National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for high-resolution subsurface imaging

  1. Technologies Provide High-Resolution Subsurface Imaging of Vadose Zone Contamination at Hanford Site

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    RICHLAND, Wash. – Cold War waste disposal practices resulted in both planned and unplanned releases of large amounts of radionuclide and heavy metal contamination into the subsurface throughout the DOE complex.

  2. Instruments High-resolution imaging of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boppart, Stephen

    Instruments & Methods High-resolution imaging of gynecologic neoplasms using optical coherence and Gynecologists.) Diagnostic imaging methods available to gynecologists include magnetic resonance imaging (MRI

  3. Minimally invasive diagnostic imaging using high resolution Optical Coherence Tomography

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Herz, Paul Richard, 1972-

    2004-01-01

    Advances in medical imaging have given researchers unprecedented capabilities to visualize, characterize and understand biological systems. Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) is a high speed, high resolution imaging technique ...

  4. High-Resolution Estimation of Near-Subsurface Water Content using Surface GPR Ground Wave Information

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rubin, Yoram

    1 High-Resolution Estimation of Near-Subsurface Water Content using Surface GPR Ground Wave, UC Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720 1. Introduction Information about near surface soil water content the applicability of a surface geophysical method, ground penetrating radar (GPR), for use as a water content

  5. Interactive Multiscale Classification of High-Resolution Remote Sensing Images

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gosselin, Philippe-Henri

    1 Interactive Multiscale Classification of High-Resolution Remote Sensing Images Jefersson Alex dos~ao Abstract The use of remote sensing images (RSIs) as a source of information in agribusiness applications in space occupation. However, the identification and recognition of crop regions in remote sensing images

  6. Compact and mobile high resolution PET brain imager

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Majewski, Stanislaw (Yorktown, VA); Proffitt, James (Newport News, VA)

    2011-02-08

    A brain imager includes a compact ring-like static PET imager mounted in a helmet-like structure. When attached to a patient's head, the helmet-like brain imager maintains the relative head-to-imager geometry fixed through the whole imaging procedure. The brain imaging helmet contains radiation sensors and minimal front-end electronics. A flexible mechanical suspension/harness system supports the weight of the helmet thereby allowing for patient to have limited movements of the head during imaging scans. The compact ring-like PET imager enables very high resolution imaging of neurological brain functions, cancer, and effects of trauma using a rather simple mobile scanner with limited space needs for use and storage.

  7. Final report: high resolution lensless 3D imaging of nanostructures with coherent x-rays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jacobsen, Chris

    2014-12-07

    Final report on the project "High resolution lensless 3D imaging of nanostructures with coherent x-rays"

  8. CLASSIFICATION OF BIOMEDICAL HIGH-RESOLUTION MICRO-CT IMAGES FOR DIRECT VOLUME RENDERING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    López-Sánchez, Maite

    CLASSIFICATION OF BIOMEDICAL HIGH-RESOLUTION MICRO-CT IMAGES FOR DIRECT VOLUME RENDERING Maite L of biomedical high- resolution 3D images. More concretely, it proposes a learn- ing pipeline process and refinements. KEYWORDS Machine Learning, Biomedical 3D Images, Classification, CRF (Conditional Random Fields

  9. High Resolution Optical Imaging for Deep Water Archaeology Hanumant Singh1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eustice, Ryan

    High Resolution Optical Imaging for Deep Water Archaeology Hanumant Singh1 , Christopher Roman1 Abstract High resolution imaging in the context of deep water archaeology presents some unique challenges and in combination with a particular emphasis on the applications for deep water archaeology. If we consider optical

  10. Isolation of transport mechanisms in PEFCs using high resolution neutron imaging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mench, Matthew M.

    Isolation of transport mechanisms in PEFCs using high resolution neutron imaging Jacob M. La] demonstrated one of the first through- plane images of a PEFC in 2007 with a 25 mm microchannel detector this article in press as: LaManna JM, et al., Isolation of transport mechanisms in PEFCs using high resolution

  11. High-resolution three-dimensional optical coherence tomography imaging of kidney microanatomy ex vivo

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Yu

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an emerging medical imaging technology that enables high-resolution, noninvasive, cross-sectional imaging of microstructure in biological tissues in situ and in real time. When combined ...

  12. Range imaging: a new method for high-resolution topographic measurements in small-and medium-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kirchner, James W.

    Range imaging: a new method for high-resolution topographic measurements in small- and medium is a useful complement or alternative to existing methods for high-resolution measurements in small- to medium has led to a dramatic increase in terrain information and opened up new opportunities for hydro- logic

  13. High-resolution magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion tensor imaging of the porcine temporomandibular joint disc

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Benavides, E.; Bilgen, M.; Al-Hafez, B.; Alrefae, T.; Wang, Y; Spencer, Paulette

    2014-01-28

    scanned on a 9.4?Tesla horizontal bore MRI scanner using an inductively coupled surface coil. High-resolution gradient-echo and diffusion-weighted spin-echo based images were obtained. The mean diffusivity and fractional anisotropy (FA) were computed...

  14. A versatile high-resolution x-ray imager (HRXI) for laser-plasma...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    x-ray imager (HRXI) devoted to laser-plasma experiments combines two state-of-the-art technologies developed in France: a high-resolution x-ray microscope and a high-speed...

  15. Perfusion-Based High-Resolution Functional Imaging in the Human Brain at 7 Tesla

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Perfusion-Based High-Resolution Functional Imaging in the Human Brain at 7 Tesla Josef Pfeuffer and reperfusion, blood flow deficits in Alzheimer's disease, HIV-cognitive motor complex dementia, and epilepsy (5

  16. High resolution PET breast imager with improved detection efficiency

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Majewski, Stanislaw

    2010-06-08

    A highly efficient PET breast imager for detecting lesions in the entire breast including those located close to the patient's chest wall. The breast imager includes a ring of imaging modules surrounding the imaged breast. Each imaging module includes a slant imaging light guide inserted between a gamma radiation sensor and a photodetector. The slant light guide permits the gamma radiation sensors to be placed in close proximity to the skin of the chest wall thereby extending the sensitive region of the imager to the base of the breast. Several types of photodetectors are proposed for use in the detector modules, with compact silicon photomultipliers as the preferred choice, due to its high compactness. The geometry of the detector heads and the arrangement of the detector ring significantly reduce dead regions thereby improving detection efficiency for lesions located close to the chest wall.

  17. Chandra High Resolution Camera Imaging of GRS 1758-258

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    W. A. Heindl; D. M. Smith

    2002-08-19

    We observed the "micro-quasar" GRS 1758-258 four times with Chandra. Two HRC-I observations were made in 2000 September-October spanning an intermediate-to-hard spectral transition (identified with RXTE). Another HRC-I and an ACIS/HETG observation were made in 2001 March following a hard-to-soft transition to a very low flux state. Based on the three HRC images and the HETG zero order image, the accurate position (J2000) of the X-ray source is RA = 18h 01m 12.39s, Dec = -25d 44m 36.1s (90% confidence radius = 0".45), consistent with the purported variable radio counterpart. All three HRC images are consistent with GRS 1758-258 being a point source, indicating that any bright jet is less than ~1 light-month in projected length, assuming a distance of 8.5 kpc.

  18. Monitoring plant growth using high resolution micro-CT images

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paquit, Vincent C [ORNL; Gleason, Shaun Scott [ORNL; Kalluri, Udaya C [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    A multidisciplinary research conducted at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory aims at understanding the molecular controls of partitioning, transport and fate of carbon xed by photosynthesis in plants and its correlation with other measured plant system properties. Ultimately, we intend to develop a modeling framework to assess, correlate and predict as to which spatiotemporal changes in system dynamics are key to predicting emergent properties of system. Within this research, this paper relates to the quantitative morphological imaging of the main structures forming a plant (stem, roots, and leaves), their internal sub-structures, and changes occurring overtime.

  19. High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIXsource History View NewGuam: Energyarea, CaliforniaHess RetailResolution Imaging Science

  20. High resolution neutron imaging of water in PEM fuel cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mukundan, Rangachary [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Borup, Rodney L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Davey, John R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Spendelow, Jacob S [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    Optimal water management in Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) fuel cells is critical to improving the performance and durability of fuel cell systems especially during transient, start-up and shut-down operations. For example, while a high water content is desirable for improved membrane and catalyst ionomer conductivity, high water content can also block gas access to the triple-phase boundary resulting in lowered performance due to catalyst and gas diffusion layer (GDL) flooding. Visualizing liquid water by neutron imaging has been used over the past decade to study the water distribution inside operating fuel cells. In this paper, the results from our imaging at NIST using their recently installed higher resolution ({approx} 25 mm) Microchannel Plate (MCP) detector with a pixel pitch of 14.7 mm are presented. This detector is capable of quantitatively imaging the water inside the MEA (Membrane Electrode Assembly)/GDL (Gas Diffusion Layer) of working fuel cells and can provide the water profiles within these various components in addition to the channel water. Specially designed fuel cells (active area = 2.25 cm{sup 2}) have been used in order to take advantage of the full detector resolution. The cell design is illustrated in a figure where one of the current collector/end plates is shown. The serpentine pattern was machined into a block of aluminum and plated with nickel and then gold to form the flow field. The measurements were performed using beam no. 1 and aperture no. 2 with a fluence rate of 1.9 x 10{sup 6} neutrons cm{sup -2} sec{sup -1}. The cells were assembled with Gore{sup TM} Primea{sup R} MEAs and SGL Sigracet {sup R} 24 series GDLs (PRIMEA, GORE-SELECT and GORE are trademarks of W. L. Gore & Associates, Inc). All the cells were tested at 80 {sup o}C with 1.2 stoichiometry H{sub 2} and 2.0 stoichiometry air flows.

  1. Supernormal vision and high-resolution retinal imaging through adaptive optics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Supernormal vision and high-resolution retinal imaging through adaptive optics Junzhong Liang corrected these aberra- tions using adaptive optics, providing normal eyes with supernormal optical quality optics. The eye's aber- rations also limit the resolution of images of the retina, a limit that has

  2. High-resolution imaging of vessels in the isolated rat brain M. F. Valverde Salzmann1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    High-resolution imaging of vessels in the isolated rat brain M. F. Valverde Salzmann1 , N for the distribution of vessels in the rat brain. Angiography is able to use the blood flow in the brain of the living of this study was to obtain a full picture of vessels even down to relatively small size in the isolated rat

  3. High resolution imaging of megathrust splay faults in Prince William Sound, Alaska

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barrash, Warren

    High resolution imaging of megathrust splay faults in Prince William Sound, Alaska Project Award earthquake in southern Prince William Sound (PWS), generating local and trans-oceanic tsunamis and more. The quake, centered beneath Prince William Sound (PWS) (Figure 1a), produced more than $100 million

  4. Multi-Sensor Fusion of Electro-Optic and Infrared Signals for High Resolution Visible Images: Part II

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of high resolution and low noise level, but they cannot reflect information about the temperature the properties of low resolution and high noise level, but IR images can reflect information about temperature variation of objects in the daytime via high-resolution EO images. The proposed novel framework

  5. High resolution neutron imaging of water in the polymer electrolyte fuel cell membrane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mukherjee, Partha P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Makundan, Rangachary [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Spendelow, Jacob S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Borup, Rodney L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hussey, D S [NIST; Jacobson, D L [NIST; Arif, M [NIST

    2009-01-01

    Water transport in the ionomeric membrane, typically Nafion{reg_sign}, has profound influence on the performance of the polymer electrolyte fuel cell, in terms of internal resistance and overall water balance. In this work, high resolution neutron imaging of the Nafion{reg_sign} membrane is presented in order to measure water content and through-plane gradients in situ under disparate temperature and humidification conditions.

  6. High-resolution imaging and target designation through clouds or smoke

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Perry, Michael D. (Downy, CA)

    2003-01-01

    A method and system of combining gated intensifiers and advances in solid-state, short-pulse laser technology, compact systems capable of producing high resolution (i.e., approximately less than 20 centimeters) optical images through a scattering medium such as dense clouds, fog, smoke, etc. may be achieved from air or ground based platforms. Laser target designation through a scattering medium is also enabled by utilizing a short pulse illumination laser and a relatively minor change to the detectors on laser guided munitions.

  7. FIRST HIGH-RESOLUTION IMAGES OF THE SUN IN THE 2796 Ĺ Mg II k LINE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Riethmüller, T. L.; Solanki, S. K.; Hirzberger, J.; Danilovic, S.; Barthol, P.; Gandorfer, A.; Gizon, L.; Berkefeld, T.; Schmidt, W.; Knölker, M.; Del Toro Iniesta, J. C.

    2013-10-10

    We present the first high-resolution solar images in the Mg II k 2796 Ĺ line. The images, taken through a 4.8 Ĺ broad interference filter, were obtained during the second science flight of Sunrise in 2013 June by the Sunrise Filter Imager (SuFI) instrument. The Mg II k images display structures that look qualitatively very similar to images taken in the core of Ca II H. The Mg II images exhibit reversed granulation (or shock waves) in the internetwork regions of the quiet Sun, at intensity contrasts that are similar to those found in Ca II H. Very prominent in Mg II are bright points, both in the quiet Sun and in plage regions, particularly near the disk center. These are much brighter than at other wavelengths sampled at similar resolution. Furthermore, Mg II k images also show fibril structures associated with plage regions. Again, the fibrils are similar to those seen in Ca II H images, but tend to be more pronounced, particularly in weak plage.

  8. Compact, high-resolution, gamma ray imaging for scintimammography and other medical diagostic applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Majewski, Stanislaw (Grafton, VA); Weisenberger, Andrew G. (Grafton, VA); Wojcik, Randolph F. (Yorktown, VA); Steinbach, Daniela (Williamsburg, VA)

    1999-01-01

    A high resolution gamma ray imaging device includes an aluminum housing, a lead screen collimator at an opened end of the housing, a crystal scintillator array mounted behind the lead screen collimator, a foam layer between the lead screen collimator and the crystal scintillator array, a photomultiplier window coupled to the crystal with optical coupling grease, a photomultiplier having a dynode chain body and a base voltage divider with anodes, anode wire amplifiers each connected to four anodes and a multi pin connector having pin connections to each anode wire amplifier. In one embodiment the crystal scintillator array includes a yttrium aluminum perovskite (YAP) crystal array. In an alternate embodiment, the crystal scintillator array includes a gadolinium oxyorthosilicate (GSO) crystal array.

  9. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING, VOL. 54, NO. 6, JUNE 2007 993 Image Processing for a High-Resolution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Palanker, Daniel

    system. Index Terms--Biomedical image processing, macular degenera- tion, retinal prosthesis, retinitisIEEE TRANSACTIONS ON BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING, VOL. 54, NO. 6, JUNE 2007 993 Image Processing for a High-Resolution Optoelectronic Retinal Prosthesis Alon Asher*, William A. Segal, Stephen A. Baccus

  10. Hubble space telescope high-resolution imaging of Kepler small and cool exoplanet host stars

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gilliland, Ronald L.; Cartier, Kimberly M. S.; Wright, Jason T.; Adams, Elisabeth R.; Ciardi, David R.

    2015-01-01

    High-resolution imaging is an important tool for follow-up study of exoplanet candidates found via transit detection with the Kepler mission. We discuss here Hubble Space Telescope imaging with the WFC3 of 23 stars that host particularly interesting Kepler planet candidates based on their small size and cool equilibrium temperature estimates. Results include detections, exclusion of background stars that could be a source of false positives for the transits, and detection of physically associated companions in a number of cases providing dilution measures necessary for planet parameter refinement. For six Kepler objects of interest, we find that there is ambiguity regarding which star hosts the transiting planet(s), with potentially strong implications for planetary characteristics. Our sample is evenly distributed in G, K, and M spectral types. Albeit with a small sample size, we find that physically associated binaries are more common than expected at each spectral type, reaching a factor of 10 frequency excess in M. We document the program detection sensitivities, detections, and deliverables to the Kepler follow-up program archive.

  11. MAGNETIC RESONANCE ELECTRICAL IMPEDANCE TOMOGRAPHY (MR-EIT): A new technique for high resolution conductivity imaging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eyübođlu, Murat

    MAGNETIC RESONANCE ELECTRICAL IMPEDANCE TOMOGRAPHY (MR-EIT): A new technique for high resolution are measured by using conventional electrical impedance tomography techniques and high resolution magnetic and the point spread function is not space invariant. On the other hand, magnetic field and electrical current

  12. High-resolution imaging of hypervelocity metal jets using advanced high-speed photographic techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shaw, L.L.; Muelder, S.A.

    1995-08-29

    It is now possible to obtain high resolution sequential photographs of the initial formation and evolution of hypervelocity metal jets formed by shaped charge devices fired in air. Researchers have been frustrated by the high velocity of the jet material and the luminous sheath of hot gases cloaking the jet that made detailed observation of the jet body extremely difficult. The camera system that provides the photographs is a large format multi-frame electro-optic camera, referred to as an IC camera (IC stands for image converter), that utilizes electro-optic shuttering, monochromatic pulsed laser illumination and bandpass filtering to provide sequential pictures (in 3D if desired) with minimal degradation due to luminous air shocks or motion blur. The large format (75mm image plane), short exposure (15 ns minimum), ruby laser illumination and bandpass filtering (monochromatic illumination while excluding extraneous light) produces clear, sharp, images of the detailed surface structure of a metal shaped charge jet during early jet formation, elongation of the jet body, jet tip evolution and subsequent particulation (breakup) of the jet body. By utilizing the new camera system in conjunction with the more traditional rotating mirror high speed cameras, pulsed radiography, and electrical sensors, a maximum amount of, often unique, data can be extracted from a single experiment. This paper was intended primarily as an oral presentation. For purposes of continuity and simplicity in these proceedings, the authors have chosen to concentrate on the development of the IC camera system and its impact on the photography of high speed shaped chargejets.

  13. High-Resolution Radio Imaging of Gravitational Lensing Candidates in the 1 Jansky BL Lac Sample

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. A. Rector; J. T. Stocke

    2003-02-19

    While BL Lacertae objects are widely believed to be highly beamed, low-luminosity radio galaxies, many radio-selected BL Lacs have extended radio power levels and optical emission lines that are too luminous to be low-luminosity radio galaxies. Also, Stocke & Rector discovered an excess of MgII absorption systems along BL Lac sightlines compared to quasars, suggesting that gravitational lensing may be another means of creating the BL Lac phenomenon in some cases. We present a search for gravitationally-lensed BL Lacs with deep, high-resolution, two-frequency VLA radio maps of seven lensing candidates from the 1 Jansky BL Lac sample. We find that none of these objects are resolved into an Einstein ring like B 0218+357, nor do any show multiple images of the core. All of the lensing candidates that were resolved show a flat-spectrum core and very unusual, steep-spectrum extended morphology that is incompatible with a multiply lensed system. Thus, while these observations do not rule out microlensing, no macrolensing is observed.

  14. Rayleigh wave tomography in the North Atlantic: high resolution images of the Iceland, Azores and Eifel mantle plumes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rayleigh wave tomography in the North Atlantic: high resolution images of the Iceland, Azores, but to improve the path coverage a number of instruments at coastal sites in northwest Europe, Iceland three major hotspots: Iceland, the Azores and Eifel. The best depth resolution in the model occurs in NW

  15. Novel Precipitated Zirconia-Based DGT Technique for High-Resolution Imaging of Oxyanions in Waters and Sediments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ma, Lena

    Novel Precipitated Zirconia-Based DGT Technique for High- Resolution Imaging of Oxyanions in Waters binding layer was synthesized to meet these requirements by in situ precipitation of zirconia into a precast hydrogel. The particle diameter 0.2 m of zirconia in this precipitated gel was uniform

  16. Simulation of High-Resolution Magnetic Resonance Images on the IBM Blue Gene/L Supercomputer Using SIMRI

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Baum, K. G.; Menezes, G.; Helguera, M.

    2011-01-01

    Medical imaging system simulators are tools that provide a means to evaluate system architecture and create artificial image sets that are appropriate for specific applications. We have modified SIMRI, a Bloch equation-based magnetic resonance image simulator, in order to successfully generate high-resolution 3D MR images of the Montreal brain phantom using Blue Gene/L systems. Results show that redistribution of the workload allows an anatomically accurate 256 3 voxel spin-echo simulation in less than 5 hours when executed on an 8192-node partition of a Blue Gene/L system.

  17. High resolution imaging and lithography using interference of light and surface plasmon waves

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Yang-Hyo

    2007-01-01

    The resolution of optical imaging and lithography is limited by the wave nature of light. Studies have been undertaken to overcome the diffraction limit for imaging and lithography. In our lab, the standing wave surface ...

  18. High-resolution 3-D refractive index imaging and Its biological applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sung, Yongjin

    2011-01-01

    This thesis presents a theory of 3-D imaging in partially coherent light under a non-paraxial condition. The transmission cross-coefficient (TCC) has been used to characterize partially coherent imaging in a 2- D and 3-D ...

  19. High resolution monochromatic X-ray imaging system based on spherically bent crystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aglitskiy, Y.; Lehecka, T.; Obenschain, S.; Bodner, S.; Pawley, C.; Gerber, K.; Sethian, J.; Brown, C. M.; Seely, J.; Feldman, U.; Holland, G.

    1997-05-05

    We have developed a new X-ray imaging system based on spherically curved crystals. It is designed and used for diagnostics of targets ablatively accelerated by the Nike KrF laser. The imaging system is used for plasma diagnostics of the main target and for characterization of potential backlighters. A spherically curved quartz crystal (2d=6.687 A, R=200 mm) is used to produce monochromatic backlit images with the He-like Si resonance line (1865 eV) as the source of radiation. The spatial resolution of the X-ray optical system is 3-4 {mu}m. Time resolved backlit monochromatic images of CH planar targets driven by the Nike facility have been obtained with 6-7 {mu}m spatial resolution.

  20. High resolution monochromatic X-ray imaging system based on spherically bent crystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aglitskiy, Y.; Lehecka, T.; Obenschain, S.; Bodner, S.; Pawley, C.; Gerber, K.; Sethian, J.; Brown, C.M.; Seely, J.; Feldman, U.; Holland, G.

    1997-05-01

    We have developed a new X-ray imaging system based on spherically curved crystals. It is designed and used for diagnostics of targets ablatively accelerated by the Nike KrF laser [1,2]. The imaging system is used for plasma diagnostics of the main target and for characterization of potential backlighters. A spherically curved quartz crystal (2d=6.687{Angstrom}, R=200mm) is used to produce monochromatic backlit images with the He-like Si resonance line (1865 eV) as the source of radiation. The spatial resolution of the X-ray optical system is 3{endash}4 {mu}m. Time resolved backlit monochromatic images of CH planar targets driven by the Nike facility have been obtained with 6{endash}7 {mu}m spatial resolution. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  1. Image retrieval, classification and object recognition using local invariant features in high resolution remote sensing imagery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Yang

    2012-01-01

    computing the intersection between histograms. Given BOV W1 and BOV W 2 corresponding to two images, thekernel is computed as: M min BOV W 1 (m), BOV W 2 (m) . K

  2. High-Resolution Depth for Binocular Image-Based Modelling David Blumenthal-Barby

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eisert, Peter

    applications like image-based modelling, photo relighting, or the fabrication of physical mod- els with 3D printing require detailed surface geometry rather than depth layering of cluttered scenes. Surface meshes

  3. High-Resolution, Wide-Field Imaging of the Galactic Center Region at 330 MHz

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michael E. Nord; T. Joseph W. Lazio; Namir E. Kassim; S. D. Hyman; T. N. LaRosa; C. Brogan; N. Duric

    2004-07-08

    We present a wide field, sub-arcminute resolution VLA image of the Galactic Center region at 330 MHz. With a resolution of ~ 7" X 12" and an RMS noise of 1.6 mJy/beam, this image represents a significant increase in resolution and sensitivity over the previously published VLA image at this frequency. The improved sensitivity has more than tripled the census of small diameter sources in the region, has resulted in the detection of two new Non Thermal Filaments (NTFs), 18 NTF candidates, 30 pulsar candidates, reveals previously known extended sources in greater detail, and has resulted in the first detection of Sagittarius A* in this frequency range. A version of this paper containing full resolution images may be found at http://lwa.nrl.navy.mil/nord/AAAB.pdf.

  4. High-resolution monochromatic x-ray imaging system based on spherically bent crystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aglitskiy, Y.; Lehecka, T.; Obenschain, S.; Bodner, S.; Pawley, C.; Gerber, K.; Sethian, J.; Brown, C.M.; Seely, J.; Feldman, U.; Holland, G.

    1998-08-01

    We have developed an improved x-ray imaging system based on spherically curve crystals. It is designed and used for diagnostics of targets ablatively accelerated by the Nike KrF laser. A spherically curved quartz crystal (2d=6.687 {Angstrom}, R=200 mm) has been used to produce monochromatic backlit images with the He-like Si resonance line (1865 eV) as the source of radiation. The spatial resolution of the x-ray optical system is 1.7 {mu}m in selected places and 2{endash}3 {mu}m over a larger area. Time-resolved backlit monochromatic images of polystyrene planar targets driven by the Nike facility have been obtained with a spatial resolution of 2.5 {mu}m in selected places and 5 {mu}m over the focal spot of the Nike laser. {copyright} 1998 Optical Society of America

  5. High-resolution retinal imaging using adaptive optics and Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Olivier, Scot S. (Livermore, CA); Werner, John S. (Davis, CA); Zawadzki, Robert J. (Sacramento, CA); Laut, Sophie P. (Pasedena, CA); Jones, Steven M. (Livermore, CA)

    2010-09-07

    This invention permits retinal images to be acquired at high speed and with unprecedented resolution in three dimensions (4.times.4.times.6 .mu.m). The instrument achieves high lateral resolution by using adaptive optics to correct optical aberrations of the human eye in real time. High axial resolution and high speed are made possible by the use of Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography. Using this system, we have demonstrated the ability to image microscopic blood vessels and the cone photoreceptor mosaic.

  6. A high-resolution imaging x-ray crystal spectrometer for high energy density plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Hui E-mail: bitter@pppl.gov; Magee, E.; Nagel, S. R.; Park, J.; Schneider, M. B.; Stone, G.; Williams, G. J.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Bitter, M. E-mail: bitter@pppl.gov; Hill, K. W.; Kerr, S.

    2014-11-15

    Adapting a concept developed for magnetic confinement fusion experiments, an imaging crystal spectrometer has been designed and tested for HED plasmas. The instrument uses a spherically bent quartz [211] crystal with radius of curvature of 490.8 mm. The instrument was tested at the Titan laser at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory by irradiating titanium slabs with laser intensities of 10{sup 19}–10{sup 20} W/cm{sup 2}. He-like and Li-like Ti lines were recorded, from which the spectrometer performance was evaluated. This spectrometer provides very high spectral resolving power (E/dE > 7000) while acquiring a one-dimensional image of the source.

  7. High resolution imaging with Fresnel interferometric arrays: suitability for exoplanet detection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    L. Koechlin; D. Serre; P. Duchon

    2005-10-13

    We propose a new kind of interferometric array that yields images of high dynamic range and large field. The numerous individual apertures in this array form a pattern related to a Fresnel zone plate. This array can be used for astrophysical imaging over a broad spectral bandwidth spanning from the U.V. (50 nanometers) to the I.R. (20 microns). Due to the long focal lengths involved, this instrument requires formation-flying of two space borne vessels. We present the concept and study the S/N ratio in different situations, then apply these results to probe the suitability of this concept to detect exoplanets.

  8. Multi-stage Robust Scheme for Citrus Identification from High Resolution Airborne Images

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Camps-Valls, Gustavo

    and the extensive information stored in a GIS database can also be used to aid in a visual or digital image accuracy demanded by institutions by means of combining automatic classification methods with visual/selection, pattern recognition, classification tree, support vector machine, neural networks. 1. INTRODUCTION Land

  9. High-Resolution Image Reconstruction With Displacement Errors: A Framelet Approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shen, Zuowei

    possible to use the information collected from distributed sources to reconstruct a desirable HR image classified into the following four major categories: frequency domain methods, interpolation the Institute for Mathematical Sciences, National University of Singapore in 2003. The visit was partially

  10. WAHRSIS: A Low-cost, High-resolution Whole Sky Imager With Near-Infrared Capabilities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Winkler, Stefan

    community for a variety of applications and domains, such as aviation, weather prediction, and solar energy Dev,a Florian M. Savoy,b Yee Hui Lee,a Stefan Winklerb aSchool of Electrical and Electronic of automatic whole sky imagers have been developed at the Scripps Institute of Oceanography, University

  11. Towards a robust, automated hurricane damage assessment from high-resolution images

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bowyer, Kevin W.

    be summarized as: 1) application of a pre-processing stage where images are registered and roof be used to distinguish damage states of a roof-top. In section 2, we describe the first step in pre of landmark points. Additionally, an efficient and robust way to match corresponding landmark points

  12. High-Resolution Phase-Contrast Imaging of Submicron Particles in Unstained Lung Tissue

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schittny, J. C.; Barre, S. F.; Haberthuer, D.; Mokso, R.; Tsuda, A.; Stampanoni, M.

    2011-09-09

    To access the risks and chances of deposition of submicron particles in the gas-exchange area of the lung, a precise three-dimensional (3D)-localization of the sites of deposition is essential--especially because local peaks of deposition are expected in the acinar tree and in individual alveoli. In this study we developed the workflow for such an investigation. We administered 200-nm gold particles to young adult rats by intratracheal instillation. After fixation and paraffin embedding, their lungs were imaged unstained using synchrotron radiation x-ray tomographic microscopy (SRXTM) at the beamline TOMCAT (Swiss Light Source, Villigen, Switzerland) at sample detector distances of 2.5 mm (absorption contrast) and of 52.5 mm (phase contrast). A segmentation based on a global threshold of grey levels was successfully done on absorption-contrast images for the gold and on the phase-contrast images for the tissue. The smallest spots containing gold possessed a size of 1-2 voxels of 370-nm side length. We conclude that a combination of phase and absorption contrast SRXTM imaging is necessary to obtain the correct segmentation of both tissue and gold particles. This method will be used for the 3D localization of deposited particles in the gas-exchange area of the lung.

  13. High resolution coherent diffractive imaging with a table-top extreme ultraviolet source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vu Le, Hoang, E-mail: vuhoangle@swin.edu.au; Ba Dinh, Khuong; Hannaford, Peter; Van Dao, Lap [Centre for Quantum and Optical Science, Swinburne University of Technology, Melbourne 3122 (Australia)

    2014-11-07

    We demonstrate a resolution of 45?nm with a sample size down to 3??m × 3??m is achieved in a short exposure time of 2?s, from the diffraction pattern generated by a table-top high harmonic source at around 30?nm. By using a narrow-bandwidth focusing mirror, the diffraction pattern's quality is improved and the required exposure time is significantly reduced. In order to obtain a high quality of the reconstructed image, the ratio of the beam size to the sample size and the curvature of the focused beam need to be considered in the reconstruction process. This new experimental scheme is very promising for imaging sub-10?nm scale objects with a table-top source based on a small inexpensive femtosecond laser system.

  14. High-resolution ultrasound imaging with unified pixel-based beamforming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nguyen, Nghia Q.; Prager, Richard W.

    2015-07-14

    data superpo- sition at each imaging pixel. The calculations are based on a geometrical optics approximation which describes the acoustic wave propagation in terms of rays [23]. A. Conventional pixel-based beamforming In conventional pixel-based (PB... ) is significantly smaller than in regions (III) and (I) that contain the main energy of the beam. The magnitude further decreases with increasing distance from the beam centreline. These ringing artefacts are the major difference between pressure waveforms observed...

  15. High Resolution Infrared Imaging and Spectroscopy of the Pistol Nebula: Evidence for Ejection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Donald F. Figer; Mark Morris; T. R. Geballe; R. Michael Rich; Eugene Serabyn; Ian S. McLean; R. C. Puetter; Amos Yahil

    1999-06-29

    We present new NICMOS/HST infrared images and CGS4/UKIRT Br-alpha (4.05 um) spectroscopy of the Pistol Star and its associated nebula, finding strong evidence to support the hypothesis that the Pistol Nebula was ejected from the Pistol Star. The Pa-alpha NICMOS image shows that the nebula completely surrounds the Pistol Star, although the line intensity is much stronger on its northern and western edges. The Br-alpha spectra show the classical ring-like signature of quasi-spherical expansion, with weak blueshifted emission (V_max approx -60 km/s) and strong redshifted emission (V_max approx +10 km/s), where the velocities are with respect to the velocity of the Pistol Star; further, the redshifted emission appears to be "flattened" in the position-velocity diagram. These data suggest that the nebula was ejected from the star several thousand years ago, with a velocity between the current terminal velocity of the stellar wind (95 km/s) and the present expansion velocity of gas in the outer shell of the nebula (60 km/s). The Pa-alpha image reveals several emission-line stars in the region, including two newly-identified emission-line stars north of the Pistol Star with spectral types earlier than WC8 (T_eff > 50,000 K). The presence of these stars, the morphology of the Pa-alpha emission, and the velocity field in the gas suggest that the side of the nebula furthest from us is approaching, and being ionized by, the hot stars of the Quintuplet, and that the highest velocity redshifted gas has been decelerated by winds from the Quintuplet stars. We also discuss the possibility that the nebular gas might be magnetically confined by the ambient magnetic field delineated by the nearby nonthermal filaments.

  16. Real-Time High Resolution Quantitative Imaging by Three Wavelength Digital

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMassR&D100 Winners * Impacts onReal-Time Chemical Imaging of Bacterial

  17. High Resolution Infrared Imaging and Spectroscopy of the Pistol Nebula Evidence for Ejection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Figer, D F; Geballe, T R; Rich, R M; Serabyn, E; McLean, I S; Pütter, R C; Yahil, A; Figer, Donald F.; Morris, Mark; Serabyn, Eugene; Lean, Ian S. Mc; Yahil, Amos

    1999-01-01

    We present new NICMOS/HST infrared images and CGS4/UKIRT Br-alpha (4.05 um) spectroscopy of the Pistol Star and its associated nebula, finding strong evidence to support the hypothesis that the Pistol Nebula was ejected from the Pistol Star. The Pa-alpha NICMOS image shows that the nebula completely surrounds the Pistol Star, although the line intensity is much stronger on its northern and western edges. The Br-alpha spectra show the classical ring-like signature of quasi-spherical expansion, with weak blueshifted emission (V_max approx -60 km/s) and strong redshifted emission (V_max approx +10 km/s), where the velocities are with respect to the velocity of the Pistol Star; further, the redshifted emission appears to be "flattened" in the position-velocity diagram. These data suggest that the nebula was ejected from the star several thousand years ago, with a velocity between the current terminal velocity of the stellar wind (95 km/s) and the present expansion velocity of gas in the outer shell of the nebula ...

  18. Towards the Event Horizon - High Resolution VLBI Imaging of Nuclei of Active Galaxies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. P. Krichbaum; D. A. Graham; A. Witzel; J. A. Zensus; A. Greve; M. Grewing; M. Bremer; S. Doeleman; R. B. Phillips; A. E. E. Rogers; H. Fagg; P. Strittmatter; L. Ziurys

    2006-07-05

    We report on new developments in VLBI, with emphasis on experiments performed at the highest frequencies possible to date (so called mm-VLBI). We have observed the nucleus of M 87 (Virgo A) with global VLBI at 3 mm. We show a new image of the inner-most jet region with an angular resolution of approx. 300 x 60 micro-arcseconds. In terms of Schwarzschild radii, this leads to an upper limit of the jet base of approx. 100 x 20 Schwarzschild radii. We also report on two VLBI pilot-experiments, which demonstrate the technical feasibility of global VLBI at 150 and 230 GHz (2 mm and 1.3 mm). The experiments lead to upper limits to the size of the unresolved AGN-cores in the 25 - 30 micro-arcsecond range. The participation of new and near-future mm-telescopes (like APEX, CARMA, SMA, LMT, ALMA, etc.) in global mm-VLBI will provide the necessary sensitivity for the imaging of black holes and their immediate environment.

  19. High-resolution imaging of selenium in kidneys: a localized selenium pool associated with glutathione peroxidase 3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malinouski, M.; Kehr, S.; Finney, L.; Vogt, S.; Carlson, B.A.; Seravalli, J.; Jin, R.; Handy, D.E.; Park, T.J.; Loscalzo, J.; Hatfield, D.L.; Gladyshev, V.N.

    2012-04-17

    Recent advances in quantitative methods and sensitive imaging techniques of trace elements provide opportunities to uncover and explain their biological roles. In particular, the distribution of selenium in tissues and cells under both physiological and pathological conditions remains unknown. In this work, we applied high-resolution synchrotron X-ray fluorescence microscopy (XFM) to map selenium distribution in mouse liver and kidney. Liver showed a uniform selenium distribution that was dependent on selenocysteine tRNA{sup [Ser]Sec} and dietary selenium. In contrast, kidney selenium had both uniformly distributed and highly localized components, the latter visualized as thin circular structures surrounding proximal tubules. Other parts of the kidney, such as glomeruli and distal tubules, only manifested the uniformly distributed selenium pattern that co-localized with sulfur. We found that proximal tubule selenium localized to the basement membrane. It was preserved in Selenoprotein P knockout mice, but was completely eliminated in glutathione peroxidase 3 (GPx3) knockout mice, indicating that this selenium represented GPx3. We further imaged kidneys of another model organism, the naked mole rat, which showed a diminished uniformly distributed selenium pool, but preserved the circular proximal tubule signal. We applied XFM to image selenium in mammalian tissues and identified a highly localized pool of this trace element at the basement membrane of kidneys that was associated with GPx3. XFM allowed us to define and explain the tissue topography of selenium in mammalian kidneys at submicron resolution.

  20. Upgrades of the high resolution imaging x-ray crystal spectrometers on experimental advanced superconducting tokamak

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, B.; Wang, F.; Fu, J.; Li, Y.; Wan, B.; Shi, Y.; Bitter, M.; Hill, K. W.; Lee, S. G.

    2012-10-15

    Two imaging x-ray crystal spectrometers, the so-called 'poloidal' and 'tangential' spectrometers, were recently implemented on experimental advanced superconducting tokamak (EAST) to provide spatially and temporally resolved impurity ion temperature (T{sub i}), electron temperature (T{sub e}) and rotation velocity profiles. They are derived from Doppler width of W line for Ti, the intensity ratio of Li-like satellites to W line for Te, and Doppler shift of W line for rotation. Each spectrometer originally consisted of a spherically curved crystal and a two-dimensional multi-wire proportional counter (MWPC) detector. Both spectrometers have now been upgraded. The layout of the tangential spectrometer was modified, since it had to be moved to a different port, and the spectrometer was equipped with two high count rate Pilatus detectors (Model 100 K) to overcome the count rate limitation of the MWPC and to improve its time resolution. The poloidal spectrometer was equipped with two spherically bent crystals to record the spectra of He-like and H-like argon simultaneously and side by side on the original MWPC. These upgrades are described, and new results from the latest EAST experimental campaign are presented.

  1. Laser Doppler field sensor for high resolution flow velocity imaging without camera

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Voigt, Andreas; Bayer, Christian; Shirai, Katsuaki; Buettner, Lars; Czarske, Juergen

    2008-09-20

    In this paper we present a laser sensor for highly spatially resolved flow imaging without using a camera. The sensor is an extension of the principle of laser Doppler anemometry (LDA). Instead of a parallel fringe system, diverging and converging fringes are employed. This method facilitates the determination of the tracer particle position within the measurement volume and leads to an increased spatial and velocity resolution compared to conventional LDA. Using a total number of four fringe systems the flow is resolved in two spatial dimensions and the orthogonal velocity component. Since no camera is used, the resolution of the sensor is not influenced by pixel size effects. A spatial resolution of 4 {mu}m in the x direction and 16 {mu}m in the y direction and a relative velocity resolution of 1x10{sup -3} have been demonstrated up to now. As a first application we present the velocity measurement of an injection nozzle flow. The sensor is also highly suitable for applications in nano- and microfluidics, e.g., for the measurement of flow rates.

  2. High resolution, multiple-energy linear sweep detector for x-ray imaging

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Perez-Mendez, V.; Goodman, C.A.

    1996-08-20

    Apparatus is disclosed for generating plural electrical signals in a single scan in response to incident X-rays received from an object. Each electrical signal represents an image of the object at a different range of energies of the incident X-rays. The apparatus comprises a first X-ray detector, a second X-ray detector stacked upstream of the first X-ray detector, and an X-ray absorber stacked upstream of the first X-ray detector. The X-ray absorber provides an energy-dependent absorption of the incident X-rays before they are incident at the first X-ray detector, but provides no absorption of the incident X-rays before they are incident at the second X-ray detector. The first X-ray detector includes a linear array of first pixels, each of which produces an electrical output in response to the incident X-rays in a first range of energies. The first X-ray detector also includes a circuit that generates a first electrical signal in response to the electrical output of each of the first pixels. The second X-ray detector includes a linear array of second pixels, each of which produces an electrical output in response to the incident X-rays in a second range of energies, broader than the first range of energies. The second X-ray detector also includes a circuit that generates a second electrical signal in response to the electrical output of each of the second pixels. 12 figs.

  3. High resolution, multiple-energy linear sweep detector for x-ray imaging

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Perez-Mendez, Victor (Berkeley, CA); Goodman, Claude A. (Kensington, CA)

    1996-01-01

    Apparatus for generating plural electrical signals in a single scan in response to incident X-rays received from an object. Each electrical signal represents an image of the object at a different range of energies of the incident X-rays. The apparatus comprises a first X-ray detector, a second X-ray detector stacked upstream of the first X-ray detector, and an X-ray absorber stacked upstream of the first X-ray detector. The X-ray absorber provides an energy-dependent absorption of the incident X-rays before they are incident at the first X-ray detector, but provides no absorption of the incident X-rays before they are incident at the second X-ray detector. The first X-ray detector includes a linear array of first pixels, each of which produces an electrical output in response to the incident X-rays in a first range of energies. The first X-ray detector also includes a circuit that generates a first electrical signal in response to the electrical output of each of the first pixels. The second X-ray detector includes a linear array of second pixels, each of which produces an electrical output in response to the incident X-rays in a second range of energies, broader than the first range of energies. The second X-ray detector also includes a circuit that generates a second electrical signal in response to the electrical output of each of the second pixels.

  4. High-cadence and high-resolution H? imaging spectroscopy of a circular flare's remote ribbon with IBIS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deng, Na; Jing, Ju; Chen, Xin; Liu, Chang; Xu, Yan; Wang, Haimin [Space Weather Research Laboratory, New Jersey Institute of Technology, University Heights, Newark, NJ 07102-1982 (United States); Tritschler, Alexandra; Reardon, Kevin [National Solar Observatory, Sacramento Peak, Sunspot, NM 88349-0062 (United States); Denker, Carsten, E-mail: na.deng@njit.edu [Leibniz-Institut für Astrophysik Potsdam, An der Sternwarte 16, D-14482 Potsdam (Germany)

    2013-06-01

    We present an unprecedented high-resolution H? imaging spectroscopic observation of a C4.1 flare taken with the Interferometric Bidimensional Spectrometer (IBIS) in conjunction with the adaptive optics system at the 76 cm Dunn Solar Telescope on 2011 October 22 in the active region NOAA 11324. Such a two-dimensional spectroscopic observation covering the entire evolution of a flare ribbon with high spatial (0.''1 pixel{sup –1} image scale), cadence (4.8 s), and spectral (0.1 Ĺ step size) resolution is rarely reported. The flare consists of a main circular ribbon that occurred in a parasitic magnetic configuration and a remote ribbon that was observed by the IBIS. Such a circular-ribbon flare with a remote brightening is predicted in three-dimensional fan-spine reconnection but so far has been rarely studied. During the flare impulsive phase, we define 'core' and 'halo' structures in the observed ribbon based on IBIS narrowband images in the H? line wing and line center. Examining the H? emission spectra averaged in the flare core and halo areas, we find that only those from the flare cores show typical nonthermal electron beam heating characteristics that have been revealed by previous theoretical simulations and observations of flaring H? line profiles. These characteristics include broad and centrally reversed emission spectra, excess emission in the red wing with regard to the blue wing (i.e., red asymmetry), and redshifted bisectors of the emission spectra. We also observe rather quick timescales for the heating (?30 s) and cooling (?14-33 s) in the flare core locations. Therefore, we suggest that the flare cores revealed by IBIS track the sites of electron beam precipitation with exceptional spatial and temporal resolution. The flare cores show two-stage motion (a parallel motion along the ribbon followed by an expansion motion perpendicular to the ribbon) during the two impulsive phases of the flare. Some cores jump quickly (30 km s{sup –1}) between discrete magnetic elements implying reconnection involving different flux tubes. We observe a very high temporal correlation (? 0.9) between the integrated H? and hard X-rays (HXR) emission during the flare impulsive phase. A short time delay (4.6 s) is also found in the H? emission spikes relative to HXR bursts. The ionization timescale of the cool chromosphere and the extra time taken for the electrons to travel to the remote ribbon site may contribute to this delay.

  5. Subsurface imaging with reverse vertical seismic profiles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krasovec, Mary L. (Mary Lee), 1972-

    2001-01-01

    This thesis presents imaging results from a 3D reverse vertical seismic profile (RVSP) dataset measured at a hydrocarbon bearing pinnacle reef in northern Michigan. The study presented many challenges in seismic data ...

  6. Geophysical subsurface imaging and interface identification.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pendley, Kevin; Bochev, Pavel Blagoveston; Day, David Minot; Robinson, Allen Conrad; Weiss, Chester Joseph

    2005-09-01

    Electromagnetic induction is a classic geophysical exploration method designed for subsurface characterization--in particular, sensing the presence of geologic heterogeneities and fluids such as groundwater and hydrocarbons. Several approaches to the computational problems associated with predicting and interpreting electromagnetic phenomena in and around the earth are addressed herein. Publications resulting from the project include [31]. To obtain accurate and physically meaningful numerical simulations of natural phenomena, computational algorithms should operate in discrete settings that reflect the structure of governing mathematical models. In section 2, the extension of algebraic multigrid methods for the time domain eddy current equations to the frequency domain problem is discussed. Software was developed and is available in Trilinos ML package. In section 3 we consider finite element approximations of De Rham's complex. We describe how to develop a family of finite element spaces that forms an exact sequence on hexahedral grids. The ensuing family of non-affine finite elements is called a van Welij complex, after the work [37] of van Welij who first proposed a general method for developing tangentially and normally continuous vector fields on hexahedral elements. The use of this complex is illustrated for the eddy current equations and a conservation law problem. Software was developed and is available in the Ptenos finite element package. The more popular methods of geophysical inversion seek solutions to an unconstrained optimization problem by imposing stabilizing constraints in the form of smoothing operators on some enormous set of model parameters (i.e. ''over-parametrize and regularize''). In contrast we investigate an alternative approach whereby sharp jumps in material properties are preserved in the solution by choosing as model parameters a modest set of variables which describe an interface between adjacent regions in physical space. While still over-parametrized, this choice of model space contains far fewer parameters than before, thus easing the computational burden, in some cases, of the optimization problem. And most importantly, the associated finite element discretization is aligned with the abrupt changes in material properties associated with lithologic boundaries as well as the interface between buried cultural artifacts and the surrounding Earth. In section 4, algorithms and tools are described that associate a smooth interface surface to a given triangulation. In particular, the tools support surface refinement and coarsening. Section 5 describes some preliminary results on the application of interface identification methods to some model problems in geophysical inversion. Due to time constraints, the results described here use the GNU Triangulated Surface Library for the manipulation of surface meshes and the TetGen software library for the generation of tetrahedral meshes.

  7. A method to determine fault vectors in 4H-SiC from stacking sequences observed on high resolution transmission electron microscopy images

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, Fangzhen; Wang, Huanhuan; Raghothamachar, Balaji; Dudley, Michael; Mueller, Stephan G.; Chung, Gil; Sanchez, Edward K.; Hansen, Darren; Loboda, Mark J.; Zhang, Lihua; Su, Dong; Kisslinger, Kim; Stach, Eric

    2014-09-14

    A new method has been developed to determine the fault vectors associated with stacking faults in 4H-SiC from their stacking sequences observed on high resolution TEM images. This method, analogous to the Burgers circuit technique for determination of dislocation Burgers vector, involves determination of the vectors required in the projection of the perfect lattice to correct the deviated path constructed in the faulted material. Results for several different stacking faults were compared with fault vectors determined from X-ray topographic contrast analysis and were found to be consistent. This technique is expected to applicable to all structures comprising corner shared tetrahedra.

