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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high-pressure sodium lamps" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

Iterative Boltzmann plot method for temperature and pressure determination in a xenon high pressure discharge lamp  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Boltzmann plot method allows to calculate plasma temperatures and pressures if absolutely calibrated emission coefficients of spectral lines are available. However, xenon arcs are not very well suited to be analyzed this way, as there are only a limited number of lines with atomic data available. These lines have high excitation energies in a small interval between 9.8 and 11.5 eV. Uncertainties in the experimental method and in the atomic data further limit the accuracy of the evaluation procedure. This may result in implausible values of temperature and pressure with inadmissible uncertainty. To omit these shortcomings, an iterative scheme is proposed that is making use of additional information about the xenon fill pressure. This method is proved to be robust against noisy data and significantly reduces the uncertainties. Intentionally distorted synthetic data are used to illustrate the performance of the method, and measurements performed on a laboratory xenon high pressure discharge lamp are analyzed resulting in reasonable temperatures and pressures with significantly reduced uncertainties.

Zalach, J.; Franke, St. [INP Greifswald, Felix-Hausdorff-Str. 2, 17489 Greifswald (Germany)

2013-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

2

Mercury Lamps Recycling Fluorescent light-tubes, compact fluorescent bulbs, mercury and sodium vapor lamps, ultraviolet and  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Mercury Lamps Recycling Fluorescent light-tubes, compact fluorescent bulbs, mercury and sodium vapor lamps, ultraviolet and HID (high-intensity discharge) lamps and all other mercury containing labeled for shipment to a recycling plant for mercury, glass and aluminum recovery. The beneficial re

Baker, Chris I.

3

A numerical study of the supply mode effects on high-pressure mercury discharge lamp dynamic thermal behavior  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper presents a numerical study of the dynamic behavior of high-pressure mercury discharge lamp as a function of supply mode. Bidimensional time-dependent equations have been solved by using a semi-implicit finite-element code. The model has been developed in the frame of the local thermodynamic equilibrium hypothesis. After validation by using experimental data from the literature, this model was applied to analyze the effects of some key parameters such as frequency for an ac arc current and the ratio cycle parameter for square arc-current wave form on the convective process. The results obtained have been used to analyze the dynamic thermal behavior of high-pressure mercury plasma (pressure equal to 0.3 MPa) working under currents widely different in frequency and wave form.

Kaziz, S.; Ahmed, R. Ben; Araoud, Z.; Gazzah, M.H.; Charrada, K.; Said, R. [EMIR, IPEIM, route de Skanes, 5019 Monastir (Tunisia); FSM, avenue de l'environnement, 5019 Monastir (Tunisia); EMIR, IPEIM, route de Skanes, 5019 Monastir (Tunisia)

2005-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

4

High-pressure crystallography  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The history and development of high-pressure crystallography are briefly described and examples of structural transformations in compressed compounds are given. The review is focused on the diamond-anvil cell, celebrating its 50th anniversary this year, the principles of its operation and the impact it has had on high-pressure X-ray diffraction.

Katrusiak, A.

2007-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

5

General service incandescent lamp with improved efficiency  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A high efficiency general service incandescent lamp is disclosed. The disclosed improved general service incandescent lamp has an outer and an inner envelope. The inner envelope has a relatively small housing containing a halogen gas and a relatively high pressure efficient fill-gas and in which a low voltage filament is spatially disposed therein.

Berlec, I.

1985-06-18T23:59:59.000Z

6

High pressure counterflow CHF.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This is a report of the experimental results of a program in countercurrent flow critical heat flux. These experiments were performed with Freon 113 at 200 psia in order to model a high pressure water system. An internally ...

Walkush, Joseph Patrick

1975-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

7

High pressure oxygen furnace  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A high temperature high pressure oxygen furnace having a hybrid partially externally heated construction is disclosed. A metallic bar fabricated from an alloy having a composition of at least 45% nickel, 15% chrome, and 10% tungsten is utilized, the preferred alloy including 55% nickel, 22% chrome, 14% tungsten, 2% molybdenum, 3% iron (maximum) and 5% cobalt (maximum). The disclosed alloy is fabricated into 11/4 inch bar stock and has a length of about 17 inches. This bar stock is gun drilled for over 16 inches of its length with 0.400 inch aperture to define a closed high temperature, high pressure oxygen chamber. The opposite and closed end of the bar is provided with a small support aperture into which both a support and a thermocouple can be inserted. The closed end of the gun drilled bar is inserted into an oven, preferably heated by standard nickel chrome electrical elements and having a heavily insulated exterior. 5 figs.

Morris, D.E.

1992-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

8

High pressure oxygen furnace  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A high temperature high pressure oxygen furnace having a hybrid partially externally heated construction is disclosed. A metallic bar fabricated from an alloy having a composition of at least 45% nickel, 15% chrome, and 10% tungsten is utilized (the preferred alloy including 55% nickel, 22% chrome, 14% tungsten, 2% molybdenum, 3% iron (maximum) and 5% cobalt (maximum). The disclosed alloy is fabricated into 11/4 inch bar stock and has a length of about 17 inches. This bar stock is gun drilled for over 16 inches of its length with 0.400 inch aperture to define a closed high temperature, high pressure oxygen chamber. The opposite and closed end of the bar is provided with a small support aperture into which both a support and a thermocouple can be inserted. The closed end of the gun drilled bar is inserted into an oven, preferably heated by standard nickel chrome electrical elements and having a heavily insulated exterior.

Morris, Donald E. (Kensington, CA)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

9

Microdischarge-assisted ignition of dielectric-barrier high-pressure glow discharges  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in the ignition of high-pressure arc lamps8 and volume dc discharges.6 Here, we employ a hybrid discharge source of uniform, nonequilibrium glow plasmas for a variety of applications at pressures of 100

Raja, Laxminarayan L.

10

Impending U.S. lighting standards will boost market for halogen-infrared lamps: New product line expanding  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Many of the incandescent floodlights and spotlights manufactured today will not meet lighting efficiency standards taking effect in the US in 1995. As these models cease production, demand will grow for higher efficiency units to fill this huge market, which now totals about 100 million lamps per year. One prime contender is a new class of halogen lamps that use a spectrally selective coating to reflect heat back onto the filament, reducing the amount of electricity needed to generate light. GE Lighting`s Halogen-IR line is the only series of such lamps currently available to replace the conventional floodlights and spotlights that will be banned by the new standards. Other manufacturers may adopt the technology, however, and the Japanese producer Ushio already sells in the US a line of smaller halogen lamps with a similar heat-reflective coating. In terms of efficacy and lifetime, Halogen-IR lamps out perform standard incandescents and standard halogens, but fall far short of fluorescent, metal halide, and high-pressure sodium sources. These other lighting systems are more appropriate and cost-effective than incandescents for many ambient lighting applications. For accent lighting and other tasks that are best suited to incandescent lighting, however, the Halogen-IR lamp is often a superior choice.

Sardinsky, R.; Shepard, M.

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

11

High-Pressure Hydrogen Tanks  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Presentation on High-Pressure Hydrogen Tanks for the DOE Hydrogen Delivery High-Pressure Tanks and Analysis Project Review Meeting held February 8-9, 2005 at Argonne National Laboratory

12

Lamp Divisions  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

--- --- /A;; i :' r%i;in~house ilEc;' i:Z3:~cra:ion Lamp Divisions , _.. (I +i. 0 :,,,rg. . I . . -= i?e p/q! qe)-' &se pw E.rcale?l iev, Je!sey 07m March 20, 1 gs? ::r . J. A. Jones I ti. 5. Muclear Regulatory Commission .> = ..- haterials Licensing Branch -s - ,.I, - - Division of Fuel Cycle and hateri al Safety LY. , $2 - _ . ' -' . 3 _- - Yeshington, C. C. 2@555 - :_ :--, =-- -- .-?J -.: y...., : :- 7 Dear Mr. Jones : y-- --, ? . *I 2=15 2 r; X -P The following is our final report of the decontamination efZor?s takz in our Bui Iding 7 basement and wi 11 also serve to update our report i& November 12, 1980. As stated in NRC' s report of December 22, 1983, two closeout inspect ions were conducted by your King of Prussia off i ce on November 21 and December 2,

13

Electrokinetically pumped high pressure sprays  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An electrokinetic pump capable of producing high pressure is combined with a nozzle having a submicron orifice to provide a high pressure spray device. Because of its small size, the device can be contained within medical devices such as an endoscope for delivering biological materials such as DNA, chemo therapeutic agents, or vaccines to tissues and cells.

Schoeniger, Joseph S. (Oakland, CA); Paul, Phillip H. (Livermore, CA); Schoeniger, Luke (Pittsford, NY)

2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

14

Fundamentals of high pressure adsorption  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

High-pressure adsorption attracts research interests following the world's attention to alternative fuels, and it exerts essential effect on the study of hydrogen/methane storage and the development of novel materials addressing to the storage. However, theoretical puzzles in high-pressure adsorption hindered the progress of application studies. Therefore, the present paper addresses the major theoretical problems that challenged researchers: i.e., how to model the isotherms with maximum observed in high-pressure adsorption; what is the adsorption mechanism at high pressures; how do we determine the quantity of absolute adsorption based on experimental data. Ideology and methods to tackle these problems are elucidated, which lead to new insights into the nature of high-pressure adsorption and progress in application studies, for example, in modeling multicomponent adsorption, hydrogen storage, natural gas storage, and coalbed methane enrichment, was achieved.

Zhou, Y.P.; Zhou, L. [Tianjin University, Tianjin (China). High Pressure Adsorption Laboratory

2009-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

15

High pressure synthesis gas conversion. Task 3: High pressure profiles  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this research project was to build and test a high pressure fermentation system for the production of ethanol from synthesis gas. The fermenters, pumps, controls, and analytical system were procured or fabricated and assembled in our laboratory. This system was then used to determine the effects of high pressure on growth and ethanol production by C. 1jungdahlii. The limits of cell concentration and mass transport relationships were found in CSTR and immobilized cell reactors (ICR). The minimum retention times and reactor volumes were found for ethanol production in these reactors.

Not Available

1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

16

190 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON PLASMA SCIENCE, VOL. 30, NO. 1, FEBRUARY 2002 Gap Closure in a Cold Metal Halide Lamp  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

lamp has been investigated using a two-dimensional, plasma transport model. Im- ages are presented- charge devices, lighting, plasma applications. METAL halide high-intensity-discharge (HID) lamps op- erate as high-pressure thermal arcs [1]. The cold fills of HID lamps are typically 50­100 torr of a rare

Kushner, Mark

17

Electrokinetic high pressure hydraulic system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An electrokinetic high pressure hydraulic pump for manipulating fluids in capillary-based systems. The pump uses electro-osmotic flow to provide a high pressure hydraulic system, having no moving mechanical parts, for pumping and/or compressing fluids, for providing valve means and means for opening and closing valves, for controlling fluid flow rate, and manipulating fluid flow generally and in capillary-based systems (Microsystems), in particular. The compact nature of the inventive high pressure hydraulic pump provides the ability to construct a micro-scale or capillary-based HPLC system that fulfills the desire for small sample quantity, low solvent consumption, improved efficiency, the ability to run samples in parallel, and field portability. Control of pressure and solvent flow rate is achieved by controlling the voltage applied to an electrokinetic pump.

Paul, Phillip H. (Livermore, CA); Rakestraw, David J. (Fremont, CA); Arnold, Don W. (Livermore, CA); Hencken, Kenneth R. (Pleasanton, CA); Schoeniger, Joseph S. (Oakland, CA); Neyer, David W. (Castro Valley, CA)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

18

High-Pressure Hydrogen Tanks  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

February 8 February 8 th , 2005 Mark J. Warner, P.E. Principal Engineer Quantum Technologies, Inc. Irvine, CA Low Cost, High Efficiency, Low Cost, High Efficiency, High Pressure Hydrogen Storage High Pressure Hydrogen Storage This presentation does not contain any proprietary or confidential information. 70 MPa Composite Tanks Vent Line Ports Defueling Port (optional) Fill Port Filter Check Valve Vehicle Interface Bracket with Stone Shield In Tank Regulator with Solenoid Lock-off Pressure Relief Device Manual Valve Compressed Hydrogen Storage System In-Tank Regulator Pressure Sensor (not visible here) Pressure Relief Device (thermal) In Tank Gas Temperature Sensor Carbon Composite Shell (structural) Impact Resistant Outer Shell (damage resistant) Gas Outlet Solenoid Foam Dome (impact protection)

19

High-Pressure Tube Trailers and Tanks  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Presentation on High-Pressure Tube Trailers and Tanks for the DOE Hydrogen Delivery High-Pressure Tanks and Analysis Project Review Meeting held February 8-9, 2005 at Argonne National Laboratory

20

Turning on LAMP  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

Christoph Bostedt, a senior staff scientist at SLAC's Linac Coherent Light Source X-ray laser, provides a sneak peek of a powerful new instrument, called LAMP, that is now available for experiments that probe the atomic and molecular realm. LAMP replaces and updates the first instrument at LCLS, dubbed CAMP, which will be installed at an X-ray laser in Germany.

Bostedt, Christoph

2014-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high-pressure sodium lamps" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Turning on LAMP  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Christoph Bostedt, a senior staff scientist at SLAC's Linac Coherent Light Source X-ray laser, provides a sneak peek of a powerful new instrument, called LAMP, that is now available for experiments that probe the atomic and molecular realm. LAMP replaces and updates the first instrument at LCLS, dubbed CAMP, which will be installed at an X-ray laser in Germany.

Bostedt, Christoph

2014-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

22

Fluorescent Tube Lamps  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

FEMP temporarily suspended its energy efficiency requirements for fluorescent tube lamps as it evaluates the market impact of the pending 2012 minimum efficiency standards for fluorescent lamps. The program will issue updated energy efficiency requirements when the market distribution of this product category stabilizes and when doing so has the potential to result in significant Federal energy savings.

23

Electrical Transport Experiments at High Pressure  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

High-pressure electrical measurements have a long history of use in the study of materials under ultra-high pressures. In recent years, electrical transport experiments have played a key role in the study of many interesting high pressure phenomena including pressure-induced superconductivity, insulator-to-metal transitions, and quantum critical behavior. High-pressure electrical transport experiments also play an important function in geophysics and the study of the Earth's interior. Besides electrical conductivity measurements, electrical transport experiments also encompass techniques for the study of the optoelectronic and thermoelectric properties of materials under high pressures. In addition, electrical transport techniques, i.e., the ability to extend electrically conductive wires from outside instrumentation into the high pressure sample chamber have been utilized to perform other types of experiments as well, such as high-pressure magnetic susceptibility and de Haas-van Alphen Fermi surface experiments. Finally, electrical transport techniques have also been utilized for delivering significant amounts of electrical power to high pressure samples, for the purpose of performing high-pressure and -temperature experiments. Thus, not only do high-pressure electrical transport experiments provide much interesting and valuable data on the physical properties of materials extreme compression, but the underlying high-pressure electrical transport techniques can be used in a number of ways to develop additional diagnostic techniques and to advance high pressure capabilities.

Weir, S

2009-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

24

High Pressure Hydrogen Tank Manufacturing  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Workshop Workshop High Pressure Hydrogen Tank Manufacturing Mark Leavitt Quantum Fuel Systems Technologies Worldwide, Inc. August 11, 2011 This presentation does not contain any proprietary, confidential, or otherwise restricted information History of Innovations... Announced breakthrough in all-composite lightweight, high capacity, low-cost fuel storage technologies. * Developed a series of robust, OEM compatible electronic control products. Developed H 2 storage system for SunLine Tran-sit Hythane® bus. Awarded patent for integrated module including in-tank regulator * Developed high efficiency H 2 fuel storage systems for DOE Future Truck programs Developed H 2 storage and metering system for Toyota's FCEV platform. First to certify 10,000 psi systems in Japan

25

Steam Oxidation at High Pressure  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A first high pressure test was completed: 293 hr at 267 bar and 670{degrees}C; A parallel 1 bar test was done for comparison; Mass gains were higher for all alloys at 267 bar than at 1 bar; Longer term exposures, over a range of temperatures and pressures, are planned to provide information as to the commercial implications of pressure effects; The planned tests are at a higher combination of temperatures and pressures than in the existing literature. A comparison was made with longer-term literature data: The short term exposures are largely consistent with the longer-term corrosion literature; Ferritic steels--no consistent pressure effect; Austenitic steels--fine grain alloys less able to maintain protective chromia scale as pressure increases; Ni-base alloys--more mass gains above 105 bar than below. Not based on many data points.

Holcomb, Gordon R. [NETL; Carney, Casey [URS

2013-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

26

Magnetic fluorescent lamp  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The radiant emission of a mercury-argon discharge in a fluorescent lamp assembly is enhanced by providing means for establishing a magnetic field with lines of force along the path of electron flow through the bulb of the lamp assembly, to provide Zeeman splitting of the ultraviolet spectral line. Optimum results are obtained when the magnetic field strength causes a Zeeman splitting of approximately 1.7 times the thermal line width.

Berman, S.M.; Richardson R.W.

1983-12-29T23:59:59.000Z

27

Superconducting high-pressure phases of disilane  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Superconducting high-pressure phases of disilane 10.1073/pnas.1005242107 Xilian...DC 20015 High-pressure structures of disilane (Si2H6) are investigated extensively...linear-response calculations for Pm-3m disilane at 275 GPa show a large electron-phonon...

Xilian Jin; Xing Meng; Zhi He; Yanming Ma; Bingbing Liu; Tian Cui; Guangtian Zou; Ho-kwang Mao

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

28

NETL- High-Pressure Combustion Research Facility  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

NETL's High-Pressure Combustion Facility is a unique resource within the National Laboratories system. It provides the test capabilities needed to evaluate new combustion concepts for high-pressure, high-temperature hydrogen and natural gas turbines. These concepts will be critical for the next generation of ultra clean, ultra efficient power systems.

None

2013-07-08T23:59:59.000Z

29

NETL- High-Pressure Combustion Research Facility  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

NETL's High-Pressure Combustion Facility is a unique resource within the National Laboratories system. It provides the test capabilities needed to evaluate new combustion concepts for high-pressure, high-temperature hydrogen and natural gas turbines. These concepts will be critical for the next generation of ultra clean, ultra efficient power systems.

None

2014-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

30

Stability of very-high pressure arc discharges against perturbations of the electron temperature  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We study the stability of the energy balance of the electron gas in very high-pressure plasmas against longitudinal perturbations, using a local dispersion analysis. After deriving a dispersion equation, we apply the model to a very high-pressure (100 bar) xenon plasma and find instability for electron temperatures, T{sub e}, in a window between 2400 K and 5500-7000 K x 10{sup 3} K, depending on the current density (10{sup 6}-10{sup 8} A/m{sup 2}). The instability can be traced back to the Joule heating of the electron gas being a growing function of T{sub e}, which is due to a rising dependence of the electron-atom collision frequency on T{sub e}. We then analyze the T{sub e} range occurring in very high-pressure xenon lamps and conclude that only the near-anode region exhibits T{sub e} sufficiently low for this instability to occur. Indeed, previous experiments have revealed that such lamps develop, under certain conditions, voltage oscillations accompanied by electromagnetic interference, and this instability has been pinned down to the plasma-anode interaction. A relation between the mechanisms of the considered instability and multiple anodic attachments of high-pressure arcs is discussed.

Benilov, M. S. [Departamento de Fisica, Ciencias Exactas e Engenharia, Universidade da Madeira, Largo do Municipio, Funchal 9000 (Portugal); Hechtfischer, U. [Philips Lighting, BU Automotive Lamps, Technology, Philipsstrasse 8, Aachen 52068 (Germany)

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

Energy-efficient incandescent lamp: Final report  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of Energy Conserving Incandescent Lamps", J . Brett, R.July 1981. "Filaments for Incandescent Lamps with Radiation20-22 "Energy Saving Incandescent Lamps with Infrared

Verderber, R.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

32

Retail Replacement Lamps  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Annual CALiPER testing of A19, G25, candelabra, night light, MR16/PAR16, PAR20, and PAR30 replacement lamps purchased directly from store shelves offers insights on performance trends from year to year. The report findings offer valuable insights for manufacturers and retailers alike.

33

LED MR16 Lamps  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The following CALiPER report provides detailed analysis of LED MR16 lamp performance, covering basic performance characteristics as well as subjective evaluation of beam, shadow, and color quality. Pending reports will offer analysis on performance attributes that are not captured by LM-79 testing. These reports are intended to educate the industry on market trends, potential issues, and important areas for improvement.

34

LED PAR38 Lamps  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The following CALiPER reports provide detailed analysis of LED PAR38 lamp performance, covering basic performance characteristics as well as subjective evaluation of beam, shadow, and color quality. Pending reports will offer analysis on flicker, dimming and power quality characteristics; stress testing; and lumen and chromaticity maintenance. These reports are intended to educate the industry on market trends, potential issues, and important areas for improvement.

35

Viscosity of liquid Fe at high pressure  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Synchrotron x-ray radiography has been used to measure the viscosity of pure liquid Fe at high pressure and temperature in a large volume press. A probe sphere rising through liquid Fe at high pressure and temperature is imaged, in situ, allowing for the derivation of sample viscosity through a modified form of Stokes equation. The effect of pressure on viscosity is fit by the semi empirical framework for transport coefficients in liquid metals, providing experimental verification of constant viscosity at the pressure-dependent melting temperature of liquid Fe where no change in liquid structure occurs.

Michael D. Rutter; Richard A. Secco; Hongjian Liu; Takeyuki Uchida; Mark L. Rivers; Stephen R. Sutton; Yanbin Wang

2002-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

36

Bonfire Tests of High Pressure Hydrogen Storage Tanks | Department...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Bonfire Tests of High Pressure Hydrogen Storage Tanks Bonfire Tests of High Pressure Hydrogen Storage Tanks These slides were presented at the International Hydrogen Fuel and...

37

Advanced Diagnostics for High Pressure Spray Combustion.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The development of accurate predictive engine simulations requires experimental data to both inform and validate the models, but very limited information is presently available about the chemical structure of high pressure spray flames under engine- relevant conditions. Probing such flames for chemical information using non- intrusive optical methods or intrusive sampling techniques, however, is challenging because of the physical and optical harshness of the environment. This work details two new diagnostics that have been developed and deployed to obtain quantitative species concentrations and soot volume fractions from a high-pressure combusting spray. A high-speed, high-pressure sampling system was developed to extract gaseous species (including soot precursor species) from within the flame for offline analysis by time-of-flight mass spectrometry. A high-speed multi-wavelength optical extinction diagnostic was also developed to quantify transient and quasi-steady soot processes. High-pressure sampling and offline characterization of gas-phase species formed following the pre-burn event was accomplished as well as characterization of gas-phase species present in the lift-off region of a high-pressure n-dodecane spray flame. For the initial samples discussed in this work several species were identified, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH); however, quantitative mole fractions were not determined. Nevertheless, the diagnostic developed here does have this capability. Quantitative, time-resolved measurements of soot extinction were also accomplished and the novel use of multiple incident wavelengths proved valuable toward characterizing changes in soot optical properties within different regions of the spray flame.

Skeen, Scott A.; Manin, Julien Luc; Pickett, Lyle M.

2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

38

Max Tech and Beyond: Fluorescent Lamps  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Fluorescent Lamps and Incandescent Reflector Lamps; Finalmany end- use applications. Incandescent Outdoor Stationaryof color compared with the incandescent reference source is

Scholand, Michael

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

39

Low-Pressure Sodium Lighting Basics | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Low-Pressure Sodium Lighting Basics Low-Pressure Sodium Lighting Basics Low-Pressure Sodium Lighting Basics August 16, 2013 - 10:17am Addthis Low-pressure sodium lighting provides more energy-efficient outdoor lighting than high-intensity discharge lighting, but it has very poor color rendition. Typical applications include highway and security lighting, where color is not important. Low-pressure sodium lamps work somewhat like fluorescent lamps. Like high-intensity discharge lighting, low-pressure sodium lamps require up to 10 minutes to start and have to cool before they can restart. Therefore, they are most suitable for applications in which they stay on for hours at a time. They are not suitable for use with motion detectors. The chart below compares low-pressure sodium lamps and high-intensity

40

HIGH PRESSURE COAL COMBUSTON KINETICS PROJECT  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

As part of the U.S. Department of Energy (DoE) initiative to improve the efficiency of coal-fired power plants and reduce the pollution generated by these facilities, DOE has funded the High-Pressure Coal Combustion Kinetics (HPCCK) Projects. A series of laboratory experiments were conducted on selected pulverized coals at elevated pressures with the specific goals to provide new data for pressurized coal combustion that will help extend to high pressure and validate models for burnout, pollutant formation, and generate samples of solid combustion products for analyses to fill crucial gaps in knowledge of char morphology and fly ash formation. Two series of high-pressure coal combustion experiments were performed using SRI's pressurized radiant coal flow reactor. The first series of tests characterized the near burner flame zone (NBFZ). Three coals were tested, two high volatile bituminous (Pittsburgh No.8 and Illinois No.6), and one sub-bituminous (Powder River Basin), at pressures of 1, 2, and 3 MPa (10, 20, and 30 atm). The second series of experiments, which covered high-pressure burnout (HPBO) conditions, utilized a range of substantially longer combustion residence times to produce char burnout levels from 50% to 100%. The same three coals were tested at 1, 2, and 3 MPa, as well as at 0.2 MPa. Tests were also conducted on Pittsburgh No.8 coal in CO2 entrainment gas at 0.2, 1, and 2 MPa to begin establishing a database of experiments relevant to carbon sequestration techniques. The HPBO test series included use of an impactor-type particle sampler to measure the particle size distribution of fly ash produced under complete burnout conditions. The collected data have been interpreted with the help of CFD and detailed kinetics simulation to extend and validate devolatilization, char combustion and pollutant model at elevated pressure. A global NOX production sub-model has been proposed. The submodel reproduces the performance of the detailed chemical reaction mechanism for the NBFZ tests.

Stefano Orsino

2005-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high-pressure sodium lamps" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

High-pressure liquid chromatographic gradient mixer  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A gradient mixer effects the continuous mixing of any two miscible solvents without excessive decay or dispersion of the resultant isocratic effluent or of a linear or exponential gradient. The two solvents are fed under low or high pressure by means of two high performance liquid chromatographic pumps. The mixer comprises a series of ultra-low dead volume stainless steel tubes and low dead volume chambers. The two solvent streams impinge head-on at high fluxes. This initial nonhomogeneous mixture is then passed through a chamber packed with spirally-wound wires which cause turbulent mixing thereby homogenizing the mixture with minimum band-broadening.

Daughton, C.G.; Sakaji, R.H.

1982-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

42

A University Consortium on Efficient and Clean High-Pressure...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Efficient and Clean High-Pressure, Lean Burn (HPLB) Engines A University Consortium on Efficient and Clean High-Pressure, Lean Burn (HPLB) Engines 2010 DOE Vehicle Technologies and...

43

DOE Hydrogen Delivery High-Pressure Tanks and Analysis Project...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Delivery High-Pressure Tanks and Analysis Project Review Meeting DOE Hydrogen Delivery High-Pressure Tanks and Analysis Project Review Meeting On February 8-9, 2005, the Department...

44

Sandia National Laboratories: High-Pressure and High-Temperature...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

ClimateECClimateCarbon CaptureHigh-Pressure and High-Temperature Neutron Reflectometry Cell for Solid-Fluid Interface Studies High-Pressure and High-Temperature Neutron...

45

High-pressure coal fuel processor development  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of Subtask 1.1 Engine Feasibility was to conduct research needed to establish the technical feasibility of ignition and stable combustion of directly injected, 3,000 psi, low-Btu gas with glow plug ignition assist at diesel engine compression ratios. This objective was accomplished by designing, fabricating, testing and analyzing the combustion performance of synthesized low-Btu coal gas in a single-cylinder test engine combustion rig located at the Caterpillar Technical Center engine lab in Mossville, Illinois. The objective of Subtask 1.2 Fuel Processor Feasibility was to conduct research needed to establish the technical feasibility of air-blown, fixed-bed, high-pressure coal fuel processing at up to 3,000 psi operating pressure, incorporating in-bed sulfur and particulate capture. This objective was accomplished by designing, fabricating, testing and analyzing the performance of bench-scale processors located at Coal Technology Corporation (subcontractor) facilities in Bristol, Virginia. These two subtasks were carried out at widely separated locations and will be discussed in separate sections of this report. They were, however, independent in that the composition of the synthetic coal gas used to fuel the combustion rig was adjusted to reflect the range of exit gas compositions being produced on the fuel processor rig. Two major conclusions resulted from this task. First, direct injected, ignition assisted Diesel cycle engine combustion systems can be suitably modified to efficiently utilize these low-Btu gas fuels. Second, high pressure gasification of selected run-of-the-mine coals in batch-loaded fuel processors is feasible. These two findings, taken together, significantly reduce the perceived technical risks associated with the further development of the proposed coal gas fueled Diesel cycle power plant concept.

Greenhalgh, M.L.

1992-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

46

High-pressure coal fuel processor development  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Caterpillar shares DOE/METC interest in demonstrating the technology required to displace petroleum-based engine fuels with various forms of low cost coal. Current DOE/METC programs on mild gasification and coal-water-slurries are addressing two approaches to this end. Engine and fuel processor system concept studies by Caterpillar have identified a third, potentially promising, option. This option includes high-pressure fuel processing of run-of-the-mine coal and direct injection of the resulting low-Btu gas stream into an ignition assisted, high compression ratio diesel engine. The compactness and predicted efficiency of the system make it suitable for application to line-haul railroad locomotives. Two overall conclusions resulted from Task 1. First direct injected, ignition assisted Diesel cycle engine combustion systems can be suitably modified to efficiently utilize low-Btu gas fuels. Second, high pressure gasification of selected run-of-the-mine coals in batch-loaded fuel processors is feasible. These two findings, taken together, significantly reduce the perceived technical risk associated with the further development of the proposed coal gas fueled Diesel cycle power plant concept. The significant conclusions from Task 2 were: An engine concept, derived from a Caterpillar 3600 series engine, and a fuel processor concept, based on scaling up a removable-canister configuration from the test rig, appear feasible; and although the results of this concept study are encouraging, further, full-scale component research and development are required before attempting a full-scale integrated system demonstration effort.

Greenhalgh, M.L. (Caterpillar, Inc., Peoria, IL (United States))

1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

47

Energy Cost Calculator for Compact Fluorescent Lamps | Department...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

project. Modify the default values to suit your project requirements. Existing incandescent lamp wattage Watts Incandescent lamp cost dollars Incandescent lamp life 1000 hours...

48

Health Implications of New Lamp Technology Progress with Lamp Safety  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

: ­ ACGIH Threshold Limit Values, UV, lasers, etc. ­ ANSI Z136.1 for lasers with MPEs 0.1 ps -30 ks ­ ANSI RP 27.1 to ANSI RP 27.3 Lamp Safety · Internationally: ­ International Commission on Non

California at Davis, University of

49

Capacitive sensing with a fluorescent lamp  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This work presents a modified fluorescent lamp that can be used as a capacitive sensing system. The lamp sensor measures changes in the electric fields emitted from the fluorescent bulbs in order to deduce the presence and ...

Cooley, John Jacob

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

High-Pressure Hydrogen Tank Testing | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Tank Testing High-Pressure Hydrogen Tank Testing Many types of compressed hydrogen tanks have been certified worldwide and demonstrated in several prototype fuel cell...

51

Bonfire Tests of High Pressure Hydrogen Storage Tanks  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Bonfire Tests of High Pressure Hydrogen Storage Tanks International Hydrogen Fuel and Pressure Vessel Forum 2010Beijing, P.R. China September 27, 2010 Bonfire Tests of High...

52

High pressure and multiferroics materials: a happy marriage  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The effect of high pressure on the synthesis, properties and atomic structure of multiferroic materials with perovskite or perovskite-related structures is reviewed.

Gilioli, E.

2014-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

53

Pressure Relief Devices for High-Pressure Gaseous Storage Systems...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Pressure Relief Devices for High-Pressure Gaseous Storage Systems: Applicability to Hydrogen Technology A. Kostival, C. Rivkin, W. Buttner, and R. Burgess National Renewable Energy...

54

Working with SRNL - Our Facilities- High Pressure Laboratory  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

The High Pressure Laboratory provides a comprehensive test facility providing the annual testing certification of various nuclear material shipping packages and leak testing...

55

LED Linear Lamps and Troffer Lighting  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The CALiPER program performed a series of investigations on linear LED lamps. Each report in the series covers the performance of up to 31 linear LED lamps, which were purchased in late 2012 or 2013. The first report focuses on bare lamp performance of LED T8 replacement lamps and subsequent reports examine performance in various troffers, as well as cost-effectiveness. There is also a concise guidance document that describes the findings of the Series 21 studies and provides practical advice to manufacturers, specifiers, and consumers (Report 21.4: Summary of Linear (T8) LED Lamp Testing , 5 pages, June 2014).

56

Fundamentals of High Pressure Combustion Chapter in High Pressure Processes in Chemical Engineering, Edited by Maximillian Lackner,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Fundamentals of High Pressure Combustion Chapter in High Pressure Processes in Chemical Engineering for more than 50 years and are expected to continue to do so [2]. Diesel engines obtain pressures as large as 60atm after ignition [3, 4, 5, 6, 7]. Figure 1 presents a schematic of diesel and gas turbine engine

Miller, Richard S.

57

Pulse Rise Time Characterization of a High Pressure Xenon Gamma Detector for use in Resolution Enhancement  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

High pressure xenon ionization chamber detectors are possible alternatives to traditional thallium doped sodium iodide (NaI(Tl)) and hyperpure germanium as gamma spectrometers in certain applications. Xenon detectors incorporating a Frisch grid exhibit energy resolutions comparable to cadmium/zinc/telluride (CZT) (e.g. 2% {at} 662keV) but with far greater sensitive volumes. The Frisch grid reduces the position dependence of the anode pulse risetimes, but it also increases the detector vibration sensitivity, anode capacitance, voltage requirements and mechanical complexity. We have been investigating the possibility of eliminating the grid electrode in high-pressure xenon detectors and preserving the high energy resolution using electronic risetime compensation methods. A two-electrode cylindrical high pressure xenon gamma detector coupled to time-to-amplitude conversion electronics was used to characterize the pulse rise time of deposited gamma photons. Time discrimination was used to characterize the pulse rise time versus photo peak position and resolution. These data were collected to investigate the effect of pulse rise time compensation on resolution and efficiency.

TROYER, G.L.

2000-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

58

High Temperature Corrosion Test Facilities and High Pressure Test  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

High Temperature High Temperature Corrosion Test Facilities and High Pressure Test Facilities for Metal Dusting Test Facilities for Metal Dusting Overview Other Facilities Work with Argonne Contact us For Employees Site Map Help Join us on Facebook Follow us on Twitter NE on Flickr High Temperature Corrosion Test Facilities and High Pressure Test Facilities for Metal Dusting Six corrosion test facilities and two thermogravimetric systems for conducting corrosion tests in complex mixed gas environments, in steam and in the presence of deposits, and five facilities for metal dusting degradation Bookmark and Share The High Temperature Corrosion Test Facilities and High Pressure Test Facilities for Metal Dusting include: High Pressure Test Facility for Metal Dusting Resistance:

59

High-pressure Infrared Spectra of Tal and Lawsonite  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present high-pressure infrared spectra of two geologically important hydrous minerals: talc, Mg3Si4O10(OH)2 and lawsonite, CaAl2Si2O7(OH)2{center_dot}H2O,{center_dot}at room temperature. For lawsonite, our data span the far infrared region from 150 to 550 cm-1 and extend to 25 GPa. We combine our new spectroscopic data with previously published high-pressure mid-infrared and Raman data to constrain the Gr{umlt u}neisen parameter and vibrational density of states under pressure. In the case of talc, we present high-pressure infrared data that span both the mid and far infrared from 150 to 3800 cm-1 covering lattice, silicate, and hydroxyl stretching vibrations to a maximum pressure of 30 GPa. Both phases show remarkable metastability well beyond their nominal maximum thermodynamic stability at simultaneous high-pressure and high-temperature conditions.

Scott,H.; Liu, Z.; Hemley, R.; Williams, Q.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

Max Tech and Beyond: Fluorescent Lamps  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

varies by watts of power per foot of electrical arc in theFoot Linear Fluorescent Lamps Efficacy Life Lumens Type Base Power

Scholand, Michael

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high-pressure sodium lamps" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Covered Product Category: Compact Fluorescent Lamps  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

FEMP provides acquisition guidance across a variety of product categories, including compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs), which are an ENERGY STAR-qualified product category.

62

Energy saving controller for fluorescent lamps.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Although fluorescent lamp is a very efficient lighting device in daily life, still the high harmonic distortion and low power factor cause unnecessary energy consumption. (more)

Cheong, Zhi Xiong

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

63

LED Replacements for Linear Fluorescent Lamps Webcast  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

In this June 20, 2011 webcast on LED products marketed as replacements for linear fluorescent lamps, Jason Tuenge of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) discussed current Lighting...

64

Energy conservation treatment in Exxon's the lamp  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this article, Mary Ann Ferguson-DeThorne examines The Lamp, a publication sponsored by Exxon, to determine when and to what extent Exxon informed The Lamp's audience about an impending energy shortage and possible energy conservation methods, to learn if The Lamp's energy conservation messages reflected Exxon's stated conservation positions, and to compare The Lamp to mass-circulation news magazines in terms of how well it alerted its audience to the impending energy shortage. The crucial period of study here is 19711973; prior to the Arab oil boycott and the 1974 Congressional investigation of charges that the large oil companies had contrived shortages to eliminate competition.

Mary Ann Ferguson-DeThorne

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

65

General Service LED Lamps | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

DOE SSL technology fact sheet that compares general service LED light bulbs with incandescent and CFL bulbs. ledgeneral-service-lamps.pdf More Documents & Publications LED...

66

A SPICE Compatible Model of High Intensity Discharge Lamps  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

from the arc's * Corresponding author behavior of HID lamps. This model are derived from the arc-linear resistance of the lamp, is the global specific conductance of the plasma, V is the volume of the plasma, L is the length of plasma and S is the cross section. ~ Vin G1 Lamp Model Ballast v(lamp) i(lamp) Analytical

67

Energy Systems High Pressure Test Laboratory (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This fact sheet describes the purpose, lab specifications, applications scenarios, and information on how to partner with NREL's Energy Systems High Pressure Test Laboratory at the Energy Systems Integration Facility. The purpose of the Energy Systems High Pressure Test Laboratory at NREL's Energy Systems Integration Facility (ESIF) is to provide space where high pressure hydrogen components can be safely tested. High pressure hydrogen storage is an integral part of energy storage technology for use in fuel cell and in other distributed energy scenarios designed to effectively utilize the variability inherent with renewable energy sources. The high pressure storage laboratory is co-located with energy storage activities such as ultra-capacitors, super conducting magnetic flywheel and mechanical energy storage systems laboratories for an integrated approach to system development and demonstration. Hazards associated with hydrogen storage at pressures up to 10,000 psi include oxygen displacement, combustion, explosion, and pressurization of room air due to fast release and physical hazards associated with burst failure modes. A critical understanding of component failure modes is essential in developing reliable, robust designs that will minimize failure risk beyond the end of service life. Development of test protocol for accelerated life testing to accurately scale to real world operating conditions is essential for developing regulations, codes and standards required for safe operation. NREL works closely with industry partners in providing support of advanced hydrogen technologies. Innovative approaches to product design will accelerate commercialization into new markets. NREL works with all phases of the product design life cycle from early prototype development to final certification testing. High pressure tests are performed on hydrogen components, primarily for the validation of developing new codes and standards for high pressure hydrogen applications. The following types of tests can be performed: Performance, Component and system level efficiency, Strength of materials and hydrogen compatibility, Safety demonstration, Model validation, and Life cycle reliability.

Not Available

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

68

Portable lamp with dynamically controlled lighting distribution  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A double lamp table or floor lamp lighting system has a pair of compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs) arranged vertically with a reflective septum in between. By selectively turning on one or both of the CFLs, down lighting, up lighting, or both up and down lighting is produced. The control system can also vary the light intensity from each CFL. The reflective septum insures that almost all the light produced by each lamp will be directed into the desired light distribution pattern which is selected and easily changed by the user. Planar compact fluorescent lamps, e.g. circular CFLs, particularly oriented horizontally, are preferable. CFLs provide energy efficiency. The lighting system may be designed for the home, hospitality, office or other environments.

Siminovitch, Michael J. (Pinole, CA); Page, Erik R. (Berkeley, CA)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

LED T8 Replacement Lamps | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

T8 Replacement Lamps LED T8 Replacement Lamps This documents provides an overview of LED T8 replacement lamps and helps define a reasonable minimum performance level for the...

70

Solid-state lamp with integral occupancy sensor  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Previous work demonstrated a retrofit proximity detector for fluorescent lamps using the lamp's own stray electric fields. This paper extends the retrofit sensor system to a solid-state (LED) lamp. The design and implementation ...

Cooley, John J.

71

COST EFFECTIVENESS OF LONG LIFE INCANDESCENT LAMPS AND ENERGY BUTTONS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

as any 1ong-li incandescent lamp or system evaluated in thisEFFECTIVENESS OF LONG LIFE INCANDESCENT LAMPS AND ENERGYEFFECTIVENESS OF LONG LIFE INCANDESCENT LAMPS AND ENERGY

Verderber, Rudy

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

72

DuraLamp USA: Order (2010-CE-0912)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

DOE ordered DuraLamp USA, Inc. to pay a $2,500 civil penalty after finding DuraLamp USA had failed to certify that model PAR 30, an incandescent reflector lamp, complies with the applicable energy conservation standards.

73

Tungsten wire for incandescent lamps  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Tungsten wire for incandescent lamp filaments must operate at high temperatures and for long times. To meet these requirements, the grain morphology of the wire must be controlled to reduce the propensity for grain boundary sliding. The morphology is a function of the distribution of very small pockets of potassium in the wire and the mechanical processing from ingot to wire. The behavior of the filament is directly related to the grain morphology. This paper describes the mechanism by which the potassium is incorporated into and distributed in the ingot. The elongation and spheroidization of the bubbles during hot rolling and swaging is also examined and related to the grain morphology of wire. Some indications of the relationship between grain morphology and filament behavior are also given.

Walter, J.L.; Briant, C.L. (General Electric Corporate Research and Development, Schenectady, NY (USA))

1990-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

Power factor and harmonic distortion characteristics of energy efficient lamps  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper evaluates the performance of a new class of lamps which are generally classified as the energy-saving lamps. It is shown that, when compared with the incandescent lamps, these lamps indeed consume less real power and have higher relative illumination. However, the energy-saving lamps operate at a low power factor and produce current distortion which are much higher than the distortion produced by the traditional incandescent lamps.

Etezadi-Amoli, M.; Florence, T.

1989-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

A high-pressure nanoimaging breakthrough | Argonne National Laboratory  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Science Science Computing, Environment & Life Sciences Energy Engineering & Systems Analysis Photon Sciences Physical Sciences & Engineering Energy Frontier Research Centers Science Highlights Postdoctoral Researchers A high-pressure nanoimaging breakthrough July 16, 2013 Tweet EmailPrint A team of researchers made a major breakthrough in measuring the structure of nanomaterials under extremely high pressures. Bragg coherent x-ray diffraction imaging (CXDI) is a promising tool to probe the internal strains of nanometer-sized crystals. But for high-pressure studies the x-ray beam must pass through a component of the diamond anvil cell, which can significantly affect the coherence properties of the beam. The researchers have developed a technique to deal with this that could lead to

76

Confinement of hydrogen at high pressure in carbon nanotubes  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A high pressure hydrogen confinement apparatus according to one embodiment includes carbon nanotubes capped at one or both ends thereof with a hydrogen-permeable membrane to enable the high pressure confinement of hydrogen and release of the hydrogen therethrough. A hydrogen confinement apparatus according to another embodiment includes an array of multi-walled carbon nanotubes each having first and second ends, the second ends being capped with palladium (Pd) to enable the high pressure confinement of hydrogen and release of the hydrogen therethrough as a function of palladium temperature, wherein the array of carbon nanotubes is capable of storing hydrogen gas at a pressure of at least 1 GPa for greater than 24 hours. Additional apparatuses and methods are also presented.

Lassila, David H. (Aptos, CA); Bonner, Brian P. (Livermore, CA)

2011-12-13T23:59:59.000Z

77

Hydro-Pac Inc., A High Pressure Company  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Hydro-Pac Hydro-Pac Inc. A High Pressure Company * Founded in 1972 * Manufacturer of Hydraulically Driven Intensifiers * High Pressure Hydrogen Compressors Hydrogen Compressor Cost Reduction Topics * Standardize Configuration and Fueling Strategy * Simple Designs and Proven Technologies * Identify Economical Hydrogen Compatible Materials * Specify Well Ventilated Sites with Remote Controls Standardize Configuration and Fueling Strategy * Limit the number of compressors and stages * Narrow the range of supply and discharge pressures * Select a flow and standardize Simple Designs and Proven Technologies * Variable speed drives * Double ended intensifiers * Water cooled cylinders * Flexible operational envelopes * Stop and start under load . Material Research / Installation Requirements

78

Capillary toroid cavity detector for high pressure NMR  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A Toroid Cavity Detector (TCD) is provided for implementing nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) studies of chemical reactions under conditions of high pressures and temperatures. A toroid cavity contains an elongated central conductor extending within the toroid cavity. The toroid cavity and central conductor generate an RF magnetic field for NMR analysis. A flow-through capillary sample container is located within the toroid cavity adjacent to the central conductor to subject a sample material flowing through the capillary to a static magnetic field and to enable NMR spectra to be recorded of the material in the capillary under a temperature and high pressure environment.

Gerald, II, Rex E. (Brookfield, IL); Chen, Michael J. (Downers Grove, IL); Klingler, Robert J. (Glenview, IL); Rathke, Jerome W. (Honer Glen, IL); ter Horst, Marc (Chapel Hill, NC)

2007-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

79

Cost effectiveness of long life incandescent lamps and energy buttons  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Long-life replacement lamps for the incandescent lamp have been evaluated with regard to their cost effectiveness. The replacements include the use of energy buttons that extend lamp life as well as an adaptive fluorescent circline lamp that will fit into existing incandescent lamp sockets. The initial, operating, and replacement costs for one million lumen hours are determined for each lamp system. It is found that the most important component lighting cost is the operating cost. Using lamps that are less efficient or devices that cause lamps to operate less efficiently are not cost-effective. The adaptive fluorescent circline lamp, even at an initial unit cost of $20.00, is the most cost-effective source of illumination compared to the incandescent lamp and lamp systems examined.

Verderber, R.; Morse, O.

1980-04-07T23:59:59.000Z

80

Lamp system for uniform semiconductor wafer heating  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A lamp system with a very soft high-intensity output is provided over a large area by water cooling a long-arc lamp inside a diffuse reflector of polytetrafluorethylene (PTFE) and titanium dioxide (TiO.sub.2) white pigment. The water is kept clean and pure by a one micron particulate filter and an activated charcoal/ultraviolet irradiation system that circulates and de-ionizes and biologically sterilizes the coolant water at all times, even when the long-arc lamp is off.

Zapata, Luis E. (Livermore, CA); Hackel, Lloyd (Livermore, CA)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high-pressure sodium lamps" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Compact fluorescent lamp applications in luxury hotels  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Over the past several years, consumers, lighting designers, and energy conservationists have paid increasing attention to the special characteristics of compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs). CFLs can typically be used to replace incandescent lamps of three to four times their own wattage, and their color rendering indices (CRIs)-80 to 85-make them virtually indistinguishable from incandescents. The typical 10,0000-hour life of a CFL often makes savings in labor its most desirable feature when compared to a shorter-lived incandescent lamp.

Gilleskie, R.J.

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

82

Radio frequency emission from high-pressure xenon arcs: A systematic experimental analysis of the underlying near-anode plasma instability  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

High-pressure Xe discharge lamps at DC operation can show unwanted strong RF (radio-frequency) emission to beyond 1 GHz, correlated to a sharp periodic lamp-voltage instability in the near-anode plasma with a pulse repetition rate {epsilon} of 1-10 MHz. The physical origin of the instability is unclear. Here, its existence and pulse rate have been measured as a function of arc current I = 0.2-1.2 A and anode temperature T{sub a} = 1700-3400 K independently, in experimental lamps with pure-tungsten electrodes and a Xe operating pressure around p = 10 MPa. Surprisingly, the instability is not affected by I or current density j but exists if T{sub a} is lower than a threshold value around 2800-2900 K. The pulse rate {epsilon} is simply a rising linear function of the inverse anode temperature 1/T{sub a}, with only a small I-dependent correction. The average anode heat load is slightly lower in the unstable regime and possibly depends on {epsilon}. The results allow a consistent re-interpretation of earlier and present experimental observations and should be both a valuable help in practical lamp engineering and a tight constraint for future theories of this effect.

Hechtfischer, Ulrich [Philips Lighting, GBU Automotive Lamps, Technology, Philipsstrasse 8, 52068 Aachen (Germany)

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

83

High Temperature, High Pressure Devices for Zonal Isolation in Geothermal  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Temperature, High Pressure Devices for Zonal Isolation in Geothermal Temperature, High Pressure Devices for Zonal Isolation in Geothermal Wells Geothermal Project Jump to: navigation, search Last modified on July 22, 2011. Project Title High Temperature, High Pressure Devices for Zonal Isolation in Geothermal Wells Project Type / Topic 1 Recovery Act: Enhanced Geothermal Systems Component Research and Development/Analysis Project Type / Topic 2 Zonal Isolation Project Description For Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS), high-temperature high-pressure zonal isolation tools capable of withstanding the downhole environment are needed. In these wells the packers must withstand differential pressures of 5,000 psi at more than 300°C, as well as pressures up to 20,000 psi at 200°C to 250°C. Furthermore, when deployed these packers and zonal isolation tools must form a reliable seal that eliminates fluid loss and mitigates short circuiting of flow from injectors to producers. At this time, general purpose open-hole packers do not exist for use in geothermal environments, with the primary technical limitation being the poor stability of existing elastomeric seals at high temperatures.

84

High pressure testing of see-through labyrinth seals  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Detailed results are presented for teeth-on-stator labyrinth seals tested under high pressure of 70 bar-a (1015 psi-a) and 52 bar-a (754 psi-a) in the centered position. The seals were tested at pressure ratios of 0.52, 0.36 and 0.16, speeds of 10...

Picardo, Arthur Michael

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

85

Pre-Inspection Checklist for High Pressure Boilers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Notice: This checklist reflects the most common violations our field inspectors encounter when performing an inspection on a high-pressure steam boiler installation. Its suggested that boiler industry personnel have access to a current set of applicable codebooks/jurisdictional laws. Such as: Section I of the ASME Boiler Code:

unknown authors

86

Department of Energy Workshop High Pressure Hydrogen Tank Manufacturing  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Department of Energy Workshop High Pressure Hydrogen Tank Manufacturing Mark Leavitt Quantum Fuel for integrated module including in-tank regulator · Developed high efficiency H2 fuel storage systems for DOE tank efficiency, the highest weight efficiency ever demonstrated, in partnership with Lawrence

87

Neutron scattering at high pressure D. B. McWhan  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

715 Neutron scattering at high pressure D. B. McWhan Room 1D-234, Murray Hill, New Jersey 07974, U scattering at steady-state and pulsed sources are reviewed. The pressure cells available at most neutron 10 GPa have been made. For elastic scattering, a comparison is made between neutron scattering and X

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

88

Ultra-high pressure water jet: Baseline report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The ultra-high pressure waterjet technology was being evaluated at Florida International University (FIU) as a baseline technology. In conjunction with FIU`s evaluation of efficiency and cost, this report covers the evaluation conducted for safety and health issues. It is a commercially available technology and has been used for various projects at locations throughout the country. The ultra-high pressure waterjet technology acts as a cutting tool for the removal of surface substrates. The Husky{trademark} pump feeds water to a lance that directs the high pressure water at the surface to be removed. The safety and health evaluation during the testing demonstration focused on two main areas of exposure. These were dust and noise. The dust exposure was found to be minimal, which would be expected due to the wet environment inherent in the technology, but noise exposure was at a significant level. Further testing for noise is recommended because of the outdoor environment where the testing demonstration took place. In addition, other areas of concern found were arm-hand vibration, ergonomics, heat stress, tripping hazards, electrical hazards, lockout/tagout, fall hazards, slipping hazards, hazards associated with the high pressure water, and hazards associated with air pressure systems.

NONE

1997-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

89

Bonding and Electronic Properties of Ice at High Pressure  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

between the nearest oxygen atoms. All ice structures that we discussed so far are insulators. Militzer 1 Bonding and Electronic Properties of Ice at High Pressure B. Militzer Department of Earth of water ice at megabar pressure are characterized with ab initio computer simulations. The focus lies

Militzer, Burkhard

90

Behavior of silver molybdate at high-pressure  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Behavior of cubic spinel phase of Ag{sub 2}MoO{sub 4} is investigated at high pressure using X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. The P-V data are fitted to a third order Birch-Murnaghan equation of state using a value of B{sub 0}=113 GPa and B Prime {sub 0}=4. The compound is also found to exhibit a phase transition around 5 GPa to a tetragonal structure and the two phases are found to coexist over a range of pressures. Raman spectra exhibit dramatic changes across the phase transition. Increase of X-ray background scattering and broadening of the Raman peaks associated with MoO{sub 4} tetrahedral ions in the high pressure phase suggest evolution of positional disorder. However, no evidence of pressure-induced amorphization was found up to 47 GPa. - Graphical abstract: Evolution of the integrated intensity of all the diffraction peaks between 12 and 18 degree 2{theta} as a function of pressure. The rapid decrease of the intensity suggests evolution of positional disorder in the high-pressure tetragonal phase. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer First in-situ X-ray diffraction and Raman study of cubic silver molybdate at high pressure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Commencement of a structural transition to a tetragonal phase is found at 2.3 GPa. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The high-pressure phase is found to have positional disorder. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A bulk modulus of 113 GPa is obtained from the equation of state.

Arora, A.K., E-mail: akarora49@yahoo.co.in [Condensed Matter Physics Division, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603102 (India); Nithya, R. [Condensed Matter Physics Division, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603102 (India)] [Condensed Matter Physics Division, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603102 (India); Misra, Sunasira [Liquid Metals and Structural Chemistry Division, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603102 (India)] [Liquid Metals and Structural Chemistry Division, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603102 (India); Yagi, Takehiko [Institute for Solid State Physics, Tokyo University, Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8581 (Japan)] [Institute for Solid State Physics, Tokyo University, Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8581 (Japan)

2012-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

91

LED lamp power management system and method  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An LED lamp power management system and method including an LED lamp having an LED controller 58; a plurality of LED channels 60 operably connected to the LED controller 58, each of the plurality of LED channels 60 having a channel switch 62 in series with at least one shunted LED circuit 83, the shunted LED circuit 83 having a shunt switch 68 in parallel with an LED source 80. The LED controller 58 reduces power loss in one of the channel switch 62 and the shunt switch 68 when LED lamp electronics power loss (P.sub.loss) exceeds an LED lamp electronics power loss limit (P.sub.lim); and each of the channel switches 62 receives a channel switch control signal 63 from the LED controller 58 and each of the shunt switches 68 receives a shunt switch control signal 69 from the LED controller 58.

Gaines, James; Clauberg, Bernd; Van Erp, Josephus A. M.

2013-03-19T23:59:59.000Z

92

MagLab - Arc Lamp Tutorial  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

with 2,000 cells to create an arc across a 4-inch (100 millimeter) gap. When suitable electric generators became available in the late 1870s, the practical use of arc lamps began....

93

CALiPER Retail Lamps Study 3  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The CALiPER program first began investigating LED lamps sold at retail stores in 2010, purchasing 33 products from eight retailers and covering six product categories. The findings revealed a fragmented marketplace, with large disparities in performance of different products, accuracy of manufacturer claims, and offerings from different retail outlets. Although there were some good products, looking back many would not be considered viable competitors to other available options, with too little lumen output, not high enough efficacy, or poor color quality. CALiPER took another look in late 2011purchasing 38 products of five different types from nine retailers and the improvement was marked. Performance was up; retailer claims were more accurate; and the price per lumen and price per unit efficacy were down, although the price per product had not changed much. Nonetheless, there was still plenty of room for improvement, with the performance of LED lamps not yet reaching that of well-established classes of conventional lamps (e.g., 75 W incandescent A19 lamps). Since the second retail lamp study was published in early 2012, there has been substantial progress in all aspects of LED lamps available from retailers. To document this progress, CALiPER again purchased a sample of lamps from retail stores 46 products in total, focusing on A19, PAR30, and MR16 lamps but instead of a random sample, sought to select products to answer specific hypotheses about performance. These hypotheses focused on expanding ranges of LED equivalency, the accuracy of lifetime claims, efficacy and price trends, as well as changes to product designs. Among other results, key findings include: There are now very good LED options to compete with 60 W, 75 W, and 100 W incandescent A19 lamps, and 75 W halogen PAR30 lamps. MR16 lamps have shown less progress, but there are now acceptable alternatives to 35 W, 12 V halogen MR16 lamps and 50 W, 120 V halogen MR16 lamps for some applications. Other uses, such as in enclosed luminaires, may require more development. At the same price point, lamps purchased in 2013 tended to have higher output and slightly higher efficacy than in 2011 or 2010. Over 30% of the products purchased in 2013 exceeded the maximum efficacy measured in 2011 (71 lm/W), with the most efficacious product measured at 105 lm/W. There appears to be increasing consistency in color quality, with a vast majority of products having a CCT of 2700 K or 3000 K and a CRI between 80 and 85. There were also fewer poor performing products tested and more high-performing products available in 2013 than in previous years. The accuracy of equivalency and performance claims was better than in 2011, but remains a concern, with 43% of tested products failing to completely meet their equivalency claim and 20% of products failing to match the manufacturers performance data. Although progress has been substantial, on average LED lamps remain more expensive than other energy efficiency lighting technologies -- although some aspects can be superior. Although not universal to all product lines or all product types, the issue of insufficient lumen output from LED lamps is waning. Thus, manufacturers can focus on other issues, such as reducing cost, improving electrical/dimmer compatibility, eliminating flicker, or improving color quality. While these issues are not inherent to all products, they remain a concern for the broader market.

Royer, Michael P.; Beeson, Tracy A.

2014-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

94

High-pressure elasticity of sodium majorite garnet, Na2MgSi5O12  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Ceperley and Adler 1980; Perdew and Wang 1986; Perdew et al. 1991, 1996...pressure derivatives were reported. a Synchroton X-ray diffraction (Dymshits et...1895-1898. Perdew, J.P. and Wang, Y. (1986) Accurate and simple...

Mainak Mookherjee

95

Building Technologies Office: Fluorescent and Incandescent Lamps Public  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Fluorescent and Fluorescent and Incandescent Lamps Public Meeting to someone by E-mail Share Building Technologies Office: Fluorescent and Incandescent Lamps Public Meeting on Facebook Tweet about Building Technologies Office: Fluorescent and Incandescent Lamps Public Meeting on Twitter Bookmark Building Technologies Office: Fluorescent and Incandescent Lamps Public Meeting on Google Bookmark Building Technologies Office: Fluorescent and Incandescent Lamps Public Meeting on Delicious Rank Building Technologies Office: Fluorescent and Incandescent Lamps Public Meeting on Digg Find More places to share Building Technologies Office: Fluorescent and Incandescent Lamps Public Meeting on AddThis.com... About Standards & Test Procedures Implementation, Certification & Enforcement

96

Retail Lamps Study 3.1: Dimming, Flicker, and Power Quality Characteristics of LED A Lamps.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

To date, all three reports in the retail lamps series have focused on basic performance parameters, such as lumen output, efficacy, and color quality. This report goes a step further, examining the photoelectric characteristics (i.e., dimming and flicker) of a subset of lamps from CALiPER Retails Lamps Study 3. Specifically, this report focuses on the dimming, power quality, and flicker characteristics of 14 LED A lamps, as controlled by four different retail-available dimmers. The results demonstrate notable variation across the various lamps, but little variation between the four dimmers. Overall, the LED lamps: ~tended to have higher relative light output compared to the incandescent and halogen benchmark at the same dimmer output signal (RMS voltage). The lamps dimming curves (i.e., the relationship between control signal and relative light output) ranged from linear to very similar to the square-law curve typical of an incandescent lamp. ~generally exhibited symmetrical behaviorthe same dimming curvewhen measured proceeding from maximum to minimum or minimum to maximum control signal. ~mostly dimmed below 10% of full light output, with some exceptions for specific lamp and dimmer combinations ~exhibited a range of flicker characteristics, with many comparing favorably to the level typical of a magnetically-ballasted fluorescent lamp through at least a majority of the dimming range. ~ always exceeded the relative (normalized) efficacy over the dimming range of the benchmark lamps, which rapidly decline in efficacy when they are dimmed. This report generally does not attempt to rank the performance of one product compared to another, but instead focuses on the collective performance of the group versus conventional incandescent or halogen lamps, the performance of which is likely to be the baseline for a majority of consumers. Undoubtedly, some LED lamps perform betteror more similar to conventional lampsthan others. Some perform desirably for one characteristic, but not others. Consumers (and specifiers) may have a hard time distinguishing better-performing lamps from one another; at this time, physical experimentation is likely the best evaluation tool.

Royer, Michael P.; Poplawski, Michael E.; Brown, Charles C.

2014-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

97

Experiment Hazard Class 5.3 High Pressure Vessels  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

3 High Pressure Vessels 3 High Pressure Vessels Applicability This hazard classification applies to working with pressure vessels and systems. Other hazard classifications and associated controls may apply to experiments in this hazard class. Experiment Category Experiments involving previously reviewed hazard controls are catergorized as medium risk experiments. Experiments involving new equipment, processes or materials, or modified hazard control schemes are categorized as high risk experiments. Hazard Control Plan Verification Statements Engineered Controls - The establishment of applicable controls in accordance with the (American Society of Mechanical Engineers) ASME Boiler and Pressure Code, ASME B.31 Piping Code and applicable federal, state, and local codes. Verify vessel is stampled with ASME Code Symbol or allowable

98

High pressure liquid chromatographic method for CP amide analysis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A method has been developed for the analysis of the 5-carboxamidotetrazolatopentaamminecobalt(III) perchlorate contaminant of the explosive CP (2-(5-cyanotetrazolato)-pentaamminecobalt(III) perchlorate). The analysis utilizes a Zn/Hg reduction of the cobalt (III) complexes to allow a high pressure liquid chromatographic (HPLC) analysis of the reaction products; the product analysis is directly related to the weight percent of impurity present in the explosive. The technique is described and shortcomings pointed out.

Loyola, V. M.; Womelsduff, J. E.

1981-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

A High Pressure Carbon Dioxide Separation Process for IGCC Plants  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

High Pressure Carbon Dioxide Separation Process for IGCC Plants High Pressure Carbon Dioxide Separation Process for IGCC Plants 1 A High Pressure Carbon Dioxide Separation Process for IGCC Plants S.S. Tam 1 , M.E. Stanton 1 , S. Ghose 1 , G. Deppe 1 , D.F. Spencer 2 , R.P. Currier 3 , J.S. Young 3 , G.K. Anderson 3 , L.A. Le 3 , and D.J. Devlin 3 1 Nexant, Inc. (A Bechtel Technology & Consulting Company) 45 Fremont St., 7 th Fl., San Francisco, CA 94506 2 SIMTECHE 13474 Tierra Heights Road, Redding, CA 96003 3 Los Alamos National Laboratory P.O. Box 1663 (MS J567), Los Alamos, NM 87545 1.0 INTRODUCTION Under separate contracts from the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Fossil Energy (DOE- FE), Los Alamos National Laboratory, and a team of SIMTECHE and Nexant (a Bechtel Technology and Consulting Company) are jointly working to develop the proprietary process for

100

Energy Cost Calculator for Compact Fluorescent Lamps | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Compact Fluorescent Lamps Compact Fluorescent Lamps Energy Cost Calculator for Compact Fluorescent Lamps October 8, 2013 - 2:18pm Addthis This tool calculates the payback period for your calc retrofit project. Modify the default values to suit your project requirements. Existing incandescent lamp wattage Watts Incandescent lamp cost dollars Incandescent lamp life 1000 hours calc wattage Watts calc cost dollars calc life (6000 hours for moderate use, 10000 hours for high use) 8000 hours Number of lamps in retrofit project Hours operating per week hours Average cost of electricity 0.06 $/kWh Relamper labor costs $/hr Time taken to retrofit all lamps in this project min Time taken to relamp one lamp min Type of Relamping Practiced: Group Relamping: Calculate Simple Payback Period months

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high-pressure sodium lamps" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Comparison of technologies for new energy-efficient lamps  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Energy-efficient light bulbs are being developed to replace the incandescent lamp where they can satisfy the design criteria and be used in sockets that have long hours of annual use. The four technologies discussed here include the compact fluorescent lamp, coated-filament lamp, electrodeless fluorescent lamp, and compact high-intensity discharge lamp. The systems demonstrate efficacy improvements of two to four times that of their incandescent counterparts. These new lamps have required considerable advances in lamp technology. They offer the potential for achieving efficacies close to 80 lumens per watt. These new lamps will reduce the energy used annually by incandescent lamps (190 BkWh) by more than 50% in the 1990s, at which times they will be commonly employed.

Verderber, R.R.; Rubinstein, F.R.

1983-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

102

Comparison of technologies for new energy-efficient lamps  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Energy-efficient light bulbs are being developed to replace the incandescent lamp where they can satisfy the design criteria and be used in sockets that have long hours of annual use. The four technologies discussed include the compact fluorescent lamp, coated-filament lamp, electrodeless fluorescent lamp, and compact high-intensity discharge lamp. The systems demonstrate efficacy improvements of two to four times that of their incandescent counterparts. These new lamps have required considerable advances in lamp technology. They offer the potential for achieving efficacies close to 80 lm/W. These new lamps will reduce the energy used annually by incandescent lamps (190 billion kWh) by more than 50 percent in the 1990's, at which times they will be commonly employed.

Verderber, R.R.; Rubinstein, F.M.

1984-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

103

Poisson's Ratio and the Densification of Glass under High Pressure  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Because of a relatively low atomic packing density, (C{sub g}) glasses experience significant densification under high hydrostatic pressure. Poisson's ratio ({nu}) is correlated to C{sub g} and typically varies from 0.15 for glasses with low C{sub g} such as amorphous silica to 0.38 for close-packed atomic networks such as in bulk metallic glasses. Pressure experiments were conducted up to 25 GPa at 293 K on silica, soda-lime-silica, chalcogenide, and bulk metallic glasses. We show from these high-pressure data that there is a direct correlation between {nu} and the maximum post-decompression density change.

Rouxel, T.; Ji, H. [Applied Mechanics Laboratory of the University of Rennes 1, LARMAUR, Universite de Rennes 1, Campus de Beaulieu, 35042 Rennes cedex (France); Hammouda, T. [Laboratoire Magmas et Volcans, CNRS-OPG , Universite Blaise Pascal, 5 rue Kessler, 63038 Clermont-Ferrand cedex (France); Moreac, A. [IPR, CNRS-Universite de Rennes 1, Campus de Beaulieu, 35042 Rennes cedex (France)

2008-06-06T23:59:59.000Z

104

Surface roughening of superalloys by high pressure pure waterjet  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A high pressure waterjet has been used to study the surface roughening of superalloys as preparation for thermal spraying. Designed experiments for Mar-M 509 and Rene 80 were carried out for the effects of jet pressure and mass of water delivered per unit area. Comparisons were made of several superalloys in terms of erosion, surface roughness and topology. The mechanism of jet erosion of Rene 80 was studied in relation to its metallurgical microstructure. An MCrAlY coating by shrouded plasma spray was made over a waterjet prepared surface with excellent bonding and having an ideally clean interface.

Taylor, T.A. [Praxair Surface Technologies Inc., Indianapolis, IN (United States)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

105

Chapter 3 - High-Pressure Processing of Meats and Seafood  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Meat and seafood products represent a high proportion of the applications of high-pressure processing (HPP) in the world. Mainly used for decontamination purposes, this innovative process has proved to be a reliable technology for ensuring food safety and extending the shelf life of these perishable and fragile foods. However, meat and seafood may experience quality alterations under pressure. This chapter focuses on the effect of HPP on meat and seafood organoleptic quality (texture, color, aroma, taste). The physicochemical processes responsible for these changes are also reviewed to provide a better understanding of the mechanisms involved. This chapter ends with an overview of current commercial applications and other potential applications.

Frdrique Duranton; Hlne Simonin; Claire Guyon; Stphanie Jung; Marie de Lamballerie

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

106

High pressure water jet cutting of sugar cane  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

performance was uniform before cutting. A liquid filled bourdon tube gauge was used to deter- mine the prescribed operating pressures. The gauge measured the oil pressure of the intensifier which had a 20 to 1 ratio (Figure 4 ) ~ The gauge pressure...HIGH PRESSURE WATER JET CUTTING OF SUGAR CANE A Thesis by THOMAS DONALD VALCO Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1977 Major Subject...

Valco, Thomas Donald

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

107

Microhole High-Pressure Jet Drill for Coiled Tubing  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Tempress Small Mechanically-Assisted High-Pressure Waterjet Drilling Tool project centered on the development of a downhole intensifier (DHI) to boost the hydraulic pressure available from conventional coiled tubing to the level required for high-pressure jet erosion of rock. We reviewed two techniques for implementing this technology (1) pure high-pressure jet drilling and (2) mechanically-assisted jet drilling. Due to the difficulties associated with modifying a downhole motor for mechanically-assisted jet drilling, it was determined that the pure high-pressure jet drilling tool was the best candidate for development and commercialization. It was also determined that this tool needs to run on commingled nitrogen and water to provide adequate downhole differential pressure and to facilitate controlled pressure drilling and descaling applications in low pressure wells. The resulting Microhole jet drilling bottomhole assembly (BHA) drills a 3.625-inch diameter hole with 2-inch coil tubing. The BHA consists of a self-rotating multi-nozzle drilling head, a high-pressure rotary seal/bearing section, an intensifier and a gas separator. Commingled nitrogen and water are separated into two streams in the gas separator. The water stream is pressurized to 3 times the inlet pressure by the downhole intensifier and discharged through nozzles in the drilling head. The energy in the gas-rich stream is used to power the intensifier. Gas-rich exhaust from the intensifier is conducted to the nozzle head where it is used to shroud the jets, increasing their effective range. The prototype BHA was tested at operational pressures and flows in a test chamber and on the end of conventional coiled tubing in a test well. During instrumented runs at downhole conditions, the BHA developed downhole differential pressures of 74 MPa (11,000 psi, median) and 90 MPa (13,000 psi, peaks). The median output differential pressure was nearly 3 times the input differential pressure available from the coiled tubing. In a chamber test, the BHA delivered up to 50 kW (67 hhp) hydraulic power. The tool drilled uncertified class-G cement samples cast into casing at a rate of 0.04 to 0.17 m/min (8 to 33 ft/hr), within the range projected for this tool but slower than a conventional PDM. While the tool met most of the performance goals, reliability requires further improvement. It will be difficult for this tool, as currently configured, to compete with conventional positive displacement downhole motors for most coil tubing drill applications. Mechanical cutters on the rotating nozzle head would improve cutting. This tool can be easily adapted for well descaling operations. A variant of the Microhole jet drilling gas separator was further developed for use with positive displacement downhole motors (PDM) operating on commingled nitrogen and water. A fit-for-purpose motor gas separator was designed and yard tested within the Microhole program. Four commercial units of that design are currently involved in a 10-well field demonstration with Baker Oil Tools in Wyoming. Initial results indicate that the motor gas separators provide significant benefit.

Ken Theimer; Jack Kolle

2007-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

108

Laboratory Evaluation of LED T8 Replacement Lamp Products  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A report on a lab setting analysis involving LED lamps intended to directly replace T8 fluorescent lamps (4') showing light output, power, and economic comparisons with other fluorescent options.

Richman, Eric E.; Kinzey, Bruce R.; Miller, Naomi J.

2011-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

109

Max Tech and Beyond: High-Intensity Discharge Lamps  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

formation of the electric discharge arc and the metals emitdefined as electric discharge lamps in which the arc tubelamp - an electric discharge lamp in which the arc tube wall

Scholand, Michael

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

Text-Alternative Version: LED Replacements for Linear Fluorescent Lamps  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Below is the text-alternative version of the "LED Replacements for Linear Fluorescent Lamps" webcast, held June 20, 2011.

111

Medium Base Compact Fluorescent Lamps | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Templates for Reporting Test Results mediumbasecfltestreporttemplatev1.1.xlsx More Documents & Publications Fluorescent Lamp Ballasts Showerheads Beverage Vending Machines...

112

Laves phase hydrogen storage alloys for super-high-pressure metal hydride hydrogen compressors  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Ti-Cr- and Ti-Mn-based alloys were prepared to be low- and high-pressure stage metals for a double-stage super-high-pressure metal hydride hydrogen compressor. Their crystallographic characteristics and hydrogen

Xiumei Guo; Shumao Wang; Xiaopeng Liu; Zhinian Li; Fang L; Jing Mi; Lei Hao

2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

113

Pilot scale gasification of spent cooking liquor from sodium sulfite based delignification  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper describes a pilot scale high pressure entrained flow gasification experiment with spent cooking liquor from a sodium sulfite based delignification process in the DP-1 black liquor gasifier in Pite, Sweden. Approximately 92 tons of sulfite ...

Erik Furusj; Ragnar Stare; Ingvar Landlv; Patrik Lwnertz

2014-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

114

Devices and process for high-pressure magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A high-pressure magic angle spinning (MAS) rotor is detailed that includes a high-pressure sample cell that maintains high pressures exceeding 150 bar. The sample cell design minimizes pressure losses due to penetration over an extended period of time.

Hoyt, David W; Sears, Jr., Jesse A; Turcu, Romulus V.F.; Rosso, Kevin M; Hu, Jian Zhi

2014-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

115

On the atomic line profiles in high pressure plasmas  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In a previous contribution to this journal [H. P. Stormberg, J. Appl. Phys. 51(4), 1963 (1980)], Stormberg presented an analytical expression for the convolution of Lorentz and Levy line profiles, which models atomic radiative transitions in high pressure plasmas. Unfortunately, the derivations are flawed with errors and the final expression, while correct, is accompanied by misguiding comments about the meaning of the symbols used therein, in particular the complex error function. In this paper, we discuss the broadening mechanisms that give rise to Stormberg's model and present a correct derivation of his final result. We will also provide an alternative expression, based on the Faddeeva function, which has decisive computational advantages and emphasizes the real-valuedness of the result. The MATLAB/Octave scripts of our implementation have been made available on the publisher's website for future reference.

Janssen, J. F. J.; Gnybida, M.; Rijke, A. J.; Dijk, J. van [Department of Applied Physics, Eindhoven University of Technology, P.O. Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands)] [Department of Applied Physics, Eindhoven University of Technology, P.O. Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Suijker, J. L. G. [Philips Lighting R and D Category Professional Lamps, P.O. Box 80020, 5600 JM Eindhoven (Netherlands)] [Philips Lighting R and D Category Professional Lamps, P.O. Box 80020, 5600 JM Eindhoven (Netherlands)

2013-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

116

Ultra-high pressure water jet: Baseline report; Summary  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Husky{trademark} is an ultra high pressure waterjet cutting tool system. The pump is mounted on a steel tube frame which includes slots for transport by a forklift. The Husky{trademark} features an automatic shutdown for several conditions such as low oil pressure and high oil temperature. Placement of the Husky{trademark} must allow for a three foot clearance on all sides for operation and service access. At maximum continuous operation, the output volume is 7.2 gallons per minute with an output pressure of 40,000 psi. A diesel engine provides power for the system. The safety and health evaluation during the human factors assessment focused on two main areas: noise and dust.

NONE

1997-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

117

Ground-State Structures of Ice at High-Pressures  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

\\textit{Ab initio} random structure searching based on density functional theory is used to determine the ground-state structures of ice at high pressures. Including estimates of lattice zero-point energies, ice is found to adopt three novel crystal phases. The underlying sub-lattice of O atoms remains similar among them, and the transitions can be characterized by reorganizations of the hydrogen bonds. The symmetric hydrogen bonds of ice X and $Pbcm$ are initially lost as ice transforms to structures with symmetries $Pmc2_1$ (800 - 950 GPa) and $P2_1$ (1.17 TPa), but they are eventually regained at 5.62 TPa in a layered structure $C2/m$. The $P2_1 \\rightarrow C2/m$ transformation also marks the insulator-to-metal transition in ice, which occurs at a significantly higher pressure than recently predicted.

McMahon, Jeffrey M

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

Modified approaches for high pressure filtration of fine clean coal  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Removal of moisture from fine (minus 28 mesh) clean coal to 20% or lower level is difficult using the conventional vacuum dewatering technique. High pressure filtration technique provides an avenue for obtaining low moisture in fine clean coal. This paper describes a couple of novel approaches for dewatering of fine clean coal using pressure filtration which provides much lower moisture in fine clean coal than that obtained using conventional pressure filter. The approaches involve (a) split stream dewatering and (b) addition of paper pulp to the coal slurry. For Pittsburgh No. 8 coal slurry, split stream dewatering at 400 mesh provided filter cake containing 12.9% moisture compared to 24.9% obtained on the feed material. The addition of paper pulp to the slurry provided filter cake containing about 17% moisture.

Yang, J.; Groppo, J.G.; Parekh, B.K. [Center for Applied Energy Research, Lexington, KY (United States)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

119

High pressure generation by hot electrons driven ablation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A previous model [Piriz et al. Phys. Plasmas 19, 122705 (2012)] for the ablation driven by the hot electrons generated in collisionless laser-plasma interactions in the framework of shock ignition is revisited. The impact of recent results indicating that for a laser wavelength ? = 0.35 ?m the hot electron temperature ?{sub H} would be independent of the laser intensity I, on the resulting ablation pressure is considered. In comparison with the case when the scaling law ?{sub H}?(I?{sup 2}){sup 1/3} is assumed, the generation of the high pressures needed for driving the ignitor shock may be more demanding. Intensities above 10{sup 17} W/cm{sup 2} would be required for ?{sub H}=25?30 keV.

Piriz, A. R. [E.T.S.I. Industriales, CYTEMA, and Instituto de Investigaciones Energticas, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain)] [E.T.S.I. Industriales, CYTEMA, and Instituto de Investigaciones Energticas, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain); Piriz, S. A. [Facultad de Ciencias Fsicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain)] [Facultad de Ciencias Fsicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Tahir, N. A. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fr Schwerionenforschung, Planckstrasse 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany)] [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fr Schwerionenforschung, Planckstrasse 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany)

2013-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

120

Inelastic neutron scattering from single crystal Zn under high pressure  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Inelastic neutron-scattering experiments have been performed for single crystals of Zn under pressures up to 8.8 GPa at 300 K. The phonon modes q/qmax=?=0.075 and ?=0.10 were measured in the transverse acoustic branch ?3, where q=0 corresponds with the elastic constant C44. The phonon energy showed a substantial hardening with increasing pressure. The experimental data below 6.8 GPa for ?=0.075 yield a constant Grneisen mode ?i=-ln?i/lnV of 2.25 in good agreement with a previous calculation [H. Ledbetter, Phys. Status Solidi B 181, 81 (1994)]. Above 6.8 GPa, there is a very rapid increase of ?i which is indicative of the presence of a giant Kohn anomaly. This rapid divergence at high pressure indicates that a phonon softening may occur at pressures higher than 8.8 GPa caused by the collapse of the giant Kohn anomaly via an electronic topological transition (ETT). In an earlier Mssbauer Zn study at 4 K [W. Potzel et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 1139 (1994)], a drastic drop of the Lamb-Mssbauer factor was observed at 6.6 GPa, which was interpreted as being due to phonon softening, indicating this ETT had occurred. This paper also compares the compressibility data for single crystal Zn and Zn powder using neutron scattering. The results were found to be similar to an earlier x-ray Zn powder experiment [O. Schulte et al., High Pressure Res. 6, 169 (1991)]. 1996 The American Physical Society.

J. G. Morgan; R. B. Von Dreele; P. Wochner; S. M. Shapiro

1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high-pressure sodium lamps" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

High-pressure coal fuel processor development. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Caterpillar shares DOE/METC interest in demonstrating the technology required to displace petroleum-based engine fuels with various forms of low cost coal. Current DOE/METC programs on mild gasification and coal-water-slurries are addressing two approaches to this end. Engine and fuel processor system concept studies by Caterpillar have identified a third, potentially promising, option. This option includes high-pressure fuel processing of run-of-the-mine coal and direct injection of the resulting low-Btu gas stream into an ignition assisted, high compression ratio diesel engine. The compactness and predicted efficiency of the system make it suitable for application to line-haul railroad locomotives. Two overall conclusions resulted from Task 1. First direct injected, ignition assisted Diesel cycle engine combustion systems can be suitably modified to efficiently utilize low-Btu gas fuels. Second, high pressure gasification of selected run-of-the-mine coals in batch-loaded fuel processors is feasible. These two findings, taken together, significantly reduce the perceived technical risk associated with the further development of the proposed coal gas fueled Diesel cycle power plant concept. The significant conclusions from Task 2 were: An engine concept, derived from a Caterpillar 3600 series engine, and a fuel processor concept, based on scaling up a removable-canister configuration from the test rig, appear feasible; and although the results of this concept study are encouraging, further, full-scale component research and development are required before attempting a full-scale integrated system demonstration effort.

Greenhalgh, M.L. [Caterpillar, Inc., Peoria, IL (United States)

1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

122

Lighting Group: Sources and Ballasts: LED Reflector Lamp  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

LED Reflector Lamp LED Reflector Lamp LED Reflector Lamp Objective LED reflector lamp The goal of this project is to develop a revolutionary new reflector lamp which offers many advantages over current incandescent reflector lamps, including: three times greater efficiency ten times the rated life greater optical and performance properties use of light emitting diodes (LEDs) to generate the light. Although LEDs have been commercially available since the late 1960’s, recent dramatic improvements in LED technology have led to white light devices with efficiencies that meet or exceed those of a standard incandescent lamp. This project will build upon these improvements to develop a new type of source for focusing light. Contact Information For more information on this project, please contact:

123

LED lamp color control system and method  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An LED lamp color control system and method including an LED lamp having an LED controller 58; and a plurality of LED channels 60 operably connected to the LED controller 58, each of the plurality of LED channels 60 having a channel switch 62 in series with at least one shunted LED circuit 83, the shunted LED circuit 83 having a shunt switch 68 in parallel with an LED source 80. The LED controller 58 determines whether the LED source 80 is in a feedback controllable range, stores measured optical flux for the LED source 80 when the LED source 80 is in the feedback controllable range, and bypasses storing the measured optical flux when the LED source 80 is not in the feedback controllable range.

Gaines, James; Clauberg, Bernd; Van Erp, Josephus A.M.

2013-02-05T23:59:59.000Z

124

Fluorescent ballast and lamp disposal issues  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

All around the world, governments, utility companies, and private businesses are attempting to reduce the amount of energy consumed. In the US alone, new economic strategies and programs are being created to facilitate this process. For instance, the recent enactment of the National Energy Policy Act, the Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA) Green Lights Program, and a surge of utility involvement in Demand Side Management (DSM) Commercial/Industrial Direct Install and Rebate Programs. Many of these problems target commercial/industrial lighting system retrofits as one of the most cost effective avenues for reducing the consumption of energy. Due to this trend, hundreds of millions of lighting ballasts and lamps are being discarded. The benefits of these programs result in enormous reductions in fossil fuels (and subsequent carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, and nitrogen oxide emissions) required to generate the displaced electricity. Throughout the US, however, there is an increasing concern for the environmental impacts surrounding the accelerated disposal of both lighting ballasts and lamps. Regulations initially established were for a one by one, retirement (failure) process rather than promoted obsolescence and forced retirement of lamp groups or entire systems (truckloads of old technologies). Recognizing this trend and the potential negative environmental effects, federal, state, and local regulators are reevaluating the impacts and are being asked to promulgate policies to specifically address this situation.

Leishman, D.L. [Alta Resource Management Services, Inc., Springfield, MA (United States)

1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

Applications of toroids in high-pressure NMR spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Toroid detectors have distinct NMR sensitivity and imaging advantages. The magnetic field lines are nearly completely contained within the active volume element of a toroid. This results in high NMR signal sensitivity. In addition, the toroid detector may be placed next to the metallic walls of a containment vessel with minimal signal loss due to magnetic coupling with the metal container. Thus, the toroid detector is ideal for static high pressure or continuous flow monitoring systems. Toroid NMR detectors have been used to follow the hydroformylation of olefins in supercritical fluids under industrial process conditions. Supercritical fluids are potentially ideal media for conducting catalytic reactions that involve gaseous reactants, including H{sub 2}, CO, and CO{sub 2}. The presence of a single homogeneous reaction phase eliminates the gas-liquid mixing problem of alternative two-phase systems, which can limit process rates and adversely affect hydroformylation product selectivities. A second advantage of toroid NMR detectors is that they exhibit a well-defined gradient in the rf field. This magnetic field gradient can be used for NMR imaging applications. Distance resolutions of 20 {mu} have been obtained.

Klingler, R.J.; Rathke, J.W.; Woelk, K. [and others

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

126

Combined technologies enable high-pressure slickline work  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Operators conducting wireline operations can combine the attributes of the slickline grease head and conventional stuffing box to enable work in gas wells at wellhead pressures above 15,000 psi. Wireline/slickline work in high-pressure wells requires meeting the dual challenges of well control and freedom of movement (up and down) for the lines. In a notable application of the combined-technology technique, an operator offshore Louisiana attempted to conduct wireline operations in an 18,000-ft gas and condensate well with 15,600 psi wellhead pressure, using a standard slickline stuffing box to contain the pressure. The standard equipment could not perform the needed function, which involved several trips to depths of 5,000 ft and 18,000 ft. Using a combined-technology, flow-tube stuffing box, the operator was able to conduct the wireline operation without incident; the control arrangement resulted in use of only 3 gal of lubricating oil throughout the job. Post-job analysis of the packing showed only the minimal wear normally associated with low-pressure wireline operations. Although slickline work can be performed in low-pressure gas wells without using the flow-tube stuffing box, the device and the oil used with it isolate the stuffing-box packing from the dry gases, reducing friction swell. This isolation speeds up the operation and reduces packing wear.

Davis, G. [Halliburton Energy Services Inc., Dallas, TX (United States); West, T. [Halliburton Energy Services Inc., Houma, LA (United States)

1998-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

127

Chapter 9 - Vacuum and High-Pressure Distillation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract In industrial practice, multistage distillation operations are carried out over a wide range of operating pressures, from about 0.1 to 40 bar (10,000 to 40105Pa). Major factors in choosing the operating pressure are the temperatures of the available cooling and heating media, with water and low-pressure steam being the most convenient ones. Volatile materials require high pressure to raise their condensation temperature to the desired level. Relative volatility tends to decrease with increasing pressure, and, thermodynamically, the upper limit is the critical temperature of the components in the feed. In such cases, a lower operating pressure is chosen and refrigeration must be employed for condensation of overhead vapor instead of cooling water or air. When dealing with high-boiling material, the upper limit for setting the operating pressure depends on the heat sensitivity of the bottom product components. This often requires distilling under an appropriate vacuum in conjunction with a low enough pressure drop to reduce the column bottom temperature accordingly. From the column design point of view, the operating pressure dictates to a great extent the choice and design of internals, and it influences significantly their functionality and overall performance. The main objective of the present chapter is to address and discuss operating pressure selection criteria as well as pressure effects on stage and reflux requirement, vapor and liquid properties, distillation process in general, and trayed and packed-column hydraulics and efficiency in particular.

arko Oluji?

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

High-pressure EXAFS measurements of solid and liquid Kr  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

X-ray-absorption measurements of liquid and solid krypton at room temperature in the pressure range 0.130 GPa have been performed using the dispersive setup and diamond-anvil cells as a pressure device. The evolution of the near-edge structures as a function of pressure, including the first intense resonance, has been interpreted using multiple-scattering calculations. It is shown that the near-edge structures are reproduced taking into account two-body and three-body terms associated with the first-neighbor atoms. Extended x-ray-absorption fine-structure (EXAFS) spectra have been analyzed in the framework a multiple-scattering data-analysis approach taking proper account of the atomic background including the [1s4p], [1s3d], and [1s3p] double-electron excitation channels. Isobaric Monte Carlo (MC) computer simulations based on empirical pair potentials, as proposed by Barker (K2) and Aziz (HFD-B), have been performed to make a quantitative comparison of theoretical and experimental local structural details of condensed krypton at high pressures. From the analysis of EXAFS data we were able to obtain simultaneous information on average distance, width, and asymmetry of the first-neighbor distribution, as a function of pressure. These parameters yield a unique insight on the potential function because they are affected by both minimum position and curvature of the effective pair potential. The trend of the first-neighbor distribution as a function of pressure is in quantitative agreement with the HFD-B potential at moderate pressures, deviations are found at higher pressures where EXAFS spectra are very sensitive to the hard-core repulsive part of the potential. The weak EXAFS signal of liquid krypton at room temperature and 0.75 GPa has been found in accord with the results of the MC simulations within the noise of the measurement. 1996 The American Physical Society.

A. Di Cicco; A. Filipponi; J. P. Iti; A. Polian

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

129

Thermodynamic properties of hydrocarbon liquids at high pressures and temperatures  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Understanding the organic/inorganic interface in the Earth's crust requires values of the thermodynamic properties of hydrocarbon species in crude oil, coal, and natural gas at elevated temperatures and pressures. Values of the apparent standard partial molal Gibbs free energies and enthalpies of formation and the standard partial molal entropies and heat capacities of these organic species can be computed as a function of temperature at 1 bar using the equations of state adopted by Helgeson et al (1991). The pressure dependence of the thermodynamic properties can be calculated from a modified version of the Parameters From Group Contributions (PFGC) equation of state. To improve the accuracy of these predictions, critical evaluation of high-pressure density experiments reported in the literature was used in the present study to characterize b[sub j] as a function of pressure and temperature. The revised PFGC equation of state permits accurate calculation of the standard partial molal volumes of the major hydrocarbon species in the aliphatic, aromatic, and naphthenic fractions of crude oil, as well as fatty acids, phenols, and naphthenic acids at temperatures and pressures to 500 C and 5 kbar. Combining the revised PFGC equation of state and parameters with the standard partial molal properties of these species at one bar and those of aqueous species and minerals permits calculation of the apparent standard partial molal Gibbs Free energies of reaction, and thus equilibrium constants for a wide variety of chemical equilibria among organic liquids, solids, and gases, aqueous species, and minerals at temperatures and pressures characteristic of both diagenetic and low-grade metamorphic processes in the Earth's crust.

Aagaard, P. (Univ. of Oslo (Norway). Dept. of Geology); Oelkers, E.H. (Univ. Paul Sabatier, Toulouse (France). Lab. de Geochimie); Helgeson, H.C. (Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Geology and Geophysics)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

130

High pressure humidification columns: Design equations, algorithm, and computer code  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report describes the detailed development of a computer model to simulate the humidification of an air stream in contact with a water stream in a countercurrent, packed tower, humidification column. The computer model has been developed as a user model for the Advanced System for Process Engineering (ASPEN) simulator. This was done to utilize the powerful ASPEN flash algorithms as well as to provide ease of use when using ASPEN to model systems containing humidification columns. The model can easily be modified for stand-alone use by incorporating any standard algorithm for performing flash calculations. The model was primarily developed to analyze Humid Air Turbine (HAT) power cycles; however, it can be used for any application that involves a humidifier or saturator. The solution is based on a multiple stage model of a packed column which incorporates mass and energy, balances, mass transfer and heat transfer rate expressions, the Lewis relation and a thermodynamic equilibrium model for the air-water system. The inlet air properties, inlet water properties and a measure of the mass transfer and heat transfer which occur in the column are the only required input parameters to the model. Several example problems are provided to illustrate the algorithm`s ability to generate the temperature of the water, flow rate of the water, temperature of the air, flow rate of the air and humidity of the air as a function of height in the column. The algorithm can be used to model any high-pressure air humidification column operating at pressures up to 50 atm. This discussion includes descriptions of various humidification processes, detailed derivations of the relevant expressions, and methods of incorporating these equations into a computer model for a humidification column.

Enick, R.M. [Pittsburgh Univ., PA (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering; Klara, S.M. [USDOE Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, PA (United States); Marano, J.J. [Burns and Roe Services Corp., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

1994-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

131

Experimental Analysis of Water Based Drilling Fluid Aging Processes at High Temperature and High Pressure Conditions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

! ! EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS OF WATER BASED DRILLING FLUID AGING PROCESSES AT HIGH TEMPERATURE AND HIGH PRESSURE CONDITIONS A Thesis by BRANDON SCOTT ZIGMOND Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University... Temperature and High Pressure Conditions Copyright 2012 Brandon Scott Zigmond ! ! EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS OF WATER BASED DRILLING FLUID AGING PROCESSES AT HIGH TEMPERATURE AND HIGH PRESSURE CONDITIONS A Thesis by BRANDON SCOTT ZIGMOND Submitted...

Zigmond, Brandon

2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

132

RF driven sulfur lamp having driving electrodes arranged to cool the lamp  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A high intensity discharge lamp without mercury is disclosed radiating a selected spectrum of which can be almost entirely in the visible range from an envelope that contains a sulfur containing substance. The lamp utilizes a signal source that generates an excitation signal that is externally coupled to the exterior surface of the envelope to excite the enclosed sulfur containing substance. Various embodiments of the lamp use electrodes adjacent the envelope to couple the excitation signal thereto with the face of the electrodes shaped to complement the shape of the exterior surface of the envelope. Two shapes discussed are spherical and cylindrical. To minimize filamentary discharges each envelope may include an elongated stem affixed to the exterior thereof whereby a rotational subsystem spins the envelope. In yet another embodiment the envelope has a Dewar configuration with two electrodes, one positioned near the external curved side surface of the body, and a second to the inner surface of the hole through the envelope. Further, the envelope may contain a backfill of a selected inert gas to assist in the excitation of lamp with that backfill at a pressure of less than 1 atmosphere, wherein the backfill pressure is directly related to the increase or decrease of peak output and inversely related to the increase and decrease of the emitted spectrum from the envelope. The emitting fill can be less than 6 mg/cc, or at least 2 mg/cc of the envelope of a sulfur containing substance. 17 figs.

Gabor, G.; Orr, T.R.; Greene, C.M.; Crawford, D.G.; Berman, S.M.

1998-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

133

DOE Hydrogen Delivery Analysis and High Pressure Tanks R&D Project Review Meeting Agenda  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

DOE Hydrogen Delivery Analysis and High Pressure Tanks R&D Project Review Meeting Agenda, held February 8-9, 2005 by Argonne National Laboratory

134

Flash High-Pressure Condensate to Regenerate Low-Pressure Steam  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This tip sheet outlines optimal conditions for flashing high-pressure condensate to regenerate low-pressure steam in steam systems.

135

Consider Installing High-Pressure Boilers with Backpressure Turbine-Generators  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This tip sheet outlines the benefits of high-pressure boilers with backpressure turbine-generators as part of optimized steam systems.

136

Modeling and simulation of a high pressure hydrogen storage tank with Dynamic Wall.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Hydrogen storage is one of the divisions of hydrogen powered vehicles technology. To increase performances of high pressure hydrogen storage tanks, a multilayered design is (more)

Cumalioglu, Ilgaz

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

137

Modeling and simulation of a high pressure hydrogen storage tank with dynamic wall.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Hydrogen storage is one of the divisions of hydrogen powered vehicles technology. To increase performances of high pressure hydrogen storage tanks, a multilayered design is (more)

Cumalioglu, Ilgaz

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

High pressure studies on nanocrystalline aurivillius oxides lead and mercury chalcogenides;.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??The high pressure and high temperature play a vital role in newlineunderstanding the physical properties of the solids including such classes of newlinematerials like semiconductors (more)

Freny joy K M

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

The National Energy Policy Act and lamp replacement options  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The National Policy Act of 1992 involves the creation of energy efficiency standards for a wide range of products including fluorescent and incandescent lamps. Minimum efficacy (lumens per watt) and color rendering index (CRI) standards are mandated for the popular fluorescent lamps: four-foot medium bi-pin, two-foot U-bent, eight-foot slimline and eight-foot high output. Minimum efficacies are mandated for specific incandescent R and PAR reflector lamps. These standards will affect selected colors and designs of fluorescent lamps, the most significant being the standard lamps in the cool white and warm white colors. The incandescent reflector lamps will include the R-30, R-40, PAR-38 lamps above 40 watts, excluding the halogen types. These efficiency and color rendering standards will require end-users and specifiers to select replacement fluorescent lamps from a range of performance characteristics (lumen output, efficacy, CRI and price). The choice of replacement for the R and PAR incandescent lamps will include the halogen designs and compact fluorescent designs. In this paper, replacement options will be analyzed and discussed and the effect of these options on the performance of the lighting system will be explored in detail.

Ryerson, C.

1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

Max Tech and Beyond: High-Intensity Discharge Lamps  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of color compared with the incandescent reference source isin this report. Standard Incandescent Halogen Low-Pressure:value equivalent to an incandescent filament lamp. Taking

Scholand, Michael

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high-pressure sodium lamps" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

High Pressure Burn Rate Measurements on an Ammonium Perchlorate Propellant  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

High pressure deflagration rate measurements of a unique ammonium perchlorate (AP) based propellant are required to design the base burn motor for a Raytheon weapon system. The results of these deflagration rate measurements will be key in assessing safety and performance of the system. In particular, the system may experience transient pressures on the order of 100's of MPa (10's kPSI). Previous studies on similar AP based materials demonstrate that low pressure (e.g. P < 10 MPa or 1500 PSI) burn rates can be quite different than the elevated pressure deflagration rate measurements (see References and HPP results discussed herein), hence elevated pressure measurements are necessary in order understand the deflagration behavior under relevant conditions. Previous work on explosives have shown that at 100's of MPa some explosives will transition from a laminar burn mechanism to a convective burn mechanism in a process termed deconsolidative burning. The resulting burn rates that are orders-of-magnitude faster than the laminar burn rates. Materials that transition to the deconsolidative-convective burn mechanism at elevated pressures have been shown to be considerably more violent in confined heating experiments (i.e. cook-off scenarios). The mechanisms of propellant and explosive deflagration are extremely complex and include both chemical, and mechanical processes, hence predicting the behavior and rate of a novel material or formulation is difficult if not impossible. In this work, the AP/HTPB based material, TAL-1503 (B-2049), was burned in a constant volume apparatus in argon up to 300 MPa (ca. 44 kPSI). The burn rate and pressure were measured in-situ and used to calculate a pressure dependent burn rate. In general, the material appears to burn in a laminar fashion at these elevated pressures. The experiment was reproduced multiple times and the burn rate law using the best data is B = (0.6 {+-} 0.1) x P{sup (1.05{+-}0.02)} where B is the burn rate in mm/s and P is the pressure in units of MPa. Details of the experimental method, results and data analysis are discussed herein and briefly compared to other AP based materials that have been measured in this apparatus.

Glascoe, E A; Tan, N

2010-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

142

Lamp for generating high power ultraviolet radiation  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The apparatus is a gas filled ultraviolet generating lamp for use as a liquid purifier. The lamp is powred by high voltage AC, but has no metallic electrodes within or in contact with the gas enclosure which is constructed as two concentric quartz cylinders sealed together at their ends with the gas fill between the cylinders. Cooling liquid is pumped through the volume inside the inner quartz cylinder where an electrically conductive pipe spaced from the inner cylinder is used to supply the cooling liquid and act as the high voltage electrode. The gas enclosure is enclosed within but spaced from a metal housing which is connected to operate as the ground electrode of the circuit and through which the treated fluid flows. Thus, the electrical circuit is from the central pipe, and through the cooling liquid, the gas enclosure, the treated liquid on the outside of the outer quartz cylinder, and to the housing. The high voltage electrode is electrically isolated from the source of cooling liquid by a length of insulated hose which also supplies the cooling liquid.

Morgan, Gary L. (Elkridge, MD); Potter, James M. (Los Alamos, NM)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

143

Testing the physics of heat conduction using high pressure: crystals, glasses, and interfaces  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, simplest case of thermal conductivity where resistive scattering dominates C() v() l() d C() = heatTesting the physics of heat conduction using high pressure: crystals, glasses, and interfaces David supported by CDAC and AFOSR #12;The story... · Use high pressure (gem anvil cells) to modify vibrational

Braun, Paul

144

Strategies for laser-induced fluorescence detection of nitric oxide in high-pressure flames.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

engines and gas turbines where the combustion chamber is at high pressure. Despite the use of catalyticStrategies for laser-induced fluorescence detection of nitric oxide in high-pressure flames. II. A combustion systems3�13 and thus develop new schemes to mini- mize NO effluent. The high operating pressure

Lee, Tonghun

145

High pressure studies on nanometer sized clusters: Structural, optical, and cooperative properties  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

High-pressure Se EXAFS is used to study pressure-induced structural transformations in CdSe nanocrystals. The transformation is wurtzite to rock salt, at a pressure much higher than in bulk. High-pressure XRD is used to confirm the EXAFS results. Diffraction peak widths indicate that nanocrystals do not fragment upon transformation. Optical absorption correlates with structural transformations and is used to measure transition pressures; transformation pressure increases smoothly as nanocrystal size decreases. Thermodynamics of transformation is modeled using an elevated surface energy in the high-pressure phase. High-pressure study of Si nanocrystals show large increases in transformation pressure in crystallites to 500{angstrom} diameter, and an overall change in crystallite shape upon transformation is seen from XRD line widths. C{sub 60} single crystals were studied using Raman scattering; results provide information about the clusters` rotational state. Optical properties of high-pressure phase CdSe clusters were studied.

Tolbert, S.H.

1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

An In-situ Tensile Test Apparatus for Polymers in High Pressure Hydrogen  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Degradation of material properties by high-pressure hydrogen is an important factor in determining the safety and reliability of materials used in high-pressure hydrogen storage and delivery. Hydrogen damage mechanisms have a time dependence that is linked to hydrogen outgassing after exposure to the hydrogen atmosphere that makes ex-situ measurements of mechanical properties problematic. Designing in-situ measurement instruments for high-pressure hydrogen is challenging due to known hydrogen incompatibility with many metals and standard high-power motor materials like Nd. Here we detail the design and operation of a solenoid based in-situ tensile tester under high-pressure hydrogen environments up to 5,000 psi. Modulus data from high-density polyethylene (HDPE) samples tested under high-pressure hydrogen are also reported as compared to baseline measurements taken in air.

Alvine, Kyle J.; Kafentzis, Tyler A.; Pitman, Stan G.; Johnson, Kenneth I.; Skorski, Daniel C.; Tucker, Joseph C.; Roosendaal, Timothy J.; Dahl, Michael E.

2014-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

147

An in situ tensile test apparatus for polymers in high pressure hydrogen  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Degradation of material properties by high-pressure hydrogen is an important factor in determining the safety and reliability of materials used in high-pressure hydrogen storage and delivery. Hydrogen damage mechanisms have a time dependence that is linked to hydrogen outgassing after exposure to the hydrogen atmosphere that makes ex situ measurements of mechanical properties problematic. Designing in situ measurement instruments for high-pressure hydrogen is challenging due to known hydrogen incompatibility with many metals and standard high-power motor materials such as Nd. Here we detail the design and operation of a solenoid based in situ tensile tester under high-pressure hydrogen environments up to 42 MPa (6000 psi). Modulus data from high-density polyethylene samples tested under high-pressure hydrogen at 35 MPa (5000 psi) are also reported as compared to baseline measurements taken in air.

Alvine, K. J., E-mail: kyle.alvine@pnnl.gov; Kafentzis, T. A.; Pitman, S. G.; Johnson, K. I.; Skorski, D.; Tucker, J. C.; Roosendaal, T. J.; Dahl, M. E. [Energy and Environment Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99354 (United States)

2014-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

148

DEFINING THE EFFECTIVENESS OF UV LAMPS  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

ARTI-21CR/610-40030-01 ARTI-21CR/610-40030-01 DEFINING THE EFFECTIVENESS OF UV LAMPS INSTALLED IN CIRCULATING AIR DUCTWORK Final Report Date Published - November 2002 Douglas VanOsdell and Karin Foarde RTI P.O. Box 12194 Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-2194 Prepared for the AIR-CONDITIONING AND REFRIGERATION TECHNOLOGY INSTITUTE 4100 N. Fairfax Drive, Suite 200, Arlington, Virginia 22203 Distribution A - Approved for public release; further dissemination unlimited. DISCLAIMER This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by the Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Technology Institute (ARTI) under its "HVAC&R Research for the 21 st Century" (21-CR) program. Neither ARTI, the financial supporters of the 21-CR program, or any agency

149

Application Summary Report 22: LED MR16 Lamps  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report analyzes the independently tested photometric performance of 27 LED MR16 lamps. It describes initial performance based on light output, efficacy, distribution, color quality, electrical characteristics, and form factor, with comparisons to a selection of benchmark halogen MR16s and ENERGY STAR qualification thresholds. Three types of products were targeted. First, CALiPER sought 3000 K lamps with the highest rated lumen output (i.e., at least 500 lm) or a claim of equivalency to a 50 W halogen MR16 or higher. The test results indicate that while the initial performance of LED MR16s has improved across the board, market-available products still do not produce the lumen output and center beam intensity of typical 50 W halogen MR16 lamps. In fact, most of the 18 lamps in this category had lower lumen output and center beam intensity than a typical 35 W halogen MR16 lamp. Second, CALiPER sought lamps with a CRI of 90 or greater. Only four manufacturers were identified with a product in this category. CALiPER testing confirmed the performance of these lamps, which are a good option for applications where high color fidelity is needed. A vast majority of the LED MR16 lamps have a CRI in the low 80s; this is generally acceptable for ambient lighting, but may not always be acceptable for focal lighting. For typical LED packages, there is a fundamental tradeoff between CRI and efficacy, but the lamps in the high-CRI group in this report still offer comparable performance to the rest of the Series 22 products in other performance areas. Finally, CALiPER sought lamps with a narrow distribution, denoted as a beam angle less than 15. Five such lamps were purchased. Notably, no lamp was identified as having high lumen output (500 lumens or greater), high CRI (90 or greater), a narrow distribution (15 or less), and an efficacy greater than 60 lm/W. This would be an important achievement for LED MR16s especially if output could reach approximately 700 800 lumens, or the approximate equivalent of a 50 W halogen MR16 lamp. Many factors beyond photometric performance should be considered during specification. For example, performance over time, transformer and dimmer compatibility, and total system performance are all critical to a successful installation. Subsequent CALiPER reports will investigate more complex issues.

Royer, Michael P.

2014-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

150

Highly Efficient Small Form Factor LED Retrofit Lamp  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report summarizes work to develop a high efficiency LED-based MR16 lamp downlight at OSRAM SYLVANIA under US Department of Energy contract DE-EE0000611. A new multichip LED package, electronic driver, and reflector optic were developed for these lamps. At steady-state, the lamp luminous flux was 409 lumens (lm), luminous efficacy of 87 lumens per watt (LPW), CRI (Ra) of 87, and R9 of 85 at a correlated color temperature (CCT) of 3285K. The LED alone achieved 120 lumens per watt efficacy and 600 lumen flux output at 25 C. The driver had 90% electrical conversion efficiency while maintaining excellent power quality with power factor >0.90 at a power of only 5 watts. Compared to similar existing MR16 lamps using LED sources, these lamps had much higher efficacy and color quality. The objective of this work was to demonstrate a LED-based MR16 retrofit lamp for replacement of 35W halogen MR16 lamps having (1) luminous flux of 500 lumens, (2) luminous efficacy of 100 lumens per watt, (3) beam angle less than 40{sup o} and center beam candlepower of at least 1000 candelas, and (4) excellent color quality.

Steven Allen; Fred Palmer; Ming Li

2011-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

151

Maintaining optimum fluorescent lamp performance under elevated temperature conditions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper describes a new technique for optimizing fluorescent lamp performance under elevated temperature conditions. This approach uses a thermo-electric Peltier device to produce a localized cold spot temperature of approximately 40/sup 0/C, allowing the lamps to maintain maximum light output and efficacy independent of prevailing ambient temperatures inside a luminaire. Experimental data show that a 20% increase in light output and a 10% increase in efficacy over typical lamp performance in a warm fixture environment can be obtained using this device. Only 0.25 watts must be supplied to the Peltier device to produce these results.

Siminovitch, M.J.; Rubinstein, F.M.; Clark, T.A.; Verderber, R.R.

1986-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

152

High-pressure phase transition and behavior of protons in brucite Mg(OH)2: a high-pressuretemperature study using IR synchrotron radiation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

?Infrared absorption spectra of brucite Mg (OH)2...were measured under high pressure and high temperature from 0.1?MPa 25?C to 16?GPa 360?C using infrared synchrotron radiation at BL43IR of Spring-8 and a high-...

K. Shinoda; M. Yamakata; T. Nanba; H. Kimura

2002-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

153

BILIWG Meeting: High Pressure Steam Reforming of Bio-Derived Liquids (Presentation)  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

High Pressure Steam Reforming of High Pressure Steam Reforming of Bio-Derived Liquids S. Ahmed, S. Lee, D. Papadias, and R. Kumar November 6, 2007 Laurel, MD Research sponsored by the Hydrogen, Fuel Cells, and Infrastructure Technologies Program of DOE's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Rationale and objective Rationale „ Steam reforming of liquid fuels at high pressures can reduce hydrogen compression costs - Much less energy is needed to pressurize liquids (fuel and water) than compressing gases (reformate or H 2 ) „ High pressure reforming is advantageous for subsequent separations and hydrogen purification Objective „ Develop a reformer design that takes advantage of the savings in compression cost in the steam reforming bio-derived liquid fuels - Metric:

154

Pantex High Pressure Fire Loop Project Completed On Time, Under Budget |  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

High Pressure Fire Loop Project Completed On Time, Under Budget | High Pressure Fire Loop Project Completed On Time, Under Budget | National Nuclear Security Administration Our Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing Proliferation Powering the Nuclear Navy Emergency Response Recapitalizing Our Infrastructure Continuing Management Reform Countering Nuclear Terrorism About Us Our Programs Our History Who We Are Our Leadership Our Locations Budget Our Operations Media Room Congressional Testimony Fact Sheets Newsletters Press Releases Speeches Events Social Media Video Gallery Photo Gallery NNSA Archive Federal Employment Apply for Our Jobs Our Jobs Working at NNSA Blog Home > Media Room > Press Releases > Pantex High Pressure Fire Loop Project Completed ... Press Release Pantex High Pressure Fire Loop Project Completed On Time, Under Budget

155

DOE Hydrogen Delivery High-Pressure Tanks and Analysis Project Review Meeting  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

On February 8-9, 2005, the Department of Energy held the DOE Hydrogen Delivery High-Pressure Tanks and Analysis Project Review Meeting at Argonne National Laboratory. The purpose of the meeting was...

156

Thermal expansion of Mg(OH)2 brucite under high pressure and pressure dependence of entropy  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

An equation of state for Mg(OH)2 brucite under high-pressure and high-temperature conditions ... -ray diffraction. Pressure dependence of entropy of brucite has been calculated with thermal expansion coefficient....

H. Fukui; O. Ohtaka; T. Suzuki; K. Funakoshi

2003-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

157

Refractory products and ramming bodies for high pressure burners of steam boilers  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Silicon carbide rammed bodies are suitable for lining the combustion zones of high-pressure cyclone burners of steam boilers. The life of the silicon carbide body depends on the heat resistance of the supporti...

N. I. Voronin; N. I. Krasotkina; A. I. kulik; T. S. Karmanova; G. E. Levin

158

Generalized enthalpy model of a high-pressure shift freezing process  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...non-homogeneous temperature distribution induces a non-homogeneous...computational model for temperature and sterility distributions in a pilot-scale...high-pressure high-temperature process. A.I...and Da-Wen. Sun 2009 Simulation...

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

159

Evaluation of energy efficiency in cutting aerospace materials with high-pressure cooling lubricant supply  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In the field of machining difficult-to-cut materials like titanium or nickel-based alloys, the use of high-pressure cooling lubricant supply (HPCLS) offers ... , tool wear can be decreased which allows higher app...

Fritz Klocke; Dieter Lung; Tolga Cayli

2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

Methane-to-hydrogen conversion in a reversible flow filtration combustion reactor at a high pressure  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The noncatalytic process of partial oxidation of methane to syngas in a reversible flow filtration combustion reactor at high pressures has been considered. ... conversion process the maximum temperature in the...

Yu. M. Dmitrenko; P. A. Klyovan

2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high-pressure sodium lamps" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

High Temperature, High Pressure Devices for Zonal Isolation in Geothermal Wells  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

DOE Geothermal Peer Review 2010 - Presentation. Project objectives: Design, demonstrate, and qualify high-temperature high pressure zonal isolation devices compatible with the high temperature downhole Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) environment.

162

Covered Product Category: Compact Fluorescent Lamps | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Covered Product Category: Compact Fluorescent Lamps Covered Product Category: Compact Fluorescent Lamps Covered Product Category: Compact Fluorescent Lamps October 7, 2013 - 10:48am Addthis ENERGY STAR Qualified Products Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) provides acquisition guidance across a variety of product categories, including compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs), which are an ENERGY STAR-qualified product category. Federal laws and executive orders mandate that agencies meet these efficiency requirements in all procurement and acquisition actions that are not specifically exempted by law. Most manufacturers display the ENERGY STAR label on complying models. For a model not displaying this label, check the manufacturer's literature to determine if it meets the efficiency requirements outlined by ENERGY STAR.

163

Information Resources: LED Replacements for Linear Fluorescent Lamps  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Replacements for Linear Fluorescent Lamps Webcast Replacements for Linear Fluorescent Lamps Webcast In this June 20, 2011 webcast on LED products marketed as replacements for linear fluorescent lamps, Jason Tuenge of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) discussed current Lighting Facts-listed products as well as products evaluated in the latest CALiPER reports. Eric Richman, also of PNNL, reported on a recently completed GATEWAY demonstration project, in which LED and fluorescent lamps were installed in a variety of recessed troffer luminaires for comparison in an office environment. The presentation concluded with a discussion of specifications listed in a newly updated technology fact sheet. View presentation slides View the text-alternative version View the webcast (WMV 16 MB) Download Windows Media Player

164

Burst Radio-Frequency Excited Pulsed Hollow-Cathode Lamp  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Transient emission characteristics of a hollow-cathode lamp driven by a pulsed current in combination with a radio-frequency burst signal are described. The radio-frequency field...

Araki, Tsutomu; Walters, John P; Minami, Shigeo

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

165

DOE Publishes Long-Term Testing Investigation of Retail Lamps  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The U.S. Department of Energy's CALiPER program has released another special report on LED lamps that are available through the retail marketplace and targeted toward general consumers. CALiPER...

166

Conservation Potential of Compact Fluorescent Lamps in India and Brazil  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

38 TWh, 10% of which was for incandescent lighting (Fig. 3).The electricity consumed in incandescent lighting can be300 and 400 million incandescent lamps in the country. Let

Gadgil, A.J.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

167

Optimized Magnetic Components Improve Efficiency of Compact Fluorescent Lamps  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

xtures (designed for incandescent bulbs) has allowed residential and small commercial electric customers of incandescent lamps and last 10 times longer [1]. High-frequency electronic ballasts are used to power CFLs

168

DOE Publishes New CALiPER Report on Retail Lamps  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The U.S. Department of Energy's CALiPER program has released a special report on LED lamps available through the retail marketplace and targeted toward general consumers. While previous reports in...

169

Magnetic fluorescent lamp having reduced ultraviolet self-absorption  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The radiant emission of a mercury-argon discharge in a fluorescent lamp assembly (10) is enhanced by providing means (30) for establishing a magnetic field with lines of force along the path of electron flow through the bulb (12) of the lamp assembly, to provide Zeeman splitting of the ultraviolet spectral line. Optimum results are obtained when the magnetic field strength causes a Zeeman splitting of approximately 1.7 times the thermal line width.

Berman, Samuel M. (San Francisco, CA); Richardson, Robert W. (Pelham, NY)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

Perceptions of compact fluorescent lamps in the residential market  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Compact fluorescent lamps offer significant energy savings over other forms of residential lighting and last up to 10 times longer than conventional incandescent bulbs. In order to better understand existing barriers to acceptance and future opportunities for growth of compact fluorescent lighting in the residential retrofit sector, a three stage research project was designed and conducted by MACRO Consulting, Inc. Assessment of whether or not the benefits of compact fluorescent lamps are sufficient to overcome price resistance was one of the major purposes of this project. Residential customers were interviewed in focus group sessions to help determine key issues and motivating forces in the lighting/energy saving/cost saving equation. Residential customers in 5 major market areas were contacted by telephone, and data about their awareness, knowledge and use of compact fluorescent lighting were collected. These customers also participated in an attribute rating exercise in which compact fluorescent lamps were compared with fluorescent tubes and incandescent bulbs on a series of product attributes. A price elasticity exercise was also conducted. Teleconferences with retailers of compact fluorescent lamps were conducted in order to explore their knowledge of and attitudes towards compact fluorescent lamps. Customers agree that energy savings and longer life are both positive attributes for residential lighting products, but they are not yet ready to make the switch away from inexpensive, versatile and readily available incandescent bulbs to compact fluorescent lamps. Compact fluorescent lamps are rated poorly (even by satisfied'' users) on each of seven positive attributes of home lighting. Major barriers to increased use of compact fluorescent lamps include price, convenience, and performance. Prices above $10 are considered outrageous''. Product improvements are needed for appearance, light output and versatility.

Weiner, J.; Campbell, C.J. (Macro Consulting, Inc., Mountain View, CA (United States))

1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

Compact fluorescent lamp using horizontal and vertical insulating septums and convective venting geometry  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A novel design is described for a compact fluorescent lamp, including a lamp geometry which will increase light output and efficacy of the lamp in a base down operating position by providing horizontal and vertical insulating septums positioned in the ballast compartment of the lamp to provide a cooler coldspot. Selective convective venting provides additional cooling of the ballast compartment. 9 figs.

Siminovitch, M.

1998-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

172

A light diet for a giant appetite: An assessment of China's proposed fluorescent lamp standard  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

standard for linear fluorescent lamps Length (mm) Minimum efficacy (lm/W) Efficacy for energy conservation

Lin, Jiang

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

173

All mercury lamps contain small amounts of mercury. An electric current passes through the lamp and vaporizes the mercury to generate light. Recycling mercury containing lamps protects human health and our environment from heavy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

All mercury lamps contain small amounts of mercury. An electric current passes through the lamp and vaporizes the mercury to generate light. Recycling mercury containing lamps protects human health and our the environment by recycling universal wastes, contact EH&S at (949) 824-6200 or visit: www.ehs.uci.edu Mercury

George, Steven C.

174

LNG Vehicle High-Pressure Fuel System and ''Cold Energy'' Utilization  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A high-pressure fuel system for LNG vehicles with direct-injection natural gas engines has been developed and demonstrated on a heavy-duty truck. A new concept for utilizing the ''cold energy'' associated with LNG vehicles to generate mechanical power to drive auxiliary equipment (such as high-pressure fuel pumps) has also been developed and demonstrated in the laboratory. The high-pressure LNG fuel system development included the design and testing of a new type of cryogenic pump utilizes multiple chambers and other features to condense moderate quantities of sucked vapor and discharge supercritical LNG at 3,000 to 4,000 psi. The pump was demonstrated on a Class 8 truck with a Westport high-pressure direct-injection Cummins ISX engine. A concept that utilizes LNG's ''cold energy'' to drive a high-pressure fuel pump without engine attachments or power consumption was developed. Ethylene is boiled and superheated by the engine coolant, and it is cooled and condensed by rejecting h eat to the LNG. Power is extracted in a full-admission blowdown process, and part of this power is applied to pump the ethylene liquid to the boiler pressure. Tests demonstrated a net power output of 1.1. hp at 1.9 Lbm/min of LNG flow, which is adequate to isentropically pump the LNG to approximately 3,400 psi..

powers,Charles A.; Derbidge, T. Craig

2001-03-27T23:59:59.000Z

175

A New Scanning Tunneling Microscope Reactor Used for High Pressure and High Temperature Catalysis Studies  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present the design and performance of a home-built high-pressure and high-temperature reactor equipped with a high-resolution scanning tunneling microscope (STM) for catalytic studies. In this design, the STM body, sample, and tip are placed in a small high pressure reactor ({approx}19 cm{sup 3}) located within an ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) chamber. A sealable port on the wall of the reactor separates the high pressure environment in the reactor from the vacuum environment of the STM chamber and permits sample transfer and tip change in UHV. A combination of a sample transfer arm, wobble stick, and sample load-lock system allows fast transfer of samples and tips between the preparation chamber, high pressure reactor, and ambient environment. This STM reactor can work as a batch or flowing reactor at a pressure range of 10{sup -13} to several bars and a temperature range of 300-700 K. Experiments performed on two samples both in vacuum and in high pressure conditions demonstrate the capability of in situ investigations of heterogeneous catalysis and surface chemistry at atomic resolution at a wide pressure range from UHV to a pressure higher than 1 atm.

Tao, Feng; Tang, David C.; Salmeron, Miquel; Somorjai, Gabor A.

2008-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

176

Assessing the Risk of Mercury in Drinking Water after UV Lamp Breaks Page 1 Assessing the Risk of Mercury in Drinking Water after UV Lamp Breaks  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Assessing the Risk of Mercury in Drinking Water after UV Lamp Breaks Page 1 Assessing the Risk of Mercury in Drinking Water after UV Lamp Breaks Heidi Borchers University of New Hampshire, Environmental Ultraviolet (UV) lamps generate ultraviolet light through the vaporization of elemental mercury, by using

177

High pressure--high temperature research using high energy synchrotron radiation at the TRISTAN accumulation ring  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

High energy synchrotron radiation emitted from the bending magnet of the TRISTAN accumulation ring (6.5 GeV) at the National Laboratory for High Energy Physics has been used for the high pressure--high temperature diffraction experiments using a multianvil press system, MAX80. Owing to the specific features of high energy synchroton radiation, significant improvements have been brought to the high pressure research. The wide energy range of diffraction spectrum leads to an increase in the number of observable diffraction peaks in an energy-dispersive method, resulting in an increase in the accuracy of the measurements of the lattice and thermal parameters. Due to the high penetrating power of radiation, diffraction patterns can be taken in a short time from materials containing heavy elements or materials surrounded by a metal foil. Typical examples of high pressure--high temperature experiments with high energy synchrotron radiation are also described.

Kikegawa, T.; Shimomura, O.; Iwasaki, H.; Sato, S.; Mikuni, A.; Iida, A.; Kamiya, N.

1989-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

An RF-only ion-funnel for extraction from high-pressure gases  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

An RF ion-funnel technique has been developed to extract ions from a high-pressure (10 bar) noble-gas environment into vacuum ($10^{-6}$ mbar). Detailed simulations have been performed and a prototype has been developed for the purpose of extracting $^{136}$Ba ions from Xe gas with high efficiency. With this prototype, ions have been extracted for the first time from high-pressure xenon gas and argon gas. Systematic studies have been carried out and compared to the simulations. This demonstration of extraction of ions with mass comparable to that of the gas generating the high-pressure into vacuum has applications to Ba tagging from a Xe-gas time-projection chamber (TPC) for double beta decay as well as to the general problem of recovering trace amounts of an ionized element in a heavy (m$>40$ u) carrier gas.

Thomas Brunner; Daniel Fudenberg; Victor Varentsov; Amanda Sabourov; Giorgio Gratta; Jens Dilling; Ralph DeVoe; David Sinclair; William Fairbank Jr.; Joshua B Albert; David J Auty; Phil S Barbeau; Douglas Beck; Cesar Benitez-Medina; Martin Breidenbach; Guofu F Cao; Christopher Chambers; Bruce Cleveland; Matthew Coon; Adam Craycraft; Timothy Daniels; Sean J Daugherty; Tamar Didberidze; Michelle J Dolinski; Matthew Dunford; Lorenzo Fabris; Jacques Farine; Wolfhart Feldmeier; Peter Fierlinger; Razvan Gornea; Kevin Graham; Mike Heffner; Mitchell Hughes; Michael Jewell; Xiaoshan S Jiang; Tessa N Johnson; Sereres Johnston; Alexander Karelin; Lisa J Kaufman; Ryan Killick; Thomas Koffas; Scott Kravitz; Reiner Kruecken; Alexey Kuchenkov; Krishna S Kumar; Douglas S Leonard; Francois Leonard; Caio Licciardi; Yi-Hsuan H Lin; Jiajie Ling; Ryan MacLellan; Michael G Marino; Brian Mong; David Moore; Allen Odian; Igor Ostrovskiy; Christian Ouellet; Andreas Piepke; Andrea Pocar; Fabrice Retiere; Peter C Rowson; Maria P Rozo; Alexis Schubert; Erica Smith; Victor Stekhanov; Michal Tarka; Tamer Tolba; Delia Tosi; Karl Twelker; Jean-Luc L Vuilleumier; Josiah Walton; Timothy Walton; Manuel Weber; Liangjian J Wen; Ubi Wichoski; Liang Yang; Yung-Ruey Yen

2014-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

179

High Pressure Phase Transformations in Heavy Rare Earth Metals and Connections to Actinide Crystal Structures  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

High-pressure studies have been performed on heavy rare earth metals Terbium (Tb) to 155 GPa and Holmium (Ho) to 134 GPa in a diamond anvil cell at room temperature. The following crystal structure sequence was observed in both metals hcp {yields} Sm-type {yields} dhcp {yields} distorted fcc (hR-24) {yields} monoclinic (C2/m) with increasing pressure. The last transformation to a low symmetry monoclinic phase is accompanied by a volume collapse of 5 % for Tb at 51 GPa and a volume collapse of 3 % for Ho at 103 GPa. This volume collapse under high pressure is reminiscent of f-shell delocalization in light rare earth metal Cerium (Ce), Praseodymium (Pr), and heavy actinide metals Americium (Am) and Curium (Cm). The orthorhombic Pnma phase that has been reported in Am and Cm after f-shell delocalization is not observed in heavy rare earth metals under high pressures. (authors)

Vohra, Yogesh K.; Sangala, Bagvanth Reddy; Stemshorn, Andrew K. [Physics, University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB), 310 Campbell Hall, 1300 University Boulevard, Birmingham, AL, 35294-1170 (United States); Hope, Kevin M. [Biology, Chemistry, and Mathematics, University of Montevallo, Harman Hall, Station 6480, Montevallo, AL, 35115 (United States)

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

180

Vibrational Spectroscopy at High Pressure in CF4: Implications to the Phase Diagram  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The molecular analogue of methane, CF{sub 4} is the most fundamental saturated perfluorocarbon, exhibiting complex optical behavior that is highly unusual for such a simple molecular system. We present Raman measurements in solid CF{sub 4} over a wide range in pressure from 1.6 to over 30 GPa at room temperature. The Raman spectra exhibit polarization-dependent intensity variations and history-dependent absence or presence of high pressure modes. Our results compellingly demonstrate that previously identified phase transitions in CF{sub 4} based on Raman signatures need to be reconsidered. Though our data suggest possible new high-pressure transitions, we do not identify new phases because of spectral complexity. Finally, we used the measured longitudinal and transverse optical mode splitting to estimate the dipole moment derivative at high pressures and find it close to that of gaseous CF{sub 4}.

Lorenzana, H E; Magnus, J L; Evans, W J; Hemmi, N

2000-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high-pressure sodium lamps" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Thermal conductance of metal-diamond interfaces at high pressure Gregory T. Hohensee  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

are concerned with the exchange of thermal energy across an interface between two materials. This topic-nonmetal interface, a two-temperature model predicts a thermal resistance of Rep = 1/ gL in series with the phononThermal conductance of metal-diamond interfaces at high pressure Gregory T. Hohensee Department

Cahill, David G.

182

Fast high-pressure freezing of protein crystals in their mother liquor  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Protein crystals were vitrified using high-pressure freezing in their mother liquor at 210 MPa and 77 K without cryoprotectants or oil coating. The method was successfully applied to photosystem II, which is representative of a membrane protein with a large unit cell and weak crystal contacts.

Burkhardt, A.

2012-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

183

FRICTION FACTOR IN HIGH PRESSURE NATURAL GAS PIPELINES FROM ROUGHNESS MEASUREMENTS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

FRICTION FACTOR IN HIGH PRESSURE NATURAL GAS PIPELINES FROM ROUGHNESS MEASUREMENTS DETERMINATION DU and Technology, Norway ABSTRACT Pressure drop experiments on natural gas flow at 80 to 120 bar pressure and high of natural gas at typical operating pressures (100-180 bar). At such Reynolds numbers the classical Colebrook

Gudmundsson, Jon Steinar

184

Anomalous elastic behavior and high-pressure structural evolution of zeolite levyne  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...gatta@unimi.it Manuscript handled by Alison Pawley Elastic behavior and high-pressure...several authors (Sheppard et al. 1974; Wise and Tschernich 1976; Galli et al. 1981...Edition). Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht. Wise, W.S. and Tschernich, R.W. (1976...

Giacomo Diego Gatta; Paola Comodi; Pier Francesco Zanazzi; Tiziana Boffa Ballaran

185

Anticrack-associated faulting at very high pressure in natural olivine  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... Publishing Group 10.1038/349264a0 Anticrack-associated faulting at very high pressure in natural olivineHarry W.GreenH. W.IIThomas E.YoungT. E.DavidWalkerD.Christopher H.ScholzC. H. Nature ...

Harry W. Green; Thomas E. Young; David Walker; Christopher H. Scholz

1991-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

186

Raman spectroscopy on single and multi-walled nanotubes under high pressure  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

dependence of the high-energy Raman modes in single and multi-walled carbon nanotubes was measuredRaman spectroscopy on single and multi-walled nanotubes under high pressure C. Thomsen, S. Reich, H properties of carbon nanotubes have become of scienti c interest since it was recognized that the low atomic

Nabben, Reinhard

187

Analysis and simplification of a mathematical model for high-pressure food processes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Nowadays, consumers look for minimally processed, additive-free food products that maintain their organoleptic properties. This has led to the development of new technologies for food processing. One emerging technology is high hydrostatic pressure, ... Keywords: Boundary layer solution, Food technology, Heat transfer, High pressure, Modelling, Separation of variables solution

N. A. S. Smith, S. L. Mitchell, A. M. Ramos

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

Development test report for the high pressure water jet system nozzles  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The high pressure water jet nozzle tests were conducted to identify optimum water pressure, water flow rate, nozzle orifice size and fixture configuration needed to effectively decontaminate empty fuel storage canisters in KE-Basin. This report gives the tests results and recommendations from the these tests.

Takasumi, D.S.

1995-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

189

ANALYSIS OF HIGH PRESSURE TESTS ON WET GAS FLOW METERING WITH A VENTURI METER  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ANALYSIS OF HIGH PRESSURE TESTS ON WET GAS FLOW METERING WITH A VENTURI METER P. Gajan , Q, 64018 Pau cedex, France pierre.gajan@onera.fr Abstract This work deals with the flow metering of wet gas on the CEESI facilities are presented. They are performed at 75 bars with 0.6 beta ratio Venturi meter

190

Raman spectroscopy of Co,,OH...2 at high pressures: Implications for amorphization and hydrogen repulsion  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

.50. p, 63.20. e, 33.20.Fb, 33.20.Tp INTRODUCTION The high-pressure behavior of brucite-type hydroxides- itially much more compressible than the a axis. This is a general feature of the compression of brucite

Duffy, Thomas S.

191

Kinetic Analysis of CO2 Gasification of Petroleum Coke at High Pressures  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Two petcoke samples were gasified by CO2 at total pressures of 10 and 15 atm in a high-pressure flat-flame burner reactor at conditions where the bulk phase consisted of either 40 or 90 mol % CO2 with gas temperatures up to 1909 K. Particle diameters of ... ...

Maryam Malekshahian; Josephine M. Hill

2011-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

192

Electrical conductivity of wadsleyite at high temperatures and high pressures Lidong Dai a,b  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Electrical conductivity of wadsleyite at high temperatures and high pressures Lidong Dai a,b , Shun 2009 Editor: L. Stixrude Keywords: electrical conductivity wadsleyite oxygen fugacity frequency water The electrical conductivity of wadsleyite aggregates has been determined under the broad range of thermodynamic

193

OPTIMAL DESIGN OF A HIGH PRESSURE ORGANOMETALLIC CHEMICAL VAPOR DEPOSITION REACTOR  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

OPTIMAL DESIGN OF A HIGH PRESSURE ORGANOMETALLIC CHEMICAL VAPOR DEPOSITION REACTOR K.J. BACHMANN of computer simulations as an optimal design tool which lessens the costs in time and effort in experimental vapor deposition (HPOMCVD) reactor for use in thin film crystal growth. The advantages of such a reactor

194

Investigations on the Failure of Economizer Tubes in a High-Pressure Boiler  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This article describes the results of an investigation concerning the failure of economizer tubes of a high-pressure boiler in ... . The cause of the failure of the economizer tube appears to be H2SO4 dew-point c...

M. Mobin; A. U. Malik; M. Al-Hajri

2008-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

Hydrogen incorporation in stishovite at high pressure and symmetric hydrogen bonding in N-AlOOH  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Hydrogen incorporation in stishovite at high pressure and symmetric hydrogen bonding in N significant amounts of hydrogen in stishovite under lower-mantle conditions. The enthalpy of solution pressure and temperature. We predict asymmetric hydrogen bonding in the stishovite^N-AlOOH solid solution

Stixrude, Lars

196

Ultrafast high-pressure AC electro-osmotic pumps for portable biomedical microfluidics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Ultrafast high-pressure AC electro-osmotic pumps for portable biomedical microfluidics Chien details the development of an integrated AC electro-osmotic (ACEO) microfluidic pump for dilute (100 mM) biological solutions in separate microfluidic devices, with potential applications in portable

Bazant, Martin Z.

197

Metastable high-pressure transformations of orthoferrosilite Fs82 Przemyslaw Dera a,e,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Metastable high-pressure transformations of orthoferrosilite Fs82 Przemyslaw Dera a,e, , Gregory J Institution of Washington, USA e Hawaii Institute of Geophysics and Planetology, School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology, University of Hawaii at Manoa, USA a r t i c l e i n f o Article history: Received

Duffy, Thomas S.

198

Ettringite Strengthening at High Pressures Induced by the Densification of the Hydrogen Bond Network  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Ettringite Strengthening at High Pressures Induced by the Densification of the Hydrogen Bond Network ... Ettringite is a rare mineral with high-water content, more than half of its weight, and a relevant secondary product in Portland cement. ... Using density functional theory, we simulate the crystal structure and properties of ettringite under pressure. ...

H. Manzano; A. Ayuela; A. Telesca; P. J. M. Monteiro; J. S. Dolado

2012-07-06T23:59:59.000Z

199

Detecting and modeling cement failure in high pressure/ high temperature wells using finite-element method  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. In the event that high-pressure and high-temperature (HPHT) conditions are encountered, we must attempt to achieve permeability in the set cement to prevent gas migration and to prevent any other fluid passing through to collapse the entire structure. Therefore...

Shahri, Mehdi Abbaszadeh

2006-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

200

2014-12-30 Issuance: Energy Conservation Standard for General Service Fluorescent Lamps and Incandescent Reflector Lamps; Final Rule  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This document is a pre-publication Federal Register final rule regarding energy conservation standards for general service fluorescent lamps and incandescent reflector lamps, as issued by the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency on December 30, 2014. Though it is not intended or expected, should any discrepancy occur between the document posted here and the document published in the Federal Register, the Federal Register publication controls. This document is being made available through the Internet solely as a means to facilitate the public's access to this document.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high-pressure sodium lamps" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Confirmation of the chromosomal localization of human lamp genes and their exclusion as candidate genes for Salla disease  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Salla disease is an inherited lysosomal storage disorder caused by accumulation of free sialic acid in the lysosomes. Lamp genes, lamp A and lamp B (lysosome associated membrane proteins), are the first known ...

Johanna Schleutker; Leena Haataja; Martin Renlund; Lea Puhakka

1991-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

Recycling of sodium waste  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Recycling of sodium waste ... Methods for handling and recycling a dangerous and costly chemical. ...

Bettina Hubler-Blank; Michael Witt; Herbert W. Roesky

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

203

Studies on the effects of heat and high pressure treatmeants on fat globule surface layers in recombined milk.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??The present study examined the effects of heat treatment, high pressure (HP) treatment or combined heat and HP treatments, either before or after homogenization, on (more)

Anantawat, Visaka

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

Low-pressure microwave plasma ultraviolet lamp for water purification  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Low-pressure mercury lamps are commonly used for germicidal applications. The germicidal effect is due to the emission of light at 254nm, which leads to the destruction of the most waterborne bacteria and viruses. The microwave plasma ultraviolet (UV) lamp (MPUVL) is a new technology for generating a high-intensity UV light and that can be also controlled to operate at 185nm; irradiation is in air at this wavelength produces ozone. The microwave power is injected into a resonant cavity and the surface wave excitation takes place within the cavity through that part of the discharge tube (fused silica) protruding inside it. The MPUVL has many advantages over conventional lamps, which are limited to an output power in the region of 30Wm-1, while MPUVL can deliver any amount of power per unit length and the tube can be of any shape, length or diameter. This paper describes the design of the MPUVL and compares its efficiency with that of conventional lamps through spectral analysis. Other results, which include the effects of temperature and different power inputs, are also discussed.

A I Al-Shamma'a; I Pandithas; J Lucas

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

The Energy Efficiency of the U.S Fluorescent Lamp Ballast Industry  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

The Energy Efficiency of the U.S Fluorescent Lamp Ballast Industry The Energy Efficiency of the U.S Fluorescent Lamp Ballast Industry Speaker(s): Francis Rubinstein Date: February 14, 2008 - 12:00pm Location: 90-3122 Fluorescent lamp ballasts are subject to DOE appliance standards and rulemaking. But currently, only ballasts for older fluorescent lamp types, such as T-12 lamps are subject to minimum efficacy limits. The majority of fluorescent lamps now being shipped (T-8 and T-5 types) type are operated by ballasts that will not be subject to DOE rule until 2011. The metric used by DOE for characterizing the electrical efficiency of the fluorescent lamp-ballast system is called Ballast Efficacy Factor (BEF). Because BEF is not normalized, it is of limited utility for rulemaking and is useless for procurement. But by normalizing BEF to the total lamp power, I have

206

Solid-State Lighting: LED Replacement Lamps: Current Performance and the  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

LED Replacement Lamps: Current LED Replacement Lamps: Current Performance and the Latest on ENERGY STAR® to someone by E-mail Share Solid-State Lighting: LED Replacement Lamps: Current Performance and the Latest on ENERGY STAR® on Facebook Tweet about Solid-State Lighting: LED Replacement Lamps: Current Performance and the Latest on ENERGY STAR® on Twitter Bookmark Solid-State Lighting: LED Replacement Lamps: Current Performance and the Latest on ENERGY STAR® on Google Bookmark Solid-State Lighting: LED Replacement Lamps: Current Performance and the Latest on ENERGY STAR® on Delicious Rank Solid-State Lighting: LED Replacement Lamps: Current Performance and the Latest on ENERGY STAR® on Digg Find More places to share Solid-State Lighting: LED Replacement Lamps: Current Performance and the Latest on ENERGY STAR® on

207

LED Replacement Lamps: Current Performance and the Latest on ENERGY STAR  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This May 19, 2009 webcast summarized CALiPER's recent benchmark testing of common omnidirectional incandescent lamps (e.g., A-lamps), and provided an update on ENERGY STAR criteria for LED integral...

208

DOE Publishes CALiPER Report on Cost-Effectiveness of Linear (T8) LED Lamps  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The U.S. Department of Energy's CALiPER program has released Report 21.3, which is part of a series of investigations on linear LED lamps. Report 21.3 details a set of life-cycle cost simulations that compared a two-lamp troffer using LED lamps (38W total power draw) or fluorescent lamps (51W total power draw) over a 10-year study period.

209

Transport phenomena in metal-halide lamps a poly-diagnostic study  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

/ spectroscopie. Subject headings: gas discharges / metal-halide lamps / plasma diagnostics / plasma properties-halide arc lamps . . . . . . . . . . . 7 1.3 Scope of ThesisTransport phenomena in metal-halide lamps a poly-diagnostic study Tanya Nimalasuriya #12;Copyright

Eindhoven, Technische Universiteit

210

High Pressure Fuel Storage Cylinders Periodic Inspection and End of Life Issues  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

6/2010 6/2010 www.cleanvehicle.org 1 High Pressure Fuel Storage Cylinders Periodic Inspection and End of Life Issues DOE Vehicular Tank Workshop April 29, 2010 Douglas Horne, PE The Facts  High pressure Type 4 gaseous fuel tanks are now designed under standards that specify finite lifetimes of 15, 20 and 25 years based on specific design and testing (the HGV2 standard under development had a life as short as 10 years as an option)  It is unique within the transportation industry to have a critical device (the fuel tank) with a designated life that may be shorter than the vehicle itself  Although vehicle owners are told up front of the limited life fuel storage cylinders some tend to forget after 15 years  A parallel concern is the requirement for these fuel tanks

211

High-pressure studies of rare earth material could lead to lighter, cheaper  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

22013_earth 22013_earth 12/20/2013 A Lawrence Livermore researcher prepares a sample at Oak Ridge National Laboratory's Spallation Neutrons and Pressure Diffractometer (SNAP). High-pressure studies of rare earth material could lead to lighter, cheaper magnets Anne M Stark, LLNL, (925) 422-9799, stark8@llnl.gov Sometimes you have to apply a little pressure to get magnetic materials to reveal their secrets. By placing a permanent magnet under high pressures, Lawrence Livermore researchers are exploring how atomic structure enhances magnetic strength and resistance to demagnetization. This fundamental research into magnetic behavior has important implications for engineering stronger, cheaper magnets. Permanent magnets based on rare earth elements are in high demand for

212

Phase Transitions in Solids Stimulated by Simultaneous Exposure to High Pressure and Relativistic Heavy Ions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In many solids, heavy ions of high kinetic energy (MeV-GeV) produce long cylindrical damage trails with diameters of order 10nm. Up to now, no information was available how solids cope with the simultaneous exposure to these energetic projectiles and to high pressure. We report the first experiments where relativistic uranium and gold ions from the SIS heavy-ion synchrotron at GSI were injected through several mm of diamond into solid samples pressurized up to 14GPa in a diamond anvil cell. In synthetic graphite and natural zircon, the combination of pressure and ion beams triggered drastic structural changes not caused by the applied pressure or the ions alone. The modifications comprise long-range amorphization of graphite rather than individual track formation, and in the case of zircon the decomposition into nanocrystals and nucleation of the high-pressure phase reidite.

Ulrich A. Glasmacher; Maik Lang; Hans Keppler; Falko Langenhorst; Reinhard Neumann; Dieter Schardt; Christina Trautmann; Gnther A. Wagner

2006-05-17T23:59:59.000Z

213

Numerical simulation of the two-dimensional flow in high pressure catalytic combustor for gas turbine  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The objective of this paper is modeling the mechanism of high pressure and high temperature catalytic oxidation of natural gas, or methane. The model is two-dimensional steady-state, and includes axial and radial convection and diffusion of mass, momentum and energy, as well as homogeneous (gas phase) and heterogeneous (gas surface) single step irreversible chemical reactions within a catalyst channel. Experimental investigations were also made of natural gas, or methane combustion in the presence of Mn-substituted hexaaluminate catalysts. Axial profiles of catalyst wall temperature, and gas temperature and gas composition for a range of gas turbine combustor operating conditions have been obtained for comparison with and development of a computer model of catalytic combustion. Numerical calculation results for atmospheric pressure agree well with experimental data. The calculations have been extended for high pressure (10 atm) operating conditions of gas turbine.

Y. Tsujikawa; S. Fujii; H. Sadamori; S. Ito; S. Katsura

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

214

Engineering properties of miniature cement - fly ash compacts prepared by high pressure compaction  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ENGINEERING PROPERTIES OF MINIATURE CEMENT - FLY ASH COMPACTS PREPARED BY HIGH PRESSURE COMPACTION E NGIRPR OT SFMMAFU AEU C-ALEYY HDOBPvvIi va vGI ge(iD(vI oannItI au NId(R E)L xrP1IeRPvT 9(evP(n uDnuPnnBIrv au vGI eI0DPeIBIrvR uae vGI i...IteII au LEHNFA -M Ho2FYoF EDtDRv 3456 L(7ae HDO7I8v? oP1Pn FrtPrIIePrt ENGINEERING PROPERTIES OF MINIATURE CEMENT - FLY ASH COMPACTS PREPARED BY HIGH PRESSURE COMPACTION E NGIRPR OT SFMMAFU AEU C-ALEYY E99ea1Ii (R va RvTnI (ri 8arvIrv OT? LP...

Bormann, Jeffrey Ray

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

215

High Pressure Water Jet System Performance Assessment Project A-2A  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Performance assessment for canister cleaning system in the KE Basin. Information obtained from this assessment will be used to design any additional equipment used to clean canisters. After thorough review of the design, maintenance history and operational characteristics of the 105 K East (KE) canister cleaning system, Bartlett recommends that the high pressure water jet system (HPWJS) be modified as outlined in section 5.0, and retained for future use. Further, it is recommended that Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project consider use of a graded approach for canister cleaning, based on individual canister type and characteristics. This approach would allow a simple method to be used on canisters not needing the more rigorous, high-pressure method. Justification is provided in section 5.0. Although Bartlett has provided some preliminary cost estimates, it is recommended that SNF Project perform a detailed cost-benefit analysis to weigh the alternatives presented.

FARWICK, C.C.

1999-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

216

The NEXT experiment: A high pressure xenon gas TPC for neutrinoless double beta decay searches  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Neutrinoless double beta decay is a hypothetical, very slow nuclear transition in which two neutrons undergo beta decay simultaneously and without the emission of neutrinos. The importance of this process goes beyond its intrinsic interest: an unambiguous observation would establish a Majorana nature for the neutrino and prove the violation of lepton number. NEXT is a new experiment to search for neutrinoless double beta decay using a radiopure high-pressure xenon gas TPC, filled with 100 kg of Xe enriched in Xe-136. NEXT will be the first large high-pressure gas TPC to use electroluminescence readout with SOFT (Separated, Optimized FuncTions) technology. The design consists in asymmetric TPC, with photomultipliers behind a transparent cathode and position-sensitive light pixels behind the anode. The experiment is approved to start data taking at the Laboratorio Subterr\\'aneo de Canfranc (LSC), Spain, in 2014.

D. Lorca; J. Martn-Albo; F. Monrabal; for the NEXT Collaboration

2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

217

Computations of high-pressure steam flow in the turbine bypass valve  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of the present study is to investigate the steam flow behavior through the high-pressure turbine bypass valve. Efforts have mainly been directed at investigating the process of steam flow and property variations aforementioned bypass valve as well as to obtain correlations between the flow rate and the valve opening ratio. Modeling of the high-pressure turbulent steam flow was performed on a three-dimensional non-staggered grid system by employing the finite volume method and by solving the three-dimensional, turbulent, compressible Navier-Stokes, and energy equations. Through this research, numerous data have been acquired and analyzed. These efforts enable one to obtain a correlation data set for the valve opening versus flow rate coefficient of the valve. One of the significant accomplishments is to use the model presented here to further improve a design of a turbine bypass flow valve.

Amano, R.S.; Draxler, G.R.

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

218

Magnetic and structural phase transitions in erbium at low temperatures and high pressures  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Electrical resistance and crystal structure measurements have been carried out on polycrystalline erbium (Er) at temperatures down to 10 K and pressures up to 20 GPa. An abrupt change in the slope of the resistance is observed with decreasing temperature below 84 K, which is associated with the c-axis modulated (CAM) antiferromagnetic (AFM) ordering of the Er moments. With increasing pressure the temperature of the resistance slope change and the corresponding AFM ordering temperature decrease until vanishing above 10.6 GPa. The disappearance of the slope change in the resistance occurs at similar pressures where the hcp structural phase of Er is transformed to a nine-layer {alpha}-Sm structural phase, as confirmed by our high-pressure synchrotron x-ray diffraction studies. These results suggest that the disappearance in the AFM ordering of Er moments is strongly correlated to the structural phase transition at high pressures and low temperatures.

Thomas, Sarah A.; Tsoi, Georgiy M.; Wenger, Lowell E.; Vohra, Yogesh K. (UAB)

2012-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

219

Development of High-Pressure Dry Feed Pump for Gasification Systems  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Pressure Dry Feed Pressure Dry Feed Pump for Gasification Systems Background Even though coal-based power generation via Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) is more efficient, cleaner, and uses less water than conventional pulverized coal burning systems, widespread IGCC deployment has not occurred because of its relatively high cost. The Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne (PWR) high-pressure dry feed pump addresses IGCC cost disparity by enabling lower cost and more reliable coal feed

220

Development of Kinetics and Mathematical Models for High Pressure Gasification of Lignite-Switchgrass Blends  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Kinetics and Mathematical Kinetics and Mathematical Models for High Pressure Gasification of Lignite-Switchgrass Blends Background Significant progress has been made in recent years in controlling emissions resulting from coal-fired electricity generation in the United States through the research, development, and deployment of innovative technologies such as gasification. Gasification is a process that converts solid feedstocks such as coal, biomass, or blends

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high-pressure sodium lamps" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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221

Investigation of a high pressure implosive technique for metal powder compaction  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Permanent Address ? 314 Brookside Dr. , Bryan, Texas 77801 Donald R. Garrett received his Bachelor of Science degree from the United States Military Academy in 1958. Mr. Garrett was a military training instructor in the U. S. A. F. and a jet aircraft in...INVESTIGATION OF A HIGH PRESSURE IMPLOSIVE TECHNIQUE FOR METAL POWDER COMPACTION A Thesis DONALD RICHARD GARRETT Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER...

Garrett, Donald Richard

1970-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

222

Prediction and Correlation of High-Pressure Gas Solubility in Polymers with Simplified PC-SAFT  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Prediction and Correlation of High-Pressure Gas Solubility in Polymers with Simplified PC-SAFT ... Using simplified PC-SAFT we have modeled gas solubilities at high temperatures and pressures for the gases methane and carbon dioxide in each of the three polymers high-density polyethylene (HDPE), nylon polyamide-11 (PA-11), and poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF). ... Equations of Simplified PC-SAFT ...

Nicolas von Solms; Michael L. Michelsen; Georgios M. Kontogeorgis

2005-03-26T23:59:59.000Z

223

High-pressure cell for neutron reflectometry of supercritical and subcritical fluids at solid interfaces  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A new high-pressure cell design for use in neutron reflectometry (NR) for pressures up to 50 MPa and a temperature range of 300 473 K is described. The cell design guides the neutron beam through the working crystal without passing through additional windows or the bulk fluid, which provides for a high neutron transmission, low scattering background, and low beam distortion. The o-ring seal is suitable for a wide range of subcritical and supercritical fluids and ensures high chemical and pressure stability. Wafers with a diameter of 5.08 cm (2 in.) and 5 mm or 10 mm thickness can be used with the cells, depending on the required pressure and momentum transfer range. The fluid volume in the sample cell is very small at about 0.1 ml, which minimizes scattering background and stored energy. The cell design and pressure setup for measurements with supercritical fluids are described. NR data are shown for silicon/silicon oxide and quartz wafers measured against air and subsequently within the high-pressure cell to demonstrate the neutron characteristics of the high-pressure cell. Neutron reflectivity data for supercritical CO2 in contact with quartz and Si/SiO2 wafers are also shown.

Carmichael, Justin R [ORNL; Rother, Gernot [ORNL; Browning, Jim [ORNL; Ankner, John Francis [ORNL; Banuelos, Jose Leo [ORNL; Anovitz, Lawrence {Larry} M [ORNL; Wesolowski, David J [ORNL; Cole, David [Ohio State University

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

224

A CFD Model for High Pressure Liquid Poison Injection for CANDU-6 Shutdown System No. 2  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In CANDU reactor one of the two reactor shutdown systems is the liquid poison injection system which injects the highly pressurized liquid neutron poison into the moderator tank via small holes on the nozzle pipes. To ensure the safe shutdown of a reactor it is necessary for the poison curtains generated by jets provide quick, and enough negative reactivity to the reactor during the early stage of the accident. In order to produce the neutron cross section necessary to perform this work, the poison concentration distribution during the transient is necessary. In this study, a set of models for analyzing the transient poison concentration induced by this high pressure poison injection jet activated upon the reactor trip in a CANDU-6 reactor moderator tank has been developed and used to generate the poison concentration distribution of the poison curtains induced by the high pressure jets injected into the vacant region between the pressure tube banks. The poison injection rate through the jet holes drilled on the nozzle pipes is obtained by a 1-D transient hydrodynamic code called, ALITRIG, and this injection rate is used to provide the inlet boundary condition to a 3-D CFD model of the moderator tank based on CFX4.3, a CFD code, to simulate the formation of the poison jet curtain inside the moderator tank. For validation, an attempt was made to validate this model against a poison injection experiment performed at BARC. As conclusion this set of models is judged to be appropriate. (authors)

Bo Wook Rhee; Chang Jun Jeong [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 150, Dukjin-Dong, Yusong-Gu, Taejon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Hye Jeong Yun; Dong Soon Jang [Choongnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of)

2002-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

Structural phase transition in ZrO2 induced by swift heavy ion irradiation at high pressure  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Structural phase transition in ZrO2 induced by swift heavy ion irradiation at high pressure B transition becomes larger with increasing pressure. Keywords: Zirconia, phase transition, high pressure-temperature poly- morphs (tetragonal and cubic) (see Fig 1). At about 1200 C, a martensitic-type phase transition

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

226

Development of Designer Diamond Technology for High Pressure High Temperature Experiments in Support of Stockpile Stewardship Program  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The role of nitrogen in the fabrication of designer diamond was systematically investigated by adding controlled amount of nitrogen in hydrogen/methane/oxygen plasma. This has led to a successful recipe for reproducible fabrication of designer diamond anvils for high-pressure high-temperature research in support of stockpile stewardship program. In the three-year support period, several designer diamonds fabricated with this new growth chemistry were utilized in high-pressure experiments at UAB and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The designer diamond anvils were utilized in high-pressure studies on heavy rare earth metals, high pressure melting studies on metals, and electrical resistance measurements on iron-based layered superconductors under high pressures. The growth chemistry developed under NNSA support can be adapted for commercial production of designer diamonds.

Vohra, Yogesh, K.

2009-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

227

DuraLamp USA: Proposed Penalty (2010-CE-0912) | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

DuraLamp USA: Proposed Penalty (2010-CE-0912) DuraLamp USA: Proposed Penalty (2010-CE-0912) DuraLamp USA: Proposed Penalty (2010-CE-0912) September 9, 2010 DOE alleged in a Notice of Proposed Civil Penalty that DuraLamp USA, Inc. failed to certify a variety of general service fluorescent lamps as compliant with the applicable energy conservation standards. DOE regulations require a manufacturer (which includes importers) to submit reports certifying that its products have been tested and meet the applicable energy conservation standards. This civil penalty notice advises the company of the potential penalties and DOE's administrative process, including the company's right to a hearing. DuraLamp USA: Proposed Penalty (2010-CE-0912) More Documents & Publications DuraLamp USA: Order (2010-CE-0912)

228

Energy-efficient compact screw-in fluorescent lamp. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A compact fluorescent lamp has been designed and constructed which can replace an incandescent lamp. The lamp is slightly larger than a standard lamp (8 3/4 in. x 3 1/4 in.), but is designed to fit a majority of portable lamp applications. This version, with a core-coil ballast, results in a system efficacy of 54 lumens per watt, with a light output of more than 1800 lumens. This compares favorably with a 100-watt incandescent (17.5 lumens per watt and 1750 lumens light output). The color temperature of 3000/sup 0/K is compatible with an incandescent lamp (2800/sup 0/K). The color rendition index (CRI) is 84. With a solid-state ballast, the efficacy and light output could be increased by 20% (65 l/w, 2200 lumens) and could provide a direct replacement for a three-way, 150-watt incandescent lamp (15 l/w, 2200 lumens).

Morton, E.W.

1982-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

229

Sulfur Lamps-The Next Generation of Efficient Light?  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

5 5 Sulfur Lamps-The Next Generation of Efficient Light? The figure above is a schematic of the system installed at the National Air and Space Museum and the DOE headquarters in Washington, D.C., Light from the sulfur lamp is focused by a parabolic reflector so that it enters the light pipe within a small angular cone. Light travels down the pipe, reflecting off the prismatic film (A) that lines the outer acrylic tube. The prismatic film reflects the light through total internal reflection (C), an intrinsically efficient process. Some of the light striking the film (at A) is not reflected and "leaks out" of the pipe walls (B), giving the pipe a glowing appearance. A light ray that travels all the way down the pipe will strike the mirror at the end (D) and return back up the pipe.

230

L Prize Competition Winner 60W Incandesent Replacement Lamp Update  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Technology Deployment Technology Deployment Working Group L Prize ® Competition Winner 60W Incandescent Replacement Lamp Update James E. Rannels, Senior Advisor L Prize Competition D&R International May 23, 2012 Philips Wins First L Prize 2 * August 3, 2011: Philips announced as winner of 60W replacement bulb category * Product distributed thru commercial and retail channels Image courtesy of Philips -...[O]nce an award is made the authorizing Act directs General Services Administration to develop federal purchasing schedules for solid-state lamps that meet or exceed the specifications laid out in the prize category-so long as it is cost effective. I hope the GSA begins this process soon.‖

231

ISSUANCE 2014-12-29: Energy Conservation Program: Clarification for Energy Conservation Standards and Test Procedures for Fluorescent Lamp Ballasts  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Energy Conservation Program: Clarification for Energy Conservation Standards and Test Procedures for Fluorescent Lamp Ballasts

232

Innovative high pressure gas MEM's based neutron detector for ICF and active SNM detection.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An innovative helium3 high pressure gas detection system, made possible by utilizing Sandia's expertise in Micro-electrical Mechanical fluidic systems, is proposed which appears to have many beneficial performance characteristics with regards to making these neutron measurements in the high bremsstrahlung and electrical noise environments found in High Energy Density Physics experiments and especially on the very high noise environment generated on the fast pulsed power experiments performed here at Sandia. This same system may dramatically improve active WMD and contraband detection as well when employed with ultrafast (10-50 ns) pulsed neutron sources.

Martin, Shawn Bryan; Derzon, Mark Steven; Renzi, Ronald F.; Chandler, Gordon Andrew

2007-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

Small-angle neutron scattering study of high-pressure sintered detonation nanodiamonds  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The structure of detonation diamonds sintered at a high pressure (7 GPa) and temperatures of 1200-1700 Degree-Sign C has been investigated by small-angle neutron scattering. It is shown that sintering leads to an increase in the particle size from 6 to 30 nm and established that this increase is due to the chainlike oriented attachment of particles. This study supplements the oriented-attachment model, which was suggested based on the X-ray diffraction spectra of detonation nanodiamonds (DNDs) sintered under the same conditions.

Kidalov, S. V.; Shakhov, F. M., E-mail: fedor.shakhov@mail.ioffe.ru [Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences (Russian Federation); Lebedev, V. T.; Orlova, D. N.; Grushko, Yu. S. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Konstantinov St. Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute (Russian Federation)

2011-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

234

Plasma etching of cavities into diamond anvils for experiments at high pressures and high temperatures  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We describe a method for precisely etching small cavities into the culets of diamond anvils for the purpose of providing thermal insulation for samples in experiments at high pressures and high temperatures. The cavities were fabricated using highly directional oxygen plasma to reactively etch into the diamond surface. The lateral extent of the etch was precisely controlled to micron accuracy by etching the diamond through a lithographically fabricated tungsten mask. The performance of the etched cavities in high-temperature experiments in which the samples were either laser heated or electrically heated is discussed.

Weir, S.T.; Cynn, H.; Falabella, S.; Evans, W.J.; Aracne-Ruddle, C.; Farber, D.; Vohra, Y.K. (LLNL); (UAB)

2012-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

235

High-pressure structural studies of dysprosium using angle-dispersive x-ray diffraction  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present structural results under pressure for elemental dysprosium (Dy) up to 87 GPa using in situ angle-dispersive x-ray diffraction measurements with synchrotron x rays and a diamond-anvil cell. Dy exhibits the structural transition sequence, hP2{yields}hR9{yields}hP4{yields}distorted cF4, from Rietveld full-profile refinements. Clear evidence is documented for the high-pressure distorted cF4 phase observed above 45 GPa to be an orthorhombic oS8 (Cmmm) structure for Dy in the lanthanide phase diagram.

Shen Yongrong; Kumar, Ravhi S.; Cornelius, Andrew L.; Nicol, Malcolm F. [Department of Physics and High Pressure Science and Engineering Center, University of Nevada Las Vegas, Las Vegas, Nevada 89154-4002 (United States)

2007-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

236

Extremely high-pressure generation and compression with laser implosion plasmas  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have tested a scheme for using laser implosion plasmas to generate pressures in the gigabar (100 TPa) regime. Cone-in-shell targets employed in fast ignition of inertial confinement fusion were irradiated to create a high-pressure source for compression of materials. The imploded plasmas pushed a foil embedded on the tip of a cone. The pressure was estimated from the shock velocity into the material; the shock velocity was obtained from an optical measurement. The measured shock velocity of the foil was above 100 km/s, corresponding to a pressure greater than 1 Gbar.

Shigemori, K.; Hironaka, Y.; Nagatomo, H.; Fujioka, S.; Azechi, H. [Institute of Laser Engineering, Osaka University, 2-6 Yamada-Oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)] [Institute of Laser Engineering, Osaka University, 2-6 Yamada-Oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Sunahara, A. [Institute for Laser Technology, 2-6 Yamada-Oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)] [Institute for Laser Technology, 2-6 Yamada-Oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Kadono, T. [University of Occupational and Environmental Health, 1-1 Iseigaoka, Yahata-nishi-ku, Kitakyushu, Fukuoka 807-8555 (Japan)] [University of Occupational and Environmental Health, 1-1 Iseigaoka, Yahata-nishi-ku, Kitakyushu, Fukuoka 807-8555 (Japan); Shimizu, K. [Center for Quantum Science and Technology under Extreme Conditions, Osaka University, 1-3 Machikaneyama-Cho, Toyonaka 560-0831 (Japan)] [Center for Quantum Science and Technology under Extreme Conditions, Osaka University, 1-3 Machikaneyama-Cho, Toyonaka 560-0831 (Japan)

2013-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

237

Raman Spectroscopy of SiO2 Glass at High Pressure  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A new technique has been developed for optical studies of amorphous solids to very high pressures. Raman spectra of SiO2 glass measured at 8 GPa indicate a significant reduction in the width of the Si-O-Si angle distribution, which has been associated with a number of anomalous properties of silica glass under ambient conditions. Between 8 and ? 30 GPa irreversible changes in the Raman spectrum occur that are consistent with a shift in ring statistics in densified glass. The spectra suggest a breakdown in intermediate-range order at higher pressure.

R. J. Hemley; H. K. Mao; P. M. Bell; B. O. Mysen

1986-08-11T23:59:59.000Z

238

Unexpectedly high pressure for molecular dissociation in liquid hydrogen by a reliable electronic simulation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The study of the high pressure phase diagram of hydrogen has continued with renewed effort for about one century as it remains a fundamental challenge for experimental and theoretical techniques. Here we employ an efficient molecular dynamics based on the quantum Monte Carlo method, which can describe accurately the electronic correlation and treat a large number of hydrogen atoms, allowing a realistic and reliable prediction of thermodynamic roperties. We find that the molecular liquid phase is unexpectedly stable and the transition towards a fully atomic liquid phase occurs at much higher pressure than previously believed. The old standing problem of low temperature atomization is, therefore, still far from experimental reach.

Mazzola, Guglielmo; Sorella, Sandro

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

239

ARRA 1% Energy Loans As of 5/5/2010  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and upgrade boiler in City Hall. 3/24/10 City of Brisbane $189,930 Replace high pressure sodium streetlights of Carlsbad $1,543,000 Convert city streetlights from high pressure sodium to induction lamps. 9/16/09 Town of Hillsborough $908,700 Install premium efficiency pumps and control upgrades in the town's water system. 9

240

XANES of high-pressure Kr clusters in Be and Si  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We report on the experimental investigation of high-pressure Kr clusters in Be and Si single crystals by x-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy. The samples, obtained by ion implantation, were investigated for several temperatures in the range 83670 K. We show that the near-edge structure of the absorption spectra is sufficient to obtain valuable quantitative information concerning the contracted lattice parameter of the solid rare gas agglomerates, depending on the overpressure exerted on the clusters by the host matrix. Our data compare to the extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) experimental spectra on solid Kr at 4.2 K, and at 300 K under high pressure. Furthermore, in order to check the consistency of our experimental data with EXAFS results taken from the literature, we performed theoretical simulations using the FEFF6 code. These calculations showed good agreement with both sets of data and confirmed our experimental conclusions, permitting the evaluation of the lattice contraction, average coordination, and size of the cluster ensemble.

Giuseppe Faraci; Agata R. Pennisi; Jean-Louis Hazemann

1997-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high-pressure sodium lamps" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

X-ray Diffraction of Cubic Gd2)3/Er under High Pressure  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this paper, we report the in situ high pressure X-ray diffraction studies on Er{sup 3+} doped Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} in a diamond anvil cell up to 39.8 GPa at room temperature. Several phase transitions have been identified in our studies. The structural transformation from a starting cubic phase to a hexagonal phase occurred during the sample compression process, at 8.57 GPa. And the hexagonal phase was stable from 12.5 GPa up to the highest pressure in this study but was not quenchable and transformed to a monoclinic phase after pressure release. An anomalous high pressure behavior in the hexagonal type Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} phase was observed, which might be caused by an electron transition influenced by Er{sup 3+} ions doping. By fitting the compression data to the Birch-Murnaghan equation of state, the bulk moduli of the cubic and two hexagonal (at p < 19.9 GPa and p > 27.0 GPa) Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} phases were determined to be 164 {+-} 3, 185 {+-} 7, and 150 {+-} 10 GPa with B'{sub 0} = 4, respectively.

X Zou; C Gong; B Liu; Q Li; Z Li; B Liu; R Liu; J Liu; Z Chen; et al.

2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

242

Turbulence sets the initial conditions for star formation in high-pressure environments  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Despite the simplicity of theoretical models of supersonically turbulent, isothermal media, their predictions successfully match the observed gas structure and star formation activity within low-pressure (P/k 10^7 K cm^-3) environments, like those in the Galaxy's inner 200 pc Central Molecular Zone (CMZ) and in the early Universe. Here we present ALMA 3mm dust continuum emission within a cloud, G0.253+0.016, which is immersed in the high-pressure environment of the CMZ. While the log-normal shape and dispersion of its column density PDF is strikingly similar to those of solar neighbourhood clouds, there is one important quantitative difference: its mean column density is 1--2 orders of magnitude higher. Both the similarity and difference in the PDF compared to those derived from solar neighbourhood clouds match predictions of turbulent cloud models given the high-pressure environment of the CMZ. The PDF shows a small deviation from log-normal at high column densities confirming the youth of G0.253+0.016. Its...

Rathborne, J M; Jackson, J M; Kruijssen, J M D; Alves, J F; Bally, J; Bastian, N; Contreras, Y; Foster, J B; Garay, G; Testi, L; Walsh, A J

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

243

Reevaluation of Type I Diamonds for Infrared and Raman Spectroscopy in High-Pressure Diamond Anvil Cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Types Ia, IIa, and IIb diamonds have been compared for their use as anvils in infrared and Raman high-pressure spectroscopy. In the mid-infrared region above 2700 cm?1,...

Wong, P T T; Klug, D D

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

244

Crystal structure prediction and hydrogen-bond symmetrization of solid hydrazine under high pressure: a first-principles study  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Three crystal structures of hydrazine under high pressure have been found, including the reported experimental phase. Pressure-induced hydrogen-bond symmetrization occurs at 235 GPa during the CcC2/c transition.

Zhang, H.-D.

2014-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

245

High rate deposition of microcrystalline silicon films by high-pressure radio frequency plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD)  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Hydrogenated microcrystalline silicon (?c-Si:H) thin films were prepared by high-pressure radio-frequency (13.56 MHz) plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (rf-PECVD) with a screened plasma. The deposition ra...

BingQing Zhou; MeiFang Zhu; FengZhen Liu

2008-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

246

A high-pressure polymorph of chlorpropamide formed on hydrostatic compression of the -form in saturated ethanol solution  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The crystal structure of a high-pressure monoclinic polymorph (P2111) of chlorpropamide has been determined. It is formed at 2.8 GPa on hydrostatic compression of the orthorhombic stable -polymorph (P212121) in saturated ethanol solution.

Seryotkin, Y.V.

2013-01-19T23:59:59.000Z

247

Facility for high-heat flux testing of irradiated fusion materials and components using infrared plasma arc lamps  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A new high-heat flux testing (HHFT) facility using water-wall stabilized high-power high-pressure argon plasma arc lamps (PALs) has been developed for fusion applications. Itcan accommodate irradiated plasma facing component materials and sub-size mock-up divertor components. Two PALs currently available at Oak Ridge National Laboratorycan provide maximum incident heat fluxes of 4.2 and 27MWm?2, which are prototypic of fusion steady state heat flux conditions, over a heated area of 9?12 and 1?10cm2, respectively. The use of PAL permits the heat source to be environmentally separated from the components of the test chamber, simplifying the design to accommodate safe testing of low-level irradiated articles and materials under high-heat flux. Issues related to the operation and temperature measurements during testing of tungsten samples are presented and discussed. The relative advantages and disadvantages of this photon-based HHFT facility are compared to existing e-beam and particle beam facilities used for similar purposes.

Adrian S Sabau; Evan K Ohriner; Jim Kiggans; David C Harper; Lance L Snead; Charles R Schaich

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

248

Facility for high heat flux testing of irradiated fusion materials and components using infrared plasma arc lamps  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A new high-heat flux testing facility using water-wall stabilized high-power high-pressure argon Plasma Arc Lamps (PALs) has been developed for fusion applications. It can handle irradiated plasma facing component materials and mock-up divertor components. Two PALs currently available at ORNL can provide maximum incident heat fluxes of 4.2 and 27 MW/m2 over a heated area of 9x12 and 1x10 cm2, respectively, which are fusion-prototypical steady state heat flux conditions. The facility will be described and the main differences between the photon-based high-heat flux testing facilities, such as PALs, and the e-beam and particle beam facilities more commonly used for fusion HHF testing are discussed. The components of the test chamber were designed to accommodate radiation safety and materials compatibility requirements posed by high-temperature exposure of low levels irradiated tungsten articles. Issues related to the operation and temperature measurements during testing are presented and discussed.

Sabau, Adrian S [ORNL] [ORNL; Ohriner, Evan Keith [ORNL] [ORNL; Kiggans, Jim [ORNL] [ORNL; Harper, David C [ORNL] [ORNL; Snead, Lance Lewis [ORNL] [ORNL; Schaich, Charles Ross [ORNL] [ORNL

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

249

Photovoltaic experiment using light from a solar simulator lamp  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A photovoltaic cellexperiment utilizing the convenience of a solar simulating type lamp is described. The circuit for obtaining the cell characteristic drives an X?Y plotter to graph continuously the characteristics from short circuit current to the open circuit voltage. Calibration methods and their limitation are discussed for estimating the irradiance to determine the light conversion efficiency of the cell. The diode junction nature of the cell is clearly supported by the agreement between experiment and theory. The experiment should be exceptionally suitable for an undergraduate physics laboratory experiment.

R. H. Chow

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

250

Lumen and Chromaticity Maintenance of LED PAR38 Lamps Operated in Steady-State Conditions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The lumen depreciation and color shift of 38 different lamps (32 LED, 2 CFL, 1 ceramic metal halide [CMH], 3 halogen) were monitored in a specially developed automated long-term test apparatus (ALTA2) for nearly 14,000 hours. Five samples of each lamp model were tested, with measurements recorded on a weekly basis. The lamps were operated continuously at a target ambient temperature between 44C and 45C.

Royer, Michael P.

2014-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

251

Text-Alternative Version: CALiPER Series 21 on LED Linear Lamps and Troffer Lighting  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Following is a text version of a video about CALiPER Application Report Series 21 on LED Linear Lamps and Troffer Lighting.

252

Text-Alternative Version: LED Replacement Lamps: Current Performance and the Latest on ENERGY STAR  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Below is the text-alternative version of the LED Replacement Lamps: Current Performance and the Latest on ENERGY STAR webcast.

253

DOE Publishes Special CALiPER Report on Retail Lamps | Department...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

retail marketplace and targeted toward general consumers. The report follows similar reports published in 2011 and 2012. LED replacement lamps are available through many retail...

254

LED Linear Lamps and Troffer Lighting: CALiPER Report Series 21  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Video about CALiPER Report Series 21 on LED Linear Lamps and Troffer Lighting, featuring interviews with Tracy Beeson and Naomi Miller of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.

Beeson, Tracy; Miller, Naomi

2014-06-17T23:59:59.000Z

255

The effects of supply harmonics on the performance of compact fluorescent lamps  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper describes a performance evaluation of ten compact fluorescent lighting systems operated with sinusoidal and distorted voltage waveform conditions. The lamps were either provided with an electronic ballast, a magnetic core ballast or a magnetic core ballast with a power factor correction circuit. The test results show that the electrical performance of the compact fluorescent lamps for both sinusoidal and distorted voltage waveform operation is related to the different types of ballast used. The cost of operation of these compact fluorescent lamps was calculated and compared to the cost of a conventional 60 W incandescent lamp.

Arseneau, R.; Ouellette, M.

1993-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

256

EA-1911: Energy Conservation Standards for Certain Reflector, Elliptical Reflector, and Bulged Reflector Incandescent Lamps  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This EA will evaluate the environmental impacts of a proposal to amend energy conservation standards for Certain Reflector, Elliptical Reflector, and Bulged Reflector Incandescent Lamps.

257

A High-Pressure Nano-imaging Breakthrough | Advanced Photon Source  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Protein Structure Could Lead to Better Treatments for HIV, Early Aging Protein Structure Could Lead to Better Treatments for HIV, Early Aging The Superpower behind Iron Oxyfluoride Battery Electrodes Watching a Protein as it Functions Shedding Light on Chemistry with a Biological Twist Teasing Out the Nature of Structural Instabilities in Ceramic Compounds Science Highlights Archives: 2013 | 2012 | 2011 | 2010 2009 | 2008 | 2007 | 2006 2005 | 2004 | 2003 | 2002 2001 | 2000 | 1998 | Subscribe to APS Science Highlights rss feed A High-Pressure Nano-imaging Breakthrough APRIL 11, 2013 Bookmark and Share Bragg CXDI measurements were performed at 0.8, 1.7, 2.5, 3.2, and 6.4 GPa on the same crystal. The reconstructed images (both top and bottom views) are shown above. From W. Yang et al., Nat. Comm. 4 (2013). A team of researchers has made a major breakthrough in measuring the

258

Lessons Learned from Practical Field Experience with High Pressure Gaseous Fuels  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

5/2010 5/2010 www.cleanvehicle.org 1 Lessons Learned from Practical Field Experience with High Pressure Gaseous Fuels DOE - DOT CNG - H 2 Workshop December 10, 2009 Douglas Horne, PE - CVEF President Rob Adams, P.Eng. - Marathon Technical Services The Facts  NGVs have been used in North America for over 30 years  Codes and Standards (C&S) provide opportunity for safe reliable operation of NGVs  C&S evolve with new technology and field experience  People make mistakes, continuous training is critical for safe operations  Cylinders have a limited life -track your cylinders! 2/25/2010 www.cleanvehicle.org 2 Incidents in North America  Since 1984 CVEF has recorded 97 incidents of which 67 involved CNG vehicles - 37 incidents involve either a CNG leak (15) or a

259

NETL: Staged, High-Pressure Oxy-Combustion Technology: Development and  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Oxy-Combustion CO2 Emissions Control Oxy-Combustion CO2 Emissions Control Staged, High-Pressure Oxy-Combustion Technology: Development and Scale-up Project No.: DE-FE0009702 Washington University in St. Louis is developing a unique pressurized system to capture carbon from coal-fired power plants that incorporates a fuel-staged combustion approach. By staging the combustion, the temperature and heat transfer can be controlled. The potential benefits of the process are: higher efficiency, reduced process gas volume, increased radiative heat transfer, reduced oxygen demands, reduced capital equipment costs, increased CO2 purity entering the carbon compression and purification unit, and reduced auxiliary power demands. These benefits are expected to yield a lower cost of electricity than alternative approaches to pressurized oxy-combustion.

260

The High-Pressure Characterization of Energetic Materials: 2-Methyl-5-Nitramino-2H-Tetrazole  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The isothermal structural properties, equation of state, and vibrational dynamics of 2MNT were studied under high-pressure using synchrotron XRD and optical Raman and IR microspectroscopy. Analysis of the XRD patterns revealed no indication of a phase transition to near 15 GPa and the pressure-volume isotherm remained smooth to 15 GPa. Near 15 GPa, significant sample damage was observed from the X-ray beam which precluded the acquisition of patterns above this pressure. XRD and Raman spectroscopic measurements showed the monoclinic ambient condition phase of 2MNT remains the dominant phase to near 20 GPa, although a shift of the NO{sub 2} IR active vibrational modes to lower frequencies suggested a subtle geometry modification not reflected in the XRD data.

J Ciezak

2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high-pressure sodium lamps" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Cryogenic x-ray diffraction microscopy utilizing high-pressure cryopreservation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We present cryo x-ray diffraction microscopy of high-pressure-cryofixed bacteria and report high-convergence imaging with multiple image reconstructions. Hydrated D. radiodurans cells were cryofixed at 200 MPa pressure into ?10??m-thick water layers and their unstained, hydrated cellular environments were imaged by phasing diffraction patterns, reaching sub-30-nm resolutions with hard x-rays. Comparisons were made with conventional ambient-pressure-cryofixed samples, with respect to both coherent small-angle x-ray scattering and the image reconstruction. The results show a correlation between the level of background ice signal and phasing convergence, suggesting that phasing difficulties with frozen-hydrated specimens may be caused by high-background ice scattering.

Enju Lima; Yuriy Chushkin; Peter van der Linden; Chae Un Kim; Federico Zontone; Philippe Carpentier; Sol M. Gruner; Petra Pernot

2014-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

262

Development of a High-Pressure/High-Temperature Downhole Turbine Generator  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this project as originally outlined has been to achieve a viable downhole direct current (DC) power source for extreme high pressure, high temperature (HPHT) environments of >25,000 psi and >250 C. The Phase I investigation posed and answered specific questions about the power requirements, mode of delivery and form factor the industry would like to see for downhole turbine generator tool for the HPHT environment, and noted specific components, materials and design features of that commercial system that will require upgrading to meet the HPHT project goals. During the course of Phase I investigation the scope of the project was HPHT downhole DC power. Phase I also investigated the viability of modifying a commercial expanded, without additional cost expected to the project, to include the addition of HT batteries to the power supply platform.

Timothy F. Price

2007-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

263

Ground state properties and high pressure behavior of plutonium dioxide: Systematic density functional calculations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Plutonium dioxide is of high technological importance in nuclear fuel cycle and is particularly crucial in long-term storage of Pu-based radioactive waste. Using first-principles density-functional theory, in this paper we systematically study the structural, electronic, mechanical, thermodynamic properties, and pressure induced structural transition of PuO$_{2}$. To properly describe the strong correlation in the Pu $5f$ electrons, the local density approximation$+U$ and the generalized gradient approximation$+U$ theoretical formalisms have been employed. We optimize the $U$ parameter in calculating the total energy, lattice parameters, and bulk modulus at the nonmagnetic, ferromagnetic, and antiferromagnetic configurations for both ground state fluorite structure and high pressure cotunnite structure. The best agreement with experiments is obtained by tuning the effective Hubbard parameter $U$ at around 4 eV within the LDA$+U$ approach. After carefully testing the validity of the ground state, we further in...

Zhang, Ping; Zhao, Xian-Geng

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

264

A high pressure, high temperature study of 1,1-diamino-2,2-dinitro ethylene  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We report a synchrotron energy-dispersive X-ray diffraction study of the novel high explosive 1,1-diamino-2,2-dinitroethylene at high pressures and high temperatures. Pressure was generated using a Paris-Edinburgh cell to employ larger sample volumes. High temperatures were created using a resistive graphite cylinder surrounding the sample. The PT phase diagram was explored in the 3.3 GPa pressure range and in the {approx} 400 C temperature range. We believe that the sample commenced in the {alpha}-phase and then ended up in an amorphous phase when the temperature increased beyond 280 C near 2 GPa, which we believe to be the {gamma}-phase. Further pressure and temperature cycling suggests that the sample transformed reversibly into and out of the amorphous phase near the phase line.

Pravica, Michael; Galley, Martin; Park, Changyong; Ruiz, Harrison; Wojno, Jennifer (UNLV); (CIW)

2012-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

265

High-Pressure Core Structures of Si Nanoparticles for Solar Energy Conversion  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We present density functional and many body perturbation theory calculations of the electronic, optical, and impact ionization properties of Si nanoparticles (NPs) with core structures based on high-pressure bulk Si phases. Si particles with a BC8 core structure exhibit significantly lower optical gaps and multiple exciton generation (MEG) thresholds, and an order of magnitude higher MEG rate than diamondlike ones of the same size. Several mechanisms are discussed to further reduce the gap, including surface reconstruction and chemistry, excitonic effects, and embedding pressure. Experiments reported the formation of BC8 NPs embedded in amorphous Si and in amorphous regions of femtosecond-laser doped black silicon. For all these reasons, BC8 nanoparticles may be promising candidates for MEG-based solar energy conversion.

S. Wippermann; M. Vrs; D. Rocca; A. Gali; G. Zimanyi; G. Galli

2013-01-24T23:59:59.000Z

266

Autoignition of gasoline surrogates mixtures at intermediate temperatures and high pressures  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ignition times were determined in high-pressure shock-tube experiments for various stoichiometric mixtures of two multicomponent model fuels in air for the validation of ignition delay simulations based on chemical kinetic models. The fuel blends were n-heptane (18%)/isooctane (62%)/ethanol (20%) by liquid volume (14.5%/44.5%/41% by mole fraction) and n-heptane (20%)/toluene (45%)/isooctane (25%)/diisobutylene (10%) by liquid volume (17.5%/55%/19.5%/8.0% by mole fraction). These fuels have octane numbers comparable to a standard European gasoline of 95 RON and 85 MON. The experimental conditions cover temperatures from 690 to 1200 K and pressures at 10, 30, and 50 bar. The obtained ignition time data are scaled with respect to pressure and compared to previous results reported in the literature. (author)

Fikri, M.; Herzler, J.; Starke, R.; Schulz, C.; Roth, P. [IVG, Universitaet Duisburg-Essen, D-47048 Duisburg (Germany); Kalghatgi, G.T. [Shell Global Solutions U.K., P.O. Box 1, Chester CH1 3SH (United Kingdom)

2008-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

267

Dynamics of multiple double layers in high pressure glow discharge in a simple torus  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Parametric characterization of multiple double layers is done during high pressure glow discharge in a toroidal vessel of small aspect ratio. Although glow discharge (without magnetic field) is known to be independent of device geometry, but the toroidal boundary conditions are conducive to plasma growth and eventually the plasma occupy the toroidal volume partially. At higher anode potential, the visibly glowing spots on the body of spatially extended anode transform into multiple intensely luminous spherical plasma blob structures attached to the tip of the positive electrode. Dynamics of multiple double layers are observed in argon glow discharge plasma in presence of toroidal magnetic field. The radial profiles of plasma parameters measured at various toroidal locations show signatures of double layer formation in our system. Parametric dependence of double layer dynamics in presence of toroidal magnetic field is presented here.

Kumar Paul, Manash, E-mail: manashkr@gmail.com [Department of Physics, National Institute of Technology Agartala, Tripura799 046 (India); Sharma, P. K.; Thakur, A.; Kulkarni, S. V.; Bora, D. [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar, Gujarat382 428 (India)

2014-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

268

Ionization and equation of state of dense xenon at high pressures and high temperatures  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The ionization degree and equation of state of dense xenon plasma were calculated by using self-consistent fluid variational theory for temperature of 430kK and density of 0.018.5g?cm3. The dense fluid xenon will be ionized at high pressures and temperatures. The ionization energy of xenon will be lowered due to the interactions among all particles of Xe, Xe+, Xe2+, and e. The ionization degree is obtained from nonideal ionization equilibrium, taking into account the correlative contributions to the chemical potential which is determined self-consistently by the free energy function. The composition of xenon has been calculated with given densities and temperatures in the region of partial ionization. The calculated results show a pressure softening regime at the onset of ionization. Comparison is performed with available shock-wave experiments and other theoretical calculations.

Q. F. Chen, L. C. Cai, Y. J. Gu, and Y. Gu

2009-01-22T23:59:59.000Z

269

Engineering development of a lightweight high-pressure scarifier for tank waste retrieval  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Retrieval Process Development and Enhancements Program (RPD&E) is sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy Tanks Focus Area to investigate existing and emerging retrieval processes suitable for the retrieval of high-level radioactive waste inside underground storage tanks. This program, represented by industry, national laboratories, and academia, seeks to provide a technical and cost basis to support site-remediation decisions. Part of this program has involved the development of a high-pressure waterjet dislodging system and pneumatic conveyance integrated as a scarifier. Industry has used high-pressure waterjet technology for many years to mine, cut, clean, and scarify materials with a broad range of properties. The scarifier was developed as an alternate means of retrieving waste inside Hanford single-shell tanks, particularly hard, stubborn waste. Testing of the scarifier has verified its ability to retrieve a wide range of tank waste ranging from extremely hard waste that is resistant to other dislodging means to soft sludge and even supernatant fluid. Since the scarifier expends water at a low rate and recovers most of the water as it is used, the scarifier is well suited for retrieval of tanks that leak and cannot be safely sluiced or applications where significant waste dilution is not acceptable. Although the original scarifier was effective, it became evident that a lighter, more compact version that would be compatible with light weight deployment systems under development, such as the Light Duty Utility Arm, was needed. At the end of FY 95, the Light Weight Scarifier (LWS) was designed to incorporate the features of the original scarifier in a smaller, lighter end effector. During FY 96, the detailed design of the LWS was completed and two prototypes were fabricated.

Hatchell, B.K.

1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

270

High pressure test results of a catalytic combustor for gas turbine  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Recently, the use of gas turbine systems, such as combined cycle and cogeneration systems, has gradually increased in the world. But even when a clean fuel such as LNG (liquefied natural gas) is used, thermal NO{sub x} is generated in the high temperature gas turbine combustion process. The NO{sub x} emission from gas turbines is controlled through selective catalytic reduction processes (SCR) in the Japanese electric industry. If catalytic combustion could be applied to the combustor of the gas turbine, it is expected to lower NO{sub x} emission more economically. Under such high temperature and high pressure conditions, as in the gas turbine, however, the durability of the catalyst is still insufficient. So it prevents the realization of a high temperature catalytic combustor. To overcome this difficulty, a catalytic combustor combined with premixed combustion for a 1,300 C class gas turbine was developed. In this method, catalyst temperature is kept below 1,000 C, and a lean premixed gas is injected into the catalytic combustion gas. As a result, the load on the catalyst is reduced and it is possible to prevent the catalyst deactivation. After a preliminary atmospheric test, the design of the combustion was modified and a high pressure combustion test was conducted. As a result, it was confirmed that NO{sub x} emission was below 10 ppm (at 16 percent O{sub 2}) at a combustor outlet gas temperature of 1,300 C and that the combustion efficiency was almost 100%. This paper presents the design features and test results of the combustor.

Fujii, T.; Ozawa, Y.; Kikumoto, S.; Sato, M. [Central Research Inst. of Electric Power Industry, Yokosuka, Kanagawa (Japan); Yuasa, Y.; Inoue, H. [Kansai Electric Power Co., Inc., Amagasaki, Hyogo (Japan)

1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

271

High-pressure coal fuel processor development. Task 1, Proof of principle testing  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of Subtask 1.1 Engine Feasibility was to conduct research needed to establish the technical feasibility of ignition and stable combustion of directly injected, 3,000 psi, low-Btu gas with glow plug ignition assist at diesel engine compression ratios. This objective was accomplished by designing, fabricating, testing and analyzing the combustion performance of synthesized low-Btu coal gas in a single-cylinder test engine combustion rig located at the Caterpillar Technical Center engine lab in Mossville, Illinois. The objective of Subtask 1.2 Fuel Processor Feasibility was to conduct research needed to establish the technical feasibility of air-blown, fixed-bed, high-pressure coal fuel processing at up to 3,000 psi operating pressure, incorporating in-bed sulfur and particulate capture. This objective was accomplished by designing, fabricating, testing and analyzing the performance of bench-scale processors located at Coal Technology Corporation (subcontractor) facilities in Bristol, Virginia. These two subtasks were carried out at widely separated locations and will be discussed in separate sections of this report. They were, however, independent in that the composition of the synthetic coal gas used to fuel the combustion rig was adjusted to reflect the range of exit gas compositions being produced on the fuel processor rig. Two major conclusions resulted from this task. First, direct injected, ignition assisted Diesel cycle engine combustion systems can be suitably modified to efficiently utilize these low-Btu gas fuels. Second, high pressure gasification of selected run-of-the-mine coals in batch-loaded fuel processors is feasible. These two findings, taken together, significantly reduce the perceived technical risks associated with the further development of the proposed coal gas fueled Diesel cycle power plant concept.

Greenhalgh, M.L.

1992-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

272

Appliances and Commercial Equipment Standards  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

High-Intensity Discharge Lamps High-Intensity Discharge Lamps Sign up for e-mail updates on regulations for this and other products There are currently no energy conservation standards for high-intensity discharge (HID) lamps. HID lamps are electric discharge lamps and include high-pressure sodium, mercury vapor, and metal halide lamps. HID lamps require an HID ballast to start and regulate electric current flow through the lamp. HID lamps are used in street and roadway lighting, area lighting such as for parking lots and plazas, industrial and commercial building interior lighting, security lighting for commercial, industrial, and residential spaces, and landscape lighting. The Standards and Test Procedures for this product are related to Rulemaking for High Intensity Discharge Lamps Energy Conservation Standard and Rulemaking for High Intensity Discharge Lamps Test Procedures.

273

J.-A. FLEMING. 2014 On the characteristic curves and surfaces of incandescence lamps (Courbes caractristiques des lampes incandescence) ; Phil. Mag.,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

80 J.-A. FLEMING. 2014 On the characteristic curves and surfaces of incandescence lamps (Courbes caractéristiques des lampes à incandescence) ; Phil. Mag., 5e série, t. XIX, p. 368; I885. L'auteur étudie les résistance correspondant à la force électromotrice vo à laquelle l'incandescence commence à se produire, et r

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

274

Spatial and time-dependent distribution of plasma parameters in the metal-halide arc lamp.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Spatial and time-dependent distribution of plasma parameters in the metal-halide arc lamp. A. Khakhaev, L. Luizova, K. Ekimov and A. Soloviev Petrozavodsk State University, Russia The metal-halide arc lamp is an effective light source and its investigation has a long history, but even at present some

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

275

Demonstration Of A Monitoring Lamp To Visualize The Energy Consumption In Houses  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Demonstration Of A Monitoring Lamp To Visualize The Energy Consumption In Houses Christophe Gisler1://www.unipg.it Abstract. We report on the development of a wireless lamp dedicated to the feedback of energy consumption is a good solution to make people gain awareness of their energy consumption and hence reduce it [1

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

276

Spectral irradiance model for tungsten halogen lamps in 340-850 nm wavelength range  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have developed a physical model for the spectral irradiance of 1 kW tungsten halogen incandescent lamps for the wavelength range 340-850 nm. The model consists of the Planck's radiation law, published values for the emissivity of tungsten, and a residual spectral correction function taking into account unknown factors of the lamp. The correction function was determined by measuring the spectra of a 1000 W, quartz-halogen, tungsten coiled filament (FEL) lamp at different temperatures. The new model was tested with lamps of types FEL and 1000 W, 120 V quartz halogen (DXW). Comparisons with measurements of two national standards laboratories indicate that the model can account for the spectral irradiance values of lamps with an agreement better than 1% throughout the spectral region studied. We further demonstrate that the spectral irradiance of a lamp can be predicted with an expanded uncertainty of 2.6% if the color temperature and illuminance values for the lamp are known with expanded uncertainties of 20 K and 2%, respectively. In addition, it is suggested that the spectral irradiance may be derived from resistance measurements of the filament with lamp on and off.

Ojanen, Maija; Kaerhae, Petri; Ikonen, Erkki

2010-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

277

CALiPER Report 20.3: Robustness of LED PAR38 Lamps  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Three samples of 40 of the Series 20 PAR38 lamps underwent multi-stress testing, whereby samples were subjected to increasing levels of simultaneous thermal, humidity, electrical, and vibrational stress. The results do not explicitly predict expected lifetime or reliability, but they can be compared with one another, as well as with benchmark conventional products, to assess the relative robustness of the product designs. On average, the 32 LED lamp models tested were substantially more robust than the conventional benchmark lamps. As with other performance attributes, however, there was great variability in the robustness and design maturity of the LED lamps. Several LED lamp samples failed within the first one or two levels of the ten-level stress plan, while all three samples of some lamp models completed all ten levels. One potential area of improvement is design maturity, given that more than 25% of the lamp models demonstrated a difference in failure level for the three samples that was greater than or equal to the maximum for the benchmarks. At the same time, the fact that nearly 75% of the lamp models exhibited better design maturity than the benchmarks is noteworthy, given the relative stage of development for the technology.

Poplawski, Michael E.; Royer, Michael P.; Brown, Charles C.

2014-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

278

Table lamp with dynamically controlled lighting distribution and uniformly illuminated luminous shade  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A double lamp table or floor lamp lighting system has a pair of compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs) or other lamps arranged vertically, i.e. one lamp above the other, with a reflective septum in between. By selectively turning on one or both of the CFLs, down lighting, up lighting, or both up and down lighting is produced. The control system can also vary the light intensity from each CFL. The reflective septum ensures that almost all the light produced by each lamp will be directed into the desired light distribution pattern which is selected and easily changed by the user. In a particular configuration, the reflective septum is bowl shaped, with the upper CFL sitting in the bowl, and a luminous shade hanging down from the bowl. The lower CFL provides both task lighting and uniform shade luminance. Planar compact fluorescent lamps, e.g. circular CFLs, particularly oriented horizontally, are preferable. CFLs provide energy efficiency. However, other types of lamps, including incandescent, halogen, and LEDs can also be used in the fixture. The lighting system may be designed for the home, hospitality, office or other environments.

Siminovitch, Michael J. (Pinole, CA); Page, Erik R. (Berkeley, CA)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

279

The evolving price of household LED lamps: Recent trends and historical comparisons for the US market  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In recent years, household LED light bulbs (LED A lamps) have undergone a dramatic price decline. Since late 2011, we have been collecting data, on a weekly basis, for retail offerings of LED A lamps on the Internet. The resulting data set allows us to track the recent price decline in detail. LED A lamp prices declined roughly exponentially with time in 2011-2014, with decline rates of 28percent to 44percent per year depending on lumen output, and with higher-lumen lamps exhibiting more rapid price declines. By combining the Internet price data with publicly available lamp shipments indices for the US market, it is also possible to correlate LED A lamp prices against cumulative production, yielding an experience curve for LED A lamps. In 2012-2013, LED A lamp prices declined by 20-25percent for each doubling in cumulative shipments. Similar analysis of historical data for other lighting technologies reveals that LED prices have fallen significantly more rapidly with cumulative production than did their technological predecessors, which exhibited a historical decline of 14-15percent per doubling of production.

Gerke, Brian F.; Ngo, Allison T.; Alstone, Andrea L.; Fisseha, Kibret S.

2014-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

280

Performance of "Ultra-High" Efficient Electronic Ballast for HID Lamps  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Index Terms--Electronic ballast, HID lamps, resonant inverter, power loss modeling, Silicon Carbide (Si of >95% for the ballast. Diode bridge rectifier EMI filter Resonant Inverter Power Factor Correction 75423, USA Abstract--A new electronic ballast circuit for High Intensity Discharge (HID) lamps

Tolbert, Leon M.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high-pressure sodium lamps" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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281

Pressure-induced structural transformations of the Zintl phase sodium silicide  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The high-pressure behaviour of NaSi has been studied using Raman spectroscopy and angle-dispersive synchrotron X-ray diffraction to observe the onset of structural phase transformations and potential oligomerisation into anionic Si nanoclusters with extended dimensionality. Our studies reveal a first structural transformation occurring at 8-10 GPa, followed by irreversible amorphisation above 15 GPa, suggesting the formation of Si-Si bonds with oxidation of the Si{sup -} species and reduction of Na{sup +} to metallic sodium. We have combined our experimental studies with DFT calculations to assist in the analysis of the structural behaviour of NaSi at high pressure. - Abstract: The high-pressure behaviour of NaSi has been studied using Raman spectroscopy and angle-dispersive synchrotron X-ray diffraction. Our studies reveal a first structural transformation occurring at 8-10 GPa, followed by irreversible amorphisation, suggesting the formation of Si-Si bonds with oxidation of the Si{sup -} species and reduction of Na{sup +} to metallic sodium. We have combined our experimental studies with DFT calculations to assist in the analysis of the structural behaviour of NaSi at high pressure. Display Omitted

Cabrera, Raul Quesada; Salamat, Ashkan; Barkalov, Oleg I. [Department of Chemistry and Materials Chemistry Centre, Christopher Ingold Laboratories, University College London, 20 Gordon Street, London WC1H 0AJ (United Kingdom); Leynaud, Olivier [Department of Crystallography, Birkbeck College, Malet Street, London WC1E 7HX (United Kingdom); Hutchins, Peter; Daisenberger, Dominik [Department of Chemistry and Materials Chemistry Centre, Christopher Ingold Laboratories, University College London, 20 Gordon Street, London WC1H 0AJ (United Kingdom); Machon, Denis [Universite de Lyon, F-69000, France-Univ. Lyon 1, Laboratoire PMCN, CNRS, UMR 5586, F-69622 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Sella, Andrea; Lewis, Dewi W. [Department of Chemistry and Materials Chemistry Centre, Christopher Ingold Laboratories, University College London, 20 Gordon Street, London WC1H 0AJ (United Kingdom); McMillan, Paul F., E-mail: p.f.mcmillan@ucl.ac.u [Department of Chemistry and Materials Chemistry Centre, Christopher Ingold Laboratories, University College London, 20 Gordon Street, London WC1H 0AJ (United Kingdom)

2009-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

282

A light diet for a giant appetite: An assessment of China's proposed fluorescent lamp standard  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Lighting has been one of the fastest growing electric end-uses in China over the last twenty years, with an average annual growth rate of 14%. Fluorescent lighting provides a significant portion of China's lighting need. In 1998, China produced 680 million fluorescent lamps, of which 420 million were linear fluorescent lamps of various diameters (T8 to T12). There are substantial variations both in energy efficiency and lighting performance among locally produced fluorescent lamps. Such variations present a perfect opportunity for policy intervention through efficiency standards to promote the adoption of more efficient fluorescent lamps in China. This paper analyzes China's proposed minimum efficiency standard for fluorescent lamps and presents an assessment of its likely impacts on China's lighting energy consumption and GHG emissions.

Lin, Jiang

2002-04-11T23:59:59.000Z

283

Synthesis, structural characterization and high pressure phase transitions of monolithium hydronium sulfate  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A three dimensional lithium hydronium sulfate LiSO{sub 4}{center_dot}H{sub 3}O [1], [space group Pna2{sub 1}a=8.7785(12) A, b=9.1297(12) A, c=5.2799(7) A, V=423.16(10) A{sup 3}] was synthesized via solvothermal methods using 1,5-naphthalenedisulfonic acid (1,5-NSA) as the source of sulfate ions. The structure of [1], determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction techniques, consists of corner sharing LiO{sub 4} and SO{sub 4} tetrahedra, forming an anionic 3-D open framework that is charge balanced by hydronium ions positioned within channels running along [001] and forming strong H-bonding with the framework oxygen atoms. Compound [1] undergoes two reversible phase transitions, involving reorientation of SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} ions at pressures of approximately 2.5 and 5 GPa at room temperature, as evident from characteristic discontinuous frequency drops in the {nu}{sub 1} mode of the Raman spectra. Additionally, compound [1] forms dense {beta}-lithium sulfate at 300 Degree-Sign C, as evident from temperature dependent powder XRD and combined reversible TGA-DSC experiments. - Graphical abstract: Left: View of corner-shared LiO{sub 4} and SO{sub 4} tetrahedra along [001] direction with hydronium ions situated in the channels. Right: (a) Photograph of the loaded DAC (b) Ambient pressure Raman spectrum of compound [1] (c) Evolution of the {nu}{sub 1} mode with the increasing and decreasing pressure indicating transitions to high-pressure phases at {approx}2.5 (red curves) and {approx}5 GPa (blue curves) and at {approx}3.5 GPa upon decompression. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A 3-D lithium hydronium sulfate is synthesized by solvothermal methods. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Two high pressure phase transition occurs due to rotation of sulfate groups. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The framework undergoes a high temperature structural transformation, to form {beta}-Li{sub 2}SO{sub 4} phase.

Banerjee, Debasis, E-mail: debasis.banerjee@stonybrook.edu [Department of Chemistry, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook 11794-3400 (United States); Plonka, Anna M. [Department of Geosciences, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook 11794-2100 (United States); Kim, Sun Jin [Nano-Materials Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, P.O. Box 131, Cheongryang, Seoul 130-650 (Korea, Republic of); Xu Wenqian [Department of Geosciences, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook 11794-2100 (United States); Parise, John B. [Department of Chemistry, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook 11794-3400 (United States); Mineral Physics Institute, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11790-2100 (United States)

2013-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

284

Temperature induced immiscibility in the NaCl?H[subscript 2]O system at high pressure  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

High-pressure polymorphs of H{sub 2}O are a major component in many outer planets, extra solar bodies, and icy satellites. This study sought to examine the influence of ionic impurities on the phase stability, thermal expansion, and melting curve of ice VII. Powder diffraction patterns of ice VII formed from pure H{sub 2}O and 5 wt.% NaCl aqueous solutions were taken at room temperature up to 11.1 {+-} 0.3 and 26.6 {+-} 0.4 GPa, respectively. Thermal expansions, {alpha}, of all ice VII samples were recorded and modeled up to the melting point of the samples. Ice VII formed from a NaCl-bearing aqueous solution at pressures greater than 2.2 GPa and less than 500 K can be indexed by ice VII only, whereas at temperatures greater than 500 K, diffraction lines indicative of halite (NaCl) are observed and become more intense with increasing temperature and only disappear at the melting point of the high-pressure ice. This phenomenon was observed in all NaCl-bearing ice samples that were heated to greater than 500 K. The melting curves of ice VII formed from pure H{sub 2}O and a 5 wt.% NaCl aqueous solution suggest that the presence of Na{sup +} and Cl{sup -} in the ice VII structure results in a depression of the melting curve by approximately 40 K. The exsolution of halite from the NaCl-doped ice VII and the depression of the ice VII melting curve suggest that the presence of ionic impurities in ice VII may promote the formation of a self-segregating zone deep within ice-rich bodies. This zone could initiate the formation of solute-rich melt pockets that may ascend toward the surface and result in surface manifestations such as solute-bearing aqueous vents, unexplained domes/diapirism, and/or salt-rich regions.

Frank, M.R.; Scott, H.P.; Maglio, S.J.; Prakapenka, V.B.; Shen, G. (NIU); (CIW); (UC); (Indiana)

2008-10-09T23:59:59.000Z

285

Structural Investigation of Methane Hydrate Sediments by Microfocus X-ray Computed Tomography Technique under High-Pressure Conditions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The structure of natural gas hydrate sediments was observed by microfocus X-ray computed tomography (CT). A newly developed high-pressure vessel for the microfocus X-ray CT system was applied to observe the sediments at a temperature above 273 K and under high-pressure conditions. The obtained two-dimensional CT images clearly showed the spatial distribution of the free-gas pore, sand particles, water, and hydrates. These results demonstrated that microfocus X-ray CT can be effective for studying natural gas hydrate sediment samples.

Shigeki Jin; Jiro Nagao; Satoshi Takeya; Yusuke Jin; Junko Hayashi; Yasushi Kamata; Takao Ebinuma; Hideo Narita

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

286

The effect of high-pressure injection of gas on the reservoir volume factor of a crude oil  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

THE EFFECT OF HIGH-PRESSURE INJECTION OF GAS ON THE RESERVOIR VOLUME FACTOR OF A CRUDE OIL A Thesis By+ BAXTER DS'kONEYCUTT o Submitted to the Graduate School of the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August, i957 Major Subject: Petroleum Engineering THE EFFECT OF HIGH-PRESSURE INJECTION OF GAS ON THE RESERVOIR VOLUME FACTOR OF A CRUDE OIL A Thesis By BAXTER D. HONEYCUTT Appro d as to style...

Honeycutt, Baxter Bewitt

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

287

Comparison of high pressure transient PVT measurements and model predictions. Part I.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A series of experiments consisting of vessel-to-vessel transfers of pressurized gas using Transient PVT methodology have been conducted to provide a data set for optimizing heat transfer correlations in high pressure flow systems. In rapid expansions such as these, the heat transfer conditions are neither adiabatic nor isothermal. Compressible flow tools exist, such as NETFLOW that can accurately calculate the pressure and other dynamical mechanical properties of such a system as a function of time. However to properly evaluate the mass that has transferred as a function of time these computational tools rely on heat transfer correlations that must be confirmed experimentally. In this work new data sets using helium gas are used to evaluate the accuracy of these correlations for receiver vessel sizes ranging from 0.090 L to 13 L and initial supply pressures ranging from 2 MPa to 40 MPa. The comparisons show that the correlations developed in the 1980s from sparse data sets perform well for the supply vessels but are not accurate for the receivers, particularly at early time during the transfers. This report focuses on the experiments used to obtain high quality data sets that can be used to validate computational models. Part II of this report discusses how these data were used to gain insight into the physics of gas transfer and to improve vessel heat transfer correlations. Network flow modeling and CFD modeling is also discussed.

Felver, Todd G.; Paradiso, Nicholas Joseph; Evans, Gregory Herbert; Rice, Steven F.; Winters, William Stanley, Jr.

2010-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

288

Velocity of Sound Measurements in High?Pressure, High?Temperature Steam  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Experimental information concerning the acoustic velocity in steam as a function of pressure and temperature is quite limited. Yet it is of particular interest to steam turbine designers who are now planning units as large as 400 000 kw operating at 4500 lb/sq in. and 1200F so as to increase thermal efficiencies of such units. Apparatus is now in operation for measuring the acoustic velocity up to 2000 lb/sq in. and 750F using a variable path acoustic interferometer.Measurements are taken at 200?lb/sq in. intervals along a given isotherm using a sound frequency of 750 kc. A special experimental high?pressure boiler is used to generate the steam at the desired pressure and the stem is then increased in temperature by means of a stainless steel superheater before entering the interferometer. The interferometer also of stainless steel is enclosed by an insulated steel vessel maintained at a given constant temperature by another separate steam system. Future work is now being considered up to 6000?lb/sq in. steam pressure based upon results of present experiments.

James Woodburn

1960-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

289

High pressure pair distribution function studies of Green River oil shale.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The compression behavior of a silicate-rich oil shale from the Green River formation in the pressure range 0.0-2.4 GPa was studied using in situ high pressure X-ray pair distribution function (PDF) measurements for the sample contained within a Paris-Edinburgh cell. The real-space local structural information in the PDF, G(r), was used to evaluate the compressibility of the oil shale. Specifically, the pressure-induced reduction in the medium- to long-range atom distances ({approx}6-20 {angstrom}) yielded an average sample compressibility corresponding to a bulk modulus of ca. 61-67 GPa. A structural model consisting of a three phase mixture of the principal crystalline oil shale components (quartz, albite and Illite) provided a good fit to the ambient pressure PDF data (R {approx} 30.7%). Indeed the features in the PDF beyond {approx} {angstrom}, were similarly well fit by a single phase model of the highest symmetry, highly crystalline quartz component. The factors influencing the observed compression behavior are discussed.

Chapman, K. W.; Chupas, P. J.; Locke, D. R.; Winans, R. E.; Pugmire, R. J.; Univ. of Utah

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

High pressure test results of a catalytically assisted ceramic combustor for a gas turbine  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A catalytically assisted ceramic combustor for a gas turbine was designed to achieve low NOx emission under 5 ppm at a combustor outlet temperature over 1300 C. This combustor is composed of a burner system and a ceramic liner behind the burner system. The burner system consist of 6 catalytic combustor segments and 6 premixing nozzles, which are arranged in parallel and alternately. The ceramic liner is made up of the layer of outer metal wall, ceramic fiber, and inner ceramic tiles. Fuel flow rates for the catalysts and the premixing nozzles are controlled independently. Catalytic combustion temperature is controlled under 1000 C, premixed gas is injected from the premixing nozzles to the catalytic combustion gas and lean premixed combustion over 1300 C is carried out in the ceramic liner. This system was designed to avoid catalytic deactivation at high temperature and thermal and mechanical shock fracture of the honeycomb monolith of catalyst. A combustor for a 10 MW class, multican type gas turbine was tested under high pressure conditions using LNG fuel. Measurements of emission, temperature, etc. were made to evaluate combustor performance under various combustion temperatures and pressures. This paper presents the design features and the test results of this combustor.

Ozawa, Y.; Tochihara, Y.; Mori, N.; Yuri, I. [Central Research Inst. of Electric Power Industry, Yokosuka, Kanagawa (Japan); Kanazawa, T.; Sagimori, K. [Kansai Electric Power Co., Inc., Amagasaki, Hyogo (Japan)

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

Influence of Intense Beam in High Pressure Hydrogen Gas Filled RF Cavities  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The influence of an intense beam in a high-pressure gas filled RF cavity has been measured by using a 400 MeV proton beam in the Mucool Test Area at Fermilab. The ionization process generates dense plasma in the cavity and the resultant power loss to the plasma is determined by measuring the cavity voltage on a sampling oscilloscope. The energy loss has been observed with various peak RF field gradients (E), gas pressures (p), and beam intensities in nitrogen and hydrogen gases. Observed RF energy dissipation in single electron (dw) in N{sub 2} and H{sub 2} gases was 2 10{sup -17} and 3 10{sup -17} Joules/RF cycle at E/p = 8 V/cm/Torr, respectively. More detailed dw measurement have been done in H{sub 2} gas at three different gas pressures. There is a clear discrepancy between the observed dw and analytical one. The discrepancy may be due to the gas density effect that has already been observed in various experiments.

Yonehara, K.; Chung, M.; Collura, M.G.; Jana, M.R.; Leonova, M.; Moretti, A.; Popovic, M.; Schwarz, T.; Tollestrup, A.; /Fermilab; Johnson, R.P.; Franagan, G.; /Muons, Inc. /IIT

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

292

High-pressure turbine deposition in land-based gas turbines from various synfuels  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ash deposits from four candidate power turbine synfuels were studied in an accelerated deposition test facility. The facility matches the gas temperature and velocity of modern first-stage high-pressure turbine vanes. A natural gas combustor was seeded with finely ground fuel ash particulate from four different fuels: straw, sawdust, coal, and petroleum coke. The entrained ash particles were accelerated to a combustor exit flow Mach number of 0.31 before impinging on a thermal barrier coating (TBC) target coupon at 1150{sup o}C. Postexposure analyses included surface topography, scanning electron microscopy and x-ray spectroscopy. Due to significant differences in the chemical composition of the various fuel ash samples, deposit thickness and structure vary considerably for fuel. Biomass products (e.g., sawdust and straw) are significantly less prone to deposition than coal and petcoke for the same particle loading conditions. In a test simulating one turbine operating year at a moderate particulate loading of 0.02 parts per million by weight, deposit thickness from coal and petcoke ash exceeded 1 and 2 mm, respectively. These large deposits from coal and petcoke were found to detach readily from the turbine material with thermal cycling and handling. The smaller biomass deposit samples showed greater tenacity, in adhering to the TBC surface. In all cases, corrosive elements (e.g., Na, K, V, Cl, S) were found to penetrate the TBC layer during the accelerated deposition test. Implications for the power generation goal of fuel flexibility are discussed.

Bons, J.P.; Crosby, J.; Wammack, J.E.; Bentley, B.I.; Fletcher, T.H. [Brigham Young University, Provo, UT (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

2007-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

293

Fusion Curve of Europium, Fusion, and fcc-bcc Transformation in Ytterbium at High Pressures  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The melting behavior of Eu to 70 kbar and melting and fcc-bcc transformation in Yb to 40 kbar have been studied. Europium has a maximum in the fusion curve at about 35 kbar and 995C and retains the bcc structure in the pressure and temperature range investigated. The fusion curve of Yb has an initial slope of 19/kbar and rapidly flattens in the 35-kbar region. There appears to be only one fcc-bcc phase boundary and not two as proposed in an earlier study. This boundary intersects the temperature axis close to the known fcc-bcc transformation temperature at atmospheric pressure, and an initial slope of -16/kbar is suggested. This transformation in Yb behaves exactly like the analogous transformation in Sr, exhibiting pressure and temperature hysteresis and also reversing the sign of the resistance discontinuity above 24 kbar. The striking parallelism in high-pressure behavior between Eu and Ba and Yb and Sr is discussed. The greater density of the bcc phase compared to fcc or hcp noted in several instances is rationalized. The melting behavior of Eu is discussed from the standpoint of coordination in the liquid state.

A. Jayaraman

1964-08-17T23:59:59.000Z

294

A high-pressure atomic force microscope for imaging in supercritical carbon dioxide  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A high-pressure atomic force microscope (AFM) that enables in situ, atomic scale measurements of topography of solid surfaces in contact with supercritical CO{sub 2} (scCO{sub 2}) fluids has been developed. This apparatus overcomes the pressure limitations of the hydrothermal AFM and is designed to handle pressures up to 100 atm at temperatures up to ?350 K. A standard optically-based cantilever deflection detection system was chosen. When imaging in compressible supercritical fluids such as scCO{sub 2} , precise control of pressure and temperature in the fluid cell is the primary technical challenge. Noise levels and imaging resolution depend on minimization of fluid density fluctuations that change the fluid refractive index and hence the laser path. We demonstrate with our apparatus in situ atomic scale imaging of a calcite (CaCO{sub 3}) mineral surface in scCO{sub 2}; both single, monatomic steps and dynamic processes occurring on the (10{overbar 1}4) surface are presented. This new AFM provides unprecedented in situ access to interfacial phenomena at solidfluid interfaces under pressure.

Lea, A.S.; Higgins, S.R.; Knauss, K.G.; Rosso, K.M.

2011-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

295

An improved measurement of electron-ion recombination in high-pressure xenon gas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We report on results obtained with the NEXT-DEMO prototype of the NEXT-100 high-pressure xenon gas time projection chamber (TPC), exposed to an alpha decay calibration source. Compared to our previous measurements with alpha particles, an upgraded detector and improved analysis techniques have been used. We measure event-by-event correlated fluctuations between ionization and scintillation due to electron-ion recombination in the gas, with correlation coeffcients between -0.80 and -0.56 depending on the drift field conditions. By combining the two signals, we obtain a 2.8 % FWHM energy resolution for 5.49 MeV alpha particles and a measurement of the optical gain of the electroluminescent TPC. The improved energy resolution also allows us to measure the specific activity of the radon in the gas due to natural impurities. Finally, we measure the average ratio of excited to ionized atoms produced in the xenon gas by alpha particles to be $0.561\\pm 0.045$, translating into an average energy to produce a primary scintillation photon of $W_{\\rm ex}=(39.2\\pm 3.2)$ eV.

NEXT Collaboration; L. Serra; M. Sorel; V. lvarez; F. I. G. Borges; M. Camargo; S. Crcel; S. Cebrin; A. Cervera; C. A. N. Conde; T. Dafni; J. Daz; R. Esteve; L. M. P. Fernandes; P. Ferrario; A. L. Ferreira; E. D. C. Freitas; V. M. Gehman; A. Goldschmidt; J. J. Gmez-Cadenas; D. Gonzlez-Daz; R. M. Gutirrez; J. Hauptman; J. A. Hernando Morata; D. C. Herrera; I. G. Irastorza; L. Labarga; A. Laing; I. Liubarsky; N. Lopez-March; D. Lorca; M. Losada; G. Luzn; A. Mar; J. Martn-Albo; G. Martnez-Lema; A. Martnez; T. Miller; F. Monrabal; M. Monserrate; C. M. B. Monteiro; F. J. Mora; L. M. Moutinho; J. Muoz Vidal; M. Nebot-Guinot; D. Nygren; C. A. B. Oliveira; J. Prez; J. L. Prez Aparicio; M. Querol; J. Renner; L. Ripoll; A. Rodrguez; J. Rodrguez; F. P. Santos; J. M. F. dos Santos; D. Shuman; A. Simn; C. Sofka; J. F. Toledo; J. Torrent; Z. Tsamalaidze; J. F. C. A. Veloso; J. A. Villar; R. Webb; J. T. White; N. Yahlali

2015-02-03T23:59:59.000Z

296

An improved measurement of electron-ion recombination in high-pressure xenon gas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We report on results obtained with the NEXT-DEMO prototype of the NEXT-100 high-pressure xenon gas time projection chamber (TPC), exposed to an alpha decay calibration source. Compared to our previous measurements with alpha particles, an upgraded detector and improved analysis techniques have been used. We measure event-by-event correlated fluctuations between ionization and scintillation due to electron-ion recombination in the gas, with correlation coeffcients between -0.80 and -0.56 depending on the drift field conditions. By combining the two signals, we obtain a 2.8 % FWHM energy resolution for 5.49 MeV alpha particles and a measurement of the optical gain of the electroluminescent TPC. The improved energy resolution also allows us to measure the specific activity of the radon in the gas due to natural impurities. Finally, we measure the average ratio of excited to ionized atoms produced in the xenon gas by alpha particles to be $0.561\\pm 0.045$, translating into an average energy to produce a primary s...

Serra, L; lvarez, V; Borges, F I G; Camargo, M; Crcel, S; Cebrin, S; Cervera, A; Conde, C A N; Dafni, T; Daz, J; Esteve, R; Fernandes, L M P; Ferrario, P; Ferreira, A L; Freitas, E D C; Gehman, V M; Goldschmidt, A; Gmez-Cadenas, J J; Gonzlez-Daz, D; Gutirrez, R M; Hauptman, J; Morata, J A Hernando; Herrera, D C; Irastorza, I G; Labarga, L; Laing, A; Liubarsky, I; Lopez-March, N; Lorca, D; Losada, M; Luzn, G; Mar, A; Martn-Albo, J; Martnez-Lema, G; Martnez, A; Miller, T; Monrabal, F; Monserrate, M; Monteiro, C M B; Mora, F J; Moutinho, L M; Vidal, J Muoz; Nebot-Guinot, M; Nygren, D; Oliveira, C A B; Prez, J; Aparicio, J L Prez; Querol, M; Renner, J; Ripoll, L; Rodrguez, A; Rodrguez, J; Santos, F P; Santos, J M F dos; Shuman, D; Simn, A; Sofka, C; Toledo, J F; Torrent, J; Tsamalaidze, Z; Veloso, J F C A; Villar, J A; Webb, R; White, J T; Yahlali, N

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

297

Submersible sodium pump  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An electromagnetic submerged pump has an outer cylindrical stator with an inner cylindrical conductive core for the submerged pumping of sodium in the cylindrical interstitial volume defined between the stator and core. The cylindrical interstitial volume is typically vertically oriented, and defines an inlet at the bottom and an outlet at the top. The outer stator generates upwardly conveyed toroidal magnetic fields, which fields convey preferably from the bottom of the pump to the top of the pump liquid sodium in the cold leg of a sodium cooled nuclear reactor. The outer cylindrical stator has a vertically disposed duct surrounded by alternately stacked layers of coil units and laminates. 14 figs.

Brynsvold, G.V.; Lopez, J.T.; Olich, E.E.; West, C.W.

1989-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

298

High-pressure single-crystal X-ray diffraction facilities on station 9.8 at the SRS Daresbury Laboratory - hydrogen location in the high-pressure structure of ethanol  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A new high-pressure single-crystal diffraction facility constructed on station 9.8 at the Synchrotron Radiation Source, Daresbury Laboratory, is described. Initial results on the low-melting-point compound ethanol are presented; diffraction data were of sufficient quality to enable H-atoms to be located.

Allan, D.R.

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

299

CALiPER Report 21.3: Cost-Effectiveness of Linear (T8) LED Lamps  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Meeting performance expectations is important for driving adoption of linear LED lamps, but cost-effectiveness may be an overriding factor in many cases. Linear LED lamps cost more initially than fluorescent lamps, but energy and maintenance savings may mean that the life-cycle cost is lower. This report details a series of life-cycle cost simulations that compared a two-lamp troffer using LED lamps (38 W total power draw) or fluorescent lamps (51 W total power draw) over a 10-year study period. Variables included LED system cost ($40, $80, or $120), annual operating hours (2,000 hours or 4,000 hours), LED installation time (15 minutes or 30 minutes), and melded electricity rate ($0.06/kWh, $0.12/kWh, $0.18/kWh, or $0.24/kWh). A full factorial of simulations allows users to interpolate between these values to aid in making rough estimates of economic feasibility for their own projects. In general, while their initial cost premium remains high, linear LED lamps are more likely to be cost-effective when electric utility rates are higher than average and hours of operation are long, and if their installation time is shorter.

Miller, Naomi J.; Perrin, Tess E.; Royer, Michael P.

2014-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

300

Cost-effective upgrade of a focusing system for inelastic X-ray scattering experiments under high pressure  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper describes a scheme utilizing a set of low-cost and compact Kirkpatrick-Baez mirrors for upgrading the optical system of the Taiwan Inelastic X-ray Scattering beamline at SPring-8 for high-pressure experiments using diamond-anvil cells. The scheme as implemented improves the focus to 13 m 16 m with transmission of up to 72%.

Huang, C.-Y.

2007-12-18T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high-pressure sodium lamps" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

High- and low-temperature-stable thermite composition for producing high-pressure, high-velocity gases  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A high- and low-temperature-stable thermite composition for producing high-pressure and high-velocity gases comprises an oxidizable metal, an oxidizing reagent, and a high-temperature-stable gas-producing additive selected from the group consisting of metal carbides and metal nitrides.

Halcomb, Danny L. (Camden, OH); Mohler, Jonathan H. (Spring Valley, OH)

1990-10-16T23:59:59.000Z

302

Vehicle Technologies Office 2013 Merit Review: A University Consortium on Efficient and Clean High-Pressure, Lean Burn (HPLB) Engines  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

A presentation given by the University of Michigan at the 2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about a university consortium to research efficient and clean high-pressure lean burn engines.

303

Physics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors xxx (2004) xxxxxx High pressure crystal chemistry of hydrous ringwoodite  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Physics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors xxx (2004) xxx­xxx High pressure crystal chemistry of hydrous ringwoodite and water in the Earth's interior Joseph R. Smytha,, Christopher M. Holla, Daniel J November 2002; received in revised form 12 May 2003; accepted 18 August 2003 Abstract The crystal chemistry

Smyth, Joseph R.

304

Physics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors 143144 (2004) 271278 High pressure crystal chemistry of hydrous ringwoodite  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Physics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors 143­144 (2004) 271­278 High pressure crystal chemistry of hydrous ringwoodite and water in the Earth's interior Joseph R. Smytha,, Christopher M. Holla, Daniel J November 2002; received in revised form 12 May 2003; accepted 18 August 2003 Abstract The crystal chemistry

Jacobsen, Steven D.

305

Development of a High Pressure/High Temperature Down-hole Turbine Generator  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

As oil & natural gas deposits become more difficult to obtain by conventional means, wells must extend to deeper more heat-intensive environments. The technology of the drilling equipment required to reach these depths has exceeded the availability of electrical power sources needed to operate these tools. Historically, logging while drilling (LWD) and measure while drilling (MWD) devices utilized a wireline to supply power and communication from the operator to the tool. Lithium ion batteries were used in scenarios where a wireline was not an option, as it complicated operations. In current downhole applications, lithium ion battery (LIB) packs are the primary source for electrical power. LIB technology has been proven to supply reliable downhole power at temperatures up to 175 C. Many of the deeper well s reach ambient temperatures above 200 C, creating an environment too harsh for current LIB technology. Other downfalls of LIB technology are cost, limitations on charge cycles, disposal issues and possible safety hazards including explosions and fires. Downhole power generation can also be achieved by utilizing drilling fluid flow and converting it to rotational motion. This rotational motion can be harnessed to spin magnets around a series of windings to produce power proportional to the rpm experienced by the driven assembly. These generators are, in most instances, driven by turbine blades or moyno-based drilling fluid pumps. To date, no commercially available downhole power generators are capable of operating at ambient temperatures of 250 C. A downhole power g enerator capable of operation in a 250 C and 20,000 psi ambient environment will be an absolute necessity in the future. Dexter Magnetic Technologies High-Pressure High-Temperature (HPHT) Downhole Turbine Generator is capable of operating at 250 C and 20, 000 psi, but has not been tested in an actual drilling application. The technology exists, but to date no company has been willing to test the tool.

Ben Plamp

2008-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

306

Dynamic compression of materials: metallization of fluid hydrogen at high pressures  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Dynamic high pressure is 1?GPa (10?kbar) or greater with a rise time and a duration ranging from 1?ps (10?12?s) to 1?s (10?6?s). Today it is possible in a laboratory to achieve pressures dynamically up to ~500?GPa (5?Mbar) and greater, compressions as much as ~15-fold greater than initial density in the case of hydrogen and temperatures from ~0.1 up to several electronvolts (11?600?K). At these conditions materials are extremely condensed semiconductors or degenerate metals. Temperature can be tuned independently of pressure by a combination of shock and isentropic compression. As a result, new opportunities are now available in condensed matter physics at extreme conditions. The basic physics of the dynamic process, experimental methods of generating and diagnosing matter at these extreme conditions and a technique to recover metastable materials intact from ~100?GPa shock pressures are discussed.Results include (i) generation of pressure standards at static pressures up to ~200?GPa (2?Mbar) at 300?K, (ii) single-shock compression of small-molecular fluids, including resolution of the recent controversy over the correct shock-compression curve of liquid D2 at 100?GPa pressures, (iii) the first observations of metallization of fluid hydrogen, nitrogen and oxygen compressed quasi-isentropically at 100?GPa pressures, (iv) implications for the interiors of giant planets within our solar system, extrasolar giant planets and brown dwarfs discovered recently and the equation of state of deuteriumtritium in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) and (v) prospects of recovering novel materials from extreme conditions, such as metastable solid metallic hydrogen. Future research is suggested.

W J Nellis

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

Spectroscopic diagnostics of a pulsed discharge in high-pressure argon  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Results of investigation of high-pressure argon plasma excited by a high-current pulsed volume discharge are presented. The plasma diagnostics employs spatiotemporal dependences of the emission intensity in the VUV - visible range. A homogenous discharge is observed at pressures up to 10 atm. It is found that the spectrum of the UV - visible photorecombination continuum is sensitive to the discharge constriction. Change in the shape of the spectrum is caused bythe change of the type of positive charge carriers upon passing of the discharge from the uniform phase (molecular Ar{sub 2}{sup +} ions) to the arc phase (atomic Ar{sup +} ions). Experimental data and model calculations show that the electron heating after the main excitation pulse is a highly undesirable process. It slows down the recombination flow in the plasma, which results in stretching of all the kinetic processes for all excited components in time, and hence in a decrease in the peak values of their concentrations. Electron collision-induced mixing effi-ciently converts the reservoir of long-lived Ar{sub 2}* molecules in the triplet state into rapidly emitting singlet excimers. It is this mechanism that dominates the production of singlet Ar{sub 2}* excimer molecules. The threshold concentration needed to obtain lasing at a wavelength of 127 nm on Ar{sub 2}* excimers ({sup 1{Sigma}+}{sub u(v=0)}) was, according to calculations, about 5x10{sup 15} cm{sup -3} for the gain 0.05 cm{sup -1}. This concentration can be achieved in the case of homogeneous pulsed discharge pumping with the peak electron concentration 2.x10{sup 16} cm{sup -3} at the argon pressure 10 atm.

Treshchalov, A B; Lissovskii, A A [Institute of Physics, University of Tartu, Tartu (Estonia)

2010-05-26T23:59:59.000Z

308

Ground-state properties and high-pressure behavior of plutonium dioxide: Density functional theory calculations  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Plutonium dioxide is of high technological importance in nuclear fuel cycle and is particularly crucial in long-term storage of Pu-based radioactive waste. Using first-principles density-functional theory, in this paper we systematically study the structural, electronic, mechanical, thermodynamic properties, and pressure-induced structural transition of PuO2. To properly describe the strong correlation in Pu?5f electrons, the local-density approximation (LDA)+U and the generalized gradient approximation+U theoretical formalisms have been employed. We optimize U parameter in calculating the total energy, lattice parameters, and bulk modulus at nonmagnetic, ferromagnetic, and antiferromagnetic configurations for both ground-state fluorite structure and high-pressure cotunnite structure. Best agreement with experiments is obtained by tuning the effective Hubbard parameter U at around 4 eV within LDA+U approach. After carefully testing the validity of the ground-state calculation, we further investigate the bonding nature, elastic constants, various moduli, Debye temperature, hardness, ideal tensile strength, and phonon dispersion for fluorite PuO2. Some thermodynamic properties, e.g., Gibbs free energy, volume thermal expansion, and specific heat are also calculated. As for cotunnite phase, besides elastic constants, various moduli, and Debye temperature at 0 GPa, we have further presented our calculated electronic, structural, and magnetic properties for PuO2 under pressure up to 280 GPa. A metallic transition at around 133 GPa and an isostructural transition in pressure range of 75133 GPa are predicted. Additionally, as an illustration on the valency trend and subsequent effect on the mechanical properties, the calculated results for other actinide metal dioxides (ThO2, UO2, and NpO2) are also presented.

Ping Zhang; Bao-Tian Wang; Xian-Geng Zhao

2010-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

309

Homogeneous carbon doping of magnesium diboride by high-temperature, high-pressure synthesis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have used high-pressure, high-temperature synthesis at 15001700?C and 10?MPa to create homogeneously C-substituted MgB{sub 2} from a B{sub 4}C + Mg mixture. X-ray diffraction analysis showed large peak-shifts consistent with a decrease in the a lattice parameter for the B{sub 4}C-derived MgB{sub 2} as compared to an undoped sample (0.0330.037?, depending on the sample). Microstructural investigation showed a three-phase mixture in the B{sub 4}C-derived ingots: MgB{sub 2?x}C{sub x} (with 0.178?

Susner, M. A., E-mail: susner.1@osu.edu; Bohnenstiehl, S. D.; Dregia, S. A.; Sumption, M. D.; Yang, Y.; Collings, E. W. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States); Donovan, J. J. [Center for Advanced Materials Characterization in Oregon (CAMCOR), University of Oregon, Eugene, Oregon 97403 (United States)

2014-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

310

High pressure sulfuric acid decomposition experiments for the sulfur-iodine thermochemical cycle.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A series of three pressurized sulfuric acid decomposition tests were performed to (1) obtain data on the fraction of sulfuric acid catalytically converted to sulfur dioxide, oxygen, and water as a function of temperature and pressure, (2) demonstrate real-time measurements of acid conversion for use as process control, (3) obtain multiple measurements of conversion as a function of temperature within a single experiment, and (4) assess rapid quenching to minimize corrosion of metallic components by undecomposed acid. All four of these objectives were successfully accomplished. This report documents the completion of the NHI milestone on high pressure H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} decomposition tests for the Sulfur-Iodine (SI) thermochemical cycle project. All heated sections of the apparatus, (i.e. the boiler, decomposer, and condenser) were fabricated from Hastelloy C276. A ceramic acid injection tube and a ceramic-sheathed thermocouple were used to minimize corrosion of hot liquid acid on the boiler surfaces. Negligible fracturing of the platinum on zirconia catalyst was observed in the high temperature decomposer. Temperature measurements at the exit of the decomposer and at the entry of the condenser indicated that the hot acid vapors were rapidly quenched from about 400 C to less than 20 C within a 14 cm length of the flow path. Real-time gas flow rate measurements of the decomposition products provided a direct measurement of acid conversion. Pressure in the apparatus was preset by a pressure-relief valve that worked well at controlling the system pressure. However, these valves sometimes underwent abrupt transitions that resulted in rapidly varying gas flow rates with concomitant variations in the acid conversion fraction.

Velasquez, Carlos E; Reay, Andrew R.; Andazola, James C.; Naranjo, Gerald E.; Gelbard, Fred

2005-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

311

Effect of bituminous coal properties on carbon dioxide and methane high pressure sorption  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract High pressure sorption experiments with carbon dioxide and methane were carried out at a temperature of 45C and at pressures up to 15MPa with three samples of methane-bearing, medium-rank coals in a moisture-equilibrated state using a manometric method. The samples were taken from selected positions of drill cores from exploration boreholes in the Bohemian part of the Upper Silesian Basin, and were characterized by a narrow range of degree of coalification and markedly different petrographic compositions, including a different mineral matter content. The total porosity of the coal samples was between 9% and 10%. A positive correlation was found between the equilibrium moisture in the coal samples and the total abundance of oxygen functional groups determined by FTIR. The excess sorption capacities ranged from 0.78 to 0.91mmolg?1 for CO2 and from 0.45 to 0.52mmolg?1 for CH4, and after recalculation to coal organic matter, the excess sorption capacities increased by up to 14% in the coal with the highest mineral fraction. The highest CO2/CH4 ratio was found in the sample that had the highest inertinite and liptinite content. The experimental isotherm data was fitted by modified Langmuir and DubininRadushkevich sorption isotherms. The parameters obtained by these two methods were in good agreement for carbon dioxide. It was found that the sorption capacity of the organic matter in a coal sample with prevalence of inertinite (63.0vol.%) was lower only by 14% for CO2 and by 18% for CH4 than the sorption capacity of the organic matter in a coal sample with prevalence of vitrinite (65.3vol.%). This provided confirmation that the petrographic composition of a coal has an ambiguous effect.

Zuzana Weishauptov; Old?ich P?ibyl; Ivana Skorov; Vladimr Machovi?

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

Valve assembly for use with high temperature and high pressure fluids  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The valve assembly for use with high temperature and high pressure fluids has inner and outer spaced shells and a valve actuator support of inner and outer spaced members which are connected at their end portions to the inner and outer shells, respectively, to extend substantially normal to the longitudinal axis of the inner shell. A layer of resilient heat insulating material covers the outer surfaces of the inner shell and the inner actuator support member and is of a thickness to only occupy part of the spaces between the inner and outer shells and inner and outer actuator support members. The remaining portion of the space between the inner and outer shells and the space between the inner and outer members is substantially filled with a body of castable, rigid refractory material. A movable valve member is disposed in the inner shell. A valve actuator assembly is supported in the valve actuator support to extend into the inner shell for connection with the movable valve member for movement of the movable valve member to positions from a fully open to a fully closed position to control flow of fluid through the inner shell. An anchor mneans is disposed adjacent opposite sides of the axis of the valve actuator support and attached to the inner shell so that relative radial movement between the inner and outer shell is permitted by the layer of resilient heat insulating material and relative longitudinal movement of the inner shell to the outer shell is permitted in opposite directions from the anchor means to thereby maintain the functional integrity of the movable valve member by providing an area of the inner shell surrounding the movable valve member longitdinally stationary, but at the same time allowing radial movement.

De Feo, Angelo (Totowa, NY)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

Lamp system with conditioned water coolant and diffuse reflector of polytetrafluorethylene(PTFE)  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A lamp system with a very soft high-intensity output is provided over a large area by water cooling a long-arc lamp inside a diffuse reflector of polytetrafluorethylene (PTFE) and titanium dioxide (TiO.sub.2) white pigment. The water is kept clean and pure by a one micron particulate filter and an activated charcoal/ultraviolet irradiation system that circulates and de-ionizes and biologically sterilizes the coolant water at all times, even when the long-arc lamp is off.

Zapata, Luis E. (Livermore, CA); Hackel, Lloyd (Livermore, CA)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

314

Standard test method for determination of susceptibility of metals to embrittlement in hydrogen containing environments at high pressure, high temperature, or both  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Standard test method for determination of susceptibility of metals to embrittlement in hydrogen containing environments at high pressure, high temperature, or both

American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

Is the light emitting diode (LED) an ultimate lamp?  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Simple diagrams are used to show the transformation of a thin slab of intrinsic semiconductor (direct gap k elec =k hole ) from an ideal flat-band photopumped recombination-radiation light source into an ultimate lamp a pn junctionlight emitting diode(LED). A photoexcited intrinsic slab of semiconductor can be regarded as an ideal (flat-band) light source with however the photogenerated carriers and voltage available externally instead of as recombination radiation (light) if the slab is converted to half p type (one side) and half n type (the other side) i.e. to a pn junction. If an equal a bucking external voltage is applied resulting in an input current when the photoexcitation is removed the slab becomes again (remains) an ideal flat-band light source a pn junctionLED. In practice the LED takes the form of a pn heterostructure in order to improve electronhole injection reduce the absorption of recombination radiation and to make possiblewith proper geometriesimproved photon escape.

N. Holonyak Jr.

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

316

Direct ion flux measurements at high-pressure-depletion conditions for microcrystalline silicon deposition  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The contribution of ions to the growth of microcrystalline silicon thin films has been investigated in the well-known high-pressure-depletion (HPD) regime by coupling thin-film analysis with plasma studies. The ion flux, measured by means of a capacitive probe, has been studied in two regimes, i.e., the amorphous-to-microcrystalline transition regime and a low-to-high power regime; the latter regime had been investigated to evaluate the impact of the plasma power on the ion flux in collisional plasmas. The ion flux was found not to change considerably under the conditions where the deposited material undergoes a transition from the amorphous to the microcrystalline silicon phase; for solar-grade material, an ion-to-Si deposition flux of ?0.30 has been determined. As an upper-estimation of the ion energy, a mean ion energy of ?19 eV has been measured under low-pressure conditions (<1 mbar) by means of a retarding field energy analyzer. Combining this upper-estimate with an ion per deposited Si atom ratio of ?0.30, it is concluded that less than 6 eV is available per deposited Si atom. The addition of a small amount of SiH{sub 4} to an H{sub 2} plasma resulted in an increase of the ion flux by about 30% for higher power values, whereas the electron density, deduced from optical emission spectroscopy analysis, decreased. The electron temperature, also deduced from optical emission spectroscopy analysis, reveals a slight decrease with power. Although the dominant ion in the HPD regime is SiH{sub 3}{sup +}, i.e., a change from H{sub 3}{sup +} in pure hydrogen HPD conditions, the measured larger ion loss can be explained by assuming steeper electron density profiles. These results, therefore, confirm the results reported so far: the ion-to-Si deposition flux is relatively large but has neither influence on the microcrystalline silicon film properties nor on the phase transition. Possible explanations are the reported high atomic hydrogen to deposition flux ratio, mitigating the detrimental effects of an excessive ion flux.

Bronneberg, A. C.; Kang, X.; Palmans, J.; Janssen, P. H. J.; Lorne, T. [Applied Physics Department, Eindhoven University of Technology, P.O. Box 513, 5600MB Eindhoven (Netherlands)] [Applied Physics Department, Eindhoven University of Technology, P.O. Box 513, 5600MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Creatore, M. [Applied Physics Department, Eindhoven University of Technology, P.O. Box 513, 5600MB Eindhoven (Netherlands) [Applied Physics Department, Eindhoven University of Technology, P.O. Box 513, 5600MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Solliance Solar Research, High Tech Campus 5, 5656AE Eindhoven (Netherlands); Sanden, M. C. M. van de [Applied Physics Department, Eindhoven University of Technology, P.O. Box 513, 5600MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Dutch Institute for Fundamental Energy Research (DIFFER), P.O. Box 1207, 3430BE Nieuwegein (Netherlands)

2013-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

317

Integrated starting and running amalgam assembly for an electrodeless fluorescent lamp  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An integrated starting and running amalgam assembly for an electrodeless SEF fluorescent lamp includes a wire mesh amalgam support constructed to jointly optimize positions of a starting amalgam and a running amalgam in the lamp, thereby optimizing mercury vapor pressure in the lamp during both starting and steady-state operation in order to rapidly achieve and maintain high light output. The wire mesh amalgam support is constructed to support the starting amalgam toward one end thereof and the running amalgam toward the other end thereof, and the wire mesh is rolled for friction-fitting within the exhaust tube of the lamp. The positions of the starting and running amalgams on the wire mesh are jointly optimized such that high light output is achieved quickly and maintained, while avoiding any significant reduction in light output between starting and running operation.

Borowiec, Joseph Christopher (Schenectady, NY); Cocoma, John Paul (Clifton Park, NY); Roberts, Victor David (Burnt Hills, NY)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

LED Linear Lamps and Troffer Lighting: CALiPER Report Series 21  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

View the video about CALiPER Report Series 21 on LED Linear Lamps and Troffer Lighting, featuring interviews with Tracy Beeson and Naomi Miller of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.

319

DOE Publishes CALiPER Report on Lumen and Chromaticity Maintenance of LED PAR38 Lamps  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The U.S. Department of Energy's CALiPER program has released Report 20.4, which is part of a series of investigations on LED PAR38 lamps. Report 20.4 focuses on lumen maintenance, chromaticity...

320

DOE Publishes CALiPER Snapshot Report on LED A Lamps  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

DOE's CALiPER program has released a Snapshot Report on LED A lamps, which utilizes the LED Lighting Facts program's extensive product database to help industry stakeholders understand the current state and trajectory of the market for that class

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high-pressure sodium lamps" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

DOE Publishes New CALiPER Report on Subjective Evaluation of LED PAR38 Lamps  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

DOE has published the first in a series of four special investigations intended to extend the findings of CALiPER Application Summary Report 20: LED PAR38 Lamps, which was published late last year.

322

Text-Alternative Version: CALiPER Report Series 20 on LED PAR38 Lamps  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Michael Royer, Lighting Engineer, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory: The CALiPER program looks at typical LED lamp performance attributes. As we've gone through the progression of reports, we...

323

MISSION CATHODIQUE A L'INTRIEUR DES LAMPES A INCANDESCENCE ; par M. L. HOULLEVIGUE (1).  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

523 ?MISSION CATHODIQUE A L'INT?RIEUR DES LAMPES A INCANDESCENCE ; par M. L. HOULLEVIGUE (1). I. Lorsqu'on survolte fortement une lampe à incandescence à filament de charbon, par exemple en mettant sous incandescent. ' , Fic.. 1. Tous ces effets peuvent être attribués, en première analyse, aux électrons émanés du

Boyer, Edmond

324

ISSUANCE 2015-01-26: Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for High-Intensity Lamps, Notice to Reopen Comment Period  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for High-Intensity Lamps, Notice to Reopen Comment Period

325

Demonstration of LED Retrofit Lamps at the Jordan Schnitzer Museum of Art  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Jordan Schnitzer Museum of Art in Eugene, Oregon, houses a remarkable permanent collection of Asian art and antiquities, modern art, and sculpture, and also hosts traveling exhibitions. In the winter and spring of 2011, a series of digital photographs by artist Chris Jordan, titled "Running the Numbers," was exhibited in the Coeta and Donald Barker Special Exhibitions Gallery. These works graphically illustrate waste (energy, money, health, consumer objects, etc.) in contemporary culture. The Bonneville Power Administration and the Eugene Water and Electricity Board provided a set of Cree 12W light-emitting diode (LED) PAR38 replacement lamps (Cree LRP38) for the museum to test for accent lighting in lieu of their standard Sylvania 90W PAR38 130V Narrow Flood lamps (which draw 78.9W at 120V). At the same time, the museum tested LED replacement lamps from three other manufacturers, and chose the Cree lamp as the most versatile and most appropriate color product for this exhibit. The lamps were installed for the opening of the show in January 2011. This report describes the process for the demonstration, the energy and economic results, and results of a survey of the museum staff and gallery visitors on four similar clusters of art lighted separately by four PAR38 lamps.

Miller, Naomi J.

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

326

Time resolved optical spectroscopy to examine chemical decomposition of energetic materials under static high pressure and pulsed heating conditions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The study of the deflagration or detonation reactions of energetic materials is challenging due to the high pressure, high temperature, and time domain under which the reactions occur. Experimental measurements are presented that demonstrate the ability to continuously monitor the global reaction times and reaction sequences associated with chemical reactions under these conditions. Time resolved absorption spectroscopy is used in conjunction with a high pressure gem anvil cell to probe the real-time chemical processes during pulsed-heating. Samples are initiated by a rapid thermal jump induced by absorption of a single laser pulse. Time resolved absorption spectroscopy of 3,6 trinitroethylamine tetrazine reaction is demonstrated by the real time measurement of the decrease in the {pi}-{pi}* absorption at 100 ns temporal resolution during laser heating at pressures up to 3.5 GPa.

Russell, T.P. [Naval Research Lab., Washington, DC (United States). Chemistry Div.; Allen, T.M.; Gupta, Y.M. [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States). Shock Dynamics Center

1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

327

Techno-economic feasibility study of providing variable frequency drive for high pressure pump, SWRO plant at NDDP, Kalpakkam  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The cost of product water is a key factor in determination of acceptability of any desalination system and plant. In case of Sea Water Reverse Osmosis plants, most of the energy consumed is in the form of electricity. The High Pressure Pump (HPP) is the single major energy consuming equipment with a share of above 75%. Hence reduction in energy consumed by HPP will have a substantial effect on the overall energy consumption. The high starting torque requirement of high pressure pump results in increased acceleration time of the motor which subsequently increases the strain on the upstream electrical system from motor feeder to transformer. Provision of a Variable Frequency Drive can be a solution for both the above problems. This paper studies the techno-economic feasibility of providing variable frequency drive for HPP motor at NDDP, Kalpakkam.

R. Nagaraj; V. Murugan; Ashok Y. Dangore; K.L. Thalor; S. Prabakar; V.K. Srivastava; P.K. Tewari

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

328

High-pressure late cycle direct injection of natural gas in a rail medium speed diesel engine  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The performance of an Electro-Motive Division (EMD) 567B, two-cylinder locomotive research engine, when operated on high-pressure/late-cycle injection of natural gas, is presented in this paper. A redesign and fabrication of the fuel system was undertaken to facilitate the consumption of natural gas. A small percentage of No.2 diesel fuel (DF-2) was used to ignite the natural gas. Engine performance, while running natural gas, resulted in matching rated speed and power with slightly lower thermal efficiency. Full power was achieved with a ratio of 99 percent natural gas and 1 percent diesel fuel. However, at high natural gas to diesel fuel ratios, audible knock was detected. The primary objective of the project was to establish technical feasibility of, and basic technology for, operating medium-speed rail diesel engines on high-pressure natural gas. Secondary objectives were to attain adequate engine performance levels for rail application, develop a system oriented toward retrofit of in-service locomotives, and realize any potential improvements in thermal efficiency due to use of the high-pressure/late-cycle approach.

Wakenell, J.F.; O'Neal, G.B.; Baker, Q.A.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

329

Energy-Efficient, High-Color-Rendering LED Lamps Using Oxyfluoride and Fluoride Phosphors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

LED lamps using phosphor downconversion can be designed to replace incandescent or halogen sources with a 'warm-white' correlated color temperature (CCT) of 2700-3200 K and a color rendering index (CRI) greater than 90. However, these lamps have efficacies of {approx}70% of standard 'cool-white' LED packages (CCT = 4500-6000 K; CRI = 75-80). In this report, we describe structural and luminescence properties of fluoride and oxyfluoride phosphors, specifically a (Sr,Ca){sub 3}(Al,Si)O{sub 4}(F,O):Ce{sup 3+} yellow-green phosphor and a K{sub 2}TiF{sub 6}:Mn{sup 4+} red phosphor, that can reduce this gap and therefore meet the spectral and efficiency requirements for high-efficacy LED lighting. LED lamps with a warm-white color temperature (3088 K), high CRI (90), and an efficacy of {approx}82 lm/W are demonstrated using these phosphors. This efficacy is {approx}85% of comparable cool-white lamps using typical Y{sub 3}Al{sub 5}O{sub 12}:Ce{sup 3+}-based phosphors, significantly reducing the efficacy gap between warm-white and cool-white LED lamps that use phosphor downconversion.

Setlur, A.; Radkov, E; Henderson, C; Her, J; Srivastava, A; Karkada, N; Kishore, M; Kumar, N; Aesram, D; et al.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

330

DOE Publishes Notice of Public Meeting and Availability of the Framework Document for General Service Lamps Energy Conservation Standards  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Department of Energy has published a Federal Register notice of public meeting and availability of the framework document regarding energy conservation standards for general service lamps.

331

Development of optimal diaphragm-based pulsation damper structure for high-pressure GDI pump systems through design of experiments  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This study optimizes the profile of the diaphragms of the pressure pulsation damper structure in a high-pressure GDI pump system that is now under development by applying the design of experiments (DOE) method. Because a high-pressure pulsation ranging from 0 to 10bar reduces the performance of a GDI engine and harms it from a structural point of view, attenuating the large amplitude of the fluid pulsation pressure of the gasoline fuel injected into a GDI pump is necessary. Both the relatively low frequency range of the pressure pulsation, i.e., from 0Hz to 30Hz, inside the GDI engine and the high pressure of the utilized gasoline fuel prevent us from applying the existing pressure pulsation dampers such as a T-filter and Helmholtz resonator. Therefore, automotive companies utilize a new pressure pulsation damper structure called an accumulator, which is filled with gas. In the development of this pressure accumulator, it is crucial to design optimal profiles for the enveloping diaphragms in terms of the pulsation efficiency and mechanical stress for the sake of safety. In order to optimize the profile of the diaphragms used in the accumulator developed for a GDI engine, this research develops a new finite element procedure that considers the pressure variation by assuming the isoenthalpy state of the enveloped gas inside the accumulator. The developed finite element procedure is then integrated with the DOE method to determine the optimal profile for the enveloping structure of the developed accumulator. To validate the performance of the developed accumulator, the optimized accumulator is manufactured and tested.

Juyeong Kim; Gil Ho Yoon; Jinyee Noh; Jongwook Lee; Kyungnam Kim; Hyoungjong Park; Jaekeun Hwang; Yeonhong Lee

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

332

Gram-scale separation of curium from americium using alpha-hydroxyisobutyric acid in high-pressure cation columns  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Quantities of heavy element (americium and curium) up to 2.3 g have been successfully separated by chromatographic elution from cation resin using alpha-hydroxyisobutyrate in equipment originally designed for decigram-scale separations of /sup 252/Cf and heavier elements. The high-pressure ion exchange process was reliable and relatively easy to operate. Overall curium recoveries of 80 to 90% were readily achieved with decontamination from americium by factors of 400 to 500. The product and waste streams are both in forms readily coupled to further processing steps.

Bigelow, J.E.; Benker, D.E.; Chattin, F.R.; King, L.J.; Knauer, J.B.; Ross, R.G.; Stacy, R.G.; Wiggins, J.T.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

333

Thermodynamics of the ferromagnetic phase transition in nearly half metallic CoS2 at high pressures  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The volume change and heat capacity at the ferromagnetic phase transition in COS2 were measured at high pressures using X-rays generated by the Argonne synchrotron light source and by ac-calorimetry, respectively. The transition entropy, calculated on the basis of these experimental data, drops along the transition line due to quantum degradation, as required by Nernst's law. The volume change increases strongly along the transition line, which is explained by specifics of the compressibility difference of coexisting phases that results from nearly half metallic nature of the ferromagnetic phase of COS2. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Elkin, F. S. [Institute for High Pressure Physics of Russian Academy of Sciences; Zibrov, I. P. [Institute for High Pressure Physics of Russian Academy of Sciences; Novikov, A. P. [Institute for High Pressure Physics of Russian Academy of Sciences; Khasanov, S. S. [Institute for Solid State Physics Russian Academy of Sciences; Sidorov, V. A. [Institute for High Pressure Physics of Russian Academy of Sciences; Petrova, A. E. [Institute for High Pressure Physics of Russian Academy of Sciences; Lograsso, Thomas A. [Ames Laboratory; Thompson, J. D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Stishov, S. M. [Institute for High Pressure Physics of Russian Academy of Sciences

2013-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

334

Quantum MonteCarlo Simulation of the High-Pressure Molecular-Atomic Crossover in Fluid Hydrogen  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A first-order liquid-liquid phase transition in high-pressure hydrogen between molecular and atomic fluid phases has been predicted in computer simulations using abinitio molecular dynamics approaches. However, experiments indicate that molecular dissociation may occur through a continuous crossover rather than a first-order transition. Here we study the nature of molecular dissociation in fluid hydrogen using an alternative simulation technique in which electronic correlation is computed within quantum MonteCarlo methods, the so-called coupled electron-ion MonteCarlo method. We find no evidence for a first-order liquid-liquid phase transition.

Kris T. Delaney; Carlo Pierleoni; D. M. Ceperley

2006-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

335

L-Prize Competition Winner 60W Incandescent Replacement Lamp Update  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Interagency Technology Deployment Working Group L Prize ® Competition Winner 60W Incandescent Replacement Lamp Update James E. Rannels, Senior Advisor L Prize Competition D&R International March 15, 2012 Cost of electricity 1 cent per kilowatt-hour The Washington Post, March 8, 2012 Page One 2 Cost of electricity 11 cents per kilowatt-hour The Washington Post, March 9, 2012 Page Two 3 What Is the L Prize? * Technology competition to spur innovation and exceptional performance * Created by Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA 2007) Sec. 655 * Two key lamp replacements: 60W Incandescent and PAR 38 Halogen * Future focus: 21 st Century Lamp * Cash prizes, federal purchasing, utility programs 4 Philips Wins First L Prize * August 3, 2011: Philips

336

L-Prize Competition Winner 60W Incandescent Replacement Lamp Update  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Interagency Technology Deployment Working Group L Prize ® Competition Winner 60W Incandescent Replacement Lamp Update James E. Rannels, Senior Advisor L Prize Competition D&R International March 15, 2012 Cost of electricity 1 cent per kilowatt-hour The Washington Post, March 8, 2012 Page One 2 Cost of electricity 11 cents per kilowatt-hour The Washington Post, March 9, 2012 Page Two 3 What Is the L Prize? * Technology competition to spur innovation and exceptional performance * Created by Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA 2007) Sec. 655 * Two key lamp replacements: 60W Incandescent and PAR 38 Halogen * Future focus: 21 st Century Lamp * Cash prizes, federal purchasing, utility programs 4 Philips Wins First L Prize * August 3, 2011: Philips

337

Pump-lamp firing-pulse generator for solid-state lasers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper describes a generator that provides, with maximum output-pulse amplitude, sequential or external firing of four INP16/250 (IFP-8000) lamps at a frequency of 1 Hz. The energy and time characteristics of the generator are improved as compared with similar devices, which provides a time instability of the delay between a generator-trigger pulse and the optical pumping pulse of + or - 1 usec. The output-pulse amplitude can be varied according to the type and number of lamps fired. Measures are taken to reduce the supply noise produced in firing-pulse generation and to increase the operating safety of the device.

Denishchik, Y.S.

1985-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

338

Film Cooling Performance in a Transonic High-pressure Vane: Decoupled Simulation and Conjugate Heat Transfer Analysis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The continuous demand for increased performance and reliability of gas turbines leads to the improvement of prediction tools. Having regard to the effects of heat transfer on the residual life of gas turbine components, it is necessary to achieve a high level of accuracy in the evaluation of thermal loads. Computational fluid dynamics is able to provide reliable data in a limited lapse of time. In this paper, the numerical analysis of the cooled vane of the MT1 high-pressure turbine stage is presented. A grid dependence analysis based on the evaluation of the aero-thermal characteristics of the vane has been performed. Turbulence is modeled using the kT-kL-? method whose performance in this kind of configuration is rarely debated in the scientific literature. Model parameters have been tuned to match the experimental data. The final objective of the present activity is to assess the capability of numerical methods to deal with an annular, transonic high-pressure vane with a realistic film cooling configuration. Adiabatic effectiveness, heat transfer coefficient and net heat flux reduction distributions have been evaluated, the latter providing relevant information on the performance of the cooling system. The coupled fluid-solid simulation of the cooled configuration has also been performed to evaluate the impact of conjugate heat transfer on the prediction of thermal loads. Results show a non-negligible difference in the wall temperature evaluation between the decoupled and the coupled approach, mainly caused by the heat conduction in the solid.

Massimiliano Insinna; Duccio Griffini; Simone Salvadori; Francesco Martelli

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

339

An investigation of high pressure/late cycle injection of CNG (compressed natural gas) as a fuel for rail applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report describes a demonstration effort to investigate the use of natural gas in a medium-speed diesel engine. The effort was unique in the sense that natural gas was injected directly into the combustion chamber late in the compression stroke, as a high pressure gas rather than through low pressure fumigation or low pressure injection early in the compression stroke. Tests were performed on a laboratory two-cylinder, two-stroke cycle medium-speed diesel engine in an attempt to define its ability to operate on the high pressure/late cycle injection concept and to define the performance and emission characteristics of the engine under such operation. A small quantity of No.-2 diesel fuel was injected into the cylinder slightly before the gas injection to be used as an ignition source for the gas. Pilot (diesel fuel) and main (natural gas) timing and injection duration were systematically varied to optimize engine performance. The test demonstrated that the medium-speed engine was capable of attaining full rated speed and load (unlike the low pressure approach) with very low percentages of pilot injection with the absence of knock. Thermal efficiency was as much as 10 percent less than thermal efficiency levels obtained with neat diesel fuel. This was primarily due to the placement and injection characteristics of the pilot and main injectors. Optimization of the injection system would undoubtedly result in increased thermal efficiency. 11 figs., 4 tabs.

Wakenell, J.F.; O'Neal, G.G.; Baker, Q.A.; Urban, C.M.

1988-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

340

Experimental determination of bulk modulus of 14 A tobermorite using high pressure synchrotron X-ray diffraction  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Using a diamond anvil cell, 14 A tobermorite, a structural analogue of calcium silicate hydrates (C-S-H), was examined by high-pressure synchrotron X-ray diffraction up to 4.8 GPa under hydrostatic conditions. The bulk modulus of 14 A tobermorite was calculated, K{sub o} = 47 GPa. Comparison of the current results with previous high pressure studies on C-S-H(I) indicates that: (1) the compression behavior of the lattice parameters a and b of 14 A tobermorite and C-S-H(I) are very similar, implying that both materials may have very similar Ca-O layers, and also implying that an introduction of structural defects into the Ca-O layers may not substantially change in-plane incompressibility of the ab plane of 14 A tobermorite; and (2) the bulk modulus values of 14 A tobermorite and C-S-H(I) are dominated by the incompressibility of the lattice parameter c, which is directly related to the interlayer spacing composed of dreierketten silicate chains, interlayer Ca, and water molecules.

Oh, Jae Eun [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, 94720, CA USA (United States); School of Urban and Environmental Engineering, Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology, Ulsan Metropolitan City, 689-798 (Korea, Republic of); Clark, Simon M. [Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Maquarie University, Sydney, NSW 2109 (Australia); Advanced Light Source, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, 20015, CA (United States); Wenk, Hans-Rudolf [Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Maquarie University, Sydney, NSW 2109 (Australia); Monteiro, Paulo J.M., E-mail: monteiro@berkeley.edu [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, 94720, CA USA (United States)

2012-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high-pressure sodium lamps" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Modeling high-pressure adsorption of gas mixtures on activated carbon and coal using a simplified local-density model  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The simplified local-density (SLD) theory was investigated regarding its ability to provide accurate representations and predictions of high-pressure supercritical adsorption isotherms encountered in coalbed methane (CBM) recovery and CO{sub 2} sequestration. Attention was focused on the ability of the SLD theory to predict mixed-gas adsorption solely on the basis of information from pure gas isotherms using a modified Peng-Robinson (PR) equation of state (EOS). An extensive set of high-pressure adsorption measurements was used in this evaluation. These measurements included pure and binary mixture adsorption measurements for several gas compositions up to 14 MPa for Calgon F-400 activated carbon and three water-moistened coals. Also included were ternary measurements for the activated carbon and one coal. For the adsorption of methane, nitrogen, and CO{sub 2} on dry activated carbon, the SLD-PR can predict the component mixture adsorption within about 2.2 times the experimental uncertainty on average solely on the basis of pure-component adsorption isotherms. For the adsorption of methane, nitrogen, and CO{sub 2} on two of the three wet coals, the SLD-PR model can predict the component adsorption within the experimental uncertainties on average for all feed fractions (nominally molar compositions of 20/80, 40/60, 60/40, and 80/20) of the three binary gas mixture combinations, although predictions for some specific feed fractions are outside of their experimental uncertainties.

Fitzgerald, J.E.; Robinson, R.L.; Gasem, K.A.M. [Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK (United States). School of Chemical Engineering

2006-11-07T23:59:59.000Z

342

A diamond-window XAFS cell for studies of high-temperature, high-pressure aqueous solutions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We describe a method to collect x-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectra of ions in a supercritical water solvent. Supercritical water (SCW), at temperatures above water{close_quote}s critical point of 374{degree}C, is an interesting solvent for chemical reactions and hazardous waste destruction due to the high solubility of organics and the aggressive oxidizing environment. XAFS may provide a better understanding of the solvent environment in SCW. The XAFS cell used in these studies was composed of a block of high-nickel alloy, Hastelloy C-22, containing two windows for transmission of the x-ray beam and a single optical view window. All internal wetted surfaces were platinum plated. The maximum operating conditions for this design were 500{degree}C and 700 bar. The x-ray transmission windows consisted of CVD (chemical vapor deposition) diamond windows (3 mm diameter {times}0.5 mm thick) that were brazed to the tip of a standard 1/4-in. high-pressure, coned-shape fitting. Spectra are reported for strontium and rubidium ions in a supercritical water solvent. This cell design could be used for a variety of other solvent systems at high temperatures and high pressures. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

Fulton, J.L.; Pfund, D.M. [Chemical Sciences Department, Pacific Northwest Laboratory, Richland, WA 99352 (United States)] [Chemical Sciences Department, Pacific Northwest Laboratory, Richland, WA 99352 (United States); Ma, Y. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Bldg 510 E, Upton, NY 11973 (United States)] [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Bldg 510 E, Upton, NY 11973 (United States)

1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

343

In situ X-ray observations of the decomposition of brucite and the graphitediamond conversion in aqueous fluid at high pressure and temperature  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...?An experimental technique to make real-time observations at high pressure and temperature of the diamond-forming process in candidate material of mantle fluids as a catalyst has been established for the first...

T. Okada; W. Utsumi; H. Kaneko; M. Yamakata

2002-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

344

Effect of Ultra High Pressure Under Argon and Temperature on the Volatiles and Piperine Content and Microbiological Quality of Black Pepper (Piper Nigrum L.)  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In the search of effective decontamination methods of herbal spices, combined action of high pressure under argon at various temperatures has been applied. Ground black pepper (Piper nigrum L.) samples were expos...

S. Sk?pska; B. Windyga; E. Kostrzewa

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

It's Elemental - The Element Sodium  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Neon Neon Previous Element (Neon) The Periodic Table of Elements Next Element (Magnesium) Magnesium The Element Sodium [Click for Isotope Data] 11 Na Sodium 22.98976928 Atomic Number: 11 Atomic Weight: 22.98976928 Melting Point: 370.95 K (97.80°C or 208.04°F) Boiling Point: 1156 K (883°C or 1621°F) Density: 0.97 grams per cubic centimeter Phase at Room Temperature: Solid Element Classification: Metal Period Number: 3 Group Number: 1 Group Name: Alkali Metal What's in a name? From the English word soda and from the Medieval Latin word sodanum, which means "headache remedy." Sodium's chemical symbol comes from the Latin word for sodium carbonate, natrium. Say what? Sodium is pronounced as SO-dee-em. History and Uses: Although sodium is the sixth most abundant element on earth and comprises

346

The Fuzzy Design of the Intelligent System for the Energy-Saving Lamps  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In the paper, a intelligent system was proposed. It consists of variable converter and intelligent controller. Variable reactor which concludes variable reactance converter and power converter has wide applications in the soft starting, speed controlling ... Keywords: fuzzy control, variable reactor, intelligent control, power converter, Energy-Saving Lamps

Youxin Yuan; Kaihua Cui; Yiping Xiao; Tieliang Xu

2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

347

RF driven sulfur lamp having driving electrodes which face each other  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A high intensity discharge lamp without mercury is disclosed radiating a selected spectrum of which can be almost entirely in the visible range from an envelope that contains a sulfur containing substance. The lamp utilizes a signal source that generates an excitation signal that is externally coupled to the exterior surface of the envelope to excite the enclosed sulfur containing substance. Various embodiments of the lamp use electrodes adjacent the envelope to couple the excitation signal thereto with the face of the electrodes shaped to complement the shape of the exterior surface of the envelope. Two shapes discussed are spherical and cylindrical. To minimize filamentary discharges each envelope may include an elongated stem affixed to the exterior thereof whereby a rotational subsystem spins the envelope. In yet another embodiment the envelope has a Dewar configuration with two electrodes, one positioned near the external curved side surface of the body, and a second to the inner surface of the hole through the envelope. Further, the envelope may contain a backfill of a selected inert gas to assist in the excitation of lamp with that backfill at a pressure of less than 1 atmosphere, wherein the backfill pressure is directly related to the increase or decrease of peak output and inversely related to the increase and decrease of the emitted spectrum from the envelope. The emitting fill can be less than 6 mg/cc, or at least 2 mg/cc of the envelope of a sulfur containing substance. 17 figs.

Gabor, G.; Orr, T.R.; Greene, C.M.; Crawford, D.G.; Berman, S.M.

1999-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

348

15 KJ FLASH LAMP, POWER CONDITIONING UNIT DESIGNED FOR SAFTY, RELIABILITY & MANUFACTURABILITY*  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A 15kJoule, Flash Lamp Power Conditioning Unit has been successfully designed, developed, and deployed in the National Ignition Facility (NIF) Preamplifier Modules (PAM). The primary design philosophy of this power conditioning unit (PCU) is safety, reliability, and manufacturability. Cost reduction over commercially equivalent systems was also achieved through an easily manufactured packaging design optimized to meet NIF requirements. While still maintaining low cost, the PCU design includes a robust control system, fault diagnostic system, and safety features. The pulsed power design includes 6 PFN modules, each including a dual series injection trigger transformer, that drive a total of 12 flash lamp loads. The lamps are individually triggered via a 20kV pulse produced by a 1kV, MCT switched capacitive discharge unit on the primary side of the trigger transformer. The remote control interface includes an embedded controller that captures flash lamp current wave forms and fault status for each shot. The embedded controller provides the flexibility of remotely adjusting both the main drive voltage from 1.6 to 2.5 kV and the trigger voltage from 0 to 20 kV.

James, G; Merritt, B; Dreifuerst, G; Strickland, S

2007-08-07T23:59:59.000Z

349

Laboratory for Advanced Materials Processing University of Maryland http://www.enma.umd.edu/LAMP  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

) = Rs x (L / W), with Rs: sheet resistance of a layer of this material The sheet resistance is expressedLaboratory for Advanced Materials Processing � University of Maryland http Operating Procedure for LAMP four point probe sheet resistance measurements Overview of 4 point probe

Rubloff, Gary W.

350

Report 20.3: Stress Testing of LED PAR38 Lamps  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

A small sample of each of the Application Summary Report 20 PAR38 lamp types underwent stress testing that included substantial temperature and humidity changes, electrical variation, and vibration. The results do not directly address expected lifetime, but can be compared with one another, as well as with benchmark conventional products, to assess the relative robustness of the product designs. (24 pages, December 2014)

351

Method and apparatus for powering an electrodeless lamp with reduced radio frequency interference  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An electrodeless lamp waveguide structure includes tuned absorbers for spurious RF signals. A lamp waveguide with an integral frequency selective attenuation includes resonant absorbers positioned within the waveguide to absorb spurious out-of-band RF energy. The absorbers have a negligible effect on energy at the selected frequency used to excite plasma in the lamp. In a first embodiment, one or more thin slabs of lossy magnetic material are affixed to the sidewalls of the waveguide at approximately one quarter wavelength of the spurious signal from an end wall of the waveguide. The positioning of the lossy material optimizes absorption of power from the spurious signal. In a second embodiment, one or more thin slabs of lossy magnetic material are used in conjunction with band rejection waveguide filter elements. In a third embodiment, one or more microstrip filter elements are tuned to the frequency of the spurious signal and positioned within the waveguide to couple and absorb the spurious signal's energy. All three embodiments absorb negligible energy at the selected frequency and so do not significantly diminish the energy efficiency of the lamp.

Simpson, James E. (Gaithersburg, MD)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

352

Method and apparatus for powering an electrodeless lamp with reduced radio frequency interference  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An electrodeless lamp waveguide structure includes tuned absorbers for spurious RF signals. A lamp waveguide with an integral frequency selective attenuation includes resonant absorbers positioned within the waveguide to absorb spurious out-of-band RF energy. The absorbers have a negligible effect on energy at the selected frequency used to excite plasma in the lamp. In a first embodiment, one or more thin slabs of lossy magnetic material are affixed to the sidewalls of the waveguide at approximately one quarter wavelength of the spurious signal from an end wall of the waveguide. The positioning of the lossy material optimizes absorption of power from the spurious signal. In a second embodiment, one or more thin slabs of lossy magnetic material are used in conjunction with band rejection waveguide filter elements. In a third embodiment, one or more microstrip filter elements are tuned to the frequency of the spurious signal and positioned within the waveguide to couple and absorb the spurious signal's energy. All three embodiments absorb negligible energy at the selected frequency and so do not significantly diminish the energy efficiency of the lamp. 18 figs.

Simpson, J.E.

1999-06-08T23:59:59.000Z

353

Predicted Pulsed-Power/Flash-Lamp Performance of the NIF Main Amplifier  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The laser glass for the National Ignition Facility (NIF) Main Amplifier system is pumped by a system of 192 pulsed power/flash lamp assemblies. Each of these 192 assemblies consists of a 1.6 MJ (nominal) capacitor bank working with a Pre-Ionization/Lamp Check (PILC) pulser to drive an array of 40 flash lamps. This paper describes the predicted performance of these Power Conditioning System (PCS) modules in concert with flashlamp assemblies in NIF. Each flashlamp assembly consists of 20 parallel sets of lamps in series pairs. The sensitivity of system performance to various design parameters of the PILC pulser and the main capacitor bank is described. Results of circuit models are compared to sub-scale flashlamp tests and to measurements taken in tests of a PCS module driving a flashlamp assembly in the First Article NIF Test Module facility at Sandia National Laboratories. Also included are predictions from a physics-based, semi-empirical amplifier gain code.

Fulkerson, E. Steven; Hammond, Jud; Harjes, Henry C.; Moore, William B.S.; Smith, David L.; Wilson, J. Michael

1999-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

354

Issues, Models and Solutions for Triac Modulated Phase Dimming of LED Lamps  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

greater than incandescent lamps [1,2]. In fact, recent technological breakthroughs [3-7] in the high of LED lighting: An incandescent source produces 10 ­ 20 lumens/watt, while several manufacturers have? Incandescent bulbs primarily utilize phase modulating dimming through triac switches to control the power sent

Lehman, Brad

355

Hands On Science with NOAA TITLE: Plate Tectonics and Lava Lamps  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and geological events?" Answer = heat from radioactive decay · Compare the light bulb in lava to Earth's internal in the lava lamp. · Plot recent earthquakes and volcanic activity on a world map and compare to the location.education.noaa.gov/Ocean_and_Coasts/Ocean_Floor_Features.html USGS Earthquake Hazards - http

356

Thermophysical Properties of Sodium Nitrate and Sodium Chloride  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

Thermophysical Properties of Sodium Nitrate and Sodium Chloride Thermophysical Properties of Sodium Nitrate and Sodium Chloride Solutions and Their Effects on Fluid Flow in Unsaturated Media Tianfu Xu and Karsten Pruess Earth Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 ABSTRACT. Understanding movement of saline sodium nitrate (NaNO 3 ) waste solutions is important for assessing the contaminant migration near leaking waste storage tanks in the unsaturated zone at the Hanford site (Washington, USA). The purpose of this study is to contribute a basic understanding of effects of the thermophysical behavior of NaNO 3 solutions on fluid flow in unsaturated media. We first present mathematical expressions for the dependence of density, viscosity, solubility and vapor pressure of

357

Structural Evidence for a Fast-Ion Transition in the High-Pressure Rocksalt Phase of Silver Iodide  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This Letter describes neutron diffraction measurements of the rocksalt structured phase of AgI at high pressure and temperature and the structural disorder which accompanies its high conductivity. In contrast to the first-order structural phase transition which results in fast-ionic ?-AgI at ambient pressure, the fast-ionic behavior in rocksalt structured AgI occurs above a diffuse transition with a small anomaly in lattice parameter and a continuous increase in occupation of interstitial tetrahedral sites with increasing temperature. There are approximately 10 times more defects in the fast-ionic phase of rocksalt AgI than in isostructural AgBr at ambient pressure, 1 K below melting.

D. A. Keen; S. Hull; W. Hayes; N. J. G. Gardner

1996-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

358

Ultra-High Pressure Driver and Nozzle Survivability in the RDHWT/MARIAH II Hypersonic Wind Tunnel  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An ultra-high pressure device provides a high enthalpy (> 2500 kJ/kg), low entropy (< 5 kJ/kg-K) air source for the RDHWT/MARIAH II Program Medium Scale Hypersonic Wind Tunnel. The design uses stagnation conditions of 2300 MPa (330,000 Psi) and 750 K (900 F) in a radial configuration of intensifiers around an axial manifold to deliver pure air at 100 kg/s mass flow rates for run times suitable for aerodynamic, combustion, and test and evaluation applications. Helium injection upstream of the nozzle throat reduces the throat wall recovery temperature to about 1200 K and reduces the oxygen concentration at the nozzle wall.

Costantino, M.; Brown, G.; Raman, K.; Miles, R.; Felderman, J.

2000-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

359

'Devil's Staircase'-Type Phase Transition in NaV{sub 2}O{sub 5} under High Pressure  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The 'devil's staircase'-type phase transition in the quarter-filled spin-ladder compound NaV{sub 2}O {sub 5} has been discovered at low temperature and high pressure by synchrotron radiation x-ray diffraction. A large number of transitions are found to successively take place among higher-order commensurate phases with 2a x 2b x zc type superstructures. The observed temperature and pressure dependence of modulation wave number q{sub c}, defined by 1/z, is well reproduced by the axial next nearest neighbor Ising model. The q{sub c} is suggested to reflect atomic displacements presumably coupled with charge ordering in this system.

Ohwada, K.; Fujii, Y.; Takesue, N.; Isobe, M.; Ueda, Y.; Nakao, H.; Wakabayashi, Y.; Murakami, Y.; Ito, K.; Amemiya, Y. (and others)

2001-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

360

Sodium loop framework structural analysis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document provides the structural analysis of the Sodium Loop framework in a drop condition. The drop is similar to the US Department of Transportation non-bulk, performance-oriented packaging (Packaging Group I) drop test. The drop height evaluated for the Sodium Loop framework is 5.9 ft.

Nguyen, P.M.

1995-06-06T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high-pressure sodium lamps" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

City of Orrville, Ohio (Utility Company) | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Orrville, Ohio (Utility Company) Orrville, Ohio (Utility Company) Jump to: navigation, search Name City of Orrville Place Ohio Utility Id 14194 Utility Location Yes Ownership M NERC Location RFC NERC RFC Yes RTO PJM Yes Operates Generating Plant Yes Activity Generation Yes Activity Transmission Yes Activity Buying Transmission Yes Activity Distribution Yes Activity Bundled Services Yes References EIA Form EIA-861 Final Data File for 2010 - File1_a[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Utility Rate Schedules Grid-background.png 100 Watt High Pressure Sodium Lamp Metered Lighting 100 Watt High Pressure Sodium Lamp Unmetered Lighting 150 Watt High Pressure Sodium Lamp Metered Lighting

362

Tables of thermodynamic properties of sodium  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The thermodynamic properties of saturated sodium, superheated sodium, and subcooled sodium are tabulated as a function of temperature. The temperature ranges are 380 to 2508 K for saturated sodium, 500 to 2500 K for subcooled sodium, and 400 to 1600 K for superheated sodium. Tabulated thermodynamic properties are enthalpy, heat capacity, pressure, entropy, density, instantaneous thermal expansion coefficient, compressibility, and thermal pressure coefficient. Tables are given in SI units and cgs units.

Fink, J.K.

1982-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

363

Independent Oversight Review, Sodium Bearing Waste Treatment...  

Energy Savers [EERE]

Federal - June 2012 Independent Oversight Review, Sodium Bearing Waste Treatment Project - Federal - June 2012 June 2012 Review of the Sodium Bearing Waste Treatment Project -...

364

Independent Oversight Review, Sodium Bearing Waste Treatment...  

Energy Savers [EERE]

Contractor - June 2012 Independent Oversight Review, Sodium Bearing Waste Treatment Project - Contractor - June 2012 June 2012 Review of the Sodium Bearing Waste Treatment Project...

365

Energy Savings and NOx Emissions Reduction Potential from the 2012 Federal Legislation to Phase Out Incandescent Lamps in Texas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Lamps in Texas Description Value Reference Total Housing Units in Texas in 2013: 10,204,056 Real Estate Center, Texas A&M University3, U.S. Census Bureau4 5 Average Lighting Electricity Usage per House: 1,946 kWh/yr NREL Building America Program6... Savings in Texas: 10,424,973 MWh/yr OSD CFL Savings in Texas: 28,562 MWh/day By 2013, it is estimated that total savings of 10,424,973 MWh/yr would be achieved from replacing incandescent lamps with compact fluorescent lamps (CFL) in residential...

Liu, Zi; Baltazar, Juan Carlos; Haberl, Jeff; Soman, Rohit

366

High pressure ceramic joint  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Many recuperators have components which react to corrosive gases and are used in applications where the donor fluid includes highly corrosive gases. These recuperators have suffered reduced life, increased service or maintenance, and resulted in increased cost. The present joint when used with recuperators increases the use of ceramic components which do not react to highly corrosive gases. Thus, the present joint used with the present recuperator increases the life, reduces the service and maintenance, and reduces the increased cost associated with corrosive action of components used to manufacture recuperators. The present joint is comprised of a first ceramic member, a second ceramic member, a mechanical locking device having a groove defined in one of the first ceramic member and the second ceramic member. The joint and the mechanical locking device is further comprised of a refractory material disposed in the groove and contacting the first ceramic member and the second ceramic member. The present joint mechanically provides a high strength load bearing joint having good thermal cycling characteristics, good resistance to a corrosive environment and good steady state strength at elevated temperatures.

Ward, Michael E. (Poway, CA); Harkins, Bruce D. (San Diego, CA)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

367

High pressure storage vessel  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Disclosed herein is a composite pressure vessel with a liner having a polar boss and a blind boss a shell is formed around the liner via one or more filament wrappings continuously disposed around at least a substantial portion of the liner assembly combined the liner and filament wrapping have a support profile. To reduce susceptible to rupture a locally disposed filament fiber is added.

Liu, Qiang

2013-08-27T23:59:59.000Z

368

High pressure ceramic joint  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Many recuperators have components which react to corrosive gases and are used in applications where the donor fluid includes highly corrosive gases. These recuperators have suffered reduced life, increased service or maintenance, and resulted in increased cost. The present joint when used with recuperators increases the use of ceramic components which do not react to highly corrosive gases. Thus, the present joint used with the present recuperator increases the life, reduces the service and maintenance, and reduces the increased cost associated with corrosive action of components used to manufacture recuperators. The present joint is comprised of a first ceramic member, a second ceramic member, a mechanical locking device having a groove defined in one of the first ceramic member and the second ceramic member. The joint and the mechanical locking device is further comprised of a refractory material disposed in the groove and contacting the first ceramic member and the second ceramic member. The present joint mechanically provides a high strength load bearing joint having good thermal cycling characteristics, good resistance to a corrosive environment and good steady state strength at elevated temperatures. 4 figures.

Ward, M.E.; Harkins, B.D.

1993-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

369

Simulation of sodium boiling experiments with THERMIT sodium version  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Natural and forced convection experiments(SBTF and French) are simulated with the sodium version of the thermal-hydraulic computer code THERMIT. Simulation is done for the test secti- -on with the pressure-velocity boundary ...

Huh, Kang Yul

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

370

High-Temperature Phase Transitions in CsH2PO4 Under Ambient and High-Pressure Conditions: A Synchrotron X-ray Diffraction Study  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

To clarify the microscopic origin of the temperature-induced three-order-of-magnitude jump in the proton conductivity of CsH2PO4 (superprotonic behavior), we have investigated its crystal structure modifications within the 25-300 C temperature range under both ambient- and high-pressure conditions using synchrotron x-ray diffraction. Our high-pressure data show no indication of the thermal decomposition/polymerization at the crystal surface recently proposed as the origin of the enhanced proton conductivity. Instead, we found direct evidence that the superprotonic behavior of the title material is associated with a polymorphic structural transition to a high-temperature cubic phase. Our results are in excellent agreement with previous high-pressure ac impedance measurements.

Botez,C.; Hermosillo, J.; Zhang, J.; Qian, J.; Zhao, Y.; Majzlan, J.; Chianelli, R.; Pantea, C.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

371

LED lamp or bulb with remote phosphor and diffuser configuration with enhanced scattering properties  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An LED lamp or bulb is disclosed that comprises a light source, a heat sink structure and an optical cavity. The optical cavity comprises a phosphor carrier having a conversions material and arranged over an opening to the cavity. The phosphor carrier comprises a thermally conductive transparent material and is thermally coupled to the heat sink structure. An LED based light source is mounted in the optical cavity remote to the phosphor carrier with light from the light source passing through the phosphor carrier. A diffuser dome is included that is mounted over the optical cavity, with light from the optical cavity passing through the diffuser dome. The properties of the diffuser, such as geometry, scattering properties of the scattering layer, surface roughness or smoothness, and spatial distribution of the scattering layer properties may be used to control various lamp properties such as color uniformity and light intensity distribution as a function of viewing angle.

Tong, Tao; Le Toquin, Ronan; Keller, Bernd; Tarsa, Eric; Youmans, Mark; Lowes, Theodore; Medendorp, Jr., Nicholas W; Van De Ven, Antony; Negley, Gerald

2014-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

372

Ground beef shelf life assessment as influenced by sodium lactate, sodium propionate, sodium diacetate, and soy protein concentrate  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In phase I all-beef and soy-added ground beef patties containing sodium lactate, sodium propionate, and sodium diacetate at various levels and combinations were stored for nine months at -10C. Upon cooking, the addition of sodium lactate increased...

Grones, Kelly Leann

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

373

Xenon flash lamp pumped self-frequency doubling NYAB pulsed laser  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Neodymium doped yttrium aluminum borate (NYAB) crystals with sizes up to 45mm have been grown successfully. NYAB rod of 4 ? 12mm was pumped by xenon flash lamp, and several mJ of 0.53?m green laser output was obtained. The oscillation threshold, the pulse duration, the laser beam polarization, and the laser beam divergence were measured to be 78mJ, 100ns, 90% and 2mrad, respectively.

Luo Zundu; Jiang Aidong; Huang Yichuan; Qiu Minwang

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

374

2015-01-28 Issuance: Test Procedure for Fluorescent Lamp Ballasts; Final Rule Correction  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This document is a pre-publication Federal Register final rule correction regarding test procedures for fluorescent lamp ballasts, as issued by the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency on January 28, 2014. Though it is not intended or expected, should any discrepancy occur between the document posted here and the document published in the Federal Register, the Federal Register publication controls. This document is being made available through the Internet solely as a means to facilitate the public's access to this document.

375

Household Light Makes Global Heat: High Black Carbon Emissions From Kerosene Wick Lamps  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

(3) Lighting is another component of this household energy challenge, with millions of households still relying on simple liquid-fueled lamps, but little is known of the associated environmental and health impacts. ... For laboratory tests, CO2 and CO concentrations were measured in real-time with a Li-COR 6252 (Li-COR Biosciences, Lincoln, NE) and Horiba AIA-220 (Horiba, Kyoto, Japan) nondispersive infrared (NDIR) analyzer, respectively. ...

Nicholas L. Lam; Yanju Chen; Cheryl Weyant; Chandra Venkataraman; Pankaj Sadavarte; Michael A. Johnson; Kirk R. Smith; Benjamin T. Brem; Joseph Arineitwe; Justin E. Ellis; Tami C. Bond

2012-11-19T23:59:59.000Z

376

The high pressure synthesis and structure of a new aurate, CaAu{sub 2}O{sub 4}  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A novel aurate CaAu{sub 2}O{sub 4} has been synthesized by high pressure-temperature technique. The sample was contained in an Au capsule and heated to 1000{approximately}1200{degrees}C at 12{approximately}15 GPa in the split-sphere multi-anvil apparatus (USSA-2000). Electron probe Microanalysis of small crystals indicated an oxide ratio of 0.96(6) CaO:1.01(2) Au{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The compound is pale yellow, with a = 5.991141(1), c = 10.04983(3) {angstrom}, Z = 4, 14{sub 1}/a. The structure was solved using both synchroton x-ray powder diffraction and single crystal x-ray data. It consists of corner-linked AuO{sub 4} square planes and distorted CaO{sub 8} dodecahedra; in the figure Ca{sup 2+} ions (circles) are filled in the cavities surrounded by staggered square planar AuO{sub 4} units.

Park, J.H.; Parise, J.B. [State Univ. of New York, Stony Brook, NY (United States)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

377

Effects of high pressure-dependent leakoff and high process-zone stress in coal-stimulation treatments  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Hydraulic fracturing in coals has been studied extensively over the last two decades; however, there are factors that were often ignored or incorrectly diagnosed, resulting in screenouts. Assuming that a majority of the perforations are open and there are no problems with the stimulation fluids, screenouts during coal hydraulic-fracture treatments can be attributed to either high pressure-dependent leakoff (PDL), high process-zone stress (PZS) or in some cases both. The objective of this work is to discuss, help identify, and present solutions to address these reservoir-related issues such that screenouts can be avoided in optimized refracture treatments and new well stimulations. The tools for identifying these reservoir-related parameters include a diagnostic fracture-injection test (DFIT) and a grid-oriented fully functional 3D fracture simulator with shear decoupling. An example for each respective case is presented in this paper. In the first example, in which high PZS was considered to be the dominant reason for screenout or pressure out, the well was restimulated successfully by implementing the solutions presented in this paper. In the second example, in which high PDL was considered to be the main reason for screenout, there were several wells in the same project area that exhibited the same behavior resulting in screenouts. After implementing the solutions presented in this paper to address high PDL, all new wells were stimulated successfully without any issues.

Ramurthy, M.; Lyons, B.; Hendrickson, R.B.; Barree, R.D.; Magill, D.R. [Halliburton, Denver, CO (United States)

2009-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

378

Transformation pathways in high-pressure solid nitrogen: from molecular N$_2$ to polymeric cg-N  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The transition pathway in high-pressure solid nitrogen from N$_2$ molecular state to polymeric cg-N phase was investigated by means of \\textit{ab initio} molecular dynamics and metadynamics simulations. In our study, we observed a transformation mechanism from molecular $Immm$ phase initiated by formation of $trans$-$cis$ chains. These chains further connected within layers and formed a chain-planar state, which we describe as a mixture of crystalline $trans$-$cis$ chain phase and $planar$ phase (both with $Pnma$ symmetry). This form appeared in molecular dynamics performed at 120 GPa and 1500 K and also in metadynamics run at 110 GPa and 1500 K, in which the chains continued to reorganize further and finally formed cg-N. During various other metadynamics runs, two different phases emerged - molecular $P2_1/c$ and two-three-coordinated chain-like $Cm$. The transformation mechanism leading to cg-N may be characterized as a progressive polymerization process passing throughout several intermediate states of var...

Plaienka, Dusan

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

379

Structural phase transitions in EuFe[subscript 2]As[subscript 2] superconductor at low temperatures and high pressures  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The crystal structure of EuFe{sub 2}As{sub 2} has been studied up to a pressure of 35 GPa and down to a temperature of 8 K using temperature dependent x-ray diffraction in a diamond anvil cell at a synchrotron source. At 4.3 GPa, we have detected a structural phase transition from a high temperature tetragonal phase with I4/mmm space group to a low temperature orthorhombic phase with Fmmm space group around 120 K. With the application of pressure at a low temperature of 10 K, the orthorhombic phase is suppressed and a phase change to a collapsed tetragonal phase with I4/mmm space group is observed at 11 GPa. This collapsed tetragonal phase is similar to the one observed at ambient temperature and pressure above 8.5 GPa. We have shown that the collapsed tetragonal phase of EuFe{sub 2}As{sub 2} has the same pressure-volume (P-V) equation of state at ambient temperature and at 10 K, implying that the high pressure phase of EuFe{sub 2}As{sub 2} has a negligible thermal expansion coefficient.

Uhoya, Walter O.; Tsoi, Georgiy M.; Vohra, Yogesh K.; McGuire, Michael A.; Sefat, Athena S. (UAB); (ORNL)

2011-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

380

Creating markets for new products to replace incandescent lamps: The international experience  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Since the summer of 1995, several organizations have been in pursuit of what many consider the Holy Grail of lighting technology--a low-cost, drop-in, energy-efficient replacement for the incandescent lamp. This paper summarizes the international experience in attempting to catalyze the commercialization of a mass-market, replacement product that could have major impact on residential lighting energy consumption in US and EU homes. The technology procurement effort was originally spearheaded by US Federal Government through a loose collaboration between the Department of Defense (DoD), the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Department of Energy (DOE). The DoD agreed to serve as the anchor buyer for a low-cost, drop-in replacement product for standard-sized light bulbs that provide at least 30 percent energy savings compared to traditional incandescent lamps. In parallel to the US effort, the International Energy Agency launched a co-operative technology procurement effort by assembling large buyers' groups in Finland, the Netherlands, Sweden, and the United Kingdom to pull a similar efficient lighting product into the European market. The lukewarm response from lamp manufacturers to these two technology procurement efforts illustrates the challenges of transforming residential lighting from incandescent to efficient lighting.

Rubinstein, F.; Borg, N.; Horowitz, N.; Narel, T.; Morehouse, E.T. Jr.

1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high-pressure sodium lamps" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Performance of a novel LED lamp arrangement to reduce SNR fluctuation for multi-user visible light communication systems  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper investigates the performance of our recently proposed LED lamp arrangement to reduce the SNR fluctuation from different locations in the room for multi-user visible light...

Wang, Zixiong; Yu, Changyuan; Zhong, Wen-De; Chen, Jian; Chen, Wei

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

382

A New Rb Lamp Exciter Circuit for Rb atomic clocks and Studies on Transition from Ring to Red mode  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this paper we describe the development of novel RF exciter circuit for electrode less Rb lamp. The lamp exciter circuit is a RF oscillator with a a new configuration operating at 60 to 65 MHz frequency with 3 to 4 watt power. The Rb lamp is used in exciting the ground state hyperfine transitions in Rb atom in a glass cell placed inside a tuned microwave cavity, As the frequency of these hyperfine transitions is very stable it is used in the development of Rb atomic clock by phase locking the oven controlled crystal oscillator (OCXO) to this atomic transition frequency. The details of the Rb lamp exciter are presented in the paper.The Lamp is ideally operated in ring mode as in this mode the linewidth is narrow and there is no self reversal. However, high temperature and RF excitation power may drive the Rb lamp to red mode which gives rise to line broadening and self reversal. It is the experience that mode change from ring to red deteriorates the atomic signal strength and S/N. In this paper the reasons of mode change are also discussed.

Savita Singh; Bikash Ghosal; G M Saxena

2010-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

383

Rice-Ramsperger-Kassel-Marcus theoretical prediction of high-pressure Arrhenius parameters by nonlinear regression: application to silane and disilane decomposition  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Rice-Ramsperger-Kassel-Marcus theoretical prediction of high-pressure Arrhenius parameters by nonlinear regression: application to silane and disilane decomposition ... The average SiNW growth rate using disilane (Si2H6) at 400 ... ... Thermal Decomposition Mechanism of Disilane ...

Karl F. Roenigk; Klavs F. Jensen; Robert W. Carr

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

384

Investigation on the effects of ultra-high pressure and temperature on the rheological properties of oil-based drilling fluids  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Designing a fit-for-purpose drilling fluid for high-pressure, high-temperature (HP/HT) operations is one of the greatest technological challenges facing the oil and gas industry today. Typically, a drilling fluid is subjected to increasing...

Ibeh, Chijioke Stanley

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

385

In situ determination of the spinelpost-spinel transition in Fe3O4 at high pressure and temperature by synchrotron X-ray diffraction  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Crystallography, 34, 210-213. Wang, Y., Rivers, M., Sutton...high-pressure facility for synchroton radiation research at GeoSoilEnviroCars...Technology, 7, 1490-1495. Wang, Y., Rivers, M., Sutton...Swiss-army-knife approach to synchroton-based experimental studies...

K. Schollenbruch; A.B. Woodland; D.J. Frost; Y. Wang; T. Sanehira; F. Langenhorst

386

GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS, VOL. 24, NO. 24, PAGES 3269-3272, DECEMBER 15, 1997 Ab initio elasticity of three high-pressure polymorphs  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Full elastic constant tensors of three high- pressure polymorphs of silica: stishovite, CaCl2-type stishovite to the CaCl2 structure at 47 GPa. At this phase transition, the isotropically averaged shear wave of two. The trans- formation of the CaCl2 phase to the columbite phase at 98 GPa is accompanied

Stixrude, Lars

387

Large volume high-pressure cell for inelastic neutron scattering W. Wang, D. A. Sokolov, A. D. Huxley, and K. V. Kamenev  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Large volume high-pressure cell for inelastic neutron scattering W. Wang, D. A. Sokolov, A. D for inelastic neutron scattering measurements of quantum fluids and solids Rev. Sci. Instrum. 84, 015101 (2013) TOF-SEMSANS--Time-of-flight spin-echo modulated small-angle neutron scattering J. Appl. Phys. 112

Hall, Christopher

388

Small-volume, ultrahigh-vacuum-compatible high-pressure reaction cell for combined kinetic and in situ IR spectroscopic measurements on planar model catalysts  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We describe the design and performance of a high-pressure reaction cell for simultaneous kinetic and in situ infrared reflection (IR) spectroscopic measurements on model catalysts at elevated pressures, between 10{sup -3} and 10{sup 3} mbars, which can be operated both as batch reactor and as flow reactor with defined gas flow. The cell is attached to an ultrahigh-vacuum (UHV) system, which is used for sample preparation and also contains facilities for sample characterization. Specific for this design is the combination of a small cell volume, which allows kinetic measurements with high sensitivity under batch or continuous flow conditions, the complete isolation of the cell from the UHV part during UHV measurements, continuous temperature control during both UHV and high-pressure operation, and rapid transfer between UHV and high-pressure stage. Gas dosing is performed by a designed gas-handling system, which allows operation as flow reactor with calibrated gas flows at adjustable pressures. To study the kinetics of reactions on the model catalysts, a quadrupole mass spectrometer is connected to the high-pressure cell. IR measurements are possible in situ by polarization-modulation infrared reflection-absorption spectroscopy, which also allows measurements at elevated pressures. The performance of the setup is demonstrated by test measurements on the kinetics for CO oxidation and the CO adsorption on a Au/TiO{sub 2}/Ru(0001) model catalyst film at 1-50 mbar total pressure.

Zhao, Z.; Diemant, T.; Haering, T.; Rauscher, H.; Behm, R.J. [Department Surface Chemistry and Catalysis, University of Ulm, D-89069 Ulm (Germany)

2005-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

389

Probing of bonding changes in B[subscript 2]O[subscript 3] glasses at high pressure with inelastic X-ray scattering  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Full understanding of atomic arrangement in amorphous oxides both at ambient and high pressure is an ongoing fundamental puzzle. Whereas the structures of archetypal oxide glasses such as v-B{sub 2}O{sub 3} at high pressure are essential to elucidate origins of anomalous macroscopic properties of more complex melts, knowledge of the high-pressure structure and pressure-induced coordination changes of these glasses has remained elusive due to lack of suitable in situ experimental probes. Here, we report synchrotron inelastic X-ray scattering results for v-{sub 2}O{sub 3} at pressures up to 22.5 GPa, revealing the nature of pressure-induced bonding changes and the structure. Direct in situ measurements show a continuous transformation from tri-coordinated to tetra-coordinated boron beginning at 4-7 GPa with most of the boron tetra-coordinated above 20 GPa, forming dense tetrahedral v-B{sub 2}O{sub 3}. After decompression from high pressure the bonding reverts back to tri-coordinated boron but with the data suggesting a permanent densification.

Lee, Sung Kuen; Eng, Peter J.; Mao, Ho-Kwang; Meng, Yue; Newville, Matthew; Hu, Michael Y.; Shu, Jinfu (Seoul); (CIW); (UC)

2010-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

390

Application of wavelength-scanned wavelength-modulation spectroscopy H2O absorption measurements in an engineering-scale high-pressure coal gasifier  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A real-time, in situ water vapor (H2O) sensor using a tunable diode laser near 1,352nm was developed to continuously monitor water vapor in the synthesis gas of an engineering-scale high-pressure coal gasifier....

Kai Sun; Ritobrata Sur; Jay B. Jeffries; Ronald K. Hanson; Tommy Clark

2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

391

Chapter 13 - Energy Conversion of Biomass and Recycling of Waste Plastics Using Supercritical Fluid, Subcritical Fluid and High-Pressure Superheated Steam  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Utilization of unused or waste biomass as fuels is receiving much attention owing to the reduction of CO2 emission and the development of alternative energy to expensive fossil fuels. On the other hand, the recycling of waste plastics is important for the prevention of the exhaustion of fossil resources. In this chapter, typical several examples of the energy conversion of biomass and the recycling of waste plastics using supercritical fluid, subcritical fluid, and high-pressure superheated steam were introduced: (1) bioethanol production from paper sludge with subcritical water, (2) hydrogen production from various biomass with high-pressure superheated steam, (3) production of composite solid fuel from waste biomass and plastics with subcritical water, (4) waste treatment and recovery of thermal energy with high-pressure superheated steam oxidation, (5) recycling of carbon fiber-reinforced plastic with high-pressure superheated steam and supercritical alcohol, (6) recycling of laminate film with subcritical water, and (7) recycling of cross-linked polyethylene with supercritical methanol.

Idzumi Okajima; Takeshi Sako

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

392

Energy dissipation via quantum-chemical hysteresis during high-pressure compression: A first-principles molecular dynamics study of phosphates  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-phosphates (TPs) and zinc phosphates (ZPs) to changes in pressure p and temperature T is studied through firstEnergy dissipation via quantum-chemical hysteresis during high-pressure compression: A first to signifi- cant energy dissipation, which contributes to the high friction coefficients of ZP anti-wear pads

Mueser, Martin

393

Structural change associated with the incommensurate-normal phase transition in akermanite, Ca2MgSi2O7, at high pressure  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...?The structural changes associated with the incommensurate (IC)-normal (N) phase transition in akermanite have been studied with high-pressure single-...a and c axes are 0.00280(10) and 0.00418(6)?GPa?1 for th...

Hexiong Yang; Robert M. Hazen; Robert T. Downs

1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

394

Effect of High-Pressure Impregnation on Structure Variation and Desulfurization Property of a Zn-Based Sorbent Prepared Using Lignite as a Support  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Effect of High-Pressure Impregnation on Structure Variation and Desulfurization Property of a Zn-Based Sorbent Prepared Using Lignite as a Support ... Lignite reserves are relatively abundant in China; however, its utilization is significantly limited because of its high water content and low calorific value. ...

Xiurong Ren; Qiang He; Yurong Dong; Meijun Wang; Liping Chang; Weiren Bao

2014-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

395

Gelcasting Polycrystalline Alumina  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

OSRAM SYLVANIA INC. is a major U.S. manufacturer of high-intensity lighting. Among its products is the Lumalux TM line of high-pressure sodium vapor arc lamps, which are used for industrial, highway, and street lighting. The key to the performance of these lamps is the polycrystalline alumina (PCA) tube that is used to contain the plasma that is formed in the electric arc. That plasma consists of ionized sodium, mercury, and xenon vapors. The key attributes of the PCA tubes are their transparency ({approximately}97% total transmittance in the visible), their refractoriness (inner wall temperature can reach l2OOC), and their chemical resistance (sodium and mercury vapor are extremely corrosive). The current efficiency of the lamps is very high, up to 100 initial lumens per watt. (Compare incandescent lamps 10-20 lumens per watt, fluorescent lamps 25-90 lumens per watt.)

Janney, M.A.; Zuk, K.J.; Wei, G.C.

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

396

Equations of state and phase transformation of depleted uranium DU-238 by high pressure-temperature diffraction studies  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We have conducted in situ high-pressure diffraction experiments on depleted uranium (DU-238) at pressures up to 8.5GPa and temperatures up to 1123K. From the pressure (P)-volume (V)-temperature (T) measurements, thermoelastic parameters were derived for ?-uranium based on a modified high-T Birch-Murnaghan equation of state and a thermal-pressure approach. With the pressure derivative of the bulk modulus K0? fixed at 4.0, we obtained ambient bulk modulus K0=117(2)GPa, temperature derivative of bulk modulus at constant pressure (?K??T)P=?3.4(4)10?2GPa?K and at constant volume (?K??T)v=?1.1(6)10?2GPa?K, volumetric thermal expansivity ?T=a+bT, with a=1.2(0.4)10?5K?1 and b=8.0(0.7)10?8K?2, and the pressure derivative of thermal expansion (????P)T=?2.5(5)10?6GPa?1K?1. Within the experimental errors, the ambient bulk modulus and volumetric thermal expansion derived from this work are in good agreement with previous experimental results, whereas all other thermoelastic parameters represent the first determinations for the ? phase of uranium. We also studied the ?-? phase transformation and obtained a phase boundary described by T (inK)=1032+7.4P(inGPa). Although the ?-phase uranium cannot be pressure quenched to ambient conditions, it was observed to be stable upon cooling from 1123to300K at pressures of 78GPa. These observations indicate that pressure, in addition to the commonly utilized alloying techniques, provides an alternative route for stabilizing the ?-uranium at room temperature.

Yusheng Zhao; Jianzhong Zhang; Donald W. Brown; Deniece R. Korzekwa; Robert S. Hixson; Liping Wang

2007-05-11T23:59:59.000Z

397

Effects of altitude and fuel oxygen content on the performance of a high pressure common rail diesel engine  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The change of intake oxygen content caused by altitude variation and the change of fuel oxygen content both affect the performance of diesel engines. In this paper, comparative experiments were performed on a high pressure common rail diesel engine fueled with pure diesel and biodieselethanoldiesel (abbreviated as BED) blends with oxygen content of 2%, 2.5%, and 3.2% in mass percentage at different atmospheric pressures of 81kPa, 90kPa, and 100kPa. Moreover, in order to study the effect of different fuel blends with the same oxygen content on the performance of the diesel engine, tests were conducted on the diesel engine fueled with the BED blend and a biodieseldiesel (abbreviated as BD) blend at 81kPa ambient pressure. The experimental results indicate that the influence of altitude variation on the full-load engine brake torque is not significant when the pure diesel fuel is used. With the increase of BED fuel oxygen content, the engine brake torque reduces. When the pure diesel fuel is used, with the increase of atmospheric pressure, the brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) decreases. As the fuel oxygen content increases, there is no significant difference in brake specific fuel consumption of the BED blends. And the values of brake specific energy consumption (BSEC) gradually decrease. Soot emissions of the diesel engine decrease with the increase of atmospheric pressure and fuel oxygen content. The effect of soot emission reduction by increasing the oxygen content of the fuel is more significant than the effect of increasing atmospheric pressure. The effects of BD and BED fuels with basically the same oxygen content on the full-load performance, fuel economy, and soot emissions of the diesel engine are different. The BSFC and soot emissions of the BED fuel are lower than those of the BD fuel.

Shaohua Liu; Lizhong Shen; Yuhua Bi; Jilin Lei

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

398

Soot particle sizing during high-pressure Diesel spray combustion via time-resolved laser-induced incandescence  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Single-pulse time-resolved laser-induced incandescence (TiRe-LII) signal transients from soot particulates were acquired during unsteady high pressure Diesel combustion in a constant volume cell for typical top dead center conditions during a Diesel engine cycle. Measurements were performed for initial gas pressures between 1 and 3 MPa, injection pressures between 50 and 130 MPa and laser probe timings between 5 and 16 ms after start of fuel injection. In separate experiments and for the same cell operating conditions gas temperatures were deduced from spectrally resolved soot pyrometry measurements. Implementing the LII model of Kock et al. [Combust. Flame 147 (2006) 79-92] ensemble mean soot particle diameters were evaluated from least-squares fitting of theoretical cooling curves to experimental TiRe-LII signal transients. Since in the experiments the environmental gas temperature and the width of an assumed particle size distribution were not known, the effects of the initial choice of these parameters on retrieved particle diameters were investigated. It is shown that evaluated mean particle diameters are only slightly biased by the choice of typical size distribution widths and gas temperatures. For a fixed combustion phase mean particle diameters are not much affected by gas pressure, however they become smaller at high fuel injection pressure. At a mean chamber pressure of 1.39 MPa evaluated mean particle diameters increased by a factor of two for probe delays between 5 and 16 ms after start of injection irrespective of the choices of first-guess fitting variables, indicating a certain robustness of data analysis procedure. (author)

Ryser, R.; Gerber, T.; Dreier, T. [Reaction Analysis Group, Department of General Energy, Paul Scherrer Institute, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland)

2008-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

399

Soot particle sizing during high-pressure Diesel spray combustion via time-resolved laser-induced incandescence  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Single-pulse time-resolved laser-induced incandescence (TiRe-LII) signal transients from soot particulates were acquired during unsteady high pressure Diesel combustion in a constant volume cell for typical top dead center conditions during a Diesel engine cycle. Measurements were performed for initial gas pressures between 1 and 3 MPa, injection pressures between 50 and 130 MPa and laser probe timings between 5 and 16 ms after start of fuel injection. In separate experiments and for the same cell operating conditions gas temperatures were deduced from spectrally resolved soot pyrometry measurements. Implementing the LII model of Kock et al. [Combust. Flame 147 (20006) 79-92] ensemble mean soot particle diameters were evaluated from least-squares fitting of theoretical cooling curves to experimental TiRe-LII signal transients. Since in the experiments the environmental gas temperature and the width of an assumed particle size distribution were not known, the effects of the initial choice of these parameters on retrieved particle diameters were investigated. It is shown that evaluated mean particle diameters are only slightly biased by the choice of typical size distribution widths and gas temperatures. For a fixed combustion phase mean particle diameters are not much affected by gas pressure, however they become smaller at high fuel injection pressure. At a mean chamber pressure of 1.39 MPa evaluated mean particle diameters increased by a factor of two for probe delays between 5 and 16 ms after start of injection irrespective of the choices of first-guess fitting variables, indicating a certain robustness of data analysis procedure. (author)

Ryser, R.; Gerber, T.; Dreier, T. [Reaction Analysis Group, Department of General Energy, Paul Scherrer Institute, CH-5232 Villigen (Switzerland)

2009-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

400

Field test of two high-pressure direct-contact downhole steam generators. Volume II. Oxygen/diesel system  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A field test of an oxygen/diesel fuel, direct contact steam generator has been completed. The field test, which was a part of Project DEEP STEAM and was sponsored by the US Department of Energy, involved the thermal stimulation of a well pattern in the Tar Zone of the Wilmington Oil Field. The activity was carried out in cooperation with the City of Long Beach and the Long Beach Oil Development Company. The steam generator was operated at ground level, with the steam and combustion products delivered to the reservoir through 2022 feet of calcium-silicate insulated tubing. The objectives of the test included demonstrations of safety, operational ease, reliability and lifetime; investigations of reservoir response, environmental impact, and economics; and comparison of those points with a second generator that used air rather than oxygen. The test was extensively instrumented to provide the required data. Excluding interruptions not attributable to the oxygen/diesel system, steam was injected 78% of the time. System lifetime was limited by the combustor, which required some parts replacement every 2 to 3 weeks. For the conditions of this particular test, the use of trucked-in LOX resulted in liess expense than did the production of the equivalent amount of high pressure air using on site compressors. No statistically significant production change in the eight-acre oxygen system well pattern occurred during the test, nor were any adverse effects on the reservoir character detected. Gas analyses during the field test showed very low levels of SOX (less than or equal to 1 ppM) in the generator gaseous effluent. The SOX and NOX data did not permit any conclusion to be drawn regarding reservoir scrubbing. Appreciable levels of CO (less than or equal to 5%) were measured at the generator, and in this case produced-gas analyses showed evidence of significant gas scrubbing. 64 figures, 10 tables.

Moreno, J.B.

1983-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high-pressure sodium lamps" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Field test of two high-pressure, direct-contact downhole steam generators. Volume I. Air/diesel system  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

As a part of the Project DEEP STEAM to develop technology to more efficiently utilize steam for the recovery of heavy oil from deep reservoirs, a field test of a downhole steam generator (DSG) was performed. The DSG burned No. 2 diesel fuel in air and was a direct-contact, high pressure device which mixed the steam with the combustion products and injected the resulting mixture directly into the oil reservoir. The objectives of the test program included demonstration of long-term operation of a DSG, development of operational methods, assessment of the effects of the steam/combustion gases on the reservoir and comparison of this air/diesel DSG with an adjacent oxygen/diesel direct contact generator. Downhole operation of the air/diesel DSG was started in June 1981 and was terminated in late February 1982. During this period two units were placed downhole with the first operating for about 20 days. It was removed, the support systems were slightly modified, and the second one was operated for 106 days. During this latter interval the generator operated for 70% of the time with surface air compressor problems the primary source of the down time. Thermal contact, as evidenced by a temperature increase in the production well casing gases, and an oil production increase were measured in one of the four wells in the air/diesel pattern. Reservoir scrubbing of carbon monoxide was observed, but no conclusive data on scrubbing of SO/sub x/ and NO/sub x/ were obtained. Corrosion of the DSG combustor walls and some other parts of the downhole package were noted. Metallurgical studies have been completed and recommendations made for other materials that are expected to better withstand the downhole combustion environment. 39 figures, 8 tables.

Marshall, B.W.

1983-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

402

High-pressure synthesis and crystal structure of the lithium borate HP-LiB{sub 3}O{sub 5}  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The new lithium borate HP-LiB{sub 3}O{sub 5} was synthesized under high-pressure/high-temperature conditions of 6 GPa and 1050 deg. C in a multianvil press with a Walker-type module. The compound crystallizes in the space group Pnma (no. 62) with the lattice parameters a=829.7(2), b=759.6(2), and c=1726.8(4) pm (Z=16). The high-pressure compound HP-LiB{sub 3}O{sub 5} is built up from a three-dimensional network of BO{sub 4} tetrahedra and BO{sub 3} groups, which incorporates Li{sup +} ions in channels along the b-axis. Band assignments of measured IR- and Raman spectra were done via quantum-mechanical calculations. Additionally, the thermal behavior of HP-LiB{sub 3}O{sub 5} was investigated. - Graphical abstract: The new high-pressure compound HP-LiB{sub 3}O{sub 5} is built up from a three-dimensional network of BO4 tetrahedra and BO{sub 3} groups, which incorporates Li{sup +} ions in channels along the b-axis. In this paper, the synthesis, the crystal structure, and the properties of HP-LiB{sub 3}O{sub 5} are described. Highlights: > Synthesis of a new lithium borate with the composition HP-LiB{sub 3}O{sub 5} at high pressure. > In contrast to the non-centrosymmetric phase LiB{sub 3}O{sub 5}, this high-pressure phase is centrosymmetric. > First example of ternary alkali borates exhibiting threefold bridging oxygen atoms.

Neumair, Stephanie C.; Vanicek, Stefan [Institut fuer Allgemeine, Anorganische und Theoretische Chemie, Leopold-Franzens-Universitaet Innsbruck, Innrain 52a, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Kaindl, Reinhard; Toebbens, Daniel M. [Institut fuer Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leopold-Franzens-Universitaet Innsbruck, Innrain 52, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Wurst, Klaus [Institut fuer Allgemeine, Anorganische und Theoretische Chemie, Leopold-Franzens-Universitaet Innsbruck, Innrain 52a, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Huppertz, Hubert, E-mail: Hubert.Huppertz@uibk.ac.at [Institut fuer Allgemeine, Anorganische und Theoretische Chemie, Leopold-Franzens-Universitaet Innsbruck, Innrain 52a, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria)

2011-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

403

Appliances and Commercial Equipment Standards  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

High Intensity Discharge Lamps Test Procedures High Intensity Discharge Lamps Test Procedures Sign up for e-mail updates on regulations for this and other products High-intensity discharge (HID) lamps include mercury vapor (MV), metal halide (MH), and high-pressure sodium (HPS) lamps. The Department of Energy (DOE) is establishing test procedures for HID lamps. This rulemaking is mandated by the Energy Policy and Conservation Act (EPCA). ( 42 U.S.C. 6291-6309) This Rulemaking is related to the High-Intensity Discharge Lamps Standard and Test Procedure. Recent Updates | Public Meeting Information | Submitting Public Comments | Milestones and Documents | Related Rulemakings | Statutory Authority | Contact Information Recent Updates DOE published a notice of proposed rulemaking regarding test procedures for HID lamps. 76 FR 77914 (Dec. 15, 2011).

404

The Sodium-Restricted Diet  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The value of salt has long been known. Feuds and wars were waged for the possession of salt during man's early development. The common expressions "salt of the earth" and "worth his weight in salt" all show the high value placed on salt. Taxes were... collected for possession of salt. Even the word "salary" is connected with salt. Salt remains valuable to us as a source of sodium, an essential nutrient needed by our body to function properly. The body needs sodium to form tissue - to aid a child...

Anonymous,

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

405

Hydrogenation of Carbon Dioxide Catalyzed by Ruthenium Trimethylphosphine Complexes: A Mechanistic Investigation using High-Pressure NMR Spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The previously reported complex, cis-(PMe3)4RuCl(OAc) (1) acts as a catalyst for CO2 hydrogenation into formic acid in the presence of a base and an alcohol co-catalyst. NMR spectroscopy has revealed that 1 exists in solution in equilibrium with fac-(PMe3)3RuCl(h2-OAc) (2), [(PMe3)4Ru(h2-OAc)]Cl (3a), and free PMe3. Complex 2 has been isolated and characterized by elemental analysis, NMR spectroscopy, and X-ray crystallography. 2 has been tested as a CO2 hydrogenation catalyst, however, it performed poorly under the conditions of catalysis used for 1. Complex 3a can be prepared by adding certain alcohols, such as MeOH, EtOH, or o-C6H5OH, to a solution of 1 in CDCl3. The chloride ion of 3a has been exchanged for the non-coordinating anions BPh4 or B(ArF )4 (B(ArF)4 = tetrakis(3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)borate) to produce [(PMe3)4Ru(h2-OAc)]BPh4 (3b) and [(PMe3)4Ru(h2-OAc)]B(ArF)4 (3c). Both of these complexes have been isolated and characterized by elemental analysis, NMR spectroscopy, and in the case of 3b, X-ray crystallography. Complexes 3b and 3c perform just as well as 1 for CO2 hydrogenation to formic acid in the presence of an alcohol co-catalyst; however, 3b,c perform equally well without the added alcohol. High-pressure NMR has been used to investigate the mechanism of CO2 hydrogenation via 3a,b in the presence of base. Two of the intermediates involved have been identified as cis-(PMe3)4RuH2 (5) and cis-(PMe3)4Ru(H)O2CH (6), and the role of the base includes not only trapping of the formic acid product, but also initiation of the catalysis by aiding the conversion of 3b,c to 5.

Getty, April D.; Tai, Chih-Cheng; Linehan, John C.; Jessop, Philip G.; Olmstead, Marilyn M.; Rheingold, Arnold

2009-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

406

Manufacturing Cost Analysis of Novel Steel/Concrete Composite Vessel for Stationary Storage of High-Pressure Hydrogen  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A novel, low-cost, high-pressure, steel/concrete composite vessel (SCCV) technology for stationary storage of compressed gaseous hydrogen (CGH2) is currently under development at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) sponsored by DOE s Fuel Cell Technologies (FCT) Program. The SCCV technology uses commodity materials including structural steels and concretes for achieving cost, durability and safety requirements. In particular, the hydrogen embrittlement of high-strength low-alloy steels, a major safety and durability issue for current industry-standard pressure vessel technology, is mitigated through the use of a unique layered steel shell structure. This report presents the cost analysis results of the novel SCCV technology. A high-fidelity cost analysis tool is developed, based on a detailed, bottom-up approach which takes into account the material and labor costs involved in each of the vessel manufacturing steps. A thorough cost study is performed to understand the SCCV cost as a function of the key vessel design parameters, including hydrogen pressure, vessel dimensions, and load-carrying ratio. The major conclusions include: The SCCV technology can meet the technical/cost targets set forth by DOE s FCT Program for FY2015 and FY2020 for all three pressure levels (i.e., 160, 430 and 860 bar) relevant to the hydrogen production and delivery infrastructure. Further vessel cost reduction can benefit from the development of advanced vessel fabrication technologies such as the highly automated friction stir welding (FSW). The ORNL-patented multi-layer, multi-pass FSW can not only reduce the amount of labor needed for assembling and welding the layered steel vessel, but also make it possible to use even higher strength steels for further cost reductions and improvement of vessel structural integrity. It is noted the cost analysis results demonstrate the significant cost advantage attainable by the SCCV technology for different pressure levels when compared to the industry-standard pressure vessel technology. The real-world performance data of SCCV under actual operating conditions is imperative for this new technology to be adopted by the hydrogen industry for stationary storage of CGH2. Therefore, the key technology development effort in FY13 and subsequent years will be focused on the fabrication and testing of SCCV mock-ups. The static loading and fatigue data will be generated in rigorous testing of these mock-ups. Successful tests are crucial to enabling the near-term impact of the developed storage technology on the CGH2 storage market, a critical component of the hydrogen production and delivery infrastructure. In particular, the SCCV has high potential for widespread deployment in hydrogen fueling stations.

Feng, Zhili [ORNL; Zhang, Wei [ORNL; Wang, Jy-An John [ORNL; Ren, Fei [ORNL

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

407

Mercury Vapor Release from Broken Compact Fluorescent Lamps and In Situ Capture by New Nanomaterial Sorbents  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

There is one report of Hg poisoning (acrodynia) in a child exposed to broken tube-type fluorescents in a detailed case study presented by Tunnessen et al. (6). ... Similar release patterns but lower amounts were seen for spent bulbs (example result 90 ?g in 24 h) or from the fracture site of a new bulb after glass removal to simulate cleanup. ... Artificial lighting systems are transitioning from incandescent to compact fluorescent lamp (CFL) and light-emitting diode (LED) bulbs in response to the U.S. Energy Independence and Security Act and the EU Ecodesign Directive, which leads to energy ... ...

Natalie C. Johnson; Shawn Manchester; Love Sarin; Yuming Gao; Indrek Kulaots; Robert H. Hurt

2008-06-27T23:59:59.000Z

408

2014-10-14 Issuance: Test Procedures Correction for Fluorescent Lamp Ballasts; Notice of Proposed Rulemaking  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This document is a pre-publication Federal Register notice of proposed rulemaking regarding test procedures for fluorescent lamp ballasts, as issued by the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency on October 14, 2014. Though it is not intended or expected, should any discrepancy occur between the document posted here and the document published in the Federal Register, the Federal Register publication controls. This document is being made available through the Internet solely as a means to facilitate the public's access to this document.

409

Surface-Driven Sodium Ion Energy Storage in Nanocellular Carbon...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Surface-Driven Sodium Ion Energy Storage in Nanocellular Carbon Foams. Surface-Driven Sodium Ion Energy Storage in Nanocellular Carbon Foams. Abstract: Sodium ion (Na+) batteries...

410

Influence of the lamp filling on the pumping conditions in a pulsed YAG:Nd3+ laser  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The pumping conditions in pulsed YAG:Nd3+ lasers are determined, to a great extent, by the filling and the discharge conditions in the pump lamps. It is reported that the highest efficiency under free-oscillation conditions was obtained when krypton discharge lamps were used. These lamps had a discharge gap 60 mm long and 5 mm in diameter. They emitted flashes of about 200 ?sec duration. The best results were obtained when the initial gas pressure was ~1000 torr and the discharge energy was W ~ 100150J. The efficiency was lower when the value of W was either larger or smaller. The nature of the filling had little effect on the laser efficiency when xenon and krypton lamps were used to provide energies W close to the nominal value of 250J. The pumping conditions could not be improved significantly by the use of other fillings (inert gases or their mixtures were used). The principal results obtained were valid also when the lamps were operated at a repetition frequency of ? ? 10 Hz.

Vitalii M Podgaetskii; B V Skvortsov; A N Tokareva

1971-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

411

Method of controlling the mercury vapor pressure in a photo-chemical lamp or vapor filter used for Hg.sup.196 enrichment  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention is directed to a method of eliminating the cold spot zones presently used on Hg.sup.196 isotope separation lamps and filters by the use of a mercury amalgams, preferably mercury - indium amalgams. The use of an amalgam affords optimization of the mercury density in the lamp and filter of a mercury enrichment reactor, particularly multilamp enrichment reactors. Moreover, the use of an amalgam in such lamps and/or filters affords the ability to control the spectral line width of radiation emitted from lamps, a requirement for mercury enrichment.

Grossman, Mark W. (Belmont, MA)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

412

Method of controlling the mercury vapor pressure in a photo-chemical lamp or vapor filter used for Hg[sup 196] enrichment  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention is directed to a method of eliminating the cold spot zones presently used on Hg[sup 196] isotope separation lamps and filters by the use of a mercury amalgams, preferably mercury - indium amalgams. The use of an amalgam affords optimization of the mercury density in the lamp and filter of a mercury enrichment reactor, particularly multilamp enrichment reactors. Moreover, the use of an amalgam in such lamps and/or filters affords the ability to control the spectral line width of radiation emitted from lamps, a requirement for mercury enrichment.

Grossman, M.W.

1993-02-16T23:59:59.000Z

413

DOE Publishes Final Rule for the Request for Exclusion of 100 Watt R20 Short Incandescent Reflector Lamps from Energy Conservation Standards  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Department of Energy has published a final rule regarding the request for exclusion of 100 Watt R20 short incandescent reflector lamps from energy conservation standards.

414

Bench-Scale Development of a Hot Carbonate Absorption Process with Crystallization-Enabled High Pressure Stripping for Post-Combustion CO2 Capture  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Development of a Hot Development of a Hot Carbonate Absorption Process with Crystallization-Enabled High Pressure Stripping for Post-Combustion CO 2 Capture Background The mission of the U.S. Department of Energy/National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE/NETL) Existing Plants, Emissions & Capture (EPEC) Research & Development (R&D) Program is to develop innovative environmental control technologies to enable full use of the nation's vast coal reserves, while at the same

415

Phase transitions in C2O4H NH4 1/2H2O : a light scattering study of the high pressure phase  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1711 Phase transitions in C2O4H NH4 1/2H2O : a light scattering study of the high pressure phase J) Résumé. 2014 AHO présente, à la pression ordinaire, une transition de phase ferroélastique du deuxième phase III soit, comme la phase II, due à une mise en ordre des ions ammoniums : leur orientation serait

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

416

The analysis of cracks in high-pressure piping and their effects on strength and lifetime of construction components at the Ignalina nuclear plant  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A number of cracks and damages of other sorts have been identified in the high-pressure parts at the Ignalina Nuclear Plant. They are caused by inadequate production- and repair technologies, as well as by thermal, chemical and mechanical processes of their performance. Several techniques are available as predictions of cracks and other defects of pressurized vessels. The choice of an experimental technique should be based on the level of its agreement with the actual processes.

Aleev, A.; Petkevicius, K.; Senkus, V. [and others

1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

417

First Results of a Search for the Two-Neutrino Double-Beta Decay of {sup 136}Xe with High-Pressure Copper Proportional Counters  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A description of a low-background installation for a new stage of the experimental search for the 2{beta}(2{nu}) decay of {sup 136}Xe with high-pressure copper proportional counters is presented. The first estimate of the decay half-life limit based on the data measured over 4140 h yields T{sub 1/2} {>=} 2.4 x 10{sup 21} yr (90% C.L.)

Gavriljuk, Yu.M.; Gangapshev, A.M.; Kuzminov, V.V.; Osetrova, N.Ya. [Baksan Neutrino Observatory, Institute for Nuclear Research, Russian Academy of Sciences (Russian Federation); Panasenko, S.I.; Ratkevich, S.S. [Kharkov National University, Kharkov (Ukraine)

2004-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

418

Manufacturing and properties of newly developed 9%CrMoVNiNbN high-pressure low-pressure rotor shaft forging  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In order to obtain the improved strength and toughness for high-pressure low-pressure rotor shaft forging, fundamental studies using laboratory heats were performed on the 9CrMoV base materials, and effects of chemistry on toughness and creep rupture strength were investigated. From the investigation, it is showed that the superclean 9CrMoVNiNbN steel with reduced Si and Mn contents and Ni addition provides a superior strength versus toughness balance. Based on these fundamental studies, a trial high-pressure low-pressure rotor shaft forging with diameter of low-pressure section of 1,750 mm and diameter of high-pressure section of 1,200 mm was successfully manufactured from the diameter of 1,800 mm, and the weight of 65 ton ESR ingot. From the evaluation test results of this trial rotor forging, homogeneous distribution of chemistry was confirmed and low impurity contents was observed in the whole forging. The superior strength and toughness were confirmed with good creep rupture strength. The FATT at the center of low-pressure section was {minus}3 C with the tensile strength level of 870 MPa. From the results of fracture toughness test, low cycle fatigue test, and isothermal aging test, superior mechanical properties were demonstrated. Thus, the superclean 9CrMoVNiNbN steel with reduced Si and Mn contents and Ni addition, is particularly suitable for the high-pressure low-pressure rotor material for advanced combined cycle power plants.

Azuma, Tsukasa; Tanaka, Yasuhiko; Ishiguro, Tohru; Yoshida, Hajime; Ikeda, Yasumi [Japan Steel Works, Muroran (Japan)

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

419

A theoretical study of the incandescent filament lamp performance under voltage flicker  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Incandescent filament lamp flicker, produced by voltage fluctuation, is a power quality problem that caused engineering concern since the onset of electrical illumination technology. The flicker phenomenon was analyzed and explained in early studies. Standards dealing with acceptable flicker levels are well known, nevertheless, today the discussion about flicker continues to be a top priority topic due to the fact that steady-state and transient voltage waveform distortion is a growing problem in low and medium voltage systems. In many situations voltage flicker is caused by subharmonics and interharmonics of voltage. Cycloconverters, welders and arc furnaces, eccentrically operating tools and integral cycle controlled power equipment are notorious for producing voltage flicker. The goal of this paper is to provide solid mathematical basis for the analytical modeling of incandescent filament lamp flicker when the voltage is nonsinusoidal. A mathematical model that enables the evaluation of the luminous flux modulation caused by noninteger harmonics (subharmonics and interharmonics) is presented. Three situations are detailed: square-wave voltage modulation, sinusoidal modulation and the case of noninteger harmonics with nearly contiguous frequencies.

Peretto, L. [Univ. of Bologna (Italy)] [Univ. of Bologna (Italy); Emanuel, A.E. [Worcester Polytechnic Inst., MA (United States)] [Worcester Polytechnic Inst., MA (United States)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

420

Local structure around rare-earth ions in B{sub 2}O{sub 3} glass at high pressure  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Melt quenching of B{sub 2}O{sub 3} with less than 25 mol. % rare-earth oxide (RE{sub 2}O{sub 3}) at ambient pressure results in a milky white glass because of liquid-liquid phase separation into B{sub 2}O{sub 3} and RE{sub 2}O{sub 3}{center_dot}3B{sub 2}O phases. In contrast, we have found that melt quenching under GPa-order pressure realizes a transparent RE-doped B{sub 2}O{sub 3} glass. This study investigates the local structure around the RE ions in the B{sub 2}O{sub 3} glass prepared at 3 GPa using optical measurements and electron-spin-echo envelope modulation spectroscopy. It is shown that the RE-rich microparticles disappear and the RE ions are isolated from each other in a highly symmetric crystal field formed by triangular and tetrahedral boron units. This result is consistent with that extrapolated from the data for RE-doped sodium borate glasses.

Funabiki, Fuji [Frontier Research Center, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta, Yokohama, 226-8503 (Japan)] [Frontier Research Center, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta, Yokohama, 226-8503 (Japan); Matsuishi, Satoru [Research Center for Strategic Materials, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta, Yokohama, 226-8503 (Japan)] [Research Center for Strategic Materials, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta, Yokohama, 226-8503 (Japan); Hosono, Hideo [Frontier Research Center, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta, Yokohama, 226-8503 (Japan) [Frontier Research Center, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta, Yokohama, 226-8503 (Japan); Research Center for Strategic Materials, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta, Yokohama, 226-8503 (Japan); Materials and Structures Laboratory, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta, Yokohama, 226-8503 (Japan)

2013-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high-pressure sodium lamps" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

High pressure water pyrolysis of coal to evaluate the role of pressure on hydrocarbon generation and source rock maturation at high maturities under geological conditions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract This study investigates the effect of water pressure on hydrocarbon generation and source rock maturation at high maturities for a perhydrous Tertiary Arctic coal, Svalbard. Using a 25ml Hastalloy vessel, the coal was pyrolysed under low water pressure (230300bar) and high water pressure (500, 700 and 900bar) conditions between 380C and 420C for 24h. At 380C and 420C, gas yields were not affected by pressure up to 700bar, but were reduced slightly at 900bar. At 380C, the expelled oil yield was highest at 230bar, but reduced significantly at 900bar. At 420C cracking of expelled oil to gas was retarded at 700 and 900bar. As well as direct cracking of the coal, the main source of gas generation at high pressure at both 380C and 420C is from bitumen trapped in the coal, indicating that this is a key mechanism in high pressure geological basins. Vitrinite reflectance (VR) was reduced by 0.16 %Ro at 380C and by 0.27 %Ro at 420C at 900bar compared to the low pressure runs, indicating that source rock maturation will be more retarded at higher maturities in high pressure geological basins.

Clement N. Uguna; Andrew D. Carr; Colin E. Snape; Will Meredith

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

422

High pressure/high temperature vapor liquid equilibrium study of light gases in hydrogen-coal liquid model compound systems using perturbation chromatography  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Perturbation chromatography or gas-liquid partition chromatography (GLPC) provides a powerful tool for making physicochemical measurements. In this investigation GLPC was applied to study the vapor-liquid equilibrium behavior of light gases in nonvolatile coal liquid model compound solvents at high temperatures and high pressures. Improvements made in existing GLPC techniques include: the use of a high pressure tandem proportioning pump to give precise control of the carrier gas flow rate and low pressure drops; a high pressure ionization chamber to detect the injection of very dilute radioactive sample gases; and the use of a microcomputer to provide instantaneous integration and very precise retention times of the chromatographic peaks. Infinite dilution K-values for methane, ethane, propane, n-butane, carbon dioxide, and hydrogen sulfide in hydrogen-dibenzofuran systems were obtained at 100 and 125 C and up to 800 psia. Infinite dilution K-values for the same light gases in hydrogen-9-methylanthracene systems were obtained at 100, 125, 150, 175, and 200 C and up to 3000 psia. Henry's constants were determined for the light gases in 9-methylanthracene. Second cross virial coefficients and vapor phase infinite dilution fugacity coefficients were calculated for methane, ethane, propane, and n-butane in hydrogen. These results were combined with the experimental K-value measurements to obtain Henry's constants in hydrogen-9-methylanthracene mixtures of fixed liquid compositions. Infinite dilution heats of solution of the solute gases in the mixtures were calculated.

Kragas, T.K.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

423

Reviving Abandoned Reservoirs with High-Pressure Air Injection: Application in a Fractured and Karsted Dolomite Reservoir  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Despite declining production rates, existing reservoirs in the United States contain vast volumes of remaining oil that is not being effectively recovered. This oil resource constitutes a huge target for the development and application of modern, cost-effective technologies for producing oil. Chief among the barriers to the recovery of this oil are the high costs of designing and implementing conventional advanced recovery technologies in these mature, in many cases pressure-depleted, reservoirs. An additional, increasingly significant barrier is the lack of vital technical expertise necessary for the application of these technologies. This lack of expertise is especially notable among the small operators and independents that operate many of these mature, yet oil-rich, reservoirs. We addressed these barriers to more effective oil recovery by developing, testing, applying, and documenting an innovative technology that can be used by even the smallest operator to significantly increase the flow of oil from mature U.S. reservoirs. The Bureau of Economic Geology and Goldrus Producing Company assembled a multidisciplinary team of geoscientists and engineers to evaluate the applicability of high-pressure air injection (HPAI) in revitalizing a nearly abandoned carbonate reservoir in the Permian Basin of West Texas. The Permian Basin, the largest oil-bearing basin in North America, contains more than 70 billion barrels of remaining oil in place and is an ideal venue to validate this technology. We have demonstrated the potential of HPAI for oil-recovery improvement in preliminary laboratory tests and a reservoir pilot project. To more completely test the technology, this project emphasized detailed characterization of reservoir properties, which were integrated to access the effectiveness and economics of HPAI. The characterization phase of the project utilized geoscientists and petroleum engineers from the Bureau of Economic Geology and the Department of Petroleum Engineering (both at The University of Texas at Austin) to define the controls on fluid flow in the reservoir as a basis for developing a reservoir model. The successful development of HPAI technology has tremendous potential for increasing the flow of oil from deep carbonate reservoirs in the Permian Basin, a target resource that can be conservatively estimated at more than 1.5 billion barrels. Successful implementation in the field chosen for demonstration, for example, could result in the recovery of more than 34 million barrels of oil that will not otherwise be produced. Geological and petrophysical analysis of available data at Barnhart field reveals the following important observations: (1) the Barnhart Ellenburger reservoir is similar to most other Ellenburger reservoirs in terms of depositional facies, diagenesis, and petrophysical attributes; (2) the reservoir is characterized by low to moderate matrix porosity much like most other Ellenburger reservoirs in the Permian Basin; (3) karst processes (cave formation, infill, and collapse) have substantially altered stratigraphic architecture and reservoir properties; (4) porosity and permeability increase with depth and may be associated with the degree of karst-related diagenesis; (5) tectonic fractures overprint the reservoir, improving overall connectivity; (6) oil-saturation profiles show that the oil-water contact (OWC) is as much as 125 ft lower than previous estimations; (7) production history and trends suggest that this reservoir is very similar to other solution-gas-drive reservoirs in the Permian Basin; and (8) reservoir simulation study showed that the Barnhart reservoir is a good candidate for HPAI and that application of horizontal-well technology can improve ultimate resource recovery from the reservoir.

Robert Loucks; Stephen C. Ruppel; Dembla Dhiraj; Julia Gale; Jon Holder; Jeff Kane; Jon Olson; John A. Jackson; Katherine G. Jackson

2006-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

424

Contribution to the numerical study of turbulence in high intensity discharge lamps  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present in this paper a comparison between results obtained with a laminar and turbulent models for high-pressure mercury arc. The two models are based on the resolution of bidimensional time-dependent equations by a semi-implicit finite-element code. The numerical computation of turbulent model is solved with large eddy simulation model; this approach takes into account the various scales of turbulence by a filtering method on each scale. The results show the quantitative influence of turbulence on the flow fields and also the difference between laminar and turbulent effects on the dynamic thermal behaviour and on the characteristics of the discharge.

Kaziz, S.; Ben Ahmed, R.; Helali, H.; Gazzah, H.; Charrada, K. [Unite d'Etude des Milieux Ionises et Reactifs, IPEIM, 5019 route de Kairouan Monastir (Tunisia)

2011-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

425

Electrical resistance and magnetic properties of the neptunium monopnictides NpAs, NpSb, and NpBi at high pressures  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We report on high-pressure studies performed on the neptunium pnictides NpAs and NpBi via electrical resistance up to ?25 GPa between 1.3 K and room temperature, and on a high-pressure investigation up to 9 GPa and at 4.2 K on NpSb using 237Np Mssbauer spectroscopy. This work extends previous high-pressure studies carried out on NpAs via Mssbauer spectroscopy, on NpSb via resistance, and on all pnictides via x-ray study. In NpX (X=As,Sb,Bi) crystallizing in the cubic-NaCl phase the ground state is antiferromagnetic and displays a noncollinear 3k spin structure. The strong increase of the resistivity with decreasing temperature observed in the temperature range of the 3k order at ambient pressure collapses at 0.23 (NpAs), 2.7 (NpSb), and 3.9 GPa (NpBi). No significant change of the hyperfine interactions is found in NpAs or NpSb at the pressure where the resistance collapse is observed. The Kondo anomaly of the resistivity observed at ambient pressure disappears above 25 GPa (NpAs), 2.7 GPa (NpSb), and 3 GPa (NpBi). The Nel temperature TN of all compounds and the ordered moment of NpAs and NpSb decrease with reduced volume. For NpAs and NpBi the resistance indicates the presence of magnetic order at least up to 16 GPa. The compounds undergo a pressure-induced structural transition with a volume reduction by ?10%. Although in the resistance of NpSb the signature of magnetic order is lost already at 8 GPa in the high-pressure phase, a magnetic hyperfine field is present, which is reduced by ?30% relative to the NaCl phase. It is suggested that the resistance collapse is caused by a change of the magnetic structure, that the decrease of TN is due to a modification of the Fermi surface besides a small 5f delocalization, and that in NpSb the volume reduction in the structural high-pressure phase leads to an enhanced 5f delocalization.

V. Ichas; S. Zwirner; D. Braithwaite; J. C. Spirlet; J. Rebizant; W. Potzel

1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

426

The Model 5000-16C 1000 WATT FEL Lamp Standard pro-vides absolute calibration of spectral irradiance from 250 nm to  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Model 5000-16C 1000 WATT FEL Lamp Standard pro- vides absolute calibration of spectral. It has been selected by the National Institute of Standards and Technology to replace the 1000 watt, DXW-pin 1000 watt lamp that is adapted by Gamma Scientific into a bi-post configuration. It is used

427

Environmental and health aspects of lighting: Mercury  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Most discharge lamps, including fluorescent lamps, metal halide lamps, and high pressure sodium lamps, contain Mercury, a toxic chemical. Lighting professionals need to be able to respond to questions about the direct hazards of Mercury from accidentally breaking lamps, and the potential environmental hazards of lamp operation and disposal. We calculated the exposures that could occur from an accidental breakage of lamps. Acute poisoning appears almost impossible. Under some circumstances a sealed environment, such as a space station, could be contaminated enough to make it unhealthy for long-term occupation. Mercury becomes a potential environmental hazard after it becomes methylated. Mercury is methylated in aquatic environments, where it may accumulate in fish, eventually rendering them toxic to people and other animals. Lighting causes Mercury to enter the environment directly from lamp disposal, and indirectly from power plant emissions. The environmental tradeoffs between incandescent and discharge lamps depend upon the amounts released by these two sources, their local concentrations, and their probabilities of being methylated. Indirect environmental effects of lighting also include the release of other heavy metals (Cadmium, Lead and Arsenic), and other air pollutants and carbon dioxide that are emitted by fossil fuel power plants. For a given light output, the level of power plant emissions depends upon the efficacy of the light source, and is thus much larger for incandescent lamps than for fluorescent or discharge lamps. As disposal and control technologies change the relative direct and indirect emissions from discharge and incandescent lamps will change.

Clear, R.; Berman, S.

1993-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

428

Effect of helium addition on discharge characteristics in a flat fluorescent lamp  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The discharge characteristics of a multielectrode dual coplanar in a mercury-free flat fluorescent lamp were investigated using brightness-efficiency measurement and the infrared (IR) spectrum and intensified charge coupled device (ICCD) characteristics. The level of brightness was above 14 900 cd/m{sup 2} under the conditions of neon--50% xenon-8% He gas composition, 150 Torr pressure, and 20 kHz alternating current pulse. The ICCD results revealed a faster and wider discharge with a Ne-50% Xe-8% He gas composition. The effect of adding helium (He) to Ne-50% Xe revealed a faster peak emission, as confirmed by ICCD images. From the gated IR emission spectrum, the intensity ratio of I{sub 823nm}/I{sub 828nm} was {approx}8% higher with Ne-50% Xe-8% He than with Ne-50% Xe under the same pressure and applied voltage conditions.

Lee, Seong-Eui; Lee, Ho-Nyeon; Park, Hyoung-Bin; Lee, Kyo Sung; Choi, Kyung Cheol [Materials and Devices Research Center, Samsung Advanced Institute of Technology, Suwon 440-600 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Electronics Engineering, Sejong University, Seoul 143-747 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of)

2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

429

A Novel High-Power-Factor LED-Lamp Driver Based on a Single-Stage Power Conversion  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper proposes a novel single-stage driver for supplying a T8-type light-emitting diode (LED) lamp with high power factor. The presented driver integrates a dual buck-boost converter with coupled inductors and a half-bridge series-resonant converter ... Keywords: converter, driver, light-emitting diode (LED)

Chun An Cheng, En Chih Chang, Ching Shien Tseng, Tsung Yuan Chung

2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

430

New Energy Efficiency Standards for Metal Halide Lamp Fixtures to Save on Energy Bills and Reduce Carbon Pollution  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

As part of the Energy Departments efforts to develop efficiency standards that cut carbon pollution and save money by saving energy, U.S. Energy Secretary Ernest Moniz announced that the Department has finalized new energy efficiency standards for metal halide lamp fixtures.

431

Appliances and Commercial Equipment Standards  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

High-Intensity Discharge Lamps Energy Conservation Standard High-Intensity Discharge Lamps Energy Conservation Standard Sign up for e-mail updates on regulations for this and other products High-intensity discharge (HID) lamps include mercury vapor (MV), metal halide (MH), and high-pressure sodium (HPS) lamps. The Department of Energy (DOE) is considering establishing energy conservation standards for certain HID lamps. This rulemaking is mandated by the Energy Policy and Conservation Act (EPCA). (42 USC 6311-6317) Recent Updates | Public Meeting Information | Submitting Public Comments | Milestones and Documents | Related Rulemakings | Statutory Authority | Contact Information Recent Updates DOE published a notice of public meeting and availability of interim technical support document regarding energy conservation standards for high-intensity discharge lamps. 78 FR 13566 (February 28, 2013).

432

The Results From the First High-Pressure Melt Ejection Test Completed in the Molten Fuel Moderator Interaction Facility at Chalk River Laboratories  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A high-pressure melt ejection test using prototypical corium was conducted at Atomic Energy of Canada Limited Chalk River Laboratories. This test was planned by the CANDU Owners Group to study the potential for an energetic interaction between molten fuel and water under postulated single-channel flow-blockage events. The experiments were designed to address regulator concerns surrounding this very low probability postulated accident events in CANDU Pressurized Heavy Water Reactors. The objective of the experimental program is to determine whether a highly energetic 'steam explosion' and associated high-pressure pulse, is possible when molten material is finely fragmented as it is ejected from a fuel channel into the heavy-water moderator. The finely fragmented melt particles would transfer energy to the moderator as it is dispersed, creating a modest pressure pulse in the calandria vessel. The high-pressure melt ejection test consisted of heating up a {approx} 5 kg thermite mixture of U, U{sub 3}O{sub 8}, Zr, and CrO{sub 3} inside a 1.14-m length of insulated pressure tube. When the molten material reached the desired temperature of {approx} 2400 deg C, the pressure inside the tube was raised to 11.6 MPa, failing the pressure tube at a pre-machined flaw, and releasing the molten material into the surrounding tank of 68 deg C water. The experiment investigated the dynamic pressure history, debris size, and the effects of the material interacting with tubes representing neighbouring fuel channels. The measured mean particle size was 0.686 mm and the peak dynamic pressures were between 2.54 and 4.36 MPa, indicating that an energetic interaction between the melt and the water did not occur in the test. (authors)

Nitheanandan, T.; Kyle, G.; O'Connor, R.; Sanderson, DB. [Chalk River Laboratories, Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, Ontario, Canada, K0J 1J0 (Canada)

2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

433

Phase transitions and equation of state of CsI under high pressure and the development of a focusing system for x-rays  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The phase transitions and equation of state of ionic solid cesium iodide were studied under high pressure and room temperature in a diamond anvil cell. The studies were carried out using both energy dispersive and angular dispersive diffraction methods on synchrotron radiation sources over the pressure range from atmospheric pressure to over 300 gigapascals (3 million atmospheres). CsI undergoes a distinct phase transition at about 40 GPa, a pressure that is much lower than the reported insulator-metal transition at 110 GPa, from the atmospheric pressure B2(CsCl) structure to an orthorhombic structure. At higher pressures, a continuous distortion in the structure was observed with a final structure similar to a hcp lattice under ultra high pressure. No volume discontinuity was observed at the insulator-metal transition. The newly found transition sequence is different from the result of previous static compression studies. The current structure has a smaller unit cell volume than the previous assignment. This has resolved a long existing controversy among the previous static compression studies, the dynamic compression studies, and the theoretical studies. The current results also explain the apparent discrepancy between the present study and the previous static studies. We also present the development of a focusing system for high energy x-rays (> 12 keV) that is particularly suited for high pressure diffraction studies. This system uses a pair of multilayer coated spherical mirrors in a Kirkpatrick-Baez geometry. A focused beam size less than 10 micron in diameter can be readily achieved with sufficient intensity to perform diffraction studies. 93 refs., 46 figs., 15 tabs.

Wu, Yan.

1990-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

434

The measurement of solubility and viscosity of oil/refrigerant mixtures; At high pressures and temperatures test facility and initial results for R-22/naphthenic oil mixtures  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The design and construction of a test facility for measuring the solubility and viscosity of lubricating oil/refrigerant mixtures at high pressures and temperatures are described. An auxiliary charging system, developed to provide precisely measured quantities of oil and refrigerant to the test facility, is also presented. Initial results for liquid mixtures of 10% to 40% R-22 (by mass) in a 150 SUS naphthenic oil are reported over the temperature range 70 {degrees} F (20{degrees}C) to 300 {degrees} F(150 {degrees}C). Good agreement with existing data from the open literature is obtained over the limited temperature range for which previously published data are available.

Van Gaalen, N.A.; Zoz, S.C.; Pate, M.B. (Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (US))

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

435

A Flow-Through High-Pressure Electrical Conductance Cell for Determining of Ion Association of Aqueous Electrolyte Solutions at High Temperature and Pressure  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A flow-through high-pressure electrical conductance cell was designed and constructed to measure limiting molar conductances and ion association constants of dilute aqueous solutions with high precision at high temperatures and pressures. The basic concept of the cell employs the principle developed at the University of Delaware in 1995, but overall targets higher temperatures (to 600 C) and pressures (to 300 MPa). At present the cell has been tested by measuring aqueous NaCl and LiOH solutions (10{sup {minus}3} to 10{sup {minus}5} mol.kg{sup {minus}1}) to 405 C and 33 MPa with good results.

Bianchi, H.; Ho, P.C.; Palmer, D.A.; Wood, R.H.

1999-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

436

Spatial and time-dependent distribution of plasma parameters in the metal-halide arc lamp  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

It was shown by several authors that closed high pressure arc a.c. discharge in mercury vapors with addition of metal halide cannot be described in frames of the local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) model. However some plasma parameters (electron and high lying excited states densities as well as Hg metastable levels densities) are assumed to be in equilibrium with electron temperature and these assumptions are applied in plasma diagnostics. To verify these supposition the method of local plasma spectroscopy based on spatial and temporal distribution of spectral line profiles was developed. The experimental set up is based on diffraction spectrometer with large aperture, spatial scanning device and photodetector, which allows to carry out the measurements in chosen phases of current period. The software for data acquisition and processing is based on LabVIEW system. The original method of joint data processing was applied to data arrays containing spatial, spectral and temporal distribution of a source surfa...

Khakhaev, A; Ekimov, K; Soloviev, A; Khakhaev, Anatoly; Luizova, Lidia; Ekimov, Konstantin; Soloviev, Alexey

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

437

Independent Oversight Assessment, Idaho Cleanup Project Sodium...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Bearing Waste Treatment Project - November 2012 November 2012 Assessment of Nuclear Safety Culture at the Idaho Cleanup Project Sodium Bearing Waste Treatment Project This...

438

Viscosity of Liquid Sodium and Potassium  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

2 November 1936 research-article Viscosity of Liquid Sodium and Potassium Y. S. Chiong The Royal Society is collaborating with JSTOR to digitize, preserve, and extend...

1936-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

439

Sodium sulfide leaching of low-grade jamesonite concentrate in production of sodium pyroantimoniate  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Sodium sulfide leaching of a low-grade jamesonite concentrate in the production of sodium pyroantimoniate through the air oxidation process and the influencing factors on the leaching rate of antimony were...

Tian-zu Yang PhD; Ming-xi Jiang

2005-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

440

Studies of the mechanism of Coal Hydrogenation by Electron Spin Resonance. Quarterly technical progress report, March 1-May 31, 1980. [For high-temperature, high pressure measurements  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This is the first quarterly report on the program Studies of Coal Hydrogenation by Electron Spin Resonance. This quarter has been devoted to constructing apparatus for high temperature-high pressure electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) measurements, characterizing the performance of the microwave cavity, and carrying out preliminary room temperature studies on coals and coal products. At the start of this program, there were no microwave cavities available to study high pressure-high temperature reactions. A system was constructed which can be used to study coal hydrogenation, and satisfies the conditions described in the report. This cavity was constructed using funding from Rockwell International, and will be used on this program. Because of the dependence of the work to be done with this device for this program, the construction is described in detail. This report, therefore, considers the design philosophy, construction of the device, a preliminary discussion of its performance, and application of the cavity for room temperature studies on several varieties of coal.

Goldberg, Ira B.

1980-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high-pressure sodium lamps" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

The nonlinear anomalous lattice elasticity associated with the high-pressure phase transition in spodumene: A high precission static compression study  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The high-pressure behavior of the lattice elasticity of spodumene, LiAlSi2O6, was studied by static compression in a diamond-anvil cell up to 9.3 GPa. Investigations by means of single-crystal XRD and Raman spectroscopy within the hydrostatic limits of the pressure medium focus on the pressure ranges around similar to 3.2 and similar to 7.7 GPa, which have been reported previously to comprise two independent structural phase transitions. While our measurements confirm the well-established first-order C2/c-P2(1)/c transformation at 3.19 GPa (with 1.2% volume discontinuity and a hysteresis between 0.02 and 0.06 GPa), both unit-cell dimensions and the spectral changes observed in high-pressure Raman spectra give no evidence for structural changes related to a second phase transition. Monoclinic lattice parameters and unit-cell volumes at in total 59 different pressure points have been used to re-calculate the lattice-related properties of spontaneous strain, volume strain, and the bulk moduli as a function of pr...

Ullrich, A; Miletich, R; 10.1007/s00269-009-0300-8

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

442

Microaspiration for high-pressure freezing: a new method for ultrastructural preservation of fragile and sparse tissues for TEM and electron tomography  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

High-pressure freezing is the preferred method to prepare thick biological specimens for ultrastructural studies. However, the advantages obtained by this method often prove unattainable for samples that are difficult to handle during the freezing and substitution protocols. Delicate and sparse samples are difficult to manipulate and maintain intact throughout the sequence of freezing, infiltration, embedding, and final orientation for sectioning and subsequent TEM imaging. An established approach to surmount these difficulties is the use of cellulose microdialysis tubing to transport the sample. With an inner diameter of 200 micrometers, the tubing protects small and fragile samples within the thickness constraints of high-pressure freezing, and the tube ends can be sealed to avoid loss of sample. Importantly, the transparency of the tubing allows optical study of the specimen at different steps in the process. Here, we describe the use of a micromanipulator and microinjection apparatus to handle and position delicate specimens within the tubing. We report two biologically significant examples that benefit from this approach, 3D cultures of mammary epithelial cells and cochlear outer hair cells. We illustrate the potential for correlative light and electron microscopy as well as electron tomography.

Auer, Manfred; Triffo, W.J.; Palsdottir, H.; McDonald, K.L.; Inman, J.L.; Bissell, M.J.; Raphael, R.M.; Auer, M.; Lee, J.K.

2008-02-13T23:59:59.000Z

443

Efficiency and power upgrade by an additional high pressure economizer installation at an aged 620MWe lignite-fired power plant  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract An additional high pressure economizer was installed at Unit B1 of the 620MWe lignite-fired Power Plant Nikola Tesla B after 30 years of its operation. An innovative connection of the new additional economizer was applied. It is in parallel connection to the first section of the originally built economizer and it is directly fed with the feedwater from the outlet of the feedwater pump. The analysis of Unit B1 operation with such an economizer arrangement is performed and it is supported by measured data. It is shown that more than 30MWth of the flue gas waste heat is recovered. The Unit gross efficiency is increased by 0.53 percentage points, which leads to 9.4MWe of the electric power production. The parallel connection of the additional economizer also leads to the partial feedwater bypass of the high pressure heaters, which enables an increase of the plant electric power by up to 24.5MWe. The accompanying effects are the reduction of the pressure drop in the feedwater line and the economizers, which leads to the decrease of the energy consumption for the main feedwater pump operation. The applied solution is presented together with measured and calculated energy and economic benefits.

Vladimir D. Stevanovic; Tadeusz Wala; Slawomir Muszynski; Milos Milic; Milorad Jovanovic

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

444

DOE CALiPER Program, Report 21.2: Linear (T8) LED Lamp Performance in Five Types of Recessed Troffers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Although lensed troffers are numerous, there are many other types of optical systems as well. This report looked at the performance of three linear (T8) LED lamps chosen primarily based on their luminous intensity distributions (narrow, medium, and wide beam angles) as well as a benchmark fluorescent lamp in five different troffer types. Also included are the results of a subjective evaluation. Results show that linear (T8) LED lamps can improve luminaire efficiency in K12-lensed and parabolic-louvered troffers, effect little change in volumetric and high-performance diffuse-lensed type luminaires, but reduce efficiency in recessed indirect troffers. These changes can be accompanied by visual appearance and visual comfort consequences, especially when LED lamps with clear lenses and narrow distributions are installed. Linear (T8) LED lamps with diffuse apertures exhibited wider beam angles, performed more similarly to fluorescent lamps, and received better ratings from observers. Guidance is provided on which luminaires are the best candidates for retrofitting with linear (T8) LED lamps.

Miller, Naomi J.; Perrin, Tess E.; Royer, Michael P.; Wilkerson, Andrea M.; Beeson, Tracy A.

2014-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

445

Recovery of acids and sodium hydroxide from solutions of sodium sulfate and sodium chloride with the use of bipolar membranes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The authors examined the kinetic laws governing the electrodialysis recovery of hydrochloric acid and sulfuric acid, as well as sodium hydroxide, from 1M sodium chloride and 0.5 M sodium sulfate solutions and from a mixture of these salts with the use of the MB-1, MB-2, and MB-3 bipolar membranes. Kinetic plots of the current density and the concentration of the acid and the base in the chambers next to the bipolar membranes during the electrodialysis treatment of 1M sodium chloride, 0.5 M sodium sulfate, and solutions are presented. It was established that it is better to use the MB-3 membrane for the electrodialysis conversion of sodium chloride and sodium sulfate into acids and sodium hydroxide owing to the high rate and current efficiency and low expenditure of electrical energy and degree of contamination of the products obtained by the salts. It was also established that the resistance of the MB-1 and MB-2 bipolar membranes is almost an order of magnitude higher than that of the MB-3 membrane.

Bobrinskaya, G.A.; Pavlova, T.V.; Shatalov, A.Ya.

1985-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

446

Atlas Sodium Automated Batch Synthesis System  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Atlas Sodium Automated Batch Synthesis System (Syrris) June 2013 #12;Introduction to the system · The Atlas Sodium system consists of an Atlas base equipped with a 400ºC hotplate, a stacking dry bath systemL) for automated addition and/or removal of solution. · The system is computer controlled by the Atlas software

Subramanian, Venkat

447

Sodium Heat Engine Development Program  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Sodium Heat Engine (SHE) is an efficient thermoelectric conversion device which directly generates electricity from a thermally regenerative electrochemical cell that relies on the unique conduction properties of {beta}{double prime}-alumina solid electrolyte (BASE). Laboratory models of a variety of SHE devices have demonstrated the feasibility and efficiency of the system, engineering development of large prototype devices has been slowed by a series of materials and fabrication problems. Failure of the electrolyte tubes has been a recurring problem and a number of possible causes have been postulated. To address these issues, a two-phase engineering development program was undertaken. This report summarizes the final results of the first phase of the program, which included extensive materials characterization activities, a study of applicable nondestructive evaluation methods, an investigation of possible stress states that would contribute to fracture, and certain operational issues associated with the electromagnetic pumps used in the SHE prototype. Mechanical and microstructural evaluation of commercially obtained BASE tubes revealed that they should be adequate for SHE applications and that sodium exposure produced no appreciable deleterious strength effects. Processing activities to produce a more uniform and smaller grain size for the BASE tubes were completed using isostatic pressing, extrusion, and slip casting. Green tubes were sintered by conventional and microwave plasma methods. Of particular interest is the residual stress state in the BASE tubes, and both analysis and nondestructive evaluation methods were employed to evaluate these stresses. X-ray and neutron diffraction experiments were performed to determine the bulk residual stresses in commercially fabricated BASE tubes; however, tube-to-tube variations and variations among the various methods employed did not allow formulation of a definitive definition of the as-fabricated stress state.

Singh, J.P.; Kupperman, D.S.; Majumdar, S.; Dorris, S.; Gopalsami, N.; Dieckman, S.L.; Jaross, R.A.; Johnson, D.L.; Gregar, J.S.; Poeppel, R.B.; Raptis, A.C.; Valentin, R.A.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

448

High-pressure synthesis and characterization of the first cerium fluoride borate CeB{sub 2}O{sub 4}F  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

CeB{sub 2}O{sub 4}F is the first cerium fluoride borate, which is exclusively built up of one-dimensional, infinite chains of condensed trigonal-planar [BO{sub 3}]{sup 3?} groups. This new cerium fluoride borate was synthesized under high-pressure/high-temperature conditions of 0.9 GPa and 1450 C in a Walker-type multianvil apparatus. The compound crystallizes in the orthorhombic space group Pbca (No. 61) with eight formula units and the lattice parameters a=821.63(5), b=1257.50(9), c=726.71(6) pm, V=750.84(9) {sup 3}, R{sub 1}=0.0698, and wR{sub 2}=0.0682 (all data). The structure exhibits a 9+1 coordinated cerium ion, one three-fold coordinated fluoride ion and a one-dimensional chain of [BO{sub 3}]{sup 3?} groups. Furthermore, IR spectroscopy, Electron Micro Probe Analysis and temperature-dependent X-ray powder diffraction measurements were performed. - Graphical abstract: A new rare-earth fluoride borate CeB{sub 2}O{sub 4}F could be synthesized under high-pressure/high-temperature conditions of 0.9 GPa and 1450 Cin a Walker-type multianvil apparatus. The crystal structure represents a new structure type in the class of rare-earth fluoride borates. The structure exhibits a 9+1 coordinated cerium ion, one three-fold coordinated fluoride ion and a one-dimensional chain of [BO{sub 3}]{sup 3?} groups. A closer view on the ac-plane shows an interesting wave-like modulation of the borate chains. Highlights: CeB{sub 2}O{sub 4}F is the first fluoride borate exclusively built up of one-dimensional, infinite chains of condensed trigonal-planar [BO{sub 3}]{sup 3?} groups. CeB{sub 2}O{sub 4}F is the first cerium fluoride borate. High-pressure conditions were necessary to synthesize CeB{sub 2}O{sub 4}F.

Hinteregger, Ernst; Wurst, Klaus [Institut fr Allgemeine, Anorganische und Theoretische Chemie, Leopold-Franzens-Universitt Innsbruck, Innrain 80-82, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Tribus, Martina [Institut fr Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leopold-Franzens-Universitt Innsbruck, Innrain 52 f, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Huppertz, Hubert, E-mail: hubert.huppertz@uibk.ac.at [Institut fr Allgemeine, Anorganische und Theoretische Chemie, Leopold-Franzens-Universitt Innsbruck, Innrain 80-82, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria)

2013-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

449

Color stable phosphors for LED lamps and methods for preparing them  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An LED lamp includes a light source configured to emit radiation with a peak intensity at a wavelength between about 250 nm and about 550 nm; and a phosphor composition configured to be radiationally coupled to the light source. The phosphor composition includes particles of a phosphor of formula I, said particles having a coating composition disposed on surfaces thereof; ((Sr.sub.1-zM.sub.z).sub.1-(x+w)A.sub.wCe.sub.x).sub.3(Al.sub.1-ySi.sub.y-)O.sub.4+y+3(x-w)F.sub.1-y-3(x-w) I wherein the coating composition comprises a material selected from aluminum oxide, magnesium oxide, calcium oxide, barium oxide, strontium oxide, zinc oxide, aluminum hydroxide, magnesium hydroxide, calcium hydroxide, barium hydroxide, strontium hydroxide, zinc hydroxide, aluminum phosphate, magnesium phosphate, calcium phosphate, barium phosphate, strontium phosphate, and combinations thereof; and A is Li, NA, K, or Rb, or a combination thereof; M is Ca, Ba, Mg, Zn, or a combination thereof; and 0

Murphy, James Edward; Setlur, Anant Achyut; Camardello, Samuel Joseph

2013-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

450

Analysis of Na and Ba in an atomic fluorescence method with excitation by a pulsed dye laser with lamp pumping  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Among the laser methods used in atomic spectroscopy, atomic fluorescence resonance spectroscopy together with an atomic ionization technique make it possible to work with individual atoms. This paper reports on the determination of Na and Ba in aqueous solutions of their salts with atomic fluorescence analysis performed wih a dye laser and lamp pumping, the pulse of generation having a length of 1-2 usec. The detection limit of elements in atomic fluorescence analysis performed wih dye lasers with lamp pumping can be reduced by increasing the spectral density of the laser radiation through narrowing the line of generation, by employing other dyes to excite lines of greater intensity, by improving the recording system of the fluorescence spectra, and by improving the atomization of the samples to be analyzed.

Kukvshim, V.G.

1986-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

451

Design and Realize of the Graphics Platform for LED Lamps Layout Based on GDI+ and Dual-Buffer  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Based on the GDI+ class library and dual-buffer technology of .NET framework, the software for LED lamps layout is developed. On the basis of determining the scheme of layout platform, the metafile class library model by Composite design-set and the process of calling the LED pixels metafile symbol interface are designed firstly. The design method of realizing the LED pixels metafile visual editing on the drawn LED logical pixel based on GDI+ is analyzed. The dual-buffer technology is used to solve the problem of flicker when fast refreshing. The testing results show that the platform can meet the basic function requirements of engineering application, and realize partial adjust on the process of LED lamps layout without distortion.

Wen Yuanmei; Nie Xinming; Liu Guixiong

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

452

In-Situ Method for Treating Residual Sodium  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A unique process for deactivating residual sodium in Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) systems which uses humidified (but not saturated) carbon dioxide at ambient temperature and pressure to convert residual sodium into solid sodium bicarbonate.

Sherman, Steven R.; Henslee, S. Paul

2005-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

453

In-situ method for treating residual sodium  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A unique process for deactivating residual sodium in Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) systems which uses humidified (but not saturated) carbon dioxide at ambient temperature and pressure to convert residual sodium into solid sodium bicarbonate.

Sherman, Steven R. (Idaho Falls, ID); Henslee, S. Paul (Idaho Falls, ID)

2005-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

454

Measurement of critical energy for direct initiation of spherical detonations in stoichiometric high-pressure H{sub 2}-O{sub 2} mixtures  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this study, the critical energy for direct initiation of spherical detonations in stoichiometric high-pressure hydrogen-oxygen mixtures are measured and investigated to look at the effect of explosion limits on the detonation sensitivity. Results up to an initial pressure of 20 atm are obtained. Experiments are carried out in a spherical bomb and direct initiation is achieved via spark ignition from a high-voltage capacitor discharge. A detailed description of different methods to obtain a good estimate of the correct amount of energy deposited into the mixture used to initiate the detonation, including the calorimeter method and current method, is provided. It is demonstrated that at elevated initial pressure, the second explosion limit effect plays a significant role leading to slow-branching reactions and the detonation sensitivity of hydrogen mixtures is comparable to other common hydrocarbon mixtures at such condition. (author)

Kamenskihs, Vsevolods; Lee, John H.S. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Ng, Hoi Dick [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Concordia University, Montreal, Quebec (Canada)

2010-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

455

High-pressure solubility of light gases in heavy n-alkanes from a predictive equation of state: Incorporating Henry's law constant into binary interaction parameter  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Using fugacity coefficient of a cubic equation of state, Henry's law constant of a solute in a solvent is incorporated into binary interaction parameter of the classical attractive parameter mixing rule. The developed equation is a function of temperature. The binary interaction parameter is evaluated by pure component critical properties and acentric factors of the solute and the solvent and the Henry's law constant of the solute in the solvent. The developed model accurately describes the solubility of gases including methane, ethane, nitrogen, carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulphide in heavy n-alkanes from low to high pressure for wide range of temperature. The solubility of methane and carbon dioxide in water is also predicted adequately.

Khashayar Nasrifar; Nejat Rahmanian

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

456

The analysis and specification of large high-pressure, high-temperature valves for combustion turbine protection in second-generation PFB power plants: Topical report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this study was to provide a specification for the high-pressure/high-temperature valves for turbine overspeed protection in a commercial-scale second-generation pressurized fluidized bed combustion (PFBC) power plant. In the event of a loss of external (generator) load, the gas turbine rapidly accelerates from its normal operating speed. Protection from excessive overspeed can be maintained by actuation of fuel isolation and air bypass valves. A design specification for these valves was developed by analyses of the turbine/compressor interaction during a loss of load and analyses of pressure and flow transients during operation of the overspeed protection valves. The basis for these analyses was the Phase 1 plant conceptual design prepared in 1987.

Not Available

1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

457

Apparatus and methods of reheating gas turbine cooling steam and high pressure steam turbine exhaust in a combined cycle power generating system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

In a combined cycle system having a multi-pressure heat recovery steam generator, a gas turbine and steam turbine, steam for cooling gas turbine components is supplied from the intermediate pressure section of the heat recovery steam generator supplemented by a portion of the steam exhausting from the HP section of the steam turbine, steam from the gas turbine cooling cycle and the exhaust from the HP section of the steam turbine are combined for flow through a reheat section of the HRSG. The reheated steam is supplied to the IP section inlet of the steam turbine. Thus, where gas turbine cooling steam temperature is lower than optimum, a net improvement in performance is achieved by flowing the cooling steam exhausting from the gas turbine and the exhaust steam from the high pressure section of the steam turbine in series through the reheater of the HRSG for applying steam at optimum temperature to the IP section of the steam turbine.

Tomlinson, Leroy Omar (Niskayuna, NY); Smith, Raub Warfield (Ballston Lake, NY)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

458

Large Fermi energy modulation in graphene transistors with high-pressure O{sub 2}-annealed Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} topgate insulators  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We demonstrate a considerable suppression of the low-field leakage through a Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} topgate insulator on graphene by applying high-pressure O{sub 2} at 100?atm during post-deposition annealing (HP-PDA). Consequently, the quantum capacitance measurement for the monolayer graphene reveals the largest Fermi energy modulation (E{sub F}?=??0.52?eV, i.e., the carrier density of ?2??10{sup 13}?cm{sup ?2}) in the solid-state topgate insulators reported so far. HP-PDA is the robust method to improve the electrical quality of high-k insulators on graphene.

Kanayama, Kaoru; Nagashio, Kosuke, E-mail: nagashio@material.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp; Nishimura, Tomonori; Toriumi, Akira [Department of Materials Engineering, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan)

2014-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

459

Mechanical design of PlayLamp : a minimally intrusive device for recording the behavior of children at-risk of developmental disorders  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This thesis paper documents the design process, decisions, and outcomes of the design of the physical form factor of PlayLamp, a device for video and audio recording the development of children at-risk of having developmental ...

Steger, Stephen Andrew

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

460

CALiPER Report 20.1: Subjective Evaluation of Beam Quality, Shadow Quality, and Color Quality for LED PAR38 Lamps  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This December 3, 2013 webinar explored the findings ofCALiPER 20.1: Subjective Evaluation of Beam Quality, Shadow Quality, and Color Quality for LED PAR38 Lamps and discussed what attributes to...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high-pressure sodium lamps" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Potential-induced breathing model for the elastic moduli and high-pressure behavior of the cubic alkaline-earth oxides  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A parameter-free model is presented for the elastic constants and high-pressure behavior of the alkaline-earth oxides MgO, CaO, SrO, and BaO. The model is based on a Gordon-Kim-type calculation for the short-range energy of a crystal. Spherically symmetric relaxation of ion charge density in response to the Madelung potential, termed potential-induced breathing (PIB), is incorporated into the model as a function of strain. This charge relaxation is accomplished by the use of a Watson-sphere calculation to obtain the interaction energy of pairs of ions as a function of both interatomic distance and Coulomb potential. By this technique many-body effects, which are particularly important for the prediction of crystal elasticity, are included. The model successfully reproduces both the sign and magnitude of the deviation (?=C12-C44) from the Cauchy relation measured at zero pressure for the cubic alkaline-earth oxides. Static compression curves calculated in both the B1 and B2 phases of these compounds are found to be within 5% of the available room-temperature data. From a calculation of the pressure dependence of the elastic moduli, the role of many-body effects at high pressure is determined. The B1-B2 phase transition pressures are calculated within the PIB model to be 251 GPa (MgO), 55 GPa (CaO), 36 GPa (SrO), and 21 GPa (BaO), in very good agreement with available experimental data for these compounds.

M. J. Mehl; R. J. Hemley; L. L. Boyer

1986-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

462

High pressure conversion of \\{NOx\\} and Hg and their capture as aqueous condensates in a laboratory piston-compressor simulating oxy-fuel CO2 compression  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Oxy-fuel technology for CO2 capture has largely focused on combustion characteristics as a driver towards demonstration. Impurity removal studies typically centre on the how current environmental control units (FGD, SCR, activated carbon beds) operate in oxy-fuel firing. However, it is expected that some removal of \\{NOx\\} and \\{SOx\\} may occur during compression of flue gas through the lead chamber process. Some commercial systems link the capture of mercury to the formation of acid condensates (as a soluble mercury salt). Mercury in compressed flue gas represents a potential corrosion risk in the processing of CO2 from oxy-fuel combustion processes. Gas phase elemental mercury (Hg0) is difficult to remove from the flue gas and the level of cleaning required to prevent corrosion of cryogenic brazed aluminium heat exchangers is uncertain. This work has investigated the behaviour of gaseous Hg0 in pressurised oxy-fuel systems in terms of the potential capture in acidic condensates, interaction with \\{NOx\\} gases and liquid stability on de-pressurisation. The work was undertaken on an adapted laboratory scale three stage axial-piston compressor with gas and liquid sampling at pressures up to 30bar. The main finding was that gaseous Hg0 reacts readily with NO2 formed from NO oxidation at high pressure. This reaction occurred without the presence of water, either water vapour or liquid water, contrary to speculation in the literature. Without NO2, no capture of Hg0 was observed in the compression system. Overall, the capture of mercury during compression occurred as a consequence of high pressure, longer residence time and concentration of NO2. Capture rates of 100% Hg and 7583% \\{NOx\\} were measured from the compressor exit at 30barg.

Rohan Stanger; Timothy Ting; Terry Wall

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

463

Hydrogen embrittlement of type 410 stainless steel in sodium chloride, sodium sulfate, and sodium hydroxide environments at 90 C  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Susceptibility of martensitic type 410 (UNS S41000) stainless steel (SS) to environmental cracking was evaluated at 90 C in concentrated sodium chloride, sodium sulfate and sodium hydroxide solutions, all of which are environments related to steam turbine conditions, using the slow strain rate testing (SSRT) technique. In NaCl, the effects of solution pH, concentration, and anodic and cathodic polarization were investigated. Tests were supplemented by detailed electron fractography and hydrogen permeation measurements. A clear correlation was found between the degree of embrittlement and the amount of hydrogen permeating the steel, suggesting a hydrogen-induced cracking mechanism.

Gonzalez-Rodriguez, J.G.; Salinas-Bravo, V.M. [Inst. de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico). Dept. Fisico Quimica Aplicada; Martinez-Villafane, A. [Centro de Investigaciones en Materiales Avanzados Leon Tolstoi, Chihuahua (Mexico)

1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

464

SciTech Connect: Thermodynamic and transport properties of sodium...  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

on thermophysical properties of sodium have been included in this critical assessment. Thermodynamic properties of sodium liquid and vapor that have been assessed...

465

High-capacity hydrogen storage in lithium and sodium amidoboranes...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

capacity hydrogen storage in lithium and sodium amidoboranes. High-capacity hydrogen storage in lithium and sodium amidoboranes. Abstract: A substantial effort worldwide has been...

466

Local Resistance Profiling of Ultra Shallow Junction Annealed with Combination of Spike Lamp and Laser Annealing Processes using Scanning Spreading Resistance Microscope  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Local resistance profiles of ultra shallow boron and arsenic implanted into silicon with energies of 2.0 and 4.0 keV and doses of 2.0x10{sup 15} and 1.0x10{sup 15} ions/cm{sup 2} activated by a combination of conventional spike lamp and laser annealing processes were measured by scanning spreading resistance microscope (SSRM) with a depth resolution of less than 10 nm. The lowest local resistance at the low resistance region in 2.0 keV boron implanted silicon with 1050 deg. C spike lamp annealing followed by 0.35 kW/mm{sup 2} laser annealing was half of that without laser annealing. The lowest local resistance at the low resistance region in the arsenic implanted silicon activated by 1050 deg. C spike lamp annealing followed by 0.39 kW/mm{sup 2} laser annealing was 74% lower than that followed by 0.36 kW/mm{sup 2} laser annealing. The lowest local resistances at the low resistance regions in the arsenic implanted silicon with 0.36 and 0.39 kW/mm{sup 2} laser annealing followed by 1050 deg. C spike lamp annealing were 41 and 33% lower than those with spike lamp annealing followed by laser annealing. Laser annealing followed by spike lamp annealing could suppress the diffusion of the impurities and was suitable for making the ultra shallow and low resistance regions.

Abo, Satoshi; Nishikawa, Kazuhisa; Ushigome, Naoya; Wakaya, Fujio; Takai, Mikio [Center for Quantum Science and Technology under Extreme Conditions, Osaka University, 1-3, Machikaneyama, Toyonaka, Osaka, 560-8531 (Japan); Iwamatsu, Toshiaki; Oda, Hidekazu [Advanced Device Technology Department, Production and Technology Unit, Devices and Analysis Technology Division, Renesas Electronics Corporation, 751, Horiguchi, Hitachinaka, Ibaraki, 312-8504 (Japan)

2011-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

467

IAEA sodium void reactivity benchmark calculations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this paper, the IAEA-1 992 ``Benchmark Calculation of Sodium Void Reactivity Effect in Fast Reactor Core`` problem is evaluated. The proposed design is a large axially heterogeneous oxide-fueled fast reactor as described in Section 2; the core utilizes a sodium plenum above the core to enhance leakage effects. The calculation methods used in this benchmark evaluation are described in Section 3. In Section 4, the calculated core performance results for the benchmark reactor model are presented; and in Section 5, the influence of steel and interstitial sodium heterogeneity effects is estimated.

Hill, R.N.; Finck, P.J.

1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

468

IAEA sodium void reactivity benchmark calculations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this paper, the IAEA-1 992 Benchmark Calculation of Sodium Void Reactivity Effect in Fast Reactor Core'' problem is evaluated. The proposed design is a large axially heterogeneous oxide-fueled fast reactor as described in Section 2; the core utilizes a sodium plenum above the core to enhance leakage effects. The calculation methods used in this benchmark evaluation are described in Section 3. In Section 4, the calculated core performance results for the benchmark reactor model are presented; and in Section 5, the influence of steel and interstitial sodium heterogeneity effects is estimated.

Hill, R.N.; Finck, P.J.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

469

Observed Minimum Illuminance Threshold for Night Market Vendors in Kenya who use LED Lamps  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Creation of light for work, socializing, and general illumination is a fundamental application of technology around the world. For those who lack access to electricity, an emerging and diverse range of LED based lighting products hold promise for replacing and/or augmenting their current fuel-based lighting sources that are costly and dirty. Along with analysis of environmental factors, economic models for total cost-ofownership of LED lighting products are an important tool for studying the impacts of these products as they emerge in markets of developing countries. One important metric in those models is the minimum illuminance demanded by end-users for a given task before recharging the lamp or replacing batteries. It impacts the lighting service cost per unit time if charging is done with purchased electricity, batteries, or charging services. The concept is illustrated in figure 1: LED lighting products are generally brightest immediately after the battery is charged or replaced and the illuminance degrades as the battery is discharged. When a minimum threshold level of illuminance is reached, the operational time for the battery charge cycle is over. The cost to recharge depends on the method utilized; these include charging at a shop at a fixed price per charge, charging on personal grid connections, using solar chargers, and purchasing dry cell batteries. This Research Note reports on the observed"charge-triggering" illuminance level threshold for night market vendors who use LED lighting products to provide general and task oriented illumination. All the study participants charged with AC power, either at a fixed-price charge shop or with electricity at their home.

Johnstone, Peter; Jacobson, Arne; Mills, Evan; Radecsky, Kristen

2009-03-21T23:59:59.000Z

470

Sodium Alanate Nanoparticles for Hydrogen Storage.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Preparation and characterization of sodium alanate (NaAlH4) based hydrogen storage materials are described in this book. The effect of the NaAlH4 particle size, particularly in (more)

Bald, C.P.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

471

Kinetics of wet sodium vapor complex plasma  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this paper, we have investigated the kinetics of wet (partially condensed) Sodium vapor, which comprises of electrons, ions, neutral atoms, and Sodium droplets (i) in thermal equilibrium and (ii) when irradiated by light. The formulation includes the balance of charge over the droplets, number balance of the plasma constituents, and energy balance of the electrons. In order to evaluate the droplet charge, a phenomenon for de-charging of the droplets, viz., evaporation of positive Sodium ions from the surface has been considered in addition to electron emission and electron/ion accretion. The analysis has been utilized to evaluate the steady state parameters of such complex plasmas (i) in thermal equilibrium and (ii) when irradiated; the results have been graphically illustrated. As a significant outcome irradiated, Sodium droplets are seen to acquire large positive potential, with consequent enhancement in the electron density.

Mishra, S. K., E-mail: nishfeb@rediffmail.com [Institute for Plasma Research (IPR), Gandhinagar 382428 (India); Sodha, M. S. [Centre of Energy Studies, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi (IITD), New Delhi 110016 (India)] [Centre of Energy Studies, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi (IITD), New Delhi 110016 (India)

2014-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

472

High pressure ceramic heat exchanger  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Many recuperators have components which react to corrosive gases and are used in applications where the donor fluid includes highly corrosive gases. These recuperators have suffered reduced life, increased service or maintenance, and resulted in increased cost. The present header assembly when used with recuperators reduces the brittle effect of a portion of the ceramic components. Thus, the present header assembly used with the present recuperator increases the life, reduces the service and maintenance, and reduces the increased cost associated with corrosive action of components used to manufacture recuperators. The present header assembly is comprised of a first ceramic member, a second ceramic member, a reinforcing member being in spaced relationship to the first ceramic member and the second ceramic member. The header assembly is further comprised of a refractory material disposed in contacting relationship with the first ceramic member, the second ceramic member and the reinforcing member and having a strengthening member wrapped around the refractory material. The present header assembly provides a high strength load bearing header assembly having good thermal cycling characteristics, good resistance to a corrosive environment and good steady state strength at elevated temperatures.

Harkins, Bruce D. (San Diego, CA); Ward, Michael E. (Poway, CA)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

473

High pressure ceramic heat exchanger  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Many recuperators have components which react to corrosive gases and are used in applications where the donor fluid includes highly corrosive gases. These recuperators have suffered reduced life, increased service or maintenance, and resulted in increased cost. The present header assembly when used with recuperators reduces the brittle effect of a portion of the ceramic components. Thus, the present header assembly used with the present recuperator increases the life, reduces the service and maintenance, and reduces the increased cost associated with corrosive action of components used to manufacture recuperators. The present header assembly is comprised of a first ceramic member, a second ceramic member, a strengthening reinforcing member being in spaced relationship to the first ceramic member and the second ceramic member. The header assembly is further comprised of a refractory material disposed in contacting relationship with the first ceramic member, the second ceramic member and the strengthening reinforcing member. The present header assembly provides a high strength load bearing header assembly having good thermal cycling characteristics, good resistance to a corrosive environment and good steady state strength at elevated temperatures.

Harkins, Bruce D. (San Diego, CA); Ward, Michael E. (Poway, CA)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

474

High Pressure Hydrogen Tank Manufacturing  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Presented at the NREL Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Manufacturing R&D Workshop in Washington, DC, August 11-12, 2011.

475

High Pressure Hydrogen Tank Manufacturing  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Cycles Fuel Lines * 10,000 psi nominal working pressure * O-ring face seal connections * CNC bent to CAD data * 316 Stainless Steel (Other materials available) * Welded end form or...

476

High pressure ceramic heat exchanger  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Many recuperators have components which react to corrosive gases and are used in applications where the donor fluid includes highly corrosive gases. These recuperators have suffered reduced life, increased service or maintenance, and resulted in increased cost. The present header assembly when used with recuperators reduces the brittle effect of a portion of the ceramic components. Thus, the present header assembly used with the present recuperator increases the life, reduces the service and maintenance, and reduces the increased cost associated with corrosive action of components used to manufacture recuperators. The present header assembly is comprised of a first ceramic member, a second ceramic member, a strengthening reinforcing member being in spaced relationship to the first ceramic member and the second ceramic member. The header assembly is further comprised of a refractory material disposed in contacting relationship with the first ceramic member, the second ceramic member and the strengthening reinforcing member. The present header assembly provides a high strength load bearing header assembly having good thermal cycling characteristics, good resistance to a corrosive environment and good steady state strength at elevated temperatures. 5 figs.

Harkins, B.D.; Ward, M.E.

1998-09-22T23:59:59.000Z

477

Neutron scattering at high pressure  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Neutron scattering spectra at pressures up to 30 kilobar in the temperature range 3004 K have been obtained with a compact clamped type apparatus. The pressure cell geometry by allowing the detection of neutronsscattered in a plane makes it compatible with operation on crystal spectrometers both for elastic and inelastic scattering. The instrument is light (4.5 kg) and easy to move. An external diameter of 68 mm makes the pressure cell adaptable to standard cryostats or furnaces.

D. Bloch; J. Paureau; J. Voiron; G. Parisot