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1

THE OXYGEN REQUIREMENTS OF SHELLFISH By Philip H. Mitchell  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

THE OXYGEN REQUIREMENTS OF SHELLFISH ~ By Philip H. Mitchell 2°7 #12;Blank page retained for pagination #12;THE OXYGEN REQUIREMENTS OF SHELLFISH. By PHILIP H. MITCHELL. J1, The respiratory exchanges to temperature changes, a smaller utili- zation of oxygen in proportion to the body weight with increase in size

2

EVALUATION OF REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DWPF HIGHER CAPACITY CANISTER  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) is considering the option to increase canister glass capacity by reducing the wall thickness of the current production canister. This design has been designated as the DWPF Higher Capacity Canister (HCC). A significant decrease in the number of canisters processed during the life of the facility would be achieved if the HCC were implemented leading to a reduced overall reduction in life cycle costs. Prior to implementation of the change, Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested to conduct an evaluation of the potential impacts. The specific areas of interest included loading and deformation of the canister during the filling process. Additionally, the effect of the reduced wall thickness on corrosion and material compatibility needed to be addressed. Finally the integrity of the canister during decontamination and other handling steps needed to be determined. The initial request regarding canister fabrication was later addressed in an alternate study. A preliminary review of canister requirements and previous testing was conducted prior to determining the testing approach. Thermal and stress models were developed to predict the forces on the canister during the pouring and cooling process. The thermal model shows the HCC increasing and decreasing in temperature at a slightly faster rate than the original. The HCC is shown to have a 3°F ?T between the internal and outer surfaces versus a 5°F ?T for the original design. The stress model indicates strain values ranging from 1.9% to 2.9% for the standard canister and 2.5% to 3.1% for the HCC. These values are dependent on the glass level relative to the thickness transition between the top head and the canister wall. This information, along with field readings, was used to set up environmental test conditions for corrosion studies. Small 304-L canisters were filled with glass and subjected to accelerated environmental testing for 3 months. No evidence of stress corrosion cracking was indicated on either the canisters or U-bend coupons. Calculations and finite element modeling were used to determine forces over a range of handling conditions along with possible forces during decontamination. While expected reductions in some physical characteristics were found in the HCC, none were found to be significant when compared to the required values necessary to perform its intended function. Based on this study and a review of successful testing of thinner canisters at West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP), the mechanical properties obtained with the thinner wall do not significantly undermine the ability of the canister to perform its intended function.

Miller, D.; Estochen, E.; Jordan, J.; Kesterson, M.; Mckeel, C.

2014-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

3

Mycobacterium tuberculosis Lsr2 Is a Global Transcriptional Regulator Required for Adaptation to Changing Oxygen Levels and Virulence  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...containing ambient atmospheric oxygen or in an...However, under atmospheric oxygen, the mutant...oxygen (A), under atmospheric oxygen (~18...were exposed to water, 5-mM H2O2...is critical for recovery from anaerobiosis...to indicate DNA condensation. If Lsr2 was involved...

I. L. Bartek; L. K. Woolhiser; A. D. Baughn; R. J. Basaraba; W. R. Jacobs; Jr.; A. J. Lenaerts; M. I. Voskuil

2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

4

Oxygen enriched fireflooding  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Both pure oxygen and enriched air have been considered in fireflooding for enhanced oil recovery. Laboratory and field testing have conclusively shown that oxygen is practical and cost effective for this application. For reservoirs that require a large volume of high pressure gas, oxygen is cheaper than air simply based on compression costs. Additional process benefits with oxygen include: Faster Oil Production; Lower Injection Pressure; Greater Well Spacing; Increased Carbon Dioxide Partial Pressure; Lower Gas-to-Oil Ratios; and Purer Produced Gas. These features provide a compelling case for oxygen, once the safety and materials compatibility issues are properly addressed.

Shahani, G.H.; Gunardson, H.H. [Air Products and Chemicals, Allentown, PA (United States)

1995-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

5

OXYGEN ENHANCED COMBUSTION FOR NOx CONTROL  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Increased environmental regulations will require utility boilers to reduce NO{sub x} emissions to less than 0.15lb/MMBtu in the near term. Conventional technologies such as Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) and Selective Non-Catalytic Reduction (SNCR) are unable to achieve these lowered emission levels without substantially higher costs and major operating problems. Oxygen enhanced combustion is a novel technology that allows utilities to meet the NO{sub x} emission requirements without the operational problems that occur with SCR and SNCR. Furthermore, oxygen enhanced combustion can achieve these NO{sub x} limits at costs lower than conventional technologies. The objective of this program is to demonstrate the use of oxygen enhanced combustion as a technical and economical method of meeting the EPA State Implementation Plan for NO{sub x} reduction to less than 0.15lb/MMBtu for a wide range of boilers and coal. The oxygen enhanced coal combustion program (Task 1) focused this quarter on the specific objective of exploration of the impact of oxygen enrichment on NO{sub x} formation utilizing small-scale combustors for parametric testing. Research efforts toward understanding any limitations to the applicability of the technology to different burners and fuels such as different types of coal are underway. The objective of the oxygen transport membrane (OTM) materials development program (Task 2.1) is to ascertain a suitable material composition that can be fabricated into dense tubes capable of producing the target oxygen flux under the operating conditions. This requires that the material have sufficient oxygen permeation resulting from high oxygen ion conductivity, high electronic conductivity and high oxygen surface exchange rate. The OTM element development program (Task 2.2) objective is to develop, fabricate and characterize OTM elements for laboratory and pilot reactors utilizing quality control parameters to ensure reproducibility and superior performance. A specific goal is to achieve a material that will sinter to desired density without compromising other variables such as reaction to binder systems or phase purity. Oxygen-enhanced combustion requires a facility which is capable of supplying high purity oxygen (>99.5%) at low costs. This goal can be achieved through the thermal integration of high temperature air separation with ceramic OTM. The objective of the OTM process development program (Task 2.3) is to demonstrate successfully the program objectives on a lab-scale single OTM tube reactor under process conditions comparable to those of an optimum large-scale oxygen facility. This quarterly technical progress report will summarize work accomplished for the Program through the first quarter April--June 2000 in the following task areas: Task 1 Oxygen Enhanced Coal Combustion; Task 2 Oxygen Transport Membranes; and Task 4 Program Management.

Lawrence E. Bool; Jack C. Chen; David R. Thompson

2000-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

6

The Role of Oxygen in Coal Gasification  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Air Products supplies oxygen to a number of coal gasification and partial oxidation facilities worldwide. At the high operating pressures of these processes, economics favor the use of 90% and higher oxygen purities. The effect of inerts...

Klosek, J.; Smith, A. R.; Solomon, J.

7

Higher Education  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Education » Education » Higher Education Higher Education Explore the multiple dimensions of a career at LANL: work with brilliant minds in an inclusive environment rich in intellectual vitality and opportunities for growth. Contact Education Janelle Vigil-Maestas Community Programs Office (505) 665-4329 Email "The partnership between LANL and regional colleges creates opportunities for students like me to attain challenging and rewarding careers." - Sherry Salas Bachicha Higher Education Resources for Undergraduates, Graduates & Postdocs Opportunities LANL Foundation Scholarships LANL Post Doc Program Programs Certificate in Environmental Monitoring (pdf) Community College Institute (CCI) (pdf) Computer Science and Information Technology Pipeline Program (ADIT/HPC Division) (pdf)

8

Furnace and Heat Recovery Area Design and Analysis for Conceptual Design of Oxygen-Based PC Boiler  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of the furnace and heat recovery area design and analysis task of the Conceptual Design of Oxygen-Based PC Boiler study is to optimize the location and design of the furnace, burners, over-fire gas ports, and internal radiant surfaces. The furnace and heat recovery area were designed and analyzed using the FW-FIRE and HEATEX computer programs. The furnace is designed with opposed wall-firing burners and over-fire air ports. Water is circulated in the furnace by natural circulation to the waterwalls and divisional wall panels. Compared to the air-fired furnace, the oxygen-fired furnace requires only 65% of the surface area and 45% of the volume. Two oxygen-fired designs were simulated: (1) without over-fire air and (2) with 20% over-fire air. The maximum wall heat flux in the oxygen-fired furnace is more than double that of the air-fired furnace due to the higher flame temperature and higher H{sub 2}O and CO{sub 2} concentrations. The coal burnout for the oxygen-fired case is 100% due to a 500 F higher furnace temperature and higher concentration of O{sub 2}. Because of the higher furnace wall temperature of the oxygen-fired case compared to the air-fired case, furnace water wall material was upgraded from carbon steel to T91. The total heat transfer surface required in the oxygen-fired heat recovery area (HRA) is 25% less than the air-fired HRA due to more heat being absorbed in the oxygen-fired furnace and the greater molecular weight of the oxygen-fired flue gas. The HRA tube materials and wall thickness are practically the same for the air-fired and oxygen-fired design since the flue gas and water/steam temperature profiles encountered by the heat transfer banks are very similar.

Andrew Seltzer

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

9

Dissolved Oxygen in Allen CreekDissolved Oxygen in Allen Creek Dissolved oxygen (DO) enters the water by diffusion from air, as a by-product of photosynthesis and  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Dissolved Oxygen in Allen CreekDissolved Oxygen in Allen Creek Dissolved oxygen (DO) enters and rapids. There is an inverse relationship between temperature and DO, i.e. colder water holds more oxygen it supplies oxygen to aquatic organisms. Higher DO levels also give the water a better taste. Figure 2. During

Tyler, Christy

10

The Swedish Higher Education System  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

EDUCATION Higher education within all cycles has two strata of entry requirements: general and (additional) specific requirements. General eligibility to the first cycle is the same for all higher education. General and courses. DEGREE-AWARDING POWERS Universities have the general right to award first-, second- and third-cycle

Zhao, Yuxiao

11

Optimization of Oxygen Purity for Coal Conversion Energy Reduction  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The conversion of coal into gaseous and liquid fuels and chemical feedstock will require large quantities of oxygen. This oxygen will be produced in large multi-train air separation plants which will consume about 350 kilowatt hours of energy...

Baker, C. R.; Pike, R. A.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

Oxygen Transport Membranes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The focus of this research was to develop new membrane materials by synthesizing different compounds and determining their defect structures, crystallographic structures and electrical properties. In addition to measuring electrical conductivity, oxygen vacancy concentration was also evaluated using thermogravimetry, Neutron diffraction and Moessbauer Spectroscopy. The reducing conditions (CO{sub 2}/CO/H{sub 2} gas mixtures with steam) as encountered in a reactor environment can be expected to have significant influence on the mechanical properties of the oxides membranes. Various La based materials with and without Ti were selected as candidate membrane materials for OTM. The maximum electrical conductivity of LSF in air as a function of temperature was achieved at < 600 C and depends on the concentration of Sr (acceptor dopant). Oxygen occupancy in LSF was estimated using Neutron diffractometry and Moessbauer Spectroscopy by measuring magnetic moment changes depending on the Fe{sup 3+} and Fe{sup 4+} ratio. After extensive studies of candidate materials, lanthanum ferrites (LSF and LSFT) were selected as the favored materials for the oxygen transport membrane (OTM). LSF is a very good material for an OTM because of its high electronic and oxygen ionic conductivity if long term stability and mechanical strength are improved. LSFT not only exhibits p-type behavior in the high oxygen activity regime, but also has n-type conduction in reducing atmospheres. Higher concentrations of oxygen vacancies in the low oxygen activity regime may improve the performance of LSFT as an OTM. The hole concentration is related to the difference in the acceptor and donor concentration by the relation p = [Sr'{sub La}]-[Ti{sm_bullet}{sub Fe}]. The chemical formulation predicts that the hole concentration is, p = 0.8-0.45 or 0.35. Experimental measurements indicated that p is about {approx} 0.35. The activation energy of conduction is 0.2 eV which implies that LSCF conducts via the small polaron conduction mechanism. Scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) were used to develop strategies to detect and characterize vacancy creation, dopant segregations and defect association in the oxygen conducting membrane material. The pO{sub 2} and temperature dependence of the conductivity, non-stoichiometry and thermal-expansion behavior of compositions with increasing complexity of substitution on the perovskite A and B sites were studied. Studies with the perovskite structure show anomalous behavior at low oxygen partial pressures (<10{sup -5} atm). The anomalies are due to non-equilibrium effects and can be avoided by using very strict criteria for the attainment of equilibrium. The slowness of the oxygen equilibration kinetics arises from two different mechanisms. In the first, a two phase region occurs between an oxygen vacancy ordered phase such as brownmillerite SrFeO{sub 2.5} and perovskite SrFeO{sub 3-x}. The slow kinetics is associated with crossing the two phase region. The width of the miscibility gap decreases with increasing temperature and consequently the effect is less pronounced at higher temperature. The preferred kinetic pathway to reduction of perovskite ferrites when the vacancy concentration corresponds to the formation of significant concentrations of Fe{sup 2+} is via the formation of a Ruddlesden-Popper (RP) phases as clearly observed in the case of La{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5}FeO{sub 3-x} where LaSrFeO{sub 4} is found together with Fe. In more complex compositions, such as LSFTO, iron or iron rich phases are observed locally with no evidence for the presence of discrete RP phase. Fracture strength of tubular perovskite membranes was determined in air and in reducing atmospheric conditions. The strength of the membrane decreased with temperature and severity of reducing conditions although the strength distribution (Weibull parameter, m) was relatively unaltered. Surface and volume dominated the fracture origins and the overall fracture was purely transgranular. The dual phas

S. Bandopadhyay

2008-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

13

Discovery of Critical Oxygen Content for Glass Formation in Zr80Pt20 Melt Spun Ribbons  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Zr{sub 80}Pt{sub 20} alloys may form meta-stable quasicrystals either during devitrification of an amorphous phase or directly upon cooling from a liquid depending on processing conditions. To date, little attention has been given to the role of oxygen on the glass formation or devitrification behavior of Zr-Pt and similar alloys. This study reveals that oxygen content during melt spinning indeed strongly influences the formation of the as-quenched structure. A critical amount of oxygen was found to be required to form amorphous ribbons at a fixed quench rate. At lower oxygen levels (i.e., <500 ppm mass), a fully crystallized is formed; the structure is composed mainly of meta-stable {beta}-Zr with a small fraction of a quasicrystalline phase. At higher oxygen levels, the as-quenched structure transitions to a fully amorphous structure ({approx}1000 ppm mass), and with further oxygen addition forms a mixture of amorphous and quasicrystalline ({approx}1500 ppm mass) or crystalline phases (>2500 ppm mass). Details regarding the structure of the meta-stable {beta}-Zr phase in the low-oxygen ribbons are provided along with a discussion of the structural similarity between this phase and the quasicrystal structure that formed in this alloy.

D.J. Sordelet; E.A. Rozhkova; X. Yang; M.J. Kramer

2004-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

14

Artificial oxygen transport protein  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

This invention provides heme-containing peptides capable of binding molecular oxygen at room temperature. These compounds may be useful in the absorption of molecular oxygen from molecular oxygen-containing atmospheres. Also included in the invention are methods for treating an oxygen transport deficiency in a mammal.

Dutton, P. Leslie

2014-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

15

Researchers Directly Observe Oxygen Signature in the Oxygen-evolving  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Researchers Directly Observe Oxygen Signature in the Researchers Directly Observe Oxygen Signature in the Oxygen-evolving Complex of Photosynthesis Arguably the most important chemical reaction on earth is the photosynthetic splitting of water to molecular oxygen by the Mn-containing oxygen-evolving complex (Mn-OEC) in the protein known as photosystem II (PSII). It is this reaction which has, over the course of some 3.8 billion years, gradually filled our atmosphere with O2 and consequently enabled and sustained the evolution of complex aerobic life. Coupled to the reduction of carbon dioxide, biological photosynthesis contributes foodstuffs for nutrition while recycling CO2 from the atmosphere and replacing it with O2. By utilizing sunlight to power these energy-requiring reactions, photosynthesis also serves as a model for addressing societal energy needs as we enter an era of diminishing fossil fuel resources and climate change. Understanding, at the molecular level, the dynamics and mechanisms behind photosynthesis is of fundamental importance and will prove critical to the future design of devices aimed at converting sunlight into electrochemical energy and transportable fuel.

16

Covalency in Metal-Oxygen Multiple Bonds Evaluated Using Oxygen...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Covalency in Metal-Oxygen Multiple Bonds Evaluated Using Oxygen K-edge Spectroscopy and Electronic Structure Theory . Covalency in Metal-Oxygen Multiple Bonds Evaluated Using...

17

On the maximum value of the cosmic abundance of oxygen and the oxygen yield  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We search for the maximum oxygen abundance in spiral galaxies. Because this maximum value is expected to occur in the centers of the most luminous galaxies, we have constructed the luminosity - central metallicity diagram for spiral galaxies, based on a large compilation of existing data on oxygen abundances of HII regions in spiral galaxies. We found that this diagram shows a plateau at high luminosities (-22.3 oxygen abundance 12+log(O/H) ~ 8.87. This provides strong evidence that the oxygen abundance in the centers of the most luminous metal-rich galaxies reaches the maximum attainable value of oxygen abundance. Since some fraction of the oxygen (about 0.08 dex) is expected to be locked into dust grains, the maximum value of the true gas+dust oxygen abundance in spiral galaxies is 12+log(O/H) ~ 8.95. This value is a factor of ~ 2 higher than the recently estimated solar value. Based on the derived maximum oxygen abundance in galaxies, we found the oxygen yield to be about 0.0035, depending on the fraction of oxygen incorporated into dust grains.

L. S. Pilyugin; T. X. Thuan; J. M. Vilchez

2007-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

18

Oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The present quarterly report describes some of the initial studies on newer compositions and also includes newer approaches to address various materials issues such as in metal-ceramic sealing. The current quarter's research has also focused on developing a comprehensive reliability model for predicting the structural behavior of the membranes in realistic conditions. In parallel to industry provided compositions, models membranes have been evaluated in varying environment. Of importance is the behavior of flaws and generation of new flaws aiding in fracture. Fracture mechanics parameters such as crack tip stresses are generated to characterize the influence of environment. Room temperature slow crack growth studies have also been initiated in industry provided compositions. The electrical conductivity and defect chemistry of an A site deficient compound (La{sub 0.55}Sr{sub 0.35}FeO{sub 3}) was studied. A higher conductivity was observed for La{sub 0.55}Sr{sub 0.35}FeO{sub 3} than that of La{sub 0.60}Sr{sub 0.40}FeO{sub 3} and La{sub 0.80}Sr{sub 0.20}FeO{sub 3}. Defect chemistry analysis showed that it was primarily contributed by a higher carrier concentration in La{sub 0.55}Sr{sub 0.35}FeO{sub 3}. Moreover, the ability for oxygen vacancy generation is much higher in La{sub 0.55}Sr{sub 0.35}FeO{sub 3} as well, which indicates a lower bonding strength between Fe-O and a possible higher catalytic activity for La{sub 0.55}Sr{sub 0.35}FeO{sub 3}. The program continued to investigate the thermodynamic properties (stability and phase separation behavior) and total conductivity of prototype membrane materials. The data are needed together with the kinetic information to develop a complete model for the membrane transport. Previous report listed initial measurements on a sample of La{sub 0.2}Sr{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 0.55}Ti{sub 0.45}O{sub 3-x} prepared in-house by Praxair. Subsequently, a second sample of powder from a larger batch of sample were characterized and compared with the results from the previous batch.

S. Bandopadhyay; N. Nagabhushana; Thomas W. Eagar; Harold R. Larson; Raymundo Arroyave; X.-D Zhou; Y.-W. Shin; H.U. Anderson; Nigel Browning; Alan Jacobson; C.A. Mims

2003-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

19

Oxygen ion conducting materials  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An oxygen ion conducting ceramic oxide that has applications in industry including fuel cells, oxygen pumps, oxygen sensors, and separation membranes. The material is based on the idea that substituting a dopant into the host perovskite lattice of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3 that prefers a coordination number lower than 6 will induce oxygen ion vacancies to form in the lattice. Because the oxygen ion conductivity of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3 is low over a very large temperature range, the material exhibits a high overpotential when used. The inclusion of oxygen vacancies into the lattice by doping the material has been found to maintain the desirable properties of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3, while significantly decreasing the experimentally observed overpotential.

Vaughey, John (Elmhurst, IL); Krumpelt, Michael (Naperville, IL); Wang, Xiaoping (Downers Grove, IL); Carter, J. David (Bolingbrook, IL)

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

Plants making oxygen  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Plants making oxygen Plants making oxygen Name: Doug Status: N/A Age: N/A Location: N/A Country: N/A Date: Around 1993 Question: How many plants are needed to make enough oxygen for one person for one hour? We are experimenting with Anacharis plants. Replies: The problem can be solved when broken down into smaller questions: 1. How much oxygen does a person need in an hour? 2. How much oxygen does a plant produce in an hour? 3. Based on the above, how many plants will provide the oxygen needs of the person for the hour? Here is the solution to the first question: A resting, healthy adult on an average, cool day breathes in about 53 liters of oxygen per hour. An average, resting, health adult breathes in about 500 mL of air per breath. This is called the normal tidal volume. Now, 150 mL of this air will go to non- functioning areas of the lung, called the "dead space." The average breath rate for this average person is 12 breaths per minute. So, the amount of air breathed in by the person which is available for use is 12 x (500 mL -150 mL) = 4,200 mL/minute. Multiply by 60 to get 252,000 mL/hour. That is, every hour, the person will breathe in 252 L of air. Now, on an average, cool, clear day, only 21% of that air is oxygen. So, 21% of 252 L is 53 L. So, in an hour, the person breathes in about 53 L of oxygen.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "higher oxygen requirement" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Algae for Oxygen  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Algae for Oxygen Algae for Oxygen Name: Pam Burkardt Status: N/A Age: N/A Location: N/A Country: N/A Date: N/A Question: Hi, I am Pam Burkardt, a seventh grader at Fox Chapel School. I have a question on algae. I read somewhere that someday people might take bath tubs full of algae onto spaceships to provide oxygen for the crew. How much oxygen does algae give off, is this really possible? Replies: I think that most of the oxygen in the atmosphere comes in fact from one-celled plants in the oceans, like algae. They are likely to produce a lot of oxygen per unit weight because they don't have non-photosynthesizing bark, roots, branches, etc., nor (I think) a major dormant period like temperate-zone plants. The cost of space travel at present is dominated by the expense of heaving weight up into Earth orbit (it costs very little extra to send it to the Moon, for example, or Mars). For missions of short duration the weight of the compressed oxygen you need to carry is less than the weight of algae, water and extra plumbing you'd need to carry if you relied on algae to produce your oxygen. The important use of green plants would be in very long duration space flight (years) or permanent inhabitation of worlds like the Moon, where you need an unlimited supply of oxygen. Now if you want to fantasize, Venus' atmosphere is almost all carbon dioxide. Suppose you dropped a whole lot of specially gene-tailored one-celled plants into the atmosphere (not the surface, it's too hot). Why then they might eat up all the carbon dioxide and produce a breathable atmosphere. The "greenhouse effect" would go away, and Venus would become a nice habitable if tropical world only 50 million miles away.

22

OXYGEN ENHANCED COMBUSTION FOR NOx CONTROL  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Conventional wisdom says adding oxygen to a combustion system enhances product throughput, system efficiency, and, unless special care is taken, increases NOx emissions. This increase in NOx emissions is typically due to elevated flame temperatures associated with oxygen use leading to added thermal NOx formation. Innovative low flame temperature oxy-fuel burner designs have been developed and commercialized to minimize both thermal and fuel NOx formation for gas and oil fired industrial furnaces. To be effective these systems require close to 100% oxy-fuel combustion and the cost of oxygen is paid for by fuel savings and other benefits. For applications to coal-fired utility boilers at the current cost of oxygen, however, it is not economically feasible to use 100% oxygen for NOx control. In spite of this conventional wisdom, Praxair and its team members, in partnership with the US Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory, have developed a novel way to use oxygen to reduce NOx emissions without resorting to complete oxy-fuel conversion. In this concept oxygen is added to the combustion process to enhance operation of a low NOx combustion system. Only a small fraction of combustion air is replaced with oxygen in the process. By selectively adding oxygen to a low NOx combustion system it is possible to reduce NOx emissions from nitrogen-containing fuels, including pulverized coal, while improving combustion characteristics such as unburned carbon. A combination of experimental work and modeling was used to define how well oxygen enhanced combustion could reduce NOx emissions. The results of this work suggest that small amounts of oxygen replacement can reduce the NOx emissions as compared to the air-alone system. NOx emissions significantly below 0.15 lbs/MMBtu were measured. Oxygen addition was also shown to reduce carbon in ash. Comparison of the costs of using oxygen for NOx control against competing technologies, such as SCR, show that this concept offers substantial savings over SCR and is an economically attractive alternative to purchasing NOx credits or installing other conventional technologies. In conjunction with the development of oxygen based low NOx technology, Praxair also worked on developing the economically enhancing oxygen transport membrane (OTM) technology which is ideally suited for integration with combustion systems to achieve further significant cost reductions and efficiency improvements. This OTM oxygen production technology is based on ceramic mixed conductor membranes that operate at high temperatures and can be operated in a pressure driven mode to separate oxygen with infinite selectivity and high flux. An OTM material was selected and characterized. OTM elements were successfully fabricated. A single tube OTM reactor was designed and assembled. Testing of dense OTM elements was conducted with promising oxygen flux results of 100% of target flux. However, based on current natural gas prices and stand-alone air separation processes, ceramic membranes do not offer an economic advantage for this application. Under a different DOE-NETL Cooperative Agreement, Praxair is continuing to develop oxygen transport membranes for the Advanced Boiler where the economics appear more attractive.

David R. Thompson; Lawrence E. Bool; Jack C. Chen

2004-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

23

OXYGEN TRANSPORT CERAMIC MEMBRANES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In the present quarter, oxygen transport perovskite ceramic membranes are evaluated for strength and fracture in oxygen gradient conditions. Oxygen gradients are created in tubular membranes by insulating the inner surface from the reducing environment by platinum foils. Fracture in these test conditions is observed to have a gradient in trans and inter-granular fracture as opposed to pure trans-granular fracture observed in homogeneous conditions. Fracture gradients are reasoned to be due to oxygen gradient set up in the membrane, variation in stoichiometry across the thickness and due to varying decomposition of the parent perovskite. The studies are useful in predicting fracture criterion in actual reactor conditions and in understanding the initial evolution of fracture processes.

Dr. Sukumar Bandopadhyay; Dr. Nagendra Nagabhushana

2002-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

24

Hydrous oxide species as inhibitors of oxygen reduction at platinum activated fuel cell cathodes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The successful development of a methanol/air fuel cell requires optimum performance of the air/ oxygen cathode at about 0.8 V vs RHE. ... oxygen gas reduction on platinum (the best electrocatalyst for this reacti...

L. D. Burke; J. K. Casey; J. A. Morrissey…

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

25

Megatrends in Higher Education.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Utilizing the theory of John Naisbitt's 1982 Megatrends, this study identifies eight trends for the future of higher education using content analysis of generalized print… (more)

Smith, Shannon Tucker

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

26

Higher Education in Scandinavia.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Higher education systems around the world have been undergoing fundamental changes through the last 50 years from more narrow self-sustaining universities for the elite and… (more)

Birch Andreasen, Lars

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

Oxygen generator for medical applications (USIC)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The overall Project objective is to develop a portable, non-cryogenic oxygen generator capable of supplying medical grade oxygen at sufficient flow rates to allow the field application of the Topical Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy (THOT{reg_sign}) developed by Numotech, Inc. This project was sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy Global Initiatives for Proliferation Prevention (GIPP) and is managed by collaboration between Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), Numotech, Inc, and LLC SPE 'Spektr-Conversion.' The project had two phases, with the objective of Phase I being to develop, build and test a laboratory prototype of the membrane-pressure swing adsorber (PSA) system producing at 15 L/min of oxygen with a minimum of 98% oxygen purity. Phase II objectives were to further refine and identify the pre-requisites needed for a commercial product and to determine the feasibility of producing 15 L/min of oxygen with a minimum oxygen purity of 99%. In Phase I, Spektr built up the necessary infrastructure to perform experimental work and proceeded to build and demonstrate a membrane-PSA laboratory prototype capable of producing 98% purity oxygen at a flow rate of 5 L/min. Spektr offered a plausible path to scale up the process for 15 L/min. Based on the success and experimental results obtained in Phase I, Spektr performed work in three areas for Phase II: construction of a 15 L/min PSA; investigation of compressor requirements for the front end of the membrane/PSA system; and performing modeling and simulation of assess the feasibility of producing oxygen with a purity greater than 99%. Spektr successfully completed all of the tasks under Phase II. A prototype 15 L/min PSA was constructed and operated. Spektr determined that no 'off the shelf' air compressors met all of the specifications required for the membrane-PSA, so a custom compressor will likely need to be built. Modeling and simulation concluded that production of oxygen with purities greater than 99% was possible using a Membrane-PSA system.

Staiger, C. L.

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

28

Solar energy: Hydrogen and oxygen  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Solar energy: Hydrogen and oxygen ... Demonstrating the electrolysis of water with solar energy. ...

John J. Farrell

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

29

Optical oxygen concentration monitor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A system for measuring and monitoring the concentration of oxygen uses as a light source an argon discharge lamp, which inherently emits light with a spectral line that is close to one of oxygen`s A-band absorption lines. In a preferred embodiment, the argon line is split into sets of components of shorter and longer wavelengths by a magnetic field of approximately 2,000 Gauss that is parallel to the light propagation from the lamp. The longer wavelength components are centered on an absorption line of oxygen and thus readily absorbed, and the shorter wavelength components are moved away from that line and minimally absorbed. A polarization modulator alternately selects the set of the longer wavelength, or upshifted, components or the set of the shorter wavelength, or downshifted, components and passes the selected set to an environment of interest. After transmission over a path through that environment, the transmitted optical flux of the argon line varies as a result of the differential absorption. The system then determines the concentration of oxygen in the environment based on the changes in the transmitted optical flux between the two sets of components. In alternative embodiments modulation is achieved by selectively reversing the polarity of the magnetic field or by selectively supplying the magnetic field to either the emitting plasma of the lamp or the environment of interest. 4 figs.

Kebabian, P.

1997-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

30

DME-to-oxygenates process studies  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The feasibility of the production of hydrocarbons from dimethyl ether (DNM) has been illustrated in a fixed bed micro-reactor as well as a bench scale fluidized bed reactor by the University of Akron/EPRI DME-to-Hydrocarbon (DTG) Process. The DTG process has distinct advantages over its methanol based counterpart. Specifically, the DTG process excels in the area of higher productivity, higher per-pass conversion, and lower heat duties than the MTG process. Also of special importance is the production of oxygenates -- including MTBE, ETBE, and TAME. DME may be reacted with isobutylene to produce a mixture of MTBE and ETBE. The properties of ETBE excel over MTBE in the areas of lower RVP and higher RON. According to industrial reports, MTBE is the fastest growing chemical (1992 US capacity 135,350 BPD, with expected growth of 34%/year to 1997). Also, recent renewed interest as an octane-enhancer and as a source of oxygen has spurred a growing interest in nonrefinery synthesis routes to ETBE. TAME, with its lower RVP and higher RON has proven useful as a gasoline blending agent and octane enhancer and may also be produced directly from DME. DME, therefore, serves as a valuable feedstock in the conversion of may oxygenates with wide-scale industrial importance. It should be also noted that the interest in the utilization of DME as process feedstock is based on the favorable process economics of EPRI/UA`s liquid phase DME process.

Tartamella, T.L.; Sardesai, A.; Lee, S. [Univ. of Akron, OH (United States); Kulik, C.J. [Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (United States)

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

31

Oxygen in Underwater Cave  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Oxygen in Underwater Cave Oxygen in Underwater Cave Name: Natalie Status: student Grade: 9-12 Location: HI Country: USA Date: Spring 2011 Question: Is it possible for there to be free oxygen in an underwater cave? If it is, then how does it work? Replies: Yes it is possible as I have personally experienced. If the cave roof rises to a level above the water, air dissolved in the water will slowly out gas until the water is at the same level at all places. A pocket of breathable air will form. In many caves the roof dips below water level in one place but it above it on both sides. Think of a U shaped tube where the bottom of the U is blocked by water. This is called a siphon and I have passed through many of these to find breathable air on the other side. R. W. "Bob" Avakian Oklahoma State Univ. Inst. of Technology

32

Thermochemical Modeling of the Uranium-Cerium-Oxygen System  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of the Fuel Cycle R&D Program, Advanced Fuels campaign is to provide the research and development necessary to develop low loss, high quality nuclear fuels for ultra-high burnup reactor operation. Primary work in this area will be focused on the ceramic and metallic fuel systems. The goal of the current work is to enhance the understanding of ceramic nuclear fuel thermochemistry to support fuel research and development efforts. The thermochemical behavior of oxide nuclear fuel under irradiation is dependent on the oxygen to metal ratio (O:M). In fluorite-structured fuel, the actinide metal cation is bonded with {approx}2 oxygen atoms on a crystal lattice and as the metal atoms fission, fission fragments and free oxygen are created. The resulting fission fragments will contain some oxide forming elements, however these are insufficient to bind to all the liberated oxygen and therefore, there is an average increase in O:M with fuel burnup. Some of the fission products also form species that will migrate to and react with the cladding surface in a phenomenon known as Fuel Clad Chemical Interaction (FCCI). Cladding corrosion is life-limiting so it is desirable to understand influencing factors, such as oxide thermochemistry, which can be used to guide the design and fabrication of higher burn up fuel. A phased oxide fuel thermochemical model development effort is underway within the Advanced Fuels Campaign. First models of binary oxide systems are developed. For nuclear fuel system this means U-O and transuranic systems such as Pu-O, Np-O and Am-O. Next, the binary systems will be combined to form pseudobinary systems such as U-Pu-O, etc. The model development effort requires the use of data to allow optimization based on known thermochemical parameters as a function of composition and temperature. Available data is mined from the literature and supplemented by experimental work as needed. Due to the difficulty of performing fuel fabrication development with actinide materials, fundamental studies with uranium are performed using surrogate materials as stand-ins for transuranic elements. In most cases, cerium can be used as a suitable substitute for plutonium when performing O:M and sintering kinetics studies because of identical valence states. Differences exist between the magnitude of reported thermodynamic data of (U,Pu)O{sub x} and (U,Ce)O{sub x}, however the change in oxygen potential versus O:M follows the same trend for both systems. Cerium is also a major fission product element, and thus understanding its behavior in fuel is an important issue as well.

Voit, Stewart L [ORNL; Besmann, Theodore M [ORNL

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

New Oxygen-Production Technology Proving Successful | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Oxygen-Production Technology Proving Successful Oxygen-Production Technology Proving Successful New Oxygen-Production Technology Proving Successful April 22, 2009 - 1:00pm Addthis Washington, DC -- The Office of Fossil Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) has partnered with Air Products and Chemicals Inc. of Allentown, Penn. to develop the Ion Transport Membrane (ITM) Oxygen, a revolutionary new oxygen-production technology that requires less energy and offers lower capital costs than conventional technologies. ITM Oxygen will enhance the performance of integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants, as well as other gasification-based processes. The technology will also enhance the economics of oxy-fired combustion technologies, making it an attractive option for the capture of carbon

34

Oxygen isotope records of carboniferous seasonality on the Russian platform  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

OXYGEN ISOTOPE RECORDS OF CARBONIFEROUS SEASONALITY ON THE RUSSIAN PLATFORM A Thesis by HUAYU WANG Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER... OF SCIENCE May 1998 Major Subject: Geology OXYGEN ISOTOPE RECORDS OF CARBONIFFROUS SEASONALITY ON THE RUSSIAN PLATFORM A Thesis by HUAYU WANG Submitted to Texas ARM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER...

Wang, Huayu

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

35

Higher Dimensional Elko Theory  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We show that the so called Elko equation can be derived from a 5-dimensional Dirac equation. We argue that this result can be relevant for dark matter and cosmological scenarios. We generalize our procedure to higher dimensions.

J. A. Nieto

2014-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

36

HIGHER EDUCATION TAX 42013 TAX YEAR  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

HIGHER EDUCATION TAX BENEFITS 42013 TAX YEAR #12;2 The credit offsets what you pay for the first four years of higher education by reducing the amount of income tax you pay. In addition, the credit is more than you owe in taxes. Eligibility Requirements The full credit is available to individuals whose

Reif, John H.

37

OXYGEN TRANSPORT CERAMIC MEMBRANES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In the present quarter, the possibility of using a more complex interfacial engineering approach to the development of reliable and stable oxygen transport perovskite ceramic membranes/metal seals is discussed. Experiments are presented and ceramic/metal interactions are characterized. Crack growth and fracture toughness of the membrane in the reducing conditions are also discussed. Future work regarding this approach is proposed are evaluated for strength and fracture in oxygen gradient conditions. Oxygen gradients are created in tubular membranes by insulating the inner surface from the reducing environment by platinum foils. Fracture in these test conditions is observed to have a gradient in trans and inter-granular fracture as opposed to pure trans-granular fracture observed in homogeneous conditions. Fracture gradients are reasoned to be due to oxygen gradient set up in the membrane, variation in stoichiometry across the thickness and due to varying decomposition of the parent perovskite. The studies are useful in predicting fracture criterion in actual reactor conditions and in understanding the initial evolution of fracture processes.

Dr. Sukumar Bandopadhyay; Dr. Nagendra Nagabhushana

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

38

Optical oxygen concentration monitor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A system for measuring and monitoring the concentration of oxygen uses as a light source an argon discharge lamp, which inherently emits light with a spectral line that is close to one of oxygen's A-band absorption lines. In a preferred embodiment, the argon line is split into sets of components of shorter and longer wavelengths by a magnetic field of approximately 2000 Gauss that is parallel to the light propagation from the lamp. The longer wavelength components are centered on an absorption line of oxygen and thus readily absorbed, and the shorter wavelength components are moved away from that line and minimally absorbed. A polarization modulator alternately selects the set of the longer wavelength, or upshifted, components or the set of the shorter wavelength, or downshifted, components and passes the selected set to an environment of interest. After transmission over a path through that environment, the transmitted optical flux of the argon line varies as a result of the differential absorption. The system then determines the concentration of oxygen in the environment based on the changes in the transmitted optical flux between the two sets of components. In alternative embodiments modulation is achieved by selectively reversing the polarity of the magnetic field or by selectively supplying the magnetic field to either the emitting plasma of the lamp or the environment of interest.

Kebabian, Paul (Acton, MA)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

39

Oxygen production by molten alkali metal salts using multiple absorption-desorption cycles  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A continuous chemical air separation is performed wherein oxygen is recovered with a molten alkali metal salt oxygen acceptor in a series of absorption zones which are connected to a plurality of desorption zones operated in separate parallel cycles with the absorption zones. A greater recovery of high pressure oxygen is achieved at reduced power requirements and capital costs.

Cassano, Anthony A. (Allentown, PA)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

40

Oxygen production by molten alkali metal salts using multiple absorption-desorption cycles  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A continuous chemical air separation is performed wherein oxygen is recovered with a molten alkali metal salt oxygen acceptor in a series of absorption zones which are connected to a plurality of desorption zones operated in separate parallel cycles with the absorption zones. A greater recovery of high pressure oxygen is achieved at reduced power requirements and capital costs. 3 figs.

Cassano, A.A.

1985-07-02T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "higher oxygen requirement" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

INTRODUCTION A general problem for all animals is the supply of oxygen to  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

INTRODUCTION A general problem for all animals is the supply of oxygen to internal tissues. The common structural solution is formation of a branched tubular network that transports air or oxygenated (respiratory) system, fine branches ramify on or near the oxygen-requiring tissues, with the extent

Krasnow, Mark A.

42

Oxidation Kinetics of Cu2O in Oxygen Carriers for Chemical Looping with Oxygen Uncoupling  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

(7) Application to CLC was first demonstrated by Mattisson et al.,(8) who showed that the release of oxygen allows conversion of petcoke by CLOU to be as much as 50 times faster than conversion by conventional CLC with an iron-based carrier, which requires in situ conversion of petcoke to syngas by relatively slow gasification reactions. ...

Christopher K. Clayton; H. Y. Sohn; Kevin J. Whitty

2014-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

43

High pressure oxygen furnace  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A high temperature high pressure oxygen furnace having a hybrid partially externally heated construction is disclosed. A metallic bar fabricated from an alloy having a composition of at least 45% nickel, 15% chrome, and 10% tungsten is utilized, the preferred alloy including 55% nickel, 22% chrome, 14% tungsten, 2% molybdenum, 3% iron (maximum) and 5% cobalt (maximum). The disclosed alloy is fabricated into 11/4 inch bar stock and has a length of about 17 inches. This bar stock is gun drilled for over 16 inches of its length with 0.400 inch aperture to define a closed high temperature, high pressure oxygen chamber. The opposite and closed end of the bar is provided with a small support aperture into which both a support and a thermocouple can be inserted. The closed end of the gun drilled bar is inserted into an oven, preferably heated by standard nickel chrome electrical elements and having a heavily insulated exterior. 5 figs.

Morris, D.E.

1992-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

44

High pressure oxygen furnace  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A high temperature high pressure oxygen furnace having a hybrid partially externally heated construction is disclosed. A metallic bar fabricated from an alloy having a composition of at least 45% nickel, 15% chrome, and 10% tungsten is utilized (the preferred alloy including 55% nickel, 22% chrome, 14% tungsten, 2% molybdenum, 3% iron (maximum) and 5% cobalt (maximum). The disclosed alloy is fabricated into 11/4 inch bar stock and has a length of about 17 inches. This bar stock is gun drilled for over 16 inches of its length with 0.400 inch aperture to define a closed high temperature, high pressure oxygen chamber. The opposite and closed end of the bar is provided with a small support aperture into which both a support and a thermocouple can be inserted. The closed end of the gun drilled bar is inserted into an oven, preferably heated by standard nickel chrome electrical elements and having a heavily insulated exterior.

Morris, Donald E. (Kensington, CA)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

Oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The present quarterly report describes some of the investigations on the structural properties of dense OTM bars provided by Praxair and studies on newer composition of Ti doped LSF. In the previous research, the reference point of oxygen occupancy was determined and verified. In the current research, the oxygen occupancy was investigated at 1200 C as a function of oxygen activity and compared with that at 1000 C. The cause of bumps at about 200 C was also investigated by using different heating and cooling rates during TGA. The fracture toughness of LSFT and dual phase membranes at room temperature is an important mechanical property. Vicker's indentation method was used to evaluate this toughness. Through this technique, a K{sub Ic} (Mode-I Fracture Toughness) value is attained by means of semi-empirical correlations between the indentation load and the length of the cracks emanating from the corresponding Vickers indentation impression. In the present investigation, crack propagation behavior was extensively analyzed in order to understand the strengthening mechanisms involved in the non-transforming La based ceramic composites. Cracks were generated using Vicker's indenter and used to identify and evaluate the toughening mechanisms involved. Preliminary results of an electron microscopy study of the origin of the slow kinetics on reduction of ferrites have been obtained. The slow kinetics appear to be related to a non-equilibrium reduction pathway that initially results in the formation of iron particles. At long times, equilibrium can be reestablished with recovery of the perovskite phase. Modeling of the isotopic transients on operating membranes (LSCrF-2828 at 900 C) and a ''frozen'' isotope profile have been analyzed in conjunction with a 1-D model to reveal the gradient in oxygen diffusivity through the membrane under conditions of high chemical gradients.

S. Bandopadhyay; T. Nithyanantham; X.-D Zhou; Y-W. Sin; H.U. Anderson; Alan Jacobson; C.A. Mims

2005-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

46

Oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The present quarterly report describes some of the investigations on the structural properties of dense OTM bars provided by Praxair and studies on newer composition of Ti doped LSF. The in situ electrical conductivity and Seebeck coefficient measurements were made on LSFT at 1000 and 1200 C over the oxygen activity range from air to 10{sup -15} atm. The electrical conductivity measurements exhibited a p to n type transition at an oxygen activity of 1 x 10{sup -10} at 1000 C and 1 x 10{sup -6} at 1200 C. Thermogravimetric studies were also carried out over the same oxygen activities and temperatures. Based on the results of these measurements, the chemical and mechanical stability range of LSFT were determined and defect structure was established. The studies on the fracture toughness of the LSFT and dual phase membranes exposed to air and N{sub 2} at 1000 C was done and the XRD and SEM analysis of the specimens were carried out to understand the structural and microstructural changes. The membranes that are exposed to high temperatures at an inert and a reactive atmosphere undergo many structural and chemical changes which affect the mechanical properties. A complete transformation of fracture behavior was observed in the N{sub 2} treated LSFT samples. Further results to investigate the origin of the slow kinetics on reduction of ferrites have been obtained. The slow kinetics appear to be related to a non-equilibrium reduction pathway that initially results in the formation of iron particles. At long times, equilibrium can be reestablished with recovery of the perovskite phase. Recent results on transient kinetic data are presented. The 2-D modeling of oxygen movement has been undertaken in order to fit isotope data. The model is used to study ''frozen'' profiles in patterned or composite membranes.

S. Bandopadhyay; T. Nithyanantham; X.-D Zhou; Y-W. Sin; H.U. Anderson; Alan Jacobson; C.A. Mims

2005-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

47

Direct tuyere injection of oxygen for enhanced coal combustion  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Injecting oxygen directly into the tuyere blowpipe can enhance the ignition and combustion of injected pulverized coal, allowing the efficient use of higher coal rates at high furnace production levels. The effects of direct oxygen injection have been estimated from an analysis of the factors controlling the dispersion, heating, ignition, and combustion of injected coal. Injecting ambient temperature oxygen offers mechanical improvements in the dispersion of coal but provides little thermochemical benefit over increased blast enrichment. Injecting hot oxygen through a novel, patented thermal nozzle lance offers both mechanical and thermochemical benefits over increased enrichment or ambient oxygen injection. Plans for pilot-scale and commercial-scale testing of this new lance are described.

Riley, M.F. [Praxair, Inc., Tarrytown, NY (United States)

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

48

Oxygen abundances in the most oxygen-rich spiral galaxies  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Oxygen abundances in the spiral galaxies expected to be richest in oxygen are estimated. The new abundance determinations are based on the recently discovered ff-relation between auroral and nebular oxygen line fluxes in HII regions. We find that the maximum gas-phase oxygen abundance in the central regions of spiral galaxies is 12+log(O/H)~8.75. This value is significantly lower than the previously accepted value. The central oxygen abundance in the Milky Way is similar to that in other large spirals.