  8. High resolution scintillation detector with semiconductor readout

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Levin, Craig S. (Santa Monica, CA); Hoffman, Edward J. (Los Angeles, CA)

    2000-01-01

    A novel high resolution scintillation detector array for use in radiation imaging such as high resolution Positron Emission Tomography (PET) which comprises one or more parallelepiped crystals with at least one long surface of each crystal being in intimate contact with a semiconductor photodetector such that photons generated within each crystal by gamma radiation passing therethrough is detected by the photodetector paired therewith.

  9. Development of a High Resolution X-Ray Imaging Crystal Spectrometer for Measurement of Ion-Temperature and Rotation-Velocity Profiles in Fusion Energy Research Plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hill, K W; Broennimann, Ch; Eikenberry, E F; Ince-Cushman, A; Lee, S G; Rice, J E; Scott, S

    2008-01-29

    A new imaging high resolution x-ray crystal spectrometer (XCS) has been developed to measure continuous profiles of ion temperature and rotation velocity in fusion plasmas. Following proof-of-principle tests on the Alcator C-Mod tokamak and the NSTX spherical tokamak, and successful testing of a new silicon, pixilated detector with 1 MHz count rate capability per pixel, an imaging XCS is being designed to measure full profiles of Ti and v? on C-Mod. The imaging XCS design has also been adopted for ITER. Ion-temperature uncertainty and minimum measurable rotation velocity are calculated for the C-Mod spectrometer. The affects of x-ray and uclear-radiation background on the measurement uncertainties are calculated to predict performance on ITER.

  10. Development of a High Resolution X-Ray Imaging Crystal Spectrometer for Measurement of Ion-Temperature and Rotation-Velocity Profiles in Fusion Energy Research Plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hill, K W; Broennimann, Ch; Eikenberry, E F; Ince-Cushman, A; Lee, S G; Rice, J E; Scott, S

    2008-02-27

    A new imaging high resolution x-ray crystal spectrometer (XCS) has been developed to measure continuous profiles of ion temperature and rotation velocity in fusion plasmas. Following proof-of-principle tests on the Alcator C-Mod tokamak and the NSTX spherical tokamak, and successful testing of a new silicon, pixilated detector with 1MHz count rate capability per pixel, an imaging XCS is being designed to measure full profiles of Ti and v? on C-Mod. The imaging XCS design has also been adopted for ITER. Ion-temperature uncertainty and minimum measurable rotation velocity are calculated for the C-Mod spectrometer. The affects of x-ray and nuclear-radiation background on the measurement uncertainties are calculated to predict performance on ITER.

  11. Design of a near-field coded aperture cameras for high-resolution medical and industrial gamma-ray imaging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Accorsi, Roberto, 1971-

    2001-01-01

    Coded Aperture Imaging is a technique originally developed for X-ray astronomy, where typical imaging problems are characterized by far-field geometry and an object made of point sources distributed over a mainly dark ...

  12. Towards an effective automated interpretation method for modern hydrocarbon borehole geophysical images 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, Angeleena

    2012-06-25

    Borehole imaging is one of the fastest and most precise methods for collecting subsurface data that provides high resolution information on layering, texture and dips, permitting a core-like description of the subsurface. ...

  13. High resolution biomedical imaging system with direct detection of x-rays via a charge coupled device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Atac, Muzaffer (Wheaton, IL); McKay, Timothy A. (Ann Arbor, MI)

    1998-01-01

    An imaging system is provided for direct detection of x-rays from an irradiated biological tissue. The imaging system includes an energy source for emitting x-rays toward the biological tissue and a charge coupled device (CCD) located immediately adjacent the biological tissue and arranged transverse to the direction of irradiation along which the x-rays travel. The CCD directly receives and detects the x-rays after passing through the biological tissue. The CCD is divided into a matrix of cells, each of which individually stores a count of x-rays directly detected by the cell. The imaging system further includes a pattern generator electrically coupled to the CCD for reading a count from each cell. A display device is provided for displaying an image representative of the count read by the pattern generator from the cells of the CCD.

  14. High resolution biomedical imaging system with direct detection of x-rays via a charge coupled device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Atac, M.; McKay, T.A.

    1998-04-21

    An imaging system is provided for direct detection of x-rays from an irradiated biological tissue. The imaging system includes an energy source for emitting x-rays toward the biological tissue and a charge coupled device (CCD) located immediately adjacent the biological tissue and arranged transverse to the direction of irradiation along which the x-rays travel. The CCD directly receives and detects the x-rays after passing through the biological tissue. The CCD is divided into a matrix of cells, each of which individually stores a count of x-rays directly detected by the cell. The imaging system further includes a pattern generator electrically coupled to the CCD for reading a count from each cell. A display device is provided for displaying an image representative of the count read by the pattern generator from the cells of the CCD. 13 figs.

  15. Geophysical data fusion for subsurface imaging. Phase 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoekstra, P.; Vandergraft, J.; Blohm, M.; Porter, D.

    1993-08-01

    A geophysical data fusion methodology is under development to combine data from complementary geophysical sensors and incorporate geophysical understanding to obtain three dimensional images of the subsurface. The research reported here is the first phase of a three phase project. The project focuses on the characterization of thin clay lenses (aquitards) in a highly stratified sand and clay coastal geology to depths of up to 300 feet. The sensor suite used in this work includes time-domain electromagnetic induction (TDEM) and near surface seismic techniques. During this first phase of the project, enhancements to the acquisition and processing of TDEM data were studied, by use of simulated data, to assess improvements for the detection of thin clay layers. Secondly, studies were made of the use of compressional wave and shear wave seismic reflection data by using state-of-the-art high frequency vibrator technology. Finally, a newly developed processing technique, called ``data fusion,`` was implemented to process the geophysical data, and to incorporate a mathematical model of the subsurface strata. Examples are given of the results when applied to real seismic data collected at Hanford, WA, and for simulated data based on the geology of the Savannah River Site.

  16. Optimal experimental design for the detection of light atoms from high-resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy images

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gonnissen, J.; De Backer, A.; Martinez, G. T.; Van Aert, S.; Dekker, A. J. den; Rosenauer, A.; Sijbers, J.

    2014-08-11

    We report an innovative method to explore the optimal experimental settings to detect light atoms from scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) images. Since light elements play a key role in many technologically important materials, such as lithium-battery devices or hydrogen storage applications, much effort has been made to optimize the STEM technique in order to detect light elements. Therefore, classical performance criteria, such as contrast or signal-to-noise ratio, are often discussed hereby aiming at improvements of the direct visual interpretability. However, when images are interpreted quantitatively, one needs an alternative criterion, which we derive based on statistical detection theory. Using realistic simulations of technologically important materials, we demonstrate the benefits of the proposed method and compare the results with existing approaches.

  17. Visual Comfort Analysis of Innovative Interior and Exterior Shading Systems for Commercial Buildings using High Resolution Luminance Images

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Konis, Kyle; Lee, Eleanor; Clear, Robert

    2011-01-11

    The objective of this study was to explore how calibrated high dynamic range (HDR) images (luminance maps) acquired in real world daylit environments can be used to characterize, evaluate, and compare visual comfort conditions of innovative facade shading and light-redirecting systems. Detailed (1536 x 1536 pixel) luminance maps were time-lapse acquired from two view positions in an unoccupied full scale testbed facility. These maps were analyzed using existing visual comfort metrics to quantify how innovative interior and exterior shading systems compare to conventional systems under real sun and sky conditions over a solstice-to-solstice test interval. The results provide a case study in the challenges and potential of methods of visualizing, evaluating and summarizing daily and seasonal variation of visual comfort conditions computed from large sets of image data.

  18. High resolution data acquisition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thornton, G.W.; Fuller, K.R.

    1993-04-06

    A high resolution event interval timing system measures short time intervals such as occur in high energy physics or laser ranging. Timing is provided from a clock, pulse train, and analog circuitry for generating a triangular wave synchronously with the pulse train (as seen in diagram on patent). The triangular wave has an amplitude and slope functionally related to the time elapsed during each clock pulse in the train. A converter forms a first digital value of the amplitude and slope of the triangle wave at the start of the event interval and a second digital value of the amplitude and slope of the triangle wave at the end of the event interval. A counter counts the clock pulse train during the interval to form a gross event interval time. A computer then combines the gross event interval time and the first and second digital values to output a high resolution value for the event interval.

  19. High resolution data acquisition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thornton, Glenn W. (Los Alamos, NM); Fuller, Kenneth R. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1993-01-01

    A high resolution event interval timing system measures short time intervals such as occur in high energy physics or laser ranging. Timing is provided from a clock (38) pulse train (37) and analog circuitry (44) for generating a triangular wave (46) synchronously with the pulse train (37). The triangular wave (46) has an amplitude and slope functionally related to the time elapsed during each clock pulse in the train. A converter (18, 32) forms a first digital value of the amplitude and slope of the triangle wave at the start of the event interval and a second digital value of the amplitude and slope of the triangle wave at the end of the event interval. A counter (26) counts the clock pulse train (37) during the interval to form a gross event interval time. A computer (52) then combines the gross event interval time and the first and second digital values to output a high resolution value for the event interval.

  20. The environment of the fast rotating star Achernar - High-resolution thermal infrared imaging with VISIR in BURST mode

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pierre Kervella; Armando Domiciano De Souza

    2007-10-28

    Context: The geometry of the circumstellar envelopes (CSE) surrounding Be stars is still uncertain, although it is often assumed that they are formed by a disk around the stellar equator and a hot polar wind. Achernar (Alpha Eri) is the nearest Be star, and we recently detected a CSE using near-IR interferometry. Aims: Our initial goal was to constrain the geometry and flux contribution of the CSE of Achernar at distances of a few tens of AU from the star, in the thermal IR domain to complement our near-IR interferometric observations. Methods: We obtained diffraction-limited images of Achernar in the thermal infrared using VISIR at the VLT. In order to freeze the turbulence, we used the BURST mode of this instrument. Results: The images obtained in the PAH1 band show a point-like source located 0.280" north-west of Achernar (projected linear separation of 12.3 AU). Its emission is 1.8 % of the flux of Achernar in this band, but is not detected in the PAH2, SiC and NeII bands. We also provide new thermal IR photometry of Achernar in four bands. Conclusions: Being aligned with the expected azimuth of the equatorial plane of Achernar, the detected source could be a main sequence stellar companion. In this case, it apparent brightness would correspond to an A7V spectral type.

  1. High-resolution observations of the shock wave behavior for sunspot oscillations with the interface region imaging spectrograph

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tian, H.; DeLuca, E.; Reeves, K. K.; McKillop, S.; Golub, L.; Saar, S.; Testa, P.; Weber, M.; De Pontieu, B.; Martínez-Sykora, J.; Kleint, L.; Cheung, M.; Lemen, J.; Title, A.; Boerner, P.; Hurlburt, N.; Tarbell, T. D.; Wuelser, J. P.; Carlsson, M.; Hansteen, V.; and others

    2014-05-10

    We present the first results of sunspot oscillations from observations by the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph. The strongly nonlinear oscillation is identified in both the slit-jaw images and the spectra of several emission lines formed in the transition region and chromosphere. We first apply a single Gaussian fit to the profiles of the Mg II 2796.35 Ĺ, C II 1335.71 Ĺ, and Si IV 1393.76 Ĺ lines in the sunspot. The intensity change is ?30%. The Doppler shift oscillation reveals a sawtooth pattern with an amplitude of ?10 km s{sup –1} in Si IV. The Si IV oscillation lags those of C II and Mg II by ?6 and ?25 s, respectively. The line width suddenly increases as the Doppler shift changes from redshift to blueshift. However, we demonstrate that this increase is caused by the superposition of two emission components. We then perform detailed analysis of the line profiles at a few selected locations on the slit. The temporal evolution of the line core is dominated by the following behavior: a rapid excursion to the blue side, accompanied by an intensity increase, followed by a linear decrease of the velocity to the red side. The maximum intensity slightly lags the maximum blueshift in Si IV, whereas the intensity enhancement slightly precedes the maximum blueshift in Mg II. We find a positive correlation between the maximum velocity and deceleration, a result that is consistent with numerical simulations of upward propagating magnetoacoustic shock waves.

  2. Upgrades of imaging x-ray crystal spectrometers for high-resolution and high-temperature plasma diagnostics on EAST

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lyu, B., E-mail: blu@ipp.ac.cn; Wang, F. D.; Fu, J.; Li, Y. Y. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); Pan, X. Y.; Chen, J.; Wan, B. N. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); School of Nuclear Science and Technology, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Bitter, M.; Hill, K. W.; Delgado-Aparicio, L. F.; Pablant, N. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, P.O. Box 451, Princeton, New Jersey 08543-0451 (United States); Lee, S. G. [National Fusion Research Institute, 52 Eoeun-Dong, Yusung-Gu, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Shi, Y. J. [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); WCI for Fusion Theory, National Fusion Research Institute, 52 Eoeun-Dong, Yusung-Gu, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Ye, M. Y. [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China)

    2014-11-15

    Upgrade of the imaging X-ray crystal spectrometers continues in order to fulfill the high-performance diagnostics requirements on EAST. For the tangential spectrometer, a new large pixelated two-dimensional detector was deployed on tokamaks for time-resolved X-ray imaging. This vacuum-compatible detector has an area of 83.8 × 325.3 mm{sup 2}, a framing rate over 150 Hz, and water-cooling capability for long-pulse discharges. To effectively extend the temperature limit, a double-crystal assembly was designed to replace the previous single crystals for He-like argon line measurement. The tangential spectrometer employed two crystal slices attached to a common substrate and part of He- and H-like Ar spectra could be recorded on the same detector when crystals were chosen to have similar Bragg angles. This setup cannot only extend the measurable Te up to 10 keV in the core region, but also extend the spatial coverage since He-like argon ions will be present in the outer plasma region. Similarly, crystal slices for He-like iron and argon spectra were adopted on the poloidal spectrometer. Wavelength calibration for absolute rotation velocity measurement will be studied using cadmium characteristic L-shell X-ray lines excited by plasma radiation. A Cd foil is placed before the crystal and can be inserted and retracted for in situ wavelength calibration. The Geant4 code was used to estimate X-ray fluorescence yield and optimize the thickness of the foil.

  3. High-resolution imaging of the molecular outflows in two mergers: IRAS17208-0014 and NGC1614

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garcia-Burillo, S; Usero, A; Aalto, S; Colina, L; Alonso-Herrero, A; Hunt, L K; Arribas, S; Costagliola, F; Labiano, A; Neri, R; Pereira-Santaella, M; Tacconi, L J; van der Werf, P P

    2015-01-01

    Galaxy evolution scenarios predict that the feedback of star formation and nuclear activity (AGN) can drive the transformation of gas-rich spiral mergers into ULIRGs, and, eventually, lead to the build-up of QSO/elliptical hosts. We study the role that star formation and AGN feedback have in launching and maintaining the molecular outflows in two starburst-dominated advanced mergers, NGC1614 and IRAS17208-0014, by analyzing the distribution and kinematics of their molecular gas reservoirs. We have used the PdBI array to image with high spatial resolution (0.5"-1.2") the CO(1-0) and CO(2-1) line emissions in NGC1614 and IRAS17208-0014, respectively. The velocity fields of the gas are analyzed and modeled to find the evidence of molecular outflows in these sources and characterize the mass, momentum and energy of these components. While most (>95%) of the CO emission stems from spatially-resolved (~2-3kpc-diameter) rotating disks, we also detect in both mergers the emission from high-velocity line wings that ex...

  4. Modeling and High-Resolution-Imaging Studies of Water-Content Profiles in a Polymer-Electrolyte-Fuel-Cell Membrane-Electrode Assembly

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stevenson, Cynthia; Weber, A.Z.; Hickner, M.A.

    2008-03-06

    Water-content profiles across the membrane electrode assembly of a polymer-electrolyte fuel cell were measured using high-resolution neutron imaging and compared to mathematical-modeling predictions. It was found that the membrane held considerably more water than the other membrane-electrode constituents (catalyst layers, microporous layers, and macroporous gas-diffusion layers) at low temperatures, 40 and 60 C. The water content in the membrane and the assembly decreased drastically at 80 C where vapor transport and a heat-pipe effect began to dominate the water removal from the membrane-electrode assembly. In the regimes where vapor transport was significant, the through-plane water-content profile skewed towards the cathode. Similar trends were observed as the relative humidity of the inlet gases was lowered. This combined experimental and modeling approach has been beneficial in rationalizing the results of each and given insight into future directions for new experimental work and refinements to currently available models.

  5. Perfusion-based High-Resolution Functional Imaging in the Human Brain at 7 Tesla J. Pfeuffer, G. Adriany, A. Shmuel, E. Yacoub, P.-F. van de Moortele, X. Hu, K. Ugurbil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Perfusion-based High-Resolution Functional Imaging in the Human Brain at 7 Tesla J. Pfeuffer, G was made possible by signal-to-noise gains at the high magnetic field of 7 Tesla and by using a novel RF

  6. High-resolution single photon planar and spect imaging of brain and neck employing a system of two co-registered opposed gamma imaging heads

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Majewski, Stanislaw (Yorktown, VA); Proffitt, James (Newport News, VA)

    2011-12-06

    A compact, mobile, dedicated SPECT brain imager that can be easily moved to the patient to provide in-situ imaging, especially when the patient cannot be moved to the Nuclear Medicine imaging center. As a result of the widespread availability of single photon labeled biomarkers, the SPECT brain imager can be used in many locations, including remote locations away from medical centers. The SPECT imager improves the detection of gamma emission from the patient's head and neck area with a large field of view. Two identical lightweight gamma imaging detector heads are mounted to a rotating gantry and precisely mechanically co-registered to each other at 180 degrees. A unique imaging algorithm combines the co-registered images from the detector heads and provides several SPECT tomographic reconstructions of the imaged object thereby improving the diagnostic quality especially in the case of imaging requiring higher spatial resolution and sensitivity at the same time.

  7. High resolution time interval meter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Martin, A.D.

    1986-05-09

    Method and apparatus are provided for measuring the time interval between two events to a higher resolution than reliability available from conventional circuits and component. An internal clock pulse is provided at a frequency compatible with conventional component operating frequencies for reliable operation. Lumped constant delay circuits are provided for generating outputs at delay intervals corresponding to the desired high resolution. An initiation START pulse is input to generate first high resolution data. A termination STOP pulse is input to generate second high resolution data. Internal counters count at the low frequency internal clock pulse rate between the START and STOP pulses. The first and second high resolution data are logically combined to directly provide high resolution data to one counter and correct the count in the low resolution counter to obtain a high resolution time interval measurement.

  8. High resolution telescope

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Massie, Norbert A. (San Ramon, CA); Oster, Yale (Danville, CA)

    1992-01-01

    A large effective-aperture, low-cost optical telescope with diffraction-limited resolution enables ground-based observation of near-earth space objects. The telescope has a non-redundant, thinned-aperture array in a center-mount, single-structure space frame. It employs speckle interferometric imaging to achieve diffraction-limited resolution. The signal-to-noise ratio problem is mitigated by moving the wavelength of operation to the near-IR, and the image is sensed by a Silicon CCD. The steerable, single-structure array presents a constant pupil. The center-mount, radar-like mount enables low-earth orbit space objects to be tracked as well as increases stiffness of the space frame. In the preferred embodiment, the array has elemental telescopes with subaperture of 2.1 m in a circle-of-nine configuration. The telescope array has an effective aperture of 12 m which provides a diffraction-limited resolution of 0.02 arc seconds. Pathlength matching of the telescope array is maintained by an electro-optical system employing laser metrology. Speckle imaging relaxes pathlength matching tolerance by one order of magnitude as compared to phased arrays. Many features of the telescope contribute to substantial reduction in costs. These include eliminating the conventional protective dome and reducing on-site construction activites. The cost of the telescope scales with the first power of the aperture rather than its third power as in conventional telescopes.

  9. Thermal wave image processing for characterization of subsurface of flaws in materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gopalan, K.; Gopalsami, N.

    1993-08-01

    Infrared images resulting from back-scattered thermal waves in composite materials are corrupted by instrument noise and sample heat-spread function. This paper demonstrates that homomorphic deconvolution and {open_quotes}demultiplication{close_quotes} result in enhanced image quality for characterization of subsurface flaws in Kevlar and graphics composites. The choice of processing depends on the material characteristics and the extent of noise in the original image.

  10. Spatial resolution and the geologic interpretation of Martian morphology - implications for subsurface volatiles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zimbelman, J.R.

    1987-08-01

    Viking Orbiter images of the Acheron Fossae on Mars are presented and analyzed, with an emphasis on the impact of image resolution on the interpretation. High-resolution (less than 10 m/pixel) images reveal small mounds which can be interpreted as aeolian dunes, but these features are not evident on images with resolution of 50 m/pixel or greater. Also reported are the results of a visual inspection of 527 usable high-resolution images: it is found that all of the morphological features identified can arise in the absence of subsurface volatiles. 21 references.

  11. High resolution digital delay timer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Martin, Albert D. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1988-01-01

    Method and apparatus are provided for generating an output pulse following a trigger pulse at a time delay interval preset with a resolution which is high relative to a low resolution available from supplied clock pulses. A first lumped constant delay (20) provides a first output signal (24) at predetermined interpolation intervals corresponding to the desired high resolution time interval. Latching circuits (26, 28) latch the high resolution data (24) to form a first synchronizing data set (60). A selected time interval has been preset to internal counters (142, 146, 154) and corrected for circuit propagation delay times having the same order of magnitude as the desired high resolution. Internal system clock pulses (32, 34) count down the counters to generate an internal pulse delayed by an interval which is functionally related to the preset time interval. A second LCD (184) corrects the internal signal with the high resolution time delay. A second internal pulse is then applied to a third LCD (74) to generate a second set of synchronizing data (76) which is complementary with the first set of synchronizing data (60) for presentation to logic circuits (64). The logic circuits (64) further delay the internal output signal (72) to obtain a proper phase relationship of an output signal (80) with the internal pulses (32, 34). The final delayed output signal (80) thereafter enables the output pulse generator (82) to produce the desired output pulse (84) at the preset time delay interval following input of the trigger pulse (10, 12).

  12. Modeling and High-Resolution-Imaging Studies of Water-Content Profiles in a Polymer-Electrolyte-Fuel-Cell Membrane-Electrode Assembly

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weber, A.Z.

    2008-01-01

    is the weighted sum of the water content in the membrane inResolution-Imaging Studies of Water-Content Profiles in aPark, PA 16802, USA. b Water-content profiles across the

  13. High-resolution wave-theory-based ultrasound reflection imaging using the split-step fourier and globally optimized fourier finite-difference methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Huang, Lianjie

    2013-10-29

    Methods for enhancing ultrasonic reflection imaging are taught utilizing a split-step Fourier propagator in which the reconstruction is based on recursive inward continuation of ultrasonic wavefields in the frequency-space and frequency-wave number domains. The inward continuation within each extrapolation interval consists of two steps. In the first step, a phase-shift term is applied to the data in the frequency-wave number domain for propagation in a reference medium. The second step consists of applying another phase-shift term to data in the frequency-space domain to approximately compensate for ultrasonic scattering effects of heterogeneities within the tissue being imaged (e.g., breast tissue). Results from various data input to the method indicate significant improvements are provided in both image quality and resolution.

  14. Development of a high-frame-rate high-resolution particle image velocimetry system and applications to the characterization of synthetic jet actuators 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilarranz, Jose Luis

    1998-01-01

    to 3,000 frames per second and a maximum image resolution of 512 by 512 pixels. The performance of these systems was demonstrated by utilizing them to experimentally characterize the flowfield generated by a synthetic jet actuator, operating at a...

  15. 3520 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ANTENNAS AND PROPAGATION, VOL. 57, NO. 11, NOVEMBER 2009 High-Resolution 3-D Imaging Algorithm With

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sato, Toru

    --Through-the-wall imaging techniques with ultrawide- band (UWB) radars are promising candidates for non-destructive testing has been inves- tigated intensively for various applications, including non-destructive testing- velope, that is aimed at near field sensing for non-contact measure- ment or target identification

  16. The solar chromosphere at high resolution with IBIS: III. Comparison of Ca II K and Ca II 854.2 nm imaging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reardon, K P; Cauzzi, G

    2008-01-01

    Filtergrams obtained in Ca II H, Ca II K and H-alpha are often employed as diagnostics of the solar chromosphere. However, the vastly disparate appearance between the typical filtergrams in these different lines calls into question the nature of what is actually being observed. We investigate the lack of obvious structures of magnetic origin such as fibrils and mottles in on-disk Ca II H and K images by directly comparing a temporal sequence of classical Ca II K filtergrams with a co-spatial and co-temporal sequence of spectrally resolved Ca II 854.2 images obtained with the Interferometric Bidimensional Spectrometer (IBIS), considering the effect of both the spectral and spatial smearing. We find that the lack of fine magnetic structuring in Ca II K filtergrams, even with the narrowest available filters, is due to observational effects. Signatures of fibrils remain however in the temporal evolution of the filtergrams, in particular with the evidence of magnetic shadows around the network elements. The Ca II ...

  17. TESTING THE HYPOTHESIS THAT METHANOL MASER RINGS TRACE CIRCUMSTELLAR DISKS: HIGH-RESOLUTION NEAR-INFRARED AND MID-INFRARED IMAGING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    De Buizer, James M. [Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy-USRA, NASA Ames Research Center, MS N232-12, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Bartkiewicz, Anna; Szymczak, Marian, E-mail: jdebuizer@sofia.usra.edu [Torun Centre for Astronomy, Nicolaus Copernicus University, Gagarina 11, 87-100 Torun (Poland)

    2012-08-01

    Milliarcsecond very long baseline interferometry maps of regions containing 6.7 GHz methanol maser emission have lead to the recent discovery of ring-like distributions of maser spots and the plausible hypothesis that they may be tracing circumstellar disks around forming high-mass stars. We aimed to test this hypothesis by imaging these regions in the near- and mid-infrared at high spatial resolution and compare the observed emission to the expected infrared morphologies as inferred from the geometries of the maser rings. In the near-infrared we used the Gemini North adaptive optics system of ALTAIR/NIRI, while in the mid-infrared we used the combination of the Gemini South instrument T-ReCS and super-resolution techniques. Resultant images had a resolution of {approx}150 mas in both the near-infrared and mid-infrared. We discuss the expected distribution of circumstellar material around young and massive accreting (proto)stars and what infrared emission geometries would be expected for the different maser ring orientations under the assumption that the masers are coming from within circumstellar disks. Based upon the observed infrared emission geometries for the four targets in our sample and the results of spectral energy distribution modeling of the massive young stellar objects associated with the maser rings, we do not find compelling evidence in support of the hypothesis that methanol masers rings reside in circumstellar disks.

  18. Application of PILATUS II Detector Modules for High Resolution X-Ray Imaging Crystal Spectrometers on the Alcator C-Mod Tokamak

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M.L. Bitter, Ch. Borennimann, E.F. Eikenberry, K.W. Hill, A. Ince-Chushman, S.G. Lee, J.E. Rice, and S. Scott.

    2007-07-23

    A new type of X-ray imaging crystal spectrometer for Doppler measurements of the radial profiles of the ion temperature and plasma rotation velocity in tokamak plasmas is presently being developed in a collaboration between various laboratories. The spectrometer will consist of a spherically bent crystal and a two-dimensional position sensitive detector; and it will record temporally and spatially resolved X-ray line spectra from highly-charged ions. The detector must satisfy challenging requirements with respect to count rate and spatial resolution. The paper presents the results from a recent test of a PILATUS II detector module on Alcator C-Mod, which demonstrate that the PILATUS II detector modules will satisfy these requirements.

  19. An Ultradeep High Resolution X-ray Image of M101 The X-ray Source Population in a Late-type Spiral

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Q D; Pietsch, W; Immler, Stefan; Pietsch, Wolfgang

    1999-01-01

    We have studied the X-ray source population of the face-on spiral galaxy M101 (NGC 5457). Within a field of radius 17' (36 kpc at the distance of 7.2 Mpc), covered by an ultradeep (229 ks) ROSAT HRI image, 51 X-ray sources are detected with signal-to-noise ratios greater than 3.5. About half of these sources are associated with the galaxy. We determine the average luminosity distribution of the sources. We have examined spatial, spectral, and timing properties of the X-ray sources. In particular, we have explored the nature of various superluminous X-ray sources with luminosities significantly greater than the Eddington limit for a $\\sim 1.6 M_\\odot$ object (neutron star). These X-ray sources, detected in various ROSAT HRI and PSPC observations, are not transients and appear to result from recent massive star formation in outer spiral arms. 3 superluminous PSPC sources are associated with giant HII complexes and are clearly resolved. 2 other superluminous RHRI sources are likely associated with shell-like sup...

  20. High resolution time interval counter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Condreva, K.J.

    1994-07-26

    A high resolution counter circuit measures the time interval between the occurrence of an initial and a subsequent electrical pulse to two nanoseconds resolution using an eight megahertz clock. The circuit includes a main counter for receiving electrical pulses and generating a binary word--a measure of the number of eight megahertz clock pulses occurring between the signals. A pair of first and second pulse stretchers receive the signal and generate a pair of output signals whose widths are approximately sixty-four times the time between the receipt of the signals by the respective pulse stretchers and the receipt by the respective pulse stretchers of a second subsequent clock pulse. Output signals are thereafter supplied to a pair of start and stop counters operable to generate a pair of binary output words representative of the measure of the width of the pulses to a resolution of two nanoseconds. Errors associated with the pulse stretchers are corrected by providing calibration data to both stretcher circuits, and recording start and stop counter values. Stretched initial and subsequent signals are combined with autocalibration data and supplied to an arithmetic logic unit to determine the time interval in nanoseconds between the pair of electrical pulses being measured. 3 figs.

  1. High resolution time interval counter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Condreva, Kenneth J. (Livermore, CA)

    1994-01-01

    A high resolution counter circuit measures the time interval between the occurrence of an initial and a subsequent electrical pulse to two nanoseconds resolution using an eight megahertz clock. The circuit includes a main counter for receiving electrical pulses and generating a binary word--a measure of the number of eight megahertz clock pulses occurring between the signals. A pair of first and second pulse stretchers receive the signal and generate a pair of output signals whose widths are approximately sixty-four times the time between the receipt of the signals by the respective pulse stretchers and the receipt by the respective pulse stretchers of a second subsequent clock pulse. Output signals are thereafter supplied to a pair of start and stop counters operable to generate a pair of binary output words representative of the measure of the width of the pulses to a resolution of two nanoseconds. Errors associated with the pulse stretchers are corrected by providing calibration data to both stretcher circuits, and recording start and stop counter values. Stretched initial and subsequent signals are combined with autocalibration data and supplied to an arithmetic logic unit to determine the time interval in nanoseconds between the pair of electrical pulses being measured.

  2. Afghanistan Pakistan High Resolution Wind Resource - Datasets...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Pakistan High Resolution Wind Resource This shapefile containing 50 meter height data has been validated by NREL and wind energy meteorological consultants. However, the data is...

  3. Neutrino Telescope Array Letter of Intent: A Large Array of High Resolution Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov and Fluorescence Detectors for Survey of Air-showers from Cosmic Tau Neutrinos in the PeV-EeV Energy Range

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Makoto Sasaki; George Wei-Shu Hou

    2015-07-22

    This Letter of Intent (LoI) describes the outline and plan for the Neutrino Telescope Array (NTA) project. High-energy neutrinos provide unique and indisputable evidence for hadronic acceleration. Recently, IceCube has reported astronomical neutrino candidates in excess of expectation from atmospheric secondaries, but is limited by the water Cherenkov detection method. A next generation high-energy neutrino telescope should be capable of establishing indisputable evidence for cosmic high-energy neutrinos. It should not only have orders-of-magnitude larger sensitivity, but also enough pointing accuracy to probe known or unknown astronomical objects, without suffering from atmospheric secondaries. The proposed installation is a large array of compound eye stations of imaging atmospheric Cherenkov and fluorescence detectors, with wide field of view and refined observational ability of air showers from cosmic tau neutrinos in the PeV-EeV energy range. This advanced optical complex system is based substantially on the development of All-sky Survey High Resolution Air-shower detector (Ashra) and applies the tau shower Earth-skimming method to survey PeV-EeV tau neutrinos. It allows wide (30 deg x 360 deg) and deep (~400 Mpc) survey observation for PeV-EeV tau neutrinos assuming the standard GRB neutrino fluence.In addition, it enjoys the pointing accuracy of better than 0.2 deg in essentially background-free conditions. With the advanced imaging of Earth-skimming tau showers in the wide field of view, we aim for clear discovery and identification of astronomical tau neutrino sources, providing inescapable evidence of the astrophysical hadronic model for acceleration and/or propagation of extremely high energy protons in the precisely determined direction.

  4. Ultra-High Resolution Electron Microscopy for Catalyst Characterizatio...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Documents & Publications Ultra-High Resolution Electron Microscopy for Catalyst Characterization Ultra-high Resolution Electron Microscopy for Catalyst Characterization...

  5. Testing Competing High-Resolution Precipitation Forecasts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilleland, Eric

    Testing Competing High-Resolution Precipitation Forecasts Eric Gilleland Research Prediction Comparison Test D1 D2 D = D1 ­ D2 copyright NCAR 2013 Loss Differential Field #12;Spatial Prediction Comparison Test Introduced by Hering and Genton

  6. PROJECT PROFILE: High-resolution Investigations of Transport Limiting Defects and Interfaces in Thin-Film Photovoltaic Devices

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This project will develop the capability of high-resolution transport imaging in photovoltaic (PV) devices, which is useful for improving polycrystalline thin-film PV materials.

  7. Turbulence and combustion interaction: High resolution local flame front structure visualization using simultaneous single-shot PLIF imaging of CH, OH, and CH{sub 2}O in a piloted premixed jet flame

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Z.S.; Li, B.; Sun, Z.W.; Alden, M. [Division of Combustion Physics, Lund University, P.O. Box 118, S-221 00 Lund (Sweden); Bai, X.S. [Division of Fluid Mechanics, Lund University, P.O. Box 118, S-221 00 Lund (Sweden)

    2010-06-15

    High resolution planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) was applied to investigate the local flame front structures of turbulent premixed methane/air jet flames in order to reveal details about turbulence and flame interaction. The targeted turbulent flames were generated on a specially designed coaxial jet burner, in which low speed stoichiometric gas mixture was fed through the outer large tube to provide a laminar pilot flame for stabilization of the high speed jet flame issued through the small inner tube. By varying the inner tube flow speed and keeping the mixture composition as that of the outer tube, different flames were obtained covering both the laminar and turbulent flame regimes with different turbulent intensities. Simultaneous CH/CH{sub 2}O, and also OH PLIF images were recorded to characterize the influence of turbulence eddies on the reaction zone structure, with a spatial resolution of about 40 {mu}m and temporal resolution of around 10 ns. Under all experimental conditions, the CH radicals were found to exist only in a thin layer; the CH{sub 2}O were found in the inner flame whereas the OH radicals were seen in the outer flame with the thin CH layer separating the OH and CH{sub 2}O layers. The outer OH layer is thick and it corresponds to the oxidation zone and post-flame zone; the CH{sub 2}O layer is thin in laminar flows; it becomes broad at high speed turbulent flow conditions. This phenomenon was analyzed using chemical kinetic calculations and eddy/flame interaction theory. It appears that under high turbulence intensity conditions, the small eddies in the preheat zone can transport species such as CH{sub 2}O from the reaction zones to the preheat zone. The CH{sub 2}O species are not consumed in the preheat zone due to the absence of H, O, and OH radicals by which CH{sub 2}O is to be oxidized. The CH radicals cannot exist in the preheat zone due to the rapid reactions of this species with O{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} in the inner-layer of the reaction zones. The local PLIF intensities were evaluated using an area integrated PLIF signal. Substantial increase of the CH{sub 2}O signal and decrease of CH signal was observed as the jet velocity increases. These observations raise new challenges to the current flamelet type models. (author)

  8. Design Parameters and Objectives of a High--Resolution X--ray...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Technical Report: Design Parameters and Objectives of a High--Resolution X--ray Imaging Crystal Spectrometer for the Large Helical Device (LHD) Citation Details In-Document Search...

  9. Ultra-high Resolution Electron Microscopy for Catalyst Characterizatio...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    high Resolution Electron Microscopy for Catalyst Characterization Ultra-high Resolution Electron Microscopy for Catalyst Characterization 2009 DOE Hydrogen Program and Vehicle...

  10. Ultra-High Resolution Electron Microscopy for Catalyst Characterizatio...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Documents & Publications Ultra-High Resolution Electron Microscopy for Catalyst Characterization Ultra-high Resolution Electron Microscopy for Catalyst Characterization Catalyst...

  11. Sandia Energy - High-Resolution Computational Algorithms for...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    High-Resolution Computational Algorithms for Simulating Offshore Wind Farms Home Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Wind Energy Offshore Wind High-Resolution...

  12. Supercomputers Fuel Global High-Resolution Climate Models

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Supercomputers Fuel Global High-Resolution Climate Models Supercomputers Fuel Global High-Resolution Climate Models Berkeley Lab Researcher Says Climate Science is Entering New...

  13. ELECTRONICS UPGRADE OF HIGH RESOLUTION MASS SPECTROMETERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mcintosh, J; Joe Cordaro, J

    2008-03-10

    High resolution mass spectrometers are specialized systems that allow researchers to determine the exact mass of samples to four significant digits by using magnetic and electronic sector mass analyzers. Many of the systems in use today at research laboratories and universities were designed and built more than two decades ago. The manufacturers of these systems have abandoned the support for some of the mass spectrometers and parts to power and control them have become scarce or obsolete. The Savannah River National Laboratory has been involved in the upgrade of the electronics and software for these legacy machines. The Electronics Upgrade of High Resolution Mass Spectrometers consists of assembling high-end commercial instrumentation from reputable manufacturers with a minimal amount of customization to replace the electronics for the older systems. By taking advantage of advances in instrumentation, precise magnet control can be achieved using high resolution current sources and continuous feedback from a high resolution hall-effect probe. The custom equipment include a precision voltage divider/summing amplifier chassis, high voltage power supply chassis and a chassis for controlling the voltage emission for the mass spectrometer source tube. The upgrade package is versatile enough to interface with valve control, vacuum and other instrumentation. Instrument communication is via a combination of Ethernet and traditional IEEE-488 GPIB protocols. The system software upgrades include precision control, feedback and spectral waveform analysis tools.

  14. High resolution 20 GHz wideband delay generator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rodwell, Mark J. W.

    High resolution 20 GHz wideband delay generator S.L. Morton, K. Elliott and M. Rodwell A digitally resolution beamsteering applications, a delay generator is required to have a resolution better than 0.25 ps for a signal of 1.8 GHz. In 1989, Otsuji and Narumi [3] fabricated delay lines for delay generation, using

  15. HIGH RESOLUTION TECHNIQUES AND APPLICATION TO NON-OXIDE CERAMICS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clarke, D.R.

    2010-01-01

    York, (1964). W. C. T. Dowell, "Das Elektronenmikroskopischeoriginally introduced by Dowell(9) to obtain high resolution

  16. Development of a laser photothermoacoustic frequency-swept system for subsurface imaging: Theory and experiment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mandelis, Andreas

    to generate time-of-flight acoustic information of the subsurface features. This paper reports the theoretical generation and the delay time of signal arrival to the transducer, information specific to a particular depth.80.Qf YHB Pages: 3523­3533 I. INTRODUCTION The photoacoustic PA , or more precisely, photo- thermo-acoustic

  17. High resolution collimator system for X-ray detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Eberhard, Jeffrey W. (Schenectady, NY); Cain, Dallas E. (Scotia, NY)

    1987-01-01

    High resolution in an X-ray computerized tomography (CT) inspection system is achieved by using a collimator/detector combination to limit the beam width of the X-ray beam incident on a detector element to the desired resolution width. In a detector such as a high pressure Xenon detector array, a narrow tapered collimator is provided above a wide detector element. The collimator slits have any desired width, as small as a few mils at the top, the slit width is easily controlled, and they are fabricated on standard machines. The slit length determines the slice thickness of the CT image.

  18. Manipulation of subsurface carbon nanoparticles in Bi?Sr?CaCu?O8+? using a scanning tunneling microscope

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Stollenwerk, A. J.; Gu, G.; Hurley, N.; Beck, B.; Spurgeon, K.; Kidd, T. E.

    2015-03-01

    We present evidence that subsurface carbon nanoparticles in Bi?Sr?CaCu?O8+? can be manipulated with nanometer precision using a scanning tunneling microscope. High resolution images indicate that most of the carbon particles remain subsurface after transport observable as a local increase in height as the particle pushes up on the surface. Tunneling spectra in the vicinity of these protrusions exhibit semiconducting characteristics with a band gap of approximately 1.8 eV, indicating that the incorporation of carbon locally alters the electronic properties near the surface.

  19. High-resolution electron microscopy of advanced materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mitchell, T.E.; Kung, H.H.; Sickafus, K.E.; Gray, G.T. III; Field, R.D.; Smith, J.F.

    1997-11-01

    This final report chronicles a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The High-Resolution Electron Microscopy Facility has doubled in size and tripled in quality since the beginning of the three-year period. The facility now includes a field-emission scanning electron microscope, a 100 kV field-emission scanning transmission electron microscope (FE-STEM), a 300 kV field-emission high-resolution transmission electron microscope (FE-HRTEM), and a 300 kV analytical transmission electron microscope. A new orientation imaging microscope is being installed. X-ray energy dispersive spectrometers for chemical analysis are available on all four microscopes; parallel electron energy loss spectrometers are operational on the FE-STEM and FE-HRTEM. These systems enable evaluation of local atomic bonding, as well as chemical composition in nanometer-scale regions. The FE-HRTEM has a point-to-point resolution of 1.6 {angstrom}, but the resolution can be pushed to its information limit of 1 {angstrom} by computer reconstruction of a focal series of images. HRTEM has been used to image the atomic structure of defects such as dislocations, grain boundaries, and interfaces in a variety of materials from superconductors and ferroelectrics to structural ceramics and intermetallics.

  20. High-Resolution PET Detector. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karp, Joel

    2014-03-26

    The objective of this project was to develop an understanding of the limits of performance for a high resolution PET detector using an approach based on continuous scintillation crystals rather than pixelated crystals. The overall goal was to design a high-resolution detector, which requires both high spatial resolution and high sensitivity for 511 keV gammas. Continuous scintillation detectors (Anger cameras) have been used extensively for both single-photon and PET scanners, however, these instruments were based on NaI(Tl) scintillators using relatively large, individual photo-multipliers. In this project we investigated the potential of this type of detector technology to achieve higher spatial resolution through the use of improved scintillator materials and photo-sensors, and modification of the detector surface to optimize the light response function.We achieved an average spatial resolution of 3-mm for a 25-mm thick, LYSO continuous detector using a maximum likelihood position algorithm and shallow slots cut into the entrance surface.

  1. Applied high resolution digital control for universal precision systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gawlik, Aaron John

    2008-01-01

    This thesis describes the design and characterization of a high-resolution analog interface for dSPACE digital control systems and a high-resolution, high-speed data acquisition and control system. These designs are intended ...

  2. PROGRESS TOWARDS A HIGH-RESOLUTION RETINAL PROSTHESIS James D. Weiland1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arizona, University of

    PROGRESS TOWARDS A HIGH-RESOLUTION RETINAL PROSTHESIS James D. Weiland1 , Wolfgang Fink2,1 , Mark of image processing, microelectronics, and polymer based electrodes and interconnects. An image processing and tested to demonstrate closed loop power control and efficient microstimulation. A novel packaging process

  3. Manipulation of subsurface carbon nanoparticles in Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+? using a scanning tunneling microscope

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Stollenwerk, A. J.; Hurley, N.; Beck, B.; Spurgeon, K.; Kidd, T. E.; Gu, G.

    2015-03-19

    In this study, we present evidence that subsurface carbon nanoparticles in Bi?Sr?CaCu?O8+? can be manipulated with nanometer precision using a scanning tunneling microscope. High resolution images indicate that most of the carbon particles remain subsurface after transport observable as a local increase in height as the particle pushes up on the surface. Tunneling spectra in the vicinity of these protrusions exhibit semiconducting characteristics with a band gap of approximately 1.8 eV, indicating that the incorporation of carbon locally alters the electronic properties near the surface.

  4. High-resolution ab initio three-dimensional x-ray diffraction microscopy

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Chapman, Henry N.; Barty, Anton; Marchesini, Stefano; Noy, Aleksandr; Hau-Riege, Stefan P.; Cui, Congwu; Howells, Malcolm R.; Rosen, Rachel; He, Haifeng; Spence, John C. H.; et al

    2006-01-01

    Coherent x-ray diffraction microscopy is a method of imaging nonperiodic isolated objects at resolutions limited, in principle, by only the wavelength and largest scattering angles recorded. We demonstrate x-ray diffraction imaging with high resolution in all three dimensions, as determined by a quantitative analysis of the reconstructed volume images. These images are retrieved from the three-dimensional diffraction data using no a priori knowledge about the shape or composition of the object, which has never before been demonstrated on a nonperiodic object. We also construct two-dimensional images of thick objects with greatly increased depth of focus (without loss of transverse spatialmore »resolution). These methods can be used to image biological and materials science samples at high resolution with x-ray undulator radiation and establishes the techniques to be used in atomic-resolution ultrafast imaging at x-ray free-electron laser sources.« less

  5. Massively parallel electrical conductivity imaging of the subsurface: Applications to hydrocarbon exploration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Newman, G.A.

    2009-01-01

    d). Images are rendered in electrical conductivity.data in the presence of electrical anisotropy: submittedthe necessity to incorporate electrical anisotropy into the

  6. High resolution spectroscopy of ultracool M dwarfs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    I. Neill Reid; J. Davy Kirkpatrick; J. Liebert; J. E. Gizis; C. C. Dahn; D. G. Monet

    2002-04-17

    (abridged) We present high-resolution echelle spectroscopy of a photometricaly-selected sample if thirty-nine dwarfs with spectral types between M6.5 and L0.5. Two stars, 2MASSI 0253202+271333 and 2MASSW 0952219-192431, are double-lined spectroscopic binaries. We have used our observations to search for Li I 6708 A absorption, characteristic of sub-stellar mass; estimate the level of chromospheric activity through measurement of H-alpha emission fluxes; measure rotational velocities via line broadening; and determine radial velocities and Galactic space motions. Two dwarfs have strong lithium absorption, the previously-known brown dwarf, LP 944-20, and 2MASSI J0335020+234235, which we identify as a probable 0.06 M_sun brown dwarf, age ~1 Gyr. We have investigated the prospect of using the observed frequency of lithium absorption amongst ultracool M dwarfs (M7 to M9.5) as a probe of the initial mass function. The available observations are difficult to reconcile with Salpeter-like power-law mass functions (alpha > 2) for masses below 0.1M_Sun. A comparison between the rotational velocities and -alpha fluxes shows no evidence for significant correlation. Velocity dispersions are significantly lower than those measured for nearby M dwarfs, but show remarkable similarity to results for earlier-type emission-line (dMe) dwarfs. The latter are generally assigned ages of less than ~3 Gyrs.

  7. Modeling the Near-Surface Using High-Resolution Seismic Data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Al-Zayer, Ramzy Mohammed

    2010-01-26

    In the Arabian Peninsula, the near-surface represents a major challenge in seismic exploration. For accurate deep subsurface reservoir imaging, an accurate near-surface velocity model is required. In this dissertation, I review the regional geology...

  8. High resolution seismic reflection to characterize small scale mechanisms of large scale natural dissolution in the Hutchinson Salt Member

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Judy, Brett

    2015-05-31

    High resolution seismic reflection imaging of the local scale processes along the eastern natural dissolution front of the Hutchinson Salt Member were correlated with its regional scale progression to define a more complete dissolution model...

  9. Electroquasistatic sensors for surface and subsurface nano-imaging of integrated circuit features

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cannon, Benjamin L. (Benjamin Louis)

    2010-01-01

    The following thesis relates to the design, simulation, and testing of electroquasistatic (EQS) sensors to be used for feature/defect location and imaging. The aim of this thesis is to launch an investigation into the use ...

  10. Lynx: A High-Resolution Synthetic Aperture Radar

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doerry, A.W.; Hensley, W.H.; Pace, F.; Stence, J.; Tsunoda, S.I.; Walker, B.C.; Woodring, M.

