Sample records for high-temperature solid oxide

  1. DEGRADATION ISSUES IN SOLID OXIDE CELLS DURING HIGH TEMPERATURE ELECTROLYSIS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. E. O'Brien; C. M. Stoots; V. I. Sharma; B. Yildiz; A. V. Virkar

    2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is performing high-temperature electrolysis research to generate hydrogen using solid oxide electrolysis cells (SOECs). The project goals are to address the technical and degradation issues associated with the SOECs. This paper provides a summary of various ongoing INL and INL sponsored activities aimed at addressing SOEC degradation. These activities include stack testing, post-test examination, degradation modeling, and a list of issues that need to be addressed in future. Major degradation issues relating to solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) are relatively better understood than those for SOECs. Some of the degradation mechanisms in SOFCs include contact problems between adjacent cell components, microstructural deterioration (coarsening) of the porous electrodes, and blocking of the reaction sites within the electrodes. Contact problems include delamination of an electrode from the electrolyte, growth of a poorly (electronically) conducting oxide layer between the metallic interconnect plates and the electrodes, and lack of contact between the interconnect and the electrode. INL’s test results on high temperature electrolysis (HTE) using solid oxide cells do not provide a clear evidence whether different events lead to similar or drastically different electrochemical degradation mechanisms. Post-test examination of the solid oxide electrolysis cells showed that the hydrogen electrode and interconnect get partially oxidized and become non-conductive. This is most likely caused by the hydrogen stream composition and flow rate during cool down. The oxygen electrode side of the stacks seemed to be responsible for the observed degradation due to large areas of electrode delamination. Based on the oxygen electrode appearance, the degradation of these stacks was largely controlled by the oxygen electrode delamination rate. University of Utah (Virkar) has developed a SOEC model based on concepts in local thermodynamic equilibrium in systems otherwise in global thermodynamic non-equilibrium. This model is under continued development. It shows that electronic conduction through the electrolyte, however small, must be taken into account for determining local oxygen chemical potential, within the electrolyte. The chemical potential within the electrolyte may lie out of bounds in relation to values at the electrodes in the electrolyzer mode. Under certain conditions, high pressures can develop in the electrolyte just under the oxygen electrode (anode)/electrolyte interface, leading to electrode delamination. This theory is being further refined and tested by introducing some electronic conduction in the electrolyte.

  2. Degradation in Solid Oxide Cells During High Temperature Electrolysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Manohar Sohal

    2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Idaho National Laboratory has an ongoing project to generate hydrogen from steam using solid oxide electrolysis cells. One goal of that project is to address the technical and degradation issues associated with solid oxide electrolysis cells. This report covers a variety of these degradation issues, which were discussed during a workshop on “Degradation in Solid Oxide Electrolysis Cells and Strategies for its Mitigation,” held in Phoenix, AZ on October 27, 2008. Three major degradation issues related to solid oxide electrolysis cells discussed at the workshop are: • Delamination of O2-electrode and bond layer on steam/O2-electrode side • Contaminants (Ni, Cr, Si, etc.) on reaction sites (triple-phase boundary) • Loss of electrical/ionic conductivity of electrolyte. This list is not all inclusive, but the workshop summary can be useful in providing a direction for future research related to the degradation of solid oxide electrolysis cells.

  3. EA-0510: High-Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (Sofc) Generator Development Project (METC), Churchill, Pennsylvania

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This EA evaluates the environmental impacts of a proposal to enter into a 5-year cooperative agreement with the Westinghouse Electric Corporation for the development of high-temperature solid oxide...

  4. 2500-Hour High Temperature Solid-Oxide Electrolyzer Long Duration Test

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    C. M. Stoots; J. E. O'Brien; K. G. Condie; L. Moore-McAteer; J. J. Hartvigsen; D. Larsen

    2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has been developing the concept of using solid oxide fuel cells as electrolyzers for large-scale, high-temperature (efficient), hydrogen production. This program is sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy under the Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative. Utilizing a fuel cell as an electrolyzer introduces some inherent differences in cell operating conditions. In particular, the performance of fuel cells operated as electrolyzers degrades with time faster. This issue of electrolyzer cell and stack performance degradation over time has been identified as a major barrier to technology development. Consequently, the INL has been working together with Ceramatec, Inc. (Salt Lake City, Utah) to improve the long-term performance of high temperature electrolyzers. As part of this research partnership, the INL conducted a 2500 hour test of a Ceramatec designed and produced stack operated in the electrolysis mode. This report will provide a summary of experimental results for this long duration test.

  5. High Temperature Solid-Oxide Electrolyzer 2500 Hour Test Results At The Idaho National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carl Stoots; James O'Brien; Stephen Herring; Keith Condie; Lisa Moore-McAteer; Joseph J. Hartvigsen; Dennis Larsen

    2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has been developing the concept of using solid oxide fuel cells as electrolyzers for large-scale, high-temperature (efficient), hydrogen production. This program is sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy under the Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative. Utilizing a fuel cell as an electrolyzer introduces some inherent differences in cell operating conditions. In particular, the performance of fuel cells operated as electrolyzers degrades with time faster. This issue of electrolyzer cell and stack performance degradation over time has been identified as a major barrier to technology development. Consequently, the INL has been working together with Ceramatec, Inc. (Salt Lake City, Utah) to improve the long-term performance of high temperature electrolyzers. As part of this research partnership, the INL conducted a 2500 hour test of a Ceramatec designed and produced stack operated in the electrolysis mode. This paper will provide a summary of experimental results to date for this ongoing test.

  6. Low cost stable air electrode material for high temperature solid oxide electrolyte electrochemical cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kuo, Lewis J. H. (Monroeville, PA); Singh, Prabhakar (Export, PA); Ruka, Roswell J. (Churchill Boro, PA); Vasilow, Theodore R. (Penn Township, PA); Bratton, Raymond J. (Delmont, PA)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A low cost, lanthanide-substituted, dimensionally and thermally stable, gas permeable, electrically conductive, porous ceramic air electrode composition of lanthanide-substituted doped lanthanum manganite is provided which is used as the cathode in high temperature, solid oxide electrolyte fuel cells and generators. The air electrode composition of this invention has a much lower fabrication cost as a result of using a lower cost lanthanide mixture, either a natural mixture or an unfinished lanthanide concentrate obtained from a natural mixture subjected to incomplete purification, as the raw material in place of part or all of the higher cost individual lanthanum. The mixed lanthanide primarily contains a mixture of at least La, Ce, Pr, and Nd, or at least La, Ce, Pr, Nd and Sm in its lanthanide content, but can also include minor amounts of other lanthanides and trace impurities. The use of lanthanides in place of some or all of the lanthanum also increases the dimensional stability of the air electrode. This low cost air electrode can be fabricated as a cathode for use in high temperature, solid oxide fuel cells and generators.

  7. Low cost stable air electrode material for high temperature solid oxide electrolyte electrochemical cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kuo, L.J.H.; Singh, P.; Ruka, R.J.; Vasilow, T.R.; Bratton, R.J.

    1997-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

    A low cost, lanthanide-substituted, dimensionally and thermally stable, gas permeable, electrically conductive, porous ceramic air electrode composition of lanthanide-substituted doped lanthanum manganite is provided which is used as the cathode in high temperature, solid oxide electrolyte fuel cells and generators. The air electrode composition of this invention has a much lower fabrication cost as a result of using a lower cost lanthanide mixture, either a natural mixture or an unfinished lanthanide concentrate obtained from a natural mixture subjected to incomplete purification, as the raw material in place of part or all of the higher cost individual lanthanum. The mixed lanthanide primarily contains a mixture of at least La, Ce, Pr, and Nd, or at least La, Ce, Pr, Nd and Sm in its lanthanide content, but can also include minor amounts of other lanthanides and trace impurities. The use of lanthanides in place of some or all of the lanthanum also increases the dimensional stability of the air electrode. This low cost air electrode can be fabricated as a cathode for use in high temperature, solid oxide fuel cells and generators. 4 figs.

  8. Heat removal from high temperature tubular solid oxide fuel cells utilizing product gas from coal gasifiers.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parkinson, W. J. (William Jerry),

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this work we describe the results of a computer study used to investigate the practicality of several heat exchanger configurations that could be used to extract heat from tubular solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) . Two SOFC feed gas compositions were used in this study. They represent product gases from two different coal gasifier designs from the Zero Emission Coal study at Los Alamos National Laboratory . Both plant designs rely on the efficient use of the heat produced by the SOFCs . Both feed streams are relatively rich in hydrogen with a very small hydrocarbon content . One feed stream has a significant carbon monoxide content with a bit less hydrogen . Since neither stream has a significant hydrocarbon content, the common use of the endothermic reforming reaction to reduce the process heat is not possible for these feed streams . The process, the method, the computer code, and the results are presented as well as a discussion of the pros and cons of each configuration for each process .

  9. Effect of pre-oxidation and environmental aging on the seal strength of a novel high-temperature solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) sealing glass with metallic interconnect

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chou, Y. S.; Stevenson, Jeffry W.; Singh, Prabhakar

    2008-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A novel high-temperature alkaline-earth silicate sealing glass was developed for solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) applications. The glass was used to join two ferritic stainless steel coupons for strength evaluation. The steel coupons were pre-oxidized at elevated temperatures to promote thick oxide layers to simulate long-term exposure conditions. In addition, seals to as-received metal coupons were also tested after aging in oxidizing or reducing environments to simulate the actual SOFC environment. Room temperature tensile testing showed strength degradation when using pre-oxidized coupons, and more extensive degradation after aging in air. Fracture surface and microstructural analysis confirmed that the cause of degradation was formation of SrCrO4 at the outer sealing edges exposed to air.

  10. Secondary calcium solid electrolyte high temperature battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sammells, A.F.; Schumacher, B.

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The authors report on recent work directed towards determining the viability of polycrystalline Ca/sup 2 +/ conducting ..beta..''-alumina solid electrolytes as the basis for a new type of high temperature battery. In this battery system the negative electrode consisted of a calcium-silicon alloy whose redox electro-chemistry was mediated to the calcium conducting solid electrolyte via the use of the molten salt eutectic CaCl/sub 2/ (51.4/sup M//0), CaI/sub 2/ (mp 550/sup 0/C). Both the molten salt and the calcium-alloy negative active material were separated from the positive active material via the Ca/sup 2 +/ conducting polycrystalline solid electrolyte. The positive electrode consisted of a solid-state matrix having a somewhat related crystallographic structure to Ca/sup 2 +/ ..beta..''-alumina, but where a significant fraction of the A1/sup 3 +/ sites located within this solid electrolyte's spinel block were replaced by immobile transition metal species. These species were available for participating in solid-state redox electrochemistry upon electrochemical cell cycling.

  11. High temperature phase stabilities and electrochemical properties of InBaCo4-xZnxO7 cathodes for intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Jung-Hyun [ORNL; Young Nam, Kim [University of Texas, Austin; Bi, Zhonghe [ORNL; Manthiram, Arumugam [University of Texas, Austin; Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans [ORNL; Huq, Ashfia [ORNL

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    InBaCo4-xZnxO7 oxides have been synthesized and characterized as cathode materials for intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cells (IT-SOFC). The effect of Zn substitution for Co on the structure, phase stability, thermal expansion, and electrochemical properties of the InBaCo4-xZnxO7 has been investigated. The increase in the Zn content from x = 1 to 1.5 improves the high temperature phase stability at 600 oC and 700 oC for 100 h, and chemical stability against a Gd0.2Ce0.8O1.9 (GDC) electrolyte. Thermal expansion coefficient (TEC) values of the InBaCo4-xZnxO7 (x = 1, 1.5, 2) specimens were determined to be 8.6 10-6 9.6 10-6 /oC in the range of 80 900 oC, which provides good thermal expansion compatibility with the standard SOFC electrolyte materials. The InBaCo4-xZnxO7 + GDC (50:50 wt. %) composite cathodes exhibit improved cathode performances compared to those obtained from the simple InBaCo4-xZnxO7 cathodes due to the extended triple-phase boundary (TPB) and enhanced oxide-ion conductivity through the GDC portion in the composites.

  12. High Temperature Oxidation Resistance and Surface Electrical...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    with Filtered Arc Cr-Al-N Abstract: The requirements for low cost and high-tempurater corrosion resistance for bipolar interconnect plates in solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) stacks...

  13. (Y0.5In0.5)Ba(Co,Zn)4O7 cathodes with superior high-temperature phase stability for solid oxide fuel cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Young Nam, Kim [University of Texas, Austin; Kim, Jung-Hyun [ORNL; Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans [ORNL; Manthiram, Arumugam [University of Texas, Austin; Huq, Ashfia [ORNL

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    (Y0.5In0.5)BaCo4-xZnxO7 (1.0 x 2.0) oxides crystallizing in a trigonal P31c structure have been synthesized and explored as cathode materials for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC). At a given Zn content, the (Y0.5In0.5)BaCo4-xZnxO7 sample with 50 % Y and 50 % In exhibits much improved phase stability at intermediate temperatures (600 - 800 oC) compared to the samples with 100 % Y or In. However, the substitution of Zn for Co in (Y0.5In0.5)Ba(Co4-xZnx)O7 (1.0 x 2.0) decreases the amount of oxygen loss on heating, total electrical conductivity, and cathode performance in SOFC while providing good long-term phase stability at high temperatures. Among the various chemical compositions investigated in the (Y0.5In0.5)Ba(Co4-xZnx)O7 system, the (Y0.5In0.5)BaCo3ZnO7 sample offers a combination of good electrochemical performance and low thermal expansion coefficient (TEC) while maintaining superior phase stability at 600 800 oC for 100 h. Fuel cell performances of the (Y0.5In0.5)Ba(Co3Zn)O7 + Ce0.8Gd0.2O1.9 (GDC) (50 : 50 wt. %) composite cathodes collected with anode-supported single cell reveal a maximum power density value of 521 mW cm-2 at 700 oC.

  14. BaZn{sub 2}Si{sub 2}O{sub 7} and the solid solution series BaZn{sub 2?x}Co{sub x}Si{sub 2}O{sub 7} (0high temperature seals for solid oxide fuel cells studied by high-temperature X-ray diffraction and dilatometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kerstan, Marita; Thieme, Christian; Grosch, Matthias; Müller, Matthias; Rüssel, Christian, E-mail: ccr@rz.uni-jena.de

    2013-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    For sealing of solid oxide fuel cells, glasses from which crystalline phases with high coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) can be crystallized are required. In this paper, a new solid solution series BaZn{sub 2?x}Co{sub x}Si{sub 2}O{sub 7} (0high-temperature X-ray diffraction (BaZn{sub 2}Si{sub 2}O{sub 7}). Sintered specimens were characterized by dilatometry. The introduction of Co{sup 2+} does not lead to a change in the space group. All compounds show a transition of a low to a high temperature modification. The attributed temperature increases from 300 °C for BaZn{sub 2}Si{sub 2}O{sub 7} to 850 °C for BaCo{sub 2}Si{sub 2}O{sub 7}. The volume expansion which runs parallel to the phase transition decreases with increasing cobalt concentration. The phase BaZn{sub 2}Si{sub 2}O{sub 7} shows the largest CTE and a steep volume effect during phase transition. For the compound BaZn{sub 0.25}Co{sub 1.75}Si{sub 2}O{sub 7} the CTE is minimum (8.6×10{sup ?6} K{sup ?1} (50–900 °C)) and increases again until for the compound BaCo{sub 2}Si{sub 2}O{sub 7} a CTE of 16.6×10{sup ?6} K{sup ?1} (50–900 °C) is reached. In the cobalt rich composition range, the CTEs are in the right range for high temperature fuel cells and can be adjusted by the composition. - Graphical abstract: The composition of the solid solution BaZn{sub 2?x}Co{sub x}Si{sub 2}O{sub 7} strongly affects the thermal expansion. Display Omitted - Highlights: • We examined the thermal expansion of solid solutions BaZn{sub 2?x}Co{sub x}Si{sub 2}O{sub 7} (0solid solutions should be suitable for solid oxide fuel cells.

  15. Mixed oxide solid solutions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Magno, Scott (Dublin, CA); Wang, Ruiping (Fremont, CA); Derouane, Eric (Liverpool, GB)

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is a mixed oxide solid solution containing a tetravalent and a pentavalent cation that can be used as a support for a metal combustion catalyst. The invention is furthermore a combustion catalyst containing the mixed oxide solid solution and a method of making the mixed oxide solid solution. The tetravalent cation is zirconium(+4), hafnium(+4) or thorium(+4). In one embodiment, the pentavalent cation is tantalum(+5), niobium(+5) or bismuth(+5). Mixed oxide solid solutions of the present invention exhibit enhanced thermal stability, maintaining relatively high surface areas at high temperatures in the presence of water vapor.

  16. Protective interlayer for high temperature solid electrolyte electrochemical cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Isenberg, Arnold O. (Forest Hills Boro, PA); Ruka, Roswell J. (Churchill Boro, PA)

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A high temperature, solid electrolyte electrochemical cell is made, having a first and second electrode with solid electrolyte between them, where the electrolyte is formed by hot chemical vapor deposition, where a solid, interlayer material, which is electrically conductive, oxygen permeable, and protective of electrode material from hot metal halide vapor attack, is placed between the first electrode and the electrolyte, to protect the first electrode from the hot metal halide vapors during vapor deposition.

  17. Protective interlayer for high temperature solid electrolyte electrochemical cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Isenberg, Arnold O. (Forest Hills Boro, PA); Ruka, Roswell J. (Churchill Boro, PA); Zymboly, Gregory E. (Penn Hills Township, Allegheny County, PA)

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A high temperature, solid electrolyte electrochemical cell is made, having a first and second electrode with solid electrolyte between them, where the electrolyte is formed by hot chemical vapor deposition, where a solid, interlayer material, which is electrically conductive, oxygen permeable, and protective of electrode material from hot metal halide vapor attack, is placed between the first electrode and the electrolyte, to protect the first electrode from the hot metal halide vapors during vapor deposition.

  18. Protective interlayer for high temperature solid electrolyte electrochemical cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Isenberg, Arnold O. (Forest Hills Boro, PA); Ruka, Roswell J. (Churchill Boro, PA)

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A high temperature, solid electrolyte electrochemical cell is made, having a first and second electrode with solid electrolyte between them, where the electrolyte is formed by hot chemical vapor deposition, where a solid, interlayer material, which is electrically conductive, oxygen permeable, and protective of electrode material from hot metal halide vapor attack, is placed between the first electrode and the electrolyte, to protect the first electrode from the hot metal halide vapors during vapor deposition.

  19. Dense high temperature ceramic oxide superconductors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Landingham, Richard L. (Livermore, CA)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Dense superconducting ceramic oxide articles of manufacture and methods for producing these articles are described. Generally these articles are produced by first processing these superconducting oxides by ceramic processing techniques to optimize materials properties, followed by reestablishing the superconducting state in a desired portion of the ceramic oxide composite.

  20. Dense high temperature ceramic oxide superconductors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Landingham, R.L.

    1993-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Dense superconducting ceramic oxide articles of manufacture and methods for producing these articles are described. Generally these articles are produced by first processing these superconducting oxides by ceramic processing techniques to optimize materials properties, followed by reestablishing the superconducting state in a desired portion of the ceramic oxide composite.

  1. High Temperature Mechanical Properties of Molybdenum Solid Solution Alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Charit, I.; Murty, K.L. [College of Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695, (United States)

    2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Demanding material requirements for space nuclear power systems have called for the use of refractory alloys. Molybdenum alloys are such candidate materials because of their good mechanical properties at fairly high temperatures, low neutron capture cross-section, and superior resistance to the attack of liquid metals. However, conventional Mo alloys have low ductility at lower temperatures. Hence, there have been several attempts to improve their viability. One of those approaches has been to alloy Mo with various alloying additions in solid solution, most notably with rhenium (Re). In this study the high temperature deformation behavior of various Mo-X (X Re, W, Nb, Hf) alloys is reviewed. High temperature deformation data for these solid solution alloys are analyzed in the light of existing deformation theories. Alloys with both Class-M and -A type behavior are identified and thus, various mechanisms are found to operate. Sometimes data interpretation becomes difficult due to the presence of second phase particles. Results are compared with unalloyed Mo to bring out the importance of solid solution alloying. (authors)

  2. Comparison of a One-Dimensional Model of a High-Temperature Solid-Oxide Electrolysis Stack with CFD and Experimental Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. E. O'Brien; C. M. Stoots; G. L. Hawkes

    2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A one-dimensional model has been developed to predict the thermal and electrochemical behavior of a high-temperature steam electrolysis stack. This electrolyzer model allows for the determination of the average Nernst potential, cell operating voltage, gas outlet temperatures, and electrolyzer efficiency for any specified inlet gas flow rates, current density, cell active area, and external heat loss or gain. The model includes a temperature-dependent area-specific resistance (ASR) that accounts for the significant increase in electrolyte ionic conductivity that occurs with increasing temperature. Model predictions are shown to compare favorably with results obtained from a fully 3-D computational fluid dynamics model. The one-dimensional model was also employed to demonstrate the expected trends in electrolyzer performance over a range of operating conditions including isothermal, adiabatic, constant steam utilization, constant flow rate, and the effects of operating temperature.

  3. Electronically conductive ceramics for high temperature oxidizing environments

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kucera, G.H.; Smith, J.L.; Sim, J.W.

    1983-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention pertains to a high temperature, ceramic composition having electronic conductivity as measured by resistivity below about 500 ohm-cm, chemical stability particularly with respect to cathode conditions in a molten carbonate fuel cell, and composed of an alkali metal, transition metal oxide containing a dopant metal in the crystalline structure to replace a portion of the alkali metal or transition metal.

  4. Author's Accepted Manuscript High-temperature-oxidation-induced ordered struc-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laughlin, David E.

    and turbine power generation system, turbine alloys are exposed to high temperature and an atmosphere comprised of steam, CO2 and O2. While surface and internal oxidation of the alloy takes place-fuel combustion turbine power generation systems are being developed, materials performance of candidate

  5. High temperature solid electrolyte fuel cell with ceramic electrodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Marchant, David D. (Richland, WA); Bates, J. Lambert (Richland, WA)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A solid oxide electrolyte fuel cell is described having a central electrolyte comprised of a HfO.sub.2 or ZrO.sub.2 ceramic stabilized and rendered ionically conductive by the addition of Ca, Mg, Y, La, Nd, Sm, Gd, Dy Er, or Yb. The electrolyte is sandwiched between porous electrodes of a HfO.sub.2 or ZrO.sub.2 ceramic stabilized by the addition of a rare earth and rendered electronically conductive by the addition of In.sub.2 O.sub.3. Alternatively, the anode electrode may be made of a metal such as Co, Ni, Ir Pt, or Pd.

  6. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell and PowerSolid Oxide Fuel Cell and Power S t D l t t PNNLS t D l t t PNNLSystem Development at PNNLSystem Development at PNNL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Solid Oxide Fuel Cell and PowerSolid Oxide Fuel Cell and Power S t D l t t PNNLS t D l;Solid Oxide Fuel Cell CharacteristicsSolid Oxide Fuel Cell Characteristics High temperature (~700 ­ 800

  7. In situ reduction and oxidation of nickel from solid oxide fuel cells in a Titan ETEM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E.

    In situ reduction and oxidation of nickel from solid oxide fuel cells in a Titan ETEM A. Faes1, Denmark antonin.faes@epfl.ch Keywords: In situ ETEM, nickel oxide, reduction, RedOx, SOFC Solid Oxide Fuel. C. Singhal, K. Kendall, High Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cell - Fundamentals, Design

  8. High-Temperature Thermoelectric Characterization of IIIV Semiconductor Thin Films by Oxide Bonding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    High-Temperature Thermoelectric Characterization of III­V Semiconductor Thin Films by Oxide Bonding and measurement method utilizing a SiO2­SiO2 covalent bonding technique is presented for high-temperature surface passivation, and metallization with a Ti-W-N diffusion barrier. A thermoelectric material, thin

  9. High temperature oxidation behavior of Fe-Cr-Al foils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang, C.S.; Jha, B. [Texas Instruments, Inc., Attleboro, MA (United States)

    1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Metallic catalytic converters for automotive emission control is becoming an important application for heat resistant alloys as more design opportunities are realized. The service conditions and design of metallic catalytic converters require the alloy to be highly oxidation resistant at gauges typically at 50 microns or less. For conventional heat resistant alloy design the goal is to form a well adherent scale on the alloy surface to protect the alloy matrix from being oxidized. However, the thin gauge results in a limited supply of alloying elements that can form the protective scale on the surface. The alloy chemistry has to be optimized to have the minimum oxidation while maintaining processing characteristics. Furthermore, the ratio of scale thickness to foil gauge is significant and the stress state between them introduces measurable permanent distortion of the foil. In this study, the effect of alloying elements on the oxidation behavior of commonly used Fe-Cr-Al alloys was quantified by the oxidation weight gain and length change measurements.

  10. Solid State Joining of High Temperature Alloy Tubes for USC and Heat-Exchanger Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bimal Kad

    2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The principal objective of this project was to develop materials enabling joining technologies for use in forward looking heat-exchanger fabrication in Brayton cycle HIPPS, IGCC, FutureGen concepts capable of operating at temperatures in excess of 1000{degree}C as well as conventional technology upgrades via Ultra Super-Critical (USC) Rankine-cycle boilers capable of operating at 760{degree}C (1400F)/38.5MPa (5500psi) steam, while still using coal as the principal fossil fuel. The underlying mission in Rankine, Brayton or Brayton-Rankine, or IGCC combined cycle heat engine is a steady quest to improving operating efficiency while mitigating global environmental concerns. There has been a progressive move to higher overall cycle efficiencies, and in the case of fossil fuels this has accelerated recently in part because of concerns about greenhouse gas emissions, notably CO{sub 2}. For a heat engine, the overall efficiency is closely related to the difference between the highest temperature in the cycle and the lowest temperature. In most cases, efficiency gains are prompted by an increase in the high temperature, and this in turn has led to increasing demands on the materials of construction used in the high temperature end of the systems. Our migration to new advanced Ni-base and Oxide Dispersion Strengthened (ODS) alloys poses significant fabrication challenges, as these materials are not readily weldable or the weld performs poorly in the high temperature creep regime. Thus the joining challenge is two-fold to a) devise appropriate joining methodologies for similar/dissimilar Ni-base and ODS alloys while b) preserving the near baseline creep performance in the welded region. Our program focus is on solid state joining of similar and dissimilar metals/alloys for heat exchanger components currently under consideration for the USC, HIPPS and IGCC power systems. The emphasis is to manipulate the joining methods and variables available to optimize joint creep performance compared to the base material creep performance. Similar and dissimilar butt joints were fabricated of MA956, IN740 alloys and using inertia welding techniques. We evaluated joining process details and heat treatments and its overall effect on creep response. Fixed and incrementally accelerated temperature creep tests were performed for similar and dissimilar joints and such incremental creep life data is compiled and reported. Long term MA956-MA556 joint tests indicate a firm 2Ksi creep stress threshold performance at 850{degree}C with a maximum exposure of over 9725 hours recorded in the current program. A Larsen Miller Parameter (LMP) of 48.50 for a 2Ksi test at 850{degree}C was further corroborated with tests at 2Ksi stress at 900{degree}C yielding a LMP=48.80. Despite this threshold the joints exhibit immense temperature sensitivity and fail promptly when test temperature raised above 900{degree}C. In comparison the performance of dissimilar joints was inferior, perhaps dictated by the creep characteristics of the mating nickel-base alloys. We describe a parametric window of joint development, and post weld heat treatment (PWHT) in dissimilar joints with solid solution (IN601, IN617) and precipitate strengthened (IN740) materials. Some concerns are evident regarding the diffusion of aluminum in dissimilar joints during high temperature recrystallization treatments. It is noted that aggressive treatments rapidly deplete the corrosion protecting aluminum reservoir in the vicinity of the joint interface. Subsequently, the impact of varying PWHT has been evaluated in the context on ensuing creep performance.

  11. Isothermal oxidation behavior of ternary Zr-Nb-Y alloys at high temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prajitno, Djoko Hadi, E-mail: djokohp@batan.go.id [Research Center for Nuclear Materials and Radiometry, Jl. Tamansari 71, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia); Soepriyanto, Syoni; Basuki, Eddy Agus [Metallurgy Engineering, Institute Technology Bandung, Jl. Ganesha 10, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia); Wiryolukito, Slameto [Materials Engineering, Institute Technology Bandung, Jl. Ganesha 10, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia)

    2014-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The effect of yttrium content on isothermal oxidation behavior of Zr-2,5%Nb-0,5%Y, Zr-2,5%Nb-1%Y Zr-2,5%Nb-1,5%Y alloy at high temperature has been studied. High temperature oxidation carried out at tube furnace in air at 600,700 and 800°C for 1 hour. Optical microscope is used for microstructure characterization of the alloy. Oxidized and un oxidized specimen was characterized by x-ray diffraction. In this study, kinetic oxidation of Zr-2,5%Nb with different Y content at high temperature has also been studied. Characterization by optical microscope showed that microstructure of Zr-Nb-Y alloys relatively unchanged and showed equiaxed microstructure. X-ray diffraction of the alloys depicted that the oxide scale formed during oxidation of zirconium alloys is monoclinic ZrO2 while unoxidised alloy showed two phase ? and ? phase. SEM-EDS examination shows that depletion of Zr composition took place under the oxide layer. Kinetic rate of oxidation of zirconium alloy showed that increasing oxidation temperature will increase oxidation rate but increasing yttrium content in the alloys will decrease oxidation rate.

  12. DEFORMATION MECHANISMS AND DAMAGE OF OXIDE DISPERSION STRENGTHENED STEELS AT HIGH TEMPERATURE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    alloy, an ODS ferritic steel produced by hot extrusion at CEA are presented. Its mechanical propertiesTech, 91003 Evry, France ABSTRACT A ferritic oxide dispersion strengthened steel is under study for fuel are suspected and intergranular damage is observed on fractured specimens. KEYWORDS ODS steels, high temperature

  13. Oxidation of carbon fiber surfaces for use as reinforcement in high-temperature cementitious material systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sugama, Toshifumi (Mastic Beach, NY)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The interfacial bond characteristics between carbon fiber and a cement matrix, in high temperature fiber-reinforced cementitious composite systems, can be improved by the oxidative treatment of the fiber surfaces. Compositions and the process for producing the compositions are disclosed.

  14. Characterization of a high temperature superconducting oxide thin-film RF SQUID

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daly, K.P.; Silver, A.H.; Simon, R.W.; Platt, C.E.; Lee, A.E.; Wire, M.S.; Zimmerman, J.E.

    1989-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The authors have successfully fabricated and operated RF SQUIDS made from thin-films of the high temperature superconducting oxide ErBa/sub 2/Cu/sub 3/O/sub 7-x/. The ideal triangular quantum interference pattern characteristic of RF SQUIDS is observed. The performance of a particular device, operating between 60 and 65K, is described in detail.

  15. Oxidation of carbon fiber surfaces for use as reinforcement in high-temperature cementitious material systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sugama, Toshifumi.

    1990-05-22T23:59:59.000Z

    The interfacial bond characteristics between carbon fiber and a cement matrix, in high temperature fiber-reinforced cementitious composite systems, can be improved by the oxidative treatment of the fiber surfaces. Compositions and the process for producing the compositions are disclosed. 2 figs.

  16. High-temperature-oxidation-induced ordered structure in Inconel 939 superalloy exposed to oxy-combustion environments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhu, Jingxi; Wise, Adam; Nuhfer, Thomas; Holcomb, Gordon R.; Jablonski, Paul D.; Sridhar, Seetharaman; Laughlin, David E.

    2013-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

    In the integrated oxy-fuel combustion and turbine power generation system, turbine alloys are exposed to high temperature and an atmosphere comprised of steam, CO2 and O2. While surface and internal oxidation of the alloy takes place, the microstructure in the subsurface region also changes due to oxidation that results in the loss of the strengthening precipitates. In an earlier study of the oxidation of Inconel 939 Ni-based superalloy exposed to oxy-fuel combustion environment for up to 1000 hours, a high-temperature-oxidation-induced phase transformation in the sub-surface region was noticed and a two-phase region formed at the expense of strengthening ?' phase. While one of the two phases was identified as the Ni-matrix (? solid solution, face-center-cubic) phase, the other product phase remained unidentified. In this study, the crystal structure of the unknown phase and its orientation relationship with the parent Ni-matrix phase was investigated through electron diffraction and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. It was determined that the crystal structure of the unknown phase could be modeled as a ternary derivative of the ordered ?-Ni3Ti phase (D024) structure with lattice parameters of a = 0.5092 nm and c = 0.8336 nm, ? = 90º, ? = 90º and ? = 120º.

  17. High temperature solid lubricant materials for heavy duty and advanced heat engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DellaCorte, C.; Wood, J.C.

    1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Advanced engine designs incorporate higher mechanical and thermal loading to achieve efficiency improvements. This approach often leads to higher operating temperatures of critical sliding elements (e.g. piston ring/cylinder wall contacts and valve guides) which compromise the use of conventional and even advanced synthetic liquid lubricants. For these applications solid lubricants must be considered. Several novel solid lubricant composites and coatings designated PS/PM200 have been employed to dry and marginally oil lubricated contacts in advanced heat engines. These applications include cylinder kits of heavy duty diesels, and high temperature sterling engines, sidewall seals of rotary engines and various exhaust valve and exhaust component applications. The following paper describes the tribological and thermophysical properties of these tribomaterials and reviews the results of applying them to engine applications. Other potential tribological materials and applications are also discussed with particular emphasis to heavy duty and advanced heat engines.

  18. High Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Generator Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joseph Pierre

    2007-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes the results of the tubular SOFC development program from August 22, 1997 to September 30, 2007 under the Siemens/U.S. Department of Energy Cooperative Agreement. The technical areas discussed include cell manufacturing development, cell power enhancement, SOFC module and system cost reduction and technology advancement, and our field unit test program. Whereas significant progress has been made toward commercialization, significant effort remains to achieve our cost, performance and reliability targets for successful commercialization.

  19. Mechanism of oxygen reduction reaction on transition metal oxide catalysts for high temperature fuel cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    La O', Gerardo Jose Cordova

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) with its high energy conversion efficiency, low emissions, silent operation and its ability to utilize commercial fuels has the potential to create a large impact on the energy landscape. ...

  20. SOLID OXIDE PLANAR AND TUBULAR SOLID OXIDE FUEL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mease, Kenneth D.

    SOLID OXIDE PLANAR AND TUBULAR SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS Dynamic Simulation Approach Modular Approach: Individual simulation modules for each fuel cell type · Tubular SOFC · Planar SOFC · MCFC · PEM Reformer · Slow pressure transients #12;Fuel Cell Assumptions · H2 electrochemically oxidized only · CO consumed

  1. Solid oxide fuel cell with monolithic core

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McPheeters, C.C.; Mrazek, F.C.

    1988-08-02T23:59:59.000Z

    A solid oxide fuel cell in which fuel and oxidant gases undergo an electrochemical reaction to produce an electrical output includes a monolithic core comprised of a corrugated conductive sheet disposed between upper and lower generally flat sheets. The corrugated sheet includes a plurality of spaced, parallel, elongated slots which form a series of closed, linear, first upper and second lower gas flow channels with the upper and lower sheets within which a fuel gas and an oxidant gas respectively flow. Facing ends of the fuel cell are generally V-shaped and provide for fuel and oxidant gas inlet and outlet flow, respectively, and include inlet and outlet gas flow channels which are continuous with the aforementioned upper fuel gas and lower oxidant gas flow channels. The upper and lower flat sheets and the intermediate corrugated sheet are preferably comprised of ceramic materials and are securely coupled together such as by assembly in the green state and sintering together during firing at high temperatures. A potential difference across the fuel cell, or across a stacked array of similar fuel cells, is generated when an oxidant gas such as air and a fuel such as hydrogen gas is directed through the fuel cell at high temperatures, e.g., between 700 C and 1,100 C. 8 figs.

  2. Solid oxide fuel cell with monolithic core

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McPheeters, Charles C. (Plainfield, IL); Mrazek, Franklin C. (Hickory Hills, IL)

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A solid oxide fuel cell in which fuel and oxidant gases undergo an electrochemical reaction to produce an electrical output includes a monolithic core comprised of a corrugated conductive sheet disposed between upper and lower generally flat sheets. The corrugated sheet includes a plurality of spaced, parallel, elongated slots which form a series of closed, linear, first upper and second lower gas flow channels with the upper and lower sheets within which a fuel gas and an oxidant gas respectively flow. Facing ends of the fuel cell are generally V-shaped and provide for fuel and oxidant gas inlet and outlet flow, respectively, and include inlet and outlet gas flow channels which are continuous with the aforementioned upper fuel gas and lower oxidant gas flow channels. The upper and lower flat sheets and the intermediate corrugated sheet are preferably comprised of ceramic materials and are securely coupled together such as by assembly in the green state and sintering together during firing at high temperatures. A potential difference across the fuel cell, or across a stacked array of similar fuel cells, is generated when an oxidant gas such as air and a fuel such as hydrogen gas is directed through the fuel cell at high temperatures, e.g., between 700.degree. C. and 1100.degree. C.

  3. High-Temperature Thermoelectric Characterization of III–V Semiconductor Thin Films by Oxide Bonding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    High-Temperature Thermoelectric Characterization of III–Vfor high-temperature thermoelectric charac- terization ofdiffusion barrier. A thermoelectric material, thin-?lm ErAs:

  4. Methyl Chloride from Direct Methane Partial Oxidation: A High-Temperature Shilov-Like Catalytic System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yongchun Tang; John (Qisheng) Ma

    2012-03-23T23:59:59.000Z

    The intention of this study is to demonstrate and evaluate the scientific and economic feasibility of using special solvents to improve the thermal stability of Pt-catalyst in the Shilov system, such that a high reaction temperature could be achieved. The higher conversion rate (near 100%) of methyl chloride from partial oxidation of methane under the high temperature ({approx} 200 C) without significant Pt0 precipitation has been achieved. High concentration of the Cl- ion has been identified as the key for the stabilization of the Pt-catalysts. H/D exchange measurements indicated that the over oxidation will occur at the elevated temperature, developments of the effective product separation processes will be necessary in order to rationalize the industry-visible CH4 to CH3Cl conversion.

  5. Near interface oxide degradation in high temperature annealed Si/SiO{sub 2}/Si structures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Devine, R.A.B.; Mathiot, D. [Centre National d`Etudes des Telecommunications (CNET), 38 - Meylan (France); Warren, W.L.; Fleetwood, D.M. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Degradation of 430 nm thick SiO{sub 2} layers in Si/SiO{sub 2}/Si structures which results from high temperature annealing (1320 C) has been studied using electron spin resonance, infra-red and refractive index measurements. Large numbers of oxygen vacancies are found in a region {le}100 nm from each Si/SiO{sub 2} interface. Two types of paramagnetic defects are observed following {gamma} or x-irradiation or hole injection. The 1106 cm{sup {minus}1} infra-red absorption associated with O interstitials in the Si substrate is found to increase with annealing time. The infra-red and spin resonance observations can be explained qualitatively and quantitatively in terms of a model in which oxygen atoms are gettered from the oxide into the under or overlying Si, the driving force being the increased O solubility limit associated with the anneal temperature.

  6. High Temperature Oxidation Resistance and Surface Electrical Conductivity of Stainless Steels with Filtered Arc Cr-Al-N Multilayer and/or Superlattice Coatings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gannon, Paul E.; Tripp, C.; Knospe, Anders; Ramana, C. V.; Deibert, Max; Smith, Richard J.; Gorokhovsky, Vladimir I.; Shutthanandan, V.; Gelles, David S.

    2004-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The requirements for low cost and high-tempurater corrosion resistance for bipolar interconnect plates in solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) stacks has directed attention to the use of metal plates with oxidation resistant coatings. Candidate coatings must exhibit chemical and thermal-mechanical stability and high electrical conductivity during long-term (>400,000 hrs) exposure to SOFC operatong conditions. The high temperature oxidation resistance and surface electrical donductivity of 304, 440A,a dn Crofer-22 APU steel coupons, with and without multilayer and/or superlattice coatings from a Cr-Al-N system were investigated as a function of exposure in an oxidization atmosphere at high temperatures. The coatins were deposited using large area filtered arc depsition (LAFAD) technology [1], and subsequently annealed in air at 800 degrees C for varying times. Area specific resistance and activation energy for electrical conductivity of oxidized coupons were measured using a 4-point technique with Pt paste for electrical contact between facing oxidized coupon surfaces. The surface compositon, structure and morphology of the coupons were characterized using RBS, nuclear reaction analysis, XPS, SEM, and AFM techniques. The structure of the CRN/CrAlN multilayered superlattice coatings was characterized by TEM. By altering the architecture of the coating layers, both surface electrical conductivity and oxidation resistance [2] improved signigicantly for some of the coated samples tested up to ~100hrs.

  7. Architectures for individual and stacked micro single chamber solid oxide fuel cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Crumlin, Ethan J

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are electrochemical conversion devices that convert various fuel sources directly into electrical energy at temperatures ranging from 600°C to 1000°C. These high temperatures could potentially ...

  8. High temperature oxidation behavior of austenitic stainless steel AISI 304 in steam of nanofluids contain nanoparticle ZrO2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prajitno, Djoko Hadi, E-mail: djokohp@batan.go.id; Syarif, Dani Gustaman, E-mail: djokohp@batan.go.id [Research Center for Nuclear Materials and Radiometry, Jl. Tamansari 71, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia)

    2014-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this study is to evaluate high temperature oxidation behavior of austenitic stainless steel SS 304 in steam of nanofluids contain nanoparticle ZrO{sub 2}. The oxidation was performed at high temperatures ranging from 600 to 800°C. The oxidation time was 60 minutes. After oxidation the surface of the samples was analyzed by different methods including, optical microscope, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). X-ray diffraction examination show that the oxide scale formed during oxidation of stainless steel AISI 304 alloys is dominated by iron oxide, Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Minor element such as Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} is also appeared in the diffraction pattern. Characterization by optical microscope showed that cross section microstructure of stainless steel changed after oxidized with the oxide scale on the surface stainless steels. SEM and x-ray diffraction examination show that the oxide of ZrO{sub 2} appeared on the surface of stainless steel. Kinetic rate of oxidation of austenite stainless steel AISI 304 showed that increasing oxidation temperature and time will increase oxidation rate.

  9. New Measurements of the Solubility of Metal Oxides at High Temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G.A. Palmer; P. Benezeth; D.J. Wesolowski; S.A. Wood; C. Xiao

    2000-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The results of high temperature solubility studies at ORNL are presented in which mainly direct pH measurements were made of aqueous solutions in contact with the crystalline solid phases: Al(OH){sub 3}, AlOOH, Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}, Mg(OH){sub 2}, Nd(OH){sub 3}, and ZnO. Examples are highlighted of specific phenomena such as: the kinetics of gibbsite and boehmite dissolution and precipitation; the appearance of metastable equilibria in the dissolution of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}; the extremely rapid precipitation of crystalline brucite, Mg(OH){sub 2}; and anomalies in the apparent solubility profiles of AlO(OH) and ZnO. General trends associated with the effects of temperature and ionic strength are mentioned. Some of the potentiometric investigations were augmented by conventional batch [AlO(OH) and ZnO], and flow-through column (ZnO) experiments. In the additional case of ZnCr{sub 2}O{sub 4}, the extremely low solubility of this spinel permitted application of only the latter technique and these results are discussed in terms of the measured chromium levels that resulted from incongruent dissolution.

  10. Solid oxide electrochemical reactor science.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sullivan, Neal P. (Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO); Stechel, Ellen Beth; Moyer, Connor J. (Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO); Ambrosini, Andrea; Key, Robert J. (Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO)

    2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Solid-oxide electrochemical cells are an exciting new technology. Development of solid-oxide cells (SOCs) has advanced considerable in recent years and continues to progress rapidly. This thesis studies several aspects of SOCs and contributes useful information to their continued development. This LDRD involved a collaboration between Sandia and the Colorado School of Mines (CSM) ins solid-oxide electrochemical reactors targeted at solid oxide electrolyzer cells (SOEC), which are the reverse of solid-oxide fuel cells (SOFC). SOECs complement Sandia's efforts in thermochemical production of alternative fuels. An SOEC technology would co-electrolyze carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) with steam at temperatures around 800 C to form synthesis gas (H{sub 2} and CO), which forms the building blocks for a petrochemical substitutes that can be used to power vehicles or in distributed energy platforms. The effort described here concentrates on research concerning catalytic chemistry, charge-transfer chemistry, and optimal cell-architecture. technical scope included computational modeling, materials development, and experimental evaluation. The project engaged the Colorado Fuel Cell Center at CSM through the support of a graduate student (Connor Moyer) at CSM and his advisors (Profs. Robert Kee and Neal Sullivan) in collaboration with Sandia.

  11. Carbon dioxide adsorbents containing magnesium oxide suitable for use at high temperatures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mayorga, Steven Gerard (Allentown, PA); Weigel, Scott Jeffrey (Allentown, PA); Gaffney, Thomas Richard (Allentown, PA); Brzozowski, Jeffrey Richard (Macungie, PA)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Adsorption of carbon dioxide from gas streams at temperatures in the range of 300 to 500.degree. C. is carried out with a solid adsorbent containing magnesium oxide, preferably promoted with an alkali metal carbonate or bicarbonate so that the atomic ratio of alkali metal to magnesium is in the range of 0.006 to 2.60. Preferred adsorbents are made from the precipitate formed on addition of alkali metal and carbonate ions to an aqueous solution of a magnesium salt. Atomic ratios of alkali metal to magnesium can be adjusted by washing the precipitate with water. Low surface area adsorbents can be made by dehydration and CO.sub.2 removal of magnesium hydroxycarbonate, with or without alkali metal promotion. The process is especially valuable in pressure swing adsorption operations.

  12. Oxidation resistant high temperature thermal cycling resistant coatings on silicon-based substrates and process for the production thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sarin, V.K.

    1990-08-21T23:59:59.000Z

    An oxidation resistant, high temperature thermal cycling resistant coated ceramic article for ceramic heat engine applications is disclosed. The substrate is a silicon-based material, i.e. a silicon nitride- or silicon carbide-based monolithic or composite material. The coating is a graded coating of at least two layers: an intermediate AlN or Al[sub x]N[sub y]O[sub z] layer and an aluminum oxide or zirconium oxide outer layer. The composition of the coating changes gradually from that of the substrate to that of the AlN or Al[sub x]N[sub y]O[sub z] layer and further to the composition of the aluminum oxide or zirconium oxide outer layer. Other layers may be deposited over the aluminum oxide layer. A CVD process for depositing the graded coating on the substrate is also disclosed.

  13. Solid oxide fuel cell generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Di Croce, A. Michael (Murrysville, PA); Draper, Robert (Churchill Boro, PA)

    1993-11-02T23:59:59.000Z

    A solid oxide fuel cell generator has a plenum containing at least two rows of spaced apart, annular, axially elongated fuel cells. An electrical conductor extending between adjacent rows of fuel cells connects the fuel cells of one row in parallel with each other and in series with the fuel cells of the adjacent row.

  14. Solid oxide fuel cell generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Di Croce, A.M.; Draper, R.

    1993-11-02T23:59:59.000Z

    A solid oxide fuel cell generator has a plenum containing at least two rows of spaced apart, annular, axially elongated fuel cells. An electrical conductor extending between adjacent rows of fuel cells connects the fuel cells of one row in parallel with each other and in series with the fuel cells of the adjacent row. 5 figures.

  15. Synthesis and crystallographic study of Pb-Sr hydroxyapatite solid solutions by high temperature mixing method under hydrothermal conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhu Kongjun, E-mail: kjzhu@nuaa.edu.cn [Aeronautical Key Laboratory for Smart Materials and Structures, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing 210016 (China); Yanagisawa, Kazumichi [Research Laboratory of Hydrothermal Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Kochi University, Kochi-shi 780-8520 (Japan); Shimanouchi, Rie [Department of Material Science, Faculty of Science, Kochi University, Kochi-shi, 780-8520 (Japan); Onda, Ayumu; Kajiyoshi, Koji [Research Laboratory of Hydrothermal Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Kochi University, Kochi-shi 780-8520 (Japan); Qiu Jinhao [Aeronautical Key Laboratory for Smart Materials and Structures, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing 210016 (China)

    2009-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

    The solid solutions in the system of Pb and Sr hydroxyapatite, Sr{sub 10-x}Pb{sub x}HAp (x = 0-10), were successfully synthesized by high-temperature mixing method (HTMM) at 160 deg. C for 12 h under hydrothermal conditions. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, chemical analysis and electron microscopic observation, and the site of the metal ions in the solid solutions was analyzed with the Rietveld method. The lattice constants, both a and c, of the solid solutions varied linearly with Pb content. It was found that Pb ions in the solid solutions preferentially occupied the M(2) site in the apatite structure. HTMM gives Sr-Pb HAp solid solutions much better crystallization. However, due to the formation of intermediate compound of Pb{sub 3}O{sub 2}(OH){sub 2} in the Pb(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}.4H{sub 2}O solution before mixing with (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}HPO{sub 4} solution at 160 deg. C, HTMM causes the decrease of crystallization of the samples with high Pb content.

  16. High temperature storage battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sammells, A.F.

    1988-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

    A high temperature electrochemical cell is described comprising: a solid-state divalent cation conducting electrolyte; a positive electrode in contact with the electrolyte; a solid-state negative electrode contacting a divalent cation conducting molten salt mediating agent providing ionic mediation between the solid-state negative electrode and the solid-state electrolyte.

  17. The development and operational testing of an experimental reactor for gas-liquid-solid reaction systems at high temperatures and pressures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hess, Richard Kenneth

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    THE DEVELOPMENT AND OPERATIONAL TESTING OF AN EXPERIMENTAL REACTOR FOR GAS-LIQUID-SOLID REACTION SYSTEMS AT HIGH TEMPERATURES AND PRESSURES A Thesis by RICHARD KENNETH HESS Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial... fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1985 Major Subject: Chemical Engineering THE DEVELOPMENT AND OPERATIONAL TESTING OF AN EXPERIMENTAL REACTOR FOR GAS-LIQUID-SOLID REACTION SYSTEMS AT HIGH TEMPERATURES...

  18. High temperature behavior of electrostatic precipitator ash from municipal solid waste combustors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    combustors Lydie Le Forestier a,*, Guy Libourel b,c a ISTO, UMR 6113 CNRS-Université d'Orléans, Polytech, a destruction of pathogenic agents and a possible recovery of energy. Whatever MSW combustor used, combustion of MSW produces two kinds of solid residues: (i) bottom ashes recovered from the primary combustor

  19. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Manufacturing Overview

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Manufacturing Overview Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technologies Manufacturing R Reserved. 3 The Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Electrochemistry #12;Copyright © 2011 Versa Power Systems. All Rights

  20. Fabrication of solid oxide fuel cell by electrochemical vapor deposition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brian, Riley (Willimantic, CT); Szreders, Bernard E. (Oakdale, CT)

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In a high temperature solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC), the deposition of an impervious high density thin layer of electrically conductive interconnector material, such as magnesium doped lanthanum chromite, and of an electrolyte material, such as yttria stabilized zirconia, onto a porous support/air electrode substrate surface is carried out at high temperatures (approximately 1100.degree.-1300.degree. C.) by a process of electrochemical vapor deposition. In this process, the mixed chlorides of the specific metals involved react in the gaseous state with water vapor resulting in the deposit of an impervious thin oxide layer on the support tube/air electrode substrate of between 20-50 microns in thickness. An internal heater, such as a heat pipe, is placed within the support tube/air electrode substrate and induces a uniform temperature profile therein so as to afford precise and uniform oxide deposition kinetics in an arrangement which is particularly adapted for large scale, commercial fabrication of SOFCs.

  1. Fabrication of solid oxide fuel cell by electrochemical vapor deposition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Riley, B.; Szreders, B.E.

    1988-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

    In a high temperature solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC), the deposition of an impervious high density thin layer of electrically conductive interconnector material, such as magnesium doped lanthanum chromite, and of an electrolyte material, such as yttria stabilized zirconia, onto a porous support/air electrode substrate surface is carried out at high temperatures (/approximately/1100/degree/ /minus/ 1300/degree/C) by a process of electrochemical vapor deposition. In this process, the mixed chlorides of the specific metals involved react in the gaseous state with water vapor resulting in the deposit of an impervious thin oxide layer on the support tube/air electrode substrate of between 20--50 microns in thickness. An internal heater, such as a heat pipe, is placed within the support tube/air electrode substrate and induces a uniform temperature profile therein so as to afford precise and uniform oxide deposition kinetics in an arrangement which is particularly adapted for large scale, commercial fabrication of SOFCs.

  2. High temperature thermoelectric characterization of III-V semiconductor thin films by oxide bonding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bowers, John

    bonding Je-Hyeong Bahka) , Gehong Zenga) , Joshua M. O. Zide b) , Hong Luc) , Rajeev Singhd) , Di Lianga bonding technique is developed for high temperature thermoelectric characterization of the thin film III-W-N diffusion barrier. A thermoelectric material, thin film ErAs:InGaAlAs metal/semiconductor nanocomposite

  3. Solid oxide fuel cell generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Draper, R.; George, R.A.; Shockling, L.A.

    1993-04-06T23:59:59.000Z

    A solid oxide fuel cell generator has a pair of spaced apart tubesheets in a housing. At least two intermediate barrier walls are between the tubesheets and define a generator chamber between two intermediate buffer chambers. An array of fuel cells have tubes with open ends engaging the tubesheets. Tubular, axially elongated electrochemical cells are supported on the tubes in the generator chamber. Fuel gas and oxidant gas are preheated in the intermediate chambers by the gases flowing on the other side of the tubes. Gas leakage around the tubes through the tubesheets is permitted. The buffer chambers reentrain the leaked fuel gas for reintroduction to the generator chamber.

  4. Solid oxide fuel cell generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Draper, Robert (Churchill Boro, PA); George, Raymond A. (Pittsburgh, PA); Shockling, Larry A. (Plum Borough, PA)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A solid oxide fuel cell generator has a pair of spaced apart tubesheets in a housing. At least two intermediate barrier walls are between the tubesheets and define a generator chamber between two intermediate buffer chambers. An array of fuel cells have tubes with open ends engaging the tubesheets. Tubular, axially elongated electrochemical cells are supported on the tubes in the generator chamber. Fuel gas and oxidant gas are preheated in the intermediate chambers by the gases flowing on the other side of the tubes. Gas leakage around the tubes through the tubesheets is permitted. The buffer chambers reentrain the leaked fuel gas for reintroduction to the generator chamber.

  5. Solubility of, and hydrogen ion adsorption on, some metal oxides in aqueous solutions to high temperatures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Palmer, D.A.; Benezeth, P.; Wesolowski, D.J.; Anovitz, L.M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Machesky, M.L. [Illinois State Water Survey, Champaign, IL (United States); Hayashi, Ken-ichiro [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Inst. of Mineralogy, Petrology and Economic Geology; Hyde, K.E. [State Univ. of New York, Oswego, NY (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Solubility of boehmite (AlOOH), ferrous hydroxide (Fe(OH)2)/magnetite (Fe3O4), zincite (ZnO), and brucite (Mg(OH)2) were measured over a range of temperatures (AlOOH, 100-290 C; Fe(OH)2/Fe3O4, 100-250 C; ZnO, 50-290 C; Mg(OH)2, 60-200 C) using in situ pH measurements. A hydrogen-electrode concentration cell was used; the pH range depended on the oxide. The solubility results for boehmite mainly demonstrate the method viability, while those for zincite are mainly restricted to mildly acidic to neutral pH where Zn{sup 2+} predominates in solution. The magnetite (presumably coated with Fe(OH)2) solubilities extend from pHs > 5 and, because of relevance to water/steam cycles of power plants, are compared in detail with previous studies. The same cell was used to investigate the surface adsorption-desorption thermodynamics of H ions on rutile (TiO2) and zincite to 290 C. Behavior of pH at zero-point-of-charge as function of temperature and application of the Stern-3-layer model were determined for this solid. The zincite study is still incomplete; preliminary results show trends that can be rationalized only qualitatively now with the zero- point-of-charge being apparently affected by hydration of the surface in basic solutions and specific adsorption of Na ions under the same conditions.

  6. ReaxFF Reactive Force Field for Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Systems with Application to Oxygen Ion Transport in Yttria-Stabilized Zirconia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goddard III, William A.

    through yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) membranes. All parameters for ReaxReaxFF Reactive Force Field for Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Systems with Application to Oxygen Ion temperature, leading to applications as oxygen sensors and as membranes for high temperature solid oxide fuel

  7. Effects of Temperature Gradients and Heat Fluxes on High-Temperature Oxidation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holcomb, G.R.

    2008-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The effects of a temperature gradient and heat flux on point defect diffusion in protective oxide scales were examined. Irreversible thermodynamics were used to expand Fick’s first law of diffusion to include a heat-flux term—a Soret effect. Oxidation kinetics were developed for the oxidation of cobalt and of nickel doped with chromium. Research is described to verify the effects of a heat flux by oxidizing pure cobalt in a temperature gradient at 900 °C, and comparing the kinetics to isothermal oxidation. No evidence of a heat flux effect was found.

  8. Models for the Configuration and Integrity of Partially Oxidized Fuel Rod Cladding at High Temperatures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siefken, L.J.

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Models were designed to resolve deficiencies in the SCDAP/RELAP5/MOD3.2 calculations of the configuration and integrity of hot, partially oxidized cladding. These models are expected to improve the calculations of several important aspects of fuel rod behavior. First, an improved mapping was established from a compilation of PIE results from severe fuel damage tests of the configuration of melted metallic cladding that is retained by an oxide layer. The improved mapping accounts for the relocation of melted cladding in the circumferential direction. Then, rules based on PIE results were established for calculating the effect of cladding that has relocated from above on the oxidation and integrity of the lower intact cladding upon which it solidifies. Next, three different methods were identified for calculating the extent of dissolution of the oxidic part of the cladding due to its contact with the metallic part. The extent of dissolution effects the stress and thus the integrity of the oxidic part of the cladding. Then, an empirical equation was presented for calculating the stress in the oxidic part of the cladding and evaluating its integrity based on this calculated stress. This empirical equation replaces the current criterion for loss of integrity which is based on temperature and extent of oxidation. Finally, a new rule based on theoretical and experimental results was established for identifying the regions of a fuel rod with oxidation of both the inside and outside surfaces of the cladding. The implementation of these models is expected to eliminate the tendency of the SCDAP/RELAP5 code to overpredict the extent of oxidation of the upper part of fuel rods and to underpredict the extent of oxidation of the lower part of fuel rods and the part with a high concentration of relocated material. This report is a revision and reissue of the report entitled, Improvements in Modeling of Cladding Oxidation and Meltdown.

  9. REVERSIBLE SOLID OXIDE CELLS Mogens Mogensen1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chorkendorff2 and Torben Jacobsen3 1 Fuel Cell and Solid State Chemistry Department Risø National Laboratory The reversibility of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC), i.e. that they could also work in the solid oxide electrolyser at a cell voltage of 1.48 V, which is the overall thermo-neutral voltage. Assuming an electricity cost of 3

  10. Fundamental studies of heterostructured oxide thin film electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction at high temperatures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Crumlin, Ethan J

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Searching for active and cost-effective catalysts for oxygen electrocatalysis is essential for the development of efficient clean electrochemical energy technologies. Perovskite oxides are active for surface oxygen exchange ...

  11. Solid-oxide fuel cell electrolyte

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bloom, Ira D. (Bolingbrook, IL); Hash, Mark C. (Joliet, IL); Krumpelt, Michael (Naperville, IL)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A solid-oxide electrolyte operable at between 600.degree. C. and 800.degree. C. and a method of producing the solid-oxide electrolyte are provided. The solid-oxide electrolyte comprises a combination of a compound having weak metal-oxygen interactions with a compound having stronger metal-oxygen interactions whereby the resulting combination has both strong and weak metal-oxygen interaction properties.

  12. Durability Evaluation of Reversible Solid Oxide Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xiaoyu Zhang; James E. O'Brien; Robert C. O'Brien; Gregory K. Housley

    2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An experimental investigation on the performance and durability of single solid oxide cells (SOCs) is under way at the Idaho National Laboratory. Reversible operation of SOCs includes electricity generation in the fuel cell mode and hydrogen generation in the electrolysis mode. Degradation is a more significant issue when operating SOCs in the electrolysis mode. In order to understand and mitigate the degradation issues in high temperature electrolysis, single SOCs with different configurations from several manufacturers have been evaluated for initial performance and long-term durability. A new test apparatus for single cell and small stack tests has been developed for this purpose. Cells were obtained from four industrial partners. Cells from Ceramatec Inc. and Materials and Systems Research Inc. (MSRI) showed improved durability in electrolysis mode compared to previous stack tests. Cells from Saint Gobain Advanced Materials Inc. (St. Gobain) and SOFCPower Inc. demonstrated stable performance in the fuel cell mode, but rapid degradation in the electrolysis mode, especially at high current density. Electrolyte-electrode delamination was found to have a significant impact on degradation in some cases. Enhanced bonding between electrolyte and electrode and modification of the electrode microstructure helped to mitigate degradation. Polarization scans and AC impedance measurements were performed during the tests to characterize cell performance and degradation.

  13. Mid-infrared response of reduced graphene oxide and its high-temperature coefficient of resistance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liang, Haifeng, E-mail: hfliang2004@gmail.com [Key Laboratory of Optical Measurement and Thin Film of Shaanxi Province, Xi’an Technological University, Xi’an 710032 (China)

    2014-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Much effort has been made to study the formation mechanisms of photocurrents in graphene and reduced graphene oxide films under visible and near-infrared light irradiation. A built-in field and photo-thermal electrons have been applied to explain the experiments. However, much less attention has been paid to clarifying the mid-infrared response of reduced graphene oxide films at room temperature. Thus, mid-infrared photoresponse and annealing temperature-dependent resistance experiments were carried out on reduced graphene oxide films. A maximum photocurrent of 75 ?A was observed at room temperature, which was dominated by the bolometer effect, where the resistance of the films decreased as the temperature increased after they had absorbed light. The electrons localized in the defect states and the residual oxygen groups were thermally excited into the conduction band, forming a photocurrent. In addition, a temperature increase of 2 °C for the films after light irradiation for 2 minutes was observed using absorption power calculations. This work details a way to use reduced graphene oxide films that contain appropriate defects and residual oxygen groups as bolometer-sensitive materials in the mid-infrared range.

  14. Influence of high-temperature firing in vacuum on the structural properties of yttrium oxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Solov'eva, A.E.; Artemova, K.K.; Kipshidze, A.V.; Rudenko, L.A.

    1986-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This article presents the results of a study of the influence of firing in the range 1900-2300 degrees C in vacuum on the structural properties of yttrium oxide. It was found that in the 1900-2300 degrees C range there are changes in the mass, the phase composition, and the color of the specimens. Increasing of the firing temperature to 2300 degrees C leads to an increase in the mass loss to 50% over a period of 9 h.

  15. High-temperature steam-treatment of PBI, PEEK, and PEKK polymers with H2O and D2O: A solid-state NMR study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bluemel, Janet

    High-temperature steam-treatment of PBI, PEEK, and PEKK polymers with H2O and D2O: A solid 2014 Keywords: Steam-treatment of PBI, PEEK, PEKK Solid-state NMR Water and D2O uptake polymers a b with D2O steam at temperatures of 150 and 315 C. All samples are studied by TGA, IR, 13 C CP/MAS, 1 H

  16. High-temperature oxidation and corrosion of structural materials in molten chlorides.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Indacochea, J. E.; Smith, J. L.; Litko, K. R.; Karell, E. J.; Raraz, A. G.; Chemical Engineering

    2001-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A molten salt-based process for treatment of spent oxide fuels is under development at the Argonne National Laboratory. A major part of the development effort involves identification of corrosion-resistant structural materials for the process vessels. Coupons of two stainless steels, tantalum, and two Inconel alloys were submitted to a corrosion test in an argon atmosphere with 10% oxygen. The coupons were partially immersed in molten lithium chloride salt containing small amounts of lithium metal, lithium oxide, and lithium nitride. Two sets of coupons were tested, the first at 750{sup o}C for 30 days and the second at 650{sup o}C for 6 days. Coupons of the first set corroded completely. In the second set of coupons, all corroded to some extent, but Inconel 600 showed the best performance overall. The salt-exposed region generally showed the greatest corrosion in the other coupons. One of the 316L SS coupons was welded and the weld area was severely attacked.

  17. History of Resistance Welding Oxide Dispersion Strengthened Cladding and other High Temperature Materials at Center for Advanced Energy Studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Larry Zirker; Nathan Jerred; Dr. Indrajit Charit; James Cole

    2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Research proposal 08-1079, 'A Comparative Study of Welded ODS Cladding Materials for AFCI/GNEP,' was funded in 2008 under an Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) Research and Development Funding Opportunity, number DE-PS07-08ID14906. Th proposal sought to conduct research on joining oxide dispersion strengthen (ODS) tubing material to a solid end plug. This document summarizes the scientific and technical progress achieved during the project, which ran from 2008 to 2011.

  18. Low Temperature Constrained Sintering of Cerium Gadolinium Oxide Films for Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nicholas, Jason.D.

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cells, In: S.C. Singhal and M.Tubular Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Technology, U.S. Department ofOxide Films for Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Applications by Jason

  19. Journal of the European Ceramic Society 25 (2005) 13131324 High temperature elasticity measurements on oxides by Brillouin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jackson, Jennifer M.

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for determining the elastic moduli at high temperatures, using both electric resistive heating (to 1800 K) and CO2 by Elsevier Ltd. Keywords: Spectroscopy; Mechanical properties; High-temperature elasticity measurements by Brillouin scattering 1. Introduction Knowledge of the high-temperature elastic properties is fundamental

  20. National Energy Technology Laboratory Publishes Solid Oxide Fuel...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    National Energy Technology Laboratory Publishes Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Studies What does this project do? For more information on DOE's efforts to make solid oxide fuel cells an...

  1. Interactions of nickel/zirconia solid oxide fuel cell anodes...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Interactions of nickelzirconia solid oxide fuel cell anodes with coal gas containing arsenic. Interactions of nickelzirconia solid oxide fuel cell anodes with coal gas containing...

  2. Advanced Materials for Reversible Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (RSOFC...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    for Reversible Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (RSOFC), Dual Mode Operation with Low Degradation Advanced Materials for Reversible Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (RSOFC), Dual Mode Operation with Low...

  3. Performance of solid oxide fuel cells operated with coal syngas...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Performance of solid oxide fuel cells operated with coal syngas provided directly from a gasification process. Performance of solid oxide fuel cells operated with coal syngas...

  4. Process for the deposition of high temperature stress and oxidation resistant coatings on silicon-based substrates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sarin, V.K.

    1991-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A process is disclosed for depositing a high temperature stress and oxidation resistant coating on a silicon nitride- or silicon carbide-based substrate body. A gas mixture is passed over the substrate at about 900--1500 C and about 1 torr to about ambient pressure. The gas mixture includes one or more halide vapors with other suitable reactant gases. The partial pressure ratios, flow rates, and process times are sufficient to deposit a continuous, fully dense, adherent coating. The halide and other reactant gases are gradually varied during deposition so that the coating is a graded coating of at least two layers. Each layer is a graded layer changing in composition from the material over which it is deposited to the material of the layer and further to the material, if any, deposited thereon, so that no clearly defined compositional interfaces exist. The gases and their partial pressures are varied according to a predetermined time schedule and the halide and other reactant gases are selected so that the layers include (a) an adherent, continuous intermediate layer about 0.5-20 microns thick of an aluminum nitride or an aluminum oxynitride material, over and chemically bonded to the substrate body, and (b) an adherent, continuous first outer layer about 0.5-900 microns thick including an oxide of aluminum or zirconium over and chemically bonded to the intermediate layer.

  5. Studies involving high temperature desulfurization/regeneration reactions of metal oxides for fuel cell development. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jalan, V.

    1983-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Research conducted at Giner, Inc. during 1981 to 1983 under the present contract has been a continuation of the investigation of a high temperature regenerable desulfurization process capable of reducing the sulfur content in coal gases from 200 ppM to 1 ppM. The overall objective has been the integration of a coal gasifier with a molten carbonate fuel cell, which requires that the sulfur content be below 1 ppM. Commercially available low temperature processes incur an excessive energy penalty. Results obtained with packed-bed and fluidized bed reactors have demonstrated that a CuO/ZnO mixed oxide sorbent is regenerable and capable of lowering the sulfur content (as H/sub 2/S and COS) from 200 ppM in simulated hot coal-derived gases to below 1 ppM level at 600 to 650/sup 0/C. Four potential sorbents (copper, tungsten oxide, vanadium oxide and zinc oxide) were initially selected for experimental use in hot regenerable desulfurization in the temperature range 500 to 650/sup 0/C. Based on engineering considerations, such as desulfurization capacity in per weight or volume of sorbents, a coprecipitated CuO/ZnO was selected for further study. A structural reorganization mechanism, unique to mixed oxides, was identified: the creation of relatively fine crystallites of the sulfided components (Cu/sub 2/S and ZnS) to counteract the loss of surface area due to sintering during regeneration. Studies with 9 to 26% water vapor in simulated coal gases show that sulfur levels below 1 ppM can be achieved in the temperature range of 500/sup 0/ to 650/sup 0/C. The ability of CuO/ZnO to remove COS, CS/sub 2/ and CH/sub 3/SH at these conditions has been demonstrated in this study. Also a previously proposed pore-plugging model was further developed with good success for data treatment of both packed bed and fluidized-bed reactors. 96 references, 42 figures, 21 tables.

  6. Modeling of solid oxide fuel cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Won Yong, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A comprehensive membrane-electrode assembly (MEA) model of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC)s is developed to investigate the effect of various design and operating conditions on the cell performance and to examine the underlying ...

  7. Interfacial material for solid oxide fuel cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baozhen, Li (Essex Junction, VT); Ruka, Roswell J. (Pittsburgh, PA); Singhal, Subhash C. (Murrysville, PA)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Solid oxide fuel cells having improved low-temperature operation are disclosed. In one embodiment, an interfacial layer of terbia-stabilized zirconia is located between the air electrode and electrolyte of the solid oxide fuel cell. The interfacial layer provides a barrier which controls interaction between the air electrode and electrolyte. The interfacial layer also reduces polarization loss through the reduction of the air electrode/electrolyte interfacial electrical resistance. In another embodiment, the solid oxide fuel cell comprises a scandia-stabilized zirconia electrolyte having high electrical conductivity. The scandia-stabilized zirconia electrolyte may be provided as a very thin layer in order to reduce resistance. The scandia-stabilized electrolyte is preferably used in combination with the terbia-stabilized interfacial layer. The solid oxide fuel cells are operable over wider temperature ranges and wider temperature gradients in comparison with conventional fuel cells.

  8. High-Temperature Steam-Treatment of PBI, PEEK, and PEKK Polymers with H2O and D2O: A Solid-State NMR Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bluemel, Janet

    1 High-Temperature Steam-Treatment of PBI, PEEK, and PEKK Polymers with H2O and D2O: A Solid Supplementary Information Figure S1. TGA of melt-molded PBI after stirring in H2O at RT and steam-treatment with H2O at 150 °C and 315 °C. Figure S2. TGA of melt-molded PEEK after stirring in D2O at RT and steam

  9. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Systems PVL Line

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Susan Shearer - Stark State College; Gregory Rush - Rolls-Royce Fuel Cell Systems

    2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In July 2010, Stark State College (SSC), received Grant DE-EE0003229 from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Golden Field Office, for the development of the electrical and control systems, and mechanical commissioning of a unique 20kW scale high-pressure, high temperature, natural gas fueled Stack Block Test System (SBTS). SSC worked closely with subcontractor, Rolls-Royce Fuel Cell Systems (US) Inc. (RRFCS) over a 13 month period to successfully complete the project activities. This system will be utilized by RRFCS for pre-commercial technology development and training of SSC student interns. In the longer term, when RRFCS is producing commercial products, SSC will utilize the equipment for workforce training. In addition to DOE Hydrogen, Fuel Cells, and Infrastructure Technologies program funding, RRFCS internal funds, funds from the state of Ohio, and funding from the DOE Solid State Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA) program have been utilized to design, develop and commission this equipment. Construction of the SBTS (mechanical components) was performed under a Grant from the State of Ohio through Ohio's Third Frontier program (Grant TECH 08-053). This Ohio program supported development of a system that uses natural gas as a fuel. Funding was provided under the Department of Energy (DOE) Solid-state Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA) program for modifications required to test on coal synthesis gas. The subject DOE program provided funding for the electrical build, control system development and mechanical commissioning. Performance testing, which includes electrical commissioning, was subsequently performed under the DOE SECA program. Rolls-Royce Fuel Cell Systems is developing a megawatt-scale solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) stationary power generation system. This system, based on RRFCS proprietary technology, is fueled with natural gas, and operates at elevated pressure. A critical success factor for development of the full scale system is the capability to test fuel cell components at a scale and under conditions that can be accurately extrapolated to full system performance. This requires specially designed equipment that replicates the pressure (up to 6.5 bara), temperature (about 910 C), anode and cathode gas compositions, flows and power generation density of the full scale design. The SBTS fuel cell anode gas is produced through the reaction of pipeline natural gas with a mixture of steam, CO2, and O2 in a catalytic partial oxidation (CPOX) reactor. Production of the fuel cell anode gas in this manner provides the capability to test a fuel cell with varying anode gas compositions ranging from traditional reformed natural gas to a coal-syngas surrogate fuel. Stark State College and RRFCS have a history of collaboration. This is based upon SSCAs commitment to provide students with skills for advanced energy industries, and RRFCS need for a workforce that is skilled in high temperature fuel cell development and testing. A key to this approach is the access of students to unique SOFC test and evaluation equipment. This equipment is designed and developed by RRFCS, with the participation of SSC interns. In the near-term, the equipment will be used by RRFCS for technology development. When this stage is completed, and RRFCS has moved to commercial products, SSC will utilize this equipment for workforce training. The RRFCS fuel cell design is based upon a unique ceramic substrate architecture in which a porous, flat substrate (tube) provides the support structure for a network of solid oxide fuel cells that are electrically connected in series. These tubes are grouped into a {approx}350-tube repeat configuration, called a stack/block. Stack/block testing, performed at system conditions, provides data that can be confidently scaled to full scale performance. This is the basis for the specially designed and developed test equipment that is required for advancing and accelerating the RRFCS SOFC power system development program. All contract DE-EE0003229 objectives were achieved and deliverables completed during the peri

  10. Integrating catalytic coal gasifiers with solid oxide fuel cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siefert, N.; Shamsi, A.; Shekhawat, D.; Berry, D.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A review was conducted for coal gasification technologies that integrate with solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) to achieve system efficiencies near 60% while capturing and sequestering >90% of the carbon dioxide [1-2]. The overall system efficiency can reach 60% when a) the coal gasifier produces a syngas with a methane composition of roughly 25% on a dry volume basis, b) the carbon dioxide is separated from the methane-rich synthesis gas, c) the methane-rich syngas is sent to a SOFC, and d) the off-gases from the SOFC are recycled back to coal gasifier. The thermodynamics of this process will be reviewed and compared to conventional processes in order to highlight where available work (i.e. exergy) is lost in entrained-flow, high-temperature gasification, and where exergy is lost in hydrogen oxidation within the SOFC. The main advantage of steam gasification of coal to methane and carbon dioxide is that the amount of exergy consumed in the gasifier is small compared to conventional, high temperature, oxygen-blown gasifiers. However, the goal of limiting the amount of exergy destruction in the gasifier has the effect of limiting the rates of chemical reactions. Thus, one of the main advantages of steam gasification leads to one of its main problems: slow reaction kinetics. While conventional entrained-flow, high-temperature gasifiers consume a sizable portion of the available work in the coal oxidation, the consumed exergy speeds up the rates of reactions. And while the rates of steam gasification reactions can be increased through the use of catalysts, only a few catalysts can meet cost requirements because there is often significant deactivation due to chemical reactions between the inorganic species in the coal and the catalyst. Previous research into increasing the kinetics of steam gasification will be reviewed. The goal of this paper is to highlight both the challenges and advantages of integrating catalytic coal gasifiers with SOFCs.

  11. Effect of Substrate Thickness on Oxide Scale Spallation for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Wenning N.; Sun, Xin; Stephens, Elizabeth V.; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

    2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, the effect of the ferritic substrate's thickness on the delamination/spallation of the oxide scale was investigated experimentally and numerically. At the high-temperature oxidation environment of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), a combination of growth stress with thermal stresses may lead to scale delamination/buckling and eventual spallation during SOFC stack cooling, even leading to serious degradation of cell performance. The growth stress is induced by the growth of the oxide scale on the scale/substrate interface, and thermal stress is induced by a mismatch of the coefficient of thermal expansion between the oxide scale and the substrate. The numerical results show that the interfacial shear stresses, which are the driving force of scale delamination between the oxide scale and the ferritic substrate, increase with the growth of the oxide scale and also with the thickness of the ferritic substrate; i.e., the thick ferritic substrate can easily lead to scale delamination and spallation. Experimental observation confirmed the predicted results of the delamination and spallation of the oxide scale on the ferritic substrate.

  12. Integrating Multiple Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Modules* Burak Ozpineci1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tolbert, Leon M.

    Integrating Multiple Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Modules* Burak Ozpineci1 burak@ieee.org Zhong Du2 zdu1 of Energy's Solid-State Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA) program [3] is targeting solid oxide fuel cell Laboratory P.O. Box 880 Morgantown, WV 26507-0880 Abstract-According to SECA program guidelines, solid oxide

  13. High Temperatures & Electricity Demand

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    High Temperatures & Electricity Demand An Assessment of Supply Adequacy in California Trends.......................................................................................................1 HIGH TEMPERATURES AND ELECTRICITY DEMAND.....................................................................................................................7 SECTION I: HIGH TEMPERATURES AND ELECTRICITY DEMAND ..........................9 BACKGROUND

  14. TECHNOLOGY DATA FOR HIGH TEMPERATURE SOLID OXIDE ELECTROLYSER CELLS, ALKALI AND PEM ELECTROLYSERS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nielsen, Mads Pagh

    Mathiesen Iva Ridjan David Connolly Department of Energy Technology Mads Pagh Nielsen Technical University% losses included, as an approximation for including balance of plant consumption and losses. The second set of data which includes losses is recommended where analysis is carried out for assessing

  15. Metal-supported solid oxide fuel cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Villarreal, I.; Jacobson, C.; Leming, A.; Matus, Y.; Visco, S.; De Jonghe, L.

    2003-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Low cost, colloidal deposition methods have been utilized to produce novel solid oxide fuel cell structures on metal alloy support electrodes. YSZ films were deposited on iron-chrome supports on top of a thin Ni/YSZ catalytic layer, and sintered at 1350 degrees C, in a reducing atmosphere. Dense, 20??m YSZ electrolyte films were obtained on highly porous stainless steel substrates.

  16. Effect of Coal Gas Contaminants on Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Operation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Coal Gas Contaminants on Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Operation. Effect of Coal Gas Contaminants on Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Operation. Abstract: The operation of solid oxide fuel cells...

  17. Solid Oxide Membrane (SOM) Electrolysis of Magnesium: Scale-Up...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Oxide Membrane (SOM) Electrolysis of Magnesium: Scale-Up Research and Engineering for Light-Weight Vehicles Solid Oxide Membrane (SOM) Electrolysis of Magnesium: Scale-Up Research...

  18. NETL: Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)Integrated Codes |IsLoveReferenceAgenda Workshop AgendaGraphic of aEnergyResearchSolid

  19. Formation of thin walled ceramic solid oxide fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Claar, Terry D. (Tisle, IL); Busch, Donald E. (Hinsdale, IL); Picciolo, John J. (Lockport, IL)

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    To reduce thermal stress and improve bonding in a high temperature monolithic solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC), intermediate layers are provided between the SOFC's electrodes and electrolyte which are of different compositions. The intermediate layers are comprised of a blend of some of the materials used in the electrode and electrolyte compositions. Particle size is controlled to reduce problems involving differential shrinkage rates of the various layers when the entire structure is fired at a single temperature, while pore formers are provided in the electrolyte layers to be removed during firing for the formation of desired pores in the electrode layers. Each layer includes a binder in the form of a thermosetting acrylic which during initial processing is cured to provide a self-supporting structure with the ceramic components in the green state. A self-supporting corrugated structure is thus formed prior to firing, which the organic components of the binder and plasticizer removed during firing to provide a high strength, high temperature resistant ceramic structure of low weight and density.

  20. Development of Metal Oxide Nanostructure-based Optical Sensors for Fossil Fuel Derived Gases Measurement at High Temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Kevin

    2014-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This final technical report details research works performed supported by a Department of Energy grant (DE-FE0003859), which was awarded under the University Coal Research Program administrated by National Energy Technology Laboratory. This research program studied high temperature fiber sensor for harsh environment applications. It developed two fiber optical sensor platform technology including regenerative fiber Bragg grating sensors and distributed fiber optical sensing based on Rayleigh backscattering optical frequency domain reflectometry. Through the studies of chemical and thermal regenerative techniques for fiber Bragg grating (FBG) fabrication, high-temperature stable FBG sensors were successfully developed and fabricated in air-hole microstructured fibers, high-attenuation fibers, rare-earth doped fibers, and standard telecommunication fibers. By optimizing the laser processing and thermal annealing procedures, fiber grating sensors with stable performance up to 1100oC have been developed. Using these temperature-stable FBG gratings as sensor platform, fiber optical flow, temperature, pressure, and chemical sensors have been developed to operate at high temperatures up to 800oC. Through the integration of on-fiber functional coating, the use of application-specific air-hole microstructural fiber, and application of active fiber sensing scheme, distributed fiber sensor for temperature, pressure, flow, liquid level, and chemical sensing have been demonstrated with high spatial resolution (1-cm or better) with wide temperature ranges. These include the demonstration of 1) liquid level sensing from 77K to the room temperature, pressure/temperature sensing from the room temperature to 800C and from the 15psi to 2000 psi, and hydrogen concentration measurement from 0.2% to 10% with temperature ranges from the room temperature to 700C. Optical sensors developed by this program has broken several technical records including flow sensors with the highest operation temperature up to 750oC, first distributed chemical measurements at the record high temperature up to 700oC, first distributed pressure measurement at the record high temperature up to 800oC, and the fiber laser sensors with the record high operation temperature up to 700oC. The research performed by this program dramatically expand the functionality, adaptability, and applicability of distributed fiber optical sensors with potential applications in a number of high-temperature energy systems such as fossil-fuel power generation, high-temperature fuel cell applications, and potential for nuclear energy systems.

  1. Reversible Poisoning of the Nickel/Zirconia Solid Oxide Fuel...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Poisoning of the NickelZirconia Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Anodes by Hydrogen Chloride in Coal Gas. Reversible Poisoning of the NickelZirconia Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Anodes by Hydrogen...

  2. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell and Power System Development at PNNL

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Solid Oxide Fuel Cell and Power Solid Oxide Fuel Cell and Power S t D l t t PNNL S t D l t t PNNL System Development at PNNL System Development at PNNL Larry Chick Energy Materials...

  3. Solid oxide MEMS-based fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jankowksi, Alan F.; Morse, Jeffrey D.

    2007-03-13T23:59:59.000Z

    A micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) based thin-film fuel cells for electrical power applications. The MEMS-based fuel cell may be of a solid oxide type (SOFC), a solid polymer type (SPFC), or a proton exchange membrane type (PEMFC), and each fuel cell basically consists of an anode and a cathode separated by an electrolyte layer. The electrolyte layer can consist of either a solid oxide or solid polymer material, or proton exchange membrane electrolyte materials may be used. Additionally catalyst layers can also separate the electrodes (cathode and anode) from the electrolyte. Gas manifolds are utilized to transport the fuel and oxidant to each cell and provide a path for exhaust gases. The electrical current generated from each cell is drawn away with an interconnect and support structure integrated with the gas manifold. The fuel cells utilize integrated resistive heaters for efficient heating of the materials. By combining MEMS technology with thin-film deposition technology, thin-film fuel cells having microflow channels and full-integrated circuitry can be produced that will lower the operating temperature an will yield an order of magnitude greater power density than the currently known fuel cells.

  4. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell: Perspective of Dynamic Modeling and Control

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, Biao

    Solid Oxide Fuel Cell: Perspective of Dynamic Modeling and Control Biao Huang Yutong Qi Monjur: This paper presents a review of state-of-the-art solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC), from perspective of dynamic. Keywords: Solid Oxide Fuel Cell, Control Relevant Model, Model Predictive Control 1. INTRODUCTION Today

  5. A New Instrument For Characterizing Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Catalysts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    RESEARCH HIGHLIGHTS A New Instrument For Characterizing Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Catalysts From fuels to renewable energy sources. Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) have enormous potential in this area A New Instrument For Characterizing Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Catalysts Rob Usiskin In partnership

  6. COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS MODELING OF SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS MODELING OF SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS Ugur Pasaogullari and Chao-dimensional model has been developed to simulate solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC). The model fully couples current density operation. INTRODUCTION Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) are among possible candidates

  7. Review article Components manufacturing for solid oxide fuel cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gleixner, Stacy

    of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) components is given and the fabrication techniques of ceramic components Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved. Keywords: Solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC); Components manufacturingReview article Components manufacturing for solid oxide fuel cells F. Tietz *, H.-P. Buchkremer, D

  8. Molybdenum Dioxide As A Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Anodic Catalyst

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collins, Gary S.

    Molybdenum Dioxide As A Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Anodic Catalyst Jay Thunstrom, Su Ha, Oscar Flores are being developed. One of the most auspicious and the topic presented here is the solid oxide fuel cell hydrocarbons and have great resistance to poisoning. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Operation Three stages exist

  9. HIGH-TEMPERATURE PROCESSING OF SOLIDS THROUGH SOLAR NEBULAR BOW SHOCKS: 3D RADIATION HYDRODYNAMICS SIMULATIONS WITH PARTICLES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boley, A. C. [Department of Astronomy, University of Florida, 211 Bryant Space Science Center, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Morris, M. A. [Center for Meteorite Studies, Arizona State University, P.O. Box 876004, Tempe, AZ 88287-6004 (United States); Desch, S. J. [School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, P.O. Box 871404, Tempe, AZ 85287-1404 (United States)

    2013-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A fundamental, unsolved problem in solar system formation is explaining the melting and crystallization of chondrules found in chondritic meteorites. Theoretical models of chondrule melting in nebular shocks have been shown to be consistent with many aspects of thermal histories inferred for chondrules from laboratory experiments; but, the mechanism driving these shocks is unknown. Planetesimals and planetary embryos on eccentric orbits can produce bow shocks as they move supersonically through the disk gas, and are one possible source of chondrule-melting shocks. We investigate chondrule formation in bow shocks around planetoids through three-dimensional radiation hydrodynamics simulations. A new radiation transport algorithm that combines elements of flux-limited diffusion and Monte Carlo methods is used to capture the complexity of radiative transport around bow shocks. An equation of state that includes the rotational, vibrational, and dissociation modes of H{sub 2} is also used. Solids are followed directly in the simulations and their thermal histories are recorded. Adiabatic expansion creates rapid cooling of the gas, and tail shocks behind the embryo can cause secondary heating events. Radiative transport is efficient, and bow shocks around planetoids can have luminosities ?few× 10{sup –8} L{sub ?}. While barred and radial chondrule textures could be produced in the radiative shocks explored here, porphyritic chondrules may only be possible in the adiabatic limit. We present a series of predicted cooling curves that merit investigation in laboratory experiments to determine whether the solids produced by bow shocks are represented in the meteoritic record by chondrules or other solids.

  10. Gradient Meshed and Toughened SOEC (Solid Oxide Electrolyzer Cell) Composite Seal with Self-Healing Capabilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kathy Lu; W. T. Reynolds, Jr.

    2010-06-08T23:59:59.000Z

    High-temperature electrolysis of water steam is a promising approach for hydrogen production. The potential is even more promising when abundant heat source from nuclear power reactors can be efficiently utilized. Hydrogen production through the above approach also allows for low electric consumption. Overall energy conversion efficiencies for high temperature electrolysis are in the 45-50% range compared to ~30% for the conventional electrolysis. Under such motivation, this research is focused on increasing the operation time and high temperature stability of solid oxide electrolyzer cells (SOEC) for splitting water into hydrogen. Specifically, our focus is to improve the SOEC seal thermal stability and performances by alleviating thermal stress and seal cracking issues.

  11. On the oxidation of high-temperature alloys, and its role in failure of thermal barrier coatings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Loeffel, Kaspar Andreas

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermal barrier coating (TBC) systems are applied to superalloy turbine blades to provide thermal insulation and oxidation protection. A TBC system consists of (a) an outer oxide layer that imparts thermal insulation, and ...

  12. May 19-21, 2003 Ris International Energy Conference No 1 Solid Oxide Fuel CellsSolid Oxide Fuel Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    May 19-21, 2003 Risø International Energy Conference No 1 Solid Oxide Fuel CellsSolid Oxide Fuel #12;May 19-21, 2003 Risø International Energy Conference No 3 IntroductionIntroduction · "Fuel cells few moving parts" · "Solid oxide technology may prove to be the most reliable of fuel cell power

  13. High-Temperature Processing of Solids Through Solar Nebular Bow Shocks: 3D Radiation Hydrodynamics Simulations with Particles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boley, A C; Desch, S J

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A fundamental, unsolved problem in Solar System formation is explaining the melting and crystallization of chondrules found in chondritic meteorites. Theoretical models of chondrule melting in nebular shocks has been shown to be consistent with many aspects of thermal histories inferred for chondrules from laboratory experiments; but, the mechanism driving these shocks is unknown. Planetesimals and planetary embryos on eccentric orbits can produce bow shocks as they move supersonically through the disk gas, and are one possible source of chondrule-melting shocks. We investigate chondrule formation in bow shocks around planetoids through 3D radiation hydrodynamics simulations. A new radiation transport algorithm that combines elements of flux-limited diffusion and Monte Carlo methods is used to capture the complexity of radiative transport around bow shocks. An equation of state that includes the rotational, vibrational, and dissociation modes of H$_2$ is also used. Solids are followed directly in the simulati...

  14. Generator configuration for solid oxide fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reichner, Philip (Plum Boro, PA)

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed are improvements in a solid oxide fuel cell generator 1 having a multiplicity of electrically connected solid oxide fuel cells 2, where a fuel gas is passed over one side of said cells and an oxygen-containing gas is passed over the other side of said cells resulting in the generation of heat and electricity. The improvements comprise arranging the cells in the configuration of a circle, a spiral, or folded rows within a cylindrical generator, and modifying the flow rate, oxygen concentration, and/or temperature of the oxygen-containing gases that flow to those cells that are at the periphery of the generator relative to those cells that are at the center of the generator. In these ways, a more uniform temperature is obtained throughout the generator.

  15. Sintered electrode for solid oxide fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ruka, Roswell J. (Pittsburgh, PA); Warner, Kathryn A. (Bryan, TX)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A solid oxide fuel cell fuel electrode is produced by a sintering process. An underlayer is applied to the electrolyte of a solid oxide fuel cell in the form of a slurry, which is then dried. An overlayer is applied to the underlayer and then dried. The dried underlayer and overlayer are then sintered to form a fuel electrode. Both the underlayer and the overlayer comprise a combination of electrode metal such as nickel, and stabilized zirconia such as yttria-stabilized zirconia, with the overlayer comprising a greater percentage of electrode metal. The use of more stabilized zirconia in the underlayer provides good adhesion to the electrolyte of the fuel cell, while the use of more electrode metal in the overlayer provides good electrical conductivity. The sintered fuel electrode is less expensive to produce compared with conventional electrodes made by electrochemical vapor deposition processes. The sintered electrodes exhibit favorable performance characteristics, including good porosity, adhesion, electrical conductivity and freedom from degradation.

  16. SOLID STATE ENERGY CONVERSION ALLIANCE DELPHI SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steven Shaffer; Sean Kelly; Subhasish Mukerjee; David Schumann; Gail Geiger; Kevin Keegan; John Noetzel; Larry Chick

    2003-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of Phase I under this project is to develop a 5 kW Solid Oxide Fuel Cell power system for a range of fuels and applications. During Phase I, the following will be accomplished: Develop and demonstrate technology transfer efforts on a 5 kW stationary distributed power generation system that incorporates steam reforming of natural gas with the option of piped-in water (Demonstration System A). Initiate development of a 5 kW system for later mass-market automotive auxiliary power unit application, which will incorporate Catalytic Partial Oxidation (CPO) reforming of gasoline, with anode exhaust gas injected into an ultra-lean burn internal combustion engine. This technical progress report covers work performed by Delphi from January 1, 2003 to June 30, 2003, under Department of Energy Cooperative Agreement DE-FC-02NT41246. This report highlights technical results of the work performed under the following tasks: Task 1 System Design and Integration; Task 2 Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Stack Developments; Task 3 Reformer Developments; Task 4 Development of Balance of Plant (BOP) Components; Task 5 Manufacturing Development (Privately Funded); Task 6 System Fabrication; Task 7 System Testing; Task 8 Program Management; and Task 9 Stack Testing with Coal-Based Reformate.

  17. Cs{sub 4}P{sub 2}Se{sub 10}: A new compound discovered with the application of solid-state and high temperature NMR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gave, Matthew A.; Canlas, Christian G. [Department of Chemistry, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Chung, In [Department of Chemistry, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Department of Chemistry, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); Iyer, Ratnasabapathy G. [Department of Chemistry, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Kanatzidis, Mercouri G. [Department of Chemistry, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Department of Chemistry, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States)], E-mail: m-kanatzidis@northwestern.edu; Weliky, David P. [Department of Chemistry, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States)], E-mail: weliky@chemistry.msu.edu

    2007-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The new compound Cs{sub 4}P{sub 2}Se{sub 10} was serendipitously produced in high purity during a high-temperature synthesis done in a nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrometer. {sup 31}P magic angle spinning (MAS) NMR of the products of the synthesis revealed that the dominant phosphorus-containing product had a chemical shift of -52.8 ppm that could not be assigned to any known compound. Deep reddish brown well-formed plate-like crystals were isolated from the NMR reaction ampoule and the structure was solved with X-ray diffraction. Cs{sub 4}P{sub 2}Se{sub 10} has the triclinic space group P-1 with a=7.3587(11) A, b=7.4546(11) A, c=10.1420(15) A, {alpha}=85.938(2){sup o}, {beta}=88.055(2){sup o}, and {gamma}=85.609(2){sup o} and contains the [P{sub 2}Se{sub 10}]{sup 4-} anion. To our knowledge, this is the first compound containing this anion that is composed of two tetrahedral (PSe{sub 4}) units connected by a diselenide linkage. It was also possible to form a glass by quenching the melt in ice water, and Cs{sub 4}P{sub 2}Se{sub 10} was recovered upon annealing. The static {sup 31}P NMR spectrum at 350 deg. C contained a single peak with a -35 ppm chemical shift and a {approx}7 ppm peak width. This study highlights the potential of solid-state and high-temperature NMR for aiding discovery of new compounds and for probing the species that exist at high temperature. - Graphical abstract: The new compound Cs{sub 4}P{sub 2}Se{sub 10} was discovered following a high-temperature in situ synthesis in the NMR spectrometer and the structure was determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. It contains the new [P{sub 2}Se{sub 10}]{sup 4-} anion.

  18. Models for the configuration and integrity of partially oxidized fuel rod cladding at high temperatures -- Final Design Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siefken, L.J.

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Models were designed to resolve deficiencies in the SCDAP/RELAP5/MOD3.2 calculations of the configuration and integrity of hot, partially oxidized cladding. The modeling was improved in five areas. First, the configuration defined for melted metallic cladding retained by an adjacent oxide layer was improved. Second, the empirical model to account for the effect on oxidation of intact cladding is not significantly reduced by the presence of a rather high concentration of relocated material. Third, models for the dissolution of the oxide layer by the metallic layer were implemented into the code. Fourth, a model was added to calculate the thermal stress applied to the oxide layer by the temperature gradient across the oxide layer and to compare this stress to the ultimate strength of the oxide layer. Fifth, a new rule based on theoretical and experimental results was established for identifying the regions of a fuel rod with oxidation of both the inside and outside surfaces of the cladding. The assessment of these models and their integration into SCDAP/RELAP5 showed that the calculated axial distribution in cladding oxidation and relocation are in significantly better agreement with experimental results than is currently the case. The modeling changes account for three aspects of behavior that were not previously calculated correctly. The implementation of these models eliminates to a significant extent the tendency of the SCDAP/RELAP5 code to overpredict the extent of oxidation of the upper part of fuel rods and to underpredict the extent of oxidation of the lower part of fuel rods and the part with a high concentration of relocated material.

  19. Models for the Configuration and Integrity of Partially Oxidized Fuel Rod Cladding at High Temperatures - Final Design Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siefken, Larry James

    1999-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Models were designed to resolve deficiencies in the SCDAP/RELAP5/MOD3.2 calculations of the configuration and integrity of hot, partially oxidized cladding. The modeling was improved in five areas. First, the configuration defined for melted metallic cladding retained by an adjacent oxide layer was improved. Second, the empirical model to account for the effect on oxidation of intact cladding is not significantly reduced by the presence of a rather high concentration of relocated material. Third, models for the dissolution of the oxide layer by the metallic layer were implemented into the code. Fourth, a model was added to calculate the thermal stress applied to the oxide layer by the temperature gradient across the oxide layer and to compare this stress to the ultimate strength of the oxide layer. Fifth, a new rule based on theoretical and experimental results was established for identifying the regions of a fuel rod with oxidation of both the inside and outside surfaces of the cladding. The assessment of these models and their integration into SCDAP/RELAP5 showed that the calculated axial distribution in cladding oxidation and relocation are in significantly better agreement with experimental results than is currently the case. The modeling changes account for three aspects of behavior that were not previously calculated correctly. The implementation of these models eliminates to a significant extent the tendency of the SCDAP/RELAP5 code to overpredict the extent of oxidation of the upper part of fuel rods and to underpredict the extent of oxidation of the lower part of fuel rods and the part with a high concentration of relocated material.

  20. Testing of a Catalytic Partial Oxidation Diesel Reformer with a Solid Oxide Fuel Cell System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lyman Frost; Bob Carrington; Rodger McKain; Dennis Witmer

    2005-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Rural Alaska currently uses diesel generator sets to produce much of its power. The high energy content of diesel (i.e. ~140,000 BTU per gallon) makes it the fuel of choice because this reduces the volume of fuel that must be transported, stored, and consumed in generating the power. There is an existing investment in infrastructure for the distribution and use of diesel fuel. Problems do exist, however, in that diesel generators are not very efficient in their use of diesel, maintenance levels can be rather high as systems age, and the environmental issues related to present diesel generators are of concern. The Arctic Energy Technology Development Laboratory at the University of Alaska -- Fairbanks is sponsoring a project to address the issues mentioned above. The project takes two successful systems, a diesel reformer and a tubular solid oxide fuel cell unit, and jointly tests those systems with the objective of producing a for-purpose diesel fueled solid oxide fuel cell system that can be deployed in rural Alaska. The reformer will convert the diesel to a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen that can be used as a fuel by the fuel cell. The high temperature nature of the solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC is capable of using this mixture to generate electricity and provide usable heat with higher efficiency and lower emissions. The high temperature nature of the SOFC is more compatible with the arctic climate than are low temperature technologies such as the proton exchange membrane fuel cells. This paper will look at the interaction of a SOFC system that is designed to internally reform methane and a catalytic partial oxidation (CPOX) diesel reformer. The diesel reformer produces a reformate that is approximately 140 BTU per scf (after removal of much of the reformate water) as compared to a methane based reformate that is over twice that value in BTU content. The project also considers the effect of altitude since the test location will be at 4800 feet with the consequential drop in oxygen content and necessary increases in flow rates.

  1. SOLID STATE ENERGY CONVERSION ALLIANCE DELPHI SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steven Shaffer; Sean Kelly; Subhasish Mukerjee; David Schumann; Gail Geiger; Kevin Keegan; Larry Chick

    2004-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project is to develop a 5 kW Solid Oxide Fuel Cell power system for a range of fuels and applications. During Phase I, the following will be accomplished: Develop and demonstrate technology transfer efforts on a 5 kW stationary distributed power generation system that incorporates steam reforming of natural gas with the option of piped-in water (Demonstration System A). Initiate development of a 5 kW system for later mass-market automotive auxiliary power unit application, which will incorporate Catalytic Partial Oxidation (CPO) reforming of gasoline, with anode exhaust gas injected into an ultra-lean burn internal combustion engine. This technical progress report covers work performed by Delphi from July 1, 2003 to December 31, 2003, under Department of Energy Cooperative Agreement DE-FC-02NT41246. This report highlights technical results of the work performed under the following tasks: Task 1 System Design and Integration; Task 2 Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Stack Developments; Task 3 Reformer Developments; Task 4 Development of Balance of Plant (BOP) Components; Task 5 Manufacturing Development (Privately Funded); Task 6 System Fabrication; Task 7 System Testing; Task 8 Program Management; Task 9 Stack Testing with Coal-Based Reformate; and Task 10 Technology Transfer from SECA CORE Technology Program. In this reporting period, unless otherwise noted Task 6--System Fabrication and Task 7--System Testing will be reported within Task 1 System Design and Integration. Task 8--Program Management, Task 9--Stack Testing with Coal Based Reformate, and Task 10--Technology Transfer from SECA CORE Technology Program will be reported on in the Executive Summary section of this report.

  2. High Temperature Oxidation Behavior of gamma-Ni+gamma'-Ni3Al Alloys and Coatings Modified with Pt and Reactive Elements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nan Mu

    2007-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Materials for high-pressure turbine blades must be able to operate in the high-temperature gases (above 1000 C) emerging from the combustion chamber. Accordingly, the development of nickel-based superalloys has been constantly motivated by the need to have improved engine efficiency, reliability and service lifetime under the harsh conditions imposed by the turbine environment. However, the melting point of nickel (1455 C) provides a natural ceiling for the temperature capability of nickel-based superalloys. Thus, surface-engineered turbine components with modified diffusion coatings and overlay coatings are used. Theses coatings are capable of forming a compact and adherent oxide scale, which greatly impedes the further transport of reactants between the high-temperature gases and the underlying metal and thus reducing attack by the atmosphere. Typically, these coatings contain {beta}-NiAl as a principal constituent phase in order to have sufficient aluminum content to form an Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} scale at elevated temperatures. The drawbacks to the currently-used {beta}-based coatings, such as phase instabilities, associated stresses induced by such phase instabilities, and extensive coating/substrate interdiffusion, are major motivations in this study to seek next-generation coatings. The high-temperature oxidation resistance of novel Pt + Hf-modified {gamma}-Ni + {gamma}-Ni{sub 3}Al-based alloys and coatings were investigated in this study. Both early-stage and 4-days isothermal oxidation behavior of single-phase {gamma}-Ni and {gamma}{prime}-Ni{sub 3}Al alloys were assessed by examining the weight changes, oxide-scale structures, and elemental concentration profiles through the scales and subsurface alloy regions. It was found that Pt promotes Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} formation by suppressing the NiO growth on both {gamma}-Ni and {gamma}{prime}Ni{sub 3}Al single-phase alloys. This effect increases with increasing Pt content. Moreover, Pt exhibits this effect even at lower temperatures ({approx}970 C) in the very early stage of oxidation. It was also inferred that Pt enhances the diffusive flux of aluminum from the substrate to the scale/alloy interface. Relatively low levels of hafnium addition to Pt-free {gamma}{prime}-Ni{sub 3}Al increased the extent of external NiO formation due to non-protective HfO{sub 2} formation. Accordingly, this effect intensified with increasing Hf content from 0.2 to 0.5 at.%.

  3. High-temperature internal oxidation of Ag/1.2at.% Mg and Ag/0.25at.% Mg-0.25at.% Ni.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balachandran, U.; Goretta, K. C.; McNallan, M. J.; Park, J.-H.; Prorok, B. C.

    1999-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

    High-temperature oxygen diffusion and internal oxidation in Ag, Ag/1.2 at.% Mg (Ag-Mg), and Ag/0.25 at.% Mg-0.25 at.% Ni (Ag-Mg-Ni) have been studied, mostly in air and 8% O{sub 2}, at 450-835 C. The focus of the studies was on thermogravimetric analysis, microhardness tests, and optical and electron microscopy observations of grain growth and its inhibition by oxidation. The internal oxidation of both alloys exhibited nearly identical activation energies (0.81 eV for Ag-Mg and 0.83 eV for Ag-Mg-Ni) and rate constants. The maximum O content of both alloys was superstoichiometric (e.g., O/Mg > 1.0) and the maximum O/Mg ratios were higher at lower temperatures than at higher temperatures (e.g., 1.25 at 500 C and 1.05 at 800 C). Diffusion of O in pure Ag was {approx}60 times faster at 825 C and {approx}400 times faster at 500 C than internal oxidation of either of the Ag alloys. Grain growth of both alloys and of the Ag was quantified between 450-800 C and related to internal oxidation.

  4. Tubular solid oxide fuel cell current collector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bischoff, Brian L. (Knoxville, TN); Sutton, Theodore G. (Kingston, TN); Armstrong, Timothy R. (Clinton, TN)

    2010-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

    An internal current collector for use inside a tubular solid oxide fuel cell (TSOFC) electrode comprises a tubular coil spring disposed concentrically within a TSOFC electrode and in firm uniform tangential electrical contact with the electrode inner surface. The current collector maximizes the contact area between the current collector and the electrode. The current collector is made of a metal that is electrically conductive and able to survive under the operational conditions of the fuel cell, i.e., the cathode in air, and the anode in fuel such as hydrogen, CO, CO.sub.2, H.sub.2O or H.sub.2S.

  5. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Auxiliary Power Unit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. Weber

    2001-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) is an attractive, efficient, clean source of power for transportation, military, and stationary applications. Delphi has pioneered its application as an auxiliary Power Unit (APU) for transportation. Delphi is also interested in marketing this technology for stationary applications. Its key advantages are high efficiency and compatibility with gasoline, natural gas and diesel fuel. It's consistent with mechanizations that support the trend to low emissions. Delphi is committed to working with customers and partners to bring this novel technology to market.

  6. Solid Oxide Fuel Cells | Department of Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over Our Instagram Secretary Moniz9MorganYouof EnergyVehicles andFAQsSolid Oxide Fuel

  7. NETL: Solid Oxide Fuel Cells Publications

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Saleshttp://www.fnal.gov/directorate/nalcal/nalcal02_07_05_files/nalcal.gif Directorate1, Issue 23 NETL ScientistFeedSolid Oxide Fuel

  8. 2015 Solid Oxide Fuel Cells Project Portfolio

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of ScienceandMesa del(ANL-IN-03-032) -Less isNFebruaryOctober 2, 2014Energy, Office2015 Solid Oxide Fuel

  9. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Manufacturing Overview

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOriginEducationVideo »UsageSecretary ofSmallConfidential,2Cycleof Energy (SOFC)Solid Oxide

  10. Solid oxide fuel cell having monolithic core

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ackerman, J.P.; Young, J.E.

    1983-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

    A solid oxide fuel cell is described for electrochemically combining fuel and oxidant for generating galvanic output, wherein the cell core has an array of electrolyte and interconnect walls that are substantially devoid of any composite inert materials for support. Instead, the core is monolithic, where each electrolyte wall consists of thin layers of cathode and anode materials sandwiching a thin layer of electrolyte material therebetween. The electrolyte walls are arranged and backfolded between adjacent interconnect walls operable to define a plurality of core passageways alternately arranged where the inside faces thereof have only the anode material or only the cathode material exposed. Means direct the fuel to the anode-exposed core passageways and means direct the oxidant to the anode-exposed core passageways and means direct the oxidant to the cathode-exposed core passageway; and means also direct the galvanic output to an exterior circuit. Each layer of the electrolyte and interconnect materials is of the order of 0.002 to 0.01 cm thick; and each layer of the cathode and anode materials is of the order of 0.002 to 0.05 cm thick.

  11. Computer Simulation and Experimental Validation on the Oxidation and Sulfate Corrosion Resistance of Novel Chromium Based High Temperature Alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Shizhong

    2013-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes our recent works of ab initio molecular dynamics inter-atomic potentials development on dilute rare earth element yttrium (Y) etc. doped chromium (Cr) alloy systems, its applications in oxidation and corrosion resistance simulation, and experiment validation on the candidate systems. The simulation methods, experimental validation techniques, achievements already reached, students training, and future improvement are briefly introduced.

  12. Sintered electrode for solid oxide fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ruka, R.J.; Warner, K.A.

    1999-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A solid oxide fuel cell fuel electrode is produced by a sintering process. An underlayer is applied to the electrolyte of a solid oxide fuel cell in the form of a slurry, which is then dried. An overlayer is applied to the underlayer and then dried. The dried underlayer and overlayer are then sintered to form a fuel electrode. Both the underlayer and the overlayer comprise a combination of electrode metal such as nickel, and stabilized zirconia such as yttria-stabilized zirconia, with the overlayer comprising a greater percentage of electrode metal. The use of more stabilized zirconia in the underlayer provides good adhesion to the electrolyte of the fuel cell, while the use of more electrode metal in the overlayer provides good electrical conductivity. The sintered fuel electrode is less expensive to produce compared with conventional electrodes made by electrochemical vapor deposition processes. The sintered electrodes exhibit favorable performance characteristics, including good porosity, adhesion, electrical conductivity and freedom from degradation. 4 figs.

  13. alliedsignal solid oxide: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    electrochemical properties of these cathodes... Yoon, Jongsik 2009-05-15 12 Thermodynamic optimization of a planar solid oxide fuel cell. Open Access Theses and Dissertations...

  14. anode solid oxide: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    electrochemical properties of these cathodes... Yoon, Jongsik 2009-05-15 53 Thermodynamic optimization of a planar solid oxide fuel cell. Open Access Theses and Dissertations...

  15. Solid oxide fuel cell having monolithic core

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ackerman, John P. (Downers Grove, IL); Young, John E. (Woodridge, IL)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A solid oxide fuel cell for electrochemically combining fuel and oxidant for generating galvanic output, wherein the cell core has an array of electrolyte and interconnect walls that are substantially devoid of any composite inert materials for support. Instead, the core is monolithic, where each electrolyte wall consists of thin layers of cathode and anode materials sandwiching a thin layer of electrolyte material therebetween, and each interconnect wall consists of thin layers of the cathode and anode materials sandwiching a thin layer of interconnect material therebetween. The electrolyte walls are arranged and backfolded between adjacent interconnect walls operable to define a plurality of core passageways alternately arranged where the inside faces thereof have only the anode material or only the cathode material exposed. Means direct the fuel to the anode-exposed core passageways and means direct the oxidant to the cathode-exposed core passageway; and means also direct the galvanic output to an exterior circuit. Each layer of the electrolyte and interconnect materials is of the order of 0.002-0.01 cm thick; and each layer of the cathode and anode materials is of the order of 0.002-0.05 cm thick.

  16. Test Results From The Idaho National Laboratory 15kW High Temperature Electrolysis Test Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carl M. Stoots; Keith G. Condie; James E. O'Brien; J. Stephen Herring; Joseph J. Hartvigsen

    2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A 15kW high temperature electrolysis test facility has been developed at the Idaho National Laboratory under the United States Department of Energy Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative. This facility is intended to study the technology readiness of using high temperature solid oxide cells for large scale nuclear powered hydrogen production. It is designed to address larger-scale issues such as thermal management (feed-stock heating, high temperature gas handling, heat recuperation), multiple-stack hot zone design, multiple-stack electrical configurations, etc. Heat recuperation and hydrogen recycle are incorporated into the design. The facility was operated for 1080 hours and successfully demonstrated the largest scale high temperature solid-oxide-based production of hydrogen to date.

  17. Solid oxide fuel cell process and apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cooper, Matthew Ellis (Morgantown, WV); Bayless, David J. (Athens, OH); Trembly, Jason P. (Durham, NC)

    2011-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Conveying gas containing sulfur through a sulfur tolerant planar solid oxide fuel cell (PSOFC) stack for sulfur scrubbing, followed by conveying the gas through a non-sulfur tolerant PSOFC stack. The sulfur tolerant PSOFC stack utilizes anode materials, such as LSV, that selectively convert H.sub.2S present in the fuel stream to other non-poisoning sulfur compounds. The remaining balance of gases remaining in the completely or near H.sub.2S-free exhaust fuel stream is then used as the fuel for the conventional PSOFC stack that is downstream of the sulfur-tolerant PSOFC. A broad range of fuels such as gasified coal, natural gas and reformed hydrocarbons are used to produce electricity.

  18. Interconnection of bundled solid oxide fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brown, Michael; Bessette, II, Norman F; Litka, Anthony F; Schmidt, Douglas S

    2014-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A system and method for electrically interconnecting a plurality of fuel cells to provide dense packing of the fuel cells. Each one of the plurality of fuel cells has a plurality of discrete electrical connection points along an outer surface. Electrical connections are made directly between the discrete electrical connection points of adjacent fuel cells so that the fuel cells can be packed more densely. Fuel cells have at least one outer electrode and at least one discrete interconnection to an inner electrode, wherein the outer electrode is one of a cathode and and anode and wherein the inner electrode is the other of the cathode and the anode. In tubular solid oxide fuel cells the discrete electrical connection points are spaced along the length of the fuel cell.

  19. High power density solid oxide fuel cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pham, Ai Quoc; Glass, Robert S.

    2004-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for producing ultra-high power density solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). The method involves the formation of a multilayer structure cells wherein a buffer layer of doped-ceria is deposited intermediate a zirconia electrolyte and a cobalt iron based electrode using a colloidal spray deposition (CSD) technique. For example, a cobalt iron based cathode composed of (La,Sr)(Co,Fe)O (LSCF) may be deposited on a zirconia electrolyte via a buffer layer of doped-ceria deposited by the CSD technique. The thus formed SOFC have a power density of 1400 mW/cm.sup.2 at 600.degree. C. and 900 mW/cm.sup.2 at 700.degree. C. which constitutes a 2-3 times increased in power density over conventionally produced SOFCs.

  20. Solid oxide fuel cell matrix and modules

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Riley, B.

    1988-04-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Porous refractory ceramic blocks arranged in an abutting, stacked configuration and forming a three dimensional array provide a support structure and coupling means for a plurality of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). The stack of ceramic blocks is self-supporting, with a plurality of such stacked arrays forming a matrix enclosed in an insulating refractory brick structure having an outer steel layer. The necessary connections for air, fuel, burnt gas, and anode and cathode connections are provided through the brick and steel outer shell. The ceramic blocks are so designed with respect to the strings of modules that by simple and logical design the strings could be replaced by hot reloading if one should fail. The hot reloading concept has not been included in any previous designs. 11 figs.

  1. Solid Oxide Fuel Cells Victoria A. Liem and Jeongmin Ahn

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collins, Gary S.

    Solid Oxide Fuel Cells Victoria A. Liem and Jeongmin Ahn Introduction to Multiscale Engineering technology has become important and vital to further advancement in energy production. Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are of great interest because of their ability to generate energy using different fuel sources

  2. Mechanical Engineering Manufacturing Solid Oxide Fuel Cells for Improved Electro-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, Xi

    for the commercialization of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are its high manufacturing and material costs expressed in termsUday Pal Mechanical Engineering Manufacturing Solid Oxide Fuel Cells for Improved Electro- chemical of the SOFC system cost per unit power ($/kW). In this work, anode-supported planar SOFCs were fabricated

  3. Deformation Behavior of Laser Welds in High Temperature Oxidation Resistant Fe-Cr-Al Alloys for Fuel Cladding Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Field, Kevin G [ORNL; Gussev, Maxim N [ORNL; Yamamoto, Yukinori [ORNL; Snead, Lance Lewis [ORNL

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ferritic-structured Fe-Cr-Al alloys are being developed and show promise as oxidation resistant accident tolerant light water reactor fuel cladding. This study focuses on investigating the weldability of three model alloys in a range of Fe-(13-17.5)Cr-(3-4.4)Al in weight percent with a minor addition of yttrium using laser-welding techniques. A detailed study on the mechanical performance of bead-on-plate welds has been carried out to determine the performance of welds as a function of alloy composition. Laser welding resulted in a defect free weld devoid of cracking or inclusions for all alloys studied. Results indicated a reduction in the yield strength within the fusion zone compared to the base metal. Yield strength reduction was found to be primarily constrained to the fusion zone due to grain coarsening with a less severe reduction in the heat affected zone. No significant correlation was found between the deformation behavior/mechanical performance of welds and the level of Cr or Al in the alloy ranges studied.

  4. Stable platinum nanoparticles on specific MgAl2O4 spinel facets at high temperatures in oxidizing atmospheres

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Wei-Zhen; Kovarik, Libor; Mei, Donghai; Liu, Jun; Wang, Yong; Peden, Charles HF

    2013-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

    The development of thermally stable, nanometer-sized precious metal based catalysts remains a daunting challenge. Such materials, especially those based on the use of costly platinum metal, are essential and, to date, non-replaceable for a large number of industrially important catalytic processes. Here we report a well-defined cuboctahedral MgAl2O4 spinel support material that is capable of stabilizing platinum particles in the range of 1-3 nm on its relatively abundant {111} facets during extremely severe aging at 800°C in air for 1 week (168 h). The aged catalysts retain platinum dispersions of 15.9% with catalytic activities for methanol oxidation approximately 80% of fresh ones, while a conventional Pt/?-Al2O3 catalyst is severely sintered and nearly inactive. We reveal the origin of the markedly superior ability of spinel {111} facets, resulting from strong interactions between spinel surface oxygens and epitaxial platinum {111} facets, inspiring the rational design of anti-sintering supported platinum group catalysts. This work was supported by U. S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Chemical Sciences, Biosciences and Geosciences. The research was performed in the Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, a national scientific user facility sponsored by the DOE Office of Biological and Environmental Research, and located at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. PNNL is operated for DOE by Battelle.

  5. High-Temperature Zirconia Oxygen Sensor with Sealed Metal/Metal...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High-Temperature Zirconia Oxygen Sensor with Sealed MetalMetal Oxide Internal Reference High-Temperature Zirconia Oxygen Sensor with Sealed MetalMetal Oxide Internal Reference...

  6. Gas turbine cycles with solid oxide fuel cells. Part 2: A detailed study of a gas turbine cycle with an integrated internal reforming solid oxide fuel cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harvey, S.P.; Richter, H.J. (Dartmouth Coll., Hanover, NH (United States). Thayer School of Engineering)

    1994-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The energy conversion efficiency can be improved if immediate contact of air and fuel is prevented. One means to prevent this immediate contact is the use of fuel cell technology. High-temperature solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) have many features that make them attractive for utility and industrial applications. However, in view of their high operating temperatures and the incomplete nature of the fuel oxidation process, such fuel cells must be combined with conventional power generation technology to develop power plant configurations that are both functional and efficient. Most fuel cell cycles proposed in the literature use a high-temperature fuel cell running at ambient pressure and a steam bottoming cycle to recover the waste heat generated by the fuel cell. With such cycles, the inherent flexibility and shorter start-up time characteristics of the fuel cell are lost. In Part 1 of this paper, a pressurized cycle using a solid oxide fuel cell and an integrated gas turbine bottoming cycle was presented. The cycle is simpler than most cycles with steam bottoming cycles and more suited to flexible power generation. In this paper, the authors will discuss this cycle in more detail, with an in-depth discussion of all cycle component characteristics and losses. In particular, they will make use of the fuel cell's internal fuel reforming capability. The optimal cycle parameters were obtained based on calculations performed using Aspen Technology's ASPEN PLUS process simulation software and a fuel cell simulator developed by Argonne National Laboratory. The efficiency of the proposed cycle is 68.1%. A preliminary economic assessment of the cycle shows that it should compare favorable with a state-of-the-art combined cycle plant on a cost per MWe basis.

  7. Advanced Materials for Reversible Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (RSOFC), Dual Mode Operation with Low

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Advanced Materials for Reversible Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (RSOFC), Dual Mode Operation with Low, Director Product Development & Federal Programs #12;Project Background f Reversible Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

  8. Performance of hybrid quad generation system consisting of solid oxide fuel cell system and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liso, Vincenzo

    Performance of hybrid quad generation system consisting of solid oxide fuel cell system. Keywords: Energy system modeling, Solid oxide fuel cell, Absorption heat pump. 1. Introduction 1

  9. Modeling Degradation in Solid Oxide Electrolysis Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Manohar S. Sohal; Anil V. Virkar; Sergey N. Rashkeev; Michael V. Glazoff

    2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Idaho National Laboratory has an ongoing project to generate hydrogen from steam using solid oxide electrolysis cells (SOECs). To accomplish this, technical and degradation issues associated with the SOECs will need to be addressed. This report covers various approaches being pursued to model degradation issues in SOECs. An electrochemical model for degradation of SOECs is presented. The model is based on concepts in local thermodynamic equilibrium in systems otherwise in global thermodynamic no equilibrium. It is shown that electronic conduction through the electrolyte, however small, must be taken into account for determining local oxygen chemical potential, , within the electrolyte. The within the electrolyte may lie out of bounds in relation to values at the electrodes in the electrolyzer mode. Under certain conditions, high pressures can develop in the electrolyte just near the oxygen electrode/electrolyte interface, leading to oxygen electrode delamination. These predictions are in accordance with the reported literature on the subject. Development of high pressures may be avoided by introducing some electronic conduction in the electrolyte. By combining equilibrium thermodynamics, no equilibrium (diffusion) modeling, and first-principles, atomic scale calculations were performed to understand the degradation mechanisms and provide practical recommendations on how to inhibit and/or completely mitigate them.

  10. Nanostructured Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Electrodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sholklapper, Tal Zvi

    2007-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The ability of Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC) to directly and efficiently convert the chemical energy in hydrocarbon fuels to electricity places the technology in a unique and exciting position to play a significant role in the clean energy revolution. In order to make SOFC technology cost competitive with existing technologies, the operating temperatures have been decreased to the range where costly ceramic components may be substituted with inexpensive metal components within the cell and stack design. However, a number of issues have arisen due to this decrease in temperature: decreased electrolyte ionic conductivity, cathode reaction rate limitations, and a decrease in anode contaminant tolerance. While the decrease in electrolyte ionic conductivities has been countered by decreasing the electrolyte thickness, the electrode limitations have remained a more difficult problem. Nanostructuring SOFC electrodes addresses the major electrode issues. The infiltration method used in this dissertation to produce nanostructure SOFC electrodes creates a connected network of nanoparticles; since the method allows for the incorporation of the nanoparticles after electrode backbone formation, previously incompatible advanced electrocatalysts can be infiltrated providing electronic conductivity and electrocatalysis within well-formed electrolyte backbones. Furthermore, the method is used to significantly enhance the conventional electrode design by adding secondary electrocatalysts. Performance enhancement and improved anode contamination tolerance are demonstrated in each of the electrodes. Additionally, cell processing and the infiltration method developed in conjunction with this dissertation are reviewed.

  11. Solid oxide fuel cell matrix and modules

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Riley, Brian (Willimantic, CT)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Porous refractory ceramic blocks arranged in an abutting, stacked configuration and forming a three dimensional array provide a support structure and coupling means for a plurality of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). Each of the blocks includes a square center channel which forms a vertical shaft when the blocks are arranged in a stacked array. Positioned within the channel is a SOFC unit cell such that a plurality of such SOFC units disposed within a vertical shaft form a string of SOFC units coupled in series. A first pair of facing inner walls of each of the blocks each include an interconnecting channel hole cut horizontally and vertically into the block walls to form gas exit channels. A second pair of facing lateral walls of each block further include a pair of inner half circular grooves which form sleeves to accommodate anode fuel and cathode air tubes. The stack of ceramic blocks is self-supporting, with a plurality of such stacked arrays forming a matrix enclosed in an insulating refractory brick structure having an outer steel layer. The necessary connections for air, fuel, burnt gas, and anode and cathode connections are provided through the brick and steel outer shell. The ceramic blocks are so designed with respect to the strings of modules that by simple and logical design the strings could be replaced by hot reloading if one should fail. The hot reloading concept has not been included in any previous designs.

  12. Solid oxide fuel cell generator with removable modular fuel cell stack configurations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gillett, J.E.; Dederer, J.T.; Zafred, P.R.; Collie, J.C.

    1998-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A high temperature solid oxide fuel cell generator produces electrical power from oxidation of hydrocarbon fuel gases such as natural gas, or conditioned fuel gases, such as carbon monoxide or hydrogen, with oxidant gases, such as air or oxygen. This electrochemical reaction occurs in a plurality of electrically connected solid oxide fuel cells bundled and arrayed in a unitary modular fuel cell stack disposed in a compartment in the generator container. The use of a unitary modular fuel cell stack in a generator is similar in concept to that of a removable battery. The fuel cell stack is provided in a pre-assembled self-supporting configuration where the fuel cells are mounted to a common structural base having surrounding side walls defining a chamber. Associated generator equipment may also be mounted to the fuel cell stack configuration to be integral therewith, such as a fuel and oxidant supply and distribution systems, fuel reformation systems, fuel cell support systems, combustion, exhaust and spent fuel recirculation systems, and the like. The pre-assembled self-supporting fuel cell stack arrangement allows for easier assembly, installation, maintenance, better structural support and longer life of the fuel cells contained in the fuel cell stack. 8 figs.

  13. Solid oxide fuel cell generator with removable modular fuel cell stack configurations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gillett, James E. (Greensburg, PA); Dederer, Jeffrey T. (Valencia, PA); Zafred, Paolo R. (Pittsburgh, PA); Collie, Jeffrey C. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A high temperature solid oxide fuel cell generator produces electrical power from oxidation of hydrocarbon fuel gases such as natural gas, or conditioned fuel gases, such as carbon monoxide or hydrogen, with oxidant gases, such as air or oxygen. This electrochemical reaction occurs in a plurality of electrically connected solid oxide fuel cells bundled and arrayed in a unitary modular fuel cell stack disposed in a compartment in the generator container. The use of a unitary modular fuel cell stack in a generator is similar in concept to that of a removable battery. The fuel cell stack is provided in a pre-assembled self-supporting configuration where the fuel cells are mounted to a common structural base having surrounding side walls defining a chamber. Associated generator equipment may also be mounted to the fuel cell stack configuration to be integral therewith, such as a fuel and oxidant supply and distribution systems, fuel reformation systems, fuel cell support systems, combustion, exhaust and spent fuel recirculation systems, and the like. The pre-assembled self-supporting fuel cell stack arrangement allows for easier assembly, installation, maintenance, better structural support and longer life of the fuel cells contained in the fuel cell stack.

  14. Master thesis High Temperature Oxidation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cambridge, University of

    Metallurgy Graduate Institute of Ferrous Technology Pohang University of Science and Technology 2011 #12;Si By Song, Eun-Ju Computational Metallurgy Graduate Institute of Ferrous Technology Pohang University of Ferrous Technology (Computational Metallurgy) Pohang, Korea April 14th , 2011 Approved by Prof. Bhadeshia

  15. Measurement of the Nickel/Nickel Oxide Phase Transition in High Temperature Hydrogenated Water Using the Contact Electric Resistance (CER) Technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S.A. Attanasio; D.S. Morton; M.A. Ando; N.F. Panayotou; C.D. Thompson

    2001-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Prior studies of Alloy 600 and Alloy X-750 have shown the existence of a maximum in stress corrosion cracking (SCC) susceptibility in high temperature water (e.g., at 360 C), when testing is conducted over a range of dissolved (i.e., aqueous) hydrogen (H{sub 2}) concentrations. It has also been shown that this maximum in SCC susceptibility tends to occur in proximity to the nickel/nickel oxide (Ni/NiO) phase transition, suggesting that oxide phase stability may affect primary water SCC (PWSCC) resistance. Previous studies have estimated the Ni/NiO transition using thermodynamic calculations based on free energies of formation for NiO and H{sub 2}O. The present study reports experimental measurements of the Ni/NiO transition performed using a contact electric resistance (CER) instrument. The CER is capable of measuring the surface resistance of a metal to determine whether it is oxide-covered or oxide-free at a given condition. The transition aqueous hydrogen (H{sub 2}) concentration corresponding to the Ni/NiO equilibrium was measured at 288, 316, 338 and 360 C using high purity Ni specimens. The results showed an appreciable deviation (i.e., 7 to 58 scc H{sub 2}/kg H{sub 2}O) between the measured Ni/NiO transition and the theoretical Ni/NiO transition previously calculated using free energy data from the Journal of Solution Chemistry. The CER-measured position of the Ni/NiO transition is in good agreement with the maxima in PWSCC susceptibility at 338 and 360 C. The measured Ni/NiO transition provides a reasonable basis for estimating the aqueous H{sub 2} level at which the maximum in SCC susceptibility is likely to be observed at temperatures lower than 338 to 360 C, at which SCC tests are time-consuming to perform. Limited SCC data are presented which are consistent with the observation that SCC susceptibility is maximized near the Ni/NiO transition at 288 C.

  16. Nanostructured thin films for solid oxide fuel cells 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yoon, Jongsik

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The goals of this work were to synthesize high performance perovskite based thin film solid oxide fuel cell (TF-SOFC) cathodes by pulsed laser deposition (PLD), to study the structural, electrical and electrochemical properties of these cathodes...

  17. Mathematical modeling of solid oxide fuel cells using hydrocarbon fuels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Won Yong, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are high efficiency conversion devices that use hydrogen or light hydrocarbon (HC) fuels in stationary applications to produce quiet and clean power. While successful, HC-fueled SOFCs face ...

  18. Nanoengineered Thin Films for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Su, Qing

    2013-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are very attractive as energy generation devices because of their high energy efficiency, flexible fuel selections and clean energy conversion. To avoid cell cracking and formation of non-conducting compounds...

  19. Solid oxide fuel cell operable over wide temperature range

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baozhen, Li (Essex Junction, VT); Ruka, Roswell J. (Pittsburgh, PA); Singhal, Subhash C. (Murrysville, PA)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Solid oxide fuel cells having improved low-temperature operation are disclosed. In one embodiment, an interfacial layer of terbia-stabilized zirconia is located between the air electrode and electrolyte of the solid oxide fuel cell. The interfacial layer provides a barrier which controls interaction between the air electrode and electrolyte. The interfacial layer also reduces polarization loss through the reduction of the air electrode/electrolyte interfacial electrical resistance. In another embodiment, the solid oxide fuel cell comprises a scandia-stabilized zirconia electrolyte having high electrical conductivity. The scandia-stabilized zirconia electrolyte may be provided as a very thin layer in order to reduce resistance. The scandia-stabilized electrolyte is preferably used in combination with the terbia-stabilized interfacial layer. The solid oxide fuel cells are operable over wider temperature ranges and wider temperature gradients in comparison with conventional fuel cells.

  20. Nanoengineered Thin Films for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Su, Qing

    2013-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are very attractive as energy generation devices because of their high energy efficiency, flexible fuel selections and clean energy conversion. To avoid cell cracking and formation of non-conducting compounds...

  1. FY 2014 Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Project Selections

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In FY 2014, nine research projects focused on advancing the reliability, robustness, and endurance of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) have been selected for funding by Office of Fossil Energy’s...

  2. Intermediate Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S. Elangovan; Scott Barnett; Sossina Haile

    2008-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are high efficiency energy conversion devices. Present materials set, using yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) electrolyte, limit the cell operating temperatures to 800 C or higher. It has become increasingly evident however that lowering the operating temperature would provide a more expeditious route to commercialization. The advantages of intermediate temperature (600 to 800 C) operation are related to both economic and materials issues. Lower operating temperature allows the use of low cost materials for the balance of plant and limits degradation arising from materials interactions. When the SOFC operating temperature is in the range of 600 to 700 C, it is also possible to partially reform hydrocarbon fuels within the stack providing additional system cost savings by reducing the air preheat heat-exchanger and blower size. The promise of Sr and Mg doped lanthanum gallate (LSGM) electrolyte materials, based on their high ionic conductivity and oxygen transference number at the intermediate temperature is well recognized. The focus of the present project was two-fold: (a) Identify a cell fabrication technique to achieve the benefits of lanthanum gallate material, and (b) Investigate alternative cathode materials that demonstrate low cathode polarization losses at the intermediate temperature. A porous matrix supported, thin film cell configuration was fabricated. The electrode material precursor was infiltrated into the porous matrix and the counter electrode was screen printed. Both anode and cathode infiltration produced high performance cells. Comparison of the two approaches showed that an infiltrated cathode cells may have advantages in high fuel utilization operations. Two new cathode materials were evaluated. Northwestern University investigated LSGM-ceria composite cathode while Caltech evaluated Ba-Sr-Co-Fe (BSCF) based pervoskite cathode. Both cathode materials showed lower polarization losses at temperatures as low as 600 C than conventional manganite or cobaltite cathodes.

  3. Solid oxide fuel cell steam reforming power system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chick, Lawrence A.; Sprenkle, Vincent L.; Powell, Michael R.; Meinhardt, Kerry D.; Whyatt, Greg A.

    2013-03-12T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is a Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Reforming Power System that utilizes adiabatic reforming of reformate within this system. By utilizing adiabatic reforming of reformate within the system the system operates at a significantly higher efficiency than other Solid Oxide Reforming Power Systems that exist in the prior art. This is because energy is not lost while materials are cooled and reheated, instead the device operates at a higher temperature. This allows efficiencies higher than 65%.

  4. Delivery system for molten salt oxidation of solid waste

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brummond, William A. (Livermore, CA); Squire, Dwight V. (Livermore, CA); Robinson, Jeffrey A. (Manteca, CA); House, Palmer A. (Walnut Creek, CA)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is a delivery system for safety injecting solid waste particles, including mixed wastes, into a molten salt bath for destruction by the process of molten salt oxidation. The delivery system includes a feeder system and an injector that allow the solid waste stream to be accurately metered, evenly dispersed in the oxidant gas, and maintained at a temperature below incineration temperature while entering the molten salt reactor.

  5. The effect of counterface on the tribological performance of a high temperature solid lubricant composite from 25 to 650{degree}C

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DellaCorte, C.

    1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The effect of counterface selection on the tribological performance of a Ag/BaF{sub 2}-CaF{sub 2} containing composite coating is studied. Ceramic (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) and metal (Inconel X-750) pins are slid against PS300 (a metal bonded chrome oxide coating with Ag and BaF{sub 2}/CaF{sub 2} lubricant additives) in a pin-on-disk tribometer at 25, 500 and 650 C. Compared to the ceramic counterface, the metal counterface generally exhibited lower friction and wear at 25 C but higher friction and wear at 650 C. Friction coefficients, for example, for the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/PS300 combination at 25 C were 0.64 compared to 0.23 for the Inconel/PS300 sliding couple. At 650 C the ranking was reversed. The Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/PS300 combination gave a friction coefficient of 0.19 while the friction for the metal counterface increased slightly to about 0.3. Based upon these tribological results and other information found in the literature, it appears that the performance of each counterface/PS300 combination is affected by the ability of the solid lubricant additives to form an adequate transfer film. The effects of surface wettability and tribological compatibility are discussed in relation to the observed tribological results.

  6. Low Temperature Constrained Sintering of Cerium Gadolinium OxideFilms for Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nicholas, Jason.D.

    2007-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Cerium gadolinium oxide (CGO) has been identified as an acceptable solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) electrolyte at temperatures (500-700 C) where cheap, rigid, stainless steel interconnect substrates can be used. Unfortunately, both the high sintering temperature of pure CGO, >1200 C, and the fact that constraint during sintering often results in cracked, low density ceramic films, have complicated development of metal supported CGO SOFCs. The aim of this work was to find new sintering aids for Ce{sub 0.9}Gd{sub 0.1}O{sub 1.95}, and to evaluate whether they could be used to produce dense, constrained Ce{sub 0.9}Gd{sub 0.1}O{sub 1.95} films at temperatures below 1000 C. To find the optimal sintering aid, Ce{sub 0.9}Gd{sub 0.1}O{sub 1.95} was doped with a variety of elements, of which lithium was found to be the most effective. Dilatometric studies indicated that by doping CGO with 3mol% lithium nitrate, it was possible to sinter pellets to a relative density of 98.5% at 800 C--a full one hundred degrees below the previous low temperature sintering record for CGO. Further, it was also found that a sintering aid's effectiveness could be explained in terms of its size, charge and high temperature mobility. A closer examination of lithium doped Ce0.9Gd0.1O1.95 indicated that lithium affects sintering by producing a Li{sub 2}O-Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3}-CeO{sub 2} liquid at the CGO grain boundaries. Due to this liquid phase sintering, it was possible to produce dense, crack-free constrained films of CGO at the record low temperature of 950 C using cheap, colloidal spray deposition processes. This is the first time dense constrained CGO films have been produced below 1000 C and could help commercialize metal supported ceria based solid oxide fuel cells.

  7. High-Temperature Superconductivity

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Peter Johnson

    2010-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Like astronomers tweaking images to gain a more detailed glimpse of distant stars, physicists at Brookhaven National Laboratory have found ways to sharpen images of the energy spectra in high-temperature superconductors ? materials that carry electrical c

  8. High temperature pressure gauge

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Echtler, J. Paul (Pittsburgh, PA); Scandrol, Roy O. (Library, PA)

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A high temperature pressure gauge comprising a pressure gauge positioned in fluid communication with one end of a conduit which has a diaphragm mounted in its other end. The conduit is filled with a low melting metal alloy above the diaphragm for a portion of its length with a high temperature fluid being positioned in the remaining length of the conduit and in the pressure gauge.

  9. Oxidation studies of CrAlON nanolayered coatings on steel plates...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    coatings on steel plates. Abstract: The requirements of low cost and high-temperature corrosion resistance for bipolar interconnect plates in solid oxide fuel cell stacks have...

  10. Dynamic First-Principles Molecular-Scale Model for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells V. Hugo Schmidt

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dynamic First-Principles Molecular-Scale Model for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells V. Hugo Schmidt vs. current density i characteristics applies both to the Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) and Solid

  11. Yttria-stabilized zirconia solid oxide electrolyte fuel cells--- monolithic solid oxide fuel cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The monolithic solid oxide fuel cell (MSOFC) is currently under development for a variety of applications including coal-based power generation. The MSOFC is a design concept that places the thin components of a solid oxide fuel cell in lightweight, compact, corrugated structure, and so achieves high efficiency and excellent performance simultaneously with high power density. The MSOFC can be integrated with coal gasification plants and is expected to have high overall efficiency in the conversion of the chemical energy of coal to electrical energy. This report describes work aimed at (1) assessing manufacturing costs for the MSOFC and system costs for a coal-based plant; (2) modifying electrodes and electrode/electrolyte interfaces to improve the electrochemical performance of the MSOFC; and (3) testing the performance of the MSOFC on hydrogen and simulated coal gas. Manufacturing costs for both the coflow and crossflow MSOFC's were assessed based on the fabrication flow charts developed by direct scaleup of tape calendering and other laboratory processes. Integrated coal-based MSOFC systems were investigated to determine capital costs and costs of electricity. Design criteria were established for a coal-fueled 200-Mw power plant. Four plant arrangements were evaluated, and plant performance was analyzed. Interfacial modification involved modification of electrodes and electrode/electrolyte interfaces to improve the MSOFC electrochemical performance. Work in the cathode and cathode/electrolyte interface was concentrated on modification of electrode porosity, electrode morphology, electrode material, and interfacial bonding. Modifications of the anode and anode/electrolyte interface included the use of additives and improvement of nickel distribution. Single cells have been tested for their electrochemical performance. Performance data were typically obtained with humidified H{sub 2} or simulated coal gas and air or oxygen. 68 figs., 29 tabs.

  12. High temperature oxidation and NaCl-induced accelerated corrosion of hot-dip aluminized 9Cr-1Mo and 310 stainless steel 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsaur, Charng-Cheng

    2005-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

    The behaviors of high temperature corrosion on hot-dip aluminized on 9Cr-1Mo and 310 stainless steels when catalyzed by NaCl and cyclic heating environment were studied experimentally. The corrosion behavior and morphological ...

  13. The Development of Nano-Composite Electrodes for Solid Oxide Electrolyzers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gorte, Raymond J.; Vohs, John M.

    2014-03-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) and electrolyzers (SOE) offer an attractive means for converting between electrical and chemical energy. Because they operate at high temperatures and are usually based on electrolytes that are oxygen-ion conducting ceramics, such as yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ), they are equally capable of converting between CO and CO2 as between H2 and H2O. When operated in the SOFC mode, they are able to operate on hydrocarbon fuels so long as there are no materials within the anode that can catalyze carbon formation. Compared to other types of electrolyzers, SOE can exhibit the highest efficiencies because the theoretical Nernst potential is lower at high temperatures and because the electrode overpotentials in SOE tend to be much lower. Finally, pure H2 can be produced without an external electrical source by electrolysis of steam at one electrode and oxidation of any fuel at the other electrode through a process known as Natural-Gas Assisted Steam Electrolysis. This final report describes results from studies of novel electrodes for SOE and SOFC prepared by infiltration methods.

  14. Flexible high-temperature pH probe

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bielawski, John C. (Scotia, NY); Outwater, John O. (Cambridge, MA); Halbfinger, George P. (Schenectady, NY)

    2003-04-22T23:59:59.000Z

    A flexible pH probe device is provided for use in hot water and other high temperature environments up to about 590.degree. F. The pH probe includes a flexible, inert tubular probe member, an oxygen anion conducting, solid state electrolyte plug located at the distal end of the tubular member, oxide powder disposed at the distal end of the tubular member; a metal wire extending along the tubular member and having a distal end in contact with the oxide powder so as to form therewith an internal reference electrode; and a compression fitting forming a pressure boundary seal around a portion of the tubular member remote from the distal end thereof. Preferably, the tubular member is made of polytetrafluoroethylene, and the solid state electrolyte plug is made of stabilized zirconia. The flexibility of the probe member enables placement of the electrode into the area of interest, including around corners, into confined areas and the like.

  15. 3D CFD Model of High Temperature H2O/CO2 Co-electrolysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grant Hawkes; James O'Brien; Carl Stoots; Stephen Herring; Joe Hartvigsen

    2007-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    3D CFD Model of High Temperature H2O/CO2 Co-Electrolysis Grant Hawkes1, James O’Brien1, Carl Stoots1, Stephen Herring1 Joe Hartvigsen2 1 Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, Idaho, grant.hawkes@inl.gov 2 Ceramatec Inc, Salt Lake City, Utah INTRODUCTION A three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model has been created to model high temperature co-electrolysis of steam and carbon dioxide in a planar solid oxide electrolyzer (SOE) using solid oxide fuel cell technology. A research program is under way at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to simultaneously address the research and scale-up issues associated with the implementation of planar solid-oxide electrolysis cell technology for syn-gas production from CO2 and steam. Various runs have been performed under different run conditions to help assess the performance of the SOE. This paper presents CFD results of this model compared with experimental results. The Idaho National Laboratory (INL), in conjunction with Ceramatec Inc. (Salt Lake City, USA) has been researching for several years the use of solid-oxide fuel cell technology to electrolyze steam for large-scale nuclear-powered hydrogen production. Now, an experimental research project is underway at the INL to produce syngas by simultaneously electrolyzing at high-temperature steam and carbon dioxide (CO2) using solid oxide fuel cell technology. A strong interest exists in the large-scale production of syn-gas from CO2 and steam to be reformed into a usable transportation fuel. If biomass is used as the carbon source, the overall process is climate neutral. Consequently, there is a high level of interest in production of syn-gas from CO2 and steam electrolysis. With the price of oil currently around $60 / barrel, synthetically-derived hydrocarbon fuels (synfuels) have become economical. Synfuels are typically produced from syngas – hydrogen (H2) and carbon monoxide (CO) -- using the Fischer-Tropsch process, discovered by Germany before World War II. High-temperature nuclear reactors have the potential for substantially increasing the efficiency of syn-gas production from CO2 and water, with no consumption of fossil fuels, and no production of greenhouse gases. Thermal CO2-splitting and water splitting for syn-gas production can be accomplished via high-temperature electrolysis, using high-temperature nuclear process heat and electricity. A high-temperature advanced nuclear reactor coupled with a high-efficiency high-temperature electrolyzer could achieve a competitive thermal-to-syn-gas conversion efficiency of 45 to 55%.

  16. High-temperature Pump Monitoring - High-temperature ESP Monitoring...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    7 4.4.4 High-temperature Pump Monitoring - High-temperature ESP Monitoring Presentation Number: 018 Investigator: Dhruva, Brindesh (Schlumberger Technology Corp.) Objectives: To...

  17. High Temperature Interactions of Antimony with Nickel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marina, Olga A.; Pederson, Larry R.