L. S. Pilyugin; T. X. Thuan; J. M. Vilchez

2006-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

49

Oxygen Concentration Microgradients for Cell Culture  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Chemotactic Effect of Oxygen on Bacteria,” J. Pathol.Measurement and Control of Oxygen Levels in MicrofluidicA Microfabricated Electrochemical Oxygen Generator for High-

Park, Jaehyun

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

NETL: Gasification - Development of Ion-Transport Membrane Oxygen  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Feed Systems Feed Systems Recovery Act: Development of Ion-Transport Membrane Oxygen Technology for Integration in IGCC and Other Advanced Power Generation Systems Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. Project Number: FC26-98FT40343 Project Description Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. is developing, scaling-up, and demonstrating a novel air separation technology for large-scale production of oxygen (O2) at costs that are approximately one-third lower than conventional cryogenic plants. An Ion Transport Membrane (ITM) Oxygen plant co-produces power and oxygen. A phased technology RD&D effort is underway to demonstrate all necessary technical and economic requirements for scale-up and industrial commercialization. The ITM Oxygen production technology is a radically different approach to producing high-quality tonnage oxygen and to enhance the performance of integrated gasification combined cycle and other advanced power generation systems. Instead of cooling air to cryogenic temperatures, oxygen is extracted from air at temperatures synergistic with power production operations. Process engineering and economic evaluations of integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants comparing ITM Oxygen with a state-of-the-art cryogenic air separation unit are aimed to show that the installed capital cost of the air separation unit and the installed capital of IGCC facility are significantly lower compared to conventional technologies, while improving power plant output and efficiency. The use of low-cost oxygen in combustion processes would provide cost-effective emission reduction and carbon management opportunities. ITM Oxygen is an enabling module for future plants for producing coal derived shifted synthesis gas (a mixture of hydrogen [H2] and carbon dioxide [CO2]) ultimately for producing clean energy and fuels. Oxygen-intensive industries such as steel, glass, non-ferrous metallurgy, refineries, and pulp and paper may also realize cost and productivity benefits as a result of employing ITM Oxygen.

51

Oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The present quarterly report describes some of the investigations on the structural properties of dense OTM bars provided by Praxair and studies on newer composition of Ti doped LSF. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) was carried out on La{sub 0.2}Sr{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 0.55}Ti{sub 0.45}O{sub 3-{delta}} to investigate oxygen deficiency ({delta}) of the sample. The TGA was performed in a controlled atmosphere using oxygen, argon, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide with adjustable gas flow rates. In this experiment, the weight loss and gain of La{sub 0.2}Sr{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 0.55}Ti{sub 0.45}O{sub 3-{delta}} was directly measured by TGA. The weight change of the sample was evaluated at between 600 and 1250 C in air or 1000 C as a function of oxygen partial pressure. The oxygen deficiencies calculated from TGA data as a function of oxygen activity and temperature will be estimated and compared with that from neutron diffraction measurement in air. The LSFT and LSFT/CGO membranes were fabricated from the powder obtained from Praxair Specialty Ceramics. The sintered membranes were subjected to microstructure analysis and hardness analysis. The LSFT membrane is composed of fine grains with two kinds of grain morphology. The grain size distribution was characterized using image analysis. In LSFT/CGO membrane a lot of grain pullout was observed from the less dense, porous phase. The hardness of the LSFT and dual phase membranes were studied at various loads. The hardness values obtained from the cross section of the membranes were also compared to that of the values obtained from the surface. An electrochemical cell has been designed and built for measurements of the Seebeck coefficient as a function of temperature and pressure. Measurements on La{sub 0.2}Sr{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 0.55}Ti{sub 0.45}O{sub 3-{delta}} as a function of temperature an oxygen partial pressure are reported. Further analysis of the dilatometry data obtained previously is presented. A series of isotope transients under air separation mode (small gradient) were completed on the membrane of LSCrF-2828 at 900 C. Low pO{sub 2} atmospheres based on with CO-CO{sub 2} mixtures have also been admitted to the delivery side of the LSCrF-2828 membrane to produce the gradients which exist under syngas generation conditions. The CO-CO{sub 2} mixtures have normal isotopic {sup 18}O abundances. The evolution of {sup 18}O on the delivery side in these experiments after an {sup 18}O pulse on the air side reveals a wealth of information about the oxygen transport processes.

S. Bandopadhyay; N. Nagabhushana; T. Nithyanantham; X.-D Zhou; Y-W. Sin; H.U. Anderson; Alan Jacobson; C.A. Mims

2005-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

52

NETL: News Release - New Oxygen-Production Technology Proving Successful  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

22, 2009 22, 2009 New Oxygen-Production Technology Proving Successful Ceramic Membrane Enables Efficient, Cost-Effective Co-Production of Power and Oxygen Washington, D.C. -The Office of Fossil Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) has partnered with Air Products and Chemicals Inc. of Allentown, Penn. to develop the Ion Transport Membrane (ITM) Oxygen, a revolutionary new oxygen-production technology that requires less energy and offers lower capital costs than conventional technologies. ITM Oxygen will enhance the performance of integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants, as well as other gasification-based processes. The technology will also enhance the economics of oxy-fired combustion technologies, making it an attractive option for the capture of carbon dioxide from existing coal-fired power plants.

53

Oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ti doping on La{sub 1-x}Sr{sub x}FeO{sub 3-{delta}} (LSF) tends to increase the oxygen equilibration kinetics of LSF in lower oxygen activity environment because of the high valence state of Ti. However, the addition of Ti decreases the total conductivity because the acceptor ([Sr{prime}{sub La}]) is compensated by the donor ([Ti{sub Fe}{sup {sm_bullet}}]) which decreases the carrier concentration. The properties of La{sub 0.2}Sr{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 1-x}Ti{sub x}O{sub 3-{delta}} (LSFT, x = 0.45) have been experimentally and theoretically investigated to elucidate (1) the dependence of oxygen occupancy and electrochemical properties on temperature and oxygen activity by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and (2) the electrical conductivity and carrier concentration by Seebeck coefficient and electrical measurements. In the present study, dual phase (La{sub 0.2}Sr{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 0.6}Ti{sub 0.4}O{sub 3-{delta}}/Ce{sub 0.9}Gd{sub 0.1}O{sub 2-{delta}}) membranes have been evaluated for structural properties such as hardness, fracture toughness and flexural strength. The effect of high temperature and slightly reducing atmosphere on the structural properties of the membranes was studied. The flexural strength of the membrane decreases upon exposure to slightly reducing conditions at 1000 C. The as-received and post-fractured membranes were characterized using XRD, SEM and TG-DTA to understand the fracture mechanisms. Changes in structural properties of the composite were sought to be correlated with the physiochemical features of the two-phases. We have reviewed the electrical conductivity data and stoichiometry data for La{sub 0.2}Sr{sub 0.8}Cr{sub 0.2}Fe{sub 0.8}O{sub 3-{delta}} some of which was reported previously. Electrical conductivity data for La{sub 0.2}Sr{sub 0.8}Cr{sub 0.2}Fe{sub 0.8}O{sub 3-{delta}} (LSCrF) were obtained in the temperature range, 752 {approx} 1055 C and in the pO{sub 2} range, 10{sup -18} {approx} 0.5 atm. The slope of the plot of log {sigma} vs. log pO{sub 2} is {approx} 1/5 in the p-type region, pO{sub 2} = 10{sup -5} {approx} 10{sup -1} atm. The pO{sub 2} at which the p-n transition is observed increases with increasing temperature. The activation energy for ionic conduction was estimated to be 0.86 eV from an Arrhenius plot of the minimum conductivity vs. reciprocal temperature. At temperatures below 940 C, a plateau in the conductivity isotherm suggests the presence of a two-phase region. Most likely, phase separation occurs to form a mixture of a perovskite phase and an oxygen vacancy ordered phase related to brownmillerite. Additional data for the oxygen non stoichiometry are presented.

S. Bandopadhyay; T. Nithyanantham

2006-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

54

Stabilization of Platinum Nanoparticle Electrocatalysts for Oxygen...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Platinum Nanoparticle Electrocatalysts for Oxygen Reduction Using Poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride). Stabilization of Platinum Nanoparticle Electrocatalysts for Oxygen...

55

Composite oxygen transport membrane  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of producing a composite oxygen ion membrane and a composite oxygen ion membrane in which a porous fuel oxidation layer and a dense separation layer and optionally, a porous surface exchange layer are formed on a porous support from mixtures of (Ln.sub.1-xA.sub.x).sub.wCr.sub.1-yB.sub.yO.sub.3-.delta. and a doped zirconia. In the porous fuel oxidation layer and the optional porous surface exchange layer, A is Calcium and in the dense separation layer A is not Calcium and, preferably is Strontium. Preferred materials are (La.sub.0.8Ca.sub.0.2).sub.0.95Cr.sub.0.5Mn.sub.0.5O.sub.3-.delta. for the porous fuel oxidation and optional porous surface exchange layers and (La.sub.0.8Sr.sub.0.2).sub.0.95Cr.sub.0.5Fe.sub.0.5O.sub.3-.delta. for the dense separation layer. The use of such materials allows the membrane to sintered in air and without the use of pore formers to reduce membrane manufacturing costs. The use of materials, as described herein, for forming the porous layers have application for forming any type of porous structure, such as a catalyst support.

Christie, Gervase Maxwell; Lane, Jonathan A.

2014-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

56

OXYGEN TRANSPORT CERAMIC MEMBRANES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This is the third quarterly report on oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes. In the following, the report describes the progress made by our university partners in Tasks 1 through 6, experimental apparatus that was designed and built for various tasks of this project, thermodynamic calculations, where applicable and work planned for the future. (Task 1) Design, fabricate and evaluate ceramic to metal seals based on graded ceramic powder/metal braze joints. (Task 2) Evaluate the effect of defect configuration on ceramic membrane conductivity and long term chemical and structural stability. (Task 3) Determine materials mechanical properties under conditions of high temperatures and reactive atmospheres. (Task 4) Evaluate phase stability and thermal expansion of candidate perovskite membranes and develop techniques to support these materials on porous metal structures. (Task 5) Assess the microstructure of membrane materials to evaluate the effects of vacancy-impurity association, defect clusters, and vacancy-dopant association on the membrane performance and stability. (Task 6) Measure kinetics of oxygen uptake and transport in ceramic membrane materials under commercially relevant conditions using isotope labeling techniques.

Dr. Sukumar Bandopadhyay; Dr. Nagendra Nagabhushana

2000-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

57

OXYGEN ABUNDANCES IN CEPHEIDS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Oxygen abundances in later-type stars, and intermediate-mass stars in particular, are usually determined from the [O I] line at 630.0 nm, and to a lesser extent, from the O I triplet at 615.7 nm. The near-IR triplets at 777.4 nm and 844.6 nm are strong in these stars and generally do not suffer from severe blending with other species. However, these latter two triplets suffer from strong non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE) effects and thus see limited use in abundance analyses. In this paper, we derive oxygen abundances in a large sample of Cepheids using the near-IR triplets from an NLTE analysis, and compare those abundances to values derived from a local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) analysis of the [O I] 630.0 nm line and the O I 615.7 nm triplet as well as LTE abundances for the 777.4 nm triplet. All of these lines suffer from line strength problems making them sensitive to either measurement complications (weak lines) or to line saturation difficulties (strong lines). Upon this realization, the LTE results for the [O I] lines and the O I 615.7 nm triplet are in adequate agreement with the abundance from the NLTE analysis of the near-IR triplets.

Luck, R. E.; Andrievsky, S. M. [Department of Astronomy, Case Western Reserve University, 10900 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, OH 44106-7215 (United States); Korotin, S. N.; Kovtyukh, V. V., E-mail: luck@fafnir.astr.cwru.edu, E-mail: serkor@skyline.od.ua, E-mail: val@deneb1.odessa.ua, E-mail: scan@deneb1.odessa.ua [Department of Astronomy and Astronomical Observatory, Odessa National University, Isaac Newton Institute of Chile, Odessa Branch, Shevchenko Park, 65014 Odessa (Ukraine)

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

58

Determination of carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen in high purity magnesium  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

DETERMINATION OF CARBON, NITROGEN, AND OXYGEN IN HIGH PURITY MAGNESIUM A Thesis by NEIL GERARD ROCHE Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A8cM University in partial i'ulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE... December 1981 Major Subject: Chemistry DETERMINATION OF CARBON, NITROGEN, AND OXYGEN IN HIGH PURITY MAGNESIUM A Thesis by NEIL GERARD ROCHE Approved as to style and content by: E. A. Schweikert (Chairman of Committee) G. J. Bastiaans (Member) L...

Roche, Neil Gerard

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

59

Oxygen consumption by asphalt films and resulting viscosity changes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

OXYGEN CONSUMPTION BY ASPHALT FILNS AND RESULTING VISCOSITY CHANGES A Thesis by FRANK LEE CARTER, JR. Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE... Nay 1965 Major Subject: Chemistry OXYGEN CONSUMPTION BY ASPHALT FILMS AND RESULTING VISCOSITY CHANGES A Thesis by FRANK LEE CARTER, JR. Approved as to style and content by: (Chairm of Committee) (H o Depa ( mb ) (Membe May 1965...

Carter, Frank Lee

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

60

Science Taking Higher  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

4, 1997 4, 1997 Number 7 f Science Taking Higher Profile in Capital continued on page 8 INSIDE 2 Computers and Accelerators 4 Inventions 6 Sloan Digital Sky Survey upon the Clinton Administration and the 105th Congress to increase the nation's investment in scientific research and education. This awareness of science issues emanating from the nation's capital has heartened many of those toiling in the country's laboratories and universities; however, researchers interviewed for this article also said they are closely observing how the rhetoric translates into increased funding as the appropriations process plays out. "I see these [initiatives] as demonstrations of the underlying support of basic science in the community and in Congress," said Jeffrey Photo courtesy

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "higher oxygen requirement" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The present quarterly report describes some of the investigations on the structural properties of dense OTM bars provided by Praxair and studies on newer composition of Ti doped LSF. In this report, in situ neutron diffraction was used to characterize the chemical and structural properties of La{sub 0.2}Sr{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 0.55}Ti{sub 0.45}O{sub 3-{delta}} (here after as L2SF55T) specimen, which was subject to measurements of neutron diffraction from room temperature to 900 C. It was found that space group of R3c yielded a better refinement than a cubic structure of Pm3m. Oxygen occupancy was nearly 3 in the region from room temperature to 700 C, above which the occupancy decreased due to oxygen loss. Dense OTM bars provided by Praxair were loaded to fracture at varying stress rates. Studies were done at room temperature in air and at 1000 C in a specified environment to evaluate slow crack growth behavior. The X-Ray data and fracture mechanisms points to non-equilibrium decomposition of the LSFCO OTM membrane. The non-equilibrium conditions could probably be due to the nature of the applied stress field (stressing rates) and leads to transition in crystal structures and increased kinetics of decomposition. The formations of a Brownmillerite or Sr2Fe2O5 type structures, which are orthorhombic are attributed to the ordering of oxygen vacancies. The cubic to orthorhombic transitions leads to 2.6% increase in strains and thus residual stresses generated could influence the fracture behavior of the OTM membrane. Continued investigations on the thermodynamic properties (stability and phase-separation behavior) and total conductivity of prototype membrane materials were carried out. The data are needed together with the kinetic information to develop a complete model for the membrane transport. Previously characterization, stoichiometry and conductivity measurements for samples of La{sub 0.2}Sr{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 0.55}Ti{sub 0.45}O{sub 3-{delta}} were reported. In this report, measurements of the chemical and thermal expansion as a function of temperature and p{sub O2} are described.

S. Bandopadhyay; N. Nagabhushana; X.-D Zhou; Q. Cai; J. Yang; W.B. Yelon; W.J. James; H.U. Anderson; Alan Jacobson; C.A. Mims

2004-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

62

Novel Membranes and Processes for Oxygen Enrichment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The overall goal of this project is to develop a membrane process that produces air containing 25-35% oxygen, at a cost of $25-40/ton of equivalent pure oxygen (EPO2). Oxygen-enriched air at such a low cost will allow existing air-fueled furnaces to be converted economically to oxygen-enriched furnaces, which in turn will improve the economic and energy efficiency of combustion processes significantly, and reduce the cost of CO{sub 2} capture and sequestration from flue gases throughout the U.S. manufacturing industries. During the 12-month Concept Definition project: We identified a series of perfluoropolymers (PFPs) with promising oxygen/nitrogen separation properties, which were successfully made into thin film composite membranes. The membranes showed oxygen permeance as high as 1,200 gpu and oxygen/nitrogen selectivity of 3.0, and the permeance and selectivity were stable over the time period tested (60 days). We successfully scaled up the production of high-flux PFP-based membranes, using MTR's commercial coaters. Two bench-scale spiral-wound modules with countercurrent designs were made and parametric tests were performed to understand the effect of feed flow rate and pressure, permeate pressure and sweep flow rate on the membrane module separation properties. At various operating conditions that modeled potential industrial operating conditions, the module separation properties were similar to the pure-gas separation properties in the membrane stamps. We also identified and synthesized new polymers [including polymers of intrinsic microporosity (PIMs) and polyimides] with higher oxygen/nitrogen selectivity (3.5-5.0) than the PFPs, and made these polymers into thin film composite membranes. However, these membranes were susceptible to severe aging; pure-gas permeance decreased nearly six-fold within two weeks, making them impractical for industrial applications of oxygen enrichment. We tested the effect of oxygen-enriched air on NO{sub x} emissions using a Bloom baffle burner at GTI. The results are positive and confirm that oxygen-enriched combustion can be carried out without producing higher levels of NOx than normal air firing, if lancing of combustion air is used and the excess air levels are controlled. A simple economic study shows that the membrane processes can produce O{sub 2} at less than $40/ton EPO{sub 2} and an energy cost of 1.1-1.5 MMBtu/ton EPO{sub 2}, which are very favorable compared with conventional technologies such as cryogenics and vacuum pressure swing adsorption processes. The benefits of integrated membrane processes/combustion process trains have been evaluated, and show good savings in process costs and energy consumption, as well as reduced CO{sub 2} emissions. For example, if air containing 30% oxygen is used in natural gas furnaces, the net natural gas savings are an estimated 18% at a burner temperature of 2,500 F, and 32% at a burner temperature of 3,000 F. With a 20% market penetration of membrane-based oxygen-enriched combustion in all combustion processes by 2020, the energy savings would be 414-736 TBtu/y in the U.S. The comparable net cost savings are estimated at $1.2-2.1 billion per year by 2020, calculated as the value of fuel savings subtracted from the cost of oxygen production. The fuel savings of 18%-32% by the membrane/oxygen-enriched combustion corresponds to an 18%-32% reduction in CO{sub 2} emissions, or 23-40 MM ton/y less CO{sub 2} from natural gas-fired furnaces by 2020. In summary, results from this project (Concept Definition phase) are highly promising and clearly demonstrate that membrane processes can produce oxygen-enriched air in a low cost manner that will lower operating costs and energy consumption in industrial combustion processes. Future work will focus on proof-of-concept bench-scale demonstration in the laboratory.

Lin, Haiqing

2011-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

63

BWR oxygen control demonstration program  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A number of cracks have occurred recently in certain BWR piping systems. The operating environment associated with oxidizing species such as oxygen and hydrogen peroxide is considered one of the factors in the mechanism of cracking. In April 1976, NWT Corporation was contracted to perform a BWR oxygen control demonstration program. Means for reducing reactor water oxygen and hydrogen peroxide concentrations during startup and shutdown transients were defined and demonstrated at Vermont Yankee and Browns Ferry Unit 3. Results of the demonstrations and an analytical review of impacts of major system variables on oxygen transients are discussed herein.

Pearl, W.L.; Kassen, W.R.; Sawochka, S.G.

1981-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

64

Oxygen to the core  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

1-01 1-01 For immediate release: 01/10/2013 | NR-13-01-01 Oxygen to the core Anne M Stark, LLNL, (925) 422-9799, stark8@llnl.gov Printer-friendly An artist's conception of Earth's inner and outer core. LIVERMORE, Calif. -- An international collaboration including researchers from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory has discovered that the Earth's core formed under more oxidizing conditions than previously proposed. Through a series of laser-heated diamond anvil cell experiments at high pressure (350,000 to 700,000 atmospheres of pressure) and temperatures (5,120 to 7,460 degrees Fahrenheit), the team demonstrated that the depletion of siderophile (also known as "iron loving") elements can be produced by core formation under more oxidizing conditions than earlier

65

OXYGEN TRANSPORT CERAMIC MEMBRANES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report covers the following tasks: Task 1--Design, fabricate and evaluate ceramic to metal seals based on graded ceramic powder/metal braze joints; Task 2--Evaluate the effect of defect configuration on ceramic membrane conductivity and long term chemical and structural stability; Task 3--Determine materials mechanical properties under conditions of high temperatures and reactive atmospheres; Task 4--Evaluate phase stability and thermal expansion of candidate perovskite membranes and develop techniques to support these materials on porous metal structures; Task 5--Assess the microstructure of membrane materials to evaluate the effects of vacancy-impurity association, defect clusters, and vacancy-dopant association on the membrane performance and stability; and Task 6--Measure kinetics of oxygen uptake and transport in ceramic membrane materials under commercially relevant conditions using isotope labeling techniques.

Dr. Sukumar Bandopadhyay; Dr. Nagendra Nagabhushana

2002-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

Pool octanes via oxygenates  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Increasingly stringent antipollution regulations placed on automobile exhaust gases with consequent reduction or complete lead ban from motor gasoline result in octane shortage at many manufacturing sites. Attractive solutions to this problem, especially in conjunction with abundant methanol supplies, are the hydration and etherification of olefins contained in light product streams from cracking unit or produced by field gas dehydrogenation. A comparison is made between oxygenates octane-volume pool contributions and established refinery technologies. Process reviews for bulk manufacture of fuel-grade isopropanol (IPA), secondary butanol (SBA), tertiary butanol (TBA), methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) and tertiary amyl methyl ether (TAME) are presented together with the characteristic investment and operating data. The implantation of these processes into a typical FCCU refinery complex with the resulting octane-pool improvement possibilities is descried.

Prezelj, M.

1987-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

OXYGEN TRANSPORT CERAMIC MEMBRANES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Conversion of natural gas to liquid fuels and chemicals is a major goal for the Nation as it enters the 21st Century. Technically robust and economically viable processes are needed to capture the value of the vast reserves of natural gas on Alaska's North Slope, and wean the Nation from dependence on foreign petroleum sources. Technologies that are emerging to fulfill this need are all based syngas as an intermediate. Syngas (a mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide) is a fundamental building block from which chemicals and fuels can be derived. Lower cost syngas translates directly into more cost-competitive fuels and chemicals. The currently practiced commercial technology for making syngas is either steam methane reforming (SMR) or a two-step process involving cryogenic oxygen separation followed by natural gas partial oxidation (POX). These high-energy, capital-intensive processes do not always produce syngas at a cost that makes its derivatives competitive with current petroleum-based fuels and chemicals. This project has the following 6 main tasks: Task 1--Design, fabricate and evaluate ceramic to metal seals based on graded ceramic powder/metal braze joints. Task 2--Evaluate the effect of defect configuration on ceramic membrane conductivity and long term chemical and structural stability. Task 3--Determine materials mechanical properties under conditions of high temperatures and reactive atmospheres. Task 4--Evaluate phase stability and thermal expansion of candidate perovskite membranes and develop techniques to support these materials on porous metal structures. Task 5--Assess the microstructure of membrane materials to evaluate the effects of vacancy-impurity association, defect clusters, and vacancy-dopant association on the membrane performance and stability. Task 6--Measure kinetics of oxygen uptake and transport in ceramic membrane materials under commercially relevant conditions using isotope labeling techniques.

Dr. Sukumar Bandopadhyay; Dr. Nagendra Nagabhushana

2001-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

68

Oxygen consumption and peak heart rate in stroke patients during the completion of the Modified Rivermead Mobility Index (MRMI)  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Physical inactivity reduces cardiorespiratory fitness, which further compromises a stroke victim's daily living activities. It is well known that aerobic exercise can improve cardiorespiratory fitness. We conducted an exploratory study with an aim to compare oxygen consumption and peak heart rate between stroke patients and healthy participants during the performance of the tasks on the Modified Rivermead Mobility Index (MRMI) and to determine if these tasks reach an aerobic level of intensity during training. Oxygen consumption and heart rate were measured during the performance of the MRMI tasks in healthy patients and those who had suffered a stroke. Data between the two groups were compared using the independent t test and the Mann-Whitney U test, depending on if the criteria for parametric statistics were fulfilled. Results of the study found that there were no between-group differences in terms of the rate of oxygen consumption during the completion of the MRMI tasks (p > 0.05). Stroke patients took longer to perform the tasks (10-minute walk and stair climbing; p = 0.006) and, therefore, were associated with a higher total level of oxygen consumption compared with healthy participants (p complete certain MRMI tasks. These functional tasks could potentially be used as adjunct protocols to assist patients with stroke during aerobic training, but this will require further study.

Fahria B.A. Rahman; Alice Y.M. Jones; Marco Y.C. Pang

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

Increased intrapulmonary retention of radiolabeled neutrophils in early oxygen toxicity  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Sequential lung injuries, such as oxygen toxicity followed by septicemia, are common during the adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). As these forms of vascular injury may be mediated in part by polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN), aberrant interactions between PMN and previously injured pulmonary endothelium are of both theoretical interest and clinical importance. The present study was undertaken to test the hypothesis that early oxygen toxicity at a dose that injuries pulmonary endothelium relatively selectively alters intrapulmonary neutrophil kinetics. Unanesthetized rats breathing 1.0 atmospheres oxygen for 36 h showed ultrastructural endothelial damage but no edema, injury, or neutrophilic inflammation by histologic criteria. However, in these oxygen-toxic animals, whereas initial accumulation of radiolabeled PMN in lungs was normal, washout of PMN was abnormal at 120 min after infusion, at which point the pulmonary retention of radiolabeled PMN in the lungs of oxygen-treated animals was significantly higher than in control animals (139% of control, p less than 0.0096). Features of our methodology, including avoidance of osmotic stress and use of paired control animals, appear to have greatly enhanced the sensitivity of radiolabeled neutrophils for detecting a subtle abnormality of neutrophil-endothelial interactions. Our studies in the oxygen toxicity model provide the first demonstration in vivo of abnormal intrapulmonary neutrophil kinetics in early oxygen toxicity prior to the onset of histologic evidence of lung injury or inflammation.

Rinaldo, J.E.; English, D.; Levine, J.; Stiller, R.; Henson, J.

1988-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

On The Importance of Organic Oxygen for Understanding Organic Aerosol  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

On The Importance of Organic Oxygen for Understanding Organic Aerosol On The Importance of Organic Oxygen for Understanding Organic Aerosol Particles Title On The Importance of Organic Oxygen for Understanding Organic Aerosol Particles Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2006 Authors Pang, Yanbo, B. J. Turpin, and Lara A. Gundel Journal Journal of Aerosol Science and Technology Volume 40 Start Page Chapter Pagination 128-133 Abstract This study shows how aerosol organic oxygen data could provide new and independent information about organic aerosol mass, aqueous solubility of organic aerosols, formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) and the relative contributions of anthropogenic and biogenic sources. For more than two decades atmospheric aerosol organic mass concentration has usually been estimated by multiplying the measured carbon content by an assumed organic mass (OM)-to-organic carbon (OC ) factor of 1.4. However, this factor can vary from 1.0 to 2.5 depending on location. This great uncertainty about aerosol organic mass limits our understanding of the influence of organic aerosol on climate, visibility and health.New examination of organic aerosol speciation data shows that the oxygen content is the key factor responsible for the observed range in the OM-to-OC factor. When organic oxygen content is excluded, the ratio of non-oxygen organic mass to carbon mass varies very little across different environments (1.12 to 1.14). The non-oxygen-OM-to-non-oxygen OC factor for all studied sites (urban and non-urban) is 1.13± 0.02. The uncertainty becomes an order of magnitude smaller than the uncertainty in the best current estimates of organic mass to organic carbon ratios (1.6± 0.2 for urban and 2.1± 0.2 for non-urban areas). When aerosol organic oxygen data become available, organic aerosol mass can be quite accurately estimated using just OC and organic oxygen (OO) without the need to know whether the aerosol is fresh or aged. In addition, aerosol organic oxygen data will aid prediction of water solubility since compounds with OO-to-OC higher than 0.4 have water solubilities higher than 1g per 100 g water

71

Oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The present quarterly report describes some of the investigations on the structural properties of dense OTM bars provided by Praxair and studies on newer composition of Ti doped LSF. In this report, Moessbauer spectroscopy was used to study the local environmentals of LSFT with various level of oxygen deficiency. Ionic valence state, magnetic interaction and influence of Ti on superexchange are discussed Stable crack growth studies on Dense OTM bars provided by Praxair were done at elevated temperature, pressure and elevated conditions. Post-fracture X-ray data of the OTM fractured at 1000 C in environment were refined by FullProf code and results indicate a distortion of the parent cubic perovskite to orthorhombic structure with reduced symmetry. TGA-DTA studies on the post-fracture samples also indicated residual effect arising from the thermal and stress history of the samples. An electrochemical cell has been designed and built for measurements of the Seebeck coefficient as a function of temperature and pressure. The initial measurements on La{sub 0.2}Sr{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 0.55}Ti{sub 0.45}O{sub 3-{delta}} are reported. Neutron diffraction measurements of the same composition are in agreement with both the stoichiometry and the kinetic behavior observed in coulometric titration measurements. A series of isotope transients under air separation mode (small gradient) were completed on the membrane of LSCrF-2828 at 900 C. Low pO{sub 2} atmospheres based on with CO-CO{sub 2} mixtures have also been admitted to the delivery side of the LSCrF-2828 membrane to produce the gradients which exist under syngas generation conditions. The COCO{sub 2} mixtures have normal isotopic {sup 18}O abundances. The evolution of {sup 18}O on the delivery side in these experiments after an {sup 18}O pulse on the air side reveals a wealth of information about the oxygen transport processes.

S. Bandopadhyay; N. Nagabhushana; X.-D Zhou; Q. Cai; J. Yang; W.B. Yelon; W.J. James; H.U. Anderson; Alan Jacobson; C.A. Mims

2004-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

72

MTBE, Oxygenates, and Motor Gasoline  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

MTBE, Oxygenates, and MTBE, Oxygenates, and Motor Gasoline Contents * Introduction * Federal gasoline product quality regulations * What are oxygenates? * Who gets gasoline with oxygenates? * Which areas get MTBE? * How much has been invested in MTBE production capacity? * What does new Ethanol capacity cost? * What would an MTBE ban cost? * On-line information resources * Endnotes * Summary of revisions to this analysis Introduction The blending of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) into motor gasoline has increased dramatically since it was first produced 20 years ago. MTBE usage grew in the early 1980's in response to octane demand resulting initially from the phaseout of lead from gasoline and later from rising demand for premium gasoline. The oxygenated gasoline program stimulated an

73

Plants and Night Oxygen Production  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Plants and Night Oxygen Production Plants and Night Oxygen Production Name: Ashar Status: other Grade: other Location: Outside U.S. Country: India Date: Winter 2011-2012 Question: I would like to know if there are any plants which produces oxygen at night (without photosynthesis). I was told by a friend that Holy Basil (Ocimum tenuiflorum) produces oxygen even at night and I'm not convinced. I would like to get confirmation from experts. Replies: Some plants (particularly those of dry regions, e.g., deserts) only open their stomates at night to avoid drying out to intake CO2 (and output O2) (CAM photosynthesis) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crassulacean_acid_metabolism Sincerely, Anthony R. Brach, PhD Missouri Botanical Garden Bringing oxygen producing plants into your home is a way to mimic the healthy lifestyle factors of longevity in humans from the longest lived cultures.

74

Oxygen detection using evanescent fields  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An apparatus and method for the detection of oxygen using optical fiber based evanescent light absorption. Methylene blue was immobilized using a sol-gel process on a portion of the exterior surface of an optical fiber for which the cladding has been removed, thereby forming an optical oxygen sensor. When light is directed through the optical fiber, transmitted light intensity varies as a result of changes in the absorption of evanescent light by the methylene blue in response to the oxygen concentration to which the sensor is exposed. The sensor was found to have a linear response to oxygen concentration on a semi-logarithmic scale within the oxygen concentration range between 0.6% and 20.9%, a response time and a recovery time of about 3 s, ant to exhibit good reversibility and repeatability. An increase in temperature from 21.degree. C. to 35.degree. C. does not affect the net absorption of the sensor.

Duan, Yixiang (Los Alamos, NM); Cao, Weenqing (Los Alamos, NM)

2007-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

75

Flammability of selected heat resistant alloys in oxygen gas mixtures  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Within recent years, the use of oxygen has increased in applications where elevated temperatures and corrosion may be significant factors. In such situations, traditional alloys used in oxygen systems will not be adequate. Where alternative alloys must be utilized, based upon environmental requirements, it is essential that they may be characterized with respect to their ignition and combustion resistance in oxygen. Promoted ignition and promoted ignition-combustion are terms which have been used to describe a situation where a substance with low oxygen supports the combustion of a compatibility ignites and more ignition resistant material. In this paper, data will be presented on the promoted ignition-combustion behavior of selected heat resistant engineering alloys that may be considered for gaseous oxygen applications in severe environments. In this investigation, alloys have been evaluated via both flowing and static (fixed volume) approaches using a rod configuration. Oxygen-nitrogen gas mixtures with compositions ranging from approximately 40 to 99.7% oxygen at pressures of 3.55 to 34.6 MPa were used in the comparative studies.

Zawierucha, R.; McIlroy, K.; Million, J.F. [Praxair, Inc., Tonawanda, NY (United States)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

76

Oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The present quarterly report describes some of the investigations on the structural properties of dense OTM bars provided by Praxair and initial studies on newer composition of Ti doped LSF. Dense OTM bars provided by Praxair were loaded to fracture at varying stress rates. Studies were done at room temperature in air and at 1000 C in a specified environment to evaluate slow crack growth behavior. In addition, studies were also begun to obtain reliable estimates of fracture toughness and stable crack growth in specific environments. Newer composition of Ti doped LSF membranes were characterized by neutron diffraction analysis. Quench studies indicated an apparent correlation between the unit cell volume and oxygen occupancy. The studies however, indicated an anomaly of increasing Fe/Ti ratio with change in heat treatment. Ti doped LSF was also characterized for stoichiometry as a function of temp and pO{sub 2}. The non stoichiometry parameter {delta} was observed to increase almost linearly on lowering pO{sub 2} until a ideal stoichiometric composition of {delta} = 0.175 was approached.

S. Bandopadhyay; N. Nagabhushana; X.-D Zhou; W.B. Yelon; H.U. Anderson; Alan Jacobson; C.A. Mims

2004-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

77

OXYGEN TRANSPORT CERAMIC MEMBRANES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Conversion of natural gas to liquid fuels and chemicals is a major goal for the Nation as it enters the 21st Century. Technically robust and economically viable processes are needed to capture the value of the vast reserves of natural gas on Alaska's North Slope, and wean the Nation from dependence on foreign petroleum sources. Technologies that are emerging to fulfill this need are all based syngas as an intermediate. Syngas (a mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide) is a fundamental building block from which chemicals and fuels can be derived. Lower cost syngas translates directly into more cost-competitive fuels and chemicals. The currently practiced commercial technology for making syngas is either steam methane reforming (SMR) or a two-step process involving cryogenic oxygen separation followed by natural gas partial oxidation (POX). These high-energy, capital-intensive processes do not always produce syngas at a cost that makes its derivatives competitive with current petroleum-based fuels and chemicals.

Dr. Sukumar Bandopadhyay; Dr. Nagendra Nagabhushana

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

Low Oxygen Environments in Chesapeake Bay  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Low Oxygen Environments in Chesapeake Bay Jeremy Testa Chesapeake Biological Laboratory University of Maryland Center for Environmental Science Why we care about low oxygen? What causes low oxygen? Where and When does Chesapeake Bay lose oxygen? #12;#12;Hypoxia and Chesapeake Animals Low dissolved oxygen

Boynton, Walter R.

79

ORIGINAL PAPER Sex differences in circulatory oxygen transport parameters  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

aerobic energy demands, and suggests that the higher [Hb] of female fish may com- pensate for the smaller has commenced, and so their stored energy reserves must satisfy the energetic demands of the migra rMV. These findings reject the hypothesis that all aspects of the circulatory oxygen trans- port

Hinch, Scott G.

80

Competition Requirements  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Chapter 6.1 (July 2011) Chapter 6.1 (July 2011) 1 Competition Requirements [Reference: FAR 6 and DEAR 906] Overview This section discusses competition requirements and provides a model Justification for Other than Full and Open Competition (JOFOC). Background The Competition in Contracting Act (CICA) of 1984 requires that all acquisitions be made using full and open competition. Seven exceptions to using full and open competition are specifically identified in Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) Subpart 6.3. Documentation justifying the use of any of these exceptions is required. The exception, with supporting documentation, must be certified and approved at certain levels that vary according to the dollar value of the

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "higher oxygen requirement" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Competition Requirements  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

----------------------------------------------- ---------------------------------------- Chapter 6.1 (February 2011) 1 Competition Requirements [Reference: FAR 6 and DEAR 906] Overview This section discusses competition requirements and provides a model Justification for Other than Full and Open Competition (JOFOC). Background The Competition in Contracting Act (CICA) of 1984 requires that all acquisitions be made using full and open competition. Seven exceptions to using full and open competition are specifically identified in Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) Subpart 6.3. Documentation justifying the use of any of these exceptions is required. The exception, with supporting documentation, must

82

Electrocatalysts for oxygen electrodes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objectives of the research were: to develop further understanding of the factors controlling O{sub 2} reduction and generation on various electrocatalysts, including transition metal macrocycles and oxides: to use this understanding to identify and develop much higher activity catalysts, both monofunction and bifunction; and to establish how catalytic activity for a given O{sub 2} electrocatalyst depends on catalyst-support interactions and to identify stable catalyst supports for bifunctional electrodes.

Yeager, E.B. (Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States))

1991-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

83

Dilute Oxygen Combustion - Phase 3 Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Dilute Oxygen Combustion (DOC) burners have been successfully installed and operated in the reheat furnace at Auburn Steel Co., Inc., Auburn, NY, under Phase 3 of the Dilute Oxygen Combustion project. Two new preheat zones were created employing a total of eight 6.5 MMBtu/hr capacity burners. The preheat zones provide a 30 percent increase in maximum furnace production rate, from 75 tph to 100 tph. The fuel rate is essentially unchanged, with the fuel savings expected from oxy-fuel combustion being offset by higher flue gas temperatures. When allowance is made for the high nitrogen level and high gas phase temperature in the furnace, measured NOx emissions are in line with laboratory data on DOC burners developed in Phase 1 of the project. Burner performance has been good, and there have been no operating or maintenance problems. The DOC system continues to be used as part of Auburn Steel's standard reheat furnace practice. High gas phase temperature is a result of the high firing density needed to achieve high production rates, and little opportunity exists for improvement in that area. However, fuel and NOx performance can be improved by further conversion on furnace zones to DOC burners, which will lower furnace nitrogen levels. Major obstacles are cost and concern about increased formation of oxide scale on the steel. Oxide scale formation may be enhanced by exposure of the steel to higher concentrations of oxidizing gas components (primarily products of combustion) in the higher temperature zones of the furnace. Phase 4 of the DOC project will examine the rate of oxide scale formation in these higher temperature zones and develop countermeasures that will allow DOC burners to be used successfully in these furnace zones.

Riley, Michael F.

2000-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

84

Dilute Oxygen Combustion Phase 3 Final Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Dilute Oxygen Combustion (DOC) burners have been successfully installed and operated in the reheat furnace at Auburn Steel Co., Inc., Auburn, NY, under Phase 3 of the Dilute Oxygen Combustion project. Two new preheat zones were created employing a total of eight 6.5 MMBtu/hr capacity burners. The preheat zones provide a 30 percent increase in maximum furnace production rate, from 75 tph to 100 tph. The fuel rate is essentially unchanged, with the fuel savings expected from oxy-fuel combustion being offset by higher flue gas temperatures. When allowance is made for the high nitrogen level and high gas phase temperature in the furnace, measured NOx emissions are in line with laboratory data on DOC burners developed in Phase 1 of the project. Burner performance has been good and there have been no operating or maintenance problems. The DOC system continues to be used as part of Auburn Steel?s standard reheat furnace practice. High gas phase temperature is a result of the high firing density needed to achieve high production rates, and little opportunity exists for improvement in that area. However, fuel and NOx performance can be improved by further conversion of furnace zones to DOC burners, which will lower furnace nitrogen levels. Major obstacles are cost and concern about increased formation of oxide scale on the steel. Oxide scale formation may be enhanced by exposure of the steel to higher concentrations of oxidizing gas components (primarily products of combustion) in the higher temperature zones of the furnace. Phase 4 of the DOC project will examine the rate of oxide scale formation in these higher temperature zones and develop countermeasures that will allow DOC burners to be used successfully in these furnace zones.

Riley, M.F.; Ryan, H.M.

2000-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

85

Frostbite Theater - Liquid Oxygen vs. Liquid Nitrogen - Liquid Oxygen and  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Cells vs. Liquid Nitrogen! Cells vs. Liquid Nitrogen! Previous Video (Cells vs. Liquid Nitrogen!) Frostbite Theater Main Index Next Video (Paramagnetism) Paramagnetism Liquid Oxygen and Fire! What happens when nitrogen and oxygen are exposed to fire? [ Show Transcript ] Announcer: Frostbite Theater presents... Cold Cuts! No baloney! Joanna and Steve: Just science! Joanna: Hi! I'm Joanna! Steve: And I'm Steve! Joanna: And this is a test tube of liquid nitrogen! Steve: And this is a test tube of liquid oxygen! Joanna: Let's see what happens when nitrogen and oxygen are exposed to fire. Steve: Fire?! Joanna: Yeah! Steve: Really?! Joanna: Why not! Steve: Okay! Joanna: As nitrogen boils, it changes into nitrogen gas. Because it's so cold, it's denser than the air in the room. The test tube fills up with

86

Dilute Oxygen Combustion Phase IV Final Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Novel furnace designs based on Dilute Oxygen Combustion (DOC) technology were developed under subcontract by Techint Technologies, Coraopolis, PA, to fully exploit the energy and environmental capabilities of DOC technology and to provide a competitive offering for new furnace construction opportunities. Capital cost, fuel, oxygen and utility costs, NOx emissions, oxide scaling performance, and maintenance requirements were compared for five DOC-based designs and three conventional air5-fired designs using a 10-year net present value calculation. A furnace direct completely with DOC burners offers low capital cost, low fuel rate, and minimal NOx emissions. However, these benefits do not offset the cost of oxygen and a full DOC-fired furnace is projected to cost $1.30 per ton more to operate than a conventional air-fired furnace. The incremental cost of the improved NOx performance is roughly $6/lb NOx, compared with an estimated $3/lb. NOx for equ8pping a conventional furnace with selective catalytic reduction (SCCR) technology. A furnace fired with DOC burners in the heating zone and ambient temperature (cold) air-fired burners in the soak zone offers low capital cost with less oxygen consumption. However, the improvement in fuel rate is not as great as the full DOC-fired design, and the DOC-cold soak design is also projected to cost $1.30 per ton more to operate than a conventional air-fired furnace. The NOx improvement with the DOC-cold soak design is also not as great as the full DOC fired design, and the incremental cost of the improved NOx performance is nearly $9/lb NOx. These results indicate that a DOC-based furnace design will not be generally competitive with conventional technology for new furnace construction under current market conditions. Fuel prices of $7/MMBtu or oxygen prices of $23/ton are needed to make the DOC furnace economics favorable. Niche applications may exist, particularly where access to capital is limited or floor space limitations are critical. DOC technology will continue to have a highly competitive role in retrofit applications requiring increases in furnace productivity.

Riley, M.F.

2003-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

87

Oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The present quarterly report describes some of the investigations on the structural properties of dense OTM bars provided by Praxair and studies on newer composition of Ti doped LSF. In the current research, the electrical conductivity and Seebeck coefficient were measured as a function of temperature in air. Based on these measurements, the charge carrier concentration, net acceptor dopant concentration, activation energy of conduction and mobility were estimated. The studies on the fracture toughness of the LSFT and dual phase membranes at room temperature have been completed and reported previously. The membranes that are exposed to high temperatures at an inert and a reactive atmosphere undergo many structural and chemical changes which affects the mechanical properties. To study the effect of temperature on the membranes when exposed to an inert environment, the membranes (LAFT and Dual phase) were heat treated at 1000 C in air and N{sub 2} atmosphere and hardness and fracture toughness of the membranes were studied after the treatment. The indentation method was used to find the fracture toughness and the effect of the heat treatment on the mechanical properties of the membranes. Further results on the investigation of the origin of the slow kinetics on reduction of ferrites have been obtained. The slow kinetics appears to be related to a non-equilibrium reduction pathway that initially results in the formation of iron particles. At long times, equilibrium can be reestablished with recovery of the perovskite phase. 2-D modeling of oxygen movement has been undertaken in order to fit isotope data. The model will serve to study ''frozen'' profiles in patterned or composite membranes.

S. Bandopadhyay; T. Nithyanantham; X.-D Zhou; Y-W. Sin; H.U. Anderson; Alan Jacobson; C.A. Mims

2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

88

Oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In the present quarter, experiments are presented on ceramic/metal interactions of Zirconia/ Ni-B-Si system and with a thin Ti coating deposited on zirconia surface. Existing facilities were modified for evaluation of environmental assisted slow crack growth and creep in flexural mode. Processing of perovskites of LSC, LSF and LSCF composition were continued for evaluation of mechanical properties as a function of environment. These studies in parallel to those on the LSFCO composition is expect to yield important information on questions such as the role of cation segregation and the stability of the perovskite structure on crack initiation vs. crack growth. Studies have been continued on the La{sub 1-x}Sr{sub x}FeO{sub 3-d} composition using neutron diffraction and TGA studies. A transition from p-type to n-type of conductor was observed at relative low pO{sub 2}, at which the majority carriers changed from the holes to electrons because of the valence state decreases in Fe due to the further loss of oxygen. Investigation on the thermodynamic properties of the membrane materials are continued to develop a complete model for the membrane transport. Data obtained at 850 C show that the stoichiometry in La{sub 0.2}Sr{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 0.8}Cr{sub 0.2}O{sub 3-x} vary from {approx}2.85 to 2.6 over the pressure range studied. From the stoichiometry a lower limit of 2.6 corresponding to the reduction of all Fe{sup 4+} to Fe{sup 3+} and no reduction of Cr{sup 3+} is expected.

S. Bandopadhyay; N. Nagabhushana

2003-08-07T23:59:59.000Z

89

Oxygen transfer in the implant environment  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Temperature dependence of oxygen diffusion and consumptionRN. Influence of temperature on oxygen diffusion in hamster341-347, 1988. Cox ME. Oxygen Diffusion in Poly(dimethyl

Goor, Jared Braden

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

90

OXYGEN DIFFUSION IN UO2-x  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

~ K.C. K:i.m, "Oxygen Diffusion in Hypostoichiometricsystem for enriching uo 2 in oxygen-18 or for stoichiometry+nal of Nuclear Materials OXYGEN DIFFUSION IN U0 2 _:x K.C.

Kim, K.C.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

91

PRIMARY RESEARCH PAPER Water column oxygen demand and sediment oxygen flux  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

PRIMARY RESEARCH PAPER Water column oxygen demand and sediment oxygen flux: patterns of oxygen dissolved oxygen (DO) levels often occur during summer in tidal creeks along the southeastern coast of the USA. We analyzed rates of oxygen loss as water-column biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) and sediment

Mallin, Michael

92

Polycyclic Aromatic Triptycenes: Oxygen Substitution Cyclization Strategies  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The cyclization and planarization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons with concomitant oxygen substitution was achieved through acid catalyzed transetherification and oxygen-radical reactions. The triptycene scaffold ...

VanVeller, Brett

93

Electrocatalytic Reactivity for Oxygen Reduction of Palladium...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Reactivity for Oxygen Reduction of Palladium-Modified Carbon Nanotubes Synthesized in Supercritical Fluid. Electrocatalytic Reactivity for Oxygen Reduction of Palladium-Modified...

94

Angling chromium to let oxygen through | EMSL  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

which enable facile oxygen anion diffusion at low temperature. Brighter spheres are strontium ions; less-bright spheres are chromium ions. Oxygen anions are barely visible, and...

95

Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation promotes long chain fatty...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

membrane oxygenation promotes long chain fatty acid oxidation in the immature swine heart in vivo. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation promotes long chain fatty acid oxidation...

96

OXYGEN DIFFUSION IN HYPOSTOICHIOMETRIC URANIUM DIOXIDE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Research Division OXYGEN DIFFUSION IN HYPOSTOICHIOMETRIC11905 -DISCLAIMER - OXYGEN DIFFUSION IN HYPOSTOICHIOMETRICc o n e e n i g woroxygen self-diffusion coefficient

Kim, Kee Chul

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

Formation, characterization and reactivity of adsorbed oxygen...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Formation, characterization and reactivity of adsorbed oxygen on BaOPt(111). Formation, characterization and reactivity of adsorbed oxygen on BaOPt(111). Abstract: The formation...

98

Platinum Monolayer Electrocatalysts for Oxygen Reduction Reaction...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Platinum Monolayer Electrocatalysts for Oxygen Reduction Reaction Platinum Monolayer Electrocatalysts for Oxygen Reduction Reaction Presentation slides from the June 19, 2012, Fuel...

99

Oxygenate Supply/Demand Balances  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Oxygenate Supply/Demand Oxygenate Supply/Demand Balances in the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting Model By Tancred C.M. Lidderdale This article first appeared in the Short-Term Energy Outlook Annual Supplement 1995, Energy Information Administration, DOE/EIA-0202(95) (Washington, DC, July 1995), pp. 33-42, 83-85. The regression results and historical data for production, inventories, and imports have been updated in this presentation. Contents * Introduction o Table 1. Oxygenate production capacity and demand * Oxygenate demand o Table 2. Estimated RFG demand share - mandated RFG areas, January 1998 * Fuel ethanol supply and demand balance o Table 3. Fuel ethanol annual statistics * MTBE supply and demand balance o Table 4. EIA MTBE annual statistics * Refinery balances

100

It's Elemental - The Element Oxygen  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Nitrogen Nitrogen Previous Element (Nitrogen) The Periodic Table of Elements Next Element (Fluorine) Fluorine The Element Oxygen [Click for Isotope Data] 8 O Oxygen 15.9994 Atomic Number: 8 Atomic Weight: 15.9994 Melting Point: 54.36 K (-218.79°C or -361.82°F) Boiling Point: 90.20 K (-182.95°C or -297.31°F) Density: 0.001429 grams per cubic centimeter Phase at Room Temperature: Gas Element Classification: Non-metal Period Number: 2 Group Number: 16 Group Name: Chalcogen What's in a name? From the greek words oxys and genes, which together mean "acid forming." Say what? Oxygen is pronounced as OK-si-jen. History and Uses: Oxygen had been produced by several chemists prior to its discovery in 1774, but they failed to recognize it as a distinct element. Joseph

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101

The System Boron—Oxygen  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This presentation covers the years 1985 to 1988 and, in part, to 1992. It continues the previous discussion of the system boron—oxygen in “Boron Compounds” 3rd Suppl. Vol. 2, 1987, pp. 1/184, and earlier liter...

Gert Heller

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

102

Required Documents  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Required Documents Required Documents Required Documents All foreign nationals, including students and postdocs, must select the foreign nationals employment category to complete the new-hire process. Contact (505) 665-7158 Email Complete following forms before New-Hire Orientation Be sure to bring the forms with you for the orientation event, but do not sign and date: Form I-9, Employment Eligibility Verification (pdf) - original, unexpired documents for verification of employment eligibility. Please refer to the I-9 verification form titled, "Lists of Acceptable Documents", which was included with your offer letter. (Laminated documents or hospital/temporary birth certificates are not accepted.) Note: Failure to provide required documents will result in delay and/or

103

Competition Requirements  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Chapter 6.1 (April 2009) Chapter 6.1 (April 2009) Competition Requirements [Reference: FAR 6 and DEAR 906] Overview This section discusses competition requirements and provides a model Justification for Other than Full and Open Competition (JOFOC). Background The Competition in Contracting Act (CICA) of 1984 requires that all acquisitions be made using full and open competition. Seven exceptions to using full and open competition are specifically identified in FAR Part 6. Documentation justifying the use of any of these exceptions is required. The exception, with supporting documentation, must be certified and approved at certain levels that vary according to the dollar value of the acquisition. The information that must be included in each justification is

104

Competition Requirements  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Chapter 6.1 (April 2010) Chapter 6.1 (April 2010) 1 Competition Requirements [Reference: FAR 6 and DEAR 906] Overview This section discusses competition requirements and provides a model Justification for Other than Full and Open Competition (JOFOC). Background The Competition in Contracting Act (CICA) of 1984 requires that all acquisitions be made using full and open competition. Seven exceptions to using full and open competition are specifically identified in Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) Subpart 6.3. Documentation justifying the use of any of these exceptions is required. The exception, with supporting documentation, must be certified and approved at certain levels that vary according to the dollar value of the acquisition. The information that must be included in each justification is identified in FAR

105

Frequency effects on the production of reactive oxygen species in atmospheric radio frequency helium-oxygen discharges  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Several experimental and computational studies have shown that increasing frequency can effectively enhance the discharge stability in atmospheric radio-frequency (rf) discharges, but the frequency effects on the reactivity of rf discharges, represented by the densities of reactive oxygen species (ROS), are still far from fully understood. In this paper, a one-dimensional fluid model with 17 species and 65 reactions taken into account is used to explore the influences of the driving frequency on the production and destruction of ROS in atmospheric rf helium-oxygen discharges. From the computational results, with an increase in the frequency the densities of ROS decrease always at a constant power density, however, in the relatively higher frequency discharges the densities of ROS can be effectively improved by increasing the input power density with an expanded oxygen admixture range, while the discharges operate in the {alpha} mode, and the numerical data also show the optimal oxygen admixture for ground state atomic oxygen, at which the peak atomic oxygen density can be obtained, increases with the driving frequency.

Zhang, Yuantao T.; He Jin [Shandong Provincial Key Lab of UHV Technology and Gas Discharge Physics, School of Electrical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong Province 250061 (China)

2013-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

106

The generation of singlet Delta oxygen - A technology overview. [For use in chemical oxygen iodine lasers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The rate of generation of O2(1Delta g) using the chlorine-basic-hydrogen-peroxide reaction is a key element to predict the performance of the chemical oxygen iodine laser. O2(1Delta g) carries the energy in the laser, and thus is one of the prime determinants of power in the flow. To predict the performance of O2(1Delta g) generators requires the prediction of the utilization of chlorine, the yield of excited oxygen, and the concentration of potential contaminants in the chemical exhaust of the generator. This paper describes an approach to the analysis of O2(1Delta g) generators. 6 refs.

Mcdermott, W.E. (Rockwell International Corp., Rocketdyne Div., Canoga Park, CA (United States))

1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

Lower Cost, Higher Performance Carbon Fiber  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

David (Dave) Warren David (Dave) Warren Field Technical Manager Transportation Materials Research Oak Ridge National Laboratory P.O. Box 2009, M/S 8050 Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-8050 Phone: 865-574-9693 Fax: 865-574-0740 Email: WarrenCD@ORNL.GOV Lower Cost, Higher Performance Carbon Fiber 14 February 2011 2 Managed by UT-Battelle for the U.S. Department of Energy Presentation_name Questions for Today Materials How can the cost of carbon fiber suitable for higher performance applications (H 2 Storage) be developed? H 2 Storage requirements implies Aerospace grade fibers. Can we build off of work previously done for more modest structural applications? To accurately answer: We need to know the minimum performance and maximum cost requirements of the fiber not simply the properties of current fiber.

108

Water column oxygen demand and sediment oxygen flux: patterns of oxygen depletion in tidal creeks  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Five study sites were chosen in Futch Creek, Hewletts Creek and Pages Creek,...1). Sites were chosen to reflect a range in the values of dissolved oxygen levels, chlorophyll a concentrations and nutrient (nitroge...

Tara A. MacPherson; Lawrence B. Cahoon; Michael A. Mallin

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

109

Oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The present quarterly report describes some of the investigations on the structural properties of dense OTM bars provided by Praxair and studies on newer composition of Ti doped LSF. In this report, in situ neutron diffraction was used to characterize the chemical and structural properties of La{sub 0.2}Sr{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 0.55}Ti{sub 0.45}O{sub 3-{delta}} (here after as L2SF55T) specimen, which was subject to measurements of neutron diffraction from room temperature to 900 C in N{sub 2}. Space group of R3c was found to result in a better refinement and is used in this study. The difference for crystal structure, lattice parameters and local crystal chemistry for LSFT nearly unchanged when gas environment switched from air to N{sub 2}. Stable crack growth studies on Dense OTM bars provided by Praxair were done at room temperature in air. A bridge-compression fixture was fabricated to achieve stable pre-cracks from Vickers indents. Post fracture evaluation indicated stable crack growth from the indent and a regime of fast fracture. Post-fracture X-ray data of the OTM fractured at 1000 C in environment were refined by FullProf code and results indicate a distortion of the parent cubic perovskite to orthorhombic structure with reduced symmetry. TGA-DTA studies on the post-fracture samples also indicated residual effect arising from the thermal and stress history of the samples. The thermal and chemical expansion of La{sub 0.2}Sr{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 0.55}Ti{sub 0.45}O{sub 3-{delta}} were studied at 800 {le} T {le} 1000 C and at {approx} 1 x 10{sup -15} {le} pO{sub 2} {le} 0.21 atm. The thermal expansion coefficient of the sample was calculated from the dilatometric analysis in the temperature range between room temperature and 1200 C in air. A series of isotope transients under air separation mode (small gradient) were completed on the membrane of LSCrF-2828 at 900 C. Low pO{sub 2} atmospheres based on with CO-CO{sub 2} mixtures have also been admitted to the delivery side of the LSCrF-2828 membrane to produce the gradients which exist under syngas generation conditions. The CO-CO{sub 2} mixtures have normal isotopic {sup 18}O abundances. The evolution of {sup 18}O on the delivery side in these experiments after an {sup 18}O pulse on the air side reveals a wealth of information about the oxygen transport processes.

S. Bandopadhyay; N. Nagabhushana; X.-D Zhou; Q. Cai; J. Yang; W.B. Yelon; W.J. James; H.U. Anderson; Alan Jacobson; C.A. Mims

2004-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

Competition Requirements  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

--------------------------- Chapter 6.5 (January 2011) 1 Competition Advocate Responsibilities [Reference: FAR 6.5, FAR 7 and DEAR 906.501] Overview This section discusses the competition advocate requirements and provides a Federal Procurement Data System-New Generation (FPDS-NG) coding assistance sheet and screen shots for the FPDS-NG Competition Report. Background FAR Part 6.5, -Competition Advocates,‖ implements section 20 of the Office of Federal Procurement Policy Act, which requires the head of each executive agency to designate an Agency Competition Advocate and Procuring Activity Advocates (hereafter referred to as Activity Competition Advocates). In accordance with DEAR 906.501, the Secretary of

111

OXYGEN ADSORPTION ON NITROGEN CONTAINING CARBON SURFACES  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

OXYGEN ADSORPTION ON NITROGEN CONTAINING CARBON SURFACES Alejandro Montoya, Jorge O. Gil, Fanor-rich site of the carbon basal plane of graphite and then, it dissociates into oxygen atoms.1,2 Oxygen atoms at the edge of the carbon surface can form covalent bonds with oxygen. These sites can chemisorb

Truong, Thanh N.

112

Subtask 3.12 - Oxygen-Fired CFBC  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Traditionally, air is used as the source of oxygen for firing a combustion system. A fully oxygen-fired circulating fluidized-bed combustion (CFBC) system would result in the production of a flue gas stream consisting of mostly carbon dioxide and water. The concentrated carbon dioxide stream would be available for sequestering or other purposes. Temperatures in an oxygen-blown CFBC system would be controlled by a combination of flue gas recycle, solids recirculation, and by appropriately sizing and locating the amount of heat-transfer surface required. Flue gas recycle provides the additional gas required for adequate fluidization and circulation of solids replacing the nitrogen that would be present in an air-blown system. The amount of flue gas recycle will determine how much of the remaining heat from the coal combustion will have to be removed. If the amount of flue gas recycle required by increasing solids recirculation and oxygen staging is limited, introducing the pure oxygen at multiple locations in the combustor to result in a more even temperature profile should result in a more compact system, thus reducing initial capital costs for construction. The overall efficiency of the process should be greater than that of an air-blown system since less fuel is required for the creation of the same amount of energy. The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) is in a unique position to advance this technology. It has a world-class CFBC pilot plant, has experience with firing a wide range of fuels in our air-fired CFBC pilot plant, has prior experience with oxygen-firing a slagging furnace system in a pulverized coal-fired mode with a bituminous coal, and has all of the components required for oxygen-firing right next to the CFBC pilot plant already in place. An engineering study was performed to identify methods, an overall appropriate configuration, and an operating strategy for a fully oxygen-fired CFBC pilot plant by: (1) developing a plan to optimize the amount of flue gas recycle required to control bed temperature; (2) determining how to best utilize the heat-transfer surfaces in a CFBC pilot plant, such as increased external bed surface, to more beneficially use increased solids recycle; (3) identifying appropriate methods for staged addition of the oxygen/recycled flue gas streams to maintain a good temperature profile in the combustor; and (4) determining the level of effort required to convert the EERC CFBC pilot plant to one that is oxygen-blown. The EERC additionally used its experience to consider what would be required for firing a wide range of fuels from biomass to low-rank coals to high-rank coals and petroleum cokes. These proposed modifications will be performed based upon obtaining the required funding.

Douglas Hajicek; Mark Musich; Ann Henderson

2007-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

113

Oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A non-agglomerated and nanocrystalline-sized powder was successfully produced using ethylene glycol nitrate methods. The LSFT powder prepared using this method exhibits well dispersed and nano-sized particles about 100-200 nm. The density of LSFT sintered at 1300 C was about 90% of the theoretical density at which is 100 C less than that of the previous LSFT which was sintered at 1400 C. The sample sintered at 1400 C exhibited the evidence of a liquid phase at the grain boundaries and 2nd phase formation which probably caused low mechanical stability. The electrical conductivity and Seebeck coefficient were measured as a function of temperature. The LSFT-CGO specimens were cut from the as sintered bars and used for the evaluation of Mechanical Properties after polishing. The effect of strain rate on the flexural strength of the LSFT-CGO test specimens was studied. Three strain rates 6, 60 and 600 {micro}m/ min were chosen for this study. It is observed from the results that with increasing cross head speed the membrane takes higher loads to fail. A reduction in the strength of the membrane was observed at 1000 C in N{sub 2}. Two different routes were investigated to synthesis GDC using either formate or carbonate precursors. The precursor and CGO particle morphologies were examined by scanning electron microscopy. The thermal decomposition behaviors of Ce(Gd)(HCOO){sub 3} and Ce(Gd)(CO{sub 3})(OH) were determined by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) at a rate of 3 C/min in air. The X-ray powder diffraction patterns of the precursor and CGO were collected and nitrogen adsorption isotherms were measured. Conductivity measurements were made by AC impedance spectroscopy on sintered disks in air using platinum electrodes.

S. Bandopadhyay; T. Nithyanantham

2006-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

114

Oxygen isotopic exchange: A useful tool for characterizing oxygen conducting oxides  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Oxygen isotopic exchange: A useful tool for characterizing oxygen conducting oxides Bassat J we obtain in both cases data concerning the oxygen diffusion in the bulk and the oxygen exchange with regards to the oxygen reduction reaction. Detailed experimental and analytical processes are given

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

115

Competition Requirements  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

- Chapter 5.2 (April 2008) - Chapter 5.2 (April 2008) Synopsizing Proposed Non-Competitive Contract Actions Citing the Authority of FAR 6.302-1 [Reference: FAR 5 and DEAR 905] Overview This section discusses publicizing sole source actions as part of the approval of a Justification for Other than Full and Open Competition (JOFOC) using the authority of FAR 6.302-1. Background The Competition in Contracting Act (CICA) of 1984 requires that all acquisitions be made using full and open competition. Seven exceptions to using full and open competition are specifically identified in FAR Part 6. One exception permits contracting without full and open competition when the required supplies or services are available from only one responsible source (FAR 6.302-1). This exception is

116

SUPPORTED DENSE CERAMIC MEMBRANES FOR OXYGEN SEPARATION  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Mixed-conducting membranes have the ability to conduct oxygen with perfect selectivity at elevated temperatures, which makes them an extremely attractive alternative for oxygen separation and membrane reactor applications. The ability to reliably fabricate these membranes in thin or thick films would enable solid-state divisional limitations to be minimized, thus providing higher oxygen flux. Based on that motivation, the overall objective for this project is to develop and demonstrate a strategy for the fabrication of supported Wick film ceramic mixed conducting membranes, and improve the understanding of the fundamental issues associated with reliable fabrication of these membranes. The project has focused on the mixed-conducting ceramic composition SrCo{sub 0.5}FeO{sub x} because of its superior permeability and stability in reducing atmospheres. The fabrication strategy employed involves the deposition of SrCo{sub 0.5}FeO{sub x} thick films onto porous supports of the same composition. In the second year of this project, we completed characterization of the sintering and phase behavior of the porous SrCo{sub 0.5}FeO{sub x} supports, leading to a standard support fabrication methodology. Using a doctor blade method, pastes made from aerosol-derived SrCo{sub 0.5}FeO{sub x} powder dispersed with polyethylene glycol were applied to the supports, and the sintering behavior of the thick film membranes was examined in air and nitrogen atmospheres. It has been demonstrated that the desired crystalline phase content can be produced in the membranes, and that the material in the membrane layer can be highly densified without densifying the underlying support. However, considerable cracking and opening of the film occurred when films densified to a high extent. The addition of MgO into the SrCo{sub 0.5}FeO{sub x} supports was shown to inhibit support sintering so that temperatures up to 1300 C, where significant liquid formation occurs, could be used for film sintering. This successfully reduced cracking, however the films retained open porosity. The investigation of this concept will be continued in the final year of the project. Investigation of a metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) method for defect mending in dense membranes was also initiated. An appropriate metal organic precursor (iron tetramethylheptanedionate) was identified whose deposition can be controlled by access to oxygen at temperatures in the 280-300 C range. Initial experiments have deposited iron oxide, but only on the membrane surface; thus refinement of this method will continue.

Timothy L. Ward

2000-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

117

Magnetism of solid oxygen  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Magnetic susceptibilities of single-crystal ?-O2 and preferentially oriented polycrystalline samples of ?-O2 and ?-O2 have been measured, employing a mutual-inductance bridge method. The susceptibility of paramagnetic ?-O2 is isotropic and exhibits a temperature dependence which is not strictly Curie-Weiss, due to short-range correlations and partially hindered rotation. The susceptibility of ?-O2 exhibits very little anisotropy, but has an unusual temperature dependence which is probably due to the novel behavior of the lattice constants, modulation of inplane and out-of-plane exchange interactions, and short-range order. The susceptibility of anti-ferromagnetic ?-O2 is anisotropic, and data from five differently oriented samples have been analyzed in terms of principal antiferromagnetic susceptibilities. The data are consistent with the assumption that the easy axis is the twofold axis, b??, though the direction a?? cannot be excluded. A comprehensive analysis of the present susceptibility results and other magnetic, spectroscopic, and thermal measurements is made, with special reference to ?-O2. The perpendicular susceptibility implies an unreasonably large Néel temperature, 211 K, and a correspondingly large intersublattice exchange interaction, |J2|k=19.8 K. The effects of anisotropy and zeropoint spin deviations do not reduce this estimate by more than 15%. The temperature dependence of the parallel susceptibility suggests a much smaller value for the effective exchange interaction, |J|k=5.3 K, and appears to be well accounted for assuming a single spin-wave excitation. Antiferromagnetic resonance frequencies are analyzed and shown to yield, on assuming a dominant anisotropy equal to that of the free molecule, |J2|k=4.3 K. An approximate separation of lattice and magnetic heat capacities is effected, and a value |J|k=3.0 K deduced. The data appear to require the assumption of two spin-wave modes. Except for the perpendicular susceptibility, experimental results suggest a Néel temperature between 30 and 40 K. Meanfield and other theories lead to similar estimates, assuming that |J|k is between 3 and 4 K. The effect of the anisotropy on TN is minor, and no significant spin-shortening effect is predicted. Other experimental results are considered, and a disparate set of estimates for the exchange interaction and zone-boundary spin-wave energies is discussed. Including the effects of intrasublattice exchange interactions within the context of a two-sublattice model does not seem sufficient to remove the various discrepancies. An approximate calculation of relative overlap integrals and exchange interactions between different pairs of molecules in ?-O2 is made. It is suggested that a multisublattice model for the magnetic structure, and possibly one involving noncollinear sublattices, may provide an eventual resolution of the various difficulties. A "quasi-two-dimensional" description of ?-O2 is also considered, but appears not to offer a satisfactory explanation of the unusual and imperfectly correlated properties of this phase.

Gary C. DeFotis

1981-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

Evolution of Photosynthesis and Biospheric Oxygenation Contingent Upon Nitrogen Fixation?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

How photosynthesis by Precambrian cyanobacteria oxygenated Earth's biosphere remains incompletely understood. Here it is argued that the oxic transition, which took place between approximately 2.3 and 0.5 Gyr ago, required a great proliferation of cyanobacteria, and this in turn depended on their ability to fix nitrogen via the nitrogenase enzyme system. However, the ability to fix nitrogen was not a panacea, and the rate of biospheric oxygenation may still have been affected by nitrogen constraints on cyanobacterial expansion. Evidence is presented for why cyanobacteria probably have a great need for fixed nitrogen than other prokaryotes, underscoring the importance of their ability to fix nitrogen. The connection between nitrogen fixation and the evolution of photosynthesis is demonstrated by the similarities between nitrogenase and enzymes critical for the biosynthesis of (bacterio)chlorophyll. It is hypothesized that biospheric oxygenation would not have occurred if the emergence of cyanobacteria had not ...

Grula, J W

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

119

Federal / State Legislative & Regulatory Changes Required for...  

Energy Savers [EERE]

Issues Federal and State Blending Restrictions Action by ASTM NCWM to address higher ethanol blends Federal State Legislative & Regulatory Changes Required for Introduction of...

120

Higher Education Energy Loan Program  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Oklahoma Department of Commerce has established a loan/lease fund for institutes of higher education to improve energy efficiency. Two categories of funding are available for schools to reduce...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "higher oxygen requirement" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Natural Ores as Oxygen Carriers in Chemical Looping Combustion  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Chemical looping combustion (CLC) is a combustion technology that utilizes oxygen from oxygen carriers (OC), such as metal oxides, instead of air to combust fuels. The use of natural minerals as oxygen carriers has advantages, such as lower cost and availability. Eight materials, based on copper or iron oxides, were selected for screening tests of CLC processes using coal and methane as fuels. Thermogravimetric experiments and bench-scale fixed-bed reactor tests were conducted to investigate the oxygen transfer capacity, reaction kinetics, and stability during cyclic reduction/oxidation reaction. Most natural minerals showed lower combustion capacity than pure CuO/Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} due to low-concentrations of active oxide species in minerals. In coal CLC, chryscolla (Cu-based), magnetite, and limonite (Fe-based) demonstrated better reaction performances than other materials. The addition of steam improved the coal CLC performance when using natural ores because of the steam gasification of coal and the subsequent reaction of gaseous fuels with active oxide species in the natural ores. In methane CLC, chryscolla, hematite, and limonite demonstrated excellent reactivity and stability in 50-cycle thermogravimetric analysis tests. Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-based ores possess greater oxygen utilization but require an activation period before achieving full performance in methane CLC. Particle agglomeration issues associated with the application of natural ores in CLC processes were also studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM).

Tian, Hanjing; Siriwardane, Ranjani; Simonyi, Thomas; Poston, James

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

122

HIGHER-ORDER MODELING AND AUTOMATED DESIGN-SPACE EXPLORATION  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the second requires the exis- tence of an automated process for design space exploration. There are many waysHIGHER-ORDER MODELING AND AUTOMATED DESIGN-SPACE EXPLORATION J¨orn W. Janneck EECS Department exploration, exploratory simula- tion, performance evaluation, higher-order models ABSTRACT An important part

Esser, Robert

123

Quantifying the areal extent and dissolved oxygen concentrations of Archean oxygen oases.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Several lines of evidence indicate that the advent of oxygenic photosynthesis preceded the oxygenation of the atmosphere—perhaps by as much as 300 million years. The… (more)

Olson, Stephanie

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

124

Differentiating the role of lithium and oxygen in retaining deuterium on lithiated graphite plasma-facing components  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Laboratory experiments have been used to investigate the fundamental interactions responsible for deuterium retention in lithiated graphite. Oxygen was found to be present and play a key role in experiments that simulated NSTX lithium conditioning, where the atomic surface concentration can increase to >40% when deuterium retention chemistry is observed. Quantum-classical molecular dynamic simulations elucidated this oxygen-deuterium effect and showed that oxygen retains significantly more deuterium than lithium in a simulated matrix with 20% lithium, 20% oxygen, and 60% carbon. Simulations further show that deuterium retention is even higher when lithium is removed from the matrix. Experiments artificially increased the oxygen content in graphite to ?16% and then bombarded with deuterium. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy showed depletion of the oxygen and no enhanced deuterium retention, thus demonstrating that lithium is essential in retaining the oxygen that thereby retains deuterium.

Taylor, C. N. [Fusion Safety Program, Idaho National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1625-7113, Idaho Falls, Idaho 83415 (United States) [Fusion Safety Program, Idaho National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1625-7113, Idaho Falls, Idaho 83415 (United States); School of Nuclear Engineering, Purdue University, 400 Central Drive, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States); Allain, J. P. [School of Nuclear Engineering, Purdue University, 400 Central Drive, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States) [School of Nuclear Engineering, Purdue University, 400 Central Drive, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States); Department of Nuclear, Plasma and Radiological Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Illinois 61801 (United States); Luitjohan, K. E. [School of Nuclear Engineering, Purdue University, 400 Central Drive, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States)] [School of Nuclear Engineering, Purdue University, 400 Central Drive, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States); Krstic, P. S. [Institute for Advanced Computational Science, Stony Brook University, New York 11794 (United States) [Institute for Advanced Computational Science, Stony Brook University, New York 11794 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee 37996 (United States); TheoretiK, Knoxville, Tennessee 379XX (United States); Dadras, J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee 37996 (United States) [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee 37996 (United States); Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Skinner, C. H. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States)] [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States)

2014-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

125

Catalysts for conversion of methane to higher hydrocarbons  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Catalysts for converting methane to higher hydrocarbons such as ethane and ethylene in the presence of oxygen at temperatures in the range of about 700.degree. to 900.degree. C. are described. These catalysts comprise calcium oxide or gadolinium oxide respectively promoted with about 0.025-0.4 mole and about 0.1-0.7 mole sodium pyrophosphate. A preferred reaction temperature in a range of about 800.degree. to 850.degree. C. with a preferred oxygen-to-methane ratio of about 2:1 provides an essentially constant C.sub.2 hydrocarbon yield in the range of about 12 to 19 percent over a period of time greater than about 20 hours.

Siriwardane, Ranjani V. (Morgantown, WV)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

126

Mitochondrial reactive oxygen species and cancer  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Mitochondria produce reactive oxygen species (mROS) as a natural by-product of electron transport chain activity. While initial studies focused on the damaging effects of reactive oxygen species, a recent paradigm shift ...

Chandel, Navdeep S

127

Microbial oceanography of anoxic oxygen minimum zones  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Vast expanses of oxygen-deficient and nitrite-rich water define the major oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) of the global ocean. They support diverse microbial communities that influence the nitrogen economy of the oceans, ...

Ulloa, Osvaldo

128

Oxygen reduction on platinum : an EIS study  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) on platinum over yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) is examined via electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) for oxygen partial pressures between 10-4 and 1 atm and at temperatures ...

Golfinopoulos, Theodore

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

129

Microchemical systems for singlet oxygen generation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Chemical Oxygen-Iodine Lasers (COIL) are a technology of interest for industrial and military audiences. COILs are flowing gas lasers where the gain medium of iodine atoms is collisionally pumped by singlet delta oxygen ...

Hill, Tyrone F. (Tyrone Frank), 1980-

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

130

Imaging Oxygen Molecules Up Close | EMSL  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Imaging Oxygen Molecules Up Close Imaging Oxygen Molecules Up Close ARRA-enabled upgrades enhance research capabilities STM images of the same TiO2(110) area upon O2 chemisorption...

131

Higher Yields Can Be Achieved  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

8 8 Notes: While the current forecast is showing higher distillate production than last year, there is room for yet more volume through refiners switching to higher yields than those being forecast. This will only happen if economic incentives evolve to encourage this change. Current high spreads indicate those incentives may occur. This graph shows the distillate yield pattern over the last few years. Generally yields rise in the fall to build stocks for winter distillate use. On average, the yield increase during the fourth quarter is about 2% higher than the yield average of the lowest yield months of June, July and August. (Recognize that a 1% change in yield is about a 150 MB/D change in distillate production, which is about 4% of winter demand.) During the fall of 1996, the winter season began with very low

132

Composite oxygen ion transport element  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A composite oxygen ion transport element that has a layered structure formed by a dense layer to transport oxygen ions and electrons and a porous support layer to provide mechanical support. The dense layer can be formed of a mixture of a mixed conductor, an ionic conductor, and a metal. The porous support layer can be fabricated from an oxide dispersion strengthened metal, a metal-reinforced intermetallic alloy, a boron-doped Mo.sub.5Si.sub.3-based intermetallic alloy or combinations thereof. The support layer can be provided with a network of non-interconnected pores and each of said pores communicates between opposite surfaces of said support layer. Such a support layer can be advantageously employed to reduce diffusion resistance in any type of element, including those using a different material makeup than that outlined above.

Chen, Jack C. (Getzville, NY); Besecker, Charles J. (Batavia, IL); Chen, Hancun (Williamsville, NY); Robinson, Earil T. (Mentor, OH)

2007-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

133

Catalyst containing oxygen transport membrane  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A composite oxygen transport membrane having a dense layer, a porous support layer and an intermediate porous layer located between the dense layer and the porous support layer. Both the dense layer and the intermediate porous layer are formed from an ionic conductive material to conduct oxygen ions and an electrically conductive material to conduct electrons. The porous support layer has a high permeability, high porosity, and a high average pore diameter and the intermediate porous layer has a lower permeability and lower pore diameter than the porous support layer. Catalyst particles selected to promote oxidation of a combustible substance are located in the intermediate porous layer and in the porous support adjacent to the intermediate porous layer. The catalyst particles can be formed by wicking a solution of catalyst precursors through the porous support toward the intermediate porous layer.

Christie, Gervase Maxwell; Wilson, Jamie Robyn; van Hassel, Bart Antonie

2012-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

134

Respiration, photosynthesis, and oxygen isotope fractionation in ...  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Jan 25, 1971 ... Respiration, photosynthesis, and oxygen isotope fractionation in oceanic surface water1. Peter M. Kroopnick. Department of Oceanography,.

2000-01-04T23:59:59.000Z

135

Complex higher order derivative theories  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this work is considered a complex scalar field theory with higher order derivative terms and interactions. A procedure is developed to quantize consistently this system avoiding the presence of negative norm states. In order to achieve this goal the original real scalar high order field theory is extended to a complex space attaching a complex total derivative to the theory. Next, by imposing reality conditions the complex theory is mapped to a pair of interacting real scalar field theories without the presence of higher derivative terms.

Margalli, Carlos A.; Vergara, J. David [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apartado Postal 70-543, Mexico 04510 DF (Mexico)

2012-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

136

Electrochemical oxygen pumps. Final CRADA report.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

All tasks of the Work Plan of ISTC Project 2277p have been completed, thus: (1) techniques of chemical synthesis were developed for more than ten recipes of electrolyte based on cerium oxide doped with 20 mole% of gadolinium (CeGd)O{sub 2}, doped by more than 10 oxide systems including 6 recipes in addition to the Work Plan; (2) electric conductivity and mechanical strength of CeGd specimens with additions of oxide systems were performed, two candidate materials for the electrolyte of electrochemical oxygen pump (pure CeGd and CeGd doped by 0.2 wt% of a transition metal) were chosen; (3) extended studies of mechanical strength of candidate material specimens were performed at room temperature and at 400, 600, 800 C; (4) fixtures for determination of mechanical strength of tubes by external pressure above 40 atmospheres at temperature up to 700 C were developed and fabricated; and (5) technology of slip casting of tubes from pure (Ce,Gd)O{sub 2} and of (Ce,Gd)O{sub 2} doped by 0.2 wt% of a transition metal, withstanding external pressure of minimum 40 atmospheres at temperature up to 700 C was developed, a batch of tubes was sent for testing to Argonne National Laboratory; (6) technology of making nanopowder from pure (Ce,Gd)O{sub 2} was developed based on chemical synthesis and laser ablation techniques, a batch of nanopowder with the weight 1 kg was sent for testing to Argonne National Laboratory; (7) a business plan for establishing a company for making powders of materials for electrochemical oxygen pump was developed; and (8) major results obtained within the Project were reported at international conferences and published in the Russian journal Electrochemistry. In accordance with the Work Plan a business trip of the following project participants was scheduled for April 22-29, 2006, to Tonawanda, NY, USA: Manager Victor Borisov; Leader of technology development Gennady Studenikin; Leader of business planning Elena Zadorozhnaya; Leader of production Vasily Lepalovsky; and Translator Vladimir Litvinov. During this trip project participants were to discuss with the project Technical Monitor J.D. Carter and representative of Praxair Inc. J. Chen the results of project activities (prospects of transition metal-doped material application in oxygen pumps), as well as the prospects of cooperation with Praxair at the meeting with the company management in the following fields: (1) Deposition of thin films of oxide materials of complex composition on support by magnetron and ion sputtering, research of coatings properties; (2) Development of block-type structure technology (made of porous and dense ceramics) for oxygen pump. The block-type structure is promising because when the size of electrolyte block is 2 x 2 inches and assembly height is 10 inches (5 blocks connected together) the area of active surface is ca. 290 square inches (in case of 8 slots), that roughly corresponds to one tube with diameter 1 inch and height 100 inches. So performance of the system made of such blocks may be by a factor of two or three higher than that of tube-based system. However one month before the visit, J. Chen notified us of internal changes at Praxair and the cancellation of the visit to Tonawanda, NY. During consultations with the project Technical Monitor J.D. Carter and Senior Project Manager A. Taylor a decision was made to extend the project term by 2 quarters to prepare proposals for follow-on activities during this extension (development of block-type structures made of dense and porous oxide ceramics for electrochemical oxygen pumps) using the funds that were not used for the trip to the US.

Carter, J. D.

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

137

Krypton for Multi-Pane Windows: Selective Absorption of Krypton from Oxygen  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Krypton for Multi-Pane Windows: Selective Absorption of Krypton from Oxygen Krypton for Multi-Pane Windows: Selective Absorption of Krypton from Oxygen in an Ionic Liquid Speaker(s): John Prausnitz Waheed Afzal Date: September 18, 2012 - 12:00pm Location: 90-3122 Seminar Host/Point of Contact: Robert Hart Because of its low thermal conductivity, krypton is a useful gas for the vapor space of double- (or triple-) pane windows. However krypton is more expensive than argon, currently used for most of multi-pane windows. The high price of krypton is due to the energy-intensive cryogenic process for its recovery from oxygen that is obtained from air. Ionic liquids may provide a cost-effective absorption process for separation of krypton from the oxygen stream of a liquid-air plant. The polarizability of krypton is higher than that of oxygen; therefore, krypton solubility may be

138

Effect of syngas composition and CO2-diluted oxygen on performance of a premixed swirl-stabilized combustor.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Future energy systems based on gasification of coal or biomass for co-production of electrical power and fuels may require gas turbine operation on unusual gaseous fuel mixtures. In addition, global climate change concerns may dictate the generation of a CO{sub 2} product stream for end-use or sequestration, with potential impacts on the oxidizer used in the gas turbine. In this study the operation at atmospheric pressure of a small, optically accessible swirl-stabilized premixed combustor, burning fuels ranging from pure methane to conventional and H{sub 2}-rich and H{sub 2}-lean syngas mixtures is investigated. Both air and CO{sub 2}-diluted oxygen are used as oxidizers. CO and NO{sub x} emissions for these flames have been determined from the lean blowout limit to slightly rich conditions ({phi} - 1.03). In practice, CO{sub 2}-diluted oxygen systems will likely be operated close to stoichiometric conditions to minimize oxygen consumption while achieving acceptable NO{sub x} performance. The presence of hydrogen in the syngas fuel mixtures results in more compact, higher temperature flames, resulting in increased flame stability and higher NO{sub x} emissions. Consistent with previous experience, the stoichiometry of lean blowout decreases with increasing H{sub 2} content in the syngas. Similarly, the lean stoichiometry at which CO emissions become significant decreases with increasing H{sub 2} content. For the mixtures investigated, CO emissions near the stoichiometric point do not become significant until {phi} > 0.95. At this stoichiometric limit, CO emissions rise more rapidly for combustion in O{sub 2}-CO{sub 2} mixtures than for combustion in air.

Williams, Timothy C.; Shaddix, Christopher R.; Schefer, Robert W.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

Oxygen Detection via Nanoscale Optical Indicators  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Oxygen Detection via Nanoscale Optical Indicators Ruby N. Ghosh Dept. of Physics Michigan State University East Lansing, MI, USA weekschr@msu.edu Abstract--Oxygen plays a ubiquitous role in terrestrial developed an optical technique for monitoring oxygen in both gas and liquid phases utilizing nanoscale metal

Ghosh, Ruby N.

140

8, 22252248, 2008 Detection of oxygen  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ACPD 8, 2225­2248, 2008 Detection of oxygen emission related to spring bloom H. Yamagishi et al Chemistry and Physics Discussions Detection of regional scale sea-to-air oxygen emission related to spring bloom near Japan by using in-situ measurements of atmospheric oxygen/nitrogen ratio H. Yamagishi 1 , Y

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "higher oxygen requirement" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Oxygen and Nitrogen Contamination During Arc Welding  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

) ) : ,- Oxygen and Nitrogen Contamination During Arc Welding T. W. Eagar Department of }faterials, mechanisms, and expected levels of oxygen and nitrogen contamination during gas tungsten arc, gas metal arc indicating the importance of dec9mposition of SiOz into silicon monoxide and oxygen are presented, indicating

Eagar, Thomas W.

142

The Mechanisms of Oxygen Reduction and Evolution Reactions in...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Mechanisms of Oxygen Reduction and Evolution Reactions in Nonaqueous Lithium-Oxygen Batteries. The Mechanisms of Oxygen Reduction and Evolution Reactions in Nonaqueous...

143

Oxygen consumption of bovine granulosa cells in vitro.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??The oxygen consumption rate of granulosa cells is considered to be a key determinant of oocyte oxygenation in follicles. The oxygen status of the oocyte… (more)

Li, Dongxing

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

144

Thickness Dependency of Thin Film Samaria Doped Ceria for Oxygen...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Dependency of Thin Film Samaria Doped Ceria for Oxygen Sensing . Thickness Dependency of Thin Film Samaria Doped Ceria for Oxygen Sensing . Abstract: High temperature oxygen...

145

Tax Benefits and Higher Education  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

payments Tax Benefits and Higher Education Lifetime Learning Credit A nonrefundable tax credit of up to $2 deductions,tax credits are subtracted from the amount of tax owed,rather than your taxable income tax credit allows you to reduce the amount of your tax by up to $1,500 (subject to certain phaseouts

Gelfond, Michael

146

Singlet Oxygen Singlet oxygen generation and detection are growing fields with applications in such areas as  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Singlet Oxygen Singlet oxygen generation and detection are growing fields with applications in such areas as cancer treatment, photosensitized oxidations, and biomolecular degradation. Ground state oxygen state of an oxygen molecule is a singlet state, which can readily react with other singlet molecules

Wells, Mathew G. - Department of Physical and Environmental Sciences, University of Toronto

147

Oxygen permeation in bismuth-based materials part I: Sintering and oxygen permeation fluxes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Oxygen permeation in bismuth-based materials part I: Sintering and oxygen permeation fluxes E;2 Abstract Oxygen permeation measurements were performed on two layered bismuth based oxide ceramics. Oxygen permeability for these systems was compared to permeability of the cubic fluorite type structure

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

148

Dilute Oxygen Combustion Phase I Final Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A novel burner, in which fuel (natural gas) and oxidant (oxygen or air) are separately injected into a furnace, shows promise for achieving very low nitrogen oxide(s) (NOx) emissions for commercial furnace applications. The dilute oxygen combustion (DOC) burner achieves very low NOx through in-furnace dilution of the oxidant stream prior to combustion, resulting in low flame temperatures, thus inhibiting thermal NOx production. The results of a fundamental and applied research effort on the development of the DOC burner are presented. In addition, the results of a market survey detailing the potential commercial impact of the DOC system are disclosed. The fundamental aspects of the burner development project involved examining the flame characteristics of a natural gas turbulent jet in a high-temperature (~1366 K) oxidant (7-27% O2 vol. wet). Specifically, the mass entrainment rate, the flame lift-off height, the velocity field and major species field of the jet were evaluated as a function of surrounding-gas temperature and composition. The measured entrainment rate of the fuel jet decreased with increasing oxygen content in the surrounding high-temperature oxidant, and was well represented by the d+ scaling correlation found in the literature. The measured flame lift-off height decreased with increasing oxygen content and increasing temperature of the surrounding gas. An increase in surrounding-gas oxygen content and/or temperature inhibited the velocity decay within the jet periphery as a function of axial distance as compared to isothermal turbulent jets. However, the velocity measurements were only broadly represented by the d+ scaling correlation. Several DOC burner configurations were tested in a laboratory-scale furnace at a nominal firing rate of 185 kW (~0.63 MMBtu/h). The flue gas composition was recorded as a function of furnace nitrogen content, furnace temperature, burner geometric arrangement, firing rate, and fuel injection velocity. NOx emissions increased with increasing furnace nitrogen content and furnace temperature, but remained relatively insensitive to variations in fuel injection velocity and firing rate. NOx emissions below 5-10-3 g/MJ (10 ppm-air equivalent at 3% O2 dry) were obtained for furnace temperatures below 1533 K (2300°F) and furnace nitrogen levels between 1 and 40%. CO emissions were typically low (<35 ppm). Detailed in-furnace species measurements revealed the importance of the interior furnace circulation patterns, as influenced by fuel and oxidant injection schemes, on pollutant emissions. The combustion stability traits of several DOC burner arrangements were ascertained through furnace pressure measurements, wit6h increased stability occurring as furnace temperature increased and as the separation distance between fuel and oxidant inputs decreased. Based on current market conditions, oxy-fuel conversion of batch steel reheat furnaces with a DOC burner is justified on the basis of lower utility costs alone. However, conversion of continuous steel reheat furnaces, which are responsible for most steel production, required additional economic incentives, such as further fuel savings, increased furnace productivity, or emission credits.

Ryan, H.M.; Riley, M.F.; Kobayashi, H.

1997-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

149

Dilute Oxygen Combustion Phase 2 Final Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A novel burner, in which fuel (natural gas) and oxidant (oxygen or air) are separately injected into a furnace, shows promise for achieving very low nitrogen oxide(s) (NOx) emissions for commercial furnace applications. The dilute oxygen combustion (DOC) burner achieves very low NOx through in-furnace dilution of the oxidant stream prior to combustion, resulting in low flame temperatures, thus inhibiting thermal NOx production. The results of a fundamental and applied research effort on the development of the DOC burner are presented. In addition, the results of a market survey detailing the potential commercial impact of the DOC system are disclosed. The fundamental aspects of the burner development project involved examining the flame characteristics of a natural gas turbulent jet in a high-temperature (~1366 K) oxidant (7-27% O2 vol. wet). Specifically, the mass entrainment rate, the flame lift-off height, the velocity field and major species field of the jet were evaluated as a function of surrounding-gas temperature and composition. The measured entrainment rate of the fuel jet decreased with increasing oxygen content in the surrounding high-temperature oxidant, and was well represented by the d+ scaling correlation found in the literature. The measured flame lift-off height decreased with increasing oxygen content and increasing temperature of the surrounding gas. An increase in surrounding-gas oxygen content and/or temperature inhibited the velocity decay within the jet periphery as a function of axial distance as compared to isothermal turbulent jets. However, the velocity measurements were only broadly represented by the d+ scaling correlation. Several DOC burner configurations were tested in a laboratory-scale furnace at a nominal firing rate of 185 kW (~0.63 MMBtu/h). The flue gas composition was recorded as a function of furnace nitrogen content, furnace temperature, burner geometric arrangement, firing rate, and fuel injection velocity. NOx emissions increased with increasing furnace nitrogen content and furnace temperature, but remained relatively insensitive to variations in fuel injection velocity and firing rate. NOx emissions below 5-10-3 g/MJ (10 ppm-air equivalent at 3% O2 dry) were obtained for furnace temperatures below 1533 K (2300?F) and furnace nitrogen levels between 1 and 40%. CO emissions were typically low (<35 ppm). Detailed in-furnace species measurements revealed the importance of the interior furnace circulation patterns, as influenced by fuel and oxidant injection schemes, on pollutant emissions. The combustion stability traits of several DOC burner arrangements were ascertained through furnace pressure measurements, wit6h increased stability occurring as furnace temperature increased and as the separation distance between fuel and oxidant inputs decreased. Based on current market conditions, oxy-fuel conversion of batch steel reheat furnaces with a DOC burner is justified on the basis of lower utility costs alone. However, conversion of continuous steel reheat furnaces, which are responsible for most steel production, required additional economic incentives, such as further fuel savings, increased furnace productivity, or emission credits.

Ryan, H.M.; Riley, M.F.; Kobayashi, H.

2005-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

150

Dilute oxygen combustion. Phase I report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A novel burner, in which fuel (natural gas) and oxidant (oxygen or air) are separately injected into a furnace, shows promise for achieving very low nitrogen oxide(s) (NO{sub x}) emissions for commercial furnace applications. The dilute oxygen combustion (DOC) burner achieves very low NO{sub x} through in-furnace dilution of the oxidant stream prior to combustion, resulting in low flame temperatures, thus inhibiting thermal NO{sub x} production. The results of a fundamental and applied research effort on the development of the DOC burner are presented. In addition, the results of a market survey detailing the potential commercial impact of the DOC system are disclosed. The fundamental aspects of the burner development project involved examining the flame characteristics of a natural gas turbulent jet in a high-temperature ({approximately}1366 K) oxidant (7-27% O{sub 2} vol. wet). Specifically, the mass entrainment rate, the flame lift-off height, the velocity field and major species field of the jet were evaluated as a function of surrounding-gas temperature and composition. The measured entrainment rate of the fuel jet decreased with increasing oxygen content in the surrounding high-temperature oxidant, and was well represented by the d{sup +} scaling correlation found in the literature. The measured flame lift-off height decreased with increasing oxygen content and increasing temperature of the surrounding gas. An increase in surrounding-gas oxygen content and/or temperature inhibited the velocity decay within the jet periphery as a function of axial distance as compared to isothermal turbulent jets. However, the velocity measurements were only broadly represented by the d{sup +} scaling correlation. Several DOC burner configurations were tested in a laboratory-scale furnace at a nominal firing rate of 185 kW ({approximately}0.63 MMBtu/h). The flue gas composition was recorded as a function of furnace nitrogen content, furnace temperature, burner geometric arrangement, firing rate, and fuel injection velocity. NO{sub x} emissions increased with increasing furnace nitrogen content and furnace temperature, but remained relatively insensitive to variations in fuel injection velocity and firing rate. NO{sub x} emissions below 5{times}10{sup -3} g/MJ (10 ppm-air equivalent at 3% O{sub 2} dry) were obtained for furnace temperatures below 1533 K (2300{degree}F) and furnace nitrogen levels between 1 and 40%. CO emissions were typically low (<35 ppm). Detailed in- furnace species measurements revealed the importance of the interior furnace circulation patterns, as influenced by fuel and oxidant injection schemes, on pollutant emissions. The combustion stability traits of several DOC burner arrangements were ascertained through furnace pressure measurements, with increased stability occurring as furnace temperature increased and as the separation distance between fuel and oxidant inputs decreased. Based on current market conditions, oxy-fuel conversion of batch steel reheat furnaces with a DOC burner is justified on the basis of utility costs alone. However, conversion of continuous steel reheat furnaces, which are responsible for most steel production, requires additional economic incentives, such as further fuel savings, increased furnace productivity, or emission credits.

NONE

1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

151

Characteristics of Knock in Hydrogen-Oxygen-Argon SI Engine  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A promising approach for improving the efficiency of internal combustion engines is to employ a working fluid with a high specific heat ratio such as the noble gas argon. Moreover, all harmful emissions are eliminated when the intake charge is composed of oxygen, nonreactive argon, and hydrogen fuel. Previous research demonstrated indicated thermal efficiencies greater than 45% at 5.5 compression ratio in engines operating with hydrogen, oxygen, and argon. However, knock limits spark advance and increasing the efficiency further. Conditions under which knock occurs in such engines differs from typical gasoline fueled engines. In-cylinder temperatures using hydrogen-oxygen-argon are higher due to the high specific heat ratio and pressures are lower because of the low compression ratio. Better understanding of knock under these conditions can lead to operating strategies that inhibit knock and allow operation closer to the knock limit. In this work we compare knock with a hydrogen, oxygen, and argon mixture to that of air-gasoline mixtures in a variable compression ratio cooperative fuels research (CFR) engine. The focus is on stability of knocking phenomena, as well as, amplitude and frequency of the resulting pressure waves.

Killingsworth, N; Rapp, V; Flowers, D; Aceves, S; Chen, J; Dibble, R

2010-02-23T23:59:59.000Z

152

Oxygen reduction at the platinum/Nafion{reg_sign} interface: Electrode kinetics and mass transport  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Research in solid polymer electrolyte fuel cells is gaining momentum because of the prospects of attaining high energy efficiencies and power densities, essential for transportation and space applications. The most advanced solid polymer electrolytes for these fuel cells are the perfluorosulfonate ionomers (PFSIs) such as duPont`s Naflon and the Dow PFSIs. The high oxygen solubility, chemical stability, proton conductivity and permselectivity exhibited by Naflon and the Dow PFSI`s make them ideal candidates as electrolytes for fuel cells. Furthermore, the minimal anion adsorption on electrodes from fluorinated acids enhances oxygen reduction kinetics. The primary objectives of this work were to determine the concentration and diffusion coefficient of oxygen in Naflon, and the electrode kinetic parameters for the reduction of oxygen at the Pt/Nafion interface under totally solid-state conditions. Cyclic voltammetric and potentiostatic transient measurements were made at the Pt/Nafion interface. Slow sweep voltammograms yielded Tafel parameters for oxygen reduction. From the two-section Tafel, plot, the calculated exchange current densities were found to be higher than those obtained at any other Pt/acid interface. From an analysis of the transients, the values of oxygen solubility and diffusion coefficient in Naflon were determined. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopic (EIS) investigations were then used to study oxygen reduction under lower humidfication conditions. EIS clearly permits the discrimination of electrode kinetics, mass transport of O{sub 2} and the electrical characteristics of the membrane. A temperature-dependence study in the range of 30{degrees}C to 80{degrees}C yielded the activation energy for oxygen reduction at the Pt/Naflon interface. The diffusion coefficient of oxygen in Nafion increases with temperature while its solubility decreases. the pressure-dependence of oxygen reduction kinetics shows that the reaction order of oxygen is unity.

Parthasarathy, A.

1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

153

Muon Capture in Oxygen-16  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The muon capture rate in oxygen is used as a means for measuring the induced pseudoscalar coupling constant (CP) of weak interactions. The capture rate between the JP=0+ ground state of O16 and the 0-, 1-, 2-, and 3- states of N16 are calculated as a function of CP with different nuclear models. Using the experimental values of the transition rates, we then determine CP. We find that the transition rate, and therefore CP, depends strongly on the nuclear model. We conclude that 5

Vincent Gillet and David A. Jenkins

1965-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

154

Oxygen and Nitrogen in Isolated Dwarf Irregular Galaxies  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present long slit optical spectroscopy of 67 HII regions in 21 dwarf irregular galaxies to investigate the enrichment of oxygen, nitrogen, neon, sulfur, and argon in low mass galaxies. Oxygen abundances are obtained via direct detection of the temperature sensitive emission lines for 25 HII regions; for the remainder of the sample, oxygen abundances are estimated from strong line calibrations. The direct abundance determinations are compared to the strong-line abundance calibrations of both McGaugh (1991) and Pilyugin (2000). Global oxygen and nitrogen abundances for this sample of dwarf irregular galaxies are examined in the context of open and closed box chemical evolution models. While several galaxies are consistent with closed box chemical evolution, the majority of this sample have an effective yield ~1/4 of the expected yield for a constant star formation rate and Salpeter IMF, indicating that either outflow of enriched gas or inflow of pristine gas has occurred. The effective yield strongly correlates with M_H/L_B in the sense that gas-rich galaxies are more likely to be closed systems. However, the effective yield does not appear to correlate with other global parameters such as dynamical mass, absolute magnitude, star formation rate or surface brightness. A correlation is found between the observed nitrogen-to-oxygen ratio and the color of the underlying stellar population; redder dwarf irregular galaxies have higher N/O ratios than blue dwarf irregular galaxies. The relative abundance ratios are interpreted in the context of delayed release of nitrogen and varied star formation histories.

L. van Zee; M. P. Haynes

2005-09-22T23:59:59.000Z

155

The quantification of oxygen toxicity by the technique of cellulose acetate electrophoresis of rat serum proteins  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

THE QUANTIFICATION OF OXYGEN TOXICITY BY THE TECHNIQUE OF CELLULOSE ACETATE ELECTROPHORESIS OF RAT SERUM PROTEINS A Thesis by MARCIA WAGNER BARKER Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&ii University in partial fulfillment... of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1979 Major Subject: Biology THE QUANTIFICATION OF OXYGEN TOXICITY BY THE TECHNIQUE OF CELLULOSE ACETATE ELECTROPHORESIS OF RAT SERUM PROTEINS A Thesis by MARCIA WAGNER BARKER Approved...

Barker, Marcia Wagner

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

156

The effect of humidity on the collection efficiency for oxygenated compounds adsorbed on activated charcoal  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

THE EPPECT OP HUMIDITY ON THE COLIECTION EFFICIENCY POR OXYGENATED COMPOUNDS ADSORBED ON ACTIVATED CHARCOAL A Thesis by ROBERT BRUCE WALTON Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1990 Major Subject: Industrial Hygiene THE EFFECT OF HUMIDITY ON THE COLLECTIOM EFFICIENCY FOR OXYGENATED COMPOUNDS ADSORBED ON ACTIVATED CHARCOAL A Thesis by ROBERT BRUCE WALTON Approved...

Walton, Robert Bruce

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

157

Effect of bacterium Oceanospirillum on the corrosion potential and oxygen reduction of AISI 4340 steel  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

EFFECT OF BACTERIUM OCEANOSPIRILLUM ON THE CORROSION POTENTIAL AND OXYGEN REDUCI1ON OF AISI 4340 STEEL A Thesis by SNEZANA N. POPOVA Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1992 Major Subject: Chemical Engineering EFFECT OF BACTERIUM OCEANOSPIRILLUM ON THE CORROSION POTENTIAL AND OXYGEN REDUCTION OF AISI 4340 STEEL A Thesis by SNEZANA N. POPOVA Appmved as to style...

Popova, Snezana N.

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

158

Hydrogen and oxygen permeation through Nafion 117 and XUS 13204.10 fuel cell membranes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

HYDROGEN AND OXYGEN PERMEATION THROUGH NAFION 117 AND XUS 13204. 10 FUEL CELL MEMBRANES A Thesis by STEVEN RAY LEE Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas AdrM University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1992 Major Subject Chemical Engineering HYDROGEN AND OXYGEN PERMEATION THROUGH NAFION 117 AND XUS 13204. 10 FUEL CELL MEMBRANES A Thesis by STEVEN RAY LEE Approved as to style and content by: Ralph E. White (Chair...

Lee, Steven Ray

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

159

Effects of oxygen and decreased pressure on the testicular function of the rabbit  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

EFFECTS OF OXYGEN AND DECREASED PRESSURE ON THE TESTICULAR FUNCTION OF THE RABBIT A Thesis ROBERT JOHN RUSSELL Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas AAM University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree oi' MASTER... OF SCIENCE August 1969 Major Subject: Laboratory Anima1 Medicine EFFECTS OF OXYGEN AND DECREASED PRESSURE ON THE TESTICULAR FUNCTION OF THE RABBIT A Thesis ROBERT JOHN RUSSELL Approved as to style and content, by: Chai of Committee Head...

Russell, Robert John

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

160

Recovery Act: Novel Oxygen Carriers for Coal-fueled Chemical Looping  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Chemical Looping Combustion (CLC) could totally negate the necessity of pure oxygen by using oxygen carriers for purification of CO{sub 2} stream during combustion. It splits the single fuel combustion reaction into two linked reactions using oxygen carriers. The two linked reactions are the oxidation of oxygen carriers in the air reactor using air, and the reduction of oxygen carriers in the fuel reactor using fuels (i.e. coal). Generally metal/metal oxides are used as oxygen carriers and operated in a cyclic mode. Chemical looping combustion significantly improves the energy conversion efficiency, in terms of the electricity generation, because it improves the reversibility of the fuel combustion process through two linked parallel processes, compared to the conventional combustion process, which is operated far away from its thermo-equilibrium. Under the current carbon-constraint environment, it has been a promising carbon capture technology in terms of fuel combustion for power generation. Its disadvantage is that it is less mature in terms of technological commercialization. In this DOE-funded project, accomplishment is made by developing a series of advanced copper-based oxygen carriers, with properties of the higher oxygen-transfer capability, a favorable thermodynamics to generate high purity of CO{sub 2}, the higher reactivity, the attrition-resistance, the thermal stability in red-ox cycles and the achievement of the auto-thermal heat balance. This will be achieved into three phases in three consecutive years. The selected oxygen carriers with final-determined formula were tested in a scaled-up 10kW coal-fueled chemical looping combustion facility. This scaled-up evaluation tests (2-day, 8-hour per day) indicated that, there was no tendency of agglomeration of copper-based oxygen carriers. Only trace-amount of coke or carbon deposits on the copper-based oxygen carriers in the fuel reactor. There was also no evidence to show the sulphidization of oxygen carriers in the system by using the high-sulfur-laden asphalt fuels. In all, the scaled-up test in 10 kW CLC facility demonstrated that the preparation method of copper-based oxygen carrier not only help to maintain its good reactivity, also largely minimize its agglomeration tendency.

Pan, Wei-Ping; Cao, Yan

2012-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "higher oxygen requirement" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Device and method for separating oxygen isotopes  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A device and method for separating oxygen isotopes with an ArF laser which produces coherent radiation at approximately 193 nm. The output of the ArF laser is filtered in natural air and applied to an irradiation cell where it preferentially photodissociates molecules of oxygen gas containing .sup.17 O or .sup.18 O oxygen nuclides. A scavenger such as O.sub.2, CO or ethylene is used to collect the preferentially dissociated oxygen atoms and recycled to produce isotopically enriched molecular oxygen gas. Other embodiments utilize an ArF laser which is narrowly tuned with a prism or diffraction grating to preferentially photodissociate desired isotopes. Similarly, desired mixtures of isotopic gas can be used as a filter to photodissociate enriched preselected isotopes of oxygen.

Rockwood, Stephen D. (Los Alamos, NM); Sander, Robert K. (Los Alamos, NM)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

162

A survey of alternative oxygen production technologies  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Utilization of the Martian atmosphere for the production of fuel and oxygen has been extensively studied. The baseline fuel production process is a Sabatier reactor which produces methane and water from carbon dioxide and hydrogen. The oxygen produced from the electrolysis of the water is only half of that needed for methane-based rocket propellant and additional oxygen is needed for breathing air fuel cells and other energy sources. Zirconia electrolysis cells for the direct reduction of CO 2 are being developed as an alternative means of producing oxygen but present many challenges for a large-scale oxygen production system. The very high operating temperatures and fragile nature of the cells coupled with fairly high operating voltages leave room for improvement. This paper will survey alternative oxygen production technologies present data on operating characteristics materials of construction and some preliminary laboratory results on attempts to implement each.

Dale E. Lueck; Clyde F. Parrish; William J. Buttner; Jan M. Surma

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

163

Diiron proteins represent a diverse class of structures involved in the binding and activation of oxygen. This review explores  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of the hemerythrins are relatively rigid and are rich in nitrogen-containing ligands, which specifically stabilize is reversible, as required for oxygen transport. The active sites of hemerythrins are distinct from those

Summa, Christopher M.

164

Cast Stone Formulation At Higher Sodium Concentrations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A low temperature waste form known as Cast Stone is being considered to provide supplemental Low Activity Waste (LAW) immobilization capacity for the Hanford site. Formulation of Cast Stone at high sodium concentrations is of interest since a significant reduction in the necessary volume of Cast Stone and subsequent disposal costs could be achieved if an acceptable waste form can be produced with a high sodium molarity salt solution combined with a high water to premix (or dry blend) ratio. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the factors involved with increasing the sodium concentration in Cast Stone, including production and performance properties and the retention and release of specific components of interest. Three factors were identified for the experimental matrix: the concentration of sodium in the simulated salt solution, the water to premix ratio, and the blast furnace slag portion of the premix. The salt solution simulants used in this study were formulated to represent the overall average waste composition. The cement, blast furnace slag, and fly ash were sourced from a supplier in the Hanford area in order to be representative. The test mixes were prepared in the laboratory and fresh properties were measured. Fresh density increased with increasing sodium molarity and with decreasing water to premix ratio, as expected given the individual densities of these components. Rheology measurements showed that all of the test mixes produced very fluid slurries. The fresh density and rheology data are of potential value in designing a future Cast Stone production facility. Standing water and density gradient testing showed that settling is not of particular concern for the high sodium compositions studied. Heat of hydration measurements may provide some insight into the reactions that occur within the test mixes, which may in turn be related to the properties and performance of the waste form. These measurements showed that increased sodium concentration in the salt solution reduced the time to peak heat flow, and reducing the amount of slag in the premix increased the time to peak heat flow. These observations may help to describe some of the cured properties of the samples, in particular the differences in compressive strength observed after 28 and 90 days of curing. Samples were cured for at least 28 days at ambient temperature in the laboratory prior to cured properties analyses. The low activity waste form for disposal at the Hanford Site is required to have a compressive strength of at least 500 psi. After 28 days of curing, several of the test mixes had mean compressive strengths that were below the 500 psi requirement. Higher sodium concentrations and higher water to premix ratios led to reduced compressive strength. Higher fly ash concentrations decreased the compressive strength after 28 days of curing. This may be explained in that the cementitious phases matured more quickly in the mixes with higher concentrations of slag, as evidenced by the data for the time to peak heat generation. All of the test mixes exhibited higher mean compressive strengths after 90 days of curing, with only one composition having a mean compressive strength of less than 500 psi. Leachability indices were determined for the test mixes for contaminants of interest. The leaching performance of the mixes evaluated in this study was not particularly sensitive to the factors used in the experimental design. This may be beneficial in demonstrating that the performance of the waste form is robust with respect to changes in the mix composition. The results of this study demonstrate the potential to achieve significantly higher waste loadings in Cast Stone and other low temperature, cementitious waste forms. Additional work is needed to elucidate the hydration mechanisms occurring in Cast Stone formulated with highly concentrated salt solutions since these reactions are responsible for determining the performance of the cured waste form. The thermal analyses completed in this study provide some preliminary insight, although the l

Fox, K. M.; Roberts, K. A.; Edwards, T. B.

2014-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

165

Electrocatalysis of anodic and cathodic oxygen-transfer reactions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The electrocatalysis of oxygen-transfer reactions is discussed in two parts. In Part I, the reduction of iodate (IO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}) is examined as an example of cathodic oxygen transfer. On oxide-covered Pt electrodes (PtO), a large cathodic current is observed in the presence of IO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} to coincide with the reduction of PtO. The total cathodic charge exceeds the amount required for reduction of PtO and IO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} to produce an adsorbed product. An electrocatalytic link between reduction of IO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} and reduction of PtO is indicated. In addition, on oxide-free Pt electrodes, the reduction of IO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} is determined to be sensitive to surface treatment. The electrocatalytic oxidation of CN{sup {minus}} is presented as an example of anodic oxygen transfer in Part II. The voltametric response of CN{sup {minus}} is virtually nonexistent at PbO{sub 2} electrodes. The response is significantly improved by doping PbO{sub 2} with Cu. Cyanide is also oxidized effectively at CuO-film electrodes. Copper is concluded to serve as an adsorption site for CN{sup {minus}}. It is proposed that an oxygen tunneling mechanism comparable to electron tunneling does not occur at the electrode-solution interface. The adsorption of CN{sup {minus}} is therefore considered to be a necessary prerequisite for oxygen transfer. 201 refs., 23 figs., 2 tabs.

Wels, B.R.

1990-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

166

Oxygen penetration into the bulk of palladium  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Oxygen penetration into the bulk of palladium ... During heating, the reaction rate exhibited an activity maximum at 650 K, whereas no activity maximum was found during the ... ...

C. T. Campbell; D. C. Foyt; J. M. White

1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

167

Oxygen-Enriched Combustion | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

tip sheet discusses how an increase in oxygen in combustion air can reduce the energy loss in the exhaust gases and increase process heating system efficiency. PROCESS HEATING...

168

Renewable Oxygenate Blending Effects on Gasoline Properties  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Renewable Oxygenate Blending Effects on Gasoline Properties ... National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado 80401, United States ... Energy Fuels, 2011, 25 (10), ...

Earl Christensen; Janet Yanowitz; Matthew Ratcliff; Robert L. McCormick

2011-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

169

Oxygen Concentration Microgradients for Cell Culture.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??There is a growing need for technology that can control microscale oxygen gradients onto a tissue or culture sample in vitro. This dissertation introduces the… (more)

Park, Jaehyun

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

Oxygen ion-beam microlithography  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of providing and developing a resist on a substrate for constructing integrated circuit (IC) chips includes the following steps: of depositing a thin film of amorphous silicon or hydrogenated amorphous silicon on the substrate and exposing portions of the amorphous silicon to low-energy oxygen ion beams to oxidize the amorphous silicon at those selected portions. The nonoxidized portions are then removed by etching with RF-excited hydrogen plasma. Components of the IC chip can then be constructed through the removed portions of the resist. The entire process can be performed in an in-line vacuum production system having several vacuum chambers. Nitrogen or carbon ion beams can also be used. 5 figures.

Tsuo, Y.S.

1991-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

171

Oxygen ion-beam microlithography  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of providing and developing a resist on a substrate for constructing integrated circuit (IC) chips includes the following steps: of depositing a thin film of amorphous silicon or hydrogenated amorphous silicon on the substrate and exposing portions of the amorphous silicon to low-energy oxygen ion beams to oxidize the amorphous silicon at those selected portions. The nonoxidized portions are then removed by etching with RF-excited hydrogen plasma. Components of the IC chip can then be constructed through the removed portions of the resist. The entire process can be performed in an in-line vacuum production system having several vacuum chambers. Nitrogen or carbon ion beams can also be used.

Tsuo, Y. Simon (Lakewood, CO)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

172

Oxygen supply for oxyfuel CO2 capture  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper presents the results of a study to develop Air Products’ air separation unit (ASU) offerings for oxyfuel coal CO2 capture projects. A scalable “reference plant” concept is described to match particular sizes of power generation equipment, taking into account factors such as safety, reliability, operating flexibility, efficiency, and low capital cost. We describe the selection of a process cycle to exploit the low purity requirements, as well as the options for compression machinery and drivers as the scale of the plant increases and the sizes of referenced equipment limit the possibilities. We also explore integration with other elements of the system, such as preheating condensate or heating and expanding pressurised nitrogen. In addition, we consider how the ASU affects the flexibility of the oxyfuel system and discuss how its power consumption can be reduced during periods of high power demand. Finally, the advantages and disadvantages of different execution strategies for air separation unit projects are discussed, as well as alternative commercial models for the supply of oxygen.

Paul Higginbotham; Vince White; Kevin Fogash; Galip Guvelioglu

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

173

Direct Observation of the Oxygenated Species during Oxygen Reduction on a  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Direct Observation of the Oxygenated Species during Oxygen Reduction on a Direct Observation of the Oxygenated Species during Oxygen Reduction on a Platinum Fuel Cell Cathode Friday, December 20, 2013 Fuel Cell Figure 1 Figure 1. In situ x-ray spectroscopy identification and DFT simulations of oxygenated intermediates on a platinum fuel-cell cathode. The study shows that two types of hydroxyl intermediates (non-hydrated OH and hydrated OH) with distinct activities coexist on a fuel-cell cathode. The performance of polymer-electrolyte-membrane (PEM) fuel cells is limited by the reduction at the cathode of various oxygenated intermediates in the four-electron pathway of the oxygen reduction reaction. A research team led by SLAC scientists performed x-ray spectroscopy identification and DFT simulations of oxygenated intermediates on a platinum fuel-cell cathode

174

Transient oxygen consumption rate measurements with the BDT?M? oxygen biosensor system  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Oxygen consumption rate (OCR) is a reliable indicator of tissue health. Recently, the OCR of isolated human islets has been shown to predict transplant outcome in diabetic mice. The Oxygen Biosensor System (OBS) is a ...

Low, Clarke Alan

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

175

Structure and transformation of the metastable boron- and oxygen-related defect center in crystalline silicon  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We analyze the core structure of the carrier-lifetime-reducing boron- and oxygen-related metastable defect center in crystalline silicon by measuring the correlation of the defect concentration with the boron and the oxygen contents on a large number of different silicon materials. The experimental results indicate that the defect is composed of one substitutional boron and two interstitial oxygen atoms. Formation and annihilation of the metastable boron-oxygen complex are found to be thermally activated processes, characterized by two strongly differing activation energies. Measurements of the defect generation rate as a function of light intensity show that the defect generation rate increases proportionally with light intensity below 1 mW/cm2 and saturates at higher intensities. All experimental results can be consistently explained using a defect reaction model based on fast-diffusing oxygen dimers (O2i), which are captured by substitutional boron (Bs) to form a metastable Bs-O2i complex. Based on this model, new strategies for an effective reduction of the light degradation of solar cells made on oxygen-rich silicon materials are derived. The model also explains why no lifetime degradation is observed in aluminum-, gallium-, and indium-doped oxygen-rich silicon.

Jan Schmidt and Karsten Bothe

2004-01-22T23:59:59.000Z

176

Oxygen abundances in G- and F-type stars from HARPS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present a detailed and uniform study of oxygen abundance from two different oxygen lines at 6158$\\AA$ and 6300$\\AA$ in a large sample of solar-type stars. The results are used to check the behaviour of these spectral lines as oxygen abundance indicators and to study the evolution of oxygen in thick and thin disk populations of the Galaxy. Equivalent width measurements were carried out for the [OI]~6158$\\AA$ and OI~6300$\\AA$ lines. LTE abundances were obtained from these two lines in 610 and 535 stars, respectively. We were able to measure oxygen abundance from both indicators in 447 stars, enabling us, for the first time, to compare them in a uniform way. Careful error analysis has been performed. We found that oxygen abundances derived from the 6158$\\AA$ and 6300$\\AA$ lines agree to within 0.1dex in 58\\% of the stars in our sample, and this result improves for higher signal-to-noise values. We confirm an oxygen enhancement in stars of the thick disk, as has also been seen for other $\\alpha$-elements. The ...

de Lis, S Bertran; Adibekyan, V Zh; Santos, N C; Sousa, S G

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

177

THE UNIVERSITY OF SHEFFIELD CATALYST HIGHER EDUCATION  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Page | 1 THE UNIVERSITY OF SHEFFIELD & CATALYST HIGHER EDUCATION (SHEFFIELD) PLC. UNIVERSITY of Sheffield / Catalyst Higher Education (Sheffield) plc Project Co Accommodation: Accommodation / Catalyst Higher Education (Sheffield) plc LLFM: Lend Lease Facilities Management Ltd Project Co: Catalyst

Dixon, Peter

178

High density adsorbed oxygen on Rh,,111... and enhanced routes to metallic oxidation using atomic oxygen  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

High density adsorbed oxygen on Rh,,111... and enhanced routes to metallic oxidation using atomic oxygen K. D. Gibson, Mark Viste, Errol C. Sanchez, and S. J. Sibener The James Franck Institute; accepted 30 November 1998 Exposure of Rh 111 to atomic oxygen leads to the facile formation of a full

Sibener, Steven

179

Interaction of iron-copper mixed metal oxide oxygen carriers with simulated synthesis gas derived from steam gasification of coal  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this work was to prepare supported bimetallic Fe–Cu oxygen carriers and to evaluate their performance for the chemical-looping combustion (CLC) process with simulated synthesis gas derived from steam gasification of coal/air. Ten-cycle CLC tests were conducted with Fe–Cu oxygen carriers in an atmospheric thermogravimetric analyzer utilizing simulated synthesis gas derived from the steam gasification of Polish Janina coal and Illinois #6 coal as fuel. The effect of temperature on reaction rates, chemical stability, and oxygen transport capacity were determined. Fractional reduction, fractional oxidation, and global rates of reactions were calculated from the thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) data. The supports greatly affected reaction performance. Data showed that reaction rates and oxygen capacities were stable during the 10-cycle TGA tests for most Fe–Cu/support oxygen carriers. Bimetallic Fe–Cu/support oxygen carriers showed higher reduction rates than Fe-support oxygen carriers. The carriers containing higher Cu content showed better stabilities and better reduction rates. An increase in temperature from 800 °C to 900 °C did not have a significant effect on either the oxygen capacity or the reduction rates with synthesis gas derived from Janina coal. Oxidation reaction was significantly faster than reduction reaction for all supported Fe–Cu oxygen carriers. Carriers with higher Cu content had lower oxidation rates. Ten-cycle TGA data indicated that these oxygen carriers had stable performances at 800–900 °C and might be successfully used up to 900 °C for coal CLC reaction in the presence of steam.

Siriwardane, Ranjani V. [U.S. DOE; Ksepko, Ewelina; Tian, Hanging [URS

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

180

OXYGEN ENHANCED COMBUSTION FOR NOx CONTROL  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This quarterly technical progress report will summarize work accomplished for the Program through the fourth quarter January-March 2001 in the following task areas: Task 1 - Oxygen Enhanced Combustion, Task 2 - Oxygen Transport Membranes and Task 4 - Program Management. This report will also recap the results of the past year. The program is proceeding in accordance with the objectives for the first year. OTM material characterization was completed. 100% of commercial target flux was demonstrated with OTM disks. The design and assembly of Praxair's single tube high-pressure test facility was completed. The production of oxygen with a purity of better than 99.5% was demonstrated. Coal combustion testing was conducted at the University of Arizona. Modest oxygen enhancement resulted in NOx emissions reduction. The injector for oxygen enhanced coal based reburning was conducted at Praxair. Combustion modeling with Keystone boiler was completed. Pilot-scale combustion test furnace simulations continued this quarter.

David R. Thompson; Lawrence E. Bool; Jack C. Chen

2001-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "higher oxygen requirement" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Oxygen ion-conducting dense ceramic  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Preparation, structure, and properties of mixed metal oxide compositions containing at least strontium, cobalt, iron and oxygen are described. The crystalline mixed metal oxide compositions of this invention have, for example, structure represented by Sr.sub..alpha. (Fe.sub.1-x Co.sub.x).sub..alpha.+.beta. O.sub..delta. where x is a number in a range from 0.01 to about 1, .alpha. is a number in a range from about 1 to about 4, .beta. is a number in a range upward from 0 to about 20, and .delta. is a number which renders the compound charge neutral, and wherein the composition has a non-perovskite structure. Use of the mixed metal oxides in dense ceramic membranes which exhibit oxygen ionic conductivity and selective oxygen separation, are described as well as their use in separation of oxygen from an oxygen-containing gaseous mixture.

Balachandran, Uthamalingam (Hinsdale, IL); Kleefisch, Mark S. (Naperville, IL); Kobylinski, Thaddeus P. (Lisle, IL); Morissette, Sherry L. (Las Cruces, NM); Pei, Shiyou (Naperville, IL)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

Oxygen ion-conducting dense ceramic  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Preparation, structure, and properties of mixed metal oxide compositions containing at least strontium, cobalt, iron and oxygen are described. The crystalline mixed metal oxide compositions of this invention have, for example, structure represented by Sr.sub..alpha. (Fe.sub.1-x Co.sub.x).sub..alpha.+.beta. O.sub..delta. where x is a number in a range from 0.01 to about 1, .alpha. is a number in a range from about 1 to about 4, .beta. is a number in a range upward from 0 to about 20, and .delta. is a number which renders the compound charge neutral, and wherein the composition has a non-perovskite structure. Use of the mixed metal oxides in dense ceramic membranes which exhibit oxygen ionic conductivity and selective oxygen separation, are described as well as their use in separation of oxygen from an oxygen-containing gaseous mixture.

Balachandran, Uthamalingam (Hinsdale, IL); Kleefisch, Mark S. (Naperville, IL); Kobylinski, Thaddeus P. (Lisle, IL); Morissette, Sherry L. (Las Cruces, NM); Pei, Shiyou (Naperville, IL)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

183

The photospheric solar oxygen project: II. Non-concordance of the oxygen abundance derived from two forbidden lines  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In the Sun, the two forbidden [OI] lines at 630 and 636 nm were previously found to provide discrepant oxygen abundances. aims: We investigate whether this discrepancy is peculiar to the Sun or whether it is also observed in other stars. method: We make use of high-resolution, high signal-to-noise ratio spectra of four dwarf to turn-off stars, five giant stars, and one sub-giant star observed with THEMIS, HARPS, and UVES to investigate the coherence of the two lines. results: The two lines provide oxygen abundances that are consistent, within observational errors, in all the giant stars examined by us. On the other hand, for the two dwarf stars for which a measurement was possible, for Procyon, and for the sub-giant star Capella, the 636 nm line provides systematically higher oxygen abundances, as already seen for the Sun. conclusions: The only two possible reasons for the discrepancy are a serious error in the oscillator strength of the NiI line blending the 630 nm line or the presence of an unknown blend in...

Caffau, Elisabetta; Malherbe, Jean-M; Bonifacio, Piercarlo; Steffen, Matthias; Monaco, Lorenzo

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

Singlet oxygen luminescence detection with a fibre-coupled superconducting  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Singlet oxygen luminescence detection with a fibre-coupled superconducting nanowire single Triplet State Singlet State 1O2 Ground State Oxygen 3O2 Singlet oxygen Free space singlet oxygen luminescence detection Fibre-based singlet oxygen luminescence detection References Superconducting Detector

Greenaway, Alan

185

Selective photooxidation of hydrocarbons in zeolites by oxygen  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A selective photooxidation process for the conversion of hydrocarbon molecules to partially oxygenated derivatives, which comprises the steps of adsorbing a hydrocarbon and oxygen onto a dehydrated zeolite support matrix to form a hydrocarbon-oxygen contact pair, and subsequently exposing the hydrocarbon-oxygen contact pair to visible light, thereby forming a partially oxygenated derivative.

Frei, Heinz (Berkeley, CA); Blatter, Fritz (Berkeley, CA); Sun, Hai (Berkeley, CA)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

186

Chemical looping combustion of biomass-derived syngas using ceria-supported oxygen carriers  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Cu, Ni and Fe oxides supported on ceria were investigated for their performance as oxygen carriers during the chemical looping combustion of biomass-derived syngas. A complex gas mixture containing CO, H2, CO2, CH4 and other hydrocarbons was used to simulate the complex fuel gas environment derived from biomass gasification. Results show that the transfer of the stored oxygen into oxidants for the supported Cu and Ni oxides at 800 °C for the combustion of syngas was effective (>85%). The unsupported Cu oxide showed high oxygen carrying capacity but particle sintering was observed at 800 °C. A reaction temperature of 950 °C was required for the supported Fe oxides to transfer the stored oxygen into oxidants effectively. Also, for the complex fuel gas environment, the supported Ni oxide was somewhat effective in reforming CH4 and other light hydrocarbons into CO, which may have benefits for the reduction of tar produced during biomass pyrolysis.

H.B. Huang; L. Aisyah; P.J. Ashman; Y.C. Leung; C.W. Kwong

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

Evolution of Photosynthesis and Biospheric Oxygenation Contingent Upon Nitrogen Fixation?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

How photosynthesis by Precambrian cyanobacteria oxygenated Earth's biosphere remains incompletely understood. Here it is argued that the oxic transition, which took place between approximately 2.3 and 0.5 Gyr ago, required a great proliferation of cyanobacteria, and this in turn depended on their ability to fix nitrogen via the nitrogenase enzyme system. However, the ability to fix nitrogen was not a panacea, and the rate of biospheric oxygenation may still have been affected by nitrogen constraints on cyanobacterial expansion. Evidence is presented for why cyanobacteria probably have a great need for fixed nitrogen than other prokaryotes, underscoring the importance of their ability to fix nitrogen. The connection between nitrogen fixation and the evolution of photosynthesis is demonstrated by the similarities between nitrogenase and enzymes critical for the biosynthesis of (bacterio)chlorophyll. It is hypothesized that biospheric oxygenation would not have occurred if the emergence of cyanobacteria had not been preceded by the evolution of nitrogen fixation, and if these organisms had not also acquired the ability to fix nitrogen at the beginning of or very early in their history. The evolution of nitrogen fixation also appears to have been a precondition for the evolution of (bacterio)chlorophyll-based photosynthesis. Given that some form of chlorophyll is obligatory for true photosynthesis, and its light absorption and chemical properties make it a "universal pigment," it may be predicted that the evolution of nitrogen fixation and photosynthesis are also closely linked on other Earth- like planets.

John W. Grula

2006-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

188

Feed tank transfer requirements  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document presents a definition of tank turnover; DOE responsibilities; TWRS DST permitting requirements; TWRS Authorization Basis (AB) requirements; TWRS AP Tank Farm operational requirements; unreviewed safety question (USQ) requirements; records and reporting requirements, and documentation which will require revision in support of transferring a DST in AP Tank Farm to a privatization contractor for use during Phase 1B.

Freeman-Pollard, J.R.

1998-09-16T23:59:59.000Z

189

Oxygen and organic matter thresholds for benthic faunal activity on the Pakistan margin oxygen minimum zone (7001100 m)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Oxygen and organic matter thresholds for benthic faunal activity on the Pakistan margin oxygen increased animal activity associated with increasing bottom-water oxygen concentration. We examined faunal community responses to oxygen and organic matter gradients across the lower oxygen minimum zone (OMZ

Levin, Lisa

190

IMPACT OF OXYGENATED FUEL ON DIESEL ENGINE PERFORMANCE AND EMISSIONS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

As evidenced by recent lawsuits brought against operators of large diesel truck fleets [1] and by the Consent Decree brought against the heavy-duty diesel manufacturers [2], the environmental and health effects of diesel engine emissions continue to be a significant concern. Reduction of diesel engine emissions has traditionally been achieved through a combination of fuel system, combustion chamber, and engine control modifications [3]. Catalytic aftertreatment has become common on modern diesel vehicles, with the predominant device being the diesel oxidation catalytic converter [3]. To enable advanced after-treatment devices and to directly reduce emissions, significant recent interest has focused on reformulation of diesel fuel, particularly the reduction of sulfur content. The EPA has man-dated that diesel fuel will have only 15 ppm sulfur content by 2007, with current diesel specifications requiring around 300 ppm [4]. Reduction of sulfur will permit sulfur-sensitive aftertreatment devices, continuously regenerating particulate traps, NOx control catalysts, and plasma assisted catalysts to be implemented on diesel vehicles [4]. Another method of reformulating diesel fuel to reduce emissions is to incorporate oxygen in the fuel, as was done in the reformulation of gasoline. The use of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) in reformulated gasoline has resulted in contamination of water resources across the country [5]. Nonetheless, by relying on the lessons learned from MTBE, oxygenation of diesel fuel may be accomplished without compromising water quality. Oxygenation of diesel fuel offers the possibility of reducing particulate matter emissions significantly, even for the current fleet of diesel vehicles. The mechanism by which oxygen content leads to particulate matter reductions is still under debate, but recent evidence shows clearly that ''smokeless'' engine operation is possible when the oxygen content of diesel fuel reaches roughly 38% by weight [6]. The potential improvements in energy efficiency within the transportation section, particularly in sport utility vehicles and light-duty trucks, that can be provided by deployment of diesel engines in passenger cars and trucks is a strong incentive to develop cleaner burning diesel engines and cleaner burning fuels for diesel engines. Thus, serious consideration of oxygenated diesel fuels is of significant practical interest and value to society. In the present work, a diesel fuel reformulating agent, CETANERTM, has been examined in a popular light-medium duty turbodiesel engine over a range of blending ratios. This additive is a mixture of glycol ethers and can be produced from dimethyl ether, which itself can be manufactured from synthesis gas using Air Products' Liquid Phase Dimethyl Ether (LPDME TM) technology. CETANERTM is a liquid, has an oxygen content of 36 wt.%, has a cetane number over 100 and is highly miscible in diesel fuel. This combination of physical and chemical properties makes CETANERTM an attractive agent for oxygenating diesel fuel. The present study considered CETANERTM ratios from 0 to 40 wt.% in a California Air Resources Board (CARB) specification diesel fuel. Particulate matter emissions, gaseous emissions and in-cylinder pressure traces were monitored over the AVL 8-Mode engine test protocol [7]. This paper presents the results from these measurements and discusses the implications of using high cetane number oxygenates in diesel fuel reformulation.

Boehman, Andre L.

2000-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

191

Natural Ores as Oxygen Carriers in Chemical Looping Combustion  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Natural Ores as Oxygen Carriers in Chemical Looping Combustion ... Chemical looping combustion (CLC) is a combustion technology that utilizes oxygen from oxygen carriers (OC), such as metal oxides, instead of air to combust fuels. ...

Hanjing Tian; Ranjani Siriwardane; Thomas Simonyi; James Poston

2013-01-02T23:59:59.000Z

192

Reactive oxygen species: a breath of life or death?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

AP1, activator protein-1; ODD, oxygen-dependent degradationSignaling response when oxygen levels decrease (Fig. 1C;3. Halliwell B. Reactive oxygen species in living sys- tems:

Fruehauf, John P; Meyskens, Frank L Jr

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

193

Blood oxygen transport and depletion : the key of consummate divers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and Dill, D. B. (1935). Oxygen dissociation curves of birdE. (1964). A venous blood oxygen reservoir in the divingand Torrance, J. D. (1977). Oxygen-Affinity of Avian Blood.

Meir, Jessica Ulrika

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

194

Imaging Intrinsic Diffusion of Bridge-Bonded Oxygen Vacancies...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Intrinsic Diffusion of Bridge-Bonded Oxygen Vacancies on TiO2(110). Imaging Intrinsic Diffusion of Bridge-Bonded Oxygen Vacancies on TiO2(110). Abstract: Since oxygen atom...

195

Oxygen Tension Modulates Neurite Outgrowth in PC12 Cells Through A Mechanism Involving HIF and VEGF  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

neural repair. Keywords Oxygen tension . Neurite extension .respective physiological oxygen microenvironments (Chen etet al. 2008). For example, oxygen tension differentially

Genetos, Damian C.; Cheung, Whitney K.; Decaris, Martin L.; Leach, J. Kent

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

196

Long-term oxygen sensor implantation in the porcine subcutaneous environment  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Membrane-­?Covered  Oxygen  Electrode.   Analytical  Microvascular  and  tissue  oxygen   distribution.  vitro  stability  of  an  oxygen  sensor.   Anal  Chem,  

Kumosa, Lucas Stefan

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

197

Tetraoxygen on Reduced Ti02(110): Oxygen Adsorption and Reactions...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Tetraoxygen on Reduced Ti02(110): Oxygen Adsorption and Reactions with Oxygen Vacancies. Tetraoxygen on Reduced Ti02(110): Oxygen Adsorption and Reactions with Oxygen Vacancies....

198

Density Functional Theory Study of Oxygen Reduction Activity...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Study of Oxygen Reduction Activity on Ultrathin Platinum Nanotubes. Density Functional Theory Study of Oxygen Reduction Activity on Ultrathin Platinum Nanotubes. Abstract: The...

199

Oxygen Carriers for Solid Fuel Chemical Looping Combustion Process...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Oxygen Carriers for Solid Fuel Chemical Looping Combustion Process Regenerable Mixed Copper-Iron-Inert Support Oxygen Carriers National Energy Technology Laboratory Contact NETL...

200

Testing Oxygen Reduction Reaction Activity with the Rotating...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Testing Oxygen Reduction Reaction Activity with the Rotating Disc Electrode Technique Testing Oxygen Reduction Reaction Activity with the Rotating Disc Electrode Technique...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "higher oxygen requirement" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Oxygen Diffusion (OD) Dramatically Improves Wear-Resistance of...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Oxygen Diffusion (OD) Dramatically Improves Wear-Resistance of Titanium Oxygen Diffusion (OD) Dramatically Improves Wear-Resistance of Titanium 2007 Diesel Engine-Efficiency &...

202

Oxygen detected in atmosphere of Saturn's moon Dione  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Oxygen detected in atmosphere of Saturn's moon Dione Oxygen detected in atmosphere of Saturn's moon Dione Scientists and an international research team have announced discovery of...

203

Virtual Oxygen Sensor for Innovative NOx and PM Emission Control...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Virtual Oxygen Sensor for Innovative NOx and PM Emission Control Technologies Virtual Oxygen Sensor for Innovative NOx and PM Emission Control Technologies A virtual O2 sensor for...

204

Effects of Oxygen-Containing Functional Groups on Supercapacitor...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Oxygen-Containing Functional Groups on Supercapacitor Performance. Effects of Oxygen-Containing Functional Groups on Supercapacitor Performance. Abstract: Molecular dynamics (MD)...

205

Isolation, Characterization of an Intermediate in an Oxygen Atom...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Characterization of an Intermediate in an Oxygen Atom-Transfer Reaction, and the Determination of the Bond Isolation, Characterization of an Intermediate in an Oxygen Atom-Transfer...

206

Direct Measurement of Oxygen Incorporation into Thin Film Oxides...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Measurement of Oxygen Incorporation into Thin Film Oxides at Room Temperature Upon Ultraviolet Phton Irradiation. Direct Measurement of Oxygen Incorporation into Thin Film Oxides...

207

Oxygen Transport Studies in Nanocrystalline Ceria Films. | EMSL  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Transport Studies in Nanocrystalline Ceria Films. Oxygen Transport Studies in Nanocrystalline Ceria Films. Abstract: Oxygen uptake and conductivity were measured by nuclear...

208

Lattice Distortions and Oxygen Vacancies Produced in Au+-Irradiated...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Lattice Distortions and Oxygen Vacancies Produced in Au+-Irradiated Nanocrystalline Cubic Zirconia. Lattice Distortions and Oxygen Vacancies Produced in Au+-Irradiated...

209

Density Functional Study of the Structure, Stability and Oxygen...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Study of the Structure, Stability and Oxygen Reduction Activity of Ultrathin Platinum Nanowires. Density Functional Study of the Structure, Stability and Oxygen Reduction Activity...

210

Electron-Stimulated Production of Molecular Oxygen in Amorphous...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Water. Electron-Stimulated Production of Molecular Oxygen in Amorphous Solid Water. Abstract: The low-energy, electron-stimulated production of molecular oxygen from pure amorphous...

211

Bimetallic and Ternary Alloys for Improved Oxygen Reduction Catalysis...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Bimetallic and Ternary Alloys for Improved Oxygen Reduction Catalysis . Bimetallic and Ternary Alloys for Improved Oxygen Reduction Catalysis . Abstract: The research described in...

212

Advantages of Oxygenates Fuels over Gasoline in Direct Injection...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Advantages of Oxygenates Fuels over Gasoline in Direct Injection Spark Ignition Engines Advantages of Oxygenates Fuels over Gasoline in Direct Injection Spark Ignition Engines...

213

LED–LED portable oxygen gas sensor  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A portable instrument for oxygen determination, based on the quenching of phosphorescent octaethylporphyrin by gaseous O2..., has been developed using the fluorimetric paired emitter–detector diode technique (FPE...

I. M. Perez de Vargas-Sansalvador; C. Fay…

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

214

OXYGEN ENHANCED COMBUSTION FOR NOx CONTROL  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This quarterly technical progress report will summarize work accomplished for the Program through the thirteenth quarter, April-June 2003, in the following task areas: Task 1--Oxygen Enhanced Combustion, Task 3--Economic Evaluation and Task 4--Program Management. The program is proceeding in accordance with project objectives. REI's model was modified to evaluate mixing issues in the upper furnace of a staged unit. Analysis of the results, and their potential application to this unit is ongoing. Economic evaluation continues to confirm the advantage of oxygen-enhanced combustion. A contract for a commercial demonstration has been signed with the Northeast Generation Services Company to supply oxygen and license the oxygen enhanced low NOx combustor technology for use at the 147-megawatt coal fired Mt. Tom Station in Holyoke, MA. Commercial proposals have been submitted. Economic analysis of a beta site test performance was conducted.

David R. Thompson; Lawrence E. Bool; Jack C. Chen

2003-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

215

Electron-impact excitation of neutral oxygen  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Aims: To calculate transition rates from ground and excited states in neutral oxygen atoms due to electron collisions for non-LTE modelling of oxygen in late-type stellar atmospheres, thus enabling reliable interpretation of oxygen lines in stellar spectra. Methods: A 38-state R-matrix calculation in LS-coupling has been performed. Basis orbitals from the literature (Thomas et al.) are adopted, and a large set of configurations are included to obtain good representations of the target wavefunctions. Rate coefficients are calculated by averaging over a Maxwellian velocity distribution. Results: Estimates for the cross sections and rate coefficients are presented for transitions between the seven lowest LS states of neutral oxygen. The cross sections for excitation from the ground state compare well with existing experimental and recent theoretical results.

P. S. Barklem

2006-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

216

Design optimization of oxygenated fluid pump  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In medical emergencies, an oxygen-starved brain quickly suffers irreparable damage. In many cases, patients who stop breathing can be resuscitated but suffer from brain damage. Dr. John Kheir from Boston Children's Hospital ...

Piazzarolo, Bruno Aiala

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

217

Interactions of oxygen with Zr(0001)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Interaction of oxygen with Zr(0001) have been studied using low energy electron diffraction (LEED), work function ([Delta][phi]), static and dynamic secondary ion mass spectrometry (SSIMS, DSIMS), thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS), Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) and nuclear reaction analysis (NRA). The initial sticking coefficient of oxygen is close to unity up to [approximately]0.75 ML at 90, 293 and 473 K. Oxygen chemisorption is disordered at room temperature and below. Heating the disordered surface to [approximately]473 K causes all oxygen to move to subsurface sites. A (1x2) ordered oxygen underlayer is formed consisting of three rotated domains of (1x2) superstructure with the oxygen atoms located between the first and second planes of zirconium atoms. This structure is stable up to about 573 K, above which temperature oxygen diffuses into the bulk. AES measurements employing oxide and metal signals were used to model the growth of oxide which was found to be temperature dependent. Both NRA and AES indicate linear oxygen uptake kinetics at 90 K with abrupt passivation as the limiting thickness is reached. SSIMS ion yield data taken during the oxidation of Zr(0001) at 90, 293 and 473 K was interpretable in the context of the oxygen coverage. Dissolution into the bulk of the saturated oxide layer grown at 90 K appears to occur by an island-type mechanism rather than layer-by-layer dissolution from the oxide-metal interface. Large [Delta][phi] changes that occur upon oxidation at 90 K and temperature ramping of the saturated oxide to 300 K are attributable to reversible molecular oxygen adsorption on the oxide. The diffusion of oxygen normal to the [0001] plane of zirconium has been measured by AES: D[sub 0] = (4.14.[+-]1.92) x 10[sup [minus]2] cm[sup [minus]2] s[sup [minus]1] and E[sub a]= 199.1 [+-]2.6 kJ mol[sup [minus]1]. The fundamental vibrational frequency for the [alpha]-Zr lattice was calculated to be (6.3 [+-] 2.9) x 10[sup 13]s[sup [minus]1].

Flinn, B.J.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

218

Oxy-combustion: Oxygen Transport Membrane Development  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

combustion: Oxygen Transport combustion: Oxygen Transport Membrane Development Background The mission of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Existing Plants, Emissions & Capture (EPEC) Research & Development (R&D) Program is to develop innovative environmental control technologies to enable full use of the nation's vast coal reserves, while at the same time allowing the current fleet of coal-fired power plants to comply with existing and emerging environmental regulations. The EPEC R&D

219

Underground coal gasification using oxygen and steam  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this paper, through model experiment of the underground coal gasification, the effects of pure oxygen gasification, oxygen-steam gasification, and moving-point gasification methods on the underground gasification process and gas quality were studied. Experiments showed that H{sub 2} and CO volume fraction in product gas during the pure oxygen gasification was 23.63-30.24% and 35.22-46.32%, respectively, with the gas heating value exceeding 11.00 MJ/m{sup 3}; under the oxygen-steam gasification, when the steam/oxygen ratio stood at 2: 1, gas compositions remained virtually stable and CO + H{sub 2} was basically between 61.66 and 71.29%. Moving-point gasification could effectively improve the changes in the cavity in the coal seams or the effects of roof inbreak on gas quality; the ratio of gas flowing quantity to oxygen supplying quantity was between 3.1:1 and 3.5:1 and took on the linear changes; on the basis of the test data, the reasons for gas quality changes under different gasification conditions were analyzed.

Yang, L.H.; Zhang, X.; Liu, S. [China University of Mining & Technology, Xuzhou (China)

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

OXYGEN ENHANCED COMBUSTION FOR NOx CONTROL  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This quarterly technical progress report will summarize work accomplished for the Program in the seventh quarter October-December 2001 in the following task areas: Task 1 - Oxygen Enhanced Combustion, Task 2 - Oxygen Transport Membranes, Task 3 - Economic Evaluation and Task 4 - Program Management. Computational fluid dynamic (CFD) modeling of oxygen injection strategies was performed during the quarter resulting in data that suggest the oxygen injection reduces NOx emissions while reducing LOI. Pilot-scale testing activities concluded at the University of Utah this quarter. Testing demonstrated that some experimental conditions can lead to NOx emissions well below the 0.15 lb/MMBtu limit. Evaluation of alternative OTM materials with improved mechanical properties continued this quarter. Powder procedure optimization continued and sintering trial began on an element with a new design. Several OTM elements were tested in Praxair's single tube high-pressure test facility under various conditions. A modified PSO1d element demonstrated stable oxygen product purity of >98% and oxygen flux of 68% of target. Updated test results and projected economic performance have been reviewed with the Utility Industrial Advisors. The economic comparison remains very favorable for O{sub 2} enhanced combustion. Discussions regarding possible Beta sites have been held with three other utilities in addition to the industrial advisors. Proposals will be prepared after the completion of full scale burner testing. Beta test cost estimating work has been initiated.

David R. Thompson; Lawrence E. Bool; Jack C. Chen

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "higher oxygen requirement" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

OXYGEN ENHANCED COMBUSTION FOR NOx CONTROL  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This quarterly technical progress report will summarize work accomplished for the Program through the fourth quarter January-March 2002 in the following task areas: Task 1--Oxygen Enhanced Combustion, Task 2--Oxygen Transport Membranes, Task 3--Economic Evaluation and Task 4--Program Management. This report will also recap the results of the past year. The program is proceeding in accordance with the objectives for the second year. The first round of pilot scale testing with 3 bituminous coals was completed at the University of Utah. Full-scale testing equipment is in place and experiments are underway. Coal combustion lab-scale testing was completed at the University of Arizona. Modest oxygen enhancement resulted in NOx emissions reduction. Combustion modeling activities continued with pilot-scale combustion test furnace simulations. 75% of target oxygen flux was demonstrated with small PSO1 tube in Praxair's single tube high-pressure test facility. The production of oxygen with a purity of better than 99.999% was demonstrated. Economic evaluation has confirmed the advantage of oxygen-enhanced combustion. Two potential host sites have been identified.

David R. Thompson; Lawrence E. Bool; Jack C. Chen

2002-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

222

Fraud in For-Profit Higher Education  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The rising prominence of for-profit higher education in recent years has been impressive, as these organizations have come to play a more prominent role in American higher education. Nonetheless, for-profits c...

William Beaver

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

Higher Power Energy LLC | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Higher Power Energy LLC Higher Power Energy LLC Jump to: navigation, search Name Higher Power Energy, LLC Place Flower Mound, Texas Zip 78028 Sector Renewable Energy, Wind energy Product Higher Power Energy is focused on the development and management of renewable wind energy across North America. References Higher Power Energy, LLC[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Higher Power Energy, LLC is a company located in Flower Mound, Texas . References ↑ "Higher Power Energy, LLC" Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Higher_Power_Energy_LLC&oldid=346535" Categories: Clean Energy Organizations Companies Organizations Stubs What links here

224

Appendix B: CArBon dioxide CApture teChnology SheetS Oxygen PrOductiOn  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Oxygen PrOductiOn Oxygen PrOductiOn B-500 Oxygen PrOductiOn u.S. dePartment Of energy advanced carbOn diOxide caPture r&d PrOgram: technOlOgy uPdate, may 2013 itm Oxygen technOlOgy fOr integratiOn in igcc and Other advanced POwer generatiOn SyStemS primary project goals Air Products and Chemicals set out to design and develop an ion transport membrane (ITM) based on ceramics that selectively transport oxygen (O 2 ) ions when operated at high temperature. This high-temperature process may be integrated with advanced power genera- tion processes that require O 2 as a feedstock, such as integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) and other clean energy and industrial applications. technical goals * Design, construct, and operate a 0.1-ton/day (TPD) technology development unit

225

Triiodothyronine facilitates weaning from extracorporeal membrane oxygenation by improved mitochondrial substrate utilization  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) provides a bridge to recovery after myocardial injury in infants and children, yet morbidity and mortality remain high. Weaning from the circuit requires adequate cardiac contractile function, which can be impaired by metabolic disturbances induced either by ischemia-reperfusion and / or by ECMO.

Files, Matthew D.; Kajimoto, Masaki; Priddy, Colleen M.; Ledee, Dolena R.; Xu, Chun; Des Rosiers, Christine; Isern, Nancy G.; Portman, Michael A.

2014-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

226

States & Energy Efficiency in Higher Education  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This presentation, given through the DOE's Technical Assitance Program (TAP), provides information on States & Energy Efficiency in Higher Education.

227

Oxygen Release and Oxidation Rates of MgAl2O4-Supported CuO Oxygen Carrier for Chemical-Looping Combustion with Oxygen Uncoupling (CLOU)  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The choice of wood char was made after comparing the oxygen concentration in the reactor’s exit stream, using different solid fuels and taking advantage of the high reactivity of the wood char, compared to other available fuels (e.g., coal or petcoke). ... The required solids inventory in the fuel reactor obtained here is lower than a previously reported investigation for a 40 wt?% CuO on ZrO2 support using petcoke as fuel (120–200 kg MWth–1)(34) and a recent study of continuous operation using a spray-dried 60 wt?% CuO on MgAl2O4 support (235 kg MWth–1 at 960 °C),(22) but is in close agreement with the values obtained by Adánez-Rubio et al.(48) for the spray-dried 60 wt?% CuO on MgAl2O4 support (39 kg MWth–1 at 930 °C). ... data of Mexican petcoke particles by a CuO/ZrO2 oxygen carrier. ...

Mehdi Arjmand; Martin Keller; Henrik Leion; Tobias Mattisson; Anders Lyngfelt

2012-10-03T23:59:59.000Z

228

Feed tank transfer requirements  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document presents a definition of tank turnover. Also, DOE and PC responsibilities; TWRS DST permitting requirements; TWRS Authorization Basis (AB) requirements; TWRS AP Tank Farm operational requirements; unreviewed safety question (USQ) requirements are presented for two cases (i.e., tank modifications occurring before tank turnover and tank modification occurring after tank turnover). Finally, records and reporting requirements, and documentation which will require revision in support of transferring a DST in AP Tank Farm to a privatization contractor are presented.

Freeman-Pollard, J.R.

1998-09-16T23:59:59.000Z

229

User Requirements Gathered for  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Workshops to derive and document each DOE SC Office's HPC requirements for NERSC in 2013-14" * Deliverables: Reports that includes both the HPC requirements and supporting...

230

BES Science Network Requirements  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

the Basic Energy Sciences Network Requirements Workshop Conducted June 4-5, 2007 BES Science Network Requirements Workshop Basic Energy Sciences Program Office, DOE Office of...

231

Effect of co-precipitation and impregnation on K-decorated Fe2O3/Al2O3 oxygen carrier in Chemical Looping Combustion of bituminous coal  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Chemical Looping Combustion (CLC) of coal is an innovative combustion technology for CO2 inherent capture, which uses oxygen carrier (OC) to transfer lattice oxygen to coal. However, coal gasification is the rate-limiting process for CLC of coal. Although carbon conversion and gasification rate are substantially improved with oxygen carriers in the presence of alkali additives, alkali loss in oxygen carrier is still a serious problem in the process of CLC of coal. The present work focuses on the OC–potassium interaction for two preparation methods of K-decorated OC. Different contents of catalyst (K2CO3) were added into the preparation of Fe-based oxygen carrier by both co-precipitation and impregnation. And the effect of K-decorated methods on oxygen carriers was investigated in a fluidized bed reactor. For co-precipitated oxygen carriers, CO2 gas yields (fCO2) were higher and CO gas yields (fCO) were lower than the ones for impregnated oxygen carriers. Total carbon conversions for co-precipitated oxygen carriers were also higher than those for impregnated oxygen carriers, and a shorter time of fast reaction stage always corresponded to co-precipitated oxygen carrier. 9 redox cycles were also conducted to investigate the stability of oxygen carrier reactivity and the potassium loss with cycle number. It was concluded that the reactivity of co-precipitated oxygen carriers was more stable during 9 redox cycles. Especially for K10-cp (oxygen carriers of 10% potassium content by co-precipitation), fCO2 increased slightly and fCO changed very little with cycle number. According to morphological features of oxygen carriers, co-precipitation was superior to impregnation in preventing oxygen carrier particle sintering. On the other hand, although potassium contents of all K-decorated oxygen carriers decreased with cycle number, the potassium loss for co-precipitated oxygen carriers was smaller. K10-cp performed the best characteristic in avoiding potassium loss: the potassium content decreased from 8.47% (fresh oxygen carrier) to 7.79% (after 9 cycles). X-ray diffractometer (XRD) analysis showed that the potassium ferrite, K2Fe22O34, was presented in K-decorated oxygen carriers. Based on the peak intensity ratio of I K 2 Fe 22 O 34 / I Fe 2 O 3 , the higher the content of \\{K2Fe22O34\\} in K-decorated Fe2O3/Al2O3 oxygen carrier was, the larger the conversion of CO to CO2 was, and the shorter the time of fast reaction stage was. Therefore, it was inferred that \\{K2Fe22O34\\} acted as a support with catalytic effect. In addition, the content of \\{K2Fe22O34\\} was higher in co-precipitated oxygen carriers than that in impregnation oxygen carriers. It can be used to explain that why a better reactivity was always found for co-precipitated oxygen carriers.

Huijun Ge; Laihong Shen; Haiming Gu; Shouxi Jiang

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

232

The effect of temperature and oxygen level on the production of testosterone, androstenedione and progesterone by rat testis in vitro  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

THE EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE AND OXYGEN LEVEL ON THE PRODUCTION OF TESTOSTERONE, ANDROSTFNEDIONE AND PROGESTERONE BY RAT TESTIS IN VITRO A Thesis by PETER ANTHONY DUDLEY Submitted to the Graduate College of the Texas A%M University in partial... fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE January 1969 Major Subject: Physiology of Reproduction THE EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE AND OXYGEN LEVEL ON THE PRODUCTION OF TESTOSTERONE, ANDROSTENEDIONE AND PROGESTERONE BY RAT TESTIS...

Dudley, Peter Anthony

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

233

Absorption process for producing oxygen and nitrogen and solution therefor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Process for the separation and purification of oxygen and nitrogen is disclosed which utilizes solutions of oxygen carriers to selectively absorb oxygen from a gaseous stream, leaving nitrogen as a byproduct. In the process, an oxygen carrier capable of reversibly binding molecular oxygen is dissolved in a solvent solution, which absorbs oxygen from an oxygen-containing gaseous feed stream such as atmospheric air and desorbs oxygen to a gaseous product stream. The feed stream is maintained at a sufficiently high oxygen pressure to keep the oxygen carrier in its oxygenated form during absorption, while the product stream is maintained at a sufficiently low oxygen pressure to keep the carrier in its deoxygenated form during desorption. In an alternate mode of operation, the carrier solution is maintained at a sufficiently low temperature and high oxygen pressure to keep the oxygen carrier in its oxygenated form during absorption, and at a sufficiently high temperature to keep the carrier in its deoxygenated form during desorption. Under such conditions, exceptionally high oxygen concentrations on the order of 95% to 99% are obtained, as well as a long carrier lifetime in excess of 3 months, making the process commercially feasible. 1 figure

Roman, I.C.; Baker, R.W.

1990-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

234

Absorption process for producing oxygen and nitrogen and solution therefor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Process for the separation and purification of oxygen and nitrogen is disclosed which utilizes solutions of oxygen carriers to selectively absorb oxygen from a gaseous stream, leaving nitrogen as a byproduct. In the process, an oxygen carrier capable of reversibly binding molecular oxygen is dissolved in a solvent solution, which absorbs oxygen from an oxygen-containing gaseous feed stream such as atmospheric air and desorbs oxygen to a gaseous product stream. The feed stream is maintained at a sufficiently high oxygen pressure to keep the oxygen carrier in its oxygenated form during absorption, while the product stream is maintained at a sufficiently low oxygen pressure to keep the carrier in its deoxygenated form during desorption. In an alternate mode of operation, the carrier solution is maintained at a sufficiently low temperature and high oxygen pressure to keep the oxygen carrier in its oxygenated form during absorption, and at a sufficiently high temperature to keep the carrier in its deoxygenated form during desorption. Under such conditions, exceptionally high oxygen concentrations on the order of 95% to 99% are obtained, as well as a long carrier lifetime in excess of 3 months, making the process commercially feasible.

Roman, Ian C. [Wilmington, DE; Baker, Richard W. [Palo Alto, CA

1990-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

235

Oxygen Toxicity Calculations by Erik C. Baker, P.E.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Oxygen Toxicity Calculations by Erik C. Baker, P.E. Management of exposure to oxygen toxicity myself using the good ole' FORTRAN programming language, I found that incorporating oxygen toxicity for others. Background Two oxygen toxicity parameters are typically "tracked" in technical diving

Read, Charles

236

Energetic neutral atoms at Mars 4. Imaging of planetary oxygen  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Energetic neutral atoms at Mars 4. Imaging of planetary oxygen S. Barabash and M. Holmstro of the Martian oxygen exosphere/corona results in the production of planetary oxygen ions. The newborn ions start. The oxygen ions can then charge exchange with the neutral gases (H, H2, and O) of the Martian exosphere

Lukyanov, Alex

237

OXYGEN ENHANCED COMBUSTION FOR NOx CONTROL  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This quarterly technical progress report will summarize work accomplished for the Program through the eleventh quarter, October-December 2002, in the following task areas: Task 1 - Oxygen Enhanced Combustion, Task 2 - Oxygen Transport Membranes, Task 3 - Economic Evaluation and Task 4 - Program Management. The program is proceeding in accordance with the objectives for the third year. Pilot scale experiments conducted at the University of Utah were aimed at confirming the importance of oxygen injection strategy for different types of burners. CFD modeling at REI was used to better understand the potential for increased corrosion under oxygen enhanced combustion conditions. Data from a full-scale demonstration test in Springfield, MO were analyzed. OTM element development continued with preliminary investigation of an alternative method of fabrication of PSO1d elements. OTM process development continued with long-term testing of a PSO1d element. Economic evaluation has confirmed the advantage of oxygen-enhanced combustion. Proposals have been submitted for two additional beta test sites. A first commercial proposal has been submitted. Economic analysis of a beta site test performance was conducted.

David R. Thompson; Lawrence E. Bool; Jack C. Chen

2003-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

OXYGEN ENHANCED COMBUSTION FOR NOx CONTROL  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This quarterly technical progress report will summarize work accomplished for the Program through the twelfth quarter, January-March 2003, in the following task areas: Task 1--Oxygen Enhanced Combustion, Task 2--Oxygen Transport Membranes, Task 3--Economic Evaluation and Task 4--Program Management. The program is proceeding in accordance with the objectives for the third year. Pilot scale experiments conducted at the University of Utah explored both the effectiveness of oxygen addition and the best way to add oxygen with a scaled version of Riley Power's newest low NOx burner design. CFD modeling was done to compare the REI's modeling results for James River Unit 3 with the NOx and LOI results obtained during the demonstration program at that facility. Investigation of an alternative method of fabrication of PSO1d elements was conducted. OTM process development work has concluded with the completion of a long-term test of a PSO1d element Economic evaluation has confirmed the advantage of oxygen-enhanced combustion. Proposals have been submitted for two additional beta test sites. Commercial proposals have been submitted. Economic analysis of a beta site test performance was conducted.

David R. Thompson; Lawrence E. Bool; Jack C. Chen

2003-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

239

On the solar nickel and oxygen abundances  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Determinations of the solar oxygen content relying on the neutral forbidden transition at 630 nm depend upon the nickel abundance, due to a Ni I blend. Here we rederive the solar nickel abundance, using the same ab initio 3D hydrodynamic model of the solar photosphere employed in the recent revision of the abundances of C, N, O and other elements. Using 17 weak, unblended lines of Ni I together with the most accurate atomic and observational data available we find log epsilon_Ni = 6.17 +/- 0.02 (statistical) +/- 0.05 (systematic), a downwards shift of 0.06 to 0.08 dex relative to previous 1D-based abundances. We investigate the implications of the new nickel abundance for studies of the solar oxygen abundance based on the [O I] 630 nm line in the quiet Sun. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the oxygen abundance implied by the recent sunspot spectropolarimetric study of Centeno & Socas-Navarro needs to be revised downwards from log epsilon_O = 8.86 +/- 0.07 to 8.71 +/- 0.10. This revision is based on the new nickel abundance, application of the best available gf-value for the 630 nm forbidden oxygen line, and a more transparent treatment of CO formation. Determinations of the solar oxygen content relying on forbidden lines now appear to converge around log epsilon_O = 8.7.

Pat Scott; Martin Asplund; Nicolas Grevesse; A. Jacques Sauval

2008-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

240

Oxygen abundance of open cluster dwarfs  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present oxygen abundances of dwarfs in the young open cluster IC 4665 deduced from the OI $\\lambda$7774 triplet lines and of dwarfs in the open cluster Pleiades derived from the [OI] $\\lambda$6300 forbidden line. Stellar parameters and oxygen abundances were derived using the spectroscopic synthesis tool SME (Spectroscopy Made Easy). We find a dramatic increase in the upper boundary of the OI triplet abundances with decreasing temperature in the dwarfs of IC 4665, consistent with the trend found by Schuler et al. in the open clusters Pleiades and M 34, and to a less extent in the cool dwarfs of Hyades (Schuler et al. 2006a) and UMa (King & Schuler 2005). By contrast, oxygen abundances derived from the [OI] $\\lambda$6300 forbidden line for stars in Pleiades and Hyades (Schuler et al. 2006b) are constant within the errors. Possible mechanisms that may lead a varying oxygen triplet line abundance are examined, including systematic errors in the stellar parameter determinations, the NLTE effects, surface activities and granulation. The age-related effects stellar surface activities (especially the chromospheric activities) are suggested by our analysis to blame for the large spreads of oxygen triplet line abundances.

Z. -X. Shen; X. -W. Liu; H. -W. Zhang; B. Jones; D. N. C. Lin

2007-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "higher oxygen requirement" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Oxygen Hydration Mechanism for the Oxygen Reduction Reaction at Pt and Pd Fuel Cell Catalysts  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Oxygen Hydration Mechanism for the Oxygen Reduction Reaction at Pt and Pd Fuel Cell Catalysts ... Catalytic Reactions on the Open-Edge Sites of Nitrogen-Doped Carbon Nanotubes as Cathode Catalyst for Hydrogen Fuel Cells ... Despite significant progress made the past decade on reducing the platinum catalyst loading in the PEMFC electrodes, further ... ...

Yao Sha; Ted H. Yu; Boris V. Merinov; Pezhman Shirvanian; William A. Goddard; III

2011-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

242

Low temperature limiting-current oxygen sensors based on tetragonal zirconia polycrystals  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper reports that yttria doped tetragonal zirconia polycrystals can overcome the phase transition into the monoclinic phase at about 500{degrees} C and show higher ionic conductivities than cubic stabilized zirconia in spite of the lower defect concentration. This material is applied in oxygen gas sensors under limiting current conditions at intermediate and ambient temperatures. AC and dc conductivities, Tafel behavior, minority charge carrier diffusivity, and the i-V characteristics are reported. The detection limit of the oxygen partial pressure and the response time depend on the thickness of the electrolyte and are related to the oxygen ion conductance and the electronic mobilities, respectively. The sensors may be optimized by the application of thin film electrolytes and of modified configurations with solid oxide bulk conducting diffusion barriers.

Liaw, B.Y.; Weppner, W. (Max-Planck Inst. fur Festkorperforschung, D-7000 Stuttgart 80 (DE))

1991-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

243

Oxygen abundances in the Galactic Bulge: evidence for fast chemical enrichment  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

AIMS: We spectroscopically characterize the Galactic Bulge to infer its star formation timescale, compared to the other Galactic components, through the chemical signature on its individual stars. METHODS: We derived iron and oxygen abundances for 50 K giants in four fields towards the Galactic bulge. High resolution (R=45,000) spectra for the target stars were collected with FLAMES-UVES at the VLT. RESULTS: Oxygen, as measured from the forbidden line at 6300 \\AA, shows a well-defined trend with [Fe/H], with [O/Fe] higher in bulge stars than in thick disk ones, which were known to be more oxygen enhanced than thin disk stars. CONCLUSIONS: These results support a scenario in which the bulge formed before and more rapidly than the disk, and therefore the MW bulge can be regarded as a prototypical old spheroid, with a formation history similar to that of early-type (elliptical) galaxies.

M. Zoccali; A. Lecureur; B. Barbuy; V. Hill; A. Renzini; D. Minniti; Y. Momany; A. Gomez; S. Ortolani

2006-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

244

Energy Metabolism and Requirements in the Cancer Patient  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...over a period of excess energy intake, there is an increase in oxygen consumption in the resting state...thermogenic effect of high energy intakes is greater during...FAO/WHO. Protein and Energy Requirements. Report...Hoc Expert Committee. World Health Organization Technical...

Vernon R. Young

1977-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

245

Photo-oxidation of Water by Molecular Oxygen: Isotope Exchange and Isotope Effects  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In order to detect the reaction, we used water highly enriched with isotopes 17O and 18O, controlling the isotope composition of molecular oxygen before and after reaction. ... stability of heavy-isotope clumps'; slower kinetics of reactions requiring the breakage of bonds between heavy isotopes; the mass dependence of diffusive and thermo-gravitational fractionations; mixing between components that differ from one another in bulk isotopic compn.; biochem. ... Study of oxygen three-isotope behavior during thermal decompn. of naturally occurring carbonates of calcium and magnesium in vacuo revealed that, surprisingly, anomalous isotopic compns. ...

Anatoly L. Buchachenko; Elena O. Dubinina

2011-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

246

Areas Participating in the Oxygenated Gasoline Program (Released in the STEO July 1999)  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

Section 211(m) of the Clean Air Act (42 U.S.C. 7401-7671q) requires that gasoline containing at least 2.7% oxygen by weight is to be used in the wintertime in those areas of the county that exceed the carbon monoxide National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS). The winter oxygenated gasoline program applies to all gasoline sold in the larger of the Consolidated Metropolitan Statistical Area (CMSA) or Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) in which the nonattainment area is located.

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

247

The Combination of Hydrogen and Oxygen by Electric Discharges  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Combination of hydrogen and oxygen in the Geissler discharge, low-voltage arc and electrodeless discharge.—It was noted that combination ceased to be explosive in equivalent volumes of the two gases at pressures below 3 cm. Logarithmic decrease in pressure was obtained in equivalent volumes in the Geissler discharge for constant current, whereas excess oxygen increased and excess hydrogen decreased the rate of combination, a similar change in rate having been noted by Lind in his alpha-ray experiments.Number of water molecules formed per pair of ions, as function of pressure.—From a consideration of the number of ions present in the Geissler discharge it appears that the number, k, of water molecules formed per pair of ions at the lower pressures is much less than unity, but that it increases with increasing pressure and may approach the value obtained by Lind at somewhat higher pressures. The pressure at which k approximates unity is such that the time between molecular collisions is of the order of magnitude of the life of an excited hydrogen atom. This is consistent with the view that combination may be due to some similar type of excitation produced by a process secondary to ionization.

Rogers D. Rusk

1928-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

248

Oxygen: From Environment to Genes. The periodic occurrence of oxygen minima can powerfully influence organisms living in near  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Oxygen: From Environment to Genes. The periodic occurrence of oxygen minima can powerfully to the winter of 2014. Their scholarly work is presented in this collection. #12;1 Oxygen: From Environment", 2013, 2014 Table of contents Page 2. Laura Lilly - Low-oxygen formation along the California current. 6

249

Photochemical Escape of Oxygen from Early Mars  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Photochemical escape is an important process for oxygen escape from present Mars. In this work, a 1-D Monte-Carlo Model is developed to calculate escape rates of energetic oxygen atoms produced from O2+ dissociative recombination reactions (DR) under 1, 3, 10, and 20 times present solar XUV fluxes. We found that although the overall DR rates increase with solar XUV flux almost linearly, oxygen escape rate increases from 1 to 10 times present solar XUV conditions but decreases when increasing solar XUV flux further. Analysis shows that atomic species in the upper thermosphere of early Mars increases more rapidly than O2+ when increasing XUV fluxes. While the latter is the source of energetic O atoms, the former increases the collision probability and thus decreases the escape probability of energetic O. Our results suggest that photochemical escape be a less important escape mechanism than previously thought for the loss of water and/or CO2 from early Mars.

Zhao, Jinjin

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

250

Inelastic neutron scattering from confined molecular oxygen  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Inelastic neutron-scattering measurements were carried out on condensed bulk and confined molecular oxygen. The phase transitions of the oxygen confined in cylindrical pores with diameter of ?94?Å are suppressed below their bulk temperatures or in the case of the lowest-temperature transition to the ? phase are suppressed entirely. This last observation is possibly due to the low latent heat of transition for this transition. Both elastic and inelastic neutron-scattering data indicate a mixing of oxygen crystal phases upon confinement. Magnetic ordering fluctuations in the ? phase are found to have similar energy-dependent profiles for confined and bulk excitations showing that the magnetic correlation function decay is unaffected by the finite crystal size in confinement.

Duncan Kilburn; Paul E. Sokol; Craig M. Brown

2008-12-29T23:59:59.000Z

251

Oxygen control in makeup water for PWRs  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This study describes the oxygen control program and improvements to the make-up water system components of PWR nuclear plants with the ultimate goal of reducing corrosion related problems in the steam generators and other secondary system components. A PWR plant that has a vacuum degasifier has been selected to establish the basis for the program. Following the investigation of the make-up water system components, the report presents instrumentation developed for the program. Recommendations are provided for improvements to the various make-up water system components to lower the dissolved oxygen levels. 5 refs., 23 figs., 3 tabs.

Silaghy, F. (Burns and Roe, Inc., Oradell, NJ (USA))

1990-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

252

Conversion of Mixed Oxygenates Generated from Synthesis Gas to Fuel Range Hydrocarbon  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The growing dependence in the U.S. on foreign crude oil supplies and increased concerns regarding greenhouse gas emission has generated considerable interest in research to develop renewable and environmentally friendly liquid hydrocarbon transportation fuels. One of the strategies for achieving this is to produce intermediate compounds such as alcohols and other simple oxygenates from biomass generated synthesis gas (mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen) and further convert them into liquid hydrocarbons. The focus of this research is to investigate the effects of mixed oxygenates intermediate product compositions on the conversion step to produce hydrocarbon liquids. A typical mixed oxygenate stream is expected to contain water (around 50%), alcohols, such as methanol and ethanol (around 35%), and smaller quantities of oxygenates such as acetaldehyde, acetic acid and ethyl acetate. However the ratio and the composition of the mixed oxygenate stream generated from synthesis gas vary significantly depending on the catalyst used and the process conditions. Zeolite catalyzed deoxygenation of methanol accompanied by chain growth is well understood under Methanol-to-Gasoline (MTG) like reaction conditions using an H-ZSM-5 zeolite as the catalyst6-8. Research has also been conducted to a limited extent in the past with higher alcohols, but not with other oxygenates present9-11. Also there has been little experimental investigation into mixtures containing substantial amounts of water. The latter is of particular interest because water separation from the hydrocarbon product would be less energy intensive than first removing it from the oxygenate intermediate stream prior to hydrocarbon synthesis, potentially reducing overall processing costs.

Ramasamy, Karthikeyan K.; Gerber, Mark A.; Lilga, Michael A.; Flake, Matthew D.

2012-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

253

Application of computer modeling techniques to the kinetics of the reaction of carbon with oxygen  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Computer modeling techniques are applied to the kinetics of the reaction of carbon with oxygen. The rates of disappearance of oxygen, of formation of CO, CO/sub 2/ and the surface complex, measured over the temperature range 748-1173 K and the pressure range 0.5-400 Pa may be described by a mechanism involving adsorption of oxygen, formation of the strongly-bound complex, desorption of the complex and reaction of the complex with a gas-phase molecule of oxygen. The latter is shown to be an important source of CO/sub 2/ at low temperatures and higher pressures of oxygen. An important feature of the mechanism is the existence of at least two distinct types of active sites for the binding of the complex on the carbon surface, each with a characteristic reactivity. Most of the results on which the model is based were obtained using thin films of pyrolytic carbon, but some results from the oxidation of graphon are also consistent with the mechanism.

Ahmed, S.; Back, M.H.; Roscoe, J.M.

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

254

Detachment-induced electron production in the early afterglow of pulsed cc-rf oxygen plasmas  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Line integrated electron densities are measured by 160.28 GHz Gaussian beam microwave interferometry in a 10 Hz pulsed (50% duty cycle) cc-rf oxygen discharge, operating at 13.56 MHz. Depending on the processing parameters, the oxygen rf discharge displays two different operation modes regarding its electronegativity. For higher rf power with negative self-bias voltage above -220 V, the oxygen discharge acts as electropositive plasma (n{sub -}/n{sub e} Much-Less-Than 1), whereas at lower rf power and self-bias voltage the plasma becomes strongly electronegative (n{sub -}/n{sub e}>2). In the latter mode, a significant electron density increase is measured in the early afterglow (<100 {mu}s) within a pressure range from 20 to 100 Pa. By use of a simple rate equation model, the temporal behavior of the electron density could be reproduced for both modes of electronegativity. The electron production in the early afterglow is mainly caused due to the detachment of negative atomic oxygen ions by metastable oxygen molecules.

Kuellig, C.; Dittmann, K.; Meichsner, J. [University of Greifswald, Institute of Physics, Felix-Hausdorff-Str. 6, 17489 Greifswald (Germany)

2012-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

255

Rapid thermal oxidation of silicon in mixtures of oxygen and nitrous oxide  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Oxidation in nitrous oxide by conventional hot wall furnace processing and by rapid thermal oxidation (RTO) has been a subject of much interest in recent years. RTO is a fundamentally different process than furnace oxidation, however, and the full effects of this type of processing on the oxidation kinetics are not well understood. Oxidation of silicon by RTO at a variety of pressures, temperatures, and oxidation gas mixtures has been studied. Although at lower temperatures (< 850 C) the atmospheric pressure oxidation rate in nitrous oxide is very close to that in oxygen, at higher temperatures the oxidation rate in nitrous oxide is much lower than that in oxygen. At lower pressures in a RTO process, the oxidation rate in nitrous oxide is higher than that in oxygen. The effect of the nitrogen incorporated in the oxide acting as a diffusion barrier has been proposed as the mechanism of temperature dependence for atmospheric pressure oxidation in nitrous oxide. This does not explain the effects seen at lower pressure,s however, The authors propose that some of the intermediate species produced in the decomposition of nitrous oxide into molecular nitrogen, molecular oxygen, and nitric oxide play a role in the initial stages of oxidation by RTO in nitrous oxide.

Grant, J.M.; Karim, Z. [Sharp Microelectronics Technology, Inc., Camas, WA (United States)

1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

256

HIGHER EDUCATION TAX BENEFITS 42011 TAX YEAR  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

HIGHER EDUCATION TAX BENEFITS 42011 TAX YEAR #12;2 The credit offsets what you pay for the first four years of higher education by reducing the amount of income tax you pay. In addition, the credit during the tax year and has not claimed the Hope Scholarship Credit and/or the American Opportunity Tax

257

Supporting accessibility in higher education information systems  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Higher education institutions (HEI) and students are highly dependent of information systems, implemented as web applications. Students must be able to access this applications, thought accessible web interfaces, in order to perform their academic activities. ... Keywords: DSpace, W3C, accessibility, higher education institutions, moodle

Arsénio Reis; João Barroso; Ramiro Gonçalves

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

Electron flow to oxygen in higher plants and algae: rates and control of direct photoreduction (Mehler reaction) and rubisco oxygenase  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...and high temperatures and high...a strong control of Mehler...inorganic carbon supply. A part...and high temperatures and high...a strong control of Mehler...inorganic carbon supply. A part...and high temperatures and high...a strong control of Mehler...inorganic carbon supply. A part...

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

259

Atmospheric Oxygen: Isotopic Composition and Solubility Fractionation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...where the subscripts aq and gas refer to the aqueous phase and the gas phase, respectively. The single-stage...adsorption and desorp-tion of oxygen gas on type SA molecular sieve...material seems to be debris of the Cyprus-sized planetesimal that produced...

P. Kroopnick; H. Craig

1972-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

260

Oxygen addition to sulfur of metal thiolates  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, and characterized. Molecular oxygen or hydrogen peroxide reacted with (N,N'-bis(mercaptoethyl)-1,5-diazacyclooctane-nickel(II), (BME-DACO)2Ni3 +2, to produce a trimetallic, (N,N'-bismercaptoethyl-1,5-diazacyclooctane-nickel(II))-nickelate, (BME-DACO)2Ni3 2...

Soma, Takako

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "higher oxygen requirement" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Oxygen Limitation within a Bacterial Aggregate  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...standard deviation of the average of cells exposed to 2...and Doring G. 2002. Effects of reduced mucus oxygen...Lewandowski Z. 1994. Effects of biofilm structures...Dietrich LE , Okegbe C, Price-Whelan A, Sakhtah...capability. Energy Fuels 20 :1565-1571. doi...

Aimee K. Wessel; Talha A. Arshad; Mignon Fitzpatrick; Jodi L. Connell; Roger T. Bonnecaze; Jason B. Shear; Marvin Whiteley

2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

Oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes Quarterly Report  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

/Reaction rates in Ion 21 Transport Membranes using Isotope Tracer and Transient Kinetic Techniques CONCLUSIONS 30Oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes Quarterly Report January 2003 ­ March 2003 Principal Authors on the thermodynamic properties of the membrane materials are continued to develop a complete model for the membrane

Eagar, Thomas W.

263

EFFECT OF PRETREATMENT ON PT-CO/C CATHODE CATALYSTS FOR THE OXYGEN-REDUCTION REACTION  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Carbon supported Pt and Pt-Co electrocatalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction in low temperature fuel cells were prepared by the reduction of the metal salts with sodium borohydride and sodium formate. The effect of surface treatment with nitric acid on the carbon surface and Co on the surface of carbon prior to the deposition of Pt was studied. The catalysts where Pt was deposited on treated carbon the ORR reaction preceded more through the two electron pathway and favored peroxide production, while the fresh carbon catalysts proceeded more through the four electron pathway to complete the oxygen reduction reaction. NaCOOH reduced Pt/C catalysts showed higher activity that NaBH{sub 4} reduced Pt/C catalysts. It was determined that the Co addition has a higher impact on catalyst activity and active surface area when used with NaBH{sub 4} as reducing agent as compared to NaCOOH.

Fox, E.; Colon-Mercado, H.

2010-01-19T23:59:59.000Z

264

Regulators, Requirements, Statutes  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Statutes Regulators, Requirements, Statutes The Laboratory must comply with environmental laws and regulations that apply to Laboratory operations. Contact Environmental...

265

AISI/DOE Technology Roadmap Program Hot Oxygen Injection Into The Blast Furnace  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Increased levels of blast furnace coal injection are needed to further lower coke requirements and provide more flexibility in furnace productivity. The direct injection of high temperature oxygen with coal in the blast furnace blowpipe and tuyere offers better coal dispersion at high local oxygen concentrations, optimizing the use of oxygen in the blast furnace. Based on pilot scale tests, coal injection can be increased by 75 pounds per ton of hot metal (lb/thm), yielding net savings of $0.84/tm. Potential productivity increases of 15 percent would yield another $1.95/thm. In this project, commercial-scale hot oxygen injection from a ''thermal nozzle'' system, patented by Praxair, Inc., has been developed, integrated into, and demonstrated on two tuyeres of the U.S. Steel Gary Works no. 6 blast furnace. The goals were to evaluate heat load on furnace components from hot oxygen injection, demonstrate a safe and reliable lance and flow control design, and qualitatively observe hot oxygen-coal interaction. All three goals have been successfully met. Heat load on the blowpipe is essentially unchanged with hot oxygen. Total heat load on the tuyere increases about 10% and heat load on the tuyere tip increases about 50%. Bosh temperatures remained within the usual operating range. Performance in all these areas is acceptable. Lance performance was improved during testing by changes to lance materials and operating practices. The lance fuel tip was changed from copper to a nickel alloy to eliminate oxidation problems that severely limited tip life. Ignition flow rates and oxygen-fuel ratios were changed to counter the effects of blowpipe pressure fluctuations caused by natural resonance and by coal/coke combustion in the tuyere and raceway. Lances can now be reliably ignited using the hot blast as the ignition source. Blowpipe pressures were analyzed to evaluate ht oxygen-coal interactions. The data suggest that hot oxygen increases coal combustion in the blow pipe and tuyere by 30, in line with pilot scale tests conducted previously.

Michael F. Riley

2002-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

266

PIT Coating Requirements Analysis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This study identifies the applicable requirements for procurement and installation of a coating intended for tank farm valve and pump pit interior surfaces. These requirements are intended to be incorporated into project specification documents and design media. This study also evaluates previously recommended coatings and identifies requirement-compliant coating products.

MINTEER, D.J.

2000-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

267

Miter bend loss and higher order mode content measurements in overmoded millimeter-wave transmission lines  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

High power applications require an accurate calculation of the losses on overmoded corrugated cylindrical transmission lines. Previous assessments of power loss on these lines have not considered beam polarization or higher ...

Kowalski, Elizabeth J. (Elizabeth Joan)

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

268

Effect of temperature on reduction of CaSO{sub 4} oxygen carrier in chemical-looping combustion of simulated coal gas in a fluidized bed reactor  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Chemical-looping combustion (CLC) is a promising combustion technology for gaseous and solid fuel with efficient use of energy and inherent separation of CO{sub 2}. The concept of a coal-fueled CLC system using, calcium sulfate (CaSO{sub 4}) as oxygen carrier is proposed in this study. Reduction tests of CaSO{sub 4} oxygen carrier with simulated coal gas were performed in a laboratory-scale fluidized bed reactor in the temperature range of 890-950{degree}C. A high concentration of CO{sub 2} was obtained at the initial reduction period. CaSO{sub 4} oxygen carrier exhibited high reactivity initially and decreased gradually at the late period of reduction. The sulfur release during the reduction of CaSO{sub 4} as oxygen carrier was also observed and analyzed. H{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} conversions were greatly influenced by reduction temperature. The oxygen carrier conversion and mass-based reaction rates during the reduction at typical temperatures were compared. Higher temperatures would enhance reaction rates and result in high conversion of oxygen carrier. An XRD patterns study indicated that CaS was the dominant product of reduction and the variation of relative intensity with temperature is in agreement with the solid conversion. ESEM analysis indicated that the surface structure of oxygen carrier particles changed significantly from impervious to porous after reduction. EDS analysis also demonstrated the transfer of oxygen from the oxygen carrier to the fuel gas and a certain amount of sulfur loss and CaO formation on the surface at higher temperatures. The reduction kinetics of CaSO{sub 4} oxygen carrier was explored with the shrinking unreacted-core model. The apparent kinetic parameters were obtained, and the kinetic equation well predicted the experimental data. Finally, some basic considerations on the use of CaSO{sub 4} oxygen carrier in a CLC system for solid fuels were discussed.

Song, Q.L.; Xiao, R.; Deng, Z.Y.; Shen, L.H.; Xiao, J.; Zhang, M.Y. [Southeast University, Nanjing (China)

2008-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

269

Oxygen-producing inert anodes for SOM process  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An electrolysis system for generating a metal and molecular oxygen includes a container for receiving a metal oxide containing a metallic species to be extracted, a cathode positioned to contact a metal oxide housed within the container; an oxygen-ion-conducting membrane positioned to contact a metal oxide housed within the container; an anode in contact with the oxygen-ion-conducting membrane and spaced apart from a metal oxide housed within the container, said anode selected from the group consisting of liquid metal silver, oxygen stable electronic oxides, oxygen stable crucible cermets, and stabilized zirconia composites with oxygen stable electronic oxides.

Pal, Uday B

2014-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

270

Transportation System Requirements Document  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This Transportation System Requirements Document (Trans-SRD) describes the functions to be performed by and the technical requirements for the Transportation System to transport spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level radioactive waste (HLW) from Purchaser and Producer sites to a Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System (CRWMS) site, and between CRWMS sites. The purpose of this document is to define the system-level requirements for Transportation consistent with the CRWMS Requirement Document (CRD). These requirements include design and operations requirements to the extent they impact on the development of the physical segments of Transportation. The document also presents an overall description of Transportation, its functions, its segments, and the requirements allocated to the segments and the system-level interfaces with Transportation. The interface identification and description are published in the CRWMS Interface Specification.

Not Available

1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

271

Are oxygen and neon enriched in PNe and is the current solar Ne/O abundance ratio underestimated?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A thorough critical literature survey has been carried out for reliable measurements of oxygen and neon abundances of planetary nebulae (PNe) and HII regions. By contrasting the results of PNe and of HII regions, we aim to address the issues of the evolution of oxygen and neon in the interstellar medium (ISM) and in the late evolutionary phases of low- and intermediate-mass stars (LIMS), as well as the currently hotly disputed solar Ne/O abundance ratio. Through the comparisons, we find that neon abundance and Ne/O ratio increase with increasing oxygen abundance in both types of nebulae, with positive correlation coefficients larger than 0.75. The correlations suggest different enrichment mechanisms for oxygen and neon in the ISM, in the sense that the growth of neon is delayed compared to oxygen. The differences of abundances between PNe and HII regions, are mainly attributed to the results of nucleosynthesis and dredge-up processes that occurred in the progenitor stars of PNe. We find that both these alpha-elements are significantly enriched at low metallicity (initial oxygen abundance oxygen in intermediate mass stars (IMS) of low initial metallicities and in more massive stars, a conjecture that requires verification by further theoretical studies. This result also strongly suggests that both the solar neon abundance and the Ne/O ratio should be revised upwards by ~0.22 dex from the Asplund, Grevesse & Sauval values or by ~0.14 dex from the Grevesse & Sauval values.

W. Wang; X. -W. Liu

2008-06-13T23:59:59.000Z

272

Higher levels of the transmon qubit  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This thesis discusses recent experimental work in measuring the properties of higher levels in transmon qubit systems. The first part includes a thorough overview of transmon devices, explaining the principles of the device ...

Bader, Samuel James

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

273

WHAT FUTURE FOR UK HIGHER EDUCATION?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

BERKELEY http://cshe.berkeley.edu/ WHAT FUTURE FOR UK HIGHERof the course). Brown, What Future for UK Higher Educationand local trends and also on what happens on migration, and

Roger Brown

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

274

Higher Education, Mobility and the Subsidiarity Principle  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Two issues related to higher education in Europe are addressed in this chapter; one relates to the mobility of students especially the Bologna process, the other to that of researchers, with a special focus on...

Marcel Gérard

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

275

Engineering Ralstonia eutropha for Production of Isobutanol (IBT) Motor Fuel from Carbon Dioxide, Hydrogen, and Oxygen Project Final Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This research project is a collaboration between the Sinskey laboratory at MIT and the Worden laboratory at Michigan State University. The goal of the project is to produce Isobutanol (IBT), a branched-chain alcohol that can serve as a drop-in transportation fuel, through the engineered microbial biosynthesis of Carbon Dioxide, Hydrogen, and Oxygen using a novel bioreactor. This final technical report presents the findings of both the biological engineering work at MIT that extended the native branched-chain amino acid pathway of the wild type Ralstonia eutropha H16 to perform this biosynthesis, as well as the unique design, modeling, and construction of a bioreactor for incompatible gasses at Michigan State that enabled the operational testing of the complete system. This 105 page technical report summarizing the three years of research includes 72 figures and 11 tables of findings. Ralstonia eutropha (also known as Cupriavidus necator) is a Gram-negative, facultatively chemolithoautotrophic bacteria. It has been the principle organism used for the study of polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) polymer biosynthesis. The wild-type Ralstonia eutropha H16 produces PHB as an intracellular carbon storage material while under nutrient stress in the presence of excess carbon. Under this stress, it can accumulate approximately 80 % of its cell dry weight (CDW) as this intracellular polymer. With the restoration of the required nutrients, the cells are then able to catabolize this polymer. If extracted from the cell, this PHB polymer can be processed into biodegradable and biocompatible plastics, however for this research, it is the efficient metabolic pathway channeling the captured carbon that is of interest. R. eutropha is further unique in that it contains two carbon-fixation Calvin–Benson–Bassham cycle operons, two oxygen-tolerant hydrogenases, and several formate dehydrogenases. It has also been much studied for its ability in the presence of oxygen, to fix carbon dioxide into complex cellular molecules using the energy from hydrogen. In this research project, engineered strains of R. eutropha redirected the excess carbon from PHB storage into the production of isobutanol and 3-methyl-1-butanol (branched-chain higher alcohols). These branched-chain higher alcohols can be used directly as substitutes for fossil-based fuels and are seen as alternative biofuels to ethanol and biodiesel. Importantly, these alcohols have approximately 98 % of the energy content of gasoline, 17 % higher than the current gasoline additive ethanol, without impacting corn market production for feed or food. Unlike ethanol, these branched-chain alcohols have low vapor pressure, hygroscopicity, and water solubility, which make them readily compatible with the existing pipelines, gasoline pumps, and engines in our transportation infrastructure. While the use of alternative energies from solar, wind, geothermal, and hydroelectric has spread for stationary power applications, these energy sources cannot be effectively or efficiently employed in current or future transportation systems. With the ongoing concerns of fossil fuel availability and price stability over the long term, alternative biofuels like branched-chain higher alcohols hold promise as a suitable transportation fuel in the future. We showed in our research that various mutant strains of R. eutropha with isobutyraldehyde dehydrogenase activity, in combination with the overexpression of plasmid-borne, native branched-chain amino acid biosynthesis pathway genes and the overexpression of heterologous ketoisovalerate decarboxylase gene, would produce isobutanol and 3-methyl-1-butanol when initiated during nitrogen or phosphorus limitation. Early on, we isolated one mutant R. eutropha strain which produced over 180 mg/L branched-chain alcohols in flask culture while being more tolerant of isobutanol toxicity. After the targeted elimination of genes encoding several potential carbon sinks (ilvE, bkdAB, and aceE), the production titer of the improved to 270 mg/L isobutanol and 40 mg/L 3-methyl-1-butanol.

Sinskey, Anthony J. [MIT] [MIT; Worden, Robert Mark [Michigan State University MSU] [Michigan State University MSU; Brigham, Christopher [MIT] [MIT; Lu, Jingnan [MIT] [MIT; Quimby, John Westlake [MIT] [MIT; Gai, Claudia [MIT] [MIT; Speth, Daan [MIT] [MIT; Elliott, Sean [Boston University] [Boston University; Fei, John Qiang [MIT] [MIT; Bernardi, Amanda [MIT] [MIT; Li, Sophia [MIT] [MIT; Grunwald, Stephan [MIT] [MIT; Grousseau, Estelle [MIT] [MIT; Maiti, Soumen [MSU] [MSU; Liu, Chole [MSU] [MSU

2013-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

276

Cathodic protection requirements for deepwater systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Field and laboratory experience related to requirements for cathodic protection (CP) in deep water are reviewed with emphasis on identification of the major variables that need to be specified for successful deepwater CP designs for offshore structures. The subject is addressed based on the historical development of cathodic protection design methodologies for offshore structures focusing on sacrificial anode systems and trends that have resulted in specific changes in design requirements. Three main subjects are discussed: (1) application of existing industry standards such as NACE RP0176; (2) environmental factors--dissolved oxygen, temperature, salinity, pH, water velocity and fouling; and (3) calcareous deposits--difference between shallow and deep waters. Current practice of design criteria and systems for deepwater applications is assessed, including initial polarization, use of coatings and anode materials. The results from laboratory tests are compared with available documented service experiences and field tests results.

Menendez, C.M.; Hanson, H.R.; Kane, R.D.; Farquhar, G.B.

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

277

Geodesic deviation at higher orders via covariant bitensors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We review a simple but instructive application of the formalism of covariant bitensors, to use a deviation vector field along a fiducial geodesic to describe a neighboring worldline, in an exact and manifestly covariant manner, via the exponential map. Requiring the neighboring worldline to be a geodesic leads to the usual linear geodesic deviation equation for the deviation vector, plus corrections at higher order in the deviation and relative velocity. We show how these corrections can be efficiently computed to arbitrary orders via covariant bitensor expansions, deriving a form of the geodesic deviation equation valid to all orders, and producing its explicit expanded form through fourth order. We also discuss the generalized Jacobi equation, action principles for the higher-order geodesic deviation equations, results useful for describing accelerated neighboring worldlines, and the formal general solution to the geodesic deviation equation through second order.

Justin Vines

2014-07-25T23:59:59.000Z

278

The Economics of Oxygen Enriched Air Production Via Membranes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Oxygen enriched air combustion is a recognized approach to energy conservation. Conventional methods of producing oxygen enriched air: Pressure Swing Adsorption and Cryogenics, are energy-intensive and expensive. In this paper the economics of using...

Gollan, A.; Kleper, M. H.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

279

Breath is a mixture of nitrogen, oxygen, carbon dioxide, water  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

12 SCIENCE Breath is a mixture of nitrogen, oxygen, carbon dioxide, water vapour, inert gases. On the basis of proton affinity, the major constituents of air and breath (nitrogen, oxygen, carbon dioxide

280

Dopant Distribution, Oxygen Stoichiometry and Magnetism of Nanoscale...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Dopant Distribution, Oxygen Stoichiometry and Magnetism of Nanoscale Sn0.99Co0.01O. Dopant Distribution, Oxygen Stoichiometry and Magnetism of Nanoscale Sn0.99Co0.01O. Abstract: In...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "higher oxygen requirement" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Transient Mobility of Oxygen Adatoms upon O2 Dissociation on...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Transient Mobility of Oxygen Adatoms upon O2 Dissociation on Reduced TiO2 (110). Transient Mobility of Oxygen Adatoms upon O2 Dissociation on Reduced TiO2 (110). Abstract: Tracking...

282

Methane Adsorption and Dissociation and Oxygen Adsorption and...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Methane Adsorption and Dissociation and Oxygen Adsorption and Reaction with CO on Pd Nanoparticles on MgO(100) and on Pd(111). Methane Adsorption and Dissociation and Oxygen...

283

Inhibitive Influence of Oxygen Vacancies for Photoactivity on...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Inhibitive Influence of Oxygen Vacancies for Photoactivity on TiO2(110). Inhibitive Influence of Oxygen Vacancies for Photoactivity on TiO2(110). Abstract: Scanning tunneling...

284

Oxygen-induced magnetic properties and metallic behavior of a...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Oxygen-induced magnetic properties and metallic behavior of a BN sheet. Oxygen-induced magnetic properties and metallic behavior of a BN sheet. Abstract: In this paper, ab initio...

285

Mandatory Supervisory Training Requirements  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Mandatory Supervisory Training Requirements Mandatory Supervisory Training Requirements All DOE supervisors, managers, and executives will comply with mandatory supervisory training requirements (5 CFR 412; 5 CFR 315.801; 5 CFR 315.901; DOE O 360.1; and DOE O 320.1): * New supervisors: 80 hours of supervisory training, with 40 hours required to be completed during the supervisory probationary period. * Experienced supervisors: minimum of 8 hours of supervisory training each year. The Office of Learning and Workforce Development has developed an inventory of training and developmental activities that will meet the supervisory training requirements. The DOE courses Supervisory Essentials (32 hours) and Navigating the Federal Hiring Process (8 hours) are required to fulfill the first year 40-hour training

286

OXYGEN ENHANCED COMBUSTION FOR NOx CONTROL  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This quarterly technical progress report will summarize work accomplished for the Program through the second quarter July--September 2000 in the following task areas: Task 1-Oxygen Enhanced Combustion, Task 2-Oxygen Transport Membranes and Task 4-Program Management. The program is proceeding in accordance with the objectives for the first year. OTM tube characterization is well underway, the design and assembly of the high pressure permeation test facility is complete and the facility will be in full operation during the next quarter. Combustion testing has been initiated at both the University of Arizona and Praxair. Testing at the University of Arizona has experienced some delays; steps have been take to get the test work back on schedule. Completion of the first phase of the testing is expected in next quarter. Combustion modeling has been started at both REI and Praxair, preliminary results are expected in the next quarter.

Lawrence E. Bool; Jack C. Chen; David R. Thompson

2000-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

287

Photosynthesis and the dynamics of oxygen consumption in a ...  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

photosynthesis minus oxygen consumption), and gross photosynthesis at high ... The depth distribution of gross photosynthesis, as obtained by the cycling ...

1999-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

288

Oxygen-Enriched Combustion for Military Diesel Engine Generators  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Substantial increases in brake power and considerably lower peak pressure can result from oxygen-enriched diesel combustion

289

ASCR Science Network Requirements  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ASCR Science Network Requirements Office of AdvancedScientific Computing Research, DOE Office of ScienceEnergy Sciences Network Gaithersburg, MD — April 15 and 16,

Dart, Eli

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

Transuranic Waste Requirements  

Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

The guide provides criteria for determining if a waste is to be managed in accordance with DOE M 435.1-1, Chapter III, Transuranic Waste Requirements.

1999-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

291

Science Requirements Process  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

and Presentations Galleries ESnet Awards and Honors ESnet Live Blog Home Science Engagement Science Requirements Reviews Science Engagement Move your data Programs...

292

OXYGEN ENHANCED COMBUSTION FOR NOx CONTROL  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This quarterly technical progress report will summarize work accomplished for the Program through the ninth quarter April-June 2002 in the following task areas: Task 1--Oxygen Enhanced Combustion, Task 2--Oxygen Transport Membranes, Task 3--Economic Evaluation and Task 4--Program Management. The program is proceeding in accordance with the objectives for the third year. Full-scale testing using the Industrial Boiler Simulation Facility (ISBF) at Alstom Power was completed. The pilot scale experiments to evaluate the effect of air preheat and transport air stoichiometric ratio (SR) on NOx emissions were conducted at the University of Utah. Combustion modeling activities continued with full-scale combustion test furnace simulations. An OTM element was tested in Praxair's single tube high-pressure test facility and two thermal cycles were completed. PSO1d elements of new dimension were tested resulting in a lower flux than previous PSO1d elements of different dimensions, however, no element deformation was observed. Economic evaluation has confirmed the advantage of oxygen-enhanced combustion. Two potential host beta sites have been identified and proposals submitted.

David R. Thompson; Lawrence E. Bool; Jack C. Chen

2002-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

293

Higher order equations of motion and gravity  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Standard fundamental equations of motion for point particles are of second order in the time derivative. Here we are exploring the consequences of fundamental equations of motion with an additional small even higher order term to the standard formulation. This is related to two issues: (i) higher order equations of motion will have influence on the definition of the structure of possible interactions and in particular of the gravitational interaction, and (ii) such equations of motion provide a framework to test the validity of Newton’s second law which is the basis for the definition of forces but which assumes from the very beginning that the fundamental equations of motion are of second order. We will show that starting with our generalized equations of motions it is possible to introduce the space-time metric describing the gravitational interaction by means of a standard gauge principle. Another main result within our model of even higher order derivatives is that for slowly varying and smooth fields the higher order derivatives either lead to runaway solutions or induces a zitterbewegung. We confront this higher order scheme with experimental data.

Claus Lämmerzahl and Patricia Rademaker

2012-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

294

Bridge-bonded atomic oxygen on Pt(110)  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We use hybrid density-functional theory (DFT) and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) to study oxygen adsorption on the Pt(110) surface. In the STM images oxygen appear as bright protrusions on the ridges of the “missing row” reconstructed surface. DFT calculations of binding energies for atomic oxygen on a bridge site shows a clear preference over hollow sites.

E. Janin; H. von Schenck; M. Göthelid; U. O. Karlsson; M. Svensson

2000-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

295

Oxygen Consumption Rates of Bacteria under Nutrient-Limited Conditions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...research-article Environmental Microbiology Oxygen Consumption Rates of Bacteria under Nutrient-Limited...heterotrophic bacteria was measured. The oxygen consumption and population density of batch cultures...tracked for up to 200 days. The oxygen consumption per CFU (QO2) declined by more than...

Timothy E. Riedel; William M. Berelson; Kenneth H. Nealson; Steven E. Finkel

2013-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

296

IMPROVEMENTS IN MODELLING DISSOLVED OXYGEN IN ACTIVATED SLUDGE SYSTEMS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 IMPROVEMENTS IN MODELLING DISSOLVED OXYGEN IN ACTIVATED SLUDGE SYSTEMS Jacek Makinia*, Scott A in a full-scale activated sludge reactor. The Activated Sludge Model No. 1 was used to describe for dissolved oxygen. KEYWORDS Activated sludge; dispersion; dissolved oxygen dynamics; mass transfer

Wells, Scott A.

297

Oceanic oxygen changes as a bellwether of climate change  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Oceanic oxygen changes as a bellwether of climate change Term paper in Biogeochemistry@ethz.ch] Tutor: Prof. Dr. Nicholas Gruber [nicholas.gruber@env.ethz.ch] Abstract The response of oceanic oxygen of climate change. Recent publications indicate that the oceanic oxygen outgassing is substaintially larger

Fischlin, Andreas

298

Fiber-optic oxygen sensor using molybdenum chloride cluster luminescence  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Fiber-optic oxygen sensor using molybdenum chloride cluster luminescence Ruby N. Ghosh,a) Gregory L on a reflection-mode fiber-optic oxygen sensor based on the 3 O2 quenching of the red emission from hexanuclear molybdenum chloride clusters. Measurements of the probe operating in a 0%­21% gaseous oxygen environment have

Ghosh, Ruby N.

299

E-Print Network 3.0 - ameliorating reactive oxygen Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

structure and surface relaxation Summary: reactivity of each type of oxygen the adsorption of hydrogen over different oxygen sites is studied. Full... oxygen is the reactive...

300

E-Print Network 3.0 - acute oxygen sensing Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

dissolved oxygen with global warming. In coastal regimes oxygen deficits represent acute ecosystem... Ocean oxygen minima expansions and their biological impacts Lothar Stramma...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "higher oxygen requirement" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Oxygen-driven relaxation processes in pre-irradiated Ar cryocrystals  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Excitations of Solid Oxygen ?in Russian?, B. I. Verkin andNUMBER 11 NOVEMBER 2006 Oxygen-driven relaxation processes? Relaxation processes in oxygen-containing Ar cryocrystals

Savchenko, E. V; Belov, A. G; Gumenchuk, G. B; Ponomaryov, A. N; Bondybey, V. E

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

302

OXYGEN REDUCTION WITH CARBON SUPPORTED METALLIC CLUSTER CATALYSTS IN ALKALINE ELECTROLYTE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

be published in the Proceedings OXYGEN REDUCTION WITH CARBONof California. LBL-11891 Oxygen Reduction with Carbonof Pt interacts with both oxygen and water more strongly

Ross Jr., Philip N.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

303

Oxygen isotope fractionation in the vacuum ultraviolet photodissociation of carbon monoxide: Wavelength, pressure and temperature dependency.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Oxygen isotope fractionation in the vacuum ultravioletmeasurement of the associated oxygen isotopic composition ofwavelength dependency of the oxygen isotopic composition in

Chakraborty, Subrata

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

304

A New Determination of the Binding Energy of Atomic Oxygen on Dust Grain Surfaces: Experimental Results and Simulations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The energy to desorb atomic oxygen from an interstellar dust grain surface, $E_{\\rm des}$, is an important controlling parameter in gas-grain models; its value impacts the temperature range over which oxygen resides on a dust grain. However, no prior measurement has been done of the desorption energy. We report the first direct measurement of $E_{\\rm des}$ for atomic oxygen from dust grain analogs. The values of $E_{\\rm des}$ are $1660\\pm 60$~K and $1850\\pm 90$~K for porous amorphous water ice and for a bare amorphous silicate film, respectively, or about twice the value previously adopted in simulations of the chemical evolution of a cloud. We use the new values to study oxygen chemistry as a function of depth in a molecular cloud. For $n=10^4$ cm$^{-3}$ and $G_0$=10$^2$ ($G_0$=1 is the average local interstellar radiation field), the main result of the adoption of the higher oxygen binding energy is that H$_2$O can form on grains at lower visual extinction $A_{\\rm V}$, closer to the cloud surface. A higher ...

He, Jiao; Hopkins, Tyler; Vidali, Gianfranco; Kaufman, Michael J

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

305

Phosphoric acid impurities in phosphoric acid fuel cell electrolytes. 2: Effects on the oxygen reduction reaction at platinum electrodes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The effects of phosphorus acid additions on the oxygen reduction reaction at platinum electrodes in concentrated phosphoric acid were studied. The oxygen reduction currents decreased, and the Tafel slopes became more negative upon the addition of small concentrations of phosphorus acid. In addition,the phosphorus acid oxidation current tended to complete with the oxygen reduction current. These effects became more pronounced at higher phosphorus acid concentrations and at higher temperatures. Upon the addition of phosphorus acid the number of electrons involved in the oxygen reduction reaction decreased from a value close to four to a value approaching two, suggesting promotion of a two-electron reduction to peroxide. Therefore, in studies of the electrochemical reduction of oxygen in hot concentrated phosphoric acid or in fuel cell systems using hot concentrated phosphoric acid as electrolyte, it is recommended that precautions be taken against the inadvertent formation of the phosphorus acid. The removal of phosphorus acid from concentrated phosphoric acid by repeated potential cycling at 100 mV/s between + 0.5 and +1.50 V (vs. dynamic hydrogen electrode) was demonstrated.

Sugishima, Noboru; Hinatsu, J.T.; Foulkes, F.R. (Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Applied Chemistry)

1994-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

306

General Responsibilities and Requirements  

Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

The material presented in this guide provides suggestions and acceptable ways of implementing DOE M 435.1-1 and should not be viewed as additional or mandatory requirements. The objective of the guide is to ensure that responsible individuals understand what is necessary and acceptable for implementing the requirements of DOE M 435.1-1.

1999-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

307

ADVERTISING MAJOR REQUIREMENTS CHECKLIST  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ADVERTISING MAJOR REQUIREMENTS CHECKLIST Name: ID#: Expected Graduation Date: Course Number and Title Waiver/Substitution Semester Units FOUNDATION (16 units required) ADVT 341 Advertising Principles & Practice (4) PLUS COMS 202 Rhetoric and the Public Sphere (4) OR RHET 216 Writing for Advertising (4) PLUS

Galles, David

308

NISTIR 7933 Requirements and  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

NISTIR 7933 Requirements and Conformance Test Assertions for ANSI/NIST-ITL 1-2011 Record Type 18 #12;ii NISTIR 7933 Requirements and Conformance Test Assertions for ANSI/NIST-ITL 1-2011 Record Type/CTS designed to test implementations of ANSI/NIST-ITL 1- 2011 (AN-2011) "Data Format for the Interchange

309

Integrated Management Requirements mapping  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document contains five appendices documenting how Sandia implemented the DOE Conduct of Operations (5480.19) and DOE Quality Assurance (5700.6C) orders. It provides a mapping of the Sandia integrated requirements to the specific requirements of each Order and a mapping to Sandia`s approved program for implementing the Conduct of Operations Order.

Holmes, J.T.; Andrews, N.S.

1992-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

310

Integrated Management Requirements mapping  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document contains five appendices documenting how Sandia implemented the DOE Conduct of Operations (5480.19) and DOE Quality Assurance (5700.6C) orders. It provides a mapping of the Sandia integrated requirements to the specific requirements of each Order and a mapping to Sandia's approved program for implementing the Conduct of Operations Order.

Holmes, J.T.; Andrews, N.S.

1992-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

311

High School if required  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Chemistry II CHEM AP 4-5 Lab required @ UNLV; contact Chemistry PHYS 182 & 182L Engineering Physics III PHYS General Chemistry I CHEM AP 3 Lab required @ UNLV; contact Chemistry CHEM 241 Organic Chemistry I & CHEM 347 Lab Techniques of Organic Chem I CHEM 242 Organic Chemistry II & CHEM 348 Lab Techniques

Walker, Lawrence R.

312

BLACK HOLE ENTROPY IN HIGHER CURVATURE GRAVITY  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We discuss some recent results on black hole thermodynamics within the context of effective gravitational actions including higher-curvature interactions. Wald's derivation of the First Law demonstrates that black hole entropy can always be expressed as a local geometric density integrated over a space-like cross-section of the horizon. In certain cases, it can also be shown that these entropy expressions satisfy a Second Law. One such simple example is considered from the class of higher curvature theories where the Lagrangian consists of a polynomial in the Ricci scalar.

TED JACOBSON; GUNGWON KANG; ROBERT C. MYERS

1995-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

313

arXiv:1003.5447v2[cs.LO]14May2010 Relating Nominal and Higher-order  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, nominal logic, higher-order abstract syn- tax This work has been supported by INRIA through the "Equipes]. Formalizing speci- fication based on higher-order abstract syntax requires a frame- work with devicesarXiv:1003.5447v2[cs.LO]14May2010 Relating Nominal and Higher-order Abstract Syntax Specifications

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

314

Oxygen Abundances in the Milky Way Using X-ray Absorption Measurements Towards Galaxy Clusters  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present measurements of the oxygen abundance of the Milky Way's ISM by observing the K-shell X-ray photoionization edge towards galaxy clusters. This effect is most easily observed towards objects with galactic columns (n_H) of a few times 1e21 cm^-2. We measure X-ray column densities towards 11 clusters and find that at high galactic columns above approximately 1e21 cm^-2 the X-ray columns are generally 1.5--3.0 times greater than the 21 cm H II columns, indicating that molecular clouds become an important contributor to n_H at higher columns. We find the average ISM oxygen abundance to be (O/H) = (4.85 +/- 0.06) x 10^-4, or 0.99 solar when using the most recent solar photospheric values. Since X-ray observations are sensitive to the total amount of oxygen present (gas + dust), these results indicate a high gas to dust ratio. Also, the oxygen abundances along lines of sight through high galactic columns (n_H) are the same as abundances through low columns, suggesting that the composition of denser clouds is similar to that of the more diffuse ISM.

Wayne H. Baumgartner; Richard F. Mushotzky

2005-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

315

Teknik och social frndring Higher Seminar  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ambition to shape the transition towards sustainable energy systems. All welcome! Tema T higher seminar and Social change "Transforming energy systems: a socio-tecnical perspective" Innovation and technology the challenge of transforming energy systems towards greater sustainability. I will, however, also focus

Zhao, Yuxiao

316

Task and Machine Heterogeneities: Higher Moments Matter  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Task and Machine Heterogeneities: Higher Moments Matter Abdulla M. Al-Qawasmeh 1 , Anthony A.potter}@colostate.edu jtsmith@digitalglobe.com Abstract - One type of heterogeneous computing (HC) systems consists of machines in this matrix represents the ETC of a specific task on a specific machine when executed exclusively. Heuristics

Maciejewski, Anthony A.

317

Broadband, Higher Education and Rural New Mexico  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Broadband, Higher Education and Rural New Mexico Gil Gonzales, Ph.D., Chief Information Officer University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131 E mail: gonzgil@unm.edu Background UNM students enjoy the country do. New Mexico is also home to two national laboratories in Los Alamos (Los Alamos National

Maccabe, Barney

318

Dashboards in Higher UMACRAO/WACRAO Joint  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Dashboards in Higher Education UMACRAO/WACRAO Joint Conference November 1-3, 2006 Phil Hull-UW Madison, Office of the Registrar Jason Haverly-UW River Falls, Information Technology Services Gery informed decisions based on collected BI (business intelligence) ·Align strategies and organizational goals

Wisconsin at Madison, University of

319

Higher Derivative D-brane Couplings  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

supersymmetry. In the third part, we obtain the higher derivative D-brane action by using both linearized T-duality and string disc amplitude computation. We evaluate disc amplitude of one R-R field C^(p-3) and two NS-NS fields in the presence of a single Dp...

Guo, Guangyu

2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

320

Innovation Through Collaboration:Higher Learning  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Innovation Through Collaboration:Higher Learning Commission ·The Criteria for Accredita Collaboration: Criteria ·Criterion One: Mission and Integrity ·Criterion Two: Preparing: Acquisi/on, Discovery, and Applica/on of Knowledge #12;Innovation Through Collaboration

Zhou, Yaoqi

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "higher oxygen requirement" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

NETL: Gasification - Development of Ion-Transport Membrane Oxygen  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Presentations, Papers, and Publications Presentations, Papers, and Publications ITM Oxygen Development for Advanced Oxygen Supply (Oct 2011) Ted Foster, Air Products & Chemicals, Inc. presented at the Gasification Technologies Conference, San Francisco, CA Oct 9-12, 2011. ASU/IGCC Integration Strategies (Oct 2009), David McCarthy, Air Products & Chemicals, Inc., 2009 Gasification Technologies Conference, Colorado Springs, CO. ITM Oxygen: Taking the Next Step (Oct 2009), VanEric Stein, Air Products & Chemicals, Inc., 2009 Gasification Technologies Conference, Colorado Springs, CO. ITM Oxygen: Scaling Up a Low-Cost Oxygen Supply Technology (Oct 2006) Philip Armstrong, Air Products & Chemicals, Inc., 2006 Gasification Technologies Conference, Washington, D.C. ITM Oxygen: The New Oxygen Supply for the New IGCC Market (Oct 2005)

322

Commercialization Development of Oxygen Fired CFB for Greenhouse Gas Control  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Given that fossil fuel fired power plants are among the largest and most concentrated producers of CO{sub 2} emissions, recovery and sequestration of CO{sub 2} from the flue gas of such plants has been identified as one of the primary means for reducing anthropogenic (i.e., man-made) CO{sub 2} emissions. In 2001, ALSTOM Power Inc. (ALSTOM) began a two-phase program to investigate the feasibility of various carbon capture technologies. This program was sponsored under a Cooperative Agreement from the US Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE). The first phase entailed a comprehensive study evaluating the technical feasibility and economics of alternate CO{sub 2} capture technologies applied to Greenfield US coal-fired electric generation power plants. Thirteen cases, representing various levels of technology development, were evaluated. Seven cases represented coal combustion in CFB type equipment. Four cases represented Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) systems. Two cases represented advanced Chemical Looping Combined Cycle systems. Marion, et al. reported the details of this work in 2003. One of the thirteen cases studied utilized an oxygen-fired circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boiler. In this concept, the fuel is fired with a mixture of oxygen and recirculated flue gas (mainly CO{sub 2}). This combustion process yields a flue gas containing over 80 percent (by volume) CO{sub 2}. This flue gas can be processed relatively easily to enrich the CO{sub 2} content to over 96 percent for use in enhanced oil or gas recovery (EOR or EGR) or simply dried for sequestration. The Phase I study identified the O{sub 2}-fired CFB as having a near term development potential, because it uses conventional commercial CFB technology and commercially available CO{sub 2} capture enabling technologies such as cryogenic air separation and simple rectification or distillation gas processing systems. In the long term, air separation technology advancements offer significant reductions in power requirements, which would improve plant efficiency and economics for the oxygen-fired technology. The second phase consisted of pilot-scale testing followed by a refined performance and economic evaluation of the O{sub 2} fired CFB concept. As a part of this workscope, ALSTOM modified its 3 MW{sub th} (9.9 MMBtu/hr) Multiuse Test Facility (MTF) pilot plant to operate with O{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} mixtures of up to 70 percent O{sub 2} by volume. Tests were conducted with coal and petroleum coke. The test objectives were to determine the impacts of oxygen firing on heat transfer, bed dynamics, potential agglomeration, and gaseous and particulate emissions. The test data results were used to refine the design, performance, costs, and economic models developed in Phase-I for the O{sub 2}-fired CFB with CO{sub 2} capture. Nsakala, Liljedahl, and Turek reported results from this study in 2004. ALSTOM identified several items needing further investigation in preparation for large scale demonstration of the oxygen-fired CFB concept, namely: (1) Operation and performance of the moving bed heat exchanger (MBHE) to avoid recarbonation and also for cost savings compared to the standard bubbling fluid bed heat exchanger (FBHE); (2) Performance of the back-end flash dryer absorber (FDA) for sulfur capture under high CO{sub 2}/high moisture flue gas environment using calcined limestone in the fly ash and using fresh commercial lime directly in the FDA; (3) Determination of the effect of recarbonation on fouling in the convective pass; (4) Assessment of the impact of oxygen firing on the mercury, other trace elements, and volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions; and (5) Develop a proposal-level oxygen-fired retrofit design for a relatively small existing CFB steam power plant in preparation for a large-scale demonstration of the O{sub 2} fired CFB concept. Hence, ALSTOM responded to a DOE Solicitation to address all these issues with further O{sub 2} fired MTF pilot testing and a subsequent retrofit design study of oxygen firing and CO{s

Nsakala ya Nsakala; Gregory N. Liljedahl; David G. Turek

2007-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

323

Full SPP Partnership Requirements  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Partnership Requirements: Partnership Requirements: ENERGY STAR Partnership for Commercial & Industrial Service and Product Providers (SPP) Eligible Organizations Companies providing energy efficiency services and products to commercial buildings and industrial manufacturing facilities/plants are eligible for the Service and Product Provider (SPP) partnership, but must meet certain requirements as specified below. Types of eligible companies include: architecture, distributor, energy consultant/energy management services, energy improvement contractor, energy information services, energy services company (ESCO), engineering, equipment manufacturer, financial services, on-site energy production services, unregulated energy retailer and marketer, or other supplier of standard energy-efficient products and/or services for commercial buildings and/or

324

Master Thesis in Chalmers University, Sweden The influence of MgO in CaMnO3-oxygen carrier  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Background Chemical-looping Combustion (CLC) is an innovative fuel conversion technology inherent capture CO2 material which has high reactivity towards methane and oxygen-uncoupling ability under combustion feasible and written master thesis report Requirements Materials science (preferable), chemistry or chemical

Daraio, Chiara

325

Phosphate oxygen isotope ratios as a tracer for sources and cycling of phosphate in North San Francisco Bay, California  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and restoration of these ecosystems. [3] Phosphorus (P) is a required element for life and consequently, its is low relative to input and phosphate is not heavily cycled in the ecosystem, the oxygen isotopic.1029/2005JG000079. 1. Introduction [2] Urban and agricultural runoff are major sources of phosphate to aquatic

Paytan, Adina

326

The Mechanisms of Oxygen Reduction and Evolution Reactions in Nonaqueous Lithium-Oxygen Batteries  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The oxygen reduction/evolution reaction (ORR/OER) mechanisms in nonaqueous Li-O2 batteries have been investigated by using electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy in this work. We identified the superoxide radical anion (O2•-) as an intermediate in the ORR process using 5,5-dimethyl-pyrroline N-oxide as a spin trap, while no O2•- in OER was detected during the charge process. These findings provide insightful understanding on the fundamental oxygen reaction mechanisms in rechargeable nonaqueous Li-O2 batteries.

Cao, Ruiguo; Walter, Eric D.; Xu, Wu; Nasybulin, Eduard N.; Bhattacharya, Priyanka; Bowden, Mark E.; Engelhard, Mark H.; Zhang, Jiguang

2014-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

327

Technical Safety Requirements  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Safety Requirements Safety Requirements FUNCTIONAL AREA GOAL: Contractor has developed, maintained, and received DOE Field Office Approval for the necessary operating conditions of a facility. The facility has also maintained an inventory of safety class and safety significant systems and components. REQUIREMENTS:  10 CFR 830.205, Nuclear Safety Rule.  DOE-STD-3009-2002, Preparation Guide for U. S. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Documented Safety Analyses.  DOE-STD-1186-2004, Specific Administrative Controls. Guidance:  DOE G 423.1-1, Implementation Guide for Use in Developing Technical Safety Requirements.  NSTP 2003-1, Use of Administrative Controls for Specific Safety Functions. Performance Objective 1: Contractor Program Documentation

328

Promulgating Nuclear Safety Requirements  

Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

Applies to all Nuclear Safety Requirements Adopted by the Department to Govern the Conduct of its Nuclear Activities. Cancels DOE P 410.1. Canceled by DOE N 251.85.

1996-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

329

Requirements for security signalling  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

There has been some interest lately in the need for ``authenticated signalling``, and the development of signalling specifications by the ATM Forum that support this need. The purpose of this contribution is to show that if authenticated signalling is required, then supporting signalling facilities for directory services (i.e. key management) are also required. Furthermore, this contribution identifies other security related mechanisms that may also benefit from ATM-level signalling accommodations. For each of these mechanisms outlined here, an overview of the signalling issues and a rough cut at the required fields for supporting Information Elements are provided. Finally, since each of these security mechanisms are specified by a number of different standards, issues pertaining to the selection of a particular security mechanism at connection setup time (i.e. specification of a required ``Security Quality of Service``) are also discussed.

Pierson, L.G.; Tarman, T.D.

1995-02-05T23:59:59.000Z

330

Timeline for Net Requirements  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

17.5 7302010 Yes Biennially x By July 31 of each Forecast Year, BPA publishes all Load Following customers' Net Requirements data for the two years of the upcoming Rate...

331

Transportation Infrastructure Requirement Resources  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Federal agencies and certain state governments are required to acquire alternative fuel vehicles as part of the Energy Policy Act of 1992, though they are also entitled to choose a petroleum...

332

BES Science Network Requirements  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the Directors of the Office of Science, Office of AdvancedOffice of Basic Energy Sciences. This is LBNL report LBNL-BES Science Network Requirements Report of the Basic Energy

Dart, Eli

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

333

Goals and Requirements  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Sustainability Performance Office (SPO) is committed to meeting the goals of Executive Order (E.O.) 13514, E.O. 13423, and related statutory requirements through the Strategic Sustainability Performance Plan (SSPP).

334

Higher modulus compositions incorporating particulate rubber  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Rubber particles, to be used as fillers or extenders for various composite polymer systems, are chlorinated by a gas-solid phase reaction with a chlorine-containing gas. A composite polymer containing the chlorinated rubber fillers or extenders exhibits a higher flexural modulus than if prepared using an unchlorinated rubber filler or extender. Chlorination of the rubber particles is carried out by contacting the finely divided rubber particles with a chlorine-containing gas comprising at least about 5 volume percent chlorine. Advantageously, the chlorine can be diluted with air, nitrogen or other essentially inert gases and may contain minor amounts of fluorine. Improved performance is obtained with nitrogen dilution of the chlorine gas over air dilution. Improved polymer composite systems having higher flexural modulus result from the use of the chlorinated rubber particles as fillers instead of unchlorinated rubber particles. 2 figs.

Bauman, B.D.; Williams, M.A.; Bagheri, R.

1997-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

335

Higher modulus compositions incorporating particulate rubber  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Rubber particles, to be used as fillers or extenders for various composite polymer systems, are chlorinated by a gas-solid phase reaction with a chlorine-containing gas. A composite polymer containing the chlorinated rubber fillers or extenders exhibits a higher flexural modulus than if prepared using an unchlorinated rubber filler or extender. Chlorination of the rubber particles is carried out by contacting the finely divided rubber particles with a chlorine-containing gas comprising at least about 5 volume percent chlorine. Advantageously, the chlorine can be diluted with air, nitrogen or other essentially inert gases and may contain minor amounts of fluorine. Improved performance is obtained with nitrogen dilution of the chlorine gas over air dilution. Improved polymer composite systems having higher flexural modulus result from the use of the chlorinated rubber particles as fillers instead of unchlorinated rubber particles.

Bauman, Bernard D. (Emmaus, PA); Williams, Mark A. (Souderton, PA); Bagheri, Reza (Bethlehem, PA)

1997-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

336

Lorentz violation and higher-derivative gravity  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this work, we analyze a gravity model with higher derivatives including a CPT-even Lorentz-violating term. In principle, the model could be a low-energy limit of a Lorentz-invariant theory presenting the violation of Lorentz symmetry as a consequence of a spontaneous symmetry-breaking mechanism if a decoupling between the metric and the Nambu-Goldstone modes is assumed. We have set up a convenient operator basis for the expansion of wave operators for symmetric second-rank tensors in the presence of a background vector. By using this set of operators, the particle content is obtained, and its consistency, regarding the conditions for stability and unitarity, is discussed. We conclude that this extra Lorentz noninvariant contribution is unable to address the problems of stability and unitarity of higher-derivative gravity models.

Hernaski, C

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

337

Assessment of the use of oxygenated fuels on emissions and performance of a diesel engine  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Requirements as torque, power, specific fuel consumption and emitted compounds are highly influenced by the chemical composition of the fuel being burned. Thus, the aim of this study was to assess the use of oxygenated fuels on emissions of NOx, CO, HC, CO2 and particle number and size distribution (11.5 diesel engine coupled to a dynamometer bench was used, where three types of fuels were employed, B5 (diesel with 5% of biodiesel); B5E6 (ternary composition containing 89% diesel, 5% of biodiesel and 6% of ethanol); and B100 (100% of biodiesel). The performance of a diesel engine was also evaluated to see the impact of the oxygenated fuels in this kind of engine. The use of ethanol with high latent heat of vaporization and low cetane number added to the binary blend (B5) shown an increase in the HC emissions and a reduction in \\{NOx\\} emissions when compared to B5. The use of pure biodiesel (B100) with high oxygen content showed a reduction in the HC emissions, but presented the highest emissions for both \\{NOx\\} and particle number of smaller diameter among the studied fuels. The use of more oxygenated fuels reduced the power output and increased the fuel consumption, but the exergy analysis showed that the energy efficiency of these fuels could be considered similar to the B5 fuel.

Lílian Lefol Nani Guarieiro; Egídio Teixeira de Almeida Guerreiro; Keize Katiane dos Santos Amparo; Victor Bonfim Manera; Ana Carla D. Regis; Aldenor Gomes Santos; Vitor P. Ferreira; Danilo J. Leão; Ednildo A. Torres; Jailson B. de Andrade

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

338

The design of a cathode to operate in an oxygen-rich environment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The primary problem with Hall plasma accelerator operation on oxygen is poor cathode performance and short lifetime. The primary problem with micro Hall thrusters is the absence of a stable low power cathode. Cathodes traditionally used for both applications employ thermionic emitters which are not efficient and which are easily oxidized in an oxygen-rich environment. The field emitter cathode presented in this report has the potential of filling both vacancies since it does not require a high-power heater and can be scaled down with the size of the thruster. The advantages to using Hf and HfC as emitting materials are low work functions and high resistance to oxygen poisoning. Preliminary investigations proved that HfC emitters can operate in 7.6 mTorr oxygen pressure environments. The initial cathode design employs an electrostatic lens that also acts as an ion filter to prevent thruster ions from bombarding the field emitters while decelerating the electron beam and keeping it focused to ensure efficient performance. Electron trajectories through the cathode and ion filtering capabilities are presented in this report as predicted by the charged particle code, MAGIC.

Marrese, Colleen M.; Gallimore, Alec D.; Mackie, William A.; Evans, David E. [Plasmadynamic and Electric Propulsion Lab., University of Michigan Dept. of Aerospace Engineering FXB Building, 1320 Beal Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-2118 (United States); Linfield Research Institute 900 Baker St. McMinnville, Oregon 97128-6894 (United States)

1997-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

339

Type II Einstein spacetimes in higher dimensions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This short note shows that many of the results derived by Pravda et al (Class. Quant. Grav. 24 4407-4428) for higher-dimensional Type D Einstein spacetimes can be generalized to all Einstein spacetimes admitting a multiple WAND; the main new result being the extension to include the Type II case. Examples of Type D Einstein spacetimes admitting non-geodesic multiple WANDs are given in all dimensions greater than 4.

Mark Durkee

2009-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

340

Black hole entropy and higher curvature interactions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A general formula for the entropy of stationary black holes in Lovelock higher-curvature gravity theories is obtained by integrating the first law of black hole mechanics, which is derived by Hamiltonian methods. The entropy is not simply one quarter of the surface area of the horizon, but also includes a sum of intrinsic curvature invariants integrated over a cross section of the horizon.

Ted Jacobson and Robert C. Myers

1993-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "higher oxygen requirement" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Regulators on additive higher Chow groups.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

As an attempt to understand motives over $k[x]/(x^m)$, we define the cubical additive higher Chow groups with modulus for all dimensions extending the works of S. Bloch, H. Esnault and K. Rülling on 0-dimensional cycles. We give an explicit construction of regulator maps on the groups of 1-cycles with an aid of the residue theory of A. Parshin and V. Lomadze.

Jinhyun Park (Purdue University; West Lafayette; IN)

342

Sulfur behavior in chemical looping combustion with NiO/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} oxygen carrier  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Chemical looping combustion (CLC) is a novel technology where CO{sub 2} is inherently separated during combustion. Due to the existence of sulfur contaminants in the fossil fuels, the gaseous products of sulfur species and the interaction of sulfur contaminants with oxygen carrier are a big concern in the CLC practice. The reactivity of NiO/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} oxygen carrier reduction with a gas mixture of CO/H{sub 2} and H{sub 2}S is investigated by means of a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) and Fourier Transform Infrared spectrum analyzer in this study. An X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) are used to evaluate the phase characterization of reacted oxygen carrier, and the formation mechanisms of the gaseous products of sulfur species are elucidated in the process of chemical looping combustion with a gaseous fuel containing hydrogen sulfide. The results show that the rate of NiO reduction with H{sub 2}S is higher than the one with CO. There are only Ni and Ni{sub 3}S{sub 2} phases of nickel species in the fully reduced oxygen carrier, and no evidence for the existence of NiS or NiS{sub 2}. The formation of Ni{sub 3}S{sub 2} is completely reversible during the process of oxygen carrier redox. A liquid phase sintering on the external surface of reduced oxygen carriers is mainly attributed to the production of the low melting of Ni{sub 3}S{sub 2} in the nickel-based oxygen carrier reduction with a gaseous fuel containing H{sub 2}S. Due to the sintering of metallic nickel grains on the external surface of the reduced oxygen carrier, further reaction of the oxygen carrier with H{sub 2}S is constrained, and there is no increase of the sulfidation index of the reduced oxygen carrier with the cyclical reduction number. Also, a continuous operation with a syngas of carbon monoxide and hydrogen containing H{sub 2}S is carried out in a 1 kW{sub th} CLC prototype based on the nickel-based oxygen carrier, and the effect of the fuel reactor temperature on the release of gaseous products of sulfur species is investigated. (author)

Shen, Laihong; Gao, Zhengping; Wu, Jiahua; Xiao, Jun [Thermoenergy Engineering Research Institute, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China)

2010-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

343

Foam insulation for a liquid oxygen densifier  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Analyses indicated that it would not be cost effective to vacuum insulate a 7 foot diameter by 30 foot long liquid nitrogen vessel for a launch facility liquid oxygen densifier. Foam insulation appeared to be the logical choice for this infrequently used ground support equipment but the history of foam problems due to cracking, adhesive failure and internal shearing weighed against the use of commercial spray-on material. These problems were solved with a system consisting of alternate sealing and flexible foam layers: (1) an inner membrane sealed to itself but not attached to the cold shell or pipe; (2) a flexible foam insulation layer; (3) a vapor-tight sealing membrane; (4) a second flexible foam insulation layer and (5) an outer aluminized sealing membrane. The second and subsequent layers are sealed to each underlying layer by flexible foam contact adhesive. The inner sealing membrane is particularly vital in that it allows the first foam layer to expand and contract as the tank temperature changes and it also protects the tank from chloride corrosion from the foam. This paper describes preliminary testing to prove out the system and the steps taken to install flexible foam insulation on the oxygen densifier vessel.

G.E. McIntosh; R. Stuckenschmidt

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

344

Comparison of the Impact of Intake Oxygen Enrichment and Fuel Oxygenation on Diesel Combustion and Emissions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

turbocharged, Intercooler?(air-air), electronically?controlled?EGR with?actuator ... Fumigation into the intake surge tank was chosen to allow thorough mixing of the oxygen?air mixture through the subsequent components of the intake system, such as the air filter, turbocharger, and intercooler, before entering the intake manifold. ...

Juhun Song; Vince Zello; André L. Boehman; Francis J. Waller

2004-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

345

The effect of interface oxygen content on magnetoelectric effect of epitaxial La{sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.3}MnO{sub 3}/BaTiO{sub 3} bilayer  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The epitaxial La{sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.3}MnO{sub 3}/BaTiO{sub 3} (LSMO/BTO) bilayer films are grown on (001) oriented LaAlO{sub 3} substrate by pulsed laser deposition technique. The oxygen-rich interface is obtained through in-situ annealing process in oxygen, and the oxygen-deficient interface is obtained without the annealing process. The results show that the ferromagnetic properties of the LSMO film and the magnetoelectric effect (ME) of the bilayer films strongly correlate to the oxygen content at the interface of LSMO/BTO. The saturated magnetization and the ME voltage coefficient of the oxygen-rich bilayer film are higher than that of oxygen-deficient one. It suggests a more effective ME coupling at the LSMO/BTO interface, which are generated through not only the interface strain but also the spin polarized carriers.

Tingxian, Li, E-mail: wxlltx@126.com [College of Physics and Electrical Engineering, Anyang Normal University, Anyang 455002 (China); Kuoshe, Li [National Engineering Research Central for Rare Earth Materials, General Research Institute for Nonferrous Metals, The Grirem Advanced materials Co. Ltd., Beijing 100088 (China)

2014-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

346

VFP: Program Requirements  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Program Requirements Program Requirements Home Welcome Researcher! Preparing for Your Visit Your Arrival Your First Day Weekly Activities Program Requirements Checkout FAQ The DOE WDTS site has comprehensive information on Participant Obligations. Consult that site for more information on all deliverables except the Fermilab Summer Interns website. Attendance: Complete the full ten-week program and attend all scheduled events including lectures, tours and group activities. Entrance Survey: Complete the entrance survey within your first week at Fermilab. One-page Peer Review Provide a one-page written peer review of another SULI intern' talk or poster. Abstract for General Audience Complete and submit an abstract summarizing your research experience. Oral or Poster Presentation: Deliver an oral or poster presentation to mentors and peers the final week

347

BER Science Network Requirements  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Network Network Requirements Report of the Biological and Environmental Research Network Requirements Workshop Conducted July 26 and 27, 2007 BER Science Network Requirements Workshop Biological and Environmental Research Program Office, DOE Office of Science Energy Sciences Network Bethesda, MD - July 26 and 27, 2007 ESnet is funded by the US Dept. of Energy, Office of Science, Advanced Scientific Computing Research (ASCR) program. Dan Hitchcock is the ESnet Program Manager. ESnet is operated by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, which is operated by the University of California for the US Department of Energy under contract DE-AC02-05CH11231. This work was supported by the Directors of the Office of Science, Office of Advanced Scientific Computing Research, Facilities Division, and the Office of Biological &

348

SULI: Program Requirements  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Program Requirements Program Requirements Home Welcome Intern! Preparing for Your Internship Your Arrival Your First Day Weekly Activities Program Requirements Checkout FAQ The DOE WDTS site has comprehensive information on Participant Obligations. Consult that site for more information on all deliverables except the Fermilab Summer Interns website. Attendance: Complete the full ten-week program and attend all scheduled events including lectures, tours and group activities. Entrance Survey: First create an account by following the link, educationLink New Account Setup. After creating the account, you can login to the educationLink site. Complete the entrance survey posted on your EduLink site within your first week at Fermilab. One-page Peer Review Provide a one-page written peer review of another SULI intern' talk or

349

Federal Metering Requirements  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Metering Requirements Metering Requirements FUPWG - May 23, 2013 Brad Gustafson Federal Energy Management Program 2 42 USC 8253 - ENERGY MANAGEMENT REQUIREMENT (e) Metering By October 1, 2012, in accordance with guidelines established by the Secretary under paragraph (2), all Federal buildings shall, for the purposes of efficient use of energy and reduction in the cost of electricity used in such buildings, be metered. Each agency shall use, to the maximum extent practicable, advanced meters or advanced metering devices that provide data at least daily and that measure at least hourly consumption of electricity in the Federal buildings of the agency. Not later than October 1, 2016, each agency shall provide for equivalent metering of natural gas and steam, in accordance with guidelines established by the Secretary

350

Regulators, Requirements, Statutes  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Regulators, Requirements, Statutes Regulators, Requirements, Statutes Regulators, Requirements, Statutes The Laboratory must comply with environmental laws and regulations that apply to Laboratory operations. Contact Environmental Communication & Public Involvement P.O. Box 1663 MS M996 Los Alamos, NM 87545 (505) 667-0216 Email Environmental laws and regulations LANL complies with more than 30 state and federal regulations and policies designed to protect human health and the environment. Regulators Regulators Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) EPA Homepage EPA - Region VI U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) DOE Homepage DOE Environmental Policy DOE Citizen's Advisory Board U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) Southwest Region 2 New Mexico Environment Department (NMED) NMED Homepage NMED DOE Oversight Office

351

The surface structure of SrTiO{sub 3} at high temperatures under influence of oxygen  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We use low energy electron microscopy to investigate the structure of the SrTiO{sub 3} (001) surface at elevated temperatures and different oxygen pressures. Upon varying the temperature between 500?°C and 900?°C in oxygen pressures ranging from 10{sup ?9} millibar to 10{sup ?4} millibar, two surface transitions are found to be present. The lower temperature (1 × 1) ? (2 × 1) transition that is known to occur in ultrahigh vacuum can be reversed by increasing the oxygen pressure. At higher temperatures, we observe a (2 × 1) ? disordered (1 × 1) transition which is irreversible in the experimental parameter range. The observations are expected to have a strong bearing on the growth of interface structures.

Hesselberth, M. B. S.; Molen, S. J. van der; Aarts, J. [Kamerlingh Onnes Laboratory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9504, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands)

2014-02-03T23:59:59.000Z

352

Improved Superlinks for Higher Spin Operators  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Traditional smearing or blocking techniques serve well to increase the overlap of operators onto physical states but allow for links orientated only along lattice axes. Recent attempts to construct more general propagators have shown promise at resolving the higher spin states but still rely on iterative smearing. We present a new method of superlink construction which creates meared links from (sparse) matrix multiplications, allowing for gluonic propagation in arbitrary directions. As an application and example, we compute the positive-parity, even-spin glueball spectrum up to spin 6 for pure gauge SU(2) at beta = 6, L = 16, in D = 2+1 dimensions.

Robert W. Johnson

2007-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

353

Higher mode stability in spheromak equilibria  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Spheromak equilibria with current profiles varying from peaked to hollow are analyzed for higher mode stability using a linear magnetohydrodynamic(MHD) code. For a cylindrical flux conserver with a radius equal to length the n=2 m=2 mode is found to be marginally unstable for the same hollow current profile as the n=1 m=1 mode. While the growth rate for this n=2 mode is much lower than the n=1 mode the presence of the n=2 mode may explain experimentally observed relaxation phenomena involving short wavelength turbulence in spheromak equilibria with sufficiently hollow current profiles.

U. Shumlak; T. R. Jarboe

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

354

Application of PLM in higher education procurement  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Colleges and universities are moving away from the traditional focus on single exchange transactions and towards an emphasis on creating and maintaining longer-term buyerâ??supplier relationships. These strategic relationships generate managed supply chain relationships that encompass activities associated with the flow of goods and services, as well as the flow of information. The need to understand the complexities of the relationships in the supply chain and how these relationships are viewed by both buyers and suppliers is critical. The application of Product Lifecycle Management (PLM) in higher education purchasing and procurement will serve to improve organisational efficiencies and support strategic positioning.

Michael Wisma; Cynthia L. Tomovic

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

355

Oxygen Atoms Display Novel Behavior on Common Catalyst  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

11, 2008 11, 2008 Oxygen Atoms Display Novel Behavior on Common Catalyst Like waltzing dancers, the two atoms of an oxygen molecule usually behave identically when they separate on the surface of a catalyst. However, new research from the Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory reveals that on a particular catalyst, the oxygen atoms act like a couple dancing the tango: one oxygen atom plants itself while the other shimmies away, probably with energy partially stolen from the stationary one. Scientists from EMSL and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory discovered this unanticipated behavior while studying how oxygen interacts with reduced titanium oxide, a popular catalyst and a model oxide. Their research began with a slice of titanium oxide crystal, oriented so that titanium and oxygen

356

Regenerable Mixed Copper-Iron-Inert Support Oxygen Carriers  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Mixed Copper-Iron-Inert Support Oxygen Carriers Mixed Copper-Iron-Inert Support Oxygen Carriers for Solid Fuel Chemical Looping Combustion Process Contact NETL Technology Transfer Group techtransfer@netl.doe.gov December 2012 This patent-pending technology, "Regenerable Mixed Copper-Iron-Inert Support Oxygen Carriers for Solid Fuel Chemical Looping Combustion Process," provides a metal-oxide oxygen carrier for application in fuel combustion processes that use oxygen. This technology is available for licensing and/or further collaborative research with the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory. Overview Patent Details U.S. Non-Provisional Patent Application No. 13/159,553; titled "Regenerable Mixed Copper-Iron-Inert Support Oxygen Carriers for Solid

357

Investigation of different manganese ores as oxygen carriers in chemical-looping combustion (CLC) for solid fuels  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The chemical-looping combustion (CLC) process is a novel solution for efficient combustion with direct capture of carbon dioxide. The process uses a metal oxide as an oxygen carrier to transfer oxygen from an air to a fuel reactor, where the fuel reacts with the solid oxygen carrier. In this work, six different manganese ores are investigated as oxygen carriers for CLC application. The chemical-looping characteristics of the oxygen carriers were evaluated in a laboratory-scale fluidized-bed reactor in the temperature range of 900–970 °C during alternating reducing and oxidizing conditions. Three of the manganese ores showed a small oxygen release in inert environment between 850 and 950 °C. During reactivity tests, the gas yield with methane increased with the temperature and complete conversion of 50% CO in H2 was obtained for all of the ores. The rates of char gasification of two fuels, namely Mexican petroleum coke and Swedish wood char, were compared for the different manganese ores at 970 °C and with 50% H2O in N2 as fluidizing gas. Ilmenite and a manufactured Mn-oxide oxygen carrier consisting of Mn3O4 and MgO-stabilized ZrO2 as support were also included for comparison. The char gasification rate and the gas conversion were higher with the manganese ores and the Mn-oxide oxygen carrier compared to ilmenite. However, the higher reactivity of the manganese ores with H2 and the ensuing decrease in H2 inhibition for manganese ores is not sufficient to explain their higher rate of char gasification. Surface analysis of partially gasified petcoke particles in the presence of manganese ores showed formation of cavities and channels as well as a uniform distribution of potassium and sodium elements. The rate of char gasification also increased with the concentration of potassium and sodium impurities in the manganese ores. Thus the results suggest that the increased rate of char conversion for manganese ores is due to alkali-catalyzed steam gasification. The increase in rate of char gasification, in combination with potentially low costs of these materials suggests that manganese ores could be interesting materials for CLC with solid fuels.

Mehdi Arjmand; Henrik Leion; Tobias Mattisson; Anders Lyngfelt

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

358

Electrons, life and the evolution of Earth's oxygen cycle  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...efficiency of organic matter and...increased production of oxygen...eukaryotic host cells, allowing...outside of our Solar System...efficiency of organic matter and...increased production of oxygen...eukaryotic host cells, allowing...outside of our Solar System...efficiency of organic matter and...increased production of oxygen...eukaryotic host cells, allowing...outside of our Solar System...

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

359

Federal Metering Requirements  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Presentation—given at the Spring 2013 Federal Utility Partnership Working Group (FUPWG) meeting—covers the 42 USC 8253 Energy Management Requirement; Executive Order 13514(g) High-Performance Sustainable Federal Buildings; federal metering needs, history, and status; and utility/agency opportunities.

360

Minor in Philosophy Requirements  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

2012-05-23 Minor in Philosophy Requirements: 1. 18 hours of work in philosophy with grades of C- or better. 2. A 2.0 grade point average for all work attempted in philosophy. 3. 9 hours of upper division work in philosophy, with grades of C- or better. 4. Completion of at least one course, with a grade

Stowell, Michael

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "higher oxygen requirement" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Requirements Definition Stage  

Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

This chapter addresses development of a Software Configuration Management Plan to track and control work products, analysis of the system owner/users' business processes and needs, translation of those processes and needs into formal requirements, and planning the testing activities to validate the performance of the software product.

1997-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

362

Documents Notes Requirements  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Documents Notes Common Requirements Application Form(typed) with 3 photos attached(3.5 x 4.5cm(including National Intelligence & Security Track), International Trade, International Finance, Korea and East Asia for Application : November 13(Tue), 2012 · Announcement of Documents Screening Results : 2 pm on November 21(Wed

Jang, Ju-Wook

363

Heat Requirements of Buildings  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... and Ventilating Engineers in a publication entitled “Recommendations for the Computation of Heat Requirements for Buildings” (Pp. iii+41. Is. 9d.) This comprises a section of the ... parts. That on temperature-rise and rates of change gives the recommended values applicable to buildings ranging alphabetically from aircraft sheds to warehouses. The design of heating and ventilating installations ...

1942-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

364

Molecular oxygen sensors based on photoluminescent silica aerogels  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Molecular oxygen sensors based on photoluminescent silica aerogels Molecular oxygen sensors based on photoluminescent silica aerogels Title Molecular oxygen sensors based on photoluminescent silica aerogels Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 1998 Authors Ayers, Michael R., and Arlon J. Hunt Journal Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids Volume 225 Pagination 343-347 Keywords aerogel, air pressure, oxygen concentration, oxygen molecules, photoluminescence Abstract Photoluminescent silica aerogel acts as the active element of an optical sensor for molecular oxygen. The luminescent aerogel is prepared by the action of energized reducing gases on a standard silica aerogel. Intensity of aerogel photoluminescence decreases as the collision frequency between oxygen molecules and the luminescent carriers in the aerogel matrix increases. This behavior is a characteristic of many photoluminescent materials and arises from a transfer of energy from the aerogel to surrounding oxygen molecules. A sensor for oxygen concentration or air pressure can therefore be simply constructed utilizing an ultraviolet source for excitation and a suitable detector for the emitted visible signal. Stern-Volmer quenching constants for the aerogel sensing element are 1.55×10-2 Torr-1 for hydrophilic aerogel and 2.4×10-3 Torr-1 for hydrophobic aerogel.

365

Effect of feedwater oxygen control at the Vermont Yankee BWR  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Results of a test program to evaluate the impact of oxygen injection on the release and transport of iron, nickel, cobalt, copper and zinc in the feedwater system at the Vermont Yankee boiling water reactor (BWR) are presented. Design and operation of the oxygen injection system are discussed. Conclusions and recommendations relative to generic application of oxygen injection for corrosion product control in BWRs during normal operation are presented. Application of oxygen injection to assist in feedwater system materials passivation after an extended outage also is discussed. 12 refs., 16 figs., 5 tabs.

Hobart, R.L.; Palino, G.F.

1985-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

366

OXYGEN CONSUMPTION BY THE SEABED IV. SHIPBOARD AND ...  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

respiratory consumption; in these experiments the rate of chemical oxidation decreases with decreasing oxygen tension, whiIe the rate of respiration is relatively.

Orcas

2000-02-13T23:59:59.000Z

367

Nanoscale Phase Separation, Cation Ordering, and Surface Oxygen...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

We discovered that the electronic structure and valence state of transition metal ions show significant variations, which have been identified to be attributed to the oxygen...

368

Geothermal reservoir temperatures estimated from the oxygen isotope...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

temperatures estimated from the oxygen isotope compositions of dissolved sulfate and water from hot springs and shallow drillholes Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL...

369

Microbial metatranscriptomics in a permanent marine oxygen minimum zone  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Simultaneous characterization of taxonomic composition, metabolic gene content and gene expression in marine oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) has potential to broaden perspectives on the microbial and biogeochemical dynamics ...

Stewart, Frank J.

370

Oxygen-Enriched Combustion for Military Diesel Engine Generators...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Combustion for Military Diesel Engine Generators Oxygen-Enriched Combustion for Military Diesel Engine Generators Substantial increases in brake power and considerably lower peak...

371

Oxygen Coverage Dependence of NO Oxidation on Pt(111). | EMSL  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Dependence of NO Oxidation on Pt(111). Abstract: The interaction of NO with adsorbed atomic oxygen on Pt(111) was studied with temperature programmed desorption (TPD),...

372

Optical dissolved oxygen sensor utilizing molybdenum chloride cluster phosphorescence  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in oxygen atmospheres 0%­21% were obtained with a signal to noise ratio better than 150. Photobleaching physical principles, electrochemistry or luminescence. Electrochemical devices result in analyte

Ghosh, Ruby N.

373

Oxygen-nutrient relationships in the Pacific Ocean  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Aug 18, 1972 ... In the northeastern Pacific Ocean the oxygen-phosphate ... different stations in the Pacific and Indian Oceans to study their water masses.

2000-01-04T23:59:59.000Z

374

Virtual Oxygen Sensor for Innovative NOx and PM Emission Control...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

2009 - Poster Session August 3 rd , Hyatt Regency Dearborn Hotel Virtual Oxygen Sensor Innovative NOx and PM Emission Control Technologies J. Seebode, E. Stlting,...

375

Modeling Oxygen Transport in Three-Dimensional Capillary Networks.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??The purpose of this thesis was to examine how the use of real 3-dimensional (3D) capillary network geometries affect models of oxygen transport to tissue.… (more)

Fraser, Graham M

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

376

Electron-Stimulated Production of Molecular Oxygen in Amorphous...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Precursor Transport Through the Hydrogen Electron-Stimulated Production of Molecular Oxygen in Amorphous Solid Water on Pt(111): Precursor Transport Through the Hydrogen...

377

Table 33. Oxygenated Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

Administration Petroleum Marketing Annual 1995 Table 33. Oxygenated Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State (Cents per Gallon Excluding...

378

Table 33. Oxygenated Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

- - - - - - - - - - - - See footnotes at end of table. 33. Oxygenated Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State 116 Energy Information...

379

Hydrogen (H2) Production by Oxygenic Phototrophs  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Production by Oxygenic Phototrophs Eric L. Hegg Michigan State University Great Lakes Bioenergy Research Center Bioresour. Technol. 2011, 102, 8589-8604 Major Challenges to H 2 Photoproduction Biological Challenges * Poor efficiency of H 2 production * Poor heterologous expression of H 2 -forming enzymes * Low quantum yields * Competition for reducing equivalents; poor electron coupling * Sensitivity of H 2 -forming enzymes to O 2 M. Ghirardi, Abstract #1751, Honolulu PRiME 2012 Technical Challenges * Mixture of H 2 and O 2 ; H 2 separation and storage * CO 2 addition and overall reactor design Overcoming Low Efficiency: Improving ET * Eliminate or down-regulate pathways competing for ele * Production of organic acids * Formation of NADPH/carbon fixation

380

It's Elemental - Isotopes of the Element Oxygen  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Nitrogen Nitrogen Previous Element (Nitrogen) The Periodic Table of Elements Next Element (Fluorine) Fluorine Isotopes of the Element Oxygen [Click for Main Data] Most of the isotope data on this site has been obtained from the National Nuclear Data Center. Please visit their site for more information. Naturally Occurring Isotopes Mass Number Natural Abundance Half-life 16 99.757% STABLE 17 0.038% STABLE 18 0.205% STABLE Known Isotopes Mass Number Half-life Decay Mode Branching Percentage 12 1.139×10-21 seconds Proton Emission No Data Available 13 8.58 milliseconds Electron Capture 100.00% Electron Capture with delayed Proton Emission 100.00% 14 70.620 seconds Electron Capture 100.00% 15 122.24 seconds Electron Capture 100.00% 16 STABLE - - 17 STABLE - - 18 STABLE - - 19 26.88 seconds Beta-minus Decay 100.00%

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "higher oxygen requirement" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

A phenomenological model of elementary Dirac particles in a higher-dimensional space  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A PHENOMENOLOGICAL MODEL OF ELEMENTARY DIRAC PARTICLES IN A HIGHER-DIMENSIONAL SPACE A Thesis by MARK MANSON DAVENPORT Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1987 Major Subject: Physics A PHENOMENOLOGICAL MODEL OF ELEMENTARY DIRAC PARTICLES IN A HIGHER-DIMENSIONAL SPACE A Thesis MARK MANSON DAVENPORT Approved as to style and content by: Ronald Bryan (Chair of Committee...

Davenport, Mark Manson

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

382

Conceptual Design of Oxygen-Based PC Boiler  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Coal is presently the world's primary fuel for generating electrical power and, being more abundant and less expensive than oil or natural gas, is expected to continue its dominance into the future. Coal, however, is more carbon intensive than natural gas and oil and consequently coal-fired power plants are large point source emitters of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}). Since CO{sub 2} is a greenhouse gas, which may have an adverse impact on the world's climate/weather patterns, studies have been conducted to determine the feasibility and economic impact of capturing power plant CO{sub 2} emissions for pipeline transport to a sequestration/storage site. The stack gas that exhausts from a modern coal-fired power plant typically contains about 15% CO{sub 2} on a dry volume basis. Although there are numerous processes available for removing CO{sub 2} from gas streams, gas scrubbing with amine solvent is best suited for this application because of the large gas volumes and low CO{sub 2} concentrations involved. Unfortunately the energy required to regenerate the solvent for continued use as a capturing agent is large and imposes a severe energy penalty on the plant. In addition this ''back end'' or post combustion cleanup requires the addition of large vessels, which, in retrofit applications, are difficult to accommodate. As an alternative to post combustion scrubbing, Foster Wheeler (FW) has proposed that the combustion process be accomplished with oxygen rather than air. With all air nitrogen eliminated, a CO{sub 2}-water vapor rich flue gas will be generated. After condensation of the water vapor, a portion of the flue gas will be recirculated back to the boiler to control the combustion temperature and the balance of the CO{sub 2} will be processed for pipeline transport. This proposed oxygen-carbon dioxide (O{sub 2}/CO{sub 2}) combustion process eliminates the need for CO{sub 2} removal/separation and reduces the cost of supplying a CO{sub 2} rich stream for sequestration. FW has developed a conceptual design of an O{sub 2} fired boiler to determine overall plant performance and economics. Five subtasks were conducted: (1) a literature review, (2) a system design and analysis, (3) a low NOx burner design and analysis, (4) a furnace and heat recovery area design analysis, and (5) an economic analysis. The objective of the literature search is to locate any data/information relevant to the Oxygen-Based PC Boiler conceptual design. The objective of the system design and analysis task is to optimize the PC boiler plant by maximizing system efficiency within practical considerations. Simulations of the oxygen-fired plant with CO{sub 2} sequestration were conducted using Aspen Plus and were compared to a reference air-fired 460 MW plant. Flue gas recycle is used in the O{sub 2}-fired PC to control the flame temperature. Parametric runs were made to determine the effect of flame temperature on system efficiency and required waterwall material and thickness. The degree of improvement on system efficiency of various modifications including hot gas recycle, purge gas recycle, flue gas feedwater recuperation, and recycle purge gas expansion were investigated. The selected O{sub 2}-fired design case has a system efficiency of 30.6% compared to the air-fired system efficiency of 36.7%. The design O{sub 2}-fired case requires T91 waterwall material and has a waterwall surface area of only 65% of the air-fired reference case. The objective of the low NOx burner design and analysis task is to optimize the burner design to ensure stable ignition, to provide safe operation, and to minimize pollutant formation. The burners were designed and analyzed using the Fluent CFD computer program. Four burner designs were developed: (1) with no OFG and 65% flue gas recycle, (2) with 20% OFG and 65% flue gas recycle, (3) with no OFG and 56% flue gas recycle and (4) with 20% OFG and 56% flue gas recycle. A 3-D Fluent simulation was made of a single wall-fired burner and horizontal portion of the furnace from the wall to the center. Without primary gas sw

Andrew Seltzer; Zhen Fan

2005-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

383

Generalized Holographic Superconductors with Higher Derivative Couplings  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We introduce and study generalized holographic superconductors with higher derivative couplings between the field strength tensor and a complex scalar field, in four dimensional AdS black hole backgrounds. We study this theory in the probe limit, as well as with backreaction. There are multiple tuning parameters in the theory, and with two non-zero parameters, we show that the theory has a rich phase structure, and in particular, the transition from the normal to the superconducting phase can be tuned to be of first order or of second order within a window of one of these. This is established numerically as well as by computing the free energy of the boundary theory. We further present analytical results for the critical temperature of the model, and compare these with numerical analysis. Optical properties of this system are also studied numerically in the probe limit, and our results show evidence for negative refraction at low frequencies.

Anshuman Dey; Subhash Mahapatra; Tapobrata Sarkar

2014-06-13T23:59:59.000Z

384

Real-time operating systems at higher control  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Although virtually all development of real-time operating systems focuses on the lowest of the three traditional control levels, sheet economics demands higher level real-time OSs. Meeting this demand requires a major change in the mindset of the people who have been focusing on the lowest level of control. {open_quotes}These people are trying to deal with an elephant`s tail, but they don`t realize that there is an elephant attached to it.{close_quotes} For more than three decades, the historical real-time mindset, concepts and techniques have been driven by a particular pair of contexts. First is the application context, which can be characterized as {open_quotes}small, simple, centralized, static subsystems for low-level, sampled data, monitoring and first-order control.{close_quotes} Second is the hardware context, characterized by a scarcity of hardware resources due to size, weight, power and cost considerations. Both of these contexts are changing dramatically in ways that {open_quotes}have a significant impact on the concepts and techniques of real-time computing.{close_quotes} Hardware now offers much higher performance and the real-time domain is expanding upward in the application control hierarchy.

Jensen, E.D.

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

385

Use of Oxygen Isotopic Exchange to Explore Catalytic Activity and the Mechanism of Oxygen Reduction on Oxides.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??The electrochemical performance of intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cells is limited by high polarization losses incurred from the oxygen reduction reaction at the cathode.… (more)

Kan, Cynthia

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

386

NERSC Requirements Workshop November  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Requirements Requirements Workshop November 2009 Lattice gauge theory and some other HE theory Doug Toussaint (University of Arizona) Help from: Paul Mackenzie (Fermilab) Crude comparison of lattice hadron spec- trum to the real world. Lattice Gauge Theory First-principles computations in QCD Also, computations in other strongly coupled field theories * Find hadronic factors to get fundamental physics from experi- ments * Understand structure and interactions of hadrons, maybe even nuclei * Understand QCD: confinement and chiral symmetry breaking * Other strongly interacting theories (what if we don't find the Higgs?) * Quark-gluon matter at high temeratures (RHIC, LHC, early uni- verse) or high densities (neutron stars) HEP theory projects at NERSC now: * Production and analysis of QCD configurations with dynamical quarks, (Doug Toussaint) (MILC collaboration) * Heavy quarks, using

387

I. Required core Chemistry Courses (1905 & 1925) Chemistry  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Advisor: Advisee: I. Required core Chemistry Courses (1905 & 1925) Chemistry CH 111 PY 211 _____ PY 212 _____ (or PY 242 _____ or PY 252 ______) II. Chemistry Options (one required) 1905 (Concentration in Chemistry) Option A (2 advanced CH courses, 401 or higher, only one may

388

LEGACY MANAGEMENT REQUIRES INFORMATION  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

''Legacy Management Requires Information'' describes the goal(s) of the US Department of Energy's Office of Legacy Management (LM) relative to maintaining critical records and the way those goals are being addressed at Hanford. The paper discusses the current practices for document control, as well as the use of modern databases for both storing and accessing the data to support cleanup decisions. In addition to the information goals of LM, the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, known as the ''Tri-Party Agreement'' (TPA) is one of the main drivers in documentation and data management. The TPA, which specifies discrete milestones for cleaning up the Hanford Site, is a legally binding agreement among the US Department of Energy (DOE), the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology), and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The TPA requires that DOE provide the lead regulatory agency with the results of analytical laboratory and non-laboratory tests/readings to help guide them in making decisions. The Agreement also calls for each signatory to preserve--for at least ten years after the Agreement has ended--all of the records in its or its contractors, possession related to sampling, analysis, investigations, and monitoring conducted. The tools used at Hanford to meet TPA requirements are also the tools that can satisfy the needs of LM.

CONNELL, C.W.; HILDEBRAND, R.D.

2006-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

389

BER Science Network Requirements  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Energy Sciences Network (ESnet) is the primary provider of network connectivity for the US Department of Energy Office of Science, the single largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the United States. In support of the Office of Science programs, ESnet regularly updates and refreshes its understanding of the networking requirements of the instruments, facilities, scientists, and science programs that it serves. This focus has helped ESnet to be a highly successful enabler of scientific discovery for over 20 years. In April 2010 ESnet and the Office of Biological and Environmental Research, of the DOE Office of Science, organized a workshop to characterize the networking requirements of the science programs funded by BER. The requirements identified at the workshop are summarized and described in more detail in the case studies and the Findings section. A number of common themes emerged from the case studies and workshop discussions. One is that BER science, like many other disciplines, is becoming more and more distributed and collaborative in nature. Another common theme is that data set sizes are exploding. Climate Science in particular is on the verge of needing to manage exabytes of data, and Genomics is on the verge of a huge paradigm shift in the number of sites with sequencers and the amount of sequencer data being generated.

Dart, Eli; Tierney, Brian

2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

390

Pressurized chemical-looping combustion of coal with an iron ore-based oxygen carrier  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Chemical-looping combustion (CLC) is a new combustion technology with inherent separation of CO{sub 2}. Most of the previous investigations on CLC of solid fuels were conducted under atmospheric pressure. A pressurized CLC combined cycle (PCLC-CC) system is proposed as a promising coal combustion technology with potential higher system efficiency, higher fuel conversion, and lower cost for CO{sub 2} sequestration. In this study pressurized CLC of coal with Companhia Valedo Rio Doce (CVRD) iron ore was investigated in a laboratory fixed bed reactor. CVRD iron ore particles were exposed alternately to reduction by 0.4 g of Chinese Xuzhou bituminous coal gasified with 87.2% steam/N{sub 2} mixture and oxidation with 5% O{sub 2} in N{sub 2} at 970 C. The operating pressure was varied between 0.1 MPa and 0.6 MPa. First, control experiments of steam coal gasification over quartz sand were performed. H{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} are the major components of the gasification products, and the operating pressure influences the gas composition. Higher concentrations of CO{sub 2} and lower fractions of CO, CH{sub 4}, and H{sub 2} during the reduction process with CVRD iron ore was achieved under higher pressures. The effects of pressure on the coal gasification rate in the presence of the oxygen carrier were different for pyrolysis and char gasification. The pressurized condition suppresses the initial coal pyrolysis process while it also enhances coal char gasification and reduction with iron ore in steam, and thus improves the overall reaction rate of CLC. The oxidation rates and variation of oxygen carrier conversion are higher at elevated pressures reflecting higher reduction level in the previous reduction period. Scanning electron microscope and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX) analyses show that particles become porous after experiments but maintain structure and size after several cycles. Agglomeration was not observed in this study. An EDX analysis demonstrates that there is very little coal ash deposited on the oxygen carrier particles but no appreciable crystalline phases change as verified by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. Overall, the limited pressurized CLC experiments carried out in the present work suggest that PCLC of coal is promising and further investigations are necessary. (author)

Xiao, Rui; Song, Min; Zhang, Shuai; Shen, Laihong [School of Energy and Environment, Southeast University, Sipailou No. 2, Nanjing 210096 (China); Song, Qilei [School of Energy and Environment, Southeast University, Sipailou No. 2, Nanjing 210096 (China); Department of Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, University of Cambridge, Pembroke Street, Cambridge CB2 3RA (United Kingdom); Lu, Zuoji [School of Energy and Environment, Southeast University, Sipailou No. 2, Nanjing 210096 (China); GCL Engineering Limited, Zhujiang No. 1, Nanjing 210008 (China)

2010-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

391

On the origin of the selectivity of oxygen reduction of ruthenium-containing electrocatalysts in methanol-containing electrolyte  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The reactivity with water and methanol of oxygen-reducing (Ru{sub 1{minus}x}Mo{sub x}SeO{sub z}) and oxygen (from water)-evolving electrocatalysts (RuS{sub 2}, RuO{sub 2}), which permit electron transfer via ruthenium d-states, was studied using electrochemical techniques and differential electrochemical mass spectroscopy (DEMS). In contrast to platinum, which is depolarized by methanol, ruthenium compounds show a high reactivity with water species and an extremely low reactivity with methanol. The authors conclude that the ruthenium-centered coordination chemical reactivity with water channels electrochemical currents, thus producing kinetic selectivity. The reason for the higher reactivity with water of Ru d-states as compared to platinum is seen in the higher density of d-states near the Fermi level as shown by this comparative study.

Alonso-Vante, N.; Bogdanoff, P.; Tributsch, H.

2000-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

392

Electrocatalysts for oxygen electrodes. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Object was to understand factors controlling the activity of O{sub 2} reduction and generation electrocatalysts, in order to attain higher activity and longer-term stability. Two broad classes of catalysts were developed: transition metal macrocycles in monomeric and polymeric forms, and transition metal oxides including perovskites and pyrochlores. 20 refs., 14 figs.

Yeager, E. [Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States)

1993-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

393

Part B - Requirements & Funding Information PART B - Requirements...  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

b. Part B 1 Part B - Requirements & Funding Information PART B - Requirements and Funding Information Gray highlights are instructions. Remove the instructions from the interagency...

394

Research on Temperature Field Measuring of Oxygen Propane  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

By substituting alumina particles for soot created in burning flame and using the three-color method, the temperature field of the oxygen propane is calculated based on the image taken by CCD and digital image processing technology. The results show ... Keywords: CCD, oxygen propane flame, temperature field, image processing

Zhang Rui-ping

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

395

Unexpected Nondissociative Binding of N2O on Oxygen Vacancies...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Nondissociative Binding of N2O on Oxygen Vacancies on a Rutile TiO2(110)-1×1 . Unexpected Nondissociative Binding of N2O on Oxygen Vacancies on a Rutile TiO2(110)-1×1 ....

396

INVESTIGATION OF OXYGEN REDUCTION MECHANISMS USING CATHODE MICROELECTRODES, PART II  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of elementary oxygen reduc- tion reaction steps. This discrepancy indicates to a lack of fundamental understanding of oxygen reduction process(es) at the LSM/YSZ interface at the molecular level. #12;Electrical resistances and capacitances in the SOFC behavior. All implications presented in Refs. 2-7 have been based

Yildiz, Bilge

397

Dissecting Oxygenic Photosynthesis: The Evolution of the "Z"-Scheme  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

11CHAPTER Dissecting Oxygenic Photosynthesis: The Evolution of the "Z"-Scheme for Thylakoid and two photosystems are involved in oxygenic photosynthesis. This is then followed by the discovery Drop in Photosynthesis; Two Light Reactions; Two Photosystems; Z-Scheme of Photosynthesis #12

Govindjee

398

Anoxygenic photosynthesis modulated Proterozoic oxygen and sustained Earth's middle age  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Anoxygenic photosynthesis modulated Proterozoic oxygen and sustained Earth's middle age D. T photosynthesis to overall primary production would have influ- enced oceanic redox and the Proterozoic O2 budget time in Earth's history, complete dominance of oxygenic photosynthesis in the oceans. This paved

Macalady, Jenn

399

Electrochemical Performance of Pt-Based Catalysts Supported on Different Ordered Mesoporous Carbons (Pt/OMCs) for Oxygen Reduction Reaction  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) have been extensively developed because of their high conversion efficiency, low pollution, light weight, and high power density. ... (1) Platinum supported on carbon is generally used as electrocatalyst for PEMFC cathodes, having a higher catalytic activity for oxygen reduction reaction than any of the pure metals. ... Stonehart, P.Development of alloy electrocatalysts for phosphoric acid fuel cells (PAFC) J. Appl. ...

Juqin Zeng; Carlotta Francia; Mihaela A. Dumitrescu; Alessandro H. A. Monteverde Videla; Vijaykumar S. Ijeri; Stefania Specchia; Paolo Spinelli

2011-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

400

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Use Requirement  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Fuel Use Fuel Use Requirement to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Use Requirement on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Use Requirement on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Use Requirement on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Use Requirement on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Use Requirement on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Use Requirement on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Alternative Fuel Use Requirement West Virginia higher education governing boards must use alternative fuels to the maximum extent feasible. (Reference West Virginia Code 18B-5-9

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "higher oxygen requirement" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Dispenser Requirement  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Ethanol Blend Ethanol Blend Dispenser Requirement to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Dispenser Requirement on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Dispenser Requirement on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Dispenser Requirement on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Dispenser Requirement on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Dispenser Requirement on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Dispenser Requirement on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Ethanol Blend Dispenser Requirement An ethanol retailer selling a blend of 10% ethanol by volume or higher must

402

Application of information (new media) technology in Japanese higher education  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Japanese higher education and higher education institutions are facing rapid changes in the social/systemic environment and are expected to rise to the challenge and leap forward.

Prof. Dr. Takeshi Kikukawa

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

403

Recovery Act: Wind Energy Consortia between Institutions of Higher...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Recovery Act: Wind Energy Consortia between Institutions of Higher Learning and Industry Recovery Act: Wind Energy Consortia between Institutions of Higher Learning and Industry A...

404

Relaxation behavior of oxygen deficient strontium manganite  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Conduction behavior of nanocrystalline oxygen deficient ceramic-SrMnO{sub 3–?}(??0.14) has been studied. The structural analysis of nano-SrMnO{sub 2.86} follows hexagonal unit cell structure with P6{sub 3}/mmc (194) space group belonging to 6/mmm point group with 4H – layered type hexagonal-cubic layers. The system have lattice parameters; a = 5.437(92) Å, c = 9.072(92) Å, c/a?1.66 (85) with ? =90° ?= 120° and cell volume, V= 232.35(18). The relaxation times estimated from complex impedance and modulus relaxation spectrum, show the thermally activated system with corresponding activation energies as 0.66 eV and 0.51 eV The stretching factor ‘?’ from the scaled modulus spectrum shows the poly-dispersive non-Debye nature of the system. The hopping number ‘n’ shows the influence of ionic charge carriers which controls the conduction mechanism of nano-SrMnO{sub 2.86}.

Pandey, Namita, E-mail: namita205@gmail.com; Thakur, Awalendra Kumar, E-mail: namita205@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology-Patna, Patna- 800013 (India)

2014-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

405

Faraday Discuss., 1997, 108, 115130 Excited state dynamics in clusters of oxygen  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Faraday Discuss., 1997, 108, 115�130 Excited state dynamics in clusters of oxygen Runjun Li, Karl A clusters of oxygen. Oxygen clusters and liquid oxygen have a com- plicated chemistry due to numerous low) dynamics of small anionic clusters of oxygen. We Ðnd that the dynamics of the neutral DPD pathway

Continetti, Robert E.

406

Electromagnetic Casimir piston in higher dimensional spacetimes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We consider the Casimir effect of the electromagnetic field in a higher dimensional spacetime of the form $M\\times \\mathcal{N}$, where $M$ is the 4-dimensional Minkowski spacetime and $\\mathcal{N}$ is an $n$-dimensional compact manifold. The Casimir force acting on a planar piston that can move freely inside a closed cylinder with the same cross section is investigated. Different combinations of perfectly conducting boundary conditions and infinitely permeable boundary conditions are imposed on the cylinder and the piston. It is verified that if the piston and the cylinder have the same boundary conditions, the piston is always going to be pulled towards the closer end of the cylinder. However, if the piston and the cylinder have different boundary conditions, the piston is always going to be pushed to the middle of the cylinder. By taking the limit where one end of the cylinder tends to infinity, one obtains the Casimir force acting between two parallel plates inside an infinitely long cylinder. The asymptotic behavior of this Casimir force in the high temperature regime and the low temperature regime are investigated for the case where the cross section of the cylinder in $M$ is large. It is found that if the separation between the plates is much smaller than the size of $\\mathcal{N}$, the leading term of the Casimir force is the same as the Casimir force on a pair of large parallel plates in the $(4+n)$-dimensional Minkowski spacetime. However, if the size of $\\mathcal{N}$ is much smaller than the separation between the plates, the leading term of the Casimir force is $1+h/2$ times the Casimir force on a pair of large parallel plates in the 4-dimensional Minkowski spacetime, where $h$ is the first Betti number of $\\mathcal{N}$. In the limit the manifold $\\mathcal{N}$ vanishes, one does not obtain the Casimir force in the 4-dimensional Minkowski spacetime if $h$ is nonzero.

L. P. Teo

2011-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

407

BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING BSE PLAN REQUIREMENTS Campus: UMICH RG = Requirement Group  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING BSE PLAN REQUIREMENTS Campus: UMICH RG = Requirement Group Career: UENG RQ = Requirement Program: LN = Line Plan: 0880BSE Sub-Plan: RG 6856 BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING MAJOR REQUIREMENTS Effective FA05/1560 (09/06/2005) RQ 4996 Program Subjects Effective FA05/1560 (09/06/2005) LN 0010 BIOMEDE

Shyy, Wei

408

Electrocatalysts for oxygen electrodes. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objectives of the research were: to develop further understanding of the factors controlling O{sub 2} reduction and generation on various electrocatalysts, including transition metal macrocycles and oxides: to use this understanding to identify and develop much higher activity catalysts, both monofunction and bifunction; and to establish how catalytic activity for a given O{sub 2} electrocatalyst depends on catalyst-support interactions and to identify stable catalyst supports for bifunctional electrodes.

Yeager, E.B. [Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States)

1991-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

409

Control of Oxygen Delamination in Solid Oxide Electrolyzer Cells via Modifying Operational Regime  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Possible modifications of operational regimes for solid oxide fuel cell (SOEC) devices for hydrogen production are discussed. It is shown that applying alternating current (AC) voltage pulses at a certain frequency range to SOECs could reduce oxygen delamination degradation in these devices and significantly increase their lifetime. This operational scheme provides wide possibilities to increase longevity of SOEC devices required for their use in commercial hydrogen production processes, without any significant modification of used materials and/or cell design. Developed simulation method possesses a broad generality and be employed in a number of other industrial processes.

Sergey N. Rashkeev; Michael V. Glazoff

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

410

Used energy-related laboratory equipment grant program for institutions of higher learning. Eligible equipment catalog  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This is a listing of energy related equipment available through the Energy-Related Laboratory Equipment Grant Program which grants used equipment to institutions of higher education for energy-related research. Information included is an overview of the program, how to apply for a grant of equipment, eligibility requirements, types of equipment available, and the costs for the institution.

Not Available

1994-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

411

Oxygen diffusion, surface exchange and oxygen semi-permeation performances of Ln2NiO4+ membranes (Ln = La, Pr and Nd)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Oxygen diffusion, surface exchange and oxygen semi-permeation performances of Ln2NiO4+ membranes the rate determining step (rds) in oxygen semi-permeation of dense Ln2NiO4+ membranes (with Ln = La, Pr and Nd), a specific setup has been designed, which allowed measuring the oxygen semi-permeation flux

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

412

Oxygen Modulation via Microfluidic Devices Oxygen is a key but under-studied metabolic variable. It influences biological phenomena as diverse as  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Oxygen Modulation via Microfluidic Devices Oxygen is a key but under-studied metabolic variable methods to modulate oxygen are crude and inefficient. Our lab has developed a suite of devices which can rapidly alter oxygen conditions surrounding cells in both position and time.[1-3]. Moreover, because

Ben-Arie, Jezekiel

413

Quantified maintainability requirements  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

c'. 1UIE f. r failures. A ti: ~ for reoair is a'Iso . . :-. . rat. ' Us i!!g a ran::", m number generator a;!d tne duns i tv fuiiction for repa Tile;Eiato raLa Of aVailai'ilitleS ES ii. "U olott"d ~'vine th. o nsit, : f'one+ion fnr C, ol avai Iaui...QU/'ZITI F IF!3 !r A I!'! TA I I'!AD I L I TY;E OUI PE"! EI! TS A Thesis by Ponald Scott Vorri s Submitted to th= Fraduate ColleOo of th Texas AA!! UniyersitJ in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the de, ro of' !1ASTEP. OF SCIE...

Morris, Ronald Scott

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

414

Repository seals requirement study  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project, managed by the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System (CRWMS) Management and Operating Contractor (M and O) is conducting investigations to support the Viability Assessment and the License Application for a high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The sealing subsystem is part of the Yucca Mountain Waste Isolation System. The Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project is currently evaluating the role of the sealing subsystem (shaft, ramp and exploratory borehole seals) in achieving the overall performance objectives for the Waste Isolation System. This report documents the results of those evaluations. The objective of the study is to provide water or air flow performance based requirements for shafts, ramps, and exploratory boreholes located near the repository. Recommendations, as appropriate, are provided for developing plans, seals component testing, and other studies relating to sealing.

NONE

1997-11-03T23:59:59.000Z

415

Equipment Operational Requirements  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Iraq Department of Border Enforcement is rich in personnel, but poor in equipment. An effective border control system must include detection, discrimination, decision, tracking and interdiction, capture, identification, and disposition. An equipment solution that addresses only a part of this will not succeed, likewise equipment by itself is not the answer without considering the personnel and how they would employ the equipment. The solution should take advantage of the existing in-place system and address all of the critical functions. The solutions are envisioned as being implemented in a phased manner, where Solution 1 is followed by Solution 2 and eventually by Solution 3. This allows adequate time for training and gaining operational experience for successively more complex equipment. Detailed descriptions of the components follow the solution descriptions. Solution 1 - This solution is based on changes to CONOPs, and does not have a technology component. It consists of observers at the forts and annexes, forward patrols along the swamp edge, in depth patrols approximately 10 kilometers inland from the swamp, and checkpoints on major roads. Solution 2 - This solution adds a ground sensor array to the Solution 1 system. Solution 3 - This solution is based around installing a radar/video camera system on each fort. It employs the CONOPS from Solution 1, but uses minimal ground sensors deployed only in areas with poor radar/video camera coverage (such as canals and streams shielded by vegetation), or by roads covered by radar but outside the range of the radar associated cameras. This document provides broad operational requirements for major equipment components along with sufficient operational details to allow the technical community to identify potential hardware candidates. Continuing analysis will develop quantities required and more detailed tactics, techniques, and procedures.

Greenwalt, B; Henderer, B; Hibbard, W; Mercer, M

2009-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

416

Measuring oxygen reduction/evolution reactions on the nanoscale  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The efficiency of fuel cells and metal-air batteries is significantly limited by the activation of oxygen reduction and evolution reactions (ORR/OER). Despite the well-recognized role of oxygen reaction kinetics on the viability of energy technologies, the governing mechanisms remain elusive and until now addressable only by macroscopic studies. This lack of nanoscale understanding precludes optimization of material architecture. Here we report direct measurements of oxygen reduction/evolution reactions and oxygen vacancy diffusion on oxygen-ion conductive solid surfaces with sub-10 nanometer resolution. In electrochemical strain microscopy (ESM), the biased scanning probe microscopy tip acts as a moving, electrocatalytically active probe exploring local electrochemical activity. The probe concentrates an electric field in a nanometer-scale volume of material, and bias-induced, picometer-level surface displacements provide information on local electrochemical processes. Systematic mapping of oxygen activity on bare and Pt-functionalized yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) surfaces is demonstrated. This approach allows directly visualization of ORR/OER activation process at the triple-phase boundary, and can be extended to broad spectrum of oxygen-conductive and electrocatalytic materials.

Kalinin, Sergei V [ORNL; Jesse, Stephen [ORNL; Kumar, Amit [ORNL; Morozovska, A. N. [National Academy of Science of Ukraine, Kiev, Ukraine; Ciucci, Francesco [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

417

GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS CONTROL BY OXYGEN FIRING IN CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED BED BOILERS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Given that fossil fuel fired power plants are among the largest and most concentrated producers of CO{sub 2} emissions, recovery and sequestration of CO{sub 2} from the flue gas of such plants has been identified as one of the primary means for reducing anthropogenic CO{sub 2} emissions. In this study, ALSTOM Power Inc. (ALSTOM) has investigated several coal fired power plant configurations designed to capture CO{sub 2} from effluent gas streams for use or sequestration. Burning fossil fuels in mixtures of oxygen and recirculated flue gas (made principally of CO{sub 2}) essentially eliminates the presence of atmospheric nitrogen in the flue gas. The resulting flue gas is comprised primarily of CO{sub 2}. Oxygen firing in utility scale Pulverized Coal (PC) fired boilers has been shown to be a more economical method for CO{sub 2} capture than amine scrubbing (Bozzuto, et al., 2001). Additionally, oxygen firing in Circulating Fluid Bed Boilers (CFB's) can be more economical than in PC or Stoker firing, because recirculated gas flow can be reduced significantly. Oxygen-fired PC and Stoker units require large quantities of recirculated flue gas to maintain acceptable furnace temperatures. Oxygen-fired CFB units, on the other hand, can accomplish this by additional cooling of recirculated solids. The reduced recirculated gas flow with CFB units results in significant Boiler Island cost savings. Additionally, ALSTOM has identified several advanced/novel plant configurations, which improve the efficiency and cost of the CO{sub 2} product cleanup and compression process. These advanced/novel concepts require long development efforts. An economic analysis indicates that the proposed oxygen-firing technology in circulating fluidized boilers could be developed and deployed economically in the near future in enhanced oil recovery (EOR) applications or enhanced gas recovery (EGR), such as coal bed methane recovery. ALSTOM received a Cooperative Agreement from the US Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE) in 2001 to carry out a project entitled ''Greenhouse Gas Emissions Control by Oxygen Firing in Circulating Fluidized Bed Boilers.'' This two-phased project is in effect from September 28, 2001, to October 27, 2004. (U.S. DOE NETL Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-01NT41146). Phase I consisted of an evaluation of the technical feasibility and economics of alternate CO{sub 2} capture technologies applied to Greenfield US coal-fired electric generation power plants, and supporting bench-scale testing. And Phase II consists of pilot-scale testing, supporting a refined performance and economic evaluation of the oxygen-fired AFC concept. Phase I, detailed in this report, entails a comprehensive study evaluating the technical feasibility and economics of alternate CO{sub 2} capture technologies applied to Greenfield US coal-fired electric generation power plants. Thirteen separate but related cases (listed below), representing various levels of technology development, were evaluated as described herein. The first seven cases represent coal combustion cases in CFB type equipment. The next four cases represent Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) systems. The last two cases represent advanced Chemical Looping systems, which were completely paid for by ALSTOM and included herein for completeness.

Nsakala ya Nsakala; Gregory N. Liljedahl

2003-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

418

Effects of Time, Heat, and Oxygen on K Basin Sludge Agglomeration, Strength, and Solids Volume  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Sludge disposition will be managed in two phases under the K Basin Sludge Treatment Project. The first phase is to retrieve the sludge that currently resides in engineered containers in the K West (KW) Basin pool at ~10 to 18°C. The second phase is to retrieve the sludge from interim storage in the sludge transport and storage containers (STSCs) and treat and package it in preparation for eventual shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. The work described in this report was conducted to gain insight into how sludge may change during long-term containerized storage in the STSCs. To accelerate potential physical and chemical changes, the tests were performed at temperatures and oxygen partial pressures significantly greater than those expected in the T Plant canyon cells where the STSCs will be stored. Tests were conducted to determine the effects of 50°C oxygenated water exposure on settled quiescent uraninite (UO2) slurry and a full simulant of KW containerized sludge to determine the effects of oxygen and heat on the composition and mechanical properties of sludge. Shear-strength measurements by vane rheometry also were conducted for UO2 slurry, mixtures of UO2 and metaschoepite (UO3•2H2O), and for simulated KW containerized sludge. The results from these tests and related previous tests are compared to determine whether the settled solids in the K Basin sludge materials change in volume because of oxidation of UO2 by dissolved atmospheric oxygen to form metaschoepite. The test results also are compared to determine if heating or other factors alter sludge volumes and to determine the effects of sludge composition and settling times on sludge shear strength. It has been estimated that the sludge volume will increase with time because of a uranium metal ? uraninite ? metaschoepite oxidation sequence. This increase could increase the number of containers required for storage and increase overall costs of sludge management activities. However, the volume might decrease because of decreases in the water-volume fraction caused by sludge solid reactions, compaction, or intergrowth and recrystallization of metaschoepite. In that case, fewer STSCs may be needed, but the shear strength would increase, and this could challenge recovery by water jet erosion and require more aggressive retrieval methods. Overall, the tests described herein indicate that the settled solids volume remains the same or decreases with time. The only case for which the sludge solids volumes increase with time is for the expansion factor attendant upon the anoxic corrosion of uranium metal to produce UO2 and subsequent reaction with oxygen to form equimolar UO2.25 and UO3•2H2O.

Delegard, Calvin H.; Sinkov, Sergey I.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Daniel, Richard C.; Burns, Carolyn A.

2011-01-04T23:59:59.000Z

419

Software and House Requirements Engineering  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

a requirements engineer who puts her knowledge of software construction together with her creativity to come upSoftware and House Requirements Engineering: Lessons Learned in Combatting Requirements Creep creativity to try to come up with a plan for a house that will meet the customer's requirements. The customer

Berry, Daniel M.

420

Match Pumps to System Requirements  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

BestPractices Program tip sheet discussing pumping system efficiency matching pumps to system requirements

Not Available

2005-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "higher oxygen requirement" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Requirements-driven software evolution  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

It is often the case that stakeholders want to strengthen/weaken or otherwise change their requirements for a system-to-be when certain conditions apply at runtime. For example, stakeholders may decide that if requirement R is violated more ... Keywords: Adaptive systems, Evolution, Modeling, Requirements, Requirements engineering

Vítor E. Souza; Alexei Lapouchnian; Konstantinos Angelopoulos; John Mylopoulos

2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

422

European Responses to Global Competitiveness in Higher Education  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

application of information and communications technology (ICT) in the service sector (13). Looking at higher education,

Marijk van der Wende

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

423

Boron nitride nanosheets as oxygen-atom corrosion protective coatings  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The research of two-dimensional nanomaterials for anticorrosion applications is just recently burgeoning. Herein, we demonstrate the boron nitride nanosheets (BNNSs) coatings for protecting polymer from oxygen-atom corrosion. High-quality BNNSs, which are produced by an effective fluid dynamics method with multiple exfoliation mechanisms, can be assembled into coatings with controlled thickness by vacuum filtration. After exposed in atom oxygen, the naked polymer is severely corroded with remarkable mass loss, while the BNNSs-coated polymer remains intact. Barrier and bonding effects of the BNNSs are responsible for the coating's protective performance. These preliminary yet reproducible results pave a way for resisting oxygen-atom corrosion.

Yi, Min [Beijing Key Laboratory for Powder Technology Research and Development, Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Beijing 100191 (China); Plasma Laboratory, Ministry-of-Education Key Laboratory of Fluid Mechanics, Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Beijing 100191 (China); Shen, Zhigang, E-mail: shenzhg@buaa.edu.cn [Beijing Key Laboratory for Powder Technology Research and Development, Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Beijing 100191 (China); Plasma Laboratory, Ministry-of-Education Key Laboratory of Fluid Mechanics, Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Beijing 100191 (China); School of Material Science and Engineering, Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Beijing 100191 (China); Zhao, Xiaohu [Plasma Laboratory, Ministry-of-Education Key Laboratory of Fluid Mechanics, Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Beijing 100191 (China); Liang, Shuaishuai [Beijing Key Laboratory for Powder Technology Research and Development, Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Beijing 100191 (China); Liu, Lei [Beijing Key Laboratory for Powder Technology Research and Development, Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Beijing 100191 (China); School of Material Science and Engineering, Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Beijing 100191 (China)

2014-04-07T23:59:59.000Z

424

The Solubility of Oxygen and Ozone in Liquids  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This review covers the solubility of oxygen and ozone in liquids as a function of temperature and pressure. Solubility data for individual systems were critically evaluated and recommended or tentative values presented in many cases. The trend of solubilities in homologous series or related solvents is discussed. Liquids include water;seawater; aqueous salt solutions; mixed solvents; hydrocarbons; organic compounds containing oxygen halogen sulfur nitrogen or silicon; olive oil; and human blood. For ozone only its solubility in water is presented. Key words: aqueous solutions; biological fluids; gas solubility; hydrocarbons; mixed solvents; organic solvents; oxygen; ozone;seawater;water.

Rubin Battino; Timothy R. Rettich; Toshihiro Tominaga

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

425

Solid phases of spatially nanoconfined oxygen: A neutron scattering study  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present a comprehensive neutron scattering study on solid oxygen spatially confined in 12 nm wide alumina nanochannels. Elastic scattering experiments reveal a structural phase sequence known from bulk oxygen. With decreasing temperature cubic ?-, orthorhombic ?- and monoclinic ?-phases are unambiguously identified in confinement. Weak antiferromagnetic ordering is observed in the confined monoclinic ?-phase. Rocking scans reveal that oxygen nanocrystals inside the tubular channels do not form an isotropic powder. Rather, they exhibit preferred orientations depending on thermal history and the very mechanisms, which guide the structural transitions.

Kojda, Danny [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie GmbH, 14109 Berlin (Germany) [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie GmbH, 14109 Berlin (Germany); Freie Universität Berlin, 14195 Berlin (Germany); Wallacher, Dirk; Hofmann, Tommy, E-mail: tommy.hofmann@helmholtz-berlin.de [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie GmbH, 14109 Berlin (Germany)] [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie GmbH, 14109 Berlin (Germany); Baudoin, Simon; Hansen, Thomas [Institut Laue-Langevin, BP 156, 38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France)] [Institut Laue-Langevin, BP 156, 38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Huber, Patrick [Technische Universität Hamburg-Harburg, 21073 Hamburg (Germany)] [Technische Universität Hamburg-Harburg, 21073 Hamburg (Germany)

2014-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

426

Production of Ultra-Cold-Neutrons in Solid ?-Oxygen  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Our recent neutron scattering measurements of phonons and magnons in solid \\alpha-oxygen have led us to a new understanding of the production mechanismen of ultra-cold-neutrons (UCN) in this super-thermal converter. The UCN production in solid \\alpha-oxygen is dominated by the excitation of phonons. The contribution of magnons to UCN production becomes only slightly important above E >10 meV and at E >4 meV. Solid \\alpha-oxygen is in comparison to solid deuterium less effcient in the down-scattering of thermal or cold neutrons into the UCN energy regime.

E. Gutsmiedl; A. Frei; F. Boehle; A. Maier; S. Paul; H. Schober; A. Orecchini

2009-11-23T23:59:59.000Z

427

Magnetic resonance imaging of the cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO?)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Oxygen consumption is an essential process of the functioning brain. The rate at which the brain consumes oxygen is known as the cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO?). CMRO? is intimately related to brain health and ...

Bolar, Divya Sanam

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

428

Atomic oxygen flux determined by mixed-phase Ag/Ag2O deposition...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

oxygen flux determined by mixed-phase AgAg2O deposition. Atomic oxygen flux determined by mixed-phase AgAg2O deposition. Abstract: The flux of atomic oxygen generated in a...

429

Triple Oxygen Isotope Measurement of Nitrate to Analyze Impact of Aircraft Emissions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

P. ; Craig, H. Atmospheric oxygen: isotopic composition andM.H. 1986. A non-mass-dependent oxygen isotope effect in theof ozone from molecular oxygen: the role of symmetry in

Chan, Sharleen

430

Advances in studying bioinorganic reaction mechanisms: isotopic probes of activated oxygen  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Advances in studying bioinorganic reaction mechanisms: isotopic probes of activated oxygen intermediates in metalloenzymes Justine P Roth Metalloenzymes catalyze reactions of molecular oxygen and its reduced forms through the controlled formation of metal- bound, activated oxygen intermediates

Roth, Justine P.

431

Oxygen Loss from Venus and the Influence of Extreme Solar Wind Conditions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and I. Sillanpää (2009), Oxygen ion escape from Venus in aobservations of atmospheric oxygen escape during the passageI. F. Stewart (1981), Hot oxygen BIBLIOGRAPHY atoms in the

McEnulty, Tess

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

432

High-Velocity Oxygen Fuel Thermal Spray of Fe-Based Amorphous Alloy: a Numerical and Experimental Study  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

High-Velocity Oxygen Fuel Thermal Spray of Fe-Basedusing a high velocity oxygen fuel (HVOF) spray processstructure. [12] High velocity oxygen fuel (HVOF) thermal

Ajdelsztajn, L.; Dannenberg, J.; Lopez, J.; Yang, N.; Farmer, J.; Lavernia, E. J.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

433

Oxygen enriched combustion system performance study. Phase 2: 100 percent oxygen enriched combustion in regenerative glass melters, Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The field test project described in this report was conducted to evaluate the energy and environmental performance of 100% oxygen enriched combustion (100% OEC) in regenerative glass melters. Additional objectives were to determine other impacts of 100% OEC on melter operation and glass quality, and to verify on a commercial scale that an on-site Pressure Swing Adsorption oxygen plant can reliably supply oxygen for glass melting with low electrical power consumption. The tests constituted Phase 2 of a cooperative project between the United States Department of Energy, and Praxair, Inc. Phase 1 of the project involved market and technical feasibility assessments of oxygen enriched combustion for a range of high temperature industrial heating applications. An assessment of oxygen supply options for these applications was also performed during Phase 1, which included performance evaluation of a pilot scale 1 ton per day PSA oxygen plant. Two regenerative container glass melters were converted to 100% OEC operation and served as host sites for Phase 2. A 75 ton per day end-fired melter at Carr-Lowrey Glass Company in Baltimore, Maryland, was temporarily converted to 100% OEC in mid- 1990. A 350 tpd cross-fired melter at Gallo Glass Company in Modesto, California was rebuilt for permanent commercial operation with 100% OEC in mid-1991. Initially, both of these melters were supplied with oxygen from liquid storage. Subsequently, in late 1992, a Pressure Swing Adsorption oxygen plant was installed at Gallo to supply oxygen for 100% OEC glass melting. The particular PSA plant design used at Gallo achieves maximum efficiency by cycling the adsorbent beds between pressurized and evacuated states, and is therefore referred to as a Vacuum/Pressure Swing Adsorption (VPSA) plant.

Tuson, G.B.; Kobayashi, H.; Campbell, M.J.

1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

434

A SEARCH FOR OXYGEN IN THE LOW-DENSITY Ly{alpha} FOREST USING THE SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We use 2167 Sloan Digital Sky Survey quasar spectra to search for low-density oxygen in the intergalactic medium (IGM). Oxygen absorption is detected on a pixel-by-pixel basis by its correlation with Ly{alpha} forest absorption. We have developed a novel locally calibrated pixel (LCP) search method that uses adjacent regions of the spectrum to calibrate interlopers and spectral artifacts, which would otherwise limit the measurement of O VI absorption. Despite the challenges presented by searching for weak O VI within the Ly{alpha} forest in spectra of moderate resolution and signal-to-noise, we find a highly significant detection of absorption by oxygen at 2.7 < z < 3.2 (the null hypothesis has a {chi}{sup 2} = 80 for nine data points). We interpret our results using synthetic spectra generated from a log-normal density field assuming a mixed quasar-galaxy photoionizing background and that it dominates the ionization fraction of detected O VI. The LCP search data can be fit by a constant metallicity model with [O/H] = -2.15{sup +0.07}{sub -0.09} but also by models in which low-density regions are unenriched and higher density regions have a higher metallicity. The density-dependent enrichment model by Aguirre et al. is also an acceptable fit. All our successful models have similar mass-weighted oxygen abundance, corresponding to [(O/H){sub MW}] = -2.45 {+-} 0.06. This result can be used to find the cosmic oxygen density in the Ly{alpha} forest, {Omega}{sub Oxy,IGM} = 1.4({+-}0.2) x 10{sup -6} {approx} 3 x 10{sup -4{Omega}}{sub b}. This is the tightest constraint on the mass-weighted mean oxygen abundance and the cosmic oxygen density in the Ly{alpha} forest to date and indicates that it contains {approx}16% of the total expected metal production by star formation up to z = 3.

Pieri, Matthew M.; Frank, Stephan; Mathur, Smita; Weinberg, David H. [Department of Astronomy, Ohio State University, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); York, Donald G. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Oppenheimer, Benjamin D., E-mail: mpieri@astronomy.ohio-state.ed [Astronomy Department, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)

2010-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

435

E-Print Network 3.0 - activity peak oxygen Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Yttria-stabilized zirconia, a well known oxygen ion... including fuel cells, oxygen pumps, and chemical gas sensors because of a number of superior properties... such as heat...

436

E-Print Network 3.0 - adjuvant hyperbaric oxygen Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Ph.D., Editor Summary: . Hyperbaric oxygen is the definitive treat- ment for carbon monoxide poisoning.47 However, pro- ponents... III, Putnam RW, Dean JB: Hyperbaric oxygen and...

437

Microfluidic advantage : novel techniques for protein folding and oxygen control in cell cultures  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Novel Techniques for Protein Folding and Oxygen Control inTemperature Jump System to Study Fast Protein FoldingNovel Techniques for Protein Folding and Oxygen Control in

Polinkovsky, Mark E.; Polinkovsky, Mark E.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

438

Impact of ethanol and butanol as oxygenates on SIDI engine efficiency...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

as oxygenates on SIDI engine efficiency and emissions using steady-state and transient test procedures Impact of ethanol and butanol as oxygenates on SIDI engine efficiency and...

439

E-Print Network 3.0 - active oxygen probe Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

OXYGEN PROBES FOR RESPIROMETRY S. Marsili Libelli *, C. Barresi... oxygen, ideally the measuring probe should be able to follow DO variations without introducing any... by...

440

High-Temperature Zirconia Oxygen Sensor with Sealed Metal/Metal...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

High-Temperature Zirconia Oxygen Sensor with Sealed MetalMetal Oxide Internal Reference High-Temperature Zirconia Oxygen Sensor with Sealed MetalMetal Oxide Internal Reference...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "higher oxygen requirement" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Aging Enhances the Production of Reactive Oxygen Species andBactericid...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Enhances the Production of Reactive Oxygen Species andBactericidal Activity in Peritoneal Macrophages by Aging Enhances the Production of Reactive Oxygen Species andBactericidal...

442

Low-Oxygen Induction of Normally Cryptic psbA Genes in Cyanobacteria...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Oxygen Induction of Normally Cryptic psbA Genes in Cyanobacteria. Low-Oxygen Induction of Normally Cryptic psbA Genes in Cyanobacteria. Abstract: Microarray analysis indicated...

443

E-Print Network 3.0 - achieving fast oxygen Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Bulletin Collection: Environmental Sciences and Ecology 51 Oxygen diffusion in titanite: Lattice diffusion and fast-path diffusion in single crystals Summary: Oxygen...

444

Geothermal reservoir temperatures estimated from the oxygen isotope  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

reservoir temperatures estimated from the oxygen isotope reservoir temperatures estimated from the oxygen isotope compositions of dissolved sulfate and water from hot springs and shallow drillholes Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Journal Article: Geothermal reservoir temperatures estimated from the oxygen isotope compositions of dissolved sulfate and water from hot springs and shallow drillholes Details Activities (3) Areas (3) Regions (0) Abstract: The oxygen isotope compositions of dissolved sulfate and water from hot springs and shallow drillholes have been tested as a geothermometer in three areas of the western United States. Limited analyses of spring and borehole fluids and existing experimental rate studies suggest that dissolved sulfate and water are probably in isotopic equilibrium in all reservoirs of significant size with temperatures above

445

Oxygen And Carbon Isotope Ratios Of Hydrothermal Minerals From Yellowstone  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Oxygen And Carbon Isotope Ratios Of Hydrothermal Minerals From Yellowstone Oxygen And Carbon Isotope Ratios Of Hydrothermal Minerals From Yellowstone Drill Cores Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Journal Article: Oxygen And Carbon Isotope Ratios Of Hydrothermal Minerals From Yellowstone Drill Cores Details Activities (3) Areas (1) Regions (0) Abstract: Oxygen and carbon isotope ratios were measured for hydrothermal minerals (silica, clay and calcite) from fractures and vugs in altered rhyolite, located between 28 and 129 m below surface (in situ temperatures ranging from 81 to 199°C) in Yellowstone drill holes. The purpose of this study was to investigate the mechanism of formation of these minerals. The Δ18O values of the thirty-two analyzed silica samples (quartz, chalcedony, α-cristobalite, and β-cristobalite) range from -7.5 to +2.8‰. About one

446

Oxygen detected in atmosphere of Saturn's moon Dione  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Oxygen detected in atmosphere of Saturn's moon Dione Oxygen detected in atmosphere of Saturn's moon Dione Oxygen detected in atmosphere of Saturn's moon Dione Scientists and an international research team have announced discovery of molecular oxygen ions in the upper-most atmosphere of Dione. March 3, 2012 Los Alamos National Laboratory sits on top of a once-remote mesa in northern New Mexico with the Jemez mountains as a backdrop to research and innovation covering multi-disciplines from bioscience, sustainable energy sources, to plasma physics and new materials. Los Alamos National Laboratory sits on top of a once-remote mesa in northern New Mexico with the Jemez mountains as a backdrop to research and innovation covering multi-disciplines from bioscience, sustainable energy sources, to plasma physics and new materials.

447

Polymer/Silica Composite Films as Luminescent Oxygen Sensors  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

10-14 In this technique, an object (a model airplane or wing, a turbine blade, or an automobile) coated with an oxygen-sensing polymer coating (“pressure-sensitive paint,” PSP) is examined in a wind tunnel. ... To examine the influence of the silica particles on oxygen diffusion and oxygen permeation in these films, we carried out both time-scan and pulsed-laser experiments as a function of silica content on films containing PtOEP. ... We rationalize this result by imagining that oxygen adsorption onto the silica surface is diffusion-controlled. Fickian diffusion through the PDMS matrix controls the rate of quenching of dye molecules bound to the silica particles. ...

Xin Lu; Ian Manners; Mitchell A. Winnik

2001-03-06T23:59:59.000Z

448

Mechanisms of Photochemistry and Reactive Oxygen Production by  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

photosensitizer that produces reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the presence of light; however, its properties medical and environmental contexts as well as the potential applications implied for industrial or water of transferring light energy to chemical oxidation potential in theformof

Alvarez, Pedro J.

449

Oxygenated fuels for clean heavy-duty diesel engines  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

For diesel engines, changing the fuel composition is an alternative route towards achieving lower emission levels. The potential of oxygenated fuels to significantly reduce particulate matter emissions has already been demonstrated earlier. In this study, this research has been extrapolated towards lower emission levels. Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) was applied to a modern EURO-3-type HD diesel engine. Tests were done at different engine working points, with EGR-levels and start of fuel delivery timings set to give NOx emissions between 3.5 and 2.0 g/kWh with regular diesel fuel. Fourteen blends of a low-sulphur diesel fuel respectively of a gas-to-liquid synthetic diesel fuel with different oxygenates were tested. The corresponding fuel matrix covers a range of fuel oxygen mass fractions up to 15%. Results are presented and the impact of fuel oxygen mass fraction and Cetane Number are analysed and compared with results from previous research.

P.J.M. Frijters; R.S.G. Baert

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

450

Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Intake Air Oxygen Sensor  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Presentation given by Robert Bosch at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about intake air oxygen sensors.

451

Modeling Terrestrial Biogenic Sources of Oxygenated Organic Emissions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In recent years, oxygenated volatile organic chemicals (OVOCs) likeacetone have been recognized as important atmospheric constituents due to their ability to sequester reactive nitrogen in the form peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) and to be a source ...

Christopher Potter; Steven Klooster; David Bubenheim; Hanwant B. Singh; Ranga Myneni

2003-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

452

Reaction of adsorption substitution of oxygen on a cracking catalyst  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In an investigation of catalysts for methanol synthesis and carbon monoxide conversion, the authors have observed, for the first time, the reaction of adsorption substitution of strongly bound oxygen on catalysts containing zeolites and compounds of lanthanum and cerium.

Vishnetskaya, M.V.; Takhtarova, G.N.; Topchieva, K.V.

1986-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

453

GARCÍA, HERNÁN E., AND LOUIS I. GORDON. Oxygen solubility in ...  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

bility (C,,*) at 1 atm total pressure in pure water and seawater in ... mulae expressing C,* (at STP, real gas) in cm3 dm-3 and ..... The solubility of nitrogen, oxygen.

2000-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

454

Nano- sized strontium titanate metal oxide semiconductor oxygen gas sensors.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??The project focuses on strontium titanate (SrTiO3> material, a very important material for oxygen sensors. The advantages of the material are low cost and stability… (more)

Hu, Ying.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

455

Hydrogen, Oxygen and Silicon Isotope Systematics in Lunar Material  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

31 March 1977 research-article Hydrogen, Oxygen and Silicon Isotope Systematics...are supported: (1) The bulk of the hydrogen in the lunar soils represents protons...samples of relatively detuerium rich hydrogen are found, probably resulting from in...

1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

456

Characterization of oxygen ion beams emitted from plasma focus  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The Lee model is modified to include oxygen in addition to other gases. It is then applied to characterize the ion beams emitted from the low energy plasma focus PF 1 kJ device operated with oxygen gas. The numerical experiments give the following results: ion fluence- 3 × 1018 ions m?2, ion flux- 2.4 × 1026 ions m?2 s?1, ion energy- 261 keV, ion number- 3.5 × 1013, ion current- 3.5 kA, and damage factor- 1.12 × 109 Wm?2 s0.5. Numerical experiments are systematically carried out on other plasma focus devices of various energies. Scaling trends are suggested for oxygen ion beam characteristics. These results provide much needed benchmark reference values and scaling trends for ion beams of a plasma focus operated in oxygen gas.

Mohamad Akel; Sami Alsheikh Salo; Sor Heoh Saw; Sing Lee

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

457

Oxygen Vacancies and Ferromagnetism in CoxTi–x–y...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Vacancies and Ferromagnetism in CoxTi–x–y. Oxygen Vacancies and Ferromagnetism in CoxTi–x–y. Abstract: Abstract: Cobalt-doped titanium dioxide, or CTO, has...

458

STUDY OF USING OXYGEN-ENRICHED COMBUSTION AIR FOR LOCOMOTIVE...  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

and J.G. Whipple, Test and Evaluation o f Polymeric Membranes for Oxygen-Enrichment of Air, DOEAD- 127 10- 1, U S . Department of Energy, 1989. Sawyer, R.F., N.P. Cemansky, and...

459

Sunlight creates oxygenated species in water-soluble fractions...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

a t Sunlight creates oxygenated species in water-soluble fractions of Deepwater horizon oil Phoebe Z. Ray a , Huan Chen b , David C. Podgorski b,c , Amy M. McKenna b , Matthew A....

460

Oxygenation cost estimates for Cherokee, Douglas, and Norris reservoirs  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The capital and annual costs associated with reoxygenation of the turbine releases at Cherokee, Douglas and Norris Reservoirs using the small bubble injection technique developed for Ft. Patrick Henry Dam were computed. The weekly average dissolved oxygen (DO) deficits were computed for each reservoir for an average year (based on 16 years of records). The total annual cost of an oxygen supply and injection system for each reservoir is presented. 5 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs.

Fain, T.G.

1980-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "higher oxygen requirement" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

SYSTEM DESIGN AND ANALYSIS FOR CONCEPTUAL DESIGN OF OXYGEN-BASED PC BOILER  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of the system design and analysis task of the Conceptual Design of Oxygen-Based PC Boiler study is to optimize the PC boiler plant by maximizing system efficiency. Simulations of the oxygen-fired plant with CO{sub 2} sequestration were conducted using Aspen Plus and were compared to a reference air-fired 460 Mw plant. Flue gas recycle is used in the O{sub 2}-fired PC to control the flame temperature. Parametric runs were made to determine the effect of flame temperature on system efficiency and required waterwall material and thickness. The degree of improvement on system efficiency of various modifications including hot gas recycle, purge gas recycle, flue gas feedwater recuperation, and recycle purge gas expansion were investigated. The selected O{sub 2}-fired design case has a system efficiency of 30.1% compared to the air-fired system efficiency of 36.7%. The design O{sub 2}-fired case requires T91 waterwall material and has a waterwall surface area of only 44% of the air-fired reference case. Compared to other CO{sub 2} sequestration technologies, the O{sub 2}-fired PC is substantially better than both natural gas combined cycles and post CO{sub 2} removal PCs and is slightly better than integrated gasification combined cycles.

Zhen Fan; Andrew Seltzer

2003-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

462

Myocardial Reloading after Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation Alters Substrate Metabolism While Promoting Protein Synthesis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) unloads the heart providing a bridge to recovery in children after myocardial stunning. Mortality after ECMO remains high.Cardiac substrate and amino acid requirements upon weaning are unknown and may impact recovery. We assessed the hypothesis that ventricular reloading modulates both substrate entry into the citric acid cycle (CAC) and myocardial protein synthesis. Fourteen immature piglets (7.8-15.6 kg) were separated into 2 groups based on ventricular loading status: 8 hour-ECMO (UNLOAD) and post-wean from ECMO (RELOAD). We infused [2-13C]-pyruvate as an oxidative substrate and [13C6]-L-leucine, as a tracer of amino acid oxidation and protein synthesis into the coronary artery. RELOAD showed marked elevations in myocardial oxygen consumption above baseline and UNLOAD. Pyruvate uptake was markedly increased though RELOAD decreased pyruvate contribution to oxidative CAC metabolism.RELOAD also increased absolute concentrations of all CAC intermediates, while maintaining or increasing 13C-molar percent enrichment. RELOAD also significantly increased cardiac fractional protein synthesis rates by >70% over UNLOAD. Conclusions: RELOAD produced high energy metabolic requirement and rebound protein synthesis. Relative pyruvate decarboxylation decreased with RELOAD while promoting anaplerotic pyruvate carboxylation and amino acid incorporation into protein rather than to the CAC for oxidation. These perturbations may serve as therapeutic targets to improve contractile function after ECMO.

Kajimoto, Masaki; Priddy, Colleen M.; Ledee, Dolena; Xu, Chun; Isern, Nancy G.; Olson, Aaron; Des Rosiers, Christine; Portman, Michael A.

2013-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

463

GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS CONTROL BY OXYGEN FIRING IN CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED BED BOILERS: PHASE II--PILOT SCALE TESTING AND UPDATED PERFORMANCE AND ECONOMICS FOR OXYGEN FIRED CFB WITH CO2 CAPTURE  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Because fossil fuel fired power plants are among the largest and most concentrated producers of CO{sub 2} emissions, recovery and sequestration of CO{sub 2} from the flue gas of such plants has been identified as one of the primary means for reducing anthropogenic CO{sub 2} emissions. In this Phase II study, ALSTOM Power Inc. (ALSTOM) has investigated one promising near-term coal fired power plant configuration designed to capture CO{sub 2} from effluent gas streams for sequestration. Burning fossil fuels in mixtures of oxygen and recirculated flue gas (made principally of CO{sub 2}) essentially eliminates the presence of atmospheric nitrogen in the flue gas. The resulting flue gas is comprised primarily of CO{sub 2}, along with some moisture, nitrogen, oxygen, and trace gases like SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x}. Oxygen firing in utility scale Pulverized Coal (PC) fired boilers has been shown to be a more economical method for CO{sub 2} capture than amine scrubbing (Bozzuto, et al., 2001). Additionally, oxygen firing in Circulating Fluid Bed Boilers (CFB's) can be more economical than in PC or Stoker firing, because recirculated gas flow can be reduced significantly. Oxygen-fired PC and Stoker units require large quantities of recirculated flue gas to maintain acceptable furnace temperatures. Oxygen-fired CFB units, on the other hand, can accomplish this by additional cooling of recirculated solids. The reduced recirculated gas flow with CFB plants results in significant Boiler Island cost savings resulting from reduced component The overall objective of the Phase II workscope, which is the subject of this report, is to generate a refined technical and economic evaluation of the Oxygen fired CFB case (Case-2 from Phase I) utilizing the information learned from pilot-scale testing of this concept. The objective of the pilot-scale testing was to generate detailed technical data needed to establish advanced CFB design requirements and performance when firing coals and delayed petroleum coke in O{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} mixtures. Firing rates in the pilot test facility ranged from 2.2 to 7.9 MM-Btu/hr. Pilot-scale testing was performed at ALSTOM's Multi-use Test Facility (MTF), located in Windsor, Connecticut.

Nsakala ya Nsakala; Gregory N. Liljedahl; David G. Turek

2004-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

464

Chemical-looping combustion of simulated synthesis gas using nickel oxide oxygen carrier supported on bentonite  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Chemical-looping combustion (CLC) is a combustion technology for clean and efficient utilization of fossil fuels for energy production. This process which produces sequestration ready CO2 systems is a promising technology to be utilized with coal gasification systems. In the present work, chemical-looping combustion has been studied with an oxygen carrier, NiO/bentonite (60 wt % NiO) for the gasification systems utilizing simulated synthesis gas. Global reaction rates of reduction and oxidation as a function of conversion were calculated for oxidation-reduction cycles utilizing the thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) data on multicycle tests conducted with NiO/bentonite at atmospheric pressure between 700 and 900 °C. The rate of reduction increased slightly with an increase in temperature, while the rate of oxidation decreased at 900 °C. The effect of particle size of the oxygen carrier on CLC was studied for the particle size between 20 and 200 mesh. The rates of reactions depended on the particle size of the oxygen carrier. The smaller the particle size, the higher the reaction rates. The multicycle CLC tests conducted in a high-pressure flow reactor showed stable reactivity for the production of CO2 from fuel gas at 800 and 900 °C and full consumption of hydrogen during the reaction. The data from a one cycle test on the effect of the pressure on the performance with NiO/bentonite utilizing the tapered element oscillating microbalance (TEOM) showed a positive effect of the pressure on the global rates of reduction-oxidation reactions at higher fractional conversions. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis confirmed the presence of the NiO phase in NiO/bentonite with the oxidized sample in the highpressure reactor and Ni phase with the reduced sample. The presence of a small amount of NiO in the reduced sample detected by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) may be due to its exposure to air during sample transfer from the reactor to XPS. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis showed no significant changes in morphology of NiO/bentonite reacted in the temperature range 700-800 °C in an atmospheric TGA for 10 oxidation-reduction cycles, but some loss of surface area and porosity was observed at 900 °C. This effect was found to be greater with increase in the particle size of the oxygen carrier.

Siriwardane, R.V.; Chaudhari, K.; Poston, J.A.; Zinn, A.; Simonyi, T.; Robinson, C.

2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

465

Hydrogen plant expansion using oxygen secondary reforming  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

As crude oil feedstocks become heavier and more sour, the H/sub 2/ demands of a refinery increase. Heavier sour crudes require more H/sub 2/ for hydrodesulfurization, hydrocracking and hydrotreating to produce the lighter, high quality products currently in demand. In most cases, this additional H/sub 2/ requirement is satisfied by the generation of on purpose H/sub 2/. The on purpose H/sub 2/ demand is typically satisfied by steam methane reforming (SMR). The conventional SMR process, utilizing shift, CO/sub 2/ removal, and methanation for H/sub 2/ purification, can produce 90 to 98% pure H/sub 2/ at 150 to 400 psig at an energy efficiency of 410 Btu (HHV)/SCF H/sub 2/. An SMR process employing shift and pressure swing adsorption (PSA) for H/sub 2/ purification can produce H/sub 2/ at a purity up to 99.999% and an energy efficiency of 390 Btu (HHV)/SCF H/sub 2/. Two options available for satisfying an increased on purpose H/sub 2/ demand are the addition of a new SMR plant and the debottlenecking of an existing SMR. A new SMR plant is the most capital-intensive means of expanding H/sub 2/ capacity.

Snyder, G.D.; Wang, S.I.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

466

A ligand field chemistry of oxygen generation by the oxygen-evolving complex and synthetic active sites  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Department of Chemistry, Massachusetts Institute of Technology77 Massachusetts Avenue, 6-335, Cambridge...oxygen-evolving complex|catalysis|solar energy| 1. The nature...Department of Chemistry, Massachusetts Institute of Technology...

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

467

SG Network System Requirements Specification  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

SG Network System Requirements Specification SG Network System Requirements Specification Interim Release 3 5/17/2010 - 2 - Table of Contents Document History ....................................................................................................................................... - 3 - Revision History .......................................................................................................................................... - 3 - Preface........................................................................................................................................................ - 4 - Authors........................................................................................................................................................ - 6 -

468

4.5 Audit Requirements  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Audit Requirements Audit Requirements Audit requirements are now contained in 2 separate sub-sections. Subsection 4.5.1 contains the audit requirements for States, Local Governments and Non-Profit Organizations while subsection 4.5.2 contains the audit requirements for For-Profit Organizations. 4.5.1 Audit Requirements for States, Local Governments and Non-Profit Organizations (a) General. All States, Local Governments and Non-Profit Organizations that expend over $500,000 in Federal funds in any year are required to have a single audit conducted in accordance with OMB Circular A-133. This requirement flows down to subrecipients that meet the dollar threshold. An independent auditor shall perform the audit in accordance with the Government Auditing Standards and must: 1) audit and provide opinions on the fair presentation of the

469

Energy requirements for nuclear transformations  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Energy requirements for nuclear transformations ... There are several conservation requirements that must be met in nuclear reactions, including the conservation of energy (E = mc2), charge, angular and linear momentum. ... Nuclear / Radiochemistry ...

Benjamin Carrol; Peter F. E. Marapodi

1951-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

470

Webinar: Hydrogen Storage Materials Requirements  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Video recording and text version of the webinar titled, Hydrogen Storage Materials Requirements, originally presented on June 25, 2013.

471

Development of Large Format Lithium Ion Cells with Higher Energy...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Large Format Lithium Ion Cells with Higher Energy Density Exceeding 500WhL Development of Large Format Lithium Ion Cells with Higher Energy Density Exceeding 500WhL 2012 DOE...

472

Logical Effort of Higher Valency Adders David Harris  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Logical Effort of Higher Valency Adders David Harris Harvey Mudd College 301 E. Twelfth St. Claremont, CA 91711 David_Harris@hmc.edu Abstract ­ Higher valency parallel prefix adders reduce the number

Harris, David Money

473

Simplified higher-order Boussinesq equations I. Linear simplifications  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Simplified higher-order Boussinesq equations I. Linear simplifications Andrew B. Kennedy a,*, James derive and test simplified higher-order Boussinesq equations, i.e., higher-order Boussinesq equations Science B.V. All rights reserved. Keywords: Boussinesq equations; Dispersion; Shoaling 1. Introduction

Kirby, James T.

474

Fresh Water Increased temperature means higher proportion of water  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Fresh Water Increased temperature means higher proportion of water falling on surface higher evaporation higher rainfall greater intensity of floods and droughts. Water use has grown four on How much storage compared to average flow Demand as percentage of supply How much ground water is used

Houston, Paul L.

475

On higher derivatives in 3D gravity and higher-spin gauge theories  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The general second-order massive field equations for arbitrary positive integer spin in three spacetime dimensions, and their 'self-dual' limit to first-order equations, are shown to be equivalent to gauge-invariant higher-derivative field equations. We recover most known equivalences for spins 1 and 2, and find some new ones. In particular, we find a non-unitary massive 3D gravity theory with a 5th order term obtained by contraction of the Ricci and Cotton tensors; this term is part of an N=2 super-invariant that includes the 'extended Chern-Simons' term of 3D electrodynamics. We also find a new unitary 6th order gauge theory for 'self-dual' spin 3.

Bergshoeff, Eric A. [Centre for Theoretical Physics, University of Groningen, Nijenborgh 4, 9747 AG Groningen (Netherlands)], E-mail: E.A.Bergshoeff@rug.nl; Hohm, Olaf [Centre for Theoretical Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)], E-mail: ohohm@mit.edu; Townsend, Paul K. [Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics, Centre for Mathematical Sciences, University of Cambridge, Wilberforce Road, Cambridge CB3 0WA (United Kingdom)], E-mail: P.K.Townsend@damtp.cam.ac.uk

2010-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

476

Dynamics of oxygen in the YBa2Cu3O7-x basal planes by elastic-energy-loss measurements  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We report elastic-energy-dissipation measurements in YBa2Cu3O7-x from 50 to 300 K at frequencies between 0.48 and 6.3 kHz. It is shown unambiguously that the two peaks around Tc are thermally activated with activation energies of 0.16 and 0.19 eV. When oxygen is reduced to about 6.5 atoms per formula unit, the higher-temperature process nearly disappears, while the other one increases. The peaks are interpreted in terms of jumps of the O atoms in the Cu-O basal planes, and two mechanisms are proposed and discussed: short jumps between the off-center positions in the chains and jumps between O(4) and O(5) positions of isolated atoms in hypothetical oxygen-depleted islands of the orthorhombic basal planes.

G. Cannelli; R. Cantelli; F. Cordero; M. Ferretti; L. Verdini

1990-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

477

Oxygen abundances in metal-poor subgiants as determined from [O I], O I and OH lines  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The debate on the oxygen abundances of metal-poor stars has its origin in contradictory results obtained using different abundance indicators. To achieve a better understanding of the problem we have acquired high quality spectra with the Ultraviolet and Visual Echelle Spectrograph at VLT, with a signal-to-noise of the order of 100 in the near ultraviolet and 500 in the optical and near infrared wavelength range. Three different oxygen abundance indicators, OH ultraviolet lines around 310.0 nm, the [OI] line at 630.03 nm and the OI lines at 777.1-5 nm were observed in the spectra of 13 metal-poor subgiants with -3.0Oxygen abundances were obtained from the analysis of these indicators which was carried out assuming local thermodynamic equilibrium and plane-parallel model atmospheres. Abundances derived from OI were corrected for departures from local thermodynamic equilibrium. Stellar parameters were computed using Teff-vs-color calibrations based on the infrared flux method and Balmer line profiles, Hipparcos parallaxes and FeII lines. [O/Fe] values derived from the forbidden line at 630.03 nm are consistent with an oxygen/iron ratio that varies linearly with [Fe/H] as [O/Fe]}=-0.09(+/-0.08)[Fe/H]+0.36(+/-0.15). Values based on the OI triplet are on average 0.19+/-0.22 dex(s.d.) higher than the values based on the forbidden line while the agreement between OH ultraviolet lines and the forbidden line is much better with a mean difference of the order of -0.09+/-0.25 dex(s.d.). In general, our results follow the same trend as previously published results with the exception of the ones based on OH ultraviolet lines. In that case our results lie below the values which gave rise to the oxygen abundance debate for metal-poor stars.

A. E. García Pérez; M. Asplund; F. Primas; P. E. Nissen; B. Gustafsson

2005-12-12T23:59:59.000Z