    1999-03-08

    Lynx is a high resolution, synthetic aperture radar (SAR) that has been designed and built by Sandia National Laboratories in collaboration with General Atomics (GA). Although Lynx may be operated on a wide variety of manned and unmanned platforms, it is primarily intended to be fielded on unmanned aerial vehicles. In particular, it may be operated on the Predator, I-GNAT, or Prowler II platforms manufactured by GA Aeronautical Systems, Inc. The Lynx production weight is less than 120 lb. and has a slant range of 30 km (in 4 mm/hr rain). It has operator selectable resolution and is capable of 0.1 m resolution in spotlight mode and 0.3 m resolution in stripmap mode. In ground moving target indicator mode, the minimum detectable velocity is 6 knots with a minimum target cross-section of 10 dBsm. In coherent change detection mode, Lynx makes registered, complex image comparisons either of 0.1 m resolution (minimum) spotlight images or of 0.3 m resolution (minimum) strip images. The Lynx user interface features a view manager that allows it to pan and zoom like a video camera. Lynx was developed under corporate finding from GA and will be manufactured by GA for both military and commercial applications. The Lynx system architecture will be presented and some of its unique features will be described. Imagery at the finest resolutions in both spotlight and strip modes have been obtained and will also be presented.

  11. NREL GIS Data: Bhutan High Resolution Wind Resource - Datasets...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    NREL GIS Data: Bhutan High Resolution Wind Resource This shapefile containing 50 meter height data has been validated by NREL and wind energy meteorological consultants. However,...

  12. Computational Performance of Ultra-High-Resolution Capability...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    in the Community Earth System Model With the fourth release of the Community Climate System Model, the ability to perform ultra-high resolution climate simulations is now...

  13. Application of Spatially Resolved High Resolution Crystal Spectrometry...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Crystal Spectrometry to ICF Plasmas Kenneth W. Hill, et. al. 70 PLASMA PHYSICS AND FUSION TECHNOLOGY High Temperature High Temperature High resolution (3; 10 000) 1D...

  14. Characterization of spatially resolved high resolution x-ray...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Characterization of spatially resolved high resolution x-ray spectrometers for high energy density physics and light source experiments Citation Details In-Document Search Title:...

  15. Process for guidance, containment, treatment, and imaging in a subsurface environment utilizing ferro-fluids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moridis, George J. (Oakland, CA); Oldenburg, Curtis M. (Mill Valley, CA)

    2001-01-01

    Disclosed are processes for monitoring and control of underground contamination, which involve the application of ferrofluids. Two broad uses of ferrofluids are described: (1) to control liquid movement by the application of strong external magnetic fields; and (2) to image liquids by standard geophysical methods.

  16. Object-Based High-Resolution Land-Cover Mapping Operational Considerations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vermont, University of

    . They overcome the limitations of traditional pixel-based classification methods by incorporating not only cover, remote sensing, high resolution I. INTRODUCTION Commercial satellites, digital aerial imaging-cover mapping over large areas. Pixel-based classification techniques, in which a given pixel is assigned

  17. A High-Resolution Spontaneous 3D Dynamic Facial Expression Database

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cohn, Jeffrey F.

    A High-Resolution Spontaneous 3D Dynamic Facial Expression Database Xing Zhang1 , Lijun Yin1 to address. Most publically available databases are limited to 2D static images or video of posed facial video archives are needed. We present a newly developed 3D video database of spontaneous facial

  18. ADVANCES IN ELECTRONICS AND ELECTRON PHYSICS, VOL. 83 LVSEM for High Resolution Topographic and Density

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pawley, James

    ADVANCES IN ELECTRONICS AND ELECTRON PHYSICS, VOL. 83 LVSEM for High Resolution Topographic Surface-Imaging Scanning Electron Microscope 205 C. Electrons as Probes in Scanning Microscopes 205 D. Limitations Associated with the Use of Electrons as the Probing Radiation 206 E. Response to These Limitations

  19. High-Resolution in Vivo Footprinting of a Protein-DNA Complex Using -Radiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tullius, Thomas D.

    High-Resolution in Vivo Footprinting of a Protein-DNA Complex Using -Radiation Lori M. Ottinger prospect of the sequencing of the human genome has focused attention on how the information encoded in DNA experiment1 gives a direct "image" of which DNA sites are occupied by protein and which are empty

  20. High resolution remote sensing observations for missions to the Jovian system: Io as a case study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley, University of

    High resolution remote sensing observations for missions to the Jovian system: Io as a case study Keywords: Io Remote sensing Instruments a b s t r a c t We present modeled images of Io at a variety objectives that could be achieved from missions engaged in long range remote-sensing of Io during

  1. X-ray imaging of subsurface dynamics in high-Z materials at the Diamond Light Source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eakins, D. E. Chapman, D. J.

    2014-12-15

    In this paper, we describe a new approach enabling study of subsurface dynamics in high-Z materials using the unique combination of high-energy synchrotron X-rays, a hybrid bunch structure, and a new dynamic loading platform. We detail the design and operation of the purpose-built, portable small bore gas-gun, which was installed on the I12 high-energy beamline at the Diamond Light Source and used to drive compression waves into solid and porous metal targets. Using a hybrid bunch structure and broadband X-ray pulses of up to 300 keV, radiographic snapshots were captured during various dynamic deformation processes in cm-scale specimens, thereby contributing to a more complete understanding of the evolution of mesoscale damage. Importantly, we highlight strategies for overcoming the challenges associated with using high-energy X-rays, and suggest areas for improvement needed to advance dynamic imaging through large-scale samples of relevance to engineering scenarios. These preliminary measurements demonstrate the feasibility of probing highly transient phenomena using the presented methodology.

  2. The High Resolution IRAS Galaxy Atlas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu Cao; Susan Terebey; Thomas A. Prince; Charles A. Beichman

    1997-06-02

    An atlas of the Galactic plane (-4.7 deg < b < 4.7 deg) plus the molecular clouds in Orion, Rho Oph, and Taurus-Auriga has been produced at 60 and 100 micron from IRAS data. The Atlas consists of resolution-enhanced coadded images having 1 arcmin -- 2 arcmin resolution as well as coadded images at the native IRAS resolution. The IRAS Galaxy Atlas, together with the DRAO HI line / 21 cm continuum and FCRAO CO (1-0) line Galactic plane surveys, both with similar (approx. 1 arcmin) resolution, provide a powerful venue for studying the interstellar medium, star formation and large scale structure in our Galaxy. This paper documents the production and characteristics of the Atlas.

  3. High Resolution River Hydraulic and Water Quality Characterization Using Rapidly Deployable Networked Infomechanical Systems (NIMS RD)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas C. Harmon; Richard F. Ambrose; Robert M. Gilbert; Jason C. Fisher; Michael Stealey; William J. Kaiser

    2006-01-01

    High Resolution River Hydraulic and Water Quality1594. High Resolution River Hydraulic and Water Qualityobserving spatiotemporal hydraulic and chemical properties

  4. Small UAV-Acquired, High-resolution, Georeferenced Still Imagery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ryan Hruska

    2005-09-01

    Currently, small Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) are primarily used for capturing and down-linking real-time video. To date, their role as a low-cost airborne platform for capturing high-resolution, georeferenced still imagery has not been fully utilized. On-going work within the Unmanned Vehicle Systems Program at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is attempting to exploit this small UAV-acquired, still imagery potential. Initially, a UAV-based still imagery work flow model was developed that includes initial UAV mission planning, sensor selection, UAV/sensor integration, and imagery collection, processing, and analysis. Components to support each stage of the work flow are also being developed. Critical to use of acquired still imagery is the ability to detect changes between images of the same area over time. To enhance the analysts’ change detection ability, a UAV-specific, GIS-based change detection system called SADI or System for Analyzing Differences in Imagery is under development. This paper will discuss the associated challenges and approaches to collecting still imagery with small UAVs. Additionally, specific components of the developed work flow system will be described and graphically illustrated using varied examples of small UAV-acquired still imagery.

  5. High resolution amorphous silicon radiation detectors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Street, Robert A. (Palo Alto, CA); Kaplan, Selig N. (El Cerrito, CA); Perez-Mendez, Victor (Berkeley, CA)

    1992-01-01

    A radiation detector employing amorphous Si:H cells in an array with each detector cell having at least three contiguous layers (n type, intrinsic, p type), positioned between two electrodes to which a bias voltage is applied. An energy conversion layer atop the silicon cells intercepts incident radiation and converts radiation energy to light energy of a wavelength to which the silicon cells are responsive. A read-out device, positioned proximate to each detector element in an array allows each such element to be interrogated independently to determine whether radiation has been detected in that cell. The energy conversion material may be a layer of luminescent material having a columnar structure. In one embodiment a column of luminescent material detects the passage therethrough of radiation to be detected and directs a light beam signal to an adjacent a-Si:H film so that detection may be confined to one or more such cells in the array. One or both electrodes may have a comb structure, and the teeth of each electrode comb may be interdigitated for capacitance reduction. The amorphous Si:H film may be replaced by an amorphous Si:Ge:H film in which up to 40 percent of the amorphous material is Ge. Two dimensional arrays may be used in X-ray imaging, CT scanning, crystallography, high energy physics beam tracking, nuclear medicine cameras and autoradiography.

  6. High resolution amorphous silicon radiation detectors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Street, R.A.; Kaplan, S.N.; Perez-Mendez, V.

    1992-05-26

    A radiation detector employing amorphous Si:H cells in an array with each detector cell having at least three contiguous layers (n-type, intrinsic, p-type), positioned between two electrodes to which a bias voltage is applied. An energy conversion layer atop the silicon cells intercepts incident radiation and converts radiation energy to light energy of a wavelength to which the silicon cells are responsive. A read-out device, positioned proximate to each detector element in an array allows each such element to be interrogated independently to determine whether radiation has been detected in that cell. The energy conversion material may be a layer of luminescent material having a columnar structure. In one embodiment a column of luminescent material detects the passage therethrough of radiation to be detected and directs a light beam signal to an adjacent a-Si:H film so that detection may be confined to one or more such cells in the array. One or both electrodes may have a comb structure, and the teeth of each electrode comb may be interdigitated for capacitance reduction. The amorphous Si:H film may be replaced by an amorphous Si:Ge:H film in which up to 40 percent of the amorphous material is Ge. Two dimensional arrays may be used in X-ray imaging, CT scanning, crystallography, high energy physics beam tracking, nuclear medicine cameras and autoradiography. 18 figs.

  7. Exploring electronic structure through high-resolution hard x...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Laboratory Modern high brilliance beamlines coupled with recent advances in hard-x-ray optics are establishing high-resolution hard x-ray spectroscopies as a powerful analytical...

  8. Application Of High-Resolution Thermal Infrared Sensors For Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Application Of High-Resolution Thermal Infrared Sensors For Geothermal Exploration At The Salton Sea, California Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library...

  9. Case History Imaging permafrost velocity structure using high resolution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ramachandran, Kumar

    horizontal and vertical checkerboard tests confirm the robustness of the velocity model in detailing small the permafrost velocity structure in lateral and vertical directions. It is inferred from the velocity model reflection data. More specifically, geothermal heterogeneities within the permafrost are associated

  10. High-resolution three-dimensional imaging of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cai, Long

    absorption and scattering within the sample are suppressed. Here we report the ability of SPIM to acquire deconvolution of data acquired along multiple directions. Deconvolution algorithms use a priori knowledge

  11. Optic for an endoscope/borescope having high resolution and narrow field of view

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stone, Gary F.; Trebes, James E.

    2003-10-28

    An optic having optimized high spatial resolution, minimal nonlinear magnification distortion while at the same time having a limited chromatic focal shift or chromatic aberrations. The optic located at the distal end of an endoscopic inspection tool permits a high resolution, narrow field of view image for medical diagnostic applications, compared to conventional optics for endoscopic instruments which provide a wide field of view, low resolution image. The image coverage is over a narrow (<20 degrees) field of view with very low optical distortion (<5% pin cushion or barrel distortion. The optic is also optimized for best color correction as well as to aid medical diagnostics.

  12. High-Resolution Simulations of Parallel BladeVortex Interactions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alonso, Juan J.

    to that encountered in the simulation of realistic helicopter blade­vortex interaction, but the computational costs aeroacoustics rotor tests [2,3]. These tests were performed on a Mach-scaled Bo-105 rotor and the blade loadsHigh-Resolution Simulations of Parallel Blade­Vortex Interactions Alasdair Thom University

  13. A SIMPLE APPROACH TO HIGH RESOLUTION SEISMIC PROFILING FOR COAL *

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A SIMPLE APPROACH TO HIGH RESOLUTION SEISMIC PROFILING FOR COAL * BY A. ZIOLKOWSKI ** and W. E Seismic Profiling for Coal, Geophysical Prospecting 27, 360-393, Seismic exploration techniques which have been developed for oil prospecting contrib- ute a valuable means for surveying coal measures. Since

  14. MAPPING HIGH-RESOLUTION LAND SURFACE RADIATIVE FLUXES FROM MODIS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liang, Shunlin

    Chapter 6 MAPPING HIGH-RESOLUTION LAND SURFACE RADIATIVE FLUXES FROM MODIS: ALGORITHMS.1007/978-1-4419-0050-0_6, #12;142 Mapping Radiative Fluxes There are several global radiative flux data sets derived from either. For example, the CERES team uses the predefined albedo and emissivity maps to calculate surface radiative

  15. OBSERVATIONS AND USES OF HIGH RESOLUTION RADAR DATA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fabry, Frederic

    wind measuring technique, the quantification of the sampling problem at high resolution topics: the study of the melting layer of precipitation, the derivation of vertical wind profiles using;RÉSUMÉ Les avantages apportés dans des contextes opérationel et de recherche par l'utilisation de données

  16. High-Resolution Residential Feeder Load Characterization and Variability Modelling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    data. Ideally the method should be validated or updated with 1- second load data from the region-15-minute variability estimates for modeling dynamic load profiles. An autoregressive, AR(1) functionHigh-Resolution Residential Feeder Load Characterization and Variability Modelling Andrew Pohl, Jay

  17. Amorphous Silicon as Semiconductor Material for High Resolution LAPS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moritz, Werner

    ) is limited by the properties of the semiconductor material used. We investigated metalAmorphous Silicon as Semiconductor Material for High Resolution LAPS Werner Moritz1 , Tatsuo-insulator- semiconductor (MIS) structures based on amorphous silicon (a-Si) prepared as a thin layer on transparent glass

  18. High resolution data base for use with MAP

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tapley, W.C.; Harris, D.B.

    1987-05-05

    A high resolution cartographic data base of thw World is available from the CIA. We obtained this data, extracted portions of the data, and produced cartographic files of varying resolutions. The resulting data files are of the proper format for use with MAP (2), our in-house cartographic plotting program.

  19. Workshop on high-resolution, large-acceptance spectrometers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zeidman, B. (ed.)

    1981-01-01

    The purpose of the Workshop on High-Resolution, Large-Acceptance Spectrometers was to provide a means for exchange of information among those actively engaged in the design and construction of these new spectrometers. Thirty-seven papers were prepared for the data base.

  20. Development of HydroImage, A User Friendly Hydrogeophysical Characterization Software

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mok, Chin Man; Hubbard, Susan; Chen, Jinsong; Suribhatla, Raghu; Kaback, Dawn Samara

    2014-01-29

    HydroImage, user friendly software that utilizes high-resolution geophysical data for estimating hydrogeological parameters in subsurface strate, was developed under this grant. HydroImage runs on a personal computer platform to promote broad use by hydrogeologists to further understanding of subsurface processes that govern contaminant fate, transport, and remediation. The unique software provides estimates of hydrogeological properties over continuous volumes of the subsurface, whereas previous approaches only allow estimation of point locations. thus, this unique tool can be used to significantly enhance site conceptual models and improve design and operation of remediation systems. The HydroImage technical approach uses statistical models to integrate geophysical data with borehole geological data and hydrological measurements to produce hydrogeological parameter estimates as 2-D or 3-D images.

  1. High-resolution clinoform characterization by 2-D model-driven seismic Bayesian inversion Daria Tetyukhina*1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    van Vliet, Lucas J.

    with oblique internal layering, best imaged on seismic reflection profiles, where three geometric elementsHigh-resolution clinoform characterization by 2-D model-driven seismic Bayesian inversion Daria of seismic data always presents an inversion problem. Instead of analyzing the data trace by trace, we

  2. Characterization of spatially resolved high resolution x-ray spectrometers for high energy density physics and light source experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hill, K. W. Bitter, M.; Delgado-Aparacio, L.; Efthimion, P.; Pablant, N. A.; Lu, J.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Chen, H.; Magee, E.

    2014-11-15

    A high resolution 1D imaging x-ray spectrometer concept comprising a spherically bent crystal and a 2D pixelated detector is being optimized for diagnostics of small sources such as high energy density physics (HEDP) and synchrotron radiation or x-ray free electron laser experiments. This instrument is used on tokamak experiments for Doppler measurements of ion temperature and plasma flow velocity profiles. Laboratory measurements demonstrate a resolving power, E/?E of order 10?000 and spatial resolution better than 10 ?m. Initial tests of the high resolution instrument on HEDP plasmas are being performed.

  3. High resolution reservoir geological modelling using outcrop information

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang Changmin; Lin Kexiang; Liu Huaibo

    1997-08-01

    This is China`s first case study of high resolution reservoir geological modelling using outcrop information. The key of the modelling process is to build a prototype model and using the model as a geological knowledge bank. Outcrop information used in geological modelling including seven aspects: (1) Determining the reservoir framework pattern by sedimentary depositional system and facies analysis; (2) Horizontal correlation based on the lower and higher stand duration of the paleo-lake level; (3) Determining the model`s direction based on the paleocurrent statistics; (4) Estimating the sandbody communication by photomosaic and profiles; (6) Estimating reservoir properties distribution within sandbody by lithofacies analysis; and (7) Building the reservoir model in sandbody scale by architectural element analysis and 3-D sampling. A high resolution reservoir geological model of Youshashan oil field has been built by using this method.

  4. Turbine component casting core with high resolution region

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kamel, Ahmed; Merrill, Gary B.

    2014-08-26

    A hollow turbine engine component with complex internal features can include a first region and a second, high resolution region. The first region can be defined by a first ceramic core piece formed by any conventional process, such as by injection molding or transfer molding. The second region can be defined by a second ceramic core piece formed separately by a method effective to produce high resolution features, such as tomo lithographic molding. The first core piece and the second core piece can be joined by interlocking engagement that once subjected to an intermediate thermal heat treatment process thermally deform to form a three dimensional interlocking joint between the first and second core pieces by allowing thermal creep to irreversibly interlock the first and second core pieces together such that the joint becomes physically locked together providing joint stability through thermal processing.

  5. Machine Learning Approaches for High-resolution Urban Land Cover Classification: A Comparative Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vatsavai, Raju [ORNL] [ORNL; Chandola, Varun [ORNL] [ORNL; Cheriyadat, Anil M [ORNL] [ORNL; Bright, Eddie A [ORNL] [ORNL; Bhaduri, Budhendra L [ORNL] [ORNL; Graesser, Jordan B [ORNL] [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    The proliferation of several machine learning approaches makes it difficult to identify a suitable classification technique for analyzing high-resolution remote sensing images. In this study, ten classification techniques were compared from five broad machine learning categories. Surprisingly, the performance of simple statistical classification schemes like maximum likelihood and Logistic regression over complex and recent techniques is very close. Given that these two classifiers require little input from the user, they should still be considered for most classification tasks. Multiple classifier systems is a good choice if the resources permit.

  6. Clickstream data yields high-resolution maps of science

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bollen, Johan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Van De Sompel, Herbert [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hagberg, Aric [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bettencourt, Luis [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Chute, Ryan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rodriguez, Marko A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Balakireva, Lyudmila [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    Intricate maps of science have been created from citation data to visualize the structure of scientific activity. However, most scientific publications are now accessed online. Scholarly web portals record detailed log data at a scale that exceeds the number of all existing citations combined. Such log data is recorded immediately upon publication and keeps track of the sequences of user requests (clickstreams) that are issued by a variety of users across many different domains. Given these advantagees of log datasets over citation data, we investigate whether they can produce high-resolution, more current maps of science.

  7. LENS MODELS OF HERSCHEL-SELECTED GALAXIES FROM HIGH-RESOLUTION NEAR-IR OBSERVATIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Calanog, J. A.; Cooray, A.; Ma, B.; Casey, C. M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Fu, Hai [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Iowa, Van Allen Hall, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States); Wardlow, J. [Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Maries Vej 30, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Amber, S. [Department of Physical Sciences, The Open University, Milton Keynes MK7 6AA (United Kingdom); Baker, A. J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, 136 Frelinghuysen Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Baes, M. [1 Sterrenkundig Observatorium, Universiteit Gent, Krijgslaan 281, B-9000 Gent (Belgium); Bock, J. [California Institute of Technology, 1200 E. California Blvd., Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Bourne, N.; Dye, S. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nottingham, NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); Bussmann, R. S. [Department of Astronomy, Space Science Building, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853-6801 (United States); Chapman, S. C. [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Clements, D. L. [Astrophysics Group, Imperial College London, Blackett Laboratory, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Conley, A. [Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy 389-UCB, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Dannerbauer, H. [Laboratoire AIM-Paris-Saclay, CEA/DSM/Irfu-CNRS-Université Paris Diderot, CE-Saclay, pt courrier 131, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); De Zotti, G. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, Vicolo dell'Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padova (Italy); Dunne, L.; Eales, S. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Cardiff University, Queens Buildings, The Parade, Cardiff CF24 3AA (United Kingdom); and others

    2014-12-20

    We present Keck-Adaptive Optics and Hubble Space Telescope high resolution near-infrared (IR) imaging for 500 ?m bright candidate lensing systems identified by the Herschel Multi-tiered Extragalactic Survey and Herschel Astrophysical Terahertz Large Area Survey. Out of 87 candidates with near-IR imaging, 15 (?17%) display clear near-IR lensing morphologies. We present near-IR lens models to reconstruct and recover basic rest-frame optical morphological properties of the background galaxies from 12 new systems. Sources with the largest near-IR magnification factors also tend to be the most compact, consistent with the size bias predicted from simulations and previous lensing models for submillimeter galaxies (SMGs). For four new sources that also have high-resolution submillimeter maps, we test for differential lensing between the stellar and dust components and find that the 880 ?m magnification factor (?{sub 880}) is ?1.5 times higher than the near-IR magnification factor (?{sub NIR}), on average. We also find that the stellar emission is ?2 times more extended in size than dust. The rest-frame optical properties of our sample of Herschel-selected lensed SMGs are consistent with those of unlensed SMGs, which suggests that the two populations are similar.

  8. Towards Ultra-High Resolution Models of Climate and Weather

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wehner, Michael; Oliker, Leonid; Shalf, John

    2007-01-01

    We present a speculative extrapolation of the performance aspects of an atmospheric general circulation model to ultra-high resolution and describe alternative technological paths to realize integration of such a model in the relatively near future. Due to a superlinear scaling of the computational burden dictated by stability criterion, the solution of the equations of motion dominate the calculation at ultra-high resolutions. From this extrapolation, it is estimated that a credible kilometer scale atmospheric model would require at least a sustained ten petaflop computer to provide scientifically useful climate simulations. Our design study portends an alternate strategy for practical power-efficient implementations of petaflop scale systems. Embedded processor technology could be exploited to tailor a custom machine designed to ultra-high climate model specifications at relatively affordable cost and power considerations. The major conceptual changes required by a kilometer scale climate model are certain to be difficult to implement. Although the hardware, software, and algorithms are all equally critical in conducting ultra-high climate resolution studies, it is likely that the necessary petaflop computing technology will be available in advance of a credible kilometer scale climate model.

  9. High-resolution ionization detector and array of such detectors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McGregor, Douglas S. (Ypsilanti, MI); Rojeski, Ronald A. (Pleasanton, CA)

    2001-01-16

    A high-resolution ionization detector and an array of such detectors are described which utilize a reference pattern of conductive or semiconductive material to form interaction, pervious and measurement regions in an ionization substrate of, for example, CdZnTe material. The ionization detector is a room temperature semiconductor radiation detector. Various geometries of such a detector and an array of such detectors produce room temperature operated gamma ray spectrometers with relatively high resolution. For example, a 1 cm.sup.3 detector is capable of measuring .sup.137 Cs 662 keV gamma rays with room temperature energy resolution approaching 2% at FWHM. Two major types of such detectors include a parallel strip semiconductor Frisch grid detector and the geometrically weighted trapezoid prism semiconductor Frisch grid detector. The geometrically weighted detector records room temperature (24.degree. C.) energy resolutions of 2.68% FWHM for .sup.137 Cs 662 keV gamma rays and 2.45% FWHM for .sup.60 Co 1.332 MeV gamma rays. The detectors perform well without any electronic pulse rejection, correction or compensation techniques. The devices operate at room temperature with simple commercially available NIM bin electronics and do not require special preamplifiers or cooling stages for good spectroscopic results.

  10. Fermilab | Press Room | Images

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Fermilab constructs pioneering accelerator test facility: photos, videos & graphics Click on links below images for medium and high-resolution jpeg images. When using this...

  11. High-resolution x-ray diffraction microscopy of specifically labeled yeast cells

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Nelson, Johanna; Huang, Xiaojing; Steinbrener, Jan; Shapiro, David; Kirz, Janos; Marchesini, Stephano; Neiman, Aaron M.; Turner, Joshua J.; Jacobsen, Chris

    2010-04-20

    X-ray diffraction microscopy complements other x-ray microscopy methods by being free of lens-imposed radiation dose and resolution limits, and it allows for high-resolution imaging of biological specimens too thick to be viewed by electron microscopy. We report here the highest resolution (11-13 nm) x-ray diffraction micrograph of biological specimens, and a demonstration of molecular-specific gold labeling at different depths within cells via through-focus propagation of the reconstructed wavefield. The lectin concanavalin A conjugated to colloidal gold particles was used to label the ?-mannan sugar in the cell wall of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Cells were plunge-frozen in liquid ethane andmore »freeze-dried, after which they were imaged whole using x-ray diffraction microscopy at 750 eV photon energy.« less

  12. High-resolution x-ray diffraction microscopy of specifically labeled yeast cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nelson, Johanna; Huang, Xiaojing; Steinbrener, Jan; Shapiro, David; Kirz, Janos; Marchesini, Stephano; Neiman, Aaron M.; Turner, Joshua J.; Jacobsen, Chris

    2010-04-20

    X-ray diffraction microscopy complements other x-ray microscopy methods by being free of lens-imposed radiation dose and resolution limits, and it allows for high-resolution imaging of biological specimens too thick to be viewed by electron microscopy. We report here the highest resolution (11-13 nm) x-ray diffraction micrograph of biological specimens, and a demonstration of molecular-specific gold labeling at different depths within cells via through-focus propagation of the reconstructed wavefield. The lectin concanavalin A conjugated to colloidal gold particles was used to label the ?-mannan sugar in the cell wall of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Cells were plunge-frozen in liquid ethane and freeze-dried, after which they were imaged whole using x-ray diffraction microscopy at 750 eV photon energy.

  13. High resolution physical and comparative maps of horse chromosomes 14 (ECA14) and 21 (ECA21) 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goh, Glenda Lay Bee

    2006-08-16

    In order to identify genes or markers responsible for economically important traits in the horse, the development of high resolution gene maps of individual equine chromosomes is essential. We herein report the construction of high resolution...

  14. Broadband high resolution X-ray spectral analyzer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Silver, E.H.; Legros, M.; Madden, N.W.; Goulding, F.; Landis, D.

    1998-07-07

    A broad bandwidth high resolution X-ray fluorescence spectrometer has a performance that is superior in many ways to those currently available. It consists of an array of 4 large area microcalorimeters with 95% quantum efficiency at 6 keV and it produces X-ray spectra between 0.2 keV and 7 keV with an energy resolution of 7 to 10 eV. The resolution is obtained at input count rates per array element of 10 to 50 Hz in real-time, with analog pulse processing and thermal pile-up rejection. This performance cannot be matched by currently available X-ray spectrometers. The detectors are incorporated into a compact and portable cryogenic refrigerator system that is ready for use in many analytical spectroscopy applications as a tool for X-ray microanalysis or in research applications such as laboratory and astrophysical X-ray and particle spectroscopy. 6 figs.

  15. HIGH-RESOLUTION ATMOSPHERIC ENSEMBLE MODELING AT SRNL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buckley, R.; Werth, D.; Chiswell, S.; Etherton, B.

    2011-05-10

    The High-Resolution Mid-Atlantic Forecasting Ensemble (HME) is a federated effort to improve operational forecasts related to precipitation, convection and boundary layer evolution, and fire weather utilizing data and computing resources from a diverse group of cooperating institutions in order to create a mesoscale ensemble from independent members. Collaborating organizations involved in the project include universities, National Weather Service offices, and national laboratories, including the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). The ensemble system is produced from an overlapping numerical weather prediction model domain and parameter subsets provided by each contributing member. The coordination, synthesis, and dissemination of the ensemble information are performed by the Renaissance Computing Institute (RENCI) at the University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill. This paper discusses background related to the HME effort, SRNL participation, and example results available from the RENCI website.

  16. 13.4 A HIGH RESOLUTION NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF THE LANDFALL OF HURRICANE OPAL (1995)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wilhelmson, Robert

    1995-01-01

    13.4 A HIGH RESOLUTION NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF THE LANDFALL OF HURRICANE OPAL (1995) Glen Romine at: http://pampa.ncsa.uiuc.edu/~romine/opal.html Recent high-resolution simulations within a high-resolution (1.1 km) simulation of Hurricane Opal (1995) carried out using the MM5. The primary

  17. High-resolution X-ray spectroscopy of Theta Car

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yael Naze; Gregor Rauw

    2008-08-25

    Context : The peculiar hot star Theta Car in the open cluster IC2602 is a blue straggler as well as a single-line binary of short period (2.2d). Aims : Its high-energy properties are not well known, though X-rays can provide useful constraints on the energetic processes at work in binaries as well as in peculiar, single objects. Methods : We present the analysis of a 50ks exposure taken with the XMM-Newton observatory. It provides medium as well as high-resolution spectroscopy. Results : Our high-resolution spectroscopy analysis reveals a very soft spectrum with multiple temperature components (1--6MK) and an X-ray flux slightly below the `canonical' value (log[L_X(0.1-10.)/L_{BOL}] ~ -7). The X-ray lines appear surprisingly narrow and unshifted, reminiscent of those of beta Cru and tau Sco. Their relative intensities confirm the anomalous abundances detected in the optical domain (C strongly depleted, N strongly enriched, O slightly depleted). In addition, the X-ray data favor a slight depletion in neon and iron, but they are less conclusive for the magnesium abundance (solar-like?). While no significant changes occur during the XMM-Newton observation, variability in the X-ray domain is detected on the long-term range. The formation radius of the X-ray emission is loosely constrained to <5 R_sol, which allows for a range of models (wind-shock, corona, magnetic confinement,...) though not all of them can be reconciled with the softness of the spectrum and the narrowness of the lines.

  18. A high resolution multiposition Thomson scattering system for the Rijnhuizen Tokamak Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barth, C.J.; Beurskens, M.N.; Chu, C.C.; Donne, A.J.; Lopes Cardozo, N.J.; Herranz, J.; v.d. Meiden, H.J.; Pijper, F.J. [FOM-Instituut voor Plasmafysica `Rijnhuizen`, Association EURATOM-FOM, P.O. Box 1207, 3430 BE Nieuwegein (The Netherlands)] [FOM-Instituut voor Plasmafysica `Rijnhuizen`, Association EURATOM-FOM, P.O. Box 1207, 3430 BE Nieuwegein (The Netherlands)

    1997-09-01

    A high resolution multiposition Thomson scattering setup to measure the electron temperature (T{sub e}) and density (n{sub e}) of a hot plasma is described. The system is operational at the Rijnhuizen Tokamak Project. Light from a high power pulsed ruby laser is scattered by the free plasma electrons and relayed to a Littrow polychromator for spectral analysis. The spectrally and spatially resolved light is detected by a GaAsP photocathode. The two-dimensional image is intensified and recorded with a charge-coupled device camera. T{sub e} in the range of 50 eV{endash}6 keV can be measured at 115 spatial elements of 2.6 mm length along the laser beam. The observation error is {lt}6{percent} at n{sub e}=2{times}10{sup 19} m{sup {minus}3} and smaller for higher n{sub e}. The high resolution and accuracy enabled the observation of small scale structures in T{sub e} and n{sub e}. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  19. Addressing Common Subsurface Challenges

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    geophysical and geochemical technologies quantitatively inferring subsurface evolution under current and future engineered conditions finding viable, low-risk resources...

  20. The High-Resolution Lightweight Telescope for the EUV (HiLiTE)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martinez-Galarce, D S; Boerner, P; Soufli, R; De Pontieu, B; Katz, N; Title, A; Gullikson, E M; Robinson, J C; Baker, S L

    2008-06-02

    The High-resolution Lightweight Telescope for the EUV (HiLiTE) is a Cassegrain telescope that will be made entirely of Silicon Carbide (SiC), optical substrates and metering structure alike. Using multilayer coatings, this instrument will be tuned to operate at the 465 {angstrom} Ne VII emission line, formed in solar transition region plasma at {approx}500,000 K. HiLiTE will have an aperture of 30 cm, angular resolution of {approx}0.2 arc seconds and operate at a cadence of {approx}5 seconds or less, having a mass that is about 1/4 that of one of the 20 cm aperture telescopes on the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) instrument aboard NASA's Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO). This new instrument technology thus serves as a path finder to a post-AIA, Explorer-class missions.

  1. High-Resolution Simulations of Coal Injection in A Gasifier

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Tingwen [National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL); Gel, Aytekin [Aeolus Research Inc.; Syamlal, M [National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL); Guenther, Chris [National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL); Pannala, Sreekanth [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    This study demonstrates an approach to effectively combine high- and low-resolution simulations for design studies of industrial coal gasifier. The flow-field data from a 10 million cell full-scale simulation of a commercial-scale gasifier were used to construct a reduced configuration to economically study the coal injection in detail. High-resolution numerical simulations of the coal injection were performed using the open-source code MFIX running on a high performance computing system. Effects of grid resolution and numerical discretization scheme on the predicted behavior of coal injection and gasification kinetics were analyzed. Pronounced differences were predicted in the devolatilization and steam gasification rates because of different discretization schemes, implying that a high-order numerical scheme is required to predict well the unsteady gasification process on an adequately resolved grid. Computational costs for simulations of varying resolutions are presented to illustrate the trade-off between the accuracy of solution and the time-to-solution, an important consideration when engineering simulations are used for the design of commercial-scale units.

  2. The high resolution silicon telescope of the INSULAB group

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bonfanti, Silvia; Lietti, Daniela; Vallazza, Erik

    This thesis has focused on the study of the performance of the high resolution tracking system (telescope) of the INSULAB group and on the implementation of a new data acquisition (DAQ) to comply with the high rate of the CERN North Area extracted beams. This system has allowed to increase the DAQ rate by a factor two with respect to the “standard” electronics. The INSULAB telescope is designed to test detectors ranging from calorimeters to more complex systems like in the case of the bent crystals studied by the COHERENT experiment. The telescope consists of four 300 $mu$m thick double side silicon strip detector modules with an area of 1.92$\times$1.92 cm$^{2}$ and 384 strips. The readout pitch is 50 $mu$m on both sides of the module but the junction side has an implant pitch of 25 $mu$m (and thus a floating strip) to improve the resolution. The telescope has been installed on the H4 beamline at the CERN SPS for the commissioning of the new readout system in June 2012. The results are analyzed in terms...

  3. High Resolution Irradiance Spectrum from 300 to 1000 nm

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robert L. Kurucz

    2006-05-01

    The FTS scans that made up the Kitt Peak Solar Flux Atlas by Kurucz, Furenlid, Brault, and Testerman (1984) have been re-reduced. An approximate telluric atmospheric model was determined for each FTS scan. Large-scale features produced by O3 and O2 dimer were computed and divided out. The solar continuum level was found by fitting a smooth curve to high points in each scan. The scans were normalized to the fitted continuum to produce a residual flux spectrum for each FTS scan. The telluric line spectrum was computed using HITRAN and other line data for H2O, O2, and CO2. The line parameters were adjusted for an approximate match to the observed spectra. The scans were divided by the computed telluric spectra to produce residual irradiance spectra. Artifacts from wavelength mismatches, deep lines, etc, were removed by hand and replaced by linear interpolation. Overlapping scans were fitted together to make a continuous spectrum from 300 to 1000 nm. All the above steps were iterative. The monochromatic error varies from 0.1 to 1.0 percent. The residual spectrum was calibrated two different ways: First by normalizing it to the continuum of theoretical solar model ASUN (Kurucz 1992), and second, by degrading the spectrum to the resolution of the observed irradiance (Thuillier et al. 2004) to determine a normalization function that was then applied to the high resolution spectrum.

  4. Designing arrays for modern high-resolution methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dowla, F.U.

    1987-10-01

    A bearing estimation study of seismic wavefields propagating from a strongly heterogeneous media shows that with the high-resolution MUSIC algorithm the bias of the direction estimate can be reduced by adopting a smaller aperture sub-array. Further, on this sub-array, the bias of the MUSIC algorithm is less than those of the MLM and Bartlett methods. On the full array, the performance for the three different methods are comparable. Improvement in bearing estimation in MUSIC with a reduced aperture might be attributed to increased signal coherency in the array. For methods with less resolution, the improved signal coherency in the smaller array is possible being offset by severe loss of resolution and the presence of weak secondary sources. Building upon the characteristics of real seismic wavefields, a design language has been developed to generate, modify, and test other arrays. Eigenstructures of wavefields and arrays have been studied empirically by simulation of a variety of realistic signals. 6 refs., 5 figs.

  5. Diagnostics of Ellerman Bombs with High-resolution Spectral Data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Z; Guo, Y; Chen, P F; Xu, Z; Cao, W

    2015-01-01

    Ellerman bombs (EBs) are tiny brightenings often observed near sunspots. The most impressive characteristic of the EB spectra is the two emission bumps in both wings of the H$\\alpha$ and \\ion{Ca}{II} 8542 {\\AA} lines. High-resolution spectral data of three small EBs were obtained on 2013 June 6 with the largest solar telescope, the 1.6 meter New Solar Telescope (NST), at the Big Bear Solar Observatory. The characteristics of these EBs are analyzed. The sizes of the EBs are in the range of 0.3\\arcsec\\--0.8\\arcsec\\ and their durations are only 3--5 minutes. Our semi-empirical atmospheric models indicate that the heating occurs around the temperature minimum region with a temperature increase of 2700--3000 K, which is surprisingly higher than previously thought. The radiative and kinetic energies are estimated to be as high as 5$\\times$10$^{25}$--3.0$\\times$10$^{26}$ ergs despite the small size of these EBs. Observations of the magnetic field show that the EBs appeared just in a parasitic region with mixed polar...

  6. Johann Spectrometer for High Resolution X-ray Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Machek, Pavel; Froeba, Michael; Welter, Edmund; Caliebe, Wolfgang; Brueggmann, Ulf; Draeger, Guenter

    2007-01-19

    A newly designed vacuum Johann spectrometer with a large focusing analyzer crystal for inelastic x-ray scattering and high resolution fluorescence spectroscopy has been installed at the DORIS III storage ring. Spherically bent crystals with a maximum diameter of 125 mm, and cylindrically bent crystals are employed as dispersive optical elements. Standard radius of curvature of the crystals is 1000 mm, however, the design of the mechanical components also facilitates measurements with smaller and larger bending radii. Up to four crystals are mounted on a revolving crystal changer which enables crystal changes without breaking the vacuum. The spectrometer works at fixed Bragg angle. It is preferably designed for the measurements in non-scanning mode with a broad beam spot, and offers a large flexibility to set the sample to the optimum position inside the Rowland circle. A deep depletion CCD camera is employed as a position sensitive detector to collect the energy-analyzed photons on the circumference of the Rowland circle. The vacuum in the spectrometer tank is typically 10-6 mbar. The sample chamber is separated from the tank either by 25 {mu}m thick Kapton windows, which allows samples to be measured under ambient conditions, or by two gate valves. The spectrometer is currently installed at wiggler beamline W1 whose working range is 4-10.5 keV with typical flux at the sample of 5x1010photons/s/mm2. The capabilities of the spectrometer are illustrated by resonant inelastic experiments on 3d transition metals and rare earth compounds, and by chemical shift measurements on chromium compounds.

  7. Solar coronal magnetic field topology inferred from high resolution optical and x-ray movies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tarbell, T.; Frank, Z.; Hurlburt, N.; Morrison, M.; Shine, R.; Title, A.; Acton, L.

    1993-01-01

    The authors are using high resolution digital movies of solar active regions in optical and X-ray wavelengths to study solar flares and other transients. The optical movies were collected at the Swedish Solar Observatory on La Palma using the Lockheed tunable filtergraph system, in May-July, 1992. They include longitudinal and transverse magnetograms, H-alpha Doppler and intensity images at many wavelengths, Ca K, Na D, and white light images. Simultaneous X-ray images from Yohkoh are available much of the time. Several ways to establish the connectivity of some coronal magnetic field lines are being explored. Some of the clues available are: magnetic footpoint polarities and transverse field direction; H-alpha fibrils and loops seen in several wavelengths; proper motion and Dopper shifts of blobs moving along field lines; footprint brightening in micro-flares; spreading of flare ribbons during gradual phases of flares; X-ray morphology and correlations with H-alpha; and draining of flare loops. Examples of each of these will be shown on video.

  8. High-Resolution Fast-Neutron Spectrometry for Arms Control and Treaty Verification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David L. Chichester; James T. Johnson; Edward H. Seabury

    2012-07-01

    Many nondestructive nuclear analysis techniques have been developed to support the measurement needs of arms control and treaty verification, including gross photon and neutron counting, low- and high-resolution gamma spectrometry, time-correlated neutron measurements, and photon and neutron imaging. One notable measurement technique that has not been extensively studied to date for these applications is high-resolution fast-neutron spectrometry (HRFNS). Applied for arms control and treaty verification, HRFNS has the potential to serve as a complimentary measurement approach to these other techniques by providing a means to either qualitatively or quantitatively determine the composition and thickness of non-nuclear materials surrounding neutron-emitting materials. The technique uses the normally-occurring neutrons present in arms control and treaty verification objects of interest as an internal source of neutrons for performing active-interrogation transmission measurements. Most low-Z nuclei of interest for arms control and treaty verification, including 9Be, 12C, 14N, and 16O, possess fast-neutron resonance features in their absorption cross sections in the 0.5- to 5-MeV energy range. Measuring the selective removal of source neutrons over this energy range, assuming for example a fission-spectrum starting distribution, may be used to estimate the stoichiometric composition of intervening materials between the neutron source and detector. At a simpler level, determination of the emitted fast-neutron spectrum may be used for fingerprinting 'known' assemblies for later use in template-matching tests. As with photon spectrometry, automated analysis of fast-neutron spectra may be performed to support decision making and reporting systems protected behind information barriers. This paper will report recent work at Idaho National Laboratory to explore the feasibility of using HRFNS for arms control and treaty verification applications, including simulations and experiments, using fission-spectrum neutron sources to assess neutron transmission through composite low-Z attenuators.

  9. Earthquake Damage Identification using High-Resolution Satellite

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shinozuka, Masanobu

    detection ­ Change detection ­ Thematic classification · Thematic classification results · Future studies resolution panchromatic (B&W) ­ 4 m resolution multispectral (color) #12;Satellite Digital Data clouds/night ­ Radar image speckle ­ Interferometry to get digital elevation models or temporal movements

  10. Magnetic lens apparatus for use in high-resolution scanning electron microscopes and lithographic processes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Crewe, Albert V. (Dune Acres, IN)

    2000-01-01

    Disclosed are lens apparatus in which a beam of charged particlesis brought to a focus by means of a magnetic field, the lens being situated behind the target position. In illustrative embodiments, a lens apparatus is employed in a scanning electron microscopeas the sole lens for high-resolution focusing of an electron beam, and in particular, an electron beam having an accelerating voltage of from about 10 to about 30,000 V. In one embodiment, the lens apparatus comprises an electrically-conducting coil arranged around the axis of the beam and a magnetic pole piece extending along the axis of the beam at least within the space surrounded by the coil. In other embodiments, the lens apparatus comprises a magnetic dipole or virtual magnetic monopole fabricated from a variety of materials, including permanent magnets, superconducting coils, and magnetizable spheres and needles contained within an energy-conducting coil. Multiple-array lens apparatus are also disclosed for simultaneous and/or consecutive imaging of multiple images on single or multiple specimens. The invention further provides apparatus, methods, and devices useful in focusing charged particle beams for lithographic processes.

  11. Solar Flare Chromospheric Line Emission: Comparison Between IBIS High-resolution Observations and Radiative Hydrodynamic Simulations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    da Costa, Fatima Rubio; Petrosian, Vahé; Dalda, Alberto Sainz; Liu, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Solar flares involve impulsive energy release, which results in enhanced radiation in a broad spectral and at a wide height range. In particular, line emission from the chromosphere (lower atmosphere) can provide critical diagnostics of plasma heating processes. Thus, a direct comparison between high-resolution spectroscopic observations and advanced numerical modeling results can be extremely valuable, but has not been attempted so far. We present in this paper such a self-consistent investigation of an M3.0 flare observed by the Dunn Solar Telescope's (DST) Interferometric Bi-dimensional Spectrometer (IBIS) on 2011 September 24 that we have modeled with the radiative hydrodynamic code RADYN (Carlsson & Stein 1992, 1997; Abbett & Hawley 1999; Allred et al. 2005). We obtained images and spectra of the flaring region with IBIS in H$\\alpha$ 6563 \\AA\\ and Ca II 8542 \\AA, and with the Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscope Imager (RHESSI) in X-rays. The latter was used to infer the non-thermal elect...

  12. Evaluation of a CCD-based high resolution autocollimator for use as a slope sensor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baltisberger, Jay H.

    Evaluation of a CCD-based high resolution autocollimator for use as a slope sensor Rohan Isaac the focused beam profile to broaden and decrease its peak intensity Project: Evaluation of a compact CCD-based high resolution autocollimator with a small probe beam for potential use as a slope sensor Optics Group

  13. 3 July 2003 HIRES3D -ITC Research Seminar -Robert Hack 1 HIGH RESOLUTION REMOTE SENSING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hack, Robert

    3 July 2003 HIRES3D - ITC Research Seminar - Robert Hack 1 HIRES3D HIGH RESOLUTION REMOTE SENSING FOR 3D GROUND MODELING AND CLASSIFICATION ITC Research Seminar, 3 July 2003 Robert Hack International Seminar - Robert Hack 2 HIRES3D HIGH RESOLUTION REMOTE SENSING FOR 3D GROUND MODELING AND CLASSIFICATION

  14. Railway Subsidence Monitoring by High Resolution INSAR Time Series Analysis in Tianjin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Perissin, Daniele

    Railway Subsidence Monitoring by High Resolution INSAR Time Series Analysis in Tianjin Qingli Luo1 and the development of urban are seriously affected by the subsidence of them. Permanent Scatterers (PS) technology was developed as a powerful tool for subsidence monitoring. High resolution of 1m data can be provided by Terra

  15. High-resolution frequency-domain second-harmonic optical coherence tomography

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Zhongping

    capability for high-resolution optical 3D sec- tioning of samples because signals only arise from the focal structure of the specimen and its orientation relative to the laser beam. In biological materials, collagenHigh-resolution frequency-domain second-harmonic optical coherence tomography Jianping Su, Ivan V

  16. Improving window manipulation and content interaction on high resolution, wall-sized

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ruddle, Roy

    Interaction with high resolution wall-sized (Powerwall) displays can be a tedious and difficult task due%. Together, our new techniques help to make interaction more fluid on Powerwall displays. Keywords: Powerwall, interaction, precision. 1 Introduction High resolution, wall-sized displays (or Powerwalls) are becoming

  17. MAP IOP 10 South Foehn Event in the Wipp Valley: Verification of High-Resolution Numerical

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gohm, Alexander

    MAP IOP 10 South Foehn Event in the Wipp Valley: Verification of High-Resolution Numerical-of-the-art mesoscale model run in a very high- resolution mode. The phenomenon: Deep south foehn in the Wipp Valley-sigma levels · initialized with operational ECMWF analysis at 23 Oct 18 UTC and 24 Oct 00 UTC Wipp Valley

  18. High Resolution Timing with Low Resolution Clocks A Microsecond Resolution Timer for Sun Workstations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Melvin, Stephen

    High Resolution Timing with Low Resolution Clocks and A Microsecond Resolution Timer for Sun for Sun 3 and Sun 4 workstations1. One can measure average service times without a high resolution clock?" 1. Introduction - Who Needs a Microsecond Clock Beginning with its Sun 3 workstations, Sun

  19. High-Resolution Regional Climate Simulations over Iceland Using Polar MM5* DAVID H. BROMWICH

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Howat, Ian M.

