National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for higher oxygen requirement

  1. EVALUATION OF REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DWPF HIGHER CAPACITY CANISTER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, D.; Estochen, E.; Jordan, J.; Kesterson, M.; Mckeel, C.

    2014-08-05

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) is considering the option to increase canister glass capacity by reducing the wall thickness of the current production canister. This design has been designated as the DWPF Higher Capacity Canister (HCC). A significant decrease in the number of canisters processed during the life of the facility would be achieved if the HCC were implemented leading to a reduced overall reduction in life cycle costs. Prior to implementation of the change, Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested to conduct an evaluation of the potential impacts. The specific areas of interest included loading and deformation of the canister during the filling process. Additionally, the effect of the reduced wall thickness on corrosion and material compatibility needed to be addressed. Finally the integrity of the canister during decontamination and other handling steps needed to be determined. The initial request regarding canister fabrication was later addressed in an alternate study. A preliminary review of canister requirements and previous testing was conducted prior to determining the testing approach. Thermal and stress models were developed to predict the forces on the canister during the pouring and cooling process. The thermal model shows the HCC increasing and decreasing in temperature at a slightly faster rate than the original. The HCC is shown to have a 3F ?T between the internal and outer surfaces versus a 5F ?T for the original design. The stress model indicates strain values ranging from 1.9% to 2.9% for the standard canister and 2.5% to 3.1% for the HCC. These values are dependent on the glass level relative to the thickness transition between the top head and the canister wall. This information, along with field readings, was used to set up environmental test conditions for corrosion studies. Small 304-L canisters were filled with glass and subjected to accelerated environmental testing for 3 months. No evidence of stress corrosion cracking was indicated on either the canisters or U-bend coupons. Calculations and finite element modeling were used to determine forces over a range of handling conditions along with possible forces during decontamination. While expected reductions in some physical characteristics were found in the HCC, none were found to be significant when compared to the required values necessary to perform its intended function. Based on this study and a review of successful testing of thinner canisters at West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP), the mechanical properties obtained with the thinner wall do not significantly undermine the ability of the canister to perform its intended function.

  2. EPA`s proposed renewable oxygenate requirement (ROR): Pros and cons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Czeskleba, H.M.

    1995-12-31

    In December 1993, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) released its final rule that sets for the details for requirements to sell reformulated gasoline (RFG) in certain ozone non-attainment areas. At the same time, EPA also issued a proposed rule to require that 30% of the oxygen required in RFG be based on a renewable oxygenate. Renewables include ethanol and its ether derivatives such as ethyl tertiary butyl ether (ETBE). The RFG rule is a final rule, while the Renewable Oxygenate Requirement (ROR) rule is a proposed rule yet to be finalized and subject to revision. Included in this paper are brief reviews of Ashland petroleum Company`s ethanol usage, oxygenated fuel and reformulated gasoline blending economics, and some comments on the EPA proposed renewable oxygenate requirement.

  3. Process for the conversion of lower alcohols to higher branched oxygenates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barger, P.T.

    1996-09-24

    A process is provided for the production of branched C{sub x} oxygenates from lower alcohols such as methanol, ethanol, propanol and mixtures thereof. The process comprises contacting the lower alcohols with a solid catalyst comprising a mixed metal oxide support having components selected from the group consisting of oxides of zinc, magnesium, zirconia, titanium, manganese, chromium, and lanthanides, and an activation metal selected from the group consisting of Group VIII metal, Group IB metals, and mixtures thereof. The advantage of the process is improved yields and selectivity to isobutanol which can subsequently be employed in the production of high octane motor gasoline.

  4. Process for the conversion of lower alcohols to higher branched oxygenates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barger, Paul T. (Arlington Heights, IL)

    1996-01-01

    A process is provided for the production of branched C.sub.4+ oxygenates from lower alcohols such as methanol, ethanol, propanol and mixtures thereof. The process comprises contacting the lower alcohols with a solid catalyst comprising a mixed metal oxide support having components selected from the group consisting of oxides of zinc, magnesium, zirconia, titanium, manganese, chromium, and lanthanides, and an activation metal selected from the group consisting of Group VIII metal, Group IB metals, and mixtures thereof. The advantage of the process is improved yields and selectivity to isobutanol which can subsequently be employed in the production of high octane motor gasoline.

  5. Requirements

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Certificate in Renewable Energy and the Environment Requirements Earn this certificate by completing a total of 11 points from the following categories: Courses (minimum 4 points) For more information about courses, contact Erin Plut (eplut@wustl.edu) 100 - 200 Level Course Earn 1 point Receive a grade of B- or better in a 2.00 or 3.00 unit course 300 - 400 Level Course Earn 2 points Receive a grade of C or better in a 2.00 or more unit course Independent Study Earn 3 points Students may arrange

  6. Oxygen analyzer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Benner, William H. (Danville, CA)

    1986-01-01

    An oxygen analyzer which identifies and classifies microgram quantities of oxygen in ambient particulate matter and for quantitating organic oxygen in solvent extracts of ambient particulate matter. A sample is pyrolyzed in oxygen-free nitrogen gas (N.sub.2), and the resulting oxygen quantitatively converted to carbon monoxide (CO) by contact with hot granular carbon (C). Two analysis modes are made possible: (1) rapid determination of total pyrolyzable oxygen obtained by decomposing the sample at 1135.degree. C., or (2) temperature-programmed oxygen thermal analysis obtained by heating the sample from room temperature to 1135.degree. C. as a function of time. The analyzer basically comprises a pyrolysis tube containing a bed of granular carbon under N.sub.2, ovens used to heat the carbon and/or decompose the sample, and a non-dispersive infrared CO detector coupled to a mini-computer to quantitate oxygen in the decomposition products and control oven heating.

  7. Oxygen analyzer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Benner, W.H.

    1984-05-08

    An oxygen analyzer which identifies and classifies microgram quantities of oxygen in ambient particulate matter and for quantitating organic oxygen in solvent extracts of ambient particulate matter. A sample is pyrolyzed in oxygen-free nitrogen gas (N/sub 2/), and the resulting oxygen quantitatively converted to carbon monoxide (CO) by contact with hot granular carbon (C). Two analysis modes are made possible: (1) rapid determination of total pyrolyzable obtained by decomposing the sample at 1135/sup 0/C, or (2) temperature-programmed oxygen thermal analysis obtained by heating the sample from room temperature to 1135/sup 0/C as a function of time. The analyzer basically comprises a pyrolysis tube containing a bed of granular carbon under N/sub 2/, ovens used to heat the carbon and/or decompose the sample, and a non-dispersive infrared CO detector coupled to a mini-computer to quantitate oxygen in the decomposition products and control oven heating.

  8. Higher Education

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Education Higher Education Higher Education Explore the multiple dimensions of a career at LANL: work with brilliant minds in an inclusive environment rich in intellectual...

  9. Study of using oxygen-enriched combustion air for locomotive diesel engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poola, R.B.; Sekar, R.; Assanis, D.N.; Cataldi, G.R.

    1996-12-31

    A thermodynamic simulation is used to study the effects of oxygen-enriched intake air on the performance and nitrogen oxide (NO) emissions of a locomotive diesel engine. The parasitic power of the air separation membrane required to supply the oxygen-enriched air is also estimated. For a given constraint on peak cylinder pressure, the gross and net power output of an engine operating under different levels of oxygen enrichment are compared with those obtained when a high-boost turbocharged engine is used. A 4% increase in peak cylinder pressure can result in an increase in net engine power of approximately 13% when intake air with an oxygen content of 28% by volume is used and fuel injection timing is retarded by 4 degrees. When the engine is turbocharged to a higher inlet boost, the same increase in peak cylinder pressure can improve power by only 4%. If part of the significantly higher exhaust enthalpies available as a result of oxygen enrichment are recovered, the power requirements of the air separator membrane can be met, resulting in substantial net power improvements. Oxygen enrichment with its attendant higher combustion temperatures, reduces emissions of particulates and visible smoke but increases NO emissions (by up to three times at 26% oxygen content). Therefore, exhaust gas after-treatment and heat recovery would be required if the full potential of oxygen enrichment for improving the performance of locomotive diesel engines is to be realized.

  10. Higher Education

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Education » Higher Education Higher Education Explore the multiple dimensions of a career at LANL: work with brilliant minds in an inclusive environment rich in intellectual vitality and opportunities for growth. Contact Education Janelle Vigil-Maestas Community Relations & Partnerships (505) 665-4329 Email "The partnership between LANL and regional colleges creates opportunities for students like me to attain challenging and rewarding careers." - Sherry Salas Bachicha Higher

  11. Application of oxygen-enriched combustion for locomotive diesel engines. Phase 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poola, R.B.; Sekar, R.R.; Assanis, D.N.

    1996-09-01

    A thermodynamic simulation is used to study the effects of oxygen-enriched intake air on the performance and nitrogen oxide (NO) emissions of a locomotive diesel engine. The parasitic power of the air separation membrane required to supply the oxygen-enriched air is also estimated. For a given constraint on peak cylinder pressure, the gross and net power outputs of an engine operating under different levels of oxygen enrichment are compared with those obtained when a high-boost turbocharged engine is used. A 4% increase in peak cylinder pressure can result in an increase in net engine power of approximately 13% when intake air with an oxygen content of 28% by volume is used and fuel injection timing is retarded by 4 degrees. When the engine is turbocharged to a higher inlet boost, the same increase in peak cylinder pressure improves power by only 4%. If part of the significantly higher exhaust enthalpies available as a result of oxygen enrichment are recovered, the power requirements of the air separator membrane can be met, resulting in substantial net power improvements. Oxygen enrichment reduces particulate and visible smoke emissions but increases NO emissions. However, a combination of retarded fuel injection timing and post-treatment of exhaust gases may be adequate to meet the locomotive diesel engine NO{sub x} standards. Exhaust gas after-treatment and heat recovery would be required to realize the full potential of oxygen enrichment. Economic analysis shows that oxygen-enrichment technology is economically feasible and provides high returns on investment. The study also indicates the strong influence of membrane parasitic requirements and exhaust energy recovery on economic benefits. To obtain an economic advantage while using a membrane with higher parasitic power requirements, it is necessary to recover a part of the exhaust energy.

  12. Oxygen Transport Membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S. Bandopadhyay

    2008-08-30

    The focus of this research was to develop new membrane materials by synthesizing different compounds and determining their defect structures, crystallographic structures and electrical properties. In addition to measuring electrical conductivity, oxygen vacancy concentration was also evaluated using thermogravimetry, Neutron diffraction and Moessbauer Spectroscopy. The reducing conditions (CO{sub 2}/CO/H{sub 2} gas mixtures with steam) as encountered in a reactor environment can be expected to have significant influence on the mechanical properties of the oxides membranes. Various La based materials with and without Ti were selected as candidate membrane materials for OTM. The maximum electrical conductivity of LSF in air as a function of temperature was achieved at < 600 C and depends on the concentration of Sr (acceptor dopant). Oxygen occupancy in LSF was estimated using Neutron diffractometry and Moessbauer Spectroscopy by measuring magnetic moment changes depending on the Fe{sup 3+} and Fe{sup 4+} ratio. After extensive studies of candidate materials, lanthanum ferrites (LSF and LSFT) were selected as the favored materials for the oxygen transport membrane (OTM). LSF is a very good material for an OTM because of its high electronic and oxygen ionic conductivity if long term stability and mechanical strength are improved. LSFT not only exhibits p-type behavior in the high oxygen activity regime, but also has n-type conduction in reducing atmospheres. Higher concentrations of oxygen vacancies in the low oxygen activity regime may improve the performance of LSFT as an OTM. The hole concentration is related to the difference in the acceptor and donor concentration by the relation p = [Sr'{sub La}]-[Ti{sm_bullet}{sub Fe}]. The chemical formulation predicts that the hole concentration is, p = 0.8-0.45 or 0.35. Experimental measurements indicated that p is about {approx} 0.35. The activation energy of conduction is 0.2 eV which implies that LSCF conducts via the small polaron conduction mechanism. Scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) were used to develop strategies to detect and characterize vacancy creation, dopant segregations and defect association in the oxygen conducting membrane material. The pO{sub 2} and temperature dependence of the conductivity, non-stoichiometry and thermal-expansion behavior of compositions with increasing complexity of substitution on the perovskite A and B sites were studied. Studies with the perovskite structure show anomalous behavior at low oxygen partial pressures (<10{sup -5} atm). The anomalies are due to non-equilibrium effects and can be avoided by using very strict criteria for the attainment of equilibrium. The slowness of the oxygen equilibration kinetics arises from two different mechanisms. In the first, a two phase region occurs between an oxygen vacancy ordered phase such as brownmillerite SrFeO{sub 2.5} and perovskite SrFeO{sub 3-x}. The slow kinetics is associated with crossing the two phase region. The width of the miscibility gap decreases with increasing temperature and consequently the effect is less pronounced at higher temperature. The preferred kinetic pathway to reduction of perovskite ferrites when the vacancy concentration corresponds to the formation of significant concentrations of Fe{sup 2+} is via the formation of a Ruddlesden-Popper (RP) phases as clearly observed in the case of La{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5}FeO{sub 3-x} where LaSrFeO{sub 4} is found together with Fe. In more complex compositions, such as LSFTO, iron or iron rich phases are observed locally with no evidence for the presence of discrete RP phase. Fracture strength of tubular perovskite membranes was determined in air and in reducing atmospheric conditions. The strength of the membrane decreased with temperature and severity of reducing conditions although the strength distribution (Weibull parameter, m) was relatively unaltered. Surface and volume dominated the fracture origins and the overall fracture was purely transgranular. The dual phase membranes have been evaluated for structural properties. An increasing crack growth resistance was observed for the membranes heat-treated at 1000 C in air and N{sub 2} with increasing crack length. The combined effect of thermal and elastic mismatch stresses on the crack path was studied and the fracture behavior of the dual phase composite at the test conditions was analyzed. Ceramic/metal (C/M) seals are needed to form a leak-tight interface between the OTM and a nickel-base super alloy. It was concluded that Ni-based brazing alloys provided the best option in terms of brazing temperature and final operating conditions after analyzing several possible brazing systems. A mechanical testing procedure has been developed. This model was tested with model ceramic/metal systems but it is expected to be useful for testing concentric perovskite/metal seals.

  13. Artificial oxygen transport protein

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dutton, P. Leslie

    2014-09-30

    This invention provides heme-containing peptides capable of binding molecular oxygen at room temperature. These compounds may be useful in the absorption of molecular oxygen from molecular oxygen-containing atmospheres. Also included in the invention are methods for treating an oxygen transport deficiency in a mammal.

  14. New Oxygen-Production Technology Proving Successful

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Office of Fossil Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory has partnered with Air Products and Chemicals Inc. of Allentown, Penn. to develop the Ion Transport Membrane (ITM) Oxygen, a revolutionary new oxygen-production technology that requires less energy and offers lower capital costs than conventional technologies.

  15. Solid state oxygen sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Garzon, F.H.; Chung, B.W.; Raistrick, I.D.; Brosha, E.L.

    1996-08-06

    Solid state oxygen sensors are provided with a yttria-doped zirconia as an electrolyte and use the electrochemical oxygen pumping of the zirconia electrolyte. A linear relationship between oxygen concentration and the voltage arising at a current plateau occurs when oxygen accessing the electrolyte is limited by a diffusion barrier. A diffusion barrier is formed herein with a mixed electronic and oxygen ion-conducting membrane of lanthanum-containing perovskite or zirconia-containing fluorite. A heater may be used to maintain an adequate oxygen diffusion coefficient in the mixed conducting layer. 4 figs.

  16. Solid state oxygen sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Garzon, Fernando H. (Sante Fe, NM); Chung, Brandon W. (Los Alamos, NM); Raistrick, Ian D. (Los Alamos, NM); Brosha, Eric L. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1996-01-01

    Solid state oxygen sensors are provided with a yttria-doped zirconia as an electrolyte and use the electrochemical oxygen pumping of the zirconia electrolyte. A linear relationship between oxygen concentration and the voltage arising at a current plateau occurs when oxygen accessing the electrolyte is limited by a diffusion barrier. A diffusion barrier is formed herein with a mixed electronic and oxygen ion-conducting membrane of lanthanum-containing perovskite or zirconia-containing fluorite. A heater may be used to maintain an adequate oxygen diffusion coefficient in the mixed conducting layer.

  17. High Selectivity Oxygen Delignification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arthur J. Ragauskas Lucian A. Lucia Hasan Jameel

    2005-09-30

    The overall objective of this program was to develop improved extended oxygen delignification (EOD) technologies for current U.S. pulp mill operations. This was accomplished by: (1) Identifying pulping conditions that optimize O and OO performance; (2) Identifying structural features of lignin that enhance reactivity towards EOD of high kappa pulps; (3) Identifying factors minimizing carbohydrate degradation and improve pulp strength of EOD high kappa pulps; (4) Developing a simple, reproducible method of quantifying yield gains from EOD; and (5) Developing process conditions that significantly reduce the capital requirements of EOD while optimizing the yield benefits. Key research outcomes included, demonstrating the use of a mini-O sequence such as (E+O)Dkf:0.05(E+O) or Dkf:0.05(E+O)(E+O) without interstage washing could capture approximately 60% of the delignification efficiency of a conventional O-stage without the major capital requirements associated with an O-stage for conventional SW kraft pulps. The rate of formation and loss of fiber charge during an O-stage stage can be employed to maximize net fiber charge. Optimal fiber charge development and delignification are two independent parameters and do not parallel each other. It is possible to utilize an O-stage to enhance overall cellulosic fiber charge of low and high kappa SW kraft pulps which is beneficial for physical strength properties. The application of NIR and multi-variant analysis was developed into a rapid and simple method of determining the yield of pulp from an oxygen delignification stage that has real-world mill applications. A focus point of this program was the demonstration that Kraft pulping conditions and oxygen delignification of high and low-kappa SW and HW pulps are intimately related. Improved physical pulp properties and yield can be delivered by controlling the H-factor and active alkali charge. Low AA softwood kraft pulp with a kappa number 30 has an average improvement of 2% in yield and 4 cP in viscosity in comparison to high AA pulp for the oxygen delignification. This difference is also seen for high-kappa SW kraft pulps with an average improvement of {approx}3% in yield and 3 cP in viscosity for low AA high kappa number 50 pulp. Low AA hardwood kappa number 20 pulp had an average improvement of {approx}4% in yield and 6-12 cP in viscosity as compared to high AA pulp. Lower kraft cooking temperature (160 vs. 170 C) in combination with the medium AA provides a practical approach for integrating high kappa pulping of hardwoods (i.e., low rejects) with an advanced extended oxygen delignification stage. ECF pulp bleaching of low and high kappa kraft SW and HW pulps exhibit comparable optical and physical strength properties when bleached D(EPO)D.

  18. Solid state oxygen sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Garzon, Fernando H. (Santa Fe, NM); Brosha, Eric L. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1997-01-01

    A potentiometric oxygen sensor is formed having a logarithmic response to a differential oxygen concentration while operating as a Nernstian-type sensor. Very thin films of mixed conducting oxide materials form electrode services while permitting diffusional oxygen access to the interface between the zirconia electrolyte and the electrode. Diffusion of oxygen through the mixed oxide is not rate-limiting. Metal electrodes are not used so that morphological changes in the electrode structure do not occur during extended operation at elevated temperatures.

  19. Oxygen partial pressure sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dees, D.W.

    1994-09-06

    A method for detecting oxygen partial pressure and an oxygen partial pressure sensor are provided. The method for measuring oxygen partial pressure includes contacting oxygen to a solid oxide electrolyte and measuring the subsequent change in electrical conductivity of the solid oxide electrolyte. A solid oxide electrolyte is utilized that contacts both a porous electrode and a nonporous electrode. The electrical conductivity of the solid oxide electrolyte is affected when oxygen from an exhaust stream permeates through the porous electrode to establish an equilibrium of oxygen anions in the electrolyte, thereby displacing electrons throughout the electrolyte to form an electron gradient. By adapting the two electrodes to sense a voltage potential between them, the change in electrolyte conductivity due to oxygen presence can be measured. 1 fig.

  20. Oxygen partial pressure sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dees, Dennis W.

    1994-01-01

    A method for detecting oxygen partial pressure and an oxygen partial pressure sensor are provided. The method for measuring oxygen partial pressure includes contacting oxygen to a solid oxide electrolyte and measuring the subsequent change in electrical conductivity of the solid oxide electrolyte. A solid oxide electrolyte is utilized that contacts both a porous electrode and a nonporous electrode. The electrical conductivity of the solid oxide electrolyte is affected when oxygen from an exhaust stream permeates through the porous electrode to establish an equilibrium of oxygen anions in the electrolyte, thereby displacing electrons throughout the electrolyte to form an electron gradient. By adapting the two electrodes to sense a voltage potential between them, the change in electrolyte conductivity due to oxygen presence can be measured.

  1. Identification of an Archean marine oxygen oasis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Riding, Dr Robert E; Fralick, Dr Philip; Liang, Liyuan

    2014-01-01

    The early Earth was essentially anoxic. A number of indicators suggest the presence of oxygenic photosynthesis 2700 3000 million years (Ma) ago, but direct evidence for molecular oxygen (O2) in seawater has remained elusive. Here we report rare earth element (REE) analyses of 2800 million year old shallowmarine limestones and deep-water iron-rich sediments at Steep Rock Lake, Canada. These show that the seawater from which extensive shallow-water limestones precipitated was oxygenated, whereas the adjacent deeper waters where iron-rich sediments formed were not. We propose that oxygen promoted limestone precipitation by oxidative removal of dissolved ferrous iron species, Fe(II), to insoluble Fe(III) oxyhydroxide, and estimate that at least 10.25 M oxygen concentration in seawater was required to accomplish this at Steep Rock. This agrees with the hypothesis that an ample supply of dissolved Fe(II) in Archean oceans would have hindered limestone formation. There is no direct evidence for the oxygen source at Steep Rock, but organic carbon isotope values and diverse stromatolites in the limestones suggest the presence of cyanobacteria. Our findings support the view that during the Archean significant oxygen levels first developed in protected nutrient-rich shallow marine habitats. They indicate that these environments were spatially restricted, transient, and promoted limestone precipitation. If Archean marine limestones in general reflect localized oxygenic removal of dissolved iron at the margins of otherwise anoxic iron-rich seas, then early oxygen oases are less elusive than has been assumed.

  2. Oxygen ion conducting materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vaughey, John; Krumpelt, Michael; Wang, Xiaoping; Carter, J. David

    2005-07-12

    An oxygen ion conducting ceramic oxide that has applications in industry including fuel cells, oxygen pumps, oxygen sensors, and separation membranes. The material is based on the idea that substituting a dopant into the host perovskite lattice of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3 that prefers a coordination number lower than 6 will induce oxygen ion vacancies to form in the lattice. Because the oxygen ion conductivity of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3 is low over a very large temperature range, the material exhibits a high overpotential when used. The inclusion of oxygen vacancies into the lattice by doping the material has been found to maintain the desirable properties of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3, while significantly decreasing the experimentally observed overpotential.

  3. Oxygen ion conducting materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carter, J. David; Wang, Xiaoping; Vaughey, John; Krumpelt, Michael

    2004-11-23

    An oxygen ion conducting ceramic oxide that has applications in industry including fuel cells, oxygen pumps, oxygen sensors, and separation membranes. The material is based on the idea that substituting a dopant into the host perovskite lattice of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3 that prefers a coordination number lower than 6 will induce oxygen ion vacancies to form in the lattice. Because the oxygen ion conductivity of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3 is low over a very large temperature range, the material exhibits a high overpotential when used. The inclusion of oxygen vacancies into the lattice by doping the material has been found to maintain the desirable properties of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3, while significantly decreasing the experimentally observed overpotential.

  4. Oxygen ion conducting materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vaughey, John (Elmhurst, IL); Krumpelt, Michael (Naperville, IL); Wang, Xiaoping (Downers Grove, IL); Carter, J. David (Bolingbrook, IL)

    2003-01-01

    An oxygen ion conducting ceramic oxide that has applications in industry including fuel cells, oxygen pumps, oxygen sensors, and separation membranes. The material is based on the idea that substituting a dopant into the host perovskite lattice of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3 that prefers a coordination number lower than 6 will induce oxygen ion vacancies to form in the lattice. Because the oxygen ion conductivity of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3 is low over a very large temperature range, the material exhibits a high overpotential when used. The inclusion of oxygen vacancies into the lattice by doping the material has been found to maintain the desirable properties of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3, while significantly decreasing the experimentally observed overpotential.

  5. Integrated turbomachine oxygen plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anand, Ashok Kumar; DePuy, Richard Anthony; Muthaiah, Veerappan

    2014-06-17

    An integrated turbomachine oxygen plant includes a turbomachine and an air separation unit. One or more compressor pathways flow compressed air from a compressor through one or more of a combustor and a turbine expander to cool the combustor and/or the turbine expander. An air separation unit is operably connected to the one or more compressor pathways and is configured to separate the compressed air into oxygen and oxygen-depleted air. A method of air separation in an integrated turbomachine oxygen plant includes compressing a flow of air in a compressor of a turbomachine. The compressed flow of air is flowed through one or more of a combustor and a turbine expander of the turbomachine to cool the combustor and/or the turbine expander. The compressed flow of air is directed to an air separation unit and is separated into oxygen and oxygen-depleted air.

  6. Solid state oxygen sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Garzon, F.H.; Brosha, E.L.

    1997-12-09

    A potentiometric oxygen sensor is formed having a logarithmic response to a differential oxygen concentration while operating as a Nernstian-type sensor. Very thin films of mixed conducting oxide materials form electrode services while permitting diffusional oxygen access to the interface between the zirconia electrolyte and the electrode. Diffusion of oxygen through the mixed oxide is not rate-limiting. Metal electrodes are not used so that morphological changes in the electrode structure do not occur during extended operation at elevated temperatures. 6 figs.

  7. Researchers Directly Observe Oxygen Signature in the Oxygen-evolving...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Researchers Directly Observe Oxygen Signature in the Oxygen-evolving Complex of Photosynthesis Arguably the most important chemical reaction on earth is the photosynthetic...

  8. High Selectivity Oxygen Delignification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lucian A. Lucia

    2005-11-15

    Project Objective: The objectives of this project are as follows: (1) Examine the physical and chemical characteristics of a partner mill pre- and post-oxygen delignified pulp and compare them to lab generated oxygen delignified pulps; (2) Apply the chemical selectivity enhancement system to the partner pre-oxygen delignified pulps under mill conditions (with and without any predetermined amounts of carryover) to determine how efficiently viscosity is preserved, how well selectivity is enhanced, if strength is improved, measure any yield differences and/or bleachability differences; and (3) Initiate a mill scale oxygen delignification run using the selectivity enhancement agent, collect the mill data, analyze it, and propose any future plans for implementation.

  9. OXYGEN ENHANCED COMBUSTION FOR NOx CONTROL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David R. Thompson; Lawrence E. Bool; Jack C. Chen

    2004-04-01

    Conventional wisdom says adding oxygen to a combustion system enhances product throughput, system efficiency, and, unless special care is taken, increases NOx emissions. This increase in NOx emissions is typically due to elevated flame temperatures associated with oxygen use leading to added thermal NOx formation. Innovative low flame temperature oxy-fuel burner designs have been developed and commercialized to minimize both thermal and fuel NOx formation for gas and oil fired industrial furnaces. To be effective these systems require close to 100% oxy-fuel combustion and the cost of oxygen is paid for by fuel savings and other benefits. For applications to coal-fired utility boilers at the current cost of oxygen, however, it is not economically feasible to use 100% oxygen for NOx control. In spite of this conventional wisdom, Praxair and its team members, in partnership with the US Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory, have developed a novel way to use oxygen to reduce NOx emissions without resorting to complete oxy-fuel conversion. In this concept oxygen is added to the combustion process to enhance operation of a low NOx combustion system. Only a small fraction of combustion air is replaced with oxygen in the process. By selectively adding oxygen to a low NOx combustion system it is possible to reduce NOx emissions from nitrogen-containing fuels, including pulverized coal, while improving combustion characteristics such as unburned carbon. A combination of experimental work and modeling was used to define how well oxygen enhanced combustion could reduce NOx emissions. The results of this work suggest that small amounts of oxygen replacement can reduce the NOx emissions as compared to the air-alone system. NOx emissions significantly below 0.15 lbs/MMBtu were measured. Oxygen addition was also shown to reduce carbon in ash. Comparison of the costs of using oxygen for NOx control against competing technologies, such as SCR, show that this concept offers substantial savings over SCR and is an economically attractive alternative to purchasing NOx credits or installing other conventional technologies. In conjunction with the development of oxygen based low NOx technology, Praxair also worked on developing the economically enhancing oxygen transport membrane (OTM) technology which is ideally suited for integration with combustion systems to achieve further significant cost reductions and efficiency improvements. This OTM oxygen production technology is based on ceramic mixed conductor membranes that operate at high temperatures and can be operated in a pressure driven mode to separate oxygen with infinite selectivity and high flux. An OTM material was selected and characterized. OTM elements were successfully fabricated. A single tube OTM reactor was designed and assembled. Testing of dense OTM elements was conducted with promising oxygen flux results of 100% of target flux. However, based on current natural gas prices and stand-alone air separation processes, ceramic membranes do not offer an economic advantage for this application. Under a different DOE-NETL Cooperative Agreement, Praxair is continuing to develop oxygen transport membranes for the Advanced Boiler where the economics appear more attractive.

  10. Effects of oxygen and catalyst on tetraphenylborate decomposition rate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walker, D.D.

    1999-12-15

    Previous studies indicate that palladium catalyzes rapid decomposition of alkaline tetraphenylborate slurries. Oxygen inhibits the reaction at low temperature (25 C), presumably by preventing activation of the catalyst. The present study investigated oxygen's inhibiting effectiveness at higher temperature (45 C) and catalyst concentrations.

  11. Optical oxygen concentration monitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kebabian, P.

    1997-07-22

    A system for measuring and monitoring the concentration of oxygen uses as a light source an argon discharge lamp, which inherently emits light with a spectral line that is close to one of oxygen`s A-band absorption lines. In a preferred embodiment, the argon line is split into sets of components of shorter and longer wavelengths by a magnetic field of approximately 2,000 Gauss that is parallel to the light propagation from the lamp. The longer wavelength components are centered on an absorption line of oxygen and thus readily absorbed, and the shorter wavelength components are moved away from that line and minimally absorbed. A polarization modulator alternately selects the set of the longer wavelength, or upshifted, components or the set of the shorter wavelength, or downshifted, components and passes the selected set to an environment of interest. After transmission over a path through that environment, the transmitted optical flux of the argon line varies as a result of the differential absorption. The system then determines the concentration of oxygen in the environment based on the changes in the transmitted optical flux between the two sets of components. In alternative embodiments modulation is achieved by selectively reversing the polarity of the magnetic field or by selectively supplying the magnetic field to either the emitting plasma of the lamp or the environment of interest. 4 figs.

  12. Elusive Oxygen Isotope Captured with Groundbreaking Sensitivity | The Ames

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Laboratory Elusive Oxygen Isotope Captured with Groundbreaking Sensitivity Oxygen is one of the most ubiquitous elements in chemistry and materials science, yet one of the most elusive elements for spectroscopic investigation by solid-state Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (SSNMR). Used to determine the structure of materials and chemicals on the atomic scale, SSNMR requires nuclei that have magnetic moments. Yet, less than four of every 10,000 oxygen nuclei are 17O, the only NMR-active isotope of

  13. Magnetism in LithiumOxygen Discharge Product

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Jun; Jung, Hun-Ji; Lau, Kah Chun; Zhang, Zhengcheng; Schlueter, John A.; Du, Peng; Assary, Rajeev S.; Greeley, Jeffrey P.; Ferguson, Glen A.; Wang, Hsien-Hau; Hassoun, Jusef; Iddir, Hakim; Zhou, Jigang; Zuin, Lucia; Hu, Yongfeng; Sun, Yang-Kook; Scrosati, Bruno; Curtiss, Larry A.; Amine, Khalil

    2013-05-13

    Nonaqueous lithiumoxygen batteries have a much superior theoretical gravimetric energy density compared to conventional lithium-ion batteries, and thus could render long-range electric vehicles a reality. A molecular-level understanding of the reversible formation of lithium peroxide in these batteries, the properties of major/minor discharge products, and the stability of the nonaqueous electrolytes is required to achieve successful lithiumoxygen batteries. We demonstrate that the major discharge product formed in the lithiumoxygen cell, lithium peroxide, exhibits a magnetic moment. These results are based on dc-magnetization measurements and a lithium oxygen cell containing an ether-based electrolyte. The results are unexpected because bulk lithium peroxide has a significant band gap. Density functional calculations predict that superoxide- type surface oxygen groups with unpaired electrons exist on stoichiometric lithium peroxide crystalline surfaces and on nanoparticle surfaces; these computational results are consistent with the magnetic measurement of the discharged lithium peroxide product as well as EPR measurements on commercial lithium peroxide. The presence of superoxide-type surface oxygen groups with spin can play a role in the reversible formation and decomposition of lithium peroxide as well as the reversible formation and decomposition of electrolyte molecules.

  14. Oxygen generator for medical applications (USIC)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Staiger, C. L.

    2012-03-01

    The overall Project objective is to develop a portable, non-cryogenic oxygen generator capable of supplying medical grade oxygen at sufficient flow rates to allow the field application of the Topical Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy (THOT{reg_sign}) developed by Numotech, Inc. This project was sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy Global Initiatives for Proliferation Prevention (GIPP) and is managed by collaboration between Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), Numotech, Inc, and LLC SPE 'Spektr-Conversion.' The project had two phases, with the objective of Phase I being to develop, build and test a laboratory prototype of the membrane-pressure swing adsorber (PSA) system producing at 15 L/min of oxygen with a minimum of 98% oxygen purity. Phase II objectives were to further refine and identify the pre-requisites needed for a commercial product and to determine the feasibility of producing 15 L/min of oxygen with a minimum oxygen purity of 99%. In Phase I, Spektr built up the necessary infrastructure to perform experimental work and proceeded to build and demonstrate a membrane-PSA laboratory prototype capable of producing 98% purity oxygen at a flow rate of 5 L/min. Spektr offered a plausible path to scale up the process for 15 L/min. Based on the success and experimental results obtained in Phase I, Spektr performed work in three areas for Phase II: construction of a 15 L/min PSA; investigation of compressor requirements for the front end of the membrane/PSA system; and performing modeling and simulation of assess the feasibility of producing oxygen with a purity greater than 99%. Spektr successfully completed all of the tasks under Phase II. A prototype 15 L/min PSA was constructed and operated. Spektr determined that no 'off the shelf' air compressors met all of the specifications required for the membrane-PSA, so a custom compressor will likely need to be built. Modeling and simulation concluded that production of oxygen with purities greater than 99% was possible using a Membrane-PSA system.

  15. Optical oxygen concentration monitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kebabian, Paul (Acton, MA)

    1997-01-01

    A system for measuring and monitoring the concentration of oxygen uses as a light source an argon discharge lamp, which inherently emits light with a spectral line that is close to one of oxygen's A-band absorption lines. In a preferred embodiment, the argon line is split into sets of components of shorter and longer wavelengths by a magnetic field of approximately 2000 Gauss that is parallel to the light propagation from the lamp. The longer wavelength components are centered on an absorption line of oxygen and thus readily absorbed, and the shorter wavelength components are moved away from that line and minimally absorbed. A polarization modulator alternately selects the set of the longer wavelength, or upshifted, components or the set of the shorter wavelength, or downshifted, components and passes the selected set to an environment of interest. After transmission over a path through that environment, the transmitted optical flux of the argon line varies as a result of the differential absorption. The system then determines the concentration of oxygen in the environment based on the changes in the transmitted optical flux between the two sets of components. In alternative embodiments modulation is achieved by selectively reversing the polarity of the magnetic field or by selectively supplying the magnetic field to either the emitting plasma of the lamp or the environment of interest.

  16. DME-to-oxygenates process studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tartamella, T.L.; Sardesai, A.; Lee, S.; Kulik, C.J.

    1994-12-31

    The feasibility of the production of hydrocarbons from dimethyl ether (DNM) has been illustrated in a fixed bed micro-reactor as well as a bench scale fluidized bed reactor by the University of Akron/EPRI DME-to-Hydrocarbon (DTG) Process. The DTG process has distinct advantages over its methanol based counterpart. Specifically, the DTG process excels in the area of higher productivity, higher per-pass conversion, and lower heat duties than the MTG process. Also of special importance is the production of oxygenates -- including MTBE, ETBE, and TAME. DME may be reacted with isobutylene to produce a mixture of MTBE and ETBE. The properties of ETBE excel over MTBE in the areas of lower RVP and higher RON. According to industrial reports, MTBE is the fastest growing chemical (1992 US capacity 135,350 BPD, with expected growth of 34%/year to 1997). Also, recent renewed interest as an octane-enhancer and as a source of oxygen has spurred a growing interest in nonrefinery synthesis routes to ETBE. TAME, with its lower RVP and higher RON has proven useful as a gasoline blending agent and octane enhancer and may also be produced directly from DME. DME, therefore, serves as a valuable feedstock in the conversion of may oxygenates with wide-scale industrial importance. It should be also noted that the interest in the utilization of DME as process feedstock is based on the favorable process economics of EPRI/UA`s liquid phase DME process.

  17. Direct Observation of the Oxygenated Species during Oxygen Reduction...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Direct Observation of the Oxygenated Species during Oxygen Reduction on a Platinum Fuel Cell Cathode Friday, December 20, 2013 Fuel Cell Figure 1 Figure 1. In situ x-ray...

  18. High pressure oxygen furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morris, Donald E. (Kensington, CA)

    1992-01-01

    A high temperature high pressure oxygen furnace having a hybrid partially externally heated construction is disclosed. A metallic bar fabricated from an alloy having a composition of at least 45% nickel, 15% chrome, and 10% tungsten is utilized (the preferred alloy including 55% nickel, 22% chrome, 14% tungsten, 2% molybdenum, 3% iron (maximum) and 5% cobalt (maximum). The disclosed alloy is fabricated into 11/4 inch bar stock and has a length of about 17 inches. This bar stock is gun drilled for over 16 inches of its length with 0.400 inch aperture to define a closed high temperature, high pressure oxygen chamber. The opposite and closed end of the bar is provided with a small support aperture into which both a support and a thermocouple can be inserted. The closed end of the gun drilled bar is inserted into an oven, preferably heated by standard nickel chrome electrical elements and having a heavily insulated exterior.

  19. High pressure oxygen furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morris, D.E.

    1992-07-14

    A high temperature high pressure oxygen furnace having a hybrid partially externally heated construction is disclosed. A metallic bar fabricated from an alloy having a composition of at least 45% nickel, 15% chrome, and 10% tungsten is utilized, the preferred alloy including 55% nickel, 22% chrome, 14% tungsten, 2% molybdenum, 3% iron (maximum) and 5% cobalt (maximum). The disclosed alloy is fabricated into 11/4 inch bar stock and has a length of about 17 inches. This bar stock is gun drilled for over 16 inches of its length with 0.400 inch aperture to define a closed high temperature, high pressure oxygen chamber. The opposite and closed end of the bar is provided with a small support aperture into which both a support and a thermocouple can be inserted. The closed end of the gun drilled bar is inserted into an oven, preferably heated by standard nickel chrome electrical elements and having a heavily insulated exterior. 5 figs.

  20. Fuel cell oxygen electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shanks, Howard R. (Ames, IA); Bevolo, Albert J. (Ames, IA); Danielson, Gordon C. (Ames, IA); Weber, Michael F. (Wichita, KS)

    1980-11-04

    An oxygen electrode for a fuel cell utilizing an acid electrolyte has a substrate of an alkali metal tungsten bronze of the formula: A.sub.x WO.sub.3 where A is an alkali metal and x is at least 0.2, which is covered with a thin layer of platinum tungsten bronze of the formula: Pt.sub.y WO.sub.3 where y is at least 0.8.

  1. Graphene oxide functionalized with methylene blue and its performance in singlet oxygen generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wojtoniszak, M.; Rogi?ska, D.; Machali?ski, B.; Drozdzik, M.; Mijowska, E.

    2013-07-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: Adsorption of methylene blue (MB) on graphene oxide (GO). Characterization of graphene oxidemethylene blue nanocomposite (MBGO). Examination of MBGO efficiency in singlet oxygen generation (SOG). MBGO performs higher SOG efficiency than pristine MB. - Abstract: Due to unique electronic, mechanical, optical and structural properties, graphene has shown promising applications in many fields, including biomedicine. One of them is noninvasive anticancer therapy photodynamic therapy (PDT), where singlet oxygen (SO), generated under the irradiation of light with appropriate wavelengths, kills cancer cells. In this study, authors report graphene oxide (GO) noncovalent functionalization with methylene blue (MB). MB molecules underwent adsorption on the surface of GO. Detailed characterization of the obtained material was carried out with UVvis spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, FT-IR spectroscopy, and confocal laser scanning microscopy. Furthermore, its performance in singlet oxygen generation (SOG) under irradiation of laser with excitation wavelengths of 785 nm was investigated. Interestingly, GO functionalized with MB (MBGO) showed enhanced efficiency in singlet oxygen generation compared to pristine MB. The efficiency in SOG was detected by photobleaching of 9,10-anthracenediyl-bis(methylene)dimalonic acid (ABMDMA). These results indicate the material is promising in PDT anticancer therapy and further in vitro and in vivo studies are required.

  2. Oxygen Handling and Cooling Options in High Temperature Electrolysis Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Manohar S. Sohal; J. Stephen Herring

    2008-07-01

    Idaho National Laboratory is working on a project to generate hydrogen by high temperature electrolysis (HTE). In such an HTE system, safety precautions need to be taken to handle high temperature oxygen at ~830C. This report is aimed at addressing oxygen handling in a HTE plant.. Though oxygen itself is not flammable, most engineering material, including many gases and liquids, will burn in the presence of oxygen under some favorable physicochemical conditions. At present, an absolute set of rules does not exist that can cover all aspects of oxygen system design, material selection, and operating practices to avoid subtle hazards related to oxygen. Because most materials, including metals, will burn in an oxygen-enriched environment, hazards are always present when using oxygen. Most materials will ignite in an oxygen-enriched environment at a temperature lower than that in air, and once ignited, combustion rates are greater in the oxygen-enriched environment. Even many metals, if ignited, burn violently in an oxygen-enriched environment. However, these hazards do not preclude the operations and systems involving oxygen. Oxygen can be safely handled and used if all the materials in a system are not flammable in the end-use environment or if ignition sources are identified and controlled. In fact, the incidence of oxygen system fires is reported to be low with a probability of about one in a million. This report is a practical guideline and tutorial for the safe operation and handling of gaseous oxygen in high temperature electrolysis system. The intent is to provide safe, practical guidance that permits the accomplishment of experimental operations at INL, while being restrictive enough to prevent personnel endangerment and to provide reasonable facility protection. Adequate guidelines are provided to govern various aspects of oxygen handling associated with high temperature electrolysis system to generate hydrogen. The intent here is to present acceptable oxygen standards and practices for minimum safety requirements. A summary of operational hazards, along with oxygen safety and emergency procedures, are provided.

  3. Oxygen production by molten alkali metal salts using multiple absorption-desorption cycles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cassano, Anthony A.

    1985-01-01

    A continuous chemical air separation is performed wherein oxygen is recovered with a molten alkali metal salt oxygen acceptor in a series of absorption zones which are connected to a plurality of desorption zones operated in separate parallel cycles with the absorption zones. A greater recovery of high pressure oxygen is achieved at reduced power requirements and capital costs.

  4. Oxygen production by molten alkali metal salts using multiple absorption-desorption cycles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cassano, A.A.

    1985-07-02

    A continuous chemical air separation is performed wherein oxygen is recovered with a molten alkali metal salt oxygen acceptor in a series of absorption zones which are connected to a plurality of desorption zones operated in separate parallel cycles with the absorption zones. A greater recovery of high pressure oxygen is achieved at reduced power requirements and capital costs. 3 figs.

  5. OXYGEN TRANSPORT CERAMIC MEMBRANES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Sukumar Bandopadhyay; Dr. Nagendra Nagabhushana

    2000-10-01

    This is the third quarterly report on oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes. In the following, the report describes the progress made by our university partners in Tasks 1 through 6, experimental apparatus that was designed and built for various tasks of this project, thermodynamic calculations, where applicable and work planned for the future. (Task 1) Design, fabricate and evaluate ceramic to metal seals based on graded ceramic powder/metal braze joints. (Task 2) Evaluate the effect of defect configuration on ceramic membrane conductivity and long term chemical and structural stability. (Task 3) Determine materials mechanical properties under conditions of high temperatures and reactive atmospheres. (Task 4) Evaluate phase stability and thermal expansion of candidate perovskite membranes and develop techniques to support these materials on porous metal structures. (Task 5) Assess the microstructure of membrane materials to evaluate the effects of vacancy-impurity association, defect clusters, and vacancy-dopant association on the membrane performance and stability. (Task 6) Measure kinetics of oxygen uptake and transport in ceramic membrane materials under commercially relevant conditions using isotope labeling techniques.

  6. Composite oxygen transport membrane

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Christie, Gervase Maxwell; Lane, Jonathan A.

    2014-08-05

    A method of producing a composite oxygen ion membrane and a composite oxygen ion membrane in which a porous fuel oxidation layer and a dense separation layer and optionally, a porous surface exchange layer are formed on a porous support from mixtures of (Ln.sub.1-xA.sub.x).sub.wCr.sub.1-yB.sub.yO.sub.3-.delta. and a doped zirconia. In the porous fuel oxidation layer and the optional porous surface exchange layer, A is Calcium and in the dense separation layer A is not Calcium and, preferably is Strontium. Preferred materials are (La.sub.0.8Ca.sub.0.2).sub.0.95Cr.sub.0.5Mn.sub.0.5O.sub.3-.delta. for the porous fuel oxidation and optional porous surface exchange layers and (La.sub.0.8Sr.sub.0.2).sub.0.95Cr.sub.0.5Fe.sub.0.5O.sub.3-.delta. for the dense separation layer. The use of such materials allows the membrane to sintered in air and without the use of pore formers to reduce membrane manufacturing costs. The use of materials, as described herein, for forming the porous layers have application for forming any type of porous structure, such as a catalyst support.

  7. Contiguous Platinum Monolayer Oxygen Reduction Electrocatalysts...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Contiguous Platinum Monolayer Oxygen Reduction Electrocatalysts on High-Stability-Low-Cost Supports Contiguous Platinum Monolayer Oxygen Reduction Electrocatalysts on...

  8. Reporting Requirements

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Reporting Requirements Reporting Requirements Contacts Director Albert Migliori Deputy Franz Freibert 505 667-6879 Email Professional Staff Assistant Susan Ramsay 505 665 0858...

  9. Oxygenates from synthesis gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Falter, W.; Keim, W.

    1994-12-31

    The direct synthesis of oxygenates starting from synthesis gas is feasible by homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysis. Homogeneous Rh and Ru based catalysts yielding methyl formate and alcohols will be presented. Interestingly, modified heterogeneous catalysts based on {open_quotes}Isobutyl Oel{close_quotes} catalysis, practized in Germany (BRD) up to 1952 and in the former DDR until recently, yield isobutanol in addition to methanol. These {open_quotes}Isobutyl Oel{close_quotes} catalysts are obtained by adding a base such as Li < Na < K < Cs to a Zn-Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} methanol catalyst. Isobutanol is obtained in up to 15% yield. Our best catalyst a Zr-Zn-Mn-Li-Pd catalyst produced isobotanol up to 60% at a rate of 740g isobutanol per liter catalyst and hour.

  10. Oxygen-reducing catalyst layer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    O'Brien, Dennis P. (Maplewood, MN); Schmoeckel, Alison K. (Stillwater, MN); Vernstrom, George D. (Cottage Grove, MN); Atanasoski, Radoslav (Edina, MN); Wood, Thomas E. (Stillwater, MN); Yang, Ruizhi (Halifax, CA); Easton, E. Bradley (Halifax, CA); Dahn, Jeffrey R. (Hubley, CA); O'Neill, David G. (Lake Elmo, MN)

    2011-03-22

    An oxygen-reducing catalyst layer, and a method of making the oxygen-reducing catalyst layer, where the oxygen-reducing catalyst layer includes a catalytic material film disposed on a substrate with the use of physical vapor deposition and thermal treatment. The catalytic material film includes a transition metal that is substantially free of platinum. At least one of the physical vapor deposition and the thermal treatment is performed in a processing environment comprising a nitrogen-containing gas.

  11. MTBE, Oxygenates, and Motor Gasoline

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    MTBE, Oxygenates, and Motor Gasoline Contents * Introduction * Federal gasoline product quality regulations * What are oxygenates? * Who gets gasoline with oxygenates? * Which areas get MTBE? * How much has been invested in MTBE production capacity? * What does new Ethanol capacity cost? * What would an MTBE ban cost? * On-line information resources * Endnotes * Summary of revisions to this analysis Introduction The blending of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) into motor gasoline has increased

  12. EIA-819, Monthly Oxygenate Report ...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (EIA) Form EIA-819, "Monthly Biofuel and Oxygenate Report," is used to collect data on ethanol production capacity, as well as stocks, receipts, inputs, production, and blending of...

  13. Utilization of Renewable Oxygenates as Gasoline Blending Components

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yanowitz, J.; Christensen, E.; McCormick, R. L.

