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Sample records for high-voltage solid polymer

  1. High-Voltage Solid Polymer Batteries for Electric Drive Vehicles...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Solid Polymer Batteries for Electric Drive Vehicles High-Voltage Solid Polymer Batteries for Electric Drive Vehicles 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle...

  2. High-Voltage Solid Polymer Batteries for Electric Drive Vehicles...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Voltage Solid Polymer Batteries for Electric Drive Vehicles Eitouni, Hany; Yang, Jin; Pratt, Russell; Wang, Xiao; Grape, Ulrik The purpose of this project was for Seeo to develop a...

  3. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: High-Voltage Solid Polymer Batteries for Electric Drive Vehicles

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Seeo, Inc. at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about high-voltage solid polymer...

  4. High-Voltage Solid Polymer Batteries for Electric Drive Vehicles

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting

  5. High-Voltage Solid Polymer Batteries for Electric Drive Vehicles...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Bibtex Format Close 0 pages in this document matching the terms "" Search For Terms: Enter terms in the toolbar above to search the full text of this document for pages...

  6. High-Voltage Solid Polymer Batteries for Electric Drive Vehicles |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum12,ExecutiveFinancingR Walls - Building America Topa High BindingVoltage

  7. High voltage coaxial switch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rink, John P. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1983-07-19

    A coaxial high voltage, high current switch having a solid cylindrical cold cathode coaxially surrounded by a thin hollow cylindrical inner electrode and a larger hollow cylindrical outer electrode. A high voltage trigger between the cathode and the inner electrode causes electrons to be emitted from the cathode and flow to the inner electrode preferably through a vacuum. Some of the electrons penetrate the inner electrode and cause a volumetric discharge in the gas (which may be merely air) between the inner and outer electrodes. The discharge provides a low impedance path between a high voltage charge placed on the outer electrode and a load (which may be a high power laser) coupled to the inner electrode. For high repetition rate the gas between the inner and outer electrodes may be continuously exchanged or refreshed under pressure.

  8. High voltage coaxial switch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rink, J.P.

    1983-07-19

    A coaxial high voltage, high current switch having a solid cylindrical cold cathode coaxially surrounded by a thin hollow cylindrical inner electrode and a larger hollow cylindrical outer electrode. A high voltage trigger between the cathode and the inner electrode causes electrons to be emitted from the cathode and flow to the inner electrode preferably through a vacuum. Some of the electrons penetrate the inner electrode and cause a volumetric discharge in the gas (which may be merely air) between the inner and outer electrodes. The discharge provides a low impedance path between a high voltage charge placed on the outer electrode and a load (which may be a high power laser) coupled to the inner electrode. For high repetition rate the gas between the inner and outer electrodes may be continuously exchanged or refreshed under pressure. 3 figs.

  9. Temperature controlled high voltage regulator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chiaro, Jr., Peter J. (Clinton, TN); Schulze, Gerald K. (Knoxville, TN)

    2004-04-20

    A temperature controlled high voltage regulator for automatically adjusting the high voltage applied to a radiation detector is described. The regulator is a solid state device that is independent of the attached radiation detector, enabling the regulator to be used by various models of radiation detectors, such as gas flow proportional radiation detectors.

  10. Solid polymer electrolytes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Abraham, K.M.; Alamgir, M.; Choe, H.S.

    1995-12-12

    This invention relates to Li ion (Li{sup +}) conductive solid polymer electrolytes composed of poly(vinyl sulfone) and lithium salts, and their use in all-solid-state rechargeable lithium ion batteries. The lithium salts comprise low lattice energy lithium salts such as LiN(CF{sub 3}SO{sub 2}){sub 2}, LiAsF{sub 6}, and LiClO{sub 4}. 2 figs.

  11. Solid polymer electrolytes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Abraham, Kuzhikalail M. (Needham, MA); Alamgir, Mohamed (Dedham, MA); Choe, Hyoun S. (Waltham, MA)

    1995-01-01

    This invention relates to Li ion (Li.sup.+) conductive solid polymer electrolytes composed of poly(vinyl sulfone) and lithium salts, and their use in all-solid-state rechargeable lithium ion batteries. The lithium salts comprise low lattice energy lithium salts such as LiN(CF.sub.3 SO.sub.2).sub.2, LiAsF.sub.6, and LiClO.sub.4.

  12. Solid polymer electrolyte compositions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Garbe, James E. (Stillwater, MN); Atanasoski, Radoslav (Edina, MN); Hamrock, Steven J. (St. Paul, MN); Le, Dinh Ba (St. Paul, MN)

    2001-01-01

    An electrolyte composition is featured that includes a solid, ionically conductive polymer, organically modified oxide particles that include organic groups covalently bonded to the oxide particles, and an alkali metal salt. The electrolyte composition is free of lithiated zeolite. The invention also features cells that incorporate the electrolyte composition.

  13. Composite solid polymer electrolyte membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Formato, Richard M. (Shrewsbury, MA); Kovar, Robert F. (Wrentham, MA); Osenar, Paul (Watertown, MA); Landrau, Nelson (Marlborough, MA); Rubin, Leslie S. (Newton, MA)

    2001-06-19

    The present invention relates to composite solid polymer electrolyte membranes (SPEMs) which include a porous polymer substrate interpenetrated with an ion-conducting material. SPEMs of the present invention are useful in electrochemical applications, including fuel cells and electrodialysis.

  14. Composite solid polymer electrolyte membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Formato, Richard M.; Kovar, Robert F.; Osenar, Paul; Landrau, Nelson; Rubin, Leslie S.

    2006-05-30

    The present invention relates to composite solid polymer electrolyte membranes (SPEMs) which include a porous polymer substrate interpenetrated with an ion-conducting material. SPEMs of the present invention are useful in electrochemical applications, including fuel cells and electrodialysis.

  15. Solid polymer electrolyte lithium batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alamgir, M.; Abraham, K.M.

    1993-10-12

    This invention pertains to Lithium batteries using Li ion (Li[sup +]) conductive solid polymer electrolytes composed of solvates of Li salts immobilized in a solid organic polymer matrix. In particular, this invention relates to Li batteries using solid polymer electrolytes derived by immobilizing solvates formed between a Li salt and an aprotic organic solvent (or mixture of such solvents) in poly(vinyl chloride). 3 figures.

  16. Solid polymer electrolyte lithium batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alamgir, Mohamed (Dedham, MA); Abraham, Kuzhikalail M. (Needham, MA)

    1993-01-01

    This invention pertains to Lithium batteries using Li ion (Li.sup.+) conductive solid polymer electrolytes composed of solvates of Li salts immobilized in a solid organic polymer matrix. In particular, this invention relates to Li batteries using solid polymer electrolytes derived by immobilizing solvates formed between a Li salt and an aprotic organic solvent (or mixture of such solvents) in poly(vinyl chloride).

  17. Rechargeable solid polymer electrolyte battery cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Skotheim, Terji (East Patchoque, NY)

    1985-01-01

    A rechargeable battery cell comprising first and second electrodes sandwiching a solid polymer electrolyte comprising a layer of a polymer blend of a highly conductive polymer and a solid polymer electrolyte adjacent said polymer blend and a layer of dry solid polymer electrolyte adjacent said layer of polymer blend and said second electrode.

  18. Solid electrolyte material manufacturable by polymer processing...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Patent: Solid electrolyte material manufacturable by polymer processing methods Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Solid electrolyte material manufacturable by polymer...

  19. DE-EE0005449 High-Voltage Solid Polymer Batteries fo r Electric Drive Vehicles

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefield MunicipalTechnical Report:Speeding accessby a contractorEnergy, science,6.466440Exploration(ALLN),71

  20. High-Voltage Solid Polymer Batteries for Electric Drive Vehicles (Technical

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfate Reducing(Journal Article)lasers (Journal Article)SciTech ConnectMicrofabricated|

  1. High-Voltage Solid Polymer Batteries for Electric Drive Vehicles (Technical

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would likeUniverse (JournalvivoHigh energy neutronHigh-Pressure MOFElectricity

  2. High voltage pulse conditioning

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Springfield, Ray M. (Sante Fe, NM); Wheat, Jr., Robert M. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1990-01-01

    Apparatus for conditioning high voltage pulses from particle accelerators in order to shorten the rise times of the pulses. Flashover switches in the cathode stalk of the transmission line hold off conduction for a determinable period of time, reflecting the early portion of the pulses. Diodes upstream of the switches divert energy into the magnetic and electrostatic storage of the capacitance and inductance inherent to the transmission line until the switches close.

  3. Long cycle life solid-state solid polymer electrolyte cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sammells, A.F.

    1988-02-02

    This patent describes a rechargeable solid-state lithium conducting solid polymer electrolyte electrochemical cell comprising: a lithium intercalation compound negative electrode selected from the group consisting of: MoO/sub 2/; RuO/sub 2/; WO; OsO/sub 2/; IrO/sub 2/; and Mo1/2V1/2O/sub 2/; a lithium ion conducting solid polymer electrolyte comprising a lithium ion conducting supporting electrolyte complexed with a solid polymer contacting the negative electrode on one side; and a lithium intercalation compound positive electrode contacting the opposite side of the solid polymer electrolyte.

  4. Composite Solid Polymer Electrolytes Based on Pluronics: Does Ordering Matter?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Khan, Saad A.

    Composite Solid Polymer Electrolytes Based on Pluronics: Does Ordering Matter? Lyudmila MVised Manuscript ReceiVed October 5, 2007 Composite solids polymer electrolytes (SPEs) based on Pluronic block One of the modern trends in development of solid polymer electrolytes (SPEs) based on "salt

  5. High voltage photovoltaic power converter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Haigh, Ronald E. (Arvada, CO); Wojtczuk, Steve (Cambridge, MA); Jacobson, Gerard F. (Livermore, CA); Hagans, Karla G. (Livermore, CA)

    2001-01-01

    An array of independently connected photovoltaic cells on a semi-insulating substrate contains reflective coatings between the cells to enhance efficiency. A uniform, flat top laser beam profile is illuminated upon the array to produce electrical current having high voltage. An essentially wireless system includes a laser energy source being fed through optic fiber and cast upon the photovoltaic cell array to prevent stray electrical signals prior to use of the current from the array. Direct bandgap, single crystal semiconductor materials, such as GaAs, are commonly used in the array. Useful applications of the system include locations where high voltages are provided to confined spaces such as in explosive detonation, accelerators, photo cathodes and medical appliances.

  6. Solid polymer MEMS-based fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jankowski, Alan F. (Livermore, CA); Morse, Jeffrey D. (Pleasant Hill, CA)

    2008-04-22

    A micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) based thin-film fuel cells for electrical power applications. The MEMS-based fuel cell may be of a solid oxide type (SOFC), a solid polymer type (SPFC), or a proton exchange membrane type (PEMFC), and each fuel cell basically consists of an anode and a cathode separated by an electrolyte layer. The electrolyte layer can consist of either a solid oxide or solid polymer material, or proton exchange membrane electrolyte materials may be used. Additionally catalyst layers can also separate the electrodes (cathode and anode) from the electrolyte. Gas manifolds are utilized to transport the fuel and oxidant to each cell and provide a path for exhaust gases. The electrical current generated from each cell is drawn away with an interconnect and support structure integrated with the gas manifold. The fuel cells utilize integrated resistive heaters for efficient heating of the materials. By combining MEMS technology with thin-film deposition technology, thin-film fuel cells having microflow channels and full-integrated circuitry can be produced that will lower the operating temperature an will yield an order of magnitude greater power density than the currently known fuel cells.

  7. Solid polymer electrolyte from phosphorylated chitosan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fauzi, Iqbal Arcana, I Made

    2014-03-24

    Recently, the need of secondary battery application continues to increase. The secondary battery which using a liquid electrolyte was indicated had some weakness. A solid polymer electrolyte is an alternative electrolytes membrane which developed in order to replace the liquid electrolyte type. In the present study, the effect of phosphorylation on to polymer electrolyte membrane which synthesized from chitosan and lithium perchlorate salts was investigated. The effect of the component’s composition respectively on the properties of polymer electrolyte, was carried out by analyzed of it’s characterization such as functional groups, ion conductivity, and thermal properties. The mechanical properties i.e tensile resistance and the morphology structure of membrane surface were determined. The phosphorylation processing of polymer electrolyte membrane of chitosan and lithium perchlorate was conducted by immersing with phosphoric acid for 2 hours, and then irradiated on a microwave for 60 seconds. The degree of deacetylation of chitosan derived from shrimp shells was obtained around 75.4%. Relative molecular mass of chitosan was obtained by viscometry method is 796,792 g/mol. The ionic conductivity of chitosan membrane was increase from 6.33 × 10{sup ?6} S/cm up to 6.01 × 10{sup ?4} S/cm after adding by 15 % solution of lithium perchlorate. After phosphorylation, the ionic conductivity of phosphorylated lithium chitosan membrane was observed 1.37 × 10{sup ?3} S/cm, while the tensile resistance of 40.2 MPa with a better thermal resistance. On the strength of electrolyte membrane properties, this polymer electrolyte membrane was suggested had one potential used for polymer electrolyte in field of lithium battery applications.

  8. High voltage DC power supply

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Droege, Thomas F. (Batavia, IL)

    1989-01-01

    A high voltage DC power supply having a first series resistor at the output for limiting current in the event of a short-circuited output, a second series resistor for sensing the magnitude of output current, and a voltage divider circuit for providing a source of feedback voltage for use in voltage regulation is disclosed. The voltage divider circuit is coupled to the second series resistor so as to compensate the feedback voltage for a voltage drop across the first series resistor. The power supply also includes a pulse-width modulated control circuit, having dual clock signals, which is responsive to both the feedback voltage and a command voltage, and also includes voltage and current measuring circuits responsive to the feedback voltage and the voltage developed across the second series resistor respectively.

  9. High voltage DC power supply

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Droege, T.F.

    1989-12-19

    A high voltage DC power supply having a first series resistor at the output for limiting current in the event of a short-circuited output, a second series resistor for sensing the magnitude of output current, and a voltage divider circuit for providing a source of feedback voltage for use in voltage regulation is disclosed. The voltage divider circuit is coupled to the second series resistor so as to compensate the feedback voltage for a voltage drop across the first series resistor. The power supply also includes a pulse-width modulated control circuit, having dual clock signals, which is responsive to both the feedback voltage and a command voltage, and also includes voltage and current measuring circuits responsive to the feedback voltage and the voltage developed across the second series resistor respectively. 7 figs.

  10. High voltage load resistor array

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lehmann, Monty Ray (Smithfield, VA)

    2005-01-18

    A high voltage resistor comprising an array of a plurality of parallel electrically connected resistor elements each containing a resistive solution, attached at each end thereof to an end plate, and about the circumference of each of the end plates, a corona reduction ring. Each of the resistor elements comprises an insulating tube having an electrode inserted into each end thereof and held in position by one or more hose clamps about the outer periphery of the insulating tube. According to a preferred embodiment, the electrode is fabricated from stainless steel and has a mushroom shape at one end, that inserted into the tube, and a flat end for engagement with the end plates that provides connection of the resistor array and with a load.

  11. Solid polymer electrolyte composite membrane comprising laser micromachined porous support

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, Han (Waltham, MA); LaConti, Anthony B. (Lynnfield, MA); Mittelsteadt, Cortney K. (Natick, MA); McCallum, Thomas J. (Ashland, MA)

    2011-01-11

    A solid polymer electrolyte composite membrane and method of manufacturing the same. According to one embodiment, the composite membrane comprises a rigid, non-electrically-conducting support, the support preferably being a sheet of polyimide having a thickness of about 7.5 to 15 microns. The support has a plurality of cylindrical pores extending perpendicularly between opposing top and bottom surfaces of the support. The pores, which preferably have a diameter of about 5 microns, are made by laser micromachining and preferably are arranged in a defined pattern, for example, with fewer pores located in areas of high membrane stress and more pores located in areas of low membrane stress. The pores are filled with a first solid polymer electrolyte, such as a perfluorosulfonic acid (PFSA) polymer. A second solid polymer electrolyte, which may be the same as or different than the first solid polymer electrolyte, may be deposited over the top and/or bottom of the first solid polymer electrolyte.

  12. Passivation-free solid state battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Abraham, Kuzhikalail M. (Needham, MA); Peramunage, Dharmasena (Norwood, MA)

    1998-01-01

    This invention pertains to passivation-free solid-state rechargeable batteries composed of Li.sub.4 Ti.sub.5 O.sub.12 anode, a solid polymer electrolyte and a high voltage cathode. The solid polymer electrolyte comprises a polymer host, such as polyacrylonitrile, poly(vinyl chloride), poly(vinyl sulfone), and poly(vinylidene fluoride), plasticized by a solution of a Li salt in an organic solvent. The high voltage cathode includes LiMn.sub.2 O.sub.4, LiCoO.sub.2, LiNiO.sub.2 and LiV.sub.2 O.sub.5 and their derivatives.

  13. Transport properties of the solid polymer electrolyte system P(EO)nLiTFSI

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Edman, L.

    2011-01-01

    Properties of the Solid Polymer Electrolyte System P(EO)Properties of the Solid Polymer Electrolyte System P(EO)~Properties of the Solid Polymer Electrolyte System P(EO)~

  14. Method of synthesizing polymers from a solid electrolyte

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Skotheim, T.A.

    1984-10-19

    A method of synthesizing electrically conductive polymers from a solvent-free solid polymer electrolyte is disclosed. An assembly of a substrate having an electrode thereon, a thin coating of solid electrolyte including a solution of PEO complexed with an alkali salt, and a thin transparent noble metal electrode are disposed in an evacuated chamber into which a selected monomer vapor is introduced while an electric potential is applied across the solid electrolyte to hold the thin transparent electrode at a positive potential relative to the electrode on the substrate, whereby a highly conductive polymer film is grown on the transparent electrode between it and the solid electrolyte.

  15. Solid-polymer-electrolyte fuel cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fuller, T.F.

    1992-07-01

    A transport model for polymer electrolytes is presented, based on concentrated solution theory and irreversible thermodynamics. Thermodynamic driving forces are developed, transport properties are identified and experiments devised. Transport number of water in Nafion 117 membrane is determined using a concentration cell. It is 1.4 for a membrane equilibrated with saturated water vapor at 25{degrees}C, decreases slowly as the membrane is dehydrated, and falls sharply toward zero as the water content approaches zero. The relation between transference number, transport number, and electroosmotic drag coefficient is presented, and their relevance to water-management is discussed. A mathematical model of transport in a solid-polymer-electrolyte fuel cell is presented. A two-dimensional membrane-electrode assembly is considered. Water management, thermal management, and utilization of fuel are examined in detail. The membrane separators of these fuel cells require sorbed water to maintain conductivity; therefore it is necessary to manage the water content in membranes to ensure efficient operation. Water and thermal management are interrelated. Rate of heat removal is shown to be a critical parameter in the operation of these fuel cells. Current-voltage curves are presented for operation on air and reformed methanol. Equations for convective diffusion to a rotating disk are solved numerically for a consolute point between the bulk concentration and the surface. A singular-perturbation expansion is presented for the condition where the bulk concentration is nearly equal to the consolute-point composition. Results are compared to Levich's solution and analysis.

  16. Block Copolymer Solid Battery Electrolyte with High Li-Ion Transference Number

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rubloff, Gary W.

    Block Copolymer Solid Battery Electrolyte with High Li-Ion Transference Number Ayan Ghosh The electrochemical properties of a solid polymer electrolyte consisting of a diblock copolymer and lithium bis of withstanding such high voltage conditions. Unlike traditional liquid electrolytes, solid-state polymer electro

  17. Solid-polymer-electrolyte fuel cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fuller, T.F.

    1992-07-01

    A transport model for polymer electrolytes is presented, based on concentrated solution theory and irreversible thermodynamics. Thermodynamic driving forces are developed, transport properties are identified and experiments devised. Transport number of water in Nafion 117 membrane is determined using a concentration cell. It is 1.4 for a membrane equilibrated with saturated water vapor at 25{degrees}C, decreases slowly as the membrane is dehydrated, and falls sharply toward zero as the water content approaches zero. The relation between transference number, transport number, and electroosmotic drag coefficient is presented, and their relevance to water-management is discussed. A mathematical model of transport in a solid-polymer-electrolyte fuel cell is presented. A two-dimensional membrane-electrode assembly is considered. Water management, thermal management, and utilization of fuel are examined in detail. The membrane separators of these fuel cells require sorbed water to maintain conductivity; therefore it is necessary to manage the water content in membranes to ensure efficient operation. Water and thermal management are interrelated. Rate of heat removal is shown to be a critical parameter in the operation of these fuel cells. Current-voltage curves are presented for operation on air and reformed methanol. Equations for convective diffusion to a rotating disk are solved numerically for a consolute point between the bulk concentration and the surface. A singular-perturbation expansion is presented for the condition where the bulk concentration is nearly equal to the consolute-point composition. Results are compared to Levich`s solution and analysis.

  18. Low power, scalable multichannel high voltage controller

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stamps, James Frederick (Livermore, CA); Crocker, Robert Ward (Fremont, CA); Yee, Daniel Dadwa (Dublin, CA); Dils, David Wright (Fort Worth, TX)

    2006-03-14

    A low voltage control circuit is provided for individually controlling high voltage power provided over bus lines to a multitude of interconnected loads. An example of a load is a drive for capillary channels in a microfluidic system. Control is distributed from a central high voltage circuit, rather than using a number of large expensive central high voltage circuits to enable reducing circuit size and cost. Voltage is distributed to each individual load and controlled using a number of high voltage controller channel switches connected to high voltage bus lines. The channel switches each include complementary pull up and pull down photo isolator relays with photo isolator switching controlled from the central high voltage circuit to provide a desired bus line voltage. Switching of the photo isolator relays is further controlled in each channel switch using feedback from a resistor divider circuit to maintain the bus voltage swing within desired limits. Current sensing is provided using a switched resistive load in each channel switch, with switching of the resistive loads controlled from the central high voltage circuit.

  19. Low power, scalable multichannel high voltage controller

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stamps, James Frederick (Livermore, CA); Crocker, Robert Ward (Fremont, CA); Yee, Daniel Dadwa (Dublin, CA); Dils, David Wright (Fort Worth, TX)

    2008-03-25

    A low voltage control circuit is provided for individually controlling high voltage power provided over bus lines to a multitude of interconnected loads. An example of a load is a drive for capillary channels in a microfluidic system. Control is distributed from a central high voltage circuit, rather than using a number of large expensive central high voltage circuits to enable reducing circuit size and cost. Voltage is distributed to each individual load and controlled using a number of high voltage controller channel switches connected to high voltage bus lines. The channel switches each include complementary pull up and pull down photo isolator relays with photo isolator switching controlled from the central high voltage circuit to provide a desired bus line voltage. Switching of the photo isolator relays is further controlled in each channel switch using feedback from a resistor divider circuit to maintain the bus voltage swing within desired limits. Current sensing is provided using a switched resistive load in each channel switch, with switching of the resistive loads controlled from the central high voltage circuit.

  20. Solid electrolyte material manufacturable by polymer processing methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Singh, Mohit; Gur, Ilan; Eitouni, Hany Basam; Balsara, Nitash Pervez

    2012-09-18

    The present invention relates generally to electrolyte materials. According to an embodiment, the present invention provides for a solid polymer electrolyte material that is ionically conductive, mechanically robust, and can be formed into desirable shapes using conventional polymer processing methods. An exemplary polymer electrolyte material has an elastic modulus in excess of 1.times.10.sup.6 Pa at 90 degrees C. and is characterized by an ionic conductivity of at least 1.times.10.sup.-5 Scm-1 at 90 degrees C. An exemplary material can be characterized by a two domain or three domain material system. An exemplary material can include material components made of diblock polymers or triblock polymers. Many uses are contemplated for the solid polymer electrolyte materials. For example, the present invention can be applied to improve Li-based batteries by means of enabling higher energy density, better thermal and environmental stability, lower rates of self-discharge, enhanced safety, lower manufacturing costs, and novel form factors.

  1. Optically triggered high voltage switch network and method for switching a high voltage

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    El-Sharkawi, Mohamed A. (Renton, WA); Andexler, George (Everett, WA); Silberkleit, Lee I. (Mountlake Terrace, WA)

    1993-01-19

    An optically triggered solid state switch and method for switching a high voltage electrical current. A plurality of solid state switches (350) are connected in series for controlling electrical current flow between a compensation capacitor (112) and ground in a reactive power compensator (50, 50') that monitors the voltage and current flowing through each of three distribution lines (52a, 52b and 52c), which are supplying three-phase power to one or more inductive loads. An optical transmitter (100) controlled by the reactive power compensation system produces light pulses that are conveyed over optical fibers (102) to a switch driver (110') that includes a plurality of series connected optical triger circuits (288). Each of the optical trigger circuits controls a pair of the solid state switches and includes a plurality of series connected resistors (294, 326, 330, and 334) that equalize or balance the potential across the plurality of trigger circuits. The trigger circuits are connected to one of the distribution lines through a trigger capacitor (340). In each switch driver, the light signals activate a phototransistor (300) so that an electrical current flows from one of the energy reservoir capacitors through a pulse transformer (306) in the trigger circuit, producing gate signals that turn on the pair of serially connected solid state switches (350).

  2. Solid polymer electrolyte composite membrane comprising plasma etched porous support

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, Han (Waltham, MA); LaConti, Anthony B. (Lynnfield, MA)

    2010-10-05

    A solid polymer electrolyte composite membrane and method of manufacturing the same. According to one embodiment, the composite membrane comprises a rigid, non-electrically-conducting support, the support preferably being a sheet of polyimide having a thickness of about 7.5 to 15 microns. The support has a plurality of cylindrical pores extending perpendicularly between opposing top and bottom surfaces of the support. The pores, which preferably have a diameter of about 0.1 to 5 microns, are made by plasma etching and preferably are arranged in a defined pattern, for example, with fewer pores located in areas of high membrane stress and more pores located in areas of low membrane stress. The pores are filled with a first solid polymer electrolyte, such as a perfluorosulfonic acid (PFSA) polymer. A second solid polymer electrolyte, which may be the same as or different than the first solid polymer electrolyte, may be deposited over the top and/or bottom of the first solid polymer electrolyte.

  3. Ionic Transport Across Interfaces of Solid Glass and Polymer Electrolytes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tenhaeff, Wyatt E [ORNL; Yu, Xiang [ORNL; Hong, Kunlun [ORNL; Perry, Kelly A [ORNL; Dudney, Nancy J [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    A study of lithium cation transport across solid-solid electrolyte interfaces to identify critical resistances in nanostructured solid electrolytes is reported. Bilayers of glass and polymer thin film electrolytes were fabricated and characterized for this study. The glass electrolyte was lithium phosphorous oxynitride (Lipon), and two polymer electrolytes were studied: poly(methyl methacrylate-co-poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate) and poly(styrene-co-poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate). Both copolymers contained LiClO{sub 4} salt. In bilayers where polymer electrolyte layers are fabricated on top of Lipon, the interfacial resistance dominates transport. At 25 C, the interfacial resistance is at least three times greater than the sum of the Lipon and polymer electrolyte resistances. By reversing the structure and fabricating Lipon on top of the polymer electrolytes, the interfacial resistance is eliminated. Experiments to elucidate the origin of the interfacial resistance in the polymer-on-Lipon bilayers reveal that the solvent mixtures used to fabricate the polymer layers do not degrade the Lipon layer. The importance of the polymer electrolytes' mechanical properties is also discussed.

  4. Welcome to the High Voltage Laboratory The EEH -High Voltage Laboratory is part of the Energy Transmission and High Voltage Laboratory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grabner, Helmut

    Welcome to the High Voltage Laboratory The EEH - High Voltage Laboratory is part of the Energy Transmission and High Voltage Laboratory (EEH) of the Department of Information Technology and Electrical focus of the high voltage laboratory is in the area of technologies for a future sustainable electric

  5. Solid polymer battery electrolyte and reactive metal-water battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Harrup, Mason K. (Idaho Falls, ID); Peterson, Eric S. (Idaho Falls, ID); Stewart, Frederick F. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2000-01-01

    In one implementation, a reactive metal-water battery includes an anode comprising a metal in atomic or alloy form selected from the group consisting of periodic table Group 1A metals, periodic table Group 2A metals and mixtures thereof. The battery includes a cathode comprising water. Such also includes a solid polymer electrolyte comprising a polyphosphazene comprising ligands bonded with a phosphazene polymer backbone. The ligands comprise an aromatic ring containing hydrophobic portion and a metal ion carrier portion. The metal ion carrier portion is bonded at one location with the polymer backbone and at another location with the aromatic ring containing hydrophobic portion. The invention also contemplates such solid polymer electrolytes use in reactive metal/water batteries, and in any other battery.

  6. Principles of ground relaying for high voltage and extra high voltage transmission lines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Griffin, C.H.

    1983-02-01

    This paper is a tutorial discussion of the basic principles of ground relaying for high voltage and extra high voltage transmission lines. Three different HV configurations are considered: Long lines, lines with a weak mid-point station, and mutually-coupled lines. Application criteria for EHV circuits are also discussed, and specific setting calculations are included where appropriate.

  7. On the theory of proton solid echo in polymer melts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fatkullin, N; Mattea, C; Stapf, S

    2015-01-01

    Based on a modified Anderson-Weiss approximation (N. Fatkullin, A. Gubaidullin, C. Mattea, S.Stapf, J. Chem. Phys. 137 (2012), 224907) an improved theory of proton spin solid echo in polymer melts is formulated, taking into account contribution from intermolecular magnetic dipole-dipole interactions. The solid echo build-up function defined by the relation , where , and are the respective signals arising from ( ),( ) and ( ) spin echo experiments, where is an operator rotating the spin system on the angle relatively axis , is investigated. It is shown that the intermolecular part of this function at short times , where is a characteristic time for flip-flop transitions between proton spins, contains information about the relative mean squared displacements of polymer segments at different macromolecules, opening up a new opportunity for obtaining information about polymer dynamics in the millisecond regime.

  8. Modeling the Effects of Ion Association on Alternating Current Impedance of Solid Polymer Electrolytes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    model describing the transport of ions and associated ion pairs in solid polymer electrolytes subjected evidence indicates that ion associa- tion occurs in many solid polymer electrolytes. For example, conModeling the Effects of Ion Association on Alternating Current Impedance of Solid Polymer

  9. Tetraarylborate polymer networks as single-ion conducting solid electrolytes

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Van Humbeck, Jeffrey F.; Aubrey, Michael L.; Alsbaiee, Alaaeddin; Ameloot, Rob; Coates, Geoffrey W.; Dichtel, William R.; Long, Jeffrey R.

    2015-06-23

    A new family of solid polymer electrolytes based upon anionic tetrakis(phenyl)borate tetrahedral nodes and linear bis-alkyne linkers is reported. Sonogashira polymerizations using tetrakis(4-iodophenyl)borate, tetrakis(4-iodo-2,3,5,6-tetrafluorophenyl)borate and tetrakis(4-bromo-2,3,5,6-tetrafluorophenyl)borate delivered highly cross-linked polymer networks with both 1,4-diethynylbeznene and a tri(ethylene glycol) substituted derivative. Promising initial conductivity metrics have been observed, including high room temperature conductivities (up to 2.7 × 10-4 S cm-1), moderate activation energies (0.25–0.28 eV), and high lithium ion transport numbers (up to tLi+ = 0.93). Initial investigations into the effects of important materials parameters such as bulk morphology, porosity, fluorination, and other chemical modification, provide starting design parameters for furthermore »development of this new class of solid electrolytes.« less

  10. Field Optimization of Three Dimensional High Voltage C. Trinitis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stamatakis, Alexandros

    The design of high voltage systems and their com­ ponents (e.g. gas insulated switchgear, trans­ formers etc

  11. Safe epoxy encapsulant for high voltage magnetics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sanchez, R.O.; Archer, W.E.

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes the use of Formula 456, an aliphatic amine cured epoxy for impregnating coils and high voltage transformers. Sandia has evaluated a number of MDA-free epoxy encapsulants which relied on either anhydride or other aromatic amine curing agents. The use of aliphatic amine curing agents was more recently evaluated and has resulted in the definition of Formula 456 resin. Methylene dianiline (MDA) has been used for more than 20 years as the curing agent for various epoxy formulations throughout the Department of Energy and much of industry. Sandia National Laboratories began the process of replacing MDA with other formulations because of regulations imposed by OSHA on the use of MDA. OSHA has regulated MDA because it is a suspect carcinogen. Typically the elimination of OSHA-regulated materials provides a rare opportunity to qualify new formulations in a range of demanding applications. It was important to take full advantage of that opportunity, although the associated materials qualification effort was costly. Small high voltage transformers are one of those demanding applications. The successful implementation of the new formulation for high reliability transformers will be described. The test results that demonstrate the parts are qualified for use in DOE weapon systems will be presented.

  12. Study of Hydrophobic and Ionizable Hydrophilic Copolymers at Polymer/Solid and Polymer/Liquid Interfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Perahia, Dvora

    2011-11-01

    Joint experimental-computational efforts were set to characterize the interfacial effects on the structure and dynamics of polymers consisting of highly rigid hydrophilic-ionizable and hydrophobic sub-units within one polymeric chain casted into thin films of several molecular dimensions. Focusing on the ultra thin film region we separate out the interfacial effects from bulk characteristics. Specifically, the study sought to: identify the parameters that control the formation of a stable polymer-solid interface. The study consists of two components, experimental investigations and computational efforts. The experimental component was designed to derive empirical trends that can be used to correlate the set of coupled polymer molecular parameters with the interfacial characteristics of these polymers, and their response to presence of solvents. The computational study was designed to provide molecular insight into the ensemble averages provided by the experimental efforts on multiple length scales from molecular dimensions, to the nanometer lengths to a macroscopic understanding of solvent interactions with structured polymers. With the ultimate goal of correlating molecular parameters to structure, dynamics and properties of ionic polymers, the first stage of the research began with the study of two systems, one which allowed tailoring the flexibility of the backbone without the presence of ionic groups, but with a potential to sulfonate groups at a later stage, and a polymer whose backbone is rigid and the density of the ionic group can be varied. The combined experimental and computational studies significantly extended the understanding of polymers at interfaces from model systems to polydispersed copolymers with blocks of varying nature and complexity. This new insight directly affects the design of polymers for sustainable energy applications from batteries and fuel cells to solar energy.

  13. Electro-optic high voltage sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Davidson, James R.; Seifert, Gary D.

    2003-09-16

    A small sized electro-optic voltage sensor capable of accurate measurement of high voltages without contact with a conductor or voltage source is provided. When placed in the presence of an electric field, the sensor receives an input beam of electromagnetic radiation. A polarization beam displacer separates the input beam into two beams with orthogonal linear polarizations and causes one linearly polarized beam to impinge a crystal at a desired angle independent of temperature. The Pockels effect elliptically polarizes the beam as it travels through the crystal. A reflector redirects the beam back through the crystal and the beam displacer. On the return path, the polarization beam displacer separates the elliptically polarized beam into two output beams of orthogonal linear polarization. The system may include a detector for converting the output beams into electrical signals and a signal processor for determining the voltage based on an analysis of the output beams.

  14. Pulling an adsorbed polymer chain off a solid surface

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. Bhattacharya; A. Milchev; V. G. Rostiashvili; T. A. Vilgis

    2009-08-13

    The thermally assisted detachment of a self-avoiding polymer chain from an adhesive surface by an external force applied to one of the chain ends is investigated. We perform our study in the "fixed height" statistical ensemble where one measures the fluctuating force, exerted by the chain on the last monomer when a chain end is kept fixed at height $h$ over the solid plane at different adsorption strength $\\epsilon$. The phase diagram in the $h - \\epsilon$ plane is calculated both analytically and by Monte Carlo simulations. We demonstrate that in the vicinity of the polymer desorption transition a number of properties like fluctuations and probability distribution of various quantities behave differently, if $h$ rather than $f$ is used as an independent control parameter.

  15. Modular high voltage power supply for chemical analysis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stamps, James F. (Livermore, CA); Yee, Daniel D. (Dublin, CA)

    2007-01-09

    A high voltage power supply for use in a system such as a microfluidics system, uses a DC--DC converter in parallel with a voltage-controlled resistor. A feedback circuit provides a control signal for the DC--DC converter and voltage-controlled resistor so as to regulate the output voltage of the high voltage power supply, as well as, to sink or source current from the high voltage supply.

  16. Modular high voltage power supply for chemical analysis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stamps, James F. (Livermore, CA); Yee, Daniel D. (Dublin, CA)

    2008-07-15

    A high voltage power supply for use in a system such as a microfluidics system, uses a DC-DC converter in parallel with a voltage-controlled resistor. A feedback circuit provides a control signal for the DC-DC converter and voltage-controlled resistor so as to regulate the output voltage of the high voltage power supply, as well as, to sink or source current from the high voltage supply.

  17. Modular high voltage power supply for chemical analysis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stamps, James F. (Livermore, CA); Yee, Daniel D. (Dublin, CA)

    2010-05-04

    A high voltage power supply for use in a system such as a microfluidics system, uses a DC-DC converter in parallel with a voltage-controlled resistor. A feedback circuit provides a control signal for the DC-DC converter and voltage-controlled resistor so as to regulate the output voltage of the high voltage power supply, as well as, to sink or source current from the high voltage supply.

  18. Nanoscale Morphological and Chemical Changes of High Voltage...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nanoscale Morphological and Chemical Changes of High Voltage Lithium-Manganese Rich NMC Composite Cathodes with Cycling Friday, August 29, 2014 Renewable energy is critical for the...

  19. Polymer Selection for Biphenyl Degradation in a Solid-Liquid Two-Phase Partitioning Bioreactor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daugulis, Andrew J.

    Polymer Selection for Biphenyl Degradation in a Solid-Liquid Two-Phase Partitioning Bioreactor Lars, Kingston, Ontario, Canada K7L 3N6 The commercially available thermoplastic polymer Hytrel was selected biphenyl. The partitioning of biphenyl between the selected polymers and water was analogous

  20. Measurement of high voltage using Rutherford backscattering spectrometry 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abrego, Celestino Pete

    2007-04-25

    A novel variation of Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS) has been utilized to measure a high voltage collected on an aluminum target by Direct Energy Conversion. The maximum high voltage on the target was measured to be 97.5 kV +/- 2 k...

  1. Unravelling the Performance Degradation Mechanisms in High-voltage...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Unravelling the Performance Degradation Mechanisms in High-voltage Lithium-ion Battery Composite Oxide Electrodes Apr 11 2014 02:00 PM - 03:00 PM Debasish Mohanty, ORNL, Oak Ridge...

  2. High-voltage air-core pulse transformers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rohwein, G. J.

    1981-01-01

    General types of air core pulse transformers designed for high voltage pulse generation and energy transfer applications are discussed with special emphasis on pulse charging systems which operate up to the multi-megavolt range. The design, operation, dielectric materials, and performance are described. It is concluded that high voltage air core pulse transformers are best suited to applications outside the normal ranges of conventional magnetic core transformers. In general these include charge transfer at high power levels and fast pulse generation with comparatively low energy. When properly designed and constructed, they are capable of delivering high energy transfer efficiency and have demonstrated superior high voltage endurance. The principal disadvantage of high voltage air core transformers is that they are not generally available from commercial sources. Consequently, the potential user must become thoroughly familiar with all aspects of design, fabrication and system application before he can produce a high performance transformer system. (LCL)

  3. Solid State Ionics 111 (1998) 117123 Composite polymer electrolytes using surface-modified fumed

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raghavan, Srinivasa

    1998-01-01

    Solid State Ionics 111 (1998) 117­123 Composite polymer electrolytes using surface-modified fumed April 1998 Abstract We report results from our studies on composite polymer electrolytes based on novel surface-modified fumed silicas. The electrolytes were prepared by dispersing fumed silica in a matrix

  4. Polymer Development for Enhanced Delivery of Phenol in a Solid-Liquid Two-Phase Partitioning Bioreactor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daugulis, Andrew J.

    Polymer Development for Enhanced Delivery of Phenol in a Solid-Liquid Two-Phase Partitioning liquid TPPBs to the use of pure strains of microbes. Solid polymer beads have recently been introduced to be used with mixed microbial populations. The present work was aimed at identifying a polymer

  5. E-beam high voltage switching power supply

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shimer, D.W.; Lange, A.C.

    1997-03-11

    A high power, solid state power supply is described for producing a controllable, constant high voltage output under varying and arcing loads suitable for powering an electron beam gun or other ion source. The present power supply is most useful for outputs in a range of about 100-400 kW or more. The power supply is comprised of a plurality of discrete switching type dc-dc converter modules, each comprising a voltage regulator, an inductor, an inverter for producing a high frequency square wave current of alternating polarity, an improved inverter voltage clamping circuit, a step up transformer, and an output rectifier for producing a dc voltage at the output of each module. The inputs to the converter modules are fed from a common dc rectifier/filter and are linked together in parallel through decoupling networks to suppress high frequency input interactions. The outputs of the converter modules are linked together in series and connected to the input of the transmission line to the load through a decoupling and line matching network. The dc-dc converter modules are phase activated such that for n modules, each module is activated equally 360{degree}/n out of phase with respect to a successive module. The phased activation of the converter modules, combined with the square current waveforms out of the step up transformers, allows the power supply to operate with greatly reduced output capacitance values which minimizes the stored energy available for discharge into an electron beam gun or the like during arcing. The present power supply also provides dynamic response to varying loads by controlling the voltage regulator duty cycle using simulated voltage feedback signals and voltage feedback loops. Circuitry is also provided for sensing incipient arc currents reflected at the output of the power supply and for simultaneously decoupling the power supply circuitry from the arcing load. 7 figs.

  6. E-beam high voltage switching power supply

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shimer, Daniel W. (Danville, CA); Lange, Arnold C. (Livermore, CA)

    1997-01-01

    A high power, solid state power supply is described for producing a controllable, constant high voltage output under varying and arcing loads suitable for powering an electron beam gun or other ion source. The present power supply is most useful for outputs in a range of about 100-400 kW or more. The power supply is comprised of a plurality of discrete switching type dc-dc converter modules, each comprising a voltage regulator, an inductor, an inverter for producing a high frequency square wave current of alternating polarity, an improved inverter voltage clamping circuit, a step up transformer, and an output rectifier for producing a dc voltage at the output of each module. The inputs to the converter modules are fed from a common dc rectifier/filter and are linked together in parallel through decoupling networks to suppress high frequency input interactions. The outputs of the converter modules are linked together in series and connected to the input of the transmission line to the load through a decoupling and line matching network. The dc-dc converter modules are phase activated such that for n modules, each module is activated equally 360.degree./n out of phase with respect to a successive module. The phased activation of the converter modules, combined with the square current waveforms out of the step up transformers, allows the power supply to operate with greatly reduced output capacitance values which minimizes the stored energy available for discharge into an electron beam gun or the like during arcing. The present power supply also provides dynamic response to varying loads by controlling the voltage regulator duty cycle using simulated voltage feedback signals and voltage feedback loops. Circuitry is also provided for sensing incipient arc currents reflected at the output of the power supply and for simultaneously decoupling the power supply circuitry from the arcing load.

  7. High voltage switch triggered by a laser-photocathode subsystem

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, Ping; Lundquist, Martin L.; Yu, David U. L.

    2013-01-08

    A spark gap switch for controlling the output of a high voltage pulse from a high voltage source, for example, a capacitor bank or a pulse forming network, to an external load such as a high gradient electron gun, laser, pulsed power accelerator or wide band radar. The combination of a UV laser and a high vacuum quartz cell, in which a photocathode and an anode are installed, is utilized as triggering devices to switch the spark gap from a non-conducting state to a conducting state with low delay and low jitter.

  8. High Voltage DC Transmission 1.0 Introduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCalley, James D.

    1 High Voltage DC Transmission 1.0 Introduction HVDC has been applied in electric power systems Supplier: ABB Railroa d DC Tie USA - Mission, TX 26°1001N9 8°1925W USA - Mission, TX 26°1001N9 8°1925W 21

  9. High Voltage DC Transmission 2 1.0 Introduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCalley, James D.

    1 High Voltage DC Transmission 2 1.0 Introduction Interconnecting HVDC within an AC system requires conversion from AC to DC and inversion from DC to AC. We refer to the circuits which provide conversion from AC to DC as rectifiers and the circuits which provide conversion from DC to AC as inverters. The term

  10. Chronic Benzodiazepine Administration Potentiates High Voltage-Activated Calcium Currents

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abraham, Nader G.

    effects from drug withdrawal phenomena to dependence on a variety of drugs of abuse. High voltage benzodiazepine physical dependence. Benzodiazepines, a group of positive allosteric modulators of GABAA receptors legitimate prescription of benzodiazepines increases the proportion of patients who develop dependence

  11. CLNS 03/1827 VERY HIGH VOLTAGE PHOTOEMISSION ELECTRON GUNS*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CLNS 03/1827 VERY HIGH VOLTAGE PHOTOEMISSION ELECTRON GUNS* Charles K. Sinclair # , Cornell voltage DC electron guns with photoemission cathodes are a natural choice for generating the beams gradient in these guns. The photocathode operational lifetime is limited by the gun vacuum and by ion back

  12. Optical Spectra of the High Voltage Erosive Water Discharge

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pirozerski, A L

    2008-01-01

    In the present paper kinetics of emission spectra of the high voltage erosive water discharge at near ultraviolet and visible spectral ranges has been investigated. Obtained results show a similarity of physical properties of this discharge (and of corresponding plasmoids) to that of some other types of erosional discharges which also result in the formation of dust-gas fireballs.

  13. Ultra-compact Marx-type high-voltage generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goerz, David A. (Brentwood, CA); Wilson, Michael J. (Modesto, CA)

    2000-01-01

    An ultra-compact Marx-type high-voltage generator includes individual high-performance components that are closely coupled and integrated into an extremely compact assembly. In one embodiment, a repetitively-switched, ultra-compact Marx generator includes low-profile, annular-shaped, high-voltage, ceramic capacitors with contoured edges and coplanar extended electrodes used for primary energy storage; low-profile, low-inductance, high-voltage, pressurized gas switches with compact gas envelopes suitably designed to be integrated with the annular capacitors; feed-forward, high-voltage, ceramic capacitors attached across successive switch-capacitor-switch stages to couple the necessary energy forward to sufficiently overvoltage the spark gap of the next in-line switch; optimally shaped electrodes and insulator surfaces to reduce electric field stresses in the weakest regions where dissimilar materials meet, and to spread the fields more evenly throughout the dielectric materials, allowing them to operate closer to their intrinsic breakdown levels; and uses manufacturing and assembly methods to integrate the capacitors and switches into stages that can be arranged into a low-profile Marx generator.

  14. Low-profile high-voltage compact gas switch

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goerz, D.A.; Wilson, M.J.; Speer, R.D.

    1997-06-30

    This paper discusses the development and testing of a low-profile, high-voltage, spark-gap switch designed to be closely coupled with other components into an integrated high-energy pulsed-power source. The switch is designed to operate at 100 kV using SF6 gas pressurized to less than 0.7 MPa. The volume of the switch cavity region is less than 1.5 cm3, and the field stress along the gas-dielectric interface is as high as 130 kV/cm. The dielectric switch body has a low profile that is only I -cm tall at its greatest extent and nominally 2-mm thick over most of its area. This design achieves a very low inductance of less than 5 nH, but results in field stresses exceeding 500 kV/cm in the dielectric material. Field modeling was done to determine the appropriate shape for the highly stressed insulator and electrodes, and special manufacturing techniques were employed to mitigate the usual mechanisms that induce breakdown and failure in solid dielectrics. Static breakdown tests verified that the switch operates satisfactorily at 100 kV levels. The unit has been characterized with different shaped electrodes having nominal gap spacings of 2.0, 2.5, and 3.0 mm. The relationship between self-break voltage and operating pressure agrees well with published data on gas properties, accounting for the field enhancements of the electrode shapes being used. Capacitor discharge tests in a low inductance test fixture exhibited peak currents up to 25 kA with characteristic frequencies of the ringdown circuit ranging from 10 to 20 MHz. The ringdown waveforms and scaling of measured parameters agree well with circuit modeling of the switch and test fixture. Repetitive operation has been demonstrated at moderate rep-rates up to 15 Hz, limited by the power supply being used. Preliminary tests to evaluate lifetime of the compact switch assembly have been encouraging. In one case, after more than 7,000 high-current ringdown tests with approximately 30 C of total charge transferred, the switch continued to operate satisfactorily with no apparent tracking or deterioration of the insulator.

  15. Design and development of a cooling device for solid polymer electrolyte fuel cells 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nandi, Asis

    1991-01-01

    DESIGN AND DEVEI OPMENT OF A COOLING DEVICE FOR SOLID POLYMER ELECTROLYTE FUEL CELLS A Thesis by- ASIS NANDI Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas ALA'I Ifniversity in partial fulfillment of the requirements I' or the degree ot...' MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1991 Major Subject: Mechanical Engineering DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT OF A COOLING DEVICE FOR SOLID POLYMER ELECTROLYTE FUEL CELLS A Thesis ASIS lVAiVDI Approved as to style and content by: q. v, 4~. V. K. Anand (' Chair...

  16. Design & Fabrication of a High-Voltage Photovoltaic Cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Felder, Jennifer; /North Carolina State U. /SLAC

    2012-09-05

    Silicon photovoltaic (PV) cells are alternative energy sources that are important in sustainable power generation. Currently, applications of PV cells are limited by the low output voltage and somewhat low efficiency of such devices. In light of this fact, this project investigates the possibility of fabricating high-voltage PV cells on float-zone silicon wafers having output voltages ranging from 50 V to 2000 V. Three designs with different geometries of diffusion layers were simulated and compared in terms of metal coverage, recombination, built-in potential, and conduction current density. One design was then chosen and optimized to be implemented in the final device design. The results of the simulation serve as a feasibility test for the design concept and provide supportive evidence of the effectiveness of silicon PV cells as high-voltage power supplies.

  17. High voltage series connected tandem junction solar battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hanak, Joseph J. (Lawrenceville, NJ)

    1982-01-01

    A high voltage series connected tandem junction solar battery which comprises a plurality of strips of tandem junction solar cells of hydrogenated amorphous silicon having one optical path and electrically interconnected by a tunnel junction. The layers of hydrogenated amorphous silicon, arranged in a tandem configuration, can have the same bandgap or differing bandgaps. The tandem junction strip solar cells are series connected to produce a solar battery of any desired voltage.

  18. All-solid-state proton battery using gel polymer electrolyte

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mishra, Kuldeep, E-mail: mishkuldeep@gmail.com [Department of Applied Science and Humanities, ABES Engineering College, Ghaziabad-201009, India and Department of Physics and Materials Science and Engineering, Jaypee Institute of Information Technology, Noida-201307 (India); Pundir, S. S.; Rai, D. K. [Department of Physics and Materials Science and Engineering, Jaypee Institute of Information Technology, Noida-201307 (India)

    2014-04-24

    A proton conducting gel polymer electrolyte system; PMMA+NH{sub 4}SCN+EC/PC, has been prepared. The highest ionic conductivity obtained from the system is 2.5 × 10?4 S cm{sup ?1}. The optimized composition of the gel electrolyte has been used to fabricate a proton battery with Zn/ZnSO{sub 4}?7H{sub 2}O anode and MnO{sub 2} cathode. The open circuit voltage of the battery is 1.4 V and the highest energy density is 5.7 W h kg?1 for low current drain.

  19. Self-monitoring high voltage transmission line suspension insulator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stemler, Gary E. (Vancouver, WA); Scott, Donald N. (Vancouver, WA)

    1981-01-01

    A high voltage transmission line suspension insulator (18 or 22) which monitors its own dielectric integrity. A dielectric rod (10) has one larger diameter end fitting attachable to a transmission line and another larger diameter end fitting attachable to a support tower. The rod is enclosed in a dielectric tube (14) which is hermetically sealed to the rod's end fittings such that a liquidtight space (20) is formed between the rod and the tube. A pressurized dielectric liquid is placed within that space. A discoloring dye placed within this space is used to detect the loss of the pressurized liquid.

  20. Induction of nuclear fission by high-voltage application

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hirokazu Maruyama

    2007-11-20

    In nuclear power generation, fissile materials are mainly used. For example, $U^{235}$ is fissile and therefore quite essential for use of nuclear energy. However, the material $U^{235}$ has very small natural abundance less than 1 %. We should seek possibility of utilizing fissionable materials such as $U^{238}$ because natural abundance of such fissionable materials is generally much larger than fissile ones. In this paper, we show that thermal neutrons with vanishing kinetic energy can induce nuclear fission when high voltage is applied to fissionable materials. To obtain this result, we use the liquid-drop model for nuclei. Finally, we propose how fissionable materials can be utilized.

  1. Enhanced electrical transport in ionic liquid dispersed TMAI-PEO solid polymer electrolyte

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gupta, Neha [Physics Department, Birla Institute of Technology and Science, Pilani-333031, Rajasthan, India and Department of Physics, JECRC University, Jaipur-303905, Rajasthan (India); Rathore, Munesh, E-mail: adalvi@pilani.bits-pilani.ac.in; Dalvi, Anshuman, E-mail: adalvi@pilani.bits-pilani.ac.in [Physics Department, Birla Institute of Technology and Science, Pilani-333031, Rajasthan (India); Kumar, Anil [Chemistry Department, Birla Institute of Technology and Science, Pilani-333031, Rajasthan (India)

    2014-04-24

    A polymer composite is prepared by dispersing ionic liquid [Bmim][BF{sub 4}] in Polyethylene oxide-tetra methyl ammonium iodide composite and subsequent microwave treatment. X-ray diffraction patterns confirm the composite nature. To explore possibility of proton conductivity in these films, electrical transport is studied by impedance spectroscopy and DC polarization. It is revealed that addition of ionic liquid in host TMAI-PEO solid polymer electrolyte enhances the conductivity by ? 2 orders of magnitude. Polarization measurements suggest that composites are essentially ion conducting in nature. The maximum ionic conductivity is found to be ?2 × 10{sup ?5} for 10 wt % ionic liquid.

  2. An accurate continuous calibration system for high voltage current transformer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tong Yue; Li Binhong [College of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074, Hubei Province (China)

    2011-02-15

    A continuous calibration system for high voltage current transformers is presented in this paper. The sensor of this system is based on a kind of electronic instrument current transformer, which is a clamp-shape air core coil. This system uses an optical fiber transmission system for its signal transmission and power supply. Finally the digital integrator and fourth-order convolution window algorithm as error calculation methods are realized by the virtual instrument with a personal computer. It is found that this system can calibrate a high voltage current transformer while energized, which means avoiding a long calibrating period in the power system and the loss of power metering expense. At the same time, it has a wide dynamic range and frequency band, and it can achieve a high accuracy measurement in a complex electromagnetic field environment. The experimental results and the on-site operation results presented in the last part of the paper, prove that it can reach the 0.05 accuracy class and is easy to operate on site.

  3. Elasticity of polymer vesicles by osmotic pressure: an intermediate theory between fluid membranes and solid shells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Z. C. Tu; L. Q. Ge; J. B. Li; Z. C. Ou-Yang

    2005-08-18

    The entropy of a polymer confined in a curved surface and the elastic free energy of a membrane consisting of polymers are obtained by scaling analysis. It is found that the elastic free energy of the membrane has the form of the in-plane strain energy plus Helfrich's curvature energy [Z. Naturforsch. C \\textbf{28}, 693 (1973)]. The elastic constants in the free energy are obtained by discussing two simplified models: one is the polymer membrane without in-plane strains and asymmetry between its two sides, which is the counterpart of quantum mechanics in curved surface [Jensen and Koppe, Ann. Phys. \\textbf{63}, 586 (1971)]; another is the planar rubber membrane with homogeneous in-plane strains. The equations to describe equilibrium shape and in-plane strains of the polymer vesicles by osmotic pressure are derived by taking the first order variation of the total free energy containing the elastic free energy, the surface tension energy and the term induced by osmotic pressure. The critical pressure, above which spherical polymer vesicle will lose its stability, is obtained by taking the second order variation of the total free energy. It is found that the in-plane mode also plays important role in the critical pressure because it couples with the out-of-plane mode. Theoretical results reveal that polymer vesicles possess the mechanical properties intermediate between fluid membranes and solid shells.

  4. Hydrocracking of polymers to liquid fuels over strong solid acid catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Venkatesh, K.R.; Hu, J.; Tierney, J.W.; Wender, I. [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Post-consumer plastic wastes make a significant portion of the total solid wastes generated annually in the U.S. and are not significantly recycled. We have found that certain polymeric wastes can be hydrocracked to provide high quality, environmentally acceptable transportation fuels. In this paper, we disclose results obtained from the depolymerization-liquefaction of polyethylene, polypropylene and polystyrene, thermoplastics which make up the bulk of plastic wastes. The polymers can be converted over solid acid catalysts to C{sub 4}-C{sub 20} liquids with yields of gasoline (C{sub 4}-C{sub 12}) range products exceeding 75 wt%. The product distribution could be varied by manipulating reaction parameters (reaction conditions, feed to catalyst ratios, addition of hydride donor/transfer agents) and catalyst composition. The effect of catalyst modifications on the activity and selectivity in hydrocracking of polymers will be discussed. Changes in physicochemical characteristics of the catalysts after reaction will also be discussed.

  5. Understanding and Improving High Voltage Vacuum Insulators for Microsecond Pulses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Javedani, J B; Goerz, D A; Houck, T L; Lauer, E J; Speer, R D; Tully, L K; Vogtlin, G E; White, A D

    2007-03-05

    High voltage insulation is one of the main areas of pulsed power research and development, and dielectric breakdown is usually the limiting factor in attaining the highest possible performance in pulsed power devices. For many applications the delivery of pulsed power into a vacuum region is the most critical aspect of operation. The surface of an insulator exposed to vacuum can fail electrically at an applied field more than an order or magnitude below the bulk dielectric strength of the insulator. This mode of breakdown, called surface flashover, imposes serious limitations on the power flow into a vacuum region. This is especially troublesome for applications where high voltage conditioning of the insulator and electrodes is not practical and for applications where relatively long pulses, on the order of several microseconds, are required. The goal of this project is to establish a sound fundamental understanding of the mechanisms that lead to surface flashover, and then evaluate the most promising techniques to improve vacuum insulators and enable high voltage operation at stress levels near the intrinsic bulk breakdown limits of the material. The approach we proposed and followed was to develop this understanding through a combination of theoretical and computation methods coupled with experiments to validate and quantify expected behaviors. In this report we summarize our modeling and simulation efforts, theoretical studies, and experimental investigations. The computational work began by exploring the limits of commercially available codes and demonstrating methods to examine field enhancements and defect mechanisms at microscopic levels. Plasma simulations with particle codes used in conjunction with circuit models of the experimental apparatus enabled comparisons with experimental measurements. The large scale plasma (LSP) particle-in-cell (PIC) code was run on multiprocessor platforms and used to simulate expanding plasma conditions in vacuum gap regions. Algorithms were incorporated into LSP to handle secondary electron emission from dielectric materials to enable detailed simulations of flashover phenomenon. Theoretical studies were focused on explaining a possible mechanism for anode initiated surface flashover that involves an electron avalanche process starting near the anode, not a mechanism involving bulk dielectric breakdown. Experiments were performed in Engineering's Pulsed Power Lab using an available 100-kV, 10-{micro}s pulse generator and vacuum chamber. The initial experiments were done with polyethylene insulator material in the shape of a truncated cone cut at +45{sup o} angle between flat electrodes with a gap of 1.0 cm. The insulator was sized so there were no flashovers or breakdowns under nominal operating conditions. Insulator flashover or gap closure was induced by introducing a plasma source, a tuft of velvet, in proximity to the insulator or electrode.

  6. Monolithic high voltage nonlinear transmission line fabrication process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cooper, G.A.

    1994-10-04

    A process for fabricating sequential inductors and varistor diodes of a monolithic, high voltage, nonlinear, transmission line in GaAs is disclosed. An epitaxially grown laminate is produced by applying a low doped active n-type GaAs layer to an n-plus type GaAs substrate. A heavily doped p-type GaAs layer is applied to the active n-type layer and a heavily doped n-type GaAs layer is applied to the p-type layer. Ohmic contacts are applied to the heavily doped n-type layer where diodes are desired. Multiple layers are then either etched away or Oxygen ion implanted to isolate individual varistor diodes. An insulator is applied between the diodes and a conductive/inductive layer is thereafter applied on top of the insulator layer to complete the process. 6 figs.

  7. Curing system for high voltage cross linked cables

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bahder, George (Edison, NJ); Katz, Carlos (Edison, NJ); Bopp, Louis A. (Fair Haven, NJ)

    1978-01-01

    This invention makes extruded, vulcanized, high voltage cables insulated with thermosetting compounds at much higher rates of production and with superior insulation of reduced thickness and with reduced cavities or voids in the insulation. As the cable comes from an extruder, it passes into a curing chamber with a heat booster that quickly raises the insulation to a temperature at which it is cured much more quickly than with steam heating of the prior art. A high temperature liquid in contact with the insulation maintains the high temperature; and because of the greater curing heat, the cable can travel through the curing chamber at a faster rate and into a cooling tube where it contacts with a cooling liquid under high pressure. The insulation compound is treated to reduce the size of cavities; and the high pressure maintained by the curing and cooling mediums prevent expansion of cavities before the insulation is set.

  8. Digital measurement system for the LHC klystron high voltage modulator.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mikkelsen, Anders

    Accelerating voltage in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is created by a means of 16 superconducting standing wave RF cavities, each fed by a 400MHz/300kW continuous wave klystron amplifier. Part of the upgrade program for the LHC long shutdown one is to replace the obsolete analogue current and voltage measurement circuitry located in the high voltage bunkers by a new, digital system, using ADCs and optical fibres. A digital measurement card is implemented and integrated into the current HV modulator oil tank (floating at -58kV) and interfaced to the existing digital VME boards collecting the data for several klystrons at the ground potential. Measured signals are stored for the logging, diagnostics and post-mortem analysis purposes.

  9. Planar LTCC transformers for high voltage flyback converters.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schofield, Daryl (NASCENT Technology Inc. , Watertown, SD); Schare, Joshua M.; Glass, Sarah Jill; Roesler, Alexander William; Ewsuk, Kevin Gregory; Slama, George (NASCENT Technology Inc. , Watertown, SD); Abel, Dave (NASCENT Technology Inc. , Watertown, SD)

    2007-06-01

    This paper discusses the design and use of low-temperature (850 C to 950 C) co-fired ceramic (LTCC) planar magnetic flyback transformers for applications that require conversion of a low voltage to high voltage (> 100V) with significant volumetric constraints. Measured performance and modeling results for multiple designs showed that the LTCC flyback transformer design and construction imposes serious limitations on the achievable coupling and significantly impacts the transformer performance and output voltage. This paper discusses the impact of various design factors that can provide improved performance by increasing transformer coupling and output voltage. The experiments performed on prototype units demonstrated LTCC transformer designs capable of greater than 2 kV output. Finally, the work investigated the effect of the LTCC microstructure on transformer insulation. Although this paper focuses on generating voltages in the kV range, the experimental characterization and discussion presented in this work applies to designs requiring lower voltage.

  10. E-beam high voltage switching power supply

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shimer, D.W.; Lange, A.C.

    1996-10-15

    A high-power power supply produces a controllable, constant high voltage output under varying and arcing loads. The power supply includes a voltage regulator, an inductor, an inverter for producing a high frequency square wave current of alternating polarity, an improved inverter voltage clamping circuit, a step up transformer, an output rectifier for producing a dc voltage at the output of each module, and a current sensor for sensing output current. The power supply also provides dynamic response to varying loads by controlling the voltage regulator duty cycle and circuitry is provided for sensing incipient arc currents at the output of the power supply to simultaneously decouple the power supply circuitry from the arcing load. The power supply includes a plurality of discrete switching type dc--dc converter modules. 5 figs.

  11. E-beam high voltage switching power supply

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shimer, Daniel W. (Danville, CA); Lange, Arnold C. (Livermore, CA)

    1996-01-01

    A high-power power supply produces a controllable, constant high voltage put under varying and arcing loads. The power supply includes a voltage regulator, an inductor, an inverter for producing a high frequency square wave current of alternating polarity, an improved inverter voltage clamping circuit, a step up transformer, an output rectifier for producing a dc voltage at the output of each module, and a current sensor for sensing output current. The power supply also provides dynamic response to varying loads by controlling the voltage regulator duty cycle and circuitry is provided for sensing incipient arc currents at the output of the power supply to simultaneously decouple the power supply circuitry from the arcing load. The power supply includes a plurality of discrete switching type dc--dc converter modules.

  12. POLYMER PROGRAM SEMINAR "Polymer Nanofibers: Electrospinning, Structure, and Properties"

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alpay, S. Pamir

    POLYMER PROGRAM SEMINAR "Polymer Nanofibers: Electrospinning, Structure, and Properties" Dr. Masaya been widely employed as a technique to produce sub-micron and nanometer scale polymer fibers. The technique utilizes electrical forces induced by a high voltage to draw charged polymer solution jet

  13. Polymer sphere lithography for solid oxide fuel cells: a route to functional, well-defined electrode structures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Polymer sphere lithography for solid oxide fuel cells: a route to functional, well. Introduction Dramatic breakthroughs in the materials, particularly electrode materials, for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) have been reported in recent years.1­3 Fundamental understanding of the electro- catalytic

  14. Laser Transferable Polymer-Ionic Liquid Separator/Electrolytes for Solid-State Rechargeable Lithium-Ion Microbatteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arnold, Craig B.

    Laser Transferable Polymer-Ionic Liquid Separator/Electrolytes for Solid-State Rechargeable Lithium-Ion characterized by ac-impedance spectroscopy and in lithium- ion microbatteries. Size and weight percent effects be laser transferred onto a substrate to form a solid separator/electrolyte layer for a lithium ion power

  15. Effect of low energy oxygen ion beam irradiation on ionic conductivity of solid polymer electrolyte

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Manjunatha, H., E-mail: gnk-swamy@blr.amrita.edu; Kumaraswamy, G. N., E-mail: gnk-swamy@blr.amrita.edu [Department of Physics, Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham, Bengaluru-560035 (India); Damle, R. [Department of Physics, Bangalore University, Bengaluru-560056 (India)

    2014-04-24

    Over the past three decades, solid polymer electrolytes (SPEs) have drawn significant attention of researchers due to their prospective commercial applications in high energy-density batteries, electrochemical sensors and super-capacitors. The optimum conductivity required for such applications is about 10{sup ?2} – 10{sup ?4} S/cm, which is hard to achieve in these systems. It is known that the increase in the concentration of salt in the host polymer results in a continuous increase in the ionic conductivity. However, there is a critical concentration of the salt beyond which the conductivity decreases due to formation of ion pairs with no net charge. In the present study, an attempt is made to identify the concentration at which ion pair formation occurs in PEO: RbBr. We have attempted to modify microstructure of the host polymer matrix by low energy ion (Oxygen ion, O{sup +1} with energy 100 keV) irradiation. Ionic conductivity measurements in these systems were carried out using Impedance Spectroscopy before and after irradiation to different fluencies of the oxygen ion. It is observed that the conductivity increases by one order in magnitude. The increase in ionic conductivity may be attributed to the enhanced segmental motion of the polymer chains. The study reveals the importance of ion irradiation as an effective tool to enhance conductivity in SPEs.

  16. High voltage electrical amplifier having a short rise time

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Christie, David J. (Pleasanton, CA); Dallum, Gregory E. (Livermore, CA)

    1991-01-01

    A circuit, comprising an amplifier and a transformer is disclosed that produces a high power pulse having a fast response time, and that responds to a digital control signal applied through a digital-to-analog converter. The present invention is suitable for driving a component such as an electro-optic modulator with a voltage in the kilovolt range. The circuit is stable at high frequencies and during pulse transients, and its impedance matching circuit matches the load impedance with the output impedance. The preferred embodiment comprises an input stage compatible with high-speed semiconductor components for amplifying the voltage of the input control signal, a buffer for isolating the input stage from the output stage; and a plurality of current amplifiers connected to the buffer. Each current amplifier is connected to a field effect transistor (FET), which switches a high voltage power supply to a transformer which then provides an output terminal for driving a load. The transformer comprises a plurality of transmission lines connected to the FETs and the load. The transformer changes the impedance and voltage of the output. The preferred embodiment also comprises a low voltage power supply for biasing the FETs at or near an operational voltage.

  17. Fiber optic current monitor for high-voltage applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Renda, G.F.

    1992-04-21

    A current monitor which derives its power from the conductor being measured for bidirectionally measuring the magnitude of current (from DC to above 50 khz) flowing through a conductor across which a relatively high level DC voltage is applied, includes a pair of identical transmitter modules connected in opposite polarity to one another in series with the conductor being monitored, for producing from one module a first light signal having an intensity directly proportional to the magnitude of current flowing in one direction through the conductor during one period of time, and from the other module a second light signal having an intensity directly proportional to the magnitude of current flowing in the opposite direction through the conductor during another period of time, and a receiver located in a safe area remote from the high voltage area for receiving the first and second light signals, and converting the same to first and second voltage signals having levels indicative of the magnitude of current being measured at a given time. 6 figs.

  18. High voltage power supply with modular series resonant inverters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dreifuerst, G.R.; Merritt, B.T.

    1995-07-18

    A relatively small and compact high voltage, high current power supply for a laser utilizes a plurality of modules containing series resonant half bridge inverters. A pair of reverse conducting thyristors are incorporated in each series resonant inverter module such that the series resonant inverter modules are sequentially activated in phases 360{degree}/n apart, where n=number of modules for n>2. Selective activation of the modules allows precise output control reducing ripple and improving efficiency. Each series resonant half bridge inverter module includes a transformer which has a cooling manifold for actively circulating a coolant such as water, to cool the transformer core as well as selected circuit elements. Conductors connecting and forming various circuit components comprise hollow, electrically conductive tubes such as copper. Coolant circulates through the tubes to remove heat. The conductive tubes act as electrically conductive lines for connecting various components of the power supply. Where it is desired to make electrical isolation breaks, tubes comprised of insulating material such as nylon are used to provide insulation and continue the fluid circuit. 11 figs.

  19. High voltage power supply with modular series resonant inverters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dreifuerst, Gary R. (Livermore, CA); Merritt, Bernard T. (Livermore, CA)

    1995-01-01

    A relatively small and compact high voltage, high current power supply for a laser utilizes a plurality of modules containing series resonant half bridge inverters. A pair of reverse conducting thyristors are incorporated in each series resonant inverter module such that the series resonant inverter modules are sequentially activated in phases 360.degree./n apart, where n=number of modules for n>2. Selective activation of the modules allows precise output control reducing ripple and improving efficiency. Each series resonant half bridge inverter module includes a transformer which has a cooling manifold for actively circulating a coolant such as water, to cool the transformer core as well as selected circuit elements. Conductors connecting and forming various circuit components comprise hollow, electrically conductive tubes such as copper. Coolant circulates through the tubes to remove heat. The conductive tubes act as electrically conductive lines for connecting various components of the power supply. Where it is desired to make electrical isolation breaks, tubes comprised of insulating material such as nylon are used to provide insulation and continue the fluid circuit.

  20. Viscoelastic acoustic response of layered polymer films at fluid-solid interfaces: Continuum mechanics approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. V. Voinova; M. Rodahl; M. Jonson; B. Kasemo

    1998-05-21

    We have derived the general solution of a wave equation describing the dynamics of two-layere viscoelastic polymer materials of arbitrary thickness deposited on solid (quartz) surfaces in a fluid environment. Within the Voight model of viscoelastic element, we calculate the acoustic response of the system to an applied shear stress, i.e. we find the shift of the quartz generator resonance frequency and of the dissipation factor, and show that it strongly depends on the viscous loading of the adsorbed layers and on the shear storage and loss moduli of the overlayers. These results can readily be applied to quartz crystal acoustical measurements of the viscoelasticity of polymers, which conserve their shape under the shear deformations and do not flow, and layered structures such as protein films adsorbed from solution onto the surface of self-assembled monolayres.

  1. Long-cycle-life solid-state solid-polymer electrolyte cells. Final report. Report on Phase 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sammells, A.F.; Semkow, K.W.; Cook, R.L.

    1986-07-01

    Experimental work was directed toward determining the viability of two complementary solid-state electrochemical cells incorporating Na/sup +/ and Li/sup +/ conducting solid polymer electrolytes (SPE). SPEs used included those based upon poly(ethylene oxide), poly(ethylene oxide)/poly(ethylene glycol) mixtures, and polyphosphazenes. For Li/sup +/ conducting SPEs, LixWO/sub 2/ was used for the negative and TiS/sub 2/ for the positive electrode. In cells utilizing Na+ conducting SPEs, homogeneous matrix electrodes based upon transition-metal-doped B'-alumina were used for the positive and negative electrodes. Here transition metals were incorporated into immobile A1/sup 3 +/ lattice sites within the B'-alumina structure, where changed in electrochemical potential upon cell charge/discharge cycling occurred via redox electrochemistry involving the doped immobile transition-metal species. Secondary cells were found to have respective open-circuit potentials of 2.2 and 1.5V, high electrochemical reversibility, and theoretical energy densities of 175 and 178 Wh/kg.

  2. Senderovich 1 Electrode Design Adjustments to a High Voltage Electron Gun

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hoffstaetter, Georg

    Senderovich 1 Electrode Design Adjustments to a High Voltage Electron Gun Igor Senderovich Abstract, a very high voltage electron gun needs to be designed.1 To these ends, several geometric parameters were were performed on off-axis electron acceleration. Introduction The design of the electrode gun has

  3. Anion exchange polymer electrolytes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kim, Yu Seung; Kim, Dae Sik

    2013-09-10

    Solid anion exchange polymer electrolytes include chemical compounds comprising a polymer backbone with side chains that include guanidinium cations.

  4. Radio-frequency powered glow discharge device and method with high voltage interface

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Duckworth, Douglas C. (Knoxville, TN); Marcus, R. Kenneth (Clemson, SC); Donohue, David L. (Vienna, AT); Lewis, Trousdale A. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1994-01-01

    A high voltage accelerating potential, which is supplied by a high voltage direct current power supply, is applied to the electrically conducting interior wall of an RF powered glow discharge cell. The RF power supply desirably is electrically grounded, and the conductor carrying the RF power to the sample held by the probe is desirably shielded completely excepting only the conductor's terminal point of contact with the sample. The high voltage DC accelerating potential is not supplied to the sample. A high voltage capacitance is electrically connected in series between the sample on the one hand and the RF power supply and an impedance matching network on the other hand. The high voltage capacitance isolates the high DC voltage from the RF electronics, while the RF potential is passed across the high voltage capacitance to the plasma. An inductor protects at least the RF power supply, and desirably the impedance matching network as well, from a short that might occur across the high voltage capacitance. The discharge cell and the probe which holds the sample are configured and disposed to prevent the probe's components, which are maintained at ground potential, from bridging between the relatively low vacuum region in communication with the glow discharge maintained within the cell on the one hand, and the relatively high vacuum region surrounding the probe and cell on the other hand. The probe and cell also are configured and disposed to prevent the probe's components from electrically shorting the cell's components.

  5. Radio-frequency powered glow discharge device and method with high voltage interface

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Duckworth, D.C.; Marcus, R.K.; Donohue, D.L.; Lewis, T.A.

    1994-06-28

    A high voltage accelerating potential, which is supplied by a high voltage direct current power supply, is applied to the electrically conducting interior wall of an RF powered glow discharge cell. The RF power supply desirably is electrically grounded, and the conductor carrying the RF power to the sample held by the probe is desirably shielded completely excepting only the conductor's terminal point of contact with the sample. The high voltage DC accelerating potential is not supplied to the sample. A high voltage capacitance is electrically connected in series between the sample on the one hand and the RF power supply and an impedance matching network on the other hand. The high voltage capacitance isolates the high DC voltage from the RF electronics, while the RF potential is passed across the high voltage capacitance to the plasma. An inductor protects at least the RF power supply, and desirably the impedance matching network as well, from a short that might occur across the high voltage capacitance. The discharge cell and the probe which holds the sample are configured and disposed to prevent the probe's components, which are maintained at ground potential, from bridging between the relatively low vacuum region in communication with the glow discharge maintained within the cell on the one hand, and the relatively high vacuum region surrounding the probe and cell on the other hand. The probe and cell also are configured and disposed to prevent the probe's components from electrically shorting the cell's components. 11 figures.

  6. Electrode assembly for use in a solid polymer electrolyte fuel cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Raistrick, Ian D. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1989-01-01

    A gas reaction fuel cell may be provided with a solid polymer electrolyte membrane. Porous gas diffusion electrodes are formed of carbon particles supporting a catalyst which is effective to enhance the gas reactions. The carbon particles define interstitial spaces exposing the catalyst on a large surface area of the carbon particles. A proton conducting material, such as a perfluorocarbon copolymer or ruthenium dioxide contacts the surface areas of the carbon particles adjacent the interstitial spaces. The proton conducting material enables protons produced by the gas reactions adjacent the supported catalyst to have a conductive path with the electrolyte membrane. The carbon particles provide a conductive path for electrons. A suitable electrode may be formed by dispersing a solution containing a proton conducting material over the surface of the electrode in a manner effective to coat carbon surfaces adjacent the interstitial spaces without impeding gas flow into the interstitial spaces.

  7. SOLID RADIOACTIVE WASTE STORAGE TECHNOLOGIES: PERFORMANCE OF A POLYMER SEALANT COATING IN AN ARCTIC MARINE ENVIRONMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    COWGILL,M.G.; MOSKOWITZ,P.D.; CHERNAENKO,L.M.; NAZARIAN,A.; GRIFFITH,A.; DIASHEV,A.; ENGOY,T.

    2000-06-14

    This first project, under the auspices of the Arctic Military Environmental Cooperation (AMEC) forum, Project 1.4-1 Solid Radioactive Waste Storage Technologies, successfully demonstrated the feasibility of using a polymer-based coating to seal concrete and steel surfaces from permanent radioactive contamination in an Arctic marine environment. A mobile, self-sufficient spraying device, was developed to specifications provided by the Russian Ministry of Defence Northern Navy and was deployed at the RTP Atomflot site, Murmansk, Russia. Demonstration coatings of Polibrid 705 were applied to concrete surfaces exposed to conditions ranging from indoor pedestrian usage to heavy vehicle passage and container handling in a loading bay. A large steel container was also coated with the polymer, filled with solid radwaste, sealed, and left out of doors and exposed to the full 12 month Arctic weather cycle. The field tests were accompanied by a series of laboratory qualification tests carried out at the research laboratory of ICC Nuclide in St. Petersburg. During the 12-month field tests, the sealant coating showed little sign of degradation except for a few chips and gouge marks on the loading bay surface that were readily repaired. Contamination resulting from radwaste handling was easily removed and the surface was not degraded by contact with the decontamination agents. In the laboratory testing, Polibrid 705 met all the Russian qualification requirements with the exception of flammability. In this last instance, it was decided to restrict application of the coating to land-based facilities. The Russian technical experts from the Ministry of Defence quickly familiarized themselves with the equipment and were able to identify several areas of potential improvement as deployment of the equipment progressed. The prime among these was the desirability of extending the range of the equipment through enlarged gasoline tanks (to permit extended operational times) and longer material supply hoses (to increase flexibility of operation in confined spaces). Modifications designed to address these issues will be implemented as appropriate.

  8. Preparation and characterization of plasticized palm-based polyurethane solid polymer electrolyte

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daud, Farah Nadia; Ahmad, Azizan; Badri, Khairiah Haji [School of Chemical Science and Food Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor Darul Ehsan (Malaysia)

    2013-11-27

    Palm-based polyurethane solid polymer electrolyte was prepared via prepolymerization method between palm kernel oil based polyols (PKO-p) and 2,4’-diphenylmethane diisocyanate (2,4’-MDI) in acetone at room temperature with the vary amount of lithium trifuoromethanesulfonate (LiCF{sub 3}SO{sub 3}) salt and polyethylene glycol (PEG). The film was analyzed using attenuated total reflection infrared (ATR-IR) spectroscopy, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and X-ray diffractometry (XRD). EIS result indicated ionic conductivity obtained with 30 wt% LiCF3SO3 increased to 6.55 × 10{sup ?6} S cm{sup ?1} when 10 wt.% of plasticizer was added into the system. FTIR analysis showed the interaction between lithium ions and amine (-N-H) at 3600–3100 cm{sup ?1}, carbonyl (-C=O) at 1750–1650 cm{sup ?1} and ether (-C-O-C-) at 1150–1000 cm{sup ?1} of the polyurethane forming polymer-salt complexes. The XRD result confirmed that LiCF{sub 3}SO{sub 3} salt completely dissociated within the polyurethane film with the absence of crystalline peaks of LiCF{sub 3}SO{sub 3}.

  9. An Annotated Bibliography of High-Voltage Direct-Current Transmission and Flexible AC Transmission (FACTS) Devices, 1991-1993.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Litzenberger, Wayne; Lava, Val

    1994-08-01

    References are contained for HVDC systems, converter stations and components, overhead transmission lines, cable transmission, system design and operations, simulation of high voltage direct current systems, high-voltage direct current installations, and flexible AC transmission system (FACTS).

  10. Applications of an Electrostatic High-Voltage Tether to Radiation Belt Remediation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Applications of an Electrostatic High-Voltage Tether to Radiation Belt Remediation by Christopher F.1.1 Magnetic Mirrors and the Van Allen Belts........................... 10 1.1.2 The Loss Cone

  11. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: High-Voltage, High-Capacity Polyanion Cathodes

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by U of Texas at Austin at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about high-voltage, high...

  12. 130kV 130A High Voltage Switching Mode Power Supply for Neutral Injections – Control Issues and Algorithms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    130kV 130A High Voltage Switching Mode Power Supply for Neutral Injections – Control Issues and Algorithms

  13. Princeton Power Systems (TRL 5 6 Component)- Marine High-Voltage Power Conditioning and Transmission System with Integrated Energy Storage

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Princeton Power Systems (TRL 5 6 Component) - Marine High-Voltage Power Conditioning and Transmission System with Integrated Energy Storage

  14. Cermet insert high voltage holdoff improvement for ceramic/metal vacuum devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ierna, W.F.

    1986-03-11

    An improved metal-to-ceramic seal is provided wherein the ceramic body of the seal contains an integral region of cermet material in electrical contact with the metallic member, e.g., an electrode, of the seal. The seal is useful in high voltage vacuum devices, e.g., vacuum switches, and increases the high-voltage holdoff capabilities of such devices. A method of fabricating such seals is also provided.

  15. Solid-polymer-electrolyte tritiated water electrolyzer for Water Detritiation System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Iwai, Y.; Yamanishi, T. [Tritium Engineering Group, JAEA, Tokai, Naka, Ibaraki, 319-1195 (Japan); Hiroki, A.; Yagi, T.; Tamada, M. [Environmental Polymer Group, JAEA, Watanuki, Takasaki, Gunma, 370-1292 (Japan)

    2008-07-15

    A solid-polymer-electrolyte (SPE) water electrolyzer for high-level tritiated water was designed for the Water Detritiation System (WDS). Polymeric materials were selected from a main viewpoint of radiation durability to keep their functions beyond ITER-WDS requirement (530 kGy). Our selection was Pt + Ir applied Nafion{sup R} N117 ion exchange membrane, VITON{sup R} O-ring seal and polyimide insulator. A {gamma}-ray irradiation test of the SPE cell demonstrated the durability of the cell against 530 kGy. The electrolyzer is designed to handle around 9 TBq/kg of high-level tritiated water. The detritiation of the polymeric materials is thus a critical problem for the maintenance or for the disposal of the electrolyzer. As for the Nafion membrane, most of tritiated water in the membrane was rapidly removed by such as vacuum dehydration. It was difficult, by contrast, to remove bound tritiated water in the membrane. An effective method to remove tritiated water in the bound water is to promote an isotope exchange. (authors)

  16. TiN coated aluminum electrodes for DC high voltage electron guns

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Mamun, Md Abdullah A.; Elmustafa, Abdelmageed A.; Taus, Rhys; Forman, Eric; Poelker, Matthew

    2015-05-01

    Preparing electrodes made of metals like stainless steel, for use inside DC high voltage electron guns, is a labor-intensive and time-consuming process. In this paper, the authors report the exceptional high voltage performance of aluminum electrodes coated with hard titanium nitride (TiN). The aluminum electrodes were comparatively easy to manufacture and required only hours of mechanical polishing using silicon carbide paper, prior to coating with TiN by a commercial vendor. The high voltage performance of three TiN-coated aluminum electrodes, before and after gas conditioning with helium, was compared to that of bare aluminum electrodes, and electrodes manufactured from titanium alloymore »(Ti-6AI-4V). Following gas conditioning, each TiN-coated aluminum electrode reached -225 kV bias voltage while generating less than 100 pA of field emission (« less

  17. Hybrid Design Optimization of High Voltage Pulse Transformers for Klystron Modulators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sylvain, Candolfi; Davide, Aguglia; Jerome, Cros

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a hybrid optimization methodology for the design of high voltage pulse transformers used in klystron modulators. The optimization process is using simplified 2D FEA design models of the 3D transformer structure. Each intermediate optimal solution is evaluated by 3D FEA and correction coefficients of the 2D FEA models are derived. A new optimization process using 2D FEA models is then performed. The convergence of this hybrid optimal design methodology is obtained with a limited number of time consuming 3D FEA simulations. The method is applied to the optimal design of a monolithic high voltage pulse transformer for the CLIC klystron modulator.

  18. Method and apparatus for connecting high voltage leads to a high temperature super-conducting transformer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Golner, Thomas M.; Mehta, Shirish P.

    2005-07-26

    A method and apparatus for connecting high voltage leads to a super-conducting transformer is provided that includes a first super-conducting coil set, a second super-conducting coil set, and a third super-conducting coil set. The first, second and third super-conducting coil sets are connected via an insulated interconnect system that includes insulated conductors and insulated connectors that are utilized to connect the first, second, and third super-conducting coil sets to the high voltage leads.

  19. Packaging of solid state devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Glidden, Steven C.; Sanders, Howard D.

    2006-01-03

    A package for one or more solid state devices in a single module that allows for operation at high voltage, high current, or both high voltage and high current. Low thermal resistance between the solid state devices and an exterior of the package and matched coefficient of thermal expansion between the solid state devices and the materials used in packaging enables high power operation. The solid state devices are soldered between two layers of ceramic with metal traces that interconnect the devices and external contacts. This approach provides a simple method for assembling and encapsulating high power solid state devices.

  20. Public Opinions of Building Additional High-Voltage Electric Power Lines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tesfatsion, Leigh

    Public Opinions of Building Additional High-Voltage Electric Power Lines A Report to the National-Voltage Electric Power Lines: A Report to the National Science Foundation and the Electric Power Research Center to build new power lines. Residents living in counties with planned routes for new transmission lines

  1. CONTROL SYSTEM FOR THE ORNL MULTICHARGED ION RESEARCH FACILITY HIGH-VOLTAGE PLATFORM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -connected via Ethernet uti- lizing fiber optic transmission to bridge the different high voltage environments [1]. The ion source [2], designed and fab- ricated at CEA/Grenoble, produces intense dc beams of the control system are connected via Ethernet, with fiber optic transmission used to bridge the large

  2. Milligram-Scale High-Voltage Power Electronics for Piezoelectric Microrobots

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wood, Robert

    of piezoelectric actuators in microrobotic applications, and demonstrating experimental realizations of sub-100mgMilligram-Scale High-Voltage Power Electronics for Piezoelectric Microrobots Michael Karpelson, Student Member, IEEE, Gu-Yeon Wei, Member, IEEE, Robert J. Wood, Member, IEEE Abstract-- Piezoelectric

  3. STRUCTURAL HEALTH MONITORING OF HIGH VOLTAGE ELECTRICAL SWITCH CERAMIC INSULATORS IN SEISMIC AREAS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    STRUCTURAL HEALTH MONITORING OF HIGH VOLTAGE ELECTRICAL SWITCH CERAMIC INSULATORS IN SEISMIC AREAS damage. 7th European Workshop on Structural Health Monitoring July 8-11, 2014. La Cité, Nantes, France European Workshop on Structural Health Monitoring (2014)" #12;(a) (b) Figure 1 : a) Elect

  4. High-voltage pulse switching hardware for electro-optic studies of conducting aqueous solutions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Augustine, Mathew P.

    High-voltage pulse switching hardware for electro-optic studies of conducting aqueous solutions 22 April 2002 The hardware necessary for the electro-optic study of conducting polyelectrolyte is to present the design of hardware that is applicable, available, and practical for biological electro

  5. High voltage bus and auxiliary heater control system for an electric or hybrid vehicle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Murty, Balarama Vempaty (West Bloomfield, MI)

    2000-01-01

    A control system for an electric or hybrid electric vehicle includes a vehicle system controller and a control circuit having an electric immersion heater. The heater is electrically connected to the vehicle's high voltage bus and is thermally coupled to a coolant loop containing a heater core for the vehicle's climate control system. The system controller responds to cabin heat requests from the climate control system by generating a pulse width modulated signal that is used by the control circuit to operate the heater at a duty cycle appropriate for the amount of cabin heating requested. The control system also uses the heater to dissipate excess energy produced by an auxiliary power unit and to provide electric braking when regenerative braking is not desirable and manual braking is not necessary. The control system further utilizes the heater to provide a safe discharge of a bank of energy storage capacitors following disconnection of the battery or one of the high voltage connectors used to transmit high voltage operating power to the various vehicle systems. The control circuit includes a high voltage clamping circuit that monitors the voltage on the bus and operates the heater to clamp down the bus voltage when it exceeds a pre-selected maximum voltage. The control system can also be used to phase in operation of the heater when the bus voltage exceeds a lower threshold voltage and can be used to phase out the auxiliary power unit charging and regenerative braking when the battery becomes fully charged.

  6. High-Voltage Terminal Test of Test Stand for 1-MV Electrostatic Accelerator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Park, Sae-Hoon

    2015-01-01

    The Korea Multipurpose Accelerator Complex (KOMAC) has been developing a 300-kV test stand for a 1-MV electrostatic accelerator ion source. The ion source and accelerating tube will be installed in a high-pressure vessel. The ion source in the high-pressure vessel is required to have a high reliability. The test stand has been proposed and developed to confirm the stable operating conditions of the ion source. The ion source will be tested at the test stand to verify the long-time operating conditions. The test stand comprises a 300-kV high-voltage terminal, a battery for the ion-source power, a 60-Hz inverter, 200-MHz RF power, a 5-kV extraction power supply, a 300-kV accelerating tube, and a vacuum system. The results of the 300-kV high-voltage terminal tests are presented in this paper.

  7. A high voltage pulse power supply for metal plasma immersion ion implantation and deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Salvadori, M. C.; Teixeira, F. S.; Araujo, W. W. R.; Sgubin, L. G.; Sochugov, N. S.; Spirin, R. E.; Brown, I. G.

    2010-12-15

    We describe the design and implementation of a high voltage pulse power supply (pulser) that supports the operation of a repetitively pulsed filtered vacuum arc plasma deposition facility in plasma immersion ion implantation and deposition (Mepiiid) mode. Negative pulses (micropulses) of up to 20 kV in magnitude and 20 A peak current are provided in gated pulse packets (macropulses) over a broad range of possible pulse width and duty cycle. Application of the system consisting of filtered vacuum arc and high voltage pulser is demonstrated by forming diamond-like carbon (DLC) thin films with and without substrate bias provided by the pulser. Significantly enhanced film/substrate adhesion is observed when the pulser is used to induce interface mixing between the DLC film and the underlying Si substrate.

  8. Static reactive power compensators for high-voltage power systems. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-04-01

    A study conducted to summarize the role of static reactive power compensators for high voltage power system applications is described. This information should be useful to the utility system planning engineer in applying static var systems (SVS) to high voltage as (HVAC) systems. The static var system is defined as a form of reactive power compensator. The general need for reactive power compensation in HVAC systems is discussed, and the static var system is compared to other devices utilized to provide reactive power compensation. Examples are presented of applying SVS for specific functions, such as the prevention of voltage collapse. The operating principles of commercially available SVS's are discussed in detail. The perormance and active power loss characteristics of SVS types are compared.

  9. TiN coated aluminum electrodes for DC high voltage electron guns

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mamun, Md Abdullah A.; Elmustafa, Abdelmageed A.; Taus, Rhys; Forman, Eric; Poelker, Matthew

    2015-05-15

    Preparing electrodes made of metals like stainless steel, for use inside DC high voltage electron guns, is a labor-intensive and time-consuming process. In this paper, the authors report the exceptional high voltage performance of aluminum electrodes coated with hard titanium nitride (TiN). The aluminum electrodes were comparatively easy to manufacture and required only hours of mechanical polishing using silicon carbide paper, prior to coating with TiN by a commercial vendor. The high voltage performance of three TiN-coated aluminum electrodes, before and after gas conditioning with helium, was compared to that of bare aluminum electrodes, and electrodes manufactured from titanium alloy (Ti-6Al-4V). Following gas conditioning, each TiN-coated aluminum electrode reached ?225?kV bias voltage while generating less than 100?pA of field emission (<10?pA) using a 40?mm cathode/anode gap, corresponding to field strength of 13.7?MV/m. Smaller gaps were studied to evaluate electrode performance at higher field strength with the best performing TiN-coated aluminum electrode reaching ?22.5 MV/m with field emission less than 100?pA. These results were comparable to those obtained from our best-performing electrodes manufactured from stainless steel, titanium alloy and niobium, as reported in references cited below. The TiN coating provided a very smooth surface and with mechanical properties of the coating (hardness and modulus) superior to those of stainless steel, titanium-alloy, and niobium electrodes. These features likely contributed to the improved high voltage performance of the TiN-coated aluminum electrodes.

  10. TiN coated aluminum electrodes for DC high voltage electron guns

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mamun, Md Abdullah A.; Elmustafa, Abdelmageed A.; Taus, Rhys; Forman, Eric; Poelker, Matthew

    2015-05-01

    Preparing electrodes made of metals like stainless steel, for use inside DC high voltage electron guns, is a labor-intensive and time-consuming process. In this paper, the authors report the exceptional high voltage performance of aluminum electrodes coated with hard titanium nitride (TiN). The aluminum electrodes were comparatively easy to manufacture and required only hours of mechanical polishing using silicon carbide paper, prior to coating with TiN by a commercial vendor. The high voltage performance of three TiN-coated aluminum electrodes, before and after gas conditioning with helium, was compared to that of bare aluminum electrodes, and electrodes manufactured from titanium alloy (Ti-6AI-4V). Following gas conditioning, each TiN-coated aluminum electrode reached -225 kV bias voltage while generating less than 100 pA of field emission (<10 pA) using a 40 mm cathode/anode gap, corresponding to field strength of 13.7 MV/m. Smaller gaps were studied to evaluate electrode performance at higher field strength with the best performing TiN-coated aluminum electrode reaching ~22.5 MV/m with field emission less than 100 pA. These results were comparable to those obtained from our best-performing electrodes manufactured from stainless steel, titanium alloy and niobium, as reported in references cited below. The TiN coating provided a very smooth surface and with mechanical properties of the coating (hardness and modulus) superior to those of stainless steel, titanium-alloy, and niobium electrodes. These features likely contributed to the improved high voltage performance of the TiN-coated aluminum electrodes.

  11. Design, conditioning, and performance of a high voltage, high brightness dc photoelectron gun with variable gap

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maxson, Jared; Bazarov, Ivan; Dunham, Bruce; Dobbins, John; Liu, Xianghong; Smolenski, Karl

    2014-09-15

    A new high voltage photoemission gun has been constructed at Cornell University which features a segmented insulator and a movable anode, allowing the cathode-anode gap to be adjusted. In this work, we describe the gun's overall mechanical and high voltage design, the surface preparation of components, as well as the clean construction methods. We present high voltage conditioning data using a 50 mm cathode-anode gap, in which the conditioning voltage exceeds 500 kV, as well as at smaller gaps. Finally, we present simulated emittance results obtained from a genetic optimization scheme using voltage values based on the conditioning data. These results indicate that for charges up to 100 pC, a 30 mm gap at 400 kV has equal or smaller 100% emittance than a 50 mm gap at 450 kV, and also a smaller core emittance, when placed as the source for the Cornell energy recovery linac photoinjector with bunch length constrained to be <3 ps rms. For 100 pC up to 0.5 nC charges, the 50 mm gap has larger core emittance than the 30 mm gap, but conversely smaller 100% emittance.

  12. CRYOGENIC LIFETIME TESTS ON A COMMERCIAL EPOXY RESIN HIGH VOLTAGE BUSHING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schwenterly, S W [ORNL; Pleva, Ed [Waukesha Electric Systems, Waukesha, WI; Ha, Tam T [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    High-temperature superconducting (HTS) power devices operating in liquid nitrogen frequently require high-voltage bushings to carry the current leads from the superconducting windings to the room temperature grid connections. Oak Ridge National Laboratory is collaborating with Waukesha Electric Systems, SuperPower, and Southern California Edison to develop and demonstrate an HTS utility power transformer. Previous dielectric high voltage tests in support of this program have been carried out in test cryostats with commercial epoxy resin bushings from Electro Composites Inc. (ECI). Though the bushings performed well in these short-term tests, their long-term operation at high voltage in liquid nitrogen needs to be verified for use on the utility grid. Long-term tests are being carried out on a sample 28-kV-class ECI bushing. The bushing has a monolithic cast, cycloaliphatic resin body and is fire- and shatter-resistant. The test cryostat is located in an interlocked cage and is energized at 25 kVac around the clock. Liquid nitrogen (LN) is automatically refilled every 9.5 hours. Partial discharge, capacitance, and leakage resistance tests are periodically performed to check for deviations from factory values. At present, over 2400 hours have been accumulated with no changes in these parameters. The tests are scheduled to run for four to six months.

  13. Transport properties of the solid polymer electrolyte system P(EO)nLiTFSI

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Edman, L.

    2011-01-01

    Reddy, A.K.N. In Modern Electrochemistry 1 - Ionics, PlenumF.M. In Solid State Electrochemistry, Bruce, P.G. , Ed. ;

  14. The progress of funnelling gun high voltage condition and beam test

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, E.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Gassner, D. M.; Lambiase, R.; Meng, W.; Rahman, O.; Pikin, A.; Rao, T.; Sheehy, B.; Skaritka, J.; Pietz, J.; Ackeret, M.; Yeckel, C.; Miller, R.; Dobrin, E.; Thompson, K.

    2015-05-03

    A prototype of a high average current polarized electron funneling gun as an eRHIC injector has been built at BNL. The gun was assembled and tested at Stangenes Incorporated. Two beams were generated from two GaAs photocathodes and combined by a switched combiner field. We observed the combined beams on a YAG crystal and measured the photocurrent by a Faraday cup. The gun has been shipped to Stony Brook University and is being tested there. In this paper we will describe the major components of the gun and recent beam test results. High voltage conditioning is discussed as well.

  15. A high voltage test stand for electron gun qualification for LINACs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wanmode, Yashwant D.; Mulchandani, J.; Acharya, M.; Bhisikar, A.; Singh, H.G.; Shrivastava, Purushottam

    2011-07-01

    An electron gun lest stand has been developed at RRCAT. The test stand consists of a high voltage pulsed power supply, electron gun filament supply, grid supply, UHV system and electron gun current measurement system. Several electron guns developed indigenously were evaluated on this test stand. The shielding is provided for the electron gun set up. Electron gun tests can be tested upto 55 kV with pulse width of 15 microsecs and pulse repetition rates up to 200 Hz. The technical details of the subsystems are furnished and results of performance of the test stand have been reported in this paper. (author)

  16. The work presented in this thesis studied the synthesis and characterization of a totally solid state polymer electrolyte that is applicable to solid state zinc-air batteries. An

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    state polymer electrolyte that is applicable to solid state zinc-air batteries. An overview of zinc-air batteries is briefly covered followed by a detailed discussion of the chemical synthesis. The majority that must be known and optimized for the successful design of a zinc-air battery cell. This thesis

  17. Electric field induced transformation of carbon nanotube to graphene nanoribbons using Nafion as a solid polymer electrolyte

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jaison, M. J.; Vikram, K.; Narayanan, Tharangattu N., E-mail: tn-narayanan@yahoo.com, E-mail: vk.pillai@ncl.res.in; Pillai, Vijayamohanan K., E-mail: tn-narayanan@yahoo.com, E-mail: vk.pillai@ncl.res.in [CSIR-Central Electrochemical Research Institute (CSIR-CECRI), Karaikudi-630006 (India)

    2014-04-14

    We report a remarkable transformation of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs, average diameter 40?nm) to graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) in response to a field gradient of ?25?V/cm, in a sandwich configuration using a solid state proton conducting polymer electrolyte like a thin perfluorosulphonated membrane, Nafion. In response to the application of a constant voltage for a sustained period of about 24 h at both room temperature and elevated temperatures, an interesting transformation of MWCNTs to GNRs has been observed with reasonable yield. GNRs prepared by this way are believed to be better for energy storage applications due to their enhanced surface area with more active smooth edge planes. Moreover, possible morphological changes in CNTs under electric field can impact on the performance and long term stability of devices that use CNTs in their electronic circuitry.

  18. The commercial development of water repellent coatings for high voltage transmission lines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hunter, S. R.; Daniel, A.

    2013-10-31

    The purpose of the Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between UT-Battelle, LLC and Southwire Company was to jointly develop a low cost, commercially viable, water-repellant anti-icing coating system for high voltage transmission lines. Icing of power lines and other structures caused by freezing rain events occurs annually in the United States, and leads to severe and prolonged power outages. These outages cause untold economic and personal distress for many American families and businesses. Researchers at the Department of Energy?s Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee have previously developed a set of superhydrophobic coatings with remarkable anti-icing properties that could potentially be sprayed or painted onto high-tension power lines and pylons. These coatings drastically reduce ice accumulation on these structures during freezing rain events. The project involved obtaining technical input, supplies and test high voltage cables from Southwire, along with the joint development of anti-icing coating techniques, which would result in a commercial license agreement between Southwire and ORNL, and potentially other companies requiring water repellent anti-icing coatings.

  19. Polymers 2014, 6, 311-326; doi:10.3390/polym6020311 ISSN 2073-4360

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Takada, Shoji

    #12;Polymers 2014, 6, 311-326; doi:10.3390/polym6020311 polymers ISSN 2073-4360 www.mdpi.com/journal/polymers copolymers, star polymers, and concentrated polymer brushes on solid surfaces were prepared using living catalysts; block copolymers; triblock copolymers; star polymers; polymer brushes OPEN ACCESS #12;Polymers

  20. Studying the Breaking Mechanism of Polymer-Based In-Situ Gelled Acids using Solid Breaker 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tian, Zhida

    2012-10-19

    of this study is to examine the working mechanisms of the solid breaker and the factors that affect the breaking time. The flowback of the spent acid and the core damage induced by it will also be assessed in detail. Viscosity and rheological experimental...

  1. The design, construction, and operation of long-distance high-voltage electricity transmission technologies.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Molburg, J. C.; Kavicky, J. A.; Picel, K. C.

    2008-03-03

    This report focuses on transmission lines, which operate at voltages of 115 kV and higher. Currently, the highest voltage lines comprising the North American power grid are at 765 kV. The grid is the network of transmission lines that interconnect most large power plants on the North American continent. One transmission line at this high voltage was built near Chicago as part of the interconnection for three large nuclear power plants southwest of the city. Lines at this voltage also serve markets in New York and New England, also very high demand regions. The large power transfers along the West Coast are generally at 230 or 500 kV. Just as there are practical limits to centralization of power production, there are practical limits to increasing line voltage. As voltage increases, the height of the supporting towers, the size of the insulators, the distance between conductors on a tower, and even the width of the right-of-way (ROW) required increase. These design features safely isolate the electric power, which has an increasing tendency to arc to ground as the voltage (or electrical potential) increases. In addition, very high voltages (345 kV and above) are subject to corona losses. These losses are a result of ionization of the atmosphere, and can amount to several megawatts of wasted power. Furthermore, they are a local nuisance to radio transmission and can produce a noticeable hum. Centralized power production has advantages of economies of scale and special resource availability (for instance, hydro resources), but centralized power requires long-distance transfers of power both to reach customers and to provide interconnections for reliability. Long distances are most economically served at high voltages, which require large-scale equipment and impose a substantial footprint on the corridors through which power passes. The most visible components of the transmission system are the conductors that provide paths for the power and the towers that keep these conductors at a safe distance from each other and from the ground and the natural and built environment. Common elements that are generally less visible (or at least more easily overlooked) include the maintained ROW along the path of the towers, access roads needed for maintenance, and staging areas used for initial construction that may be restored after construction is complete. Also visible but less common elements along the corridor may include switching stations or substations, where lines of similar or different voltages meet to transfer power.

  2. Extremum seeking-based optimization of high voltage converter modulator rise-time

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scheinker, Alexander; Bland, Michael; Krstic, Miroslav; Audia, Jeff

    2013-02-01

    We digitally implement an extremum seeking (ES) algorithm, which optimizes the rise time of the output voltage of a high voltage converter modulator (HVCM) at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) HVCM test stand by iteratively, simultaneously tuning the first 8 switching edges of each of the three phase drive waveforms (24 variables total). We achieve a 50 ?s rise time, which is reduction in half compared to the 100 ?s achieved at the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Considering that HVCMs typically operate with an output voltage of 100 kV, with a 60Hz repetition rate, the 50 ?s rise time reduction will result in very significant energy savings. The ES algorithm will prove successful, despite the noisy measurements and cost calculations, confirming the theoretical results that the algorithm is not affected by noise whose frequency components are independent of the perturbing frequencies.

  3. Extremum seeking-based optimization of high voltage converter modulator rise-time

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Scheinker, Alexander; Bland, Michael; Krstic, Miroslav; Audia, Jeff

    2013-02-01

    We digitally implement an extremum seeking (ES) algorithm, which optimizes the rise time of the output voltage of a high voltage converter modulator (HVCM) at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) HVCM test stand by iteratively, simultaneously tuning the first 8 switching edges of each of the three phase drive waveforms (24 variables total). We achieve a 50 ?s rise time, which is reduction in half compared to the 100 ?s achieved at the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Considering that HVCMs typically operate with an output voltage of 100 kV, with a 60Hz repetitionmore »rate, the 50 ?s rise time reduction will result in very significant energy savings. The ES algorithm will prove successful, despite the noisy measurements and cost calculations, confirming the theoretical results that the algorithm is not affected by noise whose frequency components are independent of the perturbing frequencies.« less

  4. Interconnected High-Voltage Pulsed-Power Converters System Design for H? Ion Sources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aguglia, D

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the design and experimental validations of a system of three new high-voltage (HV) pulsedpower converters for the H? sources. The system requires three pulsed voltages (50, 40, and 25 kV to ground) at 2-Hz repetition rate, for 700 ?s of usable flat-top. The solution presents ripplefree output voltages and minimal stored energy to protect the ion source from the consequences of arc events. Experimental results on the final full-scale prototype are presented. In case of short-circuit events, the maximal energy delivered to the source is in the Joule range. HV flat-top stability of 1% is experimentally achieved with a simple Proportional-Integral- Derivative regulation and preliminary tuned H? source (e.g., radio frequency control, gas injection, and so forth). The system is running since more than a year with no power converter failures and damage to the source.

  5. Electric power high-voltage transmission lines: Design options, cost, and electric and magnetic field levels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stoffel, J.B.; Pentecost, E.D.; Roman, R.D.; Traczyk, P.A.

    1994-11-01

    This report provides background information about (1) the electric and magnetic fields (EMFs) of high-voltage transmission lines at typical voltages and line configurations and (2) typical transmission line costs to assist on alternatives in environmental documents. EMF strengths at 0 {+-} 200 ft from centerline were calculated for ac overhead lines, and for 345 and 230-kV ac underground line and for a {+-}450-kV dc overhead line. Compacting and height sensitivity factors were computed for the variation in EMFs when line conductors are moved closer or raised. Estimated costs for the lines are presented and discussed so that the impact of using alternative strategies for reducing EMF strengths and the implications of implementing the strategies can be better appreciated.

  6. DC BUFFERING AND FLOATING CURRENT FOR A HIGH VOLTAGE IMB APPLICATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J.L. Morrison

    2014-08-01

    An interface technique for the latest generation of the Impedance Measurement Box (IMB) has been conceived to enable measurement of impedance spectra for battery modules up to 300V. A 300V capable or higher IMB is an enabling technology for in-situ diagnostics within electric vehicle charging stations or battery back-ups within power distribution sub-stations. It is possible that the existing IMB can be adapted via a 300V interface module to a test battery with voltage significantly greater than 50V. Recently a new concept was conceived for the calibration, algorithm and electronics of the IMB. That algorithm and calibration for that concept have been physically validated. The principal feature of the new electronics is the floating current source excitation of the battery under test. The single ended current excitation of the battery under test, used in the 50V IMB, requires that the negative terminal of the test battery must be the analog ground for the IMB. The new floating current technique allows the test battery to be fully high impedance isolated for a measurement. That isolation will improve IMB noise immunity and enable interrogation of cells internal to a battery module. All these techniques still use the same rapid concept for impedance measurement with the IMB. The purpose of this disclosure is to provide an overview of the analytical validation for three concepts to interface the floating current excitation to a high voltage battery. Recursive simulation models were used in different test scenarios to validate the various new concepts. The analysis will show that it is possible to interface the floating signal current to obtain an impedance measurement on a high voltage test battery. Additionally, the analysis will investigate stress seen by electronics while testing a 300V battery.

  7. Evaluation of electropolished stainless steel electrodes for use in DC high voltage photoelectron guns

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    BastaniNejad, Mahzad; Elmustafa, Abdelmageed A.; Forman, Eric; Covert, Steven; Hansknecht, John; Hernandez-Garcia, Carlos; Poelker, Matthew; Das, Lopa; Kelley, Michael; Williams, Phillip

    2015-07-01

    DC high voltage photoelectron guns are used to produce polarized electron beams for accelerator-based nuclear and high-energy physics research. Low-level field emission (~nA) from the cathode electrode degrades the vacuum within the photogun and reduces the photoelectron yield of the delicate GaAs-based photocathode used to produce the electron beams. High-level field emission (>?A) can cause significant damage the photogun. To minimize field emission, stainless steel electrodes are typically diamond-paste polished, a labor-intensive process often yielding field emission performance with a high degree of variability, sample to sample. As an alternative approach and as comparative study, the performance of electrodes electropolished by conventional commercially available methods is presented. Our observations indicate the electropolished electrodes exhibited less field emission upon the initial application of high voltage, but showed less improvement with gas conditioning compared to the diamond-paste polished electrodes. In contrast, the diamond-paste polished electrodes responded favorably to gas conditioning, and ultimately reached higher voltages and field strengths without field emission, compared to electrodes that were only electropolished. The best performing electrode was one that was both diamond-paste polished and electropolished, reaching a field strength of 18.7 MV/m while generating less than 100 pA of field emission. The speculate that the combined processes were the most effective at reducing both large and small scale topography. However, surface science evaluation indicates topography cannot be the only relevant parameter when it comes to predicting field emission performance.

  8. Evaluation of electropolished stainless steel electrodes for use in DC high voltage photoelectron guns

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    BastaniNejad, Mahzad; Elmustafa, Abdelmageed A.; Forman, Eric; Covert, Steven; Hansknecht, John; Hernandez-Garcia, Carlos; Poelker, Matthew; Das, Lopa; Kelley, Michael; Williams, Phillip

    2015-07-01

    DC high voltage photoelectron guns are used to produce polarized electron beams for accelerator-based nuclear and high-energy physics research. Low-level field emission (~nA) from the cathode electrode degrades the vacuum within the photogun and reduces the photoelectron yield of the delicate GaAs-based photocathode used to produce the electron beams. High-level field emission (>?A) can cause significant damage the photogun. To minimize field emission, stainless steel electrodes are typically diamond-paste polished, a labor-intensive process often yielding field emission performance with a high degree of variability, sample to sample. As an alternative approach and as comparative study, the performance of electrodes electropolishedmore »by conventional commercially available methods is presented. Our observations indicate the electropolished electrodes exhibited less field emission upon the initial application of high voltage, but showed less improvement with gas conditioning compared to the diamond-paste polished electrodes. In contrast, the diamond-paste polished electrodes responded favorably to gas conditioning, and ultimately reached higher voltages and field strengths without field emission, compared to electrodes that were only electropolished. The best performing electrode was one that was both diamond-paste polished and electropolished, reaching a field strength of 18.7 MV/m while generating less than 100 pA of field emission. The speculate that the combined processes were the most effective at reducing both large and small scale topography. However, surface science evaluation indicates topography cannot be the only relevant parameter when it comes to predicting field emission performance.« less

  9. Evaluation of electropolished stainless steel electrodes for use in DC high voltage photoelectron guns

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    BastaniNejad, Mahzad Elmustafa, Abdelmageed A.; Forman, Eric; Covert, Steven; Hansknecht, John; Hernandez-Garcia, Carlos; Poelker, Matthew; Das, Lopa; Kelley, Michael; Williams, Phillip

    2015-07-15

    DC high voltage photoelectron guns are used to produce polarized electron beams for accelerator-based nuclear and high-energy physics research. Low-level field emission (?nA) from the cathode electrode degrades the vacuum within the photogun and reduces the photoelectron yield of the delicate GaAs-based photocathode used to produce the electron beams. High-level field emission (>?A) can cause significant damage the photogun. To minimize field emission, stainless steel electrodes are typically diamond-paste polished, a labor-intensive process often yielding field emission performance with a high degree of variability, sample to sample. As an alternative approach and as comparative study, the performance of electrodes electropolished by conventional commercially available methods is presented. Our observations indicate the electropolished electrodes exhibited less field emission upon the initial application of high voltage, but showed less improvement with gas conditioning compared to the diamond-paste polished electrodes. In contrast, the diamond-paste polished electrodes responded favorably to gas conditioning, and ultimately reached higher voltages and field strengths without field emission, compared to electrodes that were only electropolished. The best performing electrode was one that was both diamond-paste polished and electropolished, reaching a field strength of 18.7 MV/m while generating less than 100?pA of field emission. The authors speculate that the combined processes were the most effective at reducing both large and small scale topography. However, surface science evaluation indicates topography cannot be the only relevant parameter when it comes to predicting field emission performance.

  10. Novel Nonflammable Electrolytes for Secondary Magnesium Batteries and High Voltage Electrolytes for Electrochemcial Supercapacitors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Brian Dixon

    2008-12-30

    Magnesium has been used successfully in primary batteries, but its use in rechargeable cells has been stymied by the lack of suitable non-aqueous electrolyte that can conduct Mg+2 species, combined with poor stripping and plating properties. The development of a suitable cathode material for rechargeable magnesium batteries has also been a roadblock, but a nonflammable electrolyte is key. Likewise, the development of safe high voltage electrochemical supercapaitors has been stymied by the use of flammable solvents in the liquid electrolyte; to wit, acetonitrile. The purpose of the research conducted in this effort was to identify useful compositions of magnesium salts and polyphosphate solvents that would enable magnesium ions to be cycled within a secondary battery design. The polyphosphate solvents would provide the solvent for the magnesium salts while preventing the electrolyte from being flammable. This would enable these novel electrolytes to be considered as an alternative to THF-based electrolytes. In addition, we explored several of these solvents together with lithium slats for use as high voltage electrolytes for carbon-based electrochemical supercapacitors. The research was successful in that: 1) Magnesium imide dissolved in a phosphate ester solvent that contains a halogented phosphate ester appears to be the preferred electrolyte for a rechargeable Mg cell. 2) A combination of B-doped CNTs and vanadium phosphate appear to be the cathode of choice for a rechargeable Mg cell by virtue of higher voltage and better reversibility. 3) Magnesium alloys appear to perform better than pure magnesium when used in combination with the novel polyphosphate electrolytes. Also, this effort has established that Phoenix Innovationâ??s family of phosphonate/phosphate electrolytes together with specific lithium slats can be used in supercapacitor systems at voltages of greater than 10V.

  11. Degradation of Photovoltaic Modules Under High Voltage Stress in the Field: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    del Cueto, J. A.; Rummel, S. R.

    2010-08-01

    The degradation in performance for eight photovoltaic (PV) modules stressed at high voltage (HV) is presented. Four types of modules--tandem-junction and triple-junction amorphous thin-film silicon, plus crystalline and polycrystalline silicon modules--were tested, with a pair of each biased at opposite polarities. They were deployed outdoors between 2001 and 2009 with their respective HV leakage currents through the module encapsulation continuously monitored with a data acquisition system, along with air temperature and relative humidity. For the first 5 years, all modules were biased continuously at fixed 600 VDC, day and night. In the last 2 years, the modules were step-bias stressed cyclically up and down in voltage between 10 and 600 VDC, in steps of tens to hundreds of volts. This allowed characterization of leakage current versus voltage under a large range of temperature and moisture conditions, facilitating determination of leakage paths. An analysis of the degradation is presented, along with integrated leakage charge. In HV operation: the bulk silicon modules degraded either insignificantly or at rates of 0.1%/yr higher than modules not biased at HV; for the thin-film silicon modules, the added loss rates are insignificant for one type, or 0.2%/yr-0.6%/yr larger for the other type.

  12. An Ultra-Compact Marx-Type High-Voltage Generator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goerz, D; Ferriera, T; Nelson, D; Speer, R; Wilson, M

    2001-06-15

    This paper discusses the design of an ultra-compact, Marx-type, high-voltage generator. This system incorporates high-performance components that are closely coupled and integrated into an extremely compact assembly. Low profile, custom ceramic capacitors with coplanar extended electrodes provide primary energy storage. Low-inductance, spark-gap switches incorporate miniature gas cavities imbedded within the central region of the annular shaped capacitors, with very thin dielectric sections separating the energy storage capacitors. Carefully shaped electrodes and insulator surfaces are used throughout to minimize field enhancements, reduce fields at triple-point regions, and enable operation at stress levels closer to the intrinsic breakdown limits of the dielectric materials. Specially shaped resistors and inductors are used for charging and isolation during operation. Forward-coupling ceramic capacitors are connected across successive switch-capacitor-switch stages to assist in switching. Pressurized SF, gas is used for electrical insulation in the spark-gap switches and throughout the unit. The pressure housing is constructed entirely of dielectric materials, with segments that interlock with the low-profile switch bodies to provide an integrated support structure for all of the components. This ultra-compact Marx generator employs a modular design that can be sized as needed for a particular application. Units have been assembled with 4, 10, and 30 stages and operated at levels up to 100 kV per stage.

  13. Assessment of research directions for high-voltage direct-current power systems. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Long, W F

    1982-09-01

    High voltage direct current (HVDC) power transmission continues to be an emerging technology nearly thirty years after its introduction into modern power systems. To date its use has been restricted to either specialized applications having identifiable economic advantages (e.g., breakeven distance) or, rarely, applications where decoupling is needed. Only recently have the operational advantages (e.g., power modulation) of HVDC been realized on operating systems. A research project whose objective was to identify hardware developments and, where appropriate, system applications which can exemplify cost and operational advantages of integrated ac/dc power systems is discussed. The three principal tasks undertaken were: assessment of equipment developments; quantification of operational advantages; and interaction with system planners. Interest in HVDC power transmission has increased markedly over the past several years, and many new systems are now being investigated. The dissemination of information about HVDC, including specifically the symposium undertaken for Task 3, is a critical factor in fostering an understanding of this important adjunct to ac power transmission.

  14. Atmospheric pressure plasma jet with high-voltage power supply based on piezoelectric transformer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Babij, Micha?; Kowalski, Zbigniew W. Nitsch, Karol; Gotszalk, Teodor; Silberring, Jerzy

    2014-05-15

    The dielectric barrier discharge plasma jet, an example of the nonthermal atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ), generates low-temperature plasmas that are suitable for the atomization of volatile species and can also be served as an ionization source for ambient mass and ion mobility spectrometry. A new design of APPJ for mass spectrometry has been built in our group. In these plasma sources magnetic transformers (MTs) and inductors are typically used in power supplies but they present several drawbacks that are even more evident when dealing with high-voltage normally used in APPJs. To overcome these disadvantages, high frequency generators with the absence of MT are proposed in the literature. However, in the case of miniaturized APPJs these conventional power converters, built of ferromagnetic cores and inductors or by means of LC resonant tank circuits, are not so useful as piezoelectric transformer (PT) based power converters due to bulky components and small efficiency. We made and examined a novel atmospheric pressure plasma jet with PT supplier served as ionization source for ambient mass spectrometry, and especially mobile spectrometry where miniaturization, integration of components, and clean plasma are required. The objective of this paper is to describe the concept, design, and implementation of this miniaturized piezoelectric transformer-based atmospheric pressure plasma jet.

  15. 3430 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON VEHICULAR TECHNOLOGY, VOL. 61, NO. 8, OCTOBER 2012 Experimental Validation of High-Voltage-Ratio

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Simőes, Marcelo Godoy

    for high-voltage input/output ratio of dc-dc boost converters to be connected between the FC to the motor drive dc-link. In addition, it is necessary to have low input ripple at the dc-dc boost converter in order to maximize the FC lifetime, and the traditional dc-dc boost converter topologies have poor

  16. A three-level buck converter to regulate a high-voltage DC-to-AC inverter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schrock, Kenneth C

    2008-01-01

    A three-level buck converter is designed and analyzed, and shown to be suitable as a high-voltage down converter as a pre-regulation stage for a 600 watt DC-to-AC power inverter. Topology selection for the inverter is ...

  17. Marine High Voltage Power Conditioning and Transmission System with Integrated Storage DE-EE0003640 Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frank Hoffmann, PhD; Aspinall, Rik

    2012-12-10

    Design, Development, and test of the three-port power converter for marine hydrokinetic power transmission. Converter provides ports for AC/DC conversion of hydrokinetic power, battery storage, and a low voltage to high voltage DC port for HVDC transmission to shore. The report covers the design, development, implementation, and testing of a prototype built by PPS.

  18. THE ORNL MULTICHARGED ION RESEARCH FACILITY (MIRF) HIGH VOLTAGE PLATFORM PROJECT*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    transported for initial diagnostics tests to two already installed end stations, the Merged Electron Ion Beam with electrons, atoms, molecules, and solid surfaces, higher energy MCI beams will allow new classes investigations of their collisional interactions with electrons, atoms, molecules, and solid surfaces. A new all

  19. e-Polymers 2010, no. 100 http://www.e-polymers.org

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    North Texas, University of

    resistivity. Keywords: scratch resistance, dynamic friction, effective surface area, carbon black in polymers, electric conductivity threshold, polymer reinforcement. Introduction Polymer composites containing carbon fibers, binders or solid friction modifiers, or else irradiation [17]. For carbon-containing polymer

  20. Solid electrolytes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Abraham, Kuzhikalail M. (Needham, MA); Alamgir, Mohamed (Dedham, MA)

    1993-06-15

    This invention pertains to Li ion (Li.sup.+) conductive solid polymer electrolytes composed of solvates of Li salts immobilized (encapsulated) in a solid organic polymer matrix. In particular, this invention relates to solid polymer electrolytes derived by immobilizing complexes (solvates) formed between a Li salt such as LiAsF.sub.6, LiCF.sub.3 SO.sub.3 or LiClO.sub.4 and a mixture of aprotic organic solvents having high dielectric constants such as ethylene carbonate (EC) (dielectric constant=89.6) and propylene carbonate (PC) (dielectric constant=64.4) in a polymer matrix such as polyacrylonitrile, poly(tetraethylene glycol diacrylate), or poly(vinyl pyrrolidinone).

  1. Calculation and measurement of a neutral air flow velocity impacting a high voltage capacitor with asymmetrical electrodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malík, M., E-mail: michal.malik@tul.cz; Primas, J.; Kopecký, V.; Svoboda, M. [Faculty of Mechatronics, Informatics and Interdisciplinary Studies, Technical University of Liberec, Liberec, 461 17 (Czech Republic)] [Faculty of Mechatronics, Informatics and Interdisciplinary Studies, Technical University of Liberec, Liberec, 461 17 (Czech Republic)

    2014-01-15

    This paper deals with the effects surrounding phenomenon of a mechanical force generated on a high voltage asymmetrical capacitor (the so called Biefeld-Brown effect). A method to measure this force is described and a formula to calculate its value is also given. Based on this the authors derive a formula characterising the neutral air flow velocity impacting an asymmetrical capacitor connected to high voltage. This air flow under normal circumstances lessens the generated force. In the following part this velocity is measured using Particle Image Velocimetry measuring technique and the results of the theoretically calculated velocity and the experimentally measured value are compared. The authors found a good agreement between the results of both approaches.

  2. Connecting Renewables Directly to the Grid: Resilient Multi-Terminal HVDC Networks with High-Voltage High-Frequency Electronics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-01-23

    GENI Project: GE is developing electricity transmission hardware that could connect distributed renewable energy sources, like wind farms, directly to the grid—eliminating the need to feed the energy generated through intermediate power conversion stations before they enter the grid. GE is using the advanced semiconductor material silicon carbide (SiC) to conduct electricity through its transmission hardware because SiC can operate at higher voltage levels than semiconductors made out of other materials. This high-voltage capability is important because electricity must be converted to high-voltage levels before it can be sent along the grid’s network of transmission lines. Power companies do this because less electricity is lost along the lines when the voltage is high.

  3. Development of high-voltage pulse-slicer unit with variable pulse duration for pulse radiolysis system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Upadhyay, J.; Sharma, M. L.; Navathe, C. P. [Laser Electronic Support Division, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore, Madhya Pradesh 452013 (India); Toley, M. A.; Shinde, S. J.; Nadkarni, S. A.; Sarkar, S. K. [Radiation and Photochemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400085 (India)

    2012-02-15

    A high-voltage pulse-slicer unit with variable pulse duration has been developed and integrated with a 7 MeV linear electron accelerator (LINAC) for pulse radiolysis investigation. The pulse-slicer unit provides switching voltage from 1 kV to 10 kV with rise time better than 5 ns. Two MOSFET based 10 kV switches were configured in differential mode to get variable duration pulses. The high-voltage pulse has been applied to the deflecting plates of the LINAC for slicing of electron beam of 2 {mu}s duration. The duration of the electron beam has been varied from 30 ns to 2 {mu}s with the optimized pulse amplitude of 7 kV to get corresponding radiation doses from 6 Gy to 167 Gy.

  4. Fast switching, modular high-voltage DC/AC-power supplies for RF-Amplifiers and other applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alex, J.; Schminke, W. [Thomcast AG, Turgi (Switzerland)

    1995-12-31

    A new kind of high voltage high-power Pulse-Step Modulator (PSM) for broadcast transmitters, accelerator sources, for NBI (Neutral Beam Injection for Plasma Heating), gyrotrons and klystrons has been developed. Since its first introduction in 1984 for broadcast transmitters, more than 100 high-power sound broadcast transmitters had been equipped with the first generation of the PSM modulators, using Gate Turn-Off Thyristors (GTOs) as switching elements. Recently, due to faster switching elements and making use of the latest DSP technologies (Digital Signal Processing), the performance data and areas of application could be extended further. In 1994, a precision high voltage source for MW gyrotrons was installed at CRPP in Lausanne. Supplementary very low cost solutions for lower powers but high voltages had been developed. Hence, today, a large area of applications can be satisfied with the family of solutions. The paper describes the principle of operation, the related control systems and refers to some particular applications of the PSM amplifiers, especially the newest developments and corresponding field results.

  5. Tritium containing polymers having a polymer backbone substantially void of tritium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jensen, G.A.; Nelson, D.A.; Molton, P.M.

    1992-03-31

    A radioluminescent light source comprises a solid mixture of a phosphorescent substance and a tritiated polymer. The solid mixture forms a solid mass having length, width, and thickness dimensions, and is capable of self-support. In one aspect of the invention, the phosphorescent substance comprises solid phosphor particles supported or surrounded within a solid matrix by a tritium containing polymer. The tritium containing polymer comprises a polymer backbone which is essentially void of tritium. 2 figs.

  6. Study of static reactive power compensators for high-voltage power systems. Final report, May 12, 1981

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Byerly, R.T.; Bennon, R.J.; Taylor, E.R. Jr.; Poznaniak, D.T.

    1981-05-12

    A general study of the application of static VAR compensators (SVC's) to high-voltage transmission systems has been performed. Considerable emphasis has been placed on improvements to synchronous stability, and it is shown that SVC's can provide significant benefits in terms of damping for unstable modes of oscillation and increases in transient stability limits. This report includes descriptions of static VAR compensators, technical and economic comparisons of different compensators, compensator models for system studies, comprehensive study procedures, study results for two small-scale systems, and guidelines for SVC application.

  7. Analysis of system wide distortion in an integrated power system utilizing a high voltage DC bus and silicon carbide power devices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fallier, William F. (William Frederick)

    2007-01-01

    This research investigates the distortion on the electrical distribution system for a high voltage DC Integrated Power System (IPS). The analysis was concentrated on the power supplied to a propulsion motor driven by an ...

  8. Automatic System for the D.C. High Voltage Qualification of the Superconducting Electrical Circuits of the LHC Machine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bozzini, D; Russenschuck, Stephan; Bednarek, M; Jurkiewicz, P; Kotarba, A; Ludwin, J; Olek, S

    2008-01-01

    A d.c. high voltage test system has been developed to verify automatically the insulation resistance of the powering circuits of the LHC. In the most complex case, up to 72 circuits share the same volume inside cryogenic lines. Each circuit can have an insulation fault versus any other circuit or versus ground. The system is able to connect up to 80 circuits and apply a voltage up to 2 kV D.C. The leakage current flowing through each circuit is measured within a range of 1 nA to 1.6 mA. The matrix of measurements allows characterizing the paths taken by the currents and locating weak points of the insulation between circuits. The system is composed of a D.C. voltage source and a data acquisition card. The card is able to measure with precision currents and voltages and to drive up to 5 high voltage switching modules offering 16 channels each. A LabVIEW application controls the system for an automatic and safe operation. This paper describes the hardware and software design, the testing methodology and the res...

  9. An accurate online calibration system based on combined clamp-shape coil for high voltage electronic current transformers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Zhen-hua; Li, Hong-bin; Zhang, Zhi [CEEE of Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China) [CEEE of Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); State Key Laboratory of Advanced Electromagnetic Engineering and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2013-07-15

    Electronic transformers are widely used in power systems because of their wide bandwidth and good transient performance. However, as an emerging technology, the failure rate of electronic transformers is higher than that of traditional transformers. As a result, the calibration period needs to be shortened. Traditional calibration methods require the power of transmission line be cut off, which results in complicated operation and power off loss. This paper proposes an online calibration system which can calibrate electronic current transformers without power off. In this work, the high accuracy standard current transformer and online operation method are the key techniques. Based on the clamp-shape iron-core coil and clamp-shape air-core coil, a combined clamp-shape coil is designed as the standard current transformer. By analyzing the output characteristics of the two coils, the combined clamp-shape coil can achieve verification of the accuracy. So the accuracy of the online calibration system can be guaranteed. Moreover, by employing the earth potential working method and using two insulating rods to connect the combined clamp-shape coil to the high voltage bus, the operation becomes simple and safe. Tests in China National Center for High Voltage Measurement and field experiments show that the proposed system has a high accuracy of up to 0.05 class.

  10. Process to produce lithium-polymer batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    MacFadden, K.O.

    1998-06-30

    A polymer bonded sheet product is described suitable for use as an electrode in a non-aqueous battery system. A porous electrode sheet is impregnated with a solid polymer electrolyte, so as to diffuse into the pores of the electrode. The composite is allowed to cool, and the electrolyte is entrapped in the porous electrode. The sheet products composed have the solid polymer electrolyte composition diffused into the active electrode material by melt-application of the solid polymer electrolyte composition into the porous electrode material sheet. The solid polymer electrolyte is maintained at a temperature that allows for rapid diffusion into the pores of the electrode. The composite electrolyte-electrode sheets are formed on current collectors and can be coated with solid polymer electrolyte prior to battery assembly. The interface between the solid polymer electrolyte composite electrodes and the solid polymer electrolyte coating has low resistance. 1 fig.

  11. Process to produce lithium-polymer batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    MacFadden, Kenneth Orville (Highland, MD)

    1998-01-01

    A polymer bonded sheet product suitable for use as an electrode in a non-aqueous battery system. A porous electrode sheet is impregnated with a solid polymer electrolyte, so as to diffuse into the pores of the electrode. The composite is allowed to cool, and the electrolyte is entrapped in the porous electrode. The sheet products composed have the solid polymer electrolyte composition diffused into the active electrode material by melt-application of the solid polymer electrolyte composition into the porous electrode material sheet. The solid polymer electrolyte is maintained at a temperature that allows for rapid diffusion into the pores of the electrode. The composite electrolyte-electrode sheets are formed on current collectors and can be coated with solid polymer electrolyte prior to battery assembly. The interface between the solid polymer electrolyte composite electrodes and the solid polymer electrolyte coating has low resistance.

  12. Proposal to Negotiate, without Competitive Tendering, a Blanket Order for High-Voltage Thyratrons for the CERN Accelerators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2002-01-01

    This document concerns the supply of thyratrons to be used as high-voltage and high-current switches for the fast-pulsed magnet systems of the CERN accelerators and for the protection of the klystrons of RF systems. Following a market survey (MS-3136/SL/LHC) carried out among 18 firms in ten Member States, CERN entered into negotiations with one firm in one Member State. The Finance Committee is invited to agree to the negotiation, without competitive tendering, of a new blanket order with E2V TECHNOLOGIES (GB) for up to 800 000 pounds sterling to cover the supply of thyratrons for the years 2003, 2004 and 2005, subject to price revision for inflation for deliveries after 31 December 2003. At the present rate of exchange, this amount is equivalent to 1 855 000 Swiss francs. The firm has indicated the following distribution by country of the order value covered by this adjudication proposal: GB - 100%.

  13. High voltage dc--dc converter with dynamic voltage regulation and decoupling during load-generated arcs

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shimer, D.W.; Lange, A.C.

    1995-05-23

    A high-power power supply produces a controllable, constant high voltage output under varying and arcing loads. The power supply includes a voltage regulator, an inductor, an inverter for producing a high frequency square wave current of alternating polarity, an improved inverter voltage clamping circuit, a step up transformer, an output rectifier for producing a dc voltage at the output of each module, and a current sensor for sensing output current. The power supply also provides dynamic response to varying loads by controlling the voltage regulator duty cycle and circuitry is provided for sensing incipient arc currents at the output of the power supply to simultaneously decouple the power supply circuitry from the arcing load. The power supply includes a plurality of discrete switching type dc--dc converter modules. 5 Figs.

  14. High voltage dc-dc converter with dynamic voltage regulation and decoupling during load-generated arcs

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shimer, Daniel W. (Danville, CA); Lange, Arnold C. (Livermore, CA)

    1995-01-01

    A high-power power supply produces a controllable, constant high voltage output under varying and arcing loads. The power supply includes a voltage regulator, an inductor, an inverter for producing a high frequency square wave current of alternating polarity, an improved inverter voltage clamping circuit, a step up transformer, an output rectifier for producing a dc voltage at the output of each module, and a current sensor for sensing output current. The power supply also provides dynamic response to varying loads by controlling the voltage regulator duty cycle and circuitry is provided for sensing incipient arc currents at the output of the power supply to simultaneously decouple the power supply circuitry from the arcing load. The power supply includes a plurality of discrete switching type dc--dc converter modules.

  15. Monolithically interconnected GaAs solar cells: A new interconnection technology for high voltage solar cell output

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dinetta, L.C.; Hannon, M.H.

    1995-10-01

    Photovoltaic linear concentrator arrays can benefit from high performance solar cell technologies being developed at AstroPower. Specifically, these are the integration of thin GaAs solar cell and epitaxial lateral overgrowth technologies with the application of monolithically interconnected solar cell (MISC) techniques. This MISC array has several advantages which make it ideal for space concentrator systems. These are high system voltage, reliable low cost monolithically formed interconnections, design flexibility, costs that are independent of array voltage, and low power loss from shorts, opens, and impact damage. This concentrator solar cell will incorporate the benefits of light trapping by growing the device active layers over a low-cost, simple, PECVD deposited silicon/silicon dioxide Bragg reflector. The high voltage-low current output results in minimal 12R losses while properly designing the device allows for minimal shading and resistance losses. It is possible to obtain open circuit voltages as high as 67 volts/cm of solar cell length with existing technology. The projected power density for the high performance device is 5 kW/m for an AMO efficiency of 26% at 1 5X. Concentrator solar cell arrays are necessary to meet the power requirements of specific mission platforms and can supply high voltage power for electric propulsion systems. It is anticipated that the high efficiency, GaAs monolithically interconnected linear concentrator solar cell array will enjoy widespread application for space based solar power needs. Additional applications include remote man-portable or ultra-light unmanned air vehicle (UAV) power supplies where high power per area, high radiation hardness and a high bus voltage or low bus current are important. The monolithic approach has a number of inherent advantages, including reduced cost per interconnect and increased reliability of array connections. There is also a high potential for a large number of consumer products.

  16. Nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEFs) low cost generator design using power MOSFET and Cockcroft-Walton multiplier circuit as high voltage DC source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sulaeman, M. Y.; Widita, R.

    2014-09-30

    Purpose: Non-ionizing radiation therapy for cancer using pulsed electric field with high intensity field has become an interesting field new research topic. A new method using nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEFs) offers a novel means to treat cancer. Not like the conventional electroporation, nsPEFs able to create nanopores in all membranes of the cell, including membrane in cell organelles, like mitochondria and nucleus. NsPEFs will promote cell death in several cell types, including cancer cell by apoptosis mechanism. NsPEFs will use pulse with intensity of electric field higher than conventional electroporation, between 20–100 kV/cm and with shorter duration of pulse than conventional electroporation. NsPEFs requires a generator to produce high voltage pulse and to achieve high intensity electric field with proper pulse width. However, manufacturing cost for creating generator that generates a high voltage with short duration for nsPEFs purposes is highly expensive. Hence, the aim of this research is to obtain the low cost generator design that is able to produce a high voltage pulse with nanosecond width and will be used for nsPEFs purposes. Method: Cockcroft-Walton multiplier circuit will boost the input of 220 volt AC into high voltage DC around 1500 volt and it will be combined by a series of power MOSFET as a fast switch to obtain a high voltage with nanosecond pulse width. The motivation using Cockcroft-Walton multiplier is to acquire a low-cost high voltage DC generator; it will use capacitors and diodes arranged like a step. Power MOSFET connected in series is used as voltage divider to share the high voltage in order not to damage them. Results: This design is expected to acquire a low-cost generator that can achieve the high voltage pulse in amount of ?1.5 kV with falltime 3 ns and risetime 15 ns into a 50? load that will be used for nsPEFs purposes. Further detailed on the circuit design will be explained at presentation.

  17. Polymer blends for use in photoelectrochemical cells for conversion of solar energy to electricity

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Skotheim, T.

    1984-09-28

    There is disclosed a polymer blend of a highly conductive polymer and a solid polymer electrolyte that is designed to achieve better charge transfer across the conductive film/polymer electrolyte interface of the electrochemical photovoltaic cell. The highly conductive polymer is preferably polypyrrole or poly-N-p-nitrophenylpyrrole and the solid polymer electrolyte is preferably polyethylene oxide or polypropylene oxide.

  18. Polymer blends for use in photoelectrochemical cells for conversion of solar energy to electricity

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Skotheim, Terje (East Patchogue, NY)

    1986-01-01

    There is disclosed a polymer blend of a highly conductive polymer and a solid polymer electrolyte that is designed to achieve better charge transfer across the conductive film/polymer electrolyte interface of the electrochemical photovoltaic cell. The highly conductive polymer is preferably polypyrrole or poly-N-p-nitrophenylpyrrole and the solid polymer electrolyte is preferably polyethylene oxide or polypropylene oxide.

  19. Feasibility of gate-turnoff thyristors in a high-voltage direct-current transmission system: Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McMurray, W.

    1987-08-01

    This study to identify potentially attractive applications for gate-turnoff thyristor (GTO) converters in utility systems includes both high-voltage direct-current (HVDC) valves and static volt-ampere reactive (VAR) controllers. The work includes a broad review of basic principles and the power circuit arrangements that are judged to be most attractive. The major differences between ordinary thyristors and GTO converters are discussed, including alternative HVDC transmission systems and static VAR controllers that are possible with GTOs. Whereas a current-source type of converter is the obvious choice with ordinary thyristors, the use of GTOs allows either current-source or voltage-source converters to be considered. A computer-aided analysis of the basic 6-pulse GTO current-source converter system is presented, including general equations for steady-state operation and plotting calculated waveforms. An analysis of a GTO voltage-source converter is given in less detail. Due to incomplete performance data, unresolved critical problems such as protection, and the disadvantages of higher cost, complexity and losses, it is difficult to recommend a specific GTO converter system at this time. The major advantage that GTO converters can offer is rapid and smoothly continuous control of reactive power. Further development of GTO converters should be aimed towards an application where reactive power control is very important and not readily achievable by conventional methods. 12 refs., 47 figs.

  20. Proposal to negotiate, without competitive tendering, a blanket order for high-voltage thyratrons for the CERN accelerators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1999-01-01

    This document concerns the supply of thyratrons to be used as high-voltage and high-current switches for the fast-pulsed magnet systems of the CERN accelerators and for the protection of the klystrons of RF systems. In June 1981 the Finance Committee approved the placing, without competitive tendering, of a blanket order with EEV Ltd (UK) for a total value of up to 2 000 000 Swiss francs to cover the supply of thyratrons for the years 1982, 1983 and 1984. New blanket orders were subsequently negotiated for three-year periods with the approval of the Finance Committee in 1984, 1987, 1990 and 1993. After a new market survey in 1995-1996 had confirmed that EEV Ltd is the sole manufacturer of such thyratrons in the CERN Member States, a new blanket order was negotiated in 1996 with the approval of the Finance Committee. The Finance Committee is invited to agree to the negotiation, without competitive tendering, of a new blanket order with EEV Ltd (UK) for up to 800 000 pounds sterling to cover the supply of thyra...

  1. Graphene-oxide-coated LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 as high voltage cathode for lithium ion batteries with high energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Chongwu

    Graphene-oxide-coated LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 as high voltage cathode for lithium ion batteries with high Since Sony rst commercialized lithium ion batteries in the early 1990s, the market for lithium ion of the great success of lithium ion battery technology developed for portable electronic devices, higher

  2. 200 ns pulse high-voltage supply for terahertz field emission Gregor H. Welsh, David A. Turton, David R. Jones, Dino A. Jaroszynski,a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Strathclyde, University of

    ; published online 16 April 2007 We present a method of generating 200 ns high-voltage up to 40 kV pulses generator with high average power that can be synchronized at repetition rates of up to 100 kHz suitable. The output transformers T2/T3 are driven in parallel by the high current 1000 V metal-oxide semiconductor

  3. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON CIRCUITS AND SYSTEMS--I: REGULAR PAPERS, VOL. 55, NO. 6, JULY 2008 1751 Dual Low-Voltage IC Design for High-Voltage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and low side gate drivers are required in most switching power converters to provide on/off control Low-Voltage IC Design for High-Voltage Floating Gate Drives Yan Yin, Member, IEEE, and Regan Zane, Senior Member, IEEE Abstract--An integrated circuit (IC) design for low and high side gate drive in high

  4. Statistical analysis of the dynamics of secondary electrons in the flare of a high-voltage beam-type discharge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Demkin, V. P.; Mel'nichuk, S. V.

    2014-09-15

    In the present work, results of investigations into the dynamics of secondary electrons with helium atoms in the presence of the reverse electric field arising in the flare of a high-voltage pulsed beam-type discharge and leading to degradation of the primary electron beam are presented. The electric field in the discharge of this type at moderate pressures can reach several hundred V/cm and leads to considerable changes in the kinetics of secondary electrons created in the process of propagation of the electron beam generated in the accelerating gap with a grid anode. Moving in the accelerating electric field toward the anode, secondary electrons create the so-called compensating current to the anode. The character of electron motion and the compensating current itself are determined by the ratio of the field strength to the concentration of atoms (E/n). The energy and angular spectra of secondary electrons are calculated by the Monte Carlo method for different ratios E/n of the electric field strength to the helium atom concentration. The motion of secondary electrons with threshold energy is studied for inelastic collisions of helium atoms and differential analysis is carried out of the collisional processes causing energy losses of electrons in helium for different E/n values. The mechanism of creation and accumulation of slow electrons as a result of inelastic collisions of secondary electrons with helium atoms and selective population of metastable states of helium atoms is considered. It is demonstrated that in a wide range of E/n values the motion of secondary electrons in the beam-type discharge flare has the character of drift. At E/n values characteristic for the discharge of the given type, the drift velocity of these electrons is calculated and compared with the available experimental data.

  5. Method and system for making integrated solid-state fire-sets and detonators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    O'Brien, Dennis W. (Livermore, CA); Druce, Robert L. (Union City, CA); Johnson, Gary W. (Livermore, CA); Vogtlin, George E. (Fremont, CA); Barbee, Jr., Troy W. (Palo Alto, CA); Lee, Ronald S. (Livermore, CA)

    1998-01-01

    A slapper detonator comprises a solid-state high-voltage capacitor, a low-jitter dielectric breakdown switch and trigger circuitry, a detonator transmission line, an exploding foil bridge, and a flier material. All these components are fabricated in a single solid-state device using thin film deposition techniques.

  6. Method and system for making integrated solid-state fire-sets and detonators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    O`Brien, D.W.; Druce, R.L.; Johnson, G.W.; Vogtlin, G.E.; Barbee, T.W. Jr.; Lee, R.S.

    1998-03-24

    A slapper detonator comprises a solid-state high-voltage capacitor, a low-jitter dielectric breakdown switch and trigger circuitry, a detonator transmission line, an exploding foil bridge, and a flier material. All these components are fabricated in a single solid-state device using thin film deposition techniques. 13 figs.

  7. Abstract--The FREEDM grid utilizes solid state transformers (SST) and solid state fault interruption devices (FID) which may

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kimball, Jonathan W.

    distributed generation and distributed energy storage devices (DESD) on the grid. Replacing conventional are 6.5kV silicon IGBT and 600V silicon IGBT respectively. The switching frequency of the high voltage silicon IGBT devices is 1 kHz, and the low voltage IGBT in the VSI switches is 15 kHz. Fig. 1. Solid state

  8. Engineering hybrid polymer-protein super-aligned nanofibers via rotary jet spinningq

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Parker, Kevin Kit

    . Additionally, many biomaterials are not amenable for fabrication via high- voltage electrospinning methods, and the polymer poly--caprolactone via RJS and electrospinning. RJS-spun fibers retain greater protein content electrospinning. We measured increased fiber diameter and viscosity, and decreasing fiber alignment as protein

  9. Polymer blends for use in photoelectrochemical cells for conversion of solar energy to electricity and methods for manufacturing such blends

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Skotheim, Terje (East Patchogue, NY)

    1984-01-01

    There is disclosed a polymer blend of a highly conductive polymer and a solid polymer electrolyte that is designed to achieve better charge transfer across the conductive film/polymer electrolyte interface of the electrochemical photovoltaic cell. The highly conductive polymer is preferably polypyrrole or poly-N-p-nitrophenylpyrrole and the solid polymer electrolyte is preferably polyethylene oxide or polypropylene oxide.

  10. Total current collapse in High-Voltage GaN MIS-HEMTs induced by Zener trapping D. Jin, J. Joh*, S. Krishnan*, N. Tipirneni*, S. Pendharkar* and J. A. del Alamo

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    del Alamo, Jesús A.

    observed after OFF-state stress at high voltage. We attribute this to high-field tunneling-induced electron/detrapping dynamics have been extracted. All of our experimental results are consistent with electron trapping insideTotal current collapse in High-Voltage GaN MIS-HEMTs induced by Zener trapping D. Jin, J. Joh*, S

  11. Please cite this article in press as: M. Karpelson, et al., Driving high voltage piezoelectric actuators in microrobotic applications, Sens. Actuators A: Phys. (2012), doi:10.1016/j.sna.2011.11.035

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wood, Robert

    2012-01-01

    .elsevier.com/locate/sna Driving high voltage piezoelectric actuators in microrobotic applications Michael Karpelson , Gu-Yeon WeiPlease cite this article in press as: M. Karpelson, et al., Driving high voltage piezoelectric actuators in microrobotic applications, Sens. Actuators A: Phys. (2012), doi:10.1016/j.sna.2011

  12. Proposal for the award of a contract, without competitive tendering, for the maintenance of high-voltage switchgear and protection equipment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2003-01-01

    This document concerns the award of a contract, without competitive tendering, for the maintenance of high-voltage switchgear and protection equipment. The Finance Committee is invited to agree to the negotiation of a contract, without competitive tendering, for the maintenance of high-voltage switchgear and protection equipment with SCHNEIDER (FR) for a total amount of 1 100 000 euros (1 742 000 Swiss francs), covering an initial period of five years, subject to revision for inflation after 1 January 2007. The contract will include options for two one-year extensions beyond the initial five-year period. The amount in Swiss francs has been calculated using the present rate of exchange. The firm has indicated the following distribution by country of the contract value covered by this adjudication proposal: FR - 100%.

  13. A PC-PCL-based control system for the high-voltage pulsed-power operation of the Intense Diagnostic Neutral Beam (IDNB) Experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gribble, R.

    1993-06-01

    A stand-alone, semiautomated control system for the high-voltage pulsed-power energy sources on the Intense Diagnostic Neutral Beam Experiment at Los Alamos National Laboratory using personal computer (PC) and programmable logic controller (PLC) technology has been developed and implemented. The control system, consisting of a PC with the graphic operator interface, the network connecting the PC to the PLC, the PLC, the PLC I/O modules, fiber-optic interfaces and software, is described.

  14. Polymer films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Granick, Steve (Champaign, IL); Sukhishvili, Svetlana A. (Maplewood, NJ)

    2008-12-30

    A film contains a first polymer having a plurality of hydrogen bond donating moieties, and a second polymer having a plurality of hydrogen bond accepting moieties. The second polymer is hydrogen bonded to the first polymer.

  15. Preparation and characterization on nano-hybrid composite solid polymer electrolyte of PVdF-HFP /MG49-ZrO{sub 2} for battery application

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, T. K.; Ahmad, A. [Polymer Research Center, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600, Bangi, Selangor D. E. Malaysia and School of Chemical Sciences and Food Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology (Malaysia); Hasyareeda, N. [School of Chemical Sciences and Food Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology (Malaysia)

    2014-09-03

    Initial study on nano composite polymer electrolyte of PVdF-HFP/MG49-ZrO{sub 2} has been done. The zirconium was synthesis via in-situ sol-gel method in a dissolved polymer blends. The effects of different concentrations of zirconium and pH values have been investigated on nano composite polymer (NCP). Analysis impedance show that only at 6 wt. % of zirconium for all pH values show a semi-circle arc which have lowest value of bulk resistance. No ionic conductivity value is obtain due to the absent of ion charge carriers. Analysis of XRD revealed that crystallinity phase of the nano composite polymer was affect by different pH values. However, no significant changes have been observed in IR bands. This could well indicate that different pH medium did not affect the chemical bonding in the structure.

  16. Solid polymeric electrolytes for lithium batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Angell, Charles A.; Xu, Wu; Sun, Xiaoguang

    2006-03-14

    Novel conductive polyanionic polymers and methods for their preparion are provided. The polyanionic polymers comprise repeating units of weakly-coordinating anionic groups chemically linked to polymer chains. The polymer chains in turn comprise repeating spacer groups. Spacer groups can be chosen to be of length and structure to impart desired electrochemical and physical properties to the polymers. Preferred embodiments are prepared from precursor polymers comprising the Lewis acid borate tri-coordinated to a selected ligand and repeating spacer groups to form repeating polymer chain units. These precursor polymers are reacted with a chosen Lewis base to form a polyanionic polymer comprising weakly coordinating anionic groups spaced at chosen intervals along the polymer chain. The polyanionic polymers exhibit high conductivity and physical properties which make them suitable as solid polymeric electrolytes in lithium batteries, especially secondary lithium batteries.

  17. Improving the performance of stainless-steel DC high voltage photoelectron gun cathode electrodes via gas conditioning with helium or krypton

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bastaninejad, Mahzad; Elmustafa, Abdelmageed; Forman, Eric I.; Clark, James; Covert, Steven R.; Grames, Joseph M.; Hansknecht, John C.; Hernandez-Garcia, Carlos; Poelker, Bernard; Suleiman, Riad S.

    2014-10-01

    Gas conditioning was shown to eliminate field emission from cathode electrodes used inside DC high voltage photoelectron guns, thus providing a reliable means to operate photoguns at higher voltages and field strengths. Measurements and simulation results indicate that gas conditioning eliminates field emission from cathode electrodes via two mechanisms: sputtering and implantation, with the benefits of implantation reversed by heating the electrode. We have studied five stainless steel electrodes (304L and 316LN) that were polished to approximately 20 nm surface roughness using diamond grit, and evaluated inside a high voltage apparatus to determine the onset of field emission as a function of voltage and field strength. The field emission characteristics of each electrode varied significantly upon the initial application of voltage but improved to nearly the same level after gas conditioning using either helium or krypton, exhibiting less than 10 pA field emission at ?225 kV bias voltage with a 50 mm cathode/anode gap, corresponding to a field strength of ~13 MV/m. Field emission could be reduced with either gas, but there were conditions related to gas choice, voltage and field strength that were more favorable than others.

  18. Proposal for the award of a blanket order contract for the supply and installation of high-voltage metal-clad compartmented switchgear

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2001-01-01

    This document concerns the award of a blanket order contract for the supply and installation of high-voltage metal-clad compartmented switchgear. Following a market survey (MS-2761/ST) carried out among 59 firms in fifteen Member States, a call for tenders (IT-2827/ST) was sent on 23 January 2001 to 14 firms in ten Member States. By the closing date, CERN had received eight tenders from eight firms in seven Member States. The Finance Committee is invited to agree to the negotiation of a blanket order contract with SCHNEIDER ELECTRIC (IT), the lowest bidder, for the supply and installation of high-voltage metal-clad compartmented switchgear for a total amount of 4 300 000 euros (6 611 000 Swiss francs), not subject to revision until 31 July 2003. The rate of exchange which has been used is that stipulated in the tender. The firm has indicated the following distribution by country of the contract value covered by this adjudication proposal: IT - 70%; FR - 30%.

  19. Mesoporous carbons and polymers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bell, William (Boulder, CO); Dietz, Steven (Denver, CO)

    2001-01-01

    A mesoporous material prepared by polymerizing a resorcinol/formaldehyde system from an aqueous solution containing resorcinol, formaldehyde and a surfactant and optionally pyrolyzing the polymer to form a primarily carbonaceous solid. The material has an average pore size between 4 and 75 nm and is suitable for use in liquid-phase surface limited applications, including sorbent, catalytic, and electrical applications.

  20. Solid-state radioluminescent compositions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Clough, Roger L. (Albuquerque, NM); Gill, John T. (Miamisburg, OH); Hawkins, Daniel B. (Fairbanks, AK); Renschler, Clifford L. (Tijeras, NM); Shepodd, Timothy J. (Livermore, CA); Smith, Henry M. (Overland Park, KS)

    1991-01-01

    A solid state radioluminescent composition for light source comprises an optically clear polymer organic matrix containing tritiated organic materials and dyes capable of "red" shifting primary scintillation emissions from the polymer matrix. The tritiated organic materials are made by reducing, with tritium, an unsaturated organic compound that prior to reduction contains olefinic or alkynylic bonds.

  1. Solid-State NMR Investigation of Block Copolymer Electrolyte Dynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sadoway, Donald Robert

    Solid-State NMR Investigation of Block Copolymer Electrolyte Dynamics D. J. Harris,*, T. J in solid polymer electrolytes. The electrolytic properties of lithium salt-doped poly(ethyl- ene oxide- vored candidates for polymer electrolytes.1,2 Some of the primary applications for polymer electrolyte

  2. Preparation of redox polymer cathodes for thin film rechargeable batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Skotheim, T.A.; Lee, H.S.; Okamoto, Yoshiyuki.

    1994-11-08

    The present invention relates to the manufacture of thin film solid state electrochemical devices using composite cathodes comprising a redox polymer capable of undergoing oxidation and reduction, a polymer solid electrolyte and conducting carbon. The polymeric cathode material is formed as a composite of radiation crosslinked polymer electrolytes and radiation crosslinked redox polymers based on polysiloxane backbones with attached organosulfur side groups capable of forming sulfur-sulfur bonds during electrochemical oxidation.

  3. Charging a Battery-Powered Device with a Fiber-Optically Connected Photonic Power System for Achieving High-Voltage Isolation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lizon, David C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Gioria, Jack G [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dale, Gregory E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Snyder, Hans R [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the development and testing of a system to provide isolated power to the cathode-subsystem electronics of an x-ray tube. These components are located at the cathode potential of several hundred kilovolts, requiring a supply of power isolated from this high voltage. In this design a fiber-optically connected photonic power system (PPS) is used to recharge a lithium-ion battery pack, which will subsequently supply power to the cathode-subsystem electronics. The suitability of the commercially available JDSU PPS for this application is evaluated. The output of the ppe converter is characterized. The technical aspects of its use for charging a variety of Li-Ion batteries are discussed. Battery charge protection requirements and safety concerns are also addressed.

  4. Continuous process to produce lithium-polymer batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chern, T.S.H.; Keller, D.G.; MacFadden, K.O.

    1998-05-12

    Solid polymer electrolytes are extruded with active electrode material in a continuous, one-step process to form composite electrolyte-electrodes ready for assembly into battery cells. The composite electrolyte electrode sheets are extruded onto current collectors to form electrodes. The composite electrodes, as extruded, are electronically and ionically conductive. The composite electrodes can be over coated with a solid polymer electrolyte, which acts as a separator upon battery assembly. The interface between the solid polymer electrolyte composite electrodes and the solid polymer electrolyte separator has low resistance. 1 fig.

  5. Continuous process to produce lithium-polymer batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chern, Terry Song-Hsing (Midlothian, VA); Keller, David Gerard (Baltimore, MD); MacFadden, Kenneth Orville (Highland, MD)

    1998-01-01

    Solid polymer electrolytes are extruded with active electrode material in a continuous, one-step process to form composite electrolyte-electrodes ready for assembly into battery cells. The composite electrolyte-electrode sheets are extruded onto current collectors to form electrodes. The composite electrodes, as extruded, are electronically and ionically conductive. The composite electrodes can be overcoated with a solid polymer electrolyte, which acts as a separator upon battery assembly. The interface between the solid polymer electrolyte composite electrodes and the solid polymer electrolyte separator has low resistance.

  6. Recycling and processing of several typical crosslinked polymer...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Recycling and processing of several typical crosslinked polymer scraps with enhanced mechanical properties based on solid-state mechanochemical milling Citation Details In-Document...

  7. Method of forming a foamed thermoplastic polymer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Duchane, D.V.; Cash, D.L.

    1984-11-21

    A solid thermoplastic polymer is immersed in an immersant solution comprising a compatible carrier solvent and an infusant solution containing an incompatible liquid blowing agent for a time sufficient for the immersant solution to infuse into the polymer. The carrier solvent is then selectively extracted, preferably by a solvent exchange process in which the immersant solution is gradually diluted with and replaced by the infusant solution, so as to selectively leave behind the infustant solution permanently entrapped in the polymer. The polymer is then heated to volatilize the blowing agent and expand the polymer into a foamed state.

  8. Method of forming a foamed thermoplastic polymer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Duchane, David V. (Los Alamos, NM); Cash, David L. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1986-01-01

    A method of forming a foamed thermoplastic polymer. A solid thermoplastic lymer is immersed in an immersant solution comprising a compatible carrier solvent and an infusant solution containing an incompatible liquid blowing agent for a time sufficient for the immersant solution to infuse into the polymer. The carrier solvent is then selectively extracted, preferably by a solvent exchange process in which the immersant solution is gradually diluted with and replaced by the infusant solution, so as to selectively leave behind the infusant solution permanently entrapped in the polymer. The polymer is then heated to volatilize the blowing agent and expand the polymer into a foamed state.

  9. High cation transport polymer electrolyte

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gerald, II, Rex E. (Brookfield, IL); Rathke, Jerome W. (Homer Glen, IL); Klingler, Robert J. (Westmont, IL)

    2007-06-05

    A solid state ion conducting electrolyte and a battery incorporating same. The electrolyte includes a polymer matrix with an alkali metal salt dissolved therein, the salt having an anion with a long or branched chain having not less than 5 carbon or silicon atoms therein. The polymer is preferably a polyether and the salt anion is preferably an alkyl or silyl moiety of from 5 to about 150 carbon/silicon atoms.

  10. Energy Department Announces $4 Million Solicitation for Solid...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    diodes (LEDs), organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) and light-emitting polymers. "Solid-state lighting advances have the potential to greatly reduce energy...

  11. High voltage MOSFET switching circuit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McEwan, Thomas E. (Livermore, CA)

    1994-01-01

    The problem of source lead inductance in a MOSFET switching circuit is compensated for by adding an inductor to the gate circuit. The gate circuit inductor produces an inductive spike which counters the source lead inductive drop to produce a rectangular drive voltage waveform at the internal gate-source terminals of the MOSFET.

  12. High voltage MOSFET switching circuit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McEwan, T.E.

    1994-07-26

    The problem of source lead inductance in a MOSFET switching circuit is compensated for by adding an inductor to the gate circuit. The gate circuit inductor produces an inductive spike which counters the source lead inductive drop to produce a rectangular drive voltage waveform at the internal gate-source terminals of the MOSFET. 2 figs.

  13. ABBGroup-1-High voltage lab

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Basse, Nils Plesner

    to interrupt the current... Fault arc at a disconnector Fault arc in a substation #12;©ABBGroup-5- 3-Sep-07 of the physical processes · Optimisation of design through simulation · Reduction of development tests/costs

  14. ABBGroup-1-High voltage lab

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Basse, Nils Plesner

    to interrupt the current... Fault arc at a disconnector Fault arc in a substation #12;©ABBGroup-5- 3-Sep-07 tests/costs A detailed understanding of arc physics and fluid dynamics is necessary for the development

  15. Investigation of the spatiotemporal characteristics of the electric field in the Ne-H{sub 2} plasma of a beam-type high-voltage pulsed discharge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Demkin, V. P.; Mel'nichuk, S. V.; Borisov, A. V.; Bardin, S. S. [National Research Tomsk State University, 36, Lenin Ave., 634050 Tomsk (Russian Federation)] [National Research Tomsk State University, 36, Lenin Ave., 634050 Tomsk (Russian Federation)

    2013-12-15

    In the present work, the spatiotemporal dynamics of the electric field E(x, t) of plasma produced by a beam-type high-voltage pulsed discharge is investigated. The electric field strength E(x, t) in an accelerating gap and in a plasma flare was determined from the measured Stark splitting of the H{sub ?} hydrogen line. The obtained dependence E(x, t) was used to calculate the electron distribution function and the spectral line intensities in the accelerating gap and in the plasma flare by the method of statistical modeling. The calculated population of He atomic states excited by electron impact and their comparison with the measured spectral line intensities I(?, x, t) demonstrate that a reverse electric field retarding the electron motion and leading to electron beam degradation must be present in the plasma flare near the grid. Measurement of the field strength from the Stark splitting of the H{sub ?} line demonstrates that it can reach considerable values.

  16. Effect of the change in the load resistance on the high voltage pulse transformer of the intense electron-beam accelerators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheng Xinbing; Liu Jinliang; Qian Baoliang; Zhang Yu; Zhang Hongbo [College of Photoelectrical Science and Engineering, National University of Defense Technology, Hunan 410073 (China)

    2009-11-15

    A high voltage pulse transformer (HVPT) is usually used as a charging device for the pulse forming line (PFL) of intense electron-beam accelerators (IEBAs). Insulation of the HVPT is one of the important factors that restrict the development of the HVPT. Until now, considerable effort has been focused on minimizing high field regions to avoid insulation breakdown between windings. Characteristics of the HVPT have been widely discussed to achieve these goals, but the effects of the PFL and load resistance on HVPT are usually neglected. In this paper, a HVPT is used as a charging device for the PFL of an IEBA and the effect of the change in the load resistance on the HVPT of the IEBA is presented. When the load resistance does not match the wave impedance of the PFL, a high-frequency bipolar oscillating voltage will occur, and the amplitude of the oscillating voltage will increase with the decrease in the load resistance. The load resistance approximates to zero and the amplitude of the oscillating voltage is much higher. This makes it easier for surface flashover along the insulation materials to form and decrease the lifetime of the HVPT.

  17. Advanced concepts for high power RF generation using solid state materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fazio, M.V.; Erickson, G.A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (United States)

    1999-05-01

    Traditionally, high power radio frequency and microwave energy have been generated using electron beam driven hard-vacuum tubes such as klystrons and magnetrons. High-power solid-state sources of RF have not been available. It is well known that a non-linear, dispersive system can convert a pulse into an array of solitons. Although this effect has been exploited in the optical field, using non-linear optical materials, little work has been done in the field of high voltage electronics. It is the goal of this work, which is just beginning, to develop sources of RF in the few hundreds of megahertz to gigahertz range with power levels in the hundreds of megawatts to the gigawatt level. To generate solitons a high voltage pulse is fed onto a transmission line that is periodically loaded with a non-linear ceramic dielectric in the paraelectric phase. The combination of the non-linearity and dispersion causes the pulse to break up into an array of solitons. A soliton-based system has several components: the solid state, high voltage, high current switch to provide the initial high voltage pulse; a shock line to decrease the rise time of the initial pulse to less than a few nanoseconds; and the soliton generating transmission line where the high power RF is generated when driven by the fast rising pulse from the shock line. The approach and progress to date will be described. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}

  18. High elastic modulus polymer electrolytes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Balsara, Nitash Pervez; Singh, Mohit; Eitouni, Hany Basam; Gomez, Enrique Daniel

    2013-10-22

    A polymer that combines high ionic conductivity with the structural properties required for Li electrode stability is useful as a solid phase electrolyte for high energy density, high cycle life batteries that do not suffer from failures due to side reactions and dendrite growth on the Li electrodes, and other potential applications. The polymer electrolyte includes a linear block copolymer having a conductive linear polymer block with a molecular weight of at least 5000 Daltons, a structural linear polymer block with an elastic modulus in excess of 1.times.10.sup.7 Pa and an ionic conductivity of at least 1.times.10.sup.-5 Scm.sup.-1. The electrolyte is made under dry conditions to achieve the noted characteristics.

  19. Dielectric-wall linear accelerator with a high voltage fast rise time switch that includes a pair of electrodes between which are laminated alternating layers of isolated conductors and insulators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Caporaso, G.J.; Sampayan, S.E.; Kirbie, H.C.

    1998-10-13

    A dielectric-wall linear accelerator is improved by a high-voltage, fast rise-time switch that includes a pair of electrodes between which are laminated alternating layers of isolated conductors and insulators. A high voltage is placed between the electrodes sufficient to stress the voltage breakdown of the insulator on command. A light trigger, such as a laser, is focused along at least one line along the edge surface of the laminated alternating layers of isolated conductors and insulators extending between the electrodes. The laser is energized to initiate a surface breakdown by a fluence of photons, thus causing the electrical switch to close very promptly. Such insulators and lasers are incorporated in a dielectric wall linear accelerator with Blumlein modules, and phasing is controlled by adjusting the length of fiber optic cables that carry the laser light to the insulator surface. 12 figs.

  20. Dielectric-wall linear accelerator with a high voltage fast rise time switch that includes a pair of electrodes between which are laminated alternating layers of isolated conductors and insulators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Caporaso, George J. (Livermore, CA); Sampayan, Stephen E. (Manteca, CA); Kirbie, Hugh C. (Dublin, CA)

    1998-01-01

    A dielectric-wall linear accelerator is improved by a high-voltage, fast rise-time switch that includes a pair of electrodes between which are laminated alternating layers of isolated conductors and insulators. A high voltage is placed between the electrodes sufficient to stress the voltage breakdown of the insulator on command. A light trigger, such as a laser, is focused along at least one line along the edge surface of the laminated alternating layers of isolated conductors and insulators extending between the electrodes. The laser is energized to initiate a surface breakdown by a fluence of photons, thus causing the electrical switch to close very promptly. Such insulators and lasers are incorporated in a dielectric wall linear accelerator with Blumlein modules, and phasing is controlled by adjusting the length of fiber optic cables that carry the laser light to the insulator surface.

  1. Insight into the Atomic Structure of High-Voltage Spinel LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 Cathode Material in the First Cycle

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Huang, Xuejie [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China); Yu, Xiqian [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Lin, Mingxiang [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China); Ben, Liubin [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China); Sun, Yang [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China); Wang, Hao [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China); Yang, Zhenzhong [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China); Gu, Lin [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China); Yang, Xiao -Qing [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Zhao, Haofei [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China); Yu, Richeng [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China); Armand, Michel [CIC Energigune, Alava (Spain)

    2015-01-13

    Application of high-voltage spinel LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 cathode material is the closest and the most realistic approach to meeting the midterm goal of lithium-ion batteries for electric vehicles (EVs) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). However, this application has been hampered by long-standing issues, such as capacity degradation and poor first-cycle Coulombic efficiency of LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 cathode material. Although it is well-known that the structure of LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 into which Li ions are reversibly intercalated plays a critical role in the above issues, performance degradation related to structural changes, particularly in the first cycle, are not fully understood. Here, we report detailed investigations of local atomic-level and average structure of LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 during first cycle (3.5–4.9 V) at room temperature. We observed two types of local atomic-level migration of transition metals (TM) ions in the cathode of a well-prepared LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4//Li half-cell during first charge via an aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM). Surface regions (~2 nm) of the cycled LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 particles show migration of TM ions into tetrahedral Li sites to form a Mn3O4-like structure. However, subsurface regions of the cycled particles exhibit migration of TM ions into empty octahedral sites to form a rocksalt-like structure. The migration of these TM ions are closely related to dissolution of Ni/Mn ions and building-up of charge transfer impedance, which contribute significantly to the capacity degradation and the poor first-cycle Coulombic efficiency of spinel LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 cathode material. Accordingly, we provide suggestions of effective stabilization of LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 structure to obtain better electrochemical performance.

  2. Insight into the Atomic Structure of High-Voltage Spinel LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 Cathode Material in the First Cycle

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Huang, Xuejie; Yu, Xiqian; Lin, Mingxiang; Ben, Liubin; Sun, Yang; Wang, Hao; Yang, Zhenzhong; Gu, Lin; Yang, Xiao -Qing; Zhao, Haofei; et al

    2014-12-22

    Application of high-voltage spinel LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 cathode material is the closest and the most realistic approach to meeting the midterm goal of lithium-ion batteries for electric vehicles (EVs) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). However, this application has been hampered by long-standing issues, such as capacity degradation and poor first-cycle Coulombic efficiency of LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 cathode material. Although it is well-known that the structure of LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 into which Li ions are reversibly intercalated plays a critical role in the above issues, performance degradation related to structural changes, particularly in the first cycle, are not fully understood. Here, we report detailed investigations ofmore »local atomic-level and average structure of LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 during first cycle (3.5–4.9 V) at room temperature. We observed two types of local atomic-level migration of transition metals (TM) ions in the cathode of a well-prepared LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4//Li half-cell during first charge via an aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM). Surface regions (~2 nm) of the cycled LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 particles show migration of TM ions into tetrahedral Li sites to form a Mn3O4-like structure. However, subsurface regions of the cycled particles exhibit migration of TM ions into empty octahedral sites to form a rocksalt-like structure. The migration of these TM ions are closely related to dissolution of Ni/Mn ions and building-up of charge transfer impedance, which contribute significantly to the capacity degradation and the poor first-cycle Coulombic efficiency of spinel LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 cathode material. Accordingly, we provide suggestions of effective stabilization of LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 structure to obtain better electrochemical performance.« less

  3. Electronically conductive polymer composites and microstructures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Van Dyke, L.S.

    1993-01-01

    Composites of electronically conductive polymers with insulating host materials are investigated. A template synthesis method was developed for the production of electronically conductive polymer microstructures. In template synthesis the pores of a porous host membrane act as templates for the polymerization of a conductive polymer. The template synthetic method can be used to form either solid microfibrils or hollow microtubules. The electrochemical properties of conductive polymers produced via the template synthesis method are superior to those of conventionally synthesized conductive polymers. Electronically conductive polymers are used to impart conductivity to non-conductive materials. Two different approaches are used. First, thin film composites of conductive polymers with fluoropolymers are made by the polymerization of conductive polymers onto fluoropolymer films. Modification of the fluoropolymer surface prior to conductive polymer polymerization is necessary to obtain good adhesion between the two materials. The difference in adhesion of the conductive polymer to the modified and unmodified fluoropolymer surfaces can be used to pattern the conductive polymer coating. Patterning of the conductive polymer coating can alternatively be done via UV laser ablation of the conductive polymer. The second method by which conductive polymers were used to impart conductivity to an insulating polymer was via the formation of a graft copolymer. In this approach, heterocyclic monomers grafted to an insulating polyphosphazene backbone were polymerized to yield semiconductive materials. Finally the measurement of electrolyte concentration in polypyrrole and the effects of hydroxide anion on the electrochemical and electrical properties of polypyrrole are described. It is shown that treatment of polypyrrole with hydroxide anion increases the potential window over which polypyrrole is a good electronic conductor.

  4. Branched Polymers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Richard Kenyon; Peter Winkler

    2007-09-14

    Building on and from the work of Brydges and Imbrie, we give an elementary calculation of the volume of the space of branched polymers of order $n$ in the plane and in 3-space. Our development reveals some more general identities, and allows exact random sampling. In particular we show that a random 3-dimensional branched polymer of order $n$ has diameter of order $\\sqrt{n}$.

  5. Polymer inflation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Syed Moeez Hassan; Viqar Husain; Sanjeev S. Seahra

    2015-03-05

    We consider the semi-classical dynamics of a free massive scalar field in a homogeneous and isotropic cosmological spacetime. The scalar field is quantized using the polymer quantization method assuming that it is described by a gaussian coherent state. For quadratic potentials, the semi-classical equations of motion yield a universe that has an early "polymer inflation" phase which is generic and almost exactly de Sitter, followed by a epoch of slow-roll inflation. We compute polymer corrections to the slow roll formalism, and discuss the probability of inflation in this model using a physical Hamiltonian arising from time gauge fixing. We also show how in this model, it is possible to obtain a significant amount of slow-roll inflation from sub-Planckain initial data, hence circumventing some of the criticisms of standard scenarios. These results show the extent to which a quantum gravity motivated quantization method affects early universe dynamics.

  6. Fabricating solid carbon porous electrodes from powders

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kaschmitter, J.L.; Tran, T.D.; Feikert, J.H.; Mayer, S.T.

    1997-06-10

    Fabrication is described for conductive solid porous carbon electrodes for use in batteries, double layer capacitors, fuel cells, capacitive deionization, and waste treatment. Electrodes fabricated from low surface area (<50 m{sup 2}/gm) graphite and cokes exhibit excellent reversible lithium intercalation characteristics, making them ideal for use as anodes in high voltage lithium insertion (lithium-ion) batteries. Electrodes having a higher surface area, fabricated from powdered carbon blacks, such as carbon aerogel powder, carbon aerogel microspheres, activated carbons, etc. yield high conductivity carbon composites with excellent double layer capacity, and can be used in double layer capacitors, or for capacitive deionization and/or waste treatment of liquid streams. By adding metallic catalysts to high surface area carbons, fuel cell electrodes can be produced. 1 fig.

  7. Fabricating solid carbon porous electrodes from powders

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kaschmitter, James L. (Pleasanton, CA); Tran, Tri D. (Livermore, CA); Feikert, John H. (Livermore, CA); Mayer, Steven T. (San Leandro, CA)

    1997-01-01

    Fabrication of conductive solid porous carbon electrodes for use in batteries, double layer capacitors, fuel cells, capacitive dionization, and waste treatment. Electrodes fabricated from low surface area (<50 m.sup.2 /gm) graphite and cokes exhibit excellent reversible lithium intercalation characteristics, making them ideal for use as anodes in high voltage lithium insertion (lithium-ion) batteries. Electrodes having a higher surface area, fabricated from powdered carbon blacks, such as carbon aerogel powder, carbon aerogel microspheres, activated carbons, etc. yield high conductivity carbon compositives with excellent double layer capacity, and can be used in double layer capacitors, or for capacitive deionization and/or waste treatment of liquid streams. By adding metallic catalysts to be high surface area carbons, fuel cell electrodes can be produced.

  8. "Title","Creator/Author","Publication Date","OSTI Identifier...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    High-Voltage Solid Polymer Batteries for Electric Drive Vehicles","Eitouni, Hany; Yang, Jin; Pratt, Russell; Wang, Xiao; Grape, Ulrik","2014-09-29T04:00:00Z",1177779,"10.2172...

  9. TITLE AUTHORS SUBJECT SUBJECT RELATED DESCRIPTION PUBLISHER AVAILABILI...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    High Voltage Solid Polymer Batteries for Electric Drive Vehicles Eitouni Hany Yang Jin Pratt Russell Wang Xiao Grape Ulrik The purpose of this project was for Seeo to develop a...

  10. Polymer solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krawczyk, Gerhard Erich; Miller, Kevin Michael

    2011-07-26

    There is provided a method of making a polymer solution comprising polymerizing one or more monomer in a solvent, wherein said monomer comprises one or more ethylenically unsaturated monomer that is a multi-functional Michael donor, and wherein said solvent comprises 40% or more by weight, based on the weight of said solvent, one or more multi-functional Michael donor.

  11. Polymers Pushing Polymers: Polymer Mixtures in Thermodynamic Equilibrium with a Pore

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Podgornik, Rudolf

    Polymers Pushing Polymers: Polymer Mixtures in Thermodynamic Equilibrium with a Pore R. Podgornik, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia Polymer Science and Engineering Department, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Massachusetts 01003, United States ABSTRACT: We investigate polymer partitioning from polymer

  12. POLYMER PROGRAM SEMINAR "Nanomanufacturing with Polymers"

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alpay, S. Pamir

    POLYMER PROGRAM SEMINAR "Nanomanufacturing with Polymers" Prof. Joey Mead University Lowell has developed a suite of processes to enable the nanomanufacturing of polymer based products of properties (e.g. biocompatibility, polarity, and modulus). Polymer materials can be used as substrates

  13. Composite Polymer Electrolytes Based on Poly(ethylene glycol) and Hydrophobic Fumed Silica: Dynamic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raghavan, Srinivasa

    Composite Polymer Electrolytes Based on Poly(ethylene glycol) and Hydrophobic Fumed Silica: Dynamic are used to probe the microstructures present in fumed silica-based composite polymer electrolytes electrolytes based on poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO).1 Solid polymer electrolytes can potentially eliminate battery

  14. Solid state safety jumper cables

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kronberg, James W. (353 Church Rd., Beech Island, SC 29841)

    1993-01-01

    Solid state jumper cables for connecting two batteries in parallel, having two bridge rectifiers for developing a reference voltage, a four-input decoder for determining which terminals are to be connected based on a comparison of the voltage at each of the four terminals to the reference voltage, and a pair of relays for effecting the correct connection depending on the determination of the decoder. No connection will be made unless only one terminal of each battery has a higher voltage than the reference voltage, indicating "positive" terminals, and one has a lower voltage than the reference voltage, indicating "negative" terminals, and that, therefore, the two high voltage terminals may be connected and the two lower voltage terminals may be connected. Current flows once the appropriate relay device is closed. The relay device is preferably a MOSFET (metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor) combined with a series array of photodiodes that develop MOSFET gate-closing potential when the decoder output causes an LED to light.

  15. "Rapid Pattern Based Powder Sintering With Room Temperature Polymer Infiltration," Z. He, Y. Kim, M. Kokkengada and J. G. Zhou, Proceedings of the Tenth Solid Freeform Fabrication Symposium, Austin, Texas,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Jack

    methods used in rapid tooling such as high temperature caused cracks, distortion, shrinkage and poor as in RapidSteel) or casting the mixture of metal powder and polymer binder (such as in Keltool, NCC Tooling will have a linear shrinkage of 2%-5%. The shrinkage depends mainly on two factors. First is the temperature

  16. Dielectric Actuation of Polymers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Niu, Xiaofan

    2013-01-01

    strain in dielectric elastomers, Journal of Polymer SciencePart B: Polymer Physics. 49 (2011) 504–515. [25] X. Zhao, Z.Electroactive nanostructured polymers as tunable actuators,

  17. Polymer Physics Research Profile

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Giger, Christine

    Polymer Physics Research Profile Our main interests are the theory of simplification and some behavior on different autonomous levels of description. Our favorite applications range from polymer + Nonequilibrium Thermodynamics + Coarse Graining + Soft Matter + Polymer Physics + Rheology + Competences

  18. Dielectric Actuation of Polymers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Niu, Xiaofan

    2013-01-01

    AgNW) polymer composite material that is conductive enoughAgNW/polymer composite was nominated as a highly conductive,

  19. Polymers for Chemical Sensors Using Hydrosilylation Chemistry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grate, Jay W.; Kaganove, Steven N.; Nelson, David A.

    2001-06-28

    Sorbent and functionalized polymers play a key role in a diverse set of fields, including chemical sensors, separation membranes, solid phase extraction techniques, and chromatography. Sorbent polymers are critical to a number of sensor array or "electronic nose" systems. The responses of the sensors in the array give rise to patterns that can be used to distinguish one compound from another, provided that a sufficiently diverse set of sensing materials is present in the array. Figure 1 illustrates the concept of several sensors, each with a different sensor coating, giving rise to variable responses to an analyte that appear as a pattern in bar graph format. Using hydrosilylation as the bond-forming reaction, we have developed a versatile and efficient approach to developing sorbent polymers with diverse interactive properties for sensor applications. Both the chemical and physical properties of these polymers are predictable and tunable by design.

  20. Velocity dependence of friction of confined polymers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    I. M. Sivebaek; V. N. Samoilov; B. N. J. Persson

    2009-11-18

    We present molecular dynamics friction calculations for confined hydrocarbon solids with molecular lengths from 20 to 1400 carbon atoms. Two cases are considered: (a) polymer sliding against a hard substrate, and (b) polymer sliding on polymer. We discuss the velocity dependence of the frictional shear stress for both cases. In our simulations, the polymer films are very thin (approx. 3 nm), and the solid walls are connected to a thermostat at a short distance from the polymer slab. Under these circumstances we find that frictional heating effects are not important, and the effective temperature in the polymer film is always close to the thermostat temperature. In the first setup (a), for hydrocarbons with molecular lengths from 60 to 1400 carbon atoms, the shear stresses are nearly independent of molecular length, but for the shortest hydrocarbon C20H42 the frictional shear stress is lower. In all cases the frictional shear stress increases monotonically with the sliding velocity. For polymer sliding on polymer [case (b)] the friction is much larger, and the velocity dependence is more complex. For hydrocarbons with molecular lengths from 60 to 140 C-atoms, the number of monolayers of lubricant increases (abruptly) with increasing sliding velocity (from 6 to 7 layers), leading to a decrease of the friction. Before and after the layering transition, the frictional shear stresses are nearly proportional to the logarithm of sliding velocity. For the longest hydrocarbon (1400 C-atoms) the friction shows no dependence on the sliding velocity, and for the shortest hydrocarbon (20 C-atoms) the frictional shear stress increases nearly linearly with the sliding velocity.

  1. Exciton quenching at PEDOT:PSS anode in polymer blue-light-emitting diodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abbaszadeh, D.; Wetzelaer, G. A. H.; Nicolai, H. T.

    2014-12-14

    The quenching of excitons at the poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonic acid) (PEDOT:PSS) anode in blue polyalkoxyspirobifluorene-arylamine polymer light-emitting diodes is investigated. Due to the combination of a higher electron mobility and the presence of electron traps, the recombination zone shifts from the cathode to the anode with increasing voltage. The exciton quenching at the anode at higher voltages leads to an efficiency roll-off. The voltage dependence of the luminous efficiency is reproduced by a drift-diffusion model under the condition that quenching of excitons at the PEDOT:PSS anode and metallic cathode is of equal strength. Experimentally, the efficiency roll-off at high voltages due to anode quenching is eliminated by the use of an electron-blocking layer between the anode and the light-emitting polymer.

  2. Polymers with increased order

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sawan, Samuel P. (Tyngsborough, MA); Talhi, Abdelhafid (Rochester, MI); Taylor, Craig M. (Jemez Springs, NM)

    1998-08-25

    The invention features polymers with increased order, and methods of making them featuring a dense gas.

  3. Thermodynamic modelling of solid solutions JIBAMITRA GANGULY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ganguly, Jibamitra

    with the phase equilibrium constraints. The latter are calculated from the internally consistent thermochemical will summarise the general concepts of thermodynamic solution theory and a number of macroscopic models that have were originally developed for polymer and liquid solutions, but are also applicable to oxide and solid

  4. Process and material that encapsulates solid hazardous waste

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    O'Brien, Michael H. (Idaho Falls, ID); Erickson, Arnold W. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1999-01-01

    A method of encapsulating mixed waste in which a thermoplastic polymer having a melting temperature less than about 150.degree. C. and sulfur and mixed waste are mixed at an elevated temperature not greater than about 200.degree. C. and mixed for a time sufficient to intimately mix the constituents, and then cooled to a solid. The resulting solid is also disclosed.

  5. Journal of Power Sources 139 (2005) 106114 Real-time water distribution in a polymer electrolyte fuel cell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mench, Matthew M.

    2005-01-01

    ; Water; Fuel cell; Flooding; Solid polymer electrolyte 1. Introduction Many researchers haveJournal of Power Sources 139 (2005) 106­114 Real-time water distribution in a polymer electrolyte Abstract Knowledge of the species distribution within a polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC) is critical

  6. Two-Dimensional Coordination Polymers with One-Dimensional Magnetic Chains: Hydrothermal Synthesis, Crystal Structure, and Magnetic and Thermal Properties of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Jing

    commonly employed in the synthesis of numerous solid-state inorganic materials. ComparablyTwo-Dimensional Coordination Polymers with One-Dimensional Magnetic Chains: Hydrothermal Synthesis

  7. Electrical system architecture having high voltage bus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hoff, Brian Douglas (East Peoria, IL); Akasam, Sivaprasad (Peoria, IL)

    2011-03-22

    An electrical system architecture is disclosed. The architecture has a power source configured to generate a first power, and a first bus configured to receive the first power from the power source. The architecture also has a converter configured to receive the first power from the first bus and convert the first power to a second power, wherein a voltage of the second power is greater than a voltage of the first power, and a second bus configured to receive the second power from the converter. The architecture further has a power storage device configured to receive the second power from the second bus and deliver the second power to the second bus, a propulsion motor configured to receive the second power from the second bus, and an accessory motor configured to receive the second power from the second bus.

  8. Lockout device for high voltage circuit breaker

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kozlowski, L.J.; Shirey, L.A.

    1993-01-26

    An improved lockout assembly is provided for a circuit breaker to lock the switch handle into a selected switch position. The lockout assembly includes two main elements, each having a respective foot for engaging a portion of the upper housing wall of the circuit breaker. The first foot is inserted into a groove in the upper housing wall, and the second foot is inserted into an adjacent aperture (e.g., a slot) in the upper housing wall. The first foot is slid under and into engagement with a first portion, and the second foot is slid under and into engagement with a second portion of the upper housing wall. At the same time the respective two feet are placed in engagement with the respective portions of the upper housing wall, two holes, one on each of the respective two main elements of the assembly, are placed in registration; and a locking device, such as a special scissors equipped with a padlock, is installed through the registered holes to secure the lockout assembly on the circuit breaker. When the lockout assembly of the invention is secured on the circuit breaker, the switch handle of the circuit breaker is locked into the selected switch position and prevented from being switched to another switch position.

  9. High voltage photo switch package module

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sullivan, James S; Sanders, David M; Hawkins, Steven A; Sampayan, Stephen E

    2014-02-18

    A photo-conductive switch package module having a photo-conductive substrate or wafer with opposing electrode-interface surfaces, and at least one light-input surface. First metallic layers are formed on the electrode-interface surfaces, and one or more optical waveguides having input and output ends are bonded to the substrate so that the output end of each waveguide is bonded to a corresponding one of the light-input surfaces of the photo-conductive substrate. This forms a waveguide-substrate interface for coupling light into the photo-conductive wafer. A dielectric material such as epoxy is then used to encapsulate the photo-conductive substrate and optical waveguide so that only the metallic layers and the input end of the optical waveguide are exposed. Second metallic layers are then formed on the first metallic layers so that the waveguide-substrate interface is positioned under the second metallic layers.

  10. Lookout device for high voltage circuit breaker

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kozlowski, L.J.; Shirey, L.A.

    1991-12-31

    An improved lockout assembly is provided for a circuit breaker to lock the switch handle into a selected switch position. The lockout assembly includes two main elements, each having a respective foot for engaging a portion of the upper housing wall of the circuit breaker. The first foot is inserted into a groove in the upper housing wall, and the second foot is inserted into an adjacent aperture (e.g., a slot) in the upper housing wall. The first foot is slid under and into engagement with a first portion, and the second foot is slid under and into engagement with a second portion of the upper housing wall. At the same time the respective two feet are placed in engagement with the respective portions of the upper housing wall, two holes, one on each of the respective two main elements of the assembly, are placed in registration; and a locking device, such as a special scissors equipped with a padlock, is installed through the registered holes to secure the lockout assembly on the circuit breaker. When the lockout assembly of the invention is secured on the circuit breaker, the switch handle of the circuit breaker is locked into the selected switch position and prevented from being switched to another switch position.

  11. Lockout device for high voltage circuit breaker

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kozlowski, Lawrence J. (New Kensington, PA); Shirey, Lawrence A. (North Huntingdon, PA)

    1993-01-01

    An improved lockout assembly is provided for a circuit breaker to lock the switch handle into a selected switch position. The lockout assembly includes two main elements, each having a respective foot for engaging a portion of the upper housing wall of the circuit breaker. The first foot is inserted into a groove in the upper housing wall, and the second foot is inserted into an adjacent aperture (e.g., a slot) in the upper housing wall. The first foot is slid under and into engagement with a first portion, and the second foot is slid under and into engagement with a second portion of the upper housing wall. At the same time the repsective two feet are placed in engagement with the respective portions of the upper housing wall, two holes, one on each of the respective two main elements of the assembly, are placed in registration; and a locking device, such as a special scissors equipped with a padlock, is installed through the registered holes to secure the lockout assembly on the circuit breaker. When the lockout assembly of the invention is secured on the circuit breaker, the switch handle of the circuit breaker is locked into the selected switch position and prevented from being switched to another switch position.

  12. Production of high voltage by ion bombardment 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Phinney, Lucas Carter

    2003-01-01

    and was embedded in a Teflon rod. The beam energies were varied between 30 and 100 kV. A maximum voltage of approximately 90 kV was achieved on the target, and at this voltage, the power efficiency was approximately 85 percent. This power efficiency was greater...

  13. Tailoring the surface properties of LiNi0.4Mn0.4Co0.2O? by titanium substitution for improved high voltage cycling performance

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wolff-Goodrich, Silas; Xin, Huolin L.; Lin, Feng; Markus, Isaac M.; Nordlund, Dennis; Asta, Mark; Doeff, Marca M.

    2015-07-30

    The present research aims to provide insights into the behavior of LiNi0.4Mn0.4Co0.2O2 (NMC442) and LiNi0.4Mn0.4Co0.2O? (NMC442-Ti02) cathode materials under galvanostatic cycling to high potentials, in the context of previous work which predicted that Ti-substituted variants should deliver higher capacities and exhibit better cycling stability than the unsubstituted compounds. It is found that NMC cathodes containing Ti show equivalent capacity fading but greater specific capacity than those without Ti in the same potential range. When repeatedly charged to the same degree of delithiation, NMC cathodes containing Ti showed better capacity retention. Soft x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) spectra for Mn and Comore »indicated increased reduction in these elements for NMC cathodes without Ti, indicating that the substitution of Ti for Co acts to suppress the formation of a high impedance rock salt phase at the surface of NMC cathode particles. The results of this study validate the adoption of a facile change to existing NMC chemistries to improve cathode capacity retention under high voltage cycling conditions.« less

  14. Rubbery Graft Copolymer Electrolytes for Solid-State, Thin-Film Lithium Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sadoway, Donald Robert

    Rubbery Graft Copolymer Electrolytes for Solid-State, Thin-Film Lithium Batteries Patrick E. Trapa, and safety.1 Clearly, per- formance gains could be made if a dry, solid electrolyte were ex- ploited. Since When a lithium salt is added, the polymer becomes a solid electrolyte, behaving mechani- cally like

  15. Self-doped block copolymer electrolytes for solid-state, rechargeable lithium batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sadoway, Donald Robert

    Self-doped block copolymer electrolytes for solid-state, rechargeable lithium batteries Donald R of Li to nearly unity in a solid polymer electrolyte, block copolymer materials have been prepared. Introduction The ideal electrolyte material for a solid-state battery would have the ionic conductivity

  16. Synchrotron Radiation in Polymer Science

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Synchrotron Radiation in Polymer Science Synchrotron Radiation in Polymer Science March 30-April 2, 2012; San Francisco...

  17. Stiff Quantum Polymers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    H. Kleinert

    2007-05-01

    At ultralow temperatures, polymers exhibit quantum behavior, which is calculated here for the moments and of the end-to-end distribution in the large-stiffness regime. The result should be measurable for polymers in wide optical traps.

  18. Biodegradation of polymer coatings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, W.R.; Walch, M.; Jones-Meehan, J.

    1994-12-31

    Conventional paint removal methods include chemical stripping with VOCs blasting with plastic media, and delamination with high pressure water. These methods have many limitations, in that they are labor intensive, pose human health risks, are relatively expensive and pose significant waste disposal problems. However, polymeric coatings are known to contain structural components, such as ester, amide and urea linkages, that can be degraded biologically. The authors are working to develop a stable, enzyme-based, non-toxic paint stripping strategy that will be environmentally safe and cost effective. The specific objectives are to identify and characterize microbial systems capable of degrading polymeric coatings, to develop a quantitative degradation assay and to optimize activity levels for subsequent purification and concentration of the biological products required for rapid degradation of coatings. A water-dispersed colloid of an ester-based polyurethane polymer has been used in solid growth medium to screen about 100 different bacteria for microbial degradation activity. Those with demonstrable activity have been grown in the presence of epoxy-polyamide paint- and polyester polyurethane paint-coated aluminum coupons. The authors have demonstrated delamination under certain conditions and have developed a spectrophotometric method for quantitating degradation activity as a function of dye release.

  19. Method for polymer synthesis in a reaction well

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brennan, Thomas M. (San Francisco, CA)

    1998-01-01

    A method of synthesis for building a polymer chain, oligonucleotides in particular, by sequentially adding monomer units to at least one solid support for growing and immobilizing a polymer chain thereon in a liquid reagent solution. The method includes the step of: A) depositing a liquid reagent in a reaction well (26) in contact with at least one solid support and at least one monomer unit of the polymer chain affixed to the solid support. The well (26) includes at least one orifice (74) extending into the well (26), and is of a size and dimension to form a capillary liquid seal to retain the reagent solution in the well (26) to enable polymer chain growth on the solid support. The method further includes the step of B) expelling the reagent solution from the well (26), while retaining the polymer chain therein. This is accomplished by applying a first gas pressure to the reaction well such that a pressure differential between the first gas pressure and a second gas pressure exerted on an exit (80) of the orifice (74) exceeds a predetermined amount sufficient to overcome the capillary liquid seal and expel the reagent solution from the well (26) through the orifice exit (80).

  20. Method for polymer synthesis in a reaction well

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brennan, T.M.

    1998-09-29

    A method of synthesis is described for building a polymer chain, oligonucleotides in particular, by sequentially adding monomer units to at least one solid support for growing and immobilizing a polymer chain thereon in a liquid reagent solution. The method includes the step of: (A) depositing a liquid reagent in a reaction well in contact with at least one solid support and at least one monomer unit of the polymer chain affixed to the solid support. The well includes at least one orifice extending into the well, and is of a size and dimension to form a capillary liquid seal to retain the reagent solution in the well to enable polymer chain growth on the solid support. The method further includes the step of (B) expelling the reagent solution from the well, while retaining the polymer chain therein. This is accomplished by applying a first gas pressure to the reaction well such that a pressure differential between the first gas pressure and a second gas pressure exerted on an exit of the orifice exceeds a predetermined amount sufficient to overcome the capillary liquid seal and expel the reagent solution from the well through the orifice exit. 9 figs.

  1. Polymer Reaction & Colloidal Engineering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Giger, Christine

    Polymer Reaction & Colloidal Engineering Research Profile The Morbidelli Group is carrying out research in numerous areas related to polymer and colloid science and enginee- ring. Our research activity combines a variety of experimen- tal techniques for polymers and particles characterization with advanced

  2. Nanoporous polymer electrolyte

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Elliott, Brian (Wheat Ridge, CO); Nguyen, Vinh (Wheat Ridge, CO)

    2012-04-24

    A nanoporous polymer electrolyte and methods for making the polymer electrolyte are disclosed. The polymer electrolyte comprises a crosslinked self-assembly of a polymerizable salt surfactant, wherein the crosslinked self-assembly includes nanopores and wherein the crosslinked self-assembly has a conductivity of at least 1.0.times.10.sup.-6 S/cm at 25.degree. C. The method of making a polymer electrolyte comprises providing a polymerizable salt surfactant. The method further comprises crosslinking the polymerizable salt surfactant to form a nanoporous polymer electrolyte.

  3. Li-Ion polymer cells thermal property changes as a function of cycle-life

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maleki, Hossein; Wang, Hsin; Porter, Wallace D; Hallmark, Jerry

    2014-01-01

    The impact of elevated temperature chargeedischarge cycling on thermal conductivity (K-value) of Lithium Ion Polymer (LIP) cells of various chemistries from three different manufacturers was investigated. These included high voltage (Graphite/LiCoO2:3.0e4.35 V), wide voltage (Si:C/LiCoO2:2.7e4.35 V) and conventional (Graphite/LiCoO2:3.0e4.2 V) chemistries. Investigation results show limited variability within the in-plane and through-plane K-values for the fresh cells with graphite-based anodes from all three suppliers. After 500 cycles at 45 C, in-plane and through-plane K-values of the high voltage cells reduced less vs. those for the wide voltage cells. Such results suggest that high temperature cycling could have a greater impact on thermal properties of Si:C cells than on the LIP cells with graphite (Gr) anode cells we tested. This difference is due to the excess swelling of Si:C-anode based cells vs. Gr-anode cells during cycling, especially at elevated temperatures. Thermal modeling is used to evaluate the impact of K-value changes, due to cycles at 45 C, on the cells internal heat propagation under internal short circuit condition that leads to localized meltdown of the separator.

  4. A two-photoelectrode solid-state photoelectrochemical cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sammells, A.F.; Schmidt, S.K.

    1985-02-01

    This article describes a two photoelectrode solid-state photoelectrochemical cell which is able to produce photopotentials in excess of one voltage and possesses some inherent storage capacity. The storage capacity is presently limited by the low concentration and thin solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) redox layers used between the photoelectrode and the SPE membrane. The use of solid-electrolyte based photoelectrochemical cells provides a unique approach for the photoelectrochemical conversion and storage of selected redox species incorporated within the proximity of the semiconductor/solid electrolyte interface. It is expected that the described cell will be of potential value as not only a specialized storage device, but for specific detector applications.

  5. Mechanics of amorphous polymers and polymer gels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chester, Shawn Alexander

    2011-01-01

    Many applications of amorphous polymers require a thermo-mechanically coupled large-deformation elasto-viscoplasticity theory which models the strain rate and temperature dependent response of amorphous polymeric materials ...

  6. Tunneling of Polymer Particles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Martín-Ruiz; E. Chan-López; A. Carbajal-Domínguez; J. Bernal

    2014-08-28

    In this paper we study the tunneling using a background independent (polymer) quantization scheme. We show that at low energies, for the tunneling through a single potential barrier, the polymer transmission coefficient and the polymer tunneling time converge to its quantum-mechanical counterparts in a clear fashion. As the energy approaches the maximum these polymer quantities abruptly decrease to zero. We use the transfer matrix method to study the tunneling through a series of identical potential barriers. We obtain that the transmission coefficients (polymer and quantum-mechanical) behave qualitatively in a similar manner, as expected. Finally we show that the polymer tunneling time exhibits anomalous peaks compared with the standard result. Numerical results are also presented.

  7. Insight into the Atomic Structure of High-Voltage Spinel LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 Cathode Material in the First Cycle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Xuejie; Yu, Xiqian; Lin, Mingxiang; Ben, Liubin; Sun, Yang; Wang, Hao; Yang, Zhenzhong; Gu, Lin; Yang, Xiao -Qing; Zhao, Haofei; Yu, Richeng; Armand, Michel

    2014-12-22

    Application of high-voltage spinel LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 cathode material is the closest and the most realistic approach to meeting the midterm goal of lithium-ion batteries for electric vehicles (EVs) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). However, this application has been hampered by long-standing issues, such as capacity degradation and poor first-cycle Coulombic efficiency of LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 cathode material. Although it is well-known that the structure of LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 into which Li ions are reversibly intercalated plays a critical role in the above issues, performance degradation related to structural changes, particularly in the first cycle, are not fully understood. Here, we report detailed investigations of local atomic-level and average structure of LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 during first cycle (3.5–4.9 V) at room temperature. We observed two types of local atomic-level migration of transition metals (TM) ions in the cathode of a well-prepared LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4//Li half-cell during first charge via an aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM). Surface regions (~2 nm) of the cycled LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 particles show migration of TM ions into tetrahedral Li sites to form a Mn3O4-like structure. However, subsurface regions of the cycled particles exhibit migration of TM ions into empty octahedral sites to form a rocksalt-like structure. The migration of these TM ions are closely related to dissolution of Ni/Mn ions and building-up of charge transfer impedance, which contribute significantly to the capacity degradation and the poor first-cycle Coulombic efficiency of spinel LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 cathode material. Accordingly, we provide suggestions of effective stabilization of LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 structure to obtain better electrochemical performance.

  8. Percolation in a nanotube-polymer system and its lumped-circuit modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tuncer, Enis [ORNL; Vaia, Richard A [ORNL; Arlen, Michael Jeffrey [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    Electrical properties of composites composed of polyurethane polymer and multi-walled nanotubes are reported. Samples with different nanotube volume fractions are prepared, and an impedance spectroscopy technique in the frequency range from 10 mHz to 10 MHz is used to characterize the properties of the samples. It is observed that the resistivity of the mixture can be varied widely, from {approx}10 M{Omega}m to {approx}1 {Omega}m, just by slightly altering the volume fraction of nanotubes. A lumped-circuit model illustrated that the micro-scale morphology between nanotube-clusters influences the resistive relaxation in the composite system. The investigations show that the presented binary mixture has a potential to be utilized in conductive electrical components (flexible electrodes), electromagnetic shielding, and electrostatic and field grading materials for electronic and high voltage insulation technologies.

  9. Engineering Polymer Informatics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Adams, Nico; Ryder, Jennifer; Jessop, David M; Corbett, Peter; Murray-Rust, Peter

    2007-12-17

    stream_source_info Engineering Polymer Informatics.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 9453 Content-Encoding UTF-8 stream_name Engineering Polymer Informatics.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8... Engineering Polymer Informatics Nico Adams, Jen Ryder, Nicholas England, David Jessop, Peter Corbett, Peter Murray-Rust Our mission is to develop an informatics toolbox, which will take into account the special computational needs of polymers and will make...

  10. Polymer Composites for Radiation Scintillation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Qi

    2012-01-01

    J. B. Peng and Y. Cao, Polymer, 2008, 49, G. Yu, S. W. Yin,and K. C. Tsou, Journal of Polymer Science Part a-Generaland K. C. Tsou, Journal of Polymer Science Part a-General

  11. Department of Polymer Science

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dhinojwala, Ali

    Department of Polymer Science The University of Akron, OH 330-972-6246 ali4@uakron.edu www2.uakron to develop synthetic adhesives and coatings. He has patents in carbon nanotube- based adhesives and coatings of molecules at the interface. The Dhinojwala laboratory has developed SFG technique to study polymer

  12. Melons are branched polymers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Razvan Gurau; James P. Ryan

    2013-02-18

    Melonic graphs constitute the family of graphs arising at leading order in the 1/N expansion of tensor models. They were shown to lead to a continuum phase, reminiscent of branched polymers. We show here that they are in fact precisely branched polymers, that is, they possess Hausdorff dimension 2 and spectral dimension 4/3.

  13. Stiff quantum polymers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    H. Kleinert

    2009-10-19

    At ultralow temperatures, polymers exhibit quantum behavior, which is calculated here for the second and fourth moments of the end-to-end distribution in the large-stiffness regime. The result should be measurable for polymers in wide optical traps.

  14. Porous polymer media

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shepodd, Timothy J. (Livermore, CA)

    2002-01-01

    Highly crosslinked monolithic porous polymer materials for chromatographic applications. By using solvent compositions that provide not only for polymerization of acrylate monomers in such a fashion that a porous polymer network is formed prior to phase separation but also for exchanging the polymerization solvent for a running buffer using electroosmotic flow, the need for high pressure purging is eliminated. The polymer materials have been shown to be an effective capillary electrochromatographic separations medium at lower field strengths than conventional polymer media. Further, because of their highly crosslinked nature these polymer materials are structurally stable in a wide range of organic and aqueous solvents and over a pH range of 2-12.

  15. Solid oxide MEMS-based fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jankowksi, Alan F.; Morse, Jeffrey D.

    2007-03-13

    A micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) based thin-film fuel cells for electrical power applications. The MEMS-based fuel cell may be of a solid oxide type (SOFC), a solid polymer type (SPFC), or a proton exchange membrane type (PEMFC), and each fuel cell basically consists of an anode and a cathode separated by an electrolyte layer. The electrolyte layer can consist of either a solid oxide or solid polymer material, or proton exchange membrane electrolyte materials may be used. Additionally catalyst layers can also separate the electrodes (cathode and anode) from the electrolyte. Gas manifolds are utilized to transport the fuel and oxidant to each cell and provide a path for exhaust gases. The electrical current generated from each cell is drawn away with an interconnect and support structure integrated with the gas manifold. The fuel cells utilize integrated resistive heaters for efficient heating of the materials. By combining MEMS technology with thin-film deposition technology, thin-film fuel cells having microflow channels and full-integrated circuitry can be produced that will lower the operating temperature an will yield an order of magnitude greater power density than the currently known fuel cells.

  16. Polymer-Metal Nanocomposites via Polymer Thin Film

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shyamasundar, R.K.

    Polymer-Metal Nanocomposites via Polymer Thin Film T. P. Radhakrishnan School of Chemistry, University of Hyderabad Polymer-metal nanocomposite thin films are versatile materials that not only Chemistry Inside a Polymer Thin Film P. Radhakrishnan School of Chemistry, University of Hyderabad metal

  17. A Comparative Study of Solid and Liquid Non-Aqueous Phases for the Biodegradation of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daugulis, Andrew J.

    : gas treatment; hexane; liquid solvents; mass transfer limitations; solid polymers; two Groenestijn and Hesselink, 1993). Biological gas treatment methods are based on the natural abilityARTICLE A Comparative Study of Solid and Liquid Non-Aqueous Phases for the Biodegradation of Hexane

  18. Anion exchange polymer electrolytes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kim, Yu Seung; Kim, Dae Sik; Lee, Kwan-Soo

    2013-07-23

    Solid anion exchange polymer electrolytes and compositions comprising chemical compounds comprising a polymeric core, a spacer A, and a guanidine base, wherein said chemical compound is uniformly dispersed in a suitable solvent and has the structure: ##STR00001## wherein: i) A is a spacer having the structure O, S, SO.sub.2, --NH--, --N(CH.sub.2).sub.n, wherein n=1-10, --(CH.sub.2).sub.n--CH.sub.3--, wherein n=1-10, SO.sub.2-Ph, CO-Ph, ##STR00002## wherein R.sub.5, R.sub.6, R.sub.7 and R.sub.8 each are independently --H, --NH.sub.2, F, Cl, Br, CN, or a C.sub.1-C.sub.6 alkyl group, or any combination of thereof; ii) R.sub.9, R.sub.10, R.sub.11, R.sub.12, or R.sub.13 each independently are --H, --CH.sub.3, --NH.sub.2, --NO, --CH.sub.nCH.sub.3 where n=1-6, HC.dbd.O--, NH.sub.2C.dbd.O--, --CH.sub.nCOOH where n=1-6, --(CH.sub.2).sub.n--C(NH.sub.2)--COOH where n=1-6, --CH--(COOH)--CH.sub.2--COOH, --CH.sub.2--CH(O--CH.sub.2CH.sub.3).sub.2, --(C.dbd.S)--NH.sub.2, --(C.dbd.NH)--N--(CH.sub.2).sub.nCH.sub.3, where n=0-6, --NH--(C.dbd.S)--SH, --CH.sub.2--(C.dbd.O)--O--C(CH.sub.3).sub.3, --O--(CH.sub.2).sub.n--CH--(NH.sub.2)--COOH, where n=1-6, --(CH.sub.2).sub.n--CH.dbd.CH wherein n=1-6, --(CH.sub.2).sub.n--CH--CN wherein n=1-6, an aromatic group such as a phenyl, benzyl, phenoxy, methylbenzyl, nitrogen-substituted benzyl or phenyl groups, a halide, or halide-substituted methyl groups; and iii) wherein the composition is suitable for use in a membrane electrode assembly.

  19. Preparation of metallic cation conducting polymers based on sterically hindered phenols containing polymeric systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Skotheim, Terje A. (Shoreham, NY); Okamoto, Yoshiyuki (Fort Lee, NJ); Lee, Hung S. (Woodside, NY)

    1989-01-01

    The present invention relates to ion-conducting solvent-free polymeric systems characterized as being cationic single ion conductors. The solvent-free polymer electrolytes comprise a flexible polymer backbone to which is attached a metal salt, such as a lithium, sodium or potassium salt, of a sterically hindered phenol. The solid polymer electrolyte may be prepared either by (1) attaching the hindered phenol directly to a flexible polymeric backbone, followed by neutralization of the phenolic OH's or (2) reacting the hindered phenol with a polymer precursor which is then polymerized to form a flexible polymer having phenolic OH's which are subsequently neutralized. Preferably the hindered phenol-modified polymeric backbone contains a polyether segment. The ionic conductivity of these solvent-free polymer electrolytes has been measured to be in the range of 10.sup.-4 to 10.sup.-7 S cm.sup.-1 at room temperature.

  20. Preparation of metallic cation conducting polymers based on sterically hindered phenols containing polymeric systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Skotheim, T.A.; Okamoto, Yoshiyuki; Lee, H.S.

    1989-11-21

    The present invention relates to ion-conducting solvent-free polymeric systems characterized as being cationic single ion conductors. The solvent-free polymer electrolytes comprise a flexible polymer backbone to which is attached a metal salt, such as a lithium, sodium or potassium salt, of a sterically hindered phenol. The solid polymer electrolyte may be prepared either by (1) attaching the hindered phenol directly to a flexible polymeric backbone, followed by neutralization of the phenolic OH's or (2) reacting the hindered phenol with a polymer precursor which is then polymerized to form a flexible polymer having phenolic OH's which are subsequently neutralized. Preferably the hindered phenol-modified polymeric backbone contains a polyether segment. The ionic conductivity of these solvent-free polymer electrolytes has been measured to be in the range of 10[sup [minus]4] to 10[sup [minus]7] S cm[sup [minus]1] at room temperature.

  1. Soluble porphyrin polymers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gust, Jr., John Devens; Liddell, Paul Anthony

    2015-07-07

    Porphyrin polymers of Structure 1, where n is an integer (e.g., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, or greater) ##STR00001## are synthesized by the method shown in FIGS. 2A and 2B. The porphyrin polymers of Structure 1 are soluble in organic solvents such as 2-MeTHF and the like, and can be synthesized in bulk (i.e., in processes other than electropolymerization). These porphyrin polymers have long excited state lifetimes, making the material suitable as an organic semiconductor for organic electronic devices including transistors and memories, as well as solar cells, sensors, light-emitting devices, and other opto-electronic devices.

  2. Solids fluidizer-injector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bulicz, Tytus R. (Hickory Hills, IL)

    1990-01-01

    An apparatus and process for fluidizing solid particles by causing rotary motion of the solid particles in a fluidizing chamber by a plurality of rotating projections extending from a rotatable cylinder end wall interacting with a plurality of fixed projections extending from an opposite fixed end wall and passing the solid particles through a radial feed orifice open to the solids fluidizing chamber on one side and a solid particle utilization device on the other side. The apparatus and process are particularly suited for obtaining intermittent feeding with continual solids supply to the fluidizing chamber. The apparatus and process are suitable for injecting solid particles, such as coal, to an internal combustion engine.

  3. Heavily fluorinated electronic polymers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lim, Jeewoo

    2011-01-01

    Building blocks, containing majority fluorine content by weight, for PPEs and PPVs have been synthesized. Some of the monomers were shown to give exclusively fluorous-phase soluble polymers, the syntheses of which were ...

  4. Sulfonated polyphenylene polymers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cornelius, Christopher J. (Albuquerque, NM); Fujimoto, Cy H. (Albuquerque, NM); Hickner, Michael A. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2007-11-27

    Improved sulfonated polyphenylene compositions, improved polymer electrolyte membranes and nanocomposites formed there from for use in fuel cells are described herein. The improved compositions, membranes and nanocomposites formed there from overcome limitations of Nafion.RTM. membranes.

  5. Polymer quantization and Symmetries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ghanashyam Date; Nirmalya Kajuri

    2013-02-24

    Polymer quantization was discovered during the construction of Loop Quantum Cosmology. For the simplest quantum theory of one degree of freedom, the implications for dynamics were studied for the harmonic oscillator as well as some other potentials. For more degrees of freedom, the possibility of continuous, kinematic symmetries arises. While these are realised on the Hilbert space of polymer quantum mechanics, their infinitesimal versions are not supported. For an invariant Hamiltonian, these symmetry realizations imply infinite degeneracy suggesting that the symmetry should be spontaneously or explicitly broken. The estimation of symmetry violations in some cases have been analysed before. Here we explore the alternative of shifting the arena to the distributional states. We discuss both the polymer quantum mechanics case as well as polymer quantized scalar field.

  6. Conducting polymer nanostructures for biological applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berdichevsky, Yevgeny

    2006-01-01

    of Electronically Conductive Polymer Nanostructures,” Acc.et al. , “Conjugated-Polymer Micro- and Milliactuators for3. Y. Berdichevsky, Y. -H. Lo, “Polymer Microvalve Based on

  7. Polymer Surface Modification for Bioengineering Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cheng, Qian

    2011-01-01

    Discharge. Plasmas and Polymers, vol. 1, pp. 299–326. FengS. , 2003, A Review on Polymer Nanofibers by Electrospinningeffect of hydrophilized porous polymer scaffolds in tissue-

  8. Modulating Protein Activity through Polymer Conjugation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Decker, Caitlin Gayle

    2015-01-01

    D. “A Heparin-mimicking Polymer Conjugate Stabilizes BasicG. ;?  Haddleton,  D.  M.  Polymer   Chemistry  2011,  2,  ?  Nolte,  R.  J.  M.  Polymer  Chemistry  2011,  2,  333.  

  9. Polymers in disordered environments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    V. Blavatska; N. Fricke; W. Janke

    2014-11-18

    A brief review of our recent studies aiming at a better understanding of the scaling behaviour of polymers in disordered environments is given. The main emphasis is on a simple generic model where the polymers are represented by (interacting) self-avoiding walks and the disordered environment by critical percolation clusters. The scaling behaviour of the number of conformations and their average spatial extent as a function of the number of monomers and the associated critical exponents $\\gamma$ and $\

  10. Solids mass flow determination

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Macko, Joseph E. (Hempfield Township, Westmoreland County, PA)

    1981-01-01

    Method and apparatus for determining the mass flow rate of solids mixed with a transport fluid to form a flowing mixture. A temperature differential is established between the solids and fluid. The temperature of the transport fluid prior to mixing, the temperature of the solids prior to mixing, and the equilibrium temperature of the mixture are monitored and correlated in a heat balance with the heat capacities of the solids and fluid to determine the solids mass flow rate.

  11. Interfacial thermal conductance in spun-cast polymer films and polymer brushes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Braun, Paul

    Interfacial thermal conductance in spun-cast polymer films and polymer brushes Mark D. Losego inorganic materials and anharmonic polymers have potentially intriguing thermal transport behavior. The low thermal conductivity of amorphous polymers limits significant interfacial effects to polymer film

  12. Precursor polymer compositions comprising polybenzimidazole

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klaehn, John R.; Peterson, Eric S.; Orme, Christopher J.

    2015-07-14

    Stable, high performance polymer compositions including polybenzimidazole (PBI) and a melamine-formaldehyde polymer, such as methylated, poly(melamine-co-formaldehyde), for forming structures such as films, fibers and bulky structures. The polymer compositions may be formed by combining polybenzimidazole with the melamine-formaldehyde polymer to form a precursor. The polybenzimidazole may be reacted and/or intertwined with the melamine-formaldehyde polymer to form the polymer composition. For example, a stable, free-standing film having a thickness of, for example, between about 5 .mu.m and about 30 .mu.m may be formed from the polymer composition. Such films may be used as gas separation membranes and may be submerged into water for extended periods without crazing and cracking. The polymer composition may also be used as a coating on substrates, such as metal and ceramics, or may be used for spinning fibers. Precursors for forming such polymer compositions are also disclosed.

  13. Tetraarylborate Polymer Networks as Single-Ion Conducting Solid

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfateSciTechtail.Theory ofDidDevelopment TopMetathesisSediments and Related

  14. Solid Polymer Fuel Cell Research Group | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION JEnvironmental Jump to:EA EIS ReportEurope GmbH

  15. Solid electrolyte material manufacturable by polymer processing methods

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfateSciTechtail. (Conference)Feedback System in the CERN SPS(JournalLinacSolar(Patent) | SciTech

  16. Solid electrolyte material manufacturable by polymer processing methods

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfateSciTechtail. (Conference)Feedback System in the CERN SPS(JournalLinacSolar(Patent) |

  17. Danish Polymer Centre Annual Report 2002

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Danish Polymer Centre Annual Report 2002 #12;2 The Danish Polymer Centre, DTU and Risř Annual.1 Polymer based solar cells (photovoltaics) ................................ 5 2.2 Structuring Plastic ........................................................................ 17 2.7 Biodegradable polymer composites .......................................... 19 2

  18. Robust Polymer Composite Membranes for Hydrogen Separation |...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Robust Polymer Composite Membranes for Hydrogen Separation Robust Polymer Composite Membranes for Hydrogen Separation polymercompositemembranes.pdf More Documents & Publications...

  19. The Polymer Bouncer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Martin-Ruiz; A. Frank; L. F. Urrutia

    2015-05-31

    Polymer Quantization (PQ) is a background independent quantization scheme that is deployed in Loop Quantum Gravity. This framework leads to a new short-distance (discretized) structure characterized by a fundamental length. In this paper we use PQ to analyze the problem of a particle bouncing on a perfectly reflecting surface under the influence of Earth's gravitational field, what we have called "\\textit{The Polymer Bouncer}". In this scenario, deviations from the usual quantum effects are induced by the spatial discreteness, but not by a new short-range gravitational interaction. We solve the polymer Schr\\"odinger equation in an analytical fashion, and we evaluate numerically the corresponding energy levels. We find that the polymer energy spectrum exhibits a negative shift compared to the obtained for the quantum bouncer. The comparison of our results with those obtained in the GRANIT experiment leads to an upper bound for the fundamental length scale, namely $\\lambda \\ll 0.6 \\buildrel _{\\circ} \\over {\\mathrm{A}}$. We find polymer corrections to the probability of transitions between levels, induced by small vibrations, together with the probability of spontaneous emission in the quadrupole approximation.

  20. Solid composite electrolytes for lithium batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kumar, Binod (Dayton, OH); Scanlon, Jr., Lawrence G. (Fairborn, OH)

    2001-01-01

    Solid composite electrolytes are provided for use in lithium batteries which exhibit moderate to high ionic conductivity at ambient temperatures and low activation energies. In one embodiment, a polymer-ceramic composite electrolyte containing poly(ethylene oxide), lithium tetrafluoroborate and titanium dioxide is provided in the form of an annealed film having a room temperature conductivity of from 10.sup.-5 S cm.sup.-1 to 10.sup.-3 S cm.sup.-1 and an activation energy of about 0.5 eV.

  1. Branched Polymers and Hyperplane Arrangements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Postnikov, Alexander

    We generalize the construction of connected branched polymers and the notion of the volume of the space of connected branched polymers studied by Brydges and Imbrie (Ann Math, 158:1019–1039, 2003), and Kenyon and Winkler ...

  2. Colloidal synthesis of BaF2 nanoparticles and their application as fillers in polymer nanocomposites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sathyamurthy, Srivatsan [ORNL; Tuncer, Enis [ORNL; More, Karren Leslie [ORNL; Gu, Baohua [ORNL; Sauers, Isidor [ORNL; Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    Nanoparticles of pure and Eu-doped BaF2 have been prepared through sol-gel colloidal synthesis. In addition, BaF2 filled PMMA polymer nanocomposites were fabricated and dielectric properties were measured. The as-synthesized pure and Eu-doped BaF2 nanoparticles were analyzed by both X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy and consisted of crystalline BaF2 particles with an average diameter of 13.6 nm with a standard deviation of about 2.4 nm. The photoluminescence properties of the pure and Eu-doped (2%, 4% and 8%) nanoparticles showed characteristic emission of Eu3+ (5D0 7FJ (J=1-4) transitions). We also measured significantly enhanced dielectric breakdown strength of up to 30% for BaF2 nanocomposites over the unfilled PMMA polymer. This study thus offers some promise of sol-gel synthesis of nanocomposite dielectrics with great potential for use as electrical insulation materials in cryogenic high voltage applications.

  3. Rotary bulk solids divider

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maronde, Carl P. (McMurray, PA); Killmeyer, Jr., Richard P. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    1992-01-01

    An apparatus for the disbursement of a bulk solid sample comprising, a gravity hopper having a top open end and a bottom discharge end, a feeder positioned beneath the gravity hopper so as to receive a bulk solid sample flowing from the bottom discharge end, and a conveyor receiving the bulk solid sample from the feeder and rotating on an axis that allows the bulk solid sample to disperse the sample to a collection station.

  4. Laser cooling of solids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Epstein, Richard I; Sheik-bahae, Mansoor

    2008-01-01

    We present an overview of solid-state optical refrigeration also known as laser cooling in solids by fluorescence upconversion. The idea of cooling a solid-state optical material by simply shining a laser beam onto it may sound counter intuitive but is rapidly becoming a promising technology for future cryocooler. We chart the evolution of this science in rare-earth doped solids and semiconductors.

  5. Polymer Composites for Radiation Scintillation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Qi

    2012-01-01

    gamma-ray and fast neutron spectroscopy. Firstly, new polymergamma-ray and fast neutron spectroscopy. Firstly, new polymer

  6. Shape memory polymer medical device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maitland, Duncan (Pleasant Hill, CA); Benett, William J. (Livermore, CA); Bearinger, Jane P. (Livermore, CA); Wilson, Thomas S. (San Leandro, CA); Small, IV, Ward (Livermore, CA); Schumann, Daniel L. (Concord, CA); Jensen, Wayne A. (Livermore, CA); Ortega, Jason M. (Pacifica, CA); Marion, III, John E. (Livermore, CA); Loge, Jeffrey M. (Stockton, CA)

    2010-06-29

    A system for removing matter from a conduit. The system includes the steps of passing a transport vehicle and a shape memory polymer material through the conduit, transmitting energy to the shape memory polymer material for moving the shape memory polymer material from a first shape to a second and different shape, and withdrawing the transport vehicle and the shape memory polymer material through the conduit carrying the matter.

  7. Polymer OLED White Light Development Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Homer Antoniadis; Vi-En Choong; Stelios Choulis; Brian Cumpston; Rahul Gupta; Mathew Mathai; Michael Moyer; Franky So

    2005-12-19

    OSRAM Opto Semiconductors (OSRAM) successfully completed development, fabrication and characterization of the large area, polymer based white light OLED prototype at their OLED Research and Development (R&D) facility in San Jose, CA. The program, funded by the Department of Energy (DOE), consisted of three key objectives: (1) Develop new polymer materials and device architectures--in order to improve the performance of organic light emitters. (2) Develop processing techniques--in order to demonstrate and enable the manufacturing of large area, white light and color tunable, solid state light sources. (3) Develop new electronics and driving schemes for organic light sources, including color-tunable light sources. The key performance goals are listed. A world record efficiency of 25 lm/W was established for the solution processed white organic device from the significant improvements made during the project. However, the challenges to transfer this technology from an R&D level to a large tile format such as, the robustness of the device and the coating uniformity of large area panels, remain. In this regard, the purity and the blend nature of the materials are two factors that need to be addressed in future work. During the first year, OSRAM's Materials and Device group (M&D) worked closely with the major polymer material suppliers to develop the polymer emissive technology. M&D was successful in demonstrating a 7-8 lm/W white light source which was based on fluorescent materials. However, it became apparent that the major gains in efficiency could only be made if phosphorescent materials were utilized. Thus, in order to improve the performance of the resulting devices, the focus of the project shifted towards development of solution-processable phosphorescent light emitting diodes (PHOLEDs) and device architectures. The result is a higher efficiency than the outlined project milestone.

  8. Solid aerosol generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Prescott, D.S.; Schober, R.K.; Beller, J.

    1992-03-17

    An improved solid aerosol generator used to produce a gas borne stream of dry, solid particles of predetermined size and concentration is disclosed. The improved solid aerosol generator nebulizes a feed solution of known concentration with a flow of preheated gas and dries the resultant wet heated aerosol in a grounded, conical heating chamber, achieving high recovery and flow rates. 2 figs.

  9. Improved solid aerosol generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Prescott, D.S.; Schober, R.K.; Beller, J.

    1988-07-19

    An improved solid aerosol generator used to produce a gas borne stream of dry, solid particles of predetermined size and concentration. The improved solid aerosol generator nebulizes a feed solution of known concentration with a flow of preheated gas and dries the resultant wet heated aerosol in a grounded, conical heating chamber, achieving high recovery and flow rates. 2 figs.

  10. Solid State Division

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Green, P.H.; Watson, D.M.

    1989-08-01

    This report contains brief discussions on work done in the Solid State Division of Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The topics covered are: Theoretical Solid State Physics; Neutron scattering; Physical properties of materials; The synthesis and characterization of materials; Ion beam and laser processing; and Structure of solids and surfaces. (LSP)

  11. Antibacterial polymer coatings.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilson, Mollye C.; Allen, Ashley N.; Barnhart, Meghan; Tucker, Mark David; Hibbs, Michael R.

    2009-09-01

    A series of poly(sulfone)s with quaternary ammonium groups and another series with aldehyde groups are synthesized and tested for biocidal activity against vegetative bacteria and spores, respectively. The polymers are sprayed onto substrates as coatings which are then exposed to aqueous suspensions of organisms. The coatings are inherently biocidal and do not release any agents into the environment. The coatings adhere well to both glass and CARC-coated coupons and they exhibit significant biotoxicity. The most effective quaternary ammonium polymers kills 99.9% of both gram negative and gram positive bacteria and the best aldehyde coating kills 81% of the spores on its surface.

  12. BRANCHED POLYMERS AND HYPERPLANE ARRANGEMENTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Postnikov, Alexander

    BRANCHED POLYMERS AND HYPERPLANE ARRANGEMENTS KAROLA M´ESZ´AROS ALEXANDER POSTNIKOV Abstract. We of connected branched polymers studied by Brydges and Imbrie [BI], and Kenyon and Winkler [KW] to any hyperplane arrangement A. The volume of the resulting configuration space of connected branched polymers

  13. Polymer blend containing a modified dense star polymer or dendrimer and a matrix polymer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hedstrand, D.M.; Tomalia, D.A.

    1995-02-28

    Dense star polymers or dendrimers, modified by capping with a hydrophobic group capable of providing a hydrophobic outer shell, act as molecular nucleating agents in forming a polymer blend.

  14. High Resolution Additive Patterning of Nanoparticles and Polymers Enabled by Vapor Permeable Polymer Templates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Demko, Michael Thomas

    2012-01-01

    polymers for gas separation membranes. Polymer Chemistry 1,L. M. Polymer membranes for gas separation. Current Opinionapplication as membranes in gas separations. 109–111 These

  15. Solids fluidizer-injector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bulicz, T.R.

    1990-04-17

    An apparatus and process are described for fluidizing solid particles by causing rotary motion of the solid particles in a fluidizing chamber by a plurality of rotating projections extending from a rotatable cylinder end wall interacting with a plurality of fixed projections extending from an opposite fixed end wall and passing the solid particles through a radial feed orifice open to the solids fluidizing chamber on one side and a solid particle utilization device on the other side. The apparatus and process are particularly suited for obtaining intermittent feeding with continual solids supply to the fluidizing chamber. The apparatus and process are suitable for injecting solid particles, such as coal, to an internal combustion engine. 3 figs.

  16. Conducting Polymers for Neutron Detection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kimblin, Clare; Miller, Kirk; Vogel, Bob; Quam, Bill; McHugh, Harry; Anthony, Glen; Mike, Grover

    2007-12-01

    Conjugated polymers have emerged as an attractive technology for large-area electronic applications. As organic semiconductors, they can be used to make large-area arrays of diodes or transistors using fabrication techniques developed for polymer coatings, such as spraying and screen-printing. We have demonstrated both neutron and alpha detection using diodes made from conjugated polymers and have done preliminary work to integrate a boron carbide layer into the conventional polymer device structure to capture thermal neutrons. The polymer devices appear to be insensitive to gamma rays, due to their small physical thickness and low atomic number.

  17. Gel polymer electrolytes for batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Balsara, Nitash Pervez; Eitouni, Hany Basam; Gur, Ilan; Singh, Mohit; Hudson, William

    2014-11-18

    Nanostructured gel polymer electrolytes that have both high ionic conductivity and high mechanical strength are disclosed. The electrolytes have at least two domains--one domain contains an ionically-conductive gel polymer and the other domain contains a rigid polymer that provides structure for the electrolyte. The domains are formed by block copolymers. The first block provides a polymer matrix that may or may not be conductive on by itself, but that can soak up a liquid electrolyte, thereby making a gel. An exemplary nanostructured gel polymer electrolyte has an ionic conductivity of at least 1.times.10.sup.-4 S cm.sup.-1 at 25.degree. C.

  18. High temperature polymer concrete

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fontana, J.J.; Reams, W.

    1984-05-29

    This invention is concerned with a polymer concrete composition, which is a two-component composition useful with many bases including metal. Component A, the aggregate composition, is broadly composed of silica, silica flour, portland cement, and acrylamide, whereas Component B, which is primarily vinyl and acrylyl reactive monomers, is a liquid system.

  19. Durable metallized polymer mirror

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schissel, P.O.; Kennedy, C.E.; Jorgensen, G.J.; Shinton, Y.D.; Goggin, R.M.

    1994-11-01

    A metallized polymer mirror construction is disclosed having improved durability against delamination and tunneling, comprising: an outer layer of polymeric material; a metal oxide layer underlying the outer layer of polymeric material; a silver reflective layer underneath the metal oxide layer; and a layer of adhesive attaching the silver layer to a substrate. 6 figs.

  20. Durable metallized polymer mirror

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schissel, Paul O. (Golden, CO); Kennedy, Cheryl E. (Lafayette, CO); Jorgensen, Gary J. (Pine, CO); Shinton, Yvonne D. (Northglenn, CO); Goggin, Rita M. (Englewood, CO)

    1994-01-01

    A metallized polymer mirror construction having improved durability against delamination and tunneling, comprising: an outer layer of polymeric material; a metal oxide layer underlying the outer layer of polymeric material; a silver reflective layer underneath the metal oxide layer; and a layer of adhesive attaching the silver layer to a substrate.

  1. POLYMER ELECTROLYTE FUEL CELLS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Petta, Jason

    POLYMER ELECTROLYTE FUEL CELLS: The Gas Diffusion Layer Johannah Itescu Princeton University PRISM REU #12;PEM FUEL CELLS: A little background information I. What do fuel cells do? Generate electricity through chemical reaction #12;PEM FUEL CELLS: A little background information -+ + eHH 442 2 0244 22 He

  2. Sedimentation of Knotted Polymers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joonas Piili; Davide Marenduzzo; Kimmo Kaski; Riku Linna

    2012-12-20

    We investigate the sedimentation of knotted polymers by means of stochastic rotation dynamics, a molecular dynamics algorithm that takes hydrodynamics fully into account. We show that the sedimentation coefficient s, related to the terminal velocity of the knotted polymers, increases linearly with the average crossing number n_c of the corresponding ideal knot. To the best of our knowledge, this provides the first direct computational confirmation of this relation, postulated on the basis of experiments in "The effect of ionic conditions on the conformations of supercoiled DNA. I. sedimentation analysis" by Rybenkov et al., for the case of sedimentation. Such a relation was previously shown to hold with simulations for knot electrophoresis. We also show that there is an accurate linear dependence of s on the inverse of the radius of gyration R_g^-1, more specifically with the inverse of the R_g component that is perpendicular to the direction along which the polymer sediments. When the polymer sediments in a slab, the walls affect the results appreciably. However, R_g^-1 remains to a good precision linearly dependent on n_c. Therefore, R_g^-1 is a good measure of a knot's complexity.

  3. Primordial polymer perturbations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sanjeev S. Seahra; Iain A. Brown; Golam Mortuza Hossain; Viqar Husain

    2012-09-25

    We study the generation of primordial fluctuations in pure de Sitter inflation where the quantum scalar field dynamics are governed by polymer (not Schrodinger) quantization. This quantization scheme is related to, but distinct from, the structures employed in Loop Quantum Gravity; and it modifies standard results above a polymer energy scale $M_{\\star}$. We recover the scale invariant Harrison Zel'dovich spectrum for modes that have wavelengths bigger than $M_{\\star}^{-1}$ at the start of inflation. The primordial spectrum for modes with initial wavelengths smaller than $M_{\\star}^{-1}$ exhibits oscillations superimposed on the standard result. The amplitude of these oscillations is proportional to the ratio of the inflationary Hubble parameter $H$ to the polymer energy scale. For reasonable choices of $M_{\\star}$, we find that polymer effects are likely unobservable in CMB angular power spectra due to cosmic variance uncertainty, but future probes of baryon acoustic oscillations may be able to directly constrain the ratio $H/M_{\\star}$.

  4. Solid Waste Management (Indiana)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The state supports the implementation of source reduction, recycling, and other alternative solid waste management practices over incineration and land disposal. The Indiana Department of...

  5. Mixed oxide solid solutions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Magno, Scott (Dublin, CA); Wang, Ruiping (Fremont, CA); Derouane, Eric (Liverpool, GB)

    2003-01-01

    The present invention is a mixed oxide solid solution containing a tetravalent and a pentavalent cation that can be used as a support for a metal combustion catalyst. The invention is furthermore a combustion catalyst containing the mixed oxide solid solution and a method of making the mixed oxide solid solution. The tetravalent cation is zirconium(+4), hafnium(+4) or thorium(+4). In one embodiment, the pentavalent cation is tantalum(+5), niobium(+5) or bismuth(+5). Mixed oxide solid solutions of the present invention exhibit enhanced thermal stability, maintaining relatively high surface areas at high temperatures in the presence of water vapor.

  6. Appendix B: Glossary of Polymer Materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hall, Christopher

    -334 (Wiley, New York, 1985). Acrylic ester polymers A group of amorphous carbon-chain polymers of whichAppendix B: Glossary of Polymer Materials This glossary emphasises the individuality of polymers and polymer families, historically, scientifically and technically. It complements the rest of the book

  7. Low band gap polymers Organic Photovoltaics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Low band gap polymers for Organic Photovoltaics Eva Bundgaard Ph.D. Dissertation Risř National Bundgaard Title: Low band gap polymers for Organic photovoltaics Department: The polymer department Report the area of organic photovoltaics are focusing on low band gap polymers, a type of polymer which absorbs

  8. Mesoporous carbons and polymers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bell, William; Dietz, Steven

    2004-05-18

    A polymer is prepared by polymerizing a polymerizable component from a mixture containing the polymerizable component and a surfactant, the surfactant and the polymerizable component being present in the mixture in a molar ratio of at least 0.2:1, having an average pore size greater than 4 nm and a density greater than 0.1 g/cc. The polymerizable component can comprise a resorcinol/formaldehyde system and the mixture can comprise an aqueous solution or the polymerizable component can comprise a divinylbenzene/styrene system and the mixture can comprise an organic solution. Alternatively, the polymerizable component can comprise vinylidene chloride or a vinylidene chloride/divinylbenzene system. The polymer may be monolithic, have a BET surface area of at least about 50 m.sup.2 /g., include a quantity of at least one metal powder, or have an electrical conductivity greater than 10 Scm.sup.-1.

  9. Scratch behavior of polymers 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lim, Goy Teck

    2005-11-01

    of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY Approved by: Chair of Committee, J.N. Reddy Committee Members, H.-J. Sue A. Srinvas S. Suh Paul N. Roschke Head of Department, Dennis O?Neal August 2005 Major Subject: Mechanical Engineering iii ABSTRACT... Scratch Behavior of Polymers. (August 2005) Goy Teck Lim, B.Eng., National University of Singapore; M.Eng., National University of Singapore Chair of Advisory Committee: Dr. J.N. Reddy This dissertation work is focused on the analytical...

  10. Polymer Stretching by Turbulence

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chertkov, Michael

    2000-05-15

    The stretching of a polymer chain by a large-scale chaotic flow is considered. The steady state which emerges as a balance of the turbulent stretching and anharmonic resistance of the chain is quantitatively described, i.e., the dependency on the flow parameters (Lyapunov exponent statistics) and the chain characteristics (the number of beads and the interbead elastic potential) is made explicit. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society.

  11. Polymer Crowding and Shape Distributions in Polymer-Nanoparticle Mixtures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wei Kang Lim; Alan R. Denton

    2014-10-24

    Macromolecular crowding can influence polymer shapes, which is important for understanding the thermodynamic stability of polymer solutions and the structure and function of biopolymers (proteins, RNA, DNA) under confinement. We explore the influence of nanoparticle crowding on polymer shapes via Monte Carlo simulations and free-volume theory of a coarse-grained model of polymer-nanoparticle mixtures. Exploiting the geometry of random walks, we model polymer coils as effective penetrable ellipsoids, whose shapes fluctuate according to the probability distributions of the eigenvalues of the gyration tensor. Accounting for the entropic cost of a nanoparticle penetrating a larger polymer coil, we compute the crowding-induced shift in the shape distributions, radius of gyration, and asphericity of ideal polymers in a theta solvent. With increased nanoparticle crowding, we find that polymers become more compact (smaller, more spherical), in agreement with predictions of free-volume theory. Our approach can be easily extended to nonideal polymers in good solvents and used to model conformations of biopolymers in crowded environments.

  12. Incorporation of additives into polymers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McCleskey, T. Mark; Yates, Matthew Z.

    2003-07-29

    There has been invented a method for incorporating additives into polymers comprising: (a) forming an aqueous or alcohol-based colloidal system of the polymer; (b) emulsifying the colloidal system with a compressed fluid; and (c) contacting the colloidal polymer with the additive in the presence of the compressed fluid. The colloidal polymer can be contacted with the additive by having the additive in the compressed fluid used for emulsification or by adding the additive to the colloidal system before or after emulsification with the compressed fluid. The invention process can be carried out either as a batch process or as a continuous on-line process.

  13. Stretched Polymers in Random Environment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dmitry Ioffe; Yvan Velenik

    2011-03-01

    We survey recent results and open questions on the ballistic phase of stretched polymers in both annealed and quenched random environments.

  14. Highly efficient carbon dioxide capture with a porous organic polymer impregnated with

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paik Suh, Myunghyun

    Highly efficient carbon dioxide capture with a porous organic polymer impregnated environmental crises such as global warming and ocean acidication, efficient carbon dioxide (CO2) capture As CO2 capture mate- rials, numerous solid adsorbents such as silica5 and carbon materials,6 metal

  15. EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF ORGANIC MEMS BASED CONDUCTIVE POLYMER-METAL COMPOSITE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kassegne, Samuel Kinde

    by focusing on composite mixing methods and solid fabrication parameters for organic solar cell fabricationEXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF ORGANIC MEMS BASED CONDUCTIVE POLYMER-METAL COMPOSITE. Sam Kassegne #12;vi ABSTRACT OF THE THESIS Experimental Investigation of Organic MEMS based conductive

  16. Photodeposition Method For Fabricating A Three-Dimensional, Patterned Polymer Microstructure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Walt, David R. (Lexington, MA); Healey, Brian G. (Sommerville, MA)

    2001-03-13

    The present invention is a photodeposition methodology for fabricating a three-dimensional patterned polymer microstructure. A variety of polymeric structures can be fabricated on solid substrates using unitary fiber optic arrays for light delivery. The methodology allows micrometer-scale photopatterning for the fabricated structures using masks substantially larger than the desired dimensions of the microstructure.

  17. High solids fermentation reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wyman, Charles E. (Lakewood, CO); Grohmann, Karel (Littleton, CO); Himmel, Michael E. (Littleton, CO); Richard, Christopher J. (Lakewood, CO)

    1993-01-01

    A fermentation reactor and method for fermentation of materials having greater than about 10% solids. The reactor includes a rotatable shaft along the central axis, the shaft including rods extending outwardly to mix the materials. The reactor and method are useful for anaerobic digestion of municipal solid wastes to produce methane, for production of commodity chemicals from organic materials, and for microbial fermentation processes.

  18. High solids fermentation reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wyman, Charles E.; Grohmann, Karel; Himmel, Michael E.; Richard, Christopher J.

    1993-03-02

    A fermentation reactor and method for fermentation of materials having greater than about 10% solids. The reactor includes a rotatable shaft along the central axis, the shaft including rods extending outwardly to mix the materials. The reactor and method are useful for anaerobic digestion of municipal solid wastes to produce methane, for production of commodity chemicals from organic materials, and for microbial fermentation processes.

  19. Managing America's solid waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phillips, J. A.

    1998-09-15

    This report presents an historical overview of the federal role in municipal solid waste management from 1965 to approximately 1995. Attention is focuses on the federal role in safeguarding public health, protecting the environment, and wisely using material and energy resources. It is hoped that this report will provide important background for future municipal solid waste research and development initiatives.

  20. Modulating Protein Activity through Polymer Conjugation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Decker, Caitlin Gayle

    2015-01-01

    the   polymer  backbone,  but  100  mM  carbonate  /  carbonate   /   bicarbonate  (pH  10)  buffer  partially   degraded  the  polymer  polymer  2  in   either  D-­PBS  or  100  mM  carbonate  /  

  1. Computationally-guided Design of Polymer Electrolytes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stoltz, Brian M.

    carbonates. #12;Computationally-guided Design of Polymer Electrolytes Project Summary Michael Webb RigidRESEARCH HIGHLIGHTS Computationally-guided Design of Polymer Electrolytes From the Resnick of Polymer Electrolytes Global Significance While progress of sustainable energy- harvesting techniques

  2. Thin film-coated polymer webs

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wenz, Robert P. (Cottage Grove, MN); Weber, Michael F. (Shoreview, MN); Arudi, Ravindra L. (Woodbury, MN)

    1992-02-04

    The present invention relates to thin film-coated polymer webs, and more particularly to thin film electronic devices supported upon a polymer web, wherein the polymer web is treated with a purifying amount of electron beam radiation.

  3. Nitinol-reinforced shape-memory polymers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Di Leo, Claudio V

    2010-01-01

    Reinforced shape-memory polymers have been developed from an acrylate based thermoset shape-memory polymer and nitinol wires. A rectangular shape-memory polymer measuring approximately 1 by 2 by 0.1 inches has a ten fold ...

  4. Nanostructure Control of Biologically Inspired Polymers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rosales, Adrianne

    2013-01-01

    E. B. ; Wagener, K. B. Polymer 2008, 49, 2985-2995. Boz,T. ; Matyjaszewski, K. Polymer 2008, 49, 1567-1578. Kim,Flory, P. J. ; Jackson, J. B. Polymer 1963, 4, (2), 221-236.

  5. Polymer Composites in Construction: An Overview

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mosallam, AS; Bayraktar, A; Elmikawi, M; Pul, S; Adanur, S

    2015-01-01

    Pul S, Adanur S (2013) Polymer Composites in Construction:Pul S, Adanur S (2013) Polymer Composites in Construction:Mater Sci Eng 2(1), 25. Polymer Composites in Construction:

  6. Regenerable solid imine sorbents

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gray, McMahan; Champagne, Kenneth J.; Fauth, Daniel; Beckman, Eric

    2013-09-10

    Two new classes of amine-based sorbents are disclosed. The first class comprises new polymer-immobilized tertiary amine sorbents; the second class new polymer-bound amine sorbents. Both classes are tailored to facilitate removal of acid anhydrides, especially carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2), from effluent gases. The amines adsorb acid anhydrides in a 1:1 molar ratio. Both classes of amine sorbents adsorb in the temperature range from about 20.degree. C. upwards to 90.degree. C. and can be regenerated by heating upwards to 100.degree. C.

  7. Journal Title: Journal of polymer science. Part B, Polymer physics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fleming, Paul D. "Dan"

    composites. rigid rod polymer. mo- lecular modeling. poly (azomethine) · epoxy. glass/epoxy composite. Such composites would find * To whom correspondence should be addressed. Journal of Polymer Science: Part B molecular composite. Since heat conduction oc- curs more efficiently intramolecularly (through bonds) than

  8. POLYMER PROGRAM SEMINAR "Polymer Approaches to Basic Questions in Biology"

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alpay, S. Pamir

    POLYMER PROGRAM SEMINAR "Polymer Approaches to Basic Questions in Biology" Prof. Dennis E. Discher, biology is filled with remarkable polymeric structures that motivate mimicry with goals of both clarifying and exploiting biological principles. Filamentous viruses have inspired our development and computations of worm

  9. Biomass Biorefinery for the production of Polymers and Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Oliver P. Peoples

    2008-05-05

    The conversion of biomass crops to fuel is receiving considerable attention as a means to reduce our dependence on foreign oil imports and to meet future energy needs. Besides their use for fuel, biomass crops are an attractive vehicle for producing value added products such as biopolymers. Metabolix, Inc. of Cambridge proposes to develop methods for producing biodegradable polymers polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) in green tissue plants as well as utilizating residual plant biomass after polymer extraction for fuel generation to offset the energy required for polymer extraction. The primary plant target is switchgrass, and backup targets are alfalfa and tobacco. The combined polymer and fuel production from the transgenic biomass crops establishes a biorefinery that has the potential to reduce the nation’s dependence on foreign oil imports for both the feedstocks and energy needed for plastic production. Concerns about the widespread use of transgenic crops and the grower’s ability to prevent the contamination of the surrounding environment with foreign genes will be addressed by incorporating and expanding on some of the latest plant biotechnology developed by the project partners of this proposal. This proposal also addresses extraction of PHAs from biomass, modification of PHAs so that they have suitable properties for large volume polymer applications, processing of the PHAs using conversion processes now practiced at large scale (e.g., to film, fiber, and molded parts), conversion of PHA polymers to chemical building blocks, and demonstration of the usefulness of PHAs in large volume applications. The biodegradability of PHAs can also help to reduce solid waste in our landfills. If successful, this program will reduce U.S. dependence on imported oil, as well as contribute jobs and revenue to the agricultural economy and reduce the overall emissions of carbon to the atmosphere.

  10. Influence of confinement on polymer-electrolyte relaxational dynamics.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zanotti, J.-M.; Smith, L. J.; Price, D. L.; Saboungi, M.-L.; Intense Pulsed Neutron Source; Lab. Leon Brillouin (CEA-CRNS); Clark Univ.; CRMHT (CNRS); CRMD (CNRS)

    2004-01-01

    Conception and industrial production of viable high specific energy/power batteries is a central issue for the development of non-polluting vehicles. In terms of stored energy and safety, solid-state devices using polymer electrolytes are highly desirable. One of the most studied systems is PEO (polyethylene oxide) complexed by Li salts. Polymer segmental motions and ionic conductivity are closely related. Bulk PEO is actually a biphasic system where an amorphous and a crystalline state (Tm 335 K) coexist. To improve ionic conduction in those systems requires a significant increase of the amorphous phase fraction where lithium conduction is known to mainly take place. Confinement strongly affects properties of condensed matter and in particular the collective phenomena inducing crystallization. Confinement of the polymer matrix is therefore a possible alternative route to the unpractical use of high temperature. Results of a quasi-elastic incoherent neutron scattering study of the influence of confinement on polyethylene oxide (PEO) and (PEO)8Li+[(CF3SO2)2N]- (or (POE)8LiTFSI) dynamics are presented. The nano-confining media is Vycor, a silica based hydrophilic porous glass (characteristic size of the 3D pore network 50 {angstrom}). As expected, the presence of Li salt slows down the bulk polymer dynamics. The confinement also affects dramatically the apparent mean-square displacement of the polymer. Local relaxational PEO dynamics is described KWW model. We also present an alternate model and show how the detailed polymer dynamics (correlation times and local geometry of the motions) can be described without the use of such stretched exponentials so as to access a rheology-related meaningful physical quantity: the monomeric friction coefficient.

  11. Compatibilization/Compounding Evaluation of Recovered Polymers...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    CompatibilizationCompounding Evaluation of Recovered Polymers CompatibilizationCompounding Evaluation of Recovered Polymers Presentation from the U.S. DOE Office of Vehicle...

  12. Partially fluorinated cyclic ionic polymers and membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yang, Zhen-Yu

    2013-04-09

    Ionic polymers are made from selected partially fluorinated dienes, in which the repeat units are cycloaliphatic. The polymers are formed into membranes.

  13. Performance Enhancement of Cathodes with Conductive Polymers...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Enhancement of Cathodes with Conductive Polymers Performance Enhancement of Cathodes with Conductive Polymers Presentation from the U.S. DOE Office of Vehicle Technologies "Mega"...

  14. Nanocellulose in Polymer Composites and Biomedical: Research...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Nanocellulose in Polymer Composites and Biomedical: Research and Applications Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Nanocellulose in Polymer Composites and Biomedical:...

  15. Long-term oxygen sensor implantation in the porcine subcutaneous environment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kumosa, Lucas Stefan

    2011-01-01

    Polymer   Composites. ”Composites  Science  &  Technology,  Polymer  Composite  Materials. ”Composites   Science  &  Technology,  Polymer  Composites   Used  in  High  Voltage  Composite  (Non-­?Ceramic)  Insulators. ”     Composites  Science  &   Technology,  

  16. Polymer alloys with balanced heat storage capacity and engineering attributes and applications thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Soroushian, Parviz (Lansing, MI)

    2002-01-01

    A thermoplastic polymer of relatively low melt temperature is blended with at least one of thermosets, elastomers, and thermoplastics of relatively high melt temperature in order to produce a polymer blend which absorbs relatively high quantities of latent heat without melting or major loss of physical and mechanical characteristics as temperature is raised above the melting temperature of the low-melt-temperature thermoplastic. The polymer blend can be modified by the addition of at least one of fillers, fibers, fire retardants, compatibilisers, colorants, and processing aids. The polymer blend may be used in applications where advantage can be taken of the absorption of excess heat by a component which remains solid and retains major fractions of its physical and mechanical characteristics while absorbing relatively high quantities of latent heat.

  17. High elastic modulus polymer electrolytes suitable for preventing thermal runaway in lithium batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mullin, Scott; Panday, Ashoutosh; Balsara, Nitash Pervez; Singh, Mohit; Eitouni, Hany Basam; Gomez, Enrique Daniel

    2014-04-22

    A polymer that combines high ionic conductivity with the structural properties required for Li electrode stability is useful as a solid phase electrolyte for high energy density, high cycle life batteries that do not suffer from failures due to side reactions and dendrite growth on the Li electrodes, and other potential applications. The polymer electrolyte includes a linear block copolymer having a conductive linear polymer block with a molecular weight of at least 5000 Daltons, a structural linear polymer block with an elastic modulus in excess of 1.times.10.sup.7 Pa and an ionic conductivity of at least 1.times.10.sup.-5 Scm.sup.-1. The electrolyte is made under dry conditions to achieve the noted characteristics. In another aspect, the electrolyte exhibits a conductivity drop when the temperature of electrolyte increases over a threshold temperature, thereby providing a shutoff mechanism for preventing thermal runaway in lithium battery cells.

  18. Polymers in a vacuum

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. M. Deutsch

    2007-06-13

    In a variety of situations, isolated polymer molecules are found in a vacuum and here we examine their properties. Angular momentum conservation is shown to significantly alter the average size of a chain and its conservation is only broken slowly by thermal radiation. The time autocorrelation for monomer position oscillates with a characteristic time proportional to chain length. The oscillations and damping are analyzed in detail. Short range repulsive interactions suppress oscillations and speed up relaxation but stretched chains still show damped oscillatory time correlations.

  19. Conducting polymer ultracapacitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shi, Steven Z. (Latham, NY); Davey, John R. (Los Alamos, NM); Gottesfeld, Shimshon (Los Alamos, NM); Ren, Xiaoming (Los Alamos, NM)

    2002-01-01

    A sealed ultracapacitor assembly is formed with first and second electrodes of first and second conducting polymers electrodeposited on porous carbon paper substrates, where the first and second electrodes each define first and second exterior surfaces and first and second opposing surfaces. First and second current collector plates are bonded to the first and second exterior surfaces, respectively. A porous membrane separates the first and second opposing surfaces, with a liquid electrolyte impregnating the insulating membrane. A gasket formed of a thermoplastic material surrounds the first and second electrodes and seals between the first and second current collector plates for containing the liquid electrolyte.

  20. Management of Solid Waste (Oklahoma)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Solid Waste Management Division of the Department of Environmental Quality regulates solid waste disposal or any person who generates, collects, transports, processes, and/or disposes of solid...

  1. Vacuum flash evaporated polymer composites

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Affinito, J.D.; Gross, M.E.

    1997-10-28

    A method for fabrication of polymer composite layers in a vacuum is disclosed. More specifically, the method of dissolving salts in a monomer solution, vacuum flash evaporating the solution, condensing the flash evaporated solution as a liquid film, and forming the condensed liquid film into a polymer composite layer on a substrate is disclosed.

  2. Vacuum flash evaporated polymer composites

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Affinito, John D. (Kennewick, WA); Gross, Mark E. (Pasco, WA)

    1997-01-01

    A method for fabrication of polymer composite layers in a vacuum is disclosed. More specifically, the method of dissolving salts in a monomer solution, vacuum flash evaporating the solution, condensing the flash evaporated solution as a liquid film, and forming the condensed liquid film into a polymer composite layer on a substrate is disclosed.

  3. 3. Advanced Polymer Molecular Science

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Duh, Kevin

    3. Advanced Polymer Molecular Science Advanced Polymer Science 4. Photo-Functional Elements at the Center of Advanced Technology Photonic Device Science 5. Research on Functional Information Elements supporting the Next-generation Information Society Information Device Science EL 6. Energy Electronic

  4. Chelating water-soluble polymers for waste minimization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, B.; Cournoyer, M.; Duran, B.; Ford, D.; Gibson, R.; Lin, M.; Meck, A.; Robinson, P.; Robison, T.

    1996-11-01

    Within the DOE complex and in industry there is a tremendous need for advanced metal ion recovery and waste minimization techniques. This project sought to employ capabilities for ligand-design and separations chemistry in which one can develop and evaluate water- soluble chelating polymers for recovering actinides and toxic metals from various process streams. Focus of this work was (1) to develop and select a set of water-soluble polymers suitable for a selected waste stream and (2) demonstrate this technology in 2 areas: removal of (a) actinides and toxic RCRA metals from waste water and (b) recovery of Cu and other precious metals from industrial process streams including from solid catalysts and aqueous waste streams. The R&D was done in 4 phases for each of the 2 target areas: polymer synthesis for scaleup, equipment assembly, process demonstration at a DOE or industrial site, and advanced ligand/polymer synthesis. The TA- 50 site at Los Alamos was thought to be appropriate due to logistics and to its being representative of similar problems throughout the DOE complex.

  5. Fundamental studies of polymer filtration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, B.F.; Lu, M.T.; Robison, T.W.; Rogers, Y.C.; Wilson, K.V.

    1998-12-31

    This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The objectives of this project were (1) to develop an enhanced fundamental understanding of the coordination chemistry of hazardous-metal-ion complexation with water-soluble metal-binding polymers, and (2) to exploit this knowledge to develop improved separations for analytical methods, metals processing, and waste treatment. We investigated features of water-soluble metal-binding polymers that affect their binding constants and selectivity for selected transition metal ions. We evaluated backbone polymers using light scattering and ultrafiltration techniques to determine the effect of pH and ionic strength on the molecular volume of the polymers. The backbone polymers were incrementally functionalized with a metal-binding ligand. A procedure and analytical method to determine the absolute level of functionalization was developed and the results correlated with the elemental analysis, viscosity, and molecular size.

  6. Polymer formulations for gettering hydrogen

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shepodd, Timothy J. (330 Thrasher Ave., Livermore, CA 94550); Even, Jr., William R. (4254 Drake Way, Livermore, CA 94550)

    2000-01-01

    A novel method for preparing a hydrogenation composition comprising organic polymer molecules having carbon--carbon double bonds, for removing hydrogen from the atmosphere within enclosed spaces and particularly from atmospheres within enclosed spaces that contain air, water vapor, oxygen, carbon dioxide or ammonia. The organic polymers molecules containing carbon--carbon double bonds throughout their structures, preferably polybutadiene, polyisoprene and derivatives thereof, intimately mixed with an insoluble noble metal catalyst composition. High molecular weight polymers may be added to the organic polymer/catalyst mixture in order to improve their high temperature performance. The hydrogenation composition is prepared by dispersing the polymers in a suitable solvent, forming thereby a solution suspension, flash-freezing droplets of the solution in a liquid cryogen, freeze-drying the frozen droplets to remove frozen solvent incorporated in the droplets, and recovering the dried powder thus formed.

  7. Solid Waste Management (North Carolina)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Solid Waste Program regulates safe management of solid waste through guidance, technical assistance, regulations, permitting, environmental monitoring, compliance evaluation and enforcement....

  8. Oilfield flooding polymer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Martin, Fred D. (Socorro, NM); Hatch, Melvin J. (Socorro, NM); Shepitka, Joel S. (Socorro, NM); Donaruma, Lorraine G. (Syosset, NY)

    1986-01-01

    A monomer, polymers containing the monomer, and the use of the polymer in oilfield flooding is disclosed. The subject monomer is represented by the general formula: ##STR1## wherein: n is an integer from 0 to about 4; m is an integer from 0 to about 6; a is an integer equal to at least 1 except where m is equal to 0, a must equal 0 and where m is equal to 1, a must equal 0 or 1; p is an integer from 2 to about 10; b is an integer equal to at least 1 and is of sufficient magnitude that the ratio b/p is at least 0.2; and q is an integer from 0 to 2. The number of hydroxy groups in the monomer is believed to be critical, and therefore the sum of (a+b) divided by the sum (m+p) should be at least 0.2. The moieties linked to the acrylic nitrogen can be joined to provide a ringed structure.

  9. Solid Waste Management (Kansas)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This act aims to establish and maintain a cooperative state and local program of planning and technical and financial assistance for comprehensive solid waste management. No person shall construct,...

  10. Solid State Lighting Reliability

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Solid State Lighting Reliability 2015Building Technologies Office Peer Review Lynn Davis, PhD RTI International ldavis@rti.org --- 919-316-3325 Project Summary Timeline: Start...

  11. Solids Accumulation Scouting Studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duignan, M. R.; Steeper, T. J.; Steimke, J. L.

    2012-09-26

    The objective of Solids Accumulation activities was to perform scaled testing to understand the behavior of remaining solids in a Double Shell Tank (DST), specifically AW-105, at Hanford during multiple fill, mix, and transfer operations. It is important to know if fissionable materials can concentrate when waste is transferred from staging tanks prior to feeding waste treatment plants. Specifically, there is a concern that large, dense particles containing plutonium could accumulate in poorly mixed regions of a blend tank heel for tanks that employ mixing jet pumps. At the request of the DOE Hanford Tank Operations Contractor, Washington River Protection Solutions, the Engineering Development Laboratory of the Savannah River National Laboratory performed a scouting study in a 1/22-scale model of a waste staging tank to investigate this concern and to develop measurement techniques that could be applied in a more extensive study at a larger scale. Simulated waste tank solids: Gibbsite, Zirconia, Sand, and Stainless Steel, with stainless steel particles representing the heavier particles, e.g., plutonium, and supernatant were charged to the test tank and rotating liquid jets were used to mix most of the solids while the simulant was pumped out. Subsequently, the volume and shape of the mounds of residual solids and the spatial concentration profiles for the surrogate for heavier particles were measured. Several techniques were developed and equipment designed to accomplish the measurements needed and they included: 1. Magnetic particle separator to remove simulant stainless steel solids. A device was designed and built to capture these solids, which represent the heavier solids during a waste transfer from a staging tank. 2. Photographic equipment to determine the volume of the solids mounds. The mounds were photographed as they were exposed at different tank waste levels to develop a composite of topographical areas. 3. Laser rangefinders to determine the volume of the solids mounds. The mounds were scanned after tank supernatant was removed. 4. Core sampler to determine the stainless steel solids distribution within the solids mounds. This sampler was designed and built to remove small sections of the mounds to evaluate concentrations of the stainless steel solids at different special locations. 5. Computer driven positioner that placed the laser rangefinders and the core sampler in appropriate locations over solids mounds that accumulated on the bottom of a scaled staging tank where mixing is poor. These devices and techniques were effective to estimate the movement, location, and concentrations of the solids representing heavier particles and could perform well at a larger scale The experiment contained two campaigns with each comprised of ten cycles to fill and empty the scaled staging tank. The tank was filled without mixing, but emptied, while mixing, in seven batches; the first six were of equal volumes of 13.1 gallons each to represent the planned fullscale batches of 145,000 gallons, and the last, partial, batch of 6.9 gallons represented a full-scale partial batch of 76,000 gallons that will leave a 72-inch heel in the staging tank for the next cycle. The sole difference between the two campaigns was the energy to mix the scaled staging tank, i.e., the nozzle velocity and jet rotational speed of the two jet pumps. Campaign 1 used 22.9 ft/s, at 1.54 rpm based on past testing and Campaign 2 used 23.9 ft/s at 1.75 rpm, based on visual observation of minimum velocity that allowed fast settling solids, i.e., sand and stainless steel, to accumulate on the scaled tank bottom.

  12. Bioproduction of the Aroma Compound 2-Phenylethanol in a SolidLiquid Two-Phase

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daugulis, Andrew J.

    product stored in the polymer was ultimately extracted using methanol. A 3 L working volume solid­ liquid tended to favor ``natural'' ingredients in products and this behavior has driven up the market demand for naturally produced 2-PE. Because products derived from bioprocesses starting with natural substrates

  13. Inhibition of Hotspot Formation in Polymer Bonded Explosives Using an Interface Matching Low Density Polymer Coating at the Polymer-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goddard III, William A.

    Inhibition of Hotspot Formation in Polymer Bonded Explosives Using an Interface Matching Low Density Polymer Coating at the Polymer- Explosive Interface Qi An, William A. Goddard, III,*, Sergey V/s) on a prototype polymer bonded explosive (PBX) consisting of cyclotrimethylene trinitramine (RDX) bonded

  14. Polymer adsorption near the surface of a polymer solution : a universal behaviour

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    699 Polymer adsorption near the surface of a polymer solution : a universal behaviour J. des5 , pour 0 03B5 1. Abstract.2014 A universal property of good solutions of long polymers near. Introduction. The free surface of a polymer solution may attract the polymer which forms an adsorbed layer

  15. ENG BE/ME/MS 504: Polymers and Soft Materials GRS PY 744: Polymer Physics.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vajda, Sandor

    ENG BE/ME/MS 504: Polymers and Soft Materials GRS PY 744: Polymer Physics. Prof. Rama Bansil Class will be assumed. The course will not emphasize synthetic polymer chemistry. Practical applications of polymers of classes TEXT BOOKS Main Text Book: Required: Polymer Chemistry, 2nd Edition, Hiemenz and Lodge, CRC Press

  16. Polymer Thermodynamics and Chain Structure Polymers display some similarities and some differences with nano-aggregates.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beaucage, Gregory

    Polymer Thermodynamics and Chain Structure Polymers display some similarities and some differences with nano-aggregates. Both materials are composed of basic units, Kuhn units for polymers which are rod an aggregate in nanomaterials and a polymer coil in Polymer Science. The mass-fractal or minimum dimension

  17. Characterization of polyxylylenes with solid state {sup 13}C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schneider, D.A.; Loy, D.A.; Assink, R.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)] [and others

    1996-10-01

    Polyxylylenes are an important class of thermoplastics that are readily prepared by thermolysis of [2.2]paracyclophane or xylene precursors to afford xylylene monomers that condense and polymerize on solid surfaces to give polymer films. As most polyxylylenes are insoluble due to a high degree of crystallinity, characterization by solid state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic techniques is necessary. In this paper we describe the preparation of polyxylylene, poly-2-ethylxylylene, poly-2-chloroxylylene, poly-2, 3-dichloroxylylene, and poly({alpha}, {alpha}, {alpha}{prime}, {alpha}{prime}-tetrafluoroxylylene) and their characterization using solid state {sup 13}C Cross Polarization Magic Angle Spinning Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (CP MAS NMR) spectroscopy.

  18. Carbon nanotube-polymer composite actuators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gennett, Thomas (Denver, CO); Raffaelle, Ryne P. (Honeoye Falls, NY); Landi, Brian J. (Rochester, NY); Heben, Michael J. (Denver, CO)

    2008-04-22

    The present invention discloses a carbon nanotube (SWNT)-polymer composite actuator and method to make such actuator. A series of uniform composites was prepared by dispersing purified single wall nanotubes with varying weight percents into a polymer matrix, followed by solution casting. The resulting nanotube-polymer composite was then successfully used to form a nanotube polymer actuator.

  19. APA International Conference on Polymers : Vision & Innovations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kumar, M. Jagadesh

    the scientific community working in the field of polymer science and technology. This conference on polymersAssociation (APA) is a professional society dedicated to the science of polymers at the international level and to formulate the action plan to face the challenges ahead. The conference would be dedicated to polymer science

  20. Disentanglementand Reptation During Dissolution of Rubbery Polymers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peppas, Nicholas A.

    Disentanglementand Reptation During Dissolution of Rubbery Polymers BALAJI NARASIMHAN and NIKOLAOS-1283 SYNOPSIS The dissolution mechanism of rubbery polymers was analyzed by dividing the penetrant concentration penetration into the rubbery polymer was assumed to be Fickian. The mode of mobility of the polymer chains

  1. Kac polymers Paolo Butt`a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Procacci, Aldo

    Kac polymers Paolo Butt`a Aldo Procacci Benedetto Scoppola Abstract We show how a polymer in two- sidered on the appropriate scale. Key words: Polymers, Kac potentials, phase transition. Running title: Kac polymers Dedicated to a Marzio Cassandro's birthday. 1 Introduction In the last two decades

  2. Non-strinking siloxane polymers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Loy, Douglas A. (Albuquerque, NM); Rahimian, Kamyar (Albuquerque, NM)

    2001-01-01

    Cross-linked polymers formed by ring-opening polymerization of a precursor monomer of the general formula R[CH.sub.2 CH(Si(CH.sub.3).sub.2).sub.2 O].sub.2, where R is a phenyl group or an alkyl group having at least two carbon atoms. A cross-linked polymer is synthesized by mixing the monomer with a co-monomer of the general formula CH.sub.2 CHR.sup.2 (SiMe.sub.2).sub.2 O in the presence of an anionic base to form a cross-linked polymer of recurring units of the general formula R(Me.sub.2 SiOCH.sub.2 CHSiMe.sub.2).sub.2 [CH.sub.2 CHR.sup.2 (SiMe.sub.2).sub.2 O].sub.n, where R.sup.2 is hydrogen, phenyl, ethyl, propyl or butyl. If the precursor monomer is a liquid, the polymer can be directly synthesized in the presence of an anionic base to a cross-linked polymer containing recurring units of the general formula R(Me.sub.2 SiOCH.sub.2 CHSiMe.sub.2).sub.2. The polymers have approximately less than 1% porosity and are thermally stable at temperatures up to approximately 500.degree. C. The conversion to the cross-linked polymer occurs by ring opening polymerization and results in shrinkage of less than approximately 5% by volume.

  3. On the Anomalous Weight Losses of High Voltage Symmetrical Capacitors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Elio B. Porcelli; Victo S. Filho

    2015-02-21

    In this work, we analyzed an anomalous effect verified from symmetrical capacitor devices, working in very high electric potentials. The mastery of that effect could mean in the future the possible substitution of propulsion technology based on fuels by single electrical propulsion systems. From experimental measurements, we detected small variations of the device inertia that cannot be associated with known interactions, so that the raised force apparently has not been completely elucidated by current theories. We measured such variations within an accurate range and we proposed that the experimental results can be explained by relations like Clausius-Mossotti one, in order to quantify the dipole forces that appear in the devices. The values of the weight losses in the capacitors were calculated by means of the theoretical proposal and indicated good agreement with our experimental measurements for 7kV and with many other experimental works.

  4. High voltage fault current limiter having immersed phase coils

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Darmann, Francis Anthony

    2014-04-22

    A fault current limiter including: a ferromagnetic circuit formed from a ferromagnetic material and including at least a first limb, and a second limb; a saturation mechanism surrounding a limb for magnetically saturating the ferromagnetic material; a phase coil wound around a second limb; a dielectric fluid surrounding the phase coil; a gaseous atmosphere surrounding the saturation mechanism.

  5. The Appraisal Journal, Price Effects of High Voltage Transmission...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    data was sufficient to derive precise market price equations via multiple linear regression analysis for both Portland and Seattle. In addition, due to where the rights of way...

  6. Easily disassembled electrical connector for high voltage, high frequency connections

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Milner, J.R.

    1994-05-10

    An easily accessible electrical connector capable of rapid assembly and disassembly is described wherein a wide metal conductor sheet may be evenly contacted over the entire width of the conductor sheet by opposing surfaces on the connector which provide an even clamping pressure against opposite surfaces of the metal conductor sheet using a single threaded actuating screw. 13 figures.

  7. Measurement of low radioactivity background in a high voltage...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    material were separated. Based on the mass fraction of the cable, the whole contamination was calculated. The HR ICP MS results were cross-checked by gamma ray spectroscopy...

  8. Light-weight DC to very high voltage DC converter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Druce, R.L.; Kirbie, H.C.; Newton, M.A.

    1998-06-30

    A DC-DC converter capable of generating outputs of 100 KV without a transformer comprises a silicon opening switch (SOS) diode connected to allow a charging current from a capacitor to flow into an inductor. When a specified amount of charge has flowed through the SOS diode, it opens up abruptly; and the consequential collapsing field of the inductor causes a voltage and current reversal that is steered into a load capacitor by an output diode. A switch across the series combination of the capacitor, inductor, and SOS diode closes to periodically reset the SOS diode by inducing a forward-biased current. 1 fig.

  9. High-voltage atmospheric breakdown across intervening rutile dielectrics.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williamson, Kenneth Martin; Simpson, Sean; Coats, Rebecca Sue; Jorgenson, Roy Eberhardt; Hjalmarson, Harold Paul; Pasik, Michael Francis

    2013-09-01

    This report documents work conducted in FY13 on electrical discharge experiments performed to develop predictive computational models of the fundamental processes of surface breakdown in the vicinity of high-permittivity material interfaces. Further, experiments were conducted to determine if free carrier electrons could be excited into the conduction band thus lowering the effective breakdown voltage when UV photons (4.66 eV) from a high energy pulsed laser were incident on the rutile sample. This report documents the numerical approach, the experimental setup, and summarizes the data and simulations. Lastly, it describes the path forward and challenges that must be overcome in order to improve future experiments for characterizing the breakdown behavior for rutile.

  10. High voltage design structure for high temperature superconducting device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tekletsadik, Kasegn D. (Rexford, NY)

    2008-05-20

    In accordance with the present invention, modular corona shields are employed in a HTS device to reduce the electric field surrounding the HTS device. In a exemplary embodiment a fault current limiter module in the insulation region of a cryogenic cooling system has at least one fault current limiter set which employs a first corona shield disposed along the top portion of the fault current limiter set and is electrically coupled to the fault current limiter set. A second corona shield is disposed along the bottom portion of the fault current limiter set and is electrically coupled to the fault current limiter set. An insulation barrier is disposed within the insulation region along at least one side of the fault current limiter set. The first corona shield and the second corona shield act together to reduce the electric field surrounding the fault limiter set when voltage is applied to the fault limiter set.

  11. Highline Pacific Northwests High-Voltage Transmission System

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nancy Mitman Cathy Ehli Administrators of BPA Mary Jensen Mission Vision Values History Film Vault Film Collection Volume One Film Collection Volume Two 75th Anniversary Hydropower...

  12. Non-aqueous electrolyte for high voltage rechargeable magnesium batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Doe, Robert Ellis; Lane, George Hamilton; Jilek, Robert E; Hwang, Jaehee

    2015-02-10

    An electrolyte for use in electrochemical cells is provided. The properties of the electrolyte include high conductivity, high Coulombic efficiency, and an electrochemical window that can exceed 3.5 V vs. Mg/Mg.sup.+2. The use of the electrolyte promotes the electrochemical deposition and dissolution of Mg without the use of any Grignard reagents, other organometallic materials, tetraphenyl borate, or tetrachloroaluminate derived anions. Other Mg-containing electrolyte systems that are expected to be suitable for use in secondary batteries are also described.

  13. High voltage MOSFET devices and methods of making the devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Banerjee, Sujit; Matocha, Kevin; Chatty, Kiran

    2015-12-15

    A SiC MOSFET device having low specific on resistance is described. The device has N+, P-well and JFET regions extended in one direction (Y-direction) and P+ and source contacts extended in an orthogonal direction (X-direction). The polysilicon gate of the device covers the JFET region and is terminated over the P-well region to minimize electric field at the polysilicon gate edge. In use, current flows vertically from the drain contact at the bottom of the structure into the JFET region and then laterally in the X direction through the accumulation region and through the MOSFET channels into the adjacent N+ region. The current flowing out of the channel then flows along the N+ region in the Y-direction and is collected by the source contacts and the final metal. Methods of making the device are also described.

  14. Electrolytes and Separators for High Voltage Li Ion Cells

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting

  15. High Voltage Electrolytes for Li-ion Batteries

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting

  16. Influence of Barrier Design on Current Collapse in High Voltage...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ; Kaplar, Robert James ; Marinella, Matthew ; Zavadil, Kevin Robert ; Atcitty, Stanley ; Sun, Min ; Palacios, Tomas Publication Date: 2012-10-01 OSTI Identifier: 1111316 Report...

  17. Influence of Barrier Design on Current Collapse in High Voltage...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ; Kaplar, Robert ; Marinella, Matthew ; Zavadil, Kevin Robert ; Atcitty, Stanley ; Sun, Min ; Palacios, Tomas Publication Date: 2013-02-01 OSTI Identifier: 1145383 Report...

  18. Experimental validation of a high voltage pulse measurement method.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cular, Stefan; Patel, Nishant Bhupendra; Branch, Darren W.

    2013-09-01

    This report describes X-cut lithium niobate's (LiNbO3) utilization for voltage sensing by monitoring the acoustic wave propagation changes through LiNbO3 resulting from applied voltage. Direct current (DC), alternating current (AC) and pulsed voltage signals were applied to the crystal. Voltage induced shift in acoustic wave propagation time scaled quadratically for DC and AC voltages and linearly for pulsed voltages. The measured values ranged from 10 - 273 ps and 189 ps - 2 ns for DC and non-DC voltages, respectively. Data suggests LiNbO3 has a frequency sensitive response to voltage. If voltage source error is eliminated through physical modeling from the uncertainty budget, the sensor's U95 estimated combined uncertainty could decrease to ~0.025% for DC, AC, and pulsed voltage measurements.

  19. Nanoscale Morphological and Chemical Changes of High Voltage

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass map shines lightGeospatialDevelopmentEnergyApplications -Nanoscale Chemical

  20. The commercial development of water repellent coatings for high voltage

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfateSciTechtail. (Conference)FeedbackProperties ofTheatmosphere (Journal

  1. The commercial development of water repellent coatings for high voltage

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfateSciTechtail. (Conference)FeedbackProperties ofTheatmosphere (Journaltransmission lines (Technical

  2. HIGH-VOLTAGE SPINEL AND POLYANION CATHODES | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum12,ExecutiveFinancing Programs |Reference StationFranklinHammer

  3. High Temperature, High Voltage Fully Integrated Gate Driver Circuit |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum12,ExecutiveFinancing ProgramsDepartment of¡High HIGHofWasteDepartment of

  4. High Temperature, High Voltage Fully Integrated Gate Driver Circuit |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum12,ExecutiveFinancing ProgramsDepartment of¡High HIGHofWasteDepartment

  5. High Voltage Electrolyte for Lithium Batteries | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum12,ExecutiveFinancing ProgramsDepartment of¡HighApproaches | 03.25.2015DOE2 DOE

  6. High Voltage Electrolyte for Lithium Batteries | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum12,ExecutiveFinancing ProgramsDepartment of¡HighApproaches | 03.25.2015DOE2 DOE1

  7. High-Voltage Insulators and Components - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would likeUniverse (JournalvivoHigh energy neutronHigh-Pressure MOFElectricity Transmission

  8. Highline Pacific Northwests High-Voltage Transmission System

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would likeUniverse (JournalvivoHigh energyHighland View school Highland ViewSeptember 2002

  9. Thermally Activated Processes in Polymer Glasses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    V. Parihar; D. Drosdoff; A. Widom; Y. N. Srivastava

    2005-12-03

    A derivation is given for the Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann thermal activation law for the glassy state of a bulk polymer. Our microscopic considerations involve the entropy of closed polymer molecular chains (i.e. polymer closed strings). For thin film polymer glasses, one obtains open polymer strings in that the boundary surfaces serve as possible string endpoint locations. The Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann thermal activation law thereby holds true for a bulk polymer glass but is modified in the neighborhood of the boundaries of thin film polymers.

  10. Thermodynamics of tubelike flexible polymers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas Vogel; Thomas Neuhaus; Michael Bachmann; Wolfhard Janke

    2009-07-17

    In this work we present the general phase behavior of short tubelike flexible polymers. The geometric thickness constraint is implemented through the concept of the global radius of curvature. We use sophisticated Monte Carlo sampling methods to simulate small bead-stick polymer models with Lennard-Jones interaction among non-bonded monomers. We analyze energetic fluctuations and structural quantities to classify conformational pseudophases. We find that the tube thickness influences the thermodynamic behavior of simple tubelike polymers significantly, i.e., for given temperature, the formation of secondary structures strongly depends on the tube thickness.

  11. Characterization of polyxylylenes with solid state {sup 13}C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Loy, D.A.; Assink, R.A.; Jamison, G.M.; McNamara, W.F.; Schneider, D.A. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States); Prabakar, S. [New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1996-02-01

    Polyxylylenes are thermoplastics used as encapsulants for electronic devices. Five polyxylylenes were prepared by pyrolysis of [2.2]paracyclophanes and characterized by solid state {sup 13}C NMR spectroscopy. The chemical shift data, in combination with interrupted decoupling experiments, allowed assignment of resonances to their carbon sources in the polymers. This confirmed the integrity of the xylylene building block in the polymers and is consistent with linear polymers. No crosslinking could be detected within the NMR sensitivity limits. Residual paracyclophane was detected by {sup 13}C CP MAS NMR spectroscopy in the polyxylylene samples prepared at room temperature; however discrete {sup 13}C resonances due to amorphous and crystalline phases in the polymers were not resolved.

  12. Friction at Soft Polymer Surfaces: Lubrication Effect of Oil Impregnation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Manoj K. Chaudhury; Katherine Vorvolakos; David Malotky

    2015-08-06

    The modes of attachments, detachments and relaxations of molecules of rubbers and gels on solid surfaces are keys to understanding their frictional properties. An early stochastic model of polymer relaxations on surfaces was given by Schallamach, which has now evolved in various ways. A review of these developments is presented along with the experimental data that elucidate the kinetic friction of smooth rubber against smooth surfaces. These soft rubbers exhibit various types of instabilities while sliding on surfaces. A few examples of these instabilities are provided.

  13. COLD-START CHARACTERISTICS OF POLYMER ELECTROLYTE FUEL CELLS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mukherjee, Partha P [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the electrochemical reaction kinetics, species transport, and solid water dynamics in a polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC) during cold start. A simplified analysis is developed to enable the evaluation of the impact of ice volume fraction on cell performance during cold-start. Supporting neutron imaging data are also provided to reveal the real-time water evolution. Temperature-dependent voltage changes due to the reaction kinetics and ohmic loss are also analyzed based on the ionic conductivity of the membrane at subfreezing temperature. The analysis is valuable for the fundamental study of PEFC cold-start.

  14. Cold-start characteristics of polymer electrolyte fuel cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mishler, Jeff [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mukundan, Rangachary [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wang, Yun [UNIV. CAL. RIVERSIDE; Mishler, Jeff [UNIV. CAL. RIVERSIDE; Mukherjee, Partha P [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the electrochemical reaction kinetics, species transport, and solid water dynamics in a polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC) during cold start. A simplitied analysis is developed to enable the evaluation of the impact of ice volume fraction on cell performance during coldstart. Supporting neutron imaging data are also provided to reveal the real-time water evolution. Temperature-dependent voltage changes due to the reaction kinetics and ohmic loss are also analyzed based on the ionic conductivity of the membrane at subfreezing temperature. The analysis is valuable for the fundamental study of PEFC cold-start.

  15. Characterization of macro-length conducting polymers and the development of a conducting polymer rotary motor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schmid, Bryan D. (Bryan David), 1981-

    2005-01-01

    Conducting polymers are a subset of materials within the electroactive polymer class that exhibit active mechanical deformations. These deformations induce stresses and strains that allow for conducting polymers to be used ...

  16. Constitutive modeling of active polymers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Therkelsen, Scott V. (Scott Vincent), 1980-

    2005-01-01

    This thesis develops a three-dimensional constitutive model of active polymeric materials, including changes in material volume and properties due to actuation. Active polymers reversibly change shape, volume and/or material ...

  17. Manganese uptake of imprinted polymers

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Susanna Ventura

    2015-09-30

    Batch tests of manganese imprinted polymers of variable composition to assess their ability to extract lithium and manganese from synthetic brines at T=45C . Data on manganese uptake for two consecutive cycles are included.

  18. Conductive polymer-based material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McDonald, William F. (Utica, OH); Koren, Amy B. (Lansing, MI); Dourado, Sunil K. (Ann Arbor, MI); Dulebohn, Joel I. (Lansing, MI); Hanchar, Robert J. (Charlotte, MI)

    2007-04-17

    Disclosed are polymer-based coatings and materials comprising (i) a polymeric composition including a polymer having side chains along a backbone forming the polymer, at least two of the side chains being substituted with a heteroatom selected from oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, and phosphorus and combinations thereof; and (ii) a plurality of metal species distributed within the polymer. At least a portion of the heteroatoms may form part of a chelation complex with some or all of the metal species. In many embodiments, the metal species are present in a sufficient concentration to provide a conductive material, e.g., as a conductive coating on a substrate. The conductive materials may be useful as the thin film conducting or semi-conducting layers in organic electronic devices such as organic electroluminescent devices and organic thin film transistors.

  19. A conjugated polymer plastic gel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alcazar Jorba, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    We present a gel route to process highly oriented conjugated polymer films and fibers. The incorporation of hexafluoroisopropanol, a strong and stable dipolar group, to the polythiophene backbone enhances the solubility ...

  20. Layered plasma polymer composite membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Babcock, W.C.

    1994-10-11

    Layered plasma polymer composite fluid separation membranes are disclosed, which comprise alternating selective and permeable layers for a total of at least 2n layers, where n is [>=]2 and is the number of selective layers. 2 figs.

  1. Polymer Bose--Einstein Condensates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    E. Castellanos; G. Chacon-Acosta

    2013-01-22

    In this work we analyze a non--interacting one dimensional polymer Bose--Einstein condensate in an harmonic trap within the semiclassical approximation. We use an effective Hamiltonian coming from the polymer quantization that arises in loop quantum gravity. We calculate the number of particles in order to obtain the critical temperature. The Bose--Einstein functions are replaced by series, whose high order terms are related to powers of the polymer length. It is shown that the condensation temperature presents a shift respect to the standard case, for small values of the polymer scale. In typical experimental conditions, it is possible to establish a bound for $\\lambda^{2}$ up to $ \\lesssim 10 ^{-16}$m$^2$. To improve this bound we should decrease the frequency of the trap and also decrease the number of particles.

  2. Polyphosphazine-based polymer materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fox, Robert V.; Avci, Recep; Groenewold, Gary S.

    2010-05-25

    Methods of removing contaminant matter from porous materials include applying a polymer material to a contaminated surface, irradiating the contaminated surface to cause redistribution of contaminant matter, and removing at least a portion of the polymer material from the surface. Systems for decontaminating a contaminated structure comprising porous material include a radiation device configured to emit electromagnetic radiation toward a surface of a structure, and at least one spray device configured to apply a capture material onto the surface of the structure. Polymer materials that can be used in such methods and systems include polyphosphazine-based polymer materials having polyphosphazine backbone segments and side chain groups that include selected functional groups. The selected functional groups may include iminos, oximes, carboxylates, sulfonates, .beta.-diketones, phosphine sulfides, phosphates, phosphites, phosphonates, phosphinates, phosphine oxides, monothio phosphinic acids, and dithio phosphinic acids.

  3. Foldable polymers as probes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Li, Alexander D. Q. (Pullman, WA); Wang, Wei (Pullman, WA)

    2007-07-03

    Disclosed herein are novel probes, which can be used to detect and identify target molecules of interest in a sample. The disclosed probes can be used to monitor conformational changes induced by molecular recognition events in addition to providing signaling the presence and/or identity of a target molecule. Methods, including solid phase synthesis techniques, for making probe molecules that exhibit changes in their optical properties upon target molecule binding are described in the disclosure. Also disclosed herein are novel chromophore moieties, which have tailored fluorescent emission spectra.

  4. Exploring Polymer and Liposomal Carriers for Optimized Drug Delivery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ferguson, Heidi M

    2012-01-01

    1459–1467. Fox, M. E. Dendritic polymers for the delivery ofiii Chapter 1: Introduction to Polymer and Liposome Drugbioavailability. Conclusions Polymers and liposomes can be

  5. Optimizing Morphology of Bulk Heterojunction Polymer Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gao, Jing

    2014-01-01

    Heterojunction Polymer Solar Cells A dissertation submittedBulk Heterojunction Polymer Solar Cells by Jing Gao Doctorheterojunction polymer solar cells is profoundly influenced

  6. Polymers and Coatings:Materials Science & Technology, MST-7:...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    polymer sample Applied Polymer Research scintillator Characterization and Forensics aerogels Fundamental Polymer Research hipjoint Surface Science and Coatings white light Target...

  7. Coordination polymers and building blocks based on ditopic heteroscorpionate ligands

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Santillan, Guillermo A.

    2009-01-01

    of Silver (I) Coordination Polymers formed through hydrogenBlocks for Coordination Polymers” Inorg. Chem. *One of theof Silver(I) Coordination Polymers Formed through Hydrogen

  8. Application of Atmospheric Pressure Plasma in Polymer and Composite Adhesion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu, Hang

    2015-01-01

    oxidation of selected polymers using an atmospheric pressuremorphological modification of polymers under a helium-oxygenand dicyclopentadiene polymer, Submitted to Carbon for

  9. Polymer-Ceramic MEMS Bimorphs as Thermal Infrared Sensors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Warren, Clinton Gregory

    2010-01-01

    Recent Developments in Polymer MEMS. Advanced Materials,using thin silicon/polymer bimorph membranes. Sensors andof cantilever arrays reveal polymer film expansion and

  10. Solid state switch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Merritt, B.T.; Dreifuerst, G.R.

    1994-07-19

    A solid state switch, with reverse conducting thyristors, is designed to operate at 20 kV hold-off voltage, 1,500 A peak, 1.0 [mu]s pulsewidth, and 4,500 pps, to replace thyratrons. The solid state switch is more reliable, more economical, and more easily repaired. The switch includes a stack of circuit card assemblies, a magnetic assist and a trigger chassis. Each circuit card assembly contains a reverse conducting thyristor, a resistor capacitor network, and triggering circuitry. 6 figs.

  11. High Resolution Additive Patterning of Nanoparticles and Polymers Enabled by Vapor Permeable Polymer Templates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Demko, Michael Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Stress in a Solvent-Cast Thermoplastic Coating. Journal ofcrosslinker, or a thermoplastic polymer which is raisedlidify the liquefied thermoplastic polymer (thermal NIL). 82

  12. Nanostructured polymer membranes for proton conduction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Balsara, Nitash Pervez; Park, Moon Jeong

    2013-06-18

    Polymers having an improved ability to entrain water are characterized, in some embodiments, by unusual humidity-induced phase transitions. The described polymers (e.g., hydrophilically functionalized block copolymers) have a disordered state and one or more ordered states (e.g., a lamellar state, a gyroid state, etc.). In one aspect, the polymers are capable of undergoing a disorder-to-order transition while the polymer is exposed to an increasing temperature at a constant relative humidity. In some aspects the polymer includes a plurality of portions, wherein a first portion forms proton-conductive channels within the membrane and wherein the channels have a width of less than about 6 nm. The described polymers are capable of entraining and preserving water at high temperature and low humidity. Surprisingly, in some embodiments, the polymers are capable of entraining greater amounts of water with the increase of temperature. The polymers can be used in Polymer Electrolyte Membranes in fuel cells.

  13. Solid State Lighting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hastbacka, Mildred; Dieckmann, John; Bouza, Antonio

    2013-03-30

    The article discusses solid state lighting technologies. This topic was covered in two previous ASHRAE Journal columns (2010). This article covers advancements in technologies and the associated efficacies. The life-cycle, energy savings and market potential of these technologies are addressed as well.

  14. Polymer Parametrised Field Theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alok Laddha; Madhavan Varadarajan

    2008-05-02

    Free scalar field theory on 2 dimensional flat spacetime, cast in diffeomorphism invariant guise by treating the inertial coordinates of the spacetime as dynamical variables, is quantized using LQG type `polymer' representations for the matter field and the inertial variables. The quantum constraints are solved via group averaging techniques and, analogous to the case of spatial geometry in LQG, the smooth (flat) spacetime geometry is replaced by a discrete quantum structure. An overcomplete set of Dirac observables, consisting of (a) (exponentials of) the standard free scalar field creation- annihilation modes and (b) canonical transformations corresponding to conformal isometries, are represented as operators on the physical Hilbert space. None of these constructions suffer from any of the `triangulation' dependent choices which arise in treatments of LQG. In contrast to the standard Fock quantization, the non- Fock nature of the representation ensures that the algebra of conformal isometries as well as that of spacetime diffeomorphisms are represented in an anomaly free manner. Semiclassical states can be analysed at the gauge invariant level. It is shown that `physical weaves' necessarily underly such states and that such states display semiclassicality with respect to, at most, a countable subset of the (uncountably large) set of observables of type (a). The model thus offers a fertile testing ground for proposed definitions of quantum dynamics as well as semiclassical states in LQG.

  15. On the Use, and Reuse, of Polymers for the Treatment of Hydrocarbon Contaminated Water Via a Solidliquid Partitioning Bioreactor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daugulis, Andrew J.

    On the Use, and Reuse, of Polymers for the Treatment of Hydrocarbon Contaminated Water Via a Solid solution for treatment of diesel contaminated water. The lit- erature contains numerous reports describing strategy for the treatment of die- sel contaminated water by combining the advantage

  16. Test Method Extensional viscosity of a thermotropic liquid crystalline polymer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feng, James J.

    Test Method Extensional viscosity of a thermotropic liquid crystalline polymer measured by thread the extensional viscosity of thermotropic liquid crystalline polymer: disintegration of liquid crystalline polymer liquid crystalline polymer (TLCP) 1. Introduction The structure and orientation of thermotropic liquid

  17. Novel Non-Vacuum Fabrication of Solid State Lithium Ion Battery Components

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oladeji, I.; Wood, D. L.; Wood, III, D. L.

    2012-10-19

    The purpose of this Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Planar Energy Devices, Inc. was to develop large?scale electroless deposition and photonic annealing processes associated with making all?solid?state lithium ion battery cathode and electrolyte layers. However, technical and processing difficulties encountered in 2011 resulted in the focus of the CRADA being redirected solely to annealing of the cathode thin films. In addition, Planar Energy Devices de?emphasized the importance of annealing of the solid?state electrolytes within the scope of the project, but materials characterization of stabilized electrolyte layers was still of interest. All?solid?state lithium ion batteries are important to automotive and stationary energy storage applications because they would eliminate the problems associated with the safety of the liquid electrolyte in conventional lithium ion batteries. However, all?solid?state batteries are currently produced using expensive, energy consuming vacuum methods suited for small electrode sizes. Transition metal oxide cathode and solid?state electrolyte layers currently require about 30?60 minutes at 700?800°C vacuum processing conditions. Photonic annealing requires only milliseconds of exposure time at high temperature and a total of <1 min of cumulative processing time. As a result, these processing techniques are revolutionary and highly disruptive to the existing lithium ion battery supply chain. The current methods of producing all?solid?state lithium ion batteries are only suited for small?scale, low?power cells and involve high?temperature vacuum techniques. Stabilized LiNixMnyCozAl1?x?y?zO2 (NMCA) nanoparticle films were deposited onto stainless steel substrates using Planar Energy Devices’ streaming process for electroless electrochemical deposition (SPEED). Since successful SPEED trials were demonstrated by Planar Energy Devices with NMCA prior to 2010, this high?voltage (i.e. 5 V) cathode material was the focus of the project. ORNL had also shown in prior work that photonic annealing can be used to anneal conventionally coated cathode metal oxide structures into the active crystalline phase. Planar Energy Devices also had demonstrated SPEED with solid electrolyte layers consisting of LiGaAlSPO4 prior to the start of the project.

  18. Solid Phase Characterization of Solids Recovered from Failed Sluicer Arm

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cooke, Gary A.

    2015-03-09

    The Enclosure to this memo discusses the solid phase characterization of a solid sample that was retrieved from the single-shell Tank 241-C-111 extended reach sluicer #2. This sluicer, removed from riser #3 on September 25, 2014, was found to have approximately 0.4 gallons of solid tank waste adhering to the nozzle area.

  19. Dynamic shear responses of polymer-polymer interfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yasuya Nakayama; Kiyoyasu Kataoka; Toshihisa Kajiwara

    2012-07-17

    In multi-component soft matter, interface properties often play a key role in determining the properties of the overall system. The identification of the internal dynamic structures in non-equilibrium situations requires the interface rheology to be characterized. We have developed a method to quantify the rheological contribution of soft interfaces and evaluate the dynamic modulus of the interface. This method reveals that the dynamic shear responses of interfaces in bilayer systems comprising polypropylene and three different polyethylenes can be classified as having hardening and softening effects on the overall system: a interface between linear long polymers becomes more elastic than the component polymers, while large polydispersity or long-chain-branching of one component make the interface more viscous. We find that the chain lengths and architectures of the component polymers, rather than equilibrium immiscibility, play an essential role in determining the interface rheological properties.

  20. Polymer Welding: Strength Through Entanglements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ting Ge; Flint Pierce; Dvora Perahia; Gary S. Grest; Mark O. Robbins

    2012-11-29

    Large-scale simulations of thermal welding of polymers are performed to investigate the rise of mechanical strength at the polymer-polymer interface with the welding time. The welding process is in the core of integrating polymeric elements into devices as well as in thermal induced healing of polymers; processes that require development of interfacial strength equal to that of the bulk. Our simulations show that the interfacial strength saturates at the bulk shear strength much before polymers diffuse by their radius of gyration. Along with the strength increase, the dominant failure mode changes from chain pullout at the interface to chain scission as in the bulk. Formation of sufficient entanglements across the interface, which we track using a Primitive Path Analysis is required to arrest catastrophic chain pullout at the interface. The bulk response is not fully recovered until the density of entanglements at the interface reaches the bulk value. Moreover, the increase of interfacial strength before saturation is proportional to the number of interfacial entanglements between chains from opposite sides.

  1. Interface Engineering of Garnet Solid Electrolytes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cheng, Lei

    2015-01-01

    A commercial lithium ion battery uses solid electrodes withsolution in the lithium ion battery with a solid electrolytesolid-state lithium ion conductors for solid-state battery

  2. TRANSPORT NUMBER GRADIENTS AND SOLID ELECTROLYTE DEGRADATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    De Jonghe, Lutgard C.

    2014-01-01

    NUMBER GRADIENTS AND SOLID ELECTROLYTE DEGRADATION LutgardNUMBER GRADIENTS AND SOLID ELECTROLYTE DEGRADATION LutgardNUMBER GRADIENTS AND SOLID ELECTROLYTE DEGRADATION Lutgard

  3. TRANSPORT NUMBER GRADIENTS AND SOLID ELECTROLYTE DEGRADATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    De Jonghe, Lutgard C.

    2012-01-01

    NUMBER GRADIENTS AND SOLID ELECTROLYTE DEGRADATION LutgardNUMBER GRADIENTS AND SOLID ELECTROLYTE DEGRADATION LutgardNUMBER GRADIENTS AND SOLID ELECTROLYTE DEGRADATION Lutgard

  4. Translocation frequency of double-stranded DNA through a solid-state nanopore

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bell, Nicholas A W; Keyser, Ulrich F

    2015-01-01

    Solid-state nanopores are single molecule sensors that measure changes in ionic current as charged polymers such as DNA pass through. Here, we present comprehensive experiments on the length, voltage and salt dependence of the frequency of double-stranded DNA translocations through conical quartz nanopores with mean opening diameter 15 nm. We observe an entropic barrier limited, length dependent translocation frequency at 4M LiCl salt concentration and a drift-dominated, length independent translocation frequency at 1M KCl salt concentration. These observations are described by a unifying convection-diffusion equation which includes the contribution of an entropic barrier for polymer entry.

  5. Heat Recovery From Solid Waste 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Underwood, O. W.

    1981-01-01

    areas of evaluation, including the cost of fuel, cost of solid waste disposal, plant energy requirements, available technology, etc....

  6. Solid state electrochemical current source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Potanin, Alexander Arkadyevich (Sarov, RU); Vedeneev, Nikolai Ivanovich (Sarov, RU)

    2002-04-30

    A cathode and a solid state electrochemical cell comprising said cathode, a solid anode and solid fluoride ion conducting electrolyte. The cathode comprises a metal oxide and a compound fluoride containing at least two metals with different valences. Representative compound fluorides include solid solutions of bismuth fluoride and potassium fluoride; and lead fluoride and potassium fluoride. Representative metal oxides include copper oxide, lead oxide, manganese oxide, vanadium oxide and silver oxide.

  7. Chemical Engineering 3Q03 Introduction to Polymer Science

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thompson, Michael

    27247 grahal5@mcmaster.ca Textbook: Polymer Science & Technology, 2nd edition by Joel R. Fried1 Chemical Engineering 3Q03 Introduction to Polymer Science Term II 2013 Instructor: Dr. Emily Objectives: -Introduce polymer science for advanced polymer courses (Polymer Processing, Polymer Reaction

  8. Carbon-13 Labeled Polymers: An Alternative Tracer for Depth Profiling of Polymer Films and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carbon-13 Labeled Polymers: An Alternative Tracer for Depth Profiling of Polymer Films profiling of polymer films and multilayers using secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). Deuterium substitution has traditionally been used in depth profiling of polymers but can affect the phase behavior

  9. ENG BE/ME/MS 504: Polymers and Soft Materials GRS PY 744: Polymer Physics.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vajda, Sandor

    ENG BE/ME/MS 504: Polymers and Soft Materials GRS PY 744: Polymer Physics. Prof. Rama Bansil Class: Blackboard.bu.edu ME/MS/BE 504 PY 744 A1 POLYMERS AND SOFT MATERIALS (FALL 2012) (12FALLENGME504_A1) E with thermodynamics and statistical mechanics will be assumed. Practical applications of polymers will be discussed

  10. Elastic and Viscoelastic Properties of Non-bulk Polymer Interphases in Nanotube-reinforced Polymers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fisher, Frank

    Elastic and Viscoelastic Properties of Non-bulk Polymer Interphases in Nanotube-reinforced Polymers polymer composite materials with outstanding mechanical, electrical, and thermal properties. A hurdle to nanoscale interactions between the embedded NTs and adjacent polymer chains. This interphase region

  11. Confining multiple polymers between sticky walls: a directed walk model of two polymers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rechnitzer, Andrew

    Confining multiple polymers between sticky walls: a directed walk model of two polymers Thomas Wong 30, 2014 Abstract We study a model of two polymers confined to a slit with sticky walls. More on the square lattice. We compare the infinite slit limit, in which the length of the polymer (thermodynamic

  12. Some Rigorous Results on Semiflexible Polymers I. Free and confined polymers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Velenik, Yvan

    Some Rigorous Results on Semiflexible Polymers I. Free and confined polymers O. Hryniva , Y 4, Switzerland Abstract We introduce a class of models of semiflexible polymers. The latter, called the persistence length, being of the same order as the polymer length. We determine

  13. Nanoimprint Lithography for Functional Polymer Patterning 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cui, Dehu

    2012-02-14

    controlling the electrical and photophysical properties of conjugated polymers by nanoimprint. Systematic investigation of polymer chain configuration by Raman spectroscopy is carried out to understand how nanoimprint process parameters, such as mold pattern...

  14. Lubrication by charged polymers , Suzanne Giasson2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Klein, Jacob

    .............................................................. Lubrication by charged polymers Uri lubricants between sliding charged surfaces8 . Here we show that brushes of charged polymers (polyelectro- lytes) attached to surfaces rubbing across an aqueous medium result in superior lubrication compared

  15. Dynamics of Polymers in Flowing Colloidal Suspensions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Hsieh

    Using hydrodynamic simulations we examine the behavior of single polymers in a confined colloidal suspension under flow. We study the conformations of both, collapsed and noncollapsed polymers. Our results show that the ...

  16. The challenges of organic polymer solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saif Addin, Burhan K. (Burhan Khalid)

    2011-01-01

    The technical and commercial prospects of polymer solar cells were evaluated. Polymer solar cells are an attractive approach to fabricate and deploy roll-to-roll processed solar cells that are reasonably efficient (total ...

  17. Modeling and optimization of Interpenetrating polymer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grossmann, Ignacio E.

    to design new materials ­ Key characteristic : Tough & flexible · High value material Huge market industry 3 Bone implantScaffol d Automotive parts Full network Semi- network Polymer A Polymer B Fig. 1 IPN

  18. Quantitative Modeling of Polymer Scratch Behavior 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hossain, Mohammad Motaher

    2013-12-02

    and pressure dependent behavior of polymers, and the surface condition of the interacting surfaces also add to the complexity. In order to gain in-depth understanding of polymer scratch behavior; this dissertation focuses on numerical analysis and experimental...

  19. Highly cross-linked nanoporous polymers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Steckle, Jr., Warren P. (Los Alamos, NM); Apen, Paul G. (Los Alamos, NM); Mitchell, Michael A. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1998-01-01

    Condensation polymerization followed by a supercritical extraction step can be used to obtain highly cross-linked nanoporous polymers with high surface area, controlled pore sizes and rigid structural integrity. The invention polymers are useful for applications requiring separation membranes.

  20. Highly cross-linked nanoporous polymers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Steckle, Jr., Warren P. (Los Alamos, NM); Apen, Paul G. (Los Alamos, NM); Mitchell, Michael A. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1997-01-01

    Condensation polymerization followed by a supercritical extraction step can be used to obtain highly cross-linked nanoporous polymers with high surface area, controlled pore sizes and rigid structural integrity. The invention polymers are useful for applications requiring separation membranes.

  1. Configurations of polymers attached to probes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bubis, Roy

    We study polymers attached to spherical (circular) or paraboloidal (parabolic) probes in three (two) dimensions. Both self-avoiding and random walks are examined numerically. The behavior of a polymer of size R[subscript ...

  2. Enhancement of mechanical properties of polymers by thin flake addition and apparatus for producing such thin flakes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bunnell, Sr., Lee R. (Kennewick, WA)

    1991-01-01

    Compositions in accordance with the invention comprise a polymer and flake reinforcing material distributed throughout the polymer in an effective amount to structurally reinforce the polymer. Individual flakes of the flake material (a) are less than or equal to 1,000 Angstroms in thickness, (b) have an aspect ratio greater than or equal to 100, and (c) are preferably significantly randomly oriented throughout the polymer. A novel apparatus for shear grinding a platy solid material into such individual flakes comprises a cylindrical shearing drum and a shear grinder received therein. The shearing drum has a longitudinal axis and an internal surface formed about a first predetermined radius of curvature. The cylindrical drum is supported for rotation about its longitudinal axis. The shear grinder has an external surface formed about a second predetermined radius of curvature. The second radius of curvature is slightly less than the first radius of curvature.

  3. Laser Processing of Metals and Polymers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Senthilraja Singaravelu

    2012-05-31

    A laser offers a unique set of opportunities for precise delivery of high quality coherent energy. This energy can be tailored to alter the properties of material allowing a very flexible adjustment of the interaction that can lead to melting, vaporization, or just surface modification. Nowadays laser systems can be found in nearly all branches of research and industry for numerous applications. Sufficient evidence exists in the literature to suggest that further advancements in the field of laser material processing will rely significantly on the development of new process schemes. As a result they can be applied in various applications starting from fundamental research on systems, materials and processes performed on a scientific and technical basis for the industrial needs. The interaction of intense laser radiation with solid surfaces has extensively been studied for many years, in part, for development of possible applications. In this thesis, I present several applications of laser processing of metals and polymers including polishing niobium surface, producing a superconducting phase niobium nitride and depositing thin films of niobium nitride and organic material (cyclic olefin copolymer). The treated materials were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), electron probe microanalysis (EPMA), atomic force microscopy (AFM), high resolution optical microscopy, surface profilometry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and x-ray diffraction (XRD). Power spectral density (PSD) spectra computed from AFM data gives further insight into the effect of laser melting on the topography of the treated niobium.

  4. Solid waste handling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parazin, R.J.

    1995-05-31

    This study presents estimates of the solid radioactive waste quantities that will be generated in the Separations, Low-Level Waste Vitrification and High-Level Waste Vitrification facilities, collectively called the Tank Waste Remediation System Treatment Complex, over the life of these facilities. This study then considers previous estimates from other 200 Area generators and compares alternative methods of handling (segregation, packaging, assaying, shipping, etc.).

  5. Solid phase extraction membrane

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carlson, Kurt C [Nashville, TN; Langer, Roger L [Hudson, WI

    2002-11-05

    A wet-laid, porous solid phase extraction sheet material that contains both active particles and binder and that possesses excellent wet strength is described. The binder is present in a relatively small amount while the particles are present in a relatively large amount. The sheet material is sufficiently strong and flexible so as to be pleatable so that, for example, it can be used in a cartridge device.

  6. Solid State Lighting Reliability

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankADVANCED MANUFACTURINGEnergy BillsNo.Hydrogen4EnergySolid State Lighting Reliability 2014 Building

  7. Solar solids reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yudow, B.D.

    1986-02-24

    A solar powered kiln is provided, that is of relatively simple design and which efficiently uses solar energy. The kiln or solids reactor includes a stationary chamber with a rearward end which receives solid material to be reacted and a forward end through which reacted material is disposed of, and a screw conveyor extending along the bottom of the chamber for slowly advancing the material between the chamber ends. Concentrated solar energy is directed to an aperture at the forward end of the chamber to heat the solid material moving along the bottom of the chamber. The solar energy can be reflected from a mirror facing at an upward incline, through the aperture and against a heat-absorbing material near the top of the chamber, which moves towards the rear of the chamber to distribute heat throughout the chamber. Pumps at the forward and rearward ends of the chamber pump heated sweep gas through the length of the chamber, while minimizing the flow of gas through an open aperture through which concentrated sunlight is received.

  8. Solar solids reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yudow, Bernard D. (Chicago, IL)

    1987-01-01

    A solar powered kiln is provided, that is of relatively simple design and which efficiently uses solar energy. The kiln or solids reactor includes a stationary chamber with a rearward end which receives solid material to be reacted and a forward end through which reacted material is disposed of, and a screw conveyor extending along the bottom of the chamber for slowly advancing the material between the chamber ends. Concentrated solar energy is directed to an aperture at the forward end of the chamber to heat the solid material moving along the bottom of the chamber. The solar energy can be reflected from a mirror facing at an upward incline, through the aperture and against a heat-absorbing material near the top of the chamber, which moves towards the rear of the chamber to distribute heat throughout the chamber. Pumps at the forward and rearward ends of the chamber pump heated sweep gas through the length of the chamber, while minimizing the flow of gas through an open aperture through which concentrated sunlight is received.

  9. Post polymerization cure shape memory polymers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wilson, Thomas S; Hearon, Michael Keith; Bearinger, Jane P

    2014-11-11

    This invention relates to chemical polymer compositions, methods of synthesis, and fabrication methods for devices regarding polymers capable of displaying shape memory behavior (SMPs) and which can first be polymerized to a linear or branched polymeric structure, having thermoplastic properties, subsequently processed into a device through processes typical of polymer melts, solutions, and dispersions and then crossed linked to a shape memory thermoset polymer retaining the processed shape.

  10. Using Theory to Model Polymer Properties There are two general themes to this research: (1) polymer degradation that occurs when

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    the polymer with nanoinclusions of carbon nanotubes and graphene sheets and other structures. PolymerUsing Theory to Model Polymer Properties There are two general themes to this research: (1) polymer degradation that occurs when polymers are exposed to low earth orbit conditions, and (2) polymer mechanical

  11. Intermolecular Adhesion in Conjugated Polymers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jeremy D. Schmit; Alex J. Levine

    2006-10-25

    Conjugated polymers are observed to aggregate in solution. To account for this observation we propose a inter-chain binding mechanism based on the intermolecular tunneling of the delocalized $\\pi$-electrons occurring at points where the polymers cross. This tunneling mechanism predicts specific bound structures of chain that depend on whether they are semiconducting or metallic. Semiconducting chains should form polyacene-like states exhibiting binding at every other site, while (doped) metallic chains can bind at each site. We also show that solitons co-localize with the intermolecular binding sites thereby strengthening the binding effect and investigate the conformational statistics of the resulting bimolecular aggregates.

  12. Polymer / Elastomer and Composite Material Science

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Polymer / Elastomer and Composite Material Science KEVIN L. SIMMONS Pacific Northwest National in the hydrogen system Automotive vs infrastructure Hydrogen use conditions Polymer/elastomer and composites and piping Material issues Polymers/Elastomers Composites Questions 2 #12;Main Points to Remember 1

  13. Nordic Polymer Days 2006 Copenhagen, Denmark

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abstract Nordic Polymer Days 2006 Copenhagen, Denmark Polyacrylamide nanosensor embedded Scharff-Poulsen, c Hong Gu, d Wolf B. Fromme, b Iver Jakobsen, a Kristoffer Almdal a The Danish Polymer-linked polymer in nanometer scale, have several advantages over direct loading of cells with fluorescent probes

  14. Organosiloxane-grafted natural polymer coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sugama, Toshifumi (Wading River, NY)

    1998-01-01

    A new family of polysaccharide graft polymers are provided as corrosion resistant coatings having antimicrobial properties which are useful on light metals such as aluminum, magnesium, zinc, steel and their alloys. Methods of making the polysaccharide graft polymers are also included. The methods of making the polysaccharide graft polymers involve reacting a polysaccharide source with an antimicrobial agent under conditions of hydrolysis-condensation.

  15. North Dakota State University Postoc Biobased Polymers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alpay, S. Pamir

    North Dakota State University Postoc ­ Biobased Polymers A postdoctoral position is available in the area of synthesis and characterization of novel biobased thermosetting polymer systems for coatings will include the synthesis of monomers and polymers, preparation of coatings, thermosets, etc., preparation

  16. Selfattractive random polymers Remco van der Hofstad

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Klenke, Achim

    Self­attractive random polymers Remco van der Hofstad Stieltjes Institute of Mathematics Delft polymer of finite length in Zd . Its law is that of a finite simple random walk path in Zd receiving that for > the attraction dominates the repulsion, i.e., with high probability the polymer is contained in a finite box

  17. Polymers in a Vacuum J. M. Deutsch

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deutsch, Josh

    Polymers in a Vacuum J. M. Deutsch Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Cruz polymer molecules are found in a vacuum, and here we examine their properties. Angular momentum The properties of polymer chains have been investigated extensively over the past 50 years [1], but the vast

  18. Morphology and Charge Transport in Conjugated Polymers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McGehee, Michael

    Morphology and Charge Transport in Conjugated Polymers R. J. KLINE AND M. D. McGEHEE Department charge transport and morphology is key to increasing the charge carrier mobility of conjugated polymers to provide insight into how the charge carriers move through a conjugated polymer film and provide a model

  19. Polymer microcantilevers fabricated via multiphoton absorption polymerization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Teich, Malvin C.

    Polymer microcantilevers fabricated via multiphoton absorption polymerization Z. Bayindir, Y. Sun polymer cantilevers. Atomic force microscopy has been used to characterize the mechanical properties orders of magnitude smaller than would be predicted from the properties of the bulk polymer.6 If correct

  20. SEC data for polymer 1-6: UV-vis spectra for polymer 1-6

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Results SEC data for polymer 1-6: UV-vis spectra for polymer 1-6: UPS data for polymer 1-6 (Eg estimated from UV-vis): Energy levels in a photovoltaic device with 5 and PCBM: Low band gap polymers for organic solar cells Eva Bundgaard a,b and Frederik C. Krebs a a Polymer Solar Cell Initiative, The Danish

  1. PUBLISHED ONLINE: 15 DECEMBER 2014 | DOI: 10.1038/NPHYS3181 Sti ening solids with liquid inclusions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Loss, Daniel

    and stiffness of polymer resins as much as a hundredfold1 . Densely packed gas bubbles in a liquid matrix createARTICLES PUBLISHED ONLINE: 15 DECEMBER 2014 | DOI: 10.1038/NPHYS3181 Sti ening solids with liquid, composites are ubiquitous natural and synthetic materials. Eshelby's inclusion theory describes how

  2. Impact Strength of High Relative Density Solid State CO, Blown CPET Microcellular Foams Impact Strength of High Relative Density

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hochberg, Michael

    microcellular CPET foams using C02asa blowing agent are described. Starting with solid CPET, foams with relative is an increased glass transition temperature (T,), thus requiring higher foaming temperatures. Baldwin and Suh inwhich the polymer is first saturated with a gas, and then heated to a temperature above the glass

  3. FIDDLER CREEK POLYMER AUGMENTATION PROJECT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lyle A. Johnson, Jr.

    2001-10-31

    The Fiddler Creek field is in Weston County, Wyoming, and was discovered in 1948. Secondary waterflooding recovery was started in 1955 and terminated in the mid-1980s with a fieldwide recovery of approximately 40%. The West Fiddler Creek Unit, the focus of this project, had a lower recovery and therefore has the most remaining oil. Before the project this unit was producing approximately 85 bbl of oil per day from 20 pumping wells and 17 swab wells. The recovery process planned for this project involved adapting two independent processes, the injection of polymer as a channel blocker or as a deep-penetrating permeability modifier, and the stabilization of clays and reduction of the residual oil saturation in the near-wellbore area around the injection wells. Clay stabilization was not conducted because long-term fresh water injection had not severely reduced the injectivity. It was determined that future polymer injection would not be affected by the clay. For the project, two adjoining project patterns were selected on the basis of prior reservoir studies and current well availability and production. The primary injection well of Pattern 1 was treated with a small batch of MARCIT gel to create channel blocking. The long-term test was designed for three phases: (1) 77 days of injection of a 300-mg/l cationic polyacrylamide, (2) 15 days of injection of a 300-mg/l anionic polymer to ensure injectivity of the polymer, and (3) 369 days of injection of the 300-mg/l anionic polymer and a 30:1 mix of the crosslinker. Phases 1 and 2 were conducted as planned. Phase 3 was started in late March 1999 and terminated in May 2001. In this phase, a crosslinker was added with the anionic polymer. Total injection for Phase 3 was 709,064 bbl. To maintain the desired injection rate, the injection pressure was slowly increased from 1,400 psig to 2,100 psig. Early in the application of the polymer, it appeared that the sweep improvement program was having a positive effect on Pattern 1 with lesser effects in Pattern 2. These early observations did not continue to develop. The oil production for both patterns remained fairly constant to the rates established by the restart of waterflooding. The water production declined but stabilized in both patterns. The stabilization of the oil at prepolymer rates and water production at the lower rates can be attributed to the polymer injection, but the effect was not as great as originally predicted. The sweep improvement for the patterns appeared to be negatively impacted by extended shutdowns in the injection and production systems. Such problems as those experienced in this project can be expected when long-term polymer injection is started in old waterflood fields. To prevent these problems, new injection and production tubulars and pumps would be required at a cost prohibitive to the present, independent operators. Unless the future results from the continued waterflood show positive effects of the long-term polymer injection, it appears that the batch-type polymer treatment may have more promise than the long-term treatment and should be more cost effective.

  4. Low Energy Electrodynamics in Solids (LEES) 2012

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Low Energy Electrodynamics in Solids (LEES) 2012 Low Energy Electrodynamics in Solids (LEES) 2012 July 22-27, 2012; Napa...

  5. Luminescent organosilicon polymers and sol-gel synthesis of nano-structured silica

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martinez, H. Paul

    2011-01-01

    Photoluminescent   Polymers   Containing   Metalloles.  Metallole-­? Containing  Polymers.   Journal  of  Forensic  S.   J. ;   Trogler,   W.   C. ,   Polymer   sensors   for  

  6. EFFECTS OF TRITIUM GAS EXPOSURE ON ELECTRICALLY CONDUCTING POLYMERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kane, M.; Clark, E.; Lascola, R.

    2009-12-16

    Effects of beta (tritium) and gamma irradiation on the surface electrical conductivity of two types of conducting polymer films are documented to determine their potential use as a sensing and surveillance device for the tritium facility. It was shown that surface conductivity was significantly reduced by irradiation with both gamma and tritium gas. In order to compare the results from the two radiation sources, an approximate dose equivalence was calculated. The materials were also sensitive to small radiation doses (<10{sup 5} rad), showing that there is a measurable response to relatively small total doses of tritium gas. Spectroscopy was also used to confirm the mechanism by which this sensing device would operate in order to calibrate this sensor for potential use. It was determined that one material (polyaniline) was very sensitive to oxidation while the other material (PEDOT-PSS) was not. However, polyaniline provided the best response as a sensing material, and it is suggested that an oxygen-impermeable, radiation-transparent coating be applied to this material for future device prototype fabrication. A great deal of interest has developed in recent years in the area of conducting polymers due to the high levels of conductivity that can be achieved, some comparable to that of metals [Gerard 2002]. Additionally, the desirable physical and chemical properties of a polymer are retained and can be exploited for various applications, including light emitting diodes (LED), anti-static packaging, electronic coatings, and sensors. The electron transfer mechanism is generally accepted as one of electron 'hopping' through delocalized electrons in the conjugated backbone, although other mechanisms have been proposed based on the type of polymer and dopant [Inzelt 2000, Gerard 2002]. The conducting polymer polyaniline (PANi) is of particular interest because there are extensive studies on the modulation of the conductivity by changing either the oxidation state of the main backbone chain, or by protonation of the imine groups [de Acevedo, 1999]. There are several types of radiation sensors commercially available, including ionization chambers, geiger counters, proportional counters, scintillators and solid state detectors. Each type has advantages, although many of these sensors require expensive electronics for signal amplification, are large and bulky, have limited battery life or require expensive materials for fabrication. A radiation sensor constructed of a polymeric material could be flexible, light, and the geometry designed to suit the application. Very simple and inexpensive electronics would be necessary to measure the change in conductivity with exposure to radiation and provide an alarm system when a set change of conductivity occurs in the sensor that corresponds to a predetermined radiation dose having been absorbed by the polymer. The advantages of using a polymeric sensor of this type rather than those currently in use are the flexibility of sensor geometry and relatively low cost. It is anticipated that these sensors can be made small enough for glovebox applications or have the ability to monitor the air tritium levels in places where a traditional monitor cannot be placed. There have been a few studies on the changes in conductivity of polyaniline specifically for radiation detection [de Acevedo, 1999; Lima Pacheco, 2003], but there have been no reports on the effects of tritium (beta radiation) on conducting polymers, such as polyaniline or polythiophene. The direct implementation of conducting polymers as radiation sensor materials has not yet been commercialized due to differing responses with total dose, dose rate, etc. Some have reported a large increase in the surface conductivity with radiation dose while others report a marked decrease in conductive properties; these differing observations may reflect the competing mechanisms of chain scission and cross-linking. However, it is clear that the radiation dose effects on conducting polymers must be fully understood before these materials can be used

  7. Water-soluble conductive polymers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aldissi, Mahmoud (Sante Fe, NM)

    1990-01-01

    Polymers which are soluble in water and are electrically conductive. The monomer repeat unit is a thiophene or pyrrole molecule having an alkyl group substituted for the hydrogen atom located in the beta position of the thiophene or pyrrole ring and having a surfactant molecule at the end of the alkyl chain. Polymers of this class having 8 or more carbon atoms in the alkyl chain exhibit liquid crystalline behavior, resulting in high electrical anisotropy. The monomer-to-monomer bonds are located between the carbon atoms which are adjacent to the sulfur or nitrogen atoms. The number of carbon atoms in the alkyl group may vary from 1 to 20 carbon atoms. The surfactant molecule consists of a sulfonate group, or a sulfate group, or a carboxylate group, and hydrogen or an alkali metal. Negative ions from a supporting electrolyte which may be used in the electrochemical synthesis of a polymer may be incorporated into the polymer during the synthesis and serve as a dopant to increase the conductivity.

  8. Enhanced photophysics of conjugated polymers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, Liaohai (Darien, IL)

    2007-06-12

    A particulate fluorescent conjugated polymer surfactant complex and method of making and using same. The particles are between about 15 and about 50 nm and when formed from a lipsome surfactant have a charge density similar to DNA and are strongly absorbed by cancer cells.

  9. Polymer representations and geometric quantization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miguel Campiglia

    2011-11-02

    Polymer representations of the Weyl algebra of linear systems provide the simplest analogues of the representation used in loop quantum gravity. The construction of these representations is algebraic, based on the Gelfand-Naimark-Segal construction. Is it possible to understand these representations from a Geometric Quantization point of view? We address this question for the case of a two dimensional phase space.

  10. Towards standardizing the measurement of electrochemical properties of solid state electrolytes in lithium batteries.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dees, D. W.; Henriksen, G. L.

    1999-05-06

    The purpose of this paper is to stimulate thought and discussion in the technical community on standardization of the experimental determination of the pertinent electrochemical properties of solid electrolytes in lithium batteries. This standardization is needed for comparison and modeling of solid electrolytes in a practical lithium battery. The appropriate electrochemical properties include transport, thermodynamic, and physical parameters that generally depend on concentration and temperature. While it is beyond the scope of this work to put forward definitive measurement techniques for all types of solid electrolytes, it is hoped that comparisons between various techniques to examine a dissolved binary lithium salt in a dry polymer solvent will lead to improved understanding and methodology for examining solid electrolytes.

  11. Solid state oxygen sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Garzon, F.H.; Chung, B.W.; Raistrick, I.D.; Brosha, E.L.

    1996-08-06

    Solid state oxygen sensors are provided with a yttria-doped zirconia as an electrolyte and use the electrochemical oxygen pumping of the zirconia electrolyte. A linear relationship between oxygen concentration and the voltage arising at a current plateau occurs when oxygen accessing the electrolyte is limited by a diffusion barrier. A diffusion barrier is formed herein with a mixed electronic and oxygen ion-conducting membrane of lanthanum-containing perovskite or zirconia-containing fluorite. A heater may be used to maintain an adequate oxygen diffusion coefficient in the mixed conducting layer. 4 figs.

  12. Solid state oxygen sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Garzon, Fernando H. (Sante Fe, NM); Chung, Brandon W. (Los Alamos, NM); Raistrick, Ian D. (Los Alamos, NM); Brosha, Eric L. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1996-01-01

    Solid state oxygen sensors are provided with a yttria-doped zirconia as an electrolyte and use the electrochemical oxygen pumping of the zirconia electrolyte. A linear relationship between oxygen concentration and the voltage arising at a current plateau occurs when oxygen accessing the electrolyte is limited by a diffusion barrier. A diffusion barrier is formed herein with a mixed electronic and oxygen ion-conducting membrane of lanthanum-containing perovskite or zirconia-containing fluorite. A heater may be used to maintain an adequate oxygen diffusion coefficient in the mixed conducting layer.

  13. Solid state thermal engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wayman, C.M.

    1981-01-27

    An improved solid state thermal engine utilizes as a drive member a braided belt fabricated from a memory alloy such as nickel-titanium and nickel-titanium ternary alloys, copper-zinc and copper-zinc ternary alloys, and the like. The braided belt is mounted on a set of pulleys to provide passage through a hot zone where the belt contracts and develops tension, and through a cold zone where it relaxes and stretches. Since more energy is delivered by contraction than is required for relaxation, positive work output results with an efficiency of between onefifth and one-third of the carnot cycle.

  14. Interfacial behavior of polymer electrolytes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kerr, John; Kerr, John B.; Han, Yong Bong; Liu, Gao; Reeder, Craig; Xie, Jiangbing; Sun, Xiaoguang

    2003-06-03

    Evidence is presented concerning the effect of surfaces on the segmental motion of PEO-based polymer electrolytes in lithium batteries. For dry systems with no moisture the effect of surfaces of nano-particle fillers is to inhibit the segmental motion and to reduce the lithium ion transport. These effects also occur at the surfaces in composite electrodes that contain considerable quantities of carbon black nano-particles for electronic connection. The problem of reduced polymer mobility is compounded by the generation of salt concentration gradients within the composite electrode. Highly concentrated polymer electrolytes have reduced transport properties due to the increased ionic cross-linking. Combined with the interfacial interactions this leads to the generation of low mobility electrolyte layers within the electrode and to loss of capacity and power capability. It is shown that even with planar lithium metal electrodes the concentration gradients can significantly impact the interfacial impedance. The interfacial impedance of lithium/PEO-LiTFSI cells varies depending upon the time elapsed since current was turned off after polarization. The behavior is consistent with relaxation of the salt concentration gradients and indicates that a portion of the interfacial impedance usually attributed to the SEI layer is due to concentrated salt solutions next to the electrode surfaces that are very resistive. These resistive layers may undergo actual phase changes in a non-uniform manner and the possible role of the reduced mobility polymer layers in dendrite initiation and growth is also explored. It is concluded that PEO and ethylene oxide-based polymers are less than ideal with respect to this interfacial behavior.

  15. Active Polymers Confer Fast Reorganization Kinetics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Douglas Swanson; Ned S. Wingreen

    2011-10-02

    Many cytoskeletal biopolymers are "active," consuming energy in large quantities. In this Letter, we identify a fundamental difference between active polymers and passive, equilibrium polymers: for equal mean lengths, active polymers can reorganize faster than equilibrium polymers. We show that equilibrium polymers are intrinsically limited to linear scaling between mean lifetime and mean length, MFPT ~ , by analogy to 1-d Potts models. By contrast, we present a simple active-polymer model that improves upon this scaling, such that MFPT ~ ^{1/2}. Since to be biologically useful, structural biopolymers must typically be many monomers long, yet respond dynamically to the needs of the cell, the difference in reorganization kinetics may help to justify active polymers' greater energy cost. PACS numbers: 87.10.Ed, 87.16.ad, 87.16.Ln

  16. Combinatorial synthesis and screening of non-biological polymers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schultz, Peter G.; Xiang, Xiao-Dong; Goldwasser, Isy; Briceno, Gabriel; Sun, Xiao-Dong; Wang, Kai-An

    2006-04-25

    Methods and apparatus for the preparation and use of a substrate having an array of diverse materials in predefined regions thereon. A substrate having an array of diverse materials thereon is generally prepared by delivering components of materials to predefined regions on a substrate, and simultaneously reacting the components to form at least two materials. Materials which can be prepared using the methods and apparatus of the present invention include, for example, covalent network solids, ionic solids and molecular solids. More particularly, materials which can be prepared using the methods and apparatus of the present invention include, for example, inorganic materials, intermetallic materials, metal alloys, ceramic materials, organic materials, organometallic materials, non-biological organic polymers, composite materials (e.g., inorganic composites, organic composites, or combinations thereof), etc. Once prepared, these materials can be screened for useful properties including, for example, electrical, thermal, mechanical, morphological, optical, magnetic, chemical, or other properties. Thus, the present invention provides methods for the parallel synthesis and analysis of novel materials having useful properties.

  17. Polymer arrays from the combinatorial synthesis of novel materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schultz, Peter G.; Xiang, Xiao-Dong; Goldwasser, Isy; Briceno, Gabriel; Sun, Xiao-Dong

    2004-09-21

    Methods and apparatus for the preparation and use of a substrate having an array of diverse materials in predefined regions thereon. A substrate having an array of diverse materials thereon is generally prepared by delivering components of materials to predefined regions on a substrate, and simultaneously reacting the components to form at least two materials. Materials which can be prepared using the methods and apparatus of the present invention include, for example, covalent network solids, ionic solids and molecular solids. More particularly, materials which can be prepared using the methods and apparatus of the present invention include, for example, inorganic materials, intermetallic materials, metal alloys, ceramic materials, organic materials, organometallic materials, non-biological organic polymers, composite materials (e.g., inorganic composites, organic composites, or combinations thereof), etc. Once prepared, these materials can be screened for useful properties including, for example, electrical, thermal, mechanical, morphological, optical, magnetic, chemical, or other properties. Thus, the present invention provides methods for the parallel synthesis and analysis of novel materials having useful properties.

  18. Polymer compositions, polymer films and methods and precursors for forming same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Klaehn, John R; Peterson, Eric S; Orme, Christopher J

    2013-09-24

    Stable, high performance polymer compositions including polybenzimidazole (PBI) and a melamine-formaldehyde polymer, such as methylated, poly(melamine-co-formaldehyde), for forming structures such as films, fibers and bulky structures. The polymer compositions may be formed by combining polybenzimidazole with the melamine-formaldehyde polymer to form a precursor. The polybenzimidazole may be reacted and/or intertwined with the melamine-formaldehyde polymer to form the polymer composition. For example, a stable, free-standing film having a thickness of, for example, between about 5 .mu.m and about 30 .mu.m may be formed from the polymer composition. Such films may be used as gas separation membranes and may be submerged into water for extended periods without crazing and cracking. The polymer composition may also be used as a coating on substrates, such as metal and ceramics, or may be used for spinning fibers. Precursors for forming such polymer compositions are also disclosed.

  19. Crowding of Polymer Coils and Demixing in Nanoparticle-Polymer Mixtures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ben Lu; Alan R. Denton

    2011-06-24

    The Asakura-Oosawa-Vrij (AOV) model of colloid-polymer mixtures idealizes nonadsorbing polymers as effective spheres that are fixed in size and impenetrable to hard particles. Real polymer coils, however, are intrinsically polydisperse in size (radius of gyration) and may be penetrated by smaller particles. Crowding by nanoparticles can affect the size distribution of polymer coils, thereby modifying effective depletion interactions and thermodynamic stability. To analyse the influence of crowding on polymer conformations and demixing phase behaviour, we adapt the AOV model to mixtures of nanoparticles and ideal, penetrable polymer coils that can vary in size. We perform Gibbs ensemble Monte Carlo simulations, including trial nanoparticle-polymer overlaps and variations in radius of gyration. Results are compared with predictions of free-volume theory. Simulation and theory consistently predict that ideal polymers are compressed by nanoparticles and that compressibility and penetrability stabilise nanoparticle-polymer mixtures.

  20. Solid state heat engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cory, J.S.

    1981-12-15

    A compact solid state turbine heat engine can be devised by pairing the nitinol elements. Each element is characterized by being in thermal contact with at least one hot water and one cold water bath and mechanically coupled to at least one driven pulley and driver pulley. A second nitinol element is similarly configured with a driver pulley, driven pulley, hot and cold water bath. The driver pulley associated with the first nitinol element is mechanically coupled to the driven pulley of the second nitinol element. Similarly, the driver pulley of the second nitinol element is mechanically coupled to the driven pulley of the first nitinol element. The paired nitinol elements form a compound solid state turbine engine wherein each nitinol element lies in a single plane and wherein the engine may be combined with a plurality of such pairs for increased power output. The nitinol elements may also incorporate a snubber to limit the strain on the element and the engine may further incorporate a variable radius pulley to increase the efficiency of mechanical conversion.