    High-Resolution Regional Climate Simulations over Iceland Using Polar MM5* DAVID H. BROMWICH Polar, Environmental and Food Agency, Reykjavik, Iceland (Manuscript received 9 August 2004, in final form 23 June 2005) ABSTRACT High-resolution regional climate simulations of Iceland for 1991­2000 have been performed using

  20. Abrupt climate changes for Iceland during the last millennium: evidence from high resolution sea ice reconstructions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Abrupt climate changes for Iceland during the last millennium: evidence from high resolution sea, Norway Abstract A high resolution account of Icelandic sea ice over the last millennium has been ice and/or climate conditions around Iceland during the Little Ice Age. Author for correspondence

  1. RAIN AND WIND ESTIMATION FROM SEAWINDS IN HURRICANES AT ULTRA HIGH RESOLUTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Long, David G.

    RAIN AND WIND ESTIMATION FROM SEAWINDS IN HURRICANES AT ULTRA HIGH RESOLUTION Brent A. Williams method for estimating wind and rain in hurricanes from SeaWinds at ultra-high resolution is developed. We use a hurricane model to generate prior distributions for the wind speed, wind di- rection, and rain

  2. Very high resolution precipitation climatologies from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission precipitation radar

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nesbitt, Steve

    Very high resolution precipitation climatologies from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission precipitation radar Stephen W. Nesbitt1 and Alison M. Anders2 Received 4 March 2009; revised 6 July 2009 of topography and precipitation, a tropics-wide (±36° latitude) high resolution (0.1°) ten year (1998

  3. 3D Seismic Experimentation and Advanced Processing/Inversion Development for Investigations of the Shallow Subsurface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levander, Alan Richard; Zelt, Colin A.

    2015-03-17

    The work plan for this project was to develop and apply advanced seismic reflection and wide-angle processing and inversion techniques to high resolution seismic data for the shallow subsurface to seismically characterize the shallow subsurface at hazardous waste sites as an aid to containment and cleanup activities. We proposed to continue work on seismic data that we had already acquired under a previous DoE grant, as well as to acquire additional new datasets for analysis. The project successfully developed and/or implemented the use of 3D reflection seismology algorithms, waveform tomography and finite-frequency tomography using compressional and shear waves for high resolution characterization of the shallow subsurface at two waste sites. These two sites have markedly different near-surface structures, groundwater flow patterns, and hazardous waste problems. This is documented in the list of refereed documents, conference proceedings, and Rice graduate theses, listed below.

  4. Energy-aware High Resolution Image Acquisition via Heterogeneous Image Sensors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Young Jin; Lee, Dong-U; Rahimi, Mohammed; Estrin, D; Villasenor, John

    2007-01-01

    recognition performance but consume considerable energy Lowresolution cameras consume less energy but offer poor

  5. SU-E-I-40: New Method for Measurement of Task-Specific, High-Resolution Detector System Performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Loughran, B; Singh, V; Jain, A; Bednarek, D; Rudin, S

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Although generalized linear system analytic metrics such as GMTF and GDQE can evaluate performance of the whole imaging system including detector, scatter and focal-spot, a simplified task-specific measured metric may help to better compare detector systems. Methods: Low quantum-noise images of a neuro-vascular stent with a modified ANSI head phantom were obtained from the average of many exposures taken with the high-resolution Micro-Angiographic Fluoroscope (MAF) and with a Flat Panel Detector (FPD). The square of the Fourier Transform of each averaged image, equivalent to the measured product of the system GMTF and the object function in spatial-frequency space, was then divided by the normalized noise power spectra (NNPS) for each respective system to obtain a task-specific generalized signal-to-noise ratio. A generalized measured relative object detectability (GM-ROD) was obtained by taking the ratio of the integral of the resulting expressions for each detector system to give an overall metric that enables a realistic systems comparison for the given detection task. Results: The GM-ROD provides comparison of relative performance of detector systems from actual measurements of the object function as imaged by those detector systems. This metric includes noise correlations and spatial frequencies relevant to the specific object. Additionally, the integration bounds for the GM-ROD can be selected to emphasis the higher frequency band of each detector if high-resolution image details are to be evaluated. Examples of this new metric are discussed with a comparison of the MAF to the FPD for neuro-vascular interventional imaging. Conclusion: The GM-ROD is a new direct-measured task-specific metric that can provide clinically relevant comparison of the relative performance of imaging systems. Supported by NIH Grant: 2R01EB002873 and an equipment grant from Toshiba Medical Systems Corporation.

  6. High-resolution radiography by means of a hodoscope

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    De Volpi, Alexander (Hinsdale, IL)

    1978-01-01

    The fast neutron hodoscope, a device that produces neutron radiographs with coarse space resolution in a short time, is modified to produce neutron or gamma radiographs of relatively thick samples and with high space resolution. The modification comprises motorizing a neutron and gamma collimator to permit a controlled scanning pattern, simultaneous collection of data in a number of hodoscope channels over a period of time, and computerized image reconstruction of the data thus gathered.

  7. High-resolution observations of active region moss and its dynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Morton, R J

    2014-01-01

    The \\textit{High resolution Coronal Imager (Hi-C)} has provided the sharpest view of the EUV corona to date. In this paper we exploit its impressive resolving power to provide the first analysis of the fine-scale structure of moss in an active region. The data reveal that the moss is made up of a collection of fine threads, that have widths with a mean and standard deviation of $440\\pm190$~km (Full Width Half Maximum). {The brightest moss emission is located at the visible head of the fine-scale structure and the fine structure appears to extend into the lower solar atmosphere.} The emission decreases along the features implying the lower sections are most likely dominated by cooler transition region plasma. These threads appear to be the cool, lower legs of the hot loops. In addition, the increased resolution allows for the first direct observation {of physical displacements of the moss fine-structure in a direction transverse to its central axis. Some of these transverse displacements demonstrate periodic b...

  8. Practical high resolution detection method for laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andrew J. Effenberger Jr; Jill R. Scott

    2012-02-01

    A Fabry-Perot etalon was coupled to a Czerny-Turner spectrometer to acquire high-resolution measurements in laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). The spectrometer was built using an inexpensive etalon coupled to a standard 0.5-m imaging spectrometer. The Hg emission doublet at 313.2 nm was used to evaluate instrument performance because it has a splitting of 29 pm. The 313.2 nm doublet was chosen due to the similar splitting seen in isotope splitting from uranium at 424.437 nm, which is 25 pm. The Hg doublet was easily resolved from a continuous source Hg-lamp with a 2 s acquisition. The doublet was also resolved in LIBS spectra of cinnabar (HgS) from the accumulation of 600 laser shots at rate of 10 Hz, or 1 min, under a helium atmosphere. In addition to observed spitting of the 313.2 nm Hg doublet, the FWHM of the 313.1844 nm line from the doublet is reported at varying He atmospheric pressures. The high performance, low cost, and compact footprint makes this system highly competitive with 2-m double pass Czerny-Turner spectrometers.

  9. Application of spatially resolved high resolution crystal spectrometry to inertial confinement fusion plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hill, K. W.; Bitter, M.; Delgado-Aparacio, L.; Pablant, N. A.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Schneider, M.; Widmann, K.; Sanchez del Rio, M.; Zhang, L.

    2012-10-15

    High resolution ({lambda}/{Delta}{lambda}{approx} 10 000) 1D imaging x-ray spectroscopy using a spherically bent crystal and a 2D hybrid pixel array detector is used world wide for Doppler measurements of ion-temperature and plasma flow-velocity profiles in magnetic confinement fusion plasmas. Meter sized plasmas are diagnosed with cm spatial resolution and 10 ms time resolution. This concept can also be used as a diagnostic of small sources, such as inertial confinement fusion plasmas and targets on x-ray light source beam lines, with spatial resolution of micrometers, as demonstrated by laboratory experiments using a 250-{mu}m {sup 55}Fe source, and by ray-tracing calculations. Throughput calculations agree with measurements, and predict detector counts in the range 10{sup -8}-10{sup -6} times source x-rays, depending on crystal reflectivity and spectrometer geometry. Results of the lab demonstrations, application of the technique to the National Ignition Facility (NIF), and predictions of performance on NIF will be presented.

  10. High resolution transmission electron microscopy of melamine-formaldehyde aerogels and silica aerogels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ruben, G.C. (Dartmouth Coll., Hanover, NH (United States). Dept. of Biological Sciences)

    1991-09-01

    The goal of the high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) was to image the structure of two tetramethyl orthosilicate (TMOS) and two melamine-formaldehyde (MF) aerogels at the single polymer chain level{sup 1,2}. With this level of structural resolution we hoped to interrelate each aerogel's structure with its physical properties and its method of synthesis. Conventional single-step base catalysed TMOS aerogels show strings of spheroidal particles linked together with minimal necking. The spheroidal particles range from 86--132 {Angstrom} and average 113{plus minus}10 {Angstrom} in diameter{sup 2}. In contrast the TMOS aerogels reported on here were made by a two step method. After extended silica chains are grown in solution under acidic conditions with a substoichiometric amount of water, the reaction is stopped and the methanol hydrolysed from TMOS is removed. Then base catalysis and additional water are added to cause gel formation is a nonalcoholic solvent. The MF aerogels were prepared for HRTEM by fracturing them on a stereo microscope stage with razor knife so that fractured pieces with smooth flat surfaces could be selected for platinum-carbon replication. The two silica (TMOS) aerogels were both transparent and difficult to see. These aerogels were fractured on a stereo microscope stage with tweezers. 6 refs., 4 figs.

  11. A High Resolution, Light-Weight, Synthetic Aperture Radar for UAV Application

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doerry, A.W.; Hensley, W.H.; Stence, J.; Tsunoda, S.I. Pace, F.; Walker, B,C.; Woodring, M.

    1999-05-27

    (U) Sandia National Laboratories in collaboration with General Atomics (GA) has designed and built a high resolution, light-weight, Ku-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) known as "Lynx". Although Lynx can be operated on a wide variety of manned and unmanned platforms, its design is optimized for use on medium altitude Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVS). In particular, it can be operated on the Predator, I-GNAT, and Prowler II platforms manufactured by GA. (U) The radar production weight is less than 120 lb and operates within a 3 GHz band from 15.2 GHz to 18.2 GHz with a peak output power of 320 W. Operating range is resolution and mode dependent but can exceed 45 km in adverse weather (4 mm/hr rain). Lynx has operator selectable resolution and is capable of 0.1 m resolution in spotlight mode and 0.3 m resolution in stripmap mode, over substantial depression angles (5 to 60 deg) and squint angles (broadside ±45 deg). Real-time Motion Compensation is implemented to allow high-quality image formation even during vehicle turns and other maneuvers.

  12. Site Recommendation Subsurface Layout

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    C.L. Linden

    2000-06-28

    The purpose of this analysis is to develop a Subsurface Facility layout that is capable of accommodating the statutory capacity of 70,000 metric tons of uranium (MTU), as well as an option to expand the inventory capacity, if authorized, to 97,000 MTU. The layout configuration also requires a degree of flexibility to accommodate potential changes in site conditions or program requirements. The objective of this analysis is to provide a conceptual design of the Subsurface Facility sufficient to support the development of the Subsurface Facility System Description Document (CRWMS M&O 2000e) and the ''Emplacement Drift System Description Document'' (CRWMS M&O 2000i). As well, this analysis provides input to the Site Recommendation Consideration Report. The scope of this analysis includes: (1) Evaluation of the existing facilities and their integration into the Subsurface Facility design. (2) Identification and incorporation of factors influencing Subsurface Facility design, such as geological constraints, thermal loading, constructibility, subsurface ventilation, drainage control, radiological considerations, and the Test and Evaluation Facilities. (3) Development of a layout showing an available area in the primary area sufficient to support both the waste inventories and individual layouts showing the emplacement area required for 70,000 MTU and, if authorized, 97,000 MTU.

  13. Subsurface Contamination Control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Y. Yuan

    2001-11-16

    There are two objectives of this report, ''Subsurface Contamination Control''. The first is to provide a technical basis for recommending limiting radioactive contamination levels (LRCL) on the external surfaces of waste packages (WP) for acceptance into the subsurface repository. The second is to provide an evaluation of the magnitude of potential releases from a defective WP and the detectability of the released contents. The technical basis for deriving LRCL has been established in ''Retrieval Equipment and Strategy for Wp on Pallet'' (CRWMS M and O 2000g, 6.3.1). This report updates the derivation by incorporating the latest design information of the subsurface repository for site recommendation. The derived LRCL on the external surface of WPs, therefore, supercede that described in CRWMS M and O 2000g. The derived LRCL represent the average concentrations of contamination on the external surfaces of each WP that must not be exceeded before the WP is to be transported to the subsurface facility for emplacement. The evaluation of potential releases is necessary to control the potential contamination of the subsurface repository and to detect prematurely failed WPs. The detection of failed WPs is required in order to provide reasonable assurance that the integrity of each WP is intact prior to MGR closure. An emplaced WP may become breached due to manufacturing defects or improper weld combined with failure to detect the defect, by corrosion, or by mechanical penetration due to accidents or rockfall conditions. The breached WP may release its gaseous and volatile radionuclide content to the subsurface environment and result in contaminating the subsurface facility. The scope of this analysis is limited to radioactive contaminants resulting from breached WPs during the preclosure period of the subsurface repository. This report: (1) documents a method for deriving LRCL on the external surfaces of WP for acceptance into the subsurface repository; (2) provides a table of derived LRCL for nuclides of radiological importance; (3) Provides an as low as is reasonably achievable (ALARA) evaluation of the derived LRCL by comparing potential onsite and offsite doses to documented ALARA requirements; (4) Provides a method for estimating potential releases from a defective WP; (5) Provides an evaluation of potential radioactive releases from a defective WP that may become airborne and result in contamination of the subsurface facility; and (6) Provides a preliminary analysis of the detectability of a potential WP leak to support the design of an airborne release monitoring system.

  14. Subsurface Contamination Control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Y. Yuan

    2001-12-12

    There are two objectives of this report, ''Subsurface Contamination Control''. The first is to provide a technical basis for recommending limiting radioactive contamination levels (LRCL) on the external surfaces of waste packages (WP) for acceptance into the subsurface repository. The second is to provide an evaluation of the magnitude of potential releases from a defective WP and the detectability of the released contents. The technical basis for deriving LRCL has been established in ''Retrieval Equipment and Strategy for Wp on Pallet'' (CRWMS M and O 2000g, 6.3.1). This report updates the derivation by incorporating the latest design information of the subsurface repository for site recommendation. The derived LRCL on the external surface of WPs, therefore, supercede that described in CRWMS M and O 2000g. The derived LRCL represent the average concentrations of contamination on the external surfaces of each WP that must not be exceeded before the WP is to be transported to the subsurface facility for emplacement. The evaluation of potential releases is necessary to control the potential contamination of the subsurface repository and to detect prematurely failed WPs. The detection of failed WPs is required in order to provide reasonable assurance that the integrity of each WP is intact prior to MGR closure. An emplaced WP may become breached due to manufacturing defects or improper weld combined with failure to detect the defect, by corrosion, or by mechanical penetration due to accidents or rockfall conditions. The breached WP may release its gaseous and volatile radionuclide content to the subsurface environment and result in contaminating the subsurface facility. The scope of this analysis is limited to radioactive contaminants resulting from breached WPs during the preclosure period of the subsurface repository. This report: (1) documents a method for deriving LRCL on the external surfaces of WP for acceptance into the subsurface repository; (2) provides a table of derived LRCL for nuclides of radiological importance; (3) Provides an as low as is reasonably achievable (ALARA) evaluation of the derived LRCL by comparing potential onsite and offsite doses to documented ALARA requirements; (4) Provides a method for estimating potential releases from a defective WP; (5) Provides an evaluation of potential radioactive releases from a defective WP that may become airborne and result in contamination of the subsurface facility; and (6) Provides a preliminary analysis of the detectability of a potential WP leak to support the design of an airborne release monitoring system.

  15. Design of electronics for a high-resolution, multi-material, and modular 3D printer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kwan, Joyce G

    2013-01-01

    Electronics for a high-resolution, multi-material, and modular 3D printer were designed and implemented. The driver for a piezoelectric inkjet print head can fire its nozzles with one of three droplet sizes ranging from 6 ...

  16. Ion implantation for figure correction of high-resolution x-ray telescope mirrors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chalifoux, Brandon D

    2014-01-01

    Fabricating mirrors for future high-resolution, large-aperture x-ray telescopes continues to challenge the x-ray astronomy instrumentation community. Building a large-aperture telescope requires thin, lightweight mirrors; ...

  17. High-Resolution Characterization of Reservoir Heterogeneity and Connectivity in Clastic Environments 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hull, Thomas Frederick

    2011-10-21

    is improved from 80ft to 20ft. High-resolution seismic interpretation was validated through synthetic seismograms, stratigraphic surface comparisons, and most importantly using a comprehensive model-based knowledge of regional tectonics and depositional...

  18. High resolution laser spectroscopy of cesium and rubidium molecules with optically induced coherence 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Hui

    2006-10-30

    This work is devoted to the study of the quantum coherent effects in diatomic molecular systems by using high resolution laser spectroscopy. In particular, we have studied the rubidium diatomic molecular gaseous medium's ...

  19. High-resolution Soft-RIXS: Scientific Goals and Technical Challenges...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of upcoming projects for high resolution RIXS at several synchrotron radiation and X-FEL sources around the world, what are the key features for the new instruments? How can we...

  20. Ultra-high Resolution Optics for EUV and Soft X-ray Inelastic Scattering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Voronov, Dmitry L.

    2010-01-01

    16. Yu. Shvyd’ko, X-Ray Optics, Berlin: Springer-Verlag,Ultra-high Resolution Optics for EUV and Soft X-rayspectral resolution soft x-ray optics. Conventionally in the

  1. Integrating radar stratigraphy with high resolution visible stratigraphy of the north polar layered deposits, Mars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Byrne, Shane

    Integrating radar stratigraphy with high resolution visible stratigraphy of the north polar layered that radar reflectors can be used as geometric prox- ies for visible stratigraphy. Furthermore in the stratigraphy of the pola

  2. A deep high-resolution optical log of dust, ash, and stratigraphy in South Pole glacial ice

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Woschnagg, Kurt

    A deep high-resolution optical log of dust, ash, and stratigraphy in South Pole glacial ice N. E (2005), A deep high-resolution optical log of dust, ash, and stratigraphy in South Pole glacial ice

  3. High-ResolutionReal-Time and Color-Flow MRI of Nitinol Stents M. Terashima,E. de la Pena-Almaguer,K.S. Nayak,J.M. Pauly, P.C. Yang, B.S. Hu, M.V. McConnell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nayak, Krishna

    High-ResolutionReal-Time and Color-Flow MRI of Nitinol Stents M. Terashima,E. de la Pena, but they typically impair MR imaging. Nitinol stents, in contrast, have reduced artifacts and may allow real-time MRI placed in the aorta. Nitinol stent patency was seen in vivo with both high-resolution real-time and color

  4. Best Practice -- Subsurface Investigations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clark Scott

    2010-03-01

    These best practices for Subsurface Survey processes were developed at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and later shared and formalized by a sub-committee, under the Electrical Safety Committee of EFCOG. The developed best practice is best characterized as a Tier II (enhanced) survey process for subsurface investigations. A result of this process has been an increase in the safety and lowering of overall cost, when utility hits and their related costs are factored in. The process involves improving the methodology and thoroughness of the survey and reporting processes; or improvement in tool use rather than in the tools themselves. It is hoped that the process described here can be implemented at other sites seeking to improve their Subsurface Investigation results with little upheaval to their existing system.

  5. Ellipsoidal primary of the RS CVn binary zeta And: Investigation using high-resolution spectroscopy and optical interferometry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Korhonen, H; Kovari, Zs; Granzer, Th; Hackman, T; Strassmeier, K G

    2010-01-01

    We have obtained high-resolution spectroscopy, optical interferometry, and long-term broad band photometry of the ellipsoidal primary of the RS CVn-type binary system zeta And. Based on the optical interferometry the apparent limb darkened diameter of zeta And is 2.55 +/- 0.09 mas using a uniform disk fit. The Hipparcos distance and the limb-darkened diameter obtained with a uniform disk fit give stellar radius of 15.9 +/- 0.8 Rsolar, and combined with bolometric luminosity, it implies an effective temperature of 4665 +/- 140 K. The temperature maps obtained from high resolution spectra using Doppler imaging show a strong belt of equatorial spots and hints of a cool polar cap. The equatorial spots show a concentration around the phase 0.75. This spot configuration is reminiscent of the one seen in the earlier published temperature maps of zeta And. Investigation of the Halpha line reveals both prominences and cool clouds in the chromosphere. Long-term photometry spanning 12 years shows hints of a spot activit...

  6. HIGH RESOLUTION PREDICTION OF GAS INJECTION PROCESS PERFORMANCE FOR HETEROGENEOUS RESERVOIRS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Franklin M. Orr, Jr.

    2003-09-30

    This report outlines progress in the first quarter of the extension of the DOE project ''High Resolution Prediction of Gas Injection Process Performance for Heterogeneous Reservoirs''. This report presents experimental results that demonstrate combined scaling effects of viscous, capillary, and gravity crossflow mechanisms that apply to the situations in which streamline models are used. We designed and ran a series of experiments to investigate combined effects of capillary, viscous, and gravity forces on displacement efficiency in layered systems. Analog liquids (isooctane, isopropanol, and water) were employed to control scaling parameters by changing interfacial tension (IFT), flow rate, and density difference. The porous medium was a two-dimensional (2-D) 2-layered glass bead model with a permeability ratio of about 1:4. In order to analyze the combined effect of only capillary and viscous forces, gravity effects were eliminated by changing the orientation of the glass bead model. We employed a commercial simulator, Eclipse100 to calculate displacement behavior for comparison with the experimental data. Experimental results with minimized gravity effects show that the IFT and flow rate determine how capillary and viscous forces affect behavior of displacement. The limiting behavior for scaling groups for two-phase displacement was verified by experimental results. Analysis of the 2-D images indicates that displacements having a capillary-viscous equilibrium give the best sweep efficiency. Experimental results with gravity effects, but with low IFT fluid systems show that slow displacements produce larger area affected by crossflow. This, in turn, enhances sweep efficiency. The simulation results represent the experimental data well, except for the situations where capillary forces dominate the displacement.

  7. THE HIGH-RESOLUTION EXTREME-ULTRAVIOLET SPECTRUM OF N{sub 2} BY ELECTRON IMPACT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heays, A. N.; Ajello, J. M.; Aguilar, A.; Lewis, B. R.; Gibson, S. T.

    2014-04-01

    We have analyzed high-resolution (FWHM = 0.2 Ĺ) extreme-ultraviolet (EUV, 800-1350 Ĺ) laboratory emission spectra of molecular nitrogen excited by an electron impact at 20 and 100 eV under (mostly) optically thin, single-scattering experimental conditions. A total of 491 emission features were observed from N{sub 2} electronic-vibrational transitions and atomic N I and N II multiplets and their emission cross sections were measured. Molecular emission was observed at vibrationally excited ground-state levels as high as v'' = 17, from the a {sup 1}? {sub g} , b {sup 1}? {sub u} , and b'{sup 1}? {sub u} {sup +} excited valence states and the Rydberg series c'{sub n} {sub +1} {sup 1}? {sub u} {sup +}, c{sub n} {sup 1}? {sub u} , and o{sub n} {sup 1}? {sub u} for n between 3 and 9. The frequently blended molecular emission bands were disentangled with the aid of a sophisticated and predictive quantum-mechanical model of excited states that includes the strong coupling between valence and Rydberg electronic states and the effects of predissociation. Improved model parameters describing electronic transition moments were obtained from the experiment and allowed for a reliable prediction of the vibrationally summed electronic emission cross section, including an extrapolation to unobserved emission bands and those that are optically thick in the experimental spectra. Vibrationally dependent electronic excitation functions were inferred from a comparison of emission features following 20 and 100 eV electron-impact collisional excitation. The electron-impact-induced fluorescence measurements are compared with Cassini Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph observations of emissions from Titan's upper atmosphere.

  8. Subsurface connection methods for subsurface heaters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX); Bass, Ronald Marshall (Houston, TX); Kim, Dong Sub (Sugar Land, TX); Mason, Stanley Leroy (Allen, TX); Stegemeier, George Leo (Houston, TX); Keltner, Thomas Joseph (Spring, TX); Carl, Jr., Frederick Gordon (Houston, TX)

    2010-12-28

    A system for heating a subsurface formation is described. The system includes a first elongated heater in a first opening in the formation. The first elongated heater includes an exposed metal section in a portion of the first opening. The portion is below a layer of the formation to be heated. The exposed metal section is exposed to the formation. A second elongated heater is in a second opening in the formation. The second opening connects to the first opening at or near the portion of the first opening below the layer to be heated. At least a portion of an exposed metal section of the second elongated heater is electrically coupled to at least a portion of the exposed metal section of the first elongated heater in the portion of the first opening below the layer to be heated.

  9. Subsurface contaminants focus area

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-08-01

    The US Department of Enregy (DOE) Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area is developing technologies to address environmental problems associated with hazardous and radioactive contaminants in soil and groundwater that exist throughout the DOE complex, including radionuclides, heavy metals; and dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs). More than 5,700 known DOE groundwater plumes have contaminated over 600 billion gallons of water and 200 million cubic meters of soil. Migration of these plumes threatens local and regional water sources, and in some cases has already adversely impacted off-site rsources. In addition, the Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area is responsible for supplying technologies for the remediation of numerous landfills at DOE facilities. These landfills are estimated to contain over 3 million cubic meters of radioactive and hazardous buried Technology developed within this specialty area will provide efective methods to contain contaminant plumes and new or alternative technologies for development of in situ technologies to minimize waste disposal costs and potential worker exposure by treating plumes in place. While addressing contaminant plumes emanating from DOE landfills, the Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area is also working to develop new or alternative technologies for the in situ stabilization, and nonintrusive characterization of these disposal sites.

  10. Pattern transfer of electron beam modified self-assembled monolayers for high-resolution lithography

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Parikh, Atul N.

    Pattern transfer of electron beam modified self-assembled monolayers for high-resolution electron beam lithography. Focused electron beams from 1 to 50 keV and scanning tunneling microscopy at 10 of electron beam damage on the monolayers and the subsequent etching reactions has been explored through x

  11. Space for Two to Think: Large, High-Resolution Displays for Co-located Collaborative Sensemaking

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Space for Two to Think: Large, High-Resolution Displays for Co-located Collaborative Sensemaking Lauren Bradel 1 Virginia Tech Christopher Andrews 2 Virginia Tech Alex Endert 3 Virginia Tech Katherine Vogt 4 Elon University Duke Hutchings 5 Elon University Chris North 6 Virginia Tech ABSTRACT Large

  12. Dissemination and Presentation of High Resolution Air Pollution Data from Mobile Sensor Nodes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Koutsoukos, Xenofon D.

    Dissemination and Presentation of High Resolution Air Pollution Data from Mobile Sensor Nodes method of air pollution monitoring in the United States includes sampling airborne pollutants hourly. Since pollution is highly location de- pendent, there is insufficient data to accurately evaluate air

  13. A High Resolution Intergalactic Explorer for the Soft X-ray/FUV

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martin Elvis; Fabrizio Fiore; the CWE Team

    2003-03-19

    We present a mission concept for high resolution X-ray spectroscopy with a resolving power, R~6000, (c.f. R=Web'. The Cosmic Web is predicted to contain most of the normal matter (baryons) in the nearby Universe.

  14. BIOL 507 PROJECT REPORT High-Resolution 3D Reconstruction of the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    BIOL 507 PROJECT REPORT High-Resolution 3D Reconstruction of the Surface of Live Early-Stage Toad. The specimen profile often covers more than attained depth-of-field. #12;BIOL 507 Microscopy Project Report. SIGNATURE Xiaodong Zhong Department of Biomedical Engineering Dec 8, 2005 #12;BIOL 507 Microscopy Project

  15. Open PhD position Fusion of high resolution remote sensing data for snow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Open PhD position Fusion of high resolution remote sensing data for snow monitoring Context Remote and are able to measure different aspects of snow cover (surface physical properties, type of snow, etc of the snow. However, this approach is still an unresolved scientific challenge. This thesis proposes

  16. Flow over rough topography. A preliminary study with high resolution topography at Ormen Lange

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Avlesen, Helge

    Flow over rough topography. A preliminary study with high resolution topography at Ormen Lange not able to march as long in time as desired, due to stability issues. On the given topography for selected horizontal sections, after im- posing a constant velocity flow over the given topography

  17. Leveraging XSEDE HPC resources to address computational challenges with high-resolution topography

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tarboton, David

    Leveraging XSEDE HPC resources to address computational challenges with high-resolution topography topography data. These web services make results from community software packages and other cyberinfrastructure-based applications available to the wider earth sciences community via the OpenTopography Facility

  18. High-resolution carbon dioxide concentration record 650,000800,000 years before present

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laughlin, Robert B.

    LETTERS High-resolution carbon dioxide concentration record 650,000­800,000 years before present Changes in past atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations can be determined by measuring the composition provided a composite record of atmo- spheric carbon dioxide levels over the past 650,000 years1­4 . Here we

  19. HIGH RESOLUTION SIMULATION OF THE SUCCESSION OF HURRICANES IN 2008: GUSTAV, HANNA, AND IKE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    HIGH RESOLUTION SIMULATION OF THE SUCCESSION OF HURRICANES IN 2008: GUSTAV, HANNA, AND IKE W. Lin of Atlantic hurricanes in August-September 2008 is used to assess the ability of the Weather Research and the eastern United States. The succession of the hurricanes in observation developed from either local

  20. North Brazil Current rings and transport of southern waters in a high resolution numerical

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    North Brazil Current rings and transport of southern waters in a high resolution numerical of the North Brazil Current (NBC) retroflection and North Brazil Current rings. The model mean and seasonal circulation feature near the western boundary is the North Brazil Current (NBC), which has sources

  1. Cornelis Zwaan, open principle, and the future of high-resolution solar telescopes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rutten, Rob

    ; (iii) the design consequences for the new generation of high-resolution solar telescopes. Keywords to the open tower design. In section 3 we consider the interaction between the wind and the telescope 15 m and upward when there is some wind. The conclusion from this experience was the open telescope

  2. Assessing possible dynamical effects of condensate in high resolution climate simulations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dai, Aiguo

    Assessing possible dynamical effects of condensate in high resolution climate simulations J. T, condensed water species can add significant mass to an atmospheric column. This mass can create positive the pressure induced by condensates. A simple parameterization of this condensate loading as a function

  3. A ber-optic based calibration system for the High Resolution Fly's Eye

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A ber-optic based calibration system for the High Resolution Fly's Eye cosmic ray observatory J, 800 Yale Blvd NE, Albuquerque, NM 87131-1156 Abstract This article describes the ber-optic based: Highest energy cosmic rays Fly's Eye Experiment HiRes YAG Laser Fiber-optics PMT PACS: 95.45.+i 95.85.Ls

  4. Frequency Comb Vernier Spectroscopy for Broadband, High-Resolution, High-Sensitivity Absorption and Dispersion Spectra

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hänsch, Theodor W.

    Frequency Comb Vernier Spectroscopy for Broadband, High-Resolution, High-Sensitivity Absorption combination of broad bandwidth and high temporal coherence of a frequency comb for sensing and identifying; published 28 December 2007) A femtosecond frequency comb provides a vast number of equidistantly spaced

  5. Atmospheric Environment 40 (2006) 36533664 High-resolution spatial patterns of long-term mean

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Broday, David

    2006-01-01

    agree with published observations on larger spatial scales. The high-resolution maps capture in a small and disease. Air pollutants in an urban environment may have a wide spectrum of sources affecting- cesses and the governing meteorology, mainly sun radiance, ambient temperature and the prevailing winds

  6. 8D.3 INVESTIGATING CONVECTIVE ELEMENTS IN A HIGH RESOLUTION SIMULATION OF HURRICANE OPAL (1995)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wilhelmson, Robert

    1995-01-01

    8D.3 INVESTIGATING CONVECTIVE ELEMENTS IN A HIGH RESOLUTION SIMULATION OF HURRICANE OPAL (1995. INTRODUCTION Numerous studies have investigated the intensity and track of Hurricane Opal in 1995, an event the convective scale behavior of the hurricane. This is of particular interest because Hurricane Opal

  7. Hurricane Wind Field Estimation from SeaWinds at Ultra High Resolution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Long, David G.

    Hurricane Wind Field Estimation from SeaWinds at Ultra High Resolution Brent A. Williams and David) are inherently noisier than the standard 25km products and the high rain rates often associated with hurricanes. This paper develops a new procedure for hurricane wind field estimation from the SeaWinds instrument at ultra

  8. A Comparison of Hurricane Eye Determination Using Standard and Ultra-High Resolution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Long, David G.

    A Comparison of Hurricane Eye Determination Using Standard and Ultra-High Resolution QuikSCAT Winds of hurricanes. I. INTRODUCTION Space-borne scatterometers such as SeaWinds on QuikSCAT are instruments designed these is the observation and tracking of tropical cyclones including hurricanes. Several fea- tures of interest

  9. High resolution PFPE-based molding High resolution PFPE-based molding High resolution PFPE-based molding techniques for nanofabrication of high pattern density sub-20 nm features: A fundamental materials approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, Stuart S [University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill; Samulski, Edward [University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill; Lopez, Renee [University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill; Ruiz, Ricardo [Hitachi; DeSimone, Joseph [University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill; Retterer, Scott T [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT. Described herein is the development and investigation of PFPE-based elastomers for high resolution replica molding applications. The modulus of the elastomeric materials was increased through synthetic and additive approaches while maintaining relatively low surface energies (<25 mN/m). Using practically relevant large area master templates, we show that the resolution of the molds is strongly dependant upon the elastomeric mold modulus. A composite mold approach was used to form flexible molds out of stiff, high modulus materials that allow for replication of sub-20 nm post structures. Sub-100 nm line grating master templates, formed using e-beam lithography, were used to determine the experimental stability of the molding materials. It was observed that as the feature spacing decreased, high modulus composite molds were able to effectively replicate the nano-grating structures without cracking or tear-out defects that typically occur with high modulus elastomers.

  10. Image retrieval, classification and object recognition using local invariant features in high resolution remote sensing imagery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Yang

    2012-01-01

    g) Intersection. (h) Parking lot. (i) Road. (j) Ruralperform comparably), parking lot (curves are similar tog) Intersection. (h) Parking lot. (i) Road. (j) Rural

  11. D&D Toolbox Robotic Deployment of High Resolution Laser Imaging for Characterization

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The characterization of complex and/or hazardous facilities for the purposes of planning D&D projects can be excessively time consuming and present unacceptable hazards for personnel who enter...

  12. High Resolution Imaging using 325 GHz and 1.5 THz Transceivers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Massachusetts at Lowell, University of

    in simulating full-scale radar measurements involved the use of a carbon dioxide laser, optically pumping a far systems have been used as local oscillator (LO) sources in remote areas for radio astronomy5 . While

  13. Time and Frequency Domain CCD-Based Thermoreflectance Techniques for High-Resolution Transient Thermal Imaging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    is in the order of 10-4/K. A blue or green light emitting diode (LED) uniformly illuminates the DUT under

  14. Adapting a Survey-Class AUV for High Resolution Seafloor Imaging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Morash, James

    2005-01-01

    Over the past four years, development work at the MIT AUV Lab focused on a vehicle that is now almost a decade old. “Xanthos,” one of the last surviving examples of the venerable Odyssey II series of AUVs (developed at MIT ...

  15. HIGH-RESOLUTION LAND/ICE IMAGING USING SEASAT SCATTEROMETER MEASUREMENTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Long, David G.

    1, P. J. Hardin2 Electrical and Computer Engineering Department, 'Geography Department Brigham Young sensing systems because of their proven ability to make all-weather measurements of vector winds over on an ir- regular grid. The U' measurements were noisywith a normalized standard deviation (KP)of 4% to 50

  16. Learning Scene Categories from High Resolution Satellite Image for Aerial Video Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheriyadat, Anil M

    2011-01-01

    Automatic scene categorization can benefit various aerial video processing applications. This paper addresses the problem of predicting the scene category from aerial video frames using a prior model learned from satellite imagery. We show that local and global features in the form of line statistics and 2-D power spectrum parameters respectively can characterize the aerial scene well. The line feature statistics and spatial frequency parameters are useful cues to distinguish between different urban scene categories. We learn the scene prediction model from highresolution satellite imagery to test the model on the Columbus Surrogate Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (CSUAV) dataset ollected by high-altitude wide area UAV sensor platform. e compare the proposed features with the popular Scale nvariant Feature Transform (SIFT) features. Our experimental results show that proposed approach outperforms te SIFT model when the training and testing are conducted n disparate data sources.

  17. High-resolution imaging of latch-up sites in CMOS IC 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shah, Mayank

    1993-01-01

    . These triggering modes basically classify into three types: Journal model is IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control. votrr Nwell P substrate Fig. l. Inherent Transistors in CMOS l. External Initiation of First Bipolar: This excitation is usually an overshoot...

  18. EFFECTIVENESS OF QUIKSCAT'S ULTRA-HIGH RESOLUTION IMAGES IN DETERMINING TROPICAL CYCLONE EYE LOCATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Long, David G.

    459 Clyde Building, Provo, UT 84602, USA ABSTRACT The 25km resolution standard wind products (L2B) are available op- erationally in near-real time from SeaWinds on QuikSCAT. This rel- atively low resolution can, for a given year and basin, mean error distance as small as 15km with a 9km standard deviation. The use

  19. A high-resolution imaging X-ray crystal spectrometer for high...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Bibtex Format Close 0 pages in this document matching the terms "" Search For Terms: Enter terms in the toolbar above to search the full text of this document for pages...

  20. A high-resolution imaging x-ray crystal spectrometer for high...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    of Publication: United States Language: English Subject: 46 INSTRUMENTATION RELATED TO NUCLEAR SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY; 70 PLASMA PHYSICS AND FUSION TECHNOLOGY; CRYSTALS; ENERGY...

  1. Objectives and layout of a high-resolution x-ray imaging crystal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    of Publication: United States Language: English Subject: 46 INSTRUMENTATION RELATED TO NUCLEAR SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY; 70 PLASMA PHYSICS AND FUSION TECHNOLOGY; ALCATOR DEVICE;...

  2. Patent: High resolution x-ray and gamma ray imaging using diffraction

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefield MunicipalTechnical Report:Speeding access toSmall Reactor for Deep SpaceConditioningprimary aminolenses

  3. High-Resolution Aeromagnetic Survey to Image Shallow Faults, Dixie Valley

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIXsource History View NewGuam: Energyarea, CaliforniaHess RetailResolution

  4. Design Parameters and Objectives of a High--Resolution X--ray Imaging

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfate Reducing BacteriaConnectlaser-solid interactionCrystal Spectrometer for the Large Helical

  5. Design Parameters and Objectives of a High--Resolution X--ray Imaging

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfate Reducing BacteriaConnectlaser-solid interactionCrystal Spectrometer for the Large

  6. A Versatile High-Resolution X-Ray Imager (HRXI) for Laser-Plasma

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefield MunicipalTechnicalInformation4563 LLNL(Technical Report)

  7. A high-resolution imaging X-ray crystal spectrometer for high energy

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefield MunicipalTechnicalInformation4563 LLNL(Technical Report)Asegment, largedensity (HED) plasmas

  8. A high-resolution imaging X-ray crystal spectrometer for high energy

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefield MunicipalTechnicalInformation4563 LLNL(Technical Report)Asegment, largedensity (HED) plasmasdensity

  9. A high-resolution imaging X-ray crystal spectrometer for intense laser

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefield MunicipalTechnicalInformation4563 LLNL(Technical Report)Asegment, largedensity (HED)

  10. A high-resolution imaging X-ray crystal spectrometer for intense laser

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefield MunicipalTechnicalInformation4563 LLNL(Technical Report)Asegment, largedensity (HED)plasma

  11. A high-resolution imaging x-ray crystal spectrometer for high energy

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefield MunicipalTechnicalInformation4563 LLNL(Technical Report)Asegment, largedensity (HED)plasmadensity

  12. Objectives and Layout of a High-Resolution X-ray Imaging Crystal

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfateSciTech ConnectSpeeding access to science information from DOE andSciTech Connect

  13. Objectives and Layout of a High-Resolution X-ray Imaging Crystal

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfateSciTech ConnectSpeeding access to science information from DOE andSciTech

  14. Objectives and layout of a high-resolution x-ray imaging crystal

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfateSciTech ConnectSpeeding access to science information from DOE andSciTechspectrometer for the

  15. High resolution transmission spectroscopy as a diagnostic for Jovian exoplanet atmospheres: constraints from theoretical models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kempton, Eliza M.-R.; Perna, Rosalba; Heng, Kevin

    2014-11-01

    We present high resolution transmission spectra of giant planet atmospheres from a coupled three-dimensional (3D) atmospheric dynamics and transmission spectrum model that includes Doppler shifts which arise from winds and planetary motion. We model Jovian planets covering more than two orders of magnitude in incident flux, corresponding to planets with 0.9-55 day orbital periods around solar-type stars. The results of our 3D dynamical models reveal certain aspects of high resolution transmission spectra that are not present in simple one-dimensional (1D) models. We find that the hottest planets experience strong substellar to anti-stellar (SSAS) winds, resulting in transmission spectra with net blueshifts of up to 3 km s{sup –1}, whereas less irradiated planets show almost no net Doppler shifts. We find only minor differences between transmission spectra for atmospheres with temperature inversions and those without. Compared to 1D models, peak line strengths are significantly reduced for the hottest atmospheres owing to Doppler broadening from a combination of rotation (which is faster for close-in planets under the assumption of tidal locking) and atmospheric winds. Finally, high resolution transmission spectra may be useful in studying the atmospheres of exoplanets with optically thick clouds since line cores for very strong transitions should remain optically thick to very high altitude. High resolution transmission spectra are an excellent observational test for the validity of 3D atmospheric dynamics models, because they provide a direct probe of wind structures and heat circulation. Ground-based exoplanet spectroscopy is currently on the verge of being able to verify some of our modeling predictions, most notably the dependence of SSAS winds on insolation. We caution that interpretation of high resolution transmission spectra based on 1D atmospheric models may be inadequate, as 3D atmospheric motions can produce a noticeable effect on the absorption signatures.

  16. High-resolution bed topography mapping of Russell Glacier, Greenland, inferred from Operation IceBridge data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2013-01-01

    High-resolution bed topography mapping of Russell Glacier,for generalizing topography to grids while preservingRasmussen LA (1988) Bed topography and mass-balance

  17. Preliminary High-Resolution Time-Lines Through the Cenomanian-Turonian (Late Cretaceous) Oceanic Anoxic Event (OAE 2)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Keller, Allison Lynn

    2015-01-01

    of west-central Jordan: stratigraphy and crises. Cretaceousand Schlanger, S.O. (1990). Stratigraphy, geochemistry, andF. (2006). High-resolution stratigraphy of the Cenomanian-

  18. Data Driven Approach for High Resolution Population Distribution and Dynamics Models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bhaduri, Budhendra L; Bright, Eddie A; Rose, Amy N; Liu, Cheng; Urban, Marie L; Stewart, Robert N

    2014-01-01

    High resolution population distribution data are vital for successfully addressing critical issues ranging from energy and socio-environmental research to public health to human security. Commonly available population data from Census is constrained both in space and time and does not capture population dynamics as functions of space and time. This imposes a significant limitation on the fidelity of event-based simulation models with sensitive space-time resolution. This paper describes ongoing development of high-resolution population distribution and dynamics models, at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, through spatial data integration and modeling with behavioral or activity-based mobility datasets for representing temporal dynamics of population. The model is resolved at 1 km resolution globally and describes the U.S. population for nighttime and daytime at 90m. Integration of such population data provides the opportunity to develop simulations and applications in critical infrastructure management from local to global scales.

  19. Differential high-resolution stimulated CW Raman spectroscopy of hydrogen in a hollow-core fiber

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Westergaard, Philip G; Petersen, Jan C

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate sensitive high-resolution stimulated Raman measurements of hydrogen using a hollow-core photonic crystal fiber (HC-PCF). The Raman transition is pumped by a narrow linewidth (laser. The probe light is produced by a homebuilt CW optical parametric oscillator (OPO), tunable from around 800 nm to 1300 nm (linewidth ~ 5 MHz). These narrow linewidth lasers allow for an excellent spectral resolution of approximately 10^-4 cm^(-1). The setup employs a differential measurement technique for noise rejection in the probe beam, which also eliminates background signals from the fiber. With the high sensitivity obtained, Raman signals were observed with only a few mW of optical power in both the pump and probe beams. This demonstration allows for high resolution Raman identification of molecules and quantification of Raman signal strengths.

  20. Gas-Phase Molecular Dynamics: High Resolution Spectroscopy and Collision Dynamics of Transient Species

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hall G. E.; Goncharov, V.

    2012-05-29

    This research is carried out as part of the Gas-Phase Molecular Dynamics program in the Chemistry Department at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Chemical intermediates in the elementary gas-phase reactions involved in combustion chemistry are investigated by high resolution spectroscopic tools. Production, reaction, and energy transfer processes are investigated by transient, double resonance, polarization and saturation spectroscopies, with an emphasis on technique development and connection with theory, as well as specific molecular properties.

  1. Gas-Phase Molecular Dynamics: High Resolution Spectroscopy and Collision Dynamics of Transient Species

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hall,G.E.; Sears, T.J.

    2009-04-03

    This research is carried out as part of the Gas-Phase Molecular Dynamics program in the Chemistry Department at Brookhaven National Laboratory. High-resolution spectroscopy, augmented by theoretical and computational methods, is used to investigate the structure and collision dynamics of chemical intermediates in the elementary gas-phase reactions involved in combustion chemistry. Applications and methods development are equally important experimental components of this work.

  2. Gas-Phase Molecular Dynamics: High Resolution Spectroscopy and Collision Dynamics of Transient Species

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hall, G.E.

    2011-05-31

    This research is carried out as part of the Gas-Phase Molecular Dynamics program in the Chemistry Department at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Chemical intermediates in the elementary gas-phase reactions involved in combustion chemistry are investigated by high resolution spectroscopic tools. Production, reaction, and energy transfer processes are investigated by transient, double resonance, polarization and saturation spectroscopies, with an emphasis on technique development and connection with theory, as well as specific molecular properties.

  3. LandScan 2014 High-Resolution Global Population Data Set

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2015-01-01

    The LandScan data set is a worldwide population database compiled on a 30" X 30" latitude/longitude grid. Census counts (at sub-national level) were apportioned to each grid cell based on likelihood coefficients, which are based on land cover, slope, road proximity, high-resolution imagery, and other data sets. The LandScan data set was developed as part of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Global Population Project for estimating ambient populations at risk.

  4. A High-resolution Spectrum of the R CrB Star V2552 Ophiuchi

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    N. Kameswara Rao; David L. Lambert

    2003-08-25

    Photometry and low-resolution spectroscopy have added V2552 Oph to the rare class of R Coronae Borealis variables. We confirm this classification of V2552 Oph through a comparison of our high-resolution optical spectrum of this star and that of R CrB and other F-type members of the class. We show that V2552 Oph most closely resembles Y Mus and FH Sct, stars in which Sr, Y, and Zr are enhanced.

  5. The incorporation of high resolution climatological data into environmental tactical decision aids.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hummel, J. R.; Campbell, A. P.; Kehrer, M. L.; Lurie, G. R.; Simunich, K. L.

    1999-09-23

    The environment can significantly impact the performance of weapons systems and how they are used in a theater of operations. A tool has been developed by the US Army Research Laboratory (ARL) to enable operators to assess the impact of environmental factors on the performance of military systems, subsystems, and components. The ARL system, the Integrated Weather Effects Decision Aid (IWEDA) takes weather and environmental data and compares them to a set of rules that relate environmental parameters to weapons system performance. The results from the IWEDA system can enable operators to identify regions and time periods when weapons system performance may be marginal or unfavorable. The Department of Defense (DOD) Air and Space Natural Environment (ASNE) Executive Agents have developed a program, the Advanced Climate Modeling and Environmental Simulations (ACMES), to produce high resolution gridded data for use in generating high resolution climate statistics from simulated weather observations at any desired location around the world. It is intended that data from the ACMES effort could be used by commanders to assess the environmental effects on operations. This paper describes an effort to use data generated from ACMES to drive the IWEDA rules on system performance. The results from this effort are high resolution, gridded values of weapons performance statistics that can be used to support the mission planning cycle.

  6. Towards Direct Simulation of Future Tropical Cyclone Statistics in a High-Resolution Global Atmospheric Model

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wehner, Michael F.; Bala, G.; Duffy, Phillip; Mirin, Arthur A.; Romano, Raquel

    2010-01-01

    We present a set of high-resolution global atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM) simulations focusing on the model's ability to represent tropical storms and their statistics. We find that the model produces storms of hurricane strength with realistic dynamical features. We also find that tropical storm statistics are reasonable, both globally and in the north Atlantic, when compared to recent observations. The sensitivity of simulated tropical storm statistics to increases in sea surface temperature (SST) is also investigated, revealing that a credible late 21st century SST increase produced increases in simulated tropical storm numbers and intensities in all ocean basins. Whilemore »this paper supports previous high-resolution model and theoretical findings that the frequency of very intense storms will increase in a warmer climate, it differs notably from previous medium and high-resolution model studies that show a global reduction in total tropical storm frequency. However, we are quick to point out that this particular model finding remains speculative due to a lack of radiative forcing changes in our time-slice experiments as well as a focus on the Northern hemisphere tropical storm seasons.« less

  7. High-resolution, low-dose phase contrast X-ray tomography for 3D diagnosis of human breast cancers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miao, Jianwei "John"

    High-resolution, low-dose phase contrast X-ray tomography for 3D diagnosis of human breast cancers% of biopsied lesions are malignant. Here we report a high-resolution, low-dose phase contrast X-ray tomographic dimensions and identified a malignant cancer with a pixel size of 92 m and a radiation dose less than

  8. HIGH-RESOLUTION X-RAY SPECTROSCOPY REVEALS THE SPECIAL NATURE OF WOLF-RAYET STAR WINDS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oskinova, L. M.

    We present the first high-resolution X-ray spectrum of a putatively single Wolf-Rayet (WR) star. 400 ks observations of WR 6 by the XMM-Newton telescope resulted in a superb quality high-resolution X-ray spectrum. Spectral ...

  9. Lake Geneva Holocene delta seismic stratigraphy S11 High-resolution seismic stratigraphy of an Holocene lacustrine delta in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilli, Adrian

    Lake Geneva Holocene delta seismic stratigraphy S11 High-resolution seismic stratigraphy stratigraphy, slope instability, gas blanking, 3-D model. Mots-clés: delta lacustre, Lac Léman, Holocčne, stratigraphie sismique, instabilité de pente, zone sourde, modčle 3-D. ABSTRACT A high-resolution seismic survey

  10. Subsurface Tech Team | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Subsurface Tech Team Subsurface Tech Team Subsurface Tech Team Energy sources originating from beneath the Earth's surface satisfy over 80% of total U.S. energy needs. Finding and...

  11. Containment of subsurface contaminants

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Corey, J.C.

    1994-09-06

    A barrier is disclosed for reducing the spread of a plume of subsurface contaminants. The apparatus includes a well system for injecting a fluid, such as air, just outside and below the periphery of the plume. The fluid is injected at a pressure sufficient to lower the hydraulic conductivity of the soil from the point of injection to the surface thus establishing a curtain-like barrier to groundwater movement. The barrier is established upgradient of the plume to divert groundwater away, or preferably completely around the plume to reduce the flow of groundwater into or out of the plume. The barrier enables the remediation of the confined contamination and then, when the injection of the fluid is halted, the barrier quickly dissipates. 5 figs.

  12. Containment of subsurface contaminants

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Corey, John C. (Aiken, SC)

    1994-01-01

    A barrier for reducing the spread of a plume of subsurface contaminants. The apparatus includes a well system for injecting a fluid, such as air, just outside and below the periphery of the plume. The fluid is injected at a pressure sufficient to lower the hydraulic conductivity of the soil from the point of injection to the surface thus establishing a curtain-like barrier to groundwater movement. The barrier is established upgradient of the plume to divert groundwater away, or preferably completely around the plume to reduce the flow of groundwater into or out of the plume. The barrier enables the remediation of the confined contamination and then, when the injection of the fluid is halted, the barrier quickly dissipates.

  13. Poster on Subsurface Technology & Engineering Research, Development...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Poster on Subsurface Technology & Engineering Research, Development, and Demonstration Crosscut (SubTER) Poster on Subsurface Technology & Engineering Research, Development, and...

  14. The upper Bay of Bengal salinity structure in a high-resolution model Rachid Benshila a,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ,e , Gurvan Madec a a LOCEAN/IPSL, UPMC/CNRS/IRD/MNHN, Paris, France b LEGOS, IRD/CNRS/CNES/UPS, Toulouse found at the surface in the Northern part of the basin, and saltier waters at subsurface as well

  15. Subsurface Facility System Description Document

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eric Loros

    2001-07-31

    The Subsurface Facility System encompasses the location, arrangement, size, and spacing of the underground openings. This subsurface system includes accesses, alcoves, and drifts. This system provides access to the underground, provides for the emplacement of waste packages, provides openings to allow safe and secure work conditions, and interfaces with the natural barrier. This system includes what is now the Exploratory Studies Facility. The Subsurface Facility System physical location and general arrangement help support the long-term waste isolation objectives of the repository. The Subsurface Facility System locates the repository openings away from main traces of major faults, away from exposure to erosion, above the probable maximum flood elevation, and above the water table. The general arrangement, size, and spacing of the emplacement drifts support disposal of the entire inventory of waste packages based on the emplacement strategy. The Subsurface Facility System provides access ramps to safely facilitate development and emplacement operations. The Subsurface Facility System supports the development and emplacement operations by providing subsurface space for such systems as ventilation, utilities, safety, monitoring, and transportation.

  16. Optimal joule heating of the subsurface

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berryman, J.G.; Daily, W.D.

    1994-07-05

    A method for simultaneously heating the subsurface and imaging the effects of the heating is disclosed. This method combines the use of tomographic imaging (electrical resistance tomography or ERT) to image electrical resistivity distribution underground, with joule heating by electrical currents injected in the ground. A potential distribution is established on a series of buried electrodes resulting in energy deposition underground which is a function of the resistivity and injection current density. Measurement of the voltages and currents also permits a tomographic reconstruction of the resistivity distribution. Using this tomographic information, the current injection pattern on the driving electrodes can be adjusted to change the current density distribution and thus optimize the heating. As the heating changes conditions, the applied current pattern can be repeatedly adjusted (based on updated resistivity tomographs) to affect real time control of the heating.

  17. Optimal joule heating of the subsurface

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berryman, James G. (Danville, CA); Daily, William D. (Livermore, CA)

    1994-01-01

    A method for simultaneously heating the subsurface and imaging the effects of the heating. This method combines the use of tomographic imaging (electrical resistance tomography or ERT) to image electrical resistivity distribution underground, with joule heating by electrical currents injected in the ground. A potential distribution is established on a series of buried electrodes resulting in energy deposition underground which is a function of the resistivity and injection current density. Measurement of the voltages and currents also permits a tomographic reconstruction of the resistivity distribution. Using this tomographic information, the current injection pattern on the driving electrodes can be adjusted to change the current density distribution and thus optimize the heating. As the heating changes conditions, the applied current pattern can be repeatedly adjusted (based on updated resistivity tomographs) to affect real time control of the heating.

  18. Combining Weather Data for a Dataset Sufficient for Generating High-Resolution Weather Prediction Models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fox, Jared B.; Ghan, Steven J.

    2004-03-01

    Assessments of the effects of climate change typically require information at scales of 10 km or less. In regions with complex terrain, much of the spatial variability in climate (temperature, precipitation, and snow water) occurs on scales below 10 km. Since the typical global climate model simulations grid size is more than 200 km, it is necessary to develop models with much higher resolution. Unfortunately, no datasets currently produced are both highly accurate and provide data at a sufficiently high resolution. As a result, current global climate models are forced to ignore the important climate variations that occur below the 200 km scale. This predicament prompted the creation of a global hybrid dataset with information for precipitation, temperature, and relative humidity. The resulting dataset illustrated the importance of having high-resolution datasets and gives clear proof that regions with complex terrain require a fine resolution grid to give an accurate represent at ion of their climatology. For example, the Andes Mountains in Chile cause a temperature shift of more than 25C within the same area as a single 2.5 grid cell from the NCEP dataset. Fortunately the CRU, U.D., GPCP, and NCEP datasets, when hybridized, are able to provide both precision and satisfactory resolution with global coverage. This composite will enable the development of both high-resolution models and quality empirical downscaling methods--both of which are necessary for scientists to more accurately predict the effects of global climate change. Without accurate long-term forecasts, climatologists and policy makers will not have the tools they need to effectively reduce the negative effects human activity have on the earth.

  19. Crosscutting Subsurface Initiative: Adaptive Control of Subsurface Fractures

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The subsurface provides most of the world’s energy and offers great potential for CO2, nuclear waste, and energy storage.  Despite decades of research and recent successes in new extraction methods...

  20. High-resolution inverse Raman and resonant-wave-mixing spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rahn, L.A. [Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA (United States)

    1993-12-01

    These research activities consist of high-resolution inverse Raman spectroscopy (IRS) and resonant wave-mixing spectroscopy to support the development of nonlinear-optical techniques for temperature and concentration measurements in combustion research. Objectives of this work include development of spectral models of important molecular species needed to perform coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) measurements and the investigation of new nonlinear-optical processes as potential diagnostic techniques. Some of the techniques being investigated include frequency-degenerate and nearly frequency-degenerate resonant four-wave-mixing (DFWM and NDFWM), and resonant multi-wave mixing (RMWM).

  1. High-resolution spectroscopic probes of collisions and half-collisions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hall, G.E. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States)

    1993-12-01

    Research in this program explores the dynamics of gas phase collisions and photodissociation by high-resolution laser spectroscopy. Simultaneous state and velocity detection frequently permits a determination of scalar or vector correlations among products. The correlated product distributions are always more informative, and often easier to interpret than the uncorrelated product state distributions. The authors have recently built an apparatus to record transient absorption spectra with 50 nS time resolution and 20 MHz frequency resolution using a single frequency Ti:sapphire laser. The photodissociation of NCCN and C{sub 2}H{sub 5}SCN at 193 nm is discussed.

  2. High-resolution electron-ion coincidence spectroscopy of ethanol in intense laser fields

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hatamoto, T.; Pruemper, G.; Okunishi, M.; Ueda, K.; Mathur, D.

    2007-06-15

    High-resolution electron-ion coincidence spectroscopy is used to (i) map correlations between electrons and ions from atomlike ionization of ethanol by intense 400 and 800 nm light pulses and (ii) disentangle the effects of dissociative multiphoton (MPI) and tunneling (TI) ionization. Electron spectra correlated with C{sup n+} (n=1,2,3) exhibit a continuum structure with a high-energy tail due to inelastic collisions involving rescattered electrons following TI, while those correlated with C{sub 2}H{sub n}O{sup +} have structure characteristic of MPI and above-threshold ionization.

  3. Development of a compact high-resolution RBS system for monolayer analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kimura, K.; Kimura, M.; Mori, Y.; Maehara, M.; Fukuyama, H. [Department of Engineering Physics and Mechanics, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan); Engineering and Machinery Division, Kobe Steel Ltd. 2-3-1 Niihama, Arai-chou, Takasago, Hyogo 676-8670 (Japan)

    1999-06-10

    A compact high-resolution RBS system consisting of a 90 degree sign sector magnetic spectrometer and a 500 kV accelerator is developed. Energy resolution of the spectrometer is designed to be 0.1% at an acceptance angle of 0.4 msr in an energy range of 27%. The dimensions of the full system are 3.8 m (L)x2.8 m (W)x2.35 m (H) including the accelerator. The system is shown to be capable for monolayer analysis as was designed.

  4. High-resolution methods for preserving the sum of mass fractions: improved ?-scheme and an alternative

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Syamlal, Madhava; Benyahia, Sofiane

    2013-11-20

    When high resolution convection schemes are used for discretizing chemical species mass balance equations, the mass fractions are not guaranteed to add to one. We show that a proposed remedy called ?-scheme (Darwish and Moukalled, Comput.Methods Appl.Mech. Engrg. 192 (2003): 1711) will degrade to a diffusive first-order scheme when a chemical species vanishes from the mixture, for example, because of chemical reactions. We propose an improvement to the ?-scheme to overcome this problem. Furthermore, a computationally efficient alternative scheme is proposed and evaluated with several examples, to quantify the improvements in the accuracy and the computational time.

  5. High-resolution kaonic-atom x-ray spectroscopy with transition-edge-sensor microcalorimeters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. Okada; D. A. Bennett; W. B. Doriese; J. W. Fowler; K. D. Irwin; S. Ishimoto; M. Sato; D. R. Schmidt; D. S. Swetz; H. Tatsuno; J. N. Ullom; S. Yamada

    2014-02-19

    We are preparing for an ultra-high resolution x-ray spectroscopy of kaonic atoms using an x-ray spectrometer based on an array of superconducting transition-edge-sensor microcalorimeters developed by NIST. The instrument has excellent energy resolutions of 2 - 3 eV (FWHM) at 6 keV and a large collecting area of about 20 mm^2. This will open new door to investigate kaon-nucleus strong interaction and provide new accurate charged-kaon mass value.

  6. High-resolution kaonic-atom x-ray spectroscopy with transition-edge-sensor microcalorimeters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Okada, S; Doriese, W B; Fowler, J W; Irwin, K D; Ishimoto, S; Sato, M; Schmidt, D R; Swetz, D S; Tatsuno, H; Ullom, J N; Yamada, S

    2014-01-01

    We are preparing for an ultra-high resolution x-ray spectroscopy of kaonic atoms using an x-ray spectrometer based on an array of superconducting transition-edge-sensor microcalorimeters developed by NIST. The instrument has excellent energy resolutions of 2 - 3 eV (FWHM) at 6 keV and a large collecting area of about 20 mm^2. This will open new door to investigate kaon-nucleus strong interaction and provide new accurate charged-kaon mass value.

  7. High-Resolution Spectroscopy with the Chandra X-ray Observatory

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Canizares, Claude R. [MIT, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States

    2010-01-08

    The capabilities of the Chandra X-ray Observatory and XMM-Newton for high-resolution spectroscopy have brought tradition plasma diagnostic techniques to the study of cosmic plasma. Observations have probed nearly every class of astronomical object, from young proto-starts through massive O starts and black hole binaries, supernova remnants, active galactic nuclei, and the intergalactic medium. Many of these sources show remarkable rich spectra that reveal new physical information, such as emission measure distributions, elemental abundances, accretion disk and wind signatures, and time variability. This talk will present an overview of the Chandra instrumentaton and selected examples of spectral observations of astrophysical and cosmological importance.

  8. High Resolution Optically Addressed Spatial Light Modulator based on ZnO Nanoparticles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shrestha, Pawan Kumar; Chun, Young Tea; Chu, Daping

    2015-03-15

    diffusion in the photoconductor layer and the fringing electric field profile in the liquid crystal (LC) layer. Traditionally, a- Si:H materials were used as photosensors in photoconductor or pho- todiode configurations.1–7 Fukushima et al.1,2 demonstrated... Schiff Studentship. 1 Fukushima S, Kurokawa T, Ohno M. Real-time hologram construction and reconstruction using a high-resolution spatial light modulator. Appl Phys Lett 1991; 58: 787–789. 2 Wen L, Rice RA, Moddel G, Pagano-Stauffer LA, Handschy MA...

  9. Three Dimensional Molecular Imaging for Lignocellulosic Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bohn, Paul W.; Sweedler, Jonathan V.

    2011-06-09

    The development of high efficiency, inexpensive processing protocols to render biomass components into fermentable substrates for the sequential processing of cell wall components into fuels and important feedstocks for the biorefinery of the future is a key goal of the national roadmap for renewable energy. Furthermore, the development of such protocols depends critically on detailed knowledge of the spatial and temporal infiltration of reagents designed to remove and separate the phenylpropenoid heteropolymer (lignin) from the processable sugar components sequestered in the rigid cell walls of plants. A detailed chemical and structural understanding of this pre-enzymatic processing in space and time was the focus of this program. We worked to develop new imaging strategies that produce real-time molecular speciation information in situ; extract sub-surface information about the effects of processing; and follow the spatial and temporal characteristics of the molecular species in the matrix and correlate this complex profile with saccharification. Spatially correlated SIMS and Raman imaging were used to provide high quality, high resolution subcellular images of Miscanthus cross sections. Furthermore, the combination of information from the mass spectrometry and Raman scattering allows specific chemical assignments of observed structures, difficult to assign from either imaging approach alone and lays the foundation for subsequent heterocorrelated imaging experiments targeted at more challenging biological systems, such as the interacting plant-microbe systems relevant to the rhizosphere.

  10. Maintaining Subsurface Drip Irrigation Systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Enciso, Juan; Porter, Dana; Bordovsky, Jim; Fipps, Guy

    2004-09-07

    A subsurface drip irrigation system should last more than 20 years if properly maintained. Important maintenance procedures include cleaning the filters, flushing the lines, adding chlorine and injecting acids. Details of these procedures...

  11. High-Resolution Structure of the Photosynthetic Mn4Ca Catalyst from X-ray Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yachandra, Vittal; Yano, Junko; Kern, Jan; Pushkar, Yulia; Sauer, Kenneth; Glatzel, Pieter; Bergmann, Uwe; Messinger, Johannes; Zouni, Athina; Yachandra, Vittal K.

    2007-08-01

    The application of high-resolution X-ray spectroscopy methods to study the photosynthetic water oxidizing complex, which contains a unique hetero-nuclear catalytic Mn4Ca cluster, are described. Issues of X-ray damage especially at the metal sites in the Mn4Ca cluster are discussed. The structure of the Mn4Ca catalyst at high-resolution which has so far eluded attempts of determination by X-ray diffraction, EXAFS and other spectroscopic techniques has been addressed using polarized EXAFS techniques applied to oriented PS II membrane preparations and PS II single crystals. A review of how the resolution of traditional EXAFS techniques can be improved, using methods such as range-extended EXAFS is presented, and the changes that occur in the structure of the cluster as it advances through the catalytic cycle are described. X-ray absorption and emission techniques (XANES and K? emission) have been used earlier to determine the oxidation states of the Mn4Ca cluster, and in this report we review the use of X-ray resonant Raman spectroscopy to understand the electronic structure of the Mn4Ca cluster as it cycles through the intermediate S-states.

  12. Multispectral Imaging At Long Valley Caldera Geothermal Area...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    in the western US with recently developed high resolution hyperspectral geobotanical remote sensing tools. The proposed imaging systems have the ability to map visible faults,...

  13. High-resolution local gravity model of the south pole of the Moon from GRAIL extended mission data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goossens, Sander

    We estimated a high-resolution local gravity field model over the south pole of the Moon using data from the Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory's extended mission. Our solution consists of adjustments with respect ...

  14. High Resolution Quantitative Auto-Radiography to determine microscopic distributions of B-10 in neutron capture therapy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harris, Thomas C. (Thomas Cameron)

    2006-01-01

    The success of Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) is heavily dependent on the microscopic distribution of B-10 in tissue. High Resolution Quantitative Auto-Radiography (HRQAR) is a potentially valuable analytical tool ...

  15. GEOLOGY | Volume 43 | Number 9 | www.gsapubs.org 1 High-resolution paleoecological records from Lake Malawi show no

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    GEOLOGY | Volume 43 | Number 9 | www.gsapubs.org 1 High-resolution paleoecological records from assemblages and sediment loading. Here we present the first paleoecological evidence from East Africa

  16. Evaluation of a low-cost and accurate ocean temperature logger on subsurface mooring systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tian, Chuan; Deng, Zhiqun; Lu, Jun; Xu, Xiaoyang; Zhao, Wei; Xu, Ming

    2014-06-23

    Monitoring seawater temperature is important to understanding evolving ocean processes. To monitor internal waves or ocean mixing, a large number of temperature loggers are typically mounted on subsurface mooring systems to obtain high-resolution temperature data at different water depths. In this study, we redesigned and evaluated a compact, low-cost, self-contained, high-resolution and high-accuracy ocean temperature logger, TC-1121. The newly designed TC-1121 loggers are smaller, more robust, and their sampling intervals can be automatically changed by indicated events. They have been widely used in many mooring systems to study internal wave and ocean mixing. The logger’s fundamental design, noise analysis, calibration, drift test, and a long-term sea trial are discussed in this paper.

  17. Fast history matching of time-lapse seismic and production data for high resolution models 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jimenez, Eduardo Antonio

    2008-10-10

    monitoring fluid movements throughout the reservoir. 4D seismic advances are also being driven by an increased need by the petroleum engineering community to become more quantitative and accurate in our ability to monitor reservoir processes. Qualitative... interpretations of time-lapse anomalies are being replaced by quantitative inversions of 4D seismic data to produce accurate maps of fluid saturations, pore pressure, temperature, among others. Within all steps involved in this subsurface modeling process...

  18. Development of a lab-scale, high-resolution, tube-generated X-ray computed-tomography system for three-dimensional (3D) materials characterization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mertens, J.C.E. Williams, J.J. Chawla, Nikhilesh

    2014-06-01

    The design and construction of a modular high resolution X-ray computed tomography (XCT) system is highlighted in this paper. The design approach is detailed for meeting a specified set of instrument performance goals tailored towards experimental versatility and high resolution imaging. The XCT tool is unique in the detector and X-ray source design configuration, enabling control in the balance between detection efficiency and spatial resolution. The system package is also unique: The sample manipulation approach implemented enables a wide gamut of in situ experimentation to analyze structure evolution under applied stimulus, by optimizing scan conditions through a high degree of controllability. The component selection and design process is detailed: Incorporated components are specified, custom designs are shared, and the approach for their integration into a fully functional XCT scanner is provided. Custom designs discussed include the dual-target X-ray source cradle which maintains position and trajectory of the beam between the two X-ray target configurations with respect to a scintillator mounting and positioning assembly and the imaging sensor, as well as a novel large-format X-ray detector with enhanced adaptability. The instrument is discussed from an operational point of view, including the details of data acquisition and processing implemented for 3D imaging via micro-CT. The performance of the instrument is demonstrated on a silica-glass particle/hydroxyl-terminated-polybutadiene (HTPB) matrix binder PBX simulant. Post-scan data processing, specifically segmentation of the sample's relevant microstructure from the 3D reconstruction, is provided to demonstrate the utility of the instrument. - Highlights: • Custom built X-ray tomography system for microstructural characterization • Detector design for maximizing polychromatic X-ray detection efficiency • X-ray design offered for maximizing X-ray flux with respect to imaging resolution • Novel lab-scale XCT data acquisition and data processing methods • 3D characterization of glass-bead mock plastic-bonded-explosive stimulant.

  19. Exploring the Earth’s subsurface with virtual seismic sources and receivers 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nicolson, Heather Johan

    2011-11-24

    Traditional methods of imaging the Earth’s subsurface using seismic waves require an identifiable, impulsive source of seismic energy, for example an earthquake or explosive source. Naturally occurring, ambient seismic waves form an ever...

  20. High-resolution HLA-A, HLA-B, and HLA-DRB1 haplotype frequencies from the French Bone Marrow Donor Registry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2015-01-01

    polymorphism; real time PCR. HRM Corresponding Author: Mr.using High Resolution Melt (HRM) soft ware (1.7 version).

  1. Applying high resolution SyXRD analysis on sulfate attacked concrete field samples

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stroh, J.; Schlegel, M.-C.; Irassar, E.F.; Meng, B.; Emmerling, F.

    2014-12-15

    High resolution synchrotron X-ray diffraction (SyXRD) was applied for a microstructural profile analysis of concrete deterioration after sulfate attack. The cement matrices consist of ordinary Portland cement and different amounts of supplementary cementitious materials, such as fly ash, natural pozzolana and granulated blast furnace slag. The changes of the phase composition were determined along the direction of sulfate ingress. This approach allows the identification of reaction fronts and zones of different phase compositions and conclusions about the mechanisms of sulfate attack. Two reaction fronts were localized in the initial 4 mm from the sample surface. The mechanism of deterioration caused by the exposition in the sulfate-bearing soil is discussed. SyXRD is shown to be a reliable method for investigation of cementitious materials with aggregates embedded in natural environments.

  2. A High-resolution TOF Detector _ A Possible Way to Compete with a RICH Detector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Va'vra, J; /SLAC; Ertley, C.; /Argonne; Leith, D.W.G.S.; Ratcliff, B.; Schwiening, J.; /SLAC

    2008-07-25

    Using two identical 64-pixel Burle/Photonis MCP-PMTs to provide start and stop signals, they have achieved a timing resolution of {sigma}{sub Single{_}detector} {approx} 7.2 ps for N{sub pe} {approx} 50 photoelectrons (N{sub pe}) with a laser diode providing a 1 mm spot on the MCP window. The limiting resolution achieved was {sigma}{sub Single{_}detector} {approx} 5.0 ps for N{sub pe} {approx} 180, for which they estimate the MCP-PMT contribution of {sigma}{sub MCP-PMT} {approx} 4.5 ps. The electronics contribution is estimated as {sigma}{sub Electrons} = 3.42 ps. These results suggest that an ultra-high resolution TOF detector may become a reality at future experiments one day.

  3. High resolution transmission electron microscopic in-situ observations of plastic deformation of compressed nanocrystalline gold

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Guoyong; Lian, Jianshe; Jiang, Qing; Sun, Sheng; Zhang, Tong-Yi

    2014-09-14

    Nanocrystalline (nc) metals possess extremely high strength, while their capability to deform plastically has been debated for decades. Low ductility has hitherto been considered an intrinsic behavior for most nc metals, due to the lack of five independent slip systems actively operating during deformation in each nanograin. Here we report in situ high resolution transmission electron microscopic (HRTEM) observations of deformation process of nc gold under compression, showing the excellent ductility of individual and aggregate nanograins. Compression causes permanent change in the profile of individual nanograins, which is mediated by dislocation slip and grain rotation. The high rate of grain boundary sliding and large extent of widely exited grain rotation may meet the boundary compatibility requirements during plastic deformation. The in situ HRTEM observations suggest that nc gold is not intrinsically brittle under compressive loading.

  4. High-resolution metagenomics targets major functional types in complex microbial communities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kalyuzhnaya, Marina G.; Lapidus, Alla; Ivanova, Natalia; Copeland, Alex C.; McHardy, Alice C.; Szeto, Ernest; Salamov, Asaf; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Suciu, Dominic; Levine, Samuel R.; Markowitz, Victor M.; Rigoutsos, Isidore; Tringe, Susannah G.; Bruce, David C.; Richardson, Paul M.; Lidstrom, Mary E.; Chistoserdova, Ludmila

    2009-08-01

    Most microbes in the biosphere remain uncultured and unknown. Whole genome shotgun (WGS) sequencing of environmental DNA (metagenomics) allows glimpses into genetic and metabolic potentials of natural microbial communities. However, in communities of high complexity metagenomics fail to link specific microbes to specific ecological functions. To overcome this limitation, we selectively targeted populations involved in oxidizing single-carbon (C{sub 1}) compounds in Lake Washington (Seattle, USA) by labeling their DNA via stable isotope probing (SIP), followed by WGS sequencing. Metagenome analysis demonstrated specific sequence enrichments in response to different C{sub 1} substrates, highlighting ecological roles of individual phylotypes. We further demonstrated the utility of our approach by extracting a nearly complete genome of a novel methylotroph Methylotenera mobilis, reconstructing its metabolism and conducting genome-wide analyses. This approach allowing high-resolution genomic analysis of ecologically relevant species has the potential to be applied to a wide variety of ecosystems.

  5. High-resolution IR absorption spectroscopy of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: the realm of anharmonicity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maltseva, Elena; Candian, Alessandra; Mackie, Cameron J; Huang, Xinchuan; Lee, Timothy J; Tielens, Alexander G G M; Oomens, Jos; Buma, Wybren Jan

    2015-01-01

    We report on an experimental and theoretical investigation of the importance of anharmonicity in the 3 micron CH stretching region of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) molecules. We present mass-resolved, high-resolution spectra of the gas-phase cold (~4K) linear PAH molecules naphthalene, anthracene, and tetracene. The measured IR spectra show a surprisingly high number of strong vibrational bands. For naphthalene, the observed bands are well separated and limited by the rotational contour, revealing the band symmetries. Comparisons are made to the harmonic and anharmonic approaches of the widely used Gaussian software. We also present calculated spectra of these acenes using the computational program SPECTRO, providing anharmonic predictions enhanced with a Fermi-resonance treatment that utilises intensity redistribution. We demonstrate that the anharmonicity of the investigated acenes is strong, dominated by Fermi resonances between the fundamental and double combination modes, with triple combination ...

  6. High-resolution spectroscopy used to measure inertial confinement fusion neutron spectra on Omega (invited)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Forrest, C. J.; Radha, P. B.; Glebov, V. Yu.; Goncharov, V. N.; Knauer, J. P.; Pruyne, A.; Romanofsky, M.; Sangster, T. C.; Shoup, M. J. III; Stoeckl, C.; Casey, D. T.; Gatu-Johnson, M.; Gardner, S.

    2012-10-15

    The areal density ({rho}R) of cryogenic DT implosions on Omega is inferred by measuring the spectrum of neutrons that elastically scatter off the dense deuterium (D) and tritium (T) fuel. Neutron time-of-flight (nTOF) techniques are used to measure the energy spectrum with high resolution. High signal-to-background data has been recorded on cryogenic DT implosions using a well-collimated 13.4-m line of sight and an nTOF detector with an advanced liquid scintillator compound. An innovative method to analyze the elastically scattered neutron spectra was developed using well-known cross sections of the DT nuclear reactions. The estimated areal densities are consistent with alternative {rho}R measurements and 1-D simulations.

  7. HIGH RESOLUTION PREDICTION OF GAS INJECTION PROCESS PERFORMANCE FOR HETEROGENEOUS RESERVOIRS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Franklin M. Orr, Jr.

    2002-12-31

    This report outlines progress in the first quarter of the third year of the DOE project ''High Resolution Prediction of Gas Injection Process Performance for Heterogeneous Reservoirs''. In this report we present an application of compositional streamline simulation in modeling enhanced condensate recovery via gas injection. These processes are inherently compositional and detailed compositional fluid descriptions must be use to represent the flow behavior accurately. Compositional streamline simulation results are compared to those of conventional finite-difference (FD) simulation for evaluation of gas injection schemes in condensate reservoirs. We present and compare streamline and FD results for two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) examples, to show that the compositional streamline method is a way to obtain efficiently estimates of reasonable accuracy for condensate recovery by gas injection.

  8. High-resolution NMR spectroscopy of biological tissues usingprojected Magic Angle Spinning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martin, Rachel W.; Jachmann, Rebecca C.; Sakellariou, Dimitris; Nielsen, Ulla Gro; Pines, Alexander

    2005-01-27

    High-resolution NMR spectra of materials subject toanisotropic broadening are usually obtained by rotating the sample aboutthe magic angle, which is 54.7 degrees to the static magnetic field. Inprojected Magic Angle Spinning (p-MAS), the sample is spun about twoangles, neither of which is the magic angle. This provides a method ofobtaining isotropic spectra while spinning at shallow angles. The p-MASexperiment may be used in situations where spinning the sample at themagic angle is not possible due to geometric or other constraints,allowing the choice of spinning angle to be determined by factors such asthe shape of the sample, rather than by the spin physics. The applicationof this technique to bovine tissue samples is demonstrated as a proof ofprinciple for future biological or medical applications.

  9. Technique for continuous high-resolution analysis of trace substances in firn and ice cores

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roethlisberger, R.; Bigler, M.; Hutterli, M.; Sommer, S.; Stauffer, B.; Junghans, H.G.; Wagenbach, D.

    2000-01-15

    The very successful application of a CFA (Continuous flow analysis) system in the GRIP project (Greenland Ice Core Project) for high-resolution ammonium, calcium, hydrogen peroxide, and formaldehyde measurements along a deep ice core led to further development of this analysis technique. The authors included methods for continuous analysis technique. The authors included methods for continuous analysis of sodium, nitrate, sulfate, and electrolytical conductivity, while the existing methods have been improved. The melting device has been optimized to allow the simultaneous analysis of eight components. Furthermore, a new melter was developed for analyzing firn cores. The system has been used in the frame of the European Project for Ice Coring in Antarctica (EPICA) for in-situ analysis of several firn cores from Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica, and for the new ice core drilled at Dome C, Antarctica.

  10. Short range, ultra-wideband radar with high resolution swept range gate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McEwan, T.E.

    1998-05-26

    A radar range finder and hidden object locator is based on ultra-wide band radar with a high resolution swept range gate. The device generates an equivalent time amplitude scan with a typical range of 4 inches to 20 feet, and an analog range resolution as limited by a jitter of on the order of 0.01 inches. A differential sampling receiver is employed to effectively eliminate ringing and other aberrations induced in the receiver by the near proximity of the transmit antenna, so a background subtraction is not needed, simplifying the circuitry while improving performance. Uses of the invention include a replacement of ultrasound devices for fluid level sensing, automotive radar, such as cruise control and parking assistance, hidden object location, such as stud and rebar finding. Also, this technology can be used when positioned over a highway lane to collect vehicle count and speed data for traffic control. 14 figs.

  11. Short range, ultra-wideband radar with high resolution swept range gate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McEwan, Thomas E. (Livermore, CA)

    1998-05-26

    A radar range finder and hidden object locator is based on ultra-wide band radar with a high resolution swept range gate. The device generates an equivalent time amplitude scan with a typical range of 4 inches to 20 feet, and an analog range resolution as limited by a jitter of on the order of 0.01 inches. A differential sampling receiver is employed to effectively eliminate ringing and other aberrations induced in the receiver by the near proximity of the transmit antenna, so a background subtraction is not needed, simplifying the circuitry while improving performance. Uses of the invention include a replacement of ultrasound devices for fluid level sensing, automotive radar, such as cruise control and parking assistance, hidden object location, such as stud and rebar finding. Also, this technology can be used when positioned over a highway lane to collect vehicle count and speed data for traffic control.

  12. The road toward a full, high resolution Molecular Cloud catalog of the Galaxy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Colombo, Dario; Ginsburg, Adam; Duarte-Cabral, Ana; Hughes, Annie

    2015-01-01

    The statistical description of Giant Molecular Cloud (GMC) properties relies heavily on the performance of automatic identification algorithms, which are often seriously affected by the survey design. The algorithm we designed, SCIMES (Spectral Clustering for Interstellar Molecular Emission Segmentation), is able to overcome some of these limitations by considering the cloud segmentation problem in the broad framework of the graph theory. The application of the code on the CO(3-2) High Resolution Survey (COHRS) data allowed for a robust decomposition of more than 12,000 objects in the Galactic Plane. Together with the wealth of Galactic Plane surveys of the recent years, this approach will help to open the door to a future, systematic cataloging of all discrete molecular features of our own Galaxy.

  13. High resolution, shallow seismic reflection survey of the Pen Branch fault

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stieve, A.

    1991-05-15

    The purpose of this project, at the Savannah River River Site (SRS) was to acquire, process, and interpret 28 km (17.4 miles) of high resolution seismic reflection data taken across the trace of the Pen Branch fault and other suspected, intersecting north-south trending faults. The survey was optimized for the upper 300 ft of geologic strata in order to demonstrate the existence of very shallow, flat lying horizons, and to determine the depth of the fault or to sediments deformed by the fault. Field acquisition and processing parameters were selected to define small scale spatial variability and structural features in the vicinity of the Pen Branch fault leading to the definition and the location of the Pen Branch fault, the shallowest extent of the fault, and the quantification of the sense and magnitude of motion. Associated geophysical, borehole, and geologic data were incorporated into the investigation to assist in the determination of optimal parameters and aid in the interpretation.

  14. Subsurface Geotechnical Parameters Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D. Rigby; M. Mrugala; G. Shideler; T. Davidsavor; J. Leem; D. Buesch; Y. Sun; D. Potyondy; M. Christianson

    2003-12-17

    The Yucca Mountain Project is entering a the license application (LA) stage in its mission to develop the nation's first underground nuclear waste repository. After a number of years of gathering data related to site characterization, including activities ranging from laboratory and site investigations, to numerical modeling of processes associated with conditions to be encountered in the future repository, the Project is realigning its activities towards the License Application preparation. At the current stage, the major efforts are directed at translating the results of scientific investigations into sets of data needed to support the design, and to fulfill the licensing requirements and the repository design activities. This document addresses the program need to address specific technical questions so that an assessment can be made about the suitability and adequacy of data to license and construct a repository at the Yucca Mountain Site. In July 2002, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) published an Integrated Issue Resolution Status Report (NRC 2002). Included in this report were the Repository Design and Thermal-Mechanical Effects (RDTME) Key Technical Issues (KTI). Geotechnical agreements were formulated to resolve a number of KTI subissues, in particular, RDTME KTIs 3.04, 3.05, 3.07, and 3.19 relate to the physical, thermal and mechanical properties of the host rock (NRC 2002, pp. 2.1.1-28, 2.1.7-10 to 2.1.7-21, A-17, A-18, and A-20). The purpose of the Subsurface Geotechnical Parameters Report is to present an accounting of current geotechnical information that will help resolve KTI subissues and some other project needs. The report analyzes and summarizes available qualified geotechnical data. It evaluates the sufficiency and quality of existing data to support engineering design and performance assessment. In addition, the corroborative data obtained from tests performed by a number of research organizations is presented to reinforce conclusions derived from the pool of data gathered within a full QA-controlled domain. An evaluation of the completeness of the current data is provided with respect to the requirements for geotechnical data to support design and performance assessment.

  15. A HIGH-RESOLUTION ATLAS OF URANIUM-NEON IN THE H BAND

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Redman, Stephen L.; Terrien, Ryan; Mahadevan, Suvrath; Ramsey, Lawrence W.; Bender, Chad F. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Ycas, Gabriel G. [Department of Physics, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Osterman, Steven N. [Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Diddams, Scott A.; Quinlan, Franklyn [Time and Frequency Division, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, CO 80305 (United States); Lawler, James E. [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, 1150 University Avenue, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Nave, Gillian [Atomic Physics Division, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20899 (United States)

    2012-03-01

    We present a high-resolution (R Almost-Equal-To 50,000) atlas of a uranium-neon (U/Ne) hollow-cathode spectrum in the H band (1454-1638 nm) for the calibration of near-infrared spectrographs. We obtained this U/Ne spectrum simultaneously with a laser-frequency comb spectrum, which we used to provide a first-order calibration to the U/Ne spectrum. We then calibrated the U/Ne spectrum using the recently published uranium line list of Redman et al., which is derived from high-resolution Fourier transform spectrometer measurements. These two independent calibrations allowed us to easily identify emission lines in the hollow-cathode lamp that do not correspond to known (classified) lines of either uranium or neon, and to compare the achievable precision of each source. Our frequency comb precision was limited by modal noise and detector effects, while the U/Ne precision was limited primarily by the signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) of the observed emission lines and our ability to model blended lines. The standard deviation in the dispersion solution residuals from the S/N-limited U/Ne hollow-cathode lamp was 50% larger than the standard deviation of the dispersion solution residuals from the modal-noise-limited laser-frequency comb. We advocate the use of U/Ne lamps for precision calibration of near-infrared spectrographs, and this H-band atlas makes these lamps significantly easier to use for wavelength calibration.

  16. High-resolution structure of a retroviral protease folded as a monomer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gilski, Miroslaw [A. Mickiewicz University, 60-780 Poznan (Poland); Polish Academy of Sciences, 61-704 Poznan (Poland); Kazmierczyk, Maciej; Krzywda, Szymon [A. Mickiewicz University, 60-780 Poznan (Poland); Zábranská, Helena [Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, 166 10 Prague (Czech Republic); Cooper, Seth; Popovi?, Zoran [University of Washington, Box 352350, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Khatib, Firas; DiMaio, Frank; Thompson, James; Baker, David [University of Washington, Box 357350, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Pichová, Iva [Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, 166 10 Prague (Czech Republic); Jaskolski, Mariusz, E-mail: mariuszj@amu.edu.pl [A. Mickiewicz University, 60-780 Poznan (Poland); Polish Academy of Sciences, 61-704 Poznan (Poland)

    2011-11-01

    The crystal structure of Mason–Pfizer monkey virus protease folded as a monomer has been solved by molecular replacement using a model generated by players of the online game Foldit. The structure shows at high resolution the details of a retroviral protease folded as a monomer which can guide rational design of protease dimerization inhibitors as retroviral drugs. Mason–Pfizer monkey virus (M-PMV), a D-type retrovirus assembling in the cytoplasm, causes simian acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (SAIDS) in rhesus monkeys. Its pepsin-like aspartic protease (retropepsin) is an integral part of the expressed retroviral polyproteins. As in all retroviral life cycles, release and dimerization of the protease (PR) is strictly required for polyprotein processing and virion maturation. Biophysical and NMR studies have indicated that in the absence of substrates or inhibitors M-PMV PR should fold into a stable monomer, but the crystal structure of this protein could not be solved by molecular replacement despite countless attempts. Ultimately, a solution was obtained in mr-rosetta using a model constructed by players of the online protein-folding game Foldit. The structure indeed shows a monomeric protein, with the N- and C-termini completely disordered. On the other hand, the flap loop, which normally gates access to the active site of homodimeric retropepsins, is clearly traceable in the electron density. The flap has an unusual curled shape and a different orientation from both the open and closed states known from dimeric retropepsins. The overall fold of the protein follows the retropepsin canon, but the C{sup ?} deviations are large and the active-site ‘DTG’ loop (here NTG) deviates up to 2.7 Ĺ from the standard conformation. This structure of a monomeric retropepsin determined at high resolution (1.6 Ĺ) provides important extra information for the design of dimerization inhibitors that might be developed as drugs for the treatment of retroviral infections, including AIDS.

  17. Investigation of the Behavior of Ethylene Molecular Films Using High Resolution Adsorp

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barbour, Andi M [ORNL; Telling, Mark T. [ISIS Facility, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory; Larese, John Z [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    The wetting behavior of ethylene adsorbed on MgO(100) was investigated from 83-135 K using high resolution volumetric adsorption isotherms. The results are compared to ethylene adsorption on graphite, a prototype adsorption system, in an effort to gain further insight into the forces that drive the observed film growth. Layering transitions for ethylene on MgO(100) are observed below the bulk triple point of ethylene (T=104.0 K). The formation of three discrete adlayers is observed on the MgO(100) surface; onset of the second and third layers occurs at 79.2 ( 1.3 K and 98.3(0.9 K, respectively. Thermodynamic quantities such as differential enthalpy and entropy, heat of adsorption, and isosteric heat of adsorption are determined and compared to the previously published values for ethylene on graphite. The average area occupied by a ethylene molecule on MgO(100) is 22.6 ( 1.1A 2 molecule-1. The locations of two phase transitions are identified (i.e., layer critical temperatures at Tc2 (n=1) at 108.6 ( 1.7 K and Tc2 (n=2) at 116.5 ( 1.2 K) and a phase diagram is proposed. Preliminary neutron diffraction measurements reveal evidence of a monolayer solid with a lattice constant of 4.2A . High resolution INS measurements show that the onset to dynamical motion and monolayer melting take place at 35 K and 65 K, respectively. The data reported here exhibit a striking similarity to ethylene on graphite which suggests that molecule-molecule interactions play an important role in determining the physical properties and growth of molecularly thin ethylene films.

  18. High resolution x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy - a new technique for site- and spin-selectivity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Xin [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States). Dept. of Applied Science

    1996-12-01

    X-ray spectroscopy has long been used to elucidate electronic and structural information of molecules. One of the weaknesses of x-ray absorption is its sensitivity to all of the atoms of a particular element in a sample. Through out this thesis, a new technique for enhancing the site- and spin-selectivity of the x-ray absorption has been developed. By high resolution fluorescence detection, the chemical sensitivity of K emission spectra can be used to identify oxidation and spin states; it can also be used to facilitate site-selective X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure (XANES) and site-selective Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (EXAFS). The spin polarization in K fluorescence could be used to generate spin selective XANES or spin-polarized EXAFS, which provides a new measure of the spin density, or the nature of magnetic neighboring atoms. Finally, dramatic line-sharpening effects by the combination of absorption and emission processes allow observation of structure that is normally unobservable. All these unique characters can enormously simplify a complex x-ray spectrum. Applications of this novel technique have generated information from various transition-metal model compounds to metalloproteins. The absorption and emission spectra by high resolution fluorescence detection are interdependent. The ligand field multiplet model has been used for the analysis of K{alpha} and K{beta} emission spectra. First demonstration on different chemical states of Fe compounds has shown the applicability of site selectivity and spin polarization. Different interatomic distances of the same element in different chemical forms have been detected using site-selective EXAFS.

  19. Recent progress of avalanche photodiodes in high-resolution X-rays and Gamma-rays detection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. Kataoka; T. Saito; Y. Kuramoto; T. Ikagawa; Y. Yatsu; J. Kotoku; M. Arimoto; N. Kawai; Y. Ishikawa; N. Kawabata

    2006-02-17

    We have studied the performance of large area avalanche photodiodes (APDs) recently developed by Hamamatsu Photonics K.K, in high-resolution X-rays and Gamma-rays detections. We show that reach-through APD can be an excellent soft X-ray detector operating at room temperature or moderately cooled environment. We obtain the best energy resolution ever achieved with APDs, 6.4 % for 5.9 keV X-rays, and obtain the energy threshold as low as 0.5 keV measured at -20deg. Thanks to its fast timing response, signal carriers in the APD device are collected within a short time interval of 1.9 nsec (FWHM). This type of APDs can therefore be used as a low-energy, high-counting particle monitor onboard the forthcoming Pico-satellite Cute1.7. As a scintillation photon detector, reverse-type APDs have a good advantage of reducing the dark noise significantly. The best FWHM energy resolutions of 9.4+-0.3 % and 4.9+-0.2 % were obtained for 59.5 keV and 662 keV Gamma-rays, respectively, as measured with a CsI(Tl) crystal. Combination of APDs with various other scintillators (BGO, GSO, and YAP) also showed better results than that obtained with a photomultiplier tube (PMT). These results suggest that APD could be a promising device for replacing traditional PMT usage in some applications. In particular 2-dim APD array, which we present in this paper, will be a promising device for a wide-band X-ray and Gamma-ray imaging detector in future space research and nuclear medicine.

  20. Near-electrode imager

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rathke, Jerome W. (Lockport, IL); Klingler, Robert J. (Westmont, IL); Woelk, Klaus (Wachtberg, DE); Gerald, II, Rex E. (Brookfield, IL)

    2000-01-01

    An apparatus, near-electrode imager, for employing nuclear magnetic resonance imaging to provide in situ measurements of electrochemical properties of a sample as a function of distance from a working electrode. The near-electrode imager uses the radio frequency field gradient within a cylindrical toroid cavity resonator to provide high-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance spectral information on electrolyte materials.

  1. Image credit: Dreamstime Technology for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    through development of superconducting magnet technology. Without that research today's high- resolutionImage credit: Dreamstime Technology for research saves lives Technology developed to advance STFC in particle physics technology not only supported important experiments at CERN but pioneered early

  2. Development of Advanced Optics and High Resolution Instrumentation for Mass Spectrometry Based Proteomics 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sherrod, Stacy D.

    2010-01-14

    Imaging mass spectrometry (MS) analysis allows scientists the ability to obtain spatial and chemical information of analytes on a wide variety of surfaces. The ability to image biological analytes is an important tool in ...

  3. High-resolution ab initio three-dimensional X-ray diffraction microscopy (CXIDB ID 15)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Chapman, Henry N.

    The file contains 125 images corresponding to different tilts of the sample around the y axis at 1 degree intervals. Each image is the result of 4 exposures merged together. For more details see the citation.