    2011-08-01

    This report reviews the use of higher alcohols and several cellulose-derived oxygenates as blend components in gasoline. Material compatibility issues are expected to be less severe for neat higher alcohols than for fuel-grade ethanol. Very little data exist on how blending higher alcohols or other oxygenates with gasoline affects ASTM Standard D4814 properties. Under the Clean Air Act, fuels used in the United States must be 'substantially similar' to fuels used in certification of cars for emission compliance. Waivers for the addition of higher alcohols at concentrations up to 3.7 wt% oxygen have been granted. Limited emission testing on pre-Tier 1 vehicles and research engines suggests that higher alcohols will reduce emissions of CO and organics, while NOx emissions will stay the same or increase. Most oxygenates can be used as octane improvers for standard gasoline stocks. The properties of 2-methyltetrahydrofuran, dimethylfuran, 2-methylfuran, methyl pentanoate and ethyl pentanoate suggest that they may function well as low-concentration blends with gasoline in standard vehicles and in higher concentrations in flex fuel vehicles.

  14. Novel Membranes and Processes for Oxygen Enrichment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, Haiqing

    2011-11-15

    The overall goal of this project is to develop a membrane process that produces air containing 25-35% oxygen, at a cost of $25-40/ton of equivalent pure oxygen (EPO2). Oxygen-enriched air at such a low cost will allow existing air-fueled furnaces to be converted economically to oxygen-enriched furnaces, which in turn will improve the economic and energy efficiency of combustion processes significantly, and reduce the cost of CO{sub 2} capture and sequestration from flue gases throughout the U.S. manufacturing industries. During the 12-month Concept Definition project: We identified a series of perfluoropolymers (PFPs) with promising oxygen/nitrogen separation properties, which were successfully made into thin film composite membranes. The membranes showed oxygen permeance as high as 1,200 gpu and oxygen/nitrogen selectivity of 3.0, and the permeance and selectivity were stable over the time period tested (60 days). We successfully scaled up the production of high-flux PFP-based membranes, using MTR's commercial coaters. Two bench-scale spiral-wound modules with countercurrent designs were made and parametric tests were performed to understand the effect of feed flow rate and pressure, permeate pressure and sweep flow rate on the membrane module separation properties. At various operating conditions that modeled potential industrial operating conditions, the module separation properties were similar to the pure-gas separation properties in the membrane stamps. We also identified and synthesized new polymers [including polymers of intrinsic microporosity (PIMs) and polyimides] with higher oxygen/nitrogen selectivity (3.5-5.0) than the PFPs, and made these polymers into thin film composite membranes. However, these membranes were susceptible to severe aging; pure-gas permeance decreased nearly six-fold within two weeks, making them impractical for industrial applications of oxygen enrichment. We tested the effect of oxygen-enriched air on NO{sub x} emissions using a Bloom baffle burner at GTI. The results are positive and confirm that oxygen-enriched combustion can be carried out without producing higher levels of NOx than normal air firing, if lancing of combustion air is used and the excess air levels are controlled. A simple economic study shows that the membrane processes can produce O{sub 2} at less than $40/ton EPO{sub 2} and an energy cost of 1.1-1.5 MMBtu/ton EPO{sub 2}, which are very favorable compared with conventional technologies such as cryogenics and vacuum pressure swing adsorption processes. The benefits of integrated membrane processes/combustion process trains have been evaluated, and show good savings in process costs and energy consumption, as well as reduced CO{sub 2} emissions. For example, if air containing 30% oxygen is used in natural gas furnaces, the net natural gas savings are an estimated 18% at a burner temperature of 2,500 F, and 32% at a burner temperature of 3,000 F. With a 20% market penetration of membrane-based oxygen-enriched combustion in all combustion processes by 2020, the energy savings would be 414-736 TBtu/y in the U.S. The comparable net cost savings are estimated at $1.2-2.1 billion per year by 2020, calculated as the value of fuel savings subtracted from the cost of oxygen production. The fuel savings of 18%-32% by the membrane/oxygen-enriched combustion corresponds to an 18%-32% reduction in CO{sub 2} emissions, or 23-40 MM ton/y less CO{sub 2} from natural gas-fired furnaces by 2020. In summary, results from this project (Concept Definition phase) are highly promising and clearly demonstrate that membrane processes can produce oxygen-enriched air in a low cost manner that will lower operating costs and energy consumption in industrial combustion processes. Future work will focus on proof-of-concept bench-scale demonstration in the laboratory.

  15. Oxygen detection using evanescent fields

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Duan, Yixiang (Los Alamos, NM); Cao, Weenqing (Los Alamos, NM)

    2007-08-28

    An apparatus and method for the detection of oxygen using optical fiber based evanescent light absorption. Methylene blue was immobilized using a sol-gel process on a portion of the exterior surface of an optical fiber for which the cladding has been removed, thereby forming an optical oxygen sensor. When light is directed through the optical fiber, transmitted light intensity varies as a result of changes in the absorption of evanescent light by the methylene blue in response to the oxygen concentration to which the sensor is exposed. The sensor was found to have a linear response to oxygen concentration on a semi-logarithmic scale within the oxygen concentration range between 0.6% and 20.9%, a response time and a recovery time of about 3 s, ant to exhibit good reversibility and repeatability. An increase in temperature from 21.degree. C. to 35.degree. C. does not affect the net absorption of the sensor.

  16. Animation Requirements

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Animations include dynamic elements such as interactive images and games. For developing animations, follow these design and coding requirements.

  17. Oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S. Bandopadhyay; N. Nagabhushana

    2003-08-07

    In the present quarter, experiments are presented on ceramic/metal interactions of Zirconia/ Ni-B-Si system and with a thin Ti coating deposited on zirconia surface. Existing facilities were modified for evaluation of environmental assisted slow crack growth and creep in flexural mode. Processing of perovskites of LSC, LSF and LSCF composition were continued for evaluation of mechanical properties as a function of environment. These studies in parallel to those on the LSFCO composition is expect to yield important information on questions such as the role of cation segregation and the stability of the perovskite structure on crack initiation vs. crack growth. Studies have been continued on the La{sub 1-x}Sr{sub x}FeO{sub 3-d} composition using neutron diffraction and TGA studies. A transition from p-type to n-type of conductor was observed at relative low pO{sub 2}, at which the majority carriers changed from the holes to electrons because of the valence state decreases in Fe due to the further loss of oxygen. Investigation on the thermodynamic properties of the membrane materials are continued to develop a complete model for the membrane transport. Data obtained at 850 C show that the stoichiometry in La{sub 0.2}Sr{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 0.8}Cr{sub 0.2}O{sub 3-x} vary from {approx}2.85 to 2.6 over the pressure range studied. From the stoichiometry a lower limit of 2.6 corresponding to the reduction of all Fe{sup 4+} to Fe{sup 3+} and no reduction of Cr{sup 3+} is expected.

  18. Reporting Requirements

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Reporting Requirements Reporting Requirements Contacts Director Albert Migliori Deputy Franz Freibert 505 667-6879 Email Professional Staff Assistant Susan Ramsay 505 665 0858 Email The Fellow will be required to participate in the Actinide Science lecture series by both attending lectures and presenting a scientific lecture on actinide science in this series. Submission of a viewgraph and brief write-up of the project. Provide metrics information as requested. Submission of an overview article

  19. Eligibility Requirements

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Eligibility Requirements Eligibility Requirements A comprehensive benefits package with plan options for health care and retirement to take care of our employees today and tomorrow. Contact Benefits Office (505) 667-1806 Email Eligibility and required supporting documentation The Laboratory offers an extensive benefits package to full and part time employees. Casual employees (excluding High School Coop, Lab Associates and Craft Employees) are eligible to enroll in the HDHP medical plan. NOTE:

  20. Competition Requirements

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    ---------------------------------------- Chapter 6.1 (July 2011) 1 Competition Requirements [Reference: FAR 6 and DEAR 906] Overview This section discusses competition requirements and provides a model Justification for Other than Full and Open Competition (JOFOC). Background The Competition in Contracting Act (CICA) of 1984 requires that all acquisitions be made using full and open competition. Seven exceptions to using full and open competition are specifically identified in Federal

  1. Video Requirements

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    All EERE videos, including webinar recordings, must meet Section 508's requirements for accessibility. All videos should be hosted on the DOE YouTube channel.

  2. Oxygenate Supply/Demand Balances

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Oxygenate Supply/Demand Balances in the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting Model By Tancred C.M. Lidderdale This article first appeared in the Short-Term Energy Outlook Annual Supplement 1995, Energy Information Administration, DOE/EIA-0202(95) (Washington, DC, July 1995), pp. 33-42, 83-85. The regression results and historical data for production, inventories, and imports have been updated in this presentation. Contents * Introduction o Table 1. Oxygenate production capacity and demand *

  3. Platinum Monolayer Electrocatalysts for Oxygen Reduction Reaction...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Platinum Monolayer Electrocatalysts for Oxygen Reduction Reaction Platinum Monolayer Electrocatalysts for Oxygen Reduction Reaction Download presentation slides from the June 19,...

  4. EVALUATING AN INNOVATIVE OXYGEN SENSOR FOR REMOTE SUBSURFACE OXYGEN MEASUREMENTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Millings, M; Brian Riha, B; Warren Hyde, W; Karen Vangelas, K; Brian02 Looney, B

    2006-10-12

    Oxygen is a primary indicator of whether anaerobic reductive dechlorination and similar redox based processes contribute to natural attenuation remedies at chlorinated solvent contaminated sites. Thus, oxygen is a viable indicator parameter for documenting that a system is being sustained in an anaerobic condition. A team of researchers investigated the adaptation of an optical sensor that was developed for oceanographic applications. The optical sensor, because of its design and operating principle, has potential for extended deployment and sensitivity at the low oxygen levels relevant to natural attenuation. The results of the research indicate this tool will be useful for in situ long-term monitoring applications, but that the traditional characterization tools continue to be appropriate for characterization activities.

  5. Competition Requirements

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    (JOFOC) using the authority of FAR 6.302-1. Background The Competition in Contracting Act (CICA) of 1984 requires that all acquisitions be made using full and open competition. ...

  6. Deployment Requirements

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Contamination Workshop Deployment Requirements William Buttner National Renewable Energy Laboratory Hydrogen Safety Codes and Stands Group DOE Hydrogen Contamination Workshop Troy, Michigan June 13, 2014 THIS PRESENTATION DOES NOT CONTAIN ANY PROPRIETARY, CONFIDENTIAL OR OTHERWISE RESTRICTED INFORMATION 2 Outline of talk * SAE 2719 Requirements and the HCD Detector * Application Scenarios - Discreet vs. "real-time" - Centralized vs. On-site * Sensor Performance Parameters -

  7. Competition Requirements

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    ---- ----------------------------------------------- Chapter 5.2 (April 2008) Synopsizing Proposed Non-Competitive Contract Actions Citing the Authority of FAR 6.302-1 [Reference: FAR 5 and DEAR 905] Overview This section discusses publicizing sole source actions as part of the approval of a Justification for Other than Full and Open Competition (JOFOC) using the authority of FAR 6.302-1. Background The Competition in Contracting Act (CICA) of 1984 requires that all acquisitions be made using

  8. Competition Requirements

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    ---------------------------- --------------------------- Chapter 6.5 (January 2011) 1 Competition Advocate Responsibilities [Reference: FAR 6.5, FAR 7 and DEAR 906.501] Overview This section discusses the competition advocate requirements and provides a Federal Procurement Data System-New Generation (FPDS-NG) coding assistance sheet and screen shots for the FPDS-NG Competition Report. Background FAR Part 6.5, -Competition Advocates,‖ implements section 20 of the Office of Federal Procurement

  9. Interaction of light with the ZnO surface: Photon induced oxygen breathing, oxygen vacancies, persistent photoconductivity, and persistent photovoltage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gurwitz, Ron; Cohen, Rotem; Shalish, Ilan

    2014-01-21

    ZnO surfaces adsorb oxygen in the dark and emit CO{sub 2} when exposed to white light, reminiscent of the lungs of living creatures. We find that this exchange of oxygen with the ambient affects the integrity of the ZnO surface. Thus, it forms a basis for several interesting surface phenomena in ZnO, such as photoconductivity, photovoltage, and gas sensing, and has a role in ZnO electrical conduction. Using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy on ZnO nanowires, we observed a decomposition of ZnO under white light and formation of oxygen-depleted surface, which explains photoconductivity by the electron donation of oxygen vacancies. Our findings suggest that the observed decomposition of the ZnO lattice may only take place due to photon-induced reduction of ZnO by carbon containing molecules (or carbo-photonic reduction), possibly from the ambient gas, accounting in a consistent way for both the reduced demands on the energy required for decomposition and for the observed emission of lattice oxygen in the form of CO{sub 2}. The formation of oxygen-vacancy rich surface is suggested to induce surface delta doping, causing accumulation of electrons at the surface, which accounts for both the increase in conductivity and the flattening of the energy bands. Using surface photovoltage spectroscopy in ultra high vacuum, we monitored changes in the deep level spectrum. We observe a wide optical transition from a deep acceptor to the conduction band, which energy position coincides with the position of the so called green luminescence in ZnO. This green transition disappears with the formation of surface oxygen vacancies. Since the oxygen vacancies are donors, while the green transition involves surface acceptors, the results suggest that the initial emission of oxygen originates at the defect sites of the latter, thereby eliminating each other. This suggests that the green transition originates at surface Zn vacancy acceptors. Removing an oxygen atom from a Zn vacancy completes the vacancy to become a full ZnO molecule vacancy, which does not produce deep levels. Our results explain why ZnO finds use as an electrical detector for oxygen and for carbon containing gas molecules. They may also shed new light on photocatalytic uses of ZnO. It is suggested that similar surface phenomena may affect other semiconducting oxides.

  10. Methods for separating oxygen from oxygen-containing gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mackay, Richard; Schwartz, Michael; Sammells, Anthony F.

    2000-01-01

    This invention provides mixed conducting metal oxides particularly useful for the manufacture of catalytic membranes for gas-phase oxygen separation processes. The materials of this invention have the general formula: A.sub.x A'.sub.x A".sub.2-(x+x') B.sub.y B'.sub.y B".sub.2-(y+y') O.sub.5+z ; where x and x' are greater than 0; y and y' are greater than 0; x+x' is less than or equal to 2; y+y' is less than or equal to 2; z is a number that makes the metal oxide charge neutral; A is an element selected from the f block lanthanide elements; A' is an element selected from Be, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba and Ra; A" is an element selected from the f block lanthanides or Be, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba and Ra; B is an element selected from the group consisting of Al, Ga, In or mixtures thereof; and B' and B" are different elements and are independently selected from the group of elements Mg or the d-block transition elements. The invention also provides methods for oxygen separation and oxygen enrichment of oxygen deficient gases which employ mixed conducting metal oxides of the above formula. Examples of the materials used for the preparation of the membrane include A.sub.x Sr.sub.x' B.sub.y Fe.sub.y' Co.sub.2-(y+y') O.sub.5+z, where x is about 0.3 to about 0.5, x' is about 1.5 to about 1.7, y is 0.6, y' is between about 1.0 and 1.4 and B is Ga or Al.

  11. Composite oxygen ion transport element

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, Jack C. (Getzville, NY); Besecker, Charles J. (Batavia, IL); Chen, Hancun (Williamsville, NY); Robinson, Earil T. (Mentor, OH)

    2007-06-12

    A composite oxygen ion transport element that has a layered structure formed by a dense layer to transport oxygen ions and electrons and a porous support layer to provide mechanical support. The dense layer can be formed of a mixture of a mixed conductor, an ionic conductor, and a metal. The porous support layer can be fabricated from an oxide dispersion strengthened metal, a metal-reinforced intermetallic alloy, a boron-doped Mo.sub.5Si.sub.3-based intermetallic alloy or combinations thereof. The support layer can be provided with a network of non-interconnected pores and each of said pores communicates between opposite surfaces of said support layer. Such a support layer can be advantageously employed to reduce diffusion resistance in any type of element, including those using a different material makeup than that outlined above.

  12. Catalyst containing oxygen transport membrane

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Christie, Gervase Maxwell; Wilson, Jamie Robyn; van Hassel, Bart Antonie

    2012-12-04

    A composite oxygen transport membrane having a dense layer, a porous support layer and an intermediate porous layer located between the dense layer and the porous support layer. Both the dense layer and the intermediate porous layer are formed from an ionic conductive material to conduct oxygen ions and an electrically conductive material to conduct electrons. The porous support layer has a high permeability, high porosity, and a high average pore diameter and the intermediate porous layer has a lower permeability and lower pore diameter than the porous support layer. Catalyst particles selected to promote oxidation of a combustible substance are located in the intermediate porous layer and in the porous support adjacent to the intermediate porous layer. The catalyst particles can be formed by wicking a solution of catalyst precursors through the porous support toward the intermediate porous layer.

  13. Natural Ores as Oxygen Carriers in Chemical Looping Combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tian, Hanjing; Siriwardane, Ranjani; Simonyi, Thomas; Poston, James

    2013-08-01

    Chemical looping combustion (CLC) is a combustion technology that utilizes oxygen from oxygen carriers (OC), such as metal oxides, instead of air to combust fuels. The use of natural minerals as oxygen carriers has advantages, such as lower cost and availability. Eight materials, based on copper or iron oxides, were selected for screening tests of CLC processes using coal and methane as fuels. Thermogravimetric experiments and bench-scale fixed-bed reactor tests were conducted to investigate the oxygen transfer capacity, reaction kinetics, and stability during cyclic reduction/oxidation reaction. Most natural minerals showed lower combustion capacity than pure CuO/Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} due to low-concentrations of active oxide species in minerals. In coal CLC, chryscolla (Cu-based), magnetite, and limonite (Fe-based) demonstrated better reaction performances than other materials. The addition of steam improved the coal CLC performance when using natural ores because of the steam gasification of coal and the subsequent reaction of gaseous fuels with active oxide species in the natural ores. In methane CLC, chryscolla, hematite, and limonite demonstrated excellent reactivity and stability in 50-cycle thermogravimetric analysis tests. Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-based ores possess greater oxygen utilization but require an activation period before achieving full performance in methane CLC. Particle agglomeration issues associated with the application of natural ores in CLC processes were also studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM).

  14. Oxygen-Enriched Combustion | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Oxygen-Enriched Combustion Oxygen-Enriched Combustion This tip sheet discusses how an increase in oxygen in combustion air can reduce the energy loss in the exhaust gases and increase process heating system efficiency. PROCESS HEATING TIP SHEET #3 PDF icon Oxygen-Enriched Combustion (September 2005) More Documents & Publications Save Energy Now in Your Process Heating Systems Waste Heat Reduction and Recovery for Improving Furnace Efficiency, Productivity and Emissions Performance: A

  15. Higher Education | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Education » For Students & Educators » Higher Education Higher Education Chemist working in a laboratory. Students considering or planning for a career in a hydrogen- or fuel-cell-related field can use the resources below to read about available career opportunities, college programs that emphasis hydrogen and fuel cell research, and energy-related educational opportunities such as scholarships and internships. College-Level Materials - Textbooks and other reading materials for

  16. Electrochemical oxygen pumps. Final CRADA report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carter, J. D. Noble, J.

    2009-10-01

    All tasks of the Work Plan of ISTC Project 2277p have been completed, thus: (1) techniques of chemical synthesis were developed for more than ten recipes of electrolyte based on cerium oxide doped with 20 mole% of gadolinium (CeGd)O{sub 2}, doped by more than 10 oxide systems including 6 recipes in addition to the Work Plan; (2) electric conductivity and mechanical strength of CeGd specimens with additions of oxide systems were performed, two candidate materials for the electrolyte of electrochemical oxygen pump (pure CeGd and CeGd doped by 0.2 wt% of a transition metal) were chosen; (3) extended studies of mechanical strength of candidate material specimens were performed at room temperature and at 400, 600, 800 C; (4) fixtures for determination of mechanical strength of tubes by external pressure above 40 atmospheres at temperature up to 700 C were developed and fabricated; and (5) technology of slip casting of tubes from pure (Ce,Gd)O{sub 2} and of (Ce,Gd)O{sub 2} doped by 0.2 wt% of a transition metal, withstanding external pressure of minimum 40 atmospheres at temperature up to 700 C was developed, a batch of tubes was sent for testing to Argonne National Laboratory; (6) technology of making nanopowder from pure (Ce,Gd)O{sub 2} was developed based on chemical synthesis and laser ablation techniques, a batch of nanopowder with the weight 1 kg was sent for testing to Argonne National Laboratory; (7) a business plan for establishing a company for making powders of materials for electrochemical oxygen pump was developed; and (8) major results obtained within the Project were reported at international conferences and published in the Russian journal Electrochemistry. In accordance with the Work Plan a business trip of the following project participants was scheduled for April 22-29, 2006, to Tonawanda, NY, USA: Manager Victor Borisov; Leader of technology development Gennady Studenikin; Leader of business planning Elena Zadorozhnaya; Leader of production Vasily Lepalovsky; and Translator Vladimir Litvinov. During this trip project participants were to discuss with the project Technical Monitor J.D. Carter and representative of Praxair Inc. J. Chen the results of project activities (prospects of transition metal-doped material application in oxygen pumps), as well as the prospects of cooperation with Praxair at the meeting with the company management in the following fields: (1) Deposition of thin films of oxide materials of complex composition on support by magnetron and ion sputtering, research of coatings properties; (2) Development of block-type structure technology (made of porous and dense ceramics) for oxygen pump. The block-type structure is promising because when the size of electrolyte block is 2 x 2 inches and assembly height is 10 inches (5 blocks connected together) the area of active surface is ca. 290 square inches (in case of 8 slots), that roughly corresponds to one tube with diameter 1 inch and height 100 inches. So performance of the system made of such blocks may be by a factor of two or three higher than that of tube-based system. However one month before the visit, J. Chen notified us of internal changes at Praxair and the cancellation of the visit to Tonawanda, NY. During consultations with the project Technical Monitor J.D. Carter and Senior Project Manager A. Taylor a decision was made to extend the project term by 2 quarters to prepare proposals for follow-on activities during this extension (development of block-type structures made of dense and porous oxide ceramics for electrochemical oxygen pumps) using the funds that were not used for the trip to the US.

  17. Differentiating the role of lithium and oxygen in retaining deuterium on lithiated graphite plasma-facing components

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    C.N. Taylor; J. P. Allain; P. S. Krstic; J. Dadras; C. H. Skinner; K. E. Luitjohan

    2013-11-01

    Laboratory experiments have been used to investigate the fundamental interactions responsible for deuterium retention in lithiated graphite. Oxygen was found to be present and play a key role in experiments that simulated NSTX lithium conditioning, where the atomic surface concentration can increase to >40% when deuterium retention chemistry is observed. Quantum-classical molecular dynamic simulations elucidated this oxygen-deuterium effect and showed that oxygen retains significantly more deuterium than lithium in a simulated matrix with 20% lithium, 20% oxygen, and 60% carbon. Simulations further show that deuterium retention is even higher when lithium is removed from the matrix. Experiments artificially increased the oxygen content in graphite to approximately 16% and then bombarded with deuterium. XPS showed depletion of the oxygen and no enhanced deuterium retention, thus demonstrating that lithium is essential in retaining the oxygen that thereby retains deuterium.

  18. Differentiating the role of lithium and oxygen in retaining deuterium on lithiated graphite plasma-facing components

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taylor, C. N. [Fusion Safety Program, Idaho National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1625-7113, Idaho Falls, Idaho 83415 (United States) [Fusion Safety Program, Idaho National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1625-7113, Idaho Falls, Idaho 83415 (United States); School of Nuclear Engineering, Purdue University, 400 Central Drive, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States); Allain, J. P. [School of Nuclear Engineering, Purdue University, 400 Central Drive, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States) [School of Nuclear Engineering, Purdue University, 400 Central Drive, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States); Department of Nuclear, Plasma and Radiological Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Illinois 61801 (United States); Luitjohan, K. E. [School of Nuclear Engineering, Purdue University, 400 Central Drive, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States)] [School of Nuclear Engineering, Purdue University, 400 Central Drive, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States); Krstic, P. S. [Institute for Advanced Computational Science, Stony Brook University, New York 11794 (United States) [Institute for Advanced Computational Science, Stony Brook University, New York 11794 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee 37996 (United States); TheoretiK, Knoxville, Tennessee 379XX (United States); Dadras, J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee 37996 (United States) [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee 37996 (United States); Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Skinner, C. H. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States)] [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States)

    2014-05-15

    Laboratory experiments have been used to investigate the fundamental interactions responsible for deuterium retention in lithiated graphite. Oxygen was found to be present and play a key role in experiments that simulated NSTX lithium conditioning, where the atomic surface concentration can increase to >40% when deuterium retention chemistry is observed. Quantum-classical molecular dynamic simulations elucidated this oxygen-deuterium effect and showed that oxygen retains significantly more deuterium than lithium in a simulated matrix with 20% lithium, 20% oxygen, and 60% carbon. Simulations further show that deuterium retention is even higher when lithium is removed from the matrix. Experiments artificially increased the oxygen content in graphite to ?16% and then bombarded with deuterium. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy showed depletion of the oxygen and no enhanced deuterium retention, thus demonstrating that lithium is essential in retaining the oxygen that thereby retains deuterium.

  19. Federal / State Legislative & Regulatory Changes Required for...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Issues Federal and State Blending Restrictions Action by ASTM NCWM to address higher ethanol blends PDF icon Federal State Legislative & Regulatory Changes Required for...

  20. Willamette Oxygen Supplementation Studies : Annual Report 1994.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ewing, R.D.; Ewing, S.K.; Sheahan, J.E.

    1994-09-01

    Hydropower development and operations in the Columbia River basin have caused the loss of 5 million to 11 million salmonids. An interim goal of the Northwest Power Planning Council is to reestablish these historical numbers by doubling the present runs from 2.5 million adult fish to 5.0 million adult fish. This increase in production will be accomplished through comprehensive management of both wild and hatchery fish, but artificial propagation will play a major role in the augmentation process. The current husbandry techniques in existing hatcheries require improvements that may include changes in rearing densities, addition of oxygen, removal of excess nitrogen, and improvement in raceway design. Emphasis will be placed on the ability to increase the number of fish released from hatcheries that survive to return as adults. Rearing density is one of the most important elements in fish culture. Fish culturists have attempted to rear fish in hatchery ponds at densities that most efficiently use the rearing space available. Such efficiency studies require a knowledge of cost of rearing and the return of adults to the fisheries and to the hatchery.

  1. Catalysts for conversion of methane to higher hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Siriwardane, Ranjani V. (Morgantown, WV)

    1993-01-01

    Catalysts for converting methane to higher hydrocarbons such as ethane and ethylene in the presence of oxygen at temperatures in the range of about 700.degree. to 900.degree. C. are described. These catalysts comprise calcium oxide or gadolinium oxide respectively promoted with about 0.025-0.4 mole and about 0.1-0.7 mole sodium pyrophosphate. A preferred reaction temperature in a range of about 800.degree. to 850.degree. C. with a preferred oxygen-to-methane ratio of about 2:1 provides an essentially constant C.sub.2 hydrocarbon yield in the range of about 12 to 19 percent over a period of time greater than about 20 hours.

  2. SUPPORTED DENSE CERAMIC MEMBRANES FOR OXYGEN SEPARATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Timothy L. Ward

    2002-07-01

    Mixed-conducting ceramics have the ability to conduct oxygen with perfect selectivity at elevated temperatures, making them extremely attractive as membrane materials for oxygen separation and membrane reactor applications. While the conductivity of these materials can be quite high at elevated temperatures (typically 800-1000 C), much higher oxygen fluxes, or, alternatively, equivalent fluxes at lower temperatures, could be provided by supported thin or thick film membrane layers. Based on that motivation, the objective of this project was to explore the use of ultrafine aerosol-derived powder of a mixed-conducting ceramic material for fabrication of supported thick-film dense membranes. The project focused on the mixed-conducting ceramic composition SrCo{sub 0.5}FeO{sub x} (SCFO) because of the desirable permeability and stability of that material, as reported in the literature. Appropriate conditions to produce the submicron SrCo{sub 0.5}FeO{sub x} powder using aerosol pyrolysis were determined. Porous supports of the same composition were produced by partial sintering of a commercially obtained powder that possessed significantly larger particle size than the aerosol-derived powder. The effects of sintering conditions (temperature, atmosphere) on the porosity and microstructure of the porous discs were studied, and a standard support fabrication procedure was adopted. Subsequently, a variety of paste and slurry formulations were explored utilizing the aerosol-derived SCFO powder. These formulations were applied to the porous SCFO support by a doctor blade or spin coating procedure. Sintering of the supported membrane layer was then conducted, and additional layers were deposited and sintered in some cases. The primary characterization methods were X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy, and room-temperature nitrogen permeation was used to assess defect status of the membranes.We found that non-aqueous paste/slurry formulations incorporating dispersant, plasticizer and binder provided superior cracking resistance compared to simple water, alcohol, or polyethylene glycol (PEG) based formulations. With a formulation employing castor oil as dispersant, isopropyl alcohol/mineral spirits as solvent, polyvinyl butyral as binder, and dibutyl phthalate/PEG as plasticizer, sintered SCFO membrane layers approximately 5 {micro}m thick with no apparent cracks were prepared using spin coating with several coats and sintering cycles. A similar but more viscous formulation applied by doctor blade gave a {approx} 10 {micro}m thick membrane layer in one coat, but with some apparent cracking. We demonstrated that the membrane layer could be densified while retaining porosity in the chemically identical support. This was accomplished by pre-sintering the support in air (1050 C), which coarsened the grain size and provided a relatively stable plate-shaped granular microstructure, followed by membrane layer fabrication with the highly-sinterable aerosol powder. Final densification was conducted by sintering in nitrogen ({approx}1100 C), which provided accelerated sintering rates and led to the desired layered perovskite phase content. In spite of these successes, low-temperature pressure-driven permeation testing with N2 showed that even the best membranes were not sufficiently defect free for high-temperature oxygen permeation testing. The source of these defects were not readily apparent from scanning electron microscopy, though incomplete or nonuniform membrane layer coverage from edge to edge of the support was probably one important factor.

  3. Oxygen ion-beam microlithography

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tsuo, Y.S.

    1991-08-20

    A method of providing and developing a resist on a substrate for constructing integrated circuit (IC) chips includes the following steps: of depositing a thin film of amorphous silicon or hydrogenated amorphous silicon on the substrate and exposing portions of the amorphous silicon to low-energy oxygen ion beams to oxidize the amorphous silicon at those selected portions. The nonoxidized portions are then removed by etching with RF-excited hydrogen plasma. Components of the IC chip can then be constructed through the removed portions of the resist. The entire process can be performed in an in-line vacuum production system having several vacuum chambers. Nitrogen or carbon ion beams can also be used. 5 figures.

  4. Device and method for separating oxygen isotopes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rockwood, Stephen D. (Los Alamos, NM); Sander, Robert K. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1984-01-01

    A device and method for separating oxygen isotopes with an ArF laser which produces coherent radiation at approximately 193 nm. The output of the ArF laser is filtered in natural air and applied to an irradiation cell where it preferentially photodissociates molecules of oxygen gas containing .sup.17 O or .sup.18 O oxygen nuclides. A scavenger such as O.sub.2, CO or ethylene is used to collect the preferentially dissociated oxygen atoms and recycled to produce isotopically enriched molecular oxygen gas. Other embodiments utilize an ArF laser which is narrowly tuned with a prism or diffraction grating to preferentially photodissociate desired isotopes. Similarly, desired mixtures of isotopic gas can be used as a filter to photodissociate enriched preselected isotopes of oxygen.

  5. Contiguous Platinum Monolayer Oxygen Reduction Electrocatalysts on

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High-Stability-Low-Cost Supports | Department of Energy Contiguous Platinum Monolayer Oxygen Reduction Electrocatalysts on High-Stability-Low-Cost Supports Contiguous Platinum Monolayer Oxygen Reduction Electrocatalysts on High-Stability-Low-Cost Supports Presented at the Department of Energy Fuel Cell Projects Kickoff Meeting, September 1 - October 1, 2009 PDF icon adzic_bnl_kickoff.pdf More Documents & Publications Platinum Monolayer Electrocatalysts for Oxygen Reduction Reaction

  6. Higher Power Energy LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Higher Power Energy LLC Jump to: navigation, search Name: Higher Power Energy, LLC Place: Flower Mound, Texas Zip: 78028 Sector: Renewable Energy, Wind energy Product: Higher Power...

  7. Jupiter Oxygen Corporation | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Place: Schiller Park, Illinois Zip: 60176 Product: Illinois-based oxy-fuel combustion company involved in the capture of CO2. References: Jupiter Oxygen Corporation1...

  8. Using vanadium in spinel as a sensor of oxygen fugacity in meteorites:

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Applications to Mars, Vesta, and other asteroids. (Conference) | SciTech Connect Using vanadium in spinel as a sensor of oxygen fugacity in meteorites: Applications to Mars, Vesta, and other asteroids. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Using vanadium in spinel as a sensor of oxygen fugacity in meteorites: Applications to Mars, Vesta, and other asteroids. Some meteorites do not contain mineral assemblages required to apply traditional oxy-barometers. Here we introduce a technique

  9. EIA-819, Monthly Oxygenate Report Page 1

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    EIA-819, Monthly Oxygenate Report Page 1 U. S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY INFORMATION ADMINISTRATION Washington, D. C. 20585 OMB No. 1905-0165 Expiration Date: 05/31/2016 (Revised 2013) EIA-819 MONTHLY OXYGENATE REPORT INSTRUCTIONS ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... QUESTIONS If, after reading the

  10. Oxygen ion-conducting dense ceramic

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Balachandran, Uthamalingam (Hinsdale, IL); Kleefisch, Mark S. (Naperville, IL); Kobylinski, Thaddeus P. (Lisle, IL); Morissette, Sherry L. (Las Cruces, NM); Pei, Shiyou (Naperville, IL)

    1996-01-01

    Preparation, structure, and properties of mixed metal oxide compositions containing at least strontium, cobalt, iron and oxygen are described. The crystalline mixed metal oxide compositions of this invention have, for example, structure represented by Sr.sub..alpha. (Fe.sub.1-x Co.sub.x).sub..alpha.+.beta. O.sub..delta. where x is a number in a range from 0.01 to about 1, .alpha. is a number in a range from about 1 to about 4, .beta. is a number in a range upward from 0 to about 20, and .delta. is a number which renders the compound charge neutral, and wherein the composition has a non-perovskite structure. Use of the mixed metal oxides in dense ceramic membranes which exhibit oxygen ionic conductivity and selective oxygen separation, are described as well as their use in separation of oxygen from an oxygen-containing gaseous mixture.

  11. Oxygen ion-conducting dense ceramic

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Balachandran, Uthamalingam (Hinsdale, IL); Kleefisch, Mark S. (Naperville, IL); Kobylinski, Thaddeus P. (Lisle, IL); Morissette, Sherry L. (Las Cruces, NM); Pei, Shiyou (Naperville, IL)

    1997-01-01

    Preparation, structure, and properties of mixed metal oxide compositions containing at least strontium, cobalt, iron and oxygen are described. The crystalline mixed metal oxide compositions of this invention have, for example, structure represented by Sr.sub..alpha. (Fe.sub.1-x Co.sub.x).sub..alpha.+.beta. O.sub..delta. where x is a number in a range from 0.01 to about 1, .alpha. is a number in a range from about 1 to about 4, .beta. is a number in a range upward from 0 to about 20, and .delta. is a number which renders the compound charge neutral, and wherein the composition has a non-perovskite structure. Use of the mixed metal oxides in dense ceramic membranes which exhibit oxygen ionic conductivity and selective oxygen separation, are described as well as their use in separation of oxygen from an oxygen-containing gaseous mixture.

  12. Modelling Hydrogen Reduction and Hydrodeoxygenation of Oxygenates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhao, Y.; Xu, Q.; Cheah, S.

    2013-01-01

    Based on Density Functional Theory (DFT) simulations, we have studied the reduction of nickel oxide and biomass derived oxygenates (catechol, guaiacol, etc.) in hydrogen. Both the kinetic barrier and thermodynamic favorability are calculated with respect to the modeled reaction pathways. In early-stage reduction of the NiO(100) surface by hydrogen, the pull-off of the surface oxygen atom and simultaneous activation of the nearby Ni atoms coordinately dissociate the hydrogen molecules so that a water molecule can be formed, leaving an oxygen vacancy on the surface. In hydrogen reaction with oxygenates catalyzed by transition metals, hydrogenation of the aromatic carbon ring normally dominates. However, selective deoxygenation is of particular interest for practical application such as biofuel conversion. Our modeling shows that doping of the transition metal catalysts can change the orientation of oxygenates adsorbed on metal surfaces. The correlation between the selectivity of reaction and the orientation of adsorption are discussed.

  13. Cast Stone Formulation At Higher Sodium Concentrations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fox, K. M.; Roberts, K. A.; Edwards, T. B.

    2013-09-17

    A low temperature waste form known as Cast Stone is being considered to provide supplemental Low Activity Waste (LAW) immobilization capacity for the Hanford site. Formulation of Cast Stone at high sodium concentrations is of interest since a significant reduction in the necessary volume of Cast Stone and subsequent disposal costs could be achieved if an acceptable waste form can be produced with a high sodium molarity salt solution combined with a high water to premix (or dry blend) ratio. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the factors involved with increasing the sodium concentration in Cast Stone, including production and performance properties and the retention and release of specific components of interest. Three factors were identified for the experimental matrix: the concentration of sodium in the simulated salt solution, the water to premix ratio, and the blast furnace slag portion of the premix. The salt solution simulants used in this study were formulated to represent the overall average waste composition. The cement, blast furnace slag, and fly ash were sourced from a supplier in the Hanford area in order to be representative. The test mixes were prepared in the laboratory and fresh properties were measured. Fresh density increased with increasing sodium molarity and with decreasing water to premix ratio, as expected given the individual densities of these components. Rheology measurements showed that all of the test mixes produced very fluid slurries. The fresh density and rheology data are of potential value in designing a future Cast Stone production facility. Standing water and density gradient testing showed that settling is not of particular concern for the high sodium compositions studied. Heat of hydration measurements may provide some insight into the reactions that occur within the test mixes, which may in turn be related to the properties and performance of the waste form. These measurements showed that increased sodium concentration in the salt solution reduced the time to peak heat flow, and reducing the amount of slag in the premix increased the time to peak heat flow. These observations may help to describe some of the cured properties of the samples, in particular the differences in compressive strength observed after 28 and 90 days of curing. Samples were cured for at least 28 days at ambient temperature in the laboratory prior to cured properties analyses. The low activity waste form for disposal at the Hanford Site is required to have a compressive strength of at least 500 psi. After 28 days of curing, several of the test mixes had mean compressive strengths that were below the 500 psi requirement. Higher sodium concentrations and higher water to premix ratios led to reduced compressive strength. Higher fly ash concentrations decreased the compressive strength after 28 days of curing. This may be explained in that the cementitious phases matured more quickly in the mixes with higher concentrations of slag, as evidenced by the data for the time to peak heat generation. All of the test mixes exhibited higher mean compressive strengths after 90 days of curing, with only one composition having a mean compressive strength of less than 500 psi. Leach indices were determined for the test mixes for contaminants of interest. The leaching performance of the mixes evaluated in this study was not particularly sensitive to the factors used in the experimental design. This may be beneficial in demonstrating that the performance of the waste form is robust with respect to changes in the mix composition. The results of this study demonstrate the potential to achieve significantly higher waste loadings in Cast Stone and other low temperature, cementitious waste forms. Additional work is needed to elucidate the hydration mechanisms occurring in Cast Stone formulated with highly concentrated salt solutions since these reactions are responsible for determining the performance of the cured waste form. The thermal analyses completed in this study provide some preliminary insight, although the limited

  14. Cast Stone Formulation At Higher Sodium Concentrations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fox, K. M.; Roberts, K. A.; Edwards, T. B.

    2014-02-28

    A low temperature waste form known as Cast Stone is being considered to provide supplemental Low Activity Waste (LAW) immobilization capacity for the Hanford site. Formulation of Cast Stone at high sodium concentrations is of interest since a significant reduction in the necessary volume of Cast Stone and subsequent disposal costs could be achieved if an acceptable waste form can be produced with a high sodium molarity salt solution combined with a high water to premix (or dry blend) ratio. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the factors involved with increasing the sodium concentration in Cast Stone, including production and performance properties and the retention and release of specific components of interest. Three factors were identified for the experimental matrix: the concentration of sodium in the simulated salt solution, the water to premix ratio, and the blast furnace slag portion of the premix. The salt solution simulants used in this study were formulated to represent the overall average waste composition. The cement, blast furnace slag, and fly ash were sourced from a supplier in the Hanford area in order to be representative. The test mixes were prepared in the laboratory and fresh properties were measured. Fresh density increased with increasing sodium molarity and with decreasing water to premix ratio, as expected given the individual densities of these components. Rheology measurements showed that all of the test mixes produced very fluid slurries. The fresh density and rheology data are of potential value in designing a future Cast Stone production facility. Standing water and density gradient testing showed that settling is not of particular concern for the high sodium compositions studied. Heat of hydration measurements may provide some insight into the reactions that occur within the test mixes, which may in turn be related to the properties and performance of the waste form. These measurements showed that increased sodium concentration in the salt solution reduced the time to peak heat flow, and reducing the amount of slag in the premix increased the time to peak heat flow. These observations may help to describe some of the cured properties of the samples, in particular the differences in compressive strength observed after 28 and 90 days of curing. Samples were cured for at least 28 days at ambient temperature in the laboratory prior to cured properties analyses. The low activity waste form for disposal at the Hanford Site is required to have a compressive strength of at least 500 psi. After 28 days of curing, several of the test mixes had mean compressive strengths that were below the 500 psi requirement. Higher sodium concentrations and higher water to premix ratios led to reduced compressive strength. Higher fly ash concentrations decreased the compressive strength after 28 days of curing. This may be explained in that the cementitious phases matured more quickly in the mixes with higher concentrations of slag, as evidenced by the data for the time to peak heat generation. All of the test mixes exhibited higher mean compressive strengths after 90 days of curing, with only one composition having a mean compressive strength of less than 500 psi. Leachability indices were determined for the test mixes for contaminants of interest. The leaching performance of the mixes evaluated in this study was not particularly sensitive to the factors used in the experimental design. This may be beneficial in demonstrating that the performance of the waste form is robust with respect to changes in the mix composition. The results of this study demonstrate the potential to achieve significantly higher waste loadings in Cast Stone and other low temperature, cementitious waste forms. Additional work is needed to elucidate the hydration mechanisms occurring in Cast Stone formulated with highly concentrated salt solutions since these reactions are responsible for determining the performance of the cured waste form. The thermal analyses completed in this study provide some preliminary insight, although the l

  15. Cast Stone Formulation At Higher Sodium Concentrations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fox, K. M.; Edwards, T. A.; Roberts, K. B.

    2013-10-02

    A low temperature waste form known as Cast Stone is being considered to provide supplemental Low Activity Waste (LAW) immobilization capacity for the Hanford site. Formulation of Cast Stone at high sodium concentrations is of interest since a significant reduction in the necessary volume of Cast Stone and subsequent disposal costs could be achieved if an acceptable waste form can be produced with a high sodium molarity salt solution combined with a high water to premix (or dry blend) ratio. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the factors involved with increasing the sodium concentration in Cast Stone, including production and performance properties and the retention and release of specific components of interest. Three factors were identified for the experimental matrix: the concentration of sodium in the simulated salt solution, the water to premix ratio, and the blast furnace slag portion of the premix. The salt solution simulants used in this study were formulated to represent the overall average waste composition. The cement, blast furnace slag, and fly ash were sourced from a supplier in the Hanford area in order to be representative. The test mixes were prepared in the laboratory and fresh properties were measured. Fresh density increased with increasing sodium molarity and with decreasing water to premix ratio, as expected given the individual densities of these components. Rheology measurements showed that all of the test mixes produced very fluid slurries. The fresh density and rheology data are of potential value in designing a future Cast Stone production facility. Standing water and density gradient testing showed that settling is not of particular concern for the high sodium compositions studied. Heat of hydration measurements may provide some insight into the reactions that occur within the test mixes, which may in turn be related to the properties and performance of the waste form. These measurements showed that increased sodium concentration in the salt solution reduced the time to peak heat flow, and reducing the amount of slag in the premix increased the time to peak heat flow. These observations may help to describe some of the cured properties of the samples, in particular the differences in compressive strength observed after 28 and 90 days of curing. Samples were cured for at least 28 days at ambient temperature in the laboratory prior to cured properties analyses. The low activity waste form for disposal at the Hanford Site is required to have a compressive strength of at least 500 psi. After 28 days of curing, several of the test mixes had mean compressive strengths that were below the 500 psi requirement. Higher sodium concentrations and higher water to premix ratios led to reduced compressive strength. Higher fly ash concentrations decreased the compressive strength after 28 days of curing. This may be explained in that the cementitious phases matured more quickly in the mixes with higher concentrations of slag, as evidenced by the data for the time to peak heat generation. All of the test mixes exhibited higher mean compressive strengths after 90 days of curing, with only one composition having a mean compressive strength of less than 500 psi. Leach indices were determined for the test mixes for contaminants of interest. The leaching performance of the mixes evaluated in this study was not particularly sensitive to the factors used in the experimental design. This may be beneficial in demonstrating that the performance of the waste form is robust with respect to changes in the mix composition. The results of this study demonstrate the potential to achieve significantly higher waste loadings in Cast Stone and other low temperature, cementitious waste forms. Additional work is needed to elucidate the hydration mechanisms occurring in Cast Stone formulated with highly concentrated salt solutions since these reactions are responsible for determining the performance of the cured waste form. The thermal analyses completed in this study provide some preliminary insight, although the limited

  16. Potential hydrogen and oxygen partial pressures in legacy plutonium oxide packages at Oak Ridge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Veirs, Douglas K.

    2014-07-07

    An approach to estimate the maximum hydrogen and oxygen partial pressures within sealed containers is described and applied to a set of packages containing high-purity plutonium dioxide. The approach uses experimentally determined maximum hydrogen and oxygen partial pressures and scales the experimentally determined pressures to the relevant packaged material properties. The important material properties are the specific wattage and specific surface area (SSA). Important results from the experimental determination of maximum partial pressures are (1) the ratio of hydrogen to oxygen is stoichiometric, and (2) the maximum pressures increase with increasing initial rates of production. The material properties that influence the rates are the material specific wattage and the SSA. The unusual properties of these materials, high specific wattage and high SSA, result in higher predicted maximum pressures than typical plutonium dioxide in storage. The pressures are well within the deflagration range for mixtures of hydrogen and oxygen.

  17. BES Requirements Review 2014

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    BES Requirements Review 2014 Science Engagement Move your data Programs & Workshops Science Requirements Reviews Network Requirements Reviews Documents and Background Materials FAQ for Case Study Authors BER Requirements Review 2015 ASCR Requirements Review 2015 Previous Reviews HEP/NP Requirements Review 2013 FES Requirements Review 2014 BES Requirements Review 2014 BES Attendees 2014 Requirements Review Reports Case Studies Contact Us Technical Assistance: 1 800-33-ESnet (Inside US) 1

  18. FES Requirements Review 2014

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    FES Requirements Review 2014 Science Engagement Move your data Programs & Workshops Science Requirements Reviews Network Requirements Reviews Documents and Background Materials FAQ for Case Study Authors BER Requirements Review 2015 ASCR Requirements Review 2015 Previous Reviews HEP/NP Requirements Review 2013 FES Requirements Review 2014 FES Attendees 2014 BES Requirements Review 2014 Requirements Review Reports Case Studies Contact Us Technical Assistance: 1 800-33-ESnet (Inside US) 1

  19. Petrochemical feedstock from basic oxygen steel furnace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greenwood, C.W.; Hardwick, W.E.

    1983-10-01

    Iron bath gasification in which coal, lime, steam and oxygen are injected into a bath of molten iron for the production of a medium-Btu gas is described. The process has its origin in basic oxygen steelmaking. It operates at high temperatures and is thus not restrictive on the type of coal used. The ash is retained in the slag. The process is also very efficient. The authors suggest that in the present economic climate in the iron and steel industry, such a plant could be sited where existing coal-handling, oxygen and steelmaking equipment are available.

  20. Requirements for Wind Development

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In 2015 Oklahoma amended the Oklahoma Wind Energy Development Act. The amendments added new financial security requirements, setback requirements, and notification requirements for wind energy...

  1. BER Requirements Review 2015

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Reviews Network Requirements Reviews Documents and Background Materials FAQ for Case Study Authors BER Requirements Review 2015 BER Attendees 2015 ASCR Requirements...

  2. Network Requirements Reviews

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Reviews Network Requirements Reviews Documents and Background Materials FAQ for Case Study Authors BER Requirements Review 2015 ASCR Requirements Review 2015 Previous...

  3. Interaction of iron-copper mixed metal oxide oxygen carriers with simulated synthesis gas derived from steam gasification of coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siriwardane, Ranjani V.; Ksepko, Ewelina; Tian, Hanging

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this work was to prepare supported bimetallic FeCu oxygen carriers and to evaluate their performance for the chemical-looping combustion (CLC) process with simulated synthesis gas derived from steam gasification of coal/air. Ten-cycle CLC tests were conducted with FeCu oxygen carriers in an atmospheric thermogravimetric analyzer utilizing simulated synthesis gas derived from the steam gasification of Polish Janina coal and Illinois #6 coal as fuel. The effect of temperature on reaction rates, chemical stability, and oxygen transport capacity were determined. Fractional reduction, fractional oxidation, and global rates of reactions were calculated from the thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) data. The supports greatly affected reaction performance. Data showed that reaction rates and oxygen capacities were stable during the 10-cycle TGA tests for most FeCu/support oxygen carriers. Bimetallic FeCu/support oxygen carriers showed higher reduction rates than Fe-support oxygen carriers. The carriers containing higher Cu content showed better stabilities and better reduction rates. An increase in temperature from 800 C to 900 C did not have a significant effect on either the oxygen capacity or the reduction rates with synthesis gas derived from Janina coal. Oxidation reaction was significantly faster than reduction reaction for all supported FeCu oxygen carriers. Carriers with higher Cu content had lower oxidation rates. Ten-cycle TGA data indicated that these oxygen carriers had stable performances at 800900 C and might be successfully used up to 900 C for coal CLC reaction in the presence of steam.

  4. Direct determination of PB in gasoline emulsions using Ar and Ar-oxygen ICPs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brenner, I.B.; Zander, A.; Shkolnik, J.; Kim, S.

    1995-12-31

    Lead in gasoline emulsions was determined by argon and argon-oxygen ICP-AES. Intensity variations of inorganic and organic lead species in aqueous solution and in gasoline and decalin emulsions were studied. In an aqueous solution Pb II intensities were higher than those observed in gasoline and decalin emulsions and were higher in the argon ICP than in an argon-oxygen plasma. Pb intensities were influenced by aerosol flow rate, oxygen doping and emulsion composition, which were all compensated by Y II the internal standard. Pb LODs in the emulsions were not significantly degraded relative to an aqueous solution, and were adequate for the direct determination of lead in gasoline at the mg/kg concentration. The accuracy of Pb determination in spiked gasoline emulsions and in NIST reference fuels was satisfactory. Mg II/Mg I ratios indicate that emulsion plasmas are similar to ICPs containing water only.

  5. Engineering MulticomponentNanocatalystsfor Oxygen Reduction (Conference) |

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    SciTech Connect Engineering MulticomponentNanocatalystsfor Oxygen Reduction Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Engineering MulticomponentNanocatalystsfor Oxygen Reduction Authors: Guo, Shaojun [1] + Show Author Affiliations Los Alamos National Laboratory [Los Alamos National Laboratory Publication Date: 2014-03-27 OSTI Identifier: 1126640 Report Number(s): LA-UR-13-28233 DOE Contract Number: AC52-06NA25396 Resource Type: Conference Resource Relation: Conference: 247th ACS National

  6. Platinum Monolayer Electrocatalysts for Oxygen Reduction Reaction |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Platinum Monolayer Electrocatalysts for Oxygen Reduction Reaction Platinum Monolayer Electrocatalysts for Oxygen Reduction Reaction Download presentation slides from the June 19, 2012, Fuel Cell Technologies Program webinar, "BNL's Low-Platinum Electrocatalysts for Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles (FCEVs)." PDF icon BNL's Low-Platinum Electrocatalysts for Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles (FCEVs) Webinar Slides More Documents & Publications Contiguous Platinum

  7. Oxygen ion-conducting dense ceramic

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Balachandran, Uthamalingam (Hinsdale, IL); Kleefisch, Mark S. (Plainfield, IL); Kobylinski, Thaddeus P. (Prospect, PA); Morissette, Sherry L. (Las Cruces, NM); Pei, Shiyou (Naperville, IL)

    1998-01-01

    Preparation, structure, and properties of mixed metal oxide compositions and their uses are described. Mixed metal oxide compositions of the invention have stratified crystalline structure identifiable by means of powder X-ray diffraction patterns. In the form of dense ceramic membranes, the present compositions demonstrate an ability to separate oxygen selectively from a gaseous mixture containing oxygen and one or more other volatile components by means of ionic conductivities.

  8. Selective reduction of NOx in oxygen rich environments with plasma...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    reduction of NOx in oxygen rich environments with plasma-assisted catalysis: Catalyst development and mechanistic studies Selective reduction of NOx in oxygen rich environments...

  9. Oxygen And Carbon Isotope Ratios Of Hydrothermal Minerals From...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Oxygen And Carbon Isotope Ratios Of Hydrothermal Minerals From Yellowstone Drill Cores Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal Article: Oxygen...

  10. Artificial oxygen transport protein (Patent) | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Patent: Artificial oxygen transport protein Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Artificial oxygen transport protein You are accessing a document from the Department of...

  11. Artificial oxygen transport protein (Patent) | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Patent: Artificial oxygen transport protein Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Artificial oxygen transport protein This invention provides heme-containing peptides capable...

  12. Testing Oxygen Reduction Reaction Activity with the Rotating...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Testing Oxygen Reduction Reaction Activity with the Rotating Disc Electrode Technique Testing Oxygen Reduction Reaction Activity with the Rotating Disc Electrode Technique ...

  13. Webinar: Testing Oxygen Reduction Reaction Activity with the...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Testing Oxygen Reduction Reaction Activity with the Rotating Disc Electrode Technique Webinar: Testing Oxygen Reduction Reaction Activity with the Rotating Disc Electrode Technique ...

  14. Advantages of Oxygenates Fuels over Gasoline in Direct Injection...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Advantages of Oxygenates Fuels over Gasoline in Direct Injection Spark Ignition Engines Advantages of Oxygenates Fuels over Gasoline in Direct Injection Spark Ignition Engines ...

  15. Self-powered Hydrogen + Oxygen Injection System | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Self-powered Hydrogen + Oxygen Injection System Self-powered Hydrogen + Oxygen Injection System Presentation given at DEER 2006, August 20-24, 2006, Detroit, Michigan. Sponsored by ...

  16. Migration Mechanisms of Oxygen Interstitial Clusters in UO2 ...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Migration Mechanisms of Oxygen Interstitial Clusters in UO2 Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Migration Mechanisms of Oxygen Interstitial Clusters in UO2 Understanding the ...

  17. Oxygen-Enriched Combustion for Military Diesel Engine Generators...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Oxygen-Enriched Combustion for Military Diesel Engine Generators Oxygen-Enriched Combustion for Military Diesel Engine Generators Substantial increases in brake power and...

  18. Direct Observation of the Oxygenated Species during Oxygen Reduction on a

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Platinum Fuel Cell Cathode | Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource Direct Observation of the Oxygenated Species during Oxygen Reduction on a Platinum Fuel Cell Cathode Friday, December 20, 2013 Fuel Cell Figure 1 Figure 1. In situ x-ray spectroscopy identification and DFT simulations of oxygenated intermediates on a platinum fuel-cell cathode. The study shows that two types of hydroxyl intermediates (non-hydrated OH and hydrated OH) with distinct activities coexist on a fuel-cell

  19. A Chemical Kinetic Modeling Study of the Effects of Oxygenated Hydrocarbons on Soot Emissions from Diesel Engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Westbrook, C K; Pitz, W J; Curran, H J

    2005-11-14

    A detailed chemical kinetic modeling approach is used to examine the phenomenon of suppression of sooting in diesel engines by addition of oxygenated hydrocarbon species to the fuel. This suppression, which has been observed experimentally for a few years, is explained kinetically as a reduction in concentrations of soot precursors present in the hot products of a fuel-rich diesel ignition zone when oxygenates are included. Oxygenates decrease the overall equivalence ratio of the igniting mixture, producing higher ignition temperatures and more radical species to consume more soot precursor species, leading to lower soot production. The kinetic model is also used to show how different oxygenates, ester structures in particular, can have different soot-suppression efficiencies due to differences in molecular structure of the oxygenated species.

  20. BER Requirements Review 2015

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    BER Attendees 2015 ASCR Requirements Review 2015 Previous Reviews Requirements Review Reports Case Studies News & Publications ESnet News Publications and Presentations Galleries ESnet Awards and Honors Blog ESnet Live Home » Science Engagement » Science Requirements Reviews » Network Requirements Reviews » BER Requirements Review 2015 Science Engagement Move your data Programs & Workshops Science Requirements Reviews Network Requirements Reviews Documents and Background Materials

  1. ASCR Requirements Review 2015

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ASCR Requirements Review 2015 ASCR Attendees 2015 Previous Reviews Requirements Review Reports Case Studies News & Publications ESnet News Publications and Presentations Galleries ESnet Awards and Honors Blog ESnet Live Home » Science Engagement » Science Requirements Reviews » Network Requirements Reviews » ASCR Requirements Review 2015 Science Engagement Move your data Programs & Workshops Science Requirements Reviews Network Requirements Reviews Documents and Background Materials

  2. Science Requirements Process

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Science Requirements Reviews Network Requirements Reviews Requirements Review Reports Case Studies News & Publications ESnet News Publications and Presentations Galleries ESnet Awards and Honors Blog ESnet Live Home » Science Engagement » Science Requirements Reviews Science Engagement Move your data Programs & Workshops Science Requirements Reviews Network Requirements Reviews Requirements Review Reports Case Studies Contact Us Technical Assistance: 1 800-33-ESnet (Inside US) 1

  3. Effect of cation ordering on oxygen vacancy diffusion pathways in double perovskites

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Uberuaga, Blas Pedro; Pilania, Ghanshyam

    2015-07-08

    Perovskite structured oxides (ABO3) are attractive for a number of technological applications, including as superionics because of the high oxygen conductivities they exhibit. Double perovskites (AA’BB’O6) provide even more flexibility for tailoring properties. Using accelerated molecular dynamics, we examine the role of cation ordering on oxygen vacancy mobility in one model double perovskite SrLaTiAlO6. We find that the mobility of the vacancy is very sensitive to the cation ordering, with a migration energy that varies from 0.6 to 2.7 eV. In the extreme cases, the mobility is both higher and lower than either of the two end member single perovskites.more » Further, the nature of oxygen vacancy diffusion, whether one-dimensional, two-dimensional, or three-dimensional, also varies with cation ordering. We correlate the dependence of oxygen mobility on cation structure to the distribution of Ti4+ cations, which provide unfavorable environments for the positively charged oxygen vacancy. The results demonstrate the potential of using tailored double perovskite structures to precisely control the behavior of oxygen vacancies in these materials.« less

  4. Operational feasibility of underwater Stirling engine systems using oxygen-seawater extraction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Potter, I.J.; Reader, G.T.

    1995-12-31

    The exploration of the oceans whether for societal, commercial, scientific or military reasons requires efficient and cost effective underwater vehicles. In turn, these vessels require efficient means of producing on board power for the propulsion and hotel load requirements of long endurance missions. The Stirling engine, because of its inherent closed-cycle operation, has long been an attractive candidate for underwater use and now has proved its reliability and maintainability in the arduous environment of a naval submarine application. More recently the Stirling has been considered for use in small long endurance unmanned underwater vessels (UUVs). However, with these type of vehicles the need to carry an on board oxygen supply in a very confined space has presented a number of design problems. The concept of using multi-stage vehicles with disposable energy pods has been explored and appears attractive although a major change in submarine design philosophy will be required if such vehicles are to launched from submarines. Another approach is to use a more space efficient source of oxygen. As seawater contains dissolved oxygen then if this source could be utilized to meet all or at least part of the engine`s need than a major design problem could be overcome. In this paper the findings of an initial study into the use of membranes or artificial gill techniques to provide oxygen for a Stirling powered DARPA type vehicle are presented. It has been found that only in certain sea areas is the concept of oxygen extraction feasible for use with power systems. Even in situations where there are sufficient levels of dissolved oxygen the gill system approach appears to have limited utility for UUV applications and a number of practical problems still need to be addressed.

  5. Future missions require improving LANSCE

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Future missions require improving LANSCE capabilities to support five principal research areas. 1) Improving capabilities at the Lujan Center-to use neutrons to probe soft materials-will improve understanding of the performance and aging of weapons materials, and will support development of the broad spectrum of materials needed for stockpile stewardship and threat reduction. 2) Enhancing high-accuracy nuclear cross-section measurements of actinide and short-lived isotopes for higher-fidelity

  6. Absorption process for producing oxygen and nitrogen and solution therefor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Roman, I.C.; Baker, R.W.

    1990-09-25

    Process for the separation and purification of oxygen and nitrogen is disclosed which utilizes solutions of oxygen carriers to selectively absorb oxygen from a gaseous stream, leaving nitrogen as a byproduct. In the process, an oxygen carrier capable of reversibly binding molecular oxygen is dissolved in a solvent solution, which absorbs oxygen from an oxygen-containing gaseous feed stream such as atmospheric air and desorbs oxygen to a gaseous product stream. The feed stream is maintained at a sufficiently high oxygen pressure to keep the oxygen carrier in its oxygenated form during absorption, while the product stream is maintained at a sufficiently low oxygen pressure to keep the carrier in its deoxygenated form during desorption. In an alternate mode of operation, the carrier solution is maintained at a sufficiently low temperature and high oxygen pressure to keep the oxygen carrier in its oxygenated form during absorption, and at a sufficiently high temperature to keep the carrier in its deoxygenated form during desorption. Under such conditions, exceptionally high oxygen concentrations on the order of 95% to 99% are obtained, as well as a long carrier lifetime in excess of 3 months, making the process commercially feasible. 1 figure

  7. Requirements Review Reports

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Requirements Review Reports Case Studies News & Publications ESnet News Publications and Presentations Galleries ESnet Awards and Honors Blog ESnet Live Home » Science Engagement » Science Requirements Reviews » Requirements Review Reports Science Engagement Move your data Programs & Workshops Science Requirements Reviews Network Requirements Reviews Requirements Review Reports Case Studies Contact Us Technical Assistance: 1 800-33-ESnet (Inside US) 1 800-333-7638 (Inside US) 1

  8. Regulators, Requirements, Statutes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Air Act (CAA) Requirements for air quality and air emissions from facility operations Clean Water Act (CWA) Requirements for water quality and water discharges from facility...

  9. States & Energy Efficiency in Higher Education

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This presentation, given through the DOE's Technical Assistance Program (TAP), provides information on States & Energy Efficiency in Higher Education.

  10. UPGRADING THE CEBAF INJECTOR WITH A NEW BOOSTER, HIGHER VOLTAGE GUN, AND HIGHER FINAL ENERGY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reza Kazimi, Arne Freyberger, Alicia Hofler, Andrew Hutton, Fay Hannon

    2012-07-01

    The Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) accelerator at Jefferson Lab will be upgraded from 6 GeV to 12 GeV in the next few years. To meet the requirement of the new machine and to take the opportunity to improve the beam quality, the CEBAF injector will be upgraded with a higher voltage gun, a new booster, and a new accelerating RF module. The CEBAF injector creates and accelerates three beams at different currents simultaneously. The beams are interleaved, each at one third of the RF frequency, traveling through the same beam line. The higher voltage gun will lower the space charge effects. The new booster with optimized beam dynamics will complete the bunching process and provide initial acceleration matched to the new gun voltage. Using our latest SRF design, the new booster has significantly lower x/y coupling effects that should improve our beam setup and operation for the highly sensitive parity experiments scheduled for the CEBAF's future. Finally, the new accelerating RF module will roughly double the injector final energy to match the rest of the 12 GeV accelerator. In this paper we will provide more detail about this upgrade.

  11. Ammonia producing engine utilizing oxygen separation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Easley, Jr., William Lanier (Dunlap, IL); Coleman, Gerald Nelson (Petersborough, GB); Robel, Wade James (Peoria, IL)

    2008-12-16

    A power system is provided having a power source, a first power source section with a first intake passage and a first exhaust passage, a second power source section with a second intake passage and a second exhaust passage, and an oxygen separator. The second intake passage may be fluidly isolated from the first intake passage.

  12. Reaction Mechanism of Oxygen Atoms with Unsaturated Hydrocarbons by the Crossed-Molecular-Beams Method

    DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

    Buss, R. J.; Baseman, R. J.; Guozhong, H.; Lee, Y. T.

    1982-04-01

    From a series of studies of the reaction of oxygen atoms with unsaturated hydrocarbons using the crossed molecular beam method, the dominant reaction mechanisms were found to be the simple substitution reactions with oxygen atoms replacing H, Cl, Br atom or alkyl groups. Complication due to secondary reaction was avoided by carrying out experiments under single collisions and observing primary products directly. Primary products were identified by measuring the angular and velocity distributions of products at all the mass numbers which could be detected by the mass spectrometer, and from comparison of these distributions, applying the requirement of energy and momentum conservation.

  13. Areas Participating in the Oxygenated Gasoline Program (Released in the STEO July 1999)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    1999-01-01

    Section 211(m) of the Clean Air Act (42 U.S.C. 7401-7671q) requires that gasoline containing at least 2.7% oxygen by weight is to be used in the wintertime in those areas of the county that exceed the carbon monoxide National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS). The winter oxygenated gasoline program applies to all gasoline sold in the larger of the Consolidated Metropolitan Statistical Area (CMSA) or Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) in which the nonattainment area is located.

  14. Mechanism of singlet oxygen deactivation in an electric discharge oxygen iodine laser

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Azyazov, V N; Mikheyev, P A; Torbin, A P; Pershin, A A; Heaven, M C

    2014-12-31

    We have determined the influence of the reaction of molecular singlet oxygen with a vibrationally excited ozone molecule O{sub 2}(a {sup 1}?) + O{sub 3}(?) ? 2O{sub 2} + O on the removal rate of O{sub 2}(a {sup 1}?) in an electric-discharge-driven oxygen iodine laser. This reaction has been shown to be a major channel of O{sub 2}(a {sup 1}?) loss at the output of an electric-discharge singlet oxygen generator. In addition, it can also contribute significantly to the loss of O{sub 2}(a {sup 1}?) in the discharge region of the generator. (lasers)

  15. Title 40 CFR 30 Uniform Administrative Requirements for Grants...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Administrative Requirements for Grants and Agreements with Institutions of Higher Education, Hospitals, and Other Non-Profit Organizations Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI...

  16. Conversion of Mixed Oxygenates Generated from Synthesis Gas to Fuel Range Hydrocarbon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramasamy, Karthikeyan K.; Gerber, Mark A.; Lilga, Michael A.; Flake, Matthew D.

    2012-08-19

    The growing dependence in the U.S. on foreign crude oil supplies and increased concerns regarding greenhouse gas emission has generated considerable interest in research to develop renewable and environmentally friendly liquid hydrocarbon transportation fuels. One of the strategies for achieving this is to produce intermediate compounds such as alcohols and other simple oxygenates from biomass generated synthesis gas (mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen) and further convert them into liquid hydrocarbons. The focus of this research is to investigate the effects of mixed oxygenates intermediate product compositions on the conversion step to produce hydrocarbon liquids. A typical mixed oxygenate stream is expected to contain water (around 50%), alcohols, such as methanol and ethanol (around 35%), and smaller quantities of oxygenates such as acetaldehyde, acetic acid and ethyl acetate. However the ratio and the composition of the mixed oxygenate stream generated from synthesis gas vary significantly depending on the catalyst used and the process conditions. Zeolite catalyzed deoxygenation of methanol accompanied by chain growth is well understood under Methanol-to-Gasoline (MTG) like reaction conditions using an H-ZSM-5 zeolite as the catalyst6-8. Research has also been conducted to a limited extent in the past with higher alcohols, but not with other oxygenates present9-11. Also there has been little experimental investigation into mixtures containing substantial amounts of water. The latter is of particular interest because water separation from the hydrocarbon product would be less energy intensive than first removing it from the oxygenate intermediate stream prior to hydrocarbon synthesis, potentially reducing overall processing costs.

  17. Oxygen transport in the internal xenon plasma of a dispenser hollow cathode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Capece, Angela M. Shepherd, Joseph E.; Polk, James E.; Mikellides, Ioannis G.

    2014-04-21

    Reactive gases such as oxygen and water vapor modify the surface morphology of BaO dispenser cathodes and degrade the electron emission properties. For vacuum cathodes operating at fixed temperature, the emission current drops rapidly when oxygen adsorbs on top of the low work function surface. Previous experiments have shown that plasma cathodes are more resistant to oxygen poisoning and can operate with O{sub 2} partial pressures one to two orders of magnitude higher than vacuum cathodes before the onset of poisoning occurs. Plasma cathodes used for electric thrusters are typically operated with xenon; however, gas phase barium, oxygen, and tungsten species may be found in small concentrations. The densities of these minor species are small compared with the plasma density, and thus, their presence in the discharge does not significantly alter the xenon plasma parameters. It is important, however, to consider the transport of these minor species as they may deposit on the emitter surface and affect the electron emission properties. In this work, we present the results of a material transport model used to predict oxygen fluxes to the cathode surface by solving the species conservation equations in a cathode with a 2.25?mm diameter orifice operated at a discharge current of 15?A, a Xe flow rate of 3.7 sccm, and 100?ppm of O{sub 2}. The dominant ionization process for O{sub 2} is resonant charge exchange with xenon ions. Ba is effectively recycled in the plasma; however, BaO and O{sub 2} are not. The model shows that the oxygen flux to the surface is not diffusion-limited; therefore, the high resistance to oxygen poisoning observed in plasma cathodes likely results from surface processes not considered here.

  18. DOE Connects with Higher Education Community

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    EDUconnections is a year old project, and through it we celebrate our university partners, spotlighting a different higher education institution every month.

  19. Oxygen-producing inert anodes for SOM process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pal, Uday B

    2014-02-25

    An electrolysis system for generating a metal and molecular oxygen includes a container for receiving a metal oxide containing a metallic species to be extracted, a cathode positioned to contact a metal oxide housed within the container; an oxygen-ion-conducting membrane positioned to contact a metal oxide housed within the container; an anode in contact with the oxygen-ion-conducting membrane and spaced apart from a metal oxide housed within the container, said anode selected from the group consisting of liquid metal silver, oxygen stable electronic oxides, oxygen stable crucible cermets, and stabilized zirconia composites with oxygen stable electronic oxides.

  20. Willamette Hatchery Oxygen Supplementation Studies : Annual Report 1993.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ewing, R.D.; Ewing, S.K.; Sheahan, J.E.

    1993-11-01

    Hydropower development and operations in the Columbia River basin have caused the loss of 5 million to 11 million salmonids. An interim goal of the Northwest Power Planning Council is to reestablish these historical numbers by doubling the present adult runs from 2.5 million to 5.0 million fish. This increase in production will be accomplished through comprehensive management of both wild and hatchery fish, but artificial propagation will play a major role in the augmentation process. The current husbandry techniques in existing hatcheries require improvements that may include changes in rearing densities, addition of oxygen, removal of excess nitrogen, and improvement in raceway design. Emphasis will be placed on the ability to increase the number of fish released from hatcheries that survive to return as adults.

  1. Requirements Management Database

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2009-08-13

    This application is a simplified and customized version of the RBA and CTS databases to capture federal, site, and facility requirements, link to actions that must be performed to maintain compliance with their contractual and other requirements.

  2. Conditions and Requirements

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Conditions and requirements for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Postdoctoral Research Awards are spelled out below:

  3. ARM - Reporting Requirements

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    StatisticsReporting Requirements 2016 Quarterly Reports First Quarter (PDF) Second Quarter (PDF) Third Quarter (PDF) Fourth Quarter (PDF) Past Quarterly Reports Historical Statistics Field Campaigns Operational Visitors and Accounts Data Archive and Usage (October 1995 - Present) Reporting Requirements As a matter of government policy, all U.S. Department of Energy user facilities, including the ARM Climate Research Facility, have a number of reporting requirements. The Facility is required to

  4. Electrical insulator assembly with oxygen permeation barrier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Van Der Beck, Roland R. (Lansdale, PA); Bond, James A. (Exton, PA)

    1994-01-01

    A high-voltage electrical insulator (21) for electrically insulating a thermoelectric module (17) in a spacecraft from a niobium-1% zirconium alloy wall (11) of a heat exchanger (13) filled with liquid lithium (16) while providing good thermal conductivity between the heat exchanger and the thermoelectric module. The insulator (21) has a single crystal alumina layer (SxAl.sub.2 O.sub.3, sapphire) with a niobium foil layer (32) bonded thereto on the surface of the alumina crystal (26) facing the heat exchanger wall (11), and a molybdenum layer (31) bonded to the niobium layer (32) to act as an oxygen permeation barrier to preclude the oxygen depleting effects of the lithium from causing undesirable niobium-aluminum intermetallic layers near the alumina-niobium interface.

  5. Electrical insulator assembly with oxygen permeation barrier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Van Der Beck, R.R.; Bond, J.A.

    1994-03-29

    A high-voltage electrical insulator for electrically insulating a thermoelectric module in a spacecraft from a niobium-1% zirconium alloy wall of a heat exchanger filled with liquid lithium while providing good thermal conductivity between the heat exchanger and the thermoelectric module. The insulator has a single crystal alumina layer (SxAl[sub 2]O[sub 3], sapphire) with a niobium foil layer bonded thereto on the surface of the alumina crystal facing the heat exchanger wall, and a molybdenum layer bonded to the niobium layer to act as an oxygen permeation barrier to preclude the oxygen depleting effects of the lithium from causing undesirable niobium-aluminum intermetallic layers near the alumina-niobium interface. 3 figures.

  6. Excess Oxygen Defects in Layered Cuprates

    DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

    Lightfoot, P.; Pei, S. Y.; Jorgensen, J. D.; Manthiram, A.; Tang, X. X.; Goodenough, J. B.

    1990-09-01

    Neutron powder diffraction has been used to study the oxygen defect chemistry of two non-superconducting layered cuprates, La{sub 1. 25}Dy{sub 0.75}Cu{sub 3.75}F{sub 0.5}, having a T{sup {asterisk}}- related structure, and La{sub 1.85}Sr{sub 1.15}Cu{sub 2}O{sub 6.25}, having a structure related to that of the newly discovered double-layer superconductor La{sub 2-x}Sr{sub x}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 6}. The role played by oxygen defects in determining the superconducting properties of layered cuprates is discussed.

  7. Using an energized oxygen micro-jet for improved graphene etching by focused electron beam

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kim, Songkil; Henry, Mathias; Fedorov, Andrei G.

    2015-12-07

    We report on an improved Focused Electron Beam Induced Etching (FEBIE) process, which exploits heated oxygen delivery via a continuous supersonic micro-jet resulting in faster graphene patterning and better etch feature definition. Positioning a micro-jet in close proximity to a graphene surface with minimal jet spreading due to a continuous regime of gas flow at the exit of the 10 micrometer inner diameter capillary allows for focused exposure of the surface to reactive oxygen at high mass flux and impingement energy of a supersonic gas stream localized to a small etching area exposed to electron beam. These unique benefits ofmore » focused supersonic oxygen delivery to the surface enable a dramatic increase in the etch rate of graphene with no parasitic carbon ‘halo’ deposition due to secondary electrons (SE) from backscattered electrons (BSE) in the area surrounding the etched regions. Increase of jet temperature via local nozzle heating provides means for enhancing kinetic energy of impinging oxygen molecules, which further speed up the etch, thus minimizing the beam exposure time and required electron dose, before parasitic carbon film deposition due to BSE mediated decomposition of adsorbed hydrocarbon contaminants has a measurable impact on quality of graphene etched features. Interplay of different physical mechanisms underlying an oxygen micro-jet assisted FEBIE process is discussed with support from experimental observations.« less

  8. Platinum Monolayer Electrocatalysts for Oxygen Reduction Reaction

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Platinum Monolayer Electrocatalysts for Oxygen Reduction Reaction Radoslav Adzic Co-workers: Jia Wang, Miomir Vukmirovic, Kotaro Sasaki, Stoyan Bliznakov, Yun Cai, Yu Zhang, Kurian Kuttiyiel, Kuanping Gong, YongMan Choi, Ping Liu, Hideo Naohara 1 Chemistry Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 1 Toyota Motor Corporation, Susono, Japan Webinar June 19, 2012 Outline - Introduction on fuel cells, electrocatalysis, existing developments and remaining obstacles to

  9. Requirement-Reviews.pptx

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1, 2 013 Requirements Reviews * 1½-day reviews with each Program Office * Computing and storage requirements for next 5 years * Participants - DOE ADs & Program Managers - Leading scientists using NERSC & key potential users - NERSC staff 2 High Energy Physics Fusion R esearch Reports From 6 Requirements Reviews Have Been Published 3 h%p://www.nersc.gov/science/requirements---reviews/ final---reports/ * Compu<ng a nd s torage requirements f or 2013/2014 * Execu<ve S ummary o f

  10. Impact of interstitial oxygen on the electronic and magnetic...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    interstitial oxygen on the electronic and magnetic structure in superconducting Fe 1 + y Te O x thin films Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Impact of interstitial oxygen...

  11. Oxygen Catalysis: The Other Half of the Equation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turner, J.

    2008-10-01

    Artificial photosynthesis--splitting water with light--is an attractive way to make hydrogen, but what happens to the oxygen? A catalyst that aids in the efficient production of gaseous oxygen improves the viability of this approach.

  12. NOx reduction in combustion with concentrated coal streams and oxygen injection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kobayashi, Hisashi; Bool, III, Lawrence E.; Snyder, William J.

    2004-03-02

    NOx formation in the combustion of solid hydrocarbonaceous fuel such as coal is reduced by obtaining, from the incoming feed stream of fuel solids and air, a stream having a ratio of fuel solids to air that is higher than that of the feed steam, and injecting the thus obtained stream and a small amount of oxygen to a burner where the fuel solids are combusted.

  13. Oxygen Carriers for Solid Fuel Chemical Looping Combustion Process - Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Innovation Portal Oxygen Carriers for Solid Fuel Chemical Looping Combustion Process Regenerable Mixed Copper-Iron-Inert Support Oxygen Carriers National Energy Technology Laboratory Contact NETL About This Technology Publications: PDF Document Publication 13159553.pdf (405 KB) Technology Marketing Summary This patent-pending technology, "Regenerable Mixed Copper-Iron-Inert Support Oxygen Carriers for Solid Fuel Chemical Looping Combustion Process," provides a metal-oxide oxygen

  14. Oxygen-Enriched Combustion for Military Diesel Engine Generators |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Oxygen-Enriched Combustion for Military Diesel Engine Generators Oxygen-Enriched Combustion for Military Diesel Engine Generators Substantial increases in brake power and considerably lower peak pressure can result from oxygen-enriched diesel combustion PDF icon deer09_yelvington.pdf More Documents & Publications Development Methodology for Power-Dense Military Diesel Engine Oxygen-Enriched Combustion Emission Control Strategy for Downsized Light-Duty Diesels

  15. Resonant radiation from oscillating higher order solitons

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Driben, R.; Yulin, A. V.; Efimov, A.

    2015-07-15

    We present radiation mechanism exhibited by a higher order soliton. In a course of its evolution the higher-order soliton emits polychromatic radiation resulting in formation of multipeak frequency comb-like spectral band. The shape and spectral position of this band can be effectively controlled by the relative strength of the third order dispersion. An analytical description is corroborated by numerical simulations. Research showed that for longer pulses the described effect persists also under the action of higher order perturbations such as Raman and self-steepening.

  16. Higher Efficiency HVAC Motors | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Higher Efficiency HVAC Motors Higher Efficiency HVAC Motors Advanced permanent magnet motor technology will drive HVAC energy savings. Advanced permanent magnet motor technology will drive HVAC energy savings. Advanced permanent magnet motor technology will drive HVAC energy savings. Advanced permanent magnet motor technology will drive HVAC energy savings. Advanced permanent magnet motor technology will drive HVAC energy savings. Advanced permanent magnet motor technology will drive HVAC energy

  17. BER Science Network Requirements

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    BER Science Network Requirements Report of the Biological and Environmental Research Network Requirements Workshop Conducted July 26 and 27, 2007 BER Science Network Requirements Workshop Biological and Environmental Research Program Office, DOE Office of Science Energy Sciences Network Bethesda, MD - July 26 and 27, 2007 ESnet is funded by the US Dept. of Energy, Office of Science, Advanced Scientific Computing Research (ASCR) program. Dan Hitchcock is the ESnet Program Manager. ESnet is

  18. BES Science Network Requirements

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Network Requirements Report of the Basic Energy Sciences Network Requirements Workshop Conducted June 4-5, 2007 BES Science Network Requirements Workshop Basic Energy Sciences Program Office, DOE Office of Science Energy Sciences Network Washington, DC - June 4 and 5, 2007 ESnet is funded by the US Dept. of Energy, Office of Science, Advanced Scientific Computing Research (ASCR) program. Dan Hitchcock is the ESnet Program Manager. ESnet is operated by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, which

  19. ASCR Requirements Review 2015

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ASCR Program Office. These requirements will serve as input to the ESnet architecture and planning processes, and will help ensure that ESnet continues to provide world-class...

  20. BES Requirements Review 2014

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    BES Program Office. These requirements will serve as input to the ESnet architecture and planning processes, and will help ensure that ESnet continues to provide world-class...

  1. Residential Solar Permit Requirements

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Washington's State Building Code sets requirements for the installation, inspection, maintenance and repair of solar photovoltaic (PV) energy systems. Local jurisdictions have the authority to...

  2. Required Annual Notices

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Required Annual Notices The Women's Health and Cancer Rights Act of 1998 (WHCRA) The medical programs sponsored by LANS will not restrict benefits if you or your dependent...

  3. HPC Requirements Reviews

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Reviews: Target 2017 Requirements Reviews: Target 2014 Overview Published Reports Case Study FAQs NERSC HPC Achievement Awards Accelerator Science Astrophysics & Cosmology...

  4. Transuranic Waste Requirements

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1999-07-09

    The guide provides criteria for determining if a waste is to be managed in accordance with DOE M 435.1-1, Chapter III, Transuranic Waste Requirements.

  5. Analysis of Oxygenated Compounds in Hydrotreated Biomass Fast Pyrolysis Oil Distillate Fractions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Christensen, Earl D.; Chupka, Gina; Luecke, Jon; Smurthwaite, Tricia D.; Alleman, Teresa L.; Iisa, Kristiina; Franz, James A.; Elliott, Douglas C.; McCormick, Robert L.

    2011-10-06

    Three hydrotreated bio-oils with different oxygen contents (8.2, 4.9, and 0.4 w/w) were distilled to produce Light, Naphtha, Jet, Diesel, and Gasoil boiling range fractions that were characterized for oxygen containing species by a variety of analytical methods. The bio-oils were originally generated from lignocellulosic biomass in an entrained-flow fast pyrolysis reactor. Analyses included elemental composition, carbon type distribution by {sup 13}C NMR, acid number, GC-MS, volatile organic acids by LC, and carbonyl compounds by DNPH derivatization and LC. Acid number titrations employed an improved titrant-electrode combination with faster response that allowed detection of multiple endpoints in many samples and for acid values attributable to carboxylic acids and to phenols to be distinguished. Results of these analyses showed that the highest oxygen content bio-oil fractions contained oxygen as carboxylic acids, carbonyls, aryl ethers, phenols, and alcohols. Carboxylic acids and carbonyl compounds detected in this sample were concentrated in the Light, Naphtha, and Jet fractions (<260 C boiling point). Carboxylic acid content of all of the high oxygen content fractions was likely too high for these materials to be considered as fuel blendstocks although potential for blending with crude oil or refinery intermediate streams may exist for the Diesel and Gasoil fractions. The 4.9 % oxygen sample contained almost exclusively phenolic compounds found to be present throughout the boiling range of this sample, but imparting measurable acidity primarily in the Light, Naphtha and Jet fractions. Additional study is required to understand what levels of the weakly acidic phenols could be tolerated in a refinery feedstock. The Diesel and Gasoil fractions from this upgraded oil had low acidity but still contained 3 to 4 wt% oxygen present as phenols that could not be specifically identified. These materials appear to have excellent potential as refinery feedstocks and some potential for blending into finished fuels. Fractions from the lowest oxygen content oil exhibited some phenolic acidity, but generally contained very low levels of oxygen functional groups. These materials would likely be suitable as refinery feedstocks and potentially as fuel blend components. PIONA analysis of the Light and Naphtha fractions shows benzene content of 0.5 and 0.4 vol%, and predicted (RON + MON)/2 of 63 and 70, respectively.

  6. Investigation of the electrocatalytic oxygen reduction and evolution reactions in lithium–oxygen batteries

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zheng, Dong; Zhang, Xuran; Qu, Deyu; Yang, Xiao -Qing; Lee, Hung -Sui; Qu, Deyang

    2015-04-21

    Oxygen reduction and oxygen evolution reactions were examined on graphite electrodes with different crystal orientations. The kinetics for the redox couple O2/O2•- are very fast, therefore no catalyst seems necessary to assist the charge transfer process. Apparently, the main source of the overpotential for the O2 reduction reaction is from mass diffusion. Li2O2 becomes soluble in non-aqueous electrolytes in the presence of the tetraethylammonium tetrafluoroborate additive. The soluble B-O22- ions can be oxidized electro-catalytically. The edge orientation of graphite demonstrates superior catalytic activity for the oxidation over basal orientation. The findings reveal an opportunity for recharging Li-air batteries efficiently andmore » a new strategy of developing the catalyst for oxygen evolution reaction.« less

  7. Investigation of the electrocatalytic oxygen reduction and evolution reactions in lithiumoxygen batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zheng, Dong; Zhang, Xuran; Qu, Deyu; Yang, Xiao -Qing; Lee, Hung -Sui; Qu, Deyang

    2015-04-21

    Oxygen reduction and oxygen evolution reactions were examined on graphite electrodes with different crystal orientations. The kinetics for the redox couple O2/O2- are very fast, therefore no catalyst seems necessary to assist the charge transfer process. Apparently, the main source of the overpotential for the O2 reduction reaction is from mass diffusion. Li2O2 becomes soluble in non-aqueous electrolytes in the presence of the tetraethylammonium tetrafluoroborate additive. The soluble B-O22- ions can be oxidized electro-catalytically. The edge orientation of graphite demonstrates superior catalytic activity for the oxidation over basal orientation. The findings reveal an opportunity for recharging Li-air batteries efficiently and a new strategy of developing the catalyst for oxygen evolution reaction.

  8. Magnetic interaction in oxygenated alpha Fe-phthalocyanines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuzmann, Ern?, E-mail: kuzmann@caesar.elte.hu; Homonnay, Zoltn; Horvth, Attila [Institute of Chemistry, Etvs Lornd University, P.O. Box 32, 1512 Budapest (Hungary); Pechousek, Jiri; Cuda, Jan; Machala, Libor; Zoppellaro, Giorgio; Zboril, Radek [Regional Centre of Advanced Technologies and Materials, Departments of Experimental Physics and Physical Chemistry, Faculty of Science Palacky University, 17. Listopadu 1192/12, 771 46 Olomouc (Czech Republic); Yin, Houping; Wei, Yen [Department of Chemistry, Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Klencsr, Zoltn [Research Centre for Natural Sciences, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest, 1117 (Hungary); Kubuki, Shiro [Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Metropolitan University, 1-1 Minami-Osawa, Hachi-Oji, Tokyo 192-0397 (Japan); Nath, Amar [Department of Chemistry, University of North Carolina, Asheville, NC 28804 (United States)

    2014-10-27

    Alpha iron phthalocyanines (?-FePc) oxygenated at low temperatures were investigated with the help of {sup 57}Fe Mssbauer spectroscopy, magnetization measurements (SQUID) and X-ray diffractometry (XRD). Mssbauer spectroscopy revealed that upon oxygenation of ?-FePc, new species were formed which could be associated with Fe{sup III}Pc oxygen adducts. Unexpectedly, magnetically split spectrum of oxygenated ?-FePc was observed below 20 K. In-field Mssbauer spectra in a 5 T external magnetic field at 5K and magnetization measurements indicate antiferromagnetic coupling in oxygenated ?-FePc.

  9. Engineering Ralstonia eutropha for Production of Isobutanol (IBT) Motor Fuel from Carbon Dioxide, Hydrogen, and Oxygen Project Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sinskey, Anthony J.; Worden, Robert Mark; Brigham, Christopher; Lu, Jingnan; Quimby, John Westlake; Gai, Claudia; Speth, Daan; Elliott, Sean; Fei, John Qiang; Bernardi, Amanda; Li, Sophia; Grunwald, Stephan; Grousseau, Estelle; Maiti, Soumen; Liu, Chole

    2013-12-16

    This research project is a collaboration between the Sinskey laboratory at MIT and the Worden laboratory at Michigan State University. The goal of the project is to produce Isobutanol (IBT), a branched-chain alcohol that can serve as a drop-in transportation fuel, through the engineered microbial biosynthesis of Carbon Dioxide, Hydrogen, and Oxygen using a novel bioreactor. This final technical report presents the findings of both the biological engineering work at MIT that extended the native branched-chain amino acid pathway of the wild type Ralstonia eutropha H16 to perform this biosynthesis, as well as the unique design, modeling, and construction of a bioreactor for incompatible gasses at Michigan State that enabled the operational testing of the complete system. This 105 page technical report summarizing the three years of research includes 72 figures and 11 tables of findings. Ralstonia eutropha (also known as Cupriavidus necator) is a Gram-negative, facultatively chemolithoautotrophic bacteria. It has been the principle organism used for the study of polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) polymer biosynthesis. The wild-type Ralstonia eutropha H16 produces PHB as an intracellular carbon storage material while under nutrient stress in the presence of excess carbon. Under this stress, it can accumulate approximately 80 % of its cell dry weight (CDW) as this intracellular polymer. With the restoration of the required nutrients, the cells are then able to catabolize this polymer. If extracted from the cell, this PHB polymer can be processed into biodegradable and biocompatible plastics, however for this research, it is the efficient metabolic pathway channeling the captured carbon that is of interest. R. eutropha is further unique in that it contains two carbon-fixation CalvinBensonBassham cycle operons, two oxygen-tolerant hydrogenases, and several formate dehydrogenases. It has also been much studied for its ability in the presence of oxygen, to fix carbon dioxide into complex cellular molecules using the energy from hydrogen. In this research project, engineered strains of R. eutropha redirected the excess carbon from PHB storage into the production of isobutanol and 3-methyl-1-butanol (branched-chain higher alcohols). These branched-chain higher alcohols can be used directly as substitutes for fossil-based fuels and are seen as alternative biofuels to ethanol and biodiesel. Importantly, these alcohols have approximately 98 % of the energy content of gasoline, 17 % higher than the current gasoline additive ethanol, without impacting corn market production for feed or food. Unlike ethanol, these branched-chain alcohols have low vapor pressure, hygroscopicity, and water solubility, which make them readily compatible with the existing pipelines, gasoline pumps, and engines in our transportation infrastructure. While the use of alternative energies from solar, wind, geothermal, and hydroelectric has spread for stationary power applications, these energy sources cannot be effectively or efficiently employed in current or future transportation systems. With the ongoing concerns of fossil fuel availability and price stability over the long term, alternative biofuels like branched-chain higher alcohols hold promise as a suitable transportation fuel in the future. We showed in our research that various mutant strains of R. eutropha with isobutyraldehyde dehydrogenase activity, in combination with the overexpression of plasmid-borne, native branched-chain amino acid biosynthesis pathway genes and the overexpression of heterologous ketoisovalerate decarboxylase gene, would produce isobutanol and 3-methyl-1-butanol when initiated during nitrogen or phosphorus limitation. Early on, we isolated one mutant R. eutropha strain which produced over 180 mg/L branched-chain alcohols in flask culture while being more tolerant of isobutanol toxicity. After the targeted elimination of genes encoding several potential carbon sinks (ilvE, bkdAB, and aceE), the production titer of the improved to 270 mg/L isobutanol and 40 mg/L 3-methyl-1-butanol.

  10. Cathode architectures for alkali metal / oxygen batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Visco, Steven J; Nimon, Vitaliy; De Jonghe, Lutgard C; Volfkovich, Yury; Bograchev, Daniil

    2015-01-13

    Electrochemical energy storage devices, such as alkali metal-oxygen battery cells (e.g., non-aqueous lithium-air cells), have a cathode architecture with a porous structure and pore composition that is tailored to improve cell performance, especially as it pertains to one or more of the discharge/charge rate, cycle life, and delivered ampere-hour capacity. A porous cathode architecture having a pore volume that is derived from pores of varying radii wherein the pore size distribution is tailored as a function of the architecture thickness is one way to achieve one or more of the aforementioned cell performance improvements.

  11. General Responsibilities and Requirements

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1999-07-09

    The material presented in this guide provides suggestions and acceptable ways of implementing DOE M 435.1-1 and should not be viewed as additional or mandatory requirements. The objective of the guide is to ensure that responsible individuals understand what is necessary and acceptable for implementing the requirements of DOE M 435.1-1.

  12. Commercialization Development of Oxygen Fired CFB for Greenhouse Gas Control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nsakala ya Nsakala; Gregory N. Liljedahl; David G. Turek

    2007-03-31

    Given that fossil fuel fired power plants are among the largest and most concentrated producers of CO{sub 2} emissions, recovery and sequestration of CO{sub 2} from the flue gas of such plants has been identified as one of the primary means for reducing anthropogenic (i.e., man-made) CO{sub 2} emissions. In 2001, ALSTOM Power Inc. (ALSTOM) began a two-phase program to investigate the feasibility of various carbon capture technologies. This program was sponsored under a Cooperative Agreement from the US Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE). The first phase entailed a comprehensive study evaluating the technical feasibility and economics of alternate CO{sub 2} capture technologies applied to Greenfield US coal-fired electric generation power plants. Thirteen cases, representing various levels of technology development, were evaluated. Seven cases represented coal combustion in CFB type equipment. Four cases represented Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) systems. Two cases represented advanced Chemical Looping Combined Cycle systems. Marion, et al. reported the details of this work in 2003. One of the thirteen cases studied utilized an oxygen-fired circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boiler. In this concept, the fuel is fired with a mixture of oxygen and recirculated flue gas (mainly CO{sub 2}). This combustion process yields a flue gas containing over 80 percent (by volume) CO{sub 2}. This flue gas can be processed relatively easily to enrich the CO{sub 2} content to over 96 percent for use in enhanced oil or gas recovery (EOR or EGR) or simply dried for sequestration. The Phase I study identified the O{sub 2}-fired CFB as having a near term development potential, because it uses conventional commercial CFB technology and commercially available CO{sub 2} capture enabling technologies such as cryogenic air separation and simple rectification or distillation gas processing systems. In the long term, air separation technology advancements offer significant reductions in power requirements, which would improve plant efficiency and economics for the oxygen-fired technology. The second phase consisted of pilot-scale testing followed by a refined performance and economic evaluation of the O{sub 2} fired CFB concept. As a part of this workscope, ALSTOM modified its 3 MW{sub th} (9.9 MMBtu/hr) Multiuse Test Facility (MTF) pilot plant to operate with O{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} mixtures of up to 70 percent O{sub 2} by volume. Tests were conducted with coal and petroleum coke. The test objectives were to determine the impacts of oxygen firing on heat transfer, bed dynamics, potential agglomeration, and gaseous and particulate emissions. The test data results were used to refine the design, performance, costs, and economic models developed in Phase-I for the O{sub 2}-fired CFB with CO{sub 2} capture. Nsakala, Liljedahl, and Turek reported results from this study in 2004. ALSTOM identified several items needing further investigation in preparation for large scale demonstration of the oxygen-fired CFB concept, namely: (1) Operation and performance of the moving bed heat exchanger (MBHE) to avoid recarbonation and also for cost savings compared to the standard bubbling fluid bed heat exchanger (FBHE); (2) Performance of the back-end flash dryer absorber (FDA) for sulfur capture under high CO{sub 2}/high moisture flue gas environment using calcined limestone in the fly ash and using fresh commercial lime directly in the FDA; (3) Determination of the effect of recarbonation on fouling in the convective pass; (4) Assessment of the impact of oxygen firing on the mercury, other trace elements, and volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions; and (5) Develop a proposal-level oxygen-fired retrofit design for a relatively small existing CFB steam power plant in preparation for a large-scale demonstration of the O{sub 2} fired CFB concept. Hence, ALSTOM responded to a DOE Solicitation to address all these issues with further O{sub 2} fired MTF pilot testing and a subsequent retrofit design study of oxygen firing and CO{s

  13. Requirements | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Requirements Requirements Statutes 42 U.S.C. 4321: National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 42 U.S.C. 4371: Environmental Quality Improvement Act of 1970 42 U.S.C. 7401: Clean Air Act, Section 309 CEQ Regulations 40 CFR Part 1500-1508: CEQ - Regulations for Implementing NEPA DOE Regulations and Orders 10 CFR Part 1021: NEPA Implementing Procedures 10 CFR Part 1021: NEPA Rulemaking Process 10 CFR Part 1022: Compliance with Floodplain and Wetland Environmental Review Requirements DOE O 451.1B:

  14. Constraining higher derivative supergravity with scattering amplitudes

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wang, Yifan; Yin, Xi

    2015-08-31

    We study supersymmetry constraints on higher derivative deformations of type IIB supergravity by consideration of superamplitudes. Thus, combining constraints of on-shell supervertices and basic results from string perturbation theory, we give a simple argument for the non-renormalization theorem of Green and Sethi, and some of its generalizations.

  15. Selected Guidance & Requirements

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This page contains the most requested NEPA guidance and requirement documents and those most often recommended by the Office of NEPA Policy and Compliance. Documents are listed by agency, in...

  16. Promulgating Nuclear Safety Requirements

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1996-05-15

    Applies to all Nuclear Safety Requirements Adopted by the Department to Govern the Conduct of its Nuclear Activities. Cancels DOE P 410.1. Canceled by DOE N 251.85.

  17. Green Building Requirement

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The new standards are phased in over the course of several years with publicly-owned buildings being the first required to comply. All new construction and substantial improvements of non...

  18. Regulators, Requirements, Statutes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Regulators, Requirements, Statutes Regulators, Requirements, Statutes The Laboratory must comply with environmental laws and regulations that apply to Laboratory operations. Contact Environmental Communication & Public Involvement P.O. Box 1663 MS M996 Los Alamos, NM 87545 (505) 667-0216 Email Environmental laws and regulations LANL complies with more than 30 state and federal regulations and policies designed to protect human health and the environment. Regulators Regulators Environmental

  19. Preliminary Study of Oxygen-Enhanced Longitudinal Relaxation in MRI: A Potential Novel Biomarker of Oxygenation Changes in Solid Tumors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O'Connor, James P.B.; Naish, Josephine H.; Parker, Geoff J.M.; Waterton, John C.; Watson, Yvonne; Jayson, Gordon C.; Buonaccorsi, Giovanni A.; Cheung, Sue; Buckley, David L.; McGrath, Deirdre M.; West, Catharine M.L.; Davidson, Susan E.; Roberts, Caleb; Mills, Samantha J.; Mitchell, Claire L.; Hope, Lynn; Ton, N. Chan; Jackson, Alan

    2009-11-15

    Purpose: There is considerable interest in developing non-invasive methods of mapping tumor hypoxia. Changes in tissue oxygen concentration produce proportional changes in the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) longitudinal relaxation rate (R{sub 1}). This technique has been used previously to evaluate oxygen delivery to healthy tissues and is distinct from blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) imaging. Here we report application of this method to detect alteration in tumor oxygenation status. Methods and materials: Ten patients with advanced cancer of the abdomen and pelvis underwent serial measurement of tumor R{sub 1} while breathing medical air (21% oxygen) followed by 100% oxygen (oxygen-enhanced MRI). Gadolinium-based dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI was then performed to compare the spatial distribution of perfusion with that of oxygen-induced DELTAR{sub 1}. Results: DELTAR{sub 1} showed significant increases of 0.021 to 0.058 s{sup -1} in eight patients with either locally recurrent tumor from cervical and hepatocellular carcinomas or metastases from ovarian and colorectal carcinomas. In general, there was congruency between perfusion and oxygen concentration. However, regional mismatch was observed in some tumor cores. Here, moderate gadolinium uptake (consistent with moderate perfusion) was associated with low area under the DELTAR{sub 1} curve (consistent with minimal increase in oxygen concentration). Conclusions: These results provide evidence that oxygen-enhanced longitudinal relaxation can monitor changes in tumor oxygen concentration. The technique shows promise in identifying hypoxic regions within tumors and may enable spatial mapping of change in tumor oxygen concentration.

  20. Higher modulus compositions incorporating particulate rubber

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McInnis, E.L.; Scharff, R.P.; Bauman, B.D.; Williams, M.A.

    1995-01-17

    Rubber particles, to be used as fillers or extenders for various composite polymer systems, are chlorinated by a gas-solid phase reaction with a chlorine-containing gas. A composite polymer containing the chlorinated rubber fillers or extenders exhibits a higher flexural modulus than if prepared using an unchlorinated rubber filler or extender. Chlorination of the rubber particles is carried out by contacting the finely divided rubber particles with a chlorine-containing gas comprising at least about 5 volume percent chlorine. Advantageously, the chlorine can be diluted with air, nitrogen or other essentially inert gases and may contain minor amounts of fluorine. Improved performance is obtained with nitrogen dilution of the chlorine gas over air dilution. Improved polymer composite systems having higher flexural modulus result from the use of the chlorinated rubber particles as fillers instead of unchlorinated rubber particles. 2 figures.

  1. Higher modulus compositions incorporating particulate rubber

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bauman, Bernard D.; Williams, Mark A.; Bagheri, Reza

    1997-12-02

    Rubber particles, to be used as fillers or extenders for various composite polymer systems, are chlorinated by a gas-solid phase reaction with a chlorine-containing gas. A composite polymer containing the chlorinated rubber fillers or extenders exhibits a higher flexural modulus than if prepared using an unchlorinated rubber filler or extender. Chlorination of the rubber particles is carried out by contacting the finely divided rubber particles with a chlorine-containing gas comprising at least about 5 volume percent chlorine. Advantageously, the chlorine can be diluted with air, nitrogen or other essentially inert gases and may contain minor amounts of fluorine. Improved performance is obtained with nitrogen dilution of the chlorine gas over air dilution. Improved polymer composite systems having higher flexural modulus result from the use of the chlorinated rubber particles as fillers instead of unchlorinated rubber particles.

  2. Higher modulus compositions incorporating particulate rubber

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bauman, B.D.; Williams, M.A.; Bagheri, R.

    1997-12-02

    Rubber particles, to be used as fillers or extenders for various composite polymer systems, are chlorinated by a gas-solid phase reaction with a chlorine-containing gas. A composite polymer containing the chlorinated rubber fillers or extenders exhibits a higher flexural modulus than if prepared using an unchlorinated rubber filler or extender. Chlorination of the rubber particles is carried out by contacting the finely divided rubber particles with a chlorine-containing gas comprising at least about 5 volume percent chlorine. Advantageously, the chlorine can be diluted with air, nitrogen or other essentially inert gases and may contain minor amounts of fluorine. Improved performance is obtained with nitrogen dilution of the chlorine gas over air dilution. Improved polymer composite systems having higher flexural modulus result from the use of the chlorinated rubber particles as fillers instead of unchlorinated rubber particles. 2 figs.

  3. Higher modulus compositions incorporating particulate rubber

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McInnis, E.L.; Bauman, B.D.; Williams, M.A.

    1996-04-09

    Rubber particles, to be used as fillers or extenders for various composite polymer systems, are chlorinated by a gas-solid phase reaction with a chlorine-containing gas. A composite polymer containing the chlorinated rubber fillers or extenders exhibits a higher flexural modulus than if prepared using an unchlorinated rubber filler or extender. Chlorination of the rubber particles is carried out by contacting the finely divided rubber particles with a chlorine-containing gas comprising at least about 5 volume percent chlorine. Advantageously, the chlorine can be diluted with air, nitrogen or other essentially inert gases and may contain minor amounts of fluorine. Improved performance is obtained with nitrogen dilution of the chlorine gas over air dilution. Improved polymer composite systems having higher flexural modulus result from the use of the chlorinated rubber particles as fillers instead of unchlorinated rubber particles. 2 figs.

  4. Higher modulus compositions incorporating particulate rubber

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McInnis, Edwin L.; Scharff, Robert P.; Bauman, Bernard D.; Williams, Mark A.

    1995-01-01

    Rubber particles, to be used as fillers or extenders for various composite polymer systems, are chlorinated by a gas-solid phase reaction with a chlorine-containing gas. A composite polymer containing the chlorinated rubber fillers or extenders exhibits a higher flexural modulus than if prepared using an unchlorinated rubber filler or extender. Chlorination of the rubber particles is carried out by contacting the finely divided rubber particles with a chlorine-containing gas comprising at least about 5 volume percent chlorine. Advantageously, the chlorine can be diluted with air, nitrogen or other essentially inert gases and may contain minor amounts of fluorine. Improved performance is obtained with nitrogen dilution of the chlorine gas over air dilution. Improved polymer composite systems having higher flexural modulus result from the use of the chlorinated rubber particles as fillers instead of unchlorinated rubber particles.

  5. Higher modulus compositions incorporating particulate rubber

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McInnis, Edwin L.; Bauman, Bernard D.; Williams, Mark A.

    1996-04-09

    Rubber particles, to be used as fillers or extenders for various composite polymer systems, are chlorinated by a gas-solid phase reaction with a chlorine-containing gas. A composite polymer containing the chlorinated rubber fillers or extenders exhibits a higher flexural modulus than if prepared using an unchlorinated rubber filler or extender. Chlorination of the rubber particles is carried out by contacting the finely divided rubber particles with a chlorine-containing gas comprising at least about 5 volume percent chlorine. Advantageously, the chlorine can be diluted with air, nitrogen or other essentially inert gases and may contain minor amounts of fluorine. Improved performance is obtained with nitrogen dilution of the chlorine gas over air dilution. Improved polymer composite systems having higher flexural modulus result from the use of the chlorinated rubber particles as fillers instead of unchlorinated rubber particles.

  6. Oxygen detected in atmosphere of Saturn's moon Dione

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Oxygen detected in atmosphere of Saturn's moon Dione Oxygen detected in atmosphere of Saturn's moon Dione Scientists and an international research team have announced discovery of molecular oxygen ions in the upper-most atmosphere of Dione. March 3, 2012 Los Alamos National Laboratory sits on top of a once-remote mesa in northern New Mexico with the Jemez mountains as a backdrop to research and innovation covering multi-disciplines from bioscience, sustainable energy sources, to plasma physics

  7. Testing Oxygen Reduction Reaction Activity with the Rotating Disc Electrode

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Technique | Department of Energy Testing Oxygen Reduction Reaction Activity with the Rotating Disc Electrode Technique Testing Oxygen Reduction Reaction Activity with the Rotating Disc Electrode Technique Presentation slides from the Fuel Cell Technologies Office webinar, "Testing Oxygen Reduction Reaction Activity with the Rotating Disc Electrode Technique," held March 12, 2013. Presenters were Shyam S. Kocha, National Renewable Energy Laboratory; Yannick Garsany, Naval Research

  8. Hybrid System for Separating Oxygen from Air - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Energy Storage Energy Storage Find More Like This Return to Search Hybrid System for Separating Oxygen from Air Sandia National Laboratories Contact SNL About This Technology Publications: PDF Document Publication Market Sheet (765 KB) Technology Marketing Summary Sandia has developed a portable, oxygen generation system capable of delivering oxygen gas at purities greater than 98 percent and flow rates significantly greater than commercially

  9. higher penetration of renewable energy sources

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    higher penetration of renewable energy sources - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste

  10. Higher Speed, More Precision | The Ames Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Higher Speed, More Precision In just a little over a year of operation, Ames Laboratory's dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrometer has successfully characterized materials at the atomic scale level with more speed and precision than ever possible before. Spectra for materials important to catalysis, solar energy, and hydrogen storage have helped scientists better understand how these materials work. Conventional NMR detects the responses of

  11. Influence of Li ions on the oxygen reduction reaction of platinum electrocatalyst

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, H; Xing, YC

    2011-06-01

    A Li-air battery can provide a much higher theoretical energy density than a Li-ion battery. The use of aqueous acidic electrolytes may prevent lithium oxide deposition from aprotic electrolytes and lithium carbonate precipitation from alkaline electrolytes. The present communication reports a study on the effect of Li ions on the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in sulfuric acid electrolytes. It was found that the Li ions have negligible interactions with the active surface of Pt catalysts. However, significantly lower ORR activities were found when Li ions are present in the sulfuric acid. The intrinsic kinetic activities were found to decrease with the increase of Li ion concentrations, but level off when the Li ion concentrations are larger than 1.0 M. The low activities of Pt catalysts in Li ion containing electrolytes were attributed to a constraining effect of Li ions on the diffusion of oxygen in the electrolyte solution. (C) 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Requirements | Photosynthetic Antenna Research Center

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Requirements Requirements Students must earn a total of 11 points from the following options: Please note: To receive points toward the certificate, student are required to submit...

  13. NP Science Network Requirements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dart, Eli; Rotman, Lauren; Tierney, Brian

    2011-08-26

    The Energy Sciences Network (ESnet) is the primary provider of network connectivity for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science (SC), the single largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the United States. To support SC programs, ESnet regularly updates and refreshes its understanding of the networking requirements of the instruments, facilities, scientists, and science programs it serves. This focus has helped ESnet to be a highly successful enabler of scientific discovery for over 20 years. In August 2011, ESnet and the Office of Nuclear Physics (NP), of the DOE SC, organized a workshop to characterize the networking requirements of the programs funded by NP. The requirements identified at the workshop are summarized in the Findings section, and are described in more detail in the body of the report.

  14. Ultrafast kinetics subsequent to shock compression in an oxygen...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    to shock compression in an oxygen-balanced mixture of nitromethane and hydrogen peroxide Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Ultrafast kinetics subsequent to shock ...

  15. Ultrafast kinetics subsequent to shock in an unreacted, oxygen...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    shock in an unreacted, oxygen balanced mixture of nitromethane and hydrogen peroxide Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Ultrafast kinetics subsequent to shock in an ...

  16. Probing oxygen vacancy concentration and homogeneity in solid...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Here, we develop an approach for direct mapping of oxygen vacancy concentrations based on local lattice parameter measurements by scanning transmission electron microscopy. The ...

  17. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Intake Air Oxygen...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Review 2015: Intake Air Oxygen Sensor Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Advanced Combustion Concepts - Enabling Systems and Solutions (ACCESS) for High Efficiency...

  18. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Intake Air Oxygen...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Office Merit Review 2014: Intake Air Oxygen Sensor Bosch Powertrain Technologies Advanced Combustion Concepts - Enabling Systems and Solutions (ACCESS) for High Efficiency...

  19. Catalytic reduction system for oxygen-rich exhaust

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vogtlin, G.E.; Merritt, B.T.; Hsiao, M.C.; Wallman, P.H.; Penetrante, B.M.

    1999-04-13

    Non-thermal plasma gas treatment is combined with selective catalytic reduction to enhance NO{sub x} reduction in oxygen-rich vehicle engine exhausts. 8 figs.

  20. Oxygen detected in atmosphere of Saturn's moon Dione

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    is the possibility that on a moon with subsurface water, such as Jupiter's moon Europa, molecular oxygen could combine with carbon in subsurface lakes to form the building...

  1. Oxidation State and Interfacial Effects on Oxygen Vacancies in...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Oxygen Vacancies in Tantalum Pentoxide. Abstract not provided. Authors: Bondi, Robert James ; Marinella, Matthew Publication Date: 2014-10-01 OSTI Identifier: 1184499 Report...

  2. Ultrafast kinetics subsequent to shock compression in an oxygen...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    subsequent to shock compression in an oxygen-balanced mixture of nitromethane and hydrogen peroxide Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Ultrafast kinetics subsequent to...

  3. Table 33. Oxygenated Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    - - - - - - - - - - - - See footnotes at end of table. 33. Oxygenated Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State 116 Energy Information...

  4. Table 33. Oxygenated Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Information Administration Petroleum Marketing Annual 1995 Table 33. Oxygenated Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State (Cents per Gallon...

  5. Oxygen diffusion of anodic surface oxide film on titanium studied by Auger electron spectroscopy. [Oxygen diffusivity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, P.S.; Wittberg, T.N.; Keil, R.G.

    1982-01-01

    TiO/sub 2/ films of about 1000 A were grown onto titanium foils anodically under galvanostatic conditions at 20 mA/cm/sup 2/ in saturated aqueous solutions of ammonium tetraborate. The samples were then aged at 450, 500, and 550/sup 0/C, and oxygen diffusion was observed by Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) profilings. The oxygen diffusivities were calculated by Fick's Second Law, using the Boltzmann-Matano solution, to be 9.4 x 10/sup -17/, 2.6 x 10/sup -16/, and 1.2 x 10/sup -15/ cm/sup 2//sec at 450, 500, and 550/sup 0/C, respectively. The diffusivities obtained by this method were also compared with those obtained using an exact solution to Fick's Second Law. The activation energy was calculated to be 30 kcal/mole.

  6. Effect of higher water vapor content on TBC performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pint, Bruce A; Haynes, James A

    2012-01-01

    Coal gasification, or IGCC (integrated gasification combined cycle), is one pathway toward cleaner use of coal for power generation with lower emissions. However, when coal-derived synthesis gas (i.e., syngas) is burned in turbines designed for natural gas, turbine manufacturers recommend 'derating,' or lowering the maximum temperature, which lowers the efficiency of the turbine, making electricity from IGCC more expensive. One possible reason for the derating is the higher water vapor contents in the exhaust gas. Water vapor has a detrimental effect on many oxidation-resistant high-temperature materials. In a turbine hot section, Ni-base superalloys are coated with a thermal barrier coating (TBC) allowing the gas temperature to be higher than the superalloy solidus temperature. TBCs have a low thermal conductivity ceramic top coating (typically Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}-stabilized ZrO{sub 2}, or YSZ) and an oxidation-resistant metallic bond coating. For land-based gas turbines, the industry standard is air plasma sprayed (APS) YSZ and high velocity oxygen fuel (HVOF) sprayed NiCoCrAlY bond coatings. To investigate the role of higher water vapor content on TBC performance and possible mitigation strategies, furnace cycling experiments were conducted in dry O{sub 2} and air with 10% (typical with natural gas or jet fuel) or 50 vol% water vapor. Cycle frequency and temperature were accelerated to one hour at 1100 C (with 10 minute cooling to {approx}30 C between each thermal cycle) to induce early failures in coatings that are expected to operate for several years with a metal temperature of {approx}900 C. Coupons (16 mm diameter x 2 mm thick) of commercial second-generation single crystal superalloy CMSX4 were HVOF coated on both sides with {approx}125 {micro}m of Ni-22wt%Co-17Cr-12Al either with 0.7Y or 0.7Y-0.3Hf-0.4Si. One side was then coated with 190-240 {micro}m of APS YSZ. Coatings were cycled until the YSZ top coating spalled. Figure 2 shows the results of the initial phase of experiments. Compared to dry O{sub 2}, the addition of 10% water vapor decreased the lifetime of MCrAlY by {approx}30% for the conventional CMSX4 substrates. Higher average lifetimes were observed with Hf in the bond coating, but a similar decrease in lifetime was observed when water vapor was added. The addition of Y and La to the superalloy substrate did not change the YSZ lifetime with 10% water vapor. However, increasing water vapor content from 10 to 50% did not further decrease the lifetime of either bond coating with the doped superalloy substrate. Thus, these results suggest that higher water vapor contents cannot explain the derating of syngas-fired turbines, and other factors such as sulfur and ash from imperfect syngas cleanup (or upset conditions) need to be explored. Researchers continue to study effects of water vapor on thermally grown alumina scale adhesion and growth rate, and are looking for bond coating compositions more resistant to oxidation in the presence of water vapor.

  7. Requirements Definition Stage

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-05-21

    This chapter addresses development of a Software Configuration Management Plan to track and control work products, analysis of the system owner/users' business processes and needs, translation of those processes and needs into formal requirements, and planning the testing activities to validate the performance of the software product.

  8. Requirements for Xenon International

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hayes, James C.; Ely, James H.; Haas, Derek A.; Harper, Warren W.; Heimbigner, Tom R.; Hubbard, Charles W.; Humble, Paul H.; Madison, Jill C.; Morris, Scott J.; Panisko, Mark E.; Ripplinger, Mike D.; Stewart, Timothy L.

    2013-09-26

    This document defines the requirements for the new Xenon International radioxenon system. The output of this project will be a Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) developed prototype and a manufacturer-developed production prototype. The two prototypes are intended to be as close to matching as possible; this will be facilitated by overlapping development cycles and open communication between PNNL and the manufacturer.

  9. Data Crosscutting Requirements Review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kleese van Dam, Kerstin; Shoshani, Arie; Plata, Charity

    2013-04-01

    In April 2013, a diverse group of researchers from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) scientific community assembled to assess data requirements associated with DOE-sponsored scientific facilities and large-scale experiments. Participants in the review included facilities staff, program managers, and scientific experts from the offices of Basic Energy Sciences, Biological and Environmental Research, High Energy Physics, and Advanced Scientific Computing Research. As part of the meeting, review participants discussed key issues associated with three distinct aspects of the data challenge: 1) processing, 2) management, and 3) analysis. These discussions identified commonalities and differences among the needs of varied scientific communities. They also helped to articulate gaps between current approaches and future needs, as well as the research advances that will be required to close these gaps. Moreover, the review provided a rare opportunity for experts from across the Office of Science to learn about their collective expertise, challenges, and opportunities. The "Data Crosscutting Requirements Review" generated specific findings and recommendations for addressing large-scale data crosscutting requirements.

  10. communications requirements | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    communications requirements PDF icon communications requirements More Documents & Publications Re: NBP RFI: Communications Requirements- Implementing the National Broadband Plan by Studying the Communications Requirements of Electric Utilities to Inform Federal Smart Grid Policy Re: NBP RFI: Communications Requirements NBP RFI: Communications Requirements- Comments of Lake Region Electric Cooperative- Minnesota

  11. Low NOx combustion using cogenerated oxygen and nitrogen streams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kobayashi, Hisashi (Putnam Valley, NY); Bool, Lawrence E. (East Aurora, NY); Snyder, William J. (Ossining, NY)

    2009-02-03

    Combustion of hydrocarbon fuel is achieved with less formation of NOx by feeding the fuel into a slightly oxygen-enriched atmosphere, and separating air into oxygen-rich and nitrogen-rich streams which are fed separately into the combustion device.

  12. Palladium-cobalt particles as oxygen-reduction electrocatalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Adzic, Radoslav (East Setauket, NY); Huang, Tao (Manorville, NY)

    2009-12-15

    The present invention relates to palladium-cobalt particles useful as oxygen-reducing electrocatalysts. The invention also relates to oxygen-reducing cathodes and fuel cells containing these palladium-cobalt particles. The invention additionally relates to methods for the production of electrical energy by using the palladium-cobalt particles of the invention.

  13. Nanoparticulate-catalyzed oxygen transfer processes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hunt, Andrew T. (Atlanta, GA); Breitkopf, Richard C. (Dunwoody, GA)

    2009-12-01

    Nanoparticulates of oxygen transfer materials that are oxides of rare earth metals, combinations of rare earth metals, and combinations of transition metals and rare earth metals are used as catalysts in a variety of processes. Unexpectedly large thermal efficiencies are achieved relative to micron sized particulates. Processes that use these catalysts are exemplified in a multistage reactor. The exemplified reactor cracks C6 to C20 hydrocarbons, desulfurizes the hydrocarbon stream and reforms the hydrocarbons in the stream to produce hydrogen. In a first reactor stage the steam and hydrocarbon are passed through particulate mixed rare earth metal oxide to crack larger hydrocarbon molecules. In a second stage, the steam and hydrocarbon are passed through particulate material that desulfurizes the hydrocarbon. In a third stage, the hydrocarbon and steam are passed through a heated, mixed transition metal/rare earth metal oxide to reform the lower hydrocarbons and thereby produce hydrogen. Stages can be alone or combined. Parallel reactors can provide continuous reactant flow. Each of the processes can be carried out individually.

  14. Required Annual Notices

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Required Annual Notices  The Women's Health and Cancer Rights Act of 1998 (WHCRA) The medical programs sponsored by LANS will not restrict benefits if you or your dependent receives benefits for a mastectomy and elects breast reconstruction in connection with the mastectomy. Benefits will not be restricted provided that the breast reconstruction is performed in a manner determined in consultation with you or your dependent's physician and may include:  all stages of reconstruction of the

  15. Experiment Safety Requirements

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Experiment Safety Requirements Print Safety at the ALS The mission of the ALS is to "Support users in doing outstanding science in a safe environment." How Do I...? Complete an Experiment Safety Sheet? (Do this upon receiving beam time.) Complete Safety Training? Bring and Use Electrical Equipment at the ALS? Determine what Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) to Wear? Get Authorization to Work with Lasers at the ALS? Ship Radioactive Materials to LBNL for Use at the ALS? Ship Samples

  16. Experiment Safety Requirements

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Experiment Safety Requirements Print Safety at the ALS The mission of the ALS is to "Support users in doing outstanding science in a safe environment." How Do I...? Complete an Experiment Safety Sheet? (Do this upon receiving beam time.) Complete Safety Training? Bring and Use Electrical Equipment at the ALS? Determine what Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) to Wear? Get Authorization to Work with Lasers at the ALS? Ship Radioactive Materials to LBNL for Use at the ALS? Ship Samples

  17. Experiment Safety Requirements

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Experiment Safety Requirements Print Safety at the ALS The mission of the ALS is to "Support users in doing outstanding science in a safe environment." How Do I...? Complete an Experiment Safety Sheet? (Do this upon receiving beam time.) Complete Safety Training? Bring and Use Electrical Equipment at the ALS? Determine what Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) to Wear? Get Authorization to Work with Lasers at the ALS? Ship Radioactive Materials to LBNL for Use at the ALS? Ship Samples

  18. Experiment Safety Requirements

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Experiment Safety Requirements Print Safety at the ALS The mission of the ALS is to "Support users in doing outstanding science in a safe environment." How Do I...? Complete an Experiment Safety Sheet? (Do this upon receiving beam time.) Complete Safety Training? Bring and Use Electrical Equipment at the ALS? Determine what Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) to Wear? Get Authorization to Work with Lasers at the ALS? Ship Radioactive Materials to LBNL for Use at the ALS? Ship Samples

  19. Experiment Safety Requirements

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Experiment Safety Requirements Print Safety at the ALS The mission of the ALS is to "Support users in doing outstanding science in a safe environment." How Do I...? Complete an Experiment Safety Sheet? (Do this upon receiving beam time.) Complete Safety Training? Bring and Use Electrical Equipment at the ALS? Determine what Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) to Wear? Get Authorization to Work with Lasers at the ALS? Ship Radioactive Materials to LBNL for Use at the ALS? Ship Samples

  20. Experiment Safety Requirements

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Experiment Safety Requirements Print Safety at the ALS The mission of the ALS is to "Support users in doing outstanding science in a safe environment." How Do I...? Complete an Experiment Safety Sheet? (Do this upon receiving beam time.) Complete Safety Training? Bring and Use Electrical Equipment at the ALS? Determine what Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) to Wear? Get Authorization to Work with Lasers at the ALS? Ship Radioactive Materials to LBNL for Use at the ALS? Ship Samples

  1. Experiment Safety Requirements

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Experiment Safety Experiment Safety Requirements Print Safety at the ALS The mission of the ALS is to "Support users in doing outstanding science in a safe environment." How Do I...? Complete an Experiment Safety Sheet? (Do this upon receiving beam time.) Complete Safety Training? Bring and Use Electrical Equipment at the ALS? Determine what Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) to Wear? Get Authorization to Work with Lasers at the ALS? Ship Radioactive Materials to LBNL for Use at the

  2. Experiment Safety Requirements

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Experiment Safety Requirements Print Safety at the ALS The mission of the ALS is to "Support users in doing outstanding science in a safe environment." How Do I...? Complete an Experiment Safety Sheet? (Do this upon receiving beam time.) Complete Safety Training? Bring and Use Electrical Equipment at the ALS? Determine what Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) to Wear? Get Authorization to Work with Lasers at the ALS? Ship Radioactive Materials to LBNL for Use at the ALS? Ship Samples

  3. LASSO* - Science Requirements

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    LASSO* - Science Requirements *LES ARM Symbiotic Simulation and Observation (LASSO) workflow Andy Vogelmann 1 , William I Gustafson Jr 2 Zhijin Li 3,4 , Xiaoping Cheng 3 , Satoshi Endo 1 , Tami Toto 1 , and Heng Xiao 2 1 Brookhaven National Laboratory 2 Pacific Northwest National Laboratory 3 University of California Los Angeles 4 NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory And TONS of people from the rest of ARM! LASSO Webpage: http://www.arm.gov/science/themes/lasso LASSO e-mail list sign up:

  4. Electro-autotrophic synthesis of higher alcohols

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liao, James C.; Cho, Kwang Myung

    2015-10-06

    The disclosure provides a process that converts CO.sub.2 to higher alcohols (e.g. isobutanol) using electricity as the energy source. This process stores electricity (e.g. from solar energy, nuclear energy, and the like) in liquid fuels that can be used as high octane number gasoline substitutes. Instead of deriving reducing power from photosynthesis, this process derives reducing power from electrically generated mediators, either H.sub.2 or formate. H.sub.2 can be derived from electrolysis of water. Formate can be generated by electrochemical reduction of CO.sub.2. After delivering the reducing power in the cell, formate becomes CO.sub.2 and recycles back. Therefore, the biological CO.sub.2 fixation process can occur in the dark.

  5. BES Science Network Requirements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biocca, Alan; Carlson, Rich; Chen, Jackie; Cotter, Steve; Tierney, Brian; Dattoria, Vince; Davenport, Jim; Gaenko, Alexander; Kent, Paul; Lamm, Monica; Miller, Stephen; Mundy, Chris; Ndousse, Thomas; Pederson, Mark; Perazzo, Amedeo; Popescu, Razvan; Rouson, Damian; Sekine, Yukiko; Sumpter, Bobby; Dart, Eli; Wang, Cai-Zhuang -Z; Whitelam, Steve; Zurawski, Jason

    2011-02-01

    The Energy Sciences Network (ESnet) is the primary provider of network connectivityfor the US Department of Energy Office of Science (SC), the single largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the United States. In support of the Office ofScience programs, ESnet regularly updates and refreshes its understanding of the networking requirements of the instruments, facilities, scientists, and science programs that it serves. This focus has helped ESnet to be a highly successful enabler of scientific discovery for over 20 years.

  6. THERMOCHEMICAL CONVERSION OF FERMENTATION-DERIVED OXYGENATES TO FUELS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramasamy, Karthikeyan K.; Wang, Yong

    2013-06-01

    At present ethanol generated from renewable resources through fermentation process is the dominant biofuel. But ethanol suffers from undesirable fuel properties such as low energy density and high water solubility. The production capacity of fermentation derived oxygenates are projected to rise in near future beyond the current needs. The conversion of oxygenates to hydrocarbon compounds that are similar to gasoline, diesel and jet fuel is considered as one of the viable option. In this chapter the thermo catalytic conversion of oxygenates generated through fermentation to fuel range hydrocarbons will be discussed.

  7. Boron nitride nanosheets as oxygen-atom corrosion protective coatings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yi, Min; Shen, Zhigang; Zhao, Xiaohu; Liang, Shuaishuai; Liu, Lei

    2014-04-07

    The research of two-dimensional nanomaterials for anticorrosion applications is just recently burgeoning. Herein, we demonstrate the boron nitride nanosheets (BNNSs) coatings for protecting polymer from oxygen-atom corrosion. High-quality BNNSs, which are produced by an effective fluid dynamics method with multiple exfoliation mechanisms, can be assembled into coatings with controlled thickness by vacuum filtration. After exposed in atom oxygen, the naked polymer is severely corroded with remarkable mass loss, while the BNNSs-coated polymer remains intact. Barrier and bonding effects of the BNNSs are responsible for the coating's protective performance. These preliminary yet reproducible results pave a way for resisting oxygen-atom corrosion.

  8. Solid phases of spatially nanoconfined oxygen: A neutron scattering study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kojda, Danny [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin fr Materialien und Energie GmbH, 14109 Berlin (Germany) [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin fr Materialien und Energie GmbH, 14109 Berlin (Germany); Freie Universitt Berlin, 14195 Berlin (Germany); Wallacher, Dirk; Hofmann, Tommy, E-mail: tommy.hofmann@helmholtz-berlin.de [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin fr Materialien und Energie GmbH, 14109 Berlin (Germany)] [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin fr Materialien und Energie GmbH, 14109 Berlin (Germany); Baudoin, Simon; Hansen, Thomas [Institut Laue-Langevin, BP 156, 38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France)] [Institut Laue-Langevin, BP 156, 38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Huber, Patrick [Technische Universitt Hamburg-Harburg, 21073 Hamburg (Germany)] [Technische Universitt Hamburg-Harburg, 21073 Hamburg (Germany)

    2014-01-14

    We present a comprehensive neutron scattering study on solid oxygen spatially confined in 12 nm wide alumina nanochannels. Elastic scattering experiments reveal a structural phase sequence known from bulk oxygen. With decreasing temperature cubic ?-, orthorhombic ?- and monoclinic ?-phases are unambiguously identified in confinement. Weak antiferromagnetic ordering is observed in the confined monoclinic ?-phase. Rocking scans reveal that oxygen nanocrystals inside the tubular channels do not form an isotropic powder. Rather, they exhibit preferred orientations depending on thermal history and the very mechanisms, which guide the structural transitions.

  9. Hydrogen production using hydrogenase-containing oxygenic photosynthetic organisms

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Melis, Anastasios; Zhang, Liping; Benemann, John R.; Forestier, Marc; Ghirardi, Maria; Seibert, Michael

    2006-01-24

    A reversible physiological process provides for the temporal separation of oxygen evolution and hydrogen production in a microorganism, which includes the steps of growing a culture of the microorganism in medium under illuminated conditions to accumulate an endogenous substrate, depleting from the medium a nutrient selected from the group consisting of sulfur, iron, and/or manganese, sealing the culture from atmospheric oxygen, incubating the culture in light whereby a rate of light-induced oxygen production is equal to or less than a rate of respiration, and collecting an evolved gas. The process is particularly useful to accomplish a sustained photobiological hydrogen gas production in cultures of microorganisms, such as Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

  10. Hydrogen Production Using Hydrogenase-Containing Oxygenic Photosynthetic Organisms

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Melis, A.; Zhang, L.; Benemann, J. R.; Forestier, M.; Ghirardi, M.; Seibert, M.

    2006-01-24

    A reversible physiological process provides for the temporal separation of oxygen evolution and hydrogen production in a microorganism, which includes the steps of growing a culture of the microorganism in medium under illuminated conditions to accumulate an endogenous substrate, depleting from the medium a nutrient selected from the group consisting of sulfur, iron, and/or manganese, sealing the culture from atmospheric oxygen, incubating the culture in light whereby a rate of light-induced oxygen production is equal to or less than a rate of respiration, and collecting an evolved gas. The process is particularly useful to accomplish a sustained photobiological hydrogen gas production in cultures of microorganisms, such as Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

  11. Equipment Operational Requirements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greenwalt, B; Henderer, B; Hibbard, W; Mercer, M

    2009-06-11

    The Iraq Department of Border Enforcement is rich in personnel, but poor in equipment. An effective border control system must include detection, discrimination, decision, tracking and interdiction, capture, identification, and disposition. An equipment solution that addresses only a part of this will not succeed, likewise equipment by itself is not the answer without considering the personnel and how they would employ the equipment. The solution should take advantage of the existing in-place system and address all of the critical functions. The solutions are envisioned as being implemented in a phased manner, where Solution 1 is followed by Solution 2 and eventually by Solution 3. This allows adequate time for training and gaining operational experience for successively more complex equipment. Detailed descriptions of the components follow the solution descriptions. Solution 1 - This solution is based on changes to CONOPs, and does not have a technology component. It consists of observers at the forts and annexes, forward patrols along the swamp edge, in depth patrols approximately 10 kilometers inland from the swamp, and checkpoints on major roads. Solution 2 - This solution adds a ground sensor array to the Solution 1 system. Solution 3 - This solution is based around installing a radar/video camera system on each fort. It employs the CONOPS from Solution 1, but uses minimal ground sensors deployed only in areas with poor radar/video camera coverage (such as canals and streams shielded by vegetation), or by roads covered by radar but outside the range of the radar associated cameras. This document provides broad operational requirements for major equipment components along with sufficient operational details to allow the technical community to identify potential hardware candidates. Continuing analysis will develop quantities required and more detailed tactics, techniques, and procedures.

  12. Competition Requirements | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    PDF icon Competition Requirements More Documents & Publications Microsoft Word - AG Chapter 6 1 Nov 2010 AcqGuide 5.2-OPAM Chapter 6 - Competition Requirements

  13. Conversion of Biomass-Derived Small Oxygenates over HZSM-5 and its Deactivation Mechanism

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramasamy, Karthikeyan K.; Gerber, Mark A.; Flake, Matthew D.; Zhang, He; Wang, Yong

    2014-02-28

    HZSM-5 catalyst deactivation was studied using aqueous feed mixtures containing ethanol, ethanol+ acetic acid, ethanol+ethyl acetate, or ethanol+acetaldehyde in a fixed bed reactor at 360C and 300psig. Compared to ethanol alone experiment, addition of other oxygenates reduced catalyst life in the order of: ethyl acetateoxygenates requires different active sites/catalysts and different operating conditions due to competitive adsorptions on active sites for their conversion to the desired products. Therefore, it is necessary to pre-treat the mixture of oxygenates to produce a feed stream containing the same or similar functional group compounds before converting the feed stream to hydrocarbon compounds over HZSM-5 catalyst.

  14. Abiotic ozone and oxygen in atmospheres similar to prebiotic Earth

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Domagal-Goldman, Shawn D.; Segura, Antgona; Claire, Mark W.; Robinson, Tyler D.; Meadows, Victoria S.

    2014-09-10

    The search for life on planets outside our solar system will use spectroscopic identification of atmospheric biosignatures. The most robust remotely detectable potential biosignature is considered to be the detection of oxygen (O{sub 2}) or ozone (O{sub 3}) simultaneous to methane (CH{sub 4}) at levels indicating fluxes from the planetary surface in excess of those that could be produced abiotically. Here we use an altitude-dependent photochemical model with the enhanced lower boundary conditions necessary to carefully explore abiotic O{sub 2} and O{sub 3} production on lifeless planets with a wide variety of volcanic gas fluxes and stellar energy distributions. On some of these worlds, we predict limited O{sub 2} and O{sub 3} buildup, caused by fast chemical production of these gases. This results in detectable abiotic O{sub 3} and CH{sub 4} features in the UV-visible, but no detectable abiotic O{sub 2} features. Thus, simultaneous detection of O{sub 3} and CH{sub 4} by a UV-visible mission is not a strong biosignature without proper contextual information. Discrimination between biological and abiotic sources of O{sub 2} and O{sub 3} is possible through analysis of the stellar and atmospheric contextparticularly redox state and O atom inventoryof the planet in question. Specifically, understanding the spectral characteristics of the star and obtaining a broad wavelength range for planetary spectra should allow more robust identification of false positives for life. This highlights the importance of wide spectral coverage for future exoplanet characterization missions. Specifically, discrimination between true and false positives may require spectral observations that extend into infrared wavelengths and provide contextual information on the planet's atmospheric chemistry.

  15. GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS CONTROL BY OXYGEN FIRING IN CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED BED BOILERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nsakala ya Nsakala; Gregory N. Liljedahl

    2003-05-15

    Given that fossil fuel fired power plants are among the largest and most concentrated producers of CO{sub 2} emissions, recovery and sequestration of CO{sub 2} from the flue gas of such plants has been identified as one of the primary means for reducing anthropogenic CO{sub 2} emissions. In this study, ALSTOM Power Inc. (ALSTOM) has investigated several coal fired power plant configurations designed to capture CO{sub 2} from effluent gas streams for use or sequestration. Burning fossil fuels in mixtures of oxygen and recirculated flue gas (made principally of CO{sub 2}) essentially eliminates the presence of atmospheric nitrogen in the flue gas. The resulting flue gas is comprised primarily of CO{sub 2}. Oxygen firing in utility scale Pulverized Coal (PC) fired boilers has been shown to be a more economical method for CO{sub 2} capture than amine scrubbing (Bozzuto, et al., 2001). Additionally, oxygen firing in Circulating Fluid Bed Boilers (CFB's) can be more economical than in PC or Stoker firing, because recirculated gas flow can be reduced significantly. Oxygen-fired PC and Stoker units require large quantities of recirculated flue gas to maintain acceptable furnace temperatures. Oxygen-fired CFB units, on the other hand, can accomplish this by additional cooling of recirculated solids. The reduced recirculated gas flow with CFB units results in significant Boiler Island cost savings. Additionally, ALSTOM has identified several advanced/novel plant configurations, which improve the efficiency and cost of the CO{sub 2} product cleanup and compression process. These advanced/novel concepts require long development efforts. An economic analysis indicates that the proposed oxygen-firing technology in circulating fluidized boilers could be developed and deployed economically in the near future in enhanced oil recovery (EOR) applications or enhanced gas recovery (EGR), such as coal bed methane recovery. ALSTOM received a Cooperative Agreement from the US Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE) in 2001 to carry out a project entitled ''Greenhouse Gas Emissions Control by Oxygen Firing in Circulating Fluidized Bed Boilers.'' This two-phased project is in effect from September 28, 2001, to October 27, 2004. (U.S. DOE NETL Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-01NT41146). Phase I consisted of an evaluation of the technical feasibility and economics of alternate CO{sub 2} capture technologies applied to Greenfield US coal-fired electric generation power plants, and supporting bench-scale testing. And Phase II consists of pilot-scale testing, supporting a refined performance and economic evaluation of the oxygen-fired AFC concept. Phase I, detailed in this report, entails a comprehensive study evaluating the technical feasibility and economics of alternate CO{sub 2} capture technologies applied to Greenfield US coal-fired electric generation power plants. Thirteen separate but related cases (listed below), representing various levels of technology development, were evaluated as described herein. The first seven cases represent coal combustion cases in CFB type equipment. The next four cases represent Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) systems. The last two cases represent advanced Chemical Looping systems, which were completely paid for by ALSTOM and included herein for completeness.

  16. Effects of Time, Heat, and Oxygen on K Basin Sludge Agglomeration, Strength, and Solids Volume

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Delegard, Calvin H.; Sinkov, Sergey I.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Daniel, Richard C.; Burns, Carolyn A.

    2011-01-04

    Sludge disposition will be managed in two phases under the K Basin Sludge Treatment Project. The first phase is to retrieve the sludge that currently resides in engineered containers in the K West (KW) Basin pool at ~10 to 18°C. The second phase is to retrieve the sludge from interim storage in the sludge transport and storage containers (STSCs) and treat and package it in preparation for eventual shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. The work described in this report was conducted to gain insight into how sludge may change during long-term containerized storage in the STSCs. To accelerate potential physical and chemical changes, the tests were performed at temperatures and oxygen partial pressures significantly greater than those expected in the T Plant canyon cells where the STSCs will be stored. Tests were conducted to determine the effects of 50°C oxygenated water exposure on settled quiescent uraninite (UO2) slurry and a full simulant of KW containerized sludge to determine the effects of oxygen and heat on the composition and mechanical properties of sludge. Shear-strength measurements by vane rheometry also were conducted for UO2 slurry, mixtures of UO2 and metaschoepite (UO3•2H2O), and for simulated KW containerized sludge. The results from these tests and related previous tests are compared to determine whether the settled solids in the K Basin sludge materials change in volume because of oxidation of UO2 by dissolved atmospheric oxygen to form metaschoepite. The test results also are compared to determine if heating or other factors alter sludge volumes and to determine the effects of sludge composition and settling times on sludge shear strength. It has been estimated that the sludge volume will increase with time because of a uranium metal → uraninite → metaschoepite oxidation sequence. This increase could increase the number of containers required for storage and increase overall costs of sludge management activities. However, the volume might decrease because of decreases in the water-volume fraction caused by sludge solid reactions, compaction, or intergrowth and recrystallization of metaschoepite. In that case, fewer STSCs may be needed, but the shear strength would increase, and this could challenge recovery by water jet erosion and require more aggressive retrieval methods. Overall, the tests described herein indicate that the settled solids volume remains the same or decreases with time. The only case for which the sludge solids volumes increase with time is for the expansion factor attendant upon the anoxic corrosion of uranium metal to produce UO2 and subsequent reaction with oxygen to form equimolar UO2.25 and UO3•2H2O.

  17. ASCR Science Network Requirements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dart, Eli; Tierney, Brian

    2009-08-24

    The Energy Sciences Network (ESnet) is the primary provider of network connectivity for the US Department of Energy Office of Science, the single largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the United States. In support of the Office of Science programs, ESnet regularly updates and refreshes its understanding of the networking requirements of the instruments, facilities, scientists, and science programs that it serves. This focus has helped ESnet to be a highly successful enabler of scientific discovery for over 20 years. In April 2009 ESnet and the Office of Advanced Scientific Computing Research (ASCR), of the DOE Office of Science, organized a workshop to characterize the networking requirements of the programs funded by ASCR. The ASCR facilities anticipate significant increases in wide area bandwidth utilization, driven largely by the increased capabilities of computational resources and the wide scope of collaboration that is a hallmark of modern science. Many scientists move data sets between facilities for analysis, and in some cases (for example the Earth System Grid and the Open Science Grid), data distribution is an essential component of the use of ASCR facilities by scientists. Due to the projected growth in wide area data transfer needs, the ASCR supercomputer centers all expect to deploy and use 100 Gigabit per second networking technology for wide area connectivity as soon as that deployment is financially feasible. In addition to the network connectivity that ESnet provides, the ESnet Collaboration Services (ECS) are critical to several science communities. ESnet identity and trust services, such as the DOEGrids certificate authority, are widely used both by the supercomputer centers and by collaborations such as Open Science Grid (OSG) and the Earth System Grid (ESG). Ease of use is a key determinant of the scientific utility of network-based services. Therefore, a key enabling aspect for scientists beneficial use of high performance networks is a consistent, widely deployed, well-maintained toolset that is optimized for wide area, high-speed data transfer (e.g. GridFTP) that allows scientists to easily utilize the services and capabilities that the network provides. Network test and measurement is an important part of ensuring that these tools and network services are functioning correctly. One example of a tool in this area is the recently developed perfSONAR, which has already shown its usefulness in fault diagnosis during the recent deployment of high-performance data movers at NERSC and ORNL. On the other hand, it is clear that there is significant work to be done in the area of authentication and access control - there are currently compatibility problems and differing requirements between the authentication systems in use at different facilities, and the policies and mechanisms in use at different facilities are sometimes in conflict. Finally, long-term software maintenance was of concern for many attendees. Scientists rely heavily on a large deployed base of software that does not have secure programmatic funding. Software packages for which this is true include data transfer tools such as GridFTP as well as identity management and other software infrastructure that forms a critical part of the Open Science Grid and the Earth System Grid.

  18. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Intake Air Oxygen Sensor

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Robert Bosch at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about intake air oxygen sensors.

  19. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Intake Air Oxygen Sensor

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Robert Bosch at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about intake air oxygen sensor.

  20. Enhancing SNCR-aided combustion with oxygen addition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kobayashi, Hisashi; Wu, Kuang Tsai; Bool, III, Lawrence E.

    2004-03-09

    NOx emissions from combustion are reduced, NOx reduction efficiency by SNCR is improved, and other efficiencies are realized, by injecting oxygen into a fuel-rich combustion zone under controlled conditions.

  1. COLLATERAL EFFECTS ON SOLAR NEBULA OXYGEN ISOTOPES DUE TO INJECTION...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    COLLATERAL EFFECTS ON SOLAR NEBULA OXYGEN ISOTOPES DUE TO INJECTION OF sup 26Al BY A NEARBY SUPERNOVA Citation Details In-Document Search Title: COLLATERAL EFFECTS ON SOLAR ...

  2. Hybrid membrane--PSA system for separating oxygen from air

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Staiger, Chad L. (Albuquerque, NM); Vaughn, Mark R. (Albuquerque, NM); Miller, A. Keith (Albuquerque, NM); Cornelius, Christopher J. (Blackburg, VA)

    2011-01-25

    A portable, non-cryogenic, oxygen generation system capable of delivering oxygen gas at purities greater than 98% and flow rates of 15 L/min or more is described. The system consists of two major components. The first component is a high efficiency membrane capable of separating argon and a portion of the nitrogen content from air, yielding an oxygen-enriched permeate flow. This is then fed to the second component, a pressure swing adsorption (PSA) unit utilizing a commercially available, but specifically formulated zeolite compound to remove the remainder of the nitrogen from the flow. The system is a unique gas separation system that can operate at ambient temperatures, for producing high purity oxygen for various applications (medical, refining, chemical production, enhanced combustion, fuel cells, etc . . . ) and represents a significant advance compared to current technologies.

  3. Ultrafast kinetics subsequent to shock in an unreacted, oxygen...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    subsequent to shock in an unreacted, oxygen balanced mixture of nitromethane and hydrogen peroxide Armstrong, M R; Zaug, J M; Grant, C D; Crowhurst, J C; Bastea, S 75...

  4. Interplay between gadolinium dopants and oxygen vacancies in...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    by decrease of Vsub O concentration. Our findings would clarify the debate about the influence of Gd doping on the oxygen vacancies in HfOsub 2. Authors: Zhang, Wei 1 ;...

  5. In-situ generation of oxygen-releasing metal peroxides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Looney, Brian B. (Aiken, SC); Denham, Miles E. (Aiken, SC)

    2007-01-09

    A method for remediation of contaminants in soil and groundwater is disclosed. The method generates oxygen releasing solids in groundwater or soil by injecting an aqueous energetic oxidant solution containing free radicals, oxidative conditions can be created within or ahead of a contaminant plume. Some contaminants may be remediated directly by reaction with the free radicals. Additionally and more importantly, the free radicals create an oxidative condition whereby native or injected materials, especially metals, are converted to peroxides. These peroxides provide a long-term oxygen reservoir, releasing oxygen relatively slowly over time. The oxygen can enhance microbial metabolism to remediate contaminants, can react with contaminant metals either to form immobile precipitants or to mobilize other metals to permit remediation through leaching techniques. Various injection strategies for injecting the energetic oxidant solution are also disclosed.

  6. An Oxygen Isotope Study Of Silicates In The Larderello Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Silicates In The Larderello Geothermal Field, Italy Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal Article: An Oxygen Isotope Study Of Silicates In The...

  7. Method for making oxygen-reducing catalyst layers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    O'Brien, Dennis P.; Schmoeckel, Alison K.; Vernstrom, George D.; Atanasoski, Radoslav; Wood, Thomas E.; O'Neill, David G.

    2010-06-22

    Methods are provided for making oxygen-reducing catalyst layers, which include simultaneous or sequential stops of physical vapor depositing an oxygen-reducing catalytic material onto a substrate, the catalytic material comprising a transition metal that is substantially free of platinum; and thermally treating the catalytic material. At least one of the physical vapor deposition and the thermal treatment is performed in a processing environment comprising a nitrogen-containing gas.

  8. Oxygen enhanced switching to combustion of lower rank fuels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kobayashi, Hisashi; Bool, III, Lawrence E.; Wu, Kuang Tsai

    2004-03-02

    A furnace that combusts fuel, such as coal, of a given minimum energy content to obtain a stated minimum amount of energy per unit of time is enabled to combust fuel having a lower energy content, while still obtaining at least the stated minimum energy generation rate, by replacing a small amount of the combustion air fed to the furnace by oxygen. The replacement of oxygen for combustion air also provides reduction in the generation of NOx.

  9. Hydrogen (H2) Production by Oxygenic Phototrophs | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Oxygenic Phototrophs Hydrogen (H2) Production by Oxygenic Phototrophs Presentation by Eric Hegg, Michigan State University, at the Biological Hydrogen Production Workshop held September 24-25, 2013, at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory in Golden, Colorado. PDF icon bio_h2_workshop_hegg.pdf More Documents & Publications Renewable Hydrogen Production from Biological Systems Autofermentative Biological Hydrogen Production by Cyanobacteria 2013 Biological Hydrogen Production Workshop

  10. Ultrafast kinetics subsequent to shock in an unreacted, oxygen balanced

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    mixture of nitromethane and hydrogen peroxide (Conference) | SciTech Connect kinetics subsequent to shock in an unreacted, oxygen balanced mixture of nitromethane and hydrogen peroxide Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Ultrafast kinetics subsequent to shock in an unreacted, oxygen balanced mixture of nitromethane and hydrogen peroxide Authors: Armstrong, M R ; Zaug, J M ; Grant, C D ; Crowhurst, J C ; Bastea, S Publication Date: 2014-06-24 OSTI Identifier: 1149544 Report Number(s):

  11. Ultrafast kinetics subsequent to shock in an unreacted, oxygen balanced

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    mixture of nitromethane and hydrogen peroxide (Conference) | SciTech Connect kinetics subsequent to shock in an unreacted, oxygen balanced mixture of nitromethane and hydrogen peroxide Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Ultrafast kinetics subsequent to shock in an unreacted, oxygen balanced mixture of nitromethane and hydrogen peroxide × You are accessing a document from the Department of Energy's (DOE) SciTech Connect. This site is a product of DOE's Office of Scientific and

  12. Ab Initio Calculations of Even Oxygen Isotopes with Chiral

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Two-Plus-Three-Nucleon Interactions (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Initio Calculations of Even Oxygen Isotopes with Chiral Two-Plus-Three-Nucleon Interactions Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Ab Initio Calculations of Even Oxygen Isotopes with Chiral Two-Plus-Three-Nucleon Interactions Authors: Hergert, H. ; Binder, S. ; Calci, A. ; Langhammer, J. ; Roth, R. Publication Date: 2013-06-10 OSTI Identifier: 1102833 Type: Publisher's Accepted Manuscript Journal Name: Physical

  13. Oxygen-permeable ceramic membranes for gas separation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balachandran, U.; Ma, B.; Maiya, P.S.; Dusek, J.T.; Mieville, R.L.; Picciolo, J.J.

    1998-02-01

    Mixed-conducting oxides have a wide range of applications, including fuel cells, gas separation systems, sensors, and electrocatalytic equipment. Dense ceramic membranes made of mixed-conducting oxides are particularly attractive for gas separation and methane conversion processes. Membranes made of Sr-Fe-Co oxide, which exhibits high combined electronic and oxygen ionic conductivities, can be used to selectively transport oxygen during the partial oxidation of methane to synthesis gas (syngas, i.e., CO + H{sub 2}). The authors have fabricated tubular Sr{sub 2}Fe{sub 2}CoO{sub 6+{delta}} membranes and tested them (some for more than 1,000 h) in a methane conversion reactor that was operating at 850--950 C. An oxygen permeation flux of {approx} 10 scc/cm{sup 2} {center_dot} min was obtained at 900 C in a tubular membrane with a wall thickness of 0.75 mm. Using a gas-tight electrochemical cell, the authors have also measured the steady-state oxygen permeability of flat Sr{sub 2}Fe{sub 2}CoO{sub 6+{delta}} membranes as a function of temperature and oxygen partial pressure(pO{sub 2}). Steady-state oxygen permeability increases with increasing temperature and with the difference in pO{sub 2} on the two sides of the membrane. At 900 C, an oxygen permeability of {approx} 2.5 scc/cm{sup 2} {center_dot} min was obtained in a 2.9-mm-thick membrane. This value agrees with that obtained in methane conversion reactor experiments. Current-voltage (I-V) characteristics determined in the gas-tight cell indicate that bulk effect, rather than surface exchange effect, is the main limiting factor for oxygen permeation of {approx} 1-mm-thick Sr{sub 2}Fe{sub 2}CoO{sub 6+{delta}} membranes at elevated temperatures (> 650 C).

  14. Role of an Oxygen Vacancy Nanostructure on the Switchable Photovoltaic

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Effect in BiFeO3 | Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource Role of an Oxygen Vacancy Nanostructure on the Switchable Photovoltaic Effect in BiFeO3 Monday, February 29, 2016 In all oxide compounds, oxygen vacancies intrinsically exist and their role and impact on materials' properties have been studied for several decades. Mostly they have been considered as defects that disturb a 'perfect world'. Nowadays, however, researchers consider them as new parameters for controlling

  15. Virtual Oxygen Sensor for Innovative NOx and PM Emission Control

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Technologies | Department of Energy Virtual Oxygen Sensor for Innovative NOx and PM Emission Control Technologies Virtual Oxygen Sensor for Innovative NOx and PM Emission Control Technologies A virtual O2 sensor for the intake manifold of a diesel engine equipped with EGR, along with a virtual intake manifold O2 sensor, show good accuracy with stationary measurements PDF icon deer09_traver.pdf More Documents & Publications Simulation and Analysis of HP/LP EGR for Heavy-Duty Applications

  16. Distributed Reforming of Renewable Liquids via Water Splitting using Oxygen

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Transport Membrane (OTM) (Presentation) | Department of Energy Renewable Liquids via Water Splitting using Oxygen Transport Membrane (OTM) (Presentation) Distributed Reforming of Renewable Liquids via Water Splitting using Oxygen Transport Membrane (OTM) (Presentation) Presented at the 2007 Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working Group held November 6, 2007 in Laurel, Maryland. PDF icon 11_anl_distributed_reforming_using_otm.pdf More Documents & Publications Cost

  17. Research Update: Interface-engineered oxygen octahedral tilts in perovskite

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    oxide heterostructures (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Research Update: Interface-engineered oxygen octahedral tilts in perovskite oxide heterostructures Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Research Update: Interface-engineered oxygen octahedral tilts in perovskite oxide heterostructures Interface engineering of structural distortions is a key for exploring the functional properties of oxide heterostructures and superlattices. In this paper, we report on our comprehensive

  18. Ultrafast kinetics subsequent to shock in an unreacted, oxygen balanced

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    mixture of nitromethane and hydrogen peroxide (Conference) | SciTech Connect kinetics subsequent to shock in an unreacted, oxygen balanced mixture of nitromethane and hydrogen peroxide Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Ultrafast kinetics subsequent to shock in an unreacted, oxygen balanced mixture of nitromethane and hydrogen peroxide Authors: Armstrong, M R ; Zaug, J M ; Grant, C D ; Crowhurst, J C ; Bastea, S Publication Date: 2014-06-24 OSTI Identifier: 1149544 Report Number(s):

  19. Higher energy fast range nuclear data evaluation advances (u...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conference: Higher energy fast range nuclear data evaluation advances (u) Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Higher energy fast range nuclear data evaluation advances (u)...

  20. High-Temperature Zirconia Oxygen Sensor with Sealed Metal/Metal...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High-Temperature Zirconia Oxygen Sensor with Sealed MetalMetal Oxide Internal Reference High-Temperature Zirconia Oxygen Sensor with Sealed MetalMetal Oxide Internal Reference ...

  1. Effect of Oxygen Defects on the Catalytic Performance of VOx/CeO2 Catalysts for Oxidative Dehydrogenation of Methanol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Yan; Wei, Zhehao; Gao, Feng; Kovarik, Libor; Baylon, Rebecca A.; Peden, Charles HF; Wang, Yong

    2015-05-01

    In this work, CeO2 nanocubes with controlled particle size and dominating (100) facets are synthesized as supports for VOx catalysts. Combined TEM, SEM, XRD, and Raman study reveals that the oxygen vacancy density of CeO2 supports can be tuned by tailoring the particle sizes without altering the dominating facets, where smaller particle sizes result in larger oxygen vacancy densities. At the same vanadium coverage, the VOx catalysts supported on small-sized CeO2 supports with higher oxygen defect densities exhibit promoted redox property and lower activation energy for methoxyl group decomposition, as evidenced by H2-TPR and methanol TPD study. These results further confirm that the presence of oxygen vacancies plays an important role in promoting the activity of VOx species in methanol oxidation. We gratefully acknowledge financial support from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences, and Biosciences. Part of this work was conducted in the William R. Wiley Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL), a national scientific user facility sponsored by DOE’s Office of Biological and Environmental Research and located at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). PNNL is a multiprogram national laboratory operated for the DOE by Battelle.

  2. In situ synchrotron radiation photoelectron spectroscopy study of the oxidation of the Ge(100)-2 1 surface by supersonic molecular oxygen beams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yoshigoe, Akitaka; Teraoka, Yuden; Okada, Ryuta; Yamada, Yoichi; Sasaki, Masahiro

    2014-11-07

    In situ synchrotron radiation photoelectron spectroscopy was performed during the oxidation of the Ge(100)-2 1 surface induced by a molecular oxygen beam with various incident energies up to 2.2 eV from the initial to saturation coverage of surface oxides. The saturation coverage of oxygen on the clean Ge(100) surface was much lower than one monolayer and the oxidation state of Ge was +2 at most. This indicates that the Ge(100) surface is so inert toward oxidation that complete oxidation cannot be achieved with only pure oxygen (O{sub 2}) gas, which is in strong contrast to Si surfaces. Two types of dissociative adsorption, trapping-mediated and direct dissociation, were confirmed by oxygen uptake measurements depending on the incident energy of O{sub 2}. The direct adsorption process can be activated by increasing the translational energy, resulting in an increased population of Ge{sup 2+} and a higher final oxygen coverage. We demonstrated that hyperthermal O{sub 2} beams remarkably promote the room-temperature oxidation with novel atomic configurations of oxides at the Ge(100) surface. Our findings will contribute to the fundamental understanding of oxygen adsorption processes at 300 K from the initial stages to saturated oxidation.

  3. Reaction of hydrogen sulfide with oxygen in the presence of sulfite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weres, O.; Tsao, L.

    1983-01-14

    Commonly, abatement of hydrogen sulfide emission from a geothermal powerplant requires that hydrogen sulfide dissolved in the cooling water be eliminated by chemical reaction. Oxidation by atmospheric oxygen is the preferred reaction, but requires a suitable catalyst. Nickel is the most potent and thereby cheapest catalyst for this purpose. One mg/L nickel in the cooling water would allow 99% removal of hydrogen sulfide to be attained. A major drawback of catalytic air oxidation is that colloidal sulfur is a major reaction product; this causes rapid sludge accumulation and deposition of sulfur scale. We studied the kinetics and product distribution of the reaction of hydrogen sulfide with oxygen, catalyzed by nickel. Adding sodium sulfite to the solution completely suppresses formation of colloidal sulfur by converting it to thiosulfate. The oxidation reaction is an autocatalytic, free radical chain reaction. A rate expression for this reaction and a detailed reaction mechanism were developed. Nickel catalyzes the chain initiation step, and polysulfidoradical ions propagate the chains. Several complexes of iron and cobalt were also studied. Iron citrate and iron N-hydroxyEDTA are the most effective iron based catalysts. Uncomplexed cobalt is as effective as nickel, but forms a precipitate of cobalt oxysulfide and is too expensive for practical use. 33 figures, 9 tables.

  4. Reaction of Hydrogen Sulfide with Oxygen in the Presence ofSulfite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weres, Oleh; Tsao, Leon

    1983-01-01

    Commonly, abatement of hydrogen sulfide emissions from a geothermal powerplant requires that hydrogen sulfide dissolved in the cooling water be eliminated by chemical reaction. Oxidation by atmospheric oxygen is the preferred reaction, but requires a suitable catalyst. Nickel is the most potent and thereby cheapest catalyst for this purpose. One Mg/L nickel in the cooling water would allow 99% removal of hydrogen sulfide to be attained. A major drawback of catalytic air oxidation is that colloidal sulfur is a major reaction product; this causes rapid sludge accumulation and deposition of sulfur scale. The authors studied the kinetics and product distribution of the reaction of hydrogen sulfide with oxygen, catalyzed by nickel. Adding sodium sulfite to the solution completely suppresses formation of colloidal sulfur by converting it to thiosulfate. The oxidation reaction is an autocatalytic, free radical chain reaction. A rate expression for this reaction and a detailed reaction mechanism were developed. Nickel catalyzes the chain initiation step, and polysulfidoradical ions propagate the chains. Several complexes of iron and cobalt were also studied. Iron citrate and iron N-hydroxyEDT are the most effective iron based catalysts. Uncomplexed cobalt is as effective as nickel, but forms a precipitate of cobalt oxysulfide and is too expensive for practical use.

  5. SYSTEM DESIGN AND ANALYSIS FOR CONCEPTUAL DESIGN OF OXYGEN-BASED PC BOILER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhen Fan; Andrew Seltzer

    2003-11-01

    The objective of the system design and analysis task of the Conceptual Design of Oxygen-Based PC Boiler study is to optimize the PC boiler plant by maximizing system efficiency. Simulations of the oxygen-fired plant with CO{sub 2} sequestration were conducted using Aspen Plus and were compared to a reference air-fired 460 Mw plant. Flue gas recycle is used in the O{sub 2}-fired PC to control the flame temperature. Parametric runs were made to determine the effect of flame temperature on system efficiency and required waterwall material and thickness. The degree of improvement on system efficiency of various modifications including hot gas recycle, purge gas recycle, flue gas feedwater recuperation, and recycle purge gas expansion were investigated. The selected O{sub 2}-fired design case has a system efficiency of 30.1% compared to the air-fired system efficiency of 36.7%. The design O{sub 2}-fired case requires T91 waterwall material and has a waterwall surface area of only 44% of the air-fired reference case. Compared to other CO{sub 2} sequestration technologies, the O{sub 2}-fired PC is substantially better than both natural gas combined cycles and post CO{sub 2} removal PCs and is slightly better than integrated gasification combined cycles.

  6. Effect of oxygen incorporation on structural and properties of Ti-Si-N nanocomposite coatings deposited by reactive unbalanced magnetron sputtering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ding, X.Z.; Zeng, X.T.; Liu, Y.C.; Zhao, L.R.

    2006-07-15

    Ti-Si-N-O nanocomposite coatings with different contents of oxygen were deposited by a combined dc/rf reactive unbalanced magnetron sputtering process in an Ar+N{sub 2}+O{sub 2} mixture atmosphere. The composition, structure, mechanical, and tribological properties of the as-deposited coatings were analyzed by energy dispersive analysis of x-rays, x-ray diffraction (XRD), nanoindentation, and pin-on-disk tribometer experiments, respectively. It was found that in the range of lower oxygen content with atomic ratio of O/N{<=}0.72, the tribological properties of the Ti-Si-N-O coatings are evidently improved, in comparison with the coating without oxygen incorporation. At O/N=0.72, the friction coefficient and wear rate of the as-deposited coatings are reduced to 20% and 45%, respectively. Meanwhile, however, their hardness was not reduced, but, on the contrary, slightly increased. With increasing oxygen content further to O/N{>=}0.72, coating hardness decreased significantly. The friction coefficient of the as-deposited coatings decreased monotonously with the increase of oxygen content in the whole composition range investigated. The wear rate of the coatings exhibited a minimum value at around O/N=0.72. In the lower range of O/N, wear rate decreased significantly due to the lubricant effect of oxygen incorporation, while in the higher range of O/N, wear rate increased gradually due to the weakening of coating hardness. XRD patterns revealed that the as-deposited coatings were mainly crystallized in cubic TiN phase, accompanied with minority of rutile structure titania in the case of higher oxygen incorporation.

  7. GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS CONTROL BY OXYGEN FIRING IN CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED BED BOILERS: PHASE II--PILOT SCALE TESTING AND UPDATED PERFORMANCE AND ECONOMICS FOR OXYGEN FIRED CFB WITH CO2 CAPTURE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nsakala ya Nsakala; Gregory N. Liljedahl; David G. Turek

    2004-10-27

    Because fossil fuel fired power plants are among the largest and most concentrated producers of CO{sub 2} emissions, recovery and sequestration of CO{sub 2} from the flue gas of such plants has been identified as one of the primary means for reducing anthropogenic CO{sub 2} emissions. In this Phase II study, ALSTOM Power Inc. (ALSTOM) has investigated one promising near-term coal fired power plant configuration designed to capture CO{sub 2} from effluent gas streams for sequestration. Burning fossil fuels in mixtures of oxygen and recirculated flue gas (made principally of CO{sub 2}) essentially eliminates the presence of atmospheric nitrogen in the flue gas. The resulting flue gas is comprised primarily of CO{sub 2}, along with some moisture, nitrogen, oxygen, and trace gases like SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x}. Oxygen firing in utility scale Pulverized Coal (PC) fired boilers has been shown to be a more economical method for CO{sub 2} capture than amine scrubbing (Bozzuto, et al., 2001). Additionally, oxygen firing in Circulating Fluid Bed Boilers (CFB's) can be more economical than in PC or Stoker firing, because recirculated gas flow can be reduced significantly. Oxygen-fired PC and Stoker units require large quantities of recirculated flue gas to maintain acceptable furnace temperatures. Oxygen-fired CFB units, on the other hand, can accomplish this by additional cooling of recirculated solids. The reduced recirculated gas flow with CFB plants results in significant Boiler Island cost savings resulting from reduced component The overall objective of the Phase II workscope, which is the subject of this report, is to generate a refined technical and economic evaluation of the Oxygen fired CFB case (Case-2 from Phase I) utilizing the information learned from pilot-scale testing of this concept. The objective of the pilot-scale testing was to generate detailed technical data needed to establish advanced CFB design requirements and performance when firing coals and delayed petroleum coke in O{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} mixtures. Firing rates in the pilot test facility ranged from 2.2 to 7.9 MM-Btu/hr. Pilot-scale testing was performed at ALSTOM's Multi-use Test Facility (MTF), located in Windsor, Connecticut.

  8. Surface control of epitaxial manganite films via oxygen pressure

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Tselev, Alexander; Vasudevan, Rama K.; Gianfrancesco, Anthony G.; Qiao, Liang; Ganesh, Panchapakesan; Meyer, Tricia L.; Lee, Ho Nyung; Biegalski, Michael D.; Baddorf, Arthur P.; Kalinin, Sergei

    2015-03-11

    The trend to reduce device dimensions demands increasing attention to atomic-scale details of structure of thin films as well as to pathways to control it. We found that this is of special importance in the systems with multiple competing interactions. We have used in situ scanning tunneling microscopy to image surfaces of La5/8Ca3/8MnO3 films grown by pulsed laser deposition. The atomically resolved imaging was combined with in situ angle-resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. We find a strong effect of the background oxygen pressure during deposition on structural and chemical features of the film surface. Deposition at 50 mTorr of O2 leadsmore » to mixed-terminated film surfaces, with B-site (MnO2) termination being structurally imperfect at the atomic scale. Moreover, a relatively small reduction of the oxygen pressure to 20 mTorr results in a dramatic change of the surface structure leading to a nearly perfectly ordered B-site terminated surface with only a small fraction of A-site (La,Ca)O termination. This is accompanied, however, by surface roughening at a mesoscopic length scale. The results suggest that oxygen has a strong link to the adatom mobility during growth. The effect of the oxygen pressure on dopant surface segregation is also pronounced: Ca surface segregation is decreased with oxygen pressure reduction.« less

  9. Regulatory Requirements | The Ames Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Regulatory Requirements Executive Order 13423, Strengthening Federal Environment, Energy, and Transportation Management (January 26, 2007) and Executive Order 13514, Federal...

  10. Quality Work Plan Training Requirement

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Weatherization Assistance Program's comprehensive Quality Work Plan requirements and resources to meet this obligation in the field.

  11. Fuel and oxygen addition for metal smelting or refining process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schlichting, M.R.

    1994-11-22

    A furnace for smelting iron ore and/or refining molten iron is equipped with an overhead pneumatic lance, through which a center stream of particulate coal is ejected at high velocity into a slag layer. An annular stream of nitrogen or argon enshrouds the coal stream. Oxygen is simultaneously ejected in an annular stream encircling the inert gas stream. The interposition of the inert gas stream between the coal and oxygen streams prevents the volatile matter in the coal from combusting before it reaches the slag layer. Heat of combustion is thus more efficiently delivered to the slag, where it is needed to sustain the desired reactions occurring there. A second stream of lower velocity oxygen can be delivered through an outermost annulus to react with carbon monoxide gas rising from slag layer, thereby adding still more heat to the furnace. 7 figs.

  12. Method and apparatus for producing oxygenates from hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kong, P.C.; Lessing, P.A.

    1995-06-27

    A chemical reactor for oxygenating hydrocarbons includes: (a) a dielectric barrier discharge plasma cell, the plasma cell comprising a pair of electrodes having a dielectric material and void therebetween, the plasma cell comprising a hydrocarbon gas inlet feeding to the void; (b) a solid oxide electrochemical cell, the electrochemical cell comprising a solid oxide electrolyte positioned between a porous cathode and a porous anode, an oxygen containing gas inlet stream feeding to the porous cathode side of the electrochemical cell; (c) a first gas passageway feeding from the void to the anode side of the electrochemical cell; and (d) a gas outlet feeding from the anode side of the electrochemical cell to expel reaction products from the chemical reactor. A method of oxygenating hydrocarbons is also disclosed. 4 figs.

  13. Method and apparatus for producing oxygenates from hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kong, Peter C. (Idaho Falls, ID); Lessing, Paul A. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1995-01-01

    A chemical reactor for oxygenating hydrocarbons includes: a) a dielectric barrier discharge plasma cell, the plasma cell comprising a pair of electrodes having a dielectric material and void therebetween, the plasma cell comprising a hydrocarbon gas inlet feeding to the void; b) a solid oxide electrochemical cell, the electrochemical cell comprising a solid oxide electrolyte positioned between a porous cathode and a porous anode, an oxygen containing gas inlet stream feeding to the porous cathode side of the electrochemical cell; c) a first gas passageway feeding from the void to the anode side of the electrochemical cell; and d) a gas outlet feeding from the anode side of the electrochemical cell to expel reaction products from the chemical reactor. A method of oxygenating hydrocarbons is also disclosed.

  14. Fuel and oxygen addition for metal smelting or refining process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schlichting, Mark R. (Chesterton, IN)

    1994-01-01

    A furnace 10 for smelting iron ore and/or refining molten iron 20 is equipped with an overhead pneumatic lance 40, through which a center stream of particulate coal 53 is ejected at high velocity into a slag layer 30. An annular stream of nitrogen or argon 51 enshrouds the coal stream. Oxygen 52 is simultaneously ejected in an annular stream encircling the inert gas stream 51. The interposition of the inert gas stream between the coal and oxygen streams prevents the volatile matter in the coal from combusting before it reaches the slag layer. Heat of combustion is thus more efficiently delivered to the slag, where it is needed to sustain the desired reactions occurring there. A second stream of lower velocity oxygen can be delivered through an outermost annulus 84 to react with carbon monoxide gas rising from slag layer 30, thereby adding still more heat to the furnace.

  15. Zero Emissions Coal Syngas Oxygen Turbo Machinery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dennis Horazak

    2010-12-31

    Siemens Energy, Inc. (formerly Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation) worked with Clean Energy Systems and Florida Turbine Technologies to demonstrate the commercial feasibility of advanced turbines for oxy-fuel based power systems that discharge negligible CO{sub 2} into the atmosphere. The approach builds upon ultra supercritical steam turbine and advanced gas turbine technology with the goal of attaining plant efficiencies above 50% in the 2015 timeframe. Conceptual designs were developed for baseline, near term, and long term oxy-fuel turbine cycles, representing commercial introductions of increasingly advanced thermal conditions and increasing exposure to steam-CO{sub 2} mixtures. An economic analysis and market demand study was performed by Science Applications International Corp. (SAIC), and indicated that long-term oxy-fuel turbine cycles start to look attractive in 2025 when the CO{sub 2} tax is assumed to reach $40/ ton, and by 2030 it has a clear advantage over both IGCC with sequestration and pulverized coal with sequestration. A separate risk analysis of the oxy-fuel combustor, HP turbine, re-heater, and IP turbine of the long-term cycle identified and categorized risks and proposed mitigation measures. In 2007 the program began to focus on a potential oxy-fuel turbine power generation demonstration project in the 2012 -13 time period while still maintaining a link to the requirements of the long-term oxy-syngas cycle. The SGT-900 turbine was identified as the best fit for modification into an intermediate pressure turbine (IPT) for this application. The base metals, bond coats, thermal barrier coatings (TBCs), and rotor materials used in the SGT-900 were tested for their ability to operate in the steam- CO{sub 2} environment of the oxy-fuel OFT-900. Test results indicated that these same materials would operate satisfactorily, and the plan, is to use SGT-900materials for the OFT-900. Follow-on programs for corrosion testing and evaluation of crack growth rates in oxy-fuel environments have been proposed to build on these results and provide quantifiable assessments of the effects of oxy-fuel environments on the service lives of turbine components.

  16. Properties of reactive oxygen species by quantum Monte Carlo

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zen, Andrea; Trout, Bernhardt L.; Guidoni, Leonardo

    2014-07-07

    The electronic properties of the oxygen molecule, in its singlet and triplet states, and of many small oxygen-containing radicals and anions have important roles in different fields of chemistry, biology, and atmospheric science. Nevertheless, the electronic structure of such species is a challenge for ab initio computational approaches because of the difficulties to correctly describe the statical and dynamical correlation effects in presence of one or more unpaired electrons. Only the highest-level quantum chemical approaches can yield reliable characterizations of their molecular properties, such as binding energies, equilibrium structures, molecular vibrations, charge distribution, and polarizabilities. In this work we use the variational Monte Carlo (VMC) and the lattice regularized Monte Carlo (LRDMC) methods to investigate the equilibrium geometries and molecular properties of oxygen and oxygen reactive species. Quantum Monte Carlo methods are used in combination with the Jastrow Antisymmetrized Geminal Power (JAGP) wave function ansatz, which has been recently shown to effectively describe the statical and dynamical correlation of different molecular systems. In particular, we have studied the oxygen molecule, the superoxide anion, the nitric oxide radical and anion, the hydroxyl and hydroperoxyl radicals and their corresponding anions, and the hydrotrioxyl radical. Overall, the methodology was able to correctly describe the geometrical and electronic properties of these systems, through compact but fully-optimised basis sets and with a computational cost which scales as N{sup 3} ? N{sup 4}, where N is the number of electrons. This work is therefore opening the way to the accurate study of the energetics and of the reactivity of large and complex oxygen species by first principles.

  17. Effect of Oxygen Co-Injected with Carbon Dioxide on Gothic Shale Caprock-CO2-Brine Interaction during Geologic Carbon Sequestration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jung, Hun Bok; Um, Wooyong; Cantrell, Kirk J.

    2013-09-16

    Co-injection of oxygen, a significant component in CO2 streams produced by the oxyfuel combustion process, can cause a significant alteration of the redox state in deep geologic formations during geologic carbon sequestration. The potential impact of co-injected oxygen on the interaction between synthetic CO2-brine (0.1 M NaCl) and shale caprock (Gothic shale from the Aneth Unit in Utah) and mobilization of trace metals was investigated at ~10 MPa and ~75 C. A range of relative volume percentages of O2 to CO2 (0, 1, 4 and 8%) were used in these experiments to address the effect of oxygen on shale-CO2-brine interaction under various conditions. Major mineral phases in Gothic shale are quartz, calcite, dolomite, montmorillonite, and pyrite. During Gothic shale-CO2-brine interaction in the presence of oxygen, pyrite oxidation occurred extensively and caused enhanced dissolution of calcite and dolomite. Pyrite oxidation and calcite dissolution subsequently resulted in the precipitation of Fe(III) oxides and gypsum (CaSO42H2O). In the presence of oxygen, dissolved Mn and Ni were elevated because of oxidative dissolution of pyrite. The mobility of dissolved Ba was controlled by barite (BaSO4) precipitation in the presence of oxygen. Dissolved U in the experimental brines increased to ~814 ?g/L, with concentrations being slightly higher in the absence of oxygen than in the presence of oxygen. Experimental and modeling results indicate the interaction between shale caprock and oxygen co-injected with CO2 during geologic carbon sequestration can exert significant impacts on brine pH, solubility of carbonate minerals, stability of sulfide minerals, and mobility of trace metals. The major impact of oxygen is most likely to occur in the zone near CO2 injection wells where impurity gases can accumulate. Oxygen in CO2-brine migrating away from the injection well will be continually consumed through the reactions with sulfide minerals in deep geologic formations.

  18. Electrical conductivity and equation of state of liquid nitrogen, oxygen,

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    benzene, and 1-butene shocked to 60 GPa (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Electrical conductivity and equation of state of liquid nitrogen, oxygen, benzene, and 1-butene shocked to 60 GPa Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Electrical conductivity and equation of state of liquid nitrogen, oxygen, benzene, and 1-butene shocked to 60 GPa × You are accessing a document from the Department of Energy's (DOE) SciTech Connect. This site is a product of DOE's Office of Scientific and

  19. Analysis of environmental issues related to small-scale hydroelectric development. VI. Dissolved oxygen concentrations below operating dams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cada, G.F.; Kumar, K.D.; Solomon, J.A.; Hildebrand, S.G.

    1982-01-01

    Results are presented of an effort aimed at determining whether or not water quality degradation, as exemplified by dissolved oxygen concentrations, is a potentially significant issue affecting small-scale hydropower development in the US. The approach was to pair operating hydroelectric sites of all sizes with dissolved oxygen measurements from nearby downstream US Geological Survey water quality stations (acquired from the WATSTORE data base). The USGS data were used to calculate probabilities of non-compliance (PNCs), i.e., the probabilities that dissolved oxygen concentrations in the discharge waters of operating hydroelectric dams will drop below 5 mg/l. PNCs were estimated for each site, season (summer vs remaining months), and capacity category (less than or equal to 30 MW vs >30 MW). Because of the low numbers of usable sites in many states, much of the subsequent analysis was conducted on a regional basis. During the winter months (November through June) all regions had low mean PNCs regardless of capacity. Most regions had higher mean PNCs in summer than in winter, and summer PNCs were greater for large-scale than for small-scale sites. Among regions, the highest mean summer PNCs were found in the Great Basin, the Southeast, and the Ohio Valley. To obtain a more comprehensive picture of the effects of season and capacity on potential dissolved oxygen problems, cumulative probability distributions of PNC were developed for selected regions. This analysis indicates that low dissolved oxygen concentrations in the tailwaters below operating hydroelectric projects are a problem largely confined to large-scale facilities.

  20. Part B - Requirements & Funding Information PART B - Requirements...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    highlights are instructions. Remove the instructions from the interagency agreement. Attachment 3.a. Part B 2 PART B - Requirements & Funding Information B.1. Purpose This is for...

  1. Recovery Act: Novel Oxygen Carriers for Coal-fueled Chemical Looping

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Recovery Act: Novel Oxygen Carriers for Coal-fueled Chemical Looping Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Recovery Act: Novel Oxygen Carriers for Coal-fueled Chemical Looping Chemical Looping Combustion (CLC) could totally negate the necessity of pure oxygen by using oxygen carriers for purification of CO{sub 2} stream during combustion. It splits the single fuel combustion reaction into two linked reactions using oxygen carriers. The two linked

  2. Assessment of the Emissions Behavior of Higher Mileage Class...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    the Emissions Behavior of Higher Mileage Class-8 Trucks and Engines Assessment of the Emissions Behavior of Higher Mileage Class-8 Trucks and Engines Study of in-use emission ...

  3. Development of Large Format Lithium Ion Cells with Higher Energy...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Large Format Lithium Ion Cells with Higher Energy Density Exceeding 500WhL Development of Large Format Lithium Ion Cells with Higher Energy Density Exceeding 500WhL 2012 DOE ...

  4. Recovery Act: Wind Energy Consortia between Institutions of Higher Learning

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and Industry | Department of Energy Act: Wind Energy Consortia between Institutions of Higher Learning and Industry Recovery Act: Wind Energy Consortia between Institutions of Higher Learning and Industry A funding opportunity announcement including amendments made to the Recovery Act: Wind Energy Consortia between Institutions of Higher Learning and Industry. PDF icon Recovery Act: Wind Energy Consortia between Institutions of Higher Learning and Industry More Documents & Publications

  5. Method of controlling injection of oxygen into hydrogen-rich fuel cell feed stream

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Meltser, Mark Alexander (Pittsford, NY); Gutowski, Stanley (Pittsford, NY); Weisbrod, Kirk (Los Alamos, NM)

    2001-01-01

    A method of operating a H.sub.2 --O.sub.2 fuel cell fueled by hydrogen-rich fuel stream containing CO. The CO content is reduced to acceptable levels by injecting oxygen into the fuel gas stream. The amount of oxygen injected is controlled in relation to the CO content of the fuel gas, by a control strategy that involves (a) determining the CO content of the fuel stream at a first injection rate, (b) increasing the O.sub.2 injection rate, (c) determining the CO content of the stream at the higher injection rate, (d) further increasing the O.sub.2 injection rate if the second measured CO content is lower than the first measured CO content or reducing the O.sub.2 injection rate if the second measured CO content is greater than the first measured CO content, and (e) repeating steps a-d as needed to optimize CO consumption and minimize H.sub.2 consumption.

  6. Surface structure of ?-Cr2O3(0001) after activated oxygen exposure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kaspar, Tiffany C.; Chamberlin, Sara E.; Chambers, Scott A.

    2013-09-13

    The surface structure of a-Cr2O3(0001) before and after exposure to activated oxygen from an ECR plasma source was investigated by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and x-ray photoelectron diffraction (XPD). Epitaxial Cr2O3(0001) thin films were deposited on Al2O3(0001) substrates by oxygen-plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy (OPA-MBE). When cooled or annealed in vacuum, strong evidence for a Cr-Cr-O3- termination was obtained by comparing the Cr3+ XPD azimuthal scan to single scattering simulations. However, after plasma exposure, a high binding energy feature was observed in the Cr 2p XPS spectrum that possesses an ordered structure distinct from the underlying Cr3+ of Cr2O3, which remains Cr-Cr-O3-like. Investigation of this new surface structure with simulations of various candidate structures tentatively rules out CrO2-like configurations. The high binding energy feature likely arises from a higher oxidation state of Cr. One possibility is the oxidation of the surface layer of Cr to Cr6- with a double chromyl structure (O=Cr=O).

  7. Managing System of Systems Requirements with a Requirements Screening Group

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ronald R. Barden

    2012-07-01

    Figuring out an effective and efficient way to manage not only your Requirements Baseline, but also the development of all your individual requirements during a Programs/Projects Conceptual and Development Life Cycle Stages can be both daunting and difficult. This is especially so when you are dealing with a complex and large System of Systems (SoS) Program with potentially thousands and thousands of Top Level Requirements as well as an equal number of lower level System, Subsystem and Configuration Item requirements that need to be managed. This task is made even more overwhelming when you have to add in integration with multiple requirements development teams (e.g., Integrated Product Development Teams (IPTs)) and/or numerous System/Subsystem Design Teams. One solution for tackling this difficult activity on a recent large System of Systems Program was to develop and make use of a Requirements Screening Group (RSG). This group is essentially a Team made up of co-chairs from the various Stakeholders with an interest in the Program of record that are enabled and accountable for Requirements Development on the Program/Project. The RSG co-chairs, often with the help of individual support team, work together as a Program Board to monitor, make decisions on, and provide guidance on all Requirements Development activities during the Conceptual and Development Life Cycle Stages of a Program/Project. In addition, the RSG can establish and maintain the Requirements Baseline, monitor and enforce requirements traceability across the entire Program, and work with other elements of the Program/Project to ensure integration and coordination.

  8. High-temperature potentiometric oxygen sensor with internal reference

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Routbort, Jules L. (Hinsdale, IL); Singh, Dileep (Naperville, IL); Dutta, Prabir K. (Worthington, OH); Ramasamy, Ramamoorthy (North Royalton, OH); Spirig, John V. (Columbus, OH); Akbar, Sheikh (Hilliard, OH)

    2011-11-15

    A compact oxygen sensor is provided, comprising a mixture of metal and metal oxide an enclosure containing said mixture, said enclosure capable of isolating said mixture from an environment external of said enclosure, and a first wire having a first end residing within the enclosure and having a second end exposed to the environment. Also provided is a method for the fabrication of an oxygen sensor, the method comprising confining a metal-metal oxide solid mixture to a container which consists of a single material permeable to oxygen ions, supplying an electrical conductor having a first end and a second end, whereby the first end resides inside the container as a reference (PO.sub.2).sup.ref, and the second end resides outside the container in the atmosphere where oxygen partial pressure (PO.sub.2).sup.ext is to be measured, and sealing the container with additional single material such that grain boundary sliding occurs between grains of the single material and grains of the additional single material.

  9. Materials and methods for the separation of oxygen from air

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    MacKay, Richard; Schwartz, Michael; Sammells, Anthony F.

    2003-07-15

    Metal oxides particularly useful for the manufacture of catalytic membranes for gas-phase oxygen separation processes having the formula: O.sub.5+z where: x and x' are greater than 0; y and y' are greater than 0; x+x' is equal to 2; y+y' is less than or equal to 2; z is a number that makes the metal oxide charge neutral; A is an element selected from the lanthanide elements; A' is an element selected from Be, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba and Ra; A" is an element selected from the f block lanthanides, Be, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba and Ra; B is an element selected from the group consisting of Al, Ga, In or mixtures thereof and B" is Co or Mg, with the exception that when B" is Mg, A' and A" are not Mg. The metal oxides are useful for preparation of dense membranes which may be formed from dense thin films of the mixed metal oxide on a porous metal oxide element. The invention also provides methods and catalytic reactors for oxygen separation and oxygen enrichment of oxygen deficient gases which employ mixed conducting metal oxides of the above formula.

  10. Atomic oxygen patterning from a biomedical needle-plasma source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kelly, Sen; Turner, Miles M.

    2013-09-28

    A plasma needle is a cold plasma source operating at atmospheric pressure. Such sources interact strongly with living cells, but experimental studies on bacterial samples show that this interaction has a surprising pattern resulting in circular or annular killing structures. This paper presents numerical simulations showing that this pattern occurs because biologically active reactive oxygen and nitrogen species are produced dominantly where effluent from the plasma needle interacts with ambient air. A novel solution strategy is utilised coupling plasma produced neutral (uncharged) reactive species to the gas dynamics solving for steady state profiles at the treated biological surface. Numerical results are compared with experimental reports corroborating evidence for atomic oxygen as a key bactericidal species. Surface losses are considered for interaction of plasma produced reactants with reactive solid and liquid interfaces. Atomic oxygen surface reactions on a reactive solid surface with adsorption probabilities above 0.1 are shown to be limited by the flux of atomic oxygen from the plasma. Interaction of the source with an aqueous surface showed hydrogen peroxide as the dominant species at this interface.

  11. Blood storage device and method for oxygen removal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bitensky, Mark W. (Waban, MA); Yoshida, Tatsuro (Newton, MA)

    2000-01-01

    The present invention relates to a storage device and method for the long-term storage of blood and, more particularly, to a blood storage device and method capable of removing oxygen from the stored blood and thereby prolonging the storage life of the deoxygenated blood.

  12. Process for conversion of lignin to reformulated, partially oxygenated gasoline

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shabtai, Joseph S. (Salt Lake City, UT); Zmierczak, Wlodzimierz W. (Salt Lake City, UT); Chornet, Esteban (Golden, CO)

    2001-01-09

    A high-yield process for converting lignin into reformulated, partially oxygenated gasoline compositions of high quality is provided. The process is a two-stage catalytic reaction process that produces a reformulated, partially oxygenated gasoline product with a controlled amount of aromatics. In the first stage of the process, a lignin feed material is subjected to a base-catalyzed depolymerization reaction, followed by a selective hydrocracking reaction which utilizes a superacid catalyst to produce a high oxygen-content depolymerized lignin product mainly composed of alkylated phenols, alkylated alkoxyphenols, and alkylbenzenes. In the second stage of the process, the depolymerized lignin product is subjected to an exhaustive etherification reaction, optionally followed by a partial ring hydrogenation reaction, to produce a reformulated, partially oxygenated/etherified gasoline product, which includes a mixture of substituted phenyl/methyl ethers, cycloalkyl methyl ethers, C.sub.7 -C.sub.10 alkylbenzenes, C.sub.6 -C.sub.10 branched and multibranched paraffins, and alkylated and polyalkylated cycloalkanes.

  13. Webinar: Testing Oxygen Reduction Reaction Activity with the Rotating Disc

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Electrode Technique | Department of Energy Testing Oxygen Reduction Reaction Activity with the Rotating Disc Electrode Technique," originally held on March 12, 2013. In addition to this recording, you can access the presentation slides. A text version of this recording will be available soon

  14. Federal Requirements for the Web

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Federal laws and requirements govern the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) with regards to its websites and other digital media.

  15. Synthesis and x-ray characterization of cobalt phosphide (Co₂P) nanorods for the oxygen reduction reaction

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Doan-Nguyen, Vicky V.T.; Su, Dong; Zhang, Sen; Trigg, Edward B.; Agarwal, Rahul; Li, Jing; Winey, Karen I.; Murray, Christopher B.

    2015-07-14

    Low temperature fuel cells are clean, effective alternative fuel conversion technology. Oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) at the fuel cell cathode has required Pt as the electrocatalyst for high activity and selectivity of the four-electron reaction pathway. Targeting a less expensive, earth abundant alternative, we have developed the synthesis of cobalt phosphide (Co₂P) nanorods for ORR. Characterization techniques that include total X-ray scattering and extended X-ray absorption fine structure revealed a deviation of the nanorods from bulk crystal structure with a contraction along the b orthorhombic lattice parameter. The carbon supported nanorods have comparable activity but are remarkably more stable thanmore » conventional Pt catalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction in alkaline environments.« less

  16. A method for modeling oxygen diffusion in an agent-based model with application to host-pathogen infection

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Plimpton, Steven J.; Sershen, Cheryl L.; May, Elebeoba E.

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a method for incorporating a diffusion field modeling oxygen usage and dispersion in a multi-scale model of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection mediated granuloma formation. We implemented this method over a floating-point field to model oxygen dynamics in host tissue during chronic phase response and Mtb persistence. The method avoids the requirement of satisfying the Courant-Friedrichs-Lewy (CFL) condition, which is necessary in implementing the explicit version of the finite-difference method, but imposes an impractical bound on the time step. Instead, diffusion is modeled by a matrix-based, steady state approximate solution to the diffusion equation. Moreover, presented in figuremore » 1 is the evolution of the diffusion profiles of a containment granuloma over time.« less

  17. A method for modeling oxygen diffusion in an agent-based model with application to host-pathogen infection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Plimpton, Steven J.; Sershen, Cheryl L.; May, Elebeoba E.

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a method for incorporating a diffusion field modeling oxygen usage and dispersion in a multi-scale model of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection mediated granuloma formation. We implemented this method over a floating-point field to model oxygen dynamics in host tissue during chronic phase response and Mtb persistence. The method avoids the requirement of satisfying the Courant-Friedrichs-Lewy (CFL) condition, which is necessary in implementing the explicit version of the finite-difference method, but imposes an impractical bound on the time step. Instead, diffusion is modeled by a matrix-based, steady state approximate solution to the diffusion equation. Moreover, presented in figure 1 is the evolution of the diffusion profiles of a containment granuloma over time.

  18. Synthesis and x-ray characterization of cobalt phosphide (Co₂P) nanorods for the oxygen reduction reaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doan-Nguyen, Vicky V.T.; Su, Dong; Zhang, Sen; Trigg, Edward B.; Agarwal, Rahul; Li, Jing; Winey, Karen I.; Murray, Christopher B.

    2015-07-14

    Low temperature fuel cells are clean, effective alternative fuel conversion technology. Oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) at the fuel cell cathode has required Pt as the electrocatalyst for high activity and selectivity of the four-electron reaction pathway. Targeting a less expensive, earth abundant alternative, we have developed the synthesis of cobalt phosphide (Co₂P) nanorods for ORR. Characterization techniques that include total X-ray scattering and extended X-ray absorption fine structure revealed a deviation of the nanorods from bulk crystal structure with a contraction along the b orthorhombic lattice parameter. The carbon supported nanorods have comparable activity but are remarkably more stable than conventional Pt catalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction in alkaline environments.

  19. Oxygen Incorporation During Fabrication of Substrate CdTe Photovoltaic Devices: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duenow, J. N.; Dhere, R. G.; Kuciauskas, D.; Li, J. V.; Pankow, J. W.; DeHart, C. M.; Gessert, T. A.

    2012-06-01

    Recently, CdTe photovoltaic (PV) devices fabricated in the nonstandard substrate configuration have attracted increasing interest because of their potential compatibility with flexible substrates such as metal foils and polymer films. This compatibility could lead to the suitability of CdTe for roll-to-roll processing and building-integrated PV. Currently, however, the efficiencies of substrate CdTe devices reported in the literature are significantly lower ({approx}6%-8%) than those of high-performance superstrate devices ({approx}17%) because of significantly lower open-circuit voltage (Voc) and fill factor (FF). In our recent device development efforts, we have found that processing parameters required to fabricate high-efficiency substrate CdTe PV devices differ from those necessary for traditional superstrate CdTe devices. Here, we investigate how oxygen incorporation in the CdTe deposition, CdCl2 heat treatment, CdS deposition, and post-deposition heat treatment affect device characteristics through their effects on the junction. By adjusting whether oxygen is incorporated during these processing steps, we have achieved Voc values greater than 860 mV and efficiencies greater than 10%.

  20. Section H: Special Contract Requirements

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    H SPECIAL CONTRACT REQUIREMENTS Request for Proposal # DE-RP36-07GO97036 PART I SECTION H SPECIAL CONTRACT REQUIREMENTS TABLE OF CONTENTS H.1 No Third Party Beneficiaries.............................................................................................1 H.2 Workforce Transition ........................................................................................................1 H.3 Employee Compensation: Pay and

  1. Energy and crude oil input requirements for the production of reformulated gasolines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singh, M.; McNutt, B.

    1993-11-01

    The energy and crude oil requirements for the production of reformulated gasolines (RFG) are estimated. Both the energy and crude oil embodied in the final product and the process energy required to manufacture the RFG and its components are included. The effects on energy and crude oil use of using various oxygenates to meet the minimum oxygen content level required by the Clean Air Act Amendments are evaluated. The analysis illustrates that production of RFG requires more total energy than that of conventional gasoline but uses less crude oil. The energy and crude oil use requirements of the different RFGs vary considerably. For the same emissions performance level, RFG with ethanol requires substantially more total energy and crude oil than RFG with MTBE or ETBE. A specific proposal by the EPA designed to allow the use of ethanol in RFG would increase the total energy required to produce RFG by 2% and the total crude oil required by 2.0 to 2.5% over that for the base RFG with MTBE.

  2. Energy and crude oil input requirements for the production of reformulated gasolines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singh, M.; McNutt, B.

    1993-10-01

    The energy and crude oil requirements for the production of reformulated gasoline (RFG) are estimated. The scope of the study includes both the energy and crude oil embodied in the final product and the process energy required to manufacture the RFG and its components. The effects on energy and crude oil use of employing various oxygenates to meet the minimum oxygen-content level required by the Clean Air Act Amendments are evaluated. The analysis shows that production of RFG requires more total energy, but uses less crude oil, than that of conventional gasoline. The energy and crude oil use requirements of the different RFGs vary considerably. For the same emissions performance level, RFG with ethanol requires substantially more total energy and crude oil than does RFG with methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) or ethyl tertiary butyl ether. A specific proposal by the US Environmental Protection Agency, designed to allow the use of ethanol in RFG, would increase the total energy required to produce RFG by 2% and the total crude oil required by 2.0 to 2.5% over the corresponding values for the base RFG with MTBE.

  3. Implementation of subsidence control regulatory requirements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barkley, D.

    1999-07-01

    Underground coal mining in Illinois has shown an increasing percentage of total coal mined relative to surface mining. In the past 20 years, the percentage of underground to surface mine production has steadily increased. Underground mining is expected to continue to dominate Illinois coal production into the 21st century. The drive for higher production and lower operating costs should increase the number of longwall and high extraction retreat mines. This will be achieved through conversion of existing room and pillar mines or initiation of new underground mining operations. The environmental regulations that govern the mitigation of surface impacts have evolved at both the state and federal level. Federal regulations passed in 1995 modifying the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act mandated additional restrictions and regulatory requirements beyond those adopted in 1977. State regulatory bodies that implement the regulations are now working to bring their regulations and procedures into compliance with the oversight federal counterpart. many states have raised concerns over the practical application of certain aspects of the new permitting requirements. This paper describes past and present subsidence regulations in Illinois, their impact on the coal industry and on the landowners above underground coal mining. Potential problems in implementation of the new regulatory requirements as well as additional burdens placed on coal companies to comply with the regulations are explored.

  4. Controlled temperature expansion in oxygen production by molten alkali metal salts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Erickson, Donald C.

    1985-06-04

    A continuous process is set forth for the production of oxygen from an oxygen containing gas stream, such as air, by contacting a feed gas stream with a molten solution of an oxygen acceptor to oxidize the acceptor and cyclically regenerating the oxidized acceptor by releasing oxygen from the acceptor wherein the oxygen-depleted gas stream from the contact zone is treated sequentially to temperature reduction by heat exchange against the feed stream so as to condense out entrained oxygen acceptor for recycle to the process, combustion of the gas stream with fuel to elevate its temperature and expansion of the combusted high temperature gas stream in a turbine to recover power.

  5. PROJECT PROFILE: Advanced Thermal Management for Higher Module Power Output

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    | Department of Energy Advanced Thermal Management for Higher Module Power Output PROJECT PROFILE: Advanced Thermal Management for Higher Module Power Output Funding Opportunity: SuNLaMP SunShot Subprogram: Photovoltaics Location: Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM Amount Awarded: $2,816,911 Higher temperatures of photovoltaic (PV) modules are causing lower than projected module performance. For example, a free-standing Si PV module has 0.4% decrease in efficiency per degree

  6. American Indian Higher Education Consortium (AIHEC) 2016 Student Conference

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    | Department of Energy American Indian Higher Education Consortium (AIHEC) 2016 Student Conference American Indian Higher Education Consortium (AIHEC) 2016 Student Conference March 14, 2016 9:00AM CDT to March 16, 2016 5:00PM CDT Location: Minneapolis Convention Center, 1301 Second Ave. S, Minneapolis, MN 55403 The American Indian Higher Education Consortium (AIHEC) is the collective spirit and unifying voice of our nation's 37 Tribal Colleges and Universities (TCUs)-a unique community of

  7. A Vehicle Manufacturer's Perspective on Higher-Octane Fuels | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy A Vehicle Manufacturer's Perspective on Higher-Octane Fuels A Vehicle Manufacturer's Perspective on Higher-Octane Fuels Breakout Session 1C-Fostering Technology Adoption I: Building the Market for Renewables with High Octane Fuels A Vehicle Manufacturer's Perspective on Higher-Octane Fuels Tom Leone, Technical Expert, Powertrain Evaluation and Analysis, Ford Motor Company PDF icon leone_biomass_2014.pdf More Documents & Publications Co-Optimization of Fuels and Vehicles A

  8. Automotive Turbocharging: Industrial Requirements and Technology...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Turbocharging: Industrial Requirements and Technology Developments Automotive Turbocharging: Industrial Requirements and Technology Developments Significant improvements in...

  9. Recovery Act: Wind Energy Consortia between Institutions of Higher...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Consortia between Institutions of Higher Learning and Industry More Documents & Publications Microsoft Word - kDE-FOA-0000090.rtf DISCLAIMER: Microsoft Word - iDE-FOA-0000085.rtf

  10. PROJECT PROFILE: Advanced Thermal Management for Higher Module...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    modules, resulting in higher module power output and lower levelized cost of electricity (LCOE). ... of each advanced thermal management innovation investigated in this project. ...

  11. Improving Ethanol-Gasoline Blends by Addition of Higher Alcohols

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Mixtures of ethanol, gasoline, and higher alcohols were evaluated to determine if they offer superior performance to ethanol/gasoline blends in meeting the Renewal Fuels Standard II.

  12. BGE Communications Requirements | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    BGE Communications Requirements BGE Communications Requirements Chart of BGE Communications Requirements PDF icon BGE Communications Requirements More Documents & Publications Chart of communications requirements Lower Colorado River Authority Lower Colorado River Authority

  13. Chart of communications requirements | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Chart of communications requirements Chart of communications requirements Chart of communications requirements for BGE PDF icon Chart of communications requirements More Documents & Publications BGE Communications Requirements Lower Colorado River Authority Lower Colorado River Authority

  14. Ethanol Demand in United States Production of Oxygenate-limited Gasoline

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hadder, G.R.

    2000-08-16

    Ethanol competes with methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) to satisfy oxygen, octane, and volume requirements of certain gasolines. However, MTBE has water quality problems that may create significant market opportunities for ethanol. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has used its Refinery Yield Model to estimate ethanol demand in gasolines with restricted use of MTBE. Reduction of the use of MTBE would increase the costs of gasoline production and possibly reduce the gasoline output of U.S. refineries. The potential gasoline supply problems of an MTBE ban could be mitigated by allowing a modest 3 vol percent MTBE in all gasoline. In the U.S. East and Gulf Coast gasoline producing regions, the 3 vol percent MTBE option results in costs that are 40 percent less than an MTBE ban. In the U.S. Midwest gasoline producing region, with already high use of ethanol, an MTBE ban has minimal effect on ethanol demand unless gasoline producers in other regions bid away the local supply of ethanol. The ethanol/MTBE issue gained momentum in March 2000 when the Clinton Administration announced that it would ask Congress to amend the Clean Air Act to provide the authority to significantly reduce or eliminate the use of MTBE; to ensure that air quality gains are not diminished as MTBE use is reduced; and to replace the existing oxygenate requirement in the Clean Air Act with a renewable fuel standard for all gasoline. Premises for the ORNL study are consistent with the Administration announcement, and the ethanol demand curve estimates of this study can be used to evaluate the impact of the Administration principles and related policy initiatives.

  15. Meeting Federal Energy Security Requirements

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation—given at at the Fall 2012 Federal Utility Partnership Working Group (FUPWG) meeting—discusses the opportunity to increase the scope of federal-utility partnerships for meeting energy security requirements.

  16. Program Evaluation: Minimum EERE Requirements

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The minimum requirements for EERE's in-progress peer reviews are described below. Given the diversity of EERE programs and activities, a great deal of flexibility is provided within these...

  17. Bimetallic Fe-Ni Oxygen Carriers for Chemical Looping Combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bhavsar, Saurabh; Veser, Goetz

    2013-11-06

    The relative abundance, low cost, and low toxicity of iron make Fe-based oxygen carriers of great interest for chemical looping combustion (CLC), an emerging technology for clean and efficient combustion of fossil and renewable fuels. However, Fe also shows much lower reactivity than other metals (such as Ni and Cu). Here, we demonstrate strong improvement of Fe-based carriers by alloying the metal phase with Ni. Through a combination of carrier synthesis and characterization with thermogravimetric and fixed-bed reactor studies, we demonstrate that the addition of Ni results in a significant enhancement in activity as well as an increase in selectivity for total oxidation. Furthermore, comparing alumina and ceria as support materials highlights the fact that reducible supports can result in a strong increase in oxygen carrier utilization.

  18. Real Space Mapping of Oxygen Vacancy Diffusion and Electrochemical

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Transformations by Hysteretic Current Reversal Curve Measurements - Energy Innovation Portal Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Energy Storage Energy Storage Find More Like This Return to Search Real Space Mapping of Oxygen Vacancy Diffusion and Electrochemical Transformations by Hysteretic Current Reversal Curve Measurements Oak Ridge National Laboratory Contact ORNL About This Technology Technology Marketing SummaryElectrochemical energy storage and conversion systems based on

  19. Engineering Multimetallic FePt-based nanowires for enhancing oxygen

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    reduction and methanol oxidation reactions (Conference) | SciTech Connect and methanol oxidation reactions Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Engineering Multimetallic FePt-based nanowires for enhancing oxygen reduction and methanol oxidation reactions Authors: Guo, Shaojun [1] + Show Author Affiliations Los Alamos National Laboratory [Los Alamos National Laboratory Publication Date: 2014-04-28 OSTI Identifier: 1129839 Report Number(s): LA-UR-13-28235 DOE Contract Number:

  20. Engineering Multimetallic FePt-based nanowires for enhancing oxygen

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    reduction and methanol oxidation reactions (Conference) | SciTech Connect and methanol oxidation reactions Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Engineering Multimetallic FePt-based nanowires for enhancing oxygen reduction and methanol oxidation reactions × You are accessing a document from the Department of Energy's (DOE) SciTech Connect. This site is a product of DOE's Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) and is provided as a public service. Visit OSTI to utilize

  1. Engineering Multimetallic FePt-based nanowires for enhancing oxygen

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    reduction reaction and methanol oxidation reaction (Conference) | SciTech Connect reaction and methanol oxidation reaction Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Engineering Multimetallic FePt-based nanowires for enhancing oxygen reduction reaction and methanol oxidation reaction Authors: Guo, Shaojun [1] + Show Author Affiliations Los Alamos National Laboratory [Los Alamos National Laboratory Publication Date: 2014-04-28 OSTI Identifier: 1129838 Report Number(s): LA-UR-13-28232 DOE

  2. Engineering Multimetallic FePt-based nanowires for enhancing oxygen

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    reduction reaction and methanol oxidation reaction (Conference) | SciTech Connect reaction and methanol oxidation reaction Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Engineering Multimetallic FePt-based nanowires for enhancing oxygen reduction reaction and methanol oxidation reaction × You are accessing a document from the Department of Energy's (DOE) SciTech Connect. This site is a product of DOE's Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) and is provided as a public service.

  3. Ceramic Membranes for Hydrogen/Oxygen Production - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Vehicles and Fuels Vehicles and Fuels Startup America Startup America Industrial Technologies Industrial Technologies Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Find More Like This Return to Search Ceramic Membranes for Hydrogen/Oxygen Production Ceramic Membranes Developed at Argonne May Bring Fuel-Cell Cars Closer to Reality Argonne National Laboratory Contact ANL About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary In the long term, hydrogen is expected to be the fuel of choice for both the

  4. Electrocatalyst for Oxygen Reduction with Reduced Platinum Oxidation and

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Dissolution Rates - Energy Innovation Portal Electrocatalyst for Oxygen Reduction with Reduced Platinum Oxidation and Dissolution Rates Brookhaven National Laboratory Contact BNL About This Technology Publications: PDF Document Publication Electrodeposition of Pt onto RuO2 (110) Single-crystal Surface. (437 KB) Scanning tunneling micrograph showing atoms of platinum on an oxide surface. Scanning tunneling micrograph showing atoms of platinum on an oxide surface. Technology Marketing Summary

  5. Electrocatalyst for Oxygen Reduction with Reduced Platinum Oxidation and

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Dissolution Rates - Energy Innovation Portal Oxygen Reduction with Reduced Platinum Oxidation and Dissolution Rates Brookhaven National Laboratory Contact BNL About This Technology Publications: PDF Document Publication Electrodeposition of Pt onto RuO2 (110) Single-Crystal Surface (437 KB) <p> Results of a density functional theory calculation of atomic positions of platinum on an oxide surface, showing good agreement with experimental results.</p> Results of a density

  6. Temperature, Oxygen, and Soot-Volume-Fraction Measurements in a Turbulent C2H4-Fueled Jet Flame

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kearney, Sean P.; Guildenbecher, Daniel Robert; Winters, Caroline; Farias, Paul Abraham; Grasser, Thomas W.; Hewson, John C.

    2015-09-01

    We present a detailed set of measurements from a piloted, sooting, turbulent C 2 H 4 - fueled diffusion flame. Hybrid femtosecond/picosecond coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) is used to monitor temperature and oxygen, while laser-induced incandescence (LII) is applied for imaging of the soot volume fraction in the challenging jet-flame environment at Reynolds number, Re = 20,000. Single-laser shot results are used to map the mean and rms statistics, as well as probability densities. LII data from the soot-growth region of the flame are used to benchmark the soot source term for one-dimensional turbulence (ODT) modeling of this turbulent flame. The ODT code is then used to predict temperature and oxygen fluctuations higher in the soot oxidation region higher in the flame.

  7. The W-WO[subscript 2] oxygen fugacity buffer (WWO) at high pressure...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The W-WOsubscript 2 oxygen fugacity buffer (WWO) at high pressure and temperature: ... Title: The W-WOsubscript 2 oxygen fugacity buffer (WWO) at high pressure and temperature...

  8. The structure of oxygen on Cu(100) at low and high coverages...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The structure of oxygen on Cu(100) at low and high coverages Citation Details In-Document Search Title: The structure of oxygen on Cu(100) at low and high coverages No abstract ...

  9. High pressure effects on the iron iron oxide and nickel nickel oxide oxygen

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    fugacity buffers (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect High pressure effects on the iron iron oxide and nickel nickel oxide oxygen fugacity buffers Citation Details In-Document Search Title: High pressure effects on the iron iron oxide and nickel nickel oxide oxygen fugacity buffers The chemical potential of oxygen in natural and experimental samples is commonly reported relative to a specific oxygen fugacity (fO{sub 2}) buffer. These buffers are precisely known at 1 bar, but under high

  10. High pressure effects on the iron iron oxide and nickel nickel oxide oxygen

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    fugacity buffers (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect High pressure effects on the iron iron oxide and nickel nickel oxide oxygen fugacity buffers Citation Details In-Document Search Title: High pressure effects on the iron iron oxide and nickel nickel oxide oxygen fugacity buffers The chemical potential of oxygen in natural and experimental samples is commonly reported relative to a specific oxygen fugacity (fO{sub 2}) buffer. These buffers are precisely known at 1 bar, but under high

  11. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Cathodes. Unraveling the Relationship Between Structure, Surface Chemistry and Oxygen Reduction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gopalan, Srikanth

    2013-03-31

    In this work we have considered oxygen reduction reaction on LSM and LSCF cathode materials. In particular we have used various spectroscopic techniques to explore the surface composition, transition metal oxidation state, and the bonding environment of oxygen to understand the changes that occur to the surface during the oxygen reduction process. In a parallel study we have employed patterned cathodes of both LSM and LSCF cathodes to extract transport and kinetic parameters associated with the oxygen reduction process.

  12. Experimental investigations of driving frequency effect in low-pressure capacitively coupled oxygen discharges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Jia; Liu, Yong-Xin; Liu, Gang-Hu; Gao, Fei; Wang, You-Nian

    2015-04-14

    The effect of driving frequency on the electron density is investigated in low-pressure capacitively coupled oxygen plasmas by utilizing a floating hairpin probe. The power absorbed by the plasma is investigated and it is found that the power lost in the matching network can reach 50% or higher under certain conditions. The effect of driving frequency on the electron density is studied from two aspects, i.e., constant absorbed power and electrode voltage. In the former case, the electron density increases with the driving frequency increasing from 13.56 to 40.68?MHz and slightly changes depending on the gas pressures with the frequency further increasing to 100 MHz. In the latter case, the electron density rapidly increases when the driving frequency increases from 13.56 to 40.68?MHz, and then decreases with the frequency further increasing to 100 MHz. The electron series resonance is observed at 40.68?MHz and can be attributed to the higher electron density. And the standing wave effect also plays an important role in increasing electron density at 100?MHz and 2.6?Pa.

  13. HEP/NP Requirements Review 2013

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    HEP/NP Requirements Review 2013 Science Engagement Move your data Programs & Workshops Science Requirements Reviews Network Requirements Reviews Documents and Background Materials FAQ for Case Study Authors BER Requirements Review 2015 ASCR Requirements Review 2015 Previous Reviews HEP/NP Requirements Review 2013 HEP Attendees 2013 FES Requirements Review 2014 BES Requirements Review 2014 Requirements Review Reports Case Studies Contact Us Technical Assistance: 1 800-33-ESnet (Inside US) 1

  14. Authorization basis requirements comparison report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brantley, W.M.

    1997-08-18

    The TWRS Authorization Basis (AB) consists of a set of documents identified by TWRS management with the concurrence of DOE-RL. Upon implementation of the TWRS Basis for Interim Operation (BIO) and Technical Safety Requirements (TSRs), the AB list will be revised to include the BIO and TSRs. Some documents that currently form part of the AB will be removed from the list. This SD identifies each - requirement from those documents, and recommends a disposition for each to ensure that necessary requirements are retained when the AB is revised to incorporate the BIO and TSRs. This SD also identifies documents that will remain part of the AB after the BIO and TSRs are implemented. This document does not change the AB, but provides guidance for the preparation of change documentation.

  15. A Vehicle Manufacturer's Perspective on Higher-Octane Fuels

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Vehicle Manufacturer's Perspective on Higher-Octane Fuels Tom Leone, Ford Motor Company DOE "Biomass 2014" meeting Washington, D.C. July 29, 2014 2 Octane rating of fuel The octane rating of a fuel is measured on a standardized test engine with variable compression ratio ASTM D2699 and D2700 3 Efficiency Improvement (%) Heywood textbook, Figure 15-14 Compression Ratio Compression Ratio (CR)  Higher CR can improve efficiency  But higher CR causes more knock and spark retard at

  16. GOVERNOR INVESTS IN HIGHER EDUCATION (Daily Press) | Jefferson Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    governor-invests-higher-education-daily-press GOVERNOR KAINE ANNOUNCES INVESTMENTS IN HIGHER EDUCATION By SHAWN DAY, Daily Press December 14, 2007 Local colleges and universities are set to receive tens of millions of dollars for new campus buildings and renovations of others as part of a proposed $1.65 billion bond package for higher education announced Thursday by Gov. Timothy M. Kaine. In addition to the bond package, Kaine proposed $9.1 million for student financial aid over the next two

  17. Johnson Noise Thermometry System Requirements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Britton Jr, Charles L; Roberts, Michael; Ezell, N Dianne Bull; Qualls, A L; Holcomb, David Eugene

    2013-01-01

    This document is intended to capture the requirements for the architecture of the developmental electronics for the ORNL-lead drift-free Johnson Noise Thermometry (JNT) project conducted under the Instrumentation, Controls, and Human-Machine Interface (ICHMI) research pathway of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Advanced Small Modular Reactor (SMR) Research and Development (R&D) program. The requirements include not only the performance of the system but also the allowable measurement environment of the probe and the allowable physical environment of the associated electronics. A more extensive project background including the project rationale is available in the initial project report [1].

  18. Project X functional requirements specification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holmes, S.D.; Henderson, S.D.; Kephart, R.; Kerby, J.; Kourbanis, I.; Lebedev, V.; Mishra, S.; Nagaitsev, S.; Solyak, N.; Tschirhart, R.; /Fermilab

    2012-05-01

    Project X is a multi-megawatt proton facility being developed to support a world-leading program in Intensity Frontier physics at Fermilab. The facility is designed to support programs in elementary particle and nuclear physics, with possible applications to nuclear energy research. A Functional Requirements Specification has been developed in order to establish performance criteria for the Project X complex in support of these multiple missions, and to assure that the facility is designed with sufficient upgrade capability to provide U.S. leadership for many decades to come. This paper will briefly review the previously described Functional Requirements, and then discuss their recent evolution.

  19. OMB Requirements | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    OMB Requirements OMB Requirements Acquisitions OMB Circular A-109, Acquisition of Major Systems (04-05-76) (Available in hard copy only) OMB M-04-08, Maximizing Use of SmartBuy and Avoiding Duplication of Agency Activities with with the President's 24 E-Gov Initiatives (02-25-2004) (pdf) OMB M-04-16, Software Acquisition (07-01-2004) Budget/Capital Planning OMB Circular A-11 OMB M-05-23, Improving Informational Technology (IT) Project Planning and Execution (8-04-2005) (pdf) Cyber Security &

  20. Microsoft Word - S07566_Requirements

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Long-Term Surveillance and Maintenance Requirements for Remediated FUSRAP Sites This document supersedes DOE-LM/GJ1242-2006, Long-Term Surveillance and Maintenance Needs Assessment for the 25 DOE FUSRAP Sites (S01649), December 2006 March 2011 LMS/FUSRAP/S07566 This page intentionally left blank LMS/FUSRAP/S07566 Long-Term Surveillance and Maintenance Requirements for Remediated FUSRAP Sites This document supersedes DOE-LM/GJ1242-2006, Long-Term Surveillance and Maintenance Needs Assessment for

  1. Study of using oxygen-enriched combustion air for locomotive diesel engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poola, R.B.; Sekar, R.; Assanis, D.N.; Cataldi, G.R.

    1996-10-01

    A thermodynamic simulation is used to study effects of O2-enriched intake air on performance and NO emissions of a locomotive diesel engine. Parasitic power of the air separation membrane required to supply the O2-enriched air is also estimated. For a given constraint on peak cylinder pressure, gross and net power output of an engine operating under different levels of O2 enrichment are compared with those obtained when a high-boost turbocharged engine is used. A 4% increase in peak cylinder pressure can result in 13% increase in net engine power when intake air with 28 vol% O2 is used and fuel injection timing retarded by 4 degrees. When the engine is turbocharged to a higher inlet boost, the same increase in peak cylinder pressure can result in only 4% improvement in power. If part of the higher exhaust enthalpies from the O2 enrichment is recovered, the power requirements of the air separator membrane can be met. O2 enrichment with its higher combustion temperatures reduces emissions of particulates and visible smoke but increases NO emissions (by up to 3 times at 26% O2 content). Therefore, exhaust gas after-treatment and heat recovery would be required if the full potential of O2 enrichment for improving the performance of locomotive diesel engines is to be realized.

  2. Method and apparatus for producing oxygen and nitrogen and membrane therefor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Roman, I.C.; Baker, R.W.

    1985-09-17

    Process and apparatus for the separation and purification of oxygen and nitrogen as well as a novel membrane useful therein are disclosed. The process utilizes novel facilitated transport membranes to selectively transport oxygen from one gaseous stream to another, leaving nitrogen as a byproduct. In the method, an oxygen carrier capable of reversibly binding molecular oxygen is dissolved in a polar organic membrane which separates a gaseous feed stream such as atmospheric air and a gaseous product stream. The feed stream is maintained at a sufficiently high oxygen pressure to keep the oxygen carrier in its oxygenated form at the interface of the feed stream with the membrane, while the product stream is maintained at a sufficiently low oxygen pressure to keep the carrier in its deoxygenated form at the interface of the product stream with the membrane. In an alternate mode of operation, the feed stream is maintained at a sufficiently low temperature and high oxygen pressure to keep the oxygen carrier in its oxygenated form at the interface of the feed stream with the membrane and the product stream is maintained at a sufficiently high temperature to keep the carrier in its deoxygenated form at the interface of the product stream with the membrane. Under such conditions, the carrier acts as a shuttle, picking up oxygen at the feed side of the membrane, diffusing across the membrane as the oxygenated complex, releasing oxygen to the product stream, and then diffusing back to the feed side to repeat the process. Exceptionally and unexpectedly high O[sub 2]/N[sub 2] selectivity, on the order of 10 to 30, is obtained, as well as exceptionally high oxygen permeability, on the order of 6 to 15 [times] 10[sup [minus]8] cm[sup 3]-cm/cm[sup 2]-sec-cmHg, as well as a long membrane life of in excess of 3 months, making the process commercially feasible. 2 figs.

  3. Method and apparatus for producing oxygen and nitrogen and membrane therefor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Roman, Ian C. (Bend, OR); Baker, Richard W. (Bend, OR)

    1985-01-01

    Process and apparatus for the separation and purification of oxygen and nitrogen as well as a novel membrane useful therein are disclosed. The process utilizes novel facilitated transport membranes to selectively transport oxygen from one gaseous stream to another, leaving nitrogen as a byproduct. In the method, an oxygen carrier capable of reversibly binding molecular oxygen is dissolved in a polar organic membrane which separates a gaseous feed stream such as atmospheric air and a gaseous product stream. The feed stream is maintained at a sufficiently high oxygen pressure to keep the oxygen carrier in its oxygenated form at the interface of the feed stream with the membrane, while the product stream is maintained at a sufficiently low oxygen pressure to keep the carrier in its deoxygenated form at the interface of the product stream with the membrane. In an alternate mode of operation, the feed stream is maintained at a sufficiently low temperature and high oxygen pressure to keep the oxygen carrier in its oxygenated form at the interface of the feed stream with the membrane and the product stream is maintained at a sufficiently high temperature to keep the carrier in its deoxygenated form at the interface of the product stream with the membrane. Under such conditions, the carrier acts as a shuttle, picking up oxygen at the feed side of the membrane, diffusing across the membrane as the oxygenated complex, releasing oxygen to the product stream, and then diffusing back to the feed side to repeat the process. Exceptionally and unexpectedly high O.sub.2 /N.sub.2 selectivity, on the order of 10 to 30, is obtained, as well as exceptionally high oxygen permeability, on the order of 6 to 15.times.10.sup.-8 cm.sup.3 -cm/cm.sup.2 -sec-cmHg, as well as a long membrane life of in excess of 3 months, making the process commercially feasible.

  4. The Path to Higher Source, Package, and Product Efficacy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    * Non-radiative Auger recombination process that limits efficiency at higher current density * Droop limits how hard LEDs can be driven and Lm Luxeon Q Data Sheet 5 Green Gap...

  5. Higher Precision Analysis Doesn't Yield Pentaquark | Jefferson Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Deuterium Researchers sent photons into deuterium nuclei to try to produce pentaquarks. If pentaquarks had been produced, sensitive detectors would have measured a particular mix of Kaons (K-mesons) and protons; neutrons could have been inferred from the data. The researchers did not detect this reaction. Image credit: JLab Higher Precision Analysis Doesn't Yield Pentaquark July 1, 2005 New, higher precision data that could only have been gathered at the Department of Energy's Thomas Jefferson

  6. Lower Cost, Higher Performance Carbon Fiber | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Lower Cost, Higher Performance Carbon Fiber Lower Cost, Higher Performance Carbon Fiber Presented at the R&D Strategies for Compressed, Cryo-Compressed and Cryo-Sorbent Hydrogen Storage Technologies Workshops on February 14 and 15, 2011. PDF icon compressed_hydrogen2011_4_warren.pdf More Documents & Publications Low Cost Carbon Fiber Overview Low Cost Carbon Fiber Overview Lower Cost Carbon Fiber Precursors

  7. Lower Freezing DEF For Higher NOx Reduction Attainment | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Freezing DEF For Higher NOx Reduction Attainment Lower Freezing DEF For Higher NOx Reduction Attainment NOx emissions data from bench-scale experiments and Class III truck operated using a low freezing point diesel exhaust fluid PDF icon deer11_highfield.pdf More Documents & Publications Urea Mixing Design -- Simulation and Test Investigation 3rd Generation SCR System Using Solid Ammonia Storage and Direct Gas Dosing Urea SCR and DPF System for Deisel Sport Utility Vehicle Meeting

  8. Feedstocks with Reduced Acetylation for Higher Product Yields and Improved

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Properties - Energy Innovation Portal Feedstocks with Reduced Acetylation for Higher Product Yields and Improved Properties Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Contact LBL About This Technology Technology Marketing SummaryHenrik Scheller of the Joint BioEnergy Institute (JBEI) has developed a method of using plants that have reduced levels of acetylation of their cellulose. The plants are positioned to provide higher yields of sugar for fermentation and improved properties as feedstocks

  9. Competitions for Higher Education Students | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Competitions for Higher Education Students Competitions for Higher Education Students Students with the truck they designed for DOE's FutureTruck competition. Here you'll find student resources on competitions that promote awareness about energy technologies and issues. H2U Student Design Contest-This contest challenges university teams to develop and design a hydrogen application. Previous themes focused on refueling stations and power parks. EcoCAR: The NeXt Challenge-The Department of Energy

  10. Universality in Higher Order Spin Noise Spectroscopy (Journal Article) |

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    SciTech Connect Universality in Higher Order Spin Noise Spectroscopy Citation Details In-Document Search This content will become publicly available on January 14, 2017 Title: Universality in Higher Order Spin Noise Spectroscopy Authors: Li, Fuxiang ; Sinitsyn, N. A. Publication Date: 2016-01-15 OSTI Identifier: 1235627 Grant/Contract Number: AC52-06NA25396 Type: Publisher's Accepted Manuscript Journal Name: Physical Review Letters Additional Journal Information: Journal Volume: 116; Journal

  11. Energy Department Announces Funding to Access Higher Quality Wind Resources

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    and Lower Costs | Department of Energy to Access Higher Quality Wind Resources and Lower Costs Energy Department Announces Funding to Access Higher Quality Wind Resources and Lower Costs January 30, 2014 - 1:06pm Addthis The Energy Department today announced $2 million to help efficiently harness wind energy using taller towers. These projects will help strengthen U.S. wind turbine component manufacturing, reduce the cost of clean and renewable wind energy, and expand the geographic range of

  12. Lattice Distortions and Oxygen Vacancies Produced in Au+-Irradiated Nanocrystalline Cubic Zirconia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edmondson, P. D.; Weber, William J.; Namavar, Fereydoon; Zhang, Yanwen

    2011-07-13

    The oxygen ion conductivity, attributed to an oxygen vacancy mechanism, of yttria-stabilized zirconia membranes used in solid oxide fuel cells is restricted due to trapping limitations. In this work, a high concentration of oxygen vacancies has been deliberately introduced into nanocrystalline stabilizer-free zirconia through ion-irradiation. Oxygen vacancies with different charge states can be produced by varying irradiation temperatures. Due to the reduced trapping sites and high oxygen vacancy concentration, this work suggests that the efficiency of solid oxide fuel cells can be improved.

  13. Oxygen vacancy ordering within anion-deficient Ceria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hull, S.; Norberg, S.T.; Ahmed, I.; Eriksson, S.G.; Marrocchelli, D.; Madden, P.A.

    2009-10-15

    The structural properties of anion deficient ceria, CeO{sub 2-{delta}}, have been studied as a function of oxygen partial pressure, p(O{sub 2}), over the range 0>=log{sub 10p}(O{sub 2})>=-18.9 at 1273(2) K using the neutron powder diffraction technique. Rietveld refinement of the diffraction data collected on decreasing p(O{sub 2}) showed increases in the cubic lattice parameter, a, the oxygen nonstoichiometry, delta, and the isotropic thermal vibration parameters, u{sub Ce} and u{sub O}, starting at log{sub 10p}(O{sub 2}){approx}-11. The increases are continuous, but show a distinct kink at log{sub 10p}(O{sub 2}){approx}-14.5. Analysis of the total scattering (Bragg plus diffuse components) using reverse Monte Carlo (RMC) modelling indicates that the O{sup 2-} vacancies preferentially align as pairs in the <111> cubic directions as the degree of nonstoichiometry increases. This behaviour is discussed with reference to the chemical crystallography of the CeO{sub 2}-Ce{sub 2}O{sub 3} system at ambient temperature and, in particular, to the nature of the long-range ordering of O{sup 2-} vacancies within the crystal structure of Ce{sub 7}O{sub 12}. - Graphical abstract: Partial radial distribution function for oxygen vacancies within CeO{sub 1.710} at 1273 K (solid line) showing the increased tendency for local ordering in <111> directions compared to a random distribution (dashed line).

  14. Surveillance & Maintenance: The Requirements Based Surveillance...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Surveillance & Maintenance: The Requirements Based Surveillance and Maintenance Review Process (RBSM) Surveillance & Maintenance: The Requirements Based Surveillance and ...

  15. Hydrogen and oxygen concentrations in IXCs: A compilation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liljegren, L.M.; Terrones, G.T.; Melethil, P.K.

    1996-06-01

    This paper contains four reports and two internal letters that address the estimation of hydrogen and oxygen concentrations in ion exchange columns that treat the water of the K-East and K-West Basins at Hanford. The concern is the flammability of this mixture of gases and planning for safe transport during decommissioning. A transient will occur when the hydrogen filter is temporarily blocked by a sandbag. Analyses are provided for steady-state, transients, and for both wet and dry resins.

  16. Oxygen-stabilized zirconium-vanadium intermetallic compound

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mendelsohn, M.H.; Gruen, D.M.

    1981-10-06

    An oxygen stabilized intermetallic compound having the formula Zr/sub x/OV/sub y/ where x = 0.7 to 2.0 and y = 0.18 to 0.33 is described. The compound is capable of reversibly sorbing hydrogen at temperatures from - 196/sup 0/C to 450/sup 0/C at pressures down to 10/sup -6/ Torr. The compound is also capable of selectively sorbing hydrogen from gaseous mixtures in the presence of CO and CO/sub 2/.

  17. Recent advances in the kinetics of oxygen reduction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adzic, R.

    1996-07-01

    Oxygen reduction is considered an important electrocatalytic reaction; the most notable need remains improvement of the catalytic activity of existing metal electrocatalysts and development of new ones. A review is given of new advances in the understanding of reaction kinetics and improvements of the electrocatalytic properties of some surfaces, with focus on recent studies of relationship of the surface properties to its activity and reaction kinetics. The urgent need is to improve catalytic activity of Pt and synthesize new, possibly non- noble metal catalysts. New experimental techniques for obtaining new level of information include various {ital in situ} spectroscopies and scanning probes, some involving synchrotron radiation. 138 refs, 18 figs, 2 tabs.

  18. Method for providing oxygen ion vacancies in lanthanide oxides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kay, D. Alan R. (4305 Lakeshore Rd., Burlington, CA); Wilson, William G. (820 Harden Dr., Pittsburgh, PA 15229)

    1989-12-05

    A method for desulfurization of fuel gases resulting from the incomplete combustion of sulfur containing hydrocarbons whereby the gases are treated with lanthanide oxides containing large numbers of oxygen-ion vacancies providing ionic porosity which enhances the ability of the lanthanide oxides to react more rapidly and completely with the sulfur in the fuel gases whereby the sulfur in such gases is reduced to low levels suitable for fuels for firing into boilers of power plants generating electricity with steam turbine driven generators, gas turbines, fuel cells and precursors for liquid fuels such as methanol and the like.

  19. Oxygen transport in off-stoichiometric uranium dioxide mediated by defect clustering dynamics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu, Jianguo Bai, Xian-Ming; El-Azab, Anter; Allen, Todd R.

    2015-03-07

    Oxygen transport is central to many properties of oxides such as stoichiometric changes, phase transformation, and ionic conductivity. In this paper, we report a mechanism for oxygen transport in uranium dioxide (UO{sub 2}) in which the kinetics is mediated by defect clustering dynamics. In particular, the kinetic Monte Carlo method has been used to investigate the kinetics of oxygen transport in UO{sub 2} under the condition of creation and annihilation of oxygen vacancies and interstitials as well as oxygen interstitial clustering, with variable off-stoichiometry and temperature conditions. It is found that in hypo-stoichiometric UO{sub 2?x}, oxygen transport is well described by the vacancy diffusion mechanism while in hyper-stoichiometric UO{sub 2+x}, oxygen interstitial cluster diffusion contributes significantly to oxygen transport kinetics, particularly at high temperatures and high off-stoichiometry levels. It is also found that di-interstitial clusters and single interstitials play dominant roles in oxygen diffusion while other larger clusters have negligible contributions. However, the formation, coalescence, and dissociation of these larger clusters indirectly affects the overall oxygen diffusion due to their interactions with mono and di-interstitials, thus providing an explanation of the experimental observation of saturation or even drop of oxygen diffusivity at high off-stoichiometry.

  20. Process for converting light alkanes to higher hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Noceti, Richard P. (Pittsburgh, PA); Taylor, Charles E. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    1988-01-01

    A process is disclosed for the production of aromatic-rich, gasoline boiling range hydrocarbons from the lower alkanes, particularly from methane. The process is carried out in two stages. In the first, alkane is reacted with oxygen and hydrogen chloride over an oxyhydrochlorination catalyst such as copper chloride with minor proportions of potassium chloride and rare earth chloride. This produces an intermediate gaseous mixture containing water and chlorinated alkanes. The chlorinated alkanes are contacted with a crystalline aluminosilicate catalyst in the hydrogen or metal promoted form to produce gasoline range hydrocarbons with a high proportion of aromatics and a small percentage of light hydrocarbons (C.sub.2 -C.sub.4). The light hydrocarbons can be recycled for further processing over the oxyhydrochlorination catalyst.

  1. Oxygen transport membrane system and method for transferring heat to catalytic/process reactors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kelly, Sean M; Kromer, Brian R; Litwin, Michael M; Rosen, Lee J; Christie, Gervase Maxwell; Wilson, Jamie R; Kosowski, Lawrence W; Robinson, Charles

    2014-01-07

    A method and apparatus for producing heat used in a synthesis gas production is provided. The disclosed method and apparatus include a plurality of tubular oxygen transport membrane elements adapted to separate oxygen from an oxygen containing stream contacting the retentate side of the membrane elements. The permeated oxygen is combusted with a hydrogen containing synthesis gas stream contacting the permeate side of the tubular oxygen transport membrane elements thereby generating a reaction product stream and radiant heat. The present method and apparatus also includes at least one catalytic reactor containing a catalyst to promote the stream reforming reaction wherein the catalytic reactor is surrounded by the plurality of tubular oxygen transport membrane elements. The view factor between the catalytic reactor and the plurality of tubular oxygen transport membrane elements radiating heat to the catalytic reactor is greater than or equal to 0.5.

  2. First-Principles Petascale Simulations for Predicting Deflagration to Detonation Transition in Hydrogen-Oxygen Mixtures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khokhlov, Alexei; Austin, Joanna

    2015-03-02

    Hydrogen has emerged as an important fuel across a range of industries as a means of achieving energy independence and to reduce emissions. DDT and the resulting detonation waves in hydrogen-oxygen can have especially catastrophic consequences in a variety of industrial and energy producing settings related to hydrogen. First-principles numerical simulations of flame acceleration and DDT are required for an in-depth understanding of the phenomena and facilitating design of safe hydrogen systems. The goals of this project were (1) to develop first-principles petascale reactive flow Navier-Stokes simulation code for predicting gaseous high-speed combustion and detonation (HSCD) phenomena and (2) demonstrate feasibility of first-principles simulations of rapid flame acceleration and deflagrationto- detonation transition (DDT) in stoichiometric hydrogen-oxygen mixture (2H2 + O2). The goals of the project have been accomplished. We have developed a novel numerical simulation code, named HSCD, for performing first-principles direct numerical simulations of high-speed hydrogen combustion. We carried out a series of validating numerical simulations of inert and reactive shock reflection experiments in shock tubes. We then performed a pilot numerical simulation of flame acceleration in a long pipe. The simulation showed the transition of the rapidly accelerating flame into a detonation. The DDT simulations were performed using BG/Q Mira at the Argonne National Laboratiory, currently the fourth fastest super-computer in the world. The HSCD is currently being actively used on BG/QMira for a systematic study of the DDT processes using computational resources provided through the 2014-2016 INCITE allocation ”First-principles simulations of high-speed combustion and detonation.” While the project was focused on hydrogen-oxygen and on DDT, with appropriate modifications of the input physics (reaction kinetics, transport coefficients, equation of state) the code has a much broader applicability to petascale simulations of high speed combustion and detonation phenomena in reacting gases, and to high speed viscous gaseous flows in general. Project activities included three major steps – (1) development of physical and numerical models, (2) code validation, and (3) demonstration simulation of flame acceleration and DDT in a long pipe.

  3. Recent advances in hydrotreating of pyrolysis bio-oil and its oxygen-containing model compounds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Huamin; Male, Jonathan L.; Wang, Yong

    2013-05-01

    There is considerable world-wide interest in discovering renewable sources of energy that can substitute for fossil fuels. Lignocellulosic biomass, which is the most abundant and inexpensive renewable feedstock on the planet, has a great potential for sustainable production of fuels, chemicals, and carbon-based materials. Fast pyrolysis integrated with hydrotreating is one of the simplest, most cost-effective and most efficient processes to convert lignocellulosic biomass to liquid hydrocarbon fuels for transportation, which has attracted significant attention in recent decades. However, effective hydrotreating of pyrolysis bio-oil presents a daunting challenge to the commercialization of biomass conversion via pyrolysis-hydrotreating. Specifically, development of active, selective, and stable hydrotreating catalysts is the bottleneck due to the poor quality of pyrolysis bio-oil feedstock (high oxygen content, molecular complexity, coking propensity, and corrosiveness). Significant research has been conducted to address the practical issues and provide the fundamental understanding of the hydrotreating/hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) of bio-oils and their oxygen-containing model compounds, including phenolics, furans, and carboxylic acids. A wide range of catalysts have been studied, including conventional Mo-based sulfide catalysts and noble metal catalysts, with the latter being the primary focus of the recent research because of their excellent catalytic performances and no requirement of environmentally unfriendly sulfur. The reaction mechanisms of HDO of model compounds on noble metal catalysts as well as their efficacy for hydrotreating or stabilization of bio-oil have been recently reported. This review provides a survey of the relevant literatures of recent 10 years about the advances in the understanding of the HDO chemistry of bio-oils and their model compounds mainly on noble metal catalysts.

  4. New Solutions Require New Thinking

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Solutions Require New Thinking America's demand for power threatens to overburden an already congested electric system. The U.S. Department of Energy is addressing these energy challenges with innovative solutions to energy generation. Its Renewable and Distributed Systems Integration (RDSI) Program is helping to alleviate congestion, reduce greenhouse gas emissions, and improve reliability by investigating answers such as * Microgrid technologies * Distributed generation * Two-way communication

  5. Nickel-hydrogen battery with oxygen and electrolyte management features

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sindorf, John F. (Pewaukee, WI)

    1991-10-22

    A nickel-hydrogen battery or cell having one or more pressure vessels containing hydrogen gas and a plurality of cell-modules therein. Each cell-module includes a configuration of cooperatively associated oxygen and electrolyte mangement and component alignment features. A cell-module having electrolyte includes a negative electrode, a positive electrode adapted to facilitate oxygen diffusion, a separator disposed between the positive and negative electrodes for separating them and holding electrolyte for ionic conductivity, an absorber engaging the surface of the positive electrode facing away from the separator for providing electrolyte to the positive electrode, and a pair of surface-channeled diffusion screens for enclosing the positive and negative electrodes, absorber, and separator and for maintaining proper alignment of these components. The screens, formed in the shape of a pocket by intermittently sealing the edges together along as many as three sides, permit hydrogen gas to diffuse therethrough to the negative electrodes, and prevent the edges of the separator from swelling. Electrolyte is contained in the cell-module, absorbhed by the electrodes, the separator and the absorber.

  6. Joint contributions of Ag ions and oxygen vacancies to conducting filament evolution of Ag/TaO{sub x}/Pt memory device

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chung, Yu-Lung; Cheng, Wen-Hui; Chen, Wei-Chih; Jhan, Sheng-An; Chen, Jen-Sue; Jeng, Jiann-Shing

    2014-10-28

    The electroforming and resistive switching behaviors in the Ag/TaO{sub x}/Pt trilayer structure are investigated under a continual change of temperatures between 300?K and 100?K to distinguish the contributions of Ag ions and oxygen vacancies in developing of conducting filaments. For either electroforming or resistive switching, a significantly higher forming/set voltages is needed as the device is operated at 100?K, as compared to that observed when operating at 300?K. The disparity in forming/set voltages of Ag/TaO{sub x}/Pt operating at 300?K and 100?K is attributed to the contribution of oxygen vacancies, in addition to Ag atoms, in formation of conducting filament at 100?K since the mobilities of oxygen vacancies and Ag ions become comparable at low temperature. The presence of oxygen vacancy segment in the conducting filament also modifies the reset current from a gradually descending behavior (at 300?K) to a sharp drop (at 100?K). Furthermore, the characteristic set voltage and reset current are irreversible as the operation temperature is brought from 100?K back to 300?K, indicating the critical role of filament constituents on the switching behaviors of Ag/oxide/Pt system.

  7. Overview of Commercial Building Partnerships in Higher Education

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schatz, Glenn

    2013-03-01

    Higher education uses less energy per square foot than most commercial building sectors. However, higher education campuses house energy-intensive laboratories and data centers that may spend more than this average; laboratories, in particular, are disproportionately represented in the higher education sector. The Commercial Building Partnership (CBP), a public/private, cost-shared program sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), paired selected commercial building owners and operators with representatives of DOE, its national laboratories, and private-sector technical experts. These teams explored energy-saving measures across building systems–including some considered too costly or technologically challenging–and used advanced energy modeling to achieve peak whole-building performance. Modeling results were then included in new construction or retrofit designs to achieve significant energy reductions.

  8. Stabilization of linear higher derivative gravity with constraints

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Tai-jun; Lim, Eugene A. E-mail: eugene.a.lim@gmail.com

    2014-05-01

    We show that the instabilities of higher derivative gravity models with quadratic curvature invariant ?R{sup 2}+?R{sub ??}R{sup ??} can be removed by judicious addition of constraints at the quadratic level of metric fluctuations around Minkowski/de Sitter background. With a suitable parameter choice, we find that the instabilities of helicity-0, 1, 2 modes can be removed while reducing the dimensionality of the original phase space. To retain the renormalization properties of higher derivative gravity, Lorentz symmetry in the constrained theory is explicitly broken.

  9. Naked singularities in higher dimensional Vaidya space-times

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ghosh, S. G.; Dadhich, Naresh

    2001-08-15

    We investigate the end state of the gravitational collapse of a null fluid in higher-dimensional space-times. Both naked singularities and black holes are shown to be developing as the final outcome of the collapse. The naked singularity spectrum in a collapsing Vaidya region (4D) gets covered with the increase in dimensions and hence higher dimensions favor a black hole in comparison to a naked singularity. The cosmic censorship conjecture will be fully respected for a space of infinite dimension.

  10. Higher energy fast range nuclear data evaluation advances (u) (Conference)

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    | SciTech Connect Conference: Higher energy fast range nuclear data evaluation advances (u) Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Higher energy fast range nuclear data evaluation advances (u) Authors: Chadwick, Mark B [1] ; Kawano, Toshihiko [1] ; Talou, Patrick [1] ; Kahler, Albert C., III [1] + Show Author Affiliations Los Alamos National Laboratory Publication Date: 2011-10-21 OSTI Identifier: 1172847 Report Number(s): LA-UR-11-06066; LA-UR-11-6066 DOE Contract Number: AC52-06NA25396

  11. Simulating higher-dimensional geometries in GADRAS using approximate one-dimensional solutions.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thoreson, Gregory G.; Mitchell, Dean James; Harding, Lee T.

    2013-02-01

    The Gamma Detector Response and Analysis Software (GADRAS) software package is capable of simulating the radiation transport physics for one-dimensional models. Spherical shells are naturally one-dimensional, and have been the focus of development and benchmarking. However, some objects are not spherical in shape, such as cylinders and boxes. These are not one-dimensional. Simulating the radiation transport in two or three dimensions is unattractive because of the extra computation time required. To maintain computational efficiency, higher-dimensional geometries require approximations to simulate them in one-dimension. This report summarizes the theory behind these approximations, tests the theory against other simulations, and compares the results to experimental data. Based on the results, it is recommended that GADRAS users always attempt to approximate reality using spherical shells. However, if fissile material is present, it is imperative that the shape of the one-dimensional model matches the fissile material, including the use of slab and cylinder geometry.

  12. Concrete Company Aims Higher for More Wind Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Today, most steel towers that support utility-scale turbines stand about 80 meters tall, but the Tindall Corporation wants to go higher using precast concrete to raise turbines over 100 meters in height to capture stronger, steadier winds - and more energy.

  13. Higher order corrections in minimal supergravity models of inflation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ferrara, Sergio; Kallosh, Renata; Linde, Andrei; Porrati, Massimo E-mail: kallosh@stanford.edu E-mail: massimo.porrati@nyu.edu

    2013-11-01

    We study higher order corrections in new minimal supergravity models of a single scalar field inflation. The gauging in these models leads to a massive vector multiplet and the D-term potential for the inflaton field with a coupling g{sup 2} ? 10{sup ?10}. In the de-Higgsed phase with vanishing g{sup 2}, the chiral and vector multiplets are non-interacting, and the potential vanishes. We present generic manifestly supersymmetric higher order corrections for these models. In particular, for a supersymmetric gravity model ?R+R{sup 2} we derive manifestly supersymmetric corrections corresponding to R{sup n}. The dual version corresponds to a standard supergravity model with a single scalar and a massive vector. It includes, in addition, higher Maxwell curvature/scalar interaction terms of the Born-Infeld type and a modified D-term scalar field potential. We use the dual version of the model to argue that higher order corrections do not affect the last 60 e-foldings of inflation; for example the ?R{sup 4} correction is irrelevant as long as ? < 10{sup 24}.

  14. Higher-degree linear approximations of nonlinear systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karahan, S.

    1989-01-01

    In this dissertation, the author develops a new method for obtaining higher degree linear approximations of nonlinear control systems. The standard approach in the analysis and synthesis of nonlinear systems is a first order approximation by a linear model. This is usually performed by obtaining a series expansion of the system at some nominal operating point and retaining only the first degree terms in the series. The accuracy of this approximation depends on how far the system moves away from the normal point, and on the relative magnitudes of the higher degree terms in the series expansion. The approximation is achieved by finding an appropriate nonlinear coordinate transformation-feedback pair to perform the higher degree linearization. With the proposed method, one can improve the accuracy of the approximation up to arbitrarily higher degrees, provided certain solvability conditions are satisfied. The Hunt-Su linearizability theorem makes these conditions precise. This approach is similar to Poincare's Normal Form Theorem in formulation, but different in its solution method. After some mathematical background the author derives a set of equations (called the Homological Equations). A solution to this system of linear equations is equivalent to the solution to the problem of approximate linearization. However, it is generally not possible to solve the system of equations exactly. He outlines a method for systematically finding approximate solutions to these equations using singular value decomposition, while minimizing an error with respect to some defined norm.

  15. Complexes of self-interstitials with oxygen atoms in Ge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khirunenko, L. I.; Pomozov, Yu. V.; Sosnin, M. G.; Abrosimov, N. V.; Riemann, H.

    2014-02-21

    Interactions of germanium self-interstitials with interstitial oxygen atoms in Ge subjected to irradiation at ?80 K and subsequently to annealing have been studied. To distinguish the processes involving vacancies and self-interstitials the doping with tin was used. It was shown that absorption lines with maximum at 602, 674, 713 and 803 cm{sup ?1} are self-interstitials-related. Two lines at 602 and 674, which develop upon annealing in the temperature range 180240 K, belong to IO complexes, while the bands at 713 and 803 cm{sup ?1}, which emerge after annealing at T>220 K, are associated with I{sub 2}O. It is argued that the annealing of IO occurs by two mechanisms: by dissociation and by diffusion.

  16. Orbital reconstruction in a self-assembled oxygen vacancy nanostructure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jang, H.; Kerr, G.; Lim, J. S.; Yang, C. -H.; Kao, C. -C.; Lee, J. -S.

    2015-07-27

    We demonstrate the microscopic role of oxygen vacancies spatially confined within nanometer inter-spacing (about 1nm) in BiFeO?, using resonant soft X-ray scattering techniques and soft X-ray spectroscopy measurements. Such vacancy confinements and total number of vacancy are controlled by substitution of Ca? for Bi? cation. We found that by increasing the substitution, the in-plane orbital bands of Fe? cations are reconstructed without any redox reaction. It leads to a reduction of the hopping between Fe atoms, forming a localized valence band, in particular Fe 3d-electronic structure, around the Fermi level. This band localization causes to decrease the conductivity of the doped BiFeO? system.

  17. Orbital reconstruction in a self-assembled oxygen vacancy nanostructure

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Jang, H.; Kerr, G.; Lim, J. S.; Yang, C. -H.; Kao, C. -C.; Lee, J. -S.

    2015-07-27

    We demonstrate the microscopic role of oxygen vacancies spatially confined within nanometer inter-spacing (about 1nm) in BiFeO₃, using resonant soft X-ray scattering techniques and soft X-ray spectroscopy measurements. Such vacancy confinements and total number of vacancy are controlled by substitution of Ca²⁺ for Bi³⁺ cation. We found that by increasing the substitution, the in-plane orbital bands of Fe³⁺ cations are reconstructed without any redox reaction. It leads to a reduction of the hopping between Fe atoms, forming a localized valence band, in particular Fe 3d-electronic structure, around the Fermi level. This band localization causes to decrease the conductivity of themore » doped BiFeO₃ system.« less

  18. Oxygen-stabilized zirconium-vanadium-iron alloy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mendelsohn, M.H.; Gruen, D.M.

    1981-06-16

    An oxygen stabilized intermetallic compound is described which has the formula (Zr/sub 1-x/Ti/sub x/)/sub 2-u/(V/sub 1-y/Fe/sub y/)O/sub z/ where x = 0.0 to 0.9, y = 0.01 to 0.9, z = 0.25 to 0.5 and u = 0 to 1. The compound is capable of reversibly sorbing hydrogen at temperatures from -196/sup 0/C to 200/sup 0/C at pressures down to 10/sup -6/ torr. The compound is suitable for use as a hydrogen getter in low pressure, high temperature applications such as magnetic confinement fusion devices.

  19. Controlled temperature expansion in oxygen production by molten alkali metal salts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Erickson, D.C.

    1985-06-04

    A continuous process is set forth for the production of oxygen from an oxygen containing gas stream, such as air, by contacting a feed gas stream with a molten solution of an oxygen acceptor to oxidize the acceptor and cyclically regenerating the oxidized acceptor by releasing oxygen from the acceptor wherein the oxygen-depleted gas stream from the contact zone is treated sequentially to temperature reduction by heat exchange against the feed stream so as to condense out entrained oxygen acceptor for recycle to the process, combustion of the gas stream with fuel to elevate its temperature and expansion of the combusted high temperature gas stream in a turbine to recover power. 1 fig.

  20. Origin of deep subgap states in amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide: Chemically disordered coordination of oxygen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sallis, S.; Williams, D. S.; Butler, K. T.; Walsh, A.; Quackenbush, N. F.; Junda, M.; Podraza, N. J.; Fischer, D. A.; Woicik, J. C.; White, B. E.; Piper, L. F. J.

    2014-06-09

    The origin of the deep subgap states in amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide (a-IGZO), whether intrinsic to the amorphous structure or not, has serious implications for the development of p-type transparent amorphous oxide semiconductors. We report that the deep subgap feature in a-IGZO originates from local variations in the oxygen coordination and not from oxygen vacancies. This is shown by the positive correlation between oxygen composition and subgap intensity as observed with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. We also demonstrate that the subgap feature is not intrinsic to the amorphous phase because the deep subgap feature can be removed by low-temperature annealing in a reducing environment. Atomistic calculations of a-IGZO reveal that the subgap state originates from certain oxygen environments associated with the disorder. Specifically, the subgap states originate from oxygen environments with a lower coordination number and/or a larger metal-oxygen separation.

  1. Measurement of the soot concentration and soot particle sizes in propane oxygen flames

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bockhorn, H.; Fetting, F.; Meyer, U.; Reck, R.; Wannemacher, G.

    1981-01-01

    Soot concentrations and particle sizes were measured by light scattering and probe measurements in the burnt gas region of atmospheric pressure propane-oxygen flames and propane-oxygen flames to which hydrogen or ammonia were added. The results show that the soot concentrations in propane-oxygen flames, to which hydrogen is added are lower compared to propane-oxygen flames. The decrease of soot concentration is much stronger when ammonia is added. Associated with the reduction of soot concentration is a reduction of mean particle size of the soot particles and a lower breadth of the particle size distributions. Electron micrographs of soot particles from the probe measurements showed that soot particles from flames with high soot concentrations (propane oxygen flames) are aggregates with chain or cluster structure while the structure of the particles from flames with lower soot concentration (propane oxygen flames with hydrogen or ammonia added) is more compact. 24 refs.

  2. The effect of Fe-Rh alloying on CO hydrogenation to C2+ oxygenates

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Palomino, Robert; Magee, Joseph W.; Llorca, Jordi; Senanayake, Sanjaya D.; White, Michael G.

    2015-05-20

    A combination of reactivity and structural studies using X-ray diffraction (XRD), pair distribution function (PDF), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to identify the active phases of Fe-modified Rh/TiO2 catalysts for the synthesis of ethanol and other C2+ oxygenates from CO hydrogenation. XRD and TEM confirm the existence of Fe–Rh alloys for catalyst with 1–7 wt% Fe and ~2 wt% Rh. Rietveld refinements show that FeRh alloy content increases with Fe loading up to ~4 wt%, beyond which segregation to metallic Fe becomes favored over alloy formation. Catalysts that contain Fe metal after reduction exhibit some carburization as evidencedmore »by the formation of small amounts of Fe3C during CO hydrogenation. Analysis of the total Fe content of the catalysts also suggests the presence of FeOx also increased under reaction conditions. Reactivity studies show that enhancement of ethanol selectivity with Fe loading is accompanied by a significant drop in CO conversion. Comparison of the XRD phase analyses with selectivity suggests that higher ethanol selectivity is correlated with the presence of Fe–Rh alloy phases. As a result, the interface between Fe and Rh serves to enhance the selectivity of ethanol, but suppresses the activity of the catalyst which is attributed to the blocking or modifying of Rh active sites.« less

  3. The effect of Fe-Rh alloying on CO hydrogenation to C2+ oxygenates

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Palomino, Robert; Magee, Joseph W.; Llorca, Jordi; Senanayake, Sanjaya D.; White, Michael G.

    2015-05-20

    A combination of reactivity and structural studies using X-ray diffraction (XRD), pair distribution function (PDF), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to identify the active phases of Fe-modified Rh/TiO2 catalysts for the synthesis of ethanol and other C2+ oxygenates from CO hydrogenation. XRD and TEM confirm the existence of Fe–Rh alloys for catalyst with 1–7 wt% Fe and ~2 wt% Rh. Rietveld refinements show that FeRh alloy content increases with Fe loading up to ~4 wt%, beyond which segregation to metallic Fe becomes favored over alloy formation. Catalysts that contain Fe metal after reduction exhibit some carburization as evidencedmore » by the formation of small amounts of Fe3C during CO hydrogenation. Analysis of the total Fe content of the catalysts also suggests the presence of FeOx also increased under reaction conditions. Reactivity studies show that enhancement of ethanol selectivity with Fe loading is accompanied by a significant drop in CO conversion. Comparison of the XRD phase analyses with selectivity suggests that higher ethanol selectivity is correlated with the presence of Fe–Rh alloy phases. As a result, the interface between Fe and Rh serves to enhance the selectivity of ethanol, but suppresses the activity of the catalyst which is attributed to the blocking or modifying of Rh active sites.« less

  4. DOE-STD-1104 Requirements Crosswalk

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    09 to DOE-STD-1104-2014 Requirements Matrix - 1 - No. Section Page Number DOE-STD-1104-2009 Requirement DOE-STD-1104-2014 Requirements Comment Gen DOE-STD-1104-2009 was broadly ...

  5. Requirements for Bridge Inspection | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Requirements for Bridge Inspection Requirements for Bridge Inspection More Documents & Publications Microsoft PowerPoint - 2009.10.27 Bridge Inspection Follow-up Slide 1 National Bridge Inventory Record Data Submission Requirement

  6. Blast furnace injection of massive quantities of coal with enriched air or pure oxygen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ponghis, N.; Dufresne, P.; Vidal, R.; Poos, A. )

    1993-01-01

    An extensive study of the phenomena associated with the blast furnace injection of massive quantities of coal is described. Trials with conventional lances or oxy-coal injectors and hot blast at different oxygen contents - up to 40% - or with cold pure oxygen were realized at coal to oxygen ratios corresponding to a range of 150 to 440 kg. Pilot scale rigs, empty or filled with coke, as well as industrial blast furnaces were utilized.

  7. A Comparison of Combustion and Emissions of Diesel Fuels and Oxygenated

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fuels in a Modern DI Diesel Engine | Department of Energy A Comparison of Combustion and Emissions of Diesel Fuels and Oxygenated Fuels in a Modern DI Diesel Engine A Comparison of Combustion and Emissions of Diesel Fuels and Oxygenated Fuels in a Modern DI Diesel Engine A single-cylinder engine was used to study how selected oxygenated fuels affect combustion and emissions in a modern diesel engine during conventional combustion and low-temperature combustion (LTC). PDF icon

  8. Evaluation of alkali concentration in conditions relevant to oxygen/natural

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    gas glass furnaces by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy. (Conference) | SciTech Connect Conference: Evaluation of alkali concentration in conditions relevant to oxygen/natural gas glass furnaces by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Evaluation of alkali concentration in conditions relevant to oxygen/natural gas glass furnaces by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy. A number of industrial combustion systems are adopting oxygen-enhanced firing

  9. Lattice distortions and oxygen vacancies produced in Au+ irradiated nano-crystalline cubic zirconia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edmondson, Philip D; Weber, William J; Namavar, Fereydoon; Zhang, Yanwen

    2011-01-01

    The structural impact of oxygen vacancies in nanocrystalline cubic zirconia is investigated. A non-equilibrium number of oxygen vacancies in introduced to the lattice by ion irradiation. The lattice is observed to be initially compressed, undergoes a relaxation at 0.7 displacements per atom (dpa), and experiences a contraction before reaching a temperature dependent steady state value at above 7 dpa. The level of lattice distortion is related to the charge state of the accumulating oxygen vacancies.

  10. Structural perturbations of epitaxial ?-(Fe1-xVx)2O3 thin films driven by excess oxygen near the surface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chamberlin, Sara E.; Kaspar, Tiffany C.; Bowden, Mark E.; Shutthanandan, V.; Kabius, Bernd C.; Heald, Steve M.; Keavney, David; Chambers, Scott A.

    2014-12-21

    We examine the structure and composition of phase-pure epitaxial ?-(Fe1-xVx)2O3 thin films deposited on ?-Al2O3(0001) substrates by oxygen-plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy for 0 ? x ? ~0.5. The films crystallize in the corundum lattice, with vanadium substituting for iron throughout. Vanadium cations exhibit the expected 3+ charge state in the bulk, but exhibit higher valences nearer to the surface, most likely because of excess oxygen in interstitial sites near the surface. The extent of vanadium oxidation beyond the 3+ state is inversely proportional to x. The gradation of vanadium valence with depth may have an impact on local bonding geometries, and could be highly significant in this materials efficiency as a photocatalyst.

  11. Synthesis of oxygenate products for high volume fuels applications. Quarterly technical progress report No. 1, November 1, 1994--January 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-03-08

    Construction and setup of twin laboratory gas phase reactors with in-line Gas chromatographic analysers was completed. Calibration and C.G. analysis methods development were carried out, and spreadsheet programs were written for reduction of data to interpretable results. Initial tests were carried out with pentasil zeolite ASM-5 containing very low (0.1%) levels of mercury as potential catalysts for conversion of acetylene/methanol streams to 1,1-dimethoxyethane or to C{sub 2}{sup +} alcohols, both useful as high-oxygenate gasoline blending agents. Trace levels of both types of products were observed, although the predominant products were light olefins at lower reaction temperatures and aromatics at higher temperatures. It is anticipated that less acidic zeolites and/or Zn- containing catalysts will be more active for oxygenate production. Testing of these materials is underway.

  12. Network Requirements Workshop - Documents and Background Materials

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Requirements Review Reports Case Studies News & Publications ESnet News Publications and Presentations Galleries ESnet Awards and Honors Blog ESnet Live Home » Science Engagement » Science Requirements Reviews » Network Requirements Reviews » Documents and Background Materials Science Engagement Move your data Programs & Workshops Science Requirements Reviews Network Requirements Reviews Documents and Background Materials FAQ for Case Study Authors BER Requirements Review 2015 ASCR

  13. Government Printing Office Requirements | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Government Printing Office Requirements Government Printing Office Requirements This section describes the Government Printing Office (GPO) requirements for all print materials, whether printed electronically or on paper. This includes requirements for printing and copying for all EERE publications. Approved Printers Executive Order 12873, signed by President Clinton, requires that all government offices and their contractors are required to use GPO-approved printers to print and copy all

  14. World nuclear fuel cycle requirements 1990

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-10-26

    This analysis report presents the projected requirements for uranium concentrate and uranium enrichment services to fuel the nuclear power plants expected to be operating under three nuclear supply scenarios. Two of these scenarios, the Lower Reference and Upper Reference cases, apply to the United States, Canada, Europe, the Far East, and other countries with free market economies (FME countries). A No New Orders scenario is presented only for the United States. These nuclear supply scenarios are described in Commercial Nuclear Power 1990: Prospects for the United States and the World (DOE/EIA-0438(90)). This report contains an analysis of the sensitivities of the nuclear fuel cycle projections to different levels and types of projected nuclear capacity, different enrichment tails assays, higher and lower capacity factors, changes in nuclear fuel burnup levels, and other exogenous assumptions. The projections for the United States generally extend through the year 2020, and the FME projections, which include the United States, are provided through 2010. The report also presents annual projections of spent nuclear fuel discharges and inventories of spent fuel. Appendix D includes domestic spent fuel projections through the year 2030 for the Lower and Upper Reference cases and through 2040, the last year in which spent fuel is discharged, for the No New Orders case. These disaggregated projections are provided at the request of the Department of Energy's Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management.

  15. Genome informatics: Requirements and challenges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robbins, R.J.

    1993-12-31

    Informatics of some kind will play a role in every aspect of the Human Genome Project (HGP); data acquisition, data analysis, data exchange, data publication, and data visualization. What are the real requirements and challenges? The primary requirement is clear thinking and the main challenge is design. If good design is lacking, the price will be failure of genome informatics and ultimately failure of the genome project itself. Scientists need good designs to deliver the tools necessary for acquiring and analyzing DNA sequences. As these tools become more efficient, they will need new tools for comparative genomic analyses. To make the tools work, the scientists will need to address and solve nomenclature issues that are essential, if also tedious. They must devise systems that will scale gracefully with the increasing flow of data. The scientists must be able to move data easily from one system to another, with no loss of content. As scientists, they will have failed in their responsibility to share results, should repeating experiments ever become preferable to searching the literature. Their databases must become a new kind of scientific literature and the scientists must develop ways to make electronic data publishing as routine as traditional journal publishing. Ultimately, they must build systems so advanced that they are virtually invisible. In summary, the HGP can be considered the most ambitious, most audacious information-management project ever undertaken. In the HGP, computers will not merely serve as tools for cataloging existing knowledge. Rather, they will serve as instruments, helping to create new knowledge by changing the way the scientists see the biological world. Computers will allow them to see genomes, just as radio telescopes let them see quasars and electron microscopes let them see viruses.

  16. Nitrogen Oxides as a Chemistry Trap in Detonating Oxygen-Rich...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conference: Nitrogen Oxides as a Chemistry Trap in Detonating Oxygen-Rich Materials Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Nitrogen Oxides as a Chemistry Trap in Detonating...

  17. Oxygen-resistant hydrogenases and methods for designing and making same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    King, Paul; Ghirardi, Maria L; Seibert, Michael

    2009-03-10

    The invention provides oxygen- resistant iron-hydrogenases ([Fe]-hydrogenases) for use in the production of H2. Methods used in the design and engineering of the oxygen-resistant [Fe]-hydrogenases are disclosed, as are the methods of transforming and culturing appropriate host cells with the oxygen-resistant [Fe]-hydrogenases. Finally, the invention provides methods for utilizing the transformed, oxygen insensitive, host cells in the bulk production of H.sub.2 in a light catalyzed reaction having water as the reactant.

  18. Oxygen-resistant hydrogenases and methods for designing and making same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    King, Paul; Ghirardi, Maria Lucia; Seibert, Michael

    2014-03-04

    The invention provides oxygen-resistant iron-hydrogenases ([Fe]-hydrogenases) for use in the production of H.sub.2. Methods used in the design and engineering of the oxygen-resistant [Fe]-hydrogenases are disclosed, as are the methods of transforming and culturing appropriate host cells with the oxygen-resistant [Fe]-hydrogenases. Finally, the invention provides methods for utilizing the transformed, oxygen insensitive, host cells in the bulk production of H.sub.2 in a light catalyzed reaction having water as the reactant.

  19. Nitrogen Oxides as a Chemistry Trap in Detonating Oxygen-Rich...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conference: Nitrogen Oxides as a Chemistry Trap in Detonating Oxygen-Rich Materials Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Nitrogen Oxides as a Chemistry Trap in Detonating ...

  20. Surface oxygen micropatterns on glow discharge polymer targets by photo irradiation

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Reynolds, Hannah; Baxamusa, Salmaan; Haan, Steven W.; Fitzsimmons, Paul; Carlson, Lane; Farrell, Mike; Nikroo, Abbas; Watson, Brian J.

    2016-02-24

    Recent simulations predict surface oxygen may be a significant source of disruptive perturbations in the implosion process of glow-discharge polymers (GDP) ablators at the National Ignition Facility. GDP material held in ambient atmospheric conditions showed an increase in mass when stored in light transparent containers, which suggests that photo exposure is a driving force for oxygen absorption. To investigate if surface oxygen is a contributing factor of disruptive perturbations during implosion, we developed a method to imprint a periodic micropattern of oxygen on the surface of GDP and used it to fabricate a flat sample for empirical testing.

  1. Low oxygen biomass-derived pyrolysis oils and methods for producing the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Marinangeli, Richard; Brandvold, Timothy A; Kocal, Joseph A

    2013-08-27

    Low oxygen biomass-derived pyrolysis oils and methods for producing them from carbonaceous biomass feedstock are provided. The carbonaceous biomass feedstock is pyrolyzed in the presence of a catalyst comprising base metal-based catalysts, noble metal-based catalysts, treated zeolitic catalysts, or combinations thereof to produce pyrolysis gases. During pyrolysis, the catalyst catalyzes a deoxygenation reaction whereby at least a portion of the oxygenated hydrocarbons in the pyrolysis gases are converted into hydrocarbons. The oxygen is removed as carbon oxides and water. A condensable portion (the vapors) of the pyrolysis gases is condensed to low oxygen biomass-derived pyrolysis oil.

  2. Task Technical Plan for Studies of Oxygen Consumption in the Catalyzed Hydrolysis of Tetraphenylborate Ion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fink, S.D.

    1996-12-20

    This document presents the plan for studies of how dissolved oxygen affects the catalytic decomposition of the tetraphenylborate ion in alkaline aqueous solution.

  3. Computer Simulation of Defects and Oxygen Transport in Yttria-Stabilized Zirconia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Devanathan, Ram; Weber, William J.; Singhal, Subhash C.; Gale, Julian D.

    2006-06-15

    We have used molecular dynamics simulations and energy minimization calculations to examine defect energetics and oxygen diffusion in yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ). Oxygen vacancies prefer to be second nearest neighbors to yttrium dopants. The oxygen diffusion coefficient shows a peak at 8 mole % yttria consistent with experimental findings. The activation energy for oxygen diffusion varies from 0.6 to 1.0 eV depending on the yttria content. The Y-Vo-Y complex with a binding energy of -0.85 eV may play an important role in any conductivity degradation of YSZ.

  4. Bringing Order to Defects - Making Way for Oxygen to Move | U...

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    Biological and Environmental Research U.S. Department of Energy SC-23Germantown Building ... metal oxide crystal made of strontium (green), chromium (blue), oxygen (red) atoms; the ...

  5. Cooperating Agencies in Implementing the Procedural Requirements...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Agencies in Implementing the Procedural Requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act Cooperating Agencies in Implementing the Procedural Requirements of the National...

  6. California Waste Discharge Requirements Website | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Requirements Website Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Web Site: California Waste Discharge Requirements Website Abstract This website contains...

  7. Studying the Communications Requirements of Electric Utilities...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    the Communications Requirements of Electric Utilities to Inform Federal Smart Grid Policies- Public Meeting Studying the Communications Requirements of Electric Utilities to...

  8. Requirements Based Surveillance and Maintenance Review Process...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Based Surveillance and Maintenance Review Process Interview Form Requirements Based Surveillance and Maintenance Review Process Interview Form PDF icon Requirements Based ...

  9. Facility Safety - DOE Directives, Delegations, and Requirements

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    0.1C Chg 1, Facility Safety by Pranab Guha Functional areas: DNFSB, Defense Nuclear Facility Safety and Health Requirement, Facility Safety, Requires Crosswalk When Revised,...

  10. Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System Requirements Document...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System Requirements Document Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System Requirements Document This document specifies the top-level...

  11. Higher harmonics generation in relativistic electron beam with virtual cathode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kurkin, S. A. Badarin, A. A.; Koronovskii, A. A.; Hramov, A. E.

    2014-09-15

    The study of the microwave generation regimes with intense higher harmonics taking place in a high-power vircator consisting of a relativistic electron beam with a virtual cathode has been made. The characteristics of these regimes, in particular, the typical spectra and their variations with the change of the system parameters (beam current, the induction of external magnetic field) as well as physical processes occurring in the system have been analyzed by means of 3D electromagnetic simulation. It has been shown that the system under study demonstrates the tendency to the sufficient growth of the amplitudes of higher harmonics in the spectrum of current oscillations in the VC region with the increase of beam current. The obtained results allow us to consider virtual cathode oscillators as promising high power mmw-to-THz sources.

  12. Cosmological perturbations in non-local higher-derivative gravity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Craps, Ben; Jonckheere, Tim De; Koshelev, Alexey S. E-mail: Tim.De.Jonckheere@vub.ac.be

    2014-11-01

    We study cosmological perturbations in a non-local higher-derivative model of gravity introduced by Biswas, Mazumdar and Siegel. We extend previous work, which had focused on classical scalar perturbations around a cosine hyperbolic bounce solution, in three ways. First, we point out the existence of a Starobinsky solution in this model, which is more attractive from a phenomenological point of view (even though it has no bounce). Second, we study classical vector and tensor pertuxsxrbations. Third, we show how to quantize scalar and tensor perturbations in a de Sitter phase (for choices of parameters such that the model is ghost-free). Our results show that the model is well-behaved at this level, and are very similar to corresponding results in local f(R) models. In particular, for the Starobinsky solution of non-local higher-derivative gravity, we find the same tensor-to-scalar ratio as for the conventional Starobinsky model.

  13. NREL Explains the Higher Cellulolytic Activity of a Vital Microorganism -

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    News Releases | NREL Explains the Higher Cellulolytic Activity of a Vital Microorganism Wide range of cellulase modalities in C. thermocellum makes it one of the most efficient biomass degraders February 5, 2016 Researchers at the Energy Department's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the BioEnergy Science Center (BESC) say better understanding of a bacterium could lead to cheaper production of cellulosic ethanol and other advanced biofuels. Their discovery was made during an

  14. Large field inflation models from higher-dimensional gauge theories

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Furuuchi, Kazuyuki; Koyama, Yoji

    2015-02-23

    Motivated by the recent detection of B-mode polarization of CMB by BICEP2 which is possibly of primordial origin, we study large field inflation models which can be obtained from higher-dimensional gauge theories. The constraints from CMB observations on the gauge theory parameters are given, and their naturalness are discussed. Among the models analyzed, Dante’s Inferno model turns out to be the most preferred model in this framework.

  15. Congressional, State and Higher Education Leaders Kickoff and Sign Colorado

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Renewable Energy Collaboratory Agreement - News Releases | NREL Congressional, State and Higher Education Leaders Kickoff and Sign Colorado Renewable Energy Collaboratory Agreement February 21, 2007 Colorado is poised to become the renewable energy capitol of the world after the kickoff and signing of the Colorado Renewable Energy Collaboratory Agreement. The Collaboratory is an association of our four institutions, the University of Colorado at Boulder (CU), the Colorado School of Mines

  16. Higher order matrix differential equations with singular coefficient matrices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fragkoulis, V. C.; Kougioumtzoglou, I. A.; Pantelous, A. A.; Pirrotta, A.

    2015-03-10

    In this article, the class of higher order linear matrix differential equations with constant coefficient matrices and stochastic process terms is studied. The coefficient of the highest order is considered to be singular; thus, rendering the response determination of such systems in a straightforward manner a difficult task. In this regard, the notion of the generalized inverse of a singular matrix is used for determining response statistics. Further, an application relevant to engineering dynamics problems is included.

  17. Covalency in Metal-Oxygen Multiple Bonds Evaluated Using Oxygen K-edge Spectroscopy and Electronic Structure Theory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Minasian, Stefan G.; Keith, Jason M.; Batista, Enrique R.; Boland, Kevin S.; Bradley, Joseph A.; Daly, Scott R.; Kozimor, Stosh A.; Lukens, Wayne W.; Martin, Richard L.; Nordlund, Dennis; Seidler, Gerald T.; Shuh, David K.; Sokaras, Dimosthenis; Tyliszczak, Tolek; Wagner, Gregory L.; Weng, Tsu-Chein; Yang, Ping

    2014-01-01

    Advancing theories of how metal oxygen bonding influences metal oxo properties can expose new avenues for innovation in materials science, catalysis, and biochemistry. Historically, spectroscopic analyses of the transition metal peroxyanions, MO4x-, have formed the basis for new M O bonding theories. Herein, relative changes in M O orbital mixing in MO42- (M = Cr, Mo, W) and MO41- (M = Mn, Tc, Re) are evaluated for the first time by non-resonant inelastic X-ray scattering, X-ray absorption spectroscopy using fluorescence and transmission (via a scanning transmission X-ray microscope), and linear-response density functional theory. The results suggest that moving from Group 6 to Group 7 or down the triads increases M O e () mixing. Meanwhile, t2 mixing ( + ) remains relatively constant within the same Group. These unexpected changes in frontier orbital energy and composition are evaluated in terms of periodic trends in d orbital energy and radial extension.

  18. Dynamics of cosmic strings with higher-dimensional windings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yamauchi, Daisuke; Lake, Matthew J.

    2015-06-11

    We consider F-strings with arbitrary configurations in the Minkowski directions of a higher-dimensional spacetime, which also wrap and spin around S{sup 1} subcycles of constant radius in an arbitrary internal manifold, and determine the relation between the higher-dimensional and the effective four-dimensional quantities that govern the string dynamics. We show that, for any such configuration, the motion of the windings in the compact space may render the string effectively tensionless from a four-dimensional perspective, so that it remains static with respect to the large dimensions. Such a critical configuration occurs when (locally) exactly half the square of the string length lies in the large dimensions and half lies in the compact space. The critical solution is then seen to arise as a special case, in which the wavelength of the windings is equal to their circumference. As examples, long straight strings and circular loops are considered in detail, and the solutions to the equations of motion that satisfy the tensionless condition are presented. These solutions are then generalized to planar loops and arbitrary three-dimensional configurations. Under the process of dimensional reduction, in which higher-dimensional motion is equivalent to an effective worldsheet current (giving rise to a conserved charge), this phenomenon may be seen as the analogue of the tensionless condition which arises for superconducting and chiral-current carrying cosmic strings.

  19. Reference concepts for a space-based hydrogen-oxygen combustion, turboalternator, burst power system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edenburn, M.W.

    1990-07-01

    This report describes reference concepts for a hydrogen-oxygen combustion, turboalternator power system that supplies power during battle engagement to a space-based, ballistic missile defense platform. All of the concepts are open''; that is, they exhaust hydrogen or a mixture of hydrogen and water vapor into space. We considered the situation where hydrogen is presumed to be free to the power system because it is also needed to cool the platform's weapon and the situation where hydrogen is not free and its mass must be added to that of the power system. We also considered the situation where water vapor is an acceptable exhaust and the situation where it is not. The combination of these two sets of situations required four different power generation systems, and this report describes each, suggests parameter values, and estimates masses for each of the four. These reference concepts are expected to serve as a baseline'' to which other types of power systems can be compared, and they are expected to help guide technology development efforts in that they suggest parameter value ranges that will lead to optimum system designs. 7 refs., 18 figs., 5 tabs.

  20. Synthesis and Characterization of Platinum Monolayer Oxygen-Reduction Electrocatalysts with Co-Pd Core-Shell Nanoparticle Support

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shao,M.; Sasaki, K.; Marinkovic, N.; Zhang, L.; Adzic, R.

    2007-01-01

    We synthesized Pt monolayer electrocatalysts for oxygen-reduction using a new method to obtain the supporting core-shell nanoparticles. They consist of a Pt monolayer deposited on carbon-supported Co-Pd core-shell nanoparticles with the diameter of 3-4 nm. The nanoparticles were made using a redox-transmetalation (electroless deposition) method involving the oxidation of Co by Pd cations, yielding a Pd shell around the Co core. The quality of the thus-formed core-shell structure was verified using transmission electron microscopy and X-ray absorption spectroscopy, while cyclic voltammetry was employed to confirm the lack of Co oxidation (dissolution). A Pt monolayer was deposited on the Co-Pd core-shell nanoparticles by the galvanic displacement of a Cu monolayer obtained by underpotential deposition. The total noble metal mass-specific activity of this Pt monolayer electrocatalyst was ca. 3-fold higher than that of commercial Pt/C electrocatalysts.

  1. Chapter 6 - Competition Requirements | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    6 - Competition Requirements Chapter 6 - Competition Requirements PDF icon 6.1_Competition_Requirements_0.pdf PDF icon 6.5_Competition_Advocate_Responsibilities_0.pdf More Documents & Publications AcqGuide 5.2-OPAM Competition Requirements Microsoft Word - AG Chapter 6 1 Nov 20

  2. Grantee Checklist for the Inspection & Monitoring Requirement

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This document walks Grantees through the Inspection and Monitoring requirement of the Quality Work Plan.

  3. Quality Work Plan Inspection and Monitoring Requirement

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Inspection and monitoring requirements for Weatherization Assistance Program's comprehensive Quality Work Plan.

  4. Comparative developmental toxicity of environmentally relevant oxygenated PAHs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Knecht, Andrea L.; Goodale, Britton C.; Truong, Lisa; Simonich, Michael T.; Swanson, Annika J.; Matzke, Melissa M.; Anderson, Kim A.; Waters, Katrina M.; Tanguay, Robert L.

    2013-09-01

    Oxygenated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (OPAHs) are byproducts of combustion and photo-oxidation of parent PAHs. OPAHs are widely present in the environment and pose an unknown hazard to human health. The developing zebrafish was used to evaluate a structurally diverse set of 38 OPAHs for malformation induction, gene expression changes and mitochondrial function. Zebrafish embryos were exposed from 6 to 120 h post fertilization (hpf) to a dilution series of 38 different OPAHs and evaluated for 22 developmental endpoints. AHR activation was determined via CYP1A immunohistochemistry. Phenanthrenequinone (9,10-PHEQ), 1,9-benz-10-anthrone (BEZO), xanthone (XAN), benz(a)anthracene-7,12-dione (7,12-B[a]AQ), and 9,10-anthraquinone (9,10-ANTQ) were evaluated for transcriptional responses at 48 hpf, prior to the onset of malformations. qRT-PCR was conducted for a number of oxidative stress genes, including the glutathione transferase(gst), glutathione peroxidase(gpx), and superoxide dismutase(sod) families. Bioenergetics was assayed to measure in vivo oxidative stress and mitochondrial function in 26 hpf embryos exposed to OPAHs. Hierarchical clustering of the structure-activity outcomes indicated that the most toxic of the OPAHs contained adjacent diones on 6-carbon moieties or terminal, para-diones on multi-ring structures. 5-carbon moieties with adjacent diones were among the least toxic OPAHs while the toxicity of multi-ring structures with more centralized para-diones varied considerably. 9,10-PHEQ, BEZO, 7,12-B[a]AQ, and XAN exposures increased expression of several oxidative stress related genes and decreased oxygen consumption rate (OCR), a measurement of mitochondrial respiration. Comprehensive in vivo characterization of 38 structurally diverse OPAHs indicated differential AHR dependency and a prominent role for oxidative stress in the toxicity mechanisms. - Highlights: OPAHs are byproducts of combustion present in the environment. OPAHs pose a largely unknown hazard to human health. We assayed the developmental toxicology of 39 different OPAHs in zebrafish. The most toxic OPAHs contained adjacent diones or terminal, para-diones. AHR dependency varied among OPAHs, and oxidative stress influenced their toxicology.

  5. The Fundamental Role of Nano-Scale Oxide Films in the Oxidation of Hydrogen and the Reduction of Oxygen on Noble Metal Electrocatalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Digby Macdonald

    2005-04-15

    The derivation of successful fuel cell technologies requires the development of more effective, cheaper, and poison-resistant electrocatalysts for both the anode (H{sub 2} oxidation in the presence of small amounts of CO from the reforming of carbonaceous fuels) and the cathode (reduction of oxygen in the presence of carried-over fuel). The proposed work is tightly focused on one specific aspect of electrocatalysis; the fundamental role(s) played by nanoscale (1-2 nm thick) oxide (''passive'') films that form on the electrocatalyst surfaces above substrate-dependent, critical potentials, on charge transfer reactions, particularly at elevated temperatures (25 C < T < 200 C). Once the role(s) of these films is (are) adequately understood, we will then use this information to specify, at the molecular level, optimal properties of the passive layer for the efficient electrocatalysis of the oxygen reduction reaction.

  6. DOE Solid-State Lighting in Higher Ed Facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, Naomi J.; Curry, Ku'Uipo J.

    2010-07-20

    The focus of the workshop was on higher education facilities because college and university campuses are an important market for lighting products and they use almost every kind of luminaire on the market. This workshop was seen as a chance for SSL manufacturers large and small to get the inside scoop from a group of people that specify, pay for, install, use, maintain, and dispose of lighting systems for nearly every type of application. Workshop attendees explored the barriers to SSL adoption, the applications where SSL products could work better than existing technologies, and where SSL luminaires are currently falling short. This report summarizes the Workshop activities and presentation highlights.

  7. Sandia Higher Order Elements (SHOE) v 0.5 alpha

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2013-09-24

    SHOE is research code for characterizing and visualizing higher-order finite elements; it contains a framework for defining classes of interpolation techniques and element shapes; methods for interpolating triangular, quadrilateral, tetrahedral, and hexahedral cells using Lagrange and Legendre polynomial bases of arbitrary order; methods to decompose each element into domains of constant gradient flow (using a polynomial solver to identify critical points); and an isocontouring technique that uses this decomposition to guarantee topological correctness. Please notemore » that this is an alpha release of research software and that some time has passed since it was actively developed; build- and run-time issues likely exist.« less

  8. Superconducting Higher Harmonic RF Cavity for the APS Upgrade Electron

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Storage Rings | Argonne National Laboratory Superconducting Higher Harmonic RF Cavity for the APS Upgrade Electron Storage Rings March 14, 2016 3:30PM to 4:30PM Presenter Sanghoon Kim, Physics Division Location Building 203, Room R150 Type Seminar Series Physics Division Seminar Abstract: A new trend in electron storange rings is the use of a "nulti-bend achromat" (MBA) lattice to reduce the electron beam emittance. The Advanced Photon Source Upgrade (APS-U) MBA lattice improves

  9. Higher-order photon correlations in pulsed photonic crystal nanolasers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elvira, D.; Hachair, X.; Braive, R.; Beaudoin, G.; Robert-Philip, I.; Sagnes, I.; Abram, I.; Beveratos, A.; Verma, V. B.; Baek, B.; Nam, S. W.; Stevens, M. J.; Dauler, E. A.

    2011-12-15

    We report on the higher-order photon correlations of a high-{beta} nanolaser under pulsed excitation at room temperature. Using a multiplexed four-element superconducting single-photon detector we measured g{sup (n)}(0-vector) with n=2,3,4. All orders of correlation display partially chaotic statistics, even at four times the threshold excitation power. We show that this departure from coherence and Poisson statistics is due to the quantum fluctuations associated with the small number of photons at the lasing threshold.

  10. Surface profile control of FeNiPt/Pt core/shell nanowires for oxygen reduction reaction

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhu, Huiyuan; Zhang, Sen; Su, Dong; Jiang, Guangming; Sun, Shouheng

    2015-03-18

    The ever-increasing energy demand requires renewable energy schemes with low environmental impacts. Electrochemical energy conversion devices, such as fuel cells, combine fuel oxidization and oxygen reduction reactions and have been studied extensively for renewable energy applications. However, their energy conversion efficiency is often limited by kinetically sluggish chemical conversion reactions, especially oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). [1-5] To date, extensive efforts have been put into developing efficient ORR catalysts with controls on catalyst sizes, compositions, shapes and structures. [6-12] Recently, Pt-based catalysts with core/shell and one-dimensional nanowire (NW) morphologies were found to be promising to further enhance ORR catalysis. With themore » core/shell structure, the ORR catalysis of a nanoparticle (NP) catalyst can be tuned by both electronic and geometric effects at the core/shell interface. [10,13,14] With the NW structure, the catalyst interaction with the conductive support can be enhanced to facilitate electron transfer between the support and the NW catalyst and to promote ORR. [11,15,16]« less

  11. Surface profile control of FeNiPt/Pt core/shell nanowires for oxygen reduction reaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhu, Huiyuan; Zhang, Sen; Su, Dong; Jiang, Guangming; Sun, Shouheng

    2015-03-18

    The ever-increasing energy demand requires renewable energy schemes with low environmental impacts. Electrochemical energy conversion devices, such as fuel cells, combine fuel oxidization and oxygen reduction reactions and have been studied extensively for renewable energy applications. However, their energy conversion efficiency is often limited by kinetically sluggish chemical conversion reactions, especially oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). [1-5] To date, extensive efforts have been put into developing efficient ORR catalysts with controls on catalyst sizes, compositions, shapes and structures. [6-12] Recently, Pt-based catalysts with core/shell and one-dimensional nanowire (NW) morphologies were found to be promising to further enhance ORR catalysis. With the core/shell structure, the ORR catalysis of a nanoparticle (NP) catalyst can be tuned by both electronic and geometric effects at the core/shell interface. [10,13,14] With the NW structure, the catalyst interaction with the conductive support can be enhanced to facilitate electron transfer between the support and the NW catalyst and to promote ORR. [11,15,16]

  12. Low energy consumption method for separating gaseous mixtures and in particular for medium purity oxygen production

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jujasz, Albert J. (North Olmsted, OH); Burkhart, James A. (Olmsted Falls, OH); Greenberg, Ralph (New York, NY)

    1988-01-01

    A method for the separation of gaseous mixtures such as air and for producing medium purity oxygen, comprising compressing the gaseous mixture in a first compressor to about 3.9-4.1 atmospheres pressure, passing said compressed gaseous mixture in heat exchange relationship with sub-ambient temperature gaseous nitrogen, dividing the cooled, pressurized gaseous mixture into first and second streams, introducing the first stream into the high pressure chamber of a double rectification column, separating the gaseous mixture in the rectification column into a liquid oxygen-enriched stream and a gaseous nitrogen stream and supplying the gaseous nitrogen stream for cooling the compressed gaseous mixture, removing the liquid oxygen-enriched stream from the low pressure chamber of the rectification column and pumping the liquid, oxygen-enriched steam to a predetermined pressure, cooling the second stream, condensing the cooled second stream and evaporating the oxygen-enriched stream in an evaporator-condenser, delivering the condensed second stream to the high pressure chamber of the rectification column, and heating the oxygen-enriched stream and blending the oxygen-enriched stream with a compressed blend-air stream to the desired oxygen concentration.

  13. The effect of plutonium dioxide water surface coverage on the generation of hydrogen and oxygen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Veirs, Douglas K.; Berg, John M.; Crowder, Mark L.

    2012-06-20

    The conditions for the production of oxygen during radiolysis of water adsorbed onto plutonium dioxide powder are discussed. Studies in the literature investigating the radiolysis of water show that both oxygen and hydrogen can be generated from water adsorbed on high-purity plutonium dioxide powder. These studies indicate that there is a threshold in the amount of water below which oxygen is not generated. The threshold is associated with the number of monolayers of adsorbed water and is shown to occur at approximately two monolayers of molecularly adsorbed water. Material in equilibrium with 50% relative humidity (RH) will be at the threshold for oxygen generation. Using two monolayers of molecularly adsorbed water as the threshold for oxygen production, the total pressure under various conditions is calculated assuming stoichiometric production of hydrogen and oxygen. The specific surface area of the oxide has a strong effect on the final partial pressure. The specific surface areas resulting in the highest pressures within a 3013 container are evaluated. The potential for oxygen generation is mitigated by reduced relative humidity, and hence moisture adsorption, at the oxide surface which occurs if the oxide is warmer than the ambient air. The potential for oxygen generation approaches zero as the temperature difference between the ambient air and the material approaches 6 C.

  14. Metallic filament formation by aligned oxygen vacancies in ZnO-based resistive switches

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gu, Tingkun

    2014-05-28

    The electronic structure of ZnO with defects of oxygen vacancies were investigated by using first-principles methods. Some structure models were constructed in order to investigate the effects of the distribution of oxygen vacancies on the electronic properties of ZnO. By analyzing the calculated results, we found that only the aligned oxygen vacancies can form the conducting channel in ZnO, and the transformation of the oxygen vacancy from charged state to neutral state is consistent with the energetics rule of the forming aligned oxygen vacancies. As for the heterojunction of Pt/ZnO/Pt, the oxygen vacancies near the interface of Pt/ZnO depress the local Schottky barrier effectively, and the aligned oxygen vacancies in ZnO form a conducting filament connecting two Pt electrodes. The metallic filament formation in Pt/ZnO/Pt resistive switching cells should be closely related to the carrier injection from Pt electrode into ZnO and the arrangement of oxygen vacancies in ZnO slab.

  15. Effects of Oxygen-Containing Functional Groups on Supercapacitor Performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kerisit, Sebastien N.; Schwenzer, Birgit; Vijayakumar, M.

    2014-07-03

    Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of the interface between graphene and the ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium trifluoromethanesulfonate (BMIM OTf) were carried out to gain molecular-level insights into the performance of graphene-based supercapacitors and, in particular, determine the effects of the presence of oxygen-containing defects at the graphene surface on their integral capacitance. The MD simulations predict that increasing the surface coverage of hydroxyl groups negatively affects the integral capacitance, whereas the effect of the presence of epoxy groups is much less significant. The calculated variations in capacitance are found to be directly correlated to the interfacial structure. Indeed, hydrogen bonding between hydroxyl groups and SO3 anion moieties prevents BMIM+ and OTf- molecules from interacting favorably in the dense interfacial layer and restrains the orientation and mobility of OTf- ions, thereby reducing the permittivity of the ionic liquid at the interface. The results of the molecular simulations can facilitate the rational design of electrode materials for supercapacitors.

  16. Porous platinum-based catalysts for oxygen reduction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Erlebacher, Jonah D; Snyder, Joshua D

    2014-11-25

    A porous metal that comprises platinum and has a specific surface area that is greater than 5 m.sup.2/g and less than 75 m.sup.2/g. A fuel cell includes a first electrode, a second electrode spaced apart from the first electrode, and an electrolyte arranged between the first and the second electrodes. At least one of the first and second electrodes is coated with a porous metal catalyst for oxygen reduction, and the porous metal catalyst comprises platinum and has a specific surface area that is greater than 5 m.sup.2/g and less than 75 m.sup.2/g. A method of producing a porous metal according to an embodiment of the current invention includes producing an alloy consisting essentially of platinum and nickel according to the formula Pt.sub.xNi.sub.1-x, where x is at least 0.01 and less than 0.3; and dealloying the alloy in a substantially pH neutral solution to reduce an amount of nickel in the alloy to produce the porous metal.

  17. Oxygen sensor for monitoring gas mixtures containing hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ruka, Roswell J. (Pittsburgh, PA); Basel, Richard A. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    1996-01-01

    A gas sensor measures O.sub.2 content of a reformable monitored gas containing hydrocarbons H.sub.2 O and/or CO.sub.2, preferably in association with an electrochemical power generation system. The gas sensor has a housing communicating with the monitored gas environment and carries the monitored gas through an integral catalytic hydrocarbon reforming chamber containing a reforming catalyst, and over a solid electrolyte electrochemical cell used for sensing purposes. The electrochemical cell includes a solid electrolyte between a sensor electrode that is exposed to the monitored gas, and a reference electrode that is isolated in the housing from the monitored gas and is exposed to a reference gas environment. A heating element is also provided in heat transfer communication with the gas sensor. A circuit that can include controls operable to adjust operations via valves or the like is connected between the sensor electrode and the reference electrode to process the electrical signal developed by the electrochemical cell. The electrical signal varies as a measure of the equilibrium oxygen partial pressure of the monitored gas. Signal noise is effectively reduced by maintaining a constant temperature in the area of the electrochemical cell and providing a monitored gas at chemical equilibria when contacting the electrochemical cell. The output gas from the electrochemical cell of the sensor is fed back into the conduits of the power generating system.

  18. Oxygen sensor for monitoring gas mixtures containing hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ruka, R.J.; Basel, R.A.

    1996-03-12

    A gas sensor measures O{sub 2} content of a reformable monitored gas containing hydrocarbons, H{sub 2}O and/or CO{sub 2}, preferably in association with an electrochemical power generation system. The gas sensor has a housing communicating with the monitored gas environment and carries the monitored gas through an integral catalytic hydrocarbon reforming chamber containing a reforming catalyst, and over a solid electrolyte electrochemical cell used for sensing purposes. The electrochemical cell includes a solid electrolyte between a sensor electrode that is exposed to the monitored gas, and a reference electrode that is isolated in the housing from the monitored gas and is exposed to a reference gas environment. A heating element is also provided in heat transfer communication with the gas sensor. A circuit that can include controls operable to adjust operations via valves or the like is connected between the sensor electrode and the reference electrode to process the electrical signal developed by the electrochemical cell. The electrical signal varies as a measure of the equilibrium oxygen partial pressure of the monitored gas. Signal noise is effectively reduced by maintaining a constant temperature in the area of the electrochemical cell and providing a monitored gas at chemical equilibria when contacting the electrochemical cell. The output gas from the electrochemical cell of the sensor is fed back into the conduits of the power generating system. 4 figs.

  19. The reaction of hydroperoxy-propyl radicals with molecular oxygen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bozzelli, J.W.; Pitz, W.J.

    1993-12-03

    Addition of hydroperoxy-alkyl radicals to molecular oxygen leads to chain branching in autoignition and engine knock, and in low temperature oxidation of paraffins. Rate constants and product channels for reaction of hydroperoxy-propyl radicals with O{sub 2} are estimated using thermodynamic properties, bimolecular quantum Kassel analysis and transition state theory. Thermochemistry of relevant molecules and radicals is estimated using group additivity and bond dissociation groups for radicals. Results show that rates of the hydroperoxy-propyl radical addition to O{sub 2} are near their high pressure limits at {ge} 1 atm. Main products at 1--15 atm are stabilization, reverse reaction to hydroperoxy-propyl + O{sub 2} and alkyl carbonyl + OH. Reactions of the stabilized adducts, dissociation rates and product channels are estimated using unimolecular quantum Kassel analysis, because stabilization is the most important hydroperoxy-propyl radical + O{sub 2} product channel. Below 700 K, the stabilized peroxy adducts react primarily to hydroperoxy-carbonyl + OH, products which lead to chain branching. Above 700K, the stabilized peroxy adducts react primarily to hydroperoxy-propyl radical + O{sub 2}, initial reactants, which inhibits the overall oxidation. This switchover in channels correlates well observed negative temperature coefficient behavior for propane oxidation. Rate expressions for reaction of each of the three hydroperoxy-alkyl isomers with O{sub 2} and for dissociation of the associated stabilized adducts are calculated for a series of pressures at 300--2100K.

  20. Platinum-Coated Nickel Nanowires as Oxygen-Reducing Electrocatalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alia, Shaun M; Larsen, Brian A; Pylypenko, Svitlana; Cullen, David A; Diercks, David R; Neyerlin, Kenneth C; Kocha, Shyam S; Pivovar, Bryan

    2014-01-01

    Platinum (Pt)-coated nickel (Ni) nanowires (PtNiNWs) are synthesized by the partial spontaneous galvanic displacement of NiNWs, with a diameter of 150 250 nm and a length of 100 200 m. PtNiNWs are electrochemically characterized for oxygen reduction (ORR) in rotating disk electrode half-cells with an acidic electrolyte and compared to carbon-supported Pt (Pt/HSC) and a polycrystalline Pt electrode. Like other extended surface catalysts, the nanowire morphology yields significant gains in ORR specific activity compared to Pt/HSC. Unlike other extended surface approaches, the resultant materials have yielded exceptionally high surface areas, greater than 90 m2 gPt 1. These studies have found that reducing the level of Pt displacement increases Pt surface area and ORR mass activity. PtNiNWs produce a peak mass activity of 917 mA mgPt 1, 3.0 times greater than Pt/HSC and 2.1 times greater than the U.S. Department of Energy target for proton-exchange membrane fuel cell activity.

  1. WETTING AND REACTIVE AIR BRAZING OF BSCF FOR OXYGEN SEPARATION DEVICES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LaDouceur, Richard M.; Meier, Alan; Joshi, Vineet V.

    2014-10-13

    Reactive air brazes Ag-CuO and Ag-V2O5 were evaluated for brazing Ba0.5Sr0.5Co0.8Fe0.2O(3-?) (BSCF). BSCF has been determined in previous work to have the highest potential mixed ionic/electronic conducting (MIEC) ceramic material based on the design and oxygen flux requirements of an oxy-fuel plant such as an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) used to facilitate high-efficiency carbon capture. Apparent contact angles were observed for Ag-CuO and Ag-V2O5 mixtures at 1000 C for isothermal hold times of 0, 10, 30, and 60 minutes. Wetting apparent contact angles (?<90) were obtained for 1%, 2%, and 5% Ag-CuO and Ag-V2O5 mixtures, with the apparent contact angles between 74 and 78 for all compositions and furnace dwell times. Preliminary microstructural analysis indicates that two different interfacial reactions are occurring: Ag-CuO interfacial microstructures revealed the same dissolution of copper oxide into the BSCF matrix to form copper-cobalt-oxygen rich dissolution products along the BSCF grain boundaries and Ag-V2O5 interfacial microstructures revealed the infiltration and replacement of cobalt and iron with vanadium and silver filling pores in the BSCF microstructure. The Ag-V2O5 interfacial reaction product layer was measured to be significantly thinner than the Ag-CuO reaction product layer. Using a fully articulated four point flexural bend test fixture, the flexural fracture strength for BSCF was determined to be 95 33 MPa. The fracture strength will be used to ascertain the success of the reactive air braze alloys. Based on these results, brazes were fabricated and mechanically tested to begin to optimize the brazing parameters for this system. Ag-2.5% CuO braze alloy with a 2.5 minute thermal cycle achieved a hermetic seal with a joint flexural strength of 34 15 MPa and Ag-1% V2O5 with a 30 minute thermal cycle had a joint flexural strength of 20 15 MPa.

  2. Higher order harmonic detection for exploring nonlinear interactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vasudevan, Rama K; Okatan, M. B.; Rajapaksa, Indrajit; Kim, Yunseok; Marincel, Dan; Trolier-McKinstry, Susan; Jesse, Stephen; Nagarajan, Valanoor; Kalinin, Sergei V

    2013-01-01

    Nonlinear dynamics underpin a vast array of physical phenomena ranging from interfacial motion to jamming transitions. In many cases, decoupling the contributions of competing or co-existing mechanisms to the system response can be achieved through investigation of higher order harmonics. Here, a method using band excitation scanning probe microscopy to investigate higher order harmonics of the electromechanical response, with nanometer scale spatial resolution is presented. The utility of the technique is demonstrated by probing the first three harmonics of strain for a well-known system, a model Pb(Zr1-xTix)O3 ferroelectric capacitor. It is shown that the second order harmonic response is correlated with the first harmonic response, whereas the third harmonic is not. Additionally, nanoscale measurements of the second harmonic response with field reveal significant deviations from Rayleigh-type models in the form of a much more complicated field dependence than is observed in the spatially averaged data. These results illustrate the versatility of combining proximal probe techniques with nth harmonic detection methods in exploring and decoupling nonlinear dynamics in a wide variety of nanoscale materials.

  3. Chemical expansion affected oxygen vacancy stability in different oxide structures from first principles calculations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aidhy, Dilpuneet S.; Liu, Bin; Zhang, Yanwen; Weber, William J.

    2015-03-01

    We study the chemical expansion for neutral and charged oxygen vacancies in fluorite, rocksalt, perovskite and pyrochlores materials using first principles calculations. We show that the neutral oxygen vacancy leads to lattice expansion whereas the charged vacancy leads to lattice contraction. In addition, we show that there is a window of strain within which an oxygen vacancy is stable; beyond that range, the vacancy can become unstable. Using CeO2|ZrO2 interface structure as an example, we show that the concentration of oxygen vacancies can be manipulated via strain, and the vacancies can be preferentially stabilized. These results could serve as guiding principles in predicting oxygen vacancy stability in strained systems and in the design of vacancy stabilized materials.

  4. Prolonged cold storage of red blood cells by oxygen removal and additive usage

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bitensky, M.W.; Yoshida, Tatsuro

    1998-08-04

    Prolonged cold storage of red blood cells by oxygen removal and additive usage. A cost-effective, 4 C storage procedure that preserves red cell quality and prolongs post-transfusion in vivo survival is described. The improved in vivo survival and the preservation of adenosine triphosphate levels, along with reduction in hemolysis and membrane vesicle production of red blood cells stored at 4 C for prolonged periods of time, is achieved by reducing the oxygen level therein at the time of storage; in particular, by flushing the cells with an inert gas, and storing them in an aqueous solution which includes adenine, dextrose, mannitol, citrate ion, and dihydrogen phosphate ion, but no sodium chloride, in an oxygen-permeable container which is located in an oxygen-free environment containing oxygen-scavenging materials. 8 figs.

  5. Prolonged cold storage of red blood cells by oxygen removal and additive usage

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bitensky, Mark W. (Boston, MA); Yoshida, Tatsuro (Newton, MA)

    1998-01-01

    Prolonged cold storage of red blood cells by oxygen removal and additive usage. A cost-effective, 4.degree. C. storage procedure that preserves red cell quality and prolongs post-transfusion in vivo survival is described. The improved in vivo survival and the preservation of adenosine triphosphate levels, along with reduction in hemolysis and membrane vesicle production of red blood cells stored at 4.degree. C. for prolonged periods of time, is achieved by reducing the oxygen level therein at the time of storage; in particular, by flushing the cells with an inert gas, and storing them in an aqueous solution which includes adenine, dextrose, mannitol, citrate ion, and dihydrogen phosphate ion, but no sodium chloride, in an oxygen-permeable container which is located in an oxygen-free environment containing oxygen-scavenging materials.

  6. Development of ITM oxygen technology for integration in IGCC and other advanced power generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Armstrong, Phillip A.

    2015-03-31

    Ion Transport Membrane (ITM) technology is based on the oxygen-ion-conducting properties of certain mixed-metal oxide ceramic materials that can separate oxygen from an oxygen-containing gas, such as air, under a suitable driving force. The “ITM Oxygen” air separation system that results from the use of such ceramic membranes produces a hot, pure oxygen stream and a hot, pressurized, oxygen-depleted stream from which significant amounts of energy can be extracted. Accordingly, the technology integrates well with other high-temperature processes, including power generation. Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., the Recipient, in conjunction with a dozen subcontractors, developed ITM Oxygen technology under this five-phase Cooperative Agreement from the laboratory bench scale to implementation in a pilot plant capable of producing power and 100 tons per day (TPD) of purified oxygen. A commercial-scale membrane module manufacturing facility (the “CerFab”), sized to support a conceptual 2000 TPD ITM Oxygen Development Facility (ODF), was also established and operated under this Agreement. In the course of this work, the team developed prototype ceramic production processes and a robust planar ceramic membrane architecture based on a novel ceramic compound capable of high oxygen fluxes. The concept and feasibility of the technology was thoroughly established through laboratory pilot-scale operations testing commercial-scale membrane modules run under industrial operating conditions with compelling lifetime and reliability performance that supported further scale-up. Auxiliary systems, including contaminant mitigation, process controls, heat exchange, turbo-machinery, combustion, and membrane pressure vessels were extensively investigated and developed. The Recipient and subcontractors developed efficient process cycles that co-produce oxygen and power based on compact, low-cost ITMs. Process economics assessments show significant benefits relative to state-of-the-art cryogenic air separation technology in energy-intensive applications such as IGCC with and without carbon capture.

  7. DOE-STD-1104 Requirements Crosswalk

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    09 to DOE-STD-1104-2014 Requirements Matrix - 1 - No. Section/ Page Number DOE-STD-1104-2009 Requirement DOE-STD-1104-2014 Requirements Comment Gen DOE-STD-1104-2009 was broadly implemented but not required. DOE-STD-1104-2014 will be required by DOE Order 420.1C, Page Change 1, soon to be approved (already concurred upon by the program offices and the Directives Review Board). DOE-STD-1104- 2014will now be a required method. For more discussion, see letter from Moniz to Winokur, October 18,

  8. Particle creation by naked singularities in higher dimensions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miyamoto, Umpei; Nemoto, Hiroya; Shimano, Masahiro

    2011-04-15

    Recently, the possibility was pointed out by one of the present authors and his collaborators that an effective naked singularity referred to as ''a visible border of spacetime'' is generated by high-energy particle collision in the context of large extra dimensions or TeV-scale gravity. In this paper, we investigate the particle creation by a naked singularity in general dimensions, while adopting a model in which a marginally naked singularity forms in the collapse of a homothetic lightlike pressureless fluid. We find that the spectrum deviates from that of Hawking radiation due to scattering near the singularity but can be recast in quasithermal form. The temperature is always higher than that of Hawking radiation of a same-mass black hole, and can be arbitrarily high depending on a parameter in the model. This implies that, in principle, the naked singularity may be distinguished from a black hole in collider experiments.

  9. Inflationary scenarios in Starobinsky model with higher order corrections

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Artymowski, Michał; Lalak, Zygmunt; Lewicki, Marek

    2015-06-17

    We consider the Starobinsky inflation with a set of higher order corrections parametrised by two real coefficients λ{sub 1} ,λ{sub 2}. In the Einstein frame we have found a potential with the Starobinsky plateau, steep slope and possibly with an additional minimum, local maximum or a saddle point. We have identified three types of inflationary behaviour that may be generated in this model: i) inflation on the plateau, ii) at the local maximum (topological inflation), iii) at the saddle point. We have found limits on parameters λ{sub i} and initial conditions at the Planck scale which enable successful inflation and disable eternal inflation at the plateau. We have checked that the local minimum away from the GR vacuum is stable and that the field cannot leave it neither via quantum tunnelling nor via thermal corrections.

  10. CILogon-HA. Higher Assurance Federated Identities for DOE Science

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Basney, James

    2015-08-01

    The CILogon-HA project extended the existing open source CILogon service (initially developed with funding from the National Science Foundation) to provide credentials at multiple levels of assurance to users of DOE facilities for collaborative science. CILogon translates mechanism and policy across higher education and grid trust federations, bridging from the InCommon identity federation (which federates university and DOE lab identities) to the Interoperable Global Trust Federation (which defines standards across the Worldwide LHC Computing Grid, the Open Science Grid, and other cyberinfrastructure). The CILogon-HA project expanded the CILogon service to support over 160 identity providers (including 6 DOE facilities) and 3 internationally accredited certification authorities. To provide continuity of operations upon the end of the CILogon-HA project period, project staff transitioned the CILogon service to operation by XSEDE.

  11. Pulse transmission transmitter including a higher order time derivate filter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dress, Jr., William B.; Smith, Stephen F.

    2003-09-23

    Systems and methods for pulse-transmission low-power communication modes are disclosed. A pulse transmission transmitter includes: a clock; a pseudorandom polynomial generator coupled to the clock, the pseudorandom polynomial generator having a polynomial load input; an exclusive-OR gate coupled to the pseudorandom polynomial generator, the exclusive-OR gate having a serial data input; a programmable delay circuit coupled to both the clock and the exclusive-OR gate; a pulse generator coupled to the programmable delay circuit; and a higher order time derivative filter coupled to the pulse generator. The systems and methods significantly reduce lower-frequency emissions from pulse transmission spread-spectrum communication modes, which reduces potentially harmful interference to existing radio frequency services and users and also simultaneously permit transmission of multiple data bits by utilizing specific pulse shapes.

  12. EXTENDING SODIUM FAST REACTOR DRIVER FUEL USE TO HIGHER TEMPERATURES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Douglas L. Porter

    2011-02-01

    Calculations of potential sodium-cooled fast reactor fuel temperatures were performed to estimate the effects of increasing the outlet temperature of a given fast reactor design by increasing pin power, decreasing assembly flow, or increasing inlet temperature. Based upon experience in the U.S., both metal and mixed oxide (MOX) fuel types are discussed in terms of potential performance effects created by the increased operating temperatures. Assembly outlet temperatures of 600, 650 and 700 C were used as goal temperatures. Fuel/cladding chemical interaction (FCCI) and fuel melting, as well as challenges to the mechanical integrity of the cladding material, were identified as the limiting phenomena. For example, starting with a recent 1000 MWth fast reactor design, raising the outlet temperature to 650 C through pin power increase increased the MOX centerline temperature to more than 3300 C and the metal fuel peak cladding temperature to more than 700 C. These exceeded limitations to fuel performance; fuel melting was limiting for MOX and FCCI for metal fuel. Both could be alleviated by design fixes, such as using a barrier inside the cladding to minimize FCCI in the metal fuel, or using annular fuel in the case of MOX. Both would also require an advanced cladding material with improved stress rupture properties. While some of these are costly, the benefits of having a high-temperature reactor which can support hydrogen production, or other missions requiring high process heat may make the extra costs justified.

  13. Commercial Buildings Partnerships - Overview of Higher Education Projects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parrish, Kristen; Robinson, Alastair; Regnier, Cindy

    2013-02-01

    The Commercial Building Partnership (CBP), a public/private, cost-shared program sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), paired selected commercial building owners and operators with representatives of DOE, its national laboratories, and private-sector technical experts. These teams explored energy-saving measures across building systems including some considered too costly or technologically challenging and used advanced energy modeling to achieve peak whole-building performance. Modeling results were then included in new construction or retrofit designs to achieve significant energy reductions. CBP design goals aimed to achieve 50 percent energy savings compared to ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1-2004 for new construction, while retrofits are designed to consume at least 30 percent less energy than either Standard 90.1-2004 or current consumption. After construction and commissioning of the project, laboratory staff continued to work with partners to collect and analyze data for verification of the actual energy reduction. CBP projects represent diverse building types in commercial real estate, including lodging, grocery, retail, higher education, office, and warehouse/storage facilities. Partners also commit to replicating low-energy technologies and strategies from their CBP projects throughout their building portfolios. As a result of CBP projects, five sector overviews (Lodging, Food Sales, General Merchandise, Higher Education, Offices) were created to capture successful strategies and recommended energy efficiency measures that could broadly be applied across these sectors. These overviews are supplemented with individual case studies providing specific details on the decision criteria, modeling results, and lessons learned on specific projects. Sector overviews and CBP case studies will also be updated to reflect verified data and replication strategies as they become available.

  14. Oxygen demand for the stabilization of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste in passively aerated bioreactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kasinski, Slawomir Wojnowska-Baryla, Irena

    2014-02-15

    Highlights: The use of an passively aerated reactor enables effective stabilization of OFMSW. Convective air flow does not inhibit the aerobic stabilization of waste. The use of an passively aerated reactor reduces the heat loss due to convection. The volume of supplied air exceeds 1.72.88 times the microorganisms demand. - Abstract: Conventional aerobic waste treatment technologies require the use of aeration devices that actively transport air through the stabilized waste mass, which greatly increases operating costs. In addition, improperly operated active aeration systems, may have the adverse effect of cooling the stabilized biomass. Because active aeration can be a limiting factor for the stabilization process, passive aeration can be equally effective and less expensive. Unfortunately, there are few reports documenting the use of passive aeration systems in municipal waste stabilization. There have been doubts raised as to whether a passive aeration system provides enough oxygen to the organic matter mineralization processes. In this paper, the effectiveness of aeration during aerobic stabilization of four different organic fractions of municipal waste in a reactor with an integrated passive ventilation system and leachate recirculation was analyzed. For the study, four fractions separated by a rotary screen were chosen. Despite the high temperatures in the reactor, the air flow rate was below 0.016 m{sup 3}/h. Using Darcys equation, theoretical values of the air flow rate were estimated, depending on the intensity of microbial metabolism and the amount of oxygen required for the oxidation of organic compounds. Calculations showed that the volume of supplied air exceeded the microorganisms demand for oxidation and endogenous activity by 1.72.88-fold.

  15. Catalytic Synthesis of Oxygenates: Mechanisms, Catalysts and Controlling Characteristics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kamil Klier; Richard G. Herman

    2005-11-30

    This research focused on catalytic synthesis of unsymmetrical ethers as a part of a larger program involving oxygenated products in general, including alcohols, ethers, esters, carboxylic acids and their derivatives that link together environmentally compliant fuels, monomers, and high-value chemicals. The catalysts studied here were solid acids possessing strong Br???????¸nsted acid functionalities. The design of these catalysts involved anchoring the acid groups onto inorganic oxides, e.g. surface-grafted acid groups on zirconia, and a new class of mesoporous solid acids, i.e. propylsulfonic acid-derivatized SBA-15. The former catalysts consisted of a high surface concentration of sulfate groups on stable zirconia catalysts. The latter catalyst consists of high surface area, large pore propylsulfonic acid-derivatized silicas, specifically SBA-15. In both cases, the catalyst design and synthesis yielded high concentrations of acid sites in close proximity to one another. These materials have been well-characterization in terms of physical and chemical properties, as well as in regard to surface and bulk characteristics. Both types of catalysts were shown to exhibit high catalytic performance with respect to both activity and selectivity for the bifunctional coupling of alcohols to form ethers, which proceeds via an efficient SN2 reaction mechanism on the proximal acid sites. This commonality of the dual-site SN2 reaction mechanism over acid catalysts provides for maximum reaction rates and control of selectivity by reaction conditions, i.e. pressure, temperature, and reactant concentrations. This research provides the scientific groundwork for synthesis of ethers for energy applications. The synthesized environmentally acceptable ethers, in part derived from natural gas via alcohol intermediates, exhibit high cetane properties, e.g. methylisobutylether with cetane No. of 53 and dimethylether with cetane No. of 55-60, or high octane properties, e.g. diisopropylether with blending octane No. of 105, and can replace aromatics in liquid fuels.

  16. Regulatory approaches for addressing dissolved oxygen concerns at hydropower facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peterson, Mark J.; Cada, Glenn F.; Sale, Michael J.; Eddlemon, Gerald K.

    2003-03-01

    Low dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations are a common water quality problem downstream of hydropower facilities. At some facilities, structural improvements (e.g. installation of weir dams or aerating turbines) or operational changes (e.g., spilling water over the dam) can be made to improve DO levels. In other cases, structural and operational approaches are too costly for the project to implement or are likely to be of limited effectiveness. Despite improvements in overall water quality below dams in recent years, many hydropower projects are unable to meet state water quality standards for DO. Regulatory agencies in the U.S. are considering or implementing dramatic changes in their approach to protecting the quality of the Nations waters. New policies and initiatives have emphasized flexibility, increased collaboration and shared responsibility among all parties, and market-based, economic incentives. The use of new regulatory approaches may now be a viable option for addressing the DO problem at some hydropower facilities. This report summarizes some of the regulatory-related options available to hydropower projects, including negotiation of site-specific water quality criteria, use of biological monitoring, watershed-based strategies for the management of water quality, and watershed-based trading. Key decision points center on the health of the local biological communities and whether there are contributing impacts (i.e., other sources of low DO effluents) in the watershed. If the biological communities downstream of the hydropower project are healthy, negotiation for site-specific water quality standards or biocriteria (discharge performance criteria based on characteristics of the aquatic biota) might be pursued. If there are other effluent dischargers in the watershed that contribute to low DO problems, watershed-scale strategies and effluent trading may be effective. This report examines the value of regulatory approaches by reviewing their use in other

  17. Westinghouse VANTAGE+ fuel assembly to meet future PWR operating requirements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doshi, P.K.; Chapin, D.L.; Scherpereel, L.R.

    1988-01-01

    Many utilities operating pressurized water reactors (PWRs) are implementing longer reload cycles. Westinghouse is addressing this trend with fuel products that increase fuel utilization through higher discharge burnups. Higher burnup helps to offset added enriched uranium costs necessary to enable the higher energy output of longer cycles. Current fuel products have burnup capabilities in the area of 40,000 MWd/tonne U or more. There are three main phenomena that must be addressed to achieve even higher burnup levels: accelerated cladding, waterside corrosion, and hydriding; increased fission gas production; and fuel rod growth. Long cycle lengths also require efficient burnable absorbers to control the excess reactivity associated with increased fuel enrichment while maintaining a low residual absorber penalty at the end of cycle. Westinghouse VANTAGE + PWR fuel incorporates features intended to enhance fuel performance at very high burnups, including advances in the three basic elements of the fuel assembly: fuel cladding, fuel rod, and fuel assembly skeleton. ZIRLO {sup TM} cladding, an advanced Zircaloy cladding that contains niobium, offers a significant improvement in corrosion resistance relative to Zircaloy-4. Another important Westinghouse PWR fuel feature that facilitates long cycles is the zirconium diboride integral fuel burnable absorber (ZrB{sub 2}IFBA).

  18. land requirements | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    land requirements Home Sfomail's picture Submitted by Sfomail(48) Member 25 June, 2013 - 12:10 Solar Land Use Data on OpenEI acres csp land use how much land land requirements pv...

  19. Salt Lake City- High Performance Buildings Requirement

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Salt Lake City's mayor issued an executive order in July 2005 requiring that all public buildings owned and controlled by the city be built or renovated to meet the requirements of LEED "silver"...

  20. Federal Prison Industries-Requirement for Market

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    WWVv .acQnet.govfarlF ACfac200 1-21.i2Qf Effective Date: March 26, 2004 Federal Prison Industries-Requirement for Market 023) This interira rule amends FAR parts 8, Required...

  1. NERSC HPC Program Requirements Review Reports

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Published Reports NERSC HPC Program Requirements Review Reports These publications comprise the final reports from the HPC requirements reviews presented to the Department of Energy. Downloads ASCR2017Final.pdf | Adobe Acrobat PDF file Large Scale Computing and Storage Requirements for Advanced Scientific Computing Research - Target 2017 NerscBES2017ReqRevFinal.pdf | Adobe Acrobat PDF file Large Scale Computing and Storage Requirements for Basic Energy Sciences - Target 2017

  2. Building America Retrofit Participation Requirements and Release

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This form is for Building America team members and homeowners to complete verifying health and safety requirements have been met.

  3. Requirements to coordinate agreements, milestones and decision...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    to coordinate agreements, milestones and decision documents (AMDD) Requirements to coordinate agreements, milestones and decision documents (AMDD) Environmental agreements,...

  4. DOE Challenge Home, California Program Requirements

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE Challenge Home, California Program Requirements, as posted on the U.S. Department of Energy's DOE Challenge Home website.

  5. DOE Challenge Home, California Program Requirements

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    DOE Challenge Home California Program Requirements These Program Requirements shall only be used in the State of California. To qualify as a DOE Challenge Home, a home shall meet the minimum requirements specified below, be verified and field-tested in accordance with HERS Standards by an approved verifier, and meet all applicable codes. Builders may meet the requirements of either the Performance Path or the Prescriptive path to qualify a home. 1 Single family detached and attached dwelling

  6. Transportation Infrastructure Requirement Resources | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Infrastructure Requirement Resources Transportation Infrastructure Requirement Resources Federal agencies and certain state governments are required to acquire alternative fuel vehicles as part of the Energy Policy Act of 1992, though they are also entitled to choose a petroleum reduction path as an alternative to the mandate. Find infrastructure requirement resources below. DOE Resource Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Fueling Infrastructure Development. Other Resource National

  7. Web Writing Requirements | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Requirements Web Writing Requirements When writing content for Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) websites and applications, follow these requirements. Also see EERE's Web writing best practices. Plain Language Always follow the requirements of the Plain Writing Act of 2010. Introductory Text Introductory text, or "intro text" is the first 1-2 sentences on a Web page. This is indexed by search engines. Additionally, intro text is the first content on the Web page,

  8. Species profiles: Life histories and environmental requirements of coastal fishes and invertebrates (South Florida)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zale, A.V.; Merrifield, S.G. )

    1989-07-01

    Species profiles are literature summaries of the taxonomy, morphology, distribution, life history, habitats, and environmental requirements of coastal species of fishes and aquatic invertebrates. They are designed to assist in environmental impact assessment. The tarpon and ladyfish are popular gamefishes. Adults spawn offshore. Larval and juvenile stages inhabit coastal marshes and mangroves. Both species are thermophilic (preferring warm water), euryhaline (tolerant of a wide range of salinity), and are capable of surviving at low oxygen concentrations. Wetlands destruction and degradation negatively affect these species by reducing nursery areas. 3 figs.

  9. The perfect atom sandwich requires an extra layer > Archived News Stories >

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The Energy Materials Center at Cornell The perfect atom sandwich requires an extra layer August 4th, 2014 › By Anne Ju Yuefeng Nie The left figure demonstrates why the first double layer of strontium oxide is missing when growing a Ruddlesden-Popper oxide thin film. Titanium atoms (yellow) preferentially bond with oxygen atoms (gray) and sit at the center of a complete octahedron, making it energetically more favorable for titanium to switch positions with the topmost strontium oxide layer

  10. Liquid Fuel From Renewable Electricity and Bacteria: Electro-Autotrophic Synthesis of Higher Alcohols

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-07-01

    Electrofuels Project: UCLA is utilizing renewable electricity to power direct liquid fuel production in genetically engineered Ralstonia eutropha bacteria. UCLA is using renewable electricity to convert carbon dioxide into formic acid, a liquid soluble compound that delivers both carbon and energy to the bacteria. The bacteriaare genetically engineered to convert the formic acid into liquid fuelin this case alcohols such as butanol. The electricity required for the process can be generated from sunlight, wind, or other renewable energy sources. In fact, UCLAs electricity-to-fuel system could be a more efficient way to utilize these renewable energy sources considering the energy density of liquid fuel is much higher than the energy density of other renewable energy storage options, such as batteries.

  11. ASC Computational Environment (ACE) requirements version 8.0 final report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Larzelere, Alex R. (Exagrid Engineering, Alexandria, VA); Sturtevant, Judith E.

    2006-11-01

    A decision was made early in the Tri-Lab Usage Model process, that the collection of the user requirements be separated from the document describing capabilities of the user environment. The purpose in developing the requirements as a separate document was to allow the requirements to take on a higher-level view of user requirements for ASC platforms in general. In other words, a separate ASC user requirement document could capture requirements in a way that was not focused on ''how'' the requirements would be fulfilled. The intent of doing this was to create a set of user requirements that were not linked to any particular computational platform. The idea was that user requirements would endure from one ASC platform user environment to another. The hope was that capturing the requirements in this way would assist in creating stable user environments even though the particular platforms would be evolving and changing. In order to clearly make the separation, the Tri-lab S&CS program decided to create a new title for the requirements. The user requirements became known as the ASC Computational Environment (ACE) Requirements.

  12. Resonant elastic soft x-ray scattering in oxygen-ordered YBa2Cu3O6...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Resonant elastic soft x-ray scattering in oxygen-ordered YBa2Cu3O6+ Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Resonant elastic soft x-ray scattering in oxygen-ordered...

  13. Removing oxygen from a solvent extractant in an uranium recovery process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hurst, Fred J. (Oak Ridge, TN); Brown, Gilbert M. (Knoxville, TN); Posey, Franz A. (Concord, TN)

    1984-01-01

    An improvement in effecting uranium recovery from phosphoric acid solutions is provided by sparging dissolved oxygen contained in solutions and solvents used in a reductive stripping stage with an effective volume of a nonoxidizing gas before the introduction of the solutions and solvents into the stage. Effective volumes of nonoxidizing gases, selected from the group consisting of argon, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, helium, hydrogen, nitrogen, sulfur dioxide, and mixtures thereof, displace oxygen from the solutions and solvents thereby reduce deleterious effects of oxygen such as excessive consumption of elemental or ferrous and accumulation of complex iron phosphates or cruds.

  14. Preparation of low oxygen-to-metal mixed oxide fuels for the advanced fast reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kato, Masato; Nakamichi, Shinya; Takano, Tatsuo

    2007-07-01

    The preparation process for homogeneous mixed oxide pellets with a precise O/M ratio was established. The process was used to prepare pellets for heat treatments in two stages which consisted of the sintering process at high oxygen potential and the annealing process done in the atmosphere of controlled oxygen partial pressure. In the annealing process, it was found that abnormal growth of pores and occurrence of cracks were caused inside the pellet, and it was necessary for prevention of the microstructure change to control the oxygen potential of the atmosphere. Mixed oxide pellets with minor actinides were fabricated by the process and were provided to irradiation tests. (authors)

  15. Solid state oxygen anion and electron mediating membrane and catalytic membrane reactors containing them

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schwartz, Michael; White, James H.; Sammells, Anthony F.

    2005-09-27

    This invention relates to gas-impermeable, solid state materials fabricated into membranes for use in catalytic membrane reactors. This invention particularly relates to solid state oxygen anion- and electron-mediating membranes for use in catalytic membrane reactors for promoting partial or full oxidation of different chemical species, for decomposition of oxygen-containing species, and for separation of oxygen from other gases. Solid state materials for use in the membranes of this invention include mixed metal oxide compounds having the brownmillerite crystal structure.

  16. Solid state oxygen anion and electron mediating membrane and catalytic membrane reactors containing them

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schwartz, Michael; White, James H.; Sammels, Anthony F.

    2000-01-01

    This invention relates to gas-impermeable, solid state materials fabricated into membranes for use in catalytic membrane reactors. This invention particularly relates to solid state oxygen anion- and electron-mediating membranes for use in catalytic membrane reactors for promoting partial or full oxidation of different chemical species, for decomposition of oxygen-containing species, and for separation of oxygen from other gases. Solid state materials for use in the membranes of this invention include mixed metal oxide compounds having the brownmillerite crystal structure.

  17. Interplay between gadolinium dopants and oxygen vacancies in HfO{sub 2}: A

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    density functional theory plus Hubbard U investigation (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Interplay between gadolinium dopants and oxygen vacancies in HfO{sub 2}: A density functional theory plus Hubbard U investigation Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Interplay between gadolinium dopants and oxygen vacancies in HfO{sub 2}: A density functional theory plus Hubbard U investigation The influence of gadolinium (Gd) doping on the oxygen vacancy (V{sub O}) in monoclinic HfO{sub 2} have

  18. Method for oxygen reduction in a uranium-recovery process. [US DOE patent application

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hurst, F.J.; Brown, G.M.; Posey, F.A.

    1981-11-04

    An improvement in effecting uranium recovery from phosphoric acid solutions is provided by sparging dissolved oxygen contained in solutions and solvents used in a reductive stripping stage with an effective volume of a nonoxidizing gas before the introduction of the solutions and solvents into the stage. Effective volumes of nonoxidizing gases, selected from the group consisting of argon, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, helium, hydrogen, nitrogen, sulfur dioxide, and mixtures thereof, displace oxygen from the solutions and solvents thereby reduce deleterious effects of oxygen such as excessive consumption of elemental or ferrous iron and accumulation of complex iron phosphates or cruds.

  19. Distribution change of oxygen vacancies in layered perovskite type(Sr, La){sub n+1}Fe{sub n}O{sub 3n+1} (n=3)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kagomiya, Isao Jimbo, Keigo; Kakimoto, Ken-ichi

    2013-11-15

    To elucidate characteristic oxygen vacancy formation in layered perovskite (Sr, La){sub n+1}Fe{sub n}O{sub 3n+1} with the perovskite layer number: n=3, oxygen vacancy content ? of the (Sr{sub 0.775}La{sub 0.225}){sub 4}Fe{sub 3}O{sub 10??} (SLF4310) was investigated using a titration technique and a thermogravimetric analysis. The equilibrium constant K for the reduction reaction: Oo{sup }+2Fe{sub Fe}{sup ?} (Fe{sup 4+})=1/2O{sub 2}+Vo{sup ??}+2Fe{sub Fe}{sup }(Fe{sup 3+}) was estimated using the vacancy content ?. The Arrhenius plot of the K reveals slope change at approximately 775 C. From the Rietveld analysis, the oxygen vacancies are the most remarkable at the O2 (O4) sites at lower (higher) temperatures than about 800 C, which temperature is approximately comparable with that of slope change in the K. These facts mean that distribution of vacancy sites in the SLF4310 changes at approximately 775 C, accompanying no structural phase transition. The vacancy distribution change affects to the ion conductivity of the SLF4310. - Graphical abstract: Crystal structure of (Sr{sub 0.775}La{sub 0.225}){sub 4}Fe{sub 3}O{sub 10??} (SLF4310) at 1000 C. Display Omitted - Highlights: Distribution change of oxygen vacancies is appeared at approximately 775 C. The distribution change with no structure phase transition is the first observation. The vacancy distribution change affects the ion conductivity of the SLF4310.

  20. SIENA Customer Problem Statement and Requirements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    L. Sauer; R. Clay; C. Adams; H. Walther; B. Allan; R. Mariano; C. Poore; B. Whiteside; B. Boughton; J. Dike; E. Hoffman; R. Hogan; C. LeGall

    2000-08-01

    This document describes the problem domain and functional requirements of the SIENA framework. The software requirements and system architecture of SIENA are specified in separate documents (called SIENA Software Requirement Specification and SIENA Software Architecture, respectively). While currently this version of the document describes the problems and captures the requirements within the Analysis domain (concentrating on finite element models), it is our intention to subsequent y expand this document to describe problems and capture requirements from the Design and Manufacturing domains. In addition, SIENA is designed to be extendible to support and integrate elements from the other domains (see SIENA Software Architecture document).

  1. Global solutions for higher-dimensional stretched small black holes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, C.-M.; Gal'tsov, Dmitri V.; Ohta, Nobuyoshi; Orlov, Dmitry G.

    2010-01-15

    Small black holes in heterotic string theory have a vanishing horizon area at the supergravity level, but the horizon is stretched to the finite radius AdS{sub 2}xS{sup D-2} geometry once higher curvature corrections are turned on. This has been demonstrated to give good agreement with microscopic entropy counting. Previous considerations, however, were based on the classical local solutions valid only in the vicinity of the event horizon. Here we address the question of global existence of extremal black holes in the D-dimensional Einstein-Maxwell-Dilaton theory with the Gauss-Bonnet term introducing a variable dilaton coupling a as a parameter. We show that asymptotically flat black holes exist only in a bounded region of the dilaton couplings 0=}5 (but not for D=4) the allowed range of a includes the heterotic string values. For a>a{sub cr} numerical solutions meet weak naked singularities at finite radii r=r{sub cusp} (spherical cusps), where the scalar curvature diverges as |r-r{sub cusp}|{sup -1/2}. For D{>=}7 cusps are met in pairs, so that solutions can be formally extended to asymptotically flat infinity choosing a suitable integration variable. We show, however, that radial geodesics cannot be continued through the cusp singularities, so such a continuation is unphysical.

  2. IGF-I enhances cellular senescence via the reactive oxygen species-p53 pathway

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Handayaningsih, Anastasia-Evi; Takahashi, Michiko; Fukuoka, Hidenori; Iguchi, Genzo; Nishizawa, Hitoshi; Yamamoto, Masaaki; Suda, Kentaro; Takahashi, Yutaka

    2012-08-24

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cellular senescence plays an important role in tumorigenesis and aging process. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We demonstrated IGF-I enhanced cellular senescence in primary confluent cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer IGF-I enhanced cellular senescence in the ROS and p53-dependent manner. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer These results may explain the underlying mechanisms of IGF-I involvement in tumorigenesis and in regulation of aging. -- Abstract: Cellular senescence is characterized by growth arrest, enlarged and flattened cell morphology, the expression of senescence-associated {beta}-galactosidase (SA-{beta}-gal), and by activation of tumor suppressor networks. Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) plays a critical role in cellular growth, proliferation, tumorigenesis, and regulation of aging. In the present study, we show that IGF-I enhances cellular senescence in mouse, rat, and human primary cells in the confluent state. IGF-I induced expression of a DNA damage marker, {gamma}H2AX, the increased levels of p53 and p21 proteins, and activated SA-{beta}-gal. In the confluent state, an altered downstream signaling of IGF-I receptor was observed. Treatment with a reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenger, N-acetylcystein (NAC) significantly suppressed induction of these markers, indicating that ROS are involved in the induction of cellular senescence by IGF-I. In p53-null mouse embryonic fibroblasts, the IGF-I-induced augmentation of SA-{beta}-gal and p21 was inhibited, demonstrating that p53 is required for cellular senescence induced by IGF-I. Thus, these data reveal a novel pathway whereby IGF-I enhances cellular senescence in the ROS and p53-dependent manner and may explain the underlying mechanisms of IGF-I involvement in tumorigenesis and in regulation of aging.

  3. Synthesis of oxygenate products for high volume fuels applications. Quarterly status report No. 5 for the period October through December 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1996-02-15

    A process variables study was carried out with crude DME as feed for the condensation with acetylene to C{sub 2} and higher alcohols. The addition of water to crude DME had a marked effect of promoting selectivity to ethanol, especially at the lower reaction temperatures tested. Experiments designed to reveal the effect of reactor flow rate and temperature demonstrated that lower rates and higher temperatures favored selectivity to propanol and butanol up to a maximum temperature of 460{degrees}C, beyond which selectivity diminished via decomposition reactions. Faster rates and lower temperatures favored selectivity to ethanol. Reactor conditions and feed compositions for optimum target alcohol selectivities have been identified. the overall objective of this project is to develop catalyst and process technology for evaluation as potential routes for the production of high volume fuel oxygenates.

  4. Final Report for Regulation of Embryonic Development in Higher Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harada, John J.

    2013-10-22

    The overall goal of the project was to define the cellular processes that underlie embryo development in plants at a mechanistic level. Our studies focused on a critical transcriptional regulator, Arabidopsis LEAFY COTYLEDON (LEC1), that is necessary and sufficient to induce processes required for embryo development. Because LEC1 regulates lipid accumulation during the maturation phase of embryo development, information about LEC1 may be useful in designing approaches to enhance biofuel production in plants. During the tenure of this project, we determined the molecular mechanisms by which LEC1 acts as a transcription factor in embryos. We also identified genes directly regulated by LEC1 and showed that many of these genes are involved in maturation processes. This information has been useful in dissecting the gene regulatory networks controlling embryo development. Finally, LEC1 is a novel isoform of a transcription factor that is conserved among eukaryotes, and LEC1 is active primarily in seeds. Therefore, we determined that the LEC1-type transcription factors first appeared in lycophytes during land plant evolution. Together, this study provides basic information that has implications for biofuel production.

  5. Direct Conversion of Syngas-to-Hydrocarbons over Higher Alcohols Synthesis Catalysts Mixed with HZSM-5

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lebarbier Dagel, Vanessa M.; Dagle, Robert A.; Li, Jinjing; Deshmane, Chinmay A.; Taylor, Charles E.; Bao, Xinhe; Wang, Yong

    2014-09-10

    The synthesis of hydrocarbon fuels directly from synthesis gas (i.e. one step process) was investigated with a catalytic system comprised of HZSM-5 physically mixed with either a methanol synthesis catalyst or a higher alcohols synthesis (HAS) catalyst. The metal sites of the methanol or HAS synthesis catalyst enable the conversion of syngas to alcohols, whereas HZSM-5 provides acid sites required for methanol dehydration, and dimethyl ether-to-hydrocarbons reactions. Catalytic performance for HZSM-5 when mixed with either a 5 wt.% Pd/ZnO/Al2O3 methanol synthesis catalyst or a HAS catalyst was evaluated at 300C, 70 bars, GHSV=700 h-1 and H2/CO=1 using a HZSM-5: alcohols synthesis catalyst weight ratio of 3:1. The major difference observed between the methanol synthesis and HAS catalyst mixtures was found in the production of durene which is an undesirable byproduct. While durene formation is negligible with any of the HAS catalysts mixed with the HZSM-5 evaluated in this study, it represents almost 50% of the C5+ fraction for the methanol synthesis catalyst (5 wt.% Pd/ZnO/Al2O3 ) mixed with HZSM-5. This presents an advantage for using HAS catalysts over the methanol synthesis catalyst to minimize the durene by-product. The yield toward the desired C5+ hydrocarbons is thus twice higher with selected HAS catalysts as compared to when HZSM-5 is mixed with 5 wt.% Pd/ZnO/Al2O3. Among all the HAS catalysts evaluated in this study, a catalyst with 0.5 wt.% Pd/FeCoCu catalyst was found the most promising due to higher production of C5+ hydrocarbons and low durene formation. The efficiency of the one-step process was thus further evaluated using the HZSM-5: 0.5 wt.% Pd/FeCoCu catalyst mixture under a number of process conditions to maximize liquid hydrocarbons product yield. At 300oC, 70 bars, GHSV = 700 h-1 and HZSM-5: 0.5 wt.% Pd/FeCoCu = 3:1 (wt.), the C5+ fraction represents 48.5% of the hydrocarbons. Unfortunately, it is more difficult to achieve higher selectivity to desired C5+ hydrocarbons as the formation of CO2, CH4, and other light hydrocarbons is challenging to suppress in the presence of mixed metal and acid sites. When the 0.5 wt.% Pd/FeCoCu and HZSM-5 are operated sequentially by way of a two-step process the C5+ hydrocarbons fraction is lower and represents 30.4% of the hydrocarbons under comparable conditions. The yield toward the C5+ hydrocarbons is twice higher for the one-step process due to an improved CO conversion and higher C5+ hydrocarbons fraction. The main advantage of the one-step process is that higher syngas conversion can be achieved as the equilibrium-driven conversion limitations for methanol and dimethyl ether are removed since they are intermediates to the final hydrocarbons product.

  6. Ion implantation method for preparing polymers having oxygen erosion resistant surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, E.H.; Mansur, L.K.; Heatherly, L. Jr.

    1995-04-18

    Hard surfaced polymers and the method for making them are generally described. Polymers are subjected to simultaneous multiple ion beam bombardment, that results in a hardening of the surface, improved wear resistance, and improved oxygen erosion resistance. 8 figs.

  7. A study on a voloxidizer with an oxygen concentration controller for a scale-up DESIGN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Young-Hwan; Yoon, Ji-Sup; Park, Byung-Suk; Jung, Jae-Hoo

    2007-07-01

    For a oxidation of UO{sub 2} pellets of tens/kg in a vol-oxidizer, the existing devices take a long time, also, for their scale-up to an engineering scale, we need the optimum oxygen concentration with an maximum oxidation efficiency. In this study, we attained the optimum oxygen concentration to shorten the oxidation time of a simulation fuel using a vol-oxidizer with an oxygen concentration controller and sensor. We compared the characteristics of a galvanic sensor with a zirconium oxide (ZrO{sub 2}) one. The simulation fuel was manufactured with 14 metallic oxides, and used at a mass of 500 g HM/batch. At 500 deg. C, the galvanic and zirconium oxide sensors measured the oxidation time for the simulation fuel. Also, the oxidation time of the simulation fuel was measured according to a change of the oxygen concentration with the selected sensor, and the sample was analyzed. (authors)

  8. Method of controlled reduction of nitroaromatics by enzymatic reaction with oxygen sensitive nitroreductase enzymes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shah, M.M.; Campbell, J.A.

    1998-07-07

    A method is described for the controlled reduction of nitroaromatic compounds such as nitrobenzene and 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene by enzymatic reaction with oxygen sensitive nitroreductase enzymes, such as ferredoxin NADP oxidoreductase. 6 figs.

  9. Ion implantation method for preparing polymers having oxygen erosion resistant surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, Eal H. (Oak Ridge, TN); Mansur, Louis K. (Clinton, TN); Heatherly, Jr., Lee (Jacksboro, TN)

    1995-01-01

    Hard surfaced polymers and the method for making them are generally described. Polymers are subjected to simultaneous multiple ion beam bombardment, that results in a hardening of the surface, improved wear resistance, and improved oxygen erosion resistance.

  10. Improving the System Life of Basic Oxygen and Electric Arc Furnace Hoods, Roofs, and Side Vents

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This factsheet describes the benefits of a high-performance aluminum bronze alloy to basic oxygen furnace and electric arc furnace components such as hoods, roofs, and side vents.

  11. Nitrogen/oxygen separations in metal-organic frameworks for clean fossil

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    fuel combustion | Center for Gas SeparationsRelevant to Clean Energy Technologies | Blandine Jerome Nitrogen/oxygen separations in metal-organic frameworks for clean fossil fuel combustion

  12. Oxygen-induced Y surface segregation in a CuPdY ternary alloy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tafen, D. N.; Miller, J. B.; Dogan, O. N.; Baltrus, J. P.; Kondratyuk, P.

    2013-01-01

    We present a comprehensive theoretical and experimental study of the segregation behavior of the ternary alloy CuPdY in vacuum (i.e., the clean surface) and in the presence of oxygen. Theoretical prediction shows that for clean surface, yttrium will substitute first for Cu and then for Pd at the subsurface lattice site before segregating to the surface where it substitutes for Cu. XRD characterization of the surface of CuPdY indicates the presence of two major phases, B2 CuPd and Pd{sub 3}Y. In the presence of adsorbed oxygen, theory predicts that Y preferentially occupies surface sites due to its stronger oxygen affinity compared to Cu and Pd. XPS experiments confirm the computational results in the adsorbed oxygen case, showing that surface segregation of yttrium is induced by the formation of Y-oxides at the top-surface of the alloy.

  13. Table 10. U.S. Refiner Oxygenated Motor Gasoline Prices by...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    98.0 98.0 86.6 75.0 - 80.1 See footnotes at end of table. 10. U.S. Refiner Oxygenated Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade and Sales Type 20 Energy Information Administration ...

  14. Table 10. U.S. Refiner Oxygenated Motor Gasoline Prices by...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    94.0 93.9 83.2 73.8 - 79.3 See footnotes at end of table. 10. U.S. Refiner Oxygenated Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade and Sales Type 20 Energy Information Administration ...

  15. From Fjords to Open Seas: Ecological Genomics of Expanding Oxygen Minimum Zones (2010 JGI User Meeting)

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Hallam, Steven

    2011-04-26

    Steven Hallam of the University of British Columbia talks "From Fjords to Open Seas: Ecological Genomics of Expanding Oxygen Minimum Zones" on March 24, 2010 at the 5th Annual DOE JGI User Meeting

  16. Method of controlled reduction of nitroaromatics by enzymatic reaction with oxygen sensitive nitroreductase enzymes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shah, Manish M. (Richland, WA); Campbell, James A. (Pasco, WA)

    1998-01-01

    A method for the controlled reduction of nitroaromatic compounds such as nitrobenzene and 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene by enzymatic reaction with oxygen sensitive nitroreductase enzymes, such as ferredoxin NADP oxidoreductase.

  17. Electrocatalyst for oxygen reduction with reduced platinum oxidation and dissolution rates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Adzic, Radoslav (East Setauket, NY); Zhang, Junliang (Stony Brook, NY); Vukmirovic, Miomir (Port Jefferson Station, NY)

    2011-11-22

    The invention relates to platinum-metal oxide composite particles and their use as electrocatalysts in oxygen-reducing cathodes and fuel cells. The invention particularly relates to methods for preventing the oxidation of the platinum electrocatalyst in the cathodes of fuel cells by use of these platinum-metal oxide composite particles. The invention additionally relates to methods for producing electrical energy by supplying such a fuel cell with an oxidant, such as oxygen, and a fuel source, such as hydrogen.

  18. Graphene Oxide Catalyzed C-H Bond Activation: The Importance Oxygen

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Functional Groups for Biaryl Construction (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Graphene Oxide Catalyzed C-H Bond Activation: The Importance Oxygen Functional Groups for Biaryl Construction Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Graphene Oxide Catalyzed C-H Bond Activation: The Importance Oxygen Functional Groups for Biaryl Construction A heterogeneous, inexpensive and environment-friendly carbon catalytic system was developed for the C-H bond arylation of benzene resulting in the

  19. Impact of ethanol and butanol as oxygenates on SIDI engine efficiency and

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    emissions using steady-state and transient test procedures | Department of Energy ethanol and butanol as oxygenates on SIDI engine efficiency and emissions using steady-state and transient test procedures Impact of ethanol and butanol as oxygenates on SIDI engine efficiency and emissions using steady-state and transient test procedures Alcohols as gasoline blending agent at up to 85 vol-% levels were evaluated in a 2.2L direct injection SI engine for combustion, engine efficiency, and

  20. High-Temperature Zirconia Oxygen Sensor with Sealed Metal/Metal Oxide

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Internal Reference | Department of Energy High-Temperature Zirconia Oxygen Sensor with Sealed Metal/Metal Oxide Internal Reference High-Temperature Zirconia Oxygen Sensor with Sealed Metal/Metal Oxide Internal Reference Poster presentation at the 2007 Diesel Engine-Efficiency & Emissions Research Conference (DEER 2007). 13-16 August, 2007, Detroit, Michigan. Sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies (OFCVT). PDF icon