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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high-pressure sodium lamps" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

An Electrical Cathode Model of a High Pressure Sodium Lamp  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An electrical cathode model (ECM) of a high pressure sodium lamp (HPS) based on physical laws has been developed. The proposed ECM calculates the instantaneous voltage drop in a cathode sheath and the temperature distribution inside the cathode using ... Keywords: cathode model, HPS lamp ballast designs

Jose Luis Tapia; Joel O. Pacheco Sotelo; Eduardo Diaz Rodriguez; Yulia Nikolaevna Ledeneva; Rene Arnulfo Garcia Hernandez

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

2

Research on Active Power Factor Correction of the Electronic Ballast for High-Pressure Sodium Lamps Based on L6563  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In the recent years, there has been a growing interest in the design of high-pressure sodium lamp electronic ballast. Two measures are proposed to improve the power factor of high-pressure sodium lamp electronic ballasts from the definition of harmonic ... Keywords: high-pressure sodium lamps, electronic ballast, active power factor correction, L6563

Sun Jing

2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

3

Exploration of illumination concepts for underground coal mines. Appendix E. Electronic ballast for the Lucalox high pressure sodium lamp. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The report documents the results of an investigation to develop solid-state ballasts for Lucalox high-pressure sodium lamps. The ballasts were to be used in the modified and new portable and machine-mounted lighting systems designed by the Crouse-Hinds Co., per tasks I through IV of Contract No. H022065.

1976-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

4

Energy-efficient H. I. D. solid-state ballast: Phase II final report. [150 watt high pressure sodium lamp  

SciTech Connect

The following report presents the results of Phase II, Development of Solid State 150 watt High Pressure Sodium Ballasts. Basically, the objectives of the development program were accomplished, i.e., greater than 90% efficiency, greater than 90% power factor, regulation equivalent to ferro-magnetic ballasts, and energy savings sufficient to warrant the further development of the solid-state HPS ballast for commercial production and marketing. 8 figs., 5 tabs.

1983-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

5

HPS replacement project drives garage costs down. [High-pressure sodium luminaires  

SciTech Connect

The high cost of energy had forced a four-story New York airport parking garage to turn off almost half its low bay lights, leaving it gloomy and vandal-prone. By replacing the original lamps with high-pressure sodium (HPS) luminaires, the garage brightened its image with 2400 fewer fixtures and netted an annual energy savings of $60,000.

Not Available

1985-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

6

Super-radiance in the sodium resonance lines from sodium iodide arc lamps  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Super-radiance observed within the centers of the sodium resonance D lines emitted by arc lamps containing sodium iodide as additive in a high-pressure mercury plasma environment was studied by high-resolution emission spectroscopy. The spectral radiance of these self-reversed lines including super-radiance was simulated by considering a local enhancement of the source function due to the presence of an additional source of radiation near the arc wall. Causes of this hitherto unrecognized source of radiation are given.

Karabourniotis, D. [Department of Physics, Institute of Plasma Physics, University of Crete, 71003 Heraklion (Greece); Drakakis, E. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Technological Educational Institute, Heraklion (Greece)

2010-08-09T23:59:59.000Z

7

Experimental and theoretical investigations on the warm-up of a high-pressure mercury discharge lamp  

SciTech Connect

Modern high-pressure discharge lamps are forced to provide instant light and hot relight capabilities - if possible at lower power units. A detailed understanding of the warm-up of high-pressure discharge lamps is therefore required. Complex fluid model codes were developed for the past years including more and more processes like two-dimensional treatment of convection trying to provide a more comprehensive and consistent description of high-pressure discharge lamps. However, there is a lack of experimental data to examine the performance of these models. This work provides a very complete set of geometrical, electrical, spectroscopic, and thermographic data according to the warm-up of a high-pressure mercury discharge lamp that is compared to the results of a state of the art fluid code. Quantitative agreement is achieved for single parameters like wall temperatures. But the paper also reveals the need for further investigations and improvements of the code.

Zalach, J.; Franke, St.; Schoepp, H. [Leibniz Institute for Plasma Science and Technology, Felix-Hausdorff-Str. 2, D-17489 Greifswald (Germany); Araoud, Z.; Charrada, K. [Unite d'Etude des Milieux Ionises et Reactifs, IPEIM, rte de Kairouan, 5019 Monastir (Tunisia); Zissis, G. [Laboratoire Plasma et Conversion d'Energie, 118 rte Narbonne, Bat3R2, 31062 Toulouse (France)

2011-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

8

Application of a three-dimensional model for a study of the energy transfer of a high-pressure mercury horizontal lamp  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper is devoted to study the dynamics of a discharge lamp with high intensity in a horizontal position. As an example of application, we chose the high-pressure mercury lamp. For this, we realized a three-dimensional model, a stable and powered DC. After the validation of this model, we used it to reproduce the influence of some parameters that have appeared on major transport phenomena of mass and energy in studying the lamp operating in a horizontal position. Indeed, the mass of mercury and the electric current are modified and the effect of convective transport is studied.

Ben Hamida, M. B.; Charrada, K. [Unite d'Etude des Milieux Ionises et Reactifs, IPEIM, 5019 route de Kairouan Monastir (Tunisia)

2012-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

9

Mercury Lamps Recycling Fluorescent light-tubes, compact fluorescent bulbs, mercury and sodium vapor lamps, ultraviolet and  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Mercury Lamps Recycling Fluorescent light-tubes, compact fluorescent bulbs, mercury and sodium light tubes are recycled. They are made from aluminum and metal. Aluminum is a silver-white metal and is very light in weight and strong. Because aluminum is ductile, it can be drawn into wires or pressed

Ungerleider, Leslie G.

10

Information on the Fate of Mercury From Fluorescent Lamps Disposed in Landfills  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Mercury is contained in energy-efficient fluorescent, mercury-vapor, metal halide, and high-pressure sodium lamps. This report presents information on the potential for air and groundwater contamination when mercury lamps are disposed in municipal landfills.

1995-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

11

Fiber-optic, anti-cycling, high pressure sodium street light control. Final technical progress report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This is the Final Technical Progress Report on a project to develop and market a Fiber-Optic Anti-Cycling High Pressure Sodium Street Light Control. The field test units are now being made with a single vertical PC board design and contains a computer-on-a-chip or PROM IC to take the place of the majority of the components previously contained on the upper logic board. This will reduce the final costs of the unit when it is in production and increase the control`s flexibility. The authors have finished the soft tooling and have made the 400 plastic cases for the field test units. The new configuration of the cases entails a simplified design of the control shell which will have the lenses cast in place. The shell and base plastics are now finished and in final assembly awaiting the completion of the PC boards.

NONE

1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

Hybrid electronic ballast operating the HPS lamp at constant power  

SciTech Connect

A hybrid solid-state ballast that operates high-pressure sodium (HPS) lamps at main frequency with constant power through rated life is described. The system utilizes two inductors connected in series and a bidirectional semiconductor switch connected in parallel to one of them. A lamp-starting circuit has also been included in the ballast. The static switch, with phase angle control provided by power feedback, actuates on lamp current compensating variations of the main voltage and increases of lamp arc voltage. The system offers the following: (1) increase of lamp life and system lumen maintenance; (2) power factor and total harmonic distortion of line current comparable to conventional lag ballast; and (3) operating cost savings, both in terms of energy cost and lamp replacement cost.

Kaiser, W. [Univ. de Sao Paulo (Brazil)

1998-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

13

Energy-efficient H. I. D. solid-state ballast. Phase I. Final report. [High pressure sodium  

SciTech Connect

The average efficiency of the six prototype ballasts when operated with G.E. and Sylvania lamps is 84.8%. The average efficiency of conventional high reactance autotransformer core/coil ballasts is 80%. With plus or minus 10% rated input voltage the ballast output power varied from -11.9% to +0.7%. Standard core/coil ballasts have a +-11% regulation with a +-5% rated input voltage. Power factor increases from 85% at 60 Hz to 100% at approximately 15,000 Hz. However, resonant frequencies occur above 1000 Hz which will cause destruction of the lamp. For safe operation, ballast output frequencies below 1000 Hz are recommended. The standard core/coil ballast operates at 90% power factor. Analysis of the Phase I data and circuit design indicates that additional efficiency can be obtained through improved circuit design, i.e., eliminating inherent internal losses by improved component selection, redesigning portions of the circuit, and selection of the frequency for optimum efficiency and power factor.

1980-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

14

Max Tech and Beyond: High-Intensity Discharge Lamps  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

High-intensity discharge (HID) lamps are most often found in industrial and commercial applications, and are the light source of choice in street and area lighting, and sports stadium illumination. HID lamps are produced in three types - mercury vapor (MV), high pressure sodium (HPS) and metal halide (MH). Of these, MV and MH are considered white-light sources (although the MV exhibits poor color rendering) and HPS produces a yellow-orange color light. A fourth lamp, low-pressure sodium (LPS), is not a HID lamp by definition, but it is used in similar applications and thus is often grouped with HID lamps. With the notable exception of MV which is comparatively inefficient and in decline in the US from both a sales and installed stock point of view; HPS, LPS and MH all have efficacies over 100 lumens per watt. The figure below presents the efficacy trends over time for commercially available HID lamps and LPS, starting with MV and LPS in 1930's followed by the development of HPS and MH in the 1960's. In HID lamps, light is generated by creating an electric arc between two electrodes in an arc tube. The particles in the arc are partially ionized, making them electrically conductive, and a light-emitting 'plasma' is created. This arc occurs within the arc tube, which for most HID lamps is enclosed within an evacuated outer bulb that thermally isolates and protects the hot arc tube from the surroundings. Unlike a fluorescent lamp that produces visible light through down-converting UV light with phosphors, the arc itself is the light source in an HID lamp, emitting visible radiation that is characteristic of the elements present in the plasma. Thus, the mixture of elements included in the arc tube is one critical factor determining the quality of the light emitted from the lamp, including its correlated color temperature (CCT) and color rendering index (CRI). Similar to fluorescent lamps, HID lamps require a ballast to start and maintain stable operating conditions, and this necessitates additional power beyond that used by the lamp itself. HID lamps offer important advantages compared to other lighting technologies, making them well suited for certain applications. HID lamps can be very efficient, have long operating lives, are relatively temperature-insensitive and produce a large quantity of light from a small package. For these reasons, HID lamps are often used when high levels of illumination are required over large areas and where operating and maintenance costs must be kept to a minimum. Furthermore, if the installation has a significant mounting height, high-power HID lamps can offer superior optical performance luminaires, reducing the number of lamps required to illuminate a given area. The indoor environments best suited to HID lamps are those with high ceilings, such as those commonly found in industrial spaces, warehouses, large retail spaces, sports halls and large public areas. Research into efficacy improvements for HID lighting technologies has generally followed market demand for these lamps, which is in decline for MV and LPS, has reached a plateau for HPS and is growing for MH. Several manufacturers interviewed for this study indicated that although solid-state lighting was now receiving the bulk of their company's R&D investment, there are still strong HID lamp research programs, which concentrate on MH technologies, with some limited amount of investment in HPS for specific niche applications (e.g., agricultural greenhouses). LPS and MV lamps are no longer being researched or improved in terms of efficacy or other performance attributes, although some consider MH HID lamps to be the next-generation MV lamp. Thus, the efficacy values of commercially available MV, LPS and HPS lamps are not expected to increase in the next 5 to 10 years. MH lamps, and more specifically, ceramic MH lamps are continuing to improve in efficacy as well as light quality, manufacturability and lamp life. Within an HID lamp, the light-producing plasma must be heated to sufficiently high temperatures to achieve high efficiencie

Scholand, Michael

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

15

Spectral distribution of dimmed HID lamps in a plant growth facility  

SciTech Connect

A commercial dimming ballast system for high intensity discharge (HID) lamps has been tested for use in plant growth chambers. The dimming ballast system can be controlled either manually at the dimming panel or by a d.c. voltage from a programmer or computer. Using the dimming system, photosynthetically active radiation can be continuously varied from about 200 to about 2000 ..mu..E m/sup -2/s/sup -1/. This paper shows the effects of dimming on the spectral intensity (400 to 750 nm) of three types of HID lamps measured individually and in combination to achieve a better spectral mix. The lamps used in this study were 400 w metal halide, mercury vapor and high pressure sodium.

Bingham, G.E.; Coyne, P.I.

1979-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

16

High pressure furnace  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A high temperature high pressure furnace has a hybrid partially externally heated construction. A metallic vessel fabricated from an alloy having a composition of at least 45% nickel, 15% chrome, and 10% tungsten is utilized (the preferred alloy including 55% nickel, 22% chrome, 14% tungsten, 2% molybdenum, 3% iron (maximum) and 5% cobalt (maximum). The disclosed alloy is fabricated into 11/4 or 2 inch, 32 mm or 50 mm bar stock and has a length of about 22 inches, 56 cm. This bar stock has an aperture formed therein to define a closed high temperature, high pressure oxygen chamber. The opposite and closed end of the vessel is provided with a small blind aperture into which a thermocouple can be inserted. The closed end of the vessel is inserted into an oven, preferably heated by standard nickel chrome electrical elements and having a heavily insulated exterior.

Morris, Donald E. (Kensington, CA)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

17

High pressure oxygen furnace  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A high temperature high pressure oxygen furnace having a hybrid partially externally heated construction is disclosed. A metallic bar fabricated from an alloy having a composition of at least 45% nickel, 15% chrome, and 10% tungsten is utilized, the preferred alloy including 55% nickel, 22% chrome, 14% tungsten, 2% molybdenum, 3% iron (maximum) and 5% cobalt (maximum). The disclosed alloy is fabricated into 11/4 inch bar stock and has a length of about 17 inches. This bar stock is gun drilled for over 16 inches of its length with 0.400 inch aperture to define a closed high temperature, high pressure oxygen chamber. The opposite and closed end of the bar is provided with a small support aperture into which both a support and a thermocouple can be inserted. The closed end of the gun drilled bar is inserted into an oven, preferably heated by standard nickel chrome electrical elements and having a heavily insulated exterior. 5 figs.

Morris, D.E.

1992-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

18

High pressure oxygen furnace  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A high temperature high pressure oxygen furnace having a hybrid partially externally heated construction is disclosed. A metallic bar fabricated from an alloy having a composition of at least 45% nickel, 15% chrome, and 10% tungsten is utilized (the preferred alloy including 55% nickel, 22% chrome, 14% tungsten, 2% molybdenum, 3% iron (maximum) and 5% cobalt (maximum). The disclosed alloy is fabricated into 11/4 inch bar stock and has a length of about 17 inches. This bar stock is gun drilled for over 16 inches of its length with 0.400 inch aperture to define a closed high temperature, high pressure oxygen chamber. The opposite and closed end of the bar is provided with a small support aperture into which both a support and a thermocouple can be inserted. The closed end of the gun drilled bar is inserted into an oven, preferably heated by standard nickel chrome electrical elements and having a heavily insulated exterior.

Morris, Donald E. (Kensington, CA)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

19

High pressure furnace  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A high temperature high pressure furnace has a hybrid partially externally heated construction. A metallic vessel fabricated from an alloy having a composition of at least 45% nickel, 15% chrome, and 10% tungsten is utilized (the preferred alloy including 55% nickel, 22% chrome, 14% tungsten, 2% molybdenum, 3% iron (maximum) and 5% cobalt (maximum)). The disclosed alloy is fabricated into 11/4 or 2 inch, 32 mm or 50 mm bar stock and has a length of about 22 inches, 56 cm. This bar stock has an aperture formed therein to define a closed high temperature, high pressure oxygen chamber. The opposite and closed end of the vessel is provided with a small blind aperture into which a thermocouple can be inserted. The closed end of the vessel is inserted into an oven, preferably heated by standard nickel chrome electrical elements and having a heavily insulated exterior. 19 figures.

Morris, D.E.

1993-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

20

Aperture lamp  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A discharge lamp includes means for containing a light emitting fill, the fill being capable of absorbing light at one wavelength and re-emitting the light at a different wavelength, the light emitted from the fill having a first spectral power distribution in the absence of reflection of light back into the fill; means for exciting the fill to cause the fill to emit light; and means for reflecting some of the light emitted by the fill back into the fill while allowing some light to exit, the exiting light having a second spectral power distribution with proportionately more light in the visible region as compared to the first spectral power distribution, wherein the light re-emitted by the fill is shifted in wavelength with respect to the absorbed light and the magnitude of the shift is in relation to an effective optical path length. Another discharge lamp includes an envelope; a fill which emits light when excited disposed in the envelope; a source of excitation power coupled to the fill to excite the fill and cause the fill to emit light; and a reflective ceramic structure disposed around the envelope and defining an light emitting opening, wherein the structure comprises a sintered body built up directly on the envelope and made from a combination of alumina and silica.

MacLennan, Donald A. (Gaithersburg, MD); Turner, Brian P. (Damascus, MD)

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high-pressure sodium lamps" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Lamp Divisions  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

--- --- /A;; i :' r%i;in~house ilEc;' i:Z3:~cra:ion Lamp Divisions , _.. (I +i. 0 :,,,rg. . I . . -= i?e p/q! qe)-' &se pw E.rcale?l iev, Je!sey 07m March 20, 1 gs? ::r . J. A. Jones I ti. 5. Muclear Regulatory Commission .> = ..- haterials Licensing Branch -s - ,.I, - - Division of Fuel Cycle and hateri al Safety LY. , $2 - _ . ' -' . 3 _- - Yeshington, C. C. 2@555 - :_ :--, =-- -- .-?J -.: y...., : :- 7 Dear Mr. Jones : y-- --, ? . *I 2=15 2 r; X -P The following is our final report of the decontamination efZor?s takz in our Bui Iding 7 basement and wi 11 also serve to update our report i& November 12, 1980. As stated in NRC' s report of December 22, 1983, two closeout inspect ions were conducted by your King of Prussia off i ce on November 21 and December 2,

22

LED lamp  

SciTech Connect

There is herein described a lamp for providing white light comprising a plurality of light sources positioned on a substrate. Each of said light sources comprises a blue light emitting diode (LED) and a dome that substantially covers said LED. A first portion of said blue light from said LEDs is transmitted through said domes and a second portion of said blue light is converted into a red light by a first phosphor contained in said domes. A cover is disposed over all of said light sources that transmits at least a portion of said red and blue light emitted by said light sources. The cover contains a second phosphor that emits a yellow light in response to said blue light. The red, blue and yellow light combining to form the white light and the white light having a color rendering index (CRI) of at least about 80.

Galvez, Miguel; Grossman, Kenneth; Betts, David

2013-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

23

High Pressure Studies of Superconductivity.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Superconductivity has been studied extensively since it was first discovered over 100 years ago. High pressure studies, in particular, have been vital in furthering our… (more)

Hillier, Narelle Jayne

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

24

Sodium  

SciTech Connect

Some of the properties of sodium are reviewed, particularly its properties which make it useful as a FBR coolant. The FFTF and other sodium research facilities at HEDL are described. (DLC)

1979-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

25

Electrokinetically pumped high pressure sprays  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An electrokinetic pump capable of producing high pressure is combined with a nozzle having a submicron orifice to provide a high pressure spray device. Because of its small size, the device can be contained within medical devices such as an endoscope for delivering biological materials such as DNA, chemo therapeutic agents, or vaccines to tissues and cells.

Schoeniger, Joseph S. (Oakland, CA); Paul, Phillip H. (Livermore, CA); Schoeniger, Luke (Pittsford, NY)

2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

26

Electrokinetically pumped high pressure sprays  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An electrokinetic pump capable of producing high pressure is combined with a nozzle having a submicron orifice to provide a high pressure spray device. Because of its small size, the device can be contained within medical devices such as an endoscope for delivering biological materials such as DNA, chemo therapeutic agents, or vaccines to tissues and cells.

Schoeniger, Joseph S. (Oakland, CA); Paul, Phillip H. (Livermore, CA); Schoeniger, Luke (Pittsford, NY)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

Fundamentals of high pressure adsorption  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

High-pressure adsorption attracts research interests following the world's attention to alternative fuels, and it exerts essential effect on the study of hydrogen/methane storage and the development of novel materials addressing to the storage. However, theoretical puzzles in high-pressure adsorption hindered the progress of application studies. Therefore, the present paper addresses the major theoretical problems that challenged researchers: i.e., how to model the isotherms with maximum observed in high-pressure adsorption; what is the adsorption mechanism at high pressures; how do we determine the quantity of absolute adsorption based on experimental data. Ideology and methods to tackle these problems are elucidated, which lead to new insights into the nature of high-pressure adsorption and progress in application studies, for example, in modeling multicomponent adsorption, hydrogen storage, natural gas storage, and coalbed methane enrichment, was achieved.

Zhou, Y.P.; Zhou, L. [Tianjin University, Tianjin (China). High Pressure Adsorption Laboratory

2009-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

28

High pressure synthesis gas fermentation  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The construction of the high pressure gas phase fermentation system has been completed. Photographs of the various components of the system are presented, along with an operating procedure for the equipment.

Not Available

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

29

High pressure liquid level monitor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A liquid level monitor for tracking the level of a coal slurry in a high-pressure vessel including a toroidal-shaped float with magnetically permeable bands thereon disposed within the vessel, two pairs of magnetic field generators and detectors disposed outside the vessel adjacent the top and bottom thereof and magnetically coupled to the magnetically permeable bands on the float, and signal processing circuitry for combining signals from the top and bottom detectors for generating a monotonically increasing analog control signal which is a function of liquid level. The control signal may be utilized to operate high-pressure control valves associated with processes in which the high-pressure vessel is used.

Bean, Vern E. (Frederick, MD); Long, Frederick G. (Ijamsville, MD)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

Electrokinetic high pressure hydraulic system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An electrokinetic high pressure hydraulic pump for manipulating fluids in capillary-based systems. The pump uses electro-osmotic flow to provide a high pressure hydraulic system, having no moving mechanical parts, for pumping and/or compressing fluids, for providing valve means and means for opening and closing valves, for controlling fluid flow rate, and manipulating fluid flow generally and in capillary-based systems (Microsystems), in particular. The compact nature of the inventive high pressure hydraulic pump provides the ability to construct a micro-scale or capillary-based HPLC system that fulfills the desire for small sample quantity, low solvent consumption, improved efficiency, the ability to run samples in parallel, and field portability. Control of pressure and solvent flow rate is achieved by controlling the voltage applied to an electrokinetic pump.

Paul, Phillip H. (Livermore, CA); Rakestraw, David J. (Fremont, CA); Arnold, Don W. (Livermore, CA); Hencken, Kenneth R. (Pleasanton, CA); Schoeniger, Joseph S. (Oakland, CA); Neyer, David W. (Castro Valley, CA)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

Electrokinetic high pressure hydraulic system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A compact high pressure hydraulic pump having no moving mechanical parts for converting electric potential to hydraulic force. The electrokinetic pump, which can generate hydraulic pressures greater than 2500 psi, can be employed to compress a fluid, either liquid or gas, and manipulate fluid flow. The pump is particularly useful for capillary-base systems. By combining the electrokinetic pump with a housing having chambers separated by a flexible member, fluid flow, including high pressure fluids, is controlled by the application of an electric potential, that can vary with time.

Paul, Phillip H. (Livermore, CA); Rakestraw, David J. (Fremont, CA)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

32

High-Pressure Hydrogen Tanks  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

February 8 February 8 th , 2005 Mark J. Warner, P.E. Principal Engineer Quantum Technologies, Inc. Irvine, CA Low Cost, High Efficiency, Low Cost, High Efficiency, High Pressure Hydrogen Storage High Pressure Hydrogen Storage This presentation does not contain any proprietary or confidential information. 70 MPa Composite Tanks Vent Line Ports Defueling Port (optional) Fill Port Filter Check Valve Vehicle Interface Bracket with Stone Shield In Tank Regulator with Solenoid Lock-off Pressure Relief Device Manual Valve Compressed Hydrogen Storage System In-Tank Regulator Pressure Sensor (not visible here) Pressure Relief Device (thermal) In Tank Gas Temperature Sensor Carbon Composite Shell (structural) Impact Resistant Outer Shell (damage resistant) Gas Outlet Solenoid Foam Dome (impact protection)

33

Contrast between the vertical and horizontal mercury discharge lamps  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses the thermal behavior of a high pressure mercury lamp in a horizontal position, compared with that of a vertical lamp. The model adopted is three-dimensional, steady, and powered DC. After the model validation, we analyzed temperature fields and velocities for the case of the lamp in a horizontal position by comparing it with those of a lamp in vertical position. This setting initially fixed the wall temperature equal to 1000 K. However, the morphology of the temperature profile in the case of the horizontal lamp indicates that the temperature of the wall cannot be uniform. Thus, we have, in a second time, performed an energy balance at the wall to calculate its temperature. This aims to understand the influence of convection on the thermal properties of the source.

Ben Hamida, M. B.; Helali, H.; Araoud, Z.; Charrada, K. [Unite d'Etude des Milieux Ionises et Reactifs, IPEIM, 5019 route de Kairouan Monastir (Tunisia)

2011-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

34

Compact Fluorescent Lamps  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Electric lighting constitutes approximately 21-23 % of the electric grid load in the United States. The higher energy and maintenance costs of incandescent lamps, combined with the favorable economics of high-efficiency compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs), are making CFLs the increasingly popular choice for both residential and commercial lighting. Utility incentive and rebate programs to stimulate CFL use and the beginnings of a ban on incandescent lamps are enhancing CFL penetration levels in these enviro...