  4. SUBSURFACE VISUAL ALARM SYSTEM ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D.W. Markman

    2001-08-06

    The ''Subsurface Fire Hazard Analysis'' (CRWMS M&O 1998, page 61), and the document, ''Title III Evaluation Report for the Surface and Subsurface Communication System'', (CRWMS M&O 1999a, pages 21 and 23), both indicate the installed communication system is adequate to support Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) activities with the exception of the mine phone system for emergency notification purposes. They recommend the installation of a visual alarm system to supplement the page/party phone system The purpose of this analysis is to identify data communication highway design approaches, and provide justification for the selected or recommended alternatives for the data communication of the subsurface visual alarm system. This analysis is being prepared to document a basis for the design selection of the data communication method. This analysis will briefly describe existing data or voice communication or monitoring systems within the ESF, and look at how these may be revised or adapted to support the needed data highway of the subsurface visual alarm. system. The existing PLC communication system installed in subsurface is providing data communication for alcove No.5 ventilation fans, south portal ventilation fans, bulkhead doors and generator monitoring system. It is given that the data communication of the subsurface visual alarm system will be a digital based system. It is also given that it is most feasible to take advantage of existing systems and equipment and not consider an entirely new data communication system design and installation. The scope and primary objectives of this analysis are to: (1) Briefly review and describe existing available data communication highways or systems within the ESF. (2) Examine technical characteristics of an existing system to disqualify a design alternative is paramount in minimizing the number of and depth of a system review. (3) Apply general engineering design practices or criteria such as relative cost, and degree of difficulty and complexity in determining requirements in adapting existing data communication highways to support the subsurface visual alarm system. These requirements would include such things as added or new communication cables, added Programmable Logic Controller (PLC), Inputs and Outputs (I/O), and communication hardware components, and human machine interfaces and their software operating system. (4) Select the best data communication highway system based on this review of adapting or integrating with existing data communication systems.

  5. Data report: High-resolution stable isotope stratigraphy of the late Middle Eocene at Site 1051, Blake Nose 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wade, Bridget S.; Norris, Richard D.; Kroom, Dick

    2000-01-01

    , A. (Eds.) Proceedings of the Ocean Drilling Program, Scientific Results Volume 171B 5. DATA REPORT: HIGH-RESOLUTION STABLE ISOTOPE STRATIGRAPHY OF THE LATE MIDDLE EOCENE AT SITE 1051, BLAKE NOSE 1 Bridget S. Wade, 2 Richard D. Norris, 3 and Dick....D., and Kroon, D., 2000. Data report: High-resolution stable isotope stratigraphy of the late middle Eocene at Site 1051, Blake Nose. In Kroon, D., Norris, R.D., and Klaus, A. (Eds.), Proc. ODP, Sci. Results, 171B, 1?14 [Online]. Available from World Wide...

  6. High Resolution Angle Resolved Photoemission with Tabletop 11eV Laser

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    He, Yu; Yi, Ming; Yang, Shuolong; Liu, Zhongkai; Lee, James; Chen, Sudi; Rebec, Slavko; Leuenberger, Dominik; Zong, Alfred; Jefferson, Michael; Moore, Robert; Kirchmann, Patrick; Merriam, Andrew; Shen, Zhixun

    2015-01-01

    We developed a table-top vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) laser with $113.778$nm wavelength (10.897eV) and demonstrated its viability as a photon source for high resolution angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES). This sub-nanosecond pulsed VUV laser operates at a repetition rate of 10MHz, provides a flux of 2$\\times$10$^{12}$ photons/second, and enables photoemission with energy and momentum resolutions better than 2meV and 0.012\\AA$^{-1}$, respectively. Space-charge induced energy shifts and spectral broadenings can be reduced below 2meV. The setup reaches electron momenta up to 1.2\\AA$^{-1}$, granting full access to the first Brillouin zone of most materials. Control over the linear polarization, repetition rate, and photon flux of the VUV source facilitates ARPES investigations of a broad range of quantum materials, bridging the application gap between contemporary low energy laser-based ARPES and synchrotron-based ARPES. We describe the principles and operational characteristics of this source, and sho...

  7. 3D cut-cell modelling for high-resolution atmospheric simulations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yamazaki, H; Nikiforakis, N

    2015-01-01

    With the recent, rapid development of computer technology, the resolution of atmospheric numerical models has increased substantially. As a result, steep gradients in mountainous terrain are now being resolved in high-resolution models. This results in large truncation errors in those models using terrain-following coordinates. In this study, a new 3D Cartesian coordinate non-hydrostatic atmospheric model is developed. A cut-cell representation of topography based on finite-volume discretization is combined with a cell-merging approach, in which small cut-cells are merged with neighboring cells either vertically or horizontally. In addition, a block-structured mesh-refinement technique achieves a variable resolution on the model grid with the finest resolution occurring close to the terrain surface. The model successfully reproduces a flow over a 3D bell-shaped hill that shows a good agreement with the flow predicted by the linear theory. The ability of the model to simulate flows over steep terrain is demons...

  8. Turbulence patterns and neutrino flavor transitions in high-resolution supernova models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Borriello, Enrico; Mirizzi, Alessandro [II. Institut für Theoretische Physik, Universität Hamburg, Luruper Chaussee 149, D-22761 Hamburg (Germany); Chakraborty, Sovan [Max-Planck-Institut für Physik (Werner-Heisenberg-Institut), Föhringer Ring 6, D-80805 München (Germany); Janka, Hans-Thomas [Max-Planck-Institut für Astrophysik, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 1, 85748 Garching (Germany); Lisi, Eligio, E-mail: enrico.borriello@desy.de, E-mail: sovan@mppmu.mpg.de, E-mail: thj@mpa-garching.mpg.de, E-mail: eligio.lisi@ba.infn.it, E-mail: alessandro.mirizzi@desy.de [INFN—Sezione di Bari, Via Orabona 4, 70126 Bari (Italy)

    2014-11-01

    During the shock-wave propagation in a core-collapse supernova (SN), matter turbulence may affect neutrino flavor conversion probabilities. Such effects have been usually studied by adding parametrized small-scale random fluctuations (with arbitrary amplitude) on top of coarse, spherically symmetric matter density profiles. Recently, however, two-dimensional (2D) SN models have reached a space resolution high enough to directly trace anisotropic density profiles, down to scales smaller than the typical neutrino oscillation length. In this context, we analyze the statistical properties of a large set of SN matter density profiles obtained in a high-resolution 2D simulation, focusing on a post-bounce time (2 s) suited to study shock-wave effects on neutrino propagation on scales as small as O(100) km and possibly below. We clearly find the imprint of a broken (Kolmogorov-Kraichnan) power-law structure, as generically expected in 2D turbulence spectra. We then compute the flavor evolution of SN neutrinos along representative realizations of the turbulent matter density profiles, and observe no or modest damping of the neutrino crossing probabilities on their way through the shock wave. In order to check the effect of possibly unresolved fluctuations at scales below O(100) km, we also apply a randomization procedure anchored to the power spectrum calculated from the simulation, and find consistent results within ± 1? fluctuations. These results show the importance of anchoring turbulence effects on SN neutrinos to realistic, fine-grained SN models.

  9. Indexing Permafrost Soil Organic Matter Degradation Using High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Mann, Benjamin F.; Chen, Hongmei; Herndon, Elizabeth M.; Chu, Rosalie K.; Tolic, Nikola; Portier, Evan F.; Roy Chowdhury, Taniya; Robinson, Errol W.; Callister, Stephen J.; Wullschleger, Stan D.; et al

    2015-06-12

    Microbial degradation of soil organic matter (SOM) is a key process for terrestrial carbon cycling, although the molecular details of these transformations remain unclear. This study reports the application of ultrahigh resolution mass spectrometry to profile the molecular composition of SOM and its degradation during a simulated warming experiment. A soil sample, collected near Barrow, Alaska, USA, was subjected to a 40-day incubation under anoxic conditions and analyzed before and after the incubation to determine changes of SOM composition. A CHO index based on molecular C, H, and O data was utilized to codify SOM components according to their observedmore »degradation potentials. Compounds with a CHO index score between –1 and 0 in a water-soluble fraction (WSF) demonstrated high degradation potential, with a highest shift of CHO index occurred in the N-containing group of compounds, while similar stoichiometries in a base-soluble fraction (BSF) did not. Additionally, compared with the classical H:C vs O:C van Krevelen diagram, CHO index allowed for direct visualization of the distribution of heteroatoms such as N in the identified SOM compounds. We demonstrate that CHO index is useful not only in characterizing arctic SOM at the molecular level but also enabling quantitative description of SOM degradation, thereby facilitating incorporation of the high resolution MS datasets to future mechanistic models of SOM degradation and prediction of greenhouse gas emissions.« less

  10. High-resolution method applied to premixing phase of steam explosion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leskovar, M.; Mavko, B.; Marn, J. [Univ. of Maribor (Slovenia)

    1997-12-01

    This paper describes the improved version of the general two-dimensional, multiphase flow code ESE. The ESE code has been developed to model the mixing process and interaction of molten core debris with water. In case of a steam explosion, a trigger may produce locally enhanced heat transfer and pressurization and may evolve into a shock propagating through the coarse mixture. The propagation phase of the interaction is not modeled by the code; however, the ESE provides for initial condition evolution in time. The indication of the amount of well-mixed melt at the time of the trigger occurrence can be deduced based on the code`s results. The objective of this work is to present the advantages of the high-resolution method applied to a particular set of partial differential equations and to incorporate these advantages into a code that was conceived using less traveled paths, namely, ensemble averaging and use of available data in probabilistic density functions describing momentum and energy cofluctuation tensors.

  11. High resolution optical spectroscopy of an LBV-candidate inside the CygOB2 association

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Klochkova, V G

    2004-01-01

    For the first time, we obtained the high-resolution (R=15000 and 60000) optical spectra for the extremely luminous star No.12, associated with the IR-source IRAS20308+4104, a member of the CygOB2 association. We have found about 200 spectral features in range 4552-7939AA, including the interstellar NaI, KI lines and numerous DIBs, which are the strongest absorption lines in the spectrum, along with the HeI, CII, and SiII lines. A two-dimensional spectral classification indicates that the spectral type is B5+/-0.5 Ia+. Our analysis of the Vr data shows the presence of a Vr gradient in the stellar atmosphere, caused by the infall of matter onto the star. The strong Halpha emission displays broad Thompson wings and time-variable core absorption, providing evidence that the stellar wind is inhomogeneous, and a slightly blue-shifted PCyg type absorption profile. We concluded that the wind is variable in time.

  12. UVES-VLT High Resolution Spectroscopy of GRB080319B and GRB080330 Afterglows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D'Elia, Valerio

    2009-01-01

    We study here the Gamma-Ray Burst (GRB) environment through the analysis of the optical absorption features due to the gas surrounding the GRB. In particular, we analyze high resolution spectroscopic observations of GRB080319B and GRB080330 taken with UVES at the VLT, starting 8m30s and 1.5hr after the GRB trigger, respectively. The spectra show that the ISM of the GRB host galaxies are complex, with several components contributing to the host absorption system. ast four components contributing to the main absorption system. In addition, we detect strong excited absorption lines, from which we derive information on the gas distance from the site of the GRB explosion. Under the assumption that the excited features are produced by indirect UV pumping, we found that this distance results to be 2-6 kpc for GRB080319B and $280\\pm50$ pc for GRB080330, meaning that the power of the GRB radiation can influence the conditions of the interstellar medium up to a distance of several hundred pc.

  13. Hunting the parent of the Orphan stream. II. The first high-resolution spectroscopic study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Casey, Andrew R.; Keller, Stefan C.; Da Costa, Gary; Maunder, Elizabeth [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 2611 (Australia); Frebel, Anna, E-mail: andrew.casey@anu.edu.au [Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)

    2014-03-20

    We present the first high-resolution spectroscopic study on the Orphan stream for five stream candidates, observed with the Magellan Inamori Kyocera Echelle spectrograph on the Magellan Clay telescope. The targets were selected from the low-resolution catalog of Casey et al.: three high-probability members, one medium, and one low-probability stream candidate were observed. Our analysis indicates that the low- and medium-probability targets are metal-rich field stars. The remaining three high-probability targets range over ?1 dex in metallicity, and are chemically distinct compared to the other two targets and all standard stars: low [?/Fe] abundance ratios are observed, and lower limits are ascertained for [Ba/Y], which sit well above the Milky Way trend. These chemical signatures demonstrate that the undiscovered parent system is unequivocally a dwarf spheroidal galaxy, consistent with dynamical constraints inferred from the stream width and arc. As such, we firmly exclude the proposed association between NGC 2419 and the Orphan stream. A wide range in metallicities adds to the similarities between the Orphan stream and Segue 1, although the low [?/Fe] abundance ratios in the Orphan stream are in tension with the high [?/Fe] values observed in Segue 1. Open questions remain before Segue 1 could possibly be claimed as the 'parent' of the Orphan stream. The parent system could well remain undiscovered in the southern sky.

  14. High-resolution thermal expansion measurements under helium-gas pressure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Manna, Rudra Sekhar; Wolf, Bernd; Souza, Mariano de; Lang, Michael

    2012-08-15

    We report on the realization of a capacitive dilatometer, designed for high-resolution measurements of length changes of a material for temperatures 1.4 K Less-Than-Or-Slanted-Equal-To T Less-Than-Or-Slanted-Equal-To 300 K and hydrostatic pressure P Less-Than-Or-Slanted-Equal-To 250 MPa. Helium ({sup 4}He) is used as a pressure-transmitting medium, ensuring hydrostatic-pressure conditions. Special emphasis has been given to guarantee, to a good approximation, constant-pressure conditions during temperature sweeps. The performance of the dilatometer is demonstrated by measurements of the coefficient of thermal expansion at pressures P Asymptotically-Equal-To 0.1 MPa (ambient pressure) and 104 MPa on a single crystal of azurite, Cu{sub 3}(CO{sub 3}){sub 2}(OH){sub 2}, a quasi-one-dimensional spin S = 1/2 Heisenberg antiferromagnet. The results indicate a strong effect of pressure on the magnetic interactions in this system.

  15. A compact and miniaturized high resolution capacitance dilatometer for measuring thermal expansion and magnetostriction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuechler, R.; Bauer, T.; Brando, M.; Steglich, F.

    2012-09-15

    We describe the design, construction, calibration, and two different applications of a miniature capacitance dilatometer. The device is suitable for thermal expansion and magnetostriction measurements from 300 K down to about 25 mK, with a resolution of 0.02 A at low temperatures. The main body of the dilatometer is fabricated from a single block of a Be-Cu alloy by electrical discharge milling. This creates an extremely compact high-resolution measuring cell. We have successfully tested and operated dilatometers of this new type with the commonly used physical property measurement system by quantum design, as well as with several other cryogenic refrigeration systems down to 25 mK and in magnetic fields up to 20 T. Here, the capacitance is measured with a commercially available capacitance bridge. Using a piezoelectric rotator from Attocube Systems, the cell can be rotated at T= 25 mK inside of an inner vacuum chamber of 40 mm diameter. The miniaturized design for the one-axis rotation setup allows a rotation of 360 Degree-Sign .

  16. Modelling high resolution Echelle spectrographs for calibrations: Hanle Echelle spectrograph, a case study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chanumolu, Anantha; Thirupathi, Sivarani

    2015-01-01

    We present a modelling scheme that predicts the centroids of spectral line features for a high resolution Echelle spectrograph to a high accuracy. Towards this, a computing scheme is used, whereby any astronomical spectrograph can be modelled and controlled without recourse to a ray tracing program. The computations are based on paraxial ray trace and exact corrections added for certain surface types and Buchdahl aberration coefficients for complex modules. The resultant chain of paraxial ray traces and corrections for all relevant components is used to calculate the location of any spectral line on the detector under all normal operating conditions with a high degree of certainty. This will allow a semi-autonomous control using simple in-house, programming modules. The scheme is simple enough to be implemented even in a spreadsheet or in any scripting language. Such a model along with an optimization routine can represent the real time behaviour of the instrument. We present here a case study for Hanle Echel...

  17. Appending High-Resolution Elevation Data to GPS Speed Traces for Vehicle Energy Modeling and Simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wood, E.; Burton, E.; Duran, A.; Gonder, J.

    2014-06-01

    Accurate and reliable global positioning system (GPS)-based vehicle use data are highly valuable for many transportation, analysis, and automotive considerations. Model-based design, real-world fuel economy analysis, and the growing field of autonomous and connected technologies (including predictive powertrain control and self-driving cars) all have a vested interest in high-fidelity estimation of powertrain loads and vehicle usage profiles. Unfortunately, road grade can be a difficult property to extract from GPS data with consistency. In this report, we present a methodology for appending high-resolution elevation data to GPS speed traces via a static digital elevation model. Anomalous data points in the digital elevation model are addressed during a filtration/smoothing routine, resulting in an elevation profile that can be used to calculate road grade. This process is evaluated against a large, commercially available height/slope dataset from the Navteq/Nokia/HERE Advanced Driver Assistance Systems product. Results will show good agreement with the Advanced Driver Assistance Systems data in the ability to estimate road grade between any two consecutive points in the contiguous United States.

  18. High-resolution hybrid simulations of kinetic plasma turbulence at proton scales

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Franci, Luca; Matteini, Lorenzo; Verdini, Andrea; Hellinger, Petr

    2015-01-01

    We investigate properties of plasma turbulence from magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) to sub-ion scales by means of two-dimensional, high-resolution hybrid particle-in-cell simulations. We impose an initial ambient magnetic field, perpendicular to the simulation box, and we add a spectrum of large-scale magnetic and kinetic fluctuations, with energy equipartition and vanishing correlation. Once the turbulence is fully developed, we observe a MHD inertial range, where the spectra of the perpendicular magnetic field and the perpendicular proton bulk velocity fluctuations exhibit power-law scaling with spectral indices of -5/3 and -3/2, respectively. This behavior is extended over a full decade in wavevectors and is very stable in time. A transition is observed around proton scales. At sub-ion scales, both spectra steepen, with the former still following a power law with a spectral index of ~-3. A -2.8 slope is observed in the density and parallel magnetic fluctuations, highlighting the presence of compressive effects ...

  19. High-resolution spectroscopy of the R Coronae Borealis Star V Coronae Australis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    N. Kameswara Rao; David L. Lambert

    2007-10-26

    Optical high-resolution spectra of the R Coronae Borealis star V CrA at light maximum and during minimum light arediscussed. Abundance analysis confirms previous results showing that V CrA has the composition of the small subclass of R Coronae Borealis (RCB) stars know as `minority' RCBs, i.e., the Si/Fe and S/Fe ratios are 100 times their solar values. A notable novel result for RCBs is the detection of the 1-0 Swan system $^{12}$C$^{13}$C bandhead indicating that $^{13}$C is abundant: spectrum synthesis shows that $^{12}$C/$^{13}$C is about 3 to 4. Absorption line profiles are variable at maximum light with some lines showing evidence of splitting by about 10 km s$^{-1}$. A spectrum obtained as the star was recovering from a deep minimum shows the presence of cool C$_2$ molecules with a rotational temperature of about 1200K, a temperature suggestive of gas in which carbon is condensing into soot. The presence of rapidly outflowing gas is shown by blue-shifted absorption components of the Na {\\sc i} D and K {\\sc i} 7698 \\AA resonance lines.

  20. Doppler tomography of the Little Homunculus: High resolution spectra of [Fe II] 16435 around Eta Carinae

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nathan Smith

    2004-12-21

    High-resolution spectra of [Fe II] 16435 around eta Carinae provide powerful diagnostics of the geometry and kinematics of the ``Little Homunculus'' (LH) growing inside the larger Homunculus nebula. The LH expansion is not perfectly homologous: while low-latitudes are consistent with linear expansion since 1910, the polar caps imply ejection dates around 1920--1930. However, the expansion speed of the LH is slower than the post-eruption wind, so the star's powerful wind may accelerate it. With an initial ejection speed of 200 km/s in 1890, the LH would have been accelerated to its present speed if the mass is roughly 0.1 Msun. This agrees with an independent estimate of the LH mass based on its density and volume. In any case, an ejection after 1930 is ruled out. Using the LH as a probe of the 1890 event, then, it is evident that its most basic physical parameters (total mass and kinetic energy; 0.1 Msun and 10^46.9 ergs, respectively) are orders of magnitude less than during the giant eruption in the 1840s. Thus, the ultimate energy sources were different for these two events -- yet their ejecta have the same bipolar geometry. This clue may point toward a collimation mechanism separate from the underlying causes of the outbursts.

  1. Directly imaging steeply-dipping fault zones in geothermal fields with multicomponent seismic data

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Chen, Ting; Huang, Lianjie

    2015-07-30

    For characterizing geothermal systems, it is important to have clear images of steeply-dipping fault zones because they may confine the boundaries of geothermal reservoirs and influence hydrothermal flow. Elastic reverse-time migration (ERTM) is the most promising tool for subsurface imaging with multicomponent seismic data. However, conventional ERTM usually generates significant artifacts caused by the cross correlation of undesired wavefields and the polarity reversal of shear waves. In addition, it is difficult for conventional ERTM to directly image steeply-dipping fault zones. We develop a new ERTM imaging method in this paper to reduce these artifacts and directly image steeply-dipping fault zones.more »In our new ERTM method, forward-propagated source wavefields and backward-propagated receiver wavefields are decomposed into compressional (P) and shear (S) components. Furthermore, each component of these wavefields is separated into left- and right-going, or downgoing and upgoing waves. The cross correlation imaging condition is applied to the separated wavefields along opposite propagation directions. For converted waves (P-to-S or S-to-P), the polarity correction is applied to the separated wavefields based on the analysis of Poynting vectors. Numerical imaging examples of synthetic seismic data demonstrate that our new ERTM method produces high-resolution images of steeply-dipping fault zones.« less

  2. Apparatus and method to achieve high-resolution microscopy with non-diffracting or refracting radiation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tobin, Jr., Kenneth W.; Bingham, Philip R.; Hawari, Ayman I.

    2012-11-06

    An imaging system employing a coded aperture mask having multiple pinholes is provided. The coded aperture mask is placed at a radiation source to pass the radiation through. The radiation impinges on, and passes through an object, which alters the radiation by absorption and/or scattering. Upon passing through the object, the radiation is detected at a detector plane to form an encoded image, which includes information on the absorption and/or scattering caused by the material and structural attributes of the object. The encoded image is decoded to provide a reconstructed image of the object. Because the coded aperture mask includes multiple pinholes, the radiation intensity is greater than a comparable system employing a single pinhole, thereby enabling a higher resolution. Further, the decoding of the encoded image can be performed to generate multiple images of the object at different distances from the detector plane. Methods and programs for operating the imaging system are also disclosed.

  3. High-resolution observations of the shock wave behavior for sunspot...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    resolution observations of the shock wave behavior for sunspot oscillations with the interface region imaging spectrograph Re-direct Destination: We present the first results of...

  4. High-resolution geostatistical inversion of a seismic data set acquired in a Gulf of Mexico gas reservoir.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Torres-Verdín, Carlos

    High-resolution geostatistical inversion of a seismic data set acquired in a Gulf of Mexico gas, UNOCAL Corporation Summary Geostatistical inversion is applied on a Gulf-of-Mexico, 3D post-stack seismic in this paper is located in the Gulf of Mexico, off the coast of Louisiana. Existing development wells reach two

  5. COMPARISON OF WIND AND WIND SHEAR CLIMATOLOGIES DERIVED FROM HIGH-RESOLUTION RADIOSONDES AND THE ECMWF MODEL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stoffelen, Ad

    COMPARISON OF WIND AND WIND SHEAR CLIMATOLOGIES DERIVED FROM HIGH-RESOLUTION RADIOSONDES wind and its vertical gradient, i.e. wind-shear, is characterized as a function of climate region. For a better representation of the average atmospheric wind and shear and their variabilities, high

  6. Central South Pacific thermocline water circulation from a high-resolution ocean model validated against satellite data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Central South Pacific thermocline water circulation from a high-resolution ocean model validated. Introduction [2] Most South Pacific Ocean studies have been focused on its western or eastern part, leaving 12 January 2009; accepted 28 January 2009; published 13 May 2009. [1] The oceanic circulation

  7. Structural Analysis of a Chimeric Bacterial R-Amylase. High-Resolution Analysis of Native and Ligand Complexes,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Structural Analysis of a Chimeric Bacterial R-Amylase. High-Resolution Analysis of Native ReceiVed April 26, 2000 ABSTRACT: Several chimeric R-amylases genes were constructed by an in vivo amylases (hereafter BA2), consisting of residues 1-300 from B. amyloliquefaciens and 301-483 from B

  8. HIGH-RESOLUTION H OBSERVATIONS OF PROPER MOTION IN NOAA 8668: EVIDENCE FOR FILAMENT MASS INJECTION BY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    HIGH-RESOLUTION H OBSERVATIONS OF PROPER MOTION IN NOAA 8668: EVIDENCE FOR FILAMENT MASS INJECTION kinds of explanations for the source of cool material in prominences or filaments: coronal condensations support filament mass injection by chromospheric reconnection. The observations of an active filament

  9. High-resolution temporal record of Holocene ground-water chemistry: Tracing links between climate and hydrology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Banner, Jay L.

    growth layers in Holocene spe- leothems from Barbados, West Indies, reveals high-resolution temporal. carbonate mineral reactions, as reflected in 87 Sr/86 Sr values of modern Barbados ground waters variations in rainfall on Barbados that are predicted by this hydrologic model. INTRODUCTION In spite

  10. Satellite data for high resolution offshore wind resource mapping: A data fusion approach M.B. Ben Ticha a,*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Satellite data for high resolution offshore wind resource mapping: A data fusion approach M.B. Ben accurate high spatial and temporal resolutions wind measurements. Offshore, satellite data are an accurate radar, scatterometer, data fusion, offshore wind energy resource assessment. 1. INTRODUCTION Since

  11. IEEE SENSORS JOURNAL, VOL. 8, NO. 12, DECEMBER 2008 2027 A High-Resolution MEMS Piezoelectric Strain

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Horowitz, Roberto

    IEEE SENSORS JOURNAL, VOL. 8, NO. 12, DECEMBER 2008 2027 A High-Resolution MEMS Piezoelectric strain sensor. Using microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) technology, ZnO piezo- electric microsensors Strain Sensor for Structural Vibration Detection Stanley Kon, Member, IEEE, and Roberto Horowitz, Member

  12. High-Resolution Carbon Isotope Stratigraphy, Pennsylvanian Snaky Canyon Formation, East-Central Idaho: Implications for Regional and Global Correlations 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jolley, Casey

    2012-07-16

    Nearly 550 samples of fine grained carbonates, collected every 0.5 to 1.0 m from the Bloom Member of the Snaky Canyon Formation at Gallagher Peak, Idaho, were analyzed to determine the high-resolution carbon isotope stratigraphy. To constrain...

  13. High-resolution three-dimensional simulations of core-collapse supernovae in multiple progenitors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Couch, Sean M. [Flash Center for Computational Science, Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); O'Connor, Evan P., E-mail: smc@flash.uchicago.edu [Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3H8 (Canada)

    2014-04-20

    Three-dimensional (3D) simulations of core-collapse supernovae (CCSNe) are granting new insight into the as-yet-uncertain mechanism that drives successful explosions. While there is still debate about whether explosions are obtained more easily in 3D than in 2D, it is undeniable that there exist qualitative and quantitative differences between the results of 3D and 2D simulations. We present an extensive set of high-resolution 1D, 2D, and 3D CCSN simulations with multispecies neutrino leakage carried out in two different progenitors. Our simulations confirm the results of Couch indicating that 2D explodes more readily than 3D. We argue that this is due to the inadequacies of 2D to accurately capture important aspects of the 3D dynamics. We find that without artificially enhancing the neutrino heating rate, we do not obtain explosions in 3D. We examine the development of neutrino-driven convection and the standing accretion shock instability (SASI) and find that, in separate regimes, either instability can dominate. We find evidence for growth of the SASI for both 15 M {sub ?} and 27 M {sub ?} progenitors; however, it is weaker in 3D exploding models. The growth rate of both instabilities is artificially enhanced along the symmetry axis in 2D as compared with our axis-free 3D Cartesian simulations. Our work highlights the growing consensus that CCSNe must be studied in 3D if we hope to solve the mystery of how the explosions are powered.

  14. The prompt, high resolution spectroscopic view of the "naked-eye" GRB080319B

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    V. D'Elia; F. Fiore; R. Perna; Y. Krongold; S. Covino; D. Fugazza; D. Lazzati; F. Nicastro; L. A. Antonelli; S. Campana; G. Chincarini; P. D'Avanzo; M. Della Valle; P. Goldoni; D. Guetta; C. Guidorzi; E. J. A. Meurs; F. Mirabel E. Molinari; L. Norci; S. Piranomonte; L. Stella; G. Stratta; G. Tagliaferri; P. Ward

    2008-10-21

    GRB080319B reached 5th optical magnitude during the burst prompt emission. Thanks to the VLT/UVES rapid response mode, we observed its afterglow just 8m:30s after the GRB onset when the magnitude was R ~ 12. This allowed us to obtain the best signal-to-noise, high resolution spectrum of a GRB afterglow ever (S/N per resolution element ~ 50). The spectrum is rich of absorption features belonging to the main system at z=0.937, divided in at least six components spanning a total velocity range of 100 km/s. The VLT/UVES observations caught the absorbing gas in a highly excited state, producing the strongest Fe II fine structure lines ever observed in a GRB. A few hours later the optical depth of these lines was reduced by a factor of 4-20, and the optical/UV flux by a factor of ~ 60. This proves that the excitation of the observed fine structure lines is due to "pumping" by the GRB UV photons. A comparison of the observed ratio between the number of photons absorbed by the excited state and those in the Fe II ground state suggests that the six absorbers are ~ 2-6 kpc from the GRB site, with component I ~ 3 times closer to the GRB site than components III to VI. Component I is characterized also by the lack of Mg I absorption, unlike all other components. This may be due both to a closer distance and a lower density, suggesting a structured ISM in this galaxy complex.

  15. High Resolution Near-Infrared Spectroscopy of FUors and FUor-like stars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tom Greene; Colin Aspin; Bo Reipurth

    2008-01-27

    We present new high resolution (R=18,000) near-infrared spectroscopic observations of a sample of classical FU Orionis stars (FUors) and other young stars with FUor characteristics that are sources of Herbig-Haro flows. Spectra are presented for the region 2.203 - 2.236 microns which is rich in absorption lines sensitive to both effective temperatures and surface gravities of stars. Both FUors and FUor-like stars show numerous broad and weak unidentified spectral features in this region. Spectra of the 2.280 - 2.300 micron region are also presented, with the 2.2935 micron v=2-0 CO absorption bandhead being clearly the strongest feature seen in the spectra all FUors and Fuor-like stars. A cross-correlation analysis shows that FUor and FUor-like spectra in the 2.203 - 2.236 micron region are not consistent with late-type dwarfs, giants, nor embedded protostars. The cross-correlations also show that the observed FUor-like Herbig-Haro energy sources have spectra that are substantively similar to those of FUors. Both object groups also have similar near-infrared colors. The large line widths and double-peaked nature of the spectra of the FUor-like stars are consistent with the established accretion disk model for FUors, also consistent with their near-infrared colors. It appears that young stars with FUor-like characteristics may be more common than projected from the relatively few known classical FUors.

  16. High-order multilayer coated blazed gratings for high resolution soft x-ray spectroscopy

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Voronov, Dmitriy L.; Goray, Leonid I.; Warwick, Tony; Yashchuk, Valeriy V.; Padmore, Howard A.

    2015-02-17

    A grand challenge in soft x-ray spectroscopy is to drive the resolving power of monochromators and spectrometers from the 104 achieved routinely today to well above 105. This need is driven mainly by the requirements of a new technique that is set to have enormous impact in condensed matter physics, Resonant Inelastic X-ray Scattering (RIXS). Unlike x-ray absorption spectroscopy, RIXS is not limited by an energy resolution dictated by the core-hole lifetime in the excitation process. Using much higher resolving power than used for normal x-ray absorption spectroscopy enables access to the energy scale of soft excitations in matter. Thesemore »excitations such as magnons and phonons drive the collective phenomena seen in correlated electronic materials such as high temperature superconductors. RIXS opens a new path to study these excitations at a level of detail not formerly possible. However, as the process involves resonant excitation at an energy of around 1 keV, and the energy scale of the excitations one would like to see are at the meV level, to fully utilize the technique requires the development of monochromators and spectrometers with one to two orders of magnitude higher energy resolution than has been conventionally possible. Here we investigate the detailed diffraction characteristics of multilayer blazed gratings. These elements offer potentially revolutionary performance as the dispersive element in ultra-high resolution x-ray spectroscopy. In doing so, we have established a roadmap for the complete optimization of the grating design. Traditionally 1st order gratings are used in the soft x-ray region, but we show that as in the optical domain, one can work in very high spectral orders and thus dramatically improve resolution without significant loss in efficiency.« less

  17. Detailed Hydrographic Feature Extraction from High-Resolution LiDAR Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Danny L. Anderson

    2012-05-01

    Detailed hydrographic feature extraction from high-resolution light detection and ranging (LiDAR) data is investigated. Methods for quantitatively evaluating and comparing such extractions are presented, including the use of sinuosity and longitudinal root-mean-square-error (LRMSE). These metrics are then used to quantitatively compare stream networks in two studies. The first study examines the effect of raster cell size on watershed boundaries and stream networks delineated from LiDAR-derived digital elevation models (DEMs). The study confirmed that, with the greatly increased resolution of LiDAR data, smaller cell sizes generally yielded better stream network delineations, based on sinuosity and LRMSE. The second study demonstrates a new method of delineating a stream directly from LiDAR point clouds, without the intermediate step of deriving a DEM. Direct use of LiDAR point clouds could improve efficiency and accuracy of hydrographic feature extractions. The direct delineation method developed herein and termed “mDn”, is an extension of the D8 method that has been used for several decades with gridded raster data. The method divides the region around a starting point into sectors, using the LiDAR data points within each sector to determine an average slope, and selecting the sector with the greatest downward slope to determine the direction of flow. An mDn delineation was compared with a traditional grid-based delineation, using TauDEM, and other readily available, common stream data sets. Although, the TauDEM delineation yielded a sinuosity that more closely matches the reference, the mDn delineation yielded a sinuosity that was higher than either the TauDEM method or the existing published stream delineations. Furthermore, stream delineation using the mDn method yielded the smallest LRMSE.

  18. Theoretical Model of ITER High Resolution H-alpha Spectroscopy for a Strong Divertor Stray Light and Validation Against JET-ILW Experiments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Theoretical Model of ITER High Resolution H-alpha Spectroscopy for a Strong Divertor Stray Light and Validation Against JET-ILW Experiments

  19. Evolution of Near-surface Flows Inferred from High-resolution Ring-diagram Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bogart, Richard S; Baldner,; Basu, Sarbani

    2015-01-01

    Ring-diagram analysis of acoustic waves observed at the photosphere can provide a relatively robust determination of the sub-surface flows at a particular time under a particular region. The depth of penetration of the waves is related to the size of the region, hence the depth extent of the measured flows is inversely proportional to the spatial resolution. Most ring-diagram analysis has focused on regions of extent ~15{\\deg} (180 Mm) or more in order to provide reasonable mode sets for inversions. HMI data analysis also provides a set of ring fit parameters on a scale three times smaller. These provide flow estimates for the outer 1% (7 Mm) of the Sun only, with very limited depth resolution, but with spatial resolution adequate to map structures potentially associated with the belts and regions of magnetic activity. There are a number of systematic effects affecting the determination of flows from local helioseismic analysis of regions over different parts of the observable disk, not all well understood. I...

  20. High-Resolution Modeling to Assess Tropical Cyclone Activity in Future Climate Regimes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lackmann, Gary

    2013-06-10

    Applied research is proposed with the following objectives: (i) to determine the most likely level of tropical cyclone intensity and frequency in future climate regimes, (ii) to provide a quantitative measure of uncertainty in these predictions, and (iii) to improve understanding of the linkage between tropical cyclones and the planetary-scale circulation. Current mesoscale weather forecasting models, such as the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, are capable of simulating the full intensity of tropical cyclones (TC) with realistic structures. However, in order to accurately represent both the primary and secondary circulations in these systems, model simulations must be configured with sufficient resolution to explicitly represent convection (omitting the convective parameterization scheme). Most previous numerical studies of TC activity at seasonal and longer time scales have not utilized such explicit convection (EC) model runs. Here, we propose to employ the moving nest capability of WRF to optimally represent TC activity on a seasonal scale using a downscaling approach. The statistical results of a suite of these high-resolution TC simulations will yield a realistic representation of TC intensity on a seasonal basis, while at the same time allowing analysis of the feedback that TCs exert on the larger-scale climate system. Experiments will be driven with analyzed lateral boundary conditions for several recent Atlantic seasons, spanning a range of activity levels and TC track patterns. Results of the ensemble of WRF simulations will then be compared to analyzed TC data in order to determine the extent to which this modeling setup can reproduce recent levels of TC activity. Next, the boundary conditions (sea-surface temperature, tropopause height, and thermal/moisture profiles) from the recent seasons will be altered in a manner consistent with various future GCM/RCM scenarios, but that preserves the large-scale shear and incipient disturbance activity. This will allow (i) a direct comparison of future TC activity that could be expected for an active or inactive season in an altered climate regime, and (ii) a measure of the level of uncertainty and variability in TC activity resulting from different carbon emission scenarios.

  1. High Resolution Study of Micro-Meter Particle Detachment and Resuspension on Different Surfaces 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kassab, Asmaa 1983-

    2012-08-16

    obtained by high-speed imaging reveal three different types of motion: rolling/bouncing, immediate liftoff and complex motion. Surface roughness significantly affects the particle initial motion prior to liftoff. The majority of particle trajectories from...

  2. Recent Progress in Chromatic Aberration Corrected High-Resolution and Lorentz Transmission Electron Microscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E.

    80 and 65 pm detail at 80 and 300 kV, respectively. Figure 2 shows CC and CS corrected energy. 58 (2009) 147. [3] R. Leary and R. Brydson. Advances in Imaging and Electron Physics 165 (2011) 73. The smallest detected image spacing at 80 kV (left) is ~80 pm and at 300 kV (right) is ~65 pm. FIG. 2. Atomic

  3. Ames Lab 101: Real-Time 3D Imaging

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Zhang, Song

    2012-08-29

    Ames Laboratory scientist Song Zhang explains his real-time 3-D imaging technology. The technique can be used to create high-resolution, real-time, precise, 3-D images for use in healthcare, security, and entertainment applications.

  4. Extended-range grazing-incidence spectrometer for high-resolution extreme ultraviolet measurements on an electron beam ion trap

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beiersdorfer, P.; Magee, E. W.; Brown, G. V.; Träbert, E.; Widmann, K. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Hell, N. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Dr. Remeis-Sternwarte and ECAP, Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, 96049 Bamberg (Germany)

    2014-11-15

    A high-resolution grazing-incidence grating spectrometer has been implemented on the Livermore electron beam ion traps for performing very high-resolution measurements in the soft x-ray and extreme ultraviolet region spanning from below 10 Ĺ to above 300 Ĺ. The instrument operates without an entrance slit and focuses the light emitted by highly charged ions located in the roughly 50 ?m wide electron beam onto a cryogenically cooled back-illuminated charge-coupled device detector. The measured line widths are below 0.025 Ĺ above 100 Ĺ, and the resolving power appears to be limited by the source size and Doppler broadening of the trapped ions. Comparisons with spectra obtained with existing grating spectrometers show an order of magnitude improvement in spectral resolution.

  5. Design of a High Resolution and High Flux Beam line for VUV Angle-Resolved Photoemission at UVSOR-II

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kimura, Shin-ichi; Ito, Takahiro; Nakamura, Eiken; Hosaka, Masahito; Katoh, Masahiro

    2007-01-19

    A high-energy-resolution angle-resolved photoemission beamline in the vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) region has been designed for a 750 MeV synchrotron light source UVSOR-II. The beamline equips an APPLE-II-type undulator with the horizontally/vertically linear and right/left circular polarizations, a modified Wadsworth-type monochromator and a high-resolution photoelectron analyzer. The monochromator covers the photon energy range of 6 - 40 eV. The energy resolution (hv/{delta}hv) and the photon flux on samples are expected to be 2 x 104 and 1012 photons/sec at 10 eV, 4 x 104 and 5 x 1011 photons/sec at 20 eV, and 6 x 104 and 1011 photons/sec at 40 eV, respectively. The beamline provides the high-resolution angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy less than 1 meV in the whole VUV energy range.

  6. Hybrid tomography for conductivity imaging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. Widlak; O. Scherzer

    2012-03-20

    Hybrid imaging techniques utilize couplings of physical modalities -- they are called hybrid, because, typically, the excitation and measurement quantities belong to different modalities. Recently there has been an enormous research interest in this area because these methods promise very high resolution. In this paper we give a review on hybrid tomography methods for \\emph{electrical conductivity} imaging. The reviewed imaging methods utilize couplings between electric, magnetic and ultrasound modalities. By this it is possible to perform high-resolution electrical impedance imaging and to overcome the low-resolution problem of electric impedance tomography.

  7. Nodal Quasiparticle Meltdown in Ultra-High Resolution Pump-Probe Angle-Resolved Photoemission

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Graf, Jeff; Jozwiak, Chris; Smallwood, Chris L.; Eisaki, H.; Kaindl, Robert A.; Lee, Dung-Hai; Lanzara, Alessandra

    2011-06-03

    High-T{sub c} cuprate superconductors are characterized by a strong momentum-dependent anisotropy between the low energy excitations along the Brillouin zone diagonal (nodal direction) and those along the Brillouin zone face (antinodal direction). Most obvious is the d-wave superconducting gap, with the largest magnitude found in the antinodal direction and no gap in the nodal direction. Additionally, while antin- odal quasiparticle excitations appear only below T{sub c}, superconductivity is thought to be indifferent to nodal excitations as they are regarded robust and insensitive to T{sub c}. Here we reveal an unexpected tie between nodal quasiparticles and superconductivity using high resolution time- and angle-resolved photoemission on optimally doped Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8+{delta}}#14;. We observe a suppression of the nodal quasiparticle spectral weight following pump laser excitation and measure its recovery dynamics. This suppression is dramatically enhanced in the superconducting state. These results reduce the nodal-antinodal dichotomy and challenge the conventional view of nodal excitation neutrality in superconductivity. The electronic structures of high-Tc cuprates are strongly momentum-dependent. This is one reason why the momentum-resolved technique of angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) has been a central tool in the #12;field of high-temperature superconductivity. For example, coherent low energy excitations with momenta near the Brillouin zone face, or antinodal quasiparticles (QPs), are only observed below T{sub c} and have been linked to superfluid density. They have therefore been the primary focus of ARPES studies. In contrast, nodal QPs, with momenta along the Brillouin zone diagonal, have received less attention and are usually regarded as largely immune to the superconducting transition because they seem insensitive to perturbations such as disorder, doping, isotope exchange, charge ordering, and temperature. Clearly, finding any strong dependencies of the nodal QPs will alter the conventional view and enrich our understanding of high temperature superconductivity. Time resolution through pump-and-probe techniques adds a new dimension to ARPES by directly measuring how the electronic structure of a material responds to perturbations on femtosecond time scales. Here we report a unique ultrafast time-resolved ARPES study of a high-T{sub c} cuprate superconductor. Compared to previous time-resolved studies, the primary advantage of this work is an unprecedented momentum (angular) resolution ({Delta}#1;k~ #24;0.003 vs. 0.05 {#23;Angstrom}{sup -1}), on par with that of state-of-the-art ARPES. This has allowed the time-resolved measurement of signi#12;cantly sharper QP spectral peaks with strikingly larger peak-to-background ratios than previously reported.16 Additionally, a lower pump fluence is used (<40{micro}#22;J/cm{sup 2} vs. #24;100#22;{micro}J/cm{sup 2}), which reduces pump-induced sample temperature increase and related thermal smearing of spectral features. This allows us to uncover a surprising meltdown of nodal QP spectral weight following pump laser excitation. This meltdown is only observed in the superconducting state and for QPs with binding energy less than the kink energy,19 revealing a link between nodal QPs and superconductivity.

  8. SIEMENS ADVANCED QUANTRA FTICR MASS SPECTROMETER FOR ULTRA HIGH RESOLUTION AT LOW MASS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spencer, W; Laura Tovo, L

    2008-07-08

    The Siemens Advanced Quantra Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance (FTICR) mass spectrometer was evaluated as an alternative instrument to large double focusing mass spectrometers for gas analysis. High resolution mass spectrometers capable of resolving the common mass isomers of the hydrogen isotopes are used to provide data for accurate loading of reservoirs and to monitor separation of tritium, deuterium, and helium. Conventional double focusing magnetic sector instruments have a resolution that is limited to about 5000. The Siemens FTICR instrument achieves resolution beyond 400,000 and could possibly resolve the tritium ion from the helium-3 ion, which differ by the weight of an electron, 0.00549 amu. Working with Y-12 and LANL, SRNL requested Siemens to modify their commercial Quantra system for low mass analysis. To achieve the required performance, Siemens had to increase the available waveform operating frequency from 5 MHz to 40 MHz and completely redesign the control electronics and software. However, they were able to use the previous ion trap, magnet, passive pump, and piezo-electric pulsed inlet valve design. NNSA invested $1M in this project and acquired four systems, two for Y-12 and one each for SRNL and LANL. Siemens claimed a $10M investment in the Quantra systems. The new Siemens Advanced Quantra demonstrated phenomenal resolution in the low mass range. Resolution greater than 400,000 was achieved for mass 2. The new spectrometer had a useful working mass range to 500 Daltons. However, experiments found that a continuous single scan from low mass to high was not possible. Two useful working ranges were established covering masses 1 to 6 and masses 12 to 500 for our studies. A compromise performance condition enabled masses 1 to 45 to be surveyed. The instrument was found to have a dynamic range of about three orders of magnitude and quantitative analysis is expected to be limited to around 5 percent without using complex fitting algorithms. Analysis of low concentration ions, at the ppm level, required a separate analysis using ion ejection techniques. Chemical ionization due to the formation of the MH{sup +} ion or MD{sup +} increased the complexity of the spectra compared to magnetic sector mass spectra and formation of the protonated or deuterated complex was a dynamic function of the trap ion concentration. This made quantitative measurement more of a challenge. However, the resolution of the instrument was far superior to any other mass spectrometry technique that has been applied to the analysis of the hydrogen isotopes. The piezo-electric picoliter injection device offers a new way of submitting small quantities of atmospheric pressure sample gas for analysis. The new software had many improvements over the previous version but significant flaws in the beta codes remain that make the prototype units less than ideal. The instrument is a promising new technology that experience will likely improve. Unfortunately, Siemens has concluded that the technology will not be a commercial success and has decided to stop producing this product.

  9. Two-beam ultrabroadband coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy for high resolution gas-phase multiplex imaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bohlin, Alexis; Kliewer, Christopher J.

    2014-01-20

    We propose and develop a method for wideband coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) in the gas phase and demonstrate the single-shot measurement of N{sub 2}, H{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, O{sub 2}, and CH{sub 4}. Pure-rotational and vibrational O-, Q-, and S- branch spectra are collected simultaneously, with high spectral and spatial resolution, and within a single-laser-shot. The relative intensity of the rotational and vibrational signals can be tuned arbitrarily using polarization techniques. The ultrashort 7 fs pump and Stokes pulses are automatically overlapped temporally and spatially using a two-beam CARS technique, and the crossed probe beam allows for excellent spatial sectioning of the probed location.

  10. Visual Comfort Analysis of Innovative Interior and Exterior Shading Systems for Commercial Buildings using High Resolution Luminance Images

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Konis, Kyle

    2011-01-01

    adjustment (e.g. , "winter, "equinox," "summer") to not biasdeg) BA (deg) BA (deg) Height above floor (m) winter equinoxwinter equinox :summer Interior Systems reference-VB split-

  11. Upscaling fluxes from tower to landscape: Overlaying flux footprints on high-resolution (IKONOS) images of vegetation cover

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guo, Qinghua

    Laboratory for Environmental Physics, University of Georgia, Griffin, GA 30223-1797, USA d Department

  12. High Resolution Imaging of in situ Root Hair Development to Assess Oilseed Species Responses to Water Stress

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hammac, Warren Ashley; Pan, William; Bolton, Ronald; Koenig, Richard

    2009-01-01

    M. Williams. 2008. The effects of water availability on rootMualem, and U. Shani. 2008a. Water uptake and hydraulics of2008b. Microsensing of water dynamics and root distributions

  13. Direct observation of domain walls in NiFe films using high-resolution Lorentz microscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laughlin, David E.

    . Wong and David E. Laughlin Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University that the thickness dependence has a similar profile to the theoretically predicted trend but the actual wall with the interactive data language IDL image processing software so that the interference between magnetic

  14. Optical method and apparatus for detection of surface and near-subsurface defects in dense ceramics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ellingson, W.A.; Brada, M.P.

    1995-06-20

    A laser is used in a non-destructive manner to detect surface and near-subsurface defects in dense ceramics and particularly in ceramic bodies with complex shapes such as ceramic bearings, turbine blades, races, and the like. The laser`s wavelength is selected based upon the composition of the ceramic sample and the laser can be directed on the sample while the sample is static or in dynamic rotate or translate motion. Light is scattered off surface and subsurface defects using a preselected polarization. The change in polarization angle is used to select the depth and characteristics of surface/subsurface defects. The scattered light is detected by an optical train consisting of a charge coupled device (CCD), or vidicon, television camera which, in turn, is coupled to a video monitor and a computer for digitizing the image. An analyzing polarizer in the optical train allows scattered light at a given polarization angle to be observed for enhancing sensitivity to either surface or near-subsurface defects. Application of digital image processing allows subtraction of digitized images in near real-time providing enhanced sensitivity to subsurface defects. Storing known ``feature masks`` of identified defects in the computer and comparing the detected scatter pattern (Fourier images) with the stored feature masks allows for automatic classification of detected defects. 29 figs.

  15. Optical method and apparatus for detection of surface and near-subsurface defects in dense ceramics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ellingson, William A. (Naperville, IL); Brada, Mark P. (Goleta, CA)

    1995-01-01

    A laser is used in a non-destructive manner to detect surface and near-subsurface defects in dense ceramics and particularly in ceramic bodies with complex shapes such as ceramic bearings, turbine blades, races, and the like. The laser's wavelength is selected based upon the composition of the ceramic sample and the laser can be directed on the sample while the sample is static or in dynamic rotate or translate motion. Light is scattered off surface and subsurface defects using a preselected polarization. The change in polarization angle is used to select the depth and characteristics of surface/subsurface defects. The scattered light is detected by an optical train consisting of a charge coupled device (CCD), or vidicon, television camera which, in turn, is coupled to a video monitor and a computer for digitizing the image. An analyzing polarizer in the optical train allows scattered light at a given polarization angle to be observed for enhancing sensitivity to either surface or near-subsurface defects. Application of digital image processing allows subtraction of digitized images in near real-time providing enhanced sensitivity to subsurface defects. Storing known "feature masks" of identified defects in the computer and comparing the detected scatter pattern (Fourier images) with the stored feature masks allows for automatic classification of detected defects.

  16. Using electrokinetic phenomena and electrical resistance tomography to characterize the movement of subsurface fluids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ramirez, Abelardo L. (Pleasanton, CA); Cooper, John F. (Oakland, CA); Daily, William D. (Livermore, CA)

    1996-01-01

    This invention relates generally to the remote detections of subsurface liquid contaminants using in combination a geophysical technique known as ERT and an EKS. Electrokinetic transport is used to enhance the ability of electrical resistance tomography (ERT) to detect position and movement of subsurface contaminant liquids, particles or ions. ERT images alone are difficult to interpret because of natural inhomogeneities in soil composition and electrical properties. By subtracting two or more ERT images obtained before and after field induced movement, a high contrast image of a plume of distinct electrokinetic properties can be seen. The invention is applicable to important subsurface characterization problems including, as examples, (1) detection of liquid-saturated plumes of contaminants such as those associated with leaks from underground storage tanks containing hazardous concentrated electrolytes, (2) detection and characterization of soils contaminated with organic pollutants such as droplets of gasoline; and (3) monitoring the progress of electrokinetic containment or clean up of underground contamination.

  17. Using electrokinetic phenomena and electrical resistance tomography to characterize the movement of subsurface fluids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ramirez, A.L.; Cooper, J.F.; Daily, W.D.

    1996-02-27

    This invention relates generally to the remote detections of subsurface liquid contaminants using in combination a geophysical technique known as ERT and an EKS. Electrokinetic transport is used to enhance the ability of electrical resistance tomography (ERT) to detect position and movement of subsurface contaminant liquids, particles or ions. ERT images alone are difficult to interpret because of natural inhomogeneities in soil composition and electrical properties. By subtracting two or more ERT images obtained before and after field induced movement, a high contrast image of a plume of distinct electrokinetic properties can be seen. The invention is applicable to important subsurface characterization problems including, as examples, (1) detection of liquid-saturated plumes of contaminants such as those associated with leaks from underground storage tanks containing hazardous concentrated electrolytes, (2) detection and characterization of soils contaminated with organic pollutants such as droplets of gasoline; and (3) monitoring the progress of electrokinetic containment or clean up of underground contamination. 1 fig.

  18. Method and apparatus for a high-resolution three dimensional confocal scanning transmission electron microscope

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    de Jonge, Niels (Oak Ridge, TN) [Oak Ridge, TN

    2010-08-17

    A confocal scanning transmission electron microscope which includes an electron illumination device providing an incident electron beam propagating in a direction defining a propagation axis, and a precision specimen scanning stage positioned along the propagation axis and movable in at least one direction transverse to the propagation axis. The precision specimen scanning stage is configured for positioning a specimen relative to the incident electron beam. A projector lens receives a transmitted electron beam transmitted through at least part of the specimen and focuses this transmitted beam onto an image plane, where the transmitted beam results from the specimen being illuminated by the incident electron beam. A detection system is placed approximately in the image plane.

  19. Photothermal imaging scanning microscopy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chinn, Diane (Pleasanton, CA); Stolz, Christopher J. (Lathrop, CA); Wu, Zhouling (Pleasanton, CA); Huber, Robert (Discovery Bay, CA); Weinzapfel, Carolyn (Tracy, CA)

    2006-07-11

    Photothermal Imaging Scanning Microscopy produces a rapid, thermal-based, non-destructive characterization apparatus. Also, a photothermal characterization method of surface and subsurface features includes micron and nanoscale spatial resolution of meter-sized optical materials.

  20. New Horizons for Deep Subsurface Microbiology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Onstott, Tullis

    life cannot exist. · Experiments being designed for the Deep Un- derground Science and EngineeringNew Horizons for Deep Subsurface Microbiology Subsurface microorganisms may grow slowly 200-m-deep wells along with procedures to monitor for drilling-related contaminants, uncovered

  1. Seismic Imaging and Monitoring

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Lianjie

    2012-07-09

    I give an overview of LANL's capability in seismic imaging and monitoring. I present some seismic imaging and monitoring results, including imaging of complex structures, subsalt imaging of Gulf of Mexico, fault/fracture zone imaging for geothermal exploration at the Jemez pueblo, time-lapse imaging of a walkway vertical seismic profiling data for monitoring CO{sub 2} inject at SACROC, and microseismic event locations for monitoring CO{sub 2} injection at Aneth. These examples demonstrate LANL's high-resolution and high-fidelity seismic imaging and monitoring capabilities.

  2. High-resolution reservoir characterization by an acoustic impedance inversion of a Tertiary deltaic clinoform system in the North Sea

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    van Vliet, Lucas J.

    process and thereby com- plement the relatively dense horizontal coverage of seismic data with high ones encountered in the subsurface, and potential reservoir units are often close to or below seismic resolution. For seismic inversion, it is therefore important to integrate the seismic data with higher

  3. High-resolution adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope with multiple deformable mirrors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, Diana C. (Fremont, CA); Olivier, Scot S. (Livermore, CA); Jones; Steven M. (Livermore, CA)

    2010-02-23

    An adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopes is introduced to produce non-invasive views of the human retina. The use of dual deformable mirrors improved the dynamic range for correction of the wavefront aberrations compared with the use of the MEMS mirror alone, and improved the quality of the wavefront correction compared with the use of the bimorph mirror alone. The large-stroke bimorph deformable mirror improved the capability for axial sectioning with the confocal imaging system by providing an easier way to move the focus axially through different layers of the retina.

  4. Layout And Results From The Initial Opeeration Of The High-resolution X-ray

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfate Reducing(Journalspectroscopy of aerosols(TechnicalConnectpulseImaging Crystal Spectrometer

  5. Layout and results from the initial operation of the high-resolution x-ray

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfate Reducing(Journalspectroscopy of aerosols(TechnicalConnectpulseImaging Crystal

  6. CHEMICAL ABUNDANCES IN FIELD RED GIANTS FROM HIGH-RESOLUTION H-BAND SPECTRA USING THE APOGEE SPECTRAL LINELIST

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, Verne V.; Cunha, Katia [National Optical Astronomy Observatories, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States)] [National Optical Astronomy Observatories, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Shetrone, Matthew D. [Department of Astronomy and McDonald Observatory, University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712 (United States)] [Department of Astronomy and McDonald Observatory, University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Meszaros, Szabolcs; Allende Prieto, Carlos [Instituto d'Astrofisica de Canarias, E-38205, La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain)] [Instituto d'Astrofisica de Canarias, E-38205, La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Bizyaev, Dmitry [Apache Point Observatory, Sunspot, NM 88349 (United States)] [Apache Point Observatory, Sunspot, NM 88349 (United States); Garcia Perez, Ana; Majewski, Steven R. [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States)] [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Schiavon, Ricardo [Astrophysics Research Institute, Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool L3 5UX (United Kingdom)] [Astrophysics Research Institute, Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool L3 5UX (United Kingdom); Holtzman, Jon [Department of Astronomy, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM 88003 (United States)] [Department of Astronomy, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM 88003 (United States); Johnson, Jennifer A., E-mail: vsmith@noao.edu [Department of Astronomy, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States)

    2013-03-01

    High-resolution H-band spectra of five bright field K, M, and MS giants, obtained from the archives of the Kitt Peak National Observatory Fourier transform spectrometer, are analyzed to determine chemical abundances of 16 elements. The abundances were derived via spectrum synthesis using the detailed linelist prepared for the Sloan Digital Sky Survey III Apache Point Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE), which is a high-resolution near-infrared spectroscopic survey to derive detailed chemical abundance distributions and precise radial velocities for 100,000 red giants sampling all Galactic stellar populations. The red giant sample studied here was chosen to probe which chemical elements can be derived reliably from the H-band APOGEE spectral region. These red giants consist of two K-giants ({alpha} Boo and {mu} Leo), two M-giants ({beta} And and {delta} Oph), and one thermally pulsing asymptotic giant branch (TP-AGB) star of spectral type MS (HD 199799). Measured chemical abundances include the cosmochemically important isotopes {sup 12}C, {sup 13}C, {sup 14}N, and {sup 16}O, along with Mg, Al, Si, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, and Cu. The K and M giants exhibit the abundance signature of the first dredge-up of CN-cycle material, while the TP-AGB star shows clear evidence of the addition of {sup 12}C synthesized during {sup 4}He-burning thermal pulses and subsequent third dredge-up. A comparison of the abundances derived here with published values for these stars reveals consistent results to {approx}0.1 dex. The APOGEE spectral region and linelist is thus well suited for probing both Galactic chemical evolution, as well as internal nucleosynthesis and mixing in populations of red giants via high-resolution spectroscopy.

  7. High-resolution spectroscopy of V854 Cen in decline - Absorption and emission lines of C_2 molecules

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    N. Kameswara Rao; David L. Lambert

    2000-02-10

    High-resolution optical spectra of the R Coronae Borealis (RBC) star V854 Centauri in the early stages of a decline show, in addition to the features reported for other RCBs in decline, narrow absorption lines from the C_2 Phillips system. The low rotational temperature, T_rot = 1150K, of the C_2 ground electronic state suggests the cold gas is associated with the developing shroud of carbon dust. These absorption lines were not seen at a fainter magnitude on the rise from minimum light nor at maximum light. This is the first detection of cold gas around a RCB star.

  8. Gemini-Phoenix infrared high-resolution abundance analysis of five giants in the bulge globular cluster NGC 6553

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. Melendez; B. Barbuy; E. Bica; M. Zoccali; S. Ortolani; A. Renzini; V. Hill

    2003-09-20

    A detailed abundance analysis of 5 giants of the metal-rich bulge globular cluster NGC 6553 was carried out using high resolution infrared spectra in the H band, obtained at the Gemini-South 8m telescope. JK photometry collected at ESO and VI photometry from the Hubble Space Telescope are used to derive effective temperatures. The present analysis provides a metallicity [Fe/H] = -0.20 +/- 0.10. An overabundance of oxygen of [O/Fe] = +0.20 is found from IR OH lines.

  9. Quantifying and relating land-surface and subsurface variability in permafrost environments using lidar and surface geophsical datasets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hubbard, Susan S [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Gangodagmage, C [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Dafflon, B [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Wainwright, H [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Peterson, J [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Gusmeroli, A [University of Alaska, Fairbanks; Ulrich, Craig [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Wu, Yuxin [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Wilson, Cathy [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Rowland, J [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Tweedie, Craig [University of Texas, El Paso; Wullschleger, Stan D [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    The complexity of permafrost dynamics and its critical impact on climate feedbacks warrant continued development of advanced high-latitude terrestrial ecosystem characterization and monitoring approaches. In this study, we explore the value of remote sensing and surface geophysical data for characterizing land surface and subsurface properties and their linkages in an Alaskan Coastal Plain ecosystem. We base our study on data collected at the end of the 2011 growing season in the Barrow Environmental Observatory, where a nested suite of measurements were collected within a polygon-dominated region including: surface ground penetrating radar, electromagnetic, and electrical resistance tomography data; thaw depth, soil temperature and moisture content, soil texture, soil carbon and nitrogen content, and major and trace cations. Previously-collected lidar data were also available for the study. Analysis of the datasets, individually and in combination, revealed the utility of the methods for characterizing critical land-surface and subsurface properties and associated spatial zonation. Lidar analysis was performed to extract geomorphic metrics (such as slope, curvature, and directed distance of polygons), which potentially indicate drainage potential and permafrost deformation state. Cluster analysis of these lidar-obtained attributes suggested that the land surface can be grouped into three spatially coherent zones, each having a dominant geomorphic expression including: a high centered polygon zone, a low centered polygon zone and a transitional zone. Comparison of the geophysical attributes from radar, electrical resistance tomography, and electromagnetic data with point measurements suggests that the surface geophysical data can provide very high-resolution information about subsurface properties that affect ecosystem feedbacks to climate, such as thaw depth and moisture content. Cluster analysis suggested that the geophysical attributes also varied spatially in a systematic way, suggesting the presence of three laterally distinct subsurface zones. Analysis of zone-based subsurface point measurements suggests that the geophysically-defined zones have unique distributions of hydrological, thermal, and geochemical properties and that the subsurface (geophysically-based) and land-surface (lidar-based) zonation is consistent. Although the close linkage between land surface (polygonal geomorphology) and subsurface (active layer) variability revealed through our study is not surprising, to our knowledge this is the first study to document such relationships using high resolution and non-invasive approaches. This study suggests the potential of using coincident lidar and surface geophysical measurements to quantify land surface and subsurface properties (respectively) and their linkages, which are likely to play a role in terrestrial ecosystem evolution and feedbacks to climate. These findings open the way for future research focused on using combined geophysical and remote sensing datasets to estimate subsurface and land-surface properties in high resolution and over large regions as is needed for process understanding and numerical model initialization in high latitude terrestrial ecosystems.

  10. New developments in high resolution borehole seismology and their applications to reservoir development and management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paulsson, B.N.P.

    1997-08-01

    Single-well seismology, Reverse Vertical Seismic Profiles (VSP`s) and Crosswell seismology are three new seismic techniques that we jointly refer to as borehole seismology. Borehole seismic techniques are of great interest because they can obtain much higher resolution images of oil and gas reservoirs than what is obtainable with currently used seismic techniques. The quality of oil and gas reservoir management decisions depend on the knowledge of both the large and the fine scale features in the reservoirs. Borehole seismology is capable of mapping reservoirs with an order of magnitude improvement in resolution compared with currently used technology. In borehole seismology we use a high frequency seismic source in an oil or gas well and record the signal in the same well, in other wells, or on the surface of the earth.

  11. Method for high resolution magnetic resonance analysis using magic angle technique

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wind, Robert A.; Hu, Jian Zhi

    2004-12-28

    A method of performing a magnetic resonance analysis of a biological object that includes placing the object in a main magnetic field (that has a static field direction) and in a radio frequency field; rotating the object at a frequency of less than about 100 Hz around an axis positioned at an angle of about 54.degree.44' relative to the main magnetic static field direction; pulsing the radio frequency to provide a sequence that includes a phase-corrected magic angle turning pulse segment; and collecting data generated by the pulsed radio frequency. The object may be reoriented about the magic angle axis between three predetermined positions that are related to each other by 120.degree.. The main magnetic field may be rotated mechanically or electronically. Methods for magnetic resonance imaging of the object are also described.

  12. A Flat Universe from High-Resolution Maps of the Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. de Bernardis; P. A. R. Ade; J. J. Bock; J. R. Bond; J. Borrill; A. Boscaleri; K. Coble; B. P. Crill; G. De Gasperis; P. C. Farese; P. G. Ferreira; K. Ganga; M. Giacometti; E. Hivon; V. V. Hristov; A. Iacoangeli; A. H. Jaffe; A. E. Lange; L. Martinis; S. Masi; P. Mason; P. D. Mauskopf; A. Melchiorri; L. Miglio; T. Montroy; C. B. Netterfield; E. Pascale; F. Piacentini; D. Pogosyan; S. Prunet; S. Rao; G. Romeo; J. E. Ruhl; F. Scaramuzzi; D. Sforna; N. Vittorio

    2000-04-28

    The blackbody radiation left over from the Big Bang has been transformed by the expansion of the Universe into the nearly isotropic 2.73K Cosmic Microwave Background. Tiny inhomogeneities in the early Universe left their imprint on the microwave background in the form of small anisotropies in its temperature. These anisotropies contain information about basic cosmological parameters, particularly the total energy density and curvature of the universe. Here we report the first images of resolved structure in the microwave background anisotropies over a significant part of the sky. Maps at four frequencies clearly distinguish the microwave background from foreground emission. We compute the angular power spectrum of the microwave background, and find a peak at Legendre multipole $\\ell_{peak}=(197 \\pm 6)$, with an amplitude $DT_{200}=(69 \\pm 8)\\mu K$. This is consistent with that expected for cold dark matter models in a flat (euclidean) Universe, as favoured by standard inflationary scenarios.

  13. Method for high resolution magnetic resonance analysis using magic angle technique

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wind, Robert A.; Hu, Jian Zhi

    2003-12-30

    A method of performing a magnetic resonance analysis of a biological object that includes placing the object in a main magnetic field (that has a static field direction) and in a radio frequency field; rotating the object at a frequency of less than about 100 Hz around an axis positioned at an angle of about 54.degree.44' relative to the main magnetic static field direction; pulsing the radio frequency to provide a sequence that includes a phase-corrected magic angle turning pulse segment; and collecting data generated by the pulsed radio frequency. The object may be reoriented about the magic angle axis between three predetermined positions that are related to each other by 120.degree.. The main magnetic field may be rotated mechanically or electronically. Methods for magnetic resonance imaging of the object are also described.

  14. Dynamic properties along the neutral line of a delta spot inferred from high-resolution observations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cristaldi, A.; Guglielmino, S. L.; Zuccarello, F.; Falco, M. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia-Sezione Astrofisica, Universitŕ di Catania, via S. Sofia 78, I-95123 Catania (Italy); Romano, P. [INAF-Osservatorio Astrofisico di Catania, via S. Sofia 78, I-95123 Catania (Italy); Rouppe van der Voort, L. [Institute of Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1029 Blindern, N-0315 Oslo (Norway); De la Cruz Rodríguez, J. [Institute for Solar Physics, Department of Astronomy, Stockholm University, Albanova University Center, SE-10691 Stockholm (Sweden); Ermolli, I. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma, via Frascati 33, I-00040 Monte Porzio Catone (Italy); Criscuoli, S. [NSO-National Solar Observatory, Sacramento Peak Box 62, Sunspot, NM 88349 (United States)

    2014-07-10

    Delta (?) spots are complex magnetic configurations of sunspots characterized by umbrae of opposite polarity sharing a common penumbra. In order to investigate the fine structure of the region separating the two magnetic polarities of a ? spot, we studied the morphology, the magnetic configuration, and the velocity field in such a region using observations of active region (AR) NOAA 11267 obtained with the CRisp Imaging SpectroPolarimeter (CRISP) at the Swedish Solar Telescope on 2011 August 6. The analysis of CRISP data shows upflows and downflows of ? ± 3 km s{sup –1} in proximity of the ? spot polarity inversion line (PIL), and horizontal motions along the PIL of the order of ?1 km s{sup –1}. The results obtained from the SIR inversion of CRISP data also indicate that the transverse magnetic field in the brighter region separating the two opposite magnetic polarities of the ? spot is tilted about ?45° with respect to the PIL. Solar Dynamics Observatory/Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager observations confirm the presence of motions of ? ± 3 km s{sup –1} in proximity of the PIL, which were observed to last 15 hr. From the data analyzed, we conclude that the steady, persistent, and subsonic motions observed along the ? spot PIL can be interpreted as being due to Evershed flows occurring in the penumbral filaments that show a curved, wrapped configuration. The fluting of the penumbral filaments and their bending, continuously increased by the approaching motion of the negative umbra toward the positive one, give rise to the complex line-of-sight velocity maps that we observed.

  15. High resolution monochromator for inelastic scattering studies of high energy phonons using undulator radiation at the advanced photon source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Macrander, A.T.; Schwoerer-Boehning, M.; Abbamonte, P.M.; Hu, M.

    1997-08-01

    A monochromator for use at 13.84 keV with a calculated bandpass of 5.2 meV was designed built, and tested. Tuning was performed by rotating the inner crystal of a pair of nested silicon channel-cut crystals. The inner crystal employs the (884) reflection, and the outer crystal employs a collimating asymmetric (422) reflection (dynamical asymmetry factor, b, equal to {minus}17.5). Tests were done with a double-crystal Si(111) pre-monochromator situated upstream of the high resolution monochromator and a Si(777) backscattering crystal situated downstream. For this optical arrangement an ideal value of 6.3 meV as calculated by x-ray dynamical diffraction theory applies for the FWHM of the convolution of the net monochromator reflectivity function with that of the Si(777) reflection. This calculated value is to be compared to the value of 7.1 meV measured by tuning the high resolution monochromator. Measured efficiencies were less than ideal by a factor of 3.2 to 4.9, where the larger flux reduction factors were found with higher positron storage ring currents.

  16. High-resolution magnetohydrodynamics simulation of black hole-neutron star merger: Mass ejection and short gamma-ray burst

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kiuchi, Kenta; Kyutoku, Koutarou; Shibata, Masaru; Taniguchi, Keisuke; Wada, Tomohide

    2015-01-01

    We report results of a high-resolution numerical-relativity simulation for the merger of black hole-magnetized neutron star binaries on Japanese supercomputer "K". We focus on a binary that is subject to tidal disruption and subsequent formation of a massive accretion torus. We find the launch of thermally driven torus wind, subsequent formation of a funnel wall above the torus and a magnetosphere with collimated poloidal magnetic field, and high Blandford-Znajek luminosity. We show for the first time this picture in a self-consistent simulation. The turbulence-like motion induced by the non-axisymmetric magnetorotational instability as well as the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability inside the accretion torus works as an agent to drive the mass accretion and converts the accretion energy to thermal energy, which results in the generation of a strong wind. By an in-depth resolution study, we reveal that high resolution is essential to draw such a picture. We also discuss the implication for the r-process nucleosynth...

  17. High resolution 17 keV to 75 keV backlighters for High Energy Density experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Park, H; Maddox, B R; Giraldez, E; Hatchett, S P; Hudson, L; Izumi, N; Key, M H; Pape, S L; MacKinnon, A J; MacPhee, A G; Patel, P K; Phillips, T W; Remington, B A; Seely, J F; Tommasini, R; Town, R; Workman, J

    2008-02-25

    We have developed 17 keV to 75 keV 1-dimensional and 2-dimensional high-resolution (< 10 {micro}m) radiography using high-intensity short pulse lasers. High energy K-{alpha} sources are created by fluorescence from hot electrons interacting in the target material after irradiation by lasers with intensity I{sub L} > 10{sup 17} W/cm{sup 2}. We have achieved high resolution point projection 1-dimensional and 2-dimensional radiography using micro-foil and micro-wire targets attached to low-Z substrate materials. The micro-wire size was 10 {micro}m x 10 {micro}m x 300 {micro}m on a 300 {micro}m x 300 {micro}m x 5 {micro}m CH substrate. The radiography performance was demonstrated using the Titan laser at LLNL. We observed that the resolution is dominated by the micro-wire target size and there is very little degradation from the plasma plume, implying that the high energy x-ray photons are generated mostly within the micro-wire volume. We also observe that there are enough K{alpha} photons created with a 300 J, 1-{omega}, 40 ps pulse laser from these small volume targets, and that the signal-to-noise ratio is sufficiently high, for single shot radiography experiments. This unique technique will be used on future high energy density (HED) experiments at the new Omega-EP, ZR and NIF facilities.

  18. High-resolution magnetohydrodynamics simulation of black hole-neutron star merger: Mass ejection and short gamma-ray burst

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kenta Kiuchi; Yuichiro Sekiguchi; Koutarou Kyutoku; Masaru Shibata; Keisuke Taniguchi; Tomohide Wada

    2015-06-22

    We report results of a high-resolution numerical-relativity simulation for the merger of black hole-magnetized neutron star binaries on Japanese supercomputer "K". We focus on a binary that is subject to tidal disruption and subsequent formation of a massive accretion torus. We find the launch of thermally driven torus wind, subsequent formation of a funnel wall above the torus and a magnetosphere with collimated poloidal magnetic field, and high Blandford-Znajek luminosity. We show for the first time this picture in a self-consistent simulation. The turbulence-like motion induced by the non-axisymmetric magnetorotational instability as well as the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability inside the accretion torus works as an agent to drive the mass accretion and converts the accretion energy to thermal energy, which results in the generation of a strong wind. By an in-depth resolution study, we reveal that high resolution is essential to draw such a picture. We also discuss the implication for the r-process nucleosynthesis, the radioactively-powered transient emission, and short gamma-ray bursts.

  19. High-resolution magnetohydrodynamics simulation of black hole-neutron star merger: Mass ejection and short gamma-ray burst

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kenta Kiuchi; Yuichiro Sekiguchi; Koutarou Kyutoku; Masaru Shibata; Keisuke Taniguchi; Tomohide Wada

    2015-09-03

    We report results of a high-resolution numerical-relativity simulation for the merger of black hole-magnetized neutron star binaries on Japanese supercomputer "K". We focus on a binary that is subject to tidal disruption and subsequent formation of a massive accretion torus. We find the launch of thermally driven torus wind, subsequent formation of a funnel wall above the torus and a magnetosphere with collimated poloidal magnetic field, and high Blandford-Znajek luminosity. We show for the first time this picture in a self-consistent simulation. The turbulence-like motion induced by the non-axisymmetric magnetorotational instability as well as the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability inside the accretion torus works as an agent to drive the mass accretion and converts the accretion energy to thermal energy, which results in the generation of a strong wind. By an in-depth resolution study, we reveal that high resolution is essential to draw such a picture. We also discuss the implication for the r-process nucleosynthesis, the radioactively-powered transient emission, and short gamma-ray bursts.

  20. Massive quiescent cores in Orion. IV. Their supercritical state revealed by high resolution ammonia maps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, D; Zhang, Q; Chen, W

    2012-01-01

    We present combined VLA and GBT images of \\ammonia\\ inversion transitions (1,1) and (2,2) toward OMC2 and OMC3. We focus on the relatively quiescent Orion cores, which are away from the Trapezium cluster and have no sign of massive protostars nor evolved star formation, such as IRAS source, water maser, and methanol maser. The 5\\arcsec\\ angular resolution and $0.6 \\rm{}km s^{-1}$ velocity resolution of these data enable us to study the thermal and dynamic state of these cores at $\\sim{}0.02 \\rm{}pc$ scales, comparable to or smaller than those of the current dust continuum surveys. We measure temperatures for a total of 30 cores, with average masses and radii of $11 \\Ms$ and $0.039 \\rm{}pc$, respectively. Compared to other Gould Belt dense cores, the Orion cores have an unusually high gravitational-to-inetic energy ratio (virial mass ratio $R_{vir} > >1$), resembling results for other clouds forming high--mass stars. This results from Orion cores having velocity dispersions similar to those in, e.g., Perseus a...

  1. Mexico City Aerosol Analysis During Milagro Using High Resolution Aerosol Mass Spectrometry at the Urban Supersite (T0) - Part 1: Fine Particle Composition and Organic Source Apportionment.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aiken, A. C.

    Submicron aerosol was analyzed during the MILAGRO field campaign in March 2006 at the T0 urban supersite in Mexico City with a High-Resolution Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS) and complementary instrumentation. Positive ...

  2. Maintaining Subsurface Drip Irrigation Systems (Spanish) 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Enciso, Juan; Porter, Dana; Bordovsky, Jim; Fipps, Guy

    2004-09-07

    A subsurface drip irrigation system should last more than 20 years if properly maintained. Important maintenance procedures include cleaning the filters, flushing the lines, adding chlorine and injecting acids. Details of these procedures...

  3. High speed optical coherence microscopy with autofocus adjustment and a miniaturized endoscopic imaging probe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aguirre, Aaron Dominic

    Optical coherence microscopy (OCM) is a promising technique for high resolution cellular imaging in human tissues. An OCM system for high-speed en face cellular resolution imaging was developed at 1060 nm wavelength at ...

  4. Direct visualization of the perforant pathway in the human brain with ex vivo diffusion tensor imaging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Augustinack, Jean

    Ex vivo magnetic resonance imaging yields high resolution images that reveal detailed cerebral anatomy and explicit cytoarchitecture in the cerebral cortex, subcortical structures, and white matter in the human brain. Our ...

  5. Multicomponent seismic data registration for subsurface characterization in the shallow Gulf of Mexico

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Texas at Austin, University of

    OTC 15117 Multicomponent seismic data registration for subsurface characterization in the shallow acknowledgment of where and by whom the paper was presented. Abstract Using multicomponent ocean-bottom seismic images. The algorithm improves the matching of the two seismic volumes obtained by previous manual

  6. Floating insulated conductors for heating subsurface formations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Burns, David; Goodwin, Charles R.

    2014-07-29

    A heating system for a subsurface formation includes a conduit located in a first opening in the subsurface formation. Three electrical conductors are located in the conduit. A return conductor is located inside the conduit. The return conductor is electrically coupled to the ends of the electrical conductors distal from the surface of the formation. Insulation is located inside the conduit. The insulation electrically insulates the three electrical conductors, the return conductor, and the conduit from each other.

  7. Novel Large Area High Resolution Neutron Detector for the Spallation Neutron Source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lacy, Jeffrey L

    2009-05-22

    Neutron scattering is a powerful technique that is critically important for materials science and structural biology applications. The knowledge gained from past developments has resulted in far-reaching advances in engineering, pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries, to name a few. New facilities for neutron generation at much higher flux, such as the SNS at Oak Ridge, TN, will greatly enhance the capabilities of neutron scattering, with benefits that extend to many fields and include, for example, development of improved drug therapies and materials that are stronger, longer-lasting, and more impact-resistant. In order to fully realize this enhanced potential, however, higher neutron rates must be met with improved detection capabilities, particularly higher count rate capability in large size detectors, while maintaining practicality. We have developed a neutron detector with the technical and economic advantages to accomplish this goal. This new detector has a large sensitive area, offers 3D spatial resolution, high sensitivity and high count rate capability, and it is economical and practical to produce. The proposed detector technology is based on B-10 thin film conversion of neutrons in long straw-like gas detectors. A stack of many such detectors, each 1 meter in length, and 4 mm in diameter, has a stopping power that exceeds that of He-3 gas, contained at practical pressures within an area detector. With simple electronic readout methods, straw detector arrays can provide spatial resolution of 4 mm FWHM or better, and since an array detector of such form consists of several thousand individual elements per square meter, count rates in a 1 m^2 detector can reach 2?10^7 cps. Moreover, each individual event can be timetagged with a time resolution of less than 0.1 ?sec, allowing accurate identification of neutron energy by time of flight. Considering basic elemental cost, this novel neutron imaging detector can be commercially produced economically, probably at a small fraction of the cost of He-3 detectors. In addition to neutron scattering science, the fully developed base technology can be used as a rugged, low-cost neutron detector in area monitoring and surveying. Radiation monitors are used in a number of other settings for occupational and environmental radiation safety. Such a detector can also be used in environmental monitoring and remote nuclear power plant monitoring. For example, the Department of Energy could use it to characterize nuclear waste dumps, coordinate clean-up efforts, and assess the radioactive contaminants in the air and water. Radiation monitors can be used to monitor the age and component breakdown of nuclear warheads and to distinguish between weapons and reactor grade plutonium. The UN's International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) uses radiation monitors for treaty verification, remote monitoring, and enforcing the non-proliferation of nuclear weapons. As part of treaty verification, monitors can be used to certify the contents of containers during inspections. They could be used for portal monitoring to secure border checkpoints, sea ports, air cargo centers, public parks, sporting venues, and key government buildings. Currently, only 2% of all sea cargo shipped is inspected for radiation sources. In addition, merely the presence of radiation is detected and nothing is known about the radioactive source until further testing. The utilization of radiation monitors with neutron sensitivity and capability of operation in hostile port environments would increase the capacity and effectiveness of the radioactive scanning processes.

  8. Interpretation of HRTEM images by image simulation: An introduction to theory and practice

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O`Keefe, M.A.

    1994-08-01

    This tutorial describes the use of image simulation as an aid to interpretation of high-resolution transmission electron microscope images. Topics include some image processing as well as image simulation. Image processing is the manipulation of experimental images in order to extract some desired information. Image simulation is the generation of a computed or simulated image from a model structure. It requires a detailed knowledge of the process of image formation in the high-resolution transmission electron microscope. This tutorial concentrates on image simulation, with examples of image processing appearing only as required as illustrations. Because this is an introduction, the theory of image simulation is described, but not explored in depth. The practice of image simulation is covered in sufficient detail to enable the student to understand the functions of the various steps in the computations, and the parameters necessary for their evaluation.

  9. High-resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy with a microwave-multiplexed transition-edge sensor array

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Noroozian, Omid [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, Colorado 80305 (United States) [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, Colorado 80305 (United States); Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309 (United States); Mates, John A. B.; Bennett, Douglas A.; Brevik, Justus A.; Fowler, Joseph W.; Gao, Jiansong; Hilton, Gene C.; Horansky, Robert D.; Irwin, Kent D.; Schmidt, Daniel R.; Vale, Leila R.; Ullom, Joel N. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, Colorado 80305 (United States)] [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, Colorado 80305 (United States); Kang, Zhao [Department of Physics, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309 (United States)] [Department of Physics, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309 (United States)

    2013-11-11

    We demonstrate very high resolution photon spectroscopy with a microwave-multiplexed two-pixel transition-edge sensor (TES) array. We measured a {sup 153}Gd photon source and achieved an energy resolution of 63 eV full-width-at-half-maximum at 97 keV and an equivalent readout system noise of 86 pA/?(Hz) at the TES. The readout circuit consists of superconducting microwave resonators coupled to radio-frequency superconducting-quantum-interference-devices and transduces changes in input current to changes in phase of a microwave signal. We use flux-ramp modulation to linearize the response and evade low-frequency noise. This demonstration establishes one path for the readout of cryogenic X-ray and gamma-ray sensor arrays with more than 10{sup 3} elements and spectral resolving powers R=?/??>10{sup 3}.

  10. A global view of gravity waves in the Martian atmosphere inferred from a high-resolution general circulation model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kuroda, Takeshi; Yi?it, Erdal; Hartogh, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Global characteristics of the small-scale gravity wave (GW) field in the Martian atmosphere obtained from a high-resolution general circulation model (GCM) are presented for the first time. The simulated GW-induced temperature variances are in a good agreement with available radio occultation data in the lower atmosphere between 10 and 30 km. The model reveals a latitudinal asymmetry with stronger wave generation in the winter hemisphere, and two distinctive sources of GWs: mountainous regions and the meandering winter polar jet. Orographic GWs are filtered while propagating upward, and the mesosphere is primarily dominated by harmonics with faster horizontal phase velocities. Wave fluxes are directed mainly against the local wind. GW dissipation in the upper mesosphere generates body forces of tens of m~s$^{-1}$~sol$^{-1}$, which tend to close the simulated jets. The results represent a realistic surrogate for missing observations, which can be used for constraining GW parameterizations and validating GCM si...

  11. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy study of carbon deposited on the NiO/MgO solid solution catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hu, Y.H.; Ruckenstein, E.

    1999-05-15

    The carbon deposition due to the CH{sub 4} decomposition at 790 C over NiO/MgO catalysts was investigated by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. While no deposits could be detected over the catalysts with a NiO content smaller than 9.1 wt%, they were detected over the catalysts with NiO contents of 23 and 50 wt%. The carbon deposits are composed of platelets located at distances of about 0.34 nm, corresponding to the graphitic carbon. Various structures of the deposited carbon were observed: (a) carbon consisting of platelets parallel to the surface of the particle, which covers a catalyst particle, (b) nanotubes composed of platelets parallel to their axis, and (c) carbon vortexes consisting of platelets parallel to their axis.

  12. Experimentally characterizing the electronic structures of f-electron systems using advanced high resolution Fourier transform microwave spectroscopies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cooke, Stephen, A

    2013-02-03

    We aim to (i) provide data that directly addresses the fundamental roles of actinide valence electrons in chemical bonding, and (ii) serve to provide prototypical data for the heavy element computational chemistry community. These goals will be achieved through the first pure rotational spectroscopic measurements on prototypical systems at ultra-high resolution. These systems encompass low oxidation state uranium and thorium compounds including, but not limited to, UX and ThX, X = F, Cl, Br, I, and UY and ThY, Y = O, S, and other simple U and Th-containing compounds. Our primary experimental tools involve time-domain rotational spectroscopy achieving line widths and resolutions of a few kHz.

  13. Vibronic fine structure in high-resolution x-ray absorption spectra from ion-bombarded boron nitride nanotubes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Petravic, Mladen; Peter, Robert; Varasanec, Marijana; Li Luhua; Chen Ying; Cowie, Bruce C. C.

    2013-05-15

    The authors have applied high-resolution near-edge x-ray absorption fine structure measurements around the nitrogen K-edge to study the effects of ion-bombardment on near-surface properties of boron nitride nanotubes. A notable difference has been observed between surface sensitive partial electron yield (PEY) and bulk sensitive total electron yield (TEY) fine-structure measurements. The authors assign the PEY fine structure to the coupling of excited molecular vibrational modes to electronic transitions in NO molecules trapped just below the surface. Oxidation resistance of the boron nitride nanotubes is significantly reduced by low energy ion bombardment, as broken B-N bonds are replaced by N-O bonds involving oxygen present in the surface region. In contrast to the PEY spectra, the bulk sensitive TEY measurements on as-grown samples do not exhibit any fine structure while the ion-bombarded samples show a clear vibronic signature of molecular nitrogen.

  14. High-Resolution Spectroscopy of the Yellow Hypergiant Rho Cassiopeiae from 1993 Through the Outburst of 2000-2001

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Lobel; A. K. Dupree; R. P. Stefanik; G. Torres; G. Israelian; N. Morrison; C. de Jager; H. Nieuwenhuijzen; I. Ilyin; F. Musaev

    2003-01-14

    We present an overview of the spectral variability of the peculiar F-type hypergiant Rho Cas, obtained from our long-term monitoring campaigns over the past 8.5 years with four spectrographs in the northern hemisphere. Between 2000 June and September an exceptional variability phase occurred when the V-brightness dimmed by about a full magnitude. The star recovered from this deep minimum by 2001 April. It is the third outburst of Rho Cas on record in the last century. We observe TiO absorption bands in high-resolution near-IR spectra obtained with the Utrecht Echelle Spectrograph during the summer of 2000. TiO formation in the outer atmosphere occurred before the deep brightness minimum. Atmospheric models reveal that the effective temperature decreases by at least 3000 K, and the TiO shell is driven supersonically with Mdot ~= 5.4 10^{-2} Msun/yr. Strong episodic mass loss and TiO have also been observed during the outbursts of 1945-47 and 1985-86. A detailed analysis of the exceptional outburst spectra is provided, by comparing with high-resolution optical spectra of the early M-type supergiants Mu Cep (Ia) and Betelgeuse (Iab). The outburst spectra indicate the formation of a low-temperature, optically thick circumstellar gas shell of 3 10^{-2} Msun during ~200 d, caused by dynamic instability of the upper atmosphere of this pulsating massive supergiant near the Eddington luminosity limit. We observe that the mass-loss rate during the outburst is of the same order of magnitude as has been proposed for the outbursts of Eta Carinae. We present calculations that correctly predict the outburst time-scale, whereby the shell ejection is driven by the release of hydrogen ionization-recombination energy.

  15. High-resolution emissions of CO{sub 2} from power generation in the USA - article no. G04008

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Petron, G.; Tans, P.; Frost, G.; Chao, D.L.; Trainer, M. [NOAA, Boulder, CO (United States). Earth Systems Research Laboratory

    2008-10-15

    Electricity generation accounts for close to 40% of the U.S. CO{sub 2} emissions from fossil fuel burning, making it the economic sector with the largest source of CO{sub 2}. Since the late 1990s, the Environmental Protection Agency Clean Air Markets Division (EPA CAMD) has kept a repository of hourly CO{sub 2} emission data for most power plants in the conterminous United States. In this study, the CAMD CO{sub 2} data are used to derive a high spatiotemporal resolution CO{sub 2} emissions inventory for the electricity generation sector (inventory available on request). Data from 1998 to 2006 have been processed. This unique inventory can be used to improve the understanding of the carbon cycle at fine temporal and spatial scales. The CAMD data set provides the first quantitative estimates of the diurnal and seasonal cycles of the emissions as well as the year to year variability. Emissions peak in the summertime owing to the widespread use of air conditioning. Summertime emissions are in fact highly correlated with the daily average temperature. In conjunction with the EPA Emissions and Generation Resource Integrated Database (eGRID), we have derived high-resolution maps of CO{sub 2} emissions by fossil fuel burned (coal, gas, oil) for the year 2004. The CAMD data set also reflects regional anomalies in power generation such as the August 2003 blackout in the northeastern United States and the 2000-2001 increase in production in California. We recommend that all sectors of the economy report similar high-resolution CO{sub 2} emissions because of their great usefulness both for carbon cycle science and for greenhouse gases emissions mitigation and regulation.

  16. ON THE IMPACT OF SUPER RESOLUTION WSR-88D DOPPLER RADAR DATA ASSIMILATION ON HIGH RESOLUTION NUMERICAL MODEL FORECASTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chiswell, S

    2009-01-11

    Assimilation of radar velocity and precipitation fields into high-resolution model simulations can improve precipitation forecasts with decreased 'spin-up' time and improve short-term simulation of boundary layer winds (Benjamin, 2004 & 2007; Xiao, 2008) which is critical to improving plume transport forecasts. Accurate description of wind and turbulence fields is essential to useful atmospheric transport and dispersion results, and any improvement in the accuracy of these fields will make consequence assessment more valuable during both routine operation as well as potential emergency situations. During 2008, the United States National Weather Service (NWS) radars implemented a significant upgrade which increased the real-time level II data resolution to 8 times their previous 'legacy' resolution, from 1 km range gate and 1.0 degree azimuthal resolution to 'super resolution' 250 m range gate and 0.5 degree azimuthal resolution (Fig 1). These radar observations provide reflectivity, velocity and returned power spectra measurements at a range of up to 300 km (460 km for reflectivity) at a frequency of 4-5 minutes and yield up to 13.5 million point observations per level in super-resolution mode. The migration of National Weather Service (NWS) WSR-88D radars to super resolution is expected to improve warning lead times by detecting small scale features sooner with increased reliability; however, current operational mesoscale model domains utilize grid spacing several times larger than the legacy data resolution, and therefore the added resolution of radar data is not fully exploited. The assimilation of super resolution reflectivity and velocity data into high resolution numerical weather model forecasts where grid spacing is comparable to the radar data resolution is investigated here to determine the impact of the improved data resolution on model predictions.

  17. Parallel Lossless Image Compression Using Huffman and Arithmetic Coding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Howard, Paul G.; Vitter, Jeffrey Scott

    1996-01-01

    We show that high-resolution images can be encoded and decoded e ciently in parallel. We present an algorithm based on the hierarchical MLP method, used either with Hu man coding or with a new variant of arithmetic coding ...

  18. Advanced 3D Geophysical Imaging Technologies for Geothermal Resource Characterization

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE Geothermal Peer Review 2010 - Presentation. This project aims to develop improved geophysical imaging method for characterizing subsurface structure, identify fluid locations, and characterize fractures.

  19. Mapping intra-field yield variation using high resolution satellite imagery to integrate bioenergy and environmental stewardship in an agricultural watershed

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Hamada, Yuki; Ssegane, Herbert; Negri, Maria Cristina

    2015-07-31

    Biofuels are important alternatives for meeting our future energy needs. Successful bioenergy crop production requires maintaining environmental sustainability and minimum impacts on current net annual food, feed, and fiber production. The objectives of this study were to: (1) determine under-productive areas within an agricultural field in a watershed using a single date; high resolution remote sensing and (2) examine impacts of growing bioenergy crops in the under-productive areas using hydrologic modeling in order to facilitate sustainable landscape design. Normalized difference indices (NDIs) were computed based on the ratio of all possible two-band combinations using the RapidEye and the National Agriculturalmore »Imagery Program images collected in summer 2011. A multiple regression analysis was performed using 10 NDIs and five RapidEye spectral bands. The regression analysis suggested that the red and near infrared bands and NDI using red-edge and near infrared that is known as the red-edge normalized difference vegetation index (RENDVI) had the highest correlation (R2 = 0.524) with the reference yield. Although predictive yield map showed striking similarity to the reference yield map, the model had modest correlation; thus, further research is needed to improve predictive capability for absolute yields. Forecasted impact using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool model of growing switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) on under-productive areas based on corn yield thresholds of 3.1, 4.7, and 6.3 Mg·ha-1 showed reduction of tile NO3-N and sediment exports by 15.9%–25.9% and 25%–39%, respectively. Corresponding reductions in water yields ranged from 0.9% to 2.5%. While further research is warranted, the study demonstrated the integration of remote sensing and hydrologic modeling to quantify the multifunctional value of projected future landscape patterns in a context of sustainable bioenergy crop production.« less

  20. Design, assembly, and testing of a high-resolution relay lens used for holography with operation at both doubled and tripled Nd:YAG laser wavelengths

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sorenson, Danny S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Pazuchanics, Peter D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Malone, Robert M [NSTEC; Cox, Brian C [NSTEC; Frogget, Brent C [NSTEC; Kaufman, Morris I [NSTEC; Capelle, Gene A [NSTEC/SB; Grover, M [NSTEC/SB; Stevens, Gerald D [NSTEC/SB; Turley, William D [NSTEC/SB

    2009-01-01

    The design and assembly of a nine-element lens that achieves >2000 1p/mm resolution at a 355-nm wavelength (ultraviolet) has been completed. By adding a doublet to this lens system, operation at a 532-nm wavelength (green) with > 1100 1p/mm resolution is achieved. This lens is used with high-power laser light to record holograms of fast-moving ejecta particles from a shocked metal surface located inside a test package. Part of the lens and the entire test package are under vacuum with a 1-cm air gap separation. Holograms have been recorded with both doubled and tripled Nd:YAG laser light. The UV operation is very sensitive to the package window's tilt. If this window is tilted by more than 0.1 degrees, the green operation performs with better resolution than that of the UV operation. The setup and alignment are performed with green light, but the dynamic recording can be done with either UV light or green light. A resolution plate can be temporarily placed inside the test package so that a television microscope located beyond the hologram position can archive images of resolution patterns that prove that the calibration wires., interference filter, holographic plate, and relay lenses are in their correct positions. Part of this lens is under vacuum, at the point where the laser illumination passes through a focus. Alignment and tolerancing of this high-resolution lens are presented. Resolution variation across the 12-mm field of view and throughout the 5-mm depth of field is discussed for both wavelengths.

  1. SUBSURFACE REPOSITORY INTEGRATED CONTROL SYSTEM DESIGN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    C.J. Fernado

    1998-09-17

    The purpose of this document is to develop preliminary high-level functional and physical control system architectures for the proposed subsurface repository at Yucca Mountain. This document outlines overall control system concepts that encompass and integrate the many diverse systems being considered for use within the subsurface repository. This document presents integrated design concepts for monitoring and controlling the diverse set of subsurface operations. The subsurface repository design will be composed of a series of diverse systems that will be integrated to accomplish a set of overall functions and objectives. The subsurface repository contains several Instrumentation and Control (I&C) related systems including: waste emplacement systems, ventilation systems, communication systems, radiation monitoring systems, rail transportation systems, ground control monitoring systems, utility monitoring systems (electrical, lighting, water, compressed air, etc.), fire detection and protection systems, retrieval systems, and performance confirmation systems. Each of these systems involve some level of I&C and will typically be integrated over a data communication network. The subsurface I&C systems will also integrate with multiple surface-based site-wide systems such as emergency response, health physics, security and safeguards, communications, utilities and others. The scope and primary objectives of this analysis are to: (1) Identify preliminary system level functions and interface needs (Presented in the functional diagrams in Section 7.2). (2) Examine the overall system complexity and determine how and on what levels these control systems will be controlled and integrated (Presented in Section 7.2). (3) Develop a preliminary subsurface facility-wide design for an overall control system architecture, and depict this design by a series of control system functional block diagrams (Presented in Section 7.2). (4) Develop a series of physical architectures that present preliminary concepts for integrating the diverse set of control systems to be used within the subsurface repository facility (Presented in Section 7.3). (5) Develop initial concepts for an overall subsurface data communication system that can be used to integrate critical and data-intensive control systems (Presented in Section 7.4). (6) Discuss technology trends and control system design issues (Presented in Section 7.5).

  2. Y High-Resolution

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust,Field-effectWorkingLos Alamos verifies largest single MicropulseXun Lu Xun Lu Xun Lu5:

  3. Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area annual report 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-12-31

    In support of its vision for technological excellence, the Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area (SCFA) has identified three strategic goals. The three goals of the SCFA are: Contain and/or stabilize contamination sources that pose an imminent threat to surface and ground waters; Delineate DNAPL contamination in the subsurface and remediate DNAPL-contaminated soils and ground water; and Remove a full range of metal and radionuclide contamination in soils and ground water. To meet the challenges of remediating subsurface contaminants in soils and ground water, SCFA funded more than 40 technologies in fiscal year 1997. These technologies are grouped according to the following product lines: Dense Nonaqueous-Phase Liquids; Metals and Radionuclides; Source Term Containment; and Source Term Remediation. This report briefly describes the SCFA 1997 technologies and showcases a few key technologies in each product line.

  4. Heating systems for heating subsurface formations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nguyen, Scott Vinh (Houston, TX); Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX)

    2011-04-26

    Methods and systems for heating a subsurface formation are described herein. A heating system for a subsurface formation includes a sealed conduit positioned in an opening in the formation and a heat source. The sealed conduit includes a heat transfer fluid. The heat source provides heat to a portion of the sealed conduit to change phase of the heat transfer fluid from a liquid to a vapor. The vapor in the sealed conduit rises in the sealed conduit, condenses to transfer heat to the formation and returns to the conduit portion as a liquid.

  5. Induction heaters used to heat subsurface formations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nguyen, Scott Vinh (Houston, TX); Bass, Ronald M. (Houston, TX)

    2012-04-24

    A heating system for a subsurface formation includes an elongated electrical conductor located in the subsurface formation. The electrical conductor extends between at least a first electrical contact and a second electrical contact. A ferromagnetic conductor at least partially surrounds and at least partially extends lengthwise around the electrical conductor. The electrical conductor, when energized with time-varying electrical current, induces sufficient electrical current flow in the ferromagnetic conductor such that the ferromagnetic conductor resistively heats to a temperature of at least about 300.degree. C.

  6. The SEGUE Stellar Parameter Pipeline. III. Comparison with High-Resolution Spectroscopy of SDSS/SEGUE Field Stars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. Allende Prieto; T. Sivarani; T. C. Beers; Y. S. Lee; L. Koesterke; M. Shetrone; C. Sneden; D. L. Lambert; R. Wilhelm; C. M. Rockosi; D. Lai; B. Yanny; I. I. Ivans; J. A. Johnson; W. Aoki; C. A. L. Bailer-Jones; P. Re Fiorentin

    2007-10-31

    We report high-resolution spectroscopy of 125 field stars previously observed as part of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and its program for Galactic studies, the Sloan Extension for Galactic Understanding and Exploration (SEGUE). These spectra are used to measure radial velocities and to derive atmospheric parameters, which we compare with those reported by the SEGUE Stellar Parameter Pipeline (SSPP). The SSPP obtains estimates of these quantities based on SDSS ugriz photometry and low-resolution (R = 2000) spectroscopy. For F- and G-type stars observed with high signal-to-noise ratios (S/N), we empirically determine the typical random uncertainties in the radial velocities, effective temperatures, surface gravities, and metallicities delivered by the SSPP to be 2.4 km/s, 130 K (2.2%), 0.21 dex, and 0.11 dex, respectively, with systematic uncertainties of a similar magnitude in the effective temperatures and metallicities. We estimate random errors for lower S/N spectra based on numerical simulations.

  7. Chemical Characterization of Crude Petroleum Using Nanospray Desorption Electrospray Ionization Coupled with High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eckert, Peter A.; Roach, Patrick J.; Laskin, Alexander; Laskin, Julia

    2012-02-07

    Nanospray desorption electrospray ionization (nano-DESI) combined with high-resolution mass spectrometry was used for the first time for the analysis of liquid petroleum crude oil samples. The analysis was performed in both positive and negative ionization modes using three solvents one of which (acetonitrile/toluene mixture) is commonly used in petroleomics studies while two other polar solvents (acetonitrile/water and methanol/water mixtures) are generally not compatible with petroleum characterization using mass spectrometry. The results demonstrate that nano-DESI analysis efficiently ionizes petroleum constituents soluble in a particular solvent. When acetonitrile/toluene is used as a solvent, nano-DESI generates electrospray-like spectra. In contrast, strikingly different spectra were obtained using acetonitrile/water and methanol/water. Comparison with the literature data indicates that these solvents selectively extract water-soluble constituents of the crude oil. Water-soluble compounds are predominantly observed as sodium adducts in nano-DESI spectra indicating that addition of sodium to the solvent may be a viable approach for efficient ionization of water-soluble crude oil constituents. Nano-DESI enables rapid screening of different classes of compounds in crude oil samples using solvents that are rarely used for petroleum characterization.

  8. Chemical Abundances in Twelve Red Giants of the Large Magellanic Cloud from High-Resolution Infrared Spectroscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    V. V. Smith; K. H. Hinkle; K. Cunha; B. Plez; D. L. Lambert; C. A. Pilachowski; B. Barbuy; J. Melendez; S. Balachandran; M. S. Bessell; D. P. Geisler; J. E. Hesser; C. Winge

    2002-08-22

    High-resolution infrared spectra (R=50,000) have been obtained for twelve red-giant members of the LMC with the Gemini South 8.3-meter telescope plus Phoenix spectrometer. Quantitative chemical abundances of carbon-12, carbon-13, nitrogen-14, and oxygen-16 were derived from molecular lines of CO, CN, and OH, while sodium, scandium, titanium, and iron abundances were derived from neutral atomic lines. The LMC giants have masses from about 1 to 4 solar masses and span a metallicity range from [Fe/H]= -1.1 to -0.3. The program red giants all show evidence of first dredge-up mixing, with low 12C/13C ratios, and low 12C correlated with high 14N abundances. Comparisons of the oxygen-to-iron ratios in the LMC and the Galaxy indicate that the trend of [O/Fe] versus [Fe/H] in the LMC falls about 0.2 dex below the Galactic trend. Such an offset can be modeled as due to an overall lower rate of supernovae per unit mass in the LMC relative to the Galaxy, as well as a slightly lower ratio of supernovae of type II to supernovae of type Ia.

  9. CoRoT photometry and high-resolution spectroscopy of the interacting eclipsing binary AU Mon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Desmet, M; Baudin, F; Harmanec, P; Lampens, P; Pacheco, E Janot; Briquet, M; Degroote, P; Neiner, C; Mathias, P; Poretti, E; Rainer, M; Uytterhoeven, K; Amado, P J; Valtier, J -C; Prsa, A; Maceroni, C; Aerts, C

    2009-01-01

    Analyses of very accurate CoRoT space photometry, past Johnson V photoelectric photometry and high-resolution \\'echelle spectra led to the determination of improved and consistent fundamental stellar properties of both components of AU Mon. We derived new, accurate ephemerides for both the orbital motion (with a period of 11.113d) and the long-term, overall brightness variation (with a period of 416.9d) of this strongly interacting Be + G semi-detached binary. It is shown that this long-term variation must be due to attenuation of the total light by some variable circumbinary material. We derived the binary mass ratio $M_{\\rm G}/M_{\\rm B}$ = 0.17\\p0.03 based on the assumption that the G-type secondary fills its Roche lobe and rotates synchronously. Using this value of the mass ratio as well as the radial velocities of the G-star, we obtained a consistent light curve model and improved estimates of the stellar masses, radii, luminosities and effective temperatures. We demonstrate that the observed lines of the...

  10. High-resolution line-shape spectroscopy during a laser pulse based on Dual-Broad-Band-CARS interferometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vereschagin, Konstantin A; Vereschagin, Alexey K; Smirnov, Valery V; Stelmakh, O M; Fabelinskii, V I; Clauss, W; Klimenko, D N; Oschwald, M E-mail: Al_Vereshchagin@mail.r E-mail: stelmakh@kapella.gpi.r

    2006-07-31

    A high-resolution spectroscopic method is developed for recording Raman spectra of molecular transitions in transient objects during a laser pulse with a resolution of {approx}0.1 cm{sup -1}. The method is based on CARS spectroscopy using a Fabry-Perot interferometer for spectral analysis of the CARS signal and detecting a circular interferometric pattern on a two-dimensional multichannel photodetector. It is shown that the use of the Dual-Broad-Band-CARS configuration to obtain the CARS process provides the efficient averaging of the spectral-amplitude noise of the CARS signal generated by a laser pulse and, in combination with the angular integration of the two-dimensional interference pattern, considerably improves the quality of interferograms. The method was tested upon diagnostics of the transient oxygen-hydrogen flame where information on the shapes of spectral lines of the Q-branch of hydrogen molecules required for measuring temperature was simultaneously obtained and used. (special issue devoted to the 90th anniversary of a.m. prokhorov)

  11. High Resolution Spectroscopy of Balmer-Dominated Shocks in the RCW 86, Kepler and SN 1006 Supernova Remnants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jesper Sollerman; Parviz Ghavamian; Peter Lundqvist; R. Chris Smith

    2003-06-10

    We report results from high resolution optical spectroscopy of three non-radiative galactic supernova remnants, RCW 86, Kepler's supernova remnant and SN 1006. We have measured the narrow component H-alpha line widths in Balmer-dominated filaments in RCW 86 and SN 1006, as well as the narrow component width in a Balmer-dominated knot in Kepler's SNR. The narrow component line widths measured in RCW 86 and Kepler's SNR show FWHM of 30-40 km/s, similar to what has been seen in other Balmer-dominated remnants. Of the remnants in our sample, SN 1006 is the fastest shock (~3000 km/s). The narrow component H-alpha and H-beta lines in this remnant have a FWHM of merely 21 km/s. Comparing the narrow component widths measured in our sample with those measured in other remnants shows that the width of the narrow component does not correlate in a simple way with the shock velocity. The implications for the pre-heating mechanism responsible for the observed line widths are discussed.

  12. Zoomed high-resolution simulations of Multi-coupled Dark Energy: cored galaxy density profiles at high redshift

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garaldi, E; Moscardini, L

    2015-01-01

    We perform for the first time high-resolution zoom-in re-simulations of individual halos in the context of the Multi-coupeld Dark Energy (McDE) scenario, which is characterised by the existence of two distinct dark matter particle species with opposite couplings to a Dark Energy scalar field. We compare the structural properties of the simulated halos to the standard Lambda-CDM results. The zoomed-in initial conditions are set up using a specifically designed code called ZInCo that we publicly release along with the present paper. Our numerical results allow to investigate in detail and with unprecedented resolution the halo segregation process that characterises McDE cosmologies from its very early stages. In particular, we find that in contrast to what could be inferred from previous numerical analysis at lower resolution, the segregation process is already in place at redshifts as high as z ~ 7. Most remarkably, we find that the subsequent evolution of the segregation leads to the formation of cored total ...

  13. Experiments with the High Resolution Kaon Spectrometer at Jlab Hall C and the New Spectroscopy of ^12_Lambda B Hypernuclei

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tang, Liguang; Chen, Chunhua; Gogami, Toshiyuki; Kawama, Daisuke; Han, Yuncheng; Yuan, Lulin; Matsumura, Akihiko; Okayasu, Yuichi; Seva, Tomislav; Rodriguez, Victor; Baturin, Pavlo; Acha Quimper, Armando; Achenbach, Carsten; Ahmidouch, Abdellah; Albayrak, Ibrahim; Androic, Darko; Asaturyan, Arshak; Asaturyan, Razmik; Ates, Ozgur; Badui, Rafael; Baker, Oliver; Benmokhtar, Fatiha; Boeglin, Werner; Bono, Jason; Bosted, Peter; Brash, Edward; Carter, Philip; Carlini, Roger; Chiba, Atsushi; Christy, Michael; Cole, Leon; Dalton, Mark; Danagoulian, Samuel; Daniel, Aji; De Leo, Raffaele; Dharmawardane, Kahanawita; Doi, Daisuke; Egiyan, Kim; Elaasar, Mostafa; Ent, Rolf; Fenker, Howard; Fujii, Yu; Furic, Miroslav; Gabrielyan, Marianna; Gan, Liping; Garibaldi, Franco; Gaskell, David; Gasparian, Ashot; Gibson, Edward; Gueye, Paul; Hashimoto, Osamu; Honda, D.; Horn, Tanja; Hu, Bitao; Hungerford, Ed; Jayalath, Chandana; Jones, Mark; Johnston, Kathleen; Kalantarians, Narbe; Kanda, Hiroki; Kaneta, M.; Kato, F.; Kato, Seigo; Kawai, Masaharu; Keppel, Cynthia; Khanal, Hari; Kohl, M.; Kramer, Laird; Lan, Kejian; Li, Ya; Habarakada Liyanage, Anusha; Luo, Wei; Mack, David; Maeda, Kazushige; Malace, Simona; Margaryan, Amur; Marikyan, Gagik; Markowitz, Pete; Maruta, Tomofumi; Maruyama, Nayuta; Maxwell, Victor; Millener, David; Miyoshi, Toshinobu; Mkrtchyan, Arthur; Mkrtchyan, Hamlet; Motoba, Toshio; Nagao, Sho; Nakamura, Satoshi; Narayan, Amrendra; Neville, Casey; Niculescu, Gabriel; Niculescu, Maria; Nunez, Angel; Nuruzzaman, nfn; Nomura, Hiroshi; Nonaka, Kenichi; Ohtani, Atsushi; Oyamada, Masamichi; Perez, Naipy; Petkovic, Tomislav; Pochodzalla, J.; Qiu, Xiyu; Randeniya, Kapugodage; Raue, Brian; Reinhold, Joerg; Rivera, R.; Roche, Julie; Samanta, Chhanda; Sato, Yoshinori; Sawatzky, Bradley; Segbefia, Edwin; Schott, Diane; Shichijo, Ayako; Simicevic, Neven; Smith, Gregory; Song, Yushou; Sumihama, Mizuki; Tadevosyan, Vardan; Takahashi, Toshiyuki; Taniya, Naotaka; Tsukada, Kyo; Tvaskis, Vladas; Veilleux, Micah; Vulcan, William; Wells, Steven; Wesselmann, Frank; Wood, Stephen; Yamamoto, Taku; Yan, Chen; Ye, Z.; Yokota, Kosuke; Zhamkochyan, Simon; Zhu, Lingyan

    2014-09-01

    Since the pioneering experiment, E89-009 studying hypernuclear spectroscopy using the $(e,e^{\\prime}K^+)$ reaction was completed, two additional experiments, E01-011 and E05-115, were performed at Jefferson Lab. These later experiments used a modified experimental design, the "Tilt Method", to dramatically suppress the large electromagnetic background, and allowed for a substantial increase in luminosity. Additionally, a new kaon spectrometer, HKS (E01-011), a new electron spectrometer, HES, and a new splitting magnet were added to produce precision, high-resolution hypernuclear spectroscopy. These two experiments, E01-011 and E05-115, resulted in two new data sets, producing sub-MeV energy resolution in the spectra of ${}^{7}_{\\Lambda}\\text{He}$, ${}^{12}_{\\Lambda}\\text{B}$ and ${}^{28}_{\\Lambda} \\text{Al}$ and ${}^{7}_{\\Lambda}\\text{He}$, ${}^{10}_{\\Lambda}\\text{Be}$, ${}^{12}_{\\Lambda}\\text{B}$ and ${}^{52}_{\\Lambda}\\text{V}$. All three experiments obtained a ${}^{12}_{\\Lambda}\\text{B}$, spectrum, which is the most characteristic $p$-shell hypernucleus and is commonly used for calibration. Independent analyses of these different experiments demonstrate excellent consistency and provide the clearest level structure to date of this hypernucleus as produced by the $(e,e^{\\prime}K^+)$ reaction. This paper presents details of these experiments, and the extraction and analysis of the observed ${}^{12}_{\\Lambda}\\text{B}$ spectrum.

  14. The GMRT High Resolution Southern Sky Survey for pulsars and transients -I. Survey description and initial discoveries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bhattacharyya, Bhaswati; Malenta, Mateusz; Roy, Jayanta; Chengalur, Jayaram N; Keith, Michael; Kudale, Sanjay; McLaughlin, Maura; Ransom, Scott M; Ray, Paul S; Stappers, Benjamin W

    2015-01-01

    We are conducting a survey for pulsars and transients using the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope (GMRT). The GMRT High Resolution Southern Sky (GHRSS) survey is an off-Galactic-plane (|b|>5) survey in the declination range -40 deg to -54 deg at 322 MHz. With the high time (up to 30.72 micro-sec) and frequency (up to 0.016275 MHz) resolution observing modes, the 5-sigma detection limit is 0.5 mJy for a 2 ms pulsar with 10% duty cycle at 322 MHz. Total GHRSS sky coverage of 2866 square-deg, will result from 1953 pointings, each covering 1.8 square-deg. The 10-sigma detection limit for a 5 ms transient burst is 1.6 Jy for the GHRSS survey. In addition, the GHRSS survey can reveal transient events like the rotating radio transients or the fast radio bursts. With 35% of the survey completed (i.e. 1000 square-deg), we report the discovery of 10 pulsars, one of which is a millisecond pulsar (MSP), this is one of the highest pulsar per square degree discovery rate for any off-Galactic plane survey. We re-detected 23 k...

  15. High resolution soft x-ray spectroscopy of low Z K-shell emission from laser-produced plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dunn, J; Magee, E W; Shepherd, R; Chen, H; Hansen, S B; Moon, S J; Brown, G V; Gu, M; Beiersdorfer, P; Purvis, M A

    2008-05-21

    A large radius, R = 44.3 m, High Resolution Grating Spectrometer (HRGS) with 2400 line/mm variable line spacing has been designed for laser-produced plasma experiments conducted at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Jupiter Laser Facility. The instrument has been run with a low-noise, charge-coupled device detector to record high signal-to-noise spectra in the 10-50 {angstrom} wavelength range. The instrument can be run with a 10-20 {micro}m wide slit to achieve the best spectral resolving power, approaching 1000 and similar to crystal spectrometers at 12-20 {angstrom}, or in slitless operation with a small symmetrical emission source. We describe preliminary spectra emitted from various H-like and He-like low Z ion plasmas heated by 100-500 ps (FWHM), 527 nm wavelength laser pulses. This instrument can be developed as a useful spectroscopy platform relevant to laboratory-based astrophysics as well as high energy density plasma studies.

  16. A High Resolution, Multi-stop, Time-to-Digital Converter for Nuclear Time-of-Flight Measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D. F. Spencer; J. Cole; M. Drigert; R. Aryaeinejad

    2006-01-01

    A high-resolution, multi-stop, time-to-digital converter (TDC) was designed and developed to precisely measure the times-of-flight (TOF) of incident neutrons responsible for induced fission and capture reactions on actinide targets. The minimum time resolution is ±1 ns. The TDC design was implemented into a single, dual-wide CAMAC module. The CAMAC bus is used for command and control as well as an alternative data output. A high-speed ECL interface, compatible with LeCroy FERA modules, was also provided for the principle data output path. An Actel high-speed field programmable gate array (FPGA) chip was incorporated with an external oscillator and an internal multiple clock phasing system. This device implemented the majority of the high-speed register functions, the state machine for the FERA interface, and the high-speed counting circuit used for the TDC conversion. An external microcontroller was used to monitor and control system-level changes. In this work we discuss the performance of this TDC module as well as its application.

  17. Predicting the stellar and non-equilibrium dust emission spectra of high-resolution simulated galaxies with DART-Ray

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Natale, Giovanni; Tuffs, Richard J; Debattista, Victor P; Fischera, Jörg; Grootes, Meiert W

    2015-01-01

    We describe the calculation of the stochastically heated dust emission using the 3D ray-tracing dust radiative transfer code DART-Ray, which is designed to solve the dust radiative transfer problem for galaxies with arbitrary geometries. In order to reduce the time required to derive the non-equilibrium dust emission spectra from each volume element within a model, we implemented an adaptive SED library approach, which we tested for the case of axisymmetric galaxy geometries. To show the capabilities of the code, we applied DART-Ray to a high-resolution N-body+SPH galaxy simulation to predict the appearance of the simulated galaxy at a set of wavelengths from the UV to the sub-mm. We analyse the results to determine the effect of dust on the observed radial and vertical profiles of the stellar emission as well as on the attenuation and scattering of light from the constituent stellar populations. We also quantify the proportion of dust re-radiated stellar light powered by young and old stellar populations, bo...

  18. HIGH-RESOLUTION OPTICAL SPECTROSCOPY OF DY Cen: DIFFUSE INTERSTELLAR BANDS IN A PROTO-FULLERENE CIRCUMSTELLAR ENVIRONMENT?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garcia-Hernandez, D. A. [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, C/Via Lactea s/n, E-38200 La Laguna (Spain); Rao, N. Kameswara [543, 17th Main, IV Sector, HSR Layout, Bangalore 560102 (India); Lambert, David L., E-mail: agarcia@iac.es, E-mail: nkrao@iiap.res.in, E-mail: dll@astro.as.utexas.edu [W.J. McDonald Observatory, University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712-1083 (United States)

    2012-11-01

    We search high-resolution and high-quality VLT/UVES optical spectra of the hot R Coronae Borealis star DY Cen for electronic transitions of the C{sub 60} molecule and diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs). We report the non-detection of the strongest C{sub 60} electronic transitions (e.g., those at {approx}3760, 3980, and 4024 A). The absence of C{sub 60} absorption bands may support recent laboratory results, which show that the {approx}7.0, 8.5, 17.4, and 18.8 {mu}m emission features seen in DY Cen-and other similar objects with polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbon-like dominated IR spectra-are attributable to proto-fullerenes or fullerene precursors rather than to C{sub 60}. DIBs toward DY Cen are normal for its reddening; the only exception is the DIB at 6284 A (possibly also the 7223 A DIB) which is found to be unusually strong. We also report the detection of a new broad (FWHM {approx} 2 A) and unidentified feature centered at {approx}4000 A. We suggest that this new band may be related to the circumstellar proto-fullerenes seen at infrared wavelengths.

  19. Short range micro-power impulse radar with high resolution swept range gate with damped transmit and receive cavities

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McEwan, Thomas E. (Livermore, CA)

    1998-01-01

    A radar range finder and hidden object locator is based on ultra-wide band radar with a high resolution swept range gate. The device generates an equivalent time amplitude scan with atypical range of 4 inches to 20 feet, and an analog range resolution as limited by a jitter of on the order of 0.01 inches. A differential sampling receiver is employed to effectively eliminate ringing and other aberrations induced in the receiver by the near proximity of the transmit antenna, so a background subtraction is not needed, simplifying the circuitry while improving performance. Uses of the invention include a replacement of ultrasound devices for fluid level sensing, automotive radar, such as cruise control and parking assistance, hidden object location, such as stud and rebar finding. Also, this technology can be used when positioned over a highway lane to collect vehicle count and speed data for traffic control. Techniques are used to reduce clutter in the receive signal, such as decoupling the receive and transmit cavities by placing a space between them, using conductive or radiative damping elements on the cavities, and using terminating plates on the sides of the openings.

  20. Short range micro-power impulse radar with high resolution swept range gate with damped transmit and receive cavities

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McEwan, T.E.

    1998-06-30

    A radar range finder and hidden object locator is based on ultra-wide band radar with a high resolution swept range gate. The device generates an equivalent time amplitude scan with atypical range of 4 inches to 20 feet, and an analog range resolution as limited by a jitter of on the order of 0.01 inches. A differential sampling receiver is employed to effectively eliminate ringing and other aberrations induced in the receiver by the near proximity of the transmit antenna, so a background subtraction is not needed, simplifying the circuitry while improving performance. Uses of the invention include a replacement of ultrasound devices for fluid level sensing, automotive radar, such as cruise control and parking assistance, hidden object location, such as stud and rebar finding. Also, this technology can be used when positioned over a highway lane to collect vehicle count and speed data for traffic control. Techniques are used to reduce clutter in the receive signal, such as decoupling the receive and transmit cavities by placing a space between them, using conductive or radiative damping elements on the cavities, and using terminating plates on the sides of the openings. 20 figs.

  1. Virus transport in physically and geochemically heterogeneous subsurface porous media

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ryan, Joe

    Virus transport in physically and geochemically heterogeneous subsurface porous media Subir for virus transport in physically and geochemically heterogeneous subsurface porous media is presented. The model involves solution of the advection­dispersion equation, which additionally considers virus

  2. On-Site Wastewater Treatment Systems: Subsurface Drip Distribution 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lesikar, Bruce J.

    1999-09-06

    A subsurface drip system distributes wastewater to the lawn through a system of tubing installed below the ground. This publication explains the advantages and disadvantages of subsurface drip distribution systems, as well ...

  3. Subsurface Biogeochemical Research (SBR) Contractor-Grantee Workshop--Abstracts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hazen, Terry C.

    2010-01-01

    Area Subsurface Sediments Grantee-Led Research Beyenal H.of Reactive Transport Grantee-Led Research Choreover J.Subsurface Metal Contaminants Grantee-Led Research Daley R.

  4. Methods for forming long subsurface heaters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kim, Dong Sub

    2013-09-17

    A method for forming a longitudinal subsurface heater includes longitudinally welding an electrically conductive sheath of an insulated conductor heater along at least one longitudinal strip of metal. The longitudinal strip is formed into a tubular around the insulated conductor heater with the insulated conductor heater welded along the inside surface of the tubular.

  5. p-air cross-section measurement at 1018.5 for the High Resolution Fly's Eye (HiRes) Collaboration.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    p-air cross-section measurement at 1018.5 eV. K. Belova for the High Resolution Fly's Eye (Hi, USA We present the first measurement of p-air inelastic cross-section at 1018.5 eV using the Hi distribution is proposed. Monte Carlo simulations with the CORSIKA air shower generator and QGSJet and SIBYLL2

  6. Native Chemical Ligation at Asx-Cys, Glx-Cys: Chemical Synthesis and High-Resolution Xray Structure of ShK Toxin by Racemic Protein

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bezanilla, Francisco

    Native Chemical Ligation at Asx-Cys, Glx-Cys: Chemical Synthesis and High-Resolution Xray Structure Supporting Information ABSTRACT: We have re-examined the utility of native chemical ligation at -Gln- mercaptophenylacetic acid (MPAA), native chemical ligation could be performed at -Gln-Cys- and Asn-Cys- sites without

  7. Open-core screw dislocations in GaN epilayers observed by scanning force microscopy and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rohrer, Gregory S.

    -resolution transmission electron microscopy W. Qian, G. S. Rohrer, and M. Skowronski Department of Materials Science. K. Gaskill Laboratory for Advanced Material Synthesis, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC of organometallic vapor phase epitaxy grown -GaN films using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy

  8. High-resolution late-glacial chronology for the Gerzensee lake record (Switzerland): O correlation between a Gerzensee-stack and NGRIP

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilli, Adrian

    High-resolution late-glacial chronology for the Gerzensee lake record (Switzerland): 18 O Eicher c a Geological Institute, ETH Zurich, Sonneggstrasse 5, 8092 Zürich, Switzerland b Oeschger Centre, Switzerland c Physics Institute, University of Bern, Sidlerstrasse 5, 3012 Bern, Switzerland d Institute

  9. High-resolution reservoir characterization by 2-D model-driven seismic Bayesian inversion: an example from a Tertiary deltaic clinoform system in the North Sea

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    van Vliet, Lucas J.

    that is then iteratively matched with the seismic data using a Bayesian inversion process. The inversion is then extendedHigh-resolution reservoir characterization by 2-D model-driven seismic Bayesian inversion-resolution reservoir model from seismic and well data, an approach was developed based on an a priori layered model

  10. Joint stochastic inversion of 3D pre-stack seismic data and well logs for high-resolution reservoir characterization and petrophysical modeling: application to deepwater hydrocarbon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Torres-Verdín, Carlos

    Joint stochastic inversion of 3D pre-stack seismic data and well logs for high-resolution reservoir of migrated 3D pre-stack seismic data. The inversion algorithm is based on a Bayesian statistical search of elastic and petrophysical properties we resorted to amplitude information of 3D pre-stack seismic data

  11. Parameterization of meander-belt elements in high-resolution three-dimensional seismic data using the GeoTime cube

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    van Vliet, Lucas J.

    the meander belt in the up- and downstream direction. High-resolution three-dimensional seismic (3D HRS) data caused by post-depositional processes. A method called GeoTime cube is presented that over- comes study of a fluvio-estuarine reservoir from Suriname demonstrates how fluvial point bars, channel fills

  12. JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH, VOL. ???, XXXX, DOI:10.1029/, A three-dimensional eddy census of a high-resolution1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Davis, University of

    of a high-resolution1 global ocean simulation2 Mark R. Petersen, 1 Sean J. Williams, 1,2 Mathew E. Maltrud census data set was obtained from3 a global ocean simulation with one-tenth degree resolution are at least 1000m tall, and many penetrate the14 full depth of the water column. The Antarctic Circumpolar

  13. JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH: OCEANS, VOL. 118, 17591 , doi:10.1002/jgrc.20155, 2013 A three-dimensional eddy census of a high-resolution global

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamann, Bernd

    JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH: OCEANS, VOL. 118, 1759­1 , doi:10.1002/jgrc.20155, 2013 A three-dimensional eddy census of a high-resolution global ocean simulation Mark R. Petersen,1 Sean J. Williams,1,2 Mathew from a global ocean simulation with one-tenth degree resolution and a duration of 7 years. The census

  14. High-resolution multiproxy records of sedimentological changes induced by dams in the Sept-les area (Gulf of St. Lawrence, Canada)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    High-resolution multiproxy records of sedimentological changes induced by dams in the Sept. Sedimentological variations have been investigated by wavelet analysis using XRF data and the sharp disappearance sedimentary dam impacts is to disentangle the dam-induced sedimentological variations from the natural

  15. A Long-Term, High-Resolution Wetland Dataset over the Amazon Basin, Downscaled from a Multiwavelength Retrieval Using SAR Data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A Long-Term, High-Resolution Wetland Dataset over the Amazon Basin, Downscaled from Matiere en Astrophysique, CNRS, Observatoire de Paris, Paris, France FABRICE PAPA Laboratoire d'Etude en Rayonnement et de la Matiere en Astrophysique, CNRS, Observatoire de Paris, France (Manuscript received 29

  16. HIGH-RESOLUTION SIMULATIONS OF THE REIONIZATION OF AN ISOLATED MILKY WAY-M31 GALAXY PAIR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ocvirk, P.; Aubert, D.; Chardin, J. [Observatoire Astronomique de Strasbourg, 11 rue de l'Université, F-67000 Strasbourg (France); Knebe, A.; Yepes, G. [Grupo de Astrofísica, Departamento de Fisica Teorica, Modulo C-8, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco E-280049 (Spain); Libeskind, N.; Gottlöber, S. [Leibniz-Institute für Astrophysik Potsdam (AIP), An der Sternwarte 16, D-14482 Potsdam (Germany); Hoffman, Y. [Racah Institute of Physics, Hebrew University, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel)

    2013-11-01

    We present the results of a set of numerical simulations aimed at studying reionization at the galactic scale. We use a high-resolution realization of the formation of the Milky Way (MW)-M31 system to simulate the reionization of the Local Group. The reionization calculation was performed with the post-processing radiative transfer code ATON and the underlying cosmological simulation was performed as part of the CLUES project (http://www.clues-project.org). We vary the source models to bracket the range of source properties used in the literature. We investigate the structure and propagation of the galactic ionization fronts by a visual examination of our reionization maps. Within the progenitors, we find that reionization is patchy and proceeds locally inside-out. The process becomes patchier with decreasing source photon output. It is generally dominated by one major H II region and one to four additional isolated smaller bubbles, which eventually overlap. Higher emissivity results in faster and earlier local reionization. In all models, the reionization of the MW and M31 are similar in duration, i.e., between 203 Myr and 22 Myr depending on the source model, placing their z{sub reion} between 8.4 and 13.7. In all models except the most extreme, the MW and M31 progenitors reionize internally, ignoring each other despite being relatively close to each other, even during the epoch of reionization. Only in the case of strong supernova feedback suppressing star formation in halos less massive than 10{sup 9} M{sub ?}, and using our highest emissivity, do we find that the MW is reionized by M31.

  17. Two- and three-dimensional ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD) structures for a high resolution diamond-based MEMS technology.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Auciello, O.; Krauss, A. R.; Gruen, D. M.; Busmann, H. G.; Meyer, E. M.; Tucek, J.; Sumant, A.; Jayatissa, A.; Moldovan, N.; Mancini, D. C.; Gardos, M. N.

    2000-01-17

    Silicon is currently the most commonly used material for the fabrication of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS). However, silicon-based MEMS will not be suitable for long-endurance devices involving components rotating at high speed, where friction and wear need to be minimized, components such as 2-D cantilevers that may be subjected to very large flexural displacements, where stiction is a problem, or components that will be exposed to corrosive environments. The mechanical, thermal, chemical, and tribological properties of diamond make it an ideal material for the fabrication of long-endurance MEMS components. Cost-effective fabrication of these components could in principle be achieved by coating Si with diamond films and using conventional lithographic patterning methods in conjunction with e. g. sacrificial Ti or SiO{sub 2} layers. However, diamond coatings grown by conventional chemical vapor deposition (CVD) methods exhibit a coarse-grained structure that prevents high-resolution patterning, or a fine-grained microstructure with a significant amount of intergranular non-diamond carbon. The authors demonstrate here the fabrication of 2-D and 3-D phase-pure ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD) MEMS components by coating Si with UNCD films, coupled with lithographic patterning methods involving sacrificial release layers. UNCD films are grown by microwave plasma CVD using C{sub 60}-Ar or CH{sub 4}-Ar gas mixtures, which result in films that have 3--5 nm grain size, are 10--20 times smoother than conventionally grown diamond films, are extremely resistant to corrosive environments, and are predicted to have a brittle fracture strength similar to that of single crystal diamond.

  18. A novel apparatus for in situ compression of submicron structures and particles in a high resolution SEM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Romeis, S.; Paul, J.; Ziener, M.; Peukert, W. [Institute of Particle Technology, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Cauerstr. 4, 91058 Erlangen (Germany)

    2012-09-15

    We report on the development and characterization of a novel in situ manipulation device to perform stressing experiments on the submicron scale inside a high resolution field emission scanning electron microscope. The instrument comprises two main assembly groups: an upper part for positioning and moving a mounted probe and a force sensor as well as a specimen support as lower part. The upper part consists of a closed loop tripod piezoelectric scanner mounted on a self-locking coarse positioning stage. Two interlocked steel springs and a linear variable differential transformer measuring the springs' deflections compose the lower part of the instrument. This arrangement acts as force-sensor and sample support. In comparison to already well-established concepts a wide measuring range is covered by adjusting the spring constant between 30 N/m and 50000 N/m. Moreover, the new device offers striking advantages with respect to force calibration and sample deformation measurements. Force calibration is performed using the eigenfrequency of the force detection system directly inside the SEM. Deformation data are obtained with high accuracy by simultaneously recording displacements above and below the specimen. The detrimental apparatus compliance is determined, and the influence on measured data subsequently minimized: an easy to validate two-springs-in-series model is used for data correction. A force resolution in normal direction of 100 nN accompanied by a sample deformation resolution of 5 nm can be achieved with the instrument using an appropriate load cell stiffness. The capabilities and versatility of this instrument are exemplified by compression experiments performed on submicron amorphous silica particles.

  19. Buried object detection in GPR images

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Paglieroni, David W; Chambers, David H; Bond, Steven W; Beer, W. Reginald

    2014-04-29

    A method and system for detecting the presence of subsurface objects within a medium is provided. In some embodiments, the imaging and detection system operates in a multistatic mode to collect radar return signals generated by an array of transceiver antenna pairs that is positioned across the surface and that travels down the surface. The imaging and detection system pre-processes the return signal to suppress certain undesirable effects. The imaging and detection system then generates synthetic aperture radar images from real aperture radar images generated from the pre-processed return signal. The imaging and detection system then post-processes the synthetic aperture radar images to improve detection of subsurface objects. The imaging and detection system identifies peaks in the energy levels of the post-processed image frame, which indicates the presence of a subsurface object.

  20. HIGH RESOLUTION AND FAST SCANNING SQUID BASED NON-DESTRUCTIVE INSPECTION SYSTEM OF NIOBIUM SHEETS FOR SRF CAVITIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    SHU, QUAN-SHENG

    2008-06-08

    Applications in high energy physics accelerators and other fields require the use of thousands of superconducting RF (SRF) cavities that are made of high purity Nb material and the purity of niobium is critical for these cavities to reach the highest accelerating fields. Tantalum is the most prolific of metal inclusions, which can cause thermal breakdown and prevent the cavities from reaching their theoretical performance limits of 45-50 MV/m, and DOE Labs are searching for a technology that could detect small impurities in superconducting Nb sheets reaching the highest possible accelerating fields. The proposed innovative SQUID-based Nondestructive system can scan Niobium sheets used in the manufacturing of SRF cavities with both high speed and high resolution. A highly sensitive SQUID system with a gradiometer probe, non-magnetic dewar, data acquisition system, and a scanning system will be developed for fast detection of impurities in planar Nb sheets. In phase I, we will modify our existing SQUID-based eddy current system to detect 100 micron size Ta defects and a great effort will focus on achieving fast scanning of a large number of niobium sheets in a shorter time and with reasonable resolution. An older system operated by moving the sample 1 mm, stopping and waiting for 1-2 seconds, then activating a measurement by the SQUID after the short settle time is modified. A preliminary designed and implemented a SQUID scanning system that is fast and is capable of scanning a 30 cm x 30 cm Nb sheet in 15 minutes by continuously moving the table at speeds up to 10 mm/s while activating the SQUID at 1mm interval is modified and reached the Phase I goal of 100mm resolution. We have successfully demonstrated the feasibility that a fast speed SQUID scanner without sacrificing the resolution of detection can be done, and a data acquisition and analysis system is also preliminary developed. The SQUID based scanner will help reach the highest accelerating field in SRF cavities that will provide a considerable cost reduction for new accelerators and for upgrades of existing accelerators. This will be realized either by reducing the length required for the SRF cavities or by the installation of higher gradient cavities for energy upgrades in the same space. The SQUID based scanner will also be used for the detection of defects on the surface, inside the bulk or at the back side of metallic sheets in other industries.

  1. Subsurface materials management and containment system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nickelson, Reva A.; Richardson, John G.; Kostelnik, Kevin M.; Sloan, Paul A.

    2006-10-17

    Systems, components, and methods relating to subterranean containment barriers. Laterally adjacent tubular casings having male interlock structures and multiple female interlock structures defining recesses for receiving a male interlock structure are used to create subterranean barriers for containing and treating buried waste and its effluents. The multiple female interlock structures enable the barriers to be varied around subsurface objects and to form barrier sidewalls. The barrier may be used for treating and monitoring a zone of interest.

  2. Subsurface materials management and containment system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nickelson, Reva A.; Richardson, John G.; Kosteinik, Kevin M.; Sloan, Paul A.

    2004-07-06

    Systems, components, and methods relating to subterranean containment barriers. Laterally adjacent tubular casings having male interlock structures and multiple female interlock structures defining recesses for receiving a male interlock structure are used to create subterranean barriers for containing and treating buried waste and its effluents. The multiple female interlock structures enable the barriers to be varied around subsurface objects and to form barrier sidewalls. The barrier may be used for treating and monitoring a zone of interest.

  3. Subsurface Knowledge Reference Page | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:Financing ToolInternational Affairs, Before the CommitteeYears 2003 - 2008 U .SubscribeSubsurface

  4. Atomic-Scale Chemical, Physical and Electronic Properties of the Subsurface Hydride of Palladium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weiss, Paul

    2014-01-20

    We employed low-temperature, extreme-high vacuum scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) to investigate the roles of subsurface hydride (H) and deuteride (D) in the surface reconstruction and surface reactivity of Pd{110}. Specifically, we gained the ability to tailor the surface structure of Pd{110} both by preparation method and by deposition of deuterium from the gas phase. We observed thiophene at low coverage on Pd{110} to determine its adsorption orientation and electronic structure through scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STS) – namely, conductance spectroscopy and differential conductance imaging. We developed the methods necessary to coadsorb D adatoms with thiophene molecules, and to induce the reaction of individual molecules with predefined subsurface H or D features. In the case of Pd{110}, we found a much more pronounced effect from subsurface D, as it is influenced by the surface directionality. These experiments facilitate an understanding of the role of surface and subsurface H and D in heterogeneous catalytic processes, specifically in the hydrodesulfuization (HDS) of thiophene, an important and ubiquitous component found to be detrimental to petroleum refining.

  5. Imaging Hydraulic Fractures: Source Location Uncertainty Analysis At The UPRC Carthage Test Site

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Yingping

    1996-01-01

    Hydraulic fracturing is a useful tool for enhancing gas and oil production. High-resolution seismic imaging of the fracture geometry and fracture growth process is the key in determining optimal spacing and location of ...

  6. Geophysical data fusion for subsurface imaging. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    This report contains the results of a three year, three-phase project whose long-range goal has been to create a means for the more detailed and accurate definition of the near-surface (0--300 ft) geology beneath a site that had been subjected to environmental pollution. The two major areas of research and development have been: improved geophysical field data acquisition techniques; and analytical tools for providing the total integration (fusion) of all site data. The long-range goal of this project has been to mathematically, integrate the geophysical data that could be derived from multiple sensors with site geologic information and any other type of available site data, to provide a detailed characterization of thin clay layers and geological discontinuities at hazardous waste sites.

  7. Acoustic subwavelength imaging of subsurface objects with acoustic...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    liuxiaojun@nju.edu.cn 1 ; State Key Laboratory of Acoustics, Institute of Acoustics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 2 ; Zhou, Chen ; Wei, Qi ; Wu, DaJian 1 +...

  8. TU-F-BRE-01: A High Resolution Micro Fiber Scintillator Detector Optimized for SRS and SBRT in Vivo Real Time Treatment Verification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Izaguirre, E; Rangaraj, D; Price, S; Knewtson, T; Loyalka, S

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: We have built a high resolution real time scintillating fiber detector prototype to determine in real time the accuracy of stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) and stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) treatments when only a fraction of the planned dose was delivered. The motivation of this work is to enhance dose delivery accuracy and to achieve error free radiosurgery. Methods: A high density array of scintillating fibers and a high speed photo detectors array were integrated to implement a high resolution real time dosimeter that can sample with high resolution pulsed SRS and SBRT beams cross sections. The high efficiency of the developed system allows to read each linac pulse in real time and to compute the accumulated dose and dose errors when only a fraction of the beam was delivered. The fibers are highly packed in a substrate that is directly coupled to two 128 pixel arrays with a pitch matching the fiber spacing to achieve accurate spatial localization. The small cross section of the fiber array allows stacking multiple fiber arrays to measure independent angular profiles that are digitally processed in parallel for real time dosimetry. Results: We implemented a high density array detector prototype with a pitch of 0.5 mm, readout speed of 1.2 msec, and a response time of 0.5 usec. The fast reading speed has the capability to determining the dose in flattening free filter beams. The detector can be installed in transmission mode at the output port of a micro-MLC. Treatment deviations smaller than 3% are detected when less than 1/100 of the planned dose was delivered. Conclusions: We built a prototype of a high resolution fiber scintillator array detector for SRS and SBRT in vivo dosimetry. Results show that the developed detector has the potential to assure error free SRS and SBRT treatments.

  9. Improving retinal image resolution with iterative weighted shift-and-add

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ribak, Erez

    1 Improving retinal image resolution with iterative weighted shift-and-add Nizan Meitav1 High-resolution retinal imaging requires dilating the pupil, and therefore exposing more aberrations that blur the image. We developed an image processing technique that takes advantage of the natu- ral

  10. Modification of solid state CdZnTe (CZT) radiation detectors with high sensitivity or high resolution operation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Washington, II, Aaron L; Duff, Martine C; Teague, Lucile C; Burger, Arnold; Groza, Michael

    2014-11-11

    An apparatus and process is provided to illustrate the manipulation of the internal electric field of CZT using multiple wavelength light illumination on the crystal surface at RT. The control of the internal electric field is shown through the polarization in the IR transmission image under illumination as a result of the Pockels effect.

  11. Imaging

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfateSciTechtail.Theory ofDid you notHeat Pumps Heat Pumpsfacility doe logo CH2M-WG logoImaging

  12. Imaging

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room NewsInformation CurrentHenry Bellamy, Ph.D.FoodHydropower,PrincipalIdahoImaging Print The

  13. Imaging

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room NewsInformation CurrentHenry Bellamy, Ph.D.FoodHydropower,PrincipalIdahoImaging Print

  14. Low temperature monitoring system for subsurface barriers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX); McKinzie, II. Billy John (Houston, TX)

    2009-08-18

    A system for monitoring temperature of a subsurface low temperature zone is described. The system includes a plurality of freeze wells configured to form the low temperature zone, one or more lasers, and a fiber optic cable coupled to at least one laser. A portion of the fiber optic cable is positioned in at least one freeze well. At least one laser is configured to transmit light pulses into a first end of the fiber optic cable. An analyzer is coupled to the fiber optic cable. The analyzer is configured to receive return signals from the light pulses.

  15. Parallel heater system for subsurface formations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Harris, Christopher Kelvin (Houston, TX); Karanikas, John Michael (Houston, TX); Nguyen, Scott Vinh (Houston, TX)

    2011-10-25

    A heating system for a subsurface formation is disclosed. The system includes a plurality of substantially horizontally oriented or inclined heater sections located in a hydrocarbon containing layer in the formation. At least a portion of two of the heater sections are substantially parallel to each other. The ends of at least two of the heater sections in the layer are electrically coupled to a substantially horizontal, or inclined, electrical conductor oriented substantially perpendicular to the ends of the at least two heater sections.

  16. 2014 JASON Report: State of Stress in Engineered Subsurface Systems...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    that "DOE take a leadership role in the science and technology for improved measurement, characterization, and understanding of the state of stress of engineered subsurface...

  17. Evaluation of subsurface fracture geometry using fluid pressure...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Evaluation of subsurface fracture geometry using fluid pressure response to solid earth tidal strain Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Report:...

  18. Attenuation-Based Remedies in the Subsurface Applied Field Research...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Field Research Initiative (ABRS AFRI) Located at the Savannah River Site in Aiken, South Carolina, the Attenuation-Based Remedies in the Subsurface Applied Field Research...

  19. Characterization of subsurface fracture patterns in the Coso...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    of subsurface fracture patterns in the Coso geothermal reservoir by analyzing shear-wave splitting of microearthquake seismorgrams Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference...

  20. USING MICRO-SEISMICITY AND SEISMIC VELOCITIES TO MAP SUBSURFACE...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    USING MICRO-SEISMICITY AND SEISMIC VELOCITIES TO MAP SUBSURFACE GEOLOGIC AND HYDROLOGIC STRUCTURE WITHIN THE COSO GEOTHERMAL FIELD, CALIFORNIA Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI...