack morbidity in Appalachian coal mining regions  

SciTech Connect

This study analyzes the U.S. 2006 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System survey data (N = 235,783) to test whether self-reported cardiovascular disease rates are higher in Appalachian coal mining counties compared to other counties after control for other risks. Dependent variables include self-reported measures of ever (1) being diagnosed with cardiovascular disease (CVD) or with a specific form of CVD including (2) stroke, (3) heart attack, or (4) angina or coronary heart disease (CHD). Independent variables included coal mining, smoking, BMI, drinking, physician supply, diabetes co-morbidity, age, race/ethnicity, education, income, and others. SUDAAN Multilog models were estimated, and odds ratios tested for coal mining effects. After control for covariates, people in Appalachian coal mining areas reported significantly higher risk of CVD (OR = 1.22, 95% CI = 1.14-1.30), angina or CHO (OR = 1.29, 95% C1 = 1.19-1.39) and heart attack (OR = 1.19, 95% C1 = 1.10-1.30). Effects were present for both men and women. Cardiovascular diseases have been linked to both air and water contamination in ways consistent with toxicants found in coal and coal processing. Future research is indicated to assess air and water quality in coal mining communities in Appalachia, with corresponding environmental programs and standards established as indicated.

Hendryx, M.; Zullig, K.J. [West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV (United States). Dept. of Community Medicine

2009-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

365

Achieving Higher Performance with Cost Neutrality through Building America  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Achieving Higher Performance Achieving Higher Performance with Cost Neutrality through Building America Residential Energy Efficiency Stakeholder Meeting March 1, 2012 Residential Energy Efficiency Stakeholder Meeting Agenda * Imagine Homes - An Overview * 2010 Occupied Test House - Objectives - From Modeling through Monitoring * 2012 Occupied Test House - Objectives - What's Next * Closing Remarks Residential Energy Efficiency Stakeholder Meeting Overview: * San Antonio, TX * 68 Homes in 2011 * $140k - $425k * 1,300 - 4,500 ft 2 Imagine Homes Residential Energy Efficiency Stakeholder Meeting Environment: * Hot-Humid * 2,996 CDD * 1,546 HDD * 31" Rainfall Imagine Homes Residential Energy Efficiency Stakeholder Meeting Imagine Homes History: * Established 2006 * Partnership with Beazer Homes * Builders Challenge * Building America

366

Higher Curvature Brane Corrections to the DGP Model  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We investigate the Dvali-Gabadadze-Porrati (DGP) model corrected by higher curvature brane terms. We show that these corrections have a dramatic impact on the spectrum of the model at the linearized level. Owing to the presence of higher derivatives in the field equations very massive ghost excitations with mass of order of Planck mass are generated in the ordinary branch of the model. These excitations describe an instability of Minkowski vacuum with time-scale of order of the Hubble time. At large distances these tachyonic excitations are expected to decouple from brane-localized matter. Our modified DGP model represents therefore a very promising framework for solving of the cosmological constant problem, in which Planck-scale physics is responsible for the elementary excitations driving the accelerated expansion of the universe, but the time-scale of the instability is settled by gravitational physics at large scales.

Mariano Cadoni; Paolo Pani

2008-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

367

Higher-order energy-conserving gyrokinetic theory  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A higher-order self-consistent energy-conserving gyrokinetic system of equations is derived. It is shown that additional terms appear in the quasineutrality condition. These terms are nonlinear in the electric field. The derivation includes higher-order terms in the gyrokinetic Hamiltonian (needed for the energy conservation) and employs a variational principle that automatically provides all the conservation laws through the Noether theorem. The equations derived here can be applied in certain transition layers such as the stellarator transport barriers caused by the transition between the electron and ion root regimes. The theory may also be of interest for the edge plasma, where the nonlinear terms in the quasineutrality equation could be relevant. The equations derived are simple enough and can readily be used in gyrokinetic codes.

Mishchenko, Alexey [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM-Association, D-17491 Greifswald (Germany); Brizard, Alain J. [Department of Chemistry and Physics, Saint Michael's College, Colchester, Vermont 05439 (United States)

2011-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

368

Casimir energy and the possibility of higher dimensional manipulation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

It is well known that the Casimir effect is an excellent candidate for the stabilization of the extra dimensions. It has also been suggested that the Casimir effect in higher dimensions may be the underlying phenomenon that is responsible for the dark energy which is currently driving the accelerated expansion of the universe. In this paper we suggest that, in principle, it may be possible to directly manipulate the size of an extra dimension locally using Standard Model fields in the next generation of particle accelerators. This adjustment of the size of the higher dimension could serve as a technological mechanism to locally adjust the dark energy density and change the local expansion of spacetime. This idea holds tantalizing possibilities in the context of exotic spacecraft propulsion.

R. K. Obousy; A. A. Saharian

2009-06-25T23:59:59.000Z

369

Conversion of ethane and of propane to higher olefin hydrocarbons  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

It has become apparent during the past few months that results obtained in the oxidative coupling of methane cannot be extended to ethane and propane. Good selectivities and yields for the oxydehydrogenation to olefins can be obtained but production of higher hydrocarbons is small. The present report summarizes results of experiments using zeolite based catalysts and compares these with basic oxide catalysts. The oxydehydrogenation of ethane over zeolite based catalysts (H[sup [minus plus

Heinemann, H.; Somorjai, G.A.

1992-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

370

Higher Order Contributions to the 21 cm Power Spectrum  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We consider the contribution of 3rd and 4th order terms to the power spectrum of 21 cm brightness temperature fluctuations during the epoch of reionization, which arise because the 21 cm brightness temperature involves a product of the hydrogenic neutral fraction and the gas density. The 3rd order terms vanish for Gaussian random fields, and have been previously neglected or ignored. We measure these higher order terms from radiative transfer simulations and estimate them using cosmological perturbation theory. In our simulated models, the higher order terms are significant: neglecting them leads to a >~100% error in 21 cm power spectrum predictions on scales of k >~ 1 Mpc^{-1} when the neutral fraction is ~0.5. The higher order terms have a simple physical interpretation. On small scales they are produced by gravitational mode coupling. Small scale structure grows more readily in large-scale overdense regions, but the same regions tend to be ionized and hence do not contribute to the 21 cm signal. This acts to suppress the influence of non-linear density fluctuations and the small-scale amplitude of the 21 cm power spectrum. These results modify earlier intuition that the 21 cm power spectrum simply traces the density power spectrum on scales smaller than that of a typical bubble, and imply that small scale measurements contain more information about the nature of the ionizing sources than previously believed. On large scales, higher order moments are not directly related to gravity. They are non-zero because over-dense regions tend to ionize first and are important in magnitude at late times owing to the large fluctuations in the neutral fraction. (Abridged)

Adam Lidz; Oliver Zahn; Matthew McQuinn; Matias Zaldarriaga; Suvendra Dutta; Lars Hernquist

2006-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

371

Observables and Microscopic Entropy of Higher Spin Black Holes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In the context of recently proposed holographic dualities between higher spin theories in AdS3 and 1+1-dimensional CFTs with W-symmetry algebras, we revisit the definition of higher spin black hole thermodynamics and the dictionary between bulk fields and dual CFT operators. We build a canonical formalism based on three ingredients: a gauge-invariant definition of conserved charges and chemical potentials in the presence of higher spin black holes, a canonical definition of entropy in the bulk, and a bulk-to-boundary dictionary aligned with the asymptotic symmetry algebra. We show that our canonical formalism shares the same formal structure as the so-called holomorphic formalism, but differs in the definition of charges and chemical potentials and in the bulk-to-boundary dictionary. Most importantly, we show that it admits a consistent CFT interpretation. We discuss the spin-2 and spin-3 cases in detail and generalize our construction to theories based on the hs[\\lambda] algebra, and on the sl(N,R) algebra for any choice of sl(2,R) embedding.

Geoffrey Compère; Juan I. Jottar; Wei Song

2013-08-09T23:59:59.000Z

372

An American Perspective on British Higher Education: The Decline of Diversity, Autonomy and Trust in Post-war British Higher Education  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Perspective on British Higher Education: The Decline ofTrust in Post-war British Higher Education 1 Martin Trow TheCenter for Studies in Higher Education UC Berkeley, CA 94720

Trow, Martin A

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

373

Reconfiguring Admissions to Serve the Mission of Selective Public Higher Education  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

J.S. & Rudy, W. (1976). Higher education in transition: APublishers. Chronicle of Higher Education (1997). 62 collegeadmissions. Chronicle of Higher Education, A32, May 2, 1997.

Kornhaber, Mindy L.

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

374

Some Consequences of the New Information and Communication Technologies for Higher Education  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

varied functions of higher education. But the short historyTECHNOLOGIES FOR HIGHER EDUCATION Spring 2000 Martin Trowtechnologies in higher education is so very large, and

Trow, Martin A

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

375

Investment Patterns in California Higher Education and Policy Options for a Possible Future  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

PATTERNS IN CALIFORNIA HIGHER EDUCATION AND POLICY OPTIONSin the California higher education system, and how has itrapid rise of American higher education represents one of

Douglass, John Aubrey

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

376

Building on Success: Educational Diversity and Equity in Kentucky Higher Education  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of Segregation Black Higher Education in Kentucky, 1904-Title VI Regulation of Higher Education. New York: Teachersof Access and Choice in Higher Education, Chicago: Report to

The Civil Rights Project/ Proyecto Derechos Civiles

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

377

The Role of US Higher Education in the Global E-Learning Market  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Strategies for Higher Education. London: Kogan Page. Davis,Altbach, Ph. (2001) Higher Education and the WTO:Amok. In: International Higher Education, number 23, pp. 2-

van der Wende, Marijk

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

378

A Reflection and Prospectus on Globalization and Higher Education: CSHE@50  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ed) Social Science and Higher Education, Martin Trow, "The Democratization of Higher Education in America." TheDemocratization of Higher Education in America, New York:

King, C. Judson; Douglass, John Aubrey

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

379

All Globalization Is Local: Countervailing Forces and the Influence on Higher Education Markets  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

for Research into Higher Education and Open UniversityWhy Distance Learning? : Higher Education AdministrativePreager Series on Higher Education. Castells, M. (2000). The

Douglass, John Aubrey

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

380

The United Arab Emirates: Policy Choices Shaping the Future of Public Higher Education  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of Emiratis: A Master Plan for UAE Higher Education”, Officeof Higher Education Policy and Planning, January, 2007.MOHE, Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific

Warren H. Fox

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "higher stripping ratios" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Neoliberal Education Reforms and Debates around Neoliberalism: Finance-driven Reforms in Chilean Higher Education  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

needs to be considered. Higher education institutions, whichJoaquín. (1993) Chile’s higher education: between market andstate. Higher Education 25, pp. 35-43. Brunner, José

Yusa, Taiko

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

382

Internet as Teenager In Higher Education: Rapid Growth, Transformation, Uncertain but Bright Future  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Internet is challenging higher education. Perhaps the mostMatkin, INTERNET AS TEENAGER IN HIGHER EDUCATION Notes “Chronicle of Higher Education,” “E-Learning: Successes and

Matkin, Gary

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

383

HIGHER EDUCATION BUDGETS AND THE GLOBAL RECESSION: Tracking Varied National Responses and Their Consequences  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Universities and Higher Education Systems in a Changingcshe.berkeley.edu/ HIGHER EDUCATION BUDGETS AND THE GLOBALviewed the role of higher education in their evolving

John Aubrey Douglass

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

384

German and American Higher Education in Comparison: Is the American System Relevant for Germany?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

prestigious part of the higher education spectrum. Race-for Studies in Higher Education UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA,GERMAN AND AMERICAN HIGHER EDUCATION IN COMPARISON: IS THE

Heyman, I. Michael

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

385

A Social Contract Between the Public Higher Education Sector and the People of South Africa  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

be necessary for the higher education sector to understandAhmed C. Bawa, PUBLIC HIGHER EDUCATION SECTOR AND THE PEOPLEeds) Improving higher education in developing countries.

Bawa, Ahmed C

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

386

Accountability in Higher Education: A Public Agenda for Trust and Cultural Change  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

23 August 2004. ACCOUNTABILITY IN HIGHER EDUCATIONACCOUNTABILITY IN HIGHER EDUCATION Performance Indicators:that institutions of higher education have had to respond to

Leveille, David E.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

387

How Best to Coordinate California Higher Education: Comments on the Governor's Proposed Reforms  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

a leadership role in higher education so that other statesTO COORDINATE CALIFORNIA HIGHER EDUCATION: COMMENTS ON THEDirector, Office of Higher Education Policy and Planning

Fox, Warren H.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

388

The Hopwood Decision in Texas as an Attack on Latino Access to Selective Higher Education Programs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

to Comprehensive Higher Education in Texas." The SocialFocus on Latinos in Higher Education," Tenth Annual Statuson Minorities in Higher Education. (American Council on

Chapa, Jorge

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

389

Report: Public Trust in Higher Education and A Media Review of Press Articles in California  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

independence of higher education from federal edicts.news). PUBLIC TRUST IN HIGHER EDUCATION AND A MEDIA REVIEWPublic Trust in Higher Education and A Media Review of Press

Fox, Warren H.; Earl-Novell, Sarah L.

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

390

College vs. Unemployment: Expanding Access to Higher Education Is the Smart Investment During Economic Downturns  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Carnegie Commission on Higher Education in the 1960’s andAubrey Douglass, "Higher Education as a National Resource, "Expanding Access to Higher Education Is the Smart Investment

Douglass, John Aubrey

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

391

Markets in Higher Education: Can We Still Learn from Economics' Founding Fathers?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ingredients of markets. ” Higher Education Quarterly 57(2):J. C. Smart (ed. ), Higher Education: Handbook of Theory andinstrument for steering higher education systems, especially

Teixeira, Pedro Nuno

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

392

DOE Solid-State Lighting in Higher Ed Facilities  

SciTech Connect

The focus of the workshop was on higher education facilities because college and university campuses are an important market for lighting products and they use almost every kind of luminaire on the market. This workshop was seen as a chance for SSL manufacturers large and small to get the inside scoop from a group of people that specify, pay for, install, use, maintain, and dispose of lighting systems for nearly every type of application. Workshop attendees explored the barriers to SSL adoption, the applications where SSL products could work better than existing technologies, and where SSL luminaires are currently falling short. This report summarizes the Workshop activities and presentation highlights.

Miller, Naomi J.; Curry, Ku' Uipo J.

2010-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

393

Slice Energy in Higher Order Gravity Theories and Conformal Transformations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We study the generic transport of slice energy between the scalar field generated by the conformal transformation of higher-order gravity theories and the matter component. We give precise relations for this exchange in the cases of dust and perfect fluids. We show that, unless we are in a stationary spacetime where slice energy is always conserved, in non-stationary situations contributions to the total slice energy depend on whether or not test matter follows geodesics in both frame representations of the dynamics, that is on whether or not the two conformally related frames are physically indistinguishable.

Spiros Cotsakis

2004-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

394

Stationary and Axisymmetric Solutions of Higher-Dimensional General Relativity  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We study stationary and axisymmetric solutions of General Relativity, i.e. pure gravity, in four or higher dimensions. D-dimensional stationary and axisymmetric solutions are defined as having D-2 commuting Killing vector fields. We derive a canonical form of the metric for such solutions that effectively reduces the Einstein equations to a differential equation on an axisymmetric D-2 by D-2 matrix field living in three-dimensional flat space (apart from a subclass of solutions that instead reduce to a set of equations on a D-2 by D-2 matrix field living in two-dimensional flat space). This generalizes the Papapetrou form of the metric for stationary and axisymmetric solutions in four dimensions, and furthermore generalizes the work on Weyl solutions in four and higher dimensions. We analyze then the sources for the solutions, which are in the form of thin rods along a line in the three-dimensional flat space that the matrix field can be seen to live in. As examples of stationary and axisymmetric solutions, we study the five-dimensional rotating black hole and the rotating black ring, write the metrics in the canonical form and analyze the structure of the rods for each solution.

Troels Harmark

2004-08-18T23:59:59.000Z

395

Stationary and Axisymmetric Solutions of Higher-Dimensional General Relativity  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We study stationary and axisymmetric solutions of General Relativity, i.e. pure gravity, in four or higher dimensions. D-dimensional stationary and axisymmetric solutions are defined as having D-2 commuting Killing vector fields. We derive a canonical form of the metric for such solutions that effectively reduces the Einstein equations to a differential equation on an axisymmetric D-2 by D-2 matrix field living in three-dimensional flat space (apart from a subclass of solutions that instead reduce to a set of equations on a D-2 by D-2 matrix field living in two-dimensional flat space). This generalizes the Papapetrou form of the metric for stationary and axisymmetric solutions in four dimensions, and furthermore generalizes the work on Weyl solutions in four and higher dimensions. We analyze then the sources for the solutions, which are in the form of thin rods along a line in the three-dimensional flat space that the matrix field can be seen to live in. As examples of stationary and axisymmetric solutions, w...

Harmark, T

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

396

Higher order harmonic detection for exploring nonlinear interactions  

SciTech Connect

Nonlinear dynamics underpin a vast array of physical phenomena ranging from interfacial motion to jamming transitions. In many cases, decoupling the contributions of competing or co-existing mechanisms to the system response can be achieved through investigation of higher order harmonics. Here, a method using band excitation scanning probe microscopy to investigate higher order harmonics of the electromechanical response, with nanometer scale spatial resolution is presented. The utility of the technique is demonstrated by probing the first three harmonics of strain for a well-known system, a model Pb(Zr1-xTix)O3 ferroelectric capacitor. It is shown that the second order harmonic response is correlated with the first harmonic response, whereas the third harmonic is not. Additionally, nanoscale measurements of the second harmonic response with field reveal significant deviations from Rayleigh-type models in the form of a much more complicated field dependence than is observed in the spatially averaged data. These results illustrate the versatility of combining proximal probe techniques with nth harmonic detection methods in exploring and decoupling nonlinear dynamics in a wide variety of nanoscale materials.

Vasudevan, Rama K [ORNL; Okatan, M. B. [University of New South Wales; Rajapaksa, Indrajit [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Kim, Yunseok [ORNL; Marincel, Dan [Materials Science and Engineering, Pennsylvania State University; Trolier-McKinstry, Susan [Pennsylvania State University; Jesse, Stephen [ORNL; Nagarajan, Valanoor [University of New South Wales; Kalinin, Sergei V [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

397

In situ Carbon 13 and Oxygen 18 Ratios of Atmospheric CO2 from Cape Grim,  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Oxygen Isotopes and Ratios » 13C and 18O Oxygen Isotopes and Ratios » 13C and 18O Ratios, Atmospheric CO2, Cape Grim In situ Carbon 13 and Oxygen 18 Ratios of Atmospheric CO2 from Cape Grim, Tasmania, Australia: 1982-1993 DOI: 10.3334/CDIAC/atg.db1014 data Data Investigators Francey R. J. and C. E. Allison Description Since 1982, a continuous program of sampling atmospheric CO2 to determine stable isotope ratios has been maintained at the Australian Baseline Air Pollution Station, Cape Grim, Tasmania (40°, 40'56"S, 144°, 41'18"E). The process of in situ extraction of CO2 from air, the preponderance of samples collected in conditions of strong wind from the marine boundary layer of the Southern Ocean, and the determination of all isotope ratios relative to a common high purity CO2 reference gas with isotopic δ13C close to

398

Effect of higher water vapor content on TBC performance  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Coal gasification, or IGCC (integrated gasification combined cycle), is one pathway toward cleaner use of coal for power generation with lower emissions. However, when coal-derived synthesis gas (i.e., syngas) is burned in turbines designed for natural gas, turbine manufacturers recommend 'derating,' or lowering the maximum temperature, which lowers the efficiency of the turbine, making electricity from IGCC more expensive. One possible reason for the derating is the higher water vapor contents in the exhaust gas. Water vapor has a detrimental effect on many oxidation-resistant high-temperature materials. In a turbine hot section, Ni-base superalloys are coated with a thermal barrier coating (TBC) allowing the gas temperature to be higher than the superalloy solidus temperature. TBCs have a low thermal conductivity ceramic top coating (typically Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}-stabilized ZrO{sub 2}, or YSZ) and an oxidation-resistant metallic bond coating. For land-based gas turbines, the industry standard is air plasma sprayed (APS) YSZ and high velocity oxygen fuel (HVOF) sprayed NiCoCrAlY bond coatings. To investigate the role of higher water vapor content on TBC performance and possible mitigation strategies, furnace cycling experiments were conducted in dry O{sub 2} and air with 10% (typical with natural gas or jet fuel) or 50 vol% water vapor. Cycle frequency and temperature were accelerated to one hour at 1100 C (with 10 minute cooling to {approx}30 C between each thermal cycle) to induce early failures in coatings that are expected to operate for several years with a metal temperature of {approx}900 C. Coupons (16 mm diameter x 2 mm thick) of commercial second-generation single crystal superalloy CMSX4 were HVOF coated on both sides with {approx}125 {micro}m of Ni-22wt%Co-17Cr-12Al either with 0.7Y or 0.7Y-0.3Hf-0.4Si. One side was then coated with 190-240 {micro}m of APS YSZ. Coatings were cycled until the YSZ top coating spalled. Figure 2 shows the results of the initial phase of experiments. Compared to dry O{sub 2}, the addition of 10% water vapor decreased the lifetime of MCrAlY by {approx}30% for the conventional CMSX4 substrates. Higher average lifetimes were observed with Hf in the bond coating, but a similar decrease in lifetime was observed when water vapor was added. The addition of Y and La to the superalloy substrate did not change the YSZ lifetime with 10% water vapor. However, increasing water vapor content from 10 to 50% did not further decrease the lifetime of either bond coating with the doped superalloy substrate. Thus, these results suggest that higher water vapor contents cannot explain the derating of syngas-fired turbines, and other factors such as sulfur and ash from imperfect syngas cleanup (or upset conditions) need to be explored. Researchers continue to study effects of water vapor on thermally grown alumina scale adhesion and growth rate, and are looking for bond coating compositions more resistant to oxidation in the presence of water vapor.

Pint, Bruce A [ORNL; Haynes, James A [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

399

" Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy-Consumption Ratios;"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

N7.1. Consumption Ratios of Fuel, 1998;" N7.1. Consumption Ratios of Fuel, 1998;" " Level: National and Regional Data; " " Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy-Consumption Ratios;" " Unit: Varies." " "," ",,,"Consumption"," " " "," ",,"Consumption","per Dollar"," " " "," ","Consumption","per Dollar","of Value","RSE" "NAICS"," ","per Employee","of Value Added","of Shipments","Row" "Code(a)","Subsector and Industry","(million Btu)","(thousand Btu)","(thousand Btu)","Factors"

400

" Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy-Consumption Ratios;"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

1 Consumption Ratios of Fuel, 2002;" 1 Consumption Ratios of Fuel, 2002;" " Level: National and Regional Data; " " Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy-Consumption Ratios;" " Unit: Varies." " "," ",,,"Consumption"," " " "," ",,"Consumption","per Dollar"," " " "," ","Consumption","per Dollar","of Value","RSE" "NAICS"," ","per Employee","of Value Added","of Shipments","Row" "Code(a)","Subsector and Industry","(million Btu)","(thousand Btu)","(thousand Btu)","Factors"

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "higher stripping ratios" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Application of neural network for air-fuel ratio identification in spark ignition engine  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In the present work, Recurrent Neural Network (RNN) is used for Air-Fuel Ratio (AFR) identification in Spark Ignition (SI) engine. AFR identification is difficult due to nonlinear and dynamic behaviour of SI engines. Delays present in the engine ... Keywords: AFR sensors, RNNs, air-fuel ratio control, air-fuel ratio sensors, engine modelling, recurrent neural networks, simulation, spark ignition engines, virtual sensors

Samir Saraswati; Satish Chand

2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

402

Altering the volumetric expansion ratio of a Lysholm helical screw expander  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This is an analysis of the effects of the volumetric expansion ratio on the operation of a Lysholm helical screw expander. Extensive testing of the University of California Lysholm engine with a 5.3 volumetric expansion ratio was performed. In this experiment, the expansion ratio has been reduced from 5.3 to 4.0. Tests were performed at a variety of speeds and qualities for a 5.0 pressure ratio and at a variety of speeds and pressure ratios for 99 percent quality. It was predicted that decreasing the volumetric expansion ratio would decrease the leakage fraction and thereby increase efficiency. This occurred as predicted. Isentropic efficiency increased 20 percent for 50 percent quality steam and 16 percent for 33 percent quality steam, all for an inlet pressure of 120 psia and a speed of 9000 rpm. A maximum efficiency of 47.2 percent was reached at 33 percent quality, 9000 rpm and a pressure ratio of 5.0. It was noted that the leakage rate did not appear to be a function of expansion ratio, as had been expected. Using this fact the previous empirical models of the engine were extended to include volumetric expansion ratio as a variable parameter.

Dunbar, M.K.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

403

Sodium-Lithium Ratio In Water Applied To Geothermometry Of Geothermal...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Sign Up Search Page Edit with form History Facebook icon Twitter icon Sodium-Lithium Ratio In Water Applied To Geothermometry Of Geothermal Reservoirs Jump to: navigation,...

404

Producing Gas-Oil Ratio Performance of Conventional and Unconventional Reservoirs.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

?? This study presents a detailed analysis of producing gas-oil ratio performance characteristics from conventional reservoir to unconventional reservoir. Numerical simulations of various reservoir fluid… (more)

Lei, Guowen

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

405

The Golden Ratio Prediction for the Solar Angle from a Natural Model with A5 Flavour Symmetry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We formulate a consistent model predicting, in the leading order approximation, maximal atmospheric mixing angle, vanishing reactor angle and tan {\\theta}_12 = 1/{\\phi} where {\\phi} is the Golden Ratio. The model is based on the flavour symmetry A5 \\tiems Z5 \\times Z3, spontaneously broken by a set of flavon fields. By minimizing the scalar potential of the theory up to the next-to-leading order in the symmetry breaking parameter, we demonstrate that this mixing pattern is naturally achieved in a finite portion of the parameter space, through the vacuum alignment of the flavon fields. The leading order approximation is stable against higher-order corrections. We also compare our construction to other models based on discrete symmetry groups.

Feruglio, Ferruccio

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

406

The Golden Ratio Prediction for the Solar Angle from a Natural Model with A5 Flavour Symmetry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We formulate a consistent model predicting, in the leading order approximation, maximal atmospheric mixing angle, vanishing reactor angle and tan {\\theta}_12 = 1/{\\phi} where {\\phi} is the Golden Ratio. The model is based on the flavour symmetry A5 \\times Z5 \\times Z3, spontaneously broken by a set of flavon fields. By minimizing the scalar potential of the theory up to the next-to-leading order in the symmetry breaking parameter, we demonstrate that this mixing pattern is naturally achieved in a finite portion of the parameter space, through the vacuum alignment of the flavon fields. The leading order approximation is stable against higher-order corrections. We also compare our construction to other models based on discrete symmetry groups.

Ferruccio Feruglio; Alessio Paris

2011-01-02T23:59:59.000Z

407

Improved Combustion Health Monitoring Techniques - Longer Life, Higher Availability  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Combustion Health Combustion Health Monitoring Techniques Longer Life, Higher Availability Georgia Tech Jerry Seitzman SR102 * Modern Dry Low Emissions combustors have low emissions, but at a cost - significantly lower availability and reliability than "conventional" systems * The input data to the combustor monitor is pressure fluctuations, same as in currently available systems, but from this project the system analyzes the data differently, accounting for changes such as ambient temperature and doing analyses that show trends which indicate when planned maintenance should be performed to avoid an unplanned shut down. * Technology Transfer: Worked with 3 GT manufacturers. Method licensed to turbine monitoring company and installed at a number of power plants in the United States.

408

Euclidean Scalar Green Function in a Higher Dimensional Global Spacetime  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We construct the explicit Euclidean scalar Green function associated with a massless field in a higher dimensional global monopole spacetime, i.e., a $(1+d)$-spacetime with $d\\geq3$ which presents a solid angle deficit. Our result is expressed in terms of a infinite sum of products of Legendre functions with Gegenbauer polynomials. Although this Green function cannot be expressed in a closed form, for the specific case where the solid angle deficit is very small, it is possible to develop the sum and obtain the Green function in a more workable expression. Having this expression it is possible to calculate the vacuum expectation value of some relevant operators. As an application of this formalism, we calculate the renormalized vacuum expectation value of the square of the scalar field, $Phi^2(x)>_{Ren.}$, and the energy-momentum tensor, $_{Ren.}$, for the global monopole spacetime with spatial dimensions $d=4$ and $d=5$.

E. R. Bezerra de Mello

2001-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

409

Higher Spin Realization of the dS/CFT Correspondence  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We conjecture that Vasiliev's theory of higher spin gravity in four-dimensional de Sitter space (dS) is holographically dual to a three-dimensional conformal field theory (CFT) living on the spacelike boundary of dS at future timelike infinity. The CFT is the Euclidean Sp(N) vector model with anticommuting scalars. The free CFT flows under a double-trace deformation to an interacting CFT in the IR. We argue that both CFTs are dual to Vasiliev dS gravity but with different future boundary conditions on the bulk scalar field. Our analysis rests heavily on analytic continuations of bulk and boundary correlators in the proposed duality relating the O(N) model with Vasiliev gravity in AdS.

Anninos, Dionysios; Strominger, Andrew

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

410

Higher Spin Realization of the dS/CFT Correspondence  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We conjecture that Vasiliev's theory of higher spin gravity in four-dimensional de Sitter space (dS) is holographically dual to a three-dimensional conformal field theory (CFT) living on the spacelike boundary of dS at future timelike infinity. The CFT is the Euclidean Sp(N) vector model with anticommuting scalars. The free CFT flows under a double-trace deformation to an interacting CFT in the IR. We argue that both CFTs are dual to Vasiliev dS gravity but with different future boundary conditions on the bulk scalar field. Our analysis rests heavily on analytic continuations of bulk and boundary correlators in the proposed duality relating the O(N) model with Vasiliev gravity in AdS.

Dionysios Anninos; Thomas Hartman; Andrew Strominger

2011-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

411

Building a Holographic Superconductor with Higher-derivative Couplings  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We discuss the gravitational dual of a holographic superconductor consisting of a U(1) gauge field, a complex scalar field coupled to a charged AdS black hole and a higher-derivative coupling between the U(1) gauge field and the scalar with coupling constant \\eta. In the presence of a magnetic field, the system possesses localized spatially dependent droplet solutions which, in the low temperature limit, have smaller critical temperature for \\eta>0 than the droplet solutions without the interaction term (\\eta=0). In the weak magnetic field limit, the opposite behavior is observed: the critical temperature increases as we increase \\eta. We also calculate the energy gap in the probe limit and find that it is larger for \\etaenergy gap in the conventional case (\\eta=0).

Xiao-Mei Kuang; Eleftherios Papantonopoulos; George Siopsis; Bin Wang

2013-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

412

Greening academia: Developing sustainable waste management at Higher Education Institutions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) are often the size of small municipalities. Worldwide, the higher education (HE) sector has expanded phenomenally; for example, since the 1960s, the United Kingdom (UK) HE system has expanded sixfold to >2.4 million students. As a consequence, the overall production of waste at HEIs throughout the world is very large and presents significant challenges as the associated legislative, economic and environmental pressures can be difficult to control and manage. This paper critically reviews why sustainable waste management has become a key issue for the worldwide HE sector to address and describes some of the benefits, barriers, practical and logistical problems. As a practical illustration of some of the issues and problems, the four-phase waste management strategy developed over 15 years by one of the largest universities in Southern England - the University of Southampton (UoS) - is outlined as a case study. The UoS is committed to protecting the environment by developing practices that are safe, sustainable and environmentally friendly and has developed a practical, staged approach to manage waste in an increasingly sustainable fashion. At each stage, the approach taken to the development of infrastructure (I), service provision (S) and behavior change (B) is explained, taking into account the Political, Economic, Social, Technological, Legal and Environmental (PESTLE) factors. Signposts to lessons learned, good practice and useful resources that other institutions - both nationally and internationally - can access are provided. As a result of the strategy developed at the UoS, from 2004 to 2008 waste costs fell by around Pounds 125k and a recycling rate of 72% was achieved. The holistic approach taken - recognizing the PESTLE factors and the importance of a concerted ISB approach - provides a realistic, successful and practical example for other institutions wishing to effectively and sustainably manage their waste.

Zhang, N. [School of Civil Engineering and the Environment, University of Southampton, University Rd., Highfield, Southampton, Hampshire SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Williams, I.D., E-mail: idw@soton.ac.uk [School of Civil Engineering and the Environment, University of Southampton, University Rd., Highfield, Southampton, Hampshire SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Kemp, S. [School of Civil Engineering and the Environment, University of Southampton, University Rd., Highfield, Southampton, Hampshire SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Smith, N.F. [Estates and Facilities Management, University of Southampton, University Rd., Highfield, Southampton, Hampshire SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom)

2011-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

413

Aspect Ratio  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... with the mouse. Use the {mlx - false color - directional palette} menu. DOG - Direction of Gradient top. This display is useful ...

414

RATIO COMPUTER  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An electronic computer circuit is described for producing an output voltage proportional to the product or quotient of tbe voltages of a pair of input signals. ln essence, the disclosed invention provides a computer having two channels adapted to receive separate input signals and each having amplifiers with like fixed amplification factors and like negatlve feedback amplifiers. One of the channels receives a constant signal for comparison purposes, whereby a difference signal is produced to control the amplification factors of the variable feedback amplifiers. The output of the other channel is thereby proportional to the product or quotient of input signals depending upon the relation of input to fixed signals in the first mentioned channel.

Post, R.F.

1958-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

415

On the ratio X/Y for some elliptically symmetric distributions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The distributions of the ratio X/Y are derived when (X,Y) has the elliptically symmetric Pearson-type II distribution, elliptically symmetric Pearson-type VII distribution and the elliptically symmetric Kotz-type distribution. Keywords: 33C90, 62E99, Elliptically symmetric distributions, Ratios of random variables

Saralees Nadarajah

2006-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

416

Research of Speed Ratio Matching Strategies of Hydro-Mechanical Continuously Variable Transmission System for Tractor  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

To realize the optimal power and best fuel economy performance of engine, the speed ratio matching strategies of tractor with hydro-mechanical continuously variable transmission (HMCVT) system are studied. The engine output torque model and fuel consumption ... Keywords: Tractor, Hydro-mechanical continuously variable transmission, Speed ratio, Matching strategies

Liyou Xu; Zhili Zhou; Fuyi Cao; Mingzhu Zhang

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

417

High density packings of equal circles in rectangles with variable aspect ratio  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Arranging a fixed number n of equal non-overlapping circles in a rectangle with variable aspect ratio is a non-standard packing problem. It arises if one has to decide how a certain number of circular items should be packed into a rectangular box when ... Keywords: Circle packing, Container design, Hexagonal grid, Rectangular container, Variable aspect ratio

E. Specht

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

418

Experimental Study of Air-Fuel Ratio Control Strategy for a Hydrogen Internal Combustion Engine  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

One of the most attractive combustive features for hydrogen fuel is its wide range of flammability. The wide flammability limits allow hydrogen engine to be operated at extremely lean air–fuel ratios compared to conventional fuels. Concepts for ... Keywords: Hydrogen internal combustion engine, Air/Fuel ratio, Control strategy

Zhong-yu Zhao; Fu-shui Liu

2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

419

Measurement of lithium isotope ratios by quadrupole-ICP-MS: application to seawater and natural carbonates  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Measurement of lithium isotope ratios by quadrupole-ICP-MS: application to seawater and natural method for lithium isotope ratio (7 Li/6 Li) determinations with low total lithium consumption ( lithium from all matrix elements using small volume resin (2 ml/3.4 meq AG 50W-X8) and low volume elution

Weston, Ken

420

Enhanced model and fuzzy strategy of air to fuel ratio control for spark ignition engines  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Various mathematical models for the air to fuel ratio and control for spark ignition (SI) engines have been proposed to satisfy technical specifications. This paper reveals an improvement of the mean value model (MVEM) and a simple yet effective nonlinear ... Keywords: Air-fuel ratio, FOPDDT, Fuzzy control, Internal combustion, Nonlinear control

Anurak Jansri; Pitikhate Sooraksa

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "higher stripping ratios" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Effect of aspect ratio on convection in a porous enclosure with partially active thermal walls  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The aim of the present numerical investigation is to understand the effect of aspect ratio and partially thermally active zones on convective flow and heat transfer in a rectangular porous enclosure. Five different heating and cooling zones are considered ... Keywords: Aspect ratio, Finite volume method, Natural convection, Partial heating, Porous medium

M. Bhuvaneswari; S. Sivasankaran; Y. J. Kim

2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

422

On the Ratio of Sulfur Dioxide to Nitrogen Oxides as an Indicator of Air Pollution Sources  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The ratio of sulfur dioxide to nitrogen oxides (RSN = SO2/NOx) is one indicator of air pollution sources. The role of this ratio in source attribution is illustrated here for the Ashdod area, located in the southern coastal plain of Israel. The ...

Ronit Nirel; Uri Dayan

2001-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

423

Review: Estimation of California bearing ratio by using soft computing systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study presents the application of different methods (simple-multiple analysis and artificial neural networks) for the estimation of the California bearing ratio (CBR) from sieve analysis, Atterberg limits, maximum dry unit weight and optimum moisture ... Keywords: Artificial neural networks, Atterberg limits, California bearing ratio (CBR), Correlation, Maximum dry unit weight, Optimum moisture content, Sieve analysis

B. Yildirim; O. Gunaydin

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

424

Indian monsoon rainfall is higher in epochs of higher solar activity: a wavelet cross-spectral analysis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Using the Morlet continuous wavelet transform on data over the period 1871-1990, it is found that the global wavelet cross spectra between two solar activity indices and seven major Indian monsoon rainfall time series show significant power around the period of the 11 year solar cycle, passing the $\\chi^2$ test of significance proposed by Torrence and Compo (1998) at levels exceeding 95% in 10 out of the 14 cases studied. Furthermore two distinct epochs are found in the computed cross-spectrum, the transition between them occurring around the decade 1915-1925, beyond which solar activity parameters show a significant increase. By comparison between selected periods of three cycles in solar activity in each of the two epochs, it is shown that the average rainfall is higher in all seven rainfall indices during periods of greater solar activity, at {\\it z}-test confidence levels of 95% or greater in three of them.

Bhattacharya, S

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

425

Forensic Applications of Light-Element Stable Isotope Ratios of Ricinus communis Seeds and Ricin Preparations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Seeds of the castor plant Ricinus communis, also known as castor beans, are of forensic interest because they are the source of the poison ricin. We have tested whether stable isotope ratios of castor seeds and ricin prepared by various methods can be used as a forensic signature. We collected over 300 castor seed samples from locations around the world and measured the C, N, O, and H stable isotope ratios of the whole seeds, oil, and three types of ricin preparations. Our results demonstrate that N isotope ratios can be used to correlate ricin prepared by any of these methods to source seeds. Further, stable isotope ratios distinguished >99% of crude and purified ricin protein samples in pair-wise comparison tests. Stable isotope ratios therefore constitute a valuable forensic signature for ricin preparations.

Kreuzer, Helen W.; West, Jason B.; Ehleringer, James

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

426

Formation Kinetics of Nitric Oxide of Biodiesel Relative to Petroleum Diesel under Comparable Oxygen Equivalence Ratio in a Homogeneous Reactor  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Interest in biodiesel has piqued with advent of stringent emissions regulations. Biodiesel is a viable substitute for petroleum diesel because biodiesel produces significantly lower particulate and soot emissions relative to petroleum diesel. Higher nitric oxide (NO) emissions for biodiesel, however, are of primary concern in biodiesel-fueled engines. Search for an in-cylinder technique to reduce NO emissions for biodiesel has motivated studies to gain an improved understanding of fundamental factors that drive increase in NO emissions with biodiesel. Potential factors include fuel-bound oxygen, fuel-bound nitrogen and post-flame gas temperature. The role of fuel-bound oxygen however is debated in the literature. The research objective of this study is to computationally determine if biodiesel and petroleum diesel yield equivalent concentrations of NO with the same oxygen equivalence ratio in a 0-D homogeneous reactor, to explain the role of fuel-bound oxygen in biodiesel on increases in NO emissions with biodiesel. The results from this study indicate that the biodiesel surrogate yields higher NO emissions than the n-heptane because of its lower oxygen consumption efficiency. The lower oxygen consumption efficiency for biodiesel is likely because of the slower decomposition of the individual components and the blending ratios of the biodiesel surrogate blend. The relative differences in combustion efficiency of individual components of the biodiesel blend suggest this conclusion. The more efficient burning of the methyl esters relative to the n-heptane in biodiesel surrogate perhaps indicates the favorable role of fuel-bound oxygen in the fuel’s combustion. The low utilization of oxygen by the biodiesel surrogate could not be explained in this study. The dominance of NO2 H ? NO OH and N NO ? N2 O mechanisms during biodiesel combustion however explain the high NO emissions for the biodiesel surrogate relative to the n-heptane. The biodiesel may yield lower NO emissions than the petroleum diesel if the blending ratios for the biodiesel are adjusted such that combustion efficiency of biodiesel and petroleum diesel is same or the NO2 H ? NO OH and N NO ? N2 O mechanisms are suppressed during biodiesel combustion.

Rathore, Gurlovleen K.

2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

427

PROMOTED ZINC CHROMITE CATALYSTS FOR HIGHER ALCOHOL SYNTHESIS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report describes the analytical protocols that were developed during the last two years to analyze ''spent'' THQ (tetrahydroquinoline) slurry liquid. Identification of the components of the ''spent'' THQ should help to understand the influence of the slurry medium on the methanol synthesis reaction, and on other reactions with THQ as the slurry liquid. Silica gel liquid chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) were used to isolate and purify the major compounds in the ''spent'' slurry liquid. Gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GC/MS), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) were applied to identify the major compounds. Methyl-, dimethyl-, and trimethyl-THQ were found to comprise more than 80% of the ''spent'' liquid. The balance was various methylated indoles. A methyl group always is attached to the N atom in the ring structure. Speculative mechanisms are presented that may help to understand the interaction between the catalyst and the alkylated THQ slurry liquid, and the effect of liquid composition on the methanol synthesis reaction. A poster entitled ''Promoted Zinc Chromite Catalyst for Higher Alcohol Synthesis in a Slurry Reactor-2. Spent Liquid Analysis'' was presented at the AIChE National Meeting, Los Angeles, CA, Nov 12-17, 2000.

Ms. Xiaolei Sun; Professor George W. Roberts

2001-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

428

A general higher-order remap algorithm for ALE calculations  

SciTech Connect

A numerical technique for solving the equations of fluid dynamics with arbitrary mesh motion is presented. The three phases of the Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian (ALE) methodology are outlined: the Lagrangian phase, grid relaxation phase and remap phase. The Lagrangian phase follows a well known approach from the HEMP code; in addition the strain rate andflow divergence are calculated in a consistent manner according to Margolin. A donor cell method from the SALE code forms the basis of the remap step, but unlike SALE a higher order correction based on monotone gradients is also added to the remap. Four test problems were explored to evaluate the fidelity of these numerical techniques, as implemented in a simple test code, written in the C programming language, called Cercion. Novel cell-centered data structures are used in Cercion to reduce the complexity of the programming and maximize the efficiency of memory usage. The locations of the shock and contact discontinuity in the Riemann shock tube problem are well captured. Cercion demonstrates a high degree of symmetry when calculating the Sedov blast wave solution, with a peak density at the shock front that is similar to the value determined by the RAGE code. For a flyer plate test problem both Cercion and FLAG give virtually the same velocity temporal profile at the target-vacuum interface. When calculating a cylindrical implosion of a steel shell, Cercion and FLAG agree well and the Cercion results are insensitive to the use of ALE.

Chiravalle, Vincent P [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2011-01-05T23:59:59.000Z

429

Two-Loop Bethe Logarithms for Higher Excited S Levels  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Processes mediated by two virtual low-energy photons contribute quite significantly to the energy of hydrogenic S states. The corresponding level shift is of the order of (alpha/pi)^2 (Zalpha)^6 m_e c^2 and may be ascribed to a two-loop generalization of the Bethe logarithm. For 1S and 2S states, the correction has recently been evaluated by Pachucki and Jentschura [Phys. Rev. Lett. vol. 91, 113005 (2003)]. Here, we generalize the approach to higher excited S states, which in contrast to the 1S and 2S states can decay to P states via the electric-dipole (E1) channel. The more complex structure of the excited-state wave functions and the necessity to subtract P-state poles lead to additional calculational problems. In addition to the calculation of the excited-state two-loop energy shift, we investigate the ambiguity in the energy level definition due to squared decay rates.

Ulrich D. Jentschura

2004-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

430

The Higgs Particle and Higher-Dimensional Theories  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In spite of the great success of LHC experiments, we do not know whether the discovered "standard model-like" Higgs particle is really what the standard model predicts or a particle some new physics has in its low energy effective theory. Also the long-standing problems concerning the property of Higgs and its interactions are still there, and we still do not have any conclusive argument of the origin of the Higgs itself. In this article we focus on higher-dimensional theories as new physics. First we give a brief review of their representative scenarios and closely related 4-dimensional scenarios. Among them, we mainly discuss two interesting possibilities of the origin of the Higgs: Higgs as a gauge boson and Higgs as a (pseudo) Nambu-Goldstone boson. Next, we argue that theories of new physics are divided into two categories, i.e. theories with normal Higgs interactions and those with anomalous Higgs interactions. Interestingly both of two candidates concerning the origin of the Higgs mentioned above predict characteristic "anomalous" Higgs interactions, such as the deviation of the Yukawa couplings from the standard model predictions. Such deviations can be hopefully investigated by the precision tests of Higgs interactions at the planned ILC experiment. Also discussed is the main decay mode of the Higgs, $H \\to \\gamma \\gamma$. Again, theories belonging different categories are known to predict remarkably different new physics contributions to this important process.

C. S. Lim

2013-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

431

Higher oil prices: Can OPEC raise prices by cutting production  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

OPEC's ability to raise prices is evaluated with a model that projects the supply and demand. As part of the model, a new methodology to forecast for the rate of production by non-OPEC nations is developed. A literature review of techniques for estimating oil supply and annual rates of production indicates a new methodology is needed. The new technique incorporates the geological, engineering, and economic aspects of the oil industry by synthesizing curve fitting and econometric techniques. It is used to analyze data for eight regions for non-OPEC oil production: the lower 48 states, Alaska, Canada, Mexico, non-OPEC South America, Western Europe, non-OPEC Africa, and non-OPEC Asia. OPEC's ability to raise prices is examined by tracking the percentage oil US oil demand supplied by imports, the portion of oil demand in Western Europe supplied by local production, the percentage of WOCA oil demand supplied by OPEC and Real OPEC revenues. Results of the model indicate that OPEC can raise oil prices in the early 1990s. OPEC can raise and sustain oil prices near $25 (1982 dollars). Higher oil prices ($35) are not sustainable before 2000 because reduced demand and increased non-OPEC production shrink OPEC revenues below acceptable levels. After 2000, $35 prices are sustainable.

Kaufmann, R.K.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

432

Measurements of volatile organic compounds at a suburban ground site (T1) in Mexico City during the MILAGRO 2006 campaign: Measurement comparison, emission ratios, and source attribution  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Volatile organic compound (VOC) mixing ratios were measured with two different instruments at the T1 ground site in Mexico City during the Megacity Initiative: Local and Global Research Observations (MILAGRO) campaign in March of 2006. A gas chromatograph with flame ionization detector (GC-FID) quantified 18 light alkanes, alkenes and acetylene while a proton-transfer-reaction ion-trap mass spectrometer (PIT-MS) quantified 12 VOC species including oxygenated VOCs (OVOCs) and aromatics. A GC separation system was used in conjunction with the PIT-MS (GC-PIT-MS) to evaluate PIT-MS measurements and to aid in the identification of unknown VOCs. The VOC measurements are also compared to simultaneous canister samples and to two independent proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometers (PTR-MS) deployed on a mobile and an airborne platform during MILAGRO. VOC diurnal cycles demonstrate the large influence of vehicle traffic and liquid propane gas (LPG) emissions during the night and photochemical processing during the afternoon. Emission ratios for VOCs and OVOCs relative to CO are derived from early-morning measurements. Average emission ratios for non-oxygenated species relative to CO are on average a factor of {approx}2 higher than measured for US cities. Emission ratios for OVOCs are estimated and compared to literature values the northeastern US and to tunnel studies in California. Positive matrix factorization analysis (PMF) is used to provide insight into VOC sources and processing. Three PMF factors were distinguished by the analysis including the emissions from vehicles, the use of liquid propane gas and the production of secondary VOCs + long-lived species. Emission ratios to CO calculated from the results of PMF analysis are compared to emission ratios calculated directly from measurements. The total PIT-MS signal is summed to estimate the fraction of identified versus unidentified VOC species.

Bon, D.M.; Springston, S.; M.Ulbrich, I.; de Gouw, J. A.; Warneke, C.; Kuster, W. C.; Alexander, M. L.; Baker, A.; Beyersdorf, A. J.; Blake, D.; Fall, R.; Jimenez, J. L., Herndon, S. C.; Huey, L. G.; Knighton, W. B.; Ortega, J.; Vargas, O.

2011-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

433

Periodic equivalence ratio modulation method and apparatus for controlling combustion instability  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The periodic equivalence ratio modulation (PERM) method and apparatus significantly reduces and/or eliminates unstable conditions within a combustion chamber. The method involves modulating the equivalence ratio for the combustion device, such that the combustion device periodically operates outside of an identified unstable oscillation region. The equivalence ratio is modulated between preselected reference points, according to the shape of the oscillation region and operating parameters of the system. Preferably, the equivalence ratio is modulated from a first stable condition to a second stable condition, and, alternatively, the equivalence ratio is modulated from a stable condition to an unstable condition. The method is further applicable to multi-nozzle combustor designs, whereby individual nozzles are alternately modulated from stable to unstable conditions. Periodic equivalence ratio modulation (PERM) is accomplished by active control involving periodic, low frequency fuel modulation, whereby low frequency fuel pulses are injected into the main fuel delivery. Importantly, the fuel pulses are injected at a rate so as not to affect the desired time-average equivalence ratio for the combustion device.

Richards, George A.; Janus, Michael C.; Griffith, Richard A.

1998-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

434

Determination of Light Water Reactor Fuel Burnup with the Isotope Ratio Method  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

For the current project to demonstrate that isotope ratio measurements can be extended to zirconium alloys used in LWR fuel assemblies we report new analyses on irradiated samples obtained from a reactor. Zirconium alloys are used for structural elements of fuel assemblies and for the fuel element cladding. This report covers new measurements done on irradiated and unirradiated zirconium alloys, Unirradiated zircaloy samples serve as reference samples and indicate starting values or natural values for the Ti isotope ratio measured. New measurements of irradiated samples include results for 3 samples provided by AREVA. New results indicate: 1. Titanium isotope ratios were measured again in unirradiated samples to obtain reference or starting values at the same time irradiated samples were analyzed. In particular, 49Ti/48Ti ratios were indistinguishably close to values determined several months earlier and to expected natural values. 2. 49Ti/48Ti ratios were measured in 3 irradiated samples thus far, and demonstrate marked departures from natural or initial ratios, well beyond analytical uncertainty, and the ratios vary with reported fluence values. The irradiated samples appear to have significant surface contamination or radiation damage which required more time for SIMS analyses. 3. Other activated impurity elements still limit the sample size for SIMS analysis of irradiated samples. The sub-samples chosen for SIMS analysis, although smaller than optimal, were still analyzed successfully without violating the conditions of the applicable Radiological Work Permit

Gerlach, David C.; Mitchell, Mark R.; Reid, Bruce D.; Gesh, Christopher J.; Hurley, David E.

2007-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

435

" Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy-Consumption Ratios;"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

1 Consumption Ratios of Fuel, 2006;" 1 Consumption Ratios of Fuel, 2006;" " Level: National and Regional Data; " " Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy-Consumption Ratios;" " Unit: Varies." ,,,,"Consumption" ,,,"Consumption","per Dollar" ,,"Consumption","per Dollar","of Value" "NAICS",,"per Employee","of Value Added","of Shipments" "Code(a)","Subsector and Industry","(million Btu)","(thousand Btu)","(thousand Btu)" ,,"Total United States" 311,"Food",879.8,5,2.2 3112," Grain and Oilseed Milling",6416.6,17.5,5.7

436

ARM: 10-minute TEMPORARY Raman Lidar: aerosol scattering ratio and backscattering coefficient profiles, from first Ferrare algorithm  

DOE Data Explorer (OSTI)

10-minute TEMPORARY Raman Lidar: aerosol scattering ratio and backscattering coefficient profiles, from first Ferrare algorithm

Chitra Sivaraman; Connor Flynn

437

ARM: 10-minute TEMPORARY Raman Lidar: aerosol scattering ratio and backscattering coefficient profiles, from first Ferrare algorithm  

SciTech Connect

10-minute TEMPORARY Raman Lidar: aerosol scattering ratio and backscattering coefficient profiles, from first Ferrare algorithm

Chitra Sivaraman; Connor Flynn

2010-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

438

HIGHER EDUCATION’S NEW GLOBAL ORDER: How and Why Governments are Creating Structured Opportunity Markets  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

as accelerating existing higher education reforms and thecshe.berkeley.edu/ HIGHER EDUCATION’S NEW GLOBAL ORDER: Howworld’s first mass higher education system. Now most other

John Aubrey Douglass

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

439

Over-Represented and De-Minoritized: The Racialization of Asian Americans in Higher Education  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Asian Americans in higher education. In P. Altbach & K.crisis in American higher education (pp. 43-68). Albany:American students in U.S. higher education. In W. Smith, P.

Lee, Sharon S

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

440

Market Values in Higher Education: A Review of the For-Profit Sector  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of for-profit higher education: Mapping the competitiveG. (1999). Patterns in higher education development. In P.Eds. ), American higher education in the twenty-first

Millora, Melissa L.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "higher stripping ratios" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Affirmative Action in Higher Education in India and the US: A Study in Contrasts  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Making and Authority in the UK and US Higher Education”.Higher Education Policy 18: 87-116. Gupta, Asha.Trends and Private Higher Education: An Indian Scenario. ”

Gupta, Asha

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

442

Paradoxes and Dilemmas in Managing E-Learning in Higher Education  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

M.C. (2002) The Role of US Higher Education in the Global E-Paper Series: Center for Studies in Higher Education.1.02, Higher Education in the Digital Age Project,

Guri-Rosenblit, Sarah

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

443

The Corporation of Learning: Nonprofit Higher Education Takes Lessons from Business  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Press, 1994) Frank, “Higher Education” at p. 5. See alsoWinston, “For-Profit Higher Education: Godzilla or ChickenBusinesses? ” Chronicle of Higher Education, July 21, 2000,

Kirp, David L.

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

444

Magnetic Ring for Stripping Enhancement  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Office of Hjgh Energy and Nuclear Physics, High EnergyOffice of High Energy and Nuclear Physics, High Energy

Selph, F.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

445

Stochastic Heating, Differential Flow, and the Alpha-to-Proton Temperature Ratio in the Solar Wind  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We extend previous theories of stochastic ion heating to account for the motion of ions along the magnetic field. We derive an analytic expression for the ion-to-proton perpendicular temperature ratio in the solar wind for any ion species, assuming that stochastic heating is the dominant ion heating mechanism. This expression describes how this temperature ratio depends upon the average velocity of the ions along the magnetic field direction and the ratio of the parallel proton pressure to the magnetic pressure. We compare our model with previously published measurements of alpha particles and protons from the WIND spacecraft. We find that stochastic heating offers a promising explanation for these measurements when the fractional cross helicity and Alfven ratio at the proton-gyroradius scale have values that are broadly consistent with solar-wind measurements.

Chandran, B D G; Quataert, E; Kasper, J C; Isenberg, P A; Bourouaine, S

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

446

An Interactive Nesting Algorithm for Stretched Grids and Variable Nesting Ratios  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An existing two-way interactive grid-nesting technique is generalized to accommodate stretched grids and a spatially variable grid-nesting ratio. The new scheme applies the same reversibility constraint and possesses the same scalar and momentum ...

Robert L. Walko; Craig J. Tremback; Roger A. Pielke; William R. Cotton

1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

447

The Relationship between Flux Coefficient and Entrainment Ratio in Density Currents  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The authors explore the theoretical and empirical relationship between the nonlocal quantities of the entrainment ratio E, the appropriately depth- and time-averaged flux coefficient ?, and the bulk Froude number Fro in density currents. The main ...

Mathew Wells; Claudia Cenedese; C. P. Caulfield

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

448

Constraining the Ratio of Global Warming to Cumulative CO2 Emissions Using CMIP5 Simulations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The ratio of warming to cumulative emissions of carbon dioxide has been shown to be approximately independent of time and emissions scenarios and directly relates emissions to temperature. It is therefore a potentially important tool for climate ...

Nathan P. Gillett; Vivek K. Arora; Damon Matthews; Myles R. Allen

2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

449

Constraining the ratio of global warming to cumulative CO2 emissions using CMIP5 simulations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The ratio of warming to cumulative emissions of carbon dioxide has been shown to be approximately independent of time and emissions scenario, and directly relates emissions to temperature. It is therefore a potentially important tool for climate ...

Nathan P. Gillett; Vivek K. Arora; Damon Matthews; Myles R. Allen

450

A Comparison of Sensible and Latent Heat Flux Calculations Using the Bowen Ratio and Aerodynamic Methods  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An analysis technique is outlined that calculates the sensible and latent heat fluxes by the Bowen ratio and aerodynamic methods, using profile measurements at any number of heights. Field measurements at two sites near Churchill, Manitoba, ...

David H. Halliwell; Wayne R. Rouse

1989-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

451

Total-to-peak ratios of high purity germanium gamma ray detector  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This study is concerned with the percentage of [gamma]-rays of a certain energy having their energy correctly measured by a high purity Germanium [gamma]-ray detector. The ratio between the total counts and the counts ...

Nelson, Justin Matthew, 1981-

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

452

The Extinction-to-Backscatter Ratio of Tropospheric Aerosol: A Numerical Study  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An adequate estimation of the aerosol extinction-to-backscatter ratio S is important for solving the underdetermined single scattering lidar equation and for investigating the climate impact of aerosols. In this study, the extinction-to-...

Jörg Ackermann

1998-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

453

A Methodology for Measuring Cirrus Cloud Visible-to-Infrared Spectral Optical Depth Ratios  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Knowledge of cirrus cloud optical depths is necessary to understand the earth’s current climate and to model the cloud radiation impact on future climate. Cirrus clouds, depending on the ratio of their shortwave “visible” to longwave “infrared” ...

Daniel H. DeSlover; William L. Smith; Paivi K. Piironen; Edwin W. Eloranta

1999-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

454

Dynamic Cost-Loss Ratio Decision-making Model with an Autocorrelated Climate Variable  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A dynamic decision-making problem is considered involving the use of information about the autocorrelation of a climate variable. Specifically, an infinite horizon, discounted version of the dynamic cost-loss ratio model is treated, in which only ...

Richard W. Katz

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

455

High Aspect Ratio Nano-Structured Pt-based PEM Fuel Cell Catalysts...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

or * nanoplates - Ni, Co, and Fe have been selected as V.D.14 High Aspect Ratio Nano-Structured Pt-Based PEM Fuel Cell Catalysts Table 1. Technical Targets for...

456

Laboratory Measurements of Small Raindrop Distortion. Part I: Axis Ratios and Fall Behavior  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The resonant interactions between eddy shedding and drop oscillations postulated by Gunn for millimeter diameter raindrops were investigated in a series of laboratory measurements of axis ratio and fall behavior for water drops of d = 0.70–1.54 ...

Kenneth V. Beard; Rodney J. Kubesh; Harry T. Ochs III

1991-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

457

Axis Ratios of Water Drops Levitated in a Vertical Wind Tunnel  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The shapes of falling raindrops are often significantly altered by drop oscillations, complicating dual-polarization radar methods that rely on a predictable, monotonic variation of drop axis ratio ? with equivolume drop diameter d. This ...

B. K. Jones; J. R. Saylor

2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

458

Determination of green herbage ratio in grasslands using spectral reflectance. Methods and ground measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this study, the suitability of spectral vegetation indexes for predicting green ratio (the percentage of green biomass with respect to the total phytomass) has been tested with the Italian Alps and New Zealand South Island grasslands. Considering ...

D. Gianelle; L. Vescovo

2007-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

459

Sensitivity of 5-cm Wavelength Polarimetric Radar Variables to Raindrop Axial Ratio and Drop Size Distribution  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The sensitivity of polarimetric variables at a 5-cm wavelength to raindrop size and axial ratio is examined using T-matrix modeling of the scattering process for gamma raindrop size distributions fitted to tropical rainfall collected at Darwin, ...

T. D. Keenan; L. D. Carey; D. S. Zrni?; P. T. May

2001-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

460

Thermal hydraulic design and analysis of a large lead-cooled reactor with flexible conversion ratio  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis contributes to the Flexible Conversion Ratio Fast Reactor Systems Evaluation Project, a part of the Nuclear Cycle Technology and Policy Program funded by the Department of Energy through the Nuclear Energy ...

Nikiforova, Anna S., S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "higher stripping ratios" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Anisotropy of Poisson's Ratio in Transversely Isotropic Rocks  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Poisson's ratio of shales with different clay mineralogy and porosity and for many shale rocks around the world including brine?saturated Africa shales and sands

S. P. Tokmakova

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

462

Vp-Vs Ratios In The Yellowstone National Park Region, Wyoming...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

(1) Regions (0) Abstract: In this paper we study the variation of VpVs and Poisson's ratio () in the Yellowstone National Park region, using earthquakes which were well...

463

Monte Carlo simulation of the effect of miniphantom on in-air output ratio  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Purpose: The aim of the study was to quantify the effect of miniphantoms on in-air output ratio measurements, i.e., to determine correction factors for in-air output ratio. Methods: Monte Carlo (MC) simulations were performed to simulate in-air output ratio measurements by using miniphantoms made of various materials (PMMA, graphite, copper, brass, and lead) and with different longitudinal thicknesses or depths (2-30 g/cm{sup 2}) in photon beams of 6 and 15 MV, respectively, and with collimator settings ranging from 3x3 to 40x40 cm{sup 2}. EGSnrc and BEAMnrc (2007) software packages were used. Photon energy spectra corresponding to the collimator settings were obtained from BEAMnrc code simulations on a linear accelerator and were used to quantify the components of in-air output ratio correction factors, i.e., attenuation, mass energy absorption, and phantom scatter correction factors. In-air output ratio correction factors as functions of miniphantom material, miniphantom longitudinal thickness, and collimator setting were calculated and compared to a previous experimental study. Results: The in-air output ratio correction factors increase with collimator opening and miniphantom longitudinal thickness for all the materials and for both energies. At small longitudinal thicknesses, the in-air output ratio correction factors for PMMA and graphite are close to 1. The maximum magnitudes of the in-air output ratio correction factors occur at the largest collimator setting (40x40 cm{sup 2}) and the largest miniphantom longitudinal thickness (30 g/cm{sup 2}): 1.008{+-}0.001 for 6 MV and 1.012{+-}0.001 for 15 MV, respectively. The MC simulations of the in-air output ratio correction factor confirm the previous experimental study. Conclusions: The study has verified that a correction factor for in-air output ratio can be obtained as a product of attenuation correction factor, mass energy absorption correction factor, and phantom scatter correction factor. The correction factors obtained in the present study can be used in studies involving in-air output ratio measurements using miniphantoms.

Li Jun; Zhu, Timothy C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19107 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 (United States)

2010-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

464

Dual to ratio-cumproduct estimator using known parameters of auxiliary variables  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper deals with the dual to ratio-cum-product estimator for population mean using known parameters of auxiliary variables. In this paper, dual to ratio-cum-product estimator of Singh and Tailor (2005) has been suggested. The Bias and mean squared error expressions have also been obtained up to the first degree of approximation. Suggested estimator has been compared theoretically as well as empirically.

Rajesh Tailor; Ritesh Tailor; Rajesh Parmar; Manish Kumar

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

465

Apparatus for controlling the air-fuel ratio in an internal combustion engine  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Apparatus for controlling the air-fuel ratio in an internal combustion engine to substantially maintain the ratio at a predetermined value while the engine is operating under various load conditions. The engine has a carburetor with an air passageway through which air is drawn into the engine. Fuel is supplied to the carburetor through a fuel system and mixed with air passing through the carburetor. The presence of oxygen in the combustion products, which is a function of the air-fuel ratio of the mixture, is sensed and a first electrical signal representative of the oxygen content is supplied. The first electrical signal is compared with a predetermined reference level which is a function of the predetermined value to produce a second electrical signal having first and second signal elements, a first signal element being produced when the air-fuel ratio of the mixture is greater than the predetermined level and a second signal element being produced when the ratio is less than the level. A control responsive to the second electrical signal supplies to an air metering unit a control signal by which the quantity of air introduced into the fuel system is controlled. A change in the control signal is produced whenever the second electrical signal has a transition from one signal element to the other thereby for the air metering unit to change the quantity of air introduced into the fuel system conduit by an amount necessary to substantially maintain the air-fuel ratio at the predetermined value.

Gantzert, T.R.; Hicks, D.L.; Lindberg, A.W.

1981-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

466

Particle backscatter, extinction, and lidar ratio profiling with Raman lidar in south and north China  

SciTech Connect

Aerosol Raman lidar observations of profiles of the particle extinction and backscatter coefficients and the respective extinction-to-backscatter ratio (lidar ratio) were performed under highly polluted conditions in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) in southern China in October 2004 and at Beijing during a clear period with moderately polluted to background aerosol conditions in January 2005. The anthropogenic haze in the PRD is characterized by volume light-extinction coefficients of particles ranging from approximately 200 to800 Mm-1 and lidar ratios mostly between 40 and 55 sr (average of47{+-}6 sr). Almost clean air masses were observed throughout the measurements of the Beijing campaign. These air masses originated from arid desert-steppe-like regions (greater Gobi area).Extinction values usually varied between 100 and300 Mm-1, and the lidar ratios were considerably lower (compared with PRD values) with values mostly from 30 to 45 sr (average of38{+-}7 sr). Gobi dust partly influenced the observations. Unexpectedly low lidar ratios of approximately 25 sr were found for a case of background aerosol with a low optical depth of 0.05. The low lidar ratios are consistent with Mie-scattering calculations applied to ground-based observations of particle size distributions.

Tesche, Matthias; Ansmann, Albert; Mueller, Detlef; Althausen, Dietrich; Engelmann, Ronny; Hu Min; Zhang Yuanghang

2007-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

467

Alkali injection system with controlled CO/sub 2//O/sub 2/ ratios for combustion of coal  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A high temperature combustion process for an organic fuel containing sulfur in which the nitrogen of air is replaced by carbon dioxide for combination with oxygen with the ratio of CO/sub 2//O/sub 2/ being controlled to generate combustion temperatures above 2000/sup 0/K for a gas-gas reaction with SO/sub 2/ and an alkali metal compound to produce a sulfate and in which a portion of the carbon-dioxide rich gas is recycled for mixing with oxygen and/or for injection as a cooling gas upstream from heating exchangers to limit fouling of the exchangers, with the remaining carbon-dioxide rich gas being available as a source of CO/sub 2/ for oil recovery and other purposes. Several advantages are associated with the invention. First, by using a low CO/sub 2//O/sub 2/ ratio, higher flame temperatures can be achieved, thereby substantially promoting the gas-gas reaction between alkali atoms and sulfur gases. Second, by providing a means for injecting additional CO/sub 2/ at various locations removed from the combustion zone, the heat transfer rate and cooling of the alkali sulfates can be tightly controlled without suffering either the loss in efficiency inherent in conventional gas recycle techniques or the added cost associated with the larger mass throughput rate and heat transfer surface area. Third, there is the ability to use the concept in retrofit applications by tailoring the CO/sub 2/ quantity recycled to match the heat utilization performance previously achieved using air as the oxidizing medium. Fourth, a natural reduction in nitrous oxides is achieved by eliminating the reaction of oxygen with the nitrogen in the oxidizer.

Berry, G.F.

1986-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

468

Effect of recess pressure ratio on the characteristics of a hybrid bearing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Hybrid (Combination Hydrostatic and Hydrodynamic) bearings have shown good properties in testing and in consideration for applications such as the Space Shuttle Main Engine High Pressure Oxygen Turbopump. However, properties have not been examined for a variation in the design parameters of radial clearance, recess pressure ratio, and recess to land area ratio while holding the other parameters constant. This thesis presents the theoretical and experimental characteristics for an orificecompensated, annulus-fed hybrid water journal bearing for variation in recess pressure ratio. Recess pressure ratio Pr is defined as [ ] where Pr is the recess pressure, P, is the supply pressure, and Pa is the discharge pressure. Rowe (1983) showed that the bearing load capacity can be maximized by a Pr value of 0.58 at the concentric position for hydrostatic bearings. Experimental results showed the maximum load capacity to bear near 0.58 with slight variation as rotor speed and supply pressure are varied. Test results show that maximum stiffness occurs over a range of Pr from 0.4 to 0.7 with variation in operating speed and supply pressure. The direct damping increases as recess pressure ratio is decreased. Whirl frequency ratio and torque show little variation with recess pressure ratio. Predictions are made using HYDROBEARC developed by San Andres (1992). Accuracy of prediction is analyzed by comparison with experimental test results and found to be adequate, with decreasing accuracy as supply pressure and especially rotor speed are increased. Previous work found the accuracy of prediction by HYDROBEARC to increase as the rotor speed is increased.

Ingram, Michael William

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

469

Secondary Ionization Mass Spectrometric Analysis of Impurity Element Isotope Ratios in Nuclear Reactor Materials  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) analysis has been used to measure isotope ratios of selected impurity elements in irradiated reactor materials. Samples of reactor materials such as graphite or aluminum alloys are obtained from fuel channels or supporting materials. During reactor operations and fuel burn up, some isotopic abundances change due to nuclear reactions and provide sensitive indicators of neutron fluence. The rate of change is related to cross section for a particular isotope. Different isotopes can be used as indicators of burn up during different stages in the reactor operating history. Isotope ratios of B are useful indicators for low burnup stages early in reactor operations, Ti isotope ratios are useful at later burn up stages, and Cl isotope ratios are useful in both early and later stages. Knowledge of the sample position within the reactor also yields information on the fluence shape or profile. In a sequence of samples from one reactor, 10B/11B ratios decreased from near natural values of 0.25 to blasting, plasma etching, and vacuum furnace treatment.

Gerlach, David C.; Cliff, John B.; Hurley, David E.; Reid, Bruce D.; Little, Winston W.; Meriwether, George H.; Wickham, Anthony J.; Simmons, Tere A.

2006-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

470

Dust-to-gas ratio and star formation history of blue compact dwarf galaxies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper investigates the origin of the observed large variety in dust-to-gas ratio among blue compact dwarf galaxies (BCDs). By applying our chemical evolution model, we find that the dust destruction can largely suppress the dust-to-gas ratio when the metallicity of a BCD reaches $12+\\log{\\rm (O/H)}\\sim 8$, i.e., a typical metallicity level of BCDs. We also show that dust-to-gas ratio is largely varied owing to the change of dust destruction efficiency that has two effects: (i) a significant contribution of Type Ia supernovae to total supernova rate; (ii) variation of gas mass contained in a star-forming region. While mass loss from BCDs was previously thought to be the major cause for the variance of dust-to-gas ratio, we suggest that the other two effects are also important. We finally discuss the intermittent star formation history, which naturally explains the large dispersion of dust-to-gas ratio among BCDs.

H. Hirashita; Y. Y. Tajiri; H. Kamaya

2002-04-18T23:59:59.000Z

471

Effects of fuel type and equivalence ratios on the flickering of triple flames  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An experimental study has been conducted in axisymmetric, co-flowing triple flames with different equivalence ratios of the inner and outer reactant streams (2propane/propane, propane/methane or methane/methane in the inner and outer streams respectively, have been used in the experiments. The structures of the triple flames have been compared for the different fuel combinations and equivalence ratios. The conditions under which triple flames exhibit oscillation have been identified. During the oscillation, the non-premixed flame and the outer lean premixed flame flicker strongly, while the inner rich premixed flame remains more or less stable. The flickering frequency has been evaluated through image processing and fast Fourier transform (FFT) of the average pixel intensity of the image frames. It is observed that, for all the fuel combinations, the frequency decreases with the increase in the outer equivalence ratio, while it is relatively invariant with the change in the inner equivalence ratio. However, an increase in the inner equivalence ratio affects the structure of the flame by increasing the heights of the inner premixed flame and non-premixed flame and also enlarges the yellow soot-laden zone at the tip of the inner flame. A scaling analysis of the oscillating flames has been performed based on the measured parameters, which show a variation of Strouhal number (St) with Richardson number (Ri) as St {proportional_to} Ri{sup 0.5}. The fuel type is found to have no influence on this correlation. (author)

Sahu, K.B.; Kundu, A.; Ganguly, R.; Datta, A. [Department of Power Engineering, Jadavpur University, Salt Lake Campus, Kolkata 700098 (India)

2009-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

472

Ratios of heavy baryons to heavy mesons in relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Heavy baryon/meson ratios Lambda(c)/D(0) and Lambda(b)/(B) over bar (0) in relativistic heavy ion collisions are studied in the quark coalescence model. For heavy baryons, we include production from coalescence of heavy quarks with free light quarks as well as with bounded light diquarks that might exist in the strongly coupled quark-gluon plasma produced in these collisions. Including the contribution from decays of heavy hadron resonances and also that due to fragmentation of heavy quarks that are left in the system after coalescence, the resulting Lambda(c)/D(0) and Lambda(b)/(B) over bar (0) ratios in midrapidity (vertical bar y vertical bar heavy baryon/meson ratios is found to be sensitive to the heavy quark mass, with the Lambda(b)/(B) over bar (0) ratio being much flatter than the Lambda(c)/D(0) ratio. The latter peaks at the transverse momentum p(T) similar or equal to 0.8 GeV but the peak shifts to p(T) similar or equal to 2 GeV in the absence of diquarks.

Oh, Yongseok; Ko, Che Ming; Lee, Su Houng; Yasui, Shigehiro.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z