    2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this chapter, the surface and bulk interactions of antimony with the Ni-based anodes in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) will be discussed. High fuel flexibility is a significant advantage of SOFCs, allowing the direct use of fossil and bio fuels without a hydrogen separation unit. Synthesis gas derived from coal and biomass consists of a mixture of hydrogen, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and steam, but finite amounts of tars and trace impurities such as S, Se, P, As, Sb, Cd, Pb, Cl, etc, are also always present. While synthesis gas is commonly treated with a series of chemical processes and scrubbers to remove the impurities, complete purification is not economical. Antimony is widely distributed in coals. During coal gasification antimony is volatilized, such that contact with the SOFC anodes and other SOFC parts, e.g., interconnect, current collecting wires, fuel gas supplying tubing, is most likely. This chapter addresses the following topics: high temperature Ni - Sb interactions; alteration phase, Ni3Sb, Ni5Sb2, NiSb, formation; thermochemical modeling; impact of Sb on the electrocatalytic activity of Ni toward the fuel oxidation and the presence of other impurities (sulfur, in particular); converted anode structural instability during long-term SOFC operation; comparison with nickel heterogeneous catalysts.

  18. Stack configurations for tubular solid oxide fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Armstrong, Timothy R. (Clinton, TN); Trammell, Michael P. (Clinton, TN); Marasco, Joseph A. (Kingston, TN)

    2010-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A fuel cell unit includes an array of solid oxide fuel cell tubes having porous metallic exterior surfaces, interior fuel cell layers, and interior surfaces, each of the tubes having at least one open end; and, at least one header in operable communication with the array of solid oxide fuel cell tubes for directing a first reactive gas into contact with the porous metallic exterior surfaces and for directing a second reactive gas into contact with the interior surfaces, the header further including at least one busbar disposed in electrical contact with at least one surface selected from the group consisting of the porous metallic exterior surfaces and the interior surfaces.

  19. Manifold, bus support and coupling arrangement for solid oxide fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Parry, G.W.

    1988-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Individual, tubular solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are assembled into bundles called a module within a housing, with a plurality of modules arranged end-to-end in a linear, stacked configuration called a string. A common set of piping comprised of a suitable high temperature resistant material (1) provides fuel and air to each module housing, (2) serves as electrically conducting buses, and (3) provides structural support for a string of SOFC modules. Ceramic collars are used to connect fuel and air inlet piping to each of the electrodes in an SOFC module and provide (1) electrical insulation for the current carrying bus bars and gas manifolds, (2) damping for the fuel and air inlet piping, and (3) proper spacing between the fuel and air inlet piping to prevent contact between these tubes and possible damage to the SOFC. 11 figs.

  20. Combining Raman Microprobe and XPS to Study High Temperature...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    spectroscopy. Citation: Windisch CF, Jr, CH Henager, MH Engelhard, and WD Bennett.2011."Combining Raman Microprobe and XPS to Study High Temperature Oxidation of...

  1. Modified cermet fuel electrodes for solid oxide electrochemical cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ruka, Roswell J. (Churchill Boro, PA); Spengler, Charles J. (Murrysville, PA)

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An exterior porous electrode (10), bonded to a solid oxygen ion conducting electrolyte (13) which is in contact with an interior electrode (14), contains coarse metal particles (12) of nickel and/or cobalt, having diameters from 3 micrometers to 35 micrometers, where the coarse particles are coated with a separate, porous, multiphase layer (17) containing fine metal particles of nickel and/or cobalt (18), having diameters from 0.05 micrometers to 1.75 micrometers and conductive oxide (19) selected from cerium oxide, doped cerium oxide, strontium titanate, doped strontium titanate and mixtures thereof.

  2. Ionic conductors for solid oxide fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Krumpelt, Michael (Naperville, IL); Bloom, Ira D. (Bolingbrook, IL); Pullockaran, Jose D. (Hanover Park, IL); Myles, Kevin M. (Downers Grove, IL)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An electrolyte that operates at temperatures ranging from 600.degree. C. to 800.degree. C. is provided. The electrolyte conducts charge ionically as well as electronically. The ionic conductors include molecular framework structures having planes or channels large enough to transport oxides or hydrated protons and having net-positive or net-negative charges. Representative molecular framework structures include substituted aluminum phosphates, orthosilicates, silicoaluminates, cordierites, apatites, sodalites, and hollandites.

  3. Method of fabricating a monolithic solid oxide fuel cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Minh, N.Q.; Horne, C.R.

    1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In a two-step densifying process of making a monolithic solid oxide fuel cell, a limited number of anode-electrolyte-cathode cells separated by an interconnect layer are formed and partially densified. Subsequently, the partially densified cells are stacked and further densified to form a monolithic array. 10 figures.

  4. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) Technology for Greener Airplanes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) Technology for Greener Airplanes Larry Chick/Mike Rinker Energy Materials Group Pacific Northwest National Laboratory September 30, 2010 #12;2 2 SOFC Technology Development at PNNL PNNL has been active in SOFC development since 1987. Major participant in SECA Core Technology

  5. Method of fabricating a monolithic solid oxide fuel cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Minh, Nguyen Q. (Fountain Valley, CA); Horne, Craig R. (Redondo Beach, CA)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In a two-step densifying process of making a monolithic solid oxide fuel cell, a limited number of anode-electrolyte-cathode cells separated by an interconnect layer are formed and partially densified. Subsequently, the partially densified cells are stacked and further densified to form a monolithic array.

  6. Basic properties of a liquidt in anode solid oxide fuel cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harry Abernathy; RandallGemmen; KirkGerdes; Mark Koslowske; ThomasTao

    2010-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

    An unconventional high temperature fuel cell system, the liquidt in anode solid oxide fuel cell(LTA-SOFC), is discussed. A thermodynamic analysis of a solid oxide fuel cell with a liquid metal anode is developed. Pertinent thermo chemical and thermo physical properties of liquid tin in particular are detailed. An experimental setup for analysis of LTA-SOFC anode kinetics is described, and data for a planar cell under hydrogen indicated an effective oxygen diffusion coefficient of 5.3×10?5 cm2 s?1 at 800 ?C and 8.9×10?5 cm2 s?1 at 900 ?C. This value is similar to previously reported literature values for liquid tin. The oxygen conductivity through the tin, calculated from measured diffusion coefficients and theoretical oxygen solubility limits, is found to be on the same order of thatofyttria-stabilizedzirconia(YSZ), a traditional SOFC electrolyte material. As such,the ohmicloss due to oxygen transport through the tin layer must be considered in practical system cell design since the tin layer will usually be at least as thick as the electrolyte.

  7. High Temperature Capacitor Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John Kosek

    2009-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The absence of high-temperature electronics is an obstacle to the development of untapped energy resources (deep oil, gas and geothermal). US natural gas consumption is projected to grow from 22 trillion cubic feet per year (tcf) in 1999 to 34 tcf in 2020. Cumulatively this is 607 tcf of consumption by 2020, while recoverable reserves using current technology are 177 tcf. A significant portion of this shortfall may be met by tapping deep gas reservoirs. Tapping these reservoirs represents a significant technical challenge. At these depths, temperatures and pressures are very high and may require penetrating very hard rock. Logistics of supporting 6.1 km (20,000 ft) drill strings and the drilling processes are complex and expensive. At these depths up to 50% of the total drilling cost may be in the last 10% of the well depth. Thus, as wells go deeper it is increasingly important that drillers are able to monitor conditions down-hole such as temperature, pressure, heading, etc. Commercial off-the-shelf electronics are not specified to meet these operating conditions. This is due to problems associated with all aspects of the electronics including the resistors and capacitors. With respect to capacitors, increasing temperature often significantly changes capacitance because of the strong temperature dependence of the dielectric constant. Higher temperatures also affect the equivalent series resistance (ESR). High-temperature capacitors usually have low capacitance values because of these dielectric effects and because packages are kept small to prevent mechanical breakage caused by thermal stresses. Electrolytic capacitors do not operate at temperatures above 150oC due to dielectric breakdown. The development of high-temperature capacitors to be used in a high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) drilling environment was investigated. These capacitors were based on a previously developed high-voltage hybridized capacitor developed at Giner, Inc. in conjunction with a unique high-temperature electrolyte developed during the course of the program. During this program the feasibility of operating a high voltage hybridized capacitor at 230oC was demonstrated. Capacitor specifications were established in conjunction with potential capacitor users. A method to allow for capacitor operation at both ambient and elevated temperatures was demonstrated. The program was terminated prior to moving into Phase II due to a lack of cost-sharing funds.

  8. High Temperature Membrane Working Group

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This presentation provides an overview of the High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting in May 2007.

  9. Solid oxide electrochemical cell fabrication process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dollard, Walter J. (Churchill Borough, PA); Folser, George R. (Lower Burrell, PA); Pal, Uday B. (Cambridge, MA); Singhal, Subhash C. (Murrysville, PA)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method to form an electrochemical cell (12) is characterized by the steps of thermal spraying stabilized zirconia over a doped lanthanum manganite air electrode tube (14) to provide an electrolyte layer (15), coating conductive particles over the electrolyte, pressurizing the outside of the electrolyte layer, feeding halide vapors of yttrium and zirconium to the outside of the electrolyte layer and feeding a source of oxygen to the inside of the electrolyte layer, heating to cause oxygen reaction with the halide vapors to close electrolyte pores if there are any and to form a metal oxide coating on and between the particles and provide a fuel electrode (16).

  10. Solid-Oxide Fuel Cell Stack System Identification and Control A Systematic Recipe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sanandaji, Borhan M.

    Solid-Oxide Fuel Cell Stack System Identification and Control A Systematic Recipe Borhan M of Engineering Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO 80401 USA Solid-Oxide Fuel Cell (MIMO) Systems Are... fuel

  11. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Auxiliary Power Units for Long-Haul Trucks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Auxiliary Power Units for Long-Haul Trucks Modeling and Control Mohammad and maintenance of the truck engine. While still in the research phase, Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) based APUs

  12. Manufacturing Cost Analysis of 1 kW and 5 kW Solid Oxide Fuel...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    kW and 5 kW Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) for Auxiliary Power Applications Manufacturing Cost Analysis of 1 kW and 5 kW Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) for Auxiliary Power...

  13. Study on Degradation of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell With Pure Ni Anode Zhenjun Jiaoa

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kasagi, Nobuhide

    Study on Degradation of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell With Pure Ni Anode Zhenjun Jiaoa , Naoki Shikazonoa Solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) has attracted more and more attentions in the last few decades

  14. Solid oxide fuel cell with single material for electrodes and interconnect

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McPheeters, Charles C. (Naperville, IL); Nelson, Paul A. (Wheaton, IL); Dees, Dennis W. (Downers Grove, IL)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A solid oxide fuel cell having a plurality of individual cells. A solid oxide fuel cell has an anode and a cathode with electrolyte disposed therebetween, and the anode, cathode and interconnect elements are comprised of substantially one material.

  15. Manufacturing Cost Analysis of 1 kW and 5 kW Solid Oxide Fuel...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Manufacturing Cost Analysis of 1 kW and 5 kW Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) for Auxiliary Power Applications Manufacturing Cost Analysis of 1 kW and 5 kW Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC)...

  16. Nickel Phase Wettability and YSZ Redox Fracture Percolation in Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Anodes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Petta, Jason

    Nickel Phase Wettability and YSZ Redox Fracture Percolation in Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Anodes Alex and Aerospace Engineering Background Solid oxide fuel cells lose mechanical stability and functionality when

  17. MicroScale Modeling of an AnodeSupported Planar Solid Oxide Fuel Cell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Micro­Scale Modeling of an Anode­Supported Planar Solid Oxide Fuel Cell P. Chinda1 , W. Wechsatol A micro ­ scale model of a Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) involving the mass transfer together the available literatures. Keywords: Solid Oxide Fuel Cells, Micro ­ Scale Model, Mass Transfer, Electrochemical

  18. A solid oxide fuel cell system for buildings Florian Zink a,*, Yixin Lu b

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A solid oxide fuel cell system for buildings Florian Zink a,*, Yixin Lu b , Laura Schaefer c online 7 November 2006 Abstract This paper examines an integrated solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) absorption. With the present development trends in solid oxide fuel cells and the commercial status of absorption heating

  19. REFORMING PROCESSES FOR MICRO COMBINED HEAT AND POWER SYSTEM BASED ON SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berning, Torsten

    REFORMING PROCESSES FOR MICRO COMBINED HEAT AND POWER SYSTEM BASED ON SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL University Denmark ABSTRACT Solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) is a promising technology for decentralized power performance parameters will be identified. Keywords: Solid Oxide Fuel Cell, Micro CHP System INTRODUCTION

  20. A Planar Anode -Supported Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Model with Internal Reforming of Natural Gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    1 A Planar Anode - Supported Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Model with Internal Reforming of Natural Gas.brault@univ-orleans.fr Abstract Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFCs) are of great interest due to their high energy efficiency, low, a mathematical model of a co - flow planar anode - supported solid oxide fuel cell with internal reforming

  1. Operation strategy for solid oxide fuel cell systems for small-scale stationary applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berning, Torsten

    Operation strategy for solid oxide fuel cell systems for small-scale stationary applications V Abstract: Solid oxide fuel cell micro cogeneration systems have the potential to reduce domestic energy factor. One of the technologies in focus in EU research programmers is solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC

  2. Anode supported single chamber solid oxide fuel cells operating in exhaust gases of thermal engine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Anode supported single chamber solid oxide fuel cells operating in exhaust gases of thermal engine. Conventional solid oxide fuel cells are separated into two compartments containing each electrode split hydrocarbons, pollutant emissions reduction hal-01056363,version1-21Aug2014 #12;1. Introduction Solid oxide

  3. Stability and error analysis of the polarization estimation inverse problem for solid oxide fuel cells.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Renaut, Rosemary

    at the electrodeelectrolyte interfaces of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) is investigated physically using Electrochemical describe the performance of a solid oxide fuel cell requires the solution of an inverse problem. TwoStability and error analysis of the polarization estimation inverse problem for solid oxide fuel

  4. Evolution of microstructures inside the Ni-YSZ anode of a solid oxide fuel cell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Petta, Jason

    Evolution of microstructures inside the Ni-YSZ anode of a solid oxide fuel cell Jeff Lillibridge Department of Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering Advisor: Mikko Haataja #12;What is a solid oxide fuel cell microstructuralcoarsening processes to electrochemical performancein solid oxide fuel cells: An integrated modeling approach

  5. Oxygen diffusion in solid oxide fuel cell cathode and electrolyte materials: mechanistic insights from atomistic simulations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yildiz, Bilge

    to drive fast ionic transport. 1. Introduction The interest in Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) technologyOxygen diffusion in solid oxide fuel cell cathode and electrolyte materials: mechanistic insights. Current targets of cost and durability necessitate solid oxide fuel cells to operate in the intermediate

  6. Innovative Seals for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singh, Raj

    2008-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A functioning SOFC requires different type of seals such as metal-metal, metal-ceramic, and ceramic-ceramic. These seals must function at high temperatures between 600--900{sup o}C and in oxidizing and reducing environments of the fuels and air. Among the different type of seals, the metal-metal seals can be readily fabricated using metal joining, soldering, and brazing techniques. However, the metal-ceramic and ceramic-ceramic seals require significant research and development because the brittle nature of ceramics/glasses can lead to fracture and loss of seal integrity and functionality. Consequently, any seals involving ceramics/glasses require a significant attention and technology development for reliable SOFC operation. This final report is prepared to describe the progress made in the program on the needs, approaches, and performance of high temperature seals for SOFC. In particular, a new concept of self-healing glass seals is pursued for making seals between metal-ceramic material combinations, including some with a significant expansion mismatch.

  7. High temperature thermometric phosphors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Allison, Stephen W. (Knoxville, TN); Cates, Michael R. (Oak Ridge, TN); Boatner, Lynn A. (Oak Ridge, TN); Gillies, George T. (Earlysville, VA)

    1999-03-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A high temperature phosphor consists essentially of a material having the general formula LuPO.sub.4 :Dy.sub.(x),Eu.sub.y) wherein: 0.1 wt %.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.20 wt % and 0.1 wt %.ltoreq.y.ltoreq.20 wt %. The high temperature phosphor is in contact with an article whose temperature is to be determined. The article having the phosphor in contact with it is placed in the environment for which the temperature of the article is to be determined. The phosphor is excited by a laser causing the phosphor to fluoresce. The emission from the phosphor is optically focused into a beam-splitting mirror which separates the emission into two separate emissions, the emission caused by the dysprosium dopant and the emission caused by the europium dopent. The separated emissions are optically filtered and the intensities of the emission are detected and measured. The ratio of the intensity of each emission is determined and the temperature of the article is calculated from the ratio of the intensities of the separate emissions.

  8. High temperature thermometric phosphors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Allison, S.W.; Cates, M.R.; Boatner, L.A.; Gillies, G.T.

    1999-03-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A high temperature phosphor consists essentially of a material having the general formula LuPO{sub 4}:Dy{sub x},Eu{sub y} wherein: 0.1 wt % {<=} x {<=} 20 wt % and 0.1 wt % {<=} y {<=} 20 wt %. The high temperature phosphor is in contact with an article whose temperature is to be determined. The article having the phosphor in contact with it is placed in the environment for which the temperature of the article is to be determined. The phosphor is excited by a laser causing the phosphor to fluoresce. The emission from the phosphor is optically focused into a beam-splitting mirror which separates the emission into two separate emissions, the emission caused by the dysprosium dopant and the emission caused by the europium dopant. The separated emissions are optically filtered and the intensities of the emission are detected and measured. The ratio of the intensity of each emission is determined and the temperature of the article is calculated from the ratio of the intensities of the separate emissions. 2 figs.

  9. SOLID STATE ENERGY CONVERSION ALLIANCE (SECA) SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL PROGRAM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Unknown

    2003-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes the progress made during the September 2001-March 2002 reporting period under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT41245 for the U. S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE/NETL) entitled ''Solid State Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA) Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Program''. The program focuses on the development of a low-cost, high-performance 3-to-10-kW solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) system suitable for a broad spectrum of power-generation applications. The overall objective of the program is to demonstrate a modular SOFC system that can be configured to create highly efficient, cost-competitive, and environmentally benign power plants tailored to specific markets. When fully developed, the system will meet the efficiency, performance, life, and cost goals for future commercial power plants.

  10. Nanostructured thin films for solid oxide fuel cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yoon, Jongsik

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    in order to facilitate rapid mass transport of reactant gas to the reaction site. Numerous doped oxides have been studied for zirconia based SOFCs and the most common materials for cathodes are perovskite-type lanthanum strontium manganite, La 1-x Sr x... Fig.1.3. Schematic diagram of SOFC operating on hydrogen fuel 1.3.1 History of SOFCs Solid oxide electrolytes were first investigated by Emil Baur and his colleague H. Preis in the late 1930s using lanthanum, yttrium, cerium, tungsten...

  11. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Hybrid System for Distributed Power Generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Faress Rahman; Nguyen Minh

    2004-01-04T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes the work performed by Hybrid Power Generation Systems, LLC (HPGS) during the July 2003 to December 2003 reporting period under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT40779 for the U. S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE/NETL) entitled ''Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Hybrid System for Distributed Power Generation''. The main objective of this project is to develop and demonstrate the feasibility of a highly efficient hybrid system integrating a planar Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) and a micro-turbine. In addition, an activity included in this program focuses on the development of an integrated coal gasification fuel cell system concept based on planar SOFC technology. Also, another activity included in this program focuses on the development of SOFC scale up strategies.

  12. SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL HYBRID SYSTEM FOR DISTRIBUTED POWER GENERATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kurt Montgomery; Nguyen Minh

    2003-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes the work performed by Honeywell during the October 2001 to December 2001 reporting period under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT40779 for the U. S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE/NETL) entitled ''Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Hybrid System for Distributed Power Generation''. The main objective of this project is to develop and demonstrate the feasibility of a highly efficient hybrid system integrating a planar Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) and a turbogenerator. The conceptual and demonstration system designs were proposed and analyzed, and these systems have been modeled in Aspen Plus. Work has also started on the assembly of dynamic component models and the development of the top-level controls requirements for the system. SOFC stacks have been fabricated and performance mapping initiated.

  13. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Hybrid System for Distributed Power Generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nguyen Minh

    2002-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes the work performed by Honeywell during the January 2002 to March 2002 reporting period under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT40779 for the U. S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE/NETL) entitled ''Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Hybrid System for Distributed Power Generation''. The main objective of this project is to develop and demonstrate the feasibility of a highly efficient hybrid system integrating a planar Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) and a turbogenerator. For this reporting period the following activities have been carried out: {lg_bullet} Conceptual system design trade studies were performed {lg_bullet} System-level performance model was created {lg_bullet} Dynamic control models are being developed {lg_bullet} Mechanical properties of candidate heat exchanger materials were investigated {lg_bullet} SOFC performance mapping as a function of flow rate and pressure was completed

  14. SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL HYBRID SYSTEM FOR DISTRIBUTED POWER GENERATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Unknown

    2002-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes the work performed by Honeywell during the July 2001 to September 2001 reporting period under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT40779 for the U. S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE/NETL) entitled ''Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Hybrid System for Distributed Power Generation''. The main objective of this project is to develop and demonstrate the feasibility of a highly efficient hybrid system integrating a planar Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) and a turbogenerator. An internal program kickoff was held at Honeywell in Torrance, CA. The program structure was outlined and the overall technical approach for the program was presented to the team members. Detail program schedules were developed and detailed objectives were defined. Initial work has begun on the system design and pressurized SOFC operation.

  15. High temperature adsorption measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bertani, R.; Parisi, L.; Perini, R.; Tarquini, B.

    1996-01-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Adsorption phenomena are a rich and rather new field of study in geothermal research, in particular at very high temperature. ENEL is interested in the exploitation of geothermal regions with superheated steam, and it is important to understand the behavior of water-rock interaction. We have analyzed in the 170-200 °C temperature range four samples of Monteverdi cuttings; the next experimental effort will be at 220 °C and over in 1996. The first results of the 1995 runs are collected in this paper. We can highlight four main items: 1. At relative pressures over 0.6 the capillarity forces are very important. 2. There is no significant temperature effect. 3. Adsorbed water can be present, and it is able to multiply by a factor of 15 the estimated reserve of super-heated steam only. 4. Pores smaller than 15 Å do not contribute to the adsorbed mass.

  16. High temperature regenerable hydrogen sulfide removal agents

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Copeland, Robert J. (Wheat Ridge, CO)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A system for high temperature desulfurization of coal-derived gases using regenerable sorbents. One sorbent is stannic oxide (tin oxide, SnO.sub.2), the other sorbent is a metal oxide or mixed metal oxide such as zinc ferrite (ZnFe.sub.2 O.sub.4). Certain otherwise undesirable by-products, including hydrogen sulfide (H.sub.2 S) and sulfur dioxide (SO.sub.2) are reused by the system, and elemental sulfur is produced in the regeneration reaction. A system for refabricating the sorbent pellets is also described.

  17. Method to fabricate high performance tubular solid oxide fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, Fanglin; Yang, Chenghao; Jin, Chao

    2013-06-18T23:59:59.000Z

    In accordance with the present disclosure, a method for fabricating a solid oxide fuel cell is described. The method includes forming an asymmetric porous ceramic tube by using a phase inversion process. The method further includes forming an asymmetric porous ceramic layer on a surface of the asymmetric porous ceramic tube by using a phase inversion process. The tube is co-sintered to form a structure having a first porous layer, a second porous layer, and a dense layer positioned therebetween.

  18. Open end protection for solid oxide fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zafred, Paolo R. (Murrysville, PA); Dederer, Jeffrey T. (Valencia, PA); Tomlins, Gregory W. (Pittsburgh, PA); Toms, James M. (Irwin, PA); Folser, George R. (Lower Burrell, PA); Schmidt, Douglas S. (Pittsburgh, PA); Singh, Prabhakar (Export, PA); Hager, Charles A. (Zelienople, PA)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A solid oxide fuel cell (40) having a closed end (44) and an open end (42) operates in a fuel cell generator (10) where the fuel cell open end (42) of each fuel cell contains a sleeve (60, 64) fitted over the open end (42), where the sleeve (60, 64) extends beyond the open end (42) of the fuel cell (40) to prevent degradation of the interior air electrode of the fuel cell by fuel gas during operation of the generator (10).

  19. Tubular screen electrical connection support for solid oxide fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tomlins, Gregory W. (Pittsburgh, PA); Jaszcar, Michael P. (Murrysville, PA)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A solid oxide fuel assembly is made of fuel cells (16, 16', 18, 24, 24', 26), each having an outer interconnection layer (36) and an outer electrode (28), which are disposed next to each other with rolled, porous, hollow, electrically conducting metal mesh conductors (20, 20') between the fuel cells, connecting the fuel cells at least in series along columns (15, 15') and where there are no metal felt connections between any fuel cells.

  20. Method and apparatus for assembling solid oxide fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Szreders, B.E.; Campanella, N.

    1988-05-11T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention relates generally to solid oxide fuel power generators and is particularly directed to improvements in the assembly and coupling of solid oxide fuel cell modules. A plurality of jet air tubes are supported and maintained in a spaced matrix array by a positioning/insertion assembly for insertion in respective tubes of a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) in the assembly of an SOFC module. The positioning/insertion assembly includes a plurality of generally planar, elongated, linear vanes which are pivotally mounted at each end thereof to a support frame. A rectangular compression assembly of adjustable size is adapted to receive and squeeze a matrix of SOFC tubes so as to compress the inter-tube nickel felt conductive pads which provide series/parallel electrical connection between adjacent SOFCs, with a series of increasingly larger retainer frames used to maintain larger matrices of SOFC tubes in position. Expansion of the SOFC module housing at the high operating temperatures of the SOFC is accommodated by conductive, flexible, resilient expansion, connector bars which provide support and electrical coupling at the top and bottom of the SOFC module housing. 17 figs.

  1. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Hybrid System for Distributed Power Generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David Deangelis; Rich Depuy; Debashis Dey; Georgia Karvountzi; Nguyen Minh; Max Peter; Faress Rahman; Pavel Sokolov; Deliang Yang

    2004-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes the work performed by Hybrid Power Generation Systems, LLC (HPGS) during the April to October 2004 reporting period in Task 2.3 (SOFC Scaleup for Hybrid and Fuel Cell Systems) under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT40779 for the U. S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE/NETL), entitled ''Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Hybrid System for Distributed Power Generation''. This study analyzes the performance and economics of power generation systems for central power generation application based on Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) technology and fueled by natural gas. The main objective of this task is to develop credible scale up strategies for large solid oxide fuel cell-gas turbine systems. System concepts that integrate a SOFC with a gas turbine were developed and analyzed for plant sizes in excess of 20 MW. A 25 MW plant configuration was selected with projected system efficiency of over 65% and a factory cost of under $400/kW. The plant design is modular and can be scaled to both higher and lower plant power ratings. Technology gaps and required engineering development efforts were identified and evaluated.

  2. Solid oxide fuel cell having a glass composite seal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    De Rose, Anthony J.; Mukerjee, Subhasish; Haltiner, Jr., Karl Jacob

    2013-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A solid oxide fuel cell stack having a plurality of cassettes and a glass composite seal disposed between the sealing surfaces of adjacent cassettes, thereby joining the cassettes and providing a hermetic seal therebetween. The glass composite seal includes an alkaline earth aluminosilicate (AEAS) glass disposed about a viscous glass such that the AEAS glass retains the viscous glass in a predetermined position between the first and second sealing surfaces. The AEAS glass provides geometric stability to the glass composite seal to maintain the proper distance between the adjacent cassettes while the viscous glass provides for a compliant and self-healing seal. The glass composite seal may include fibers, powders, and/or beads of zirconium oxide, aluminum oxide, yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ), or mixtures thereof, to enhance the desirable properties of the glass composite seal.

  3. Grain boundary depletion and migration during selective oxidation of Cr in a Ni-5Cr binary alloy exposed to high-temperature hydrogenated water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schreiber, Daniel K.; Olszta, Matthew J.; Bruemmer, Stephen M.

    2014-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    High-resolution microscopy of a high-purity Ni-5Cr alloy exposed to 360°C hydrogenated water reveals intergranular selective oxidation of Cr accompanied by local Cr depletion and diffusion-induced grain boundary migration (DIGM). The corrosion-product oxide consists of a porous, interconnected network of Cr2O3 platelets with no further O ingress into the metal ahead. Extensive grain boundary depletion of Cr (to <0.05at.%) is observed typically 20–100 nm wide as a result of DIGM and reaching depths of many micrometers beyond the oxidation front.

  4. High-Temperature Thermoelectric Properties of the Solid–Solution Zintl Phase Eu11Cd6Sb12–xAsx (x < 3)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kazem, Nasrin; Xie, Weiwei; Ohno, Saneyuki; Zevalkink, Alexandra; Miller, Gordon J; Snyder, G Jeffrey; Kauzlarich, Susan M

    2014-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Zintl phases are compounds that have shown promise for thermoelectric applications. The title solid–solution Zintl compounds were prepared from the elements as single crystals using a tin flux for compositions x = 0, 1, 2, and 3. Eu11Cd6Sb12–xAsx (x < 3) crystallize isostructurally in the centrosymmetric monoclinic space group C2/m (no. 12, Z = 2) as the Sr11Cd6Sb12 structure type (Pearson symbol mC58). Efforts to make the As compositions for x exceeding ?3 resulted in structures other than the Sr11Cd6Sb12 structure type. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction indicates that As does not randomly substitute for Sb in the structure but is site specific for each composition. The amount of As determined by structural refinement was verified by electron microprobe analysis. Electronic structures and energies calculated for various model structures of Eu11Cd6Sb10As2 (x = 2) indicated that the preferred As substitution pattern involves a mixture of three of the six pnicogen sites in the asymmetric unit. In addition, As substitution at the Pn4 site opens an energy gap at the Fermi level, whereas substitution at the other five pnicogen sites remains semimetallic with a pseudo gap. Thermoelectric properties of these compounds were measured on hot-pressed, fully densified pellets. Samples show exceptionally low lattice thermal conductivities from room temperature to 775 K: 0.78–0.49 W/mK for x = 0; 0.72–0.53 W/mK for x = 1; and 0.70–0.56 W/mK for x = 2. Eu11Cd6Sb12 shows a high p-type Seebeck coefficient (from +118 to 153 ? V/K) but also high electrical resistivity (6.8 to 12.8 m?·cm). The value of zT reaches 0.23 at 774 K. The properties of Eu11Cd6Sb12–xAsx are interpreted in discussion with the As site substitution.

  5. Structural and electrochemical characterization of two proton conducting oxide thin films for a microfabricated solid oxide fuel cell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Capozzoli, Peter M

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The use of proton conducting oxide materials as an electrolyte offers the potential to reduce the operating temperature of a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC), leading to improved thermal management and material compatibility. ...

  6. Effect of H2O and CO2 on The Oxidation Behavior and Durability at High Temperature of ODS-FeCrAl

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dryepondt, Sebastien N [ORNL; Pint, Bruce A [ORNL; Rouaix-Vande Put, Aurelie [CIRIMAT-ENSIACET, Toulouse, France

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Cyclic oxidation testing was conducted on alloy MA956 and two different batches of alloy PM2000 at 1100 and 1200 C in different atmospheres rich in O2, H2O and CO2. Compared to 1h cycles in dry O2, exposure in air+10 vol.% H2O resulted in an increase of the oxidation rate and a decrease of the time to breakaway for all alloys at 1200 C, and a faster consumption of Al in the MA956 alloy. One hour cyclic testing in 49.25%CO2+50%H2O+0.75% O2 had a smaller effect on the oxidation rate but led to increased formation of voids in alloy MA956, which had an impact on the alloy creep resistance. At 1100 C, exposure in 50%CO2+50%H2O resulted in significant oxide spallation compared with oxidation in air, but this was not the case when 0.75% O2 was added to the CO2/H2O mixture as a buffer. The control of impurity levels drastically improved the oxidation resistance of PM2000.

  7. High temperature interfacial superconductivity

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bozovic, Ivan (Mount Sinai, NY); Logvenov, Gennady (Port Jefferson Station, NY); Gozar, Adrian Mihai (Port Jefferson, NY)

    2012-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

    High-temperature superconductivity confined to nanometer-scale interfaces has been a long standing goal because of potential applications in electronic devices. The spontaneous formation of a superconducting interface in bilayers consisting of an insulator (La.sub.2CuO.sub.4) and a metal (La.sub.1-xSr.sub.xCuO.sub.4), neither of which is superconducting per se, is described. Depending upon the layering sequence of the bilayers, T.sub.c may be either .about.15 K or .about.30 K. This highly robust phenomenon is confined to within 2-3 nm around the interface. After exposing the bilayer to ozone, T.sub.c exceeds 50 K and this enhanced superconductivity is also shown to originate from a 1 to 2 unit cell thick interfacial layer. The results demonstrate that engineering artificial heterostructures provides a novel, unconventional way to fabricate stable, quasi two-dimensional high T.sub.c phases and to significantly enhance superconducting properties in other superconductors. The superconducting interface may be implemented, for example, in SIS tunnel junctions or a SuFET.

  8. Combined Theoretical and Experimental Investigation and Design of H2S Tolerant Anode for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gerardine G. Botte; Damilola Daramola; Madhivanan Muthuvel

    2009-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

    A solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) is a high temperature fuel cell and it normally operates in the range of 850 to 1000 C. Coal syngas has been considered for use in SOFC systems to produce electric power, due to its high temperature and high hydrogen and carbon monoxide content. However, coal syngas also has contaminants like carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S). Among these contaminants, H{sub 2}S is detrimental to electrode material in SOFC. Commonly used anode material in SOFC system is nickel-yttria stabilized zirconia (Ni-YSZ). The presence of H{sub 2}S in the hydrogen stream will damage the Ni anode and hinder the performance of SOFC. In the present study, an attempt was made to understand the mechanism of anode (Ni-YSZ) deterioration by H{sub 2}S. The study used computation methods such as quantum chemistry calculations and molecular dynamics to predict the model for anode destruction by H{sub 2}S. This was done using binding energies to predict the thermodynamics and Raman spectroscopy to predict molecular vibrations and surface interactions. On the experimental side, a test stand has been built with the ability to analyze button cells at high temperature under syngas conditions.

  9. Nuclear fuels for very high temperature applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lundberg, L.B.; Hobbins, R.R.

    1992-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The success of the development of nuclear thermal propulsion devices and thermionic space nuclear power generation systems depends on the successful utilization of nuclear fuel materials at temperatures in the range 2000 to 3500 K. Problems associated with the utilization of uranium bearing fuel materials at these very high temperatures while maintaining them in the solid state for the required operating times are addressed. The critical issues addressed include evaporation, melting, reactor neutron spectrum, high temperature chemical stability, fabrication, fission induced swelling, fission product release, high temperature creep, thermal shock resistance, and fuel density, both mass and fissile atom. Candidate fuel materials for this temperature range are based on UO{sub 2} or uranium carbides. Evaporation suppression, such as a sealed cladding, is required for either fuel base. Nuclear performance data needed for design are sparse for all candidate fuel forms in this temperature range, especially at the higher temperatures.

  10. Nuclear fuels for very high temperature applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lundberg, L.B.; Hobbins, R.R.

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The success of the development of nuclear thermal propulsion devices and thermionic space nuclear power generation systems depends on the successful utilization of nuclear fuel materials at temperatures in the range 2000 to 3500 K. Problems associated with the utilization of uranium bearing fuel materials at these very high temperatures while maintaining them in the solid state for the required operating times are addressed. The critical issues addressed include evaporation, melting, reactor neutron spectrum, high temperature chemical stability, fabrication, fission induced swelling, fission product release, high temperature creep, thermal shock resistance, and fuel density, both mass and fissile atom. Candidate fuel materials for this temperature range are based on UO{sub 2} or uranium carbides. Evaporation suppression, such as a sealed cladding, is required for either fuel base. Nuclear performance data needed for design are sparse for all candidate fuel forms in this temperature range, especially at the higher temperatures.

  11. A comparative study of TiN and TiC: Oxidation resistance and retention of xenon at high temperature and under degraded vacuum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gavarini, S.; Bes, R.; Millard-Pinard, N.; Peaucelle, C.; Perrat-Mabilon, A.; Gaillard, C. [Universite de Lyon, Universite Claude Bernard Lyon 1, CNRS/IN2P3, UMR5822, IPNL, 69622 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Cardinal, S.; Garnier, V. [Universite de Lyon, INSA de Lyon, MATEIS, CNRS UMR 5510, 7 Avenue Jean Capelle, 69621 Villeurbanne Cedex (France)

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Dense TiN and TiC samples were prepared by hot pressing using micrometric powders. Xenon species (simulating rare gas fission products) were then implanted into the ceramics. The samples were annealed for 1 h at 1500 deg. C under several degraded vacuums with P{sub O{sub 2}} varying from 10{sup -6} to 2x10{sup -4} mbars. The oxidation resistance of the samples and their retention properties with respect to preimplanted xenon species were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy, grazing incidence x-ray diffraction, Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, and nuclear backscattering spectrometry. Results indicate that TiC is resistant to oxidation and does not release xenon for P{sub O{sub 2{<=}}}6x10{sup -6} mbars. When P{sub O{sub 2}} increases, geometric oxide crystallites appear at the surface depending on the orientation and size of TiC grains. These oxide phases are Ti{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Ti{sub 3}O{sub 5}, and TiO{sub 2}. Apparition of oxide crystallites is associated with the beginning of xenon release. TiC surface is completely covered by the oxide phases at P{sub O{sub 2}}=2x10{sup -4} mbars up to a depth of 3 {mu}m and the xenon is then completely released. For TiN samples, the results show a progressive apparition of oxide crystallites (Ti{sub 3}O{sub 5} mainly) at the surface when P{sub O{sub 2}} increases. The presence of the oxide crystallites is also directly correlated with xenon release, the more oxide crystallites are growing the more xenon is released. TiN surface is completely covered by an oxide layer at P{sub O{sub 2}}=2x10{sup -4} mbars up to 1 {mu}m. A correlation between the initial fine microstructure of TiN and the properties of the growing layer is suggested.

  12. Microstructural Degradation of Ni-YSZ Anodes for Solid Oxide Fuel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Microstructural Degradation of Ni- YSZ Anodes for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells Karl Thydén Risø-PhD-32(EN 2008 #12;Author: Karl Thydén Title: Microstructural Degradation of Ni-YSZ Anodes for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells Department: Fuel Cells and Solid State Chemistry Department Risø-PhD-32(EN) March 2008 This thesis

  13. Cr-free Fe-based metal oxide catalysts for high temperature water gas shift reaction of fuel processor using LPG

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    lee, Joon Y.; Lee, Dae-Won; Lee, Kwan Young; Wang, Yong

    2009-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The goal of this study was to identify the most suitable chromium-free iron-based catalysts for the HTS (high temperature shift) reaction of a fuel processor using LPG. Hexavalent chromium (Cr6+) in the commercial HTS catalyst has been regarded as hazardous material. We selected Ni and Co as the substitution for chromium in the Fe-based HTS catalyst and investigated the HTS activities of these Crfree catalysts at LPG reformate condition. Cr-free Fe-based catalysts which contain Ni, Zn, or Co instead of Cr were prepared by coprecipitation method and the performance of the catalysts in HTS was evaluated under gas mixture conditions (42% H2, 10% CO, 37% H2O, 8% CO2, and 3% CH4; R (reduction factor): about 1.2) similar to the gases from steam reforming of LPG (100% conversion at steam/carbon ratio = 3), which is higher than R (under 1) of typically studied LNG reformate condition. Among the prepared Cr-free Febased catalysts, the 5 wt%-Co/Fe/20 wt%-Ni and 5 wt%-Zn/Fe/20 wt%-Ni catalysts showed good catalytic activity under this reaction condition simulating LPG reformate gas.

  14. Properties of zinc oxide films grown on sapphire substrates using high-temperature H{sub 2}O generated by a catalytic reaction on platinum nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yasui, Kanji, E-mail: kyasui@vos.nagaokaut.ac.jp; Takeuchi, Tomohiko; Nagatomi, Eichi; Satomoto, Souichi; Miura, Hitoshi; Kato, Takahiro [Department of Electrical, Electronics and Information Engineering, Nagaoka University of Technology, Nagaoka, Niigata 940-2188 (Japan); Konya, Takayuki [Application Laboratory, Rigaku Corporation, Akishima, Tokyo 196-8666 (Japan)

    2014-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The authors investigated the characteristics of ZnO films grown on a-plane (11-20) sapphire substrates at 773–873?K using a reaction between dimethylzinc and high-temperature H{sub 2}O generated by a catalytic reaction on Pt nanoparticles. The growth rate was 0.02–0.07??m min{sup ?1}. The largest electron mobility and the smallest residual carrier concentration for the ZnO films were 169 cm{sup 2} V{sup ?1} s{sup ?1} and 1.6?×?10{sup 17}?cm{sup ?3}, respectively. X-ray diffraction patterns for the ZnO films exhibited intense (0002) and (0004) peaks associated with ZnO (0001) planes. The minimum full width at half maximum of the ?-rocking curve for ZnO (0002) was less than 0.1°. In a ZnO film with a high electron mobility, no rotational domains were identified using a ZnO (10-10) ? scan. From secondary ion mass spectroscopy, a hydrogen concentration of 3?×?10{sup 18}?cm{sup ?3} and a boron concentration of 2–5?×?10{sup 17}?cm{sup ?3} were determined. These were identified as extrinsic donor impurities.

  15. High temperature oxidation and NaCl-induced accelerated corrosion of hot-dip aluminized 9Cr-1Mo and 310 stainless steel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsaur, Charng-Cheng

    2005-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

    investigated by weight gain kinetics, metallographs, depths of attack, metal losses, and X-ray analyses. The results of 310SS deposited with salt mixtures show that weight gain kinetics in simple oxidation reveals a steady-state parabolic rate law after 3 hr...

  16. 3D CFD ELECTROCHEMICAL AND HEAT TRANSFER MODEL OF AN INTERNALLY MANIFOLDED SOLID OXIDE ELECTROLYSIS CELL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grant L. Hawkes; James E. O'Brien; Greg Tao

    2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) electrochemical model has been created to model high-temperature electrolysis cell performance and steam electrolysis in an internally manifolded planar solid oxide electrolysis cell (SOEC) stack. This design is being evaluated at the Idaho National Laboratory for hydrogen production from nuclear power and process heat. Mass, momentum, energy, and species conservation and transport are provided via the core features of the commercial CFD code FLUENT. A solid-oxide fuel cell (SOFC) model adds the electrochemical reactions and loss mechanisms and computation of the electric field throughout the cell. The FLUENT SOFC user-defined subroutine was modified for this work to allow for operation in the SOEC mode. Model results provide detailed profiles of temperature, operating potential, steam-electrode gas composition, oxygen-electrode gas composition, current density and hydrogen production over a range of stack operating conditions. Single-cell and five-cell results will be presented. Flow distribution through both models is discussed. Flow enters from the bottom, distributes through the inlet plenum, flows across the cells, gathers in the outlet plenum and flows downward making an upside-down ''U'' shaped flow pattern. Flow and concentration variations exist downstream of the inlet holes. Predicted mean outlet hydrogen and steam concentrations vary linearly with current density, as expected. Effects of variations in operating temperature, gas flow rate, oxygen-electrode and steam-electrode current density, and contact resistance from the base case are presented. Contour plots of local electrolyte temperature, current density, and Nernst potential indicate the effects of heat transfer, reaction cooling/heating, and change in local gas composition. Results are discussed for using this design in the electrolysis mode. Discussion of thermal neutral voltage, enthalpy of reaction, hydrogen production, cell thermal efficiency, cell electrical efficiency, and Gibbs free energy are discussed and reported herein.

  17. Phase-field modeling of three-phase electrode microstructures in solid oxide fuel cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Long-Qing

    Phase-field modeling of three-phase electrode microstructures in solid oxide fuel cells Qun Li, mechanical deformation, and heterogeneous damage accumulation in solid oxide fuel cell anodes J. Appl. Phys oxide fuel cell/gas turbine cycle J. Renewable Sustainable Energy 4, 043115 (2012) Electric

  18. Sintering behavior of lanthanide-containing glass-ceramic sealants for solid oxide fuel cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goel, Ashutosh; Reddy, Allu Amarnath; Pascual, Maria J.; Gremillard, Laurent; Malchere, Annie; Ferreira, Jose M.

    2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This article reports on the influence of different lanthanides (La, Nd, Gd and Yb) on sintering behavior of alkaline-earth aluminosilicate glass-ceramics sealants for their application in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC). All the glasses have been prepared by melt-quench technique. The in situ follow up of sintering behavior of glass powders has been done by high temperature - environmental scanning electron microscope (HT-ESEM) and hot-stage microscope (HSM) while the crystalline phase evolution and assemblage has been analyzed by x-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). All the glass compositions exhibit a glass-in-glass phase separation followed by two stage sintering resulting in well sintered glass powder compacts after heat treatment at 850 C for 1 h. Diopside (CaMgSi{sub 2}O{sub 6}) based phases constituted the major crystalline part in glass-ceramics followed by some minor phases. The increase in lanthanide content in glasses suppressed their tendency towards devitrification, thus, resulting in glass-ceramics with high amount of residual glassy phase (50-96 wt.%) which is expected to facilitate their self-healing behavior during SOFC operation. The electrical conductivity of the investigated glass-ceramics varied between (1.19 and 7.33) x 10{sup -7} S cm{sup -1} (750-800 C), and depended on the ionic field strength of lanthanide cations. Further experimentation with respect to the long term thermal and chemical stability of residual glassy phase under SOFC operation conditions along with high temperature viscosity measurements will be required in order to elucidate the potential of these glass-ceramics as self-healing sealants.

  19. Dynamic Modeling in Solid-Oxide Fuel Cells Controller Design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Ning; Li, Qinghe; Sun, Xin; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

    2007-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, a dynamic model of the solid-oxide fuel cell (SOFC) power unit is developed for the purpose of designing a controller to regulate fuel flow rate, fuel temperature, air flow rate, and air temperature to maintain the SOFC stack temperature, fuel utilization rate, and voltage within operation limits. A lumped model is used to consider the thermal dynamics and the electro-chemial dynamics inside an SOFC power unit. The fluid dynamics at the fuel and air inlets are considered by using the in-flow ramp-rates.

  20. Corner heating in rectangular solid oxide electrochemical cell generators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reichner, Philip (Plum Boro, PA)

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed is an improvement in a solid oxide electrochemical cell generator 1 having a rectangular design with four sides that meet at corners, and containing multiplicity of electrically connected fuel cells 11, where a fuel gas is passed over one side of said cells and an oxygen containing gas is passed into said cells, and said fuel is burned to form heat, electricity, and an exhaust gas. The improvement comprises passing the exhaust gases over the multiplicity of cells 11 in such a way that more of the heat in said exhaust gases flows at the corners of the generator, such as through channels 19.

  1. Electroless deposition of electrodes in solid-oxide fuel cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murphy, M.M.; Van Herle, J.; McEvoy, A.J.; Thampi, K.R. (Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (Switzerland). Inst. de Chimie Physique)

    1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study demonstrates the use of electroless deposition for depositing anode and cathode electrocatalysts in solid-oxide fuel cells (SOFC). Ni, Pd, and Ag films produced by electroless deposition techniques were in intimate contact with the electrolyte yttria-stabilized zirconia, and were found to catalyze SOFC anodic and cathodic reactions. Power densities of such cells were in the range of 0.33 W/cm[sup 2] at 800 C. The operating life is low due to agglomeration of the anode and densification of the cathode. For intermediate temperature/range SOFCs electroless deposition is an alternative technique for electrode preparation, if long-term stability can be attained.

  2. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Manufacturing Overview | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the.pdfBreakingMayDepartment of EnergySite Screening Decision TreeinSolid Oxide Fuel

  3. Iron aluminide alloy container for solid oxide fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Judkins, Roddie Reagan (Knoxville, TN); Singh, Prabhakar (Export, PA); Sikka, Vinod Kumar (Oak Ridge, TN)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A container for fuel cells is made from an iron aluminide alloy. The container alloy preferably includes from about 13 to about 22 weight percent Al, from about 2 to about 8 weight percent Cr, from about 0.1 to about 4 weight percent M selected from Zr and Hf, from about 0.005 to about 0.5 weight percent B or from about 0.001 to about 1 weight percent C, and the balance Fe and incidental impurities. The iron aluminide container alloy is extremely resistant to corrosion and metal loss when exposed to dual reducing and oxidizing atmospheres at elevated temperatures. The alloy is particularly useful for containment vessels for solid oxide fuel cells, as a replacement for stainless steel alloys which are currently used.

  4. STABLE HIGH CONDUCTIVITY BILAYERED ELECTROLYTES FOR LOW TEMPERATURE SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eric D. Wachsman; Keith L. Duncan

    2002-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are the future of energy production in America. They offer great promise as a clean and efficient process for directly converting chemical energy to electricity while providing significant environmental benefits (they produce negligible hydrocarbons, CO, or NO{sub x} and, as a result of their high efficiency, produce about one-third less CO{sub 2} per kilowatt hour than internal combustion engines). Unfortunately, the current SOFC technology, based on a stabilized zirconia electrolyte, must operate in the region of 1000 C to avoid unacceptably high ohmic losses. These high temperatures demand (a) specialized (expensive) materials for the fuel cell interconnects and insulation, (b) time to heat up to the operating temperature and (c) energy input to arrive at the operating temperature. Therefore, if fuel cells could be designed to give a reasonable power output at low to intermediate temperatures tremendous benefits may be accrued. At low temperatures, in particular, it becomes feasible to use ferritic steel for interconnects instead of expensive and brittle ceramic materials such as those based on LaCrO{sub 3}. In addition, sealing the fuel cell becomes easier and more reliable; rapid startup is facilitated; thermal stresses (e.g., those caused by thermal expansion mismatches) are reduced; radiative losses ({approx}T{sup 4}) become minimal; electrode sintering becomes negligible and (due to a smaller thermodynamic penalty) the SOFC operating cycle (heating from ambient) would be more efficient. Combined, all these improvements further result in reduced initial and operating costs. The problem is, at lower temperatures the conductivity of the conventional stabilized zirconia electrolyte decreases to the point where it cannot supply electrical current efficiently to an external load. The primary objectives of the proposed research is to develop a stable high conductivity (> 0.05 S cm{sup -1} at {le} 550 C) electrolyte for lower temperature SOFCs. This objective is specifically directed toward meeting the lowest (and most difficult) temperature criteria for the 21st Century Fuel Cell Program. Meeting this objective provides a potential for future transportation applications of SOFCs, where their ability to directly use hydrocarbon fuels could permit refueling within the existing transportation infrastructure. In order to meet this objective we are developing a functionally gradient bilayer electrolyte comprised of a layer of erbia-stabilized bismuth oxide (ESB) on the oxidizing side and a layer of SDC or GDC on the reducing side, see Fig. 1. Bismuth oxide and doped ceria are among the highest ionic conducting electrolytes and in fact bismuth oxide based electrolytes are the only known solid oxide electrolytes to have an ionic conductivity that meets the program conductivity goal. In this arrangement, the ceria layer protects the bismuth oxide layer from decomposing by shielding it from very low P{sub O{sub 2}}'s and the ESB layer serves to block electronic flux through the electrolyte. This arrangement has two significant advantages over the YSZ/SDC bilayers investigated by others [1, 2]. The first advantage is that SDC is conductive enough to serve as an intermediate temperature SOFC electrolyte. Moreover, ESB is conductive enough to serve as a low temperature electrolyte. Consequently, at worst an SDC/ESB bilayered SOFC should have the conductivity of SDC but with improved efficiency due to the electronic flux barrier provided by ESB. The second advantage is that small (dopant) concentrations of SDC in ESB or ESB in SDC, have been found to have conductivities comparable to the host lattice [3, 4]. Therefore, if solid solutioning occurs at the SDC-ESB interface, it should not be detrimental to the performance of the bilayer. In contrast, solid solutions of SDC and YSZ have been found to be significantly less conductive than SDC or YSZ. Thus, it bears emphasizing that, at this time, only SDC/ESB electrolytes have potential in low temperature SOFC applications.

  5. RECHARGEABLE HIGH-TEMPERATURE BATTERIES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cairns, Elton J.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    F. Eshman, High-Performance Batteries for Electric-VehicleS. Sudar, High Performance Batteries for Electric-VehicleHIGH-TEMPERATURE BATTERIES Elton J. Cairns January 1981 TWO-

  6. Hotline IV ?High Temperature ESP

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Hotline IV - High Temperature ESP Brindesh Dhruva (principal Inv.) Michael Dowling (presenter) Schlumberger Track Name May 18, 2010 This presentation does not contain any...

  7. Enabling high-temperature nanophotonics for energy applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yeng, YiXiang

    The nascent field of high-temperature nanophotonics could potentially enable many important solid-state energy conversion applications, such as thermophotovoltaic energy generation, selective solar absorption, and selective ...

  8. Solid State Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA) Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nguyen Minh

    2006-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes the work performed for Phase I (October 2001 - August 2006) under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT41245 for the U. S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE/NETL) entitled 'Solid State Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA) Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Program'. The program focuses on the development of a low-cost, high-performance 3-to-10-kW solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) system suitable for a broad spectrum of power-generation applications. During Phase I of the program significant progress has been made in the area of SOFC technology. A high-efficiency low-cost system was designed and supporting technology developed such as fuel processing, controls, thermal management, and power electronics. Phase I culminated in the successful demonstration of a prototype system that achieved a peak efficiency of 41%, a high-volume cost of $724/kW, a peak power of 5.4 kW, and a degradation rate of 1.8% per 500 hours. . An improved prototype system was designed, assembled, and delivered to DOE/NETL at the end of the program. This prototype achieved an extraordinary peak efficiency of 49.6%.

  9. Air electrode composition for solid oxide fuel cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kuo, L.; Ruka, R.J.; Singhal, S.C.

    1999-08-03T23:59:59.000Z

    An air electrode composition for a solid oxide fuel cell is disclosed. The air electrode material is based on lanthanum manganite having a perovskite-like crystal structure ABO{sub 3}. The A-site of the air electrode composition comprises a mixed lanthanide in combination with rare earth and alkaline earth dopants. The B-site of the composition comprises Mn in combination with dopants such as Mg, Al, Cr and Ni. The mixed lanthanide comprises La, Ce, Pr and, optionally, Nd. The rare earth A-site dopants preferably comprise La, Nd or a combination thereof, while the alkaline earth A-site dopant preferably comprises Ca. The use of a mixed lanthanide substantially reduces raw material costs in comparison with compositions made from high purity lanthanum starting materials. The amount of the A-site and B-site dopants is controlled in order to provide an air electrode composition having a coefficient of thermal expansion which closely matches that of the other components of the solid oxide fuel cell. 3 figs.

  10. Air electrode composition for solid oxide fuel cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kuo, Lewis (Monroeville, PA); Ruka, Roswell J. (Pittsburgh, PA); Singhal, Subhash C. (Murrysville, PA)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An air electrode composition for a solid oxide fuel cell is disclosed. The air electrode material is based on lanthanum manganite having a perovskite-like crystal structure ABO.sub.3. The A-site of the air electrode composition comprises a mixed lanthanide in combination with rare earth and alkaline earth dopants. The B-site of the composition comprises Mn in combination with dopants such as Mg, Al, Cr and Ni. The mixed lanthanide comprises La, Ce, Pr and, optionally, Nd. The rare earth A-site dopants preferably comprise La, Nd or a combination thereof, while the alkaline earth A-site dopant preferably comprises Ca. The use of a mixed lanthanide substantially reduces raw material costs in comparison with compositions made from high purity lanthanum starting materials. The amount of the A-site and B-site dopants is controlled in order to provide an air electrode composition having a coefficient of thermal expansion which closely matches that of the other components of the solid oxide fuel cell.

  11. Solid Oxide Fuel Cells Operating on Alternative and Renewable Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Xiaoxing; Quan, Wenying; Xiao, Jing; Peduzzi, Emanuela; Fujii, Mamoru; Sun, Funxia; Shalaby, Cigdem; Li, Yan; Xie, Chao; Ma, Xiaoliang; Johnson, David; Lee, Jeong; Fedkin, Mark; LaBarbera, Mark; Das, Debanjan; Thompson, David; Lvov, Serguei; Song, Chunshan

    2014-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This DOE project at the Pennsylvania State University (Penn State) initially involved Siemens Energy, Inc. to (1) develop new fuel processing approaches for using selected alternative and renewable fuels – anaerobic digester gas (ADG) and commercial diesel fuel (with 15 ppm sulfur) – in solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) power generation systems; and (2) conduct integrated fuel processor – SOFC system tests to evaluate the performance of the fuel processors and overall systems. Siemens Energy Inc. was to provide SOFC system to Penn State for testing. The Siemens work was carried out at Siemens Energy Inc. in Pittsburgh, PA. The unexpected restructuring in Siemens organization, however, led to the elimination of the Siemens Stationary Fuel Cell Division within the company. Unfortunately, this led to the Siemens subcontract with Penn State ending on September 23rd, 2010. SOFC system was never delivered to Penn State. With the assistance of NETL project manager, the Penn State team has since developed a collaborative research with Delphi as the new subcontractor and this work involved the testing of a stack of planar solid oxide fuel cells from Delphi.

  12. LG Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) Model Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haberman, Ben; Martinez-Baca, Carlos; Rush, Greg

    2013-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents a summary of the work performed by LG Fuel Cell Systems Inc. during the project LG Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) Model Development (DOE Award Number: DE-FE0000773) which commenced on October 1, 2009 and was completed on March 31, 2013. The aim of this project is for LG Fuel Cell Systems Inc. (formerly known as Rolls-Royce Fuel Cell Systems (US) Inc.) (?LGFCS?) to develop a multi-physics solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) computer code (MPC) for performance calculations of the LGFCS fuel cell structure to support fuel cell product design and development. A summary of the initial stages of the project is provided which describes the MPC requirements that were developed and the selection of a candidate code, STAR-CCM+ (CD-adapco). This is followed by a detailed description of the subsequent work program including code enhancement and model verification and validation activities. Details of the code enhancements that were implemented to facilitate MPC SOFC simulations are provided along with a description of the models that were built using the MPC and validated against experimental data. The modeling work described in this report represents a level of calculation detail that has not been previously available within LGFCS.

  13. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Balance of Plant and Stack Component Integration...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Presentation by Acumentrics Corporation for Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Balance of Plant and Stack Component Integration March 16, 2010 fuelcellpre-solicitationwkshopmar10bessette.pd...

  14. Manufacturing Cost Analysis of 1 kW and 5 kW Solid Oxide Fuel...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    MANUFACTURING COST ANALYSIS OF 1 KW AND 5 KW SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL (SOFC) FOR AUXILLIARY POWER APPLICATIONS Prepared by: BATTELLE Battelle Memorial Institute 505 King Avenue...

  15. Summary Report on Solid-oxide Electrolysis Cell Testing and Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J.E. O'Brien; X. Zhang; R.C. O'Brien; G.L. Hawkes

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has been researching the application of solid-oxide electrolysis cells (SOECs) for large-scale hydrogen production from steam over a temperature range of 800 to 900 C. From 2003 to 2009, this work was sponsored by the United States Department of Energy Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative, under the Office of Nuclear Energy. Starting in 2010, the high-temperature electrolysis (HTE) research program has been sponsored by the INL Next Generation Nuclear Plant Project. This report provides a summaryof program activities performed in Fiscal Year (FY) 2011 and the first quarter of FY-12, with a focus on small-scale testing and cell development activities. HTE research priorities during this period have included the development and testing of SOEC and stack designs that exhibit high-efficiency initial performance and low, long-term degradation rates. This report includes contributions from INL and five industry partners: Materials and Systems Research, Incorporated (MSRI); Versa Power Systems, Incorporated (VPS); Ceramatec, Incorporated; National Aeronautics and Space Administration - Glenn Research Center (NASA - GRC); and the St. Gobain Advanced Materials Division. These industry partners have developed SOEC cells and stacks for in-house testing in the electrolysis mode and independent testing at INL. Additional fundamental research and post-test physical examinations have been performed at two university partners: Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and the University of Connecticut. Summaries of these activities and test results are also presented in this report.

  16. Serially connected solid oxide fuel cells having monolithic cores

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Herceg, J.E.

    1985-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed is a solid oxide fuel cell for electrochemically combining fuel and oxidant for generating galvanic output. The cell core has an array of cell segments electrically serially connected in the flow direction, each segment consisting of electrolyte walls and interconnect that are substantially devoid of any composite inert materials for support. Instead, the core is monolithic, where each electrolyte wall consists of thin layers of cathode and anode materials sandwiching a thin layer of electrolyte material therebetween. Means direct the fuel to the anode-exposed core passageways and means direct the oxidant to the cathode-exposed core passageways; and means also direct the galvanic output to an exterior circuit. Each layer of the electrolyte composite materials is of the order of 0.002 to 0.01 cm thick; and each layer of the cathode and anode materials is of the order of 0.002 to 0.05 cm thick. Between 2 and 50 cell segments may be connected in series.

  17. Degradation mechanisms in La?.?Sr?.?CoO? as oxygen electrode bond layer in solid oxide electrolytic cells (SOECs)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sharma, Vivek Inder

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    High temperature steam electrolysis is an efficient process and a promising technology to convert electricity and steam or a mixture of steam and CO?, into H? or syn-gas (H?2 + CO) respectively. It is carried out in Solid ...

  18. High Temperature coatings based on {beta}-NiAI

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Severs, Kevin

    2012-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

    High temperature alloys are reviewed, focusing on current superalloys and their coatings. The synthesis, characerization, and oxidation performance of a NiAl–TiB{sub 2} composite are explained. A novel coating process for Mo–Ni–Al alloys for improved oxidation performance is examined. The cyclic oxidation performance of coated and uncoated Mo–Ni–Al alloys is discussed.

  19. Durability Prediction of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Anode Material under Thermo-Mechanical and Fuel Gas Contaminants Effects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Iqbal, Gulfam; Guo, Hua; Kang , Bruce S.; Marina, Olga A.

    2011-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFCs) operate under harsh environments, which cause deterioration of anode material properties and service life. In addition to electrochemical performance, structural integrity of the SOFC anode is essential for successful long-term operation. The SOFC anode is subjected to stresses at high temperature, thermal/redox cycles, and fuel gas contaminants effects during long-term operation. These mechanisms can alter the anode microstructure and affect its electrochemical and structural properties. In this research, anode material degradation mechanisms are briefly reviewed and an anode material durability model is developed and implemented in finite element analysis. The model takes into account thermo-mechanical and fuel gas contaminants degradation mechanisms for prediction of long-term structural integrity of the SOFC anode. The proposed model is validated experimentally using a NexTech ProbostatTM SOFC button cell test apparatus integrated with a Sagnac optical setup for simultaneously measuring electrochemical performance and in-situ anode surface deformation.

  20. Characterization of device parameters in high-temperature metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors in. beta. -SiC thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Palmour, J.W.; Kong, H.S.; Davis, R.F.

    1988-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Both inversion- and depletion-mode n-channel metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) have been fabricated on ..beta..-SiC thin films grown by chemical-vapor deposition. The inversion-mode devices were made on in situ doped (Al) p-type ..beta..-SiC(100) thin films grown on Si(100) substrates. The depletion-mode MOSFETs were made on n-type ..beta..-SiC(111) thin films grown on the Si(0001) face of a 6H ..cap alpha..-SiC substrates. Stable saturation and low subthreshold currents were achieved at drain-source voltages exceeding 5 and 25 V for the inversion-mode and depletion-mode devices, respectively. The transconductance increased with temperature up to 673 K for the short-gate-length devices, of either mode, and then decreased with further increases in temperature. It is proposed that the transconductances and threshold voltages for the inversion-mode devices are greatly affected by minority-carrier injection from the source. Stable transistor action was observed for both types of devices at temperatures up to 823 K, with the depletion-mode devices operating very well up to 923 K.

  1. Innovative Self-Healing Seals for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Raj Singh

    2012-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) technology is critical to several national initiatives. Solid State Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA) addresses the technology needs through its comprehensive programs on SOFC. A reliable and cost-effective seal that works at high temperatures is essential to the long-term performance of the SOFC for 40,000 hours at 800°C. Consequently, seals remain an area of highest priority for the SECA program and its industry teams. An innovative concept based on self-healing glasses was advanced and successfully demonstrated through seal tests for 3000 hours and 300 thermal cycles to minimize internal stresses under both steady state and thermal transients for making reliable seals for the SECA program. The self-healing concept requires glasses with low viscosity at the SOFC operating temperature of 800°C but this requirement may lead to excessive flow of the glass in areas forming the seal. To address this challenge, a modification to glass properties by addition of particulate fillers is pursued in the project. The underlying idea is that a non-reactive ceramic particulate filler is expected to form glass-ceramic composite and increase the seal viscosity thereby increasing the creep resistance of the glass-composite seals under load. The objectives of the program are to select appropriate filler materials for making glass-composite, fabricate glass-composites, measure thermal expansion behaviors, and determine stability of the glass-composites in air and fuel environments of a SOFC. Self-healing glass-YSZ composites are further developed and tested over a longer time periods under conditions typical of the SOFCs to validate the long-term stability up to 2000 hours. The new concepts of glass-composite seals, developed and nurtured in this program, are expected to be cost-effective as these are based on conventional processing approaches and use of the inexpensive materials.

  2. HIGH EFFICIENCY, LOW EMISSIONS, SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL SYSTEMS FOR MULTIPLE APPLICATIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sara Ward; Michael A. Petrik

    2004-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Technology Management Inc. (TMI), teamed with the Ohio Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, has engineered, constructed, and demonstrated a stationary, low power, multi-module solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) prototype system operating on propane and natural gas. Under Phase I, TMI successfully operated two systems in parallel, in conjunction with a single DC-AC inverter and battery bus, and produced net AC electricity. Phase II testing expanded to include alternative and renewable fuels typically available in rural regions of Ohio. The commercial system is expected to have ultra-low pollution, high efficiency, and low noise. The TMI SOFC uses a solid ceramic electrolyte operating at high temperature (800-1000 C) which electrochemically converts gaseous fuels (hydrogen or mixed gases) and oxygen into electricity. The TMI system design oxidizes fuel primarily via electrochemical reactions and uses no burners (which pollute and consume fuel)--resulting in extremely clean exhaust. The use of proprietary sulfur tolerant materials developed by TMI allows system operation without additional fuel pre-processing or sulfur removal. Further, the combination of high operating temperatures and solid state operation increases the potential for higher reliability and efficiencies compared to other types of fuel cells. Applications for the TMI SOFC system cover a wide range of transportation, building, industrial, and military market sectors. A generic technology, fuel cells have the potential to be embodied into multiple products specific to Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) program areas including: Fuel Cells and Microturbines, School Buildings, Transportation, and Bioenergy. This program focused on low power stationary applications using a multi-module system operating on a range of common fuels. By producing clean electricity more efficiently (thus using less fuel), fuel cells have the triple effect of cleaning up the environment, reducing the amount of fuel consumed and, for energy intensive manufacturers, boosting their profits (by reducing energy expenses). Compared to conventional power generation technologies such as internal combustion engines, gas turbines, and coal plants, fuel cells are extremely clean and more efficient, particularly at smaller scales.

  3. STABLE HIGH CONDUCTIVITY BILAYERED ELECTROLYTES FOR LOW TEMPERATURE SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eric D. Wachsman

    2000-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are the future of energy production in America. They offer great promise as a clean and efficient process for directly converting chemical energy to electricity while providing significant environmental benefits (they produce negligible CO, HC, or NOx and, as a result of their high efficiency, produce about one-third less CO{sub 2} per kilowatt hour than internal combustion engines). Unfortunately, the current SOFC technology, based on a stabilized zirconia electrolyte, must operate in the region of 1000 C to avoid unacceptably high ohmic losses. These high temperatures demand (a) specialized (expensive) materials for the fuel cell interconnects and insulation, (b) time to heat up to the operating temperature and (c) energy input to arrive at the operating temperature. Therefore, if fuel cells could be designed to give a reasonable power output at lower temperatures tremendous benefits may be accrued, not the least of which is reduced cost. The problem is, at lower temperatures the conductivity of the conventional stabilized zirconia electrolyte decreases to the point where it cannot supply electrical current efficiently to an external load. The primary objectives of the proposed research is to develop a stable high conductivity (>0.05 S cm{sup -1} at 550 C) electrolyte for lower temperature SOFCs. This objective is specifically directed toward meeting the lowest (and most difficult) temperature criteria for the 21st Century Fuel Cell Program. Meeting this objective provides a potential for future transportation applications of SOFCs, where their ability to directly use hydrocarbon fuels could permit refueling within the existing transportation infrastructure. In order to meet this objective we are developing a functionally gradient bilayer electrolyte comprised of bismuth oxide on the air side and ceria on the fuel side. Bismuth oxide and doped ceria are among the highest ionic conducting electrolytes and in fact bismuth oxide based electrolytes are the only known solid oxide electrolytes to have an ionic conductivity that meets the program conductivity goal. We have previously demonstrated that this concept works, that a bismuth oxide/ceria bilayer electrolyte provides near theoretical open circuit potential (OCP) and is stable for 1400 h of fuel cell operation under both open circuit and maximum power conditions. More recently, we developed a computer model to determine the defect transport in this bilayer and have found that a bilayer comprised primarily of the more conductive component (bismuth oxide) is stable for 500 C operation. In this first year of the project we are obtaining necessary thermochemical data to complete the computer model as well as initial SOFC results based on thick 1-2 mm single and bilayer ceria/bismuth oxide electrolytes. We will use the computer model to obtain the optimum relative layer thickness as a function of temperature and air/fuel conditions. SOFCs will be fabricated with 1-2 mm single and bilayer electrolytes based on the modeling results, tested for OCP, conductivity, and stability and compared against the predictions. The computer modeling is a continuation of previous work under support from GRI and the student was available at the inception of the contract. However, the experimental effort was delayed until the beginning of the Spring Semester because the contract was started in October, 2 months after the start of our Fall Semester, and after all of the graduate students were committed to other projects. The results from both of these efforts are described in the following two sections: (1) Experimental; and (2) Computer Modeling.

  4. Heterogeneous electrocatalysis in porous cathodes of solid oxide fuel cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fu, Y; Bertei, A; Qi, C; Mohanram, A; Pietras, J D; Bazant, M Z

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A general physics-based model is developed for heterogeneous electrocatalysis in porous electrodes and used to predict and interpret the impedance of solid oxide fuel cells. This model describes the coupled processes of oxygen gas dissociative adsorption and surface diffusion of the oxygen intermediate to the triple phase boundary, where charge transfer occurs. The model accurately captures the Gerischer-like frequency dependence and the oxygen partial pressure dependence of the impedance of symmetric cathode cells. Digital image analysis of the microstructure of the cathode functional layer in four different cells directly confirms the predicted connection between geometrical properties and the impedance response. As in classical catalysis, the electrocatalytic activity is controlled by an effective Thiele modulus, which is the ratio of the surface diffusion length (mean distance from an adsorption site to the triple phase boundary) to the surface boundary layer length (square root of surface diffusivity div...

  5. Resilient Sealing Materials for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Signo T. Reis; Richard K. Brow

    2006-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes the development of ''invert'' glass compositions designed for hermetic seals in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC). Upon sealing at temperatures compatible with other SOFC materials (generally {le}900 C), these glasses transform to glass-ceramics with desirable thermo-mechanical properties, including coefficients of thermal expansion (CTE) over 11 x 10{sup -6}/C. The long-term (>four months) stability of CTE under SOFC operational conditions (e.g., 800 C in wet forming gas or in air) has been evaluated, as have weight losses under similar conditions. The dependence of sealant properties on glass composition are described in this report, as are experiments to develop glass-matrix composites by adding second phases, including Ni and YSZ. This information provides design-guidance to produce desirable sealing materials.

  6. Five Kilowatt Solid Oxide Fuel Cell/Diesel Reformer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dennis Witmer; Thomas Johnson

    2008-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Reducing fossil fuel consumption both for energy security and for reduction in global greenhouse emissions has been a major goal of energy research in the US for many years. Fuel cells have been proposed as a technology that can address both these issues--as devices that convert the energy of a fuel directly into electrical energy, they offer low emissions and high efficiencies. These advantages are of particular interest to remote power users, where grid connected power is unavailable, and most electrical power comes from diesel electric generators. Diesel fuel is the fuel of choice because it can be easily transported and stored in quantities large enough to supply energy for small communities for extended periods of time. This projected aimed to demonstrate the operation of a solid oxide fuel cell on diesel fuel, and to measure the resulting efficiency. Results from this project have been somewhat encouraging, with a laboratory breadboard integration of a small scale diesel reformer and a Solid Oxide Fuel Cell demonstrated in the first 18 months of the project. This initial demonstration was conducted at INEEL in the spring of 2005 using a small scale diesel reformer provided by SOFCo and a fuel cell provided by Acumentrics. However, attempts to integrate and automate the available technology have not proved successful as yet. This is due both to the lack of movement on the fuel processing side as well as the rather poor stack lifetimes exhibited by the fuel cells. Commercial product is still unavailable, and precommercial devices are both extremely expensive and require extensive field support.

  7. RECENT ADVANCES IN HIGH TEMPERATURE ELECTROLYSIS AT IDAHO NATIONAL LABORATORY: STACK TESTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    X, Zhang; J. E. O'Brien; R. C. O'Brien; J. J. Hartvigsen; G. Tao; N. Petigny

    2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    High temperature steam electrolysis is a promising technology for efficient sustainable large-scale hydrogen production. Solid oxide electrolysis cells (SOECs) are able to utilize high temperature heat and electric power from advanced high-temperature nuclear reactors or renewable sources to generate carbon-free hydrogen at large scale. However, long term durability of SOECs needs to be improved significantly before commercialization of this technology. A degradation rate of 1%/khr or lower is proposed as a threshold value for commercialization of this technology. Solid oxide electrolysis stack tests have been conducted at Idaho National Laboratory to demonstrate recent improvements in long-term durability of SOECs. Electrolytesupported and electrode-supported SOEC stacks were provided by Ceramatec Inc., Materials and Systems Research Inc. (MSRI), and Saint Gobain Advanced Materials (St. Gobain), respectively for these tests. Long-term durability tests were generally operated for a duration of 1000 hours or more. Stack tests based on technology developed at Ceramatec and MSRI have shown significant improvement in durability in the electrolysis mode. Long-term degradation rates of 3.2%/khr and 4.6%/khr were observed for MSRI and Ceramatec stacks, respectively. One recent Ceramatec stack even showed negative degradation (performance improvement) over 1900 hours of operation. A three-cell short stack provided by St. Gobain, however, showed rapid degradation in the electrolysis mode. Improvements on electrode materials, interconnect coatings, and electrolyteelectrode interface microstructures contribute to better durability of SOEC stacks.

  8. Philosophy 26 High Temperature Superconductivity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Callender, Craig

    Philosophy 26 High Temperature Superconductivity By Ohm's Law, resistance will dim. Low temperature superconductivity was discovered in 1911 by Heike was explained by BCS theory. BCS theory explains superconductivity microscopically

  9. The Hybrid Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) and Gas Turbine (GT) Systems Steady State Modeling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    The Hybrid Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) and Gas Turbine (GT) Systems Steady State Modeling Penyarat Fuel Cells (SOFCs) are of great interest nowadays. The feature of SOFCs makes them suitable for hybrid plants offer high cycle efficiencies. In this work a hybrid solid oxide fuel cell and gas turbine power

  10. Original Research Article Influence of anodic gas recirculation on solid oxide fuel cells in a micro

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nielsen, Mads Pagh

    Original Research Article Influence of anodic gas recirculation on solid oxide fuel cells Anode off-gas recycle a b s t r a c t The recycle of anode depleted gas has been employed in solid oxide fuel cell systems for the advantage of reusing a fraction of the exhaust rich in steam

  11. Solid oxide fuel cell with single material for electrodes and interconnect

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McPheeters, C.C.; Nelson, P.A.; Dees, D.W.

    1994-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

    A solid oxide fuel cell is described having a plurality of individual cells. A solid oxide fuel cell has an anode and a cathode with electrolyte disposed there between, and the anode, cathode and interconnect elements are comprised of substantially one material. 9 figs.

  12. Danish Solid Oxide Fuel Cell project: DK-SOFC 1997-1999

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Danish Solid Oxide Fuel Cell project: DK-SOFC 1997-1999 Contracts no. ENS 1443/97-0003, ENS 1443 the format of annual- and final reporting from the Danish Solid Oxide Fuel Cell projects. From then on, Denmark #12;Preface It was decided medio 2000 at the 22th DK-SOFC programme board meeting to change

  13. In Situ Synchrotron X-ray Spectroscopy of Lanthanum Manganite Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Electrodes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yildiz, Bilge

    . Introduction The solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) has potential to produce energy with high efficiency, especiallyIn Situ Synchrotron X-ray Spectroscopy of Lanthanum Manganite Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Electrodes Kee fuel cells (SOFC) under long term cathodic or anodic polarization, termed `current conditioning

  14. Application of Verified Optimization Techniques to Parameter Identification for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Appelrath, Hans-Jürgen

    Application of Verified Optimization Techniques to Parameter Identification for Solid Oxide Fuel at the latest, design and development of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) have been in the focus of research electrochemical reactions in each individual fuel cell. We consider different model dimensions resulting

  15. High-temperature ceramic receivers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jarvinen, P. O.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An advanced ceramic dome cavity receiver is discussed which heats pressurized gas to temperatures above 1800/sup 0/F (1000/sup 0/C) for use in solar Brayton power systems of the dispersed receiver/dish or central receiver type. Optical, heat transfer, structural, and ceramic material design aspects of the receiver are reported and the development and experimental demonstration of a high-temperature seal between the pressurized gas and the high-temperature silicon carbide dome material is described.

  16. Solid oxide fuel cell having compound cross flow gas patterns

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fraioli, Anthony V. (Hawthorn Woods, IL)

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A core construction for a fuel cell is disclosed having both parallel and cross flow passageways for the fuel and the oxidant gases. Each core passageway is defined by electrolyte and interconnect walls. Each electrolyte wall consists of cathode and anode materials sandwiching an electrolyte material. Each interconnect wall is formed as a sheet of inert support material having therein spaced small plugs of interconnect material, where cathode and anode materials are formed as layers on opposite sides of each sheet and are electrically connected together by the interconnect material plugs. Each interconnect wall in a wavy shape is connected along spaced generally parallel line-like contact areas between corresponding spaced pairs of generally parallel electrolyte walls, operable to define one tier of generally parallel flow passageways for the fuel and oxidant gases. Alternate tiers are arranged to have the passageways disposed normal to one another. Solid mechanical connection of the interconnect walls of adjacent tiers to the opposite sides of the common electrolyte wall therebetween is only at spaced point-like contact areas, 90 where the previously mentioned line-like contact areas cross one another.

  17. Solid oxide fuel cell having compound cross flow gas patterns

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fraioli, A.V.

    1983-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

    A core construction for a fuel cell is disclosed having both parallel and cross flow passageways for the fuel and the oxidant gases. Each core passageway is defined by electrolyte and interconnect walls. Each electrolyte wall consists of cathode and anode materials sandwiching an electrolyte material. Each interconnect wall is formed as a sheet of inert support material having therein spaced small plugs of interconnect material, where cathode and anode materials are formed as layers on opposite sides of each sheet and are electrically connected together by the interconnect material plugs. Each interconnect wall in a wavy shape is connected along spaced generally parallel line-like contact areas between corresponding spaced pairs of generally parallel electrolyte walls, operable to define one tier of generally parallel flow passageways for the fuel and oxidant gases. Alternate tiers are arranged to have the passageways disposed normal to one another. Solid mechanical connection of the interconnect walls of adjacent tiers to the opposite sides of the common electrolyte wall therebetween is only at spaced point-like contact areas, 90 where the previously mentioned line-like contact areas cross one another.

  18. High temperature Seebeck coefficient metrology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martin, J. [Materials Science and Engineering Laboratory, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (United States); Tritt, T. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Clemson University, Clemson, South Carolina 29634 (United States); Uher, C. [Department of Physics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States)

    2010-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We present an overview of the challenges and practices of thermoelectric metrology on bulk materials at high temperature (300 to 1300 K). The Seebeck coefficient, when combined with thermal and electrical conductivity, is an essential property measurement for evaluating the potential performance of novel thermoelectric materials. However, there is some question as to which measurement technique(s) provides the most accurate determination of the Seebeck coefficient at high temperature. This has led to the implementation of nonideal practices that have further complicated the confirmation of reported high ZT materials. To ensure meaningful interlaboratory comparison of data, thermoelectric measurements must be reliable, accurate, and consistent. This article will summarize and compare the relevant measurement techniques and apparatus designs required to effectively manage uncertainty, while also providing a reference resource of previous advances in high temperature thermoelectric metrology.

  19. High temperature Seebeck coefficient metrology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martin, J.; Tritt, T.; Uher, Ctirad

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present an overview of the challenges and practices of thermoelectric metrology on bulk materials at high temperature (300 to 1300 K). The Seebeck coefficient, when combined with thermal and electrical conductivity, is an essential propertymeasurement for evaluating the potential performance of novel thermoelectricmaterials. However, there is some question as to which measurement technique(s) provides the most accurate determination of the Seebeck coefficient at high temperature. This has led to the implementation of nonideal practices that have further complicated the confirmation of reported high ZT materials. To ensure meaningful interlaboratory comparison of data, thermoelectricmeasurements must be reliable, accurate, and consistent. This article will summarize and compare the relevant measurement techniques and apparatus designs required to effectively manage uncertainty, while also providing a reference resource of previous advances in high temperature thermoelectric metrology.

  20. Filled glass composites for sealing of solid oxide fuel cells.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tandon, Rajan; Widgeon, Scarlett Joyce; Garino, Terry J.; Brochu, Mathieu; Gauntt, Bryan D.; Corral, Erica L.; Loehman, Ronald E.

    2009-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Glasses filled with ceramic or metallic powders have been developed for use as seals for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC's) as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Solid State Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA) Program. The composites of glass (alkaline earth-alumina-borate) and powders ({approx}20 vol% of yttria-stabilized zirconia or silver) were shown to form seals with SOFC materials at or below 900 C. The type and amount of powder were adjusted to optimize thermal expansion to match the SOFC materials and viscosity. Wetting studies indicated good wetting was achieved on the micro-scale and reaction studies indicated that the degree of reaction between the filled glasses and SOFC materials, including spinel-coated 441 stainless steel, at 750 C is acceptable. A test rig was developed for measuring strengths of seals cycled between room temperature and typical SOFC operating temperatures. Our measurements showed that many of the 410 SS to 410 SS seals, made using silver-filled glass composites, were hermetic at 0.2 MPa (2 atm.) of pressure and that seals that leaked could be resealed by briefly heating them to 900 C. Seal strength measurements at elevated temperature (up to 950 C), measured using a second apparatus that we developed, indicated that seals maintained 0.02 MPa (0.2 atm.) overpressures for 30 min at 750 C with no leakage. Finally, the volatility of the borate component of sealing glasses under SOFC operational conditions was studied using weight loss measurements and found by extrapolation to be less than 5% for the projected SOFC lifetime.

  1. Materials System for Intermediate Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Uday B. Pal; Srikanth Gopalan

    2006-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this work was to obtain a stable materials system for intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) capable of operating between 600-800 C with a power density greater than 0.2 W/cm{sup 2}. The solid electrolyte chosen for this system was La{sub 0.9}Sr{sub 0.1}Ga{sub 0.8}Mg{sub 0.2}O{sub 3}, (LSGM). To select the right electrode materials from a group of possible candidate materials, AC complex impedance spectroscopy studies were conducted between 600-800 C on symmetrical cells that employed the LSGM electrolyte. Based on the results of the investigation, LSGM electrolyte supported SOFCs were fabricated with La{sub 0.6}Sr{sub 0.4}Co{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 0.2}O{sub 3}-La{sub 0.9}Sr{sub 0.1}Ga{sub 0.8}Mg{sub 0.2}O{sub 3} (LSCF-LSGM) composite cathode and Nickel-Ce{sub 0.6}La{sub 0.4}O{sub 3} (Ni-LDC) composite anode having a barrier layer of Ce{sub 0.6}La{sub 0.4}O{sub 3} (LDC) between the LSGM electrolyte and the Ni-LDC anode. Electrical performance and stability of these cells were determined and the electrode polarization behavior as a function of cell current was modeled between 600-800 C. The electrical performance of the anode-supported SOFC was simulated assuming an electrode polarization behavior identical to the LSGM-electrolyte-supported SOFC. The simulated electrical performance indicated that the selected material system would provide a stable cell capable of operating between 600-800 C with a power density between 0.2 to 1 W/cm{sup 2}.

  2. Journal of Power Sources 135 (2004) 184191 A solid oxide fuel cell system fed with hydrogen sulfide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Journal of Power Sources 135 (2004) 184­191 A solid oxide fuel cell system fed with hydrogen for a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC). This paper presents an examination of a simple hydrogen sulfide and natural gas-fed solid oxide fuel cell system. The possibility of utilization of hydrogen sulfide

  3. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER ELECTRONICS, VOL. 19, NO. 5, SEPTEMBER 2004 1263 Solid-Oxide-Fuel-Cell Performance and Durability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mazumder, Sudip K.

    IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER ELECTRONICS, VOL. 19, NO. 5, SEPTEMBER 2004 1263 Solid-Oxide-Fuel-Cell of solid-oxide-fuel-cell (SOFC) power-conditioning system (PCS) at the subsystem/component and system Terms--Power-conditioning system (PCS), power-elec- tronics subsystem (PES), solid-oxide-fuel-cell (SOFC

  4. CONTROL-ORIENTED MODELING OF A SOLID-OXIDE FUEL CELL STACK USING AN LPV MODEL STRUCTURE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sanandaji, Borhan M.

    CONTROL-ORIENTED MODELING OF A SOLID-OXIDE FUEL CELL STACK USING AN LPV MODEL STRUCTURE Borhan M dynamic model of a solid oxide fuel cell stack. Using a detailed physical model as a starting point, we (usually air) on the cathode side. Solid-oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) utilize a ceramic oxygen-ion conducting

  5. Proceedings of the Lucerne Fuel Cell Forum 2006 European Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Forum, 3-7 July 2006

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yildiz, Bilge

    Uncertainties in our understanding of the oxygen reduction mechanism (ORR) at solid oxide fuel cell (SOFCProceedings of the Lucerne Fuel Cell Forum 2006 7th European Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Forum, 3-7 July studies have shown that cathodic or anodic dc polarization of the solid oxide fuel cell oxygen electrodes

  6. Three-Dimensional Analysis of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Ni-YSZ Anode Interconnectivity James R. Wilson,a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kalies, William D.

    of interconnectivity of solid-oxide fuel cell (SOFC) electrode phases. The method was applied to the three1 Three-Dimensional Analysis of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Ni-YSZ Anode Interconnectivity James R, and hence was not electrochemically active. #12;2 1. Introduction Attempts to understand solid oxide fuel

  7. High temperature methods for forming oxidizer fuel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bravo, Jose Luis (Houston, TX)

    2011-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of treating a formation fluid includes providing formation fluid from a subsurface in situ heat treatment process. The formation fluid is separated to produce a liquid stream and a first gas stream. The first gas stream includes carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulfide, hydrocarbons, hydrogen or mixtures thereof. Molecular oxygen is separated from air to form a molecular oxygen stream comprising molecular oxygen. The first gas stream is combined with the molecular oxygen stream to form a combined stream comprising molecular oxygen and the first gas stream. The combined stream is provided to one or more downhole burners.

  8. Silicon carbide oxidation in high temperature steam

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arnold, Ramsey Paul

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The commercial nuclear power industry is continually looking for ways to improve reactor productivity and efficiency and to increase reactor safety. A concern that is closely regulated by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission ...

  9. High temperature superconductor current leads

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hull, John R. (Hinsdale, IL); Poeppel, Roger B. (Glen Ellyn, IL)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An electrical lead having one end for connection to an apparatus in a cryogenic environment and the other end for connection to an apparatus outside the cryogenic environment. The electrical lead includes a high temperature superconductor wire and an electrically conductive material distributed therein, where the conductive material is present at the one end of the lead at a concentration in the range of from 0 to about 3% by volume, and at the other end of the lead at a concentration of less than about 20% by volume. Various embodiments are shown for groups of high temperature superconductor wires and sheaths.

  10. High temperature superconductor current leads

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hull, J.R.; Poeppel, R.B.

    1995-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

    An electrical lead is disclosed having one end for connection to an apparatus in a cryogenic environment and the other end for connection to an apparatus outside the cryogenic environment. The electrical lead includes a high temperature superconductor wire and an electrically conductive material distributed therein, where the conductive material is present at the one end of the lead at a concentration in the range of from 0 to about 3% by volume, and at the other end of the lead at a concentration of less than about 20% by volume. Various embodiments are shown for groups of high temperature superconductor wires and sheaths. 9 figs.

  11. LARGE-SCALE HYDROGEN PRODUCTION FROM NUCLEAR ENERGY USING HIGH TEMPERATURE ELECTROLYSIS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James E. O'Brien

    2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Hydrogen can be produced from water splitting with relatively high efficiency using high-temperature electrolysis. This technology makes use of solid-oxide cells, running in the electrolysis mode to produce hydrogen from steam, while consuming electricity and high-temperature process heat. When coupled to an advanced high temperature nuclear reactor, the overall thermal-to-hydrogen efficiency for high-temperature electrolysis can be as high as 50%, which is about double the overall efficiency of conventional low-temperature electrolysis. Current large-scale hydrogen production is based almost exclusively on steam reforming of methane, a method that consumes a precious fossil fuel while emitting carbon dioxide to the atmosphere. Demand for hydrogen is increasing rapidly for refining of increasingly low-grade petroleum resources, such as the Athabasca oil sands and for ammonia-based fertilizer production. Large quantities of hydrogen are also required for carbon-efficient conversion of biomass to liquid fuels. With supplemental nuclear hydrogen, almost all of the carbon in the biomass can be converted to liquid fuels in a nearly carbon-neutral fashion. Ultimately, hydrogen may be employed as a direct transportation fuel in a “hydrogen economy.” The large quantity of hydrogen that would be required for this concept should be produced without consuming fossil fuels or emitting greenhouse gases. An overview of the high-temperature electrolysis technology will be presented, including basic theory, modeling, and experimental activities. Modeling activities include both computational fluid dynamics and large-scale systems analysis. We have also demonstrated high-temperature electrolysis in our laboratory at the 15 kW scale, achieving a hydrogen production rate in excess of 5500 L/hr.

  12. Method of manufacturing a high temperature superconductor with improved transport properties

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Balachandran, Uthamalingam (Hinsdale, IL); Siegel, Richard W. (Hinsdale, IL); Askew, Thomas R. (Kalamazoo, MI)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of preparing a high temperature superconductor. A method of preparing a superconductor includes providing a powdered high temperature superconductor and a nanophase paramagnetic material. These components are combined to form a solid compacted mass with the paramagnetic material disposed on the grain boundaries of the polycrystaline high temperature superconductor.

  13. Probabilistic Based Design Methodology for Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Stacks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Xin; Tartakovsky, Alexandre M.; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

    2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A probabilistic-based component design methodology is developed for solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) stack. This method takes into account the randomness in SOFC material properties as well as the stresses arising from different manufacturing and operating conditions. The purpose of this work is to provide the SOFC designers a design methodology such that desired level of component reliability can be achieved with deterministic design functions using an equivalent safety factor to account for the uncertainties in material properties and structural stresses. Multi-physics-based finite element analyses were used to predict the electrochemical and thermal mechanical responses of SOFC stacks with different geometric variations and under different operating conditions. Failures in the anode and the seal were used as design examples. The predicted maximum principal stresses in the anode and the seal were compared with the experimentally determined strength characteristics for the anode and the seal respectively. Component failure probabilities for the current design were then calculated under different operating conditions. It was found that anode failure probability is very low under all conditions examined. The seal failure probability is relatively high, particularly for high fuel utilization rate under low average cell temperature. Next, the procedures for calculating the equivalent safety factors for anode and seal were demonstrated such that uniform failure probability of the anode and seal can be achieved. Analysis procedures were also included for non-normal distributed random variables such that more realistic distributions of strength and stress can be analyzed using the proposed design methodology.

  14. Modeling Degradation in Solid Oxide Electrolysis Cells - Volume II

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Manohar Motwani

    2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Idaho National Laboratory has an ongoing project to generate hydrogen from steam using solid oxide electrolysis cells (SOECs). To accomplish this, technical and degradation issues associated with the SOECs will need to be addressed. This report covers various approaches being pursued to model degradation issues in SOECs. An electrochemical model for degradation of SOECs is presented. The model is based on concepts in local thermodynamic equilibrium in systems otherwise in global thermodynamic non-equilibrium. It is shown that electronic conduction through the electrolyte, however small, must be taken into account for determining local oxygen chemical potential,, within the electrolyte. The within the electrolyte may lie out of bounds in relation to values at the electrodes in the electrolyzer mode. Under certain conditions, high pressures can develop in the electrolyte just near the oxygen electrode/electrolyte interface, leading to oxygen electrode delamination. These predictions are in accordance with the reported literature on the subject. Development of high pressures may be avoided by introducing some electronic conduction in the electrolyte. By combining equilibrium thermodynamics, non-equilibrium (diffusion) modeling, and first-principles, atomic scale calculations were performed to understand the degradation mechanisms and provide practical recommendations on how to inhibit and/or completely mitigate them.

  15. PRESSURIZED SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL/GAS TURBINE POWER SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    W.L. Lundberg; G.A. Israelson; R.R. Moritz (Rolls-Royce Allison); S.E. Veyo; R.A. Holmes; P.R. Zafred; J.E. King; R.E. Kothmann (Consultant)

    2000-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Power systems based on the simplest direct integration of a pressurized solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) generator and a gas turbine (GT) are capable of converting natural gas fuel energy to electric power with efficiencies of approximately 60% (net AC/LHV), and more complex SOFC and gas turbine arrangements can be devised for achieving even higher efficiencies. The results of a project are discussed that focused on the development of a conceptual design for a pressurized SOFC/GT power system that was intended to generate 20 MWe with at least 70% efficiency. The power system operates baseloaded in a distributed-generation application. To achieve high efficiency, the system integrates an intercooled, recuperated, reheated gas turbine with two SOFC generator stages--one operating at high pressure, and generating power, as well as providing all heat needed by the high-pressure turbine, while the second SOFC generator operates at a lower pressure, generates power, and provides all heat for the low-pressure reheat turbine. The system cycle is described, major system components are sized, the system installed-cost is estimated, and the physical arrangement of system components is discussed. Estimates of system power output, efficiency, and emissions at the design point are also presented, and the system cost of electricity estimate is developed.

  16. Method and apparatus for assembling solid oxide fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Szreders, Bernard E. (Oakdale, CT); Campanella, Nicholas (O'Fallon, MO)

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A plurality of jet air tubes are supported and maintained in a spaced matrix array by a positioning/insertion assembly for insertion in respective tubes of a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) in the assembly of an SOFC module. The positioning/insertion assembly includes a plurality of generally planar, elongated, linear vanes which are pivotally mounted at each end thereof to a support frame. The vanes, which each include a plurality of spaced slots along the facing edges thereof, may be pivotally displaced from a generally vertical orientation, wherein each jet air tube is positioned within and engaged by the aligned slots of a plurality of paired upper and lower vanes to facilitate their insertion in respective aligned SOFC tubes arranged in a matrix array, to an inclined orientation, wherein the jet air tubes may be removed from the positioning/insertion assembly after being inserted in the SOFC tubes. A rectangular compression assembly of adjustable size is adapted to receive and squeeze a matrix of SOFC tubes so as to compress the inter-tube nickel felt conductive pads which provide series/parallel electrical connection between adjacent SOFCs, with a series of increasingly larger retainer frames used to maintain larger matrices of SOFC tubes in position. Expansion of the SOFC module housing at the high operating temperatures of the SOFC is accommodated by conductive, flexible, resilient expansion, connector bars which provide support and electrical coupling at the top and bottom of the SOFC module housing.

  17. HIGH TEMPERATURE GEOTHERMAL RESERVOIR ENGINEERING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schroeder, R.C.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    on the Cerro P r i e t o Geothermal F i e l d , Mexicali,e C e r r o P r i e t o Geothermal F i e l d , Baja C a l i1979 HIGH TEMPERATURE GEOTHERMAL RESERVOIR ENGINEERING R.

  18. High temperature lightweight foamed cements

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sugama, Toshifumi (Mastic Beach, NY)

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Cement slurries are disclosed which are suitable for use in geothermal wells since they can withstand high temperatures and high pressures. The formulation consists of cement, silica flour, water, a retarder, a foaming agent, a foam stabilizer, and a reinforcing agent. A process for producing these cements is also disclosed.

  19. High temperature lightweight foamed cements

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sugama, Toshifumi.

    1989-10-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Cement slurries are disclosed which are suitable for use in geothermal wells since they can withstand high temperatures and high pressures. The formulation consists of cement, silica flour, water, a retarder, a foaming agent, a foam stabilizer, and a reinforcing agent. A process for producing these cements is also disclosed. 3 figs.

  20. Geothermal high temperature instrumentation applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Normann, R.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Livesay, B.J. [Livesay Consultants (United States)

    1998-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

    A quick look at the geothermal industry shows a small industry producing about $1 billion in electric sales annually. The industry is becoming older and in need of new innovative solutions to instrumentation problems. A quick look at problem areas is given along with basic instrumentation requirements. The focus of instrumentation is on high temperature electronics.

  1. Method for synthesizing extremely high-temperature melting materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Saboungi, Marie-Louise (Chicago, IL); Glorieux, Benoit (Perpignan, FR)

    2007-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention relates to a method of synthesizing high-temperature melting materials. More specifically the invention relates to a containerless method of synthesizing very high temperature melting materials such as carbides and transition-metal, lanthanide and actinide oxides, using an aerodynamic levitator and a laser. The object of the invention is to provide a method for synthesizing extremely high-temperature melting materials that are otherwise difficult to produce, without the use of containers, allowing the manipulation of the phase (amorphous/crystalline/metastable) and permitting changes of the environment such as different gaseous compositions.

  2. Method For Synthesizing Extremely High-Temperature Melting Materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Saboungi, Marie-Louise (Chicago, IL); Glorieux, Benoit (Perpignan, FR)

    2005-11-22T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention relates to a method of synthesizing high-temperature melting materials. More specifically the invention relates to a containerless method of synthesizing very high temperature melting materials such as borides, carbides and transition-metal, lanthanide and actinide oxides, using an Aerodynamic Levitator and a laser. The object of the invention is to provide a method for synthesizing extremely high-temperature melting materials that are otherwise difficult to produce, without the use of containers, allowing the manipulation of the phase (amorphous/crystalline/metastable) and permitting changes of the environment such as different gaseous compositions.

  3. Method for Synthesizing Extremeley High Temperature Melting Materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Saboungi, Marie-Louise and Glorieux, Benoit

    2005-11-22T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention relates to a method of synthesizing high-temperature melting materials. More specifically the invention relates to a containerless method of synthesizing very high temperature melting materials such as borides, carbides and transition-metal, lanthanide and actinide oxides, using an Aerodynamic Levitator and a laser. The object of the invention is to provide a method for synthesizing extremely high-temperature melting materials that are otherwise difficult to produce, without the use of containers, allowing the manipulation of the phase (amorphous/crystalline/metastable) and permitting changes of the environment such as different gaseous compositions.

  4. High-temperature sorbent method for removal of sulfur containing gases from gaseous mixtures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Young, John E. (Woodridge, IL); Jalan, Vinod M. (Concord, MA)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A copper oxide-zinc oxide mixture is used as a sorbent for removing hydrogen sulfide and other sulfur containing gases at high temperatures from a gaseous fuel mixture. This high-temperature sorbent is especially useful for preparing fuel gases for high temperature fuel cells. The copper oxide is initially reduced in a preconditioning step to elemental copper and is present in a highly dispersed state throughout the zinc oxide which serves as a support as well as adding to the sulfur sorption capacity. The spent sorbent is regenerated by high-temperature treatment with an air fuel, air steam mixture followed by hydrogen reduction to remove and recover the sulfur.

  5. High-temperature sorbent method for removal of sulfur containing gases from gaseous mixtures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Young, J.E.; Jalan, V.M.

    1984-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

    A copper oxide-zinc oxide mixture is used as a sorbent for removing hydrogen sulfide and other sulfur containing gases at high temperatures from a gaseous fuel mixture. This high-temperature sorbent is especially useful for preparing fuel gases for high temperature fuel cells. The copper oxide is initially reduced in a preconditioning step to elemental copper and is present in a highly dispersed state throughout the zinc oxide which serves as a support as well as adding to the sulfur sorption capacity. The spent sorbent is regenerated by high-temperature treatment with an air fuel, air steam mixture followed by hydrogen reduction to remove and recover the sulfur.

  6. High-temperature sorbent method for removal of sulfur-containing gases from gaseous mixtures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Young, J.E.; Jalan, V.M.

    1982-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

    A copper oxide-zinc oxide mixture is used as a sorbent for removing hydrogen sulfide and other sulfur containing gases at high temperatures from a gaseous fuel mixture. This high-temperature sorbent is especially useful for preparing fuel gases for high temperature fuel cells. The copper oxide is initially reduced in a preconditioning step to elemental copper and is present in a highly dispersed state throughout the zinc oxide which serves as a support as well as adding to the sulfur sorbtion capacity. The spent sorbent is regenerated by high-temperature treatment with an air fuel, air steam mixture followed by hydrogen reduction to remove and recover the sulfur.

  7. Acid Doped Membranes for High Temperature PEMFC

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation on Acid Doped Membranes for High Temperature PEMFC to the High Temperature Membrane Working Group, May 25, 2004 in Philadelphia, PA.

  8. High-Temperature Thermoelectric Materials Characterization for...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    High-Temperature Thermoelectric Materials Characterization for Automotive Waste Heat Recovery: Success Stories from the High Temperature Materials Laboratory (HTML) User Program...

  9. High Temperature Thermoelectric Materials Characterization for...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    High Temperature Thermoelectric Materials Characterization for Automotive Waste Heat Recovery: Success Stories from the High Temperature Materials Laboratory (HTML) User Program...

  10. Nanostructured High Temperature Bulk Thermoelectric Energy Conversion...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High Temperature Bulk Thermoelectric Energy Conversion for Efficient Waste Heat Recovery Nanostructured High Temperature Bulk Thermoelectric Energy Conversion for Efficient Waste...

  11. Manufacturing Barriers to High Temperature PEM Commercialization...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Barriers to High Temperature PEM Commercialization Manufacturing Barriers to High Temperature PEM Commercialization Presented at the NREL Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Manufacturing R&D...

  12. Sequential high temperature reduction, low temperature hydrolysis...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    high temperature reduction, low temperature hydrolysis for the regeneration of sulfated NOx trap catalysts. Sequential high temperature reduction, low temperature hydrolysis for...

  13. High temperature insulation for ceramic matrix composites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Merrill, Gary B. (Monroeville, PA); Morrison, Jay Alan (Orlando, FL)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A ceramic composition is provided to insulate ceramic matrix composites under high temperature, high heat flux environments. The composite comprises a plurality of hollow oxide-based spheres of varios dimentions, a phosphate binder, and at least one oxide filler powder, whereby the phosphate binder partially fills gaps between the spheres and the filler powders. The spheres are situated in the phosphate binder and the filler powders such that each sphere is in contact with at least one other sphere. The spheres may be any combination of Mullite spheres, Alumina spheres, or stabilized Zirconia spheres. The filler powder may be any combination of Alumina, Mullite, Ceria, or Hafnia. Preferably, the phosphate binder is Aluminum Ortho-Phosphate. A method of manufacturing the ceramic insulating composition and its application to CMC substates are also provided.

  14. High temperature insulation for ceramic matrix composites

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Merrill, Gary B.; Morrison, Jay Alan

    2004-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

    A ceramic composition is provided to insulate ceramic matrix composites under high temperature, high heat flux environments. The composition comprises a plurality of hollow oxide-based spheres of various dimensions, a phosphate binder, and at least one oxide filler powder, whereby the phosphate binder partially fills gaps between the spheres and the filler powders. The spheres are situated in the phosphate binder and the filler powders such that each sphere is in contact with at least one other sphere. The spheres may be any combination of Mullite spheres, Alumina spheres, or stabilized Zirconia spheres. The filler powder may be any combination of Alumina, Mullite, Ceria, or Hafnia. Preferably, the phosphate binder is Aluminum Ortho-Phosphate. A method of manufacturing the ceramic insulating composition and its application to CMC substrates are also provided.

  15. High temperature insulation for ceramic matrix composites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Merrill, Gary B. (Monroeville, PA); Morrison, Jay Alan (Orlando, FL)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A ceramic composition is provided to insulate ceramic matrix composites under high temperature, high heat flux environments. The composition comprises a plurality of hollow oxide-based spheres of various dimensions, a phosphate binder, and at least one oxide filler powder, whereby the phosphate binder partially fills gaps between the spheres and the filler powders. The spheres are situated in the phosphate binder and the filler powders such that each sphere is in contact with at least one other sphere. The spheres may be any combination of Mullite spheres, Alumina spheres, or stabilized Zirconia spheres. The filler powder may be any combination of Alumina, Mullite, Ceria, or Hafnia. Preferably, the phosphate binder is Aluminum Ortho-Phosphate. A method of manufacturing the ceramic insulating composition and its application to CMC substrates are also provided.

  16. anode-supported solid oxide: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 41 Application of Verified Optimization Techniques to Parameter Identification for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells Computer...

  17. Nanostructured Thin Film Electrolyte for Thin Film Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cho, Sungmee

    2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are very attractive as energy generation devices because they are clean, reliable, and almost entirely pollution-free. SOFCs have flexible fuel selections compared with other fuel cell technologies. The main...

  18. Seven Projects That Will Advance Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Research Selected by DOE for Further Development

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Seven projects that will help develop low-cost solid oxide fuel cell technology for environmentally responsible central power generation from the Nation’s abundant fossil energy resources have been selected for further research by the Department of Energy.

  19. Thermo-mechanical modeling of a micro-fabricated solid oxide fuel cell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ie, Tze Yung Andrew, 1978-

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A micro-fabricated solid oxide fuel cell is currently being designed by the Micro-chemical Power Team(funded under the Multidisciplinary University Research Initiative(MURI) Research Program). In the current design a plate ...

  20. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell System (SOFC) Technology R&D Needs (Presentation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    System (SOFC) Technology R&D Needs (Presentation) Solid Oxide Fuel Cell System (SOFC) Technology R&D Needs (Presentation) Presented at the DOE Fuel Cell Pre-Solicitation Workshop...

  1. Nanostructured Thin Film Electrolyte for Thin Film Solid Oxide Fuel Cells 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cho, Sungmee

    2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are very attractive as energy generation devices because they are clean, reliable, and almost entirely pollution-free. SOFCs have flexible fuel selections compared with other fuel cell technologies. The main...

  2. Solid-State NMR Spectroscopic Study of Phosphate Sorption Mechanisms on Aluminum (Hydr)oxides

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sparks, Donald L.

    Solid-State NMR Spectroscopic Study of Phosphate Sorption Mechanisms on Aluminum (Hydr)oxides Wei the mechanism of phosphate sorption on aluminum hydroxides under different environ- mental conditions, including

  3. Creep Behavior of Glass/Ceramic Sealant and its Effect on Long-term Performance of Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Wenning N.; Sun, Xin; Koeppel, Brian J.; Stephens, Elizabeth V.; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

    2009-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The creep behavior of glass or glass-ceramic sealant materials used in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) becomes relevant under SOFC operating temperatures. In this paper, the creep of glass-ceramic sealants was experimentally examined, and a standard linear solid model was applied to capture the creep behavior of glass ceramic sealant materials developed for planar SOFCs at high temperatures. The parameters of this model were determined based on the creep test results. Furthermore, the creep model was incorporated into finite-element software programs SOFC-MP and Mentat-FC developed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for multi-physics simulation of SOFCs. The effect of creep of glass ceramic sealant materials on the long-term performance of SOFC stacks was investigated by studying the stability of the flow channels and the stress redistribution in the glass seal and on the various interfaces of the glass seal with other layers. Finite element analyses were performed to quantify the stresses in various parts. The stresses in glass seals were released because of creep behavior during operations.

  4. Overview of High-Temperature Electrolysis for Hydrogen Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Herring, J. S.; O'Brien, J. E.; Stoots, C. M.; Hartvigsen, J. J.; Petri, M. C.; Carter, J. D.; Bischoff, B. L.

    2007-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Over the last five years there has been a growing interest in the use of hydrogen as an energy carrier, particularly to augment transportation fuels and thus reduce our dependence on imported petroleum. Hydrogen is now produced primarily via steam reforming of methane. However, in the long term, methane reforming is not a viable process for the large-scale hydrogen production since such fossil fuel conversion processes consume non-renewable resources and emit greenhouse gases. Nuclear energy can be used to produce hydrogen without consuming fossil fuels and without emitting greenhouse gases through the splitting of water into hydrogen and oxygen. The Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative of the DOE Office of Nuclear Energy is developing three general categories of high temperature processes for hydrogen production: thermochemical, electrolytic and hybrid thermo-electrolytic. This paper introduces the work being done in the development of high temperature electrolysis of steam. High Temperature Electrolysis (HTE) is built on the technology of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), which were invented over a century ago, but which have been most vigorously developed during the last twenty years. SOFCs consume hydrogen and oxygen and produce steam and electricity. Solid Oxide Electrolytic Cells (SOECs) consume electricity and steam and produce hydrogen and oxygen. The purpose of the HTE research is to solve those problems unique to the electrolytic mode of operation, while building further on continuing fuel cell development. ORGANIZATION Experiments have been conducted for the last three years at the Idaho National Laboratory and at Ceramatec, Inc. on the operation of button cells and of progressively larger stacks of planar cells. In addition, the INL has been performing analyses of the cell-scale fluid dynamics and plant-scale flowsheets in order to determine optimum operating conditions and plant configurations. Argonne National Laboratory has been performing experiments for the development of new electrode materials, as well as modeling of the fluid dynamics and flowsheets for comparison with the work being done at the INL. ANL has also been performing diagnostic measures on components form long-duration tests at the INL and Ceramatec to determine the causes for the slow degradation in cell performance. Oak Ridge National Laboratory has been developing high temperature porous membranes for the separation of hydrogen from the residual steam, thus avoiding the need to condense and reheat the steam. The University of Nevada at Las Vegas has been collaborating with ANL on the development of electrode and electrolyte materials and will soon begin to investigate the causes of cell degradation. HTE research also includes NERI projects at the Virginia Polytechnic Institute on the development of toughened SOEC composite seals and at the Georgia Institute of Technology on the microstructural design of SOEC materials. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS The most recent large-scale test of HTE was performed from June 28 through Sept 22, 2006 at the Ceramatec plant in Salt Lake City. The test apparatus consists of two stacks of 60 cells each in a configuration that will be used in the Integrated Laboratory Scale (ILS) experiment during FY-07. The ILS will contain three modules of four stacks each. The “Half-Module” initially produced 1.2 normal m3of H2/hour and 0.65 Nm3/hr at the end of the 2040-hour continuous test.

  5. Materials System for Intermediate Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Uday B. Pal; Srikanth Gopalan

    2005-01-24T23:59:59.000Z

    AC complex impedance spectroscopy studies were conducted between 600-800 C on symmetrical cells that employed strontium-and-magnesium-doped lanthanum gallate electrolyte, La{sub 0.9}Sr{sub 0.1}Ga{sub 0.8}Mg{sub 0.2}O{sub 3} (LSGM). The objective of the study was to identify the materials system for fabrication and evaluation of intermediate temperature (600-800 C) solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). The slurry-coated electrode materials had fine porosity to enhance catalytic activity. Cathode materials investigated include La{sub 1-x}Sr{sub x}MnO{sub 3} (LSM), LSCF (La{sub 1-x}Sr{sub x}Co{sub y}Fe{sub 1-y}O{sub 3}), a two-phase particulate composite consisting of LSM-doped-lanthanum gallate (LSGM), and LSCF-LSGM. The anode materials were Ni-Ce{sub 0.85}Gd{sub 0.15}O{sub 2} (Ni-GDC) and Ni-Ce{sub 0.6}La{sub 0.4}O{sub 2} (Ni-LDC) composites. Experiments conducted with the anode materials investigated the effect of having a barrier layer of GDC or LDC in between the LSGM electrolyte and the Ni-composite anode to prevent adverse reaction of the Ni with lanthanum in LSGM. For proper interpretation of the beneficial effects of the barrier layer, similar measurements were performed without the barrier layer. The ohmic and the polarization resistances of the system were obtained over time as a function of temperature (600-800 C), firing temperature, thickness, and the composition of the electrodes. The study revealed important details pertaining to the ohmic and the polarization resistances of the electrode as they relate to stability and the charge-transfer reactions that occur in such electrode structures.

  6. High temperature structural insulating material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, W.Y.

    1984-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

    A high temperature structural insulating material useful as a liner for cylinders of high temperature engines through the favorable combination of high service temperature (above about 800/sup 0/C), low thermal conductivity (below about 0.2 W/m/sup 0/C), and high compressive strength (above about 250 psi). The insulating material is produced by selecting hollow ceramic beads with a softening temperature above about 800/sup 0/C, a diameter within the range of 20-200 ..mu..m, and a wall thickness in the range of about 2 to 4 ..mu..m; compacting the beads and a compatible silicate binder composition under pressure and sintering conditions to provide the desired structural form with the structure having a closed-cell, compact array of bonded beads.

  7. High temperature structural insulating material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, Wayne Y. (Munster, IN)

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A high temperature structural insulating material useful as a liner for cylinders of high temperature engines through the favorable combination of high service temperature (above about 800.degree. C.), low thermal conductivity (below about 0.2 W/m.degree. C.), and high compressive strength (above about 250 psi). The insulating material is produced by selecting hollow ceramic beads with a softening temperature above about 800.degree. C., a diameter within the range of 20-200 .mu.m, and a wall thickness in the range of about 2-4 .mu.m; compacting the beads and a compatible silicate binder composition under pressure and sintering conditions to provide the desired structural form with the structure having a closed-cell, compact array of bonded beads.

  8. High Temperature Heat Exchanger Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anthony E. Hechanova, Ph.D.

    2008-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The UNLV Research Foundation assembled a research consortium for high temperature heat exchanger design and materials compatibility and performance comprised of university and private industry partners under the auspices of the US DOE-NE Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative in October 2003. The objectives of the consortium were to conduct investigations of candidate materials for high temperature heat exchanger componets in hydrogen production processes and design and perform prototypical testing of heat exchangers. The initial research of the consortium focused on the intermediate heat exchanger (located between the nuclear reactor and hydrogen production plan) and the components for the hydrogen iodine decomposition process and sulfuric acid decomposition process. These heat exchanger components were deemed the most challenging from a materials performance and compatibility perspective

  9. HIGH TEMPERATURE ELECTROLYZER MATERIALS PROJECT GOAL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mease, Kenneth D.

    a fuel for the SOFC itself, as a fuel for other devices (e.g., fuel cell vehicles), or as a raw material with compatible electrodes to develop reversible solid oxide fuel cells for low-cost, high efficient power fuel cell concept has been proven, no complete reversible fuel cell materials set has yet been

  10. High temperature turbine engine structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carruthers, William D. (Mesa, AZ); Boyd, Gary L. (Tempe, AZ)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A high temperature ceramic/metallic turbine engine includes a metallic housing which journals a rotor member of the turbine engine. A ceramic disk-like shroud portion of the engine is supported on the metallic housing portion and maintains a close running clearance with the rotor member. A ceramic spacer assembly maintains the close running clearance of the shroud portion and rotor member despite differential thermal movements between the shroud portion and metallic housing portion.

  11. High temperature turbine engine structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carruthers, William D. (Mesa, AZ); Boyd, Gary L. (Tempe, AZ)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A high temperature ceramic/metallic turbine engine includes a metallic housing which journals a rotor member of the turbine engine. A ceramic disk-like shroud portion of the engine is supported on the metallic housing portion and maintains a close running clearance with the rotor member. A ceramic spacer assembly maintains the close running clearance of the shroud portion and rotor member despite differential thermal movements between the shroud portion and metallic housing portion.

  12. High temperature turbine engine structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carruthers, William D. (Mesa, AZ); Boyd, Gary L. (Tempe, AZ)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A high temperature ceramic/metallic turbine engine includes a metallic housing which journals a rotor member of the turbine engine. A ceramic disk-like shroud portion of the engine is supported on the metallic housing portion and maintains a close running clearance with the rotor member. A ceramic spacer assembly maintains the close running clearance of the shroud portion and rotor member despite differential thermal movements between the shroud portion and metallic housing portion.

  13. High Temperature Superconducting Thick Films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Arendt, Paul N. (Los Alamos, NM); Foltyn, Stephen R. (Los Alamos, NM); Groves, James R. (Los Alamos, NM); Holesinger, Terry G. (Los Alamos, NM); Jia, Quanxi (Los Alamos, NM)

    2005-08-23T23:59:59.000Z

    An article including a substrate, a layer of an inert oxide material upon the surface of the substrate, (generally the inert oxide material layer has a smooth surface, i.e., a RMS roughness of less than about 2 nm), a layer of an amorphous oxide or oxynitride material upon the inert oxide material layer, a layer of an oriented cubic oxide material having a rock-salt-like structure upon the amorphous oxide material layer is provided together with additional layers such as at least one layer of a buffer material upon the oriented cubic oxide material layer or a HTS top-layer of YBCO directly upon the oriented cubic oxide material layer. With a HTS top-layer of YBCO upon at least one layer of a buffer material in such an article, Jc's of 1.4×106 A/cm2 have been demonstrated with projected Ic's of 210 Amperes across a sample 1 cm wide.

  14. Cathode and electrolyte materials for solid oxide fuel cells and ion transport membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jacobson, Allan J; Wang, Shuangyan; Kim, Gun Tae

    2014-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Novel cathode, electrolyte and oxygen separation materials are disclosed that operate at intermediate temperatures for use in solid oxide fuel cells and ion transport membranes based on oxides with perovskite related structures and an ordered arrangement of A site cations. The materials have significantly faster oxygen kinetics than in corresponding disordered perovskites.

  15. Operation of a solid oxide fuel cell on biodiesel with a partial oxidation reformer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siefert, N, Shekhawat, D.; Gemmen, R.; Berry, D.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The National Energy Technology Laboratory’s Office of Research & Development (NETL/ORD) has successfully demonstrated the operation of a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) using reformed biodiesel. The biodiesel for the project was produced and characterized by West Virginia State University (WVSU). This project had two main aspects: 1) demonstrate a catalyst formulation on monolith for biodiesel fuel reforming; and 2) establish SOFC stack test stand capabilities. Both aspects have been completed successfully. For the first aspect, in–house patented catalyst specifications were developed, fabricated and tested. Parametric reforming studies of biofuels provided data on fuel composition, catalyst degradation, syngas composition, and operating parameters required for successful reforming and integration with the SOFC test stand. For the second aspect, a stack test fixture (STF) for standardized testing, developed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) for the Solid Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA) Program, was engineered and constructed at NETL. To facilitate the demonstration of the STF, NETL employed H.C. Starck Ceramics GmbH & Co. (Germany) anode supported solid oxide cells. In addition, anode supported cells, SS441 end plates, and cell frames were transferred from PNNL to NETL. The stack assembly and conditioning procedures, including stack welding and sealing, contact paste application, binder burn-out, seal-setting, hot standby, and other stack assembly and conditioning methods were transferred to NETL. In the future, fuel cell stacks provided by SECA or other developers could be tested at the STF to validate SOFC performance on various fuels. The STF operated on hydrogen for over 1000 hrs before switching over to reformed biodiesel for 100 hrs of operation. Combining these first two aspects led to demonstrating the biodiesel syngas in the STF. A reformer was built and used to convert 0.5 ml/min of biodiesel into mostly hydrogen and carbon monoxide (syngas.) The syngas was fed to the STF and fuel cell stack. The results presented in this experimental report document one of the first times a SOFC has been operated on syngas from reformed biodiesel.

  16. Air feed tube support system for a solid oxide fuel cell generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Doshi, Vinod B. (Monroeville, PA); Ruka, Roswell J. (Pittsburgh, PA); Hager, Charles A. (Zelienople, PA)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A solid oxide fuel cell generator (12), containing tubular fuel cells (36) with interior air electrodes (18), where a supporting member (82) containing a plurality of holes (26) supports oxidant feed tubes (51), which pass from an oxidant plenum (52") into the center of the fuel cells, through the holes (26) in the supporting member (82), where a compliant gasket (86) around the top of the oxidant feed tubes and on top (28) of the supporting member (82) helps support the oxidant feed tubes and center them within the fuel cells, and loosen the tolerance for centering the air feed tubes.

  17. Cover and startup gas supply system for solid oxide fuel cell generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Singh, P.; George, R.A.

    1999-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

    A cover and startup gas supply system for a solid oxide fuel cell power generator is disclosed. Hydrocarbon fuel, such as natural gas or diesel fuel, and oxygen-containing gas are supplied to a burner. Combustion gas exiting the burner is cooled prior to delivery to the solid oxide fuel cell. The system mixes the combusted hydrocarbon fuel constituents with hydrogen which is preferably stored in solid form to obtain a non-explosive gas mixture. The system may be used to provide both non-explosive cover gas and hydrogen-rich startup gas to the fuel cell. 4 figs.

  18. Cover and startup gas supply system for solid oxide fuel cell generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Singh, Prabhakar (Export, PA); George, Raymond A. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A cover and startup gas supply system for a solid oxide fuel cell power generator is disclosed. Hydrocarbon fuel, such as natural gas or diesel fuel, and oxygen-containing gas are supplied to a burner. Combustion gas exiting the burner is cooled prior to delivery to the solid oxide fuel cell. The system mixes the combusted hydrocarbon fuel constituents with hydrogen which is preferably stored in solid form to obtain a non-explosive gas mixture. The system may be used to provide both non-explosive cover gas and hydrogen-rich startup gas to the fuel cell.

  19. 3D CFD Electrochemical and Heat Transfer Model of an Integrated-Planar Solid Oxide Electrolysis Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grant Hawkes; James E. O'Brien

    2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) electrochemical model has been created to model high-temperature electrolysis cell performance and steam electrolysis in a new novel integrated planar porous-tube supported solid oxide electrolysis cell (SOEC). The model is of several integrated planar cells attached to a ceramic support tube. This design is being evaluated with modeling at the Idaho National Laboratory. Mass, momentum, energy, and species conservation and transport are provided via the core features of the commercial CFD code FLUENT. A solid-oxide fuel cell (SOFC) model adds the electrochemical reactions and loss mechanisms and computation of the electric field throughout the cell. The FLUENT SOFC user-defined subroutine was modified for this work to allow for operation in the SOEC mode. Model results provide detailed profiles of temperature, Nernst potential, operating potential, activation over-potential, anode-side gas composition, cathode-side gas composition, current density and hydrogen production over a range of stack operating conditions. Mean per-cell area-specific-resistance (ASR) values decrease with increasing current density. Predicted mean outlet hydrogen and steam concentrations vary linearly with current density, as expected. Effects of variations in operating temperature, gas flow rate, cathode and anode exchange current density, and contact resistance from the base case are presented. Contour plots of local electrolyte temperature, current density, and Nernst potential indicated the effects of heat transfer, reaction cooling/heating, and change in local gas composition. Results are discussed for using this design in the electrolysis mode. Discussion of thermal neutral voltage, enthalpy of reaction, hydrogen production, cell thermal efficiency, cell electrical efficiency, and Gibbs free energy are discussed and reported herein.

  20. Performance of a solid oxide fuel cell CHP system coupled with a hot water storage tank for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berning, Torsten

    Performance of a solid oxide fuel cell CHP system coupled with a hot water storage tank for single a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) system for cogeneration of heat and power integrated with a stratified heat oxide fuel cell, Cogeneration, Storage heat Tank 1. Introduction In residential sector, energy

  1. Sandia National Laboratories: solid-oxide fuel cell

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    oxide fuel cell More Efficient Fuel Cells under Development by Engineers On July 10, 2014, in Center for Infrastructure Research and Innovation (CIRI), Energy, Energy Storage,...

  2. NSTX High Temperature Sensor Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    B.McCormack; H.W. Kugel; P. Goranson; R. Kaita; et al

    1999-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The design of the more than 300 in-vessel sensor systems for the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) has encountered several challenging fusion reactor diagnostic issues involving high temperatures and space constraints. This has resulted in unique miniature, high temperature in-vessel sensor systems mounted in small spaces behind plasma facing armor tiles, and they are prototypical of possible high power reactor first-wall applications. In the Center Stack, Divertor, Passive Plate, and vessel wall regions, the small magnetic sensors, large magnetic sensors, flux loops, Rogowski Coils, thermocouples, and Langmuir Probes are qualified for 600 degrees C operation. This rating will accommodate both peak rear-face graphite tile temperatures during operations and the 350 degrees C bake-out conditions. Similar sensor systems including flux loops, on other vacuum vessel regions are qualified for 350 degrees C operation. Cabling from the sensors embedded in the graphite tiles follows narrow routes to exit the vessel. The detailed sensor design and installation methods of these diagnostic systems developed for high-powered ST operation are discussed.

  3. Pressure Resistance Welding of High Temperature Metallic Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    N. Jerred; L. Zirker; I. Charit; J. Cole; M. Frary; D. Butt; M. Meyer; K. L. Murty

    2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Pressure Resistance Welding (PRW) is a solid state joining process used for various high temperature metallic materials (Oxide dispersion strengthened alloys of MA957, MA754; martensitic alloy HT-9, tungsten etc.) for advanced nuclear reactor applications. A new PRW machine has been installed at the Center for Advanced Energy Studies (CAES) in Idaho Falls for conducting joining research for nuclear applications. The key emphasis has been on understanding processing-microstructure-property relationships. Initial studies have shown that sound joints can be made between dissimilar materials such as MA957 alloy cladding tubes and HT-9 end plugs, and MA754 and HT-9 coupons. Limited burst testing of MA957/HT-9 joints carried out at various pressures up to 400oC has shown encouraging results in that the joint regions do not develop any cracking. Similar joint strength observations have also been made by performing simple bend tests. Detailed microstructural studies using SEM/EBSD tools and fatigue crack growth studies of MA754/HT-9 joints are ongoing.

  4. High temperature coatings for gas turbines

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zheng, Xiaoci Maggie

    2003-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Coating for high temperature gas turbine components that include a MCrAlX phase, and an aluminum-rich phase, significantly increase oxidation and cracking resistance of the components, thereby increasing their useful life and reducing operating costs. The aluminum-rich phase includes aluminum at a higher concentration than aluminum concentration in the MCrAlX alloy, and an aluminum diffusion-retarding composition, which may include cobalt, nickel, yttrium, zirconium, niobium, molybdenum, rhodium, cadmium, indium, cerium, iron, chromium, tantalum, silicon, boron, carbon, titanium, tungsten, rhenium, platinum, and combinations thereof, and particularly nickel and/or rhenium. The aluminum-rich phase may be derived from a particulate aluminum composite that has a core comprising aluminum and a shell comprising the aluminum diffusion-retarding composition.

  5. Thermochemistry of high-temperature corrosion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Natesan, K.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Multicomponent gas environments are prevalent in a number of energy systems, especially in those that utilize fossil fuels. The gas environments in these processes contain sulfur-bearing components in addition to oxidants. These complex environments, coupled with the elevated temperatures present in these systems, generally cause significant corrosion of engineering materials. Thermodynamic aspects of high-temperature corrosion processes occuring in complex gas mixtures are discussed, with emphasis on the role of thermochemical diagrams. The interrelationships between the corrosion behavior of materials and gas composition, alloy chemistry, and temperatures are examined. A number of examples from studies on materials behavior in coal-gasification environments are used to elucidate the role of thermochemistry in the understanding of corrosion processes that occur in complex gas mixtures. 11 figures.

  6. Turbine vane with high temperature capable skins

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morrison, Jay A. (Oviedo, FL)

    2012-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A turbine vane assembly includes an airfoil extending between an inner shroud and an outer shroud. The airfoil can include a substructure having an outer peripheral surface. At least a portion of the outer peripheral surface is covered by an external skin. The external skin can be made of a high temperature capable material, such as oxide dispersion strengthened alloys, intermetallic alloys, ceramic matrix composites or refractory alloys. The external skin can be formed, and the airfoil can be subsequently bi-cast around or onto the skin. The skin and the substructure can be attached by a plurality of attachment members extending between the skin and the substructure. The skin can be spaced from the outer peripheral surface of the substructure such that a cavity is formed therebetween. Coolant can be supplied to the cavity. Skins can also be applied to the gas path faces of the inner and outer shrouds.

  7. High temperature low friction surface coating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bhushan, Bharat (Watervliet, NY)

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A high temperature, low friction, flexible coating for metal surfaces which are subject to rubbing contact includes a mixture of three parts graphite and one part cadmium oxide, ball milled in water for four hours, then mixed with thirty percent by weight of sodium silicate in water solution and a few drops of wetting agent. The mixture is sprayed 12-15 microns thick onto an electro-etched metal surface and air dried for thirty minutes, then baked for two hours at 65.degree. C. to remove the water and wetting agent, and baked for an additional eight hours at about 150.degree. C. to produce the optimum bond with the metal surface. The coating is afterwards burnished to a thickness of about 7-10 microns.

  8. Multilayer ultra-high-temperature ceramic coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Loehman, Ronald E. (Albuquerque, NM); Corral, Erica L. (Tucson, AZ)

    2012-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A coated carbon-carbon composite material with multiple ceramic layers to provide oxidation protection from ultra-high-temperatures, where if the carbon-carbon composite material is uninhibited with B.sub.4C particles, then the first layer on the composite material is selected from ZrB.sub.2 and HfB.sub.2, onto which is coated a layer of SiC coated and if the carbon-carbon composite material is inhibited with B.sub.4C particles, then protection can be achieved with a layer of SiC and a layer of either ZrB.sub.2 and HfB.sub.2 in any order.

  9. A Reversible Planar Solid Oxide Fuel-Fed Electrolysis Cell and Solid Oxide Fuel Cell for Hydrogen and Electricity Production Operating on Natural Gas/Biomass Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tao, Greg, G.

    2007-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A solid oxide fuel-assisted electrolysis technique was developed to co-generate hydrogen and electricity directly from a fuel at a reduced cost of electricity. Solid oxide fuel-assisted electrolysis cells (SOFECs), which were comprised of 8YSZ electrolytes sandwiched between thick anode supports and thin cathodes, were constructed and experimentally evaluated at various operation conditions on lab-level button cells with 2 cm2 per-cell active areas as well as on bench-scale stacks with 30 cm2 and 100 cm2 per-cell active areas. To reduce the concentration overpotentials, pore former systems were developed and engineered to optimize the microstructure and morphology of the Ni+8YSZ-based anodes. Chemically stable cathode materials, which possess good electronic and ionic conductivity and exhibit good electrocatalytic properties in both oxidizing and reducing gas atmospheres, were developed and materials properties were investigated. In order to increase the specific hydrogen production rate and thereby reduce the system volume and capital cost for commercial applications, a hybrid system that integrates the technologies of the SOFEC and the solid-oxide fuel cell (SOFC), was developed and successfully demonstrated at a 1kW scale, co-generating hydrogen and electricity directly from chemical fuels.

  10. Microstructure, residual stress, and mechanical properties of thin film materials for a microfabricated solid oxide fuel cell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Quinn, David John, Sc. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The microstructure and residual stress of sputter-deposited films for use in microfabricated solid oxide fuel cells are presented. Much of the work focuses on the characterization of a candidate solid electrolyte: Yttria ...

  11. Cerium-modified doped strontium titanate compositions for solid oxide fuel cell anodes and electrodes for other electrochemical devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Marina, Olga A [Richland, WA; Stevenson, Jeffry W [Richland, WA

    2010-11-23T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention provides novel compositions that find advantageous use in making electrodes for electrochemical cells and electrochemical devices such as solid oxide fuel cells, electrolyzers, sensors, pumps and the like, the compositions comprising cerium-modified doped strontium titanate. The invention also provides novel methods for making and using anode material compositions and solid oxide fuel cells and solid oxide fuel cell assemblies having anodes comprising the compositions.

  12. Copper-substituted perovskite compositions for solid oxide fuel cell cathodes and oxygen reduction electrodes in other electrochemical devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rieke, Peter C. (Pasco, WA); Coffey, Gregory W. (Richland, WA); Pederson, Larry R. (Kennewick, WA); Marina, Olga A. (Richland, WA); Hardy, John S. (Richland, WA); Singh, Prabhaker (Richland, WA); Thomsen, Edwin C. (Richland, WA)

    2010-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention provides novel compositions that find advantageous use in making electrodes for electrochemical cells. Also provided are electrochemical devices that include active oxygen reduction electrodes, such as solid oxide fuel cells, sensors, pumps and the like. The compositions comprises a copper-substituted ferrite perovskite material. The invention also provides novel methods for making and using the electrode compositions and solid oxide fuel cells and solid oxide fuel cell assemblies having cathodes comprising the compositions.

  13. Cerium-modified doped strontium titanate compositions for solid oxide fuel cell anodes and electrodes for other electrochemical devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Marina, Olga A [Richland, WA; Stevenson, Jeffry W [Richland, WA

    2010-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention provides novel compositions that find advantageous use in making electrodes for electrochemical cells and electrochemical devices such as solid oxide fuel cells, electrolyzers, sensors, pumps and the like, the compositions comprising cerium-modified doped strontium titanate. The invention also provides novel methods for making and using anode material compositions and solid oxide fuel cells and solid oxide fuel cell assemblies having anodes comprising the compositions.

  14. Zero Emission Power Plants Using Solid Oxide Fuel Cells and Oxygen Transport Membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shockling, Larry A.; Huang, Keqin; Gilboy, Thomas E. (Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation); Christie, G. Maxwell; Raybold, Troy M. (Praxair, Inc.)

    2001-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Siemens Westinghouse Power Corp. (SWPC) is engaged in the development of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell stationary power systems. SWPC has combined DOE Developmental funds with commercial customer funding to establish a record of successful SOFC field demonstration power systems of increasing size. SWPC will soon deploy the first unit of a newly developed 250 kWe Combined Heat Power System. It will generate electrical power at greater than 45% electrical efficiency. The SWPC SOFC power systems are equipped to operate on lower number hydrocarbon fuels such as pipeline natural gas, which is desulfurized within the SOFC power system. Because the system operates with a relatively high electrical efficiency, the CO2 emissions, {approx}1.0 lb CO2/ kW-hr, are low. Within the SOFC module the desulfurized fuel is utilized electrochemically and oxidized below the temperature for NOx generation. Therefore the NOx and SOx emissions for the SOFC power generation system are near negligible. The byproducts of the power generation from hydrocarbon fuels that are released into the environment are CO2 and water vapor. This forward looking DOE sponsored Vision 21 program is supporting the development of methods to capture and sequester the CO2, resulting in a Zero Emission power generation system. To accomplish this, SWPC is developing a SOFC module design, to be demonstrated in operating hardware, that will maintain separation of the fuel cell anode gas, consisting of H2, CO, H2O and CO2, from the vitiated air. That anode gas, the depleted fuel stream, containing less than 18% (H2 + CO), will be directed to an Oxygen Transport Membrane (OTM) Afterburner that is being developed by Praxair, Inc.. The OTM is supplied air and the depleted fuel. The OTM will selectively transport oxygen across the membrane to oxidize the remaining H2 and CO. The water vapor is then condensed from the totally 1.5.DOC oxidized fuel stream exiting the afterburner, leaving only the CO2 in gaseous form. That CO2 can then be compressed and sequestered, resulting in a Zero Emission power generation system operating on hydrocarbon fuel that adds only water vapor to the environment. Praxair has been developing oxygen separation systems based on dense walled, mixed electronic, oxygen ion conducting ceramics for a number of years. The oxygen separation membranes find applications in syngas production, high purity oxygen production and gas purification. In the SOFC afterburner application the chemical potential difference between the high temperature SOFC depleted fuel gas and the supplied air provides the driving force for oxygen transport. This permeated oxygen subsequently combusts the residual fuel in the SOFC exhaust. A number of experiments have been carried out in which simulated SOFC depleted fuel gas compositions and air have been supplied to either side of single OTM tubes in laboratory-scale reactors. The ceramic tubes are sealed into high temperature metallic housings which precludes mixing of the simulated SOFC depleted fuel and air streams. In early tests, although complete oxidation of the residual CO and H2 in the simulated SOFC depleted fuel was achieved, membrane performance degraded over time. The source of degradation was found to be contaminants in the simulated SOFC depleted fuel stream. Following removal of the contaminants, stable membrane performance has subsequently been demonstrated. In an ongoing test, the dried afterburner exhaust composition has been found to be stable at 99.2% CO2, 0.4% N2 and 0.6%O2 after 350 hours online. Discussion of these results is presented. A test of a longer, commercial demonstration size tube was performed in the SWPC test facility. A similar contamination of the simulated SOFC depleted fuel stream occurred and the performance degraded over time. A second test is being prepared. Siemens Westinghouse and Praxair are collaborating on the preliminary design of an OTM equipped Afterburner demonstration unit. The intent is to test the afterburner in conjunction with a reduced size SOFC test module that has the anode gas separati

  15. Faraday imaging at high temperatures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hackel, L.A.; Reichert, P.

    1997-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

    A Faraday filter rejects background light from self-luminous thermal objects, but transmits laser light at the passband wavelength, thus providing an ultra-narrow optical bandpass filter. The filter preserves images so a camera looking through a Faraday filter at a hot target illuminated by a laser will not see the thermal radiation but will see the laser radiation. Faraday filters are useful for monitoring or inspecting the uranium separator chamber in an atomic vapor laser isotope separation process. Other uses include viewing welds, furnaces, plasma jets, combustion chambers, and other high temperature objects. These filters are can be produced at many discrete wavelengths. A Faraday filter consists of a pair of crossed polarizers on either side of a heated vapor cell mounted inside a solenoid. 3 figs.

  16. Faraday imaging at high temperatures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hackel, Lloyd A. (Livermore, CA); Reichert, Patrick (Hayward, CA)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A Faraday filter rejects background light from self-luminous thermal objects, but transmits laser light at the passband wavelength, thus providing an ultra-narrow optical bandpass filter. The filter preserves images so a camera looking through a Faraday filter at a hot target illuminated by a laser will not see the thermal radiation but will see the laser radiation. Faraday filters are useful for monitoring or inspecting the uranium separator chamber in an atomic vapor laser isotope separation process. Other uses include viewing welds, furnaces, plasma jets, combustion chambers, and other high temperature objects. These filters are can be produced at many discrete wavelengths. A Faraday filter consists of a pair of crossed polarizers on either side of a heated vapor cell mounted inside a solenoid.

  17. High temperature electrolysis for syngas production

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stoots, Carl M. (Idaho Falls, ID); O'Brien, James E. (Idaho Falls, ID); Herring, James Stephen (Idaho Falls, ID); Lessing, Paul A. (Idaho Falls, ID); Hawkes, Grant L. (Sugar City, ID); Hartvigsen, Joseph J. (Kaysville, UT)

    2011-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Syngas components hydrogen and carbon monoxide may be formed by the decomposition of carbon dioxide and water or steam by a solid-oxide electrolysis cell to form carbon monoxide and hydrogen, a portion of which may be reacted with carbon dioxide to form carbon monoxide. One or more of the components for the process, such as steam, energy, or electricity, may be provided using a nuclear power source.

  18. Development of High Temperature/High Sensitivity Novel Chemical Resistive Sensor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Chonglin; Nash, Patrick; Ma, Chunrui; Enriquez, Erik; Wang, Haibing; Xu, Xing; Bao, Shangyong; Collins, Gregory

    2013-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

    The research has been focused to design, fabricate, and develop high temperature/high sensitivity novel multifunctional chemical sensors for the selective detection of fossil energy gases used in power and fuel systems. By systematically studying the physical properties of the LnBaCo{sub 2}O{sub 5+d} (LBCO) [Ln=Pr or La] thin?films, a new concept chemical sensor based high temperature chemical resistant change has been developed for the application for the next generation highly efficient and near zero emission power generation technologies. We also discovered that the superfast chemical dynamic behavior and an ultrafast surface exchange kinetics in the highly epitaxial LBCO thin films. Furthermore, our research indicates that hydrogen can superfast diffuse in the ordered oxygen vacancy structures in the highly epitaxial LBCO thin films, which suggest that the LBCO thin film not only can be an excellent candidate for the fabrication of high temperature ultra sensitive chemical sensors and control systems for power and fuel monitoring systems, but also can be an excellent candidate for the low temperature solid oxide fuel cell anode and cathode materials.

  19. A MULTI-LENGTH SCALE APPROACH TO CORRELATING SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL POROUS CATHODE MICROSTRUCTURE TO ELECTROCHEMICAL PERFORMANCE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Florida, University of

    1 A MULTI-LENGTH SCALE APPROACH TO CORRELATING SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL POROUS CATHODE MICROSTRUCTURE.....................................................................................................18 2.2 Mixed Conductor SOFC Cathode

  20. High-temperature thermocouples and related methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rempe, Joy L. (Idaho Falls, ID); Knudson, Darrell L. (Firth, ID); Condie, Keith G. (Idaho Falls, ID); Wilkins, S. Curt (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2011-01-18T23:59:59.000Z

    A high-temperature thermocouple and methods for fabricating a thermocouple capable of long-term operation in high-temperature, hostile environments without significant signal degradation or shortened thermocouple lifetime due to heat induced brittleness.

  1. High Temperature Integrated Thermoelectric Ststem and Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mike S. H. Chu

    2011-06-06T23:59:59.000Z

    The final goal of this project is to produce, by the end of Phase II, an all ceramic high temperature thermoelectric module. Such a module design integrates oxide ceramic n-type, oxide ceramic p-type materials as thermoelectric legs and oxide ceramic conductive material as metalizing connection between n-type and p-type legs. The benefits of this all ceramic module are that it can function at higher temperatures (> 700 C), it is mechanically and functionally more reliable and it can be scaled up to production at lower cost. With this all ceramic module, millions of dollars in savings or in new opportunities recovering waste heat from high temperature processes could be made available. A very attractive application will be to convert exhaust heat from a vehicle to reusable electric energy by a thermoelectric generator (TEG). Phase I activities were focused on evaluating potential n-type and p-type oxide compositions as the thermoelectric legs. More than 40 oxide ceramic powder compositions were made and studied in the laboratory. The compositions were divided into 6 groups representing different material systems. Basic ceramic properties and thermoelectric properties of discs sintered from these powders were measured. Powders with different particles sizes were made to evaluate the effects of particle size reduction on thermoelectric properties. Several powders were submitted to a leading thermoelectric company for complete thermoelectric evaluation. Initial evaluation showed that when samples were sintered by conventional method, they had reasonable values of Seebeck coefficient but very low values of electrical conductivity. Therefore, their power factors (PF) and figure of merits (ZT) were too low to be useful for high temperature thermoelectric applications. An unconventional sintering method, Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS) was determined to produce better thermoelectric properties. Particle size reduction of powders also was found to have some positive benefits. Two composition systems, specifically 1.0 SrO - 0.8 x 1.03 TiO2 - 0.2 x 1.03 NbO2.5 and 0.97 TiO2 - 0.03 NbO2.5, have been identified as good base line compositions for n-type thermoelectric compositions in future module design. Tests of these materials at an outside company were promising using that company's processing and material expertise. There was no unique p-type thermoelectric compositions identified in phase I work other than several current cobaltite materials. Ca3Co4O9 will be the primary p-type material for the future module design until alternative materials are developed. BaTiO3 and rare earth titanate based dielectric compositions show both p-type and n-type behavior even though their electrical conductivities were very low. Further research and development of these materials for thermoelectric applications is planned in the future. A preliminary modeling and optimization of a thermoelectric generator (TEG) that uses the n-type 1.0 SrO - 1.03 x 0.8 TiO2 - 1.03 x 0.2 NbO2.5 was performed. Future work will combine development of ceramic powders and manufacturing expertise at TAM, development of SPS at TAM or a partner organization, and thermoelectric material/module testing, modeling, optimization, production at several partner organizations.

  2. Materials Characterization Capabilities at the High Temperature...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Lightweighting Materials Materials Characterization Capabilities at the High Temperature Materials Laboratory: Focus Lightweighting Materials 2011 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells...

  3. Agenda: High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Agenda for the High Temperature Membrane Working Group (HTMWG) meeting on May 18, 2009, in Arlington, Virginia

  4. Characterization of Cr poisoning in a solid oxide fuel cell cathode using a high-energy x-ray microbeam.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, D. J.; Almer, J.; Cruse, T.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A key feature of planar solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) is the feasibility of using metallic interconnects made of high temperature ferritic stainless steels, which reduce system cost while providing excellent electric conductivity. Such interconnects, however, contain high levels of chromium, which has been found to be associated with SOFC cathode performance degradation at SOFC operating temperatures; a phenomenon known as Cr poisoning. Here, we demonstrate an accurate measurement of the phase and concentration distributions of Cr species in a degraded SOFC, as well as related properties including deviatoric strain, integrated porosity, and lattice parameter variation, using high energy microbeam X-ray diffraction and radiography. We unambiguously identify (MnCr){sub 3}O{sub 4} and Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} as the two main contaminant phases and find that their concentrations correlate strongly with the cathode layer composition. Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} deposition within the active cathode region reduces porosity and produces compressive residual strains, which hinders the reactant gas percolation and can cause structural breakdown of the SOFC cathode. The information obtained through this study can be used to better understand the Cr-poisoning mechanism and improve SOFC design.

  5. Compliant alkali silicate sealing glass for solid oxide fuel cell applications: thermal cycle stability and chemical compatibility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chou, Y. S.; Thomsen, Edwin C.; Williams, Riley T.; Choi, Jung-Pyung; Canfield, Nathan L.; Bonnett, Jeff F.; Stevenson, Jeffry W.; Shyam, Amit; Lara-Curzio, E.

    2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An alkali silicate glass (SCN-1) is currently being evaluated as a candidate sealing glass for solid oxide fuel (SOFC) applications. The glass containing ~17 mole% alkalis (K2O and Na2O) remains vitreous and compliant during SOFC operation, unlike conventional SOFC sealing glasses, which experience substantial devitrification after the sealing process. The non-crystallizing compliant sealing glass has lower glass transition and softening temperatures since the microstructure remains glassy without significant crystallite formation, and hence can relieve or reduce residual stresses and also has the potential for crack healing. Sealing approaches based on compliant glass will also need to satisfy all the mechanical, thermal, chemical, physical, and electrical requirements for SOFC applications, not only in bulk properties but also at sealing interfaces. In this first of a series of papers we will report the thermal cycle stability of the glass when sealed between two SOFC components, i.e., a NiO/YSZ anode supported YSZ bilayer and a coated ferritic stainless steel interconnect material. High temperature leak rates were monitored versus thermal cycles between 700-850oC using back pressures ranging from 0.2 psi to 1.0 psi. Isothermal stability was also evaluated in a dual environment consisting of flowing dilute H2 fuel versus ambient air. In addition, chemical compatibility at the alumina and YSZ interfaces was examined with scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy. The results shed new light on the topic of SOFC glass seal development.

  6. LONG-TERM PERFORMANCE OF SOLID OXIDE STACKS WITH ELECTRODE-SUPPORTED CELLS OPERATING IN THE STEAM ELECTROLYSIS MODE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. E. O'Brien; R. C. O'Brien; X. Zhang; G. Tao; B. J. Butler

    2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Performance characterization and durability testing have been completed on two five-cell high-temperature electrolysis stacks constructed with advanced cell and stack technologies. The solid oxide cells incorporate a negative-electrode-supported multi-layer design with nickel-zirconia cermet negative electrodes, thin-film yttria-stabilized zirconia electrolytes, and multi-layer lanthanum ferrite-based positive electrodes. The per-cell active area is 100 cm2. The stack is internally manifolded with compliant mica-glass seals. Treated metallic interconnects with integral flow channels separate the cells. Stack compression is accomplished by means of a custom spring-loaded test fixture. Initial stack performance characterization was determined through a series of DC potential sweeps in both fuel cell and electrolysis modes of operation. Results of these sweeps indicated very good initial performance, with area-specific resistance values less than 0.5 ?.cm2. Long-term durability testing was performed with A test duration of 1000 hours. Overall performance degradation was less than 10% over the 1000-hour period. Final stack performance characterization was again determined by a series of DC potential sweeps at the same flow conditions as the initial sweeps in both electrolysis and fuel cell modes of operation. A final sweep in the fuel cell mode indicated a power density of 0.356 W/cm2, with average per-cell voltage of 0.71 V at a current of 50 A.

  7. Durability of Solid Oxide Electrolysis Cells for Hydrogen Production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    that have been optimized for fuel cell operation but applied for HTES. The SOCs are produced on a pre Jensen, Sune Dalgaard Ebbesen, Mogens Mogensen Fuel Cells and Solid State Chemistry Department Risoe: Kinetics of a Risoe SOC working as an electrolyser cell (negative current densities i) and as a fuel cell

  8. Thermocouples For High Temperature In-Pile Testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. L. Rempe

    2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Many advanced nuclear reactor designs require new fuel, cladding and structural materials. Data are needed to characeterize the performance of these new materials in high temperature, oxidizing and radiation conditions. To obtain this data, robust instrumentation is needed htat can survive proposed test conditions. Traditional methods for measuring temperature in-pile degrade at temperatures above 1080 degrees C. Hence, a project was intiated to develop specialized thermocouples for high temperature in-pile applications (see Rempe and Wilkins, 2005). This paper summarizes efforts to develop, fabricate and evaluate these specialized thermocouples.

  9. Using CrAIN Multilayer Coatings to Improve Oxidation Resistance of Steel Interconnects for Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Stacks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, Richard J.; Tripp, C.; Knospe, Anders; Ramana, C. V.; Gorokhovsky, Vladimir I.; Shutthanandan, V.; Gelles, David S.

    2004-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The requirements of low cost and high-tempurature corrosion resistance for bipolar interconnect plates in solid oxide fuel cell stacks has directed attention to the use of metal plates with oxidation resistant coatings. We have investigatedt he performance of steel plates with multilayer coatings consisting of CrN for electrical conductivity and CrAIN for oxidation resistance. The coatings were deposited usin large area filterd arc deposition technolgy, and subsequently annealed in air for up to 25 hours at 800 degrees celsius. The composition, structer and morphology of the coated plates were characterized using RBS, nuclear reaction analysis, AFM and TEM techniques. By altering the architecture of the layers within the coatings, the rate of oxidation was reduced by more than an order of magnitute. Electrical resistance was measured at room temperature.

  10. Nanoparticles as Reactive Precursors: Synthesis of Alloys, Intermetallic Compounds, and Multi-Metal Oxides Through Low-Temperature Annealing and Conversion Chemistry 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bauer, John C.

    2010-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Alloys, intermetallic compounds and multi-metal oxides are generally made by traditional solid-state methods that often require melting or grinding/pressing powders followed by high temperature annealing (> 1000 degrees ...

  11. High Temperature Superconducting Underground Cable

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farrell, Roger, A.

    2010-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this Project was to design, build, install and demonstrate the technical feasibility of an underground high temperature superconducting (HTS) power cable installed between two utility substations. In the first phase two HTS cables, 320 m and 30 m in length, were constructed using 1st generation BSCCO wire. The two 34.5 kV, 800 Arms, 48 MVA sections were connected together using a superconducting joint in an underground vault. In the second phase the 30 m BSCCO cable was replaced by one constructed with 2nd generation YBCO wire. 2nd generation wire is needed for commercialization because of inherent cost and performance benefits. Primary objectives of the Project were to build and operate an HTS cable system which demonstrates significant progress towards commercial progress and addresses real world utility concerns such as installation, maintenance, reliability and compatibility with the existing grid. Four key technical areas addressed were the HTS cable and terminations (where the cable connects to the grid), cryogenic refrigeration system, underground cable-to-cable joint (needed for replacement of cable sections) and cost-effective 2nd generation HTS wire. This was the world’s first installation and operation of an HTS cable underground, between two utility substations as well as the first to demonstrate a cable-to-cable joint, remote monitoring system and 2nd generation HTS.

  12. High temperature liquid level sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tokarz, Richard D. (West Richland, WA)

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A length of metal sheathed metal oxide cable is perforated to permit liquid access to the insulation about a pair of conductors spaced close to one another. Changes in resistance across the conductors will be a function of liquid level, since the wetted insulation will have greater electrical conductivity than that of the dry insulation above the liquid elevation.

  13. Computational and Experimental Development of Novel High Temperature Alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kramer, M.J.; Ray, P.K.; and Akinc, M.

    2010-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The work done in this paper is based on our earlier work on developing an extended Miedema model and then using it to downselect potential alloy systems. Our approach is to closely couple the semi-empirical methodologies to more accurate ab initio methods to dentify the best candidates for ternary alloying additions. The architectural framework for our material's design is a refractory base metal with a high temperature intermetallic which provides both high temperature creep strength and a source of oxidatively stable elements. Potential refractory base metals are groups IIIA, IVA and VA. For Fossil applications, Ni-Al appears to be the best choice to provide the source of oxidatively stable elements but this system requires a 'boost' in melting temperatures to be a viable candidate in the ultra-high temperature regime (> 1200C). Some late transition metals and noble elements are known to increase the melting temperature of Ni-Al phases. Such an approach suggested that a Mo-Ni-Al system would be a good base alloy system that could be further improved upon by dding Platinum group metals (PGMs). In this paper, we demonstrate the variety of microstructures that can be synthesized for the base alloy system, its oxidation behavior as well as the oxidation behavior of the PGM substituted oxidation resistant B2 NiAl phase.

  14. Inhibition of plasmonically enhanced interdot energy transfer in quantum dot solids via photo-oxidation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sadeghi, S. M. [Department of Physics, University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, Alabama 35899 (United States); Nano and Micro Device Center, University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, Alabama 35899 (United States); Nejat, A.; West, R. G. [Department of Physics, University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, Alabama 35899 (United States)

    2012-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We studied the impact of photophysical and photochemical processes on the interdot Forster energy transfer in monodisperse CdSe/ZnS quantum dot solids. For this, we investigated emission spectra of CdSe/ZnS quantum dot solids in the vicinity of gold metallic nanoparticles coated with chromium oxide. The metallic nanoparticles were used to enhance the rate of the energy transfer between the quantum dots, while the chromium oxide coating led to significant increase of their photo-oxidation rates. Our results showed that irradiation of such solids with a laser beam can lead to unique spectral changes, including narrowing and blue shift. We investigate these effects in terms of inhibition of the plasmonically enhanced interdot energy transfer between quantum dots via the chromium-oxide accelerated photo-oxidation process. We demonstrate this considering energy-dependent rate of the interdot energy transfer process, plasmonic effects, and the way photo-oxidation enhances non-radiative decay rates of quantum dots with different sizes.

  15. High Performance Ceramic Interconnect Material for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFCs): Ca- and Transition Metal-doped Yttrium Chromite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yoon, Kyung J.; Stevenson, Jeffry W.; Marina, Olga A.

    2011-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The effect of transition metal substitution on thermal and electrical properties of Ca-doped yttrium chromite was investigated in relation to use as a ceramic interconnect in high temperature solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). 10 at% Co, 4 at% Ni, and 1 at% Cu substitution on B-site of 20 at% Ca-doped yttrium chromite led to a close match of thermal expansion coefficient (TEC) with that of 8 mol% yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ), and a single phase Y0.8Ca0.2Cr0.85Co0.1Ni0.04Cu0.01O3 remained stable between 25 and 1100 degree C over a wide oxygen partial pressure range. Doping with Cu significantly facilitated densification of yttrium chromite. Ni dopant improved both electrical conductivity and dimensional stability in reducing environments, likely through diminishing the oxygen vacancy formation. Substitution with Co substantially enhanced electrical conductivity in oxidizing atmosphere, which was attributed to an increase in charge carrier density and hopping mobility. Electrical conductivity of Y0.8Ca0.2Cr0.85Co0.1Ni0.04Cu0.01O3 at 900 degree C is 57 S/cm in air and 11 S/cm in fuel (pO2=5×10^-17 atm) environments. Chemical compatibility of doped yttrium chromite with other cell components was verified at the processing temperatures. Based on the chemical and dimensional stability, sinterability, and thermal and electrical properties, Y0.8Ca0.2Cr0.85Co0.1Ni0.04Cu0.01O3 is suggested as a promising SOFC ceramic interconnect to potentially overcome technical limitations of conventional acceptor-doped lanthanum chromites.

  16. HIGH-TEMPERATURE ELECTROLYSIS FOR LARGE-SCALE HYDROGEN AND SYNGAS PRODUCTION FROM NUCLEAR ENERGY – SYSTEM SIMULATION AND ECONOMICS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. E. O'Brien; M. G. McKellar; E. A. Harvego; C. M. Stoots

    2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A research and development program is under way at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to assess the technological and scale-up issues associated with the implementation of solid-oxide electrolysis cell technology for efficient high-temperature hydrogen production from steam. This work is supported by the US Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Energy, under the Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative. This paper will provide an overview of large-scale system modeling results and economic analyses that have been completed to date. System analysis results have been obtained using the commercial code UniSim, augmented with a custom high-temperature electrolyzer module. Economic analysis results were based on the DOE H2A analysis methodology. The process flow diagrams for the system simulations include an advanced nuclear reactor as a source of high-temperature process heat, a power cycle and a coupled steam electrolysis loop. Several reactor types and power cycles have been considered, over a range of reactor outlet temperatures. Pure steam electrolysis for hydrogen production as well as coelectrolysis for syngas production from steam/carbon dioxide mixtures have both been considered. In addition, the feasibility of coupling the high-temperature electrolysis process to biomass and coal-based synthetic fuels production has been considered. These simulations demonstrate that the addition of supplementary nuclear hydrogen to synthetic fuels production from any carbon source minimizes emissions of carbon dioxide during the production process.

  17. Characterization of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Sealant Material G18 by Microindentation Alexandra Woldman, Cornell University, 2009 SURF Fellow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Mo

    Characterization of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Sealant Material G18 by Microindentation Alexandra Milhans Introduction Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) require a hermetic seal between the fuel and air side life of the fuel cell. An ideal sealant is chemically compatible with neighboring fuel cell components

  18. Polymer sphere lithography for solid oxide fuel cells: a route to functional, well-defined electrode structures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Polymer sphere lithography for solid oxide fuel cells: a route to functional, well. Introduction Dramatic breakthroughs in the materials, particularly electrode materials, for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) have been reported in recent years.1­3 Fundamental understanding of the electro- catalytic

  19. A thermally self-sustained micro solid-oxide fuel-cell stack with high power density

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haile, Sossina M.

    A thermally self-sustained micro solid-oxide fuel-cell stack with high power density Zongping Shao1 design challenges and cannot operate with hydrocarbon fuels of higher energy density. Solid-oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) enable direct use of higher hydrocarbons4­6 , but have not been seriously con- sidered

  20. The Orientation Distributions of Lines, Surfaces, and Interfaces around Three-Phase Boundaries in Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Cathodes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rohrer, Gregory S.

    in a multiphase ceramic material. I. Introduction THE active cathode regions of many solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs in Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Cathodes Shen J. Dillon, Lam Helmick,§,¶ Herbert M. Miller,§ Lane Wilson relevant triple phase boundary lines and surfaces near them in SOFC cathodes made up of a porous mixture

  1. In situ reduction and reoxidation of a solid oxide fuel cell anode in an environmental Q. Jeangros1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E.

    , Denmark Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) are efficient devices for the electrochemical conversion of a largeIn situ reduction and reoxidation of a solid oxide fuel cell anode in an environmental TEM Q phase can occur during SOFC stack operation due to air leakage through the sealing, leakage of fuel

  2. Novel Materials for Intermediate-Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cells Vincent Wu, University of California, Berkeley, 2011 SURF Fellow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Mo

    Introduction The need to develop new cathode materials for intermediate-temperature solid-oxide fuel cells (IT-SOFCsNovel Materials for Intermediate-Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cells Vincent Wu, University) is driven by the temperature conditions required for IT-SOFC operation. Designing SOFCs to operate at lower

  3. Effect of La2Zr2O7 on Interfacial Resistance in Solid Oxide J. R. Smith,a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Florida, University of

    Effect of La2Zr2O7 on Interfacial Resistance in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells A. Chen,a J. R. Smith,a K. L manuscript received August 9, 2010. Published September 14, 2010. Solid oxide fuel cells SOFC are energy to gas phase transport in porous media, is controlled by optimizing electrode mi- crostructures

  4. The usefulness of solid oxidants for biostimulation, determined by their kinetics and stoichiometry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Waite, Andrew James

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    model for the release of oxygen from these solid additives. The four oxidants were: sodium-percarbonate (Na2CO3'1.5H202) encapsulated in poly(vinyhdene chloride) (PVDC); free sodium-percarbonate crystals; calcium peroxide (CaO2); and magnesium peroxide...

  5. In situ reduction and evaluation of anode supported single chamber solid oxide fuel cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    In situ reduction and evaluation of anode supported single chamber solid oxide fuel cells D.05.118 #12;Abstract Single chamber anode-supported fuel cells are investigated under several methane under methane-to-oxygen ratio (Rmix) of 2. Anode-supported fuel cells are investigated regarding

  6. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Development at Topsoe Fuel Cell A/S and Ris National Laboratory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Development at Topsoe Fuel Cell A/S and Risø National Laboratory N. Hagenb a Topsoe Fuel Cell A/S, Nymøllevej 55, DK-2800 Lyngby, Denmark b Risø National Laboratory, DTU, DK-4000 Roskilde, Denmark ABSTRACT Topsoe Fuel Cell A/S (TOFC) and Risø National Laboratory (Risø

  7. Solid oxide fuel cell systems with hot zones having improved reactant distribution

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Poshusta, Joseph C; Booten, Charles W; Martin, Jerry L

    2013-12-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) system having a hot zone with a center cathode air feed tube for improved reactant distribution, a CPOX reactor attached at the anode feed end of the hot zone with a tail gas combustor at the opposing end for more uniform heat distribution, and a counter-flow heat exchanger for efficient heat retention.

  8. Solid oxide fuel cell systems with hot zones having improved reactant distribution

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Poshusta, Joseph C.; Booten, Charles W.; Martin, Jerry L.

    2012-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

    A Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) system having a hot zone with a center cathode air feed tube for improved reactant distribution, a CPOX reactor attached at the anode feed end of the hot zone with a tail gas combustor at the opposing end for more uniform heat distribution, and a counter-flow heat exchanger for efficient heat retention.

  9. P0906-090-Chnani Macroscopic Model of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Stack for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 P0906-090-Chnani Macroscopic Model of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Stack for Integrating in a Generator fuel cell (SOFC) with the aim to perform a simulation of the whole generator. Three sub-models have at the catalytic sites and gas flows at fuel cell input and output. The electrical response is based

  10. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Successfully Powers Truck Cab and Sleeper in DOE-Sponsored Test

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In a test sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy, a Delphi auxiliary power unit employing a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) successfully operated the electrical system and air conditioning of a Peterbilt Model 386 truck under conditions simulating idling conditions for 10 hours.

  11. Bipolar Plate-Supported Solid Oxide Fuel Cell J. D. Carter, T. Cruse, J. Ralph,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bipolar Plate-Supported Solid Oxide Fuel Cell "TuffCell" J. D. Carter, T. Cruse, J. Ralph, R. Kumar · Objective: Develop an improved SOFC for APUs ­ SOFC advantages · High power density and efficiency · Fuel versatility/simplified fuel processing · Well-suited to duty cycle of APU ­ SOFC issues · Startup time

  12. Apparatus tube configuration and mounting for solid oxide fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zymboly, G.E.

    1993-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A generator apparatus is made containing long, hollow, tubular, fuel cells containing an inner air electrode, an outer fuel electrode, and solid electrolyte there between, placed between a fuel distribution board and a board which separates the combustion chamber from the generating chamber, where each fuel cell has an insertable open end and in insertable, plugged, closed end, the plugged end being inserted into the fuel distribution board and the open end being inserted through the separator board where the plug is completely within the fuel distribution board. 3 figures.

  13. Catalytically Assisted Self-Propagating High-Temperature Synthesis of Tantalum Carbide Powders

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wooldridge, Margaret S.

    Catalytically Assisted Self-Propagating High-Temperature Synthesis of Tantalum Carbide Powders Troy high-temperature combustion synthesis (SHS) of materials has gained recognition for its energy in the context of gas-phase and solid-phase transport models. I. Introduction IN RECENT years, self-propagating

  14. High temperature solar selective coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kennedy, Cheryl E

    2014-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Improved solar collectors (40) comprising glass tubing (42) attached to bellows (44) by airtight seals (56) enclose solar absorber tubes (50) inside an annular evacuated space (54. The exterior surfaces of the solar absorber tubes (50) are coated with improved solar selective coatings {48} which provide higher absorbance, lower emittance and resistance to atmospheric oxidation at elevated temperatures. The coatings are multilayered structures comprising solar absorbent layers (26) applied to the meta surface of the absorber tubes (50), typically stainless steel, topped with antireflective Savers (28) comprising at least two layers 30, 32) of refractory metal or metalloid oxides (such as titania and silica) with substantially differing indices of refraction in adjacent layers. Optionally, at least one layer of a noble metal such as platinum can be included between some of the layers. The absorbent layers cars include cermet materials comprising particles of metal compounds is a matrix, which can contain oxides of refractory metals or metalloids such as silicon. Reflective layers within the coating layers can comprise refractory metal silicides and related compounds characterized by the formulas TiSi. Ti.sub.3SiC.sub.2, TiAlSi, TiAN and similar compounds for Zr and Hf. The titania can be characterized by the formulas TiO.sub.2, Ti.sub.3O.sub.5. TiOx or TiO.sub.xN.sub.1-x with x 0 to 1. The silica can be at least one of SiO.sub.2, SiO.sub.2x or SiO.sub.2xN.sub.1-x with x=0 to 1.

  15. TESTING AND PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF NASA 5 CM BY 5 CM BI-SUPPORTED SOLID OXIDE ELECTROLYSIS CELLS OPERATED IN BOTH FUEL CELL AND STEAM ELECTROLYSIS MODES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R. C. O'Brien; J. E. O'Brien; C. M. Stoots; X. Zhang; S. C. Farmer; T. L. Cable; J. A. Setlock

    2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A series of 5 cm by 5 cm bi-supported Solid Oxide Electrolysis Cells (SOEC) were produced by NASA for the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and tested under the INL High Temperature Steam Electrolysis program. The results from the experimental demonstration of cell operation for both hydrogen production and operation as fuel cells is presented. An overview of the cell technology, test apparatus and performance analysis is also provided. The INL High Temperature Steam Electrolysis laboratory has developed significant test infrastructure in support of single cell and stack performance analyses. An overview of the single cell test apparatus is presented. The test data presented in this paper is representative of a first batch of NASA's prototypic 5 cm by 5 cm SOEC single cells. Clearly a significant relationship between the operational current density and cell degradation rate is evident. While the performance of these cells was lower than anticipated, in-house testing at NASA Glenn has yielded significantly higher performance and lower degradation rates with subsequent production batches of cells. Current post-test microstructure analyses of the cells tested at INL will be published in a future paper. Modification to cell compositions and cell reduction techniques will be altered in the next series of cells to be delivered to INL with the aim to decrease the cell degradation rate while allowing for higher operational current densities to be sustained. Results from the testing of new batches of single cells will be presented in a future paper.

  16. Hybrid deposition of thin film solid oxide fuel cells and electrolyzers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jankowski, A.F.; Makowiecki, D.M.; Rambach, G.D.; Randich, E.

    1998-05-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The use of vapor deposition techniques enables synthesis of the basic components of a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC); namely, the electrolyte layer, the two electrodes, and the electrolyte-electrode interfaces. Such vapor deposition techniques provide solutions to each of the three critical steps of material synthesis to produce a thin film solid oxide fuel cell (TFSOFC). The electrolyte is formed by reactive deposition of essentially any ion conducting oxide, such as defect free, yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) by planar magnetron sputtering. The electrodes are formed from ceramic powders sputter coated with an appropriate metal and sintered to a porous compact. The electrolyte-electrode interface is formed by chemical vapor deposition of zirconia compounds onto the porous electrodes to provide a dense, smooth surface on which to continue the growth of the defect-free electrolyte, whereby a single fuel cell or multiple cells may be fabricated. 8 figs.

  17. Hybrid deposition of thin film solid oxide fuel cells and electrolyzers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jankowski, Alan F. (Livermore, CA); Makowiecki, Daniel M. (Livermore, CA); Rambach, Glenn D. (Livermore, CA); Randich, Erik (Endinboro, PA)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The use of vapor deposition techniques enables synthesis of the basic components of a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC); namely, the electrolyte layer, the two electrodes, and the electrolyte-electrode interfaces. Such vapor deposition techniques provide solutions to each of the three critical steps of material synthesis to produce a thin film solid oxide fuel cell (TFSOFC). The electrolyte is formed by reactive deposition of essentially any ion conducting oxide, such as defect free, yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) by planar magnetron sputtering. The electrodes are formed from ceramic powders sputter coated with an appropriate metal and sintered to a porous compact. The electrolyte-electrode interface is formed by chemical vapor deposition of zirconia compounds onto the porous electrodes to provide a dense, smooth surface on which to continue the growth of the defect-free electrolyte, whereby a single fuel cell or multiple cells may be fabricated.

  18. Hybrid deposition of thin film solid oxide fuel cells and electrolyzers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jankowski, Alan F. (Livermore, CA); Makowiecki, Daniel M. (Livermore, CA); Rambach, Glenn D. (Livermore, CA); Randich, Erik (Endinboro, PA)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The use of vapor deposition techniques enables synthesis of the basic components of a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC); namely, the electrolyte layer, the two electrodes, and the electrolyte-electrode interfaces. Such vapor deposition techniques provide solutions to each of the three critical steps of material synthesis to produce a thin film solid oxide fuel cell (TFSOFC). The electrolyte is formed by reactive deposition of essentially any ion conducting oxide, such as defect free, yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) by planar magnetron sputtering. The electrodes are formed from ceramic powders sputter coated with an appropriate metal and sintered to a porous compact. The electrolyte-electrode interface is formed by chemical vapor deposition of zirconia compounds onto the porous electrodes to provide a dense, smooth surface on which to continue the growth of the defect-free electrolyte, whereby a single fuel cell or multiple cells may be fabricated.

  19. Deep Trek High Temperature Electronics Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bruce Ohme

    2007-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes technical progress achieved during the cooperative research agreement between Honeywell and U.S. Department of Energy to develop high-temperature electronics. Objects of this development included Silicon-on-Insulator (SOI) wafer process development for high temperature, supporting design tools and libraries, and high temperature integrated circuit component development including FPGA, EEPROM, high-resolution A-to-D converter, and a precision amplifier.

  20. Efficient reversible electrodes for solid oxide electrolyzer cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Elangovan, S.; Hartvigsen, Joseph J.; Zhao, Feng

    2013-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    An electrolyzer cell is disclosed which includes a cathode to reduce an oxygen-containing molecule, such as H2O, CO.sub.2, or a combination thereof, to produce an oxygen ion and a fuel molecule, such as H.sub.2, CO, or a combination thereof. An electrolyte is coupled to the cathode to transport the oxygen ion to an anode. The anode is coupled to the electrolyte to receive the oxygen ion and produce oxygen gas therewith. In one embodiment, the anode may be fabricated to include an electron-conducting phase having a perovskite crystalline structure or structure similar thereto. This perovskite may have a chemical formula of substantially (Pr(.sub.1-x)La.sub.x)(z-y)A'.sub.yBO(3-.differential.), wherein 0oxide intermixed with magnesium oxide.

  1. Efficient reversible electrodes for solid oxide electrolyzer cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Elangovan, Singaravelu (South Jordan, UT); Hartvigsen, Joseph J. (Kaysville, UT)

    2011-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

    An electrolyzer cell is disclosed which includes a cathode to reduce an oxygen-containing molecule, such as H2O, CO2, or a combination thereof, to produce an oxygen ion and a fuel molecule, such as H2, CO, or a combination thereof. An electrolyte is coupled to the cathode to transport the oxygen ion to an anode. The anode is coupled to the electrolyte to receive the oxygen ion and produce oxygen gas therewith. In one embodiment, the anode may be fabricated to include an electron-conducting phase having a perovskite crystalline structure or structure similar thereto. This perovskite may have a chemical formula of substantially (Pr(1-x)Lax)(z-y)A'yBO(3-.differential.), wherein 0.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.0.5, 0.ltoreq.y.ltoreq.0.5, and 0.8.ltoreq.z.ltoreq.1.1. In another embodiment, the cathode includes an electron-conducting phase that contains nickel oxide intermixed with magnesium oxide.

  2. A high-temperature, ambient-pressure ultra-dry operando reactor cell for Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Köck, Eva-Maria; Kogler, Michaela; Pramsoler, Reinhold; Klötzer, Bernhard; Penner, Simon, E-mail: simon.penner@uibk.ac.at [Institute of Physical Chemistry, University of Innsbruck, Innrain 80-82, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria)

    2014-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The construction of a newly designed high-temperature, high-pressure FT-IR reaction cell for ultra-dry in situ and operando operation is reported. The reaction cell itself as well as the sample holder is fully made of quartz glass, with no hot metal or ceramic parts in the vicinity of the high-temperature zone. Special emphasis was put on chemically absolute water-free and inert experimental conditions, which includes reaction cell and gas-feeding lines. Operation and spectroscopy up to 1273 K is possible, as well as pressures up to ambient conditions. The reaction cell exhibits a very easy and variable construction and can be adjusted to any available FT-IR spectrometer. Its particular strength lies in its possibility to access and study samples under very demanding experimental conditions. This includes studies at very high temperatures, e.g., for solid-oxide fuel cell research or studies where the water content of the reaction mixtures must be exactly adjusted. The latter includes all adsorption studies on oxide surfaces, where the hydroxylation degree is of paramount importance. The capability of the reaction cell will be demonstrated for two selected examples where information and in due course a correlation to other methods can only be achieved using the presented setup.

  3. Nickel based anodes for single chamber solid oxide fuel cells : a catalytic study Geoffroy Gadacz, Sorina Udroiu, Jean-Paul Viricelle, Christophe Pijolat, Michle Pijolat

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Nickel based anodes for single chamber solid oxide fuel cells : a catalytic study Geoffroy Gadacz Single chamber solid oxide fuel cells (SCFC) are an alternative concept to traditional SOFC

  4. Materials Characterization Capabilities at the High Temperature...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    2010 -- Washington D.C. lm028laracurzio2010o.pdf More Documents & Publications Materials Characterization Capabilities at the High Temperature Materials Laboratory and HTML...

  5. Materials Characterization Capabilities at the High Temperature...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Review and Peer Evaluation lm028laracurzio2011o.pdf More Documents & Publications Materials Characterization Capabilities at the High Temperature Materials Laboratory and HTML...

  6. Materials Characterization Capabilities at the High Temperature...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    and Peer Evaluation Meeting lm028laracurzio2012o.pdf More Documents & Publications Materials Characterization Capabilities at the High Temperature Materials Laboratory and HTML...

  7. Materials Characterization Capabilities at the High Temperature...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    May 18-22, 2009 -- Washington D.C. lm01laracurzio.pdf More Documents & Publications Materials Characterization Capabilities at the High Temperature Materials Laboratory and HTML...

  8. Materials Characterization Capabilities at the High Temperature...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Laboratory: Focus on Carbon Fiber and Composites Materials Characterization Capabilities at the High Temperature Materials Laboratory: Focus on Carbon Fiber and Composites 2011 DOE...

  9. Materials Characterization Capabilities at the High Temperature...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Characterization Capabilities at the High Temperature Materials Laboratory: Focus on Carbon Fiber and Composites Project ID: LM027 DOE 2011 Vehicle Technologies Annual Merit...

  10. Intertwined Orders in High Temperature Superconductors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ostoja-Starzewski, Martin

    Intertwined Orders in High Temperature Superconductors ! Eduardo Fradkin University of Illinois · Electronic liquid crystal phases have also been seen heavy fermions and iron superconductors 7 #12

  11. Quantitative Modeling of High Temperature Magnetization Dynamics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Shufeng

    2009-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Final Technical Report Project title: Quantitative Modeling of High Temperature Magnetization Dynamics DOE/Office of Science Program Manager Contact: Dr. James Davenport

  12. Photonic crystals for high temperature applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yeng, Yi Xiang

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis focuses on the design, optimization, fabrication, and experimental realization of metallic photonic crystals (MPhCs) for high temperature applications, for instance thermophotovoltaic (TPV) energy conversion ...

  13. Thermomechanical Cyclic Response of TiNiPd High-Temperature Shape Memory Alloys

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Atli, Kadri

    2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

    TiNiPd high-temperature shape memory alloys (HTSMAs) have attracted considerable attention as potential solid-state actuators capable of operating at temperatures up to 500 °C, exhibiting excellent corrosion resistance, adequate ductility levels...

  14. Recent developments in high-temperature photonic crystals for energy conversion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rinnerbauer, Veronika

    After decades of intense studies focused on cryogenic and room temperature nanophotonics, scientific interest is also growing in high-temperature nanophotonics aimed at solid-state energy conversion. These latest extensive ...

  15. Process for forming a homogeneous oxide solid phase of catalytically active material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Perry, Dale L. (Hercules, CA); Russo, Richard E. (Walnut Creek, CA); Mao, Xianglei (Berkeley, CA)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process is disclosed for forming a homogeneous oxide solid phase reaction product of catalytically active material comprising one or more alkali metals, one or more alkaline earth metals, and one or more Group VIII transition metals. The process comprises reacting together one or more alkali metal oxides and/or salts, one or more alkaline earth metal oxides and/or salts, one or more Group VIII transition metal oxides and/or salts, capable of forming a catalytically active reaction product, in the optional presence of an additional source of oxygen, using a laser beam to ablate from a target such metal compound reactants in the form of a vapor in a deposition chamber, resulting in the deposition, on a heated substrate in the chamber, of the desired oxide phase reaction product. The resulting product may be formed in variable, but reproducible, stoichiometric ratios. The homogeneous oxide solid phase product is useful as a catalyst, and can be produced in many physical forms, including thin films, particulate forms, coatings on catalyst support structures, and coatings on structures used in reaction apparatus in which the reaction product of the invention will serve as a catalyst.

  16. Microstructure Sensitive Design and Processing in Solid Oxide Electrolyzer Cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Hamid Garmestani; Dr. Stephen Herring

    2009-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

    The aim of this study was to develop and inexpensive manufacturing process for deposition of functionally graded thin films of LSM oxides with porosity graded microstructures for use as IT-SOFCs cathode. The spray pyrolysis method was chosen as a low-temperature processing technique for deposition of porous LSM films onto dense YXZ substrates. The effort was directed toward the optimization of the processing conditions for deposition of high quality LSM films with variety of morphologies in the range of dense to porous microstructures. Results of optimization studies of spray parameters revealed that the substrate surface temperature is the most critical parameter influencing the roughness and morphology, porosity, cracking and crystallinity of the film.

  17. Sealed glass coating of high temperature ceramic superconductors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wu, Weite (Tainan, TW); Chu, Cha Y. (Garnerville, NY); Goretta, Kenneth C. (Downers Grove, IL); Routbort, Jules L. (Darien, IL)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and article of manufacture of a lead oxide based glass coating on a high temperature superconductor. The method includes preparing a dispersion of glass powders in a solution, applying the dispersion to the superconductor, drying the dispersion before applying another coating and heating the glass powder dispersion at temperatures below oxygen diffusion onset and above the glass melting point to form a continuous glass coating on the superconductor to establish compressive stresses which enhance the fracture strength of the superconductor.

  18. Journal of Power Sources 153 (2006) 6875 Numerical study of a flat-tube high power density solid oxide fuel cell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    power density (HPD) solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) is a geometry based on a tubular type SOFC: Flat-tube; High power density (HPD); Solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC); Simulation; Performance; Optimization 1. Introduction A solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC), like any other fuel cell, produces electrical

  19. Bulk Power System Dynamics and Control -VII, August 19-24, 2007, Charleston, South Carolina, USA Dynamics of a Microgrid Supplied by Solid Oxide Fuel Cells1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hiskens, Ian A.

    Dynamics of a Microgrid Supplied by Solid Oxide Fuel Cells1 Eric M. Fleming Ian A. Hiskens Department-- The paper presents a model for a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) stack operating at relatively low pressures. Keywords: Solid oxide fuel cells, microgrid dynamics, inverter control. I. INTRODUCTION Distributed

  20. Transient thermal behaviour of a solid oxide fuel cell Moussa Chnani, Marie-Ccile Pra, Raynal Glises, Jean Marie Kauffmann and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    and Electrochemical modelling. 1- Introduction The solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) is a promising technologyTransient thermal behaviour of a solid oxide fuel cell Moussa Chnani, Marie-Cécile Péra, Raynal provided by HTceramix. Keywords: Solid oxide fuel cell; Transient thermal modelling; Fluidic

  1. High-Temperature-High-Volume Lifting for Enhanced Geothermal...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High-Temperature-High-Volume Lifting for Enhanced Geothermal Systems High-Temperature-High-Volume Lifting for Enhanced Geothermal Systems High-Temperature-High-Volume Lifting for...

  2. High Temperature, High Pressure Devices for Zonal Isolation in...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High Temperature, High Pressure Devices for Zonal Isolation in Geothermal Wells High Temperature, High Pressure Devices for Zonal Isolation in Geothermal Wells High Temperature,...

  3. High Temperature Gas Reactors The Next Generation ?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -Proof Advanced Reactor and Gas Turbine #12;Flow through Power Conversion Vessel 8 #12;9 TRISO Fuel Particle1 High Temperature Gas Reactors The Next Generation ? Professor Andrew C Kadak Massachusetts of Brayton vs. Rankine Cycle · High Temperature Helium Gas (900 C) · Direct or Indirect Cycle · Originally

  4. High temperature superconducting fault current limiter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hull, J.R.

    1997-02-04T23:59:59.000Z

    A fault current limiter for an electrical circuit is disclosed. The fault current limiter includes a high temperature superconductor in the electrical circuit. The high temperature superconductor is cooled below its critical temperature to maintain the superconducting electrical properties during operation as the fault current limiter. 15 figs.

  5. High temperature superconducting fault current limiter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hull, John R. (Hinsdale, IL)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A fault current limiter (10) for an electrical circuit (14). The fault current limiter (10) includes a high temperature superconductor (12) in the electrical circuit (14). The high temperature superconductor (12) is cooled below its critical temperature to maintain the superconducting electrical properties during operation as the fault current limiter (10).

  6. Oxidation reactions of solid carbonaceous and resinous substances in supercritical water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koda, S. [Sophia University, Tokyo (Japan). Dept. of Material and Life Science

    2009-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent kinetic studies, particularly those by means of shadowgraphy and X-ray radiography, for supercritical water oxidation of solid carbonaceous and resinous substances have revealed the importance of the O{sub 2} mass transfer process over the intrinsic surface reaction at higher temperatures. The mass transfer processes, internal and external one, should be incorporated in designing SCWO processes for solid substances and related processes such as catalytic SCWO. Some model calculation efforts of late are briefly described. Finally, fundamental information required for future development is itemed.

  7. Recrystallization of high temperature superconductors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kouzoudis, D.

    1996-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Currently one of the most widely used high {Tc} superconductors is the Bi-based compounds Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub z} and Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}Ca{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub z} (known as BSCCO 2212 and 2223 compounds) with {Tc} values of about 85 K and 110 K respectively. Lengths of high performance conductors ranging from 100 to 1000 m long are routinely fabricated and some test magnets have been wound. An additional difficulty here is that although Bi-2212 and Bi-2223 phases exist over a wide range of stoichiometries, neither has been prepared in phase-pure form. So far the most successful method of constructing reliable and robust wires or tapes is the so called powder-in-tube (PIT) technique [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7] in which oxide powder of the appropriate stoichiometry and phase content is placed inside a metal tube, deformed into the desired geometry (round wire or flat tape), and annealed to produce the desired superconducting properties. Intermediate anneals are often incorporated between successive deformation steps. Silver is the metal used in this process because it is the most compatible with the reacting phase. In all of the commercial processes for BSCCO, Ag seems to play a special catalytic role promoting the growth of high performance aligned grains that grow in the first few micrometers near the Ag/BSCCO interface. Adjacent to the Ag, the grain alignment is more perfect and the current density is higher than in the center of the tape. It is known that Ag lowers the melting point of several of the phases but the detailed mechanism for growth of these high performance grains is not clearly understood. The purpose of this work is to study the nucleation and growth of the high performance material at this interface.

  8. Generation and Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Carbon Sequestration in Northwest Indiana

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kevin Peavey; Norm Bessette

    2007-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of the project is to develop the technology capable of capturing all carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide from natural gas fueled Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) system. In addition, the technology to electrochemically oxidize any remaining carbon monoxide to carbon dioxide will be developed. Success of this R&D program would allow for the generation of electrical power and thermal power from a fossil fuel driven SOFC system without the carbon emissions resulting from any other fossil fueled power generationg system.

  9. Fuel electrode containing pre-sintered nickel/zirconia for a solid oxide fuel cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ruka, Roswell J. (Pittsburgh, PA); Vora, Shailesh D. (Monroeville, PA)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A fuel cell structure (2) is provided, having a pre-sintered nickel-zirconia fuel electrode (6) and an air electrode (4), with a ceramic electrolyte (5) disposed between the electrodes, where the pre-sintered fuel electrode (6) contains particles selected from the group consisting of nickel oxide, cobalt and cerium dioxide particles and mixtures thereof, and titanium dioxide particles, within a matrix of yttria-stabilized zirconia and spaced-apart filamentary nickel strings having a chain structure, and where the fuel electrode can be sintered to provide an active solid oxide fuel cell.

  10. Effect of Creep of Ferritic Interconnect on Long-Term Performance of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Stacks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Wenning N.; Sun, Xin; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

    2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    High-temperature ferritic alloys are potential candidates as interconnect (IC) materials and spacers due to their low cost and coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) compatibility with other components for most of the solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) . However, creep deformation becomes relevant for a material when the operating temperature exceeds or even is less than half of its melting temperature (in degrees of Kelvin). The operating temperatures for most of the SOFCs under development are around 1,073 K. With around 1,800 K of the melting temperature for most stainless steel, possible creep deformation of ferritic IC under the typical cell operating temperature should not be neglected. In this paper, the effects of IC creep behavior on stack geometry change and the stress redistribution of different cell components are predicted and summarized. The goal of the study is to investigate the performance of the fuel cell stack by obtaining the changes in fuel- and air-channel geometry due to creep of the ferritic stainless steel IC, therefore indicating possible changes in SOFC performance under long-term operations. The ferritic IC creep model was incorporated into software SOFC-MP and Mentat-FC, and finite element analyses were performed to quantify the deformed configuration of the SOFC stack under the long-term steady-state operating temperature. It was found that the creep behavior of the ferritic stainless steel IC contributes to narrowing of both the fuel- and the air-flow channels. In addition, stress re-distribution of the cell components suggests the need for a compliant sealing material that also relaxes at operating temperature.

  11. Tubular solid oxide fuel cells with porous metal supports and ceramic interconnections

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Huang, Kevin (Export, PA); Ruka, Roswell J. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    2012-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

    An intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cell structure capable of operating at from 600.degree. C. to 800.degree. C. having a very thin porous hollow elongated metallic support tube having a thickness from 0.10 mm to 1.0 mm, preferably 0.10 mm to 0.35 mm, a porosity of from 25 vol. % to 50 vol. % and a tensile strength from 700 GPa to 900 GPa, which metallic tube supports a reduced thickness air electrode having a thickness from 0.010 mm to 0.2 mm, a solid oxide electrolyte, a cermet fuel electrode, a ceramic interconnection and an electrically conductive cell to cell contact layer.

  12. Short time proton dynamics in bulk ice and in porous anode solid oxide fuel cell materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Basoli, Francesco [Università degli Studi di Roma Tor Vergata, Italy] [Università degli Studi di Roma Tor Vergata, Italy; Senesi, Roberto [ORNL] [ORNL; Kolesnikov, Alexander I [ORNL] [ORNL; Licoccia, Silvia [NAST Center, University of Roma "Tor Vergata"] [NAST Center, University of Roma "Tor Vergata"

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Oxygen reduction and incorporation into solid electrolytes and the reverse reaction of oxygen evolution play a cru-cial role in Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) applications. However a detailed un derstanding of the kinetics of the cor-responding reactions, i.e. on reaction mechanisms, rate limiting steps, reaction paths, electrocatalytic role of materials, is still missing. These include a thorough characterization of the binding potentials experienced by protons in the lattice. We report results of Inelastic Neutron Scattering (INS) measurements of the vibrational state of the protons in Ni- YSZ highly porous composites (75% to 90% ), a ceramic-metal material showing a high electrical conductivity and ther mal stability, which is known to be most effectively used as anodes for solid ox ide fuel cells. The results are compared with INS and Deep Inelastic Neutron Scattering (DINS) experiments on the proton binding states in bulk ice.

  13. MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF Sc???Ce????Zr????O? ELECTROLYTE MATERIAL FOR INTERMEDIATE TEMPERATURE SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lim, Wendy

    2011-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Scandia doped zirconia has been considered a candidate for electrolyte material in intermediate temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFCs) due to its high ionic conductivity, chemical stability and good electrochemical ...

  14. MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF Sc???Ce????Zr????O? ELECTROLYTE MATERIAL FOR INTERMEDIATE TEMPERATURE SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lim, Wendy

    2011-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Scandia doped zirconia has been considered a candidate for electrolyte material in intermediate temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFCs) due to its high ionic conductivity, chemical stability and good electrochemical performance. The aim...

  15. Vapour phase approach for iron oxide nanoparticle synthesis from solid precursors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singh, Mandeep; Ulbrich, Pavel; Prokopec, Vadym [Institute of Chemical Technology Prague, Technicka 5, 166 28 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Svoboda, Pavel [Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University, Ke Karlovu 5, 120 00 Prague 2 (Czech Republic); Šantavá, Eva [Institute of Physics ASCR, Na Slovance 2, 182 21 Prague 8 (Czech Republic); Št?pánek, František, E-mail: Frantisek.Stepanek@vscht.cz [Institute of Chemical Technology Prague, Technicka 5, 166 28 Prague 6 (Czech Republic)

    2013-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A new non-solution mediated approach to the synthesis of iron oxide nanoparticles directly from solid FeCl{sub 2} salt precursors has been developed. The method is rapid, simple and scalable. The structural properties and the phase of the resulting iron oxide particles has been determined by a range of methods including XRD, FT-IR and Mössbauer spectroscopy, and the phase is shown to be maghemite (?-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}). The magnetic properties of the iron oxide particles have been measured using SQUID, confirming superparamagnetic behaviour of the powder and a saturation magnetization of 53.0 emu g{sup ?1} at 300 K. Aqueous dispersions at increasing concentrations were prepared and their heating rate under a 400 kHz alternating magnetic field measured. The specific absorption rate (SAR) of the iron oxide was found to be 84.8 W g{sup ?1}, which makes the material suitable for the formulation of ferrofluids or ferrogels with RF heating properties. - Graphical Abstract: Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles obtained by a novel vapour phase approach. Highlights: ? Novel vapour phase (non-solvent) approach for iron oxide nanoparticle synthesis. ? Attractive alternative approach to the present co-precipitation method. ? Better magnetic properties with high coercivity of nanoparticles. ? A high specific absorption rate (SAR) for hyperthermia applications.

  16. SUSY and symmetry nonrestoration at high temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bajc, Borut [J. Stefan Institute, 1001 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    1999-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The status of internal symmetry breaking at high temperature in super-symmetric models is shortly reviewed. This possibility could solve some well known cosmological problems, such as the domain wall, monopole and false vacuum problems.

  17. Solid oxide fuel cell with transitioned cross-section for improved anode gas management at the open end

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zafred, Paolo R. (Murrysville, PA); Draper, Robert (Pittsburgh, PA)

    2012-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

    A solid oxide fuel cell (400) is made having a tubular, elongated, hollow, active section (445) which has a cross-section containing an air electrode (452) a fuel electrode (454) and solid oxide electrolyte (456) between them, where the fuel cell transitions into at least one inactive section (460) with a flattened parallel sided cross-section (462, 468) each cross-section having channels (472, 474, 476) in them which smoothly communicate with each other at an interface section (458).

  18. Structural, chemical, and electrochemical characteristics of LaSr2Fe2CrO9--based solid oxide fuel cell anodes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Poeppelmeier, Kenneth R.

    -of-the-art solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) anode is Ni-8-mole% yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ), which performs very Available online 5 March 2012 Keywords: Solid oxide fuel cell Perovskite Oxide anode Redox Sulfur tolerance Solid oxide fuel cells with LaSr2Fe2CrO9-­Gd0.1Ce0.9O2- composite anodes were tested in H2, H2S

  19. Liquid Fuel Production from Biomass via High Temperature Steam Electrolysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grant L. Hawkes; Michael G. McKellar

    2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process model of syngas production using high temperature electrolysis and biomass gasification is presented. Process heat from the biomass gasifier is used to heat steam for the hydrogen production via the high temperature steam electrolysis process. Hydrogen from electrolysis allows a high utilization of the biomass carbon for syngas production. Oxygen produced form the electrolysis process is used to control the oxidation rate in the oxygen-fed biomass gasifier. Based on the gasifier temperature, 94% to 95% of the carbon in the biomass becomes carbon monoxide in the syngas (carbon monoxide and hydrogen). Assuming the thermal efficiency of the power cycle for electricity generation is 50%, (as expected from GEN IV nuclear reactors), the syngas production efficiency ranges from 70% to 73% as the gasifier temperature decreases from 1900 K to 1500 K. Parametric studies of system pressure, biomass moisture content and low temperature alkaline electrolysis are also presented.

  20. Investigations into High Temperature Components and Packaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marlino, L.D.; Seiber, L.E.; Scudiere, M.B.; M.S. Chinthavali, M.S.; McCluskey, F.P.

    2007-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this report is to document the work that was performed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in support of the development of high temperature power electronics and components with monies remaining from the Semikron High Temperature Inverter Project managed by the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). High temperature electronic components are needed to allow inverters to operate in more extreme operating conditions as required in advanced traction drive applications. The trend to try to eliminate secondary cooling loops and utilize the internal combustion (IC) cooling system, which operates with approximately 105 C water/ethylene glycol coolant at the output of the radiator, is necessary to further reduce vehicle costs and weight. The activity documented in this report includes development and testing of high temperature components, activities in support of high temperature testing, an assessment of several component packaging methods, and how elevated operating temperatures would impact their reliability. This report is organized with testing of new high temperature capacitors in Section 2 and testing of new 150 C junction temperature trench insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBTs) in Section 3. Section 4 addresses some operational OPAL-GT information, which was necessary for developing module level tests. Section 5 summarizes calibration of equipment needed for the high temperature testing. Section 6 details some additional work that was funded on silicon carbide (SiC) device testing for high temperature use, and Section 7 is the complete text of a report funded from this effort summarizing packaging methods and their reliability issues for use in high temperature power electronics. Components were tested to evaluate the performance characteristics of the component at different operating temperatures. The temperature of the component is determined by the ambient temperature (i.e., temperature surrounding the device) plus the temperature increase inside the device due the internal heat that is generated due to conduction and switching losses. Capacitors and high current switches that are reliable and meet performance specifications over an increased temperature range are necessary to realize electronics needed for hybrid-electric vehicles (HEVs), fuel cell (FC) and plug-in HEVs (PHEVs). In addition to individual component level testing, it is necessary to evaluate and perform long term module level testing to ascertain the effects of high temperature operation on power electronics.

  1. Solid-state lithium battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ihlefeld, Jon; Clem, Paul G; Edney, Cynthia; Ingersoll, David; Nagasubramanian, Ganesan; Fenton, Kyle Ross

    2014-11-04T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is directed to a higher power, thin film lithium-ion electrolyte on a metallic substrate, enabling mass-produced solid-state lithium batteries. High-temperature thermodynamic equilibrium processing enables co-firing of oxides and base metals, providing a means to integrate the crystalline, lithium-stable, fast lithium-ion conductor lanthanum lithium tantalate (La.sub.1/3-xLi.sub.3xTaO.sub.3) directly with a thin metal foil current collector appropriate for a lithium-free solid-state battery.

  2. Fundamental Studies of the Durability of Materials for Interconnects in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frederick S. Pettit; Gerald H. Meier

    2006-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Ferritic stainless steels are a leading candidate material for use as an SOFC interconnect, but have the problem of forming volatile chromia species that lead to cathode poisoning. This project has focused both on optimization of ferritic alloys for SOFC applications and evaluating the possibility of using alternative materials. The initial efforts involved studying the oxidation behavior of a variety of chromia-forming ferritic stainless steels in the temperature range 700-900 C in atmospheres relevant to solid oxide fuel cell operation. The alloys exhibited a wide variety of oxidation behavior based on composition. A method for reducing the vaporization is to add alloying elements that lead to the formation of a thermally grown oxide layer over the protective chromia. Several commercial steels form manganese chromate on the surface. This same approach, combined with observations of TiO{sub 2} overlayer formation on the chromia forming, Ni-based superalloy IN 738, has resulted in the development of a series of Fe-22 Cr-X Ti alloys (X=0-4 wt%). Oxidation testing has indicated that this approach results in significant reduction in chromia evaporation. Unfortunately, the Ti also results in accelerated chromia scale growth. Fundamental thermo-mechanical aspects of the durability of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) interconnect alloys have also been investigated. A key failure mechanism for interconnects is the spallation of the chromia scale that forms on the alloy, as it is exposed to fuel cell environments. Indentation testing methods to measure the critical energy release rate (Gc) associated with the spallation of chromia scale/alloy systems have been evaluated. This approach has been used to evaluate the thermomechanical stability of chromia films as a function of oxidation exposure. The oxidation of pure nickel in SOFC environments was evaluated using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) to determine the NiO scaling kinetics and a four-point probe was used to measure the area-specific resistance (ASR) to estimate the electrical degradation of the interconnect. In addition to the baseline study of pure nickel, steps were taken to decrease the ASR through alloying and surface modifications. Finally, high conductivity composite systems, consisting of nickel and silver, were studied. These systems utilize high conductivity silver pathways through nickel while maintaining the mechanical stability that a nickel matrix provides.

  3. Journal of Power Sources 140 (2005) 331339 Numerical study of a flat-tube high power density solid oxide fuel cell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ) solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) is a new design developed by Siemens Westinghouse, based on their formerly.V. All rights reserved. Keywords: Flat-tube; High power density; Solid oxide fuel cell; Simulation; Heat oxide fuel cell Part I. Heat/mass transfer and fluid flow Yixin Lu1, Laura Schaefer, Peiwen Li2

  4. DEVELOPMENT OF LOW-COST MANUFACTURING PROCESSES FOR PLANAR, MULTILAYER SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL ELEMENTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scott Swartz; Matthew Seabaugh; William Dawson; Harlan Anderson; Tim Armstrong; Michael Cobb; Kirby Meacham; James Stephan; Russell Bennett; Bob Remick; Chuck Sishtla; Scott Barnett; John Lannutti

    2004-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes the results of a four-year project, entitled, ''Low-Cost Manufacturing Of Multilayer Ceramic Fuel Cells'', jointly funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, the State of Ohio, and by project participants. The project was led by NexTech Materials, Ltd., with subcontracting support provided by University of Missouri-Rolla, Michael A. Cobb & Co., Advanced Materials Technologies, Inc., Edison Materials Technology Center, Gas Technology Institute, Northwestern University, and The Ohio State University. Oak Ridge National Laboratory, though not formally a subcontractor on the program, supported the effort with separate DOE funding. The objective of the program was to develop advanced manufacturing technologies for making solid oxide fuel cell components that are more economical and reliable for a variety of applications. The program was carried out in three phases. In the Phase I effort, several manufacturing approaches were considered and subjected to detailed assessments of manufacturability and development risk. Estimated manufacturing costs for 5-kW stacks were in the range of $139/kW to $179/kW. The risk assessment identified a number of technical issues that would need to be considered during development. Phase II development work focused on development of planar solid oxide fuel cell elements, using a number of ceramic manufacturing methods, including tape casting, colloidal-spray deposition, screen printing, spin-coating, and sintering. Several processes were successfully established for fabrication of anode-supported, thin-film electrolyte cells, with performance levels at or near the state-of-the-art. The work in Phase III involved scale-up of cell manufacturing methods, development of non-destructive evaluation methods, and comprehensive electrical and electrochemical testing of solid oxide fuel cell materials and components.

  5. Sealed glass coating of high temperature ceramic superconductors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wu, W.; Chu, C.Y.; Goretta, K.C.; Routbort, J.L.

    1995-05-02T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and article of manufacture of a lead oxide based glass coating on a high temperature superconductor is disclosed. The method includes preparing a dispersion of glass powders in a solution, applying the dispersion to the superconductor, drying the dispersion before applying another coating and heating the glass powder dispersion at temperatures below oxygen diffusion onset and above the glass melting point to form a continuous glass coating on the superconductor to establish compressive stresses which enhance the fracture strength of the superconductor. 8 figs.

  6. High temperature crystalline superconductors from crystallized glasses

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shi, Donglu (Downers Grove, IL)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of preparing a high temperature superconductor from an amorphous phase. The method involves preparing a starting material of a composition of Bi.sub.2 Sr.sub.2 Ca.sub.3 Cu.sub.4 Ox or Bi.sub.2 Sr.sub.2 Ca.sub.4 Cu.sub.5 Ox, forming an amorphous phase of the composition and heat treating the amorphous phase for particular time and temperature ranges to achieve a single phase high temperature superconductor.

  7. Silicon Based Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Chip for Portable Consumer Electronics -- Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alan Ludwiszewski

    2009-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

    LSI’s fuel cell uses efficient Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (“SOFC”) technology, is manufactured using Micro Electrical Mechanical System (“MEMS”) fabrication methods, and runs on high energy fuels, such as butane and ethanol. The company’s Fuel Cell on a Chip™ technology enables a form-factor battery replacement for portable electronic devices that has the potential to provide an order-of-magnitude run-time improvement over current batteries. Further, the technology is clean and environmentally-friendly. This Department of Energy funded project focused on accelerating the commercialization and market introduction of this technology through improvements in fuel cell chip power output, lifetime, and manufacturability.

  8. Rapid thermal cycling of metal-supported solid oxide fuel cellmembranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matus, Yuriy B.; De Jonghe, Lutgard C.; Jacobson, Craig P.; Visco, Steven J.

    2004-01-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) membranes were developed in which zirconia-based electrolyte thin films were supported by a composite metal/ceramic electrode, and were subjected to rapid thermal cycling between 200 and 800 C. The effects of this cycling on membrane performance were evaluated. The membranes, not yet optimized for performance, showed a peak power density of 350mW/cm2at 900 C in laboratory-sized SOFCs that was not affected by the thermal cycling. This resistance to cycling degradation is attributed to the close matching of thermal expansion coefficient of the cermet support electrode with that of the zirconia electrolyte.

  9. Combination nickel foam expanded nickel screen electrical connection supports for solid oxide fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Draper, Robert; Prevish, Thomas; Bronson, Angela; George, Raymond A.

    2007-01-02T23:59:59.000Z

    A solid oxide fuel assembly is made, wherein rows (14, 25) of fuel cells (17, 19, 21, 27, 29, 31), each having an outer interconnection (20) and an outer electrode (32), are disposed next to each other with corrugated, electrically conducting expanded metal mesh member (22) between each row of cells, the corrugated mesh (22) having top crown portions and bottom portions, where the top crown portion (40) have a top bonded open cell nickel foam (51) which contacts outer interconnections (20) of the fuel cells, said mesh and nickel foam electrically connecting each row of fuel cells, and where there are no more metal felt connections between any fuel cells.

  10. Solid oxide fuel cells having porous cathodes infiltrated with oxygen-reducing catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, Meilin; Liu, Ze; Liu, Mingfei; Nie, Lifang; Mebane, David Spencer; Wilson, Lane Curtis; Surdoval, Wayne

    2014-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Solid-oxide fuel cells include an electrolyte and an anode electrically coupled to a first surface of the electrolyte. A cathode is provided, which is electrically coupled to a second surface of the electrolyte. The cathode includes a porous backbone having a porosity in a range from about 20% to about 70%. The porous backbone contains a mixed ionic-electronic conductor (MIEC) of a first material infiltrated with an oxygen-reducing catalyst of a second material different from the first material.

  11. FY 2014 Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Project Selections | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 1112011 Strategic Plan| Department of.pdf6-OPAMDepartment6 FY 2007FY 2014 Solid Oxide Fuel Cell

  12. Cassettes for solid-oxide fuel cell stacks and methods of making the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weil, K. Scott; Meinhardt, Kerry D; Sprenkle, Vincent L

    2012-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Solid-oxide fuel cell (SOFC) stack assembly designs are consistently investigated to develop an assembly that provides optimal performance, and durability, within desired cost parameters. A new design includes a repeat unit having a SOFC cassette and being characterized by a three-component construct. The three components include an oxidation-resistant, metal window frame hermetically joined to an electrolyte layer of a multi-layer, anode-supported ceramic cell and a pre-cassette including a separator plate having a plurality of vias that provide electrical contact between an anode-side collector within the pre-cassette and a cathode-side current collector of an adjacent cell. The third component is a cathode-side seal, which includes a standoff that supports a cathode channel spacing between each of the cassettes in a stack. Cassettes are formed by joining the pre-cassette and the window frame.

  13. Activity and structure of perovskites as diesel reforming catalysts for solid oxide fuel cells.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, D.-J.; Krumpelt, M.; Chemical Engineering

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent progress in developing perovskite materials as more cost-effective catalysts in autothermal reforming (ATR) of diesel fuel to hydrogen-rich reformate for solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) application is reported. Perovskite-type metal oxides with B sites partially exchanged by ruthenium were prepared and evaluated under ATR reaction conditions. The hydrogen yield, reforming efficiency, and CO{sub x} selectivity of these catalysts were investigated using diesel surrogate fuel with 50 ppm sulfur. The catalyst performances have approached or exceeded a benchmark, high-cost rhodium-based material. In parallel with the reactivity study, we also investigated the physical properties of B-site doped perovskites and their impact on the reforming performance using various characterization techniques such as BET, X-ray powder diffraction, temperature programmable reduction, scanning electron microscopy, and synchrotron X-ray absorption spectroscopy. We found that ruthenium is highly dispersed into perovskite lattice and its redox behavior is directly associated with reforming activity.

  14. Anode protection system for shutdown of solid oxide fuel cell system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Li, Bob X; Grieves, Malcolm J; Kelly, Sean M

    2014-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

    An Anode Protection Systems for a SOFC system, having a Reductant Supply and safety subsystem, a SOFC anode protection subsystem, and a Post Combustion and slip stream control subsystem. The Reductant Supply and safety subsystem includes means for generating a reducing gas or vapor to prevent re-oxidation of the Ni in the anode layer during the course of shut down of the SOFC stack. The underlying ammonia or hydrogen based material used to generate a reducing gas or vapor to prevent the re-oxidation of the Ni can be in either a solid or liquid stored inside a portable container. The SOFC anode protection subsystem provides an internal pressure of 0.2 to 10 kPa to prevent air from entering into the SOFC system. The Post Combustion and slip stream control subsystem provides a catalyst converter configured to treat any residual reducing gas in the slip stream gas exiting from SOFC stack.

  15. Effect of La{sub 2}O{sub 3}-treatment on textural and solid-solid interactions in ferric/cobaltic oxides system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fagal, Gehan A. [Physical Chemistry Department, National Research Center, Dokki, Cairo (Egypt)] [Physical Chemistry Department, National Research Center, Dokki, Cairo (Egypt); Badawy, Abdelrahman A. [Physical Chemistry Department, Center of Excellence for advanced Science, Renewable Energy Group, National Research Center, Dokki, Cairo (Egypt)] [Physical Chemistry Department, Center of Excellence for advanced Science, Renewable Energy Group, National Research Center, Dokki, Cairo (Egypt); Hassan, Neven A. [Physical Chemistry Department, National Research Center, Dokki, Cairo (Egypt)] [Physical Chemistry Department, National Research Center, Dokki, Cairo (Egypt); El-Shobaky, Gamil A., E-mail: gamil_elshobaky@yahoo.com [Physical Chemistry Department, National Research Center, Dokki, Cairo (Egypt)

    2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Pure and La{sub 2}O{sub 3}-containing (0.75-3.0 mol%) Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} solids were prepared by thermal treatment of their carbonates at 500-700 Degree-Sign C. The produced solids were characterized using XRD, HRTEM, EDX and nitrogen adsorption at -196 Degree-Sign C. The results revealed that pure solids calcined at 600 and 700 Degree-Sign C consisted of nanosized CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} phase, while pure mixed solids calcined at 500 Degree-Sign C consisted of trace amount of CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} and unreacted Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} phases. The presence of 0.75 mol% La{sub 2}O{sub 3} enhanced solid-solid interaction between Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} at 500 Degree-Sign C yielding CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}. The ferrite phase existed also in all mixed oxides upon treated with La{sub 2}O{sub 3} besides LaCoO{sub 3} phase. LaCoO{sub 3} existed as a major phase in all mixed oxides treated with 3 mol% La{sub 2}O{sub 3}. La{sub 2}O{sub 3}-treatment modified the crystallite size of all phases present to an extent dependent on calcination temperature and amount of La{sub 2}O{sub 3} content. This treatment decreased effectively the S{sub BET} of all mixed solids. - Graphical Abstract: TEM photographs of pure mixed oxides calcined at 500 Degree-Sign C. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cobalt ferrite exhibit chemical stability, low electric loss and high coercivity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cobalt ferrite is used in microwave devices, computer memories and magnetic storage. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Solid-solid interactions in ferric/cobaltic oxides system were investigated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer La{sub 2}O{sub 3}-treatment modified surface compositions of the system investigated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer All phases present in various solids existed as nanosized solids.

  16. High temperature thermoelectric properties of the solid-solution zintl

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC) EnvironmentalGyroSolé(tm) Harmonicbet WhenHiggs BosonAccurate knowledgeHighHigh

  17. Nitric-phosphoric acid oxidation of solid and liquid organic materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pierce, R.A.; Smith, J.R.; Poprik, D.C.

    1995-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Nitric-phosphoric acid oxidation has been developed specifically to address issues that face the Savannah River Site, other defense-related facilities, private industry, and small-volume generators such as university and medical laboratories. Initially tested to destroy and decontaminate SRS solid, Pu-contaminated job-control waste, the technology has also exhibited potential for remediating hazardous and mixed-hazardous waste forms. The process is unique to Savannah River and offers a valuable alternative to other oxidation processes that require extreme temperatures and/or elevated pressures. To address the broad categories of waste, many different organic compounds which represent a cross-section of the waste that must be treated have been successfully oxidized. Materials that have been quantitatively oxidized at atmospheric pressure below 180{degrees}C include neoprene, cellulose, EDTA, tributylphosphate, and nitromethane. More stable compounds such as benzoic acid, polyethylene, oils, and resins have been completely decomposed below 200{degrees}C and 10 psig. The process uses dilute nitric acid in a concentrated phosphoric acid media as the main oxidant for the organic compounds. Phosphoric acid allow nitric acid to be retained in solution well above its normal boiling point. The reaction forms NOx vapors which can be reoxidized and recycled using air and water. The addition of 0.001M Pd(II) reduces CO generation to near 1% of the released carbon gases. The advantages of this process are that it is straightforward, uses relatively inexpensive reagents, operates at relatively low temperature and pressure, and produces final solutions which are compatible with stainless steel equipment. For organic wastes, all carbon, hydrogen, and nitrogen are converted to gaseous products. If interfaced with an acid recovery system which converts NOx back to nitric acid, the net oxidizer would be oxygen from air.

  18. Composite solid oxide fuel cell anode based on ceria and strontium titanate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Marina, Olga A. (Richland, WA); Pederson, Larry R. (Richland, WA)

    2008-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

    An anode and method of making the same wherein the anode consists of two separate phases, one consisting of a doped strontium titanate phase and one consisting of a doped cerium oxide phase. The strontium titanate phase consists of Sr.sub.1-xM.sub.xTiO.sub.3-.delta., where M is either yttrium (Y), scandium (Sc), or lanthanum (La), where "x" may vary typically from about 0.01 to about 0.5, and where .delta. is indicative of some degree of oxygen non-stoichiometry. A small quantity of cerium may also substitute for titanium in the strontium titanate lattice. The cerium oxide consists of N.sub.yCe.sub.1-yO.sub.2-.delta., where N is either niobium (Nb), vanadium (V), antimony (Sb) or tantalum (Ta) and where "y" may vary typically from about 0.001 to about 0.1 and wherein the ratio of Ti in said first phase to the sum of Ce and N in the second phase is between about 0.2 to about 0.75. Small quantities of strontium, yttrium, and/or lanthanum may additionally substitute into the cerium oxide lattice. The combination of these two phases results in better performance than either phase used separately as an anode for solid oxide fuel cell or other electrochemical device.

  19. High temperature storage loop : final design report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gill, David Dennis; Kolb, William J.

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A three year plan for thermal energy storage (TES) research was created at Sandia National Laboratories in the spring of 2012. This plan included a strategic goal of providing test capability for Sandia and for the nation in which to evaluate high temperature storage (>650%C2%B0C) technology. The plan was to scope, design, and build a flow loop that would be compatible with a multitude of high temperature heat transfer/storage fluids. The High Temperature Storage Loop (HTSL) would be reconfigurable so that it was useful for not only storage testing, but also for high temperature receiver testing and high efficiency power cycle testing as well. In that way, HTSL was part of a much larger strategy for Sandia to provide a research and testing platform that would be integral for the evaluation of individual technologies funded under the SunShot program. DOE's SunShot program seeks to reduce the price of solar technologies to 6/kWhr to be cost competitive with carbon-based fuels. The HTSL project sought to provide evaluation capability for these SunShot supported technologies. This report includes the scoping, design, and budgetary costing aspects of this effort

  20. Thermal disconnect for high-temperature batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jungst, Rudolph George (Albuquerque, NM); Armijo, James Rudolph (Albuquerque, NM); Frear, Darrel Richard (Austin, TX)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A new type of high temperature thermal disconnect has been developed to protect electrical and mechanical equipment from damage caused by operation at extreme temperatures. These thermal disconnects allow continuous operation at temperatures ranging from 250.degree. C. to 450.degree. C., while rapidly terminating operation at temperatures 50.degree. C. to 150.degree. C. higher than the continuous operating temperature.

  1. HYDROGEN SULFIDE -HIGH TEMPERATURE DRILLING CONTINGENCY PLAN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    HYDROGEN SULFIDE - HIGH TEMPERATURE DRILLING CONTINGENCY PLAN OCEAN DRILLING PROGRAM TEXAS A&M UNIVERSITY Technical Note 16 Steven P. Howard Ocean Drilling Program Texas A&M University 1000 Discovery Drive College Station, TX 77845-9547 Daniel H. Reudelhuber Ocean Drilling Program Texas A&M University

  2. High temperature hot water systems: A primer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Govan, F.A. [NMD and Associates, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The fundamental principles of high temperature water (HTW) system technology and its advantages for thermal energy distribution are presented. Misconceptions of this technology are also addressed. The paper describes design principles, applications, HTW properties, HTW system advantages, selecting the engineer, load diversification, design temperatures, system pressurization, pump considerations, constant vs. VS pumps, HTW generator types, and burners and controls.

  3. High Temperature Gas Reactors Briefing to

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meltdown-Proof Advanced Reactor and Gas Turbine #12;TRISO Fuel Particle -- "Microsphere" · 0.9mm diameter · Utilizes gas turbine technology · Lower Power Density · Less Complicated Design (No ECCS) #12;AdvantagesHigh Temperature Gas Reactors Briefing to by Andrew C. Kadak, Ph.D. Professor of the Practice

  4. QED3 Theory of High Temperature Superconductors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tesanovic, Zlatko

    QED3 Theory of High Temperature Superconductors Zlatko Tesanovi´c The Johns Hopkins University-wave Superconductor to Antiferromagnet via Strange Metal #12;This talk is based on: M. Franz and ZT, Phys. Rev. Lett is The Problem in high Tc superconductors? · Superconducting state appears dx2-y2 "BCS-like". Low energy

  5. Advanced Converter Systems for High Temperature Environments

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    500 1000 1500 2000 2500 Voltage (Volts) Current (nA) . 4.0 Resistance (mOhms) 3.5 3.0 2.5 2.0 1.5 0 20 40 60 80 100 Current (Amps) High temperature package voltage breakdown and...

  6. Application of LaSr2Fe2CrO9-in Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Jacob M. Haag,a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Poeppelmeier, Kenneth R.

    28, 2008. Ni­yttria stabilized zirconia YSZ cermets are commonly used in solid oxide fuel cell SOFCApplication of LaSr2Fe2CrO9- in Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Anodes Jacob M. Haag,a Brian D. Madsen composition LaSr2Fe2CrO9- was tested for application as an anode material for solid oxide fuel cells. Despite

  7. High Temperature Materials Interim Data Qualification Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nancy Lybeck

    2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ABSTRACT Projects for the very high temperature reactor (VHTR) Technology Development Office provide data in support of Nuclear Regulatory Commission licensing of the VHTR. Fuel and materials to be used in the reactor are tested and characterized to quantify performance in high temperature and high fluence environments. The VHTR program has established the NGNP Data Management and Analysis System (NDMAS) to ensure that VHTR data are qualified for use, stored in a readily accessible electronic form, and analyzed to extract useful results. This document focuses on the first NDMAS objective. It describes the High Temperature Materials characterization data stream, the processing of these data within NDMAS, and reports the interim FY2010 qualification status of the data. Data qualification activities within NDMAS for specific types of data are determined by the data qualification category assigned by the data generator. The High Temperature Materials data are being collected under NQA-1 guidelines, and will be qualified data. For NQA-1 qualified data, the qualification activities include: (1) capture testing, to confirm that the data stored within NDMAS are identical to the raw data supplied, (2) accuracy testing to confirm that the data are an accurate representation of the system or object being measured, and (3) documenting that the data were collected under an NQA-1 or equivalent Quality Assurance program. Currently, data from two test series within the High Temperature Materials data stream have been entered into the NDMAS vault: 1. Tensile Tests for Sm (i.e., Allowable Stress) Confirmatory Testing – 1,403,994 records have been inserted into the NDMAS database. Capture testing is in process. 2. Creep-Fatigue Testing to Support Determination of Creep-Fatigue Interaction Diagram – 918,854 records have been processed and inserted into the NDMAS database. Capture testing is in process.

  8. Generator module architecture for a large solid oxide fuel cell power plant

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gillett, James E.; Zafred, Paolo R.; Riggle, Matthew W.; Litzinger, Kevin P.

    2013-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

    A solid oxide fuel cell module contains a plurality of integral bundle assemblies, the module containing a top portion with an inlet fuel plenum and a bottom portion receiving air inlet feed and containing a base support, the base supports dense, ceramic exhaust manifolds which are below and connect to air feed tubes located in a recuperator zone, the air feed tubes passing into the center of inverted, tubular, elongated, hollow electrically connected solid oxide fuel cells having an open end above a combustion zone into which the air feed tubes pass and a closed end near the inlet fuel plenum, where the fuel cells comprise a fuel cell stack bundle all surrounded within an outer module enclosure having top power leads to provide electrical output from the stack bundle, where the fuel cells operate in the fuel cell mode and where the base support and bottom ceramic air exhaust manifolds carry from 85% to all 100% of the weight of the stack, and each bundle assembly has its own control for vertical and horizontal thermal expansion control.

  9. Solid oxide fuel cell with multi-unit construction and prismatic design

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McPheeters, Charles C. (Naperville, IL); Dees, Dennis W. (Downers Grove, IL); Myles, Kevin M. (Downers Grove, IL)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A single cell unit of a solid oxide fuel cell that is individually fabricated and sintered prior to being connected to adjacent cells to form a solid oxide fuel cell. The single cell unit is comprised of a shaped anode sheet positioned between a flat anode sheet and an anode-electrolyte-cathode (A/E/C) sheet, and a shaped cathode sheet positioned between the A/E/C sheet and a cathode-interconnect-anode (C/I/A) sheet. An alternate embodiment comprises a shaped cathode sheet positioned between an A/E/C sheet and a C/I/A sheet. The shaped sheets form channels for conducting reactant gases. Each single cell unit is individually sintered to form a finished sub-assembly. The finished sub-assemblies are connected in electrical series by interposing connective material between the end surfaces of adjacent cells, whereby individual cells may be inspected for defects and interchanged with non-defective single cell units.

  10. Solid oxide fuel cell with multi-unit construction and prismatic design

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McPheeters, C.C.; Dees, D.W.; Myles, K.M.

    1999-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A single cell unit of a solid oxide fuel cell is described that is individually fabricated and sintered prior to being connected to adjacent cells to form a solid oxide fuel cell. The single cell unit is comprised of a shaped anode sheet positioned between a flat anode sheet and an anode-electrolyte-cathode (A/E/C) sheet, and a shaped cathode sheet positioned between the A/E/C sheet and a cathode-interconnect-anode (C/I/A) sheet. An alternate embodiment comprises a shaped cathode sheet positioned between an A/E/C sheet and a C/I/A sheet. The shaped sheets form channels for conducting reactant gases. Each single cell unit is individually sintered to form a finished sub-assembly. The finished sub-assemblies are connected in electrical series by interposing connective material between the end surfaces of adjacent cells, whereby individual cells may be inspected for defects and interchanged with non-defective single cell units. 7 figs.

  11. Compilation of CFD Models of Various Solid Oxide Electrolyzers Analyzed at the Idaho National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grant Hawkes; James O'Brien

    2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Various three dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models of solid oxide electrolyzers have been created and analyzed at the Idaho National Laboratory since the inception of the Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative in 2004. Three models presented herein include: a 60 cell planar cross flow with inlet and outlet plenums, 10 cell integrated planar cross flow, and internally manifolded five cell planar cross flow. Mass, momentum, energy, and species conservation and transport are provided via the core features of the commercial CFD code FLUENT. A solid-oxide fuel cell (SOFC) module adds the electrochemical reactions and loss mechanisms and computation of the electric field throughout the cell. The FLUENT SOFC user-defined subroutine was modified for this work to allow for operation in the SOEC mode. Model results provide detailed profiles of temperature, Nernst potential, operating potential, activation over-potential, anode-side gas composition, cathode-side gas composition, current density and hydrogen production over a range of stack operating conditions. Predicted mean outlet hydrogen and steam concentrations vary linearly with current density, as expected. Contour plots of local electrolyte temperature, current density, and Nernst potential indicated the effects of heat transfer, endothermic reaction, Ohmic heating, and change in local gas composition. Results are discussed for using these models in the electrolysis mode. Discussion of thermal neutral voltage, enthalpy of reaction, hydrogen production is reported herein. Contour plots and discussion show areas of likely cell degradation, flow distribution in inlet plenum, and flow distribution across and along the flow channels of the current collectors

  12. TAPE CALENDERING MANUFACTURING PROCESS FOR MULTILAYER THIN-FILM SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nguyen Minh; Kurt Montgomery

    2004-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes the work performed by Hybrid Power Generation Systems, LLC during the Phases I and II under Contract DE-AC26-00NT40705 for the U. S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE/NETL) entitled ''Tape Calendering Manufacturing Process For Multilayer Thin-Film Solid Oxide Fuel Cells''. The main objective of this project was to develop the manufacturing process based on tape calendering for multilayer solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC's) using the unitized cell design concept and to demonstrate cell performance under specified operating conditions. Summarized in this report is the development and improvements to multilayer SOFC cells and the unitized cell design. Improvements to the multilayer SOFC cell were made in electrochemical performance, in both the anode and cathode, with cells demonstrating power densities of nearly 0.9 W/cm{sup 2} for 650 C operation and other cell configurations showing greater than 1.0 W/cm{sup 2} at 75% fuel utilization and 800 C. The unitized cell design was matured through design, analysis and development testing to a point that cell operation at greater than 70% fuel utilization was demonstrated at 800 C. The manufacturing process for both the multilayer cell and unitized cell design were assessed and refined, process maps were developed, forming approaches explored, and nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques examined.

  13. Dual Phase Membrane for High Temperature CO2 Separation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jerry Y.S. Lin; Matthew Anderson

    2006-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Dual-phase membranes consisting of stainless steel supports infiltrated with molten carbonate have been shown to be selective to CO{sub 2} at high temperatures (400-650 C). However, over time at high temperatures, the formation of iron oxides on the surface of the stainless steel supports render the membranes ineffective. This report details synthesis and characteristics of dual-phase carbonate membrane with an oxidation resistant perovskite type ceramic (lanthanum-strontium-cobaltite-iron; LSCF) support. Porous LSCF supports were prepared from its powder synthesized by the citrate method. Both steady state permeation and mercury porosimetry confirmed that the LSCF membrane sintered at 900 C has pores large enough to absorb molten carbonate, yet small enough to retain the molten carbonate under high pressure conditions. Results of XRD analysis have shown that LSCF and the molten carbonate mixture do not react with each other at temperatures below 700 C. Four-point method conductivity tests indicate that the support material has sufficiently high electronic conductivity for this application. Li-Na-K carbonate was coated to the porous LSCF support by a liquid infiltration method. Helium permeance of the support before and after infiltration of molten carbonate are on the order of 10{sup -6} and 10{sup -10} moles/m{sup 2} {center_dot} Pa {center_dot} s respectively, indicating that the molten carbonate is able to sufficiently infiltrate the membrane. Preliminary high temperature permeation experiments indicate that the membrane does separate CO{sub 2} in the presence of O{sub 2}, with a maximum flux of 0.623 ml/cm{sup 2} {center_dot} min obtained at 850 C.

  14. High Temperature Fuel Cells in the European Union

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation on High Temperature Fuel Cells in the European Union to the High Temperature Membrane Working Group, May 25, 2004 in Philadelphia, PA.

  15. High-Temperature Water Splitting | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Temperature Water Splitting High-Temperature Water Splitting High-temperature water splitting (a "thermochemical" process) is a long-term technology in the early stages of...

  16. Possible Origin of Improved High Temperature Performance of Hydrotherm...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Origin of Improved High Temperature Performance of Hydrothermally Aged CuBeta Zeolite Catalysts. Possible Origin of Improved High Temperature Performance of Hydrothermally Aged...

  17. Institute of Chemical Engineering and High Temperature Chemical...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Institute of Chemical Engineering and High Temperature Chemical Processes ICEHT Jump to: navigation, search Name: Institute of Chemical Engineering and High Temperature Chemical...

  18. A High Temperature Direct Vehicle Exhaust Flowmeter for Heavy...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    A High Temperature Direct Vehicle Exhaust Flowmeter for Heavy Duty Diesel Emission Measurements. A High Temperature Direct Vehicle Exhaust Flowmeter for Heavy Duty Diesel Emission...

  19. High-Temperature, Air-Cooled Traction Drive Inverter Packaging...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    High-Temperature, Air-Cooled Traction Drive Inverter Packaging High-Temperature, Air-Cooled Traction Drive Inverter Packaging 2010 DOE Vehicle Technologies and Hydrogen Programs...

  20. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: High-Temperature...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    High-Temperature Air-Cooled Power Electronics Thermal Design Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: High-Temperature Air-Cooled Power Electronics Thermal Design...

  1. Development of a 500 Watt High Temperature Thermoelectric Generator

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    * TEG thermal and electrical interfaces modified to withstand high temperature environment 8 5 August, 2009 Deer 2009 9 100 Watt High Temperature TEG 100 Watt High...

  2. Development of a 100-Watt High Temperature Thermoelectric Generator

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    performance TEG thermal and electrical interfaces modified to withstand high temperature environment Development of a 100 watt High Temperature TE Generator DEER 2008 11 Prototype...

  3. Nanostructured High-Temperature Bulk Thermoelectric Energy Conversion...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High-Temperature Bulk Thermoelectric Energy Conversion for Efficient Automotive Waste Heat Recovery Nanostructured High-Temperature Bulk Thermoelectric Energy Conversion for...

  4. Low and high Temperature Dual Thermoelectric Generation Waste...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and high Temperature Dual Thermoelectric Generation Waste Heat Recovery System for Light-Duty Vehicles Low and high Temperature Dual Thermoelectric Generation Waste Heat Recovery...

  5. Rotational Rehybridization and the High Temperature Phase of...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Rotational Rehybridization and the High Temperature Phase of UC2. Rotational Rehybridization and the High Temperature Phase of UC2. Abstract: The screened hybrid approximation...

  6. High Temperature Thin Film Polymer Dielectric Based Capacitors...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High Temperature Thin Film Polymer Dielectric Based Capacitors for HEV Power Electronic Systems High Temperature Thin Film Polymer Dielectric Based Capacitors for HEV Power...

  7. Development of Advanced High Temperature Fuel Cell Membranes

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation on Development of Advanced High Temperature Fuel Cell Membranes to the High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting held in Arlington, Virginia, May 26,2005.

  8. High Temperature Polymer Membrane Development at Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Summary of ANL’s high temperature polymer membrane work presented to the High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting, Orlando FL, October 17, 2003

  9. High Temperature Thermal Array for Next Generation Solar Thermal...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High Temperature Thermal Array for Next Generation Solar Thermal Power Production High Temperature Thermal Array for Next Generation Solar Thermal Power Production This...

  10. Overcoming phase instability of RBaCo2O5+ (R = Y and Ho) by Sr substitution for application as cathodes in solid oxide fuel cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Jung-Hyun [ORNL; Young Nam, Kim [University of Texas at Austin; Bi, Zhonghe [ORNL; Manthiram, Arumugam [University of Texas at Austin; Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans [ORNL; Huq, Ashfia [ORNL

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Phase instabilities of the RBaCo2O5+ (R = Y and Ho) layered-perovskites and their decompositions into RCoO3 and BaCoO3-z at 800 oC in air were investigated. This will restrict their high temperature applications such as cathodes in solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC). However, appropriate amount of Sr substitution ( 60 % for R = Y and 70 % for R = Ho) for Ba successfully stabilized the R(Ba1-xSrx)Co2O5+ phase at elevated temperatures. This can be explained by decreasing oxygen vacancies at R-O layer, decreasing R-O bonding length, and consequent improvement of structural integrity. In addition, the Sr substitution (x = 0.6 - 1.0) for Ba provided added benefit with respect to the chemical stability against Ce0.8Gd0.2O1.9 (GDC) electrolyte, which is a critical requirement for the cathodes in SOFC. Among the various compositions investigated, the Y(Ba0.3Sr0.7)Co2O5+ + GDC composite cathode delivered the optimum electrochemical performances with a stable phase demonstrating the potential as a cathode in SOFC.

  11. Compliant alkali silicate sealing glass for solid oxide fuel cell applications: Combined stability in isothermal ageing and thermal cycling with YSZ coated ferritic stainless steels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chou, Y. S.; Thomsen, Edwin C.; Choi, Jung-Pyung; Stevenson, Jeffry W.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An alkali-containing silicate glass (SCN-1) is currently being evaluated as a candidate sealing glass for solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) applications. The glass contains about 17 mole% alkalis (K+Na) and has low glass transition and softening temperatures. It remains vitreous and compliant around 750-800oC after sealing without substantial crystallization, as contrary to conventional glass-ceramic sealants, which experience rapid crystallization after the sealing process. The glassy nature and low characteristic temperatures can reduce residual stresses and result in the potential for crack healing. In a previous study, the glass was found to have good thermal cycle stability and was chemically compatible with YSZ coating during short term testing. In the current study, the compliant glass was further evaluated in a more realistic way in that the sealed glass couples were first isothermally aged for 1000h followed by thermal cycling. High temperature leakage was measured. The chemical compatibility was also investigated with powder mixtures at 700 and 800oC to enhance potential interfacial reaction. In addition, interfacial microstructure was examined with scanning electron microscopy and evaluated with regard to the leakage and chemical compatibility results.

  12. A Damage Model for Degradation in the Electrodes of solid oxide fuel cells: Modeling the effects of sulfur and antimony in the anode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ryan, Emily M.; Xu, Wei; Sun, Xin; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

    2012-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Over their designed lifetime, high temperature electrochemical devices, such as solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), can experience degradation in their electrochemical performance due to environmental conditions, operating conditions, contaminants, and other factors. Understanding the different degradation mechanisms in SOFCs and other electrochemical devices is essential to reducing performance degradation and increasing the lifetime of these devices. In this paper SOFC degradation mechanisms are discussed and a damage model is presented which describes performance degradation in SOFCs due to damage or degradation in the electrodes of the SOFC. A degradation classification scheme is presented that divides the various SOFC electrode degradation mechanisms into categories based on their physical effects on the SOFC. The application of the damage model and the classification method is applied to sulfur poisoning and antimony poisoning which occur in the anode of SOFCs. For sulfur poisoning the model is able to predict the degradation in SOFC performance based on the operating temperature and voltage of the fuel cell and the concentration of gaseous sulfur species in the anode. For antimony poisoning the effects of nickel removal from the anode matrix is investigated.

  13. Extended Durability Testing of an External Fuel Processor for a Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mark Perna; Anant Upadhyayula; Mark Scotto

    2012-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Durability testing was performed on an external fuel processor (EFP) for a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) power plant. The EFP enables the SOFC to reach high system efficiency (electrical efficiency up to 60%) using pipeline natural gas and eliminates the need for large quantities of bottled gases. LG Fuel Cell Systems Inc. (formerly known as Rolls-Royce Fuel Cell Systems (US) Inc.) (LGFCS) is developing natural gas-fired SOFC power plants for stationary power applications. These power plants will greatly benefit the public by reducing the cost of electricity while reducing the amount of gaseous emissions of carbon dioxide, sulfur oxides, and nitrogen oxides compared to conventional power plants. The EFP uses pipeline natural gas and air to provide all the gas streams required by the SOFC power plant; specifically those needed for start-up, normal operation, and shutdown. It includes a natural gas desulfurizer, a synthesis-gas generator and a start-gas generator. The research in this project demonstrated that the EFP could meet its performance and durability targets. The data generated helped assess the impact of long-term operation on system performance and system hardware. The research also showed the negative impact of ambient weather (both hot and cold conditions) on system operation and performance.

  14. Corrosion Resistant Coatings for High Temperature Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Besman, T.M.; Cooley, K.M.; Haynes, J.A.; Lee, W.Y.; Vaubert, V.M.

    1998-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Efforts to increase efficiency of energy conversion devices have required their operation at ever higher temperatures. This will force the substitution of higher-temperature structural ceramics for lower temperature materials, largely metals. Yet, many of these ceramics will require protection from high temperature corrosion caused by combustion gases, atmospheric contaminants, or the operating medium. This paper discusses examples of the initial development of such coatings and materials for potential application in combustion, aluminum smelting, and other harsh environments.

  15. Thermal fuse for high-temperature batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jungst, Rudolph G. (Albuquerque, NM); Armijo, James R. (Albuquerque, NM); Frear, Darrel R. (Austin, TX)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A thermal fuse, preferably for a high-temperature battery, comprising leads and a body therebetween having a melting point between approximately 400.degree. C. and 500.degree. C. The body is preferably an alloy of Ag--Mg, Ag--Sb, Al--Ge, Au--In, Bi--Te, Cd--Sb, Cu--Mg, In--Sb, Mg--Pb, Pb--Pd, Sb--Zn, Sn--Te, or Mg--Al.

  16. High temperature hot water distribution system study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The existing High Temperature Hot Water (HTHW) Distribution System has been plagued with design and construction deficiencies since startup of the HTHW system, in October 1988. In October 1989, after one year of service, these deficiencies were outlined in a technical evaluation. The deficiencies included flooded manholes, sump pumps not hooked up, leaking valves, contaminated HTHW water, and no cathodic protection system. This feasibility study of the High Temperature Hot Water (HTHW) Distribution System was performed under Contract No. DACA0l-94-D-0033, Delivery Order 0013, Modification 1, issued to EMC Engineers, Inc. (EMC), by the Norfolk District Corps of Engineers, on 25 April 1996. The purpose of this study was to determine the existing conditions of the High Temperature Hot Water Distribution System, manholes, and areas of containment system degradation. The study focused on two areas of concern, as follows: * Determine existing conditions and areas of containment system degradation (leaks) in the underground carrier pipes and protective conduit. * Document the condition of underground steel and concrete manholes. To document the leaks, a site survey was performed, using state-of-the-art infrared leak detection equipment and tracer gas leak detection equipment. To document the condition of the manholes, color photographs were taken of the insides of 125 manholes, and notes were made on the condition of these manholes.

  17. Analysis of Improved Reference Design for a Nuclear-Driven High Temperature Electrolysis Hydrogen Production Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edwin A. Harvego; James E. O'Brien; Michael G. McKellar

    2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The use of High Temperature Electrolysis (HTE) for the efficient production of hydrogen without the greenhouse gas emissions associated with conventional fossil-fuel hydrogen production techniques has been under investigation at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INL) for the last several years. The activities at the INL have included the development, testing and analysis of large numbers of solid oxide electrolysis cells, and the analyses of potential plant designs for large scale production of hydrogen using an advanced Very-High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) to provide the process heat and electricity to drive the electrolysis process. The results of these system analyses, using the UniSim process analysis software, have shown that the HTE process, when coupled to a VHTR capable of operating at reactor outlet temperatures of 800 °C to 950 °C, has the potential to produce the large quantities of hydrogen needed to meet future energy and transportation needs with hydrogen production efficiencies in excess of 50%. In addition, economic analyses performed on the INL reference plant design, optimized to maximize the hydrogen production rate for a 600 MWt VHTR, have shown that a large nuclear-driven HTE hydrogen production plant can to be economically competitive with conventional hydrogen production processes, particularly when the penalties associated with greenhouse gas emissions are considered. The results of this research led to the selection in 2009 of HTE as the preferred concept in the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) hydrogen technology down-selection process. However, the down-selection process, along with continued technical assessments at the INL, has resulted in a number of proposed modifications and refinements to improve the original INL reference HTE design. These modifications include changes in plant configuration, operating conditions and individual component designs. This paper describes the resulting new INL reference design and presents results of system analyses performed to optimize the design and to determine required plant performance and operating conditions.

  18. Phase 1 - Evaluation of a Functional Interconnect System for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James M. Rakowski

    2006-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This project is focused on evaluating the suitability of materials and complex multi-materials systems for use as solid oxide fuel cell interconnects. ATI Allegheny Ludlum has generated promising results for interconnect materials which incorporate modified surfaces. Methods for producing these surfaces include cladding, which permits the use of novel materials, and modifications via unique thermomechanical processing, which allows for the modification of materials chemistry. The University of Pittsburgh is assisting in this effort by providing use of their in-place facilities for dual atmosphere testing and ASR measurements, along with substantial work to characterize post-exposure specimens. Carnegie Mellon is testing interconnects for chromia scale spallation resistance using macro-scale and nano-scale indentation tests. Chromia spallation can increase electrical resistance to unacceptable levels and interconnect systems must be developed that will not experience spallation within 40,000 hours at operating temperatures. Spallation is one of three interconnect failure mechanisms, the others being excessive growth of the chromia scale (increasing electrical resistance) and scale evaporation (which can poison the cathode). The goal of indentation fracture testing at Carnegie Mellon is to accelerate the evaluation of new interconnect systems (by inducing spalls at after short exposure times) and to use fracture mechanics to understand mechanisms leading to premature interconnect failure by spallation. Tests include bare alloys from ATI and coated systems from DOE Laboratories and industrial partners, using ATI alloy substrates. West Virginia University is working towards developing a cost-effective material for use as a contact material in the cathode chamber of the SOFC. Currently materials such as platinum are well suited for this purpose, but are cost-prohibitive. For the solid-oxide fuel cell to become a commercial reality it is imperative that lower cost components be developed. Based on the results obtained to date, it appears that sterling silver could be an inexpensive, dependable candidate for use as a contacting material in the cathode chamber of the solid-oxide fuel cell. Although data regarding pure silver samples show a lower rate of thickness reduction, the much lower cost of sterling silver makes it an attractive alternative for use in SOFC operation.

  19. A HIGH TEMPERATURE GAS RECEIVER UTILIZING SMALL PARTICLES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hunt, Arlon

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    field of high temperature solar process heat. The ultimateof solar applications including industrial process heat and

  20. Hard X-ray Fluorescence Measurements of Heteroepitaxial Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Cathode Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davis, Jacob N.; Miara, Lincoln J.; Saraf, Laxmikant V.; Kaspar, Tiffany C.; Gopalan, Srikanth; Pal, Uday B.; Woicik, Joseph C.; Basu, Soumendra N.; Ludwig, Karl F.

    2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Commonly, SOFCs are operated at high temperatures (above 800°C). At these temperatures expensive housing is needed to contain an operating stack as well as coatings to contain the oxidation of the metallic interconnects. Lowering the temperature of an operating device would allow for more conventional materials to be used, thus lowering overall cost. Understanding the surface chemical states of cations in the surface of the SOFC cathode is vital to designing a system that will perform well at lower temperatures. The samples studied were grown by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) at the Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL) at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). 20% strontium doped lanthanum manganite (LSM-20) was grown on YSZ and NGO (neodymium gallate). The films on YSZ have a fiber texture. LSM-20 on NGO is heteroepitaxial. Lanthanum strontium cobalt ferrite (LSCF-6428) films were grown on LAO and YSZ with a GDC barrier layer. Total X-ray Reflection Fluorescence (TXRF) was used to depth profile the samples. In a typical experiment, the angle of the incident beam is varied though the critical angle. Below the critical angle, the x-ray decays as an evanescent wave and will only penetrate the top few nanometers. TXRF experiments done on LSM films have suggested strontium segregates to the surface and form strontium enriched nanoparticles (1). It should be pointed out that past studies have focused on 30% strontium A-site doping, but this project uses 20% strontium doped lanthanum manganite. XANES and EXAFS data were taken as a function of incoming angle to probe composition as a function of depth. XANES spectra can be difficult to analyze fully. For other materials density functional theory calculations compared to near edge measurements have been a good way to understand the 3d valence electrons (2).