2009-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

35

Electokinetic high pressure hydraulic system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A compact high pressure hydraulic system having no moving parts for converting electric potential to hydraulic force and for manipulating fluids. Electro-osmotic flow is used to provide a valve and means to compress a fluid or gas in a capillary-based system. By electro-osmotically moving an electrolyte between a first position opening communication between a fluid inlet and outlet and a second position closing communication between the fluid inlet and outlet the system can be configured as a valve. The system can also be used to generate forces as large as 2500 psi that can be used to compress a fluid, either a liquid or a gas.

Paul, Phillip H. (Livermore, CA); Rakestraw, David J. (Fremont, CA)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

36

High pressure xenon ionization detector  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is provided for detecting ionization comprising allowing particles that cause ionization to contact high pressure xenon maintained at or near its critical point and measuring the amount of ionization. An apparatus is provided for detecting ionization, the apparatus comprising a vessel containing a ionizable medium, the vessel having an inlet to allow high pressure ionizable medium to enter the vessel, a means to permit particles that cause ionization of the medium to enter the vessel, an anode, a cathode, a grid and a plurality of annular field shaping rings, the field shaping rings being electrically isolated from one another, the anode, cathode, grid and field shaping rings being electrically isolated from one another in order to form an electric field between the cathode and the anode, the electric field originating at the anode and terminating at the cathode, the grid being disposed between the cathode and the anode, the field shaping rings being disposed between the cathode and the grid, the improvement comprising the medium being xenon and the vessel being maintained at a pressure of 50 to 70 atmospheres and a temperature of 0.degree. to 30.degree. C.

Markey, John K. (New Haven, CT)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

37

High pressure xenon ionization detector  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is provided for detecting ionization comprising allowing particles that cause ionization to contact high pressure xenon maintained at or near its critical point and measuring the amount of ionization. An apparatus is provided for detecting ionization, the apparatus comprising a vessel containing a ionizable medium, the vessel having an inlet to allow high pressure ionizable medium to enter the vessel, a means to permit particles that cause ionization of the medium to enter the vessel, an anode, a cathode, a grid and a plurality of annular field shaping rings, the field shaping rings being electrically isolated from one another, the anode, cathode, grid and field shaping rings being electrically isolated from one another in order to form an electric field between the cathode and the anode, the electric field originating at the anode and terminating at the cathode, the grid being disposed between the cathode and the anode, the field shaping rings being disposed between the cathode and the grid, the improvement comprising the medium being xenon and the vessel being maintained at a pressure of 50 to 70 atmospheres and a temperature of 0 to 30 C. 2 figs.

Markey, J.K.

1989-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

38

Jacketed lamp bulb envelope  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A jacketed lamp bulb envelope includes a ceramic cup having an open end and a partially closed end, the partially closed end defining an aperture, a lamp bulb positioned inside the ceramic cup abutting the aperture, and a reflective ceramic material at least partially covering a portion of the bulb not abutting the aperture. The reflective ceramic material may substantially fill an interior volume of the ceramic cup not occupied by the bulb. The ceramic cup may include a structural feature for aiding in alignment of the jacketed lamp bulb envelope in a lamp. The ceramic cup may include an external flange about a periphery thereof. One example of a jacketed lamp bulb envelope includes a ceramic cup having an open end and a closed end, a ceramic washer covering the open end of the ceramic cup, the washer defining an aperture therethrough, a lamp bulb positioned inside the ceramic cup abutting the aperture, and a reflective ceramic material filling an interior volume of the ceramic cup not occupied by the bulb. A method of packing a jacketed lamp bulb envelope of the type comprising a ceramic cup with a lamp bulb disposed therein includes the steps of filling the ceramic cup with a flowable slurry of reflective material, and applying centrifugal force to the cup to pack the reflective material therein.

MacLennan, Donald A. (Gaithersburg, MD); Turner, Brian P. (Damascus, MD); Gitsevich, Aleksandr (Gaithersburg, MD); Bass, Gary K. (Mt. Airy, MD); Dolan, James T. (Frederick, MD); Kipling, Kent (Gaithersburg, MD); Kirkpatrick, Douglas A. (Great Falls, VA); Leng, Yongzhang (Damascus, MD); Levin, Izrail (Silver Spring, MD); Roy, Robert J. (Frederick, MD); Shanks, Bruce (Gaithersburg, MD); Smith, Malcolm (Alexandria, VA); Trimble, William C. (Columbia, MD); Tsai, Peter (Olney, MD)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

39

High Pressure Hydrogen Tank Manufacturing  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Workshop Workshop High Pressure Hydrogen Tank Manufacturing Mark Leavitt Quantum Fuel Systems Technologies Worldwide, Inc. August 11, 2011 This presentation does not contain any proprietary, confidential, or otherwise restricted information History of Innovations... Announced breakthrough in all-composite lightweight, high capacity, low-cost fuel storage technologies. * Developed a series of robust, OEM compatible electronic control products. Developed H 2 storage system for SunLine Tran-sit Hythane® bus. Awarded patent for integrated module including in-tank regulator * Developed high efficiency H 2 fuel storage systems for DOE Future Truck programs Developed H 2 storage and metering system for Toyota's FCEV platform. First to certify 10,000 psi systems in Japan

40

Electrical Transport Experiments at High Pressure  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

High-pressure electrical measurements have a long history of use in the study of materials under ultra-high pressures. In recent years, electrical transport experiments have played a key role in the study of many interesting high pressure phenomena including pressure-induced superconductivity, insulator-to-metal transitions, and quantum critical behavior. High-pressure electrical transport experiments also play an important function in geophysics and the study of the Earth's interior. Besides electrical conductivity measurements, electrical transport experiments also encompass techniques for the study of the optoelectronic and thermoelectric properties of materials under high pressures. In addition, electrical transport techniques, i.e., the ability to extend electrically conductive wires from outside instrumentation into the high pressure sample chamber have been utilized to perform other types of experiments as well, such as high-pressure magnetic susceptibility and de Haas-van Alphen Fermi surface experiments. Finally, electrical transport techniques have also been utilized for delivering significant amounts of electrical power to high pressure samples, for the purpose of performing high-pressure and -temperature experiments. Thus, not only do high-pressure electrical transport experiments provide much interesting and valuable data on the physical properties of materials extreme compression, but the underlying high-pressure electrical transport techniques can be used in a number of ways to develop additional diagnostic techniques and to advance high pressure capabilities.

Weir, S

2009-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high-pressure sodium lamps" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Fluorescent lamp ballast  

SciTech Connect

An electronic ballast is described having at least a first and second terminal for engaging the filaments of at least one fluorescent lamp which requires a breakdown voltage to ignite the lamp and a maintaining voltage for maintaining ionization therewithin, the electronic ballast comprising: a direct current voltage source; a transistor; a transformer having a primary winding separated into a first winding, a second winding, a third winding, and a fourth winding; the first winding connected between the voltage source and the first terminal; the second winding connected between the two terminals; the third winding connected between the second terminal and to both the transistor and to ground; the fourth winding connected between ground and the transistor; the lamp being parallel to the second winding when the lamp filaments engages the ballast terminals.

Ureche, A.

1987-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

42

Magnetic fluorescent lamp  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The radiant emission of a mercury-argon discharge in a fluorescent lamp assembly is enhanced by providing means for establishing a magnetic field with lines of force along the path of electron flow through the bulb of the lamp assembly, to provide Zeeman splitting of the ultraviolet spectral line. Optimum results are obtained when the magnetic field strength causes a Zeeman splitting of approximately 1.7 times the thermal line width.

Berman, S.M.; Richardson R.W.

1983-12-29T23:59:59.000Z

43

Electronic Compact Fluorescent Lamps  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This EPRI Technical Update addresses the fastest growing energy efficient light source the electronic compact fluorescent lamp (CFL). Business and technical market factors (Chapter 2) explain the past and future growth of the CFL market while emphasizing future technical improvements along with discussion of the importance of utility involvement in helping their customers make the switch from incandescent lamps to CFLs. The basic CFL technology is covered in Chapter 3 including test results for selected ...

2007-12-18T23:59:59.000Z

44

Fluorescent lamp ballast  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes an electronic ballast unit for a fluorescent lamp comprising: a circuit assembly having a pair of voltage input terminal and a first inductor and a capacitor in series relationship with each other to form a series resonant circuit. The circuit is adapted to be coupled to a fluorescent lamp to provide a starting voltage for the lamp; and a second inductor connected in shunt relationship to the first inductor and connected to the other input terminal. There is a core on which the first inductor and the second inductor are mounted. The core inductively couples the inductors with each other and are shaped to reduce core losses to minimize the increase of temperature of the core; the core is of a generally H-shaped configuration, and means of opposite ends of the H-shaped core to complete the magnetic flux path for each inductor, respectively.

Boyd, G.D.

1987-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

45

Stability of very-high pressure arc discharges against perturbations of the electron temperature  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We study the stability of the energy balance of the electron gas in very high-pressure plasmas against longitudinal perturbations, using a local dispersion analysis. After deriving a dispersion equation, we apply the model to a very high-pressure (100 bar) xenon plasma and find instability for electron temperatures, T{sub e}, in a window between 2400 K and 5500-7000 K x 10{sup 3} K, depending on the current density (10{sup 6}-10{sup 8} A/m{sup 2}). The instability can be traced back to the Joule heating of the electron gas being a growing function of T{sub e}, which is due to a rising dependence of the electron-atom collision frequency on T{sub e}. We then analyze the T{sub e} range occurring in very high-pressure xenon lamps and conclude that only the near-anode region exhibits T{sub e} sufficiently low for this instability to occur. Indeed, previous experiments have revealed that such lamps develop, under certain conditions, voltage oscillations accompanied by electromagnetic interference, and this instability has been pinned down to the plasma-anode interaction. A relation between the mechanisms of the considered instability and multiple anodic attachments of high-pressure arcs is discussed.

Benilov, M. S. [Departamento de Fisica, Ciencias Exactas e Engenharia, Universidade da Madeira, Largo do Municipio, Funchal 9000 (Portugal); Hechtfischer, U. [Philips Lighting, BU Automotive Lamps, Technology, Philipsstrasse 8, Aachen 52068 (Germany)

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

46

2X Incandescent Lamp Technology  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The incandescent lamp was developed during the 1800s, largely reaching the design of the traditional incandescent lamp as we know it by the late 1800s. This lamp remained largely unchanged for years, providing most commercial and residential lighting demands into the 1950s and residential lighting into the 2000s. As new lighting technologies became available, the low efficacy, measured in lumens per watt, of the traditional incandescent lamp became an issue which many wanted to ...

2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

47

Stationary High-Pressure Hydrogen Storage  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Stationary High-Pressure Hydrogen Storage Zhili Feng Oak Ridge National Laboratory 2 Managed by UT-Battelle for the U.S. Department of Energy Technology Gap Analysis for Bulk...

48

Multicomponent fuel vaporization at high pressures.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

We extend our multicomponent fuel model to high pressures using a Peng-Robinson equation of state, and implement the model into KIVA-3V. Phase equilibrium is achieved by equating liquid and vapor fugacities. The latent heat of vaporization and fuel enthalpies are also corrected for at high pressures. Numerical simulations of multicomponent evaporation are performed for single droplets for a diesel fuel surrogate at different pressures.

Torres, D. J. (David J.); O'Rourke, P. J. (Peter J.)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

Fluorescent lamp dimming adaptor kit  

SciTech Connect

An add-on fluorescent lamp dimming adaptor is described for connecting to a conventional nondimming ballast in a fluorescent lighting system, the system including a source of ac voltage. The ballast has terminals for connecting to a fluorescent lamp, the adaptor comprising: a switching module adapted to be coupled to the terminals for switching current from the lamp, the switching module being connected in parallel with the lamp to divert current from the lamp when the switching module conducts; and a level control coupled to the switching module, the level control controlling the conductive state of the switching module to vary the current in the lamp according to a dimming control signal supplied to the level control, the level control causing the switching module to switch at a frequency in the range of 300 hertz and higher during times that the lamp current is being varied.

Alley, R.P.

1987-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

50

High pressure electrical insulated feed thru connector  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A feed-thru type hermetic electrical connector including at least one connector pin feeding through an insulator block within the metallic body of the connector shell. A compression stop arrangement coaxially disposed about the insulator body is brazed to the shell, and the shoulder on the insulator block bears against this top in a compression mode, the high pressure or internal connector being at the opposite end of the shell. Seals between the pin and an internal bore at the high pressure end of the insulator block and between the insulator block and the metallic shell at the high pressure end are hermetically brazed in place, the first of these also functioning to transfer the axial compressive load without permitting appreciable shear action between the pin and insulator block.

Oeschger, Joseph E. (Palo Alto, CA); Berkeland, James E. (San Jose, CA)

1979-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

51

Hydrogen at high pressure and temperatures  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Hydrogen at high pressures and temperatures is challenging scientifically and has many real and potential applications. Minimum metallic conductivity of fluid hydrogen is observed at 140 GPa and 2600 K, based on electrical conductivity measurements to 180 GPa (1.8 Mbar), tenfold compression, and 3000 K obtained dynamically with a two-stage light-gas gun. Conditions up to 300 GPa, sixfold compression, and 30,000 K have been achieved in laser-driven Hugoniot experiments. Implications of these results for the interior of Jupiter, inertial confinement fusion, and possible uses of metastable solid hydrogen, if the metallic fluid could be quenched from high pressure, are discussed.

Nellis, W J

1999-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

52

High pressure water jet mining machine  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A high pressure water jet mining machine for the longwall mining of coal is described. The machine is generally in the shape of a plowshare and is advanced in the direction in which the coal is cut. The machine has mounted thereon a plurality of nozzle modules each containing a high pressure water jet nozzle disposed to oscillate in a particular plane. The nozzle modules are oriented to cut in vertical and horizontal planes on the leading edge of the machine and the coal so cut is cleaved off by the wedge-shaped body.

Barker, Clark R. (Rolla, MO)

1981-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

53

NETL: Gasification Systems - Development of High-Pressure Dry...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Feed Systems Development of High-Pressure Dry Feed Pump for Gasification Systems Project Number: DE-FC26-04NT42237 High-Pressure Solids Pump High-Pressure Solids Pump Pratt &...

54

NETL: Gasification Systems - Development of High-Pressure Dry...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

High-Pressure Dry Feed Pump for Gasification Systems Project No.: DE-FC26-04NT42237 High-Pressure Solids Pump High-Pressure Solids Pump Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne (PWR) is...

55

Flash Lighting with Fluorescent Lamp.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??A flash lighting circuit with the fluorescent lamp is designed to produce lighting flicker by means of controlling the operating frequency and the duty-ratio of… (more)

Hsieh, Horng

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

Fixture conditions affect lamp performance  

SciTech Connect

This article discusses the major parameters that affect fluorescent lamp performance under fixture conditions. These parameters include fixture type, and HVAC integration, which directly determine the minimum lamp wall temperature (MLWT), and therefore, the resulting light output of the lamp/ballast system. Experimental data is presented showing that the lumen output of the lamp/ballast system can vary by as much as 20% and that the system efficacy can vary by 10% depending upon the type of fixture and HVAC system employed. 4 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

Siminovitch, M.J.; Rubinstein, F.M.; Verderber, R.R.

1986-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

57

Very high efficacy electrodeless high intensity discharge lamps  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An electrodeless arc lamp comprises an outer jacket hermetically sealing and thermally protecting an arc tube inside which has an upwardly convex bottom center section. The absence of chemically reactive electrode material makes it possible to use metal halides other than iodides. The tube contains chlorides, bromides or a mixture thereof of scandium and sodium in a nearly equimolar relationship in addition to mercury and an inert gas. Good color balance can be obtained at reduced reservoir temperature and with less power loss. Reduction in wall temperature makes it possible to attain longer lamp life.

Johnson, P.D.

1985-10-03T23:59:59.000Z

58

Inductive tuners for microwave driven discharge lamps  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An RF powered electrodeless lamp utilizing an inductive tuner in the waveguide which couples the RF power to the lamp cavity, for reducing reflected RF power and causing the lamp to operate efficiently.

Simpson, James E. (Gaithersburg, MD)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

Information Resources: LED Replacement Lamps: Current Performance...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

incandescent lamps (e.g., A-lamps), and provided an update on ENERGY STAR criteria for LED integral replacement lamps - currently in its second draft. Robert Lingard of Pacific...

60

A projective LED dental lamp design.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Halogen lamps are mostly applied as a light source to the traditional lamp for medical treatment due to its proper color temperature, but it has… (more)

Chung, Yu-Lin

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high-pressure sodium lamps" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

HIGH PRESSURE COAL COMBUSTON KINETICS PROJECT  

SciTech Connect

As part of the U.S. Department of Energy (DoE) initiative to improve the efficiency of coal-fired power plants and reduce the pollution generated by these facilities, DOE has funded the High-Pressure Coal Combustion Kinetics (HPCCK) Projects. A series of laboratory experiments were conducted on selected pulverized coals at elevated pressures with the specific goals to provide new data for pressurized coal combustion that will help extend to high pressure and validate models for burnout, pollutant formation, and generate samples of solid combustion products for analyses to fill crucial gaps in knowledge of char morphology and fly ash formation. Two series of high-pressure coal combustion experiments were performed using SRI's pressurized radiant coal flow reactor. The first series of tests characterized the near burner flame zone (NBFZ). Three coals were tested, two high volatile bituminous (Pittsburgh No.8 and Illinois No.6), and one sub-bituminous (Powder River Basin), at pressures of 1, 2, and 3 MPa (10, 20, and 30 atm). The second series of experiments, which covered high-pressure burnout (HPBO) conditions, utilized a range of substantially longer combustion residence times to produce char burnout levels from 50% to 100%. The same three coals were tested at 1, 2, and 3 MPa, as well as at 0.2 MPa. Tests were also conducted on Pittsburgh No.8 coal in CO2 entrainment gas at 0.2, 1, and 2 MPa to begin establishing a database of experiments relevant to carbon sequestration techniques. The HPBO test series included use of an impactor-type particle sampler to measure the particle size distribution of fly ash produced under complete burnout conditions. The collected data have been interpreted with the help of CFD and detailed kinetics simulation to extend and validate devolatilization, char combustion and pollutant model at elevated pressure. A global NOX production sub-model has been proposed. The submodel reproduces the performance of the detailed chemical reaction mechanism for the NBFZ tests.

Stefano Orsino

2005-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

62

High-pressure liquid chromatographic gradient mixer  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A gradient mixer effects the continuous mixing of any two miscible solvents without excessive decay or dispersion of the resultant isocratic effluent or of a linear or exponential gradient. The two solvents are fed under low or high pressure by means of two high performance liquid chromatographic pumps. The mixer comprises a series of ultra-low dead volume stainless steel tubes and low dead volume chambers. The two solvent streams impinge head-on at high fluxes. This initial nonhomogeneous mixture is then passed through a chamber packed with spirally-wound wires which cause turbulent mixing thereby homogenizing the mixture with minimum band-broadening.

Daughton, C.G.; Sakaji, R.H.

1982-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

63

Low-Pressure Sodium Lighting Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Low-Pressure Sodium Lighting Basics Low-Pressure Sodium Lighting Basics Low-Pressure Sodium Lighting Basics August 16, 2013 - 10:17am Addthis Low-pressure sodium lighting provides more energy-efficient outdoor lighting than high-intensity discharge lighting, but it has very poor color rendition. Typical applications include highway and security lighting, where color is not important. Low-pressure sodium lamps work somewhat like fluorescent lamps. Like high-intensity discharge lighting, low-pressure sodium lamps require up to 10 minutes to start and have to cool before they can restart. Therefore, they are most suitable for applications in which they stay on for hours at a time. They are not suitable for use with motion detectors. The chart below compares low-pressure sodium lamps and high-intensity

64

High pressure-resistant nonincendive emulsion explosive  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved emulsion explosive composition including hollow microspheres/bulking agents having high density and high strength. The hollow microspheres/bulking agents have true particle densities of about 0.2 grams per cubic centimeter or greater and include glass, siliceous, ceramic and synthetic resin microspheres, expanded minerals, and mixtures thereof. The preferred weight percentage of hollow microspheres/bulking agents in the composition ranges from 3.0 to 10.0 A chlorinated paraffin oil, also present in the improved emulsion explosive composition, imparts a higher film strength to the oil phase in the emulsion. The emulsion is rendered nonincendive by the production of sodium chloride in situ via the decomposition of sodium nitrate, a chlorinated paraffin oil, and sodium perchlorate. The air-gap sensitivity is improved by the in situ formation of monomethylamine perchlorate from dissolved monomethylamine nitrate and sodium perchlorate. The emulsion explosive composition can withstand static pressures to 139 bars and dynamic pressure loads on the order of 567 bars.

Ruhe, Thomas C. (Duquesne, PA); Rao, Pilaka P. (Baghlingampalli, IN)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

65

High-pressure coal fuel processor development  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Caterpillar shares DOE/METC interest in demonstrating the technology required to displace petroleum-based engine fuels with various forms of low cost coal. Current DOE/METC programs on mild gasification and coal-water-slurries are addressing two approaches to this end. Engine and fuel processor system concept studies by Caterpillar have identified a third, potentially promising, option. This option includes high-pressure fuel processing of run-of-the-mine coal and direct injection of the resulting low-Btu gas stream into an ignition assisted, high compression ratio diesel engine. The compactness and predicted efficiency of the system make it suitable for application to line-haul railroad locomotives. A successful conclusion of the program will enable further component development work and full-scale system demonstrations of this potentially important technology. This paper covers the work on fuel processor rig testing completed in FY92.

Greenhalgh, M.L.; Wen, C.S.; Smith, L.

1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

66

High-pressure coal fuel processor development  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Caterpillar shares DOE/METC interest in demonstrating the technology required to displace petroleum-based engine fuels with various forms of low cost coal. Current DOE/METC programs on mild gasification and coal-water-slurries are addressing two approaches to this end. Engine and fuel processor system concept studies by Caterpillar have identified a third, potentially promising, option. This option includes high-pressure fuel processing of run-of-the-mine coal and direct injection of the resulting low-Btu gas stream into an ignition assisted, high compression ratio diesel engine. The compactness and predicted efficiency of the system make it suitable for application to line-haul railroad locomotives. A successful conclusion of the program will enable further component development work and full-scale system demonstrations of this potentially important technology. This paper covers the work on fuel processor rig testing completed in FY92.

Greenhalgh, M.L.; Wen, C.S.; Smith, L.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

EXAMINATION OF HIGH PRESSURE RECOMBINER LOOP SPECIMENS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Speciments of iodide zirconium, Zircaloy-2, Zr-15Nb, iodide titanium, TMCA-45 titanium, A-110AT titanium, and 430 stainless steel were corroded in a highpressure recombiner loop. Analyses were performed to determine the amount of hydrogen pickup. The titanium materials and iodide zirconium showed very high hydrogen pickups, while the zirconium alloys and the 430 stainless steel absorbed smaller amounts of hydrogen Metallographic examination of the specimens showed that recrystallization occurred in all but the Ar-15Nb specimens. There seems to be little difference in the extent of recrystallization and grain growth whether the in the recombiner section at 430 to 500 deg C. Recrystalliplained or correlated in any way with the amount of f hydrogen sion that occured. Since hydrogen is known to seriously embrittle zirconium and titanium, it is recommended that crystal-bar zirconium and titanium alloys not be used as materials of construction in environ ments sinmilar to that of the High Pressure Recombiner Loop. (auth)

Picklesimer, M.L.; Rittenhouse, P.L.

1958-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

68

High-pressure coal fuel processor development  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Caterpillar shares DOE/METC interest in demonstrating the technology required to displace petroleum-based engine fuels with various forms of low cost coal. Current DOE/METC programs on mild gasification and coal-water-slurries are addressing two approaches to this end. Engine and fuel processor system concept studies by Caterpillar have identified a third, potentially promising, option. This option includes high-pressure fuel processing of run-of-the-mine coal and direct injection of the resulting low-Btu gas stream into an ignition assisted, high compression ratio diesel engine. The compactness and predicted efficiency of the system make it suitable for application to line-haul railroad locomotives. Two overall conclusions resulted from Task 1. First direct injected, ignition assisted Diesel cycle engine combustion systems can be suitably modified to efficiently utilize low-Btu gas fuels. Second, high pressure gasification of selected run-of-the-mine coals in batch-loaded fuel processors is feasible. These two findings, taken together, significantly reduce the perceived technical risk associated with the further development of the proposed coal gas fueled Diesel cycle power plant concept. The significant conclusions from Task 2 were: An engine concept, derived from a Caterpillar 3600 series engine, and a fuel processor concept, based on scaling up a removable-canister configuration from the test rig, appear feasible; and although the results of this concept study are encouraging, further, full-scale component research and development are required before attempting a full-scale integrated system demonstration effort.

Greenhalgh, M.L. (Caterpillar, Inc., Peoria, IL (United States))

1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

High-pressure coal fuel processor development  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of Subtask 1.1 Engine Feasibility was to conduct research needed to establish the technical feasibility of ignition and stable combustion of directly injected, 3,000 psi, low-Btu gas with glow plug ignition assist at diesel engine compression ratios. This objective was accomplished by designing, fabricating, testing and analyzing the combustion performance of synthesized low-Btu coal gas in a single-cylinder test engine combustion rig located at the Caterpillar Technical Center engine lab in Mossville, Illinois. The objective of Subtask 1.2 Fuel Processor Feasibility was to conduct research needed to establish the technical feasibility of air-blown, fixed-bed, high-pressure coal fuel processing at up to 3,000 psi operating pressure, incorporating in-bed sulfur and particulate capture. This objective was accomplished by designing, fabricating, testing and analyzing the performance of bench-scale processors located at Coal Technology Corporation (subcontractor) facilities in Bristol, Virginia. These two subtasks were carried out at widely separated locations and will be discussed in separate sections of this report. They were, however, independent in that the composition of the synthetic coal gas used to fuel the combustion rig was adjusted to reflect the range of exit gas compositions being produced on the fuel processor rig. Two major conclusions resulted from this task. First, direct injected, ignition assisted Diesel cycle engine combustion systems can be suitably modified to efficiently utilize these low-Btu gas fuels. Second, high pressure gasification of selected run-of-the-mine coals in batch-loaded fuel processors is feasible. These two findings, taken together, significantly reduce the perceived technical risks associated with the further development of the proposed coal gas fueled Diesel cycle power plant concept.

Greenhalgh, M.L.

1992-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

New Jersey Refinery Catalytic Reforming/High Pressure Downstream ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

New Jersey Refinery Catalytic Reforming/High Pressure Downstream Charge Capacity as of January 1 (Barrels per Stream Day)

71

Arkansas Refinery Catalytic Reforming/High Pressure Downstream ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Arkansas Refinery Catalytic Reforming/High Pressure Downstream Charge Capacity as of January 1 (Barrels per Stream Day)

72

Multidisciplinary Conceptual Design of a Transonic High Pressure Compressor.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The aim of this work is to develop a systematic approach for multidisciplinary high pressure transonic axial compressor conceptual design. Several aspects have to be… (more)

Ersavas, Funda

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

Single Crystal PWA 1472 in High Pressure Hydrogen  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

SINGLE CRYSTAL PWA 1472. IN HIGH PRESSURE HYDROGEN. D. P. DeLUCA, R. W. HATALA. UNITED TECHNOLOGIES. PRATT & WHITNEY. P. 0.

74

High-Pressure Protein Digestion System - PNNL: Available ...  

Summary. Researchers at PNNL have developed a system that utilizes high pressure to reduce the time of protein fractionation and improve peptide ...

75

Using High Pressure to Reveal Quantum Criticality in an Elemental...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

| 1998 | Subscribe to APS Science Highlights rss feed Using High Pressure to Reveal Quantum Criticality in an Elemental Antiferromagnet MAY 21, 2009 Bookmark and Share...

76

BILIWG Meeting: High Pressure Steam Reforming of Bio-Derived...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

at high pressures yields more methane, less hydrogen at thermodynamic equilibrium Coke formation tendency increases with increasing pressures Coking tendency can be...

77

Unsteady Loss in a High Pressure Turbine Stage  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The widespread use of the gas turbine as a means of aircraft propulsion has provided a considerable impetusUnsteady Loss in a High Pressure Turbine Stage Stephen John Payne Trinity College A thesis in a High Pressure Turbine Stage Stephen John Payne Trinity College A thesis submitted in partial fulfilment

Payne, Stephen J.

78

High-pressure Magic Angle Spinning Nuclear Magnetic Resonance  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A high-pressure magic angle spinning (MAS) NMR capability, consisting of a reusable high-pressure MAS rotor, a high-pressure loading/reaction chamber for in situ sealing and re-opening of the high-pressure MAS rotor, and a MAS probe with a localized RF coil for background signal suppression, is reported. The unusual technical challenges associated with development of a reusable high-pressure MAS rotor are addressed in part by modifying standard ceramics for the rotor sleeve to include micro-groves at the internal surface at both ends of the cylinder. In this way, not only is the advantage of ceramic cylinders for withstanding very high-pressure utilized, but also plastic bushings can be glued tightly in place so that other plastic sealing mechanisms/components and O-rings can be mounted to create the desired high-pressure seal. Using this strategy, sealed internal pressures exceeding 150 bars have been achieved and sustained under ambient external pressure with minimal penetration loss of pressure for 72 hours. As an application example, in situ 13C MAS NMR studies of mineral carbonation reaction intermediates and final products of forsterite (Mg2SiO4) reacted with supercritical CO2 and H2O at 150 bar and 50?C are reported, with relevance to geological sequestration of carbon dioxide.

Hoyt, David W.; Turcu, Romulus VF; Sears, Jesse A.; Rosso, Kevin M.; Burton, Sarah D.; Felmy, Andrew R.; Hu, Jian Z.

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

Lamp bulb with integral reflector  

SciTech Connect

An improved electrodeless discharge lamp bulb includes an integral ceramic reflector as a portion of the bulb envelope. The bulb envelope further includes two pieces, a reflector portion or segment is cast quartz ceramic and a light transmissive portion is a clear fused silica. In one embodiment, the cast quartz ceramic segment includes heat sink fins or stubs providing an increased outside surface area to dissipate internal heat. In another embodiment, the quartz ceramic segment includes an outside surface fused to eliminate gas permeation by polishing.

Levin, Izrail (Silver Spring, MD); Shanks, Bruce (Gaithersburg, MD); Sumner, Thomas L. (Wheaton, MD)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

Energy saving controller for fluorescent lamps.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Although fluorescent lamp is a very efficient lighting device in daily life, still the high harmonic distortion and low power factor cause unnecessary energy consumption.… (more)

Cheong, Zhi Xiong

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high-pressure sodium lamps" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Evaluation of high-pressure drilling fluid supply systems  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A study was undertaken to help determine the technical and economic feasibility of developing a high-pressure fluid-jet drilling system for the production of geothermal wells. Three system concepts were developed and analyzed in terms of costs, component availability, and required new-component development. These concepts included a single-conduit system that supplies the downhole cutting nozzles directly via surface-located high-pressure pumps; a single-conduit system utilizing low-pressure surface pumps to supply and operate a high-pressure downhole pump, which in turn supplies the cutting nozzles; and a dual-conduit system supplying surface-generated high-pressure fluid for cutting via one conduit and low-pressure scavenging fluid via the other. It is concluded that the single-conduit downhole pump system concept has the greatest potential for success in this application. 28 figures, 11 tables.

McDonald, M.C.; Reichman, J.M.; Theimer, K.J.

1981-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

82

High Temperature Corrosion Test Facilities and High Pressure Test  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

High Temperature High Temperature Corrosion Test Facilities and High Pressure Test Facilities for Metal Dusting Test Facilities for Metal Dusting Overview Other Facilities Work with Argonne Contact us For Employees Site Map Help Join us on Facebook Follow us on Twitter NE on Flickr High Temperature Corrosion Test Facilities and High Pressure Test Facilities for Metal Dusting Six corrosion test facilities and two thermogravimetric systems for conducting corrosion tests in complex mixed gas environments, in steam and in the presence of deposits, and five facilities for metal dusting degradation Bookmark and Share The High Temperature Corrosion Test Facilities and High Pressure Test Facilities for Metal Dusting include: High Pressure Test Facility for Metal Dusting Resistance:

83

Discharge lamp with reflective jacket  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A discharge lamp includes an envelope, a fill which emits light when excited disposed in the envelope, a source of excitation power coupled to the fill to excite the fill and cause the fill to emit light, and a reflector disposed around the envelope and defining an opening, the reflector being configured to reflect some of the light emitted by the fill back into the fill while allowing some light to exit through the opening. The reflector may be made from a material having a similar thermal index of expansion as compared to the envelope and which is closely spaced to the envelope. The envelope material may be quartz and the reflector material may be either silica or alumina. The reflector may be formed as a jacket having a rigid structure which does not adhere to the envelope. The lamp may further include an optical clement spaced from the envelope and configured to reflect an unwanted component of light which exited the envelope back into the envelope through the opening in the reflector. Light which can be beneficially recaptured includes selected wavelength regions, a selected polarization, and selected angular components.

MacLennan, Donald A. (Gaithersburg, MD); Turner, Brian P. (Damascus, MD); Kipling, Kent (Gaithersburg, MD)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

84

Energy Systems High Pressure Test Laboratory (Fact Sheet)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This fact sheet describes the purpose, lab specifications, applications scenarios, and information on how to partner with NREL's Energy Systems High Pressure Test Laboratory at the Energy Systems Integration Facility. The purpose of the Energy Systems High Pressure Test Laboratory at NREL's Energy Systems Integration Facility (ESIF) is to provide space where high pressure hydrogen components can be safely tested. High pressure hydrogen storage is an integral part of energy storage technology for use in fuel cell and in other distributed energy scenarios designed to effectively utilize the variability inherent with renewable energy sources. The high pressure storage laboratory is co-located with energy storage activities such as ultra-capacitors, super conducting magnetic flywheel and mechanical energy storage systems laboratories for an integrated approach to system development and demonstration. Hazards associated with hydrogen storage at pressures up to 10,000 psi include oxygen displacement, combustion, explosion, and pressurization of room air due to fast release and physical hazards associated with burst failure modes. A critical understanding of component failure modes is essential in developing reliable, robust designs that will minimize failure risk beyond the end of service life. Development of test protocol for accelerated life testing to accurately scale to real world operating conditions is essential for developing regulations, codes and standards required for safe operation. NREL works closely with industry partners in providing support of advanced hydrogen technologies. Innovative approaches to product design will accelerate commercialization into new markets. NREL works with all phases of the product design life cycle from early prototype development to final certification testing. High pressure tests are performed on hydrogen components, primarily for the validation of developing new codes and standards for high pressure hydrogen applications. The following types of tests can be performed: Performance, Component and system level efficiency, Strength of materials and hydrogen compatibility, Safety demonstration, Model validation, and Life cycle reliability.

Not Available

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

Portable lamp with dynamically controlled lighting distribution  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A double lamp table or floor lamp lighting system has a pair of compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs) arranged vertically with a reflective septum in between. By selectively turning on one or both of the CFLs, down lighting, up lighting, or both up and down lighting is produced. The control system can also vary the light intensity from each CFL. The reflective septum insures that almost all the light produced by each lamp will be directed into the desired light distribution pattern which is selected and easily changed by the user. Planar compact fluorescent lamps, e.g. circular CFLs, particularly oriented horizontally, are preferable. CFLs provide energy efficiency. The lighting system may be designed for the home, hospitality, office or other environments.

Siminovitch, Michael J. (Pinole, CA); Page, Erik R. (Berkeley, CA)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

DuraLamp USA: Order (2010-CE-0912)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

DOE ordered DuraLamp USA, Inc. to pay a $2,500 civil penalty after finding DuraLamp USA had failed to certify that model PAR 30, an incandescent reflector lamp, complies with the applicable energy conservation standards.

87

Solid-state lamp with integral occupancy sensor  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Previous work demonstrated a retrofit proximity detector for fluorescent lamps using the lamp's own stray electric fields. This paper extends the retrofit sensor system to a solid-state (LED) lamp. The design and implementation ...

Cooley, John J.

88

Compact Fluorescent Lamps : Technologies : From the Lab to the...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

process. (Left) Compact Fluorescent Lamp; (Right) Cover of the 'Lighting Retrofit Workbook' (Left) Compact Fluorescent Lamp (CFL) (Right) Retrofitting national parks...

89

Driver Circuit for White LED Lamps with TRIAC Dimming Control.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??An efficient Light Emitting Diode (LED) lamp driver circuit is proposed for retrofitting the conventionally used incandescent lamps with existing TRIAC dimmer. The dimming feature… (more)

Weng, Szu-Jung

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

90

A high-pressure nanoimaging breakthrough | Argonne National Laboratory  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Science Science Computing, Environment & Life Sciences Energy Engineering & Systems Analysis Photon Sciences Physical Sciences & Engineering Energy Frontier Research Centers Science Highlights Postdoctoral Researchers A high-pressure nanoimaging breakthrough July 16, 2013 Tweet EmailPrint A team of researchers made a major breakthrough in measuring the structure of nanomaterials under extremely high pressures. Bragg coherent x-ray diffraction imaging (CXDI) is a promising tool to probe the internal strains of nanometer-sized crystals. But for high-pressure studies the x-ray beam must pass through a component of the diamond anvil cell, which can significantly affect the coherence properties of the beam. The researchers have developed a technique to deal with this that could lead to

91

High pressure rotary piston coal feeder for coal gasification applications  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The subject development is directed to an apparatus for feeding pulverized coal into a coal gasifier operating at relatively high pressures and elevated temperatures. This apparatus is a rotary piston feeder which comprises a circular casing having a coal loading opening therein diametrically opposed from a coal discharge and contains a rotatable discoid rotor having a cylinder in which a reciprocateable piston is disposed. The reciprocation of the piston within the cylinder is provided by a stationary conjugate cam arrangement whereby the pulverized coal from a coal hopper at atmospheric pressure can be introduced into the cylinder cavity and then discharged therefrom into the high-pressure gasifier without the loss of high pressure gases from within the latter.

Gencsoy, Hasan T. (Morgantown, WV)

1977-05-24T23:59:59.000Z

92

Confinement of hydrogen at high pressure in carbon nanotubes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A high pressure hydrogen confinement apparatus according to one embodiment includes carbon nanotubes capped at one or both ends thereof with a hydrogen-permeable membrane to enable the high pressure confinement of hydrogen and release of the hydrogen therethrough. A hydrogen confinement apparatus according to another embodiment includes an array of multi-walled carbon nanotubes each having first and second ends, the second ends being capped with palladium (Pd) to enable the high pressure confinement of hydrogen and release of the hydrogen therethrough as a function of palladium temperature, wherein the array of carbon nanotubes is capable of storing hydrogen gas at a pressure of at least 1 GPa for greater than 24 hours. Additional apparatuses and methods are also presented.

Lassila, David H. (Aptos, CA); Bonner, Brian P. (Livermore, CA)

2011-12-13T23:59:59.000Z

93

THE USE OF MODERATELY HIGH PRESSURES AT CRYOGENIC TEMPERATURES  

SciTech Connect

The application of moderately high pressures to work at low temperatures is described. The problems involved in the merging of these two disciplines are discussed as they relate to laboratory research as well as to large scale nuclear rocket testing facility usage. The equipment used to determine some physical properties of liquid cryogens up to 50000 lb/in./sup 2/ are also described. The methods of obtaining and applying the low temperature to the high pressure volume will be mentioned. The use of a reciprocating piston pump to pump cryogenic liquids to high pressures is described. Consideration is also given to the problems of cryogenic seals for large size vacuum jacketed cryogenic piping. Safety requirements are also mentioned. (P.C.H.)

Edeskuty, F.J.; Mills, R.L.

1963-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

94

Hydro-Pac Inc., A High Pressure Company  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Hydro-Pac Hydro-Pac Inc. A High Pressure Company * Founded in 1972 * Manufacturer of Hydraulically Driven Intensifiers * High Pressure Hydrogen Compressors Hydrogen Compressor Cost Reduction Topics * Standardize Configuration and Fueling Strategy * Simple Designs and Proven Technologies * Identify Economical Hydrogen Compatible Materials * Specify Well Ventilated Sites with Remote Controls Standardize Configuration and Fueling Strategy * Limit the number of compressors and stages * Narrow the range of supply and discharge pressures * Select a flow and standardize Simple Designs and Proven Technologies * Variable speed drives * Double ended intensifiers * Water cooled cylinders * Flexible operational envelopes * Stop and start under load . Material Research / Installation Requirements

95

High pressure drilling system triples ROPS, stymies bit wear  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Recent West Texas field tests of an experiental high-pressure drilling system have nearly tripled typical penetration rates in hard dolomite while putting virtually no visible wear on the bits, even those designed for much softer formations. With this drilling system, developed by FlowDril Corp. of Kent, Wash., and their joint-venture partner Grace Drilling Co., clarified drilling fluids (minimum solids) are pressurized to nearly 30,000 psi and directed to the bottom of the hole through a special nozzle attached to the drill bit. The action of this high pressure stream augments the bit's job, resulting in higher ROPs and decreased bit wear.

Killalea, M.

1989-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

96

Capillary toroid cavity detector for high pressure NMR  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A Toroid Cavity Detector (TCD) is provided for implementing nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) studies of chemical reactions under conditions of high pressures and temperatures. A toroid cavity contains an elongated central conductor extending within the toroid cavity. The toroid cavity and central conductor generate an RF magnetic field for NMR analysis. A flow-through capillary sample container is located within the toroid cavity adjacent to the central conductor to subject a sample material flowing through the capillary to a static magnetic field and to enable NMR spectra to be recorded of the material in the capillary under a temperature and high pressure environment.

Gerald, II, Rex E. (Brookfield, IL); Chen, Michael J. (Downers Grove, IL); Klingler, Robert J. (Glenview, IL); Rathke, Jerome W. (Honer Glen, IL); ter Horst, Marc (Chapel Hill, NC)

2007-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

97

High Pressure Hydrogen Materials Compatibility of Piezoelectric Films  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Abstract: Hydrogen is being considered as a next-generation clean burning fuel. However, hydrogen has well known materials issues, including blistering and embrittlement in metals. Piezoelectric materials are used as actuators in hydrogen fuel technology. We present studies of materials compatibility of piezoelectric films in a high pressure hydrogen environment. Absorption of high pressure hydrogen was studied with Elastic Recoil Detection Analysis (ERDA) and Rutherford Back Scattering (RBS) in lead zirconate titanate (PZT) and barium titanate (BTO) thin films. Hydrogen surface degradation in the form of blistering and Pb mixing was also observed.

Alvine, Kyle J.; Shutthanandan, V.; Bennett, Wendy D.; Bonham, Charles C.; Skorski, Daniel C.; Pitman, Stan G.; Dahl, Michael E.; Henager, Charles H.

2010-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

98

Lamp system for uniform semiconductor wafer heating  

SciTech Connect

A lamp system with a very soft high-intensity output is provided over a large area by water cooling a long-arc lamp inside a diffuse reflector of polytetrafluorethylene (PTFE) and titanium dioxide (TiO.sub.2) white pigment. The water is kept clean and pure by a one micron particulate filter and an activated charcoal/ultraviolet irradiation system that circulates and de-ionizes and biologically sterilizes the coolant water at all times, even when the long-arc lamp is off.

Zapata, Luis E. (Livermore, CA); Hackel, Lloyd (Livermore, CA)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

High Temperature, High Pressure Devices for Zonal Isolation in Geothermal  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Temperature, High Pressure Devices for Zonal Isolation in Geothermal Temperature, High Pressure Devices for Zonal Isolation in Geothermal Wells Geothermal Project Jump to: navigation, search Last modified on July 22, 2011. Project Title High Temperature, High Pressure Devices for Zonal Isolation in Geothermal Wells Project Type / Topic 1 Recovery Act: Enhanced Geothermal Systems Component Research and Development/Analysis Project Type / Topic 2 Zonal Isolation Project Description For Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS), high-temperature high-pressure zonal isolation tools capable of withstanding the downhole environment are needed. In these wells the packers must withstand differential pressures of 5,000 psi at more than 300°C, as well as pressures up to 20,000 psi at 200°C to 250°C. Furthermore, when deployed these packers and zonal isolation tools must form a reliable seal that eliminates fluid loss and mitigates short circuiting of flow from injectors to producers. At this time, general purpose open-hole packers do not exist for use in geothermal environments, with the primary technical limitation being the poor stability of existing elastomeric seals at high temperatures.

100

High pressure heterogeneous catalysis in a low pressure UHV environment  

SciTech Connect

The major thrust of our research is to carry out for the first time a heterogeneous catalytic reaction that normally is observed only at high pressures (>1 atm) of reactant gas at low pressures (<10{sup {minus}4} Torr) in an ultrahigh vacuum environment. The reaction we have chosen is the steam reforming of methane on a Ni(111) crystal.

Ceyer, S.T.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high-pressure sodium lamps" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

INSTRUMENT TRANSMITTERS FOR HIGH-PRESSURE, AQUEOUS, NUCLEAR REACTORS  

SciTech Connect

A review of the criteria involved in the selection of primary sensing elements for the measurement of process variables in high-pressure, aqueous, nuclear reactors is presented. Some acceptable types of sensing elements now in use at ORNL are described. (auth)

Moore, R.L.

1958-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

102

NUCLEAR RESONANT SCATTERING AT HIGH PRESSURE AND HIGH TEMPERATURE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

NUCLEAR RESONANT SCATTERING AT HIGH PRESSURE AND HIGH TEMPERATURE JIYONG ZHAOa,Ã? , WOLFGANG, The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637, USA We introduce the combination of nuclear resonant inelastic X the thermal radiation spectra fitted to the Planck radiation function up to 1700 K. Nuclear resonant

Shen, Guoyin

103

LED lamp power management system and method  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An LED lamp power management system and method including an LED lamp having an LED controller 58; a plurality of LED channels 60 operably connected to the LED controller 58, each of the plurality of LED channels 60 having a channel switch 62 in series with at least one shunted LED circuit 83, the shunted LED circuit 83 having a shunt switch 68 in parallel with an LED source 80. The LED controller 58 reduces power loss in one of the channel switch 62 and the shunt switch 68 when LED lamp electronics power loss (P.sub.loss) exceeds an LED lamp electronics power loss limit (P.sub.lim); and each of the channel switches 62 receives a channel switch control signal 63 from the LED controller 58 and each of the shunt switches 68 receives a shunt switch control signal 69 from the LED controller 58.

Gaines, James; Clauberg, Bernd; Van Erp, Josephus A. M.

2013-03-19T23:59:59.000Z

104

High Pressure Materials Research: Novel Extended Phases of Molecular Triatomics  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Application of high pressure significantly alters the interatomic distance and thus the nature of intermolecular interaction, chemical bonding, molecular configuration, crystal structure, and stability of solid [1]. With modern advances in high-pressure technologies [2], it is feasible to achieve a large (often up to a several-fold) compression of lattice, at which condition material can be easily forced into a new physical and chemical configuration [3]. The high-pressure thus offers enhanced opportunities to discover new phases, both stable and metastable ones, and to tune exotic properties in a wide-range of atomistic length scale, substantially greater than (often being several orders of) those achieved by other thermal (varying temperatures) and chemical (varying composition or making alloys) means. Simple molecular solids like H{sub 2}, C, CO{sub 2}, N{sub 2}, O{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O, CO, NH{sub 3}, and CH{sub 4} are bounded by strong covalent intramolecular bonds, yet relatively weak intermolecular bonds of van der Waals and/or hydrogen bonds. The weak intermolecular bonds make these solids highly compressible (i.e., low bulk moduli typically less than 10 GPa), while the strong covalent bonds make them chemically inert at least initially at low pressures. Carbon-carbon single bonds, carbon-oxygen double bonds and nitrogen-nitrogen triple bonds, for example, are among the strongest. These molecular forms are, thus, often considered to remain stable in an extended region of high pressures and high temperatures. High stabilities of these covalent molecules are also the basis of which their mixtures are often presumed to be the major detonation products of energetic materials as well as the major constituents of giant planets. However, their physical/chemical stabilities are not truly understood at those extreme pressure-temperature conditions. In fact, an increasing amount of experimental evidences contradict the assumed stability of these materials at high pressures and temperatures.

Yoo, C

2004-05-26T23:59:59.000Z

105

High frequency inductive lamp and power oscillator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A high frequency inductively coupled electrodeless lamp includes an excitation coil with an effective electrical length which is less than one half wavelength of a driving frequency applied thereto, preferably much less. The driving frequency may be greater than 100 MHz and is preferably as high as 915 MHz. Preferably, the excitation coil is configured as a non-helical, semi-cylindrical conductive surface having less than one turn, in the general shape of a wedding ring. At high frequencies, the current in the coil forms two loops which are spaced apart and parallel to each other. Configured appropriately, the coil approximates a Helmholtz configuration. The lamp preferably utilizes an bulb encased in a reflective ceramic cup with a pre-formed aperture defined therethrough. The ceramic cup may include structural features to aid in alignment and/or a flanged face to aid in thermal management. The lamp head is preferably an integrated lamp head comprising a metal matrix composite surrounding an insulating ceramic with the excitation integrally formed on the ceramic. A novel solid-state oscillator preferably provides RF power to the lamp. The oscillator is a single active element device capable of providing over 70 watts of power at over 70% efficiency. Various control circuits may be employed to match the driving frequency of the oscillator to a plurality of tuning states of the lamp.

MacLennan, Donald A. (Gaithersburg, MD); Turner, Brian P. (Damascus, MD); Dolan, James T. (Frederick, MD); Kirkpatrick, Douglas A. (Great Falls, VA); Leng, Yongzhang (Damascus, MD)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

106

Long-Term Performance of Screwbase Compact Fluorescent Lamps  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The packaging material for compact fluorescent lamps normally includes some claim regarding expected lamp lifetime. This claimed lifetime is generally not obtained through rigorous testing. This study shows how different operating cycles, components, and lamp and ballast designs affect screwbase compact fluorescent lamp (SCFL) life.

2000-04-11T23:59:59.000Z

107

Building Technologies Office: Fluorescent and Incandescent Lamps Public  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Fluorescent and Fluorescent and Incandescent Lamps Public Meeting to someone by E-mail Share Building Technologies Office: Fluorescent and Incandescent Lamps Public Meeting on Facebook Tweet about Building Technologies Office: Fluorescent and Incandescent Lamps Public Meeting on Twitter Bookmark Building Technologies Office: Fluorescent and Incandescent Lamps Public Meeting on Google Bookmark Building Technologies Office: Fluorescent and Incandescent Lamps Public Meeting on Delicious Rank Building Technologies Office: Fluorescent and Incandescent Lamps Public Meeting on Digg Find More places to share Building Technologies Office: Fluorescent and Incandescent Lamps Public Meeting on AddThis.com... About Standards & Test Procedures Implementation, Certification & Enforcement

108

Experiment Hazard Class 5.3 High Pressure Vessels  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

3 High Pressure Vessels 3 High Pressure Vessels Applicability This hazard classification applies to working with pressure vessels and systems. Other hazard classifications and associated controls may apply to experiments in this hazard class. Experiment Category Experiments involving previously reviewed hazard controls are catergorized as medium risk experiments. Experiments involving new equipment, processes or materials, or modified hazard control schemes are categorized as high risk experiments. Hazard Control Plan Verification Statements Engineered Controls - The establishment of applicable controls in accordance with the (American Society of Mechanical Engineers) ASME Boiler and Pressure Code, ASME B.31 Piping Code and applicable federal, state, and local codes. Verify vessel is stampled with ASME Code Symbol or allowable

109

Guest disorder and high pressure behavior of argon hydrates  

SciTech Connect

The structure of argon hydrate was studied at ambient pressure and low temperature, and between 1.7 and 4.2 GPa at 295 K. This analysis produced a single Ar guest atom, positionally disordered off-center in the large cages of sII. Above 1.7 GPa Ar clathrate transformed to a mixture of a body-centered orthorhombic filled-ice phase, which can be viewed as a polytype of ice-Ih, and high pressure forms of pure ice. The guest disorder is further substantiated by analysis of the guest to host ratio in this high pressure filled-ice structure. The bulk modulus of Ar filled-ice found to be 11.7 {+-} 0.4 GPa.

Yang, L.; Tulk, C.A.; Klug, D.D.; Chakoumakos, B.C.; Ehm, L.; Molaison, J.J.; Parise, J.B.; Simonson, J.M. (NRCC); (SBU); (ORNL)

2010-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

110

Proposal for high pressure RF cavity test in the MTA  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In order to demonstrate the feasibility of high pressure hydrogen gas filled RF (HPRF) cavities for muon ionization cooling, an HPRF cavity must be tested with a high intensity charged beam. When an HPRF cavity is irradiated with an intense beam each incident particle generates about 1000 electrons and ions per cubic centimeter in a high pressure cavity via ionization. These ionization electrons are influenced by the RF field and the RF quality factor goes down. This Q factor reduction will be a problem with a multi bunch beam, e.g., a muon beam for a muon collider consists of a 12 to 20 bunch train beam with 5 ns timing gap. Thus, the RF field must recover in few nano seconds. We propose to use a 400 MeV proton beam in the MTA and measure a beam loading effect in the HPRF cavity and study the recovery mechanism of the RF field.

Yonehara, K.; /Fermilab

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

Intermittently-fed high-pressure gasifier process  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved gasifier adapted for gasifying a predetermined charge of non-gaseous fuel into fuel gas. Each charge of non-gaseous fuel, which may have optional conditioning materials added to it, is intermittently fed to a gasifier chamber where each charge is partially burned with high-pressure air supplied thereto. High-pressure and temperature fuel gas is produced which is cleansed prior to passing out of the gasifier chamber. After gasification of the charge of fuel is is ended, the gasifier chamber is vented. The residue of the burned charge in the gasifier chamber is removed, along with the contaminated or reacted conditioning materials, and replaced by a fresh charge. The subject invention provides a feasible way of continuously fueling an internal combustion engine with gasified fuel and is compact enough to be practical for even mobile applications.

Bailey, John M. (Dunlap, IL); Zadoks, Abraham L. (Peoria, IL)

1993-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

112

Intermittently-fed high-pressure gasifier process  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved gasifier is described which is adapted for gasifying a predetermined charge of non-gaseous fuel into fuel gas. Each charge of non-gaseous fuel, which may have optional conditioning materials added to it, is intermittently fed to a gasifier chamber where each charge is partially burned with high-pressure air supplied thereto. High-pressure and temperature fuel gas is produced which is cleansed prior to passing out of the gasifier chamber. After gasification of the charge of fuel is ended, the gasifier chamber is vented. The residue of the burned charge in the gasifier chamber is removed, along with the contaminated or reacted conditioning materials, and replaced by a fresh charge. The subject invention provides a feasible way of continuously fueling an internal combustion engine with gasified fuel and is compact enough to be practical for even mobile applications. 3 figures.

Bailey, J.M.; Zadoks, A.L.

1993-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

113

High-pressure solvent extraction of methane from geopressured fluids  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Solvent extraction is propsed as a means of recovering dissolved methane from geopressured-geothermal brines at high pressures. Our assessment shows that additional investment in a high pressure solvent extraction plant preceding direct injection disposal of brines into isolated aquifers can be profitable. The technical and economic issues are discussed and compared with other injection methods such as complete depressurization for methane recovery followed by conventional mechanical pumping. The contributions of hydraulic (pressure) energy recovery and geothermal power production are also assessed. As a first step in the evaluation of solvent extraction, the solubilities of a promising solvent candidate, n-hexadecane, and a potential low cost solvent, No. 2 Diesel fuel, were measured in 15 wt % NaCl solutions at temperatures up to 150/sup 0/C. Preliminary results of initial extraction tests at 150/sup 0/C and 1000 psi in sub-pilot scale equipment are also presented.

Quong, R.; Otsuki, H.H.; Locke, F.E.; Netherton, R.

1981-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

114

Vibratory high pressure coal feeder having a helical ramp  

SciTech Connect

Apparatus and method for feeding powdered coal from a helical ramp into a high pressure, heated, reactor tube containing hydrogen for hydrogenating the coal and/or for producing useful products from coal. To this end, the helical ramp is vibrated to feed the coal cleanly at an accurately controlled rate in a simple reliable and trouble-free manner that eliminates complicated and expensive screw feeders, and/or complicated and expensive seals, bearings and fully rotating parts.

Farber, Gerald (Elmont, NY)

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

Integrated manufacturing system of high-pressure FRP pipes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In order to realise industrialised manufacturing of epoxy FRP pipes, the manufacturing system which can accomplish winding, internal heating curing and extraction processes by only one machine tool was developed. The winding motion control is undertaken ... Keywords: FEM, FRP pipes, blowing control, cooling control, curing control, embedded controllers, fibreglass reinforced plastics, finite element method, high-pressure pipes, integrated manufacturing, internal heating curing, motion control, simulation, thermochemical modelling, winding

Bo You; Jiazhong Xu; Xiongjian Wang

2007-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

A High Pressure Carbon Dioxide Separation Process for IGCC Plants  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

High Pressure Carbon Dioxide Separation Process for IGCC Plants High Pressure Carbon Dioxide Separation Process for IGCC Plants 1 A High Pressure Carbon Dioxide Separation Process for IGCC Plants S.S. Tam 1 , M.E. Stanton 1 , S. Ghose 1 , G. Deppe 1 , D.F. Spencer 2 , R.P. Currier 3 , J.S. Young 3 , G.K. Anderson 3 , L.A. Le 3 , and D.J. Devlin 3 1 Nexant, Inc. (A Bechtel Technology & Consulting Company) 45 Fremont St., 7 th Fl., San Francisco, CA 94506 2 SIMTECHE 13474 Tierra Heights Road, Redding, CA 96003 3 Los Alamos National Laboratory P.O. Box 1663 (MS J567), Los Alamos, NM 87545 1.0 INTRODUCTION Under separate contracts from the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Fossil Energy (DOE- FE), Los Alamos National Laboratory, and a team of SIMTECHE and Nexant (a Bechtel Technology and Consulting Company) are jointly working to develop the proprietary process for

117

Blade-Vortex Interactions in High Pressure Steam Turbines  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A detailed experimental and numerical investigation of the transport of streamwise (passage) vortices in high-pressure axial turbines and their interaction with the downstream blade rows was performed. The results indicate large variations in the downstream flow field, notably the development of the secondary flows. The mechanism of passage vortex transport was studied in two differently configured high-pressure turbine stages. In the first configuration, the blades are radially stacked while the second configuration features three-dimensionally stacked high-pressure steam turbine blading. The stator hub passage vortex is chopped by the downstream blade row in a similar way to the wake. The bowed vortex tube near the inlet to the rotor appeared to develop two counter-rotating legs extending back to the leading edges of the adjacent blades. These were termed the suction side leg and the pressure side leg. The two legs of the incoming passage vortex then convect with the respective velocities on the blade surfaces. The results are discussed for the radially stacked turbine and the 3-D turbine separately.

Venkata Siva Prasad Chaluvadi

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

High pressure-high temperature effect on the HTSC ceramics structure and properties  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Keywords: high pressures-high temperatures, high temperature superconductors, mechanical properties, structure, superconductive

T. A. Prikhna

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

119

Max Tech and Beyond: Fluorescent Lamps  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Fluorescent lamps are the most widely used artificial light source today, responsible for approximately 70% of the lumens delivered to our living spaces globally. The technology was originally commercialized in the 1930's, and manufacturers have been steadily improving the efficacy of these lamps over the years through modifications to the phosphors, cathodes, fill-gas, operating frequency, tube diameter and other design attributes. The most efficient commercially available fluorescent lamp is the 25 Watt T5 lamp. This lamp operates at 114-116 lumens per watt while also providing good color rendering and more than 20,000 hours of operating life. Industry experts interviewed indicated that while this lamp is the most efficient in the market today, there is still a further 10 to 14% of potential improvements that may be introduced to the market over the next 2 to 5 years. These improvements include further developments in phosphors, fill-gas, cathode coatings and ultraviolet (UV) reflective glass coatings. The commercialization of these technology improvements will combine to bring about efficacy improvements that will push the technology up to a maximum 125 to 130 lumens per watt. One critical issue raised by researchers that may present a barrier to the realization of these improvements is the fact that technology investment in fluorescent lamps is being reduced in order to prioritize research into light emitting diodes (LEDs) and ceramic metal halide high intensity discharge (HID) lamps. Thus, it is uncertain whether these potential efficacy improvements will be developed, patented and commercialized. The emphasis for premium efficacy will continue to focus on T5 lamps, which are expected to continue to be marketed along with the T8 lamp. Industry experts highlighted the fact that an advantage of the T5 lamp is the fact that it is 40% smaller and yet provides an equivalent lumen output to that of a T8 or T12 lamp. Due to its smaller form factor, the T5 lamp contains less material (i.e., glass, fill gas and phosphor), and has a higher luminance, enabling fixtures to take advantage of the smaller lamp size to improve the optics and provide more efficient overall system illuminance. In addition to offering the market a high-quality efficacious light source, another strong value proposition of fluorescent lighting is its long operating life. In today's market, one manufacturer is offering fluorescent lamps that have a rated life of 79,000 hours - which represents 18 years of service at 12 hours per day, 365 days per year. These lamps, operated using a long-life ballast specified by the manufacturer, take advantage of improvements in cathode coatings, fill gas chemistry and pressure to extend service life by a factor of four over conventional fluorescent lamps. It should be noted that this service life is also longer (approximately twice as long) as today's high-quality LED products. The fluorescent market is currently focused on the T5 and T8 lamp diameters, and it is not expected that other diameters would be introduced. Although T8 is a more optimal diameter from an efficacy perspective, the premium efficiency and optimization effort has been focused on T5 lamps because they are 40% smaller than T8, and are designed to operate at a higher temperature using high-frequency electronic ballasts. The T5 lamp offers savings in terms of materials, packaging and shipping, as well as smaller fixtures with improved optical performance. Manufacturers are actively researching improvements in four critical areas that are expected to yield additional efficacy improvements of approximately 10 to 14 percent over the next five years, ultimately achieving approximately 130 lumens per watt by 2015. The active areas of research where these improvements are anticipated include: (1) Improved phosphors which continue to be developed and patented, enabling higher efficacies as well as better color rendering and lumen maintenance; (2) Enhanced fill gas - adjusting proportions of argon, krypton, neon and xenon to optimize performance, while also m

Scholand, Michael

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

120

High frequency inductive lamp and power oscillator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A high frequency inductively coupled electrodeless lamp includes an excitation coil with an effective electrical length which is less than one half wavelength of a driving frequency applied thereto, preferably much less. The driving frequency may be greater than 100 MHz and is preferably as high as 915 MHz. Preferably, the excitation coil is configured as a non-helical, semi-cylindrical conductive surface having less than one turn, in the general shape of a wedding ring. At high frequencies, the current in the coil forms two loops which are spaced apart and parallel to each other. Configured appropriately, the coil approximates a Helmholtz configuration. The lamp preferably utilizes an bulb encased in a reflective ceramic cup with a pre-formed aperture defined therethrough. The ceramic cup may include structural features to aid in alignment and I or a flanged face to aid in thermal management. The lamp head is preferably an integrated lamp head comprising a metal matrix composite surrounding an insulating ceramic with the excitation integrally formed on the ceramic. A novel solid-state oscillator preferably provides RF power to the lamp. The oscillator is a single active element device capable of providing over 70 watts of power at over 70% efficiency. Various control circuits may be employed to adjust the driving frequency of the oscillator.

MacLennan, Donald A. (Gaithersburg, MD); Dymond, Jr., Lauren E. (North Potomac, MD); Gitsevich, Aleksandr (Montgomery Village, MD); Grimm, William G. (Silver Spring, MD); Kipling, Kent (Gaithersburg, MD); Kirkpatrick, Douglas A. (Great Falls, VA); Ola, Samuel A. (Silver Spring, MD); Simpson, James E. (Gaithersburg, MD); Trimble, William C. (Columbia, MD); Tsai, Peter (Olney, MD); Turner, Brian P. (Damascus, MD)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high-pressure sodium lamps" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Energy Cost Calculator for Compact Fluorescent Lamps | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Compact Fluorescent Lamps Compact Fluorescent Lamps Energy Cost Calculator for Compact Fluorescent Lamps October 8, 2013 - 2:18pm Addthis This tool calculates the payback period for your calc retrofit project. Modify the default values to suit your project requirements. Existing incandescent lamp wattage Watts Incandescent lamp cost dollars Incandescent lamp life 1000 hours calc wattage Watts calc cost dollars calc life (6000 hours for moderate use, 10000 hours for high use) 8000 hours Number of lamps in retrofit project Hours operating per week hours Average cost of electricity 0.06 $/kWh Relamper labor costs $/hr Time taken to retrofit all lamps in this project min Time taken to relamp one lamp min Type of Relamping Practiced: Group Relamping: Calculate Simple Payback Period months

122

Survivability of Electronic Compact Fluorescent Lamps  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This EPRI Technical Report addresses the fastest growing energy efficient light source8212the electronic compact fluorescent lamp (CFL). Because some of the failure modes for screw-in CFLs are different than those for plug-in CFLs, a cursory review of the difference between the two types of CFLs is provided in the first part of Chapter 2. A broad definition of shortened-life CFLs is also provided in Chapter 2 with an emphasis on revisiting mortality curves, the 10-minute lamp start, other relevant defini...

2008-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

123

DISRUPTION MITIGATION WITH HIGH-PRESSURE NOBLE GAS INJECTION  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

OAK A271 DISRUPTION MITIGATION WITH HIGH-PRESSURE NOBLE GAS INJECTION. High-pressure gas jets of neon and argon are used to mitigate the three principal damaging effects of tokamak disruptions: thermal loading of the divertor surfaces, vessel stress from poloidal halo currents and the buildup and loss of relativistic electrons to the wall. The gas jet penetrates as a neutral species through to the central plasma at its sonic velocity. The injected gas atoms increase up to 500 times the total electron inventory in the plasma volume, resulting in a relatively benign radiative dissipation of >95% of the plasma stored energy. The rapid cooling and the slow movement of the plasma to the wall reduce poloidal halo currents during the current decay. The thermally collapsed plasma is very cold ({approx} 1-2 eV) and the impurity charge distribution can include > 50% fraction neutral species. If a sufficient quantity of gas is injected, the neutrals inhibit runaway electrons. A physical model of radiative cooling is developed and validated against DIII-D experiments. The model shows that gas jet mitigation, including runaway suppression, extrapolates favorably to burning plasmas where disruption damage will be more severe. Initial results of real-time disruption detection triggering gas jet injection for mitigation are shown.

WHYTE, DG; JERNIGAN, TC; HUMPHREYS, DA; HYATT, AW; LASNIER, CJ; PARKS, PB; EVANS, TE; TAYLOR, PL; KELLMAN, AG; GRAY, DS; HOLLMANN, EM

2002-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

124

Microhole High-Pressure Jet Drill for Coiled Tubing  

SciTech Connect

Tempress Small Mechanically-Assisted High-Pressure Waterjet Drilling Tool project centered on the development of a downhole intensifier (DHI) to boost the hydraulic pressure available from conventional coiled tubing to the level required for high-pressure jet erosion of rock. We reviewed two techniques for implementing this technology (1) pure high-pressure jet drilling and (2) mechanically-assisted jet drilling. Due to the difficulties associated with modifying a downhole motor for mechanically-assisted jet drilling, it was determined that the pure high-pressure jet drilling tool was the best candidate for development and commercialization. It was also determined that this tool needs to run on commingled nitrogen and water to provide adequate downhole differential pressure and to facilitate controlled pressure drilling and descaling applications in low pressure wells. The resulting Microhole jet drilling bottomhole assembly (BHA) drills a 3.625-inch diameter hole with 2-inch coil tubing. The BHA consists of a self-rotating multi-nozzle drilling head, a high-pressure rotary seal/bearing section, an intensifier and a gas separator. Commingled nitrogen and water are separated into two streams in the gas separator. The water stream is pressurized to 3 times the inlet pressure by the downhole intensifier and discharged through nozzles in the drilling head. The energy in the gas-rich stream is used to power the intensifier. Gas-rich exhaust from the intensifier is conducted to the nozzle head where it is used to shroud the jets, increasing their effective range. The prototype BHA was tested at operational pressures and flows in a test chamber and on the end of conventional coiled tubing in a test well. During instrumented runs at downhole conditions, the BHA developed downhole differential pressures of 74 MPa (11,000 psi, median) and 90 MPa (13,000 psi, peaks). The median output differential pressure was nearly 3 times the input differential pressure available from the coiled tubing. In a chamber test, the BHA delivered up to 50 kW (67 hhp) hydraulic power. The tool drilled uncertified class-G cement samples cast into casing at a rate of 0.04 to 0.17 m/min (8 to 33 ft/hr), within the range projected for this tool but slower than a conventional PDM. While the tool met most of the performance goals, reliability requires further improvement. It will be difficult for this tool, as currently configured, to compete with conventional positive displacement downhole motors for most coil tubing drill applications. Mechanical cutters on the rotating nozzle head would improve cutting. This tool can be easily adapted for well descaling operations. A variant of the Microhole jet drilling gas separator was further developed for use with positive displacement downhole motors (PDM) operating on commingled nitrogen and water. A fit-for-purpose motor gas separator was designed and yard tested within the Microhole program. Four commercial units of that design are currently involved in a 10-well field demonstration with Baker Oil Tools in Wyoming. Initial results indicate that the motor gas separators provide significant benefit.

Ken Theimer; Jack Kolle

2007-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

125

Energy Performance of Compact Fluorescent Lamps  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This power quality (PQ) case study presents the results of tests performed at the Worcester Polytechnic Institute, in contract with the EPRI Power Electronics Applications Center (PEAC), to determine the light output, power consumption, efficiency, and power factor of off-the-shelf electronic and magnetic compact fluorescent lamps.

2003-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

126

Laboratory Evaluation of LED T8 Replacement Lamp Products  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A report on a lab setting analysis involving LED lamps intended to directly replace T8 fluorescent lamps (4') showing light output, power, and economic comparisons with other fluorescent options.

Richman, Eric E.; Kinzey, Bruce R.; Miller, Naomi J.

2011-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

127

The Effects of Table Lamp Shade Shape and Compact Fluorescent...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

The Effects of Table Lamp Shade Shape and Compact Fluorescent Lamp Burning Position on Visual Comfort Speaker(s): Zaidi Abdullah Date: March 15, 2001 - 12:00pm Location: Bldg. 90...

128

Light Flicker in Compact Fluorescent Lamps Caused by Voltage Fluctuations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This power quality (PQ) case study presents tests performed at the EPRI Power Electronics Applications Center (PEAC) Power Quality Test Facility to characterize the light output of an incandescent lamp and compact fluorescent lamps during voltage fluctuations.

2003-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

129

LX-17 Deflagration at High Pressures and Temperatures  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

We measure the laminar deflagration rate of LX-17 (92.5 wt% TATB, 7.5 wt% Kel-F 800) at high pressure and temperature in a strand burner, thereby obtaining reaction rate data for prediction of thermal explosion violence. Simultaneous measurements of flame front time-of-arrival and temporal pressure history allow for the direct calculation of deflagration rate as a function of pressure. Additionally, deflagrating surface areas are calculated in order to provide quantitative insight into the dynamic surface structure during deflagration and its relationship to explosion violence. Deflagration rate data show that LX-17 burns in a smooth fashion at ambient temperature and is represented by the burn rate equation B = 0.2P{sup 0.9}. At 225 C, deflagration is more rapid and erratic. Dynamic deflagrating surface area calculations show that ambient temperature LX-17 deflagrating surface areas remain near unity over the pressure range studied.

Koerner, J; Maienschein, J; Black, K; DeHaven, M; Wardell, J

2006-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

130

The dissociation of liquid silica at high pressure and temperature  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Liquid silica at high pressure and temperature is shown to undergo significant structural modifications and profound changes in its electronic properties. Temperature measurements on shock waves in silica at 70-1000 GPa indicate that the specific heat of liquid SiO{sub 2} rises well above the Dulong-Petit limit, exhibiting a broad peak with temperature that is attributable to the growing structural disorder caused by bond-breaking in the melt. The simultaneous sharp rise in optical reflectivity of liquid SiO{sub 2} indicates that dissociation causes the electrical and therefore thermal conductivities of silica to attain metallic-like values of 1-5 x 10{sup 5} S/m and 24-600 W/m.K respectively.

Hicks, D; Boehly, T; Eggert, J; Miller, J; Celliers, P; Collins, G

2005-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

131

High-pressure coal fuel processor development. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Caterpillar shares DOE/METC interest in demonstrating the technology required to displace petroleum-based engine fuels with various forms of low cost coal. Current DOE/METC programs on mild gasification and coal-water-slurries are addressing two approaches to this end. Engine and fuel processor system concept studies by Caterpillar have identified a third, potentially promising, option. This option includes high-pressure fuel processing of run-of-the-mine coal and direct injection of the resulting low-Btu gas stream into an ignition assisted, high compression ratio diesel engine. The compactness and predicted efficiency of the system make it suitable for application to line-haul railroad locomotives. Two overall conclusions resulted from Task 1. First direct injected, ignition assisted Diesel cycle engine combustion systems can be suitably modified to efficiently utilize low-Btu gas fuels. Second, high pressure gasification of selected run-of-the-mine coals in batch-loaded fuel processors is feasible. These two findings, taken together, significantly reduce the perceived technical risk associated with the further development of the proposed coal gas fueled Diesel cycle power plant concept. The significant conclusions from Task 2 were: An engine concept, derived from a Caterpillar 3600 series engine, and a fuel processor concept, based on scaling up a removable-canister configuration from the test rig, appear feasible; and although the results of this concept study are encouraging, further, full-scale component research and development are required before attempting a full-scale integrated system demonstration effort.

Greenhalgh, M.L. [Caterpillar, Inc., Peoria, IL (United States)

1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

132

High pressure/high temperature thermogravimetric apparatus. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The purpose of this instrumentation grant was to acquire a state-of-the-art, high pressure, high temperature thermogravimetric apparatus (HP/HT TGA) system for the study of the interactions between gases and carbonaceous solids for the purpose of solving problems related to coal utilization and applications of carbon materials. The instrument that we identified for this purpose was manufactured by DMT (Deutsche Montan Technologies)--Institute of Cokemaking and Coal Chemistry of Essen, Germany. Particular features of note include: Two reactors: a standard TGA reactor, capable of 1100 C at 100 bar; and a high temperature (HT) reactor, capable of operation at 1600 C and 100 bar; A steam generator capable of generating steam to 100 bar; Flow controllers and gas mixing system for up to three reaction gases, plus a separate circuit for steam, and another for purge gas; and An automated software system for data acquisition and control. The HP/TP DMT-TGA apparatus was purchased in 1996 and installed and commissioned during the summer of 1996. The apparatus was located in Room 128 of the Prince Engineering Building at Brown University. A hydrogen alarm and vent system were added for safety considerations. The system has been interfaced to an Ametek quadruple mass spectrometer (MA 100), pumped by a Varian V250 turbomolecular pump, as provided for in the original proposed. With this capability, a number of gas phase species of interest can be monitored in a near-simultaneous fashion. The MS can be used in a few different modes. During high pressure, steady-state gasification experiments, it is used to sample, measure, and monitor the reactant/product gases. It can also be used to monitor gas phase species during nonisothermal temperature programmed reaction (TPR) or temperature programmed desorption (TPD) experiments.

Calo, J.M.; Suuberg, E.M.

1999-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

133

Mercury reduction studies to facilitate the thermal decontamination of phosphor powder residues from spent fluorescent lamps  

SciTech Connect

This work investigates the thermal release of mercury from phosphor powder of spent fluorescent lamps. The treatment conditions and the ability of various reducing agents (primarily sodium borohydride) to lower the overall heating temperature required to improve the release of Hg have been evaluated. Hg species in samples were monitored in a thermal desorption atomic absorption spectrometer system, and total mercury was analyzed in a cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometer. Sodium borohydride was the best reducing agent among the ones studied. However, citric acid presented a high capacity to weaken mercury bonds with the matrix. When the sample was crushed with sodium borohydride for 40 min in a mass ratio of 10:1 (sample:reducing agent) and submitted to thermal treatment at 300 deg. C for 2 h, the concentration of mercury in a phosphor powder sample with 103 mg kg{sup -1} of mercury reached 6.6 mg kg{sup -1}.

Alves Durao, Walter [Chemistry Department, Federal University of Minas Gerais (UFMG), Cidade Universitaria 30.123-970 Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Andreva de Castro, Camila [Chemistry Engineering Department, Federal University of Minas Gerais (UFMG) (Brazil); Carvalhinho Windmoeller, Claudia [Chemistry Department, Federal University of Minas Gerais (UFMG), Cidade Universitaria 30.123-970 Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)], E-mail: claucw@netuno.lcc.ufmg.br

2008-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

134

X-ray Imaging of Shock Waves Generated by High-Pressure Fuel...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

X-ray Imaging of Shock Waves Generated by High-Pressure Fuel Sprays High-pressure, high-speed fuel sprays are a critical technology for many applications including fuel injection...

135

Study of structural change in Wyodak coal in high-pressure CO2 by ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

scattering intensities on the exposure of the coal to high- pressure CO2 showed ... ture of coal caused by high-pressure CO2 also confirms that. CO2 at elevated ...

136

Novel Nanophosphors for High Efficiency Fluorescent Lamps  

SciTech Connect

This is the Final Report of the Novel Nanophosphors for High Efficiency Fluorescent Lamps, Department of Energy (DOE). The overall goal of this three-year program is to develop novel hybrid phosphors by coating commercially available lamp phosphors with highly stable wide band-gap nanocrystalline phosphors (NCP). The prime technical approach is the development of NCP quantum-splitting phosphor (QSP) and ultra-violet (UV) emitting phosphors with quantum efficiencies exceeding that of the conventional phosphors at 185 nm. The novel hybrid phosphors will increase the efficiency of the fluorescent lamps by up to 32%, enabling total energy savings of 0.26 quads, the reduction in the U.S. energy bill by $6.5 billion and the reduction of the annual carbon emission by 4.1 billion kilogram. Our work started by investigating through modeling calculations the requirement for the particle size of the NCP. Our work to develop suitable nanocrystalline phosphors started with the known oxide quantum splitting and UV emitting phosphors. We demonstrated several synthesis techniques for the production of high quality nanocrystalline materials that crystallizes in the desired phase and with the desired particle size. In collaboration with our subcontractor we demonstrated the feasibility for the manufacture of NC phosphors. We also demonstrated novel techniques of coating the NCP on the surface of micron sized phosphors. Our chief achievement pertains to the successful testing of the coated hybrid phosphor systems in linear fluorescent lamps. In linear fluorescent lamp tests, we have demonstrated up to 7% increase in the efficacy of hybrid phosphors over the conventional (uncoated) phosphors. We have also demonstrated the improvement in the lumen maintenance of the coated phosphors. A hybrid phosphor system based on the commercial red emitting phosphor, Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Eu{sup 3+} did not show the anticipated improvement in lamp efficacy. We explored the reasons for this observation, which are detailed in this report. Within the program we have carried out fundamental investigations into the physical processes that determine the quantum splitting behavior of the Pr{sup 3+} ion in solids. Specifically, we have investigated the quantum splitting luminescence of this ion in the LaPO{sub 4}, SrAl{sub 12}O{sub 19} and LiLaP{sub 4}O{sub 12} host lattices. In this final report we summarize the technical work completed under the Program, summarize our findings about the performance limits of the various technologies we investigated, and outline promising paths for future work.

Alok Srivatava

2007-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

137

Controlling the vapor pressure of a mercury lamp  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention described herein discloses a method and apparatus for controlling the Hg vapor pressure within a lamp. This is done by establishing and controlling two temperature zones within the lamp. One zone is colder than the other zone. The first zone is called the cold spot. By controlling the temperature of the cold spot, the Hg vapor pressure within the lamp is controlled. Likewise, by controlling the Hg vapor pressure of the lamp, the intensity and linewidth of the radiation emitted from the lamp is controlled. 2 figs.

Grossman, M.W.; George, W.A.

1988-05-24T23:59:59.000Z

138

Controlling the vapor pressure of a mercury lamp  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention described herein discloses a method and apparatus for controlling the Hg vapor pressure within a lamp. This is done by establishing and controlling two temperature zones within the lamp. One zone is colder than the other zone. The first zone is called the cold spot. By controlling the temperature of the cold spot, the Hg vapor pressure within the lamp is controlled. Likewise, by controlling the Hg vapor pressure of the lamp, the intensity and linewidth of the radiation emitted from the lamp is controlled.

Grossman, Mark W. (Belmont, MA); George, William A. (Rockport, MA)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

Engine having a high pressure hydraulic system and low pressure lubricating system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An engine includes a high pressure hydraulic system having a high pressure pump and at least one hydraulically-actuated device attached to an engine housing. A low pressure engine lubricating system is attached to the engine housing and includes a circulation conduit fluidly connected to an outlet from the high pressure pump.

Bartley, Bradley E. (Manito, IL); Blass, James R. (Bloomington, IL); Gibson, Dennis H. (Chillicothe, IL)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

LED lamp color control system and method  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An LED lamp color control system and method including an LED lamp having an LED controller 58; and a plurality of LED channels 60 operably connected to the LED controller 58, each of the plurality of LED channels 60 having a channel switch 62 in series with at least one shunted LED circuit 83, the shunted LED circuit 83 having a shunt switch 68 in parallel with an LED source 80. The LED controller 58 determines whether the LED source 80 is in a feedback controllable range, stores measured optical flux for the LED source 80 when the LED source 80 is in the feedback controllable range, and bypasses storing the measured optical flux when the LED source 80 is not in the feedback controllable range.

Gaines, James; Clauberg, Bernd; Van Erp, Josephus A.M.

2013-02-05T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high-pressure sodium lamps" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Lamp method and apparatus using multiple reflections  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method wherein the light in a sulfur or selenium lamp is reflected through the fill a multiplicity of times to convert ultraviolet radiation to visible is disclosed. A light emitting device comprised of an electrodeless envelope which bears a light reflecting covering around a first portion which does not crack due to differential thermal expansion and which has a second portion which comprises a light transmissive aperture. 20 figs.

MacLennan, D.A.; Turner, B.; Kipling, K.

1999-05-11T23:59:59.000Z

142

Lamp method and apparatus using multiple reflections  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method wherein the light in a sulfur or selenium lamp is reflected through the fill a multiplicity of times to convert ultraviolet radiation to visible. A light emitting device comprised of an electrodeless envelope which bears a light reflecting covering around a first portion which does not crack due to differential thermal expansion and which has a second portion which comprises a light transmissive aperture.

MacLennan, Donald A. (Butler, PA); Turner, Brian (Damascus, MD); Kipling, Kent (Gaithersburg, MD)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

143

Lighting Group: Sources and Ballasts: LED Reflector Lamp  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

LED Reflector Lamp LED Reflector Lamp LED Reflector Lamp Objective LED reflector lamp The goal of this project is to develop a revolutionary new reflector lamp which offers many advantages over current incandescent reflector lamps, including: three times greater efficiency ten times the rated life greater optical and performance properties use of light emitting diodes (LEDs) to generate the light. Although LEDs have been commercially available since the late 1960’s, recent dramatic improvements in LED technology have led to white light devices with efficiencies that meet or exceed those of a standard incandescent lamp. This project will build upon these improvements to develop a new type of source for focusing light. Contact Information For more information on this project, please contact:

144

High output lamp with high brightness  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An ultra bright, low wattage inductively coupled electrodeless aperture lamp is powered by a solid state RF source in the range of several tens to several hundreds of watts at various frequencies in the range of 400 to 900 MHz. Numerous novel lamp circuits and components are disclosed including a wedding ring shaped coil having one axial and one radial lead, a high accuracy capacitor stack, a high thermal conductivity aperture cup and various other aperture bulb configurations, a coaxial capacitor arrangement, and an integrated coil and capacitor assembly. Numerous novel RF circuits are also disclosed including a high power oscillator circuit with reduced complexity resonant pole configuration, parallel RF power FET transistors with soft gate switching, a continuously variable frequency tuning circuit, a six port directional coupler, an impedance switching RF source, and an RF source with controlled frequency-load characteristics. Numerous novel RF control methods are disclosed including controlled adjustment of the operating frequency to find a resonant frequency and reduce reflected RF power, controlled switching of an impedance switched lamp system, active power control and active gate bias control.

Kirkpatrick, Douglas A. (Great Falls, VA); Bass, Gary K. (Mt. Airy, MD); Copsey, Jesse F. (Germantown, MD); Garber, Jr., William E. (Poolesville, MD); Kwong, Vincent H. (Vancouver, CA); Levin, Izrail (Silver Spring, MD); MacLennan, Donald A. (Gaithersburg, MD); Roy, Robert J. (Frederick, MD); Steiner, Paul E. (Olney, MD); Tsai, Peter (Olney, MD); Turner, Brian P. (Damascus, MD)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

145

High intensity discharge lamp self-adjusting ballast system sensitive to the radiant energy or heat of the lamp  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a self-adjusting ballast system for mercury vapor, high intensity discharge lamps having outputs of 100 watts or greater, comprising: a direct current source; a lamp circuit containing a high intensity discharge lamp; sensing means for sensing the radiant energy output of the lamp; a pulse width modulator which, in response to the output of the sensing means, varies the width of the pulses that power the lamp during warm-up of the lamp; a high frequency oscillator; a DC to AC converter that converts current from the direct source to pulses of alternating current for powering the lamp, the converter comprising: at least one switch for gating current to the lamp; a switch control means, responsive to the high frequency oscillator, for controlling the switch and controlling the frequency of the alternating current pulses that power the lamp; current sensing means for sensing the current being supplied to the lamp; and current control means for limiting the current through the lamp to a predetermined safe level when the current sensed by the current sensing means exceeds a reference value.

Kuhnel, D.S.; Ottenstein, S.A.

1987-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

146

Data:19b93d1e-6c5c-45c3-b5a9-9d12606ab707 | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

New York (Utility Company) Effective date: 20101101 End date if known: Rate name: Street Light (250 Watt High Pressure Sodium Lamp) Sector: Commercial Description: Source...

147

CX-006430: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

high-pressure sodium, metal halide or mercury vapor lamps with energy efficient light emitting diode fixtures. DOCUMENT(S) AVAILABLE FOR DOWNLOAD CX-006430.pdf More Documents &...

148

Browse wiki | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

or a local government or any of their agencies. Applicable only to outdoor lighting ballast-operated vapor lamp fixtures, either mercury vapor (MV), high pressure sodium (HPS)...

149

Data:54991866-36b9-43eb-8f61-1ee2446254f1 | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

or a local government or any of their agencies. Applicable only to outdoor lighting ballast-operated vapor lamp fixtures, either mercury vapor (MV), high pressure sodium (HPS)...

150

Data:548ab109-bb95-4b9c-82f8-984a1dd171fa | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

or a local government or any of their agencies. Applicable only to outdoor lighting ballast-operated vapor lamp fixtures, either mercury vapor (MV), high pressure sodium (HPS)...

151

Data:1168228a-4e41-4952-8201-ba7ab2f08aff | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

or a local government or any of their agencies. Applicable only to outdoor lighting ballast-operated vapor lamp fixtures, either mercury vapor (MV), high pressure sodium (HPS)...

152

Browse wiki | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

OpenEIUtilityRateBasicInformationComments Applicable only to outdoor lighting by ballast operated vapor lamp fixtures, either high pressure sodium (HPS) or metal halide (MH),...

153

Data:0e129a41-6138-400e-be60-7742cbe9ab2b | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

or a local government or any of their agencies. Applicable only to outdoor lighting ballast-operated vapor lamp fixtures, either mercury vapor (MV), high pressure sodium (HPS)...

154

Data:2aaaf198-bc2b-4f93-b24e-08832c8dabeb | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

or a local government or any of their agencies. Applicable only to outdoor lighting ballast-operated vapor lamp fixtures, either mercury vapor (MV), high pressure sodium (HPS)...

155

Data:0a6c2e98-8dea-4cae-866f-00ab1c7eebca | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

or a local government or any of their agencies. Applicable only to outdoor lighting ballast-operated vapor lamp fixtures, either mercury vapor (MV), high pressure sodium (HPS)...

156

Data:4b7a924c-0946-49cc-b6f6-c59af19db4d4 | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

High Pressure Sodium Sector: Lighting Description: Applicable to outdoor lighting by ballast operated vapor lamp fixtures attached to poles conforming to the City's...

157

Data:61e088da-48b3-4281-bdce-f853b04f1158 | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

or a local government or any of their agencies. Applicable only to outdoor lighting ballast-operated vapor lamp fixtures, either mercury vapor (MV), high pressure sodium (HPS)...

158

Data:8e0f826a-f18e-4268-9546-bbfba87ef44e | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

or a local government or any of their agencies. Applicable only to outdoor lighting ballast-operated vapor lamp fixtures, either mercury vapor (MV), high pressure sodium (HPS)...

159

Data:889ea768-5e4c-4971-9181-82a9bbad721a | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

or a local government or any of their agencies. Applicable only to outdoor lighting ballast-operated vapor lamp fixtures, either mercury vapor (MV), high pressure sodium (HPS)...

160

Data:626f5c89-8472-46ef-9820-ed97fcd4b993 | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

or a local government or any of their agencies. Applicable only to outdoor lighting ballast-operated vapor lamp fixtures, either mercury vapor (MV), high pressure sodium (HPS)...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high-pressure sodium lamps" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Data:130e1e71-8f88-46ee-a6b3-08b8a8a3baef | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

or a local government or any of their agencies. Applicable only to outdoor lighting ballast-operated vapor lamp fixtures, either mercury vapor (MV), high pressure sodium (HPS)...

162

Data:4eaf1cf2-f582-4075-b384-7cc106820b25 | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

or a local government or any of their agencies. Applicable only to outdoor lighting ballast-operated vapor lamp fixtures, either mercury vapor (MV), high pressure sodium (HPS)...

163

Data:5e86a75d-90dd-42c6-89a3-7b0bb24b1a10 | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

or a local government or any of their agencies. Applicable only to outdoor lighting ballast-operated vapor lamp fixtures, either mercury vapor (MV), high pressure sodium (HPS)...

164

Data:3ec3603d-e52f-446b-b5cf-43b6fbc63a62 | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

or a local government or any of their agencies. Applicable only to outdoor lighting ballast-operated vapor lamp fixtures, either mercury vapor (MV), high pressure sodium (HPS)...

165

Data:221de333-3873-4734-b181-c11216c90a85 | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

or a local government or any of their agencies. Applicable only to outdoor lighting ballast-operated vapor lamp fixtures, either mercury vapor (MV), high pressure sodium (HPS)...

166

Data:952570ab-ec99-45bf-8577-d5592104c307 | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

or a local government or any of their agencies. Applicable only to outdoor lighting ballast-operated vapor lamp fixtures, either mercury vapor (MV), high pressure sodium (HPS)...

167

Data:348ad73a-6234-4eef-bcf9-e533ff0d9c66 | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

or a local government or any of their agencies. Applicable only to outdoor lighting ballast-operated vapor lamp fixtures, either mercury vapor (MV), high pressure sodium (HPS)...

168

High pressure testing of see-through labyrinth seals  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Detailed results are presented for teeth-on-stator labyrinth seals tested under high pressure of 70 bar-a (1015 psi-a) and 52 bar-a (754 psi-a) in the centered position. The seals were tested at pressure ratios of 0.52, 0.36 and 0.16, speeds of 10,200, 15,200 and 20,200 rpm and clearances of 0.1 and 0.2 mm. The effects of changes in radial clearance and pressure differential across the seal are studied for various inlet tangential velocities. The results confirm the existence of negative direct stiffness, positive cross-coupled stiffness as shown by Benckert and Wachter and low direct damping (when compared to hole-pattern seals). Experimental results are compared with predictions from the one-control-volume model (Childs and Scharrer) and two-control-volume model (Scharrer). Results show that both models under-predict the rotordynamic coefficients significantly. Leakage is also under predicted by both the codes. However, the effective damping and whirl frequency ratio (wfr) predicted by the one-control volume theory is comparable with the test results.

Picardo, Arthur Michael

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

169

Magnetism In 3d Transition Metals at High Pressures  

SciTech Connect

This research project examined the changes in electronic and magnetic properties of transition metals and oxides under applied pressures, focusing on complex relationship between magnetism and phase stability in these correlated electron systems. As part of this LDRD project, we developed new measurement techniques and adapted synchrotron-based electronic and magnetic measurements for use in the diamond anvil cell. We have performed state-of-the-art X-ray spectroscopy experiments at the dedicated high-pressure beamline HP-CAT (Sector 16 Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory), maintained in collaboration with of University of Nevada, Las Vegas and Geophysical Laboratory of The Carnegie Institution of Washington. Using these advanced measurements, we determined the evolution of the magnetic order in the ferromagnetic 3d transition metals (Fe, Co and Ni) under pressure, and found that at high densities, 3d band broadening results in diminished long range magnetic coupling. Our experiments have allowed us to paint a unified picture of the effects of pressure on the evolution of magnetic spin in 3d electron systems. The technical and scientific advances made during this LDRD project have been reported at a number of scientific meetings and conferences, and have been submitted for publication in technical journals. Both the technical advances and the physical understanding of correlated systems derived from this LDRD are being applied to research on the 4f and 5f electron systems under pressure.

Iota, V

2006-02-09T23:59:59.000Z

170

TENSILE TESTING OF CARBON STEEL IN HIGH PRESSURE HYDROGEN  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

An infrastructure of new and existing pipelines and systems will be required to carry and to deliver hydrogen as an alternative energy source under the hydrogen economy. Carbon and low alloy steels of moderate strength are currently used in hydrogen delivery systems as well as in the existing natural gas systems. It is critical to understand the material response of these standard pipeline materials when they are subjected to pressurized hydrogen environments. The methods and results from a testing program to quantify hydrogen effects on mechanical properties of carbon steel pipeline and pipeline weld materials are provided. Tensile properties of one type of steel (A106 Grade B) in base metal, welded and heat affected zone conditions were tested at room temperature in air and high pressure (10.34 MPa or 1500 psig) hydrogen. A general reduction in the materials ability to plastically deform was noted in this material when specimens were tested in hydrogen. Furthermore, the primary mode of fracture was changed from ductile rupture in air to cleavage with secondary tearing in hydrogen. The mechanical test results will be applied in future analyses to evaluate service life of the pipelines. The results are also envisioned to be part of the bases for construction codes and structural integrity demonstrations for hydrogen service pipeline and vessels.

Duncan, A; Thad Adams, T; Ps Lam, P

2007-05-02T23:59:59.000Z

171

MECHANICAL TESTING OF CARBON STEEL IN HIGH PRESSURE HYDROGEN  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The methods and interim results from a testing program to quantify hydrogen effects on mechanical properties of carbon steel pipeline and pipeline weld materials are provided. The scope is carbon steels commonly used for natural gas pipelines in the United States that are candidates for hydrogen service in the hydrogen economy. The mechanical test results will be applied in future analyses to evaluate service life of the pipelines. The results are also envisioned to be part of the bases for construction codes and structural integrity demonstrations for hydrogen service pipeline and vessels. Tensile properties of one type of steel (A106 Grade B) in base metal, welded and heat affected zone conditions were tested at room temperature in air and high pressure (1500 psig) hydrogen. A general reduction in the materials ability to plastically deform was noted in this material when specimens were tested in 1500 psig hydrogen. Furthermore, the primary mode of fracture was changed from ductile rupture in air to cleavage with secondary tearing in hydrogen. The mechanical test program will continue with tests to quantify the fracture behavior in terms of J-R curves for these materials at air and hydrogen pressure conditions.

Duncan, A

2006-05-11T23:59:59.000Z

172

Compact microwave lamp having a tuning block and a dielectric located in a lamp cavity  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A microwave lamp having a compact structure utilizing a coupling slot which has a dielectric member extending therethrough and a tuning block adjoining the coupling slot. A non-conventional waveguide is used which has about the width of a WR-284 waveguide and about the length of a WR-340 waveguide.

Simpson, James E. (Gaithersburg, MD)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

173

LED LAMP OR BULB WITH REMOTE PHOSPHOR AND DIFFUSER ...  

An LED lamp or bulb is disclosed that comprises a light source, a heat sink structure and an optical cavity. The optical cavity comprises a phosphor ...

174

Heat transfer assembly for a fluorescent lamp and fixture  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

In a lighting fixture including a lamp and a housing, a heat transfer structure is disclosed for reducing the minimum lamp wall temperature of a fluorescent light bulb. The heat transfer structure, constructed of thermally conductive material, extends from inside the housing to outside the housing, transferring heat energy generated from a fluorescent light bulb to outside the housing where the heat energy is dissipated to the ambient air outside the housing. Also disclosed is a method for reducing minimum lamp wall temperatures. Further disclosed is an improved lighting fixture including a lamp, a housing and the aforementioned heat transfer structure. 11 figs.

Siminovitch, M.J.; Rubenstein, F.M.; Whitman, R.E.

1992-12-29T23:59:59.000Z

175

Fluorescent lamp unit with magnetic field generating means  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A fluorescent lamp unit having a magnetic field generating means for improving the performance of the fluorescent lamp is disclosed. In a preferred embodiment the fluorescent lamp comprises four longitudinally extending leg portions disposed in substantially quadrangular columnar array and joined by three generally U-shaped portions disposed in different planes. In another embodiment of the invention the magnetic field generating means comprises a plurality of permanent magnets secured together to form a single columnar structure disposed within a centrally located region defined by the shape of lamp envelope. 4 figs.

Grossman, M.W.; George, W.A.

1989-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

176

Development and characterization of a high CRI LED lamp.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The aim of this thesis is to realize a high CRI LED lamp using the color mixing technique. We start from a high efficiency white… (more)

Meneghesso , Matteo

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

177

Stadiums and arenas use efficient, high wattage lamps - Today ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Other lighting types, such as light-emitting diode (LED), incandescent, and halogen lamps, are used in applications like signals, signage, ...

178

Heat transfer assembly for a fluorescent lamp and fixture  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

In a lighting fixture including a lamp and a housing, a heat transfer structure is disclosed for reducing the minimum lamp wall temperature of a fluorescent light bulb. The heat transfer structure, constructed of thermally conductive material, extends from inside the housing to outside the housing, transferring heat energy generated from a fluorescent light bulb to outside the housing where the heat energy is dissipated to the ambient air outside the housing. Also disclosed is a method for reducing minimum lamp wall temperatures. Further disclosed is an improved lighting fixture including a lamp, a housing and the aforementioned heat transfer structure.

Siminovitch, Michael J. (Richmond, CA); Rubenstein, Francis M. (Berkeley, CA); Whitman, Richard E. (Richmond, CA)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

179

High pressure HC1 conversion of cellulose to glucose  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The production of ethanol from glucose by means of fermentation represents a potential long-range alternative to oil for use as a transportation fuel. Today's rising oil prices and the dwindling world supply of oil have made other fuels, such as ethanol, attractive alternatives. It has been shown that automobiles can operate, with minor alterations, on a 10% ethanol-gasoline mixture popularly known as gasohol. Wood has long been known as a potential source of glucose. Glucose may be obtained from wood following acid hydrolysis. In this research, it was found that saturating wood particles with HCl gas under pressure was an effective pretreatment before subjecting the wood to dilute acid hydrolysis. The pretreatment is necessary because of the tight lattice structure of cellulose, which inhibits dilute acid hydrolysis. HCl gas makes the cellulose more susceptible to hydrolysis and the glucose yield is doubled when dilute acid hydrolysis is preceded by HCl saturation at high pressure. The saturation was most effectively performed in a fluidized bed reactor, with pure HCl gas fluidizing equal volumes of ground wood and inert particles. The fluidized bed effectively dissipated the large amount of heat released upon HCl absorption into the wood. Batch reaction times of one hour at 314.7 p.s.i.a. gave glucose yields of 80% and xylose yields of 95% after dilute acid hydrolysis. A non-catalytic gas-solid reaction model, with gas diffusing through the solid limiting the reaction rate, was found to describe the HCl-wood reaction in the fluidized bed. HCl was found to form a stable adduct with the lignin residue in the wood, in a ratio of 3.33 moles per mole of lignin monomer. This resulted in a loss of 0.1453 lb. of HCl per pound of wood. The adduct was broken upon the addition of water. A process design and economic evaluation for a plant to produce 214 tons per day of glucose from air-dried ground Populus tristi gave an estimated glucose cost of 15.14 cents per pound. This would correspond to $2.54 per gallon of ethanol if the glucose were fermented. Key factors contributing to the cost of glucose production were unrecovered HCl, which contributed 5.70 cents per pound of glucose, and the cost of wood, which at $25 per ton contribute 4.17 cents per pound.

Antonoplis, Robert Alexander; Blanch, Harvey W.; Wilke, Charles R.

1981-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

180

Materials for High-Pressure Fuel Injection Systems  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The high-level goal of this multi-year effort was to facilitate the Advanced Combustion Engine goal of 20% improvement (compared to 2009 baseline) of commercial engine efficiency by 2015. A sub-goal is to increase the reliability of diesel fuel injectors by investigating modelbased scenarios that cannot be achieved by empirical, trial and error methodologies alone. During this three-year project, ORNL developed the methodology to evaluate origins and to record the initiation and propagation of fatigue cracks emanating from holes that were electrodischarge machined (EDM), the method used to form spray holes in fuel injector tips. Both x-ray and neutron-based methods for measuring residual stress at four different research facilities were evaluated to determine which, if any, was most applicable to the fuel injector tip geometry. Owing to the shape and small volumes of material involved in the sack area, residual stress data could only be obtained in the walls of the nozzle a few millimeters back from the tip, and there was a hint of only a small compressive stress. This result was consistent with prior studies by Caterpillar. Residual stress studies were suspended after the second year, reserving the possibility of pursuing this in the future, if and when methodology suitable for injector sacks becomes available. The smooth specimen fatigue behavior of current fuel injector steel materials was evaluated and displayed a dual mode initiation behavior. At high stresses, cracks started at machining flaws in the surface; however, below a critical threshold stress of approximately 800 MPa, cracks initiated in the bulk microstructure, below the surface. This suggests that for the next generation for high-pressure fuel injector nozzles, it becomes increasingly important to control the machining and finishing processes, especially if the stress in the tip approaches or exceeds that threshold level. Fatigue tests were also conducted using EDM notches in the gage sections. Compared to the smooth specimens, EDM notching led to a severe reduction in total fatigue life. A reduction in fatigue life of nearly four orders of magnitude can occur at an EDM notch the approximate size of fuel injector spray holes. Consequently, the initiation and propagation behavior of cracks from small spray holes is relevant for generation of design quality data for the next generation diesel fuel injection devices. This is especially true since the current design methodologies usually rely on the less conservative smooth specimen fatigue testing results, and since different materials can have varying levels of notch fatigue resistance.

Blau, P.; Shyam, A.; Hubbard, C.; Howe, J.; Trejo, R.; Yang, N. (Caterpillar, Inc. Technical Center); Pollard, M. (Caterpillar, Inc. Technical Center)

2011-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high-pressure sodium lamps" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Process for CO2 Capture Using Zeolites from High Pressure and...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

April 2012 Opportunity Research is currently active on the patented technology "Process for CO 2 Capture Using Zeolites from High Pressure and Moderate Temperature Gas...

182

High-pressure science gets super-sized | Argonne National Laboratory  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

leap forward with the discovery of a way to generate super high pressures without using shock waves whose accompanying heat turns solids to liquid. This discovery will allow...

183

On the stability of sp-valent materials at high pressure.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The behavior of sp-valent solids and liquids under compression is a field of intense re- search. At high pressure, they often undergo phase transitions to… (more)

Boates, Brian

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

Gas Viscosity at High Pressure and High Temperature  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Gas viscosity is one of the gas properties that is vital to petroleum engineering. Its role in the oil and gas production and transportation is indicated by its contribution in the resistance to the flow of a fluid both in porous media and pipes. Although viscosity of some pure components such as methane, ethane, propane, butane, nitrogen, carbon dioxide and binary mixtures of these components at low-intermediate pressure and temperature had been studied intensively and been understood thoroughly, very few investigations were performed on viscosity of naturally occurring gases, especially gas condensates at low-intermediate pressure and temperature, even fewer lab data were published. No gas viscosity data at high pressures and high temperatures (HPHT) is available. Therefore this gap in the oil industry still needs to be filled. Gas viscosity at HPHT becomes crucial to modern oil industry as exploration and production move to deep formation or deep water where HPHT is not uncommon. Therefore, any hydrocarbon encountered there is more gas than oil due to the chemical reaction causing oil to transfer to gas as temperature increases. We need gas viscosity to optimize production rate for production system, estimate reserves, model gas injection, design drilling fluid, and monitor gas movement in well control. Current gas viscosity correlations are derived using measured data at low-moderate pressures and temperatures, and then extrapolated to HPHT. No measured gas viscosities at HPHT are available so far. The validities of these correlations for gas viscosity at HPHT are doubted due to lack of experimental data. In this study, four types of viscometers are evaluated and their advantages and disadvantages are listed. The falling body viscometer is used to measure gas viscosity at a pressure range of 3000 to 25000 psi and a temperature range of 100 to 415 oF. Nitrogen viscosity is measured to take into account of the fact that the concentration of nonhydrocarbons increase drastically in HPHT reservoir. More nitrogen is found as we move to HPHT reservoirs. High concentration nitrogen in natural gas affects not only the heat value of natural gas, but also gas viscosity which is critical to petroleum engineering. Nitrogen is also one of common inject gases in gas injection projects, thus an accurate estimation of its viscosity is vital to analyze reservoir performance. Then methane viscosity is measured to honor that hydrocarbon in HPHT which is almost pure methane. From our experiments, we found that while the Lee-Gonzalez-Eakin correlation estimates gas viscosity at a low-moderate pressure and temperature accurately, it cannot give good match of gas viscosity at HPHT. Apparently, current correlations need to be modified to predict gas viscosity at HPHT. New correlations constructed for HPHT conditions based on our experiment data give more confidence on gas viscosity.

Ling, Kegang

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

185

Fluorescent lamp with static magnetic field generating means  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A fluorescent lamp wherein magnetic field generating means (e.g., permanent magnets) are utilized to generate a static magnetic field across the respective electrode structures of the lamp such that maximum field strength is located at the electrode's filament. An increase in efficacy during operation has been observed. 2 figs.

Moskowitz, P.E.; Maya, J.

1987-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

186

Convection venting lensed reflector-type compact fluorescent lamp system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Disclosed herein is a fluorescent lamp housing assembly capable of providing convection cooling to the lamp and the ballast. The lens of the present invention includes two distinct portions, a central portion and an apertured portion. The housing assembly further includes apertures so that air mass is able to freely move up through the assembly and out ventilation apertures. 12 figs.

Pelton, B.A.; Siminovitch, M.

1997-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

187

Fluorescent lamp with static magnetic field generating means  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A fluorescent lamp wherein magnetic field generating means (e.g., permanent magnets) are utilized to generate a static magnetic field across the respective electrode structures of the lamp such that maximum field strength is located at the electrode's filament. An increase in efficacy during operation has been observed.

Moskowitz, Philip E. (Peabody, MA); Maya, Jakob (Brookline, MA)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

Convection venting lensed reflector-type compact fluorescent lamp system  

SciTech Connect

Disclosed herein is a fluorescent lamp housing assembly capable of providing convection cooling to the lamp and the ballast. The lens of the present invention includes two distinct portions, a central portion and an apertured portion. The housing assembly further includes apertures so that air mass is able to freely move up through the assembly and out ventilation apertures.

Pelton, Bruce A. (825 Manor Rd., El Sobrante, CA 94803); Siminovitch, Michael (829 Manor Rd., El Sobrante, CA 94803)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

189

DEFINING THE EFFECTIVENESS OF UV LAMPS  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

ARTI-21CR/610-40030-01 ARTI-21CR/610-40030-01 DEFINING THE EFFECTIVENESS OF UV LAMPS INSTALLED IN CIRCULATING AIR DUCTWORK Final Report Date Published - November 2002 Douglas VanOsdell and Karin Foarde RTI P.O. Box 12194 Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-2194 Prepared for the AIR-CONDITIONING AND REFRIGERATION TECHNOLOGY INSTITUTE 4100 N. Fairfax Drive, Suite 200, Arlington, Virginia 22203 Distribution A - Approved for public release; further dissemination unlimited. DISCLAIMER This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by the Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Technology Institute (ARTI) under its "HVAC&R Research for the 21 st Century" (21-CR) program. Neither ARTI, the financial supporters of the 21-CR program, or any agency

190

Effect of filament power removal on a fluorescent lamp system  

SciTech Connect

Two techniques are used to measure the effects of removing the filament power from a two-lamp, F-40, rapid-start fluorescent lamp system. The changes are measured for a standard CBM core-coil ballast and for a solid-state ballast operating the lamp at high frequency. There is a 4 tp 6% increase in system efficacy when the filament power is removed. Removal of filament power also decreases filament temperature from 1000/sup 0/C to below 700/sup 0/C in lamps operated at 60 Hz, and from above 600/sup 0/C to 300/sup 0/C in lamps operated at high frequency. The study shows that the arc current and anode fall also determine filament temperature.

Verderber, R.R.; Morse, O.; Rubinstein, F.M.

1985-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

Compatibility testing of fluorescent lamp and ballast systems  

SciTech Connect

The rapid growth in the use of electronic ballasts for fluorescent lighting systems, and the corresponding increase in the number of new products and new manufacturers in the market, has raised a number of questions regarding the compatibility of the lamps and ballasts used in fluorescent systems. Because many of the new products start and operate lamps differently than previous products, the relevant American National Standards Institute requirements may no longer be adequate for addressing compatibility concerns. The impacts on system performance of the newer products of a parametric study designed to test key hypotheses regarding the impact of ballast parameters on fluorescent lamp life. In this study, samples of 4-ft T8 fluorescent lamps were operated on duty cycles of 5 min on and 5 min off, using seven different ballast types. The results of the study indicate which parameters seem to have the biggest effect on lamp life, and can be used in establishing new performance standards for fluorescent systems.

Ji, Y.; Davis, R.; O' Rourke, C.; Chui, E.W.M.

1999-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

192

Engine with hydraulic fuel injection and ABS circuit using a single high pressure pump  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An engine system comprises a hydraulically actuated fuel injection system and an ABS circuit connected via a fluid flow passage that provides hydraulic fluid to both the fuel injection system and to the ABS circuit. The hydraulically actuated system includes a high pressure pump. The fluid control passage is in fluid communication with an outlet from the high pressure pump.

Bartley, Bradley E. (Manito, IL); Blass, James R. (Bloomington, IL); Gibson, Dennis H. (Chillicothe, IL)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

193

The effects of fixture type and HVAC integration on fluorescent lamp/ballast performance  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the effects of fixture type and lamp compartment air extract characteristics on lamp/ballast performance. A luminaire/plenum/HVAC simulator was used to measure minimum lamp wall temperature inside four fixture types while varying lamp-compartment extract conditions. Experimental data show that the lumen output of the lamp/ballast system varies by 20% and system efficacy by 10%, depending on the type of fixture and lamp-compartment extract technique employed.

Siminovitch, M.J.; Rubinstein, F.M.; Verderber, R.R.; Clark, T.A.

1986-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

194

Highly Efficient Small Form Factor LED Retrofit Lamp  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes work to develop a high efficiency LED-based MR16 lamp downlight at OSRAM SYLVANIA under US Department of Energy contract DE-EE0000611. A new multichip LED package, electronic driver, and reflector optic were developed for these lamps. At steady-state, the lamp luminous flux was 409 lumens (lm), luminous efficacy of 87 lumens per watt (LPW), CRI (Ra) of 87, and R9 of 85 at a correlated color temperature (CCT) of 3285K. The LED alone achieved 120 lumens per watt efficacy and 600 lumen flux output at 25 C. The driver had 90% electrical conversion efficiency while maintaining excellent power quality with power factor >0.90 at a power of only 5 watts. Compared to similar existing MR16 lamps using LED sources, these lamps had much higher efficacy and color quality. The objective of this work was to demonstrate a LED-based MR16 retrofit lamp for replacement of 35W halogen MR16 lamps having (1) luminous flux of 500 lumens, (2) luminous efficacy of 100 lumens per watt, (3) beam angle less than 40{sup o} and center beam candlepower of at least 1000 candelas, and (4) excellent color quality.

Steven Allen; Fred Palmer; Ming Li

2011-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

195

Lamp method and apparatus using multiple reflections  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An electrodeless microwave discharge lamp includes an envelope with a discharge forming fill disposed therein which emits light, the fill being capable of absorbing light at one wavelength and re-emitting the absorbed light at a different wavelength, the light emitted from the fill having a first spectral power distribution in the absence of reflection of light back into the fill, a source of microwave energy coupled to the fill to excite the fill and cause the fill to emit light, and a reflector disposed within the microwave cavity and configured to reflect at least some of the light emitted by the fill back into the fill while allowing some light to exit, the exiting light having a second spectral power distribution with proportionately more light in the visible region as compared to the first spectral power distribution, wherein the light re-emitted by the fill is shifted in wavelength with respect to the absorbed light and the magnitude of the shift is in relation to an effective optical path length.

MacLennan, Donald A. (Gaithersburg, MD); Turner, Brian P. (Damascus, MD)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

196

BILIWG Meeting: High Pressure Steam Reforming of Bio-Derived Liquids (Presentation)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

High Pressure Steam Reforming of High Pressure Steam Reforming of Bio-Derived Liquids S. Ahmed, S. Lee, D. Papadias, and R. Kumar November 6, 2007 Laurel, MD Research sponsored by the Hydrogen, Fuel Cells, and Infrastructure Technologies Program of DOE's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Rationale and objective Rationale „ Steam reforming of liquid fuels at high pressures can reduce hydrogen compression costs - Much less energy is needed to pressurize liquids (fuel and water) than compressing gases (reformate or H 2 ) „ High pressure reforming is advantageous for subsequent separations and hydrogen purification Objective „ Develop a reformer design that takes advantage of the savings in compression cost in the steam reforming bio-derived liquid fuels - Metric:

197

Pantex High Pressure Fire Loop Project Completed On Time, Under Budget |  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

High Pressure Fire Loop Project Completed On Time, Under Budget | High Pressure Fire Loop Project Completed On Time, Under Budget | National Nuclear Security Administration Our Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing Proliferation Powering the Nuclear Navy Emergency Response Recapitalizing Our Infrastructure Continuing Management Reform Countering Nuclear Terrorism About Us Our Programs Our History Who We Are Our Leadership Our Locations Budget Our Operations Media Room Congressional Testimony Fact Sheets Newsletters Press Releases Speeches Events Social Media Video Gallery Photo Gallery NNSA Archive Federal Employment Apply for Our Jobs Our Jobs Working at NNSA Blog Home > Media Room > Press Releases > Pantex High Pressure Fire Loop Project Completed ... Press Release Pantex High Pressure Fire Loop Project Completed On Time, Under Budget

198

Consider Installing High-Pressure Boilers with Backpressure Turbine-Generators  

SciTech Connect

This revised ITP tip sheet on installing high-pressure boilers provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

Development of the High-Pressure Direct-Injection ISX G Natural Gas Engine  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Fact sheet details work by Cummins and Westport Innovations to develop a heavy-duty, low-NOx, high-pressure direct-injection natural gas engine for the Next Generation Natural Gas Vehicle activity.

Not Available

2004-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

200

Optimal design of a high pressure organometallic chemical vapor deposition reactor  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A team composed of material scientists, physicists, and applied mathematicians have used computer simulations as a fundamental design tool in developing a new prototype High Pressure Organometallic Chemical Vapor Deposition (HPOMCVD) reactor for use ...

K. J. Bachmann; H. T. Banks; C. Höpfner; G. M. Kepler; S. Lesure; S. D. Mccall; J. S. Scroggs

1999-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high-pressure sodium lamps" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

“Multi-temperature” method for high-pressure sorption measurements on moist shales  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A simple and effective experimental approach has been developed and tested to study the temperature dependence of high-pressure methane sorption in moist organic-rich shales. This method

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

High pressure synthesis gas fermentation. [Quarterly status] report, October 15, 1991--January 14, 1992  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The construction of the high pressure gas phase fermentation system has been completed. Photographs of the various components of the system are presented, along with an operating procedure for the equipment.

Not Available

1992-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

203

Covered Product Category: Compact Fluorescent Lamps | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Covered Product Category: Compact Fluorescent Lamps Covered Product Category: Compact Fluorescent Lamps Covered Product Category: Compact Fluorescent Lamps October 7, 2013 - 10:48am Addthis ENERGY STAR Qualified Products Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) provides acquisition guidance across a variety of product categories, including compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs), which are an ENERGY STAR-qualified product category. Federal laws and executive orders mandate that agencies meet these efficiency requirements in all procurement and acquisition actions that are not specifically exempted by law. Most manufacturers display the ENERGY STAR label on complying models. For a model not displaying this label, check the manufacturer's literature to determine if it meets the efficiency requirements outlined by ENERGY STAR.

204

Information Resources: LED Replacements for Linear Fluorescent Lamps  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Replacements for Linear Fluorescent Lamps Webcast Replacements for Linear Fluorescent Lamps Webcast In this June 20, 2011 webcast on LED products marketed as replacements for linear fluorescent lamps, Jason Tuenge of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) discussed current Lighting Facts-listed products as well as products evaluated in the latest CALiPER reports. Eric Richman, also of PNNL, reported on a recently completed GATEWAY demonstration project, in which LED and fluorescent lamps were installed in a variety of recessed troffer luminaires for comparison in an office environment. The presentation concluded with a discussion of specifications listed in a newly updated technology fact sheet. View presentation slides View the text-alternative version View the webcast (WMV 16 MB) Download Windows Media Player

205

One piece microwave container screens for electrodeless lamps  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A microwave powered electrodeless lamp includes an improved screen unit having mesh and solid sections with an internal reflector to reflect light into a light-transmitting chamber defined in the lamp microwave cavity by the reflector and the mesh section. A discharge envelope of a bulb is disposed in the light-transmitting chamber. Light emitted from the envelope is prevented by the reflector from entering the cavity portion bounded by the solid section of the screen. Replacing mesh material by solid metal material as part of the screen unit significantly reduces leakage of microwave energy from the lamp. The solid section has multiple compliant fingers defined therein for engaging the periphery of a flange on the waveguide unit so that a hose clamp can easily secure the screen to the assembly. Screen units of this type having different mesh section configurations can be interchanged in the lamp assembly to produce different respective illumination patterns.

Turner, Brian (Myersville, MD); Ury, Michael (Bethesda, MD)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

Max Tech and Beyond: High-Intensity Discharge Lamps  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the reason industry started by developing ceramic MH lampsceramic metal halide lamps, which are the focus of industry’industry had invested in the development of very low wattage ceramic

Scholand, Michael

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

COST EFFECTIVENESS OF LONG LIFE INCANDESCENT LAMPS AND ENERGY BUTTONS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

button, a 100 watt (130 volt) lamp, a 100 watt long lifeFluorescent Watt L I ltage (volts) cu ge ic in s) ative ( 1the diode energy button (83 volts) was obtained by dividing

Verderber, Rudy

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

208

The LAMP QPF Products. Part I: Model Development  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Local AWIPS (Advanced Weather Interactive Processing System) MOS (model output statistics) Program (LAMP) quantitative precipitation forecast (QPF) system produces 1–22-h forecasts of precipitation over the conterminous United States. The ...

Jerome P. Charba

1998-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

209

Electronic Radio-Frequency (Electrodeless) Induction Lamps: A Fluorescent Technology  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This EPRI Technical Update addresses an expanding energy efficient light source electronic radio-frequency (electrodeless) induction lamps. Business and technical market factors (Chapter 2) use the past and future growth of the CFL market to illustrate the potential for the induction lighting market while emphasizing future technical improvements. Discussion of the importance of utility involvement in helping their customers consider induction lamps for high-efficiency fluorescent applications with long-...

2007-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

210

An ultraviolet barrier-discharge OH molecular lamp  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The energy and spectral parameters of a barrier discharge in a mixture of argon with hydroxyl {sup .}OH are studied experimentally. A sealed lamp with the radiation intensity maximum at {lambda} = 309.2 nm, an emitting surface area of {approx}700 cm{sup 2}, and a radiant excitance of 1.5 mW cm{sup -2} has been fabricated. The radiant power of the lamp is 1.1 W. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

Sosnin, E A; Erofeev, M V; Avdeev, S M; Panchenko, Aleksei N; Panarin, V A; Skakun, V S; Tarasenko, Viktor F; Shitts, D V [Institute of High Current Electronics, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Tomsk (Russian Federation)

2006-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

211

Compact fluorescent lamp using horizontal and vertical insulating septums and convective venting geometry  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A novel design is described for a compact fluorescent lamp, including a lamp geometry which will increase light output and efficacy of the lamp in a base down operating position by providing horizontal and vertical insulating septums positioned in the ballast compartment of the lamp to provide a cooler coldspot. Selective convective venting provides additional cooling of the ballast compartment. 9 figs.

Siminovitch, M.

1998-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

212

Compact fluorescent lamp using horizontal and vertical insulating septums and convective venting geometry  

SciTech Connect

A novel design for a compact fluorescent lamp, including a lamp geometry which will increase light output and efficacy of the lamp in a base down operating position by providing horizontal and vertical insulating septums positioned in the ballast compartment of the lamp to provide a cooler coldspot. Selective convective venting provides additional cooling of the ballast compartment.

Siminovitch, Michael (El Sobrante, CA)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

Studies on Temperature Dependence of Rubidium Lamp for Atomic Frequency Standard  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Rb lamp is a very critical component of the Rb atomic clock's Physics Package. The Rb lamp's performance is very sensitive to temperature and its stability. In this paper we discuss the behaviors of Rb Lamp with temperature. The Rb lamp exciter power and temperature of Rb bulb are very important parameters in controlling the performance of the Rb Lamp. It is observed that at temperatures beyond 110 deg. C, the lamp mode changes from the ring to red mode resulting in abnormal broadening of emission lines and self reversal. The results of our studies on spectral analysis of Rb lamp under various operating conditions are reported in the paper.

Ghosal, Bikash; Banik, Alak; Vats, Vaibhav; Pal, Sukamal; Bahl, R. K [Space Applications Centre, ISRO, Ahmedabad-380015 (India)

2011-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

214

LNG Vehicle High-Pressure Fuel System and ''Cold Energy'' Utilization  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A high-pressure fuel system for LNG vehicles with direct-injection natural gas engines has been developed and demonstrated on a heavy-duty truck. A new concept for utilizing the ''cold energy'' associated with LNG vehicles to generate mechanical power to drive auxiliary equipment (such as high-pressure fuel pumps) has also been developed and demonstrated in the laboratory. The high-pressure LNG fuel system development included the design and testing of a new type of cryogenic pump utilizes multiple chambers and other features to condense moderate quantities of sucked vapor and discharge supercritical LNG at 3,000 to 4,000 psi. The pump was demonstrated on a Class 8 truck with a Westport high-pressure direct-injection Cummins ISX engine. A concept that utilizes LNG's ''cold energy'' to drive a high-pressure fuel pump without engine attachments or power consumption was developed. Ethylene is boiled and superheated by the engine coolant, and it is cooled and condensed by rejecting h eat to the LNG. Power is extracted in a full-admission blowdown process, and part of this power is applied to pump the ethylene liquid to the boiler pressure. Tests demonstrated a net power output of 1.1. hp at 1.9 Lbm/min of LNG flow, which is adequate to isentropically pump the LNG to approximately 3,400 psi..

powers,Charles A.; Derbidge, T. Craig

2001-03-27T23:59:59.000Z

215

Structural Behaviors of Cubic Gd2O3 at High Pressures  

SciTech Connect

An irreversible structural transformation from the cubic phase to a hexagonal high-pressure phase was verified in Gd2O3 between 7.0 and 15 GPa. The compressibility and bond distances of both phases were determined by the refinement of the x-ray diffraction data. The high-pressure phase of Gd2O3 is 9.2% denser than the cubic phase at 7 GPa. After release of pressure, the high-pressure phase transformed to a monoclinic structure. The pressure-induced phase transition from the monoclinic to the hexagonal phase is reversible. Unlike the case at atmospheric pressure, the hexagonal phase was found to transform to the monoclinic phase by increase of temperature at high pressures. The lattice potential energies and electronic density of states of the cubic, monoclinic, and hexagonal high-pressure phases of Gd2O3 were calculated from the known structural models with density-functional method. The observed phase stability, transition pressure, and volume change are well explained by theoretical calculations.

Zhang,F.; Lang, M.; Wang, J.; Becker, U.; Ewing, R.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

216

A demonstration experiment of steam-driven, high-pressure melt ejection  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A steam blowdown test was performed at the Surtsey Direct Heating Test Facility to test the steam supply system and burst diaphragm arrangement that will be used in subsequent Surtsey Direct Containment Heating (DCH) experiments. Following successful completion of the steam blowdown test, the HIPS-10S (High-Pressure Melt Streaming) experiment was conducted to demonstrate that the technology to perform steam-driven, high-pressure melt ejection (HPME) experiments has been successfully developed. In addition, the HIPS-10S experiment was used to assess techniques and instrumentation design to create the proper timing of events in HPME experiments. This document discusses the results of this test.

Allen, M.D.; Pitch, M. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA)); Nichols, R.T. (Ktech Corp., Albuquerque, NM (USA))

1990-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

217

Preliminary analysis for adopting high pressure treatment: a simulation-based approach  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We present in this paper a preliminary analysis of the simulation results in introducing high pressure treatment (HPT) into a meat production line. In particular, we first give a brief introduction to HPT and its applications. Next, we present a thorough ... Keywords: business process simulation, perishable products, production management, simulation analysis

Vassiliou Vassos; Menicou Michalis; Chartosia Niki; Christofi Stavros; Charalambides Marios

2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

218

New LED light sources and lamps for general illumination  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of light source compared to traditional light sources like incandescent bulbs and fluorescent tubes bulb. LEDs emit colored light with a narrow spectral band of 20-30 nm, colors covering the spectralNew LED light sources and lamps for general illumination Carsten Dam-Hansen, Birgitte Thestrup

219

The Energy Efficiency of the U.S Fluorescent Lamp Ballast Industry  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

The Energy Efficiency of the U.S Fluorescent Lamp Ballast Industry The Energy Efficiency of the U.S Fluorescent Lamp Ballast Industry Speaker(s): Francis Rubinstein Date: February 14, 2008 - 12:00pm Location: 90-3122 Fluorescent lamp ballasts are subject to DOE appliance standards and rulemaking. But currently, only ballasts for older fluorescent lamp types, such as T-12 lamps are subject to minimum efficacy limits. The majority of fluorescent lamps now being shipped (T-8 and T-5 types) type are operated by ballasts that will not be subject to DOE rule until 2011. The metric used by DOE for characterizing the electrical efficiency of the fluorescent lamp-ballast system is called Ballast Efficacy Factor (BEF). Because BEF is not normalized, it is of limited utility for rulemaking and is useless for procurement. But by normalizing BEF to the total lamp power, I have

220

Solid-State Lighting: LED Replacement Lamps: Current Performance and the  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

LED Replacement Lamps: Current LED Replacement Lamps: Current Performance and the Latest on ENERGY STAR® to someone by E-mail Share Solid-State Lighting: LED Replacement Lamps: Current Performance and the Latest on ENERGY STAR® on Facebook Tweet about Solid-State Lighting: LED Replacement Lamps: Current Performance and the Latest on ENERGY STAR® on Twitter Bookmark Solid-State Lighting: LED Replacement Lamps: Current Performance and the Latest on ENERGY STAR® on Google Bookmark Solid-State Lighting: LED Replacement Lamps: Current Performance and the Latest on ENERGY STAR® on Delicious Rank Solid-State Lighting: LED Replacement Lamps: Current Performance and the Latest on ENERGY STAR® on Digg Find More places to share Solid-State Lighting: LED Replacement Lamps: Current Performance and the Latest on ENERGY STAR® on

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high-pressure sodium lamps" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Observed Minimum Illuminance Threshold for Night Market Vendors in Kenya who use LED Lamps  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the economics of fuel-based and LED lighting technology fordata logger equipped rechargeable LED lamps, monitoring theadoption of the LED lamps, and a follow-up survey. 1 Figure

Johnstone, Peter

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

222

Thermal element for maintaining minimum lamp wall temperature in fluorescent fixtures  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

In a lighting fixture including a lamp and a housing, an improvement is disclosed for maintaining a lamp envelope area at a cooler, reduced temperature relative to the enclosed housing ambient. The improvement comprises a thermal element in thermal communication with the housing extending to and springably urging thermal communication with a predetermined area of the lamp envelope surface.

Siminovitch, Michael J. (Richmond, CA)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

Thermal element for maintaining minimum lamp wall temperature in fluorescent fixtures  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

In a lighting fixture including a lamp and a housing, an improvement is disclosed for maintaining a lamp envelope area at a cooler, reduced temperature relative to the enclosed housing ambient. The improvement comprises a thermal element in thermal communication with the housing extending to and springably urging thermal communication with a predetermined area of the lamp envelope surface. 12 figs.

Siminovitch, M.J.

1992-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

224

Inrush related problems caused by lamps with electronic drivers and their mitigation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

New types of appliances sometimes bring unexpected power quality problems. On several locations it was reported that energy-saving lamps cause random false tripping of circuit breakers. In all of these cases these lamps had electronic drivers. An investigation ... Keywords: energy-saving lamp, false tripping, inrush, mitigation, power quality

Vladimir ?uk; Joseph F. G. Cobben; Wil L. Kling

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

High Pressure Fuel Storage Cylinders Periodic Inspection and End of Life Issues  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

6/2010 6/2010 www.cleanvehicle.org 1 High Pressure Fuel Storage Cylinders Periodic Inspection and End of Life Issues DOE Vehicular Tank Workshop April 29, 2010 Douglas Horne, PE The Facts  High pressure Type 4 gaseous fuel tanks are now designed under standards that specify finite lifetimes of 15, 20 and 25 years based on specific design and testing (the HGV2 standard under development had a life as short as 10 years as an option)  It is unique within the transportation industry to have a critical device (the fuel tank) with a designated life that may be shorter than the vehicle itself  Although vehicle owners are told up front of the limited life fuel storage cylinders some tend to forget after 15 years  A parallel concern is the requirement for these fuel tanks

226

High-pressure studies of rare earth material could lead to lighter, cheaper  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

22013_earth 22013_earth 12/20/2013 A Lawrence Livermore researcher prepares a sample at Oak Ridge National Laboratory's Spallation Neutrons and Pressure Diffractometer (SNAP). High-pressure studies of rare earth material could lead to lighter, cheaper magnets Anne M Stark, LLNL, (925) 422-9799, stark8@llnl.gov Sometimes you have to apply a little pressure to get magnetic materials to reveal their secrets. By placing a permanent magnet under high pressures, Lawrence Livermore researchers are exploring how atomic structure enhances magnetic strength and resistance to demagnetization. This fundamental research into magnetic behavior has important implications for engineering stronger, cheaper magnets. Permanent magnets based on rare earth elements are in high demand for

227

High-Temperature Experiments using a Resistively-Heated High-Pressure Membrane Diamond Anvil Cell  

SciTech Connect

A reliable high-performance heating method using resistive heaters and a membrane driven diamond anvil cell (mDAC) is presented. Two micro-heaters are mounted in a mDAC and use electrical power of less than 150 W to achieve sample temperatures up to 1200 K. For temperature measurement we use two K-type thermocouples mounted near the sample. The approach can be used for in-situ Raman spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction at high pressures and temperatures. A W-Re alloy gasket material permits stable operation of mDAC at high temperature. Using this method, we made an isothermal compression at 900 K to pressures in excess of 100 GPa and isobaric heating at 95 GPa to temperatures in excess of 1000 K. As an example, we present high temperature Raman spectroscopy measurements of nitrogen at high pressures.

Jenei, Z; Visbeck, K; Cynn, H; Yoo, C; Evans, W

2009-04-22T23:59:59.000Z

228

Picosecond laser structuration under high pressures: Observation of boron nitride nanorods  

SciTech Connect

We report on picosecond UV-laser processing of hexagonal boron nitride (BN) at moderately high pressures above 500 bar. The main effect is specific to the ambient gas and laser pulse duration in the ablation regime: when samples are irradiated by 5 or 0.45 ps laser pulses in nitrogen gas environment, multiple nucleation of a new crystalline product-BN nanorods-takes place. This process is triggered on structural defects, which number density strongly decreases upon recrystallization. Nonlinear photon absorption by adsorbed nitrogen molecules is suggested to mediate the nucleation growth. High pressure is responsible for the confinement and strong backscattering of ablation products. A strong surface structuring also appears at longer 150 ps laser irradiation in similar experimental conditions. However, the transformed product in this case is amorphous strongly contaminated by boron suboxides B{sub x}O{sub y}.

Museur, Luc [Laboratoire de Physique des Lasers-LPL CNRS, Institut Galilee, Universite Paris 13, 93430 Villetaneuse (France); Petitet, Jean-Pierre; Kanaev, Andrei V. [Laboratoire d' Ingenierie des Materiaux et des Hautes Pressions-LIMHP CNRS, Institut Galilee, Universite Paris 13, 93430 Villetaneuse (France); Michel, Jean-Pierre [Laboratoire d' Ingenierie des Materiaux et des Hautes Pressions-LIMHP CNRS, Institut Galilee, Universite Paris 13, 93430 Villetaneuse (France); Laboratoire des Proprietes Mecaniques et Thermodynamiques des Materiaux-LPMTM CNRS, Institut Galilee, Universite Paris 13, 93430 Villetaneuse (France); Marine, Wladimir [Centre Interdisciplinaire de Nanoscience de Marseille-CINaM, UPR CNRS 3118, Faculte des Science de Luminy, 13288 Marseille (France); Anglos, Demetrios [Institute of Electronic Structure and Laser, Foundation for Research and Technology-Hellas (IESL-FORTH), 71110 Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Fotakis, Costas [Institute of Electronic Structure and Laser, Foundation for Research and Technology-Hellas (IESL-FORTH), 71110 Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Department of Physics, University of Crete, Heraklion, Crete (Greece)

2008-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

229

REED BESLER BOILER HIGH PRESSURE STEAM SYSTEM AND THERMAL CYCLING FACILITY. Summary Report  

SciTech Connect

A high pressure boiler has been installed at ORNL. This Besler boiler is capabie of producing from 150 to 2000 psi saturated steam at steaming rates up to 5000 lbs/hr. The boiler is part of a water-steam circuit whteh also includes two spray water pumps, a steam pressure control valve, a high pressure trapping station, and a low pressure deaerated feedwater system. The new boiler system is piped and instrumented to serve as a thermal cycling facility. Shakedown test thermal cycles to requirements set forth in HRT Specification 1113a have been conducted using the existing Dump Test Autoclave as a test piece. Fourty-four cycles have been run through mid February, 1958. The boiler has been operated a total of 142 hours. Cycles are run completely automatically. Better than three- fourths of the cycles as run fall within the specification prescribed limits. (auth)

Holz, P.P.

1958-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

230

Hydrogen-bond Dynamics and Fermi Resonance in High-pressure Methane Filled Ice  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

High-pressure, variable temperature infrared spectroscopy and first-principles calculations on the methane filled ice structure (MH-III) at high pressures are used to investigate the vibrational dynamics related to pressure induced modifications in hydrogen bonding. Infrared spectroscopy of isotopically dilute solutions of H{sub 2}O in D{sub 2}O is employed together with first-principles calculations to characterize proton dynamics with the pressure induced shortening of hydrogen bonds. A Fermi resonance is identified and shown to dominate the infrared spectrum in the pressure region between 10 and 30 GPa. Significant differences in the effects of the Fermi resonance observed between 10 and 300 K arise from the double-well potential energy surface of the hydrogen bond and quantum effects associated with the proton dynamics.

Klug,D.; Tse, J.; Liu, Z.; Hemley, R.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

The NEXT experiment: A high pressure xenon gas TPC for neutrinoless double beta decay searches  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Neutrinoless double beta decay is a hypothetical, very slow nuclear transition in which two neutrons undergo beta decay simultaneously and without the emission of neutrinos. The importance of this process goes beyond its intrinsic interest: an unambiguous observation would establish a Majorana nature for the neutrino and prove the violation of lepton number. NEXT is a new experiment to search for neutrinoless double beta decay using a radiopure high-pressure xenon gas TPC, filled with 100 kg of Xe enriched in Xe-136. NEXT will be the first large high-pressure gas TPC to use electroluminescence readout with SOFT (Separated, Optimized FuncTions) technology. The design consists in asymmetric TPC, with photomultipliers behind a transparent cathode and position-sensitive light pixels behind the anode. The experiment is approved to start data taking at the Laboratorio Subterr\\'aneo de Canfranc (LSC), Spain, in 2014.

D. Lorca; J. Martín-Albo; F. Monrabal; for the NEXT Collaboration

2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

232

Development of Kinetics and Mathematical Models for High Pressure Gasification of Lignite-Switchgrass Blends  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Kinetics and Mathematical Kinetics and Mathematical Models for High Pressure Gasification of Lignite-Switchgrass Blends Background Significant progress has been made in recent years in controlling emissions resulting from coal-fired electricity generation in the United States through the research, development, and deployment of innovative technologies such as gasification. Gasification is a process that converts solid feedstocks such as coal, biomass, or blends

233

On-Line Dissolved Gas Analysis in High-Pressure Fluid-Filled Cables  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Highly reliable underground transmission lines are essential to deliver power consistently. Reliability may be affected as underground laminar dielectric cable circuits age and their condition degenerates. High-pressure fluid-filled (HPFF) pipe-type cable systems have been the preferred high-voltage transmission cable type in North America from the earliest transmission cable installations in the 1930s through the late 1990s and still account for the largest percentage (80%) of installed length. Although...

2009-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

234

Rotor Design for High Pressure Magic Angle Spinning Nuclear Magnetic Resonance  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

High pressure magic angle spinning (MAS) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) with a sample spinning rate exceeding 2.1 kHz and pressure greater than 165 bar has never been realized. In this work, a new sample cell design is reported, suitable for constructing cells of different sizes. Using a 7.5 mm high pressure MAS rotor as an example, internal pressure as high as 200 bar at a sample spinning rate of 6 kHz is achieved. The new high pressure MAS rotor is re-usable and compatible with most commercial NMR set-ups, exhibiting low 1H and 13C NMR background and offering maximal NMR sensitivity. As an example of its many possible applications, this new capability is applied to determine reaction products associated with the carbonation reaction of a natural mineral, antigorite ((Mg,Fe2+)3Si2O5(OH)4), in contact with liquid water in water-saturated supercritical CO2 (scCO2) at 150 bar and 50 ?C. This mineral is relevant to the deep geologic disposal of CO2, but its iron content results in too many sample spinning sidebands at low spinning rate. Hence, this chemical system is a good case study to demonstrate the utility of the higher sample spinning rates that can be achieved by our new rotor design. We expect this new capability will be useful for exploring solid-state, including interfacial, chemistry at new levels of high-pressure in a wide variety of fields.

Turcu, Romulus VF; Hoyt, David W.; Rosso, Kevin M.; Sears, Jesse A.; Loring, John S.; Felmy, Andrew R.; Hu, Jian Z.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

235

Ion current detector for high pressure ion sources for monitoring separations  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention relates generally to any application involving the monitoring of signal arising from ions produced by electrospray or other high pressure (>100 torr) ion sources. The present invention relates specifically to an apparatus and method for the detection of ions emitted from a capillary electrophoresis (CE) system, liquid chromatography, or other small-scale separation methods. And further, the invention provides a very simple diagnostic as to the quality of the separation and the operation of an electrospray source. 7 figs.

Smith, R.D.; Wahl, J.H.; Hofstadler, S.A.

1996-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

236

Safety Valve Performance Considerations During High-Pressure Station Black-Out Severe Accidents  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An assessment of the operating history and test performance of pressurizer safety valves (PSVs) and main steam safety valves (MSSVs) has led to new conclusions on their expected performance during high-pressure station blackout (SBO) severe accident conditions. This report updates conclusions documented in Volume I, focusing on thermal-hydraulic considerations surrounding the reactor coolant system response to an SBO and valve lifts during an SBO event. The report also reconsiders PSV and MSSV tests and ...

1998-01-02T23:59:59.000Z

237

Ion current detector for high pressure ion sources for monitoring separations  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention relates generally to any application involving the monitoring of signal arising from ions produced by electrospray or other high pressure (>100 torr) ion sources. The present invention relates specifically to an apparatus and method for the detection of ions emitted from a capillary electrophoresis (CE) system, liquid chromatography, or other small-scale separation methods. And further, the invention provides a very simple diagnostic as to the quality of the separation and the operation of an electrospray source.

Smith, Richard D. (Richland, WA); Wahl, Jon H. (Richland, WA); Hofstadler, Steven A. (Richland, WA)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

Engine having hydraulic and fan drive systems using a single high pressure pump  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An engine comprises a hydraulic system attached to an engine housing that includes a high pressure pump and a hydraulic fluid flowing through at least one passageway. A fan drive system is also attached to the engine housing and includes a hydraulic motor and a fan which can move air over the engine. The hydraulic motor includes an inlet fluidly connected to the at least one passageway.

Bartley, Bradley E. (Manito, IL); Blass, James R. (Bloomington, IL); Gibson, Dennis H. (Chillicothe, IL)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

239

Development of High-Pressure Dry Feed Pump for Gasification Systems  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Pressure Dry Feed Pressure Dry Feed Pump for Gasification Systems Background Even though coal-based power generation via Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) is more efficient, cleaner, and uses less water than conventional pulverized coal burning systems, widespread IGCC deployment has not occurred because of its relatively high cost. The Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne (PWR) high-pressure dry feed pump addresses IGCC cost disparity by enabling lower cost and more reliable coal feed

240

Comparison of diesel spray combustion in different high-temperature, high-pressure facilities.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Diesel spray experiments at controlled high-temperature and high-pressure conditions offer the potential for an improved understanding of diesel combustion, and for the development of more accurate CFD models that will ultimately be used to improve engine design. Several spray chamber facilities capable of high-temperature, high-pressure conditions typical of engine combustion have been developed, but uncertainties about their operation exist because of the uniqueness of each facility. For the IMEM meeting, we describe results from comparative studies using constant-volume vessels at Sandia National Laboratories and IFP. Targeting the same ambient gas conditions (900 K, 60 bar, 22.8 kg/m{sup 3}, 15% oxygen) and sharing the same injector (common rail, 1500 bar, KS1.5/86 nozzle, 0.090 mm orifice diameter, n-dodecane, 363 K), we describe detailed measurements of the temperature and pressure boundary conditions at each facility, followed by observations of spray penetration, ignition, and combustion using high-speed imaging. Performing experiments at the same high-temperature, high-pressure operating conditions is an objective of the Engine Combustion Network (http://www.ca.sandia.gov/ECN/), which seeks to leverage the research capabilities and advanced diagnostics of all participants in the ECN. We expect that this effort will generate a high-quality dataset to be used for advanced computational model development at engine conditions.

Christiansen, Caspar (Technical University of Denmark); Hermant, Laurent (IFP); Malbec, Louis-Marie (IFP); Bruneaux, Gilles (IFP); Genzale, Caroline L.; Pickett, Lyle M.; Schramm, Jesper (Technical University of Denmark)

2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high-pressure sodium lamps" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Pressure Relief Devices for High-Pressure Gaseous Storage Systems: Applicability to Hydrogen Technology  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Pressure relief devices (PRDs) are viewed as essential safety measures for high-pressure gas storage and distribution systems. These devices are used to prevent the over-pressurization of gas storage vessels and distribution equipment, except in the application of certain toxic gases. PRDs play a critical role in the implementation of most high-pressure gas storage systems and anyone working with these devices should understand their function so they can be designed, installed, and maintained properly to prevent any potentially dangerous or fatal incidents. As such, the intention of this report is to introduce the reader to the function of the common types of PRDs currently used in industry. Since high-pressure hydrogen gas storage systems are being developed to support the growing hydrogen energy infrastructure, several recent failure incidents, specifically involving hydrogen, will be examined to demonstrate the results and possible mechanisms of a device failure. The applicable codes and standards, developed to minimize the risk of failure for PRDs, will also be reviewed. Finally, because PRDs are a critical component for the development of a successful hydrogen energy infrastructure, important considerations for pressure relief devices applied in a hydrogen gas environment will be explored.

Kostival, A.; Rivkin, C.; Buttner, W.; Burgess, R.

2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

242

High-pressure cell for neutron reflectometry of supercritical and subcritical fluids at solid interfaces  

SciTech Connect

A new high-pressure cell design for use in neutron reflectometry (NR) for pressures up to 50 MPa and a temperature range of 300 473 K is described. The cell design guides the neutron beam through the working crystal without passing through additional windows or the bulk fluid, which provides for a high neutron transmission, low scattering background, and low beam distortion. The o-ring seal is suitable for a wide range of subcritical and supercritical fluids and ensures high chemical and pressure stability. Wafers with a diameter of 5.08 cm (2 in.) and 5 mm or 10 mm thickness can be used with the cells, depending on the required pressure and momentum transfer range. The fluid volume in the sample cell is very small at about 0.1 ml, which minimizes scattering background and stored energy. The cell design and pressure setup for measurements with supercritical fluids are described. NR data are shown for silicon/silicon oxide and quartz wafers measured against air and subsequently within the high-pressure cell to demonstrate the neutron characteristics of the high-pressure cell. Neutron reflectivity data for supercritical CO2 in contact with quartz and Si/SiO2 wafers are also shown.

Carmichael, Justin R [ORNL; Rother, Gernot [ORNL; Browning, Jim [ORNL; Ankner, John Francis [ORNL; Banuelos, Jose Leo [ORNL; Anovitz, Lawrence {Larry} M [ORNL; Wesolowski, David J [ORNL; Cole, David [Ohio State University

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

243

High-pressure x-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy of ice VIII Yukihiro Yoshimura,a  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of the phase diagram of ice is incomplete, especially at low temperature and high pressure. Above 2 GPa, dense-pressure ice structures, and at very high-pressures 60 GPa symmetric ice X phase forms. Much recent work VII . Later, Klotz et al.6 re- ported that a phase closely related to ice VI and possibly ice VII can

Stewart, Sarah T.

244

Sulfur Lamps-The Next Generation of Efficient Light?  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

5 5 Sulfur Lamps-The Next Generation of Efficient Light? The figure above is a schematic of the system installed at the National Air and Space Museum and the DOE headquarters in Washington, D.C., Light from the sulfur lamp is focused by a parabolic reflector so that it enters the light pipe within a small angular cone. Light travels down the pipe, reflecting off the prismatic film (A) that lines the outer acrylic tube. The prismatic film reflects the light through total internal reflection (C), an intrinsically efficient process. Some of the light striking the film (at A) is not reflected and "leaks out" of the pipe walls (B), giving the pipe a glowing appearance. A light ray that travels all the way down the pipe will strike the mirror at the end (D) and return back up the pipe.

245

L Prize Competition Winner 60W Incandesent Replacement Lamp Update  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Technology Deployment Technology Deployment Working Group L Prize ® Competition Winner 60W Incandescent Replacement Lamp Update James E. Rannels, Senior Advisor L Prize Competition D&R International May 23, 2012 Philips Wins First L Prize 2 * August 3, 2011: Philips announced as winner of 60W replacement bulb category * Product distributed thru commercial and retail channels Image courtesy of Philips -...[O]nce an award is made the authorizing Act directs General Services Administration to develop federal purchasing schedules for solid-state lamps that meet or exceed the specifications laid out in the prize category-so long as it is cost effective. I hope the GSA begins this process soon.‖

246

DuraLamp USA: Proposed Penalty (2010-CE-0912) | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

DuraLamp USA: Proposed Penalty (2010-CE-0912) DuraLamp USA: Proposed Penalty (2010-CE-0912) DuraLamp USA: Proposed Penalty (2010-CE-0912) September 9, 2010 DOE alleged in a Notice of Proposed Civil Penalty that DuraLamp USA, Inc. failed to certify a variety of general service fluorescent lamps as compliant with the applicable energy conservation standards. DOE regulations require a manufacturer (which includes importers) to submit reports certifying that its products have been tested and meet the applicable energy conservation standards. This civil penalty notice advises the company of the potential penalties and DOE's administrative process, including the company's right to a hearing. DuraLamp USA: Proposed Penalty (2010-CE-0912) More Documents & Publications DuraLamp USA: Order (2010-CE-0912)

247

Energy-efficient compact screw-in fluorescent lamp. Final report  

SciTech Connect

A compact fluorescent lamp has been designed and constructed which can replace an incandescent lamp. The lamp is slightly larger than a standard lamp (8 3/4 in. x 3 1/4 in.), but is designed to fit a majority of portable lamp applications. This version, with a core-coil ballast, results in a system efficacy of 54 lumens per watt, with a light output of more than 1800 lumens. This compares favorably with a 100-watt incandescent (17.5 lumens per watt and 1750 lumens light output). The color temperature of 3000/sup 0/K is compatible with an incandescent lamp (2800/sup 0/K). The color rendition index (CRI) is 84. With a solid-state ballast, the efficacy and light output could be increased by 20% (65 l/w, 2200 lumens) and could provide a direct replacement for a three-way, 150-watt incandescent lamp (15 l/w, 2200 lumens).

Morton, E.W.

1982-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

248

Performance of electronic ballasts and lighting controllers with 34-W fluorescent lamps: Final report  

SciTech Connect

This study has measured the performance of energy-saving 34-watt F40, T-12, rapid-start, lite white fluorescent lamps being operated by solid-state ballasts and lighting control equipment. The performances of these lamps are compared with those of 40-watt F40, T-12 rapid-start cool white fluorescent lamp systems studied in the prior phase of this project. With the 34-watt F40 lamps and various solid-state ballasts, system efficacy ranged from 67 to 84 lumens per watt and ballast factor from 0.756 to 0.908. Average system efficacy using the 34-watt lamps exceeded that of systems using 40-watt lamps and the same solid-state ballasts by only 1 percent even though the 34-watt lamps is about 6 percent more efficacious than the 40-watt lamp. This apparent discrepancy is due to increased ballast losses when operating the 34-watt lamps. However, the system efficacy of the 34-watt lamps used with a solid-state ballast exceeded that of a 34-watt, two-lamp system using the standard core-coil ballast by as much as 29 percent. A T-8 fluorescent lamp system with a smaller lamp diameter was also included in the study. Operating this lamp with a solid-state ballast produced a high system efficacy of 90 lumens per watt, a 39 percent improvement over the efficacy of a 40-watt F40 system using the standard core-coil ballast. The use of static controllers with 34-watt F40 lamps can result in excessive flickering (46 percent) and the generation of a second harmonic as high as 96 percent of the fundamental frequency. The dynamic controllers, when used to dim the 34-watt lamps generally cannot be dimmed as low as the 40-watt lamp system without flickering. In general, the 34-watt energy-saving lamps are appropriate as a retrofit to reduce illumination levels. However, for new construction, the 40-watt F40 argon filled lamps cost less, perform better, and provide a more reliable system. 5 refs., 27 figs., 9 tabs.

Verderber, R.R.

1988-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

249

Performance of T12 and T8 Fluorescent Lamps and Troffers and LED Linear Replacement Lamps CALiPER Benchmark Report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Department of Energy (DOE) Commercially Available LED Product Evaluation and Reporting (CALiPER) Program was established in 2006 to investigate the performance of light-emitting diode (LED) based luminaires and replacement lamps. To help users better compare LED products with conventional lighting technologies, CALiPER has also performed benchmark research and testing of traditional (i.e., non-LED) lamps and fixtures. This benchmark report addresses standard 4-foot fluorescent lamps (i.e., T12 and T8) and the 2-foot by 4-foot recessed troffers in which they are commonly used. This report also examines available LED replacements for T12 and T8 fluorescent lamps, and their application in fluorescent troffers. The construction and operation of linear fluorescent lamps and troffers are discussed, as well as fluorescent lamp and fixture performance, based on manufacturer data and CALiPER benchmark testing. In addition, the report describes LED replacements for linear fluorescent lamps, and compares their bare lamp and in situ performance with fluorescent benchmarks on a range of standard lighting measures, including power usage, light output and distribution, efficacy, correlated color temperature, and the color rendering index. Potential performance and application issues indicated by CALiPER testing results are also examined.

Myer, Michael; Paget, Maria L.; Lingard, Robert D.

2009-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

250

Addendum to High Pressure Burn Rate Measurements on an Ammonium Perchlorate Propellant  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

As part of a small follow-on study, the burn rate of the ammonium perchlorate (AP) based material TAL-1503 was studied at a relatively mild pressure. The goal of this final experiment was to burn TAL-1503 at the lowest pressures possible using the LLNL High Pressure Strand Burner (LLNL-HPSB). The following is a description of the experiment and the results with a brief discussion of data and a comparison to the higher pressure data. This is not meant to be a stand-alone report and readers should refer to the main report for experimental details and discussion. High pressure deflagration rate measurements of a unique AP/HTPB based material (TAL-1503) were performed using the LLNL high pressure strand burner apparatus. The material burns in a well behaved, laminar fashion between 20 and 300 MPa with a burn law of B = (0.6 {+-} 0.1) x P{sup (1.05{+-}0.02)} that was calculated based on the best data available from the experiments. In the pressure range of 2 and 10 MPa the material burned laminarly with a burn law of B = (2.0 {+-} 0.2) x P{sup (0.66{+-}0.05)}. In these results, B is the burn rate in mm/s and P is the pressure in units of MPa. Comparison of the TAL-1503 results with similar propellants that contain micrometer sized aluminum indicate that the burn rates are relatively unaffected by the aluminum. However, the pressure change is significantly larger when aluminum is present, most likely due to the high temperatures achieved from burning aluminum.

Glascoe, E A; Tan, N

2010-11-08T23:59:59.000Z

251

High Pressure Coolant Injection (HPCI) system risk-based inspection guide: Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A review of the operating experience for the High Pressure Coolant Injection (HPCI) system at the Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station is described in this report. The information for this review was obtained from Pilgrim Licensee Event Reports (LERs) that were generated between 1980 and 1989. These LERs have been categorized into 23 failure modes that have been prioritized based on probabilistic risk assessment considerations. In addition, the results of the Pilgrim operating experience review have been compared with the results of of a similar, industry wide operating experience review. this comparison provides an indication of areas in the Pilgrim HPCI system that should be given increased attention in the prioritization of inspection resources.

Shier, W.; Gunther, W. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States))

1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

252

Assessment and Testing of High-Pressure Fluid-Filled (HPFF) Cables  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Niagara Power Project of the New York Power Authority (NYPA) includes the Robert Moses Power Plant (RMPP), the Lewiston Pumping Generation Plant (LPGP) and a substation that connects the output of these facilities to the NYPA transmission system. Both of the power plants were built in 1961. The high-pressure fluid-filled (HPFF) cable systems at these two facilities have been in operation for more than 40 years. NYPA required an assessment of the condition and life expectancy of the HPFF cable systems...

2007-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

253

Operating experience with gas-bearing circulators in a high-pressure helium loop  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A high-pressure engineering test loop has been designed and constructed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory for circulating helium through a test chamber at temperatures to 1000/sup 0/C. The purpose of this loop is to determine the thermal and structural performance of proposed components for the primary loops of gas-cooled nuclear reactors. Five MW of power is available to provide the required gas temperature at the test chamber, and an air-cooled heat exchanger, rated at 4.4 MW, serves as a heat sink. This report contains results of tests performed on gas-bearing circulators.

Sanders, J.P.; Gat, Uri; Young, H.C.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

254

Cryogenic loading of large volume presses for high-pressure experimentation and synthesis of novel materials  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We present an efficient easily implemented method for loading cryogenic fluids in a large volume press. We specifically apply this method to the high-pressure synthesis of an extended solid derived from CO using a Paris-Edinburgh cell. This method employs cryogenic cooling of Bridgman type WC anvils well insulated from other press components, condensation of the load gas within a brass annulus surrounding the gasket between the Bridgman anvils. We demonstrate the viability of the described approach by synthesizing macroscopic amounts (several milligrams) of polymeric CO-derived material, which were recovered to ambient conditions after compression of pure CO to 5 GPa or above.

Lipp, M J; Evans, W J; Yoo, C S

2005-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

255

High pressure study of changes in energy and intensity of excitations in crystalline metal glyoximes  

SciTech Connect

The effect of high pressure has been measured on the energy and integrated intensity of electronic excitations of several layered crystals of glyoximes containing Ni, Pd, or Pt. Large changes in both energy and intensity were observed, both of which were completely reversible. The shifts in energy with pressure, are explained in terms of the relative spatial extent of the outer d and p orbitals of Ni, Pd, and Pt. The effects of back donation from the ligands and intensity borrowing from the higher energy charge transfer excitations are considered as possible causes of the observed intensity changes. It was concluded that intensity borrowing was the major cause of the observed changes.

Tkacz, M.; Drickamer, H.G.

1986-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

256

Design strategies for optically-accessible, high-temperature, high-pressure reactor  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The authors have developed two optical cell designs for high-pressure and high-temperature fluid research: one for flow systems, and the other for larger batch systems. The flow system design uses spring washers to balance the unequal thermal expansions of the reactor and the window materials. A typical design calculation is presented showing the relationship between system pressure, operating temperature, and torque applied to the window-retaining nut. The second design employs a different strategy more appropriate for larger windows. This design uses two seals: one for the window that benefits from system pressure, and a second one that relies on knife-edge, metal-to-metal contact.

S. F. Rice; R. R. Steeper; C. A. LaJeunesse; R. G. Hanush; J. D. Aiken

2000-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

257

Design Strategies for Optically-Accessible, High-Temperature, High-Pressure Reactor  

SciTech Connect

The authors have developed two optical cell designs for high-pressure and high-temperature fluid research: one for flow systems, and the other for larger batch systems. The flow system design uses spring washers to balance the unequal thermal expansions of the reactor and the window materials. A typical design calculation is presented showing the relationship between system pressure, operating temperature, and torque applied to the window-retaining nut. The second design employs a different strategy more appropriate for larger windows. This design uses two seals: one for the window that benefits from system pressure, and a second one that relies on knife-edge, metal-to-metal contact.

S. F. Rice; R. R. Steeper; C. A. LaJeunesse; R. G. Hanush; J. D. Aiken

2000-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

Innovative high pressure gas MEM's based neutron detector for ICF and active SNM detection.  

SciTech Connect

An innovative helium3 high pressure gas detection system, made possible by utilizing Sandia's expertise in Micro-electrical Mechanical fluidic systems, is proposed which appears to have many beneficial performance characteristics with regards to making these neutron measurements in the high bremsstrahlung and electrical noise environments found in High Energy Density Physics experiments and especially on the very high noise environment generated on the fast pulsed power experiments performed here at Sandia. This same system may dramatically improve active WMD and contraband detection as well when employed with ultrafast (10-50 ns) pulsed neutron sources.

Martin, Shawn Bryan; Derzon, Mark Steven; Renzi, Ronald F.; Chandler, Gordon Andrew

2007-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

259

Plasma etching of cavities into diamond anvils for experiments at high pressures and high temperatures  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We describe a method for precisely etching small cavities into the culets of diamond anvils for the purpose of providing thermal insulation for samples in experiments at high pressures and high temperatures. The cavities were fabricated using highly directional oxygen plasma to reactively etch into the diamond surface. The lateral extent of the etch was precisely controlled to micron accuracy by etching the diamond through a lithographically fabricated tungsten mask. The performance of the etched cavities in high-temperature experiments in which the samples were either laser heated or electrically heated is discussed.

Weir, S.T.; Cynn, H.; Falabella, S.; Evans, W.J.; Aracne-Ruddle, C.; Farber, D.; Vohra, Y.K. (LLNL); (UAB)

2012-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

260

Measurement and interpretation of threshold stress intensity factors for steels in high-pressure hydrogen gas.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Threshold stress intensity factors were measured in high-pressure hydrogen gas for a variety of low alloy ferritic steels using both constant crack opening displacement and rising crack opening displacement procedures. The sustained load cracking procedures are generally consistent with those in ASME Article KD-10 of Section VIII Division 3 of the Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, which was recently published to guide design of high-pressure hydrogen vessels. Three definitions of threshold were established for the two test methods: K{sub THi}* is the maximum applied stress intensity factor for which no crack extension was observed under constant displacement; K{sub THa} is the stress intensity factor at the arrest position for a crack that extended under constant displacement; and K{sub JH} is the stress intensity factor at the onset of crack extension under rising displacement. The apparent crack initiation threshold under constant displacement, K{sub THi}*, and the crack arrest threshold, K{sub THa}, were both found to be non-conservative due to the hydrogen exposure and crack-tip deformation histories associated with typical procedures for sustained-load cracking tests under constant displacement. In contrast, K{sub JH}, which is measured under concurrent rising displacement and hydrogen gas exposure, provides a more conservative hydrogen-assisted fracture threshold that is relevant to structural components in which sub-critical crack extension is driven by internal hydrogen gas pressure.

Nibur, Kevin A.

2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high-pressure sodium lamps" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

High-pressure structural phase transitions in chromium-doped BaFe2As2  

SciTech Connect

We report on the results from high pressure x-ray powder diffraction and electrical resistance measurements for hole doped BaFe{sub 2-x}Cr{sub x}As{sub 2} (x = 0, 0.05, 0.15, 0.4, 0.61) up to 81 GPa and down to 10 K using a synchrotron source and diamond anvil cell (DAC). At ambient temperature, an isostructural phase transition from a tetragonal (T) phase (I4/mmm) to a collapsed tetragonal (CT) phase is observed at 17 GPa. This transition is found to be dependent on ambient pressure unit cell volume and is slightly shifted to higher pressure upon increase in the Cr-doping. Unlike BaFe{sub 2}As{sub 2} which superconduct under high pressure, we have not detected any evidence of pressure induced superconductivity in chromium doped samples in the pressure and temperature range of this study. The measured equation of state parameters are presented for both the tetragonal and collapsed tetragonal phases for x = 0.05, 0.15, 0.40 and 0.61.

Uhoya, Walter [University of Alabama, Birmingham; Brill, Joseph W. [University of Kentucky; Montgomery, Jeffrey M [University of Alabama, Birmingham; Samudrala, G K [University of Alabama, Birmingham; Tsoi, Georgiy [University of Alabama, Birmingham; Vohra, Y. K. [University of Alabama, Birmingham; Weir, S. T. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Safa-Sefat, Athena [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

High-pressure solvent extraction of methane from geopressured brines: technical evaluation and cost analysis  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Solvent extraction is proposed as a means of recovering dissolved methane from geopressured-geothermal brines at high pressures. The assessment shows that additional investment in a high pressure solvent extraction plant preceding direct injection disposal of brines into isolated aquifers can be profitable. The technical and economic issues are discussed, and compared with other injection methods such as complete depressurization for methane recovery followed by conventional mechanical pumping. The contributions of hydraulic (pressure) energy recovery and geothermal power production are also assessed. For deep injection into the producing formation, it is concluded that methane extraction processes are not applicable, insofar as maintenance of high surface pressures provides no clear-cut energy benefits. As a first step in the evaluation of solvent extraction, the solubility of a promising solvent candidate, n-hexadecane, was measured in 15 wt % NaCl solutions at temperatures up to 150/sup 0/C. The solubility of a potential low cost solvent, No. 2 Diesel fuel, was also measured.

Quong, R.; Otsuki, H.H.; Locke, F.E.

1981-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

263

Split stream boilers for high-temperature/high-pressure topping steam turbine combined cycles  

SciTech Connect

Research and development work on high-temperature and high-pressure (up to 1,500 F TIT and 4,500 psia) topping steam turbines and associated steam generators for steam power plants as well as combined cycle plants is being carried forward by DOE, EPRI, and independent companies. Aeroderivative gas turbines and heavy-duty gas turbines both will require exhaust gas supplementary firing to achieve high throttle temperatures. This paper presents an analysis and examples of a split stream boiler arrangement for high-temperature and high-pressure topping steam turbine combined cycles. A portion of the gas turbine exhaust flow is run in parallel with a conventional heat recovery steam generator (HRSG). This side stream is supplementary fired opposed to the current practice of full exhaust flow firing. Chemical fuel gas recuperation can be incorporated in the side stream as an option. A significant combined cycle efficiency gain of 2 to 4 percentage points can be realized using this split stream approach. Calculations and graphs show how the DOE goal of 60 percent combined cycle efficiency burning natural gas fuel can be exceeded. The boiler concept is equally applicable to the integrated coal gas fuel combined cycle (IGCC).

Rice, I.G. [Rice (I.G.), Spring, TX (United States)

1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

264

Conservation potential of compact fluorescent lamps in India and Brazil  

SciTech Connect

We evaluate the conservation potential of compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs) for managing the rapidly increasing electrical energy and peak demand in India and Brazil. Using very conservative assumptions, we find that the cost of conserved energy using 16 W CFLs is 4 and 6 times less than the long range marginal cost of electricity for the two countries. The cost of avoided peak installed capacity is 6 and 9.5 times less than the cost of new installed capacity for India and Brazil. The analysis is undertaken from the three separate perspectives of the national economies, the consumers, and the utilities. We find that because residential electricity is subsidized, the consumers have little or no incentive to purchase and install the CFLs, unless they too are subsidized. However, the benefits of CFL installation to the utility are so large that subsidizing them is a paying proposition for the utility are so large that subsidizing them is a paying proposition for the utility in almost all cases. As an illustration of a gradual introduction strategy for CFLs, we calculate a scenario where national savings of the order of US $1.2 million per day for India and US $2.5 million per day for Brazil are reached in 10 years by a small and gradual transfer of subsidy from residential electricity to CFLs. We then explore the barriers to immediate large scale introduction of these lamps in the two countries. Specific technical and marketing problems are identified and discussed, which would require solution before such an introduction can be attempted. Lastly, we discuss the range of policy instruments, in addition to a subsidy scheme, that can be used for promoting the diffusion of these lamps in the domestic and commercial sector. 47 refs., 15 figs., 2 tabs.

Gadgil, A.; Martino Jannuzzi, G. de (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (USA); Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia)

1989-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

Energy efficiency lighting on board naval ships: Phase 2 (The T-8 lamp system)  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the development and performance of the T-8 fluorescent lamp-ballast system. Similar to the Phase I effort, the cooperation of the lamp and ballast companies (GTE, North American Philips Lighting, and IOTA Engineering) were required for the successful result. The above companies submitted prototype lamps and ballasts to the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory Lighting Group to evaluate. The lamp designs were modified as required and the optimum system selected. Two-lamp designs and one ballast were chosen and tested to determine if they met the Navy specifications. The second section describes the lamp-ballast specifications. This section includes the measured thermal performance from an ambient of 10/degree/C to 60/degree/C. 1 ref., 8 figs., 11 tabs.

Verderber, R.R.

1987-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

266

Microwave lamp with multi-purpose rotary motor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

In a microwave powered electrodeless lamp, a single rotary motor is used to (a) rotate the bulb and (b) provide rotary motion to a blower or pump means for providing cooling fluid to the magnetron and/or to a forced gas cooler for providing cooling gas to the bulb. The blower may consist of only of an impeller without the usual blower housing. The motor, bulb stem and bulb, or motor, bulb stem, bulb and blower may be formed as an integral unit so as to facilitate replacement. 8 figs.

Ury, M.G.; Turner, B.; Wooten, R.D.

1999-02-02T23:59:59.000Z

267

Microwave lamp with multi-purpose rotary motor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

In a microwave powered electrodeless lamp, a single rotary motor is used to a) rotate the bulb and b) provide rotary motion to a blower or pump means for providing cooling fluid to the magnetron and/or to a forced gas cooling for providing cooler gas to the bulb. The blower may consist of only of an impeller without the usual blower housing. The motor, bulb stem and bulb, or motor, bulb stem, bulb and blower may be formed as an integral unit so as to facilitate replacement.

Ury, Michael G. (Bethesda, MD); Turner, Brian (Myersville, MD); Wooten, Robert D. (Rockville, MD)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

268

Development of the High-Pressure Direct-Injected, Ultra Low-NOx Natural Gas Engine: Final Report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Subcontractor report details work done by Cummins and Westport Innovations to develop a heavy-duty, low-NOx, high-pressure direct-injection natural gas engine for the Next Generation Natural Gas Vehicle activity.

Duggal, V. K.; Lyford-Pike, E. J.; Wright, J. F.; Dunn, M.; Goudie, D.; Munshi, S.

2004-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

269

Low pressure arc discharge lamp apparatus with magnetic field generating means  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A low-pressure arc discharge apparatus having a magnetic field generating means for increasing the output of a discharge lamp is disclosed. The magnetic field generating means, which in one embodiment includes a plurality of permanent magnets, is disposed along the lamp for applying a constant transverse magnetic field over at least a portion of the positive discharge column produced in the arc discharge lamp operating at an ambient temperature greater than about 25 C. 3 figs.

Grossman, M.W.; George, W.A.; Maya, J.

1987-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

270

Observed Minimum Illuminance Threshold for Night Market Vendors in Kenya who use LED Lamps  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

for Small Businesses in Kenya." Lumina Project Technicalfor Night Market Vendors in Kenya who use LED Lamps Petermany people and businesses in Kenya who participated in this

Johnstone, Peter

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

271

Demonstration of LED Retrofit Lamps at the Smithsonian American Art Museum, Washington, DC  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report documents observations and results obtained from a lighting demonstration project conducted under the U.S. Department of Energy GATEWAY Solid-State Lighting (SSL) Technology Demonstration Program at the Smithsonain American Art Museum in Washington, DC. LED Lamp samples were tested in the museum workshop, temporarily installed in a gallery for feedback, and ultimately replaced all traditional incandescent lamps in one gallery of modernist art at the American Art Museum and partially replacing lamps in two galleries at the Musesum's Renwick Gallery. This report describes the selection and testing process, technology challenges, perceptions, economics, energy use, and mixed results of usign LED replacement lamps in art galleries housing national treasures.

Miller, Naomi J.; Rosenfeld, Scott M.

2012-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

272

Guidance Concerning Enforcement of EISA 2007 Standards Candelabra Base and Intermediate Base Lamps  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA 2007) imposed energy conservation standards for candelabra and intermediate base lamps, and those provisions became effective with the statute.

273

EA-1911: Energy Conservation Standards for Certain Reflector, Elliptical Reflector, and Bulged Reflector Incandescent Lamps  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This EA will evaluate the environmental impacts of a proposal to amend energy conservation standards for Certain Reflector, Elliptical Reflector, and Bulged Reflector Incandescent Lamps.

274

Dimming of Compact Fluorescent Lamps Caused By Cold-Air Drafts  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This Case Study documents the investigation performed by the New York Port Authority (PA) of the dimming of compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs) in the World Trade Center.

2003-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

275

Power control architectures for cold cathode fluorescent lamp and light emitting diode based light sources.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

?? In this dissertation, two different energy efficient power supply topologies are introduced for controlling cold cathode fluorescent lamp (CCFL) and high-brightness light emitting diode… (more)

Doshi, Montu V.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

276

A new optimized fluorescent lamp and ballast for low-energy general lighting applications  

SciTech Connect

A new fluorescent lamp and ballast system has been developed which minimizes system input power while maintaining light output close to values provided by conventional lamps and ballasts. The 28-WT-12 lamp designed for the new system utilizes a redesigned electrode structure which allows the lamp to be started in the rapid start manner but operated in an instant start mode to maximize the discharge efficacy (lumens/watt) while reducing lamp cathode power requirements. A matching two-lamp ballast incorporates a solid-state switching device to turn off the cathode heating circuit automatically once the lamps have started. Both lamps and ballasts are physically interchangeable with conventional equipment so that existing luminaires can be converted without luminaire, lampholder, and wiring modifications. This new lamp/ballast system can achieve efficacy values exceeding 80 lm/W--more than 25 percent better than the performance of conventional fluorescent systems of the early 1970's-along with the excellent life and reliability characteristics typical of electromagnetically ballasted systems. Economic analyses indicate that the new system is appropriate for many new commercial general lighting installations, although it is particularly suitable as a retrofit system for installations where power reductions are essential but where conversion costs must be minimized and illumination levels preserved.

Hammer, E.E.; McGowan, T.K.

1983-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

277

The effects of supply harmonics on the performance of compact fluorescent lamps  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes a performance evaluation of ten compact fluorescent lighting systems operated with sinusoidal and distorted voltage waveform conditions. The lamps were either provided with an electronic ballast, a magnetic core ballast or a magnetic core ballast with a power factor correction circuit. The test results show that the electrical performance of the compact fluorescent lamps for both sinusoidal and distorted voltage waveform operation is related to the different types of ballast used. The cost of operation of these compact fluorescent lamps was calculated and compared to the cost of a conventional 60 W incandescent lamp.

Arseneau, R.; Ouellette, M.

1993-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

278

High Efficiency LED Lamp for Solid-State Lighting  

SciTech Connect

This report contains a summary of technical achievements during a three-year project to demonstrate high efficiency, solid-state lamps based on gallium nitride/silicon carbide light-emitting diodes. Novel chip designs and fabrication processes are described for a new type of nitride light-emitting diode with the potential for very high efficiency. This work resulted in the demonstration of blue light-emitting diodes in the one watt class that achieved up to 495 mW of light output at 350 mA drive current, corresponding to quantum and wall plug efficiencies of 51% and 45%, respectively. When combined with a phosphor in Cree's 7090 XLamp package, these advanced blue-emitting devices resulted in white light-emitting diodes whose efficacy exceeded 85 lumens per watt. In addition, up to 1040 lumens at greater than 85 lumens per watt was achieved by combining multiple devices to make a compact white lamp module with high optical efficiency.

James Ibbetson

2006-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

279

A High-Pressure Nano-imaging Breakthrough | Advanced Photon Source  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Protein Structure Could Lead to Better Treatments for HIV, Early Aging Protein Structure Could Lead to Better Treatments for HIV, Early Aging The Superpower behind Iron Oxyfluoride Battery Electrodes Watching a Protein as it Functions Shedding Light on Chemistry with a Biological Twist Teasing Out the Nature of Structural Instabilities in Ceramic Compounds Science Highlights Archives: 2013 | 2012 | 2011 | 2010 2009 | 2008 | 2007 | 2006 2005 | 2004 | 2003 | 2002 2001 | 2000 | 1998 | Subscribe to APS Science Highlights rss feed A High-Pressure Nano-imaging Breakthrough APRIL 11, 2013 Bookmark and Share Bragg CXDI measurements were performed at 0.8, 1.7, 2.5, 3.2, and 6.4 GPa on the same crystal. The reconstructed images (both top and bottom views) are shown above. From W. Yang et al., Nat. Comm. 4 (2013). A team of researchers has made a major breakthrough in measuring the

280

Lessons Learned from Practical Field Experience with High Pressure Gaseous Fuels  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

5/2010 5/2010 www.cleanvehicle.org 1 Lessons Learned from Practical Field Experience with High Pressure Gaseous Fuels DOE - DOT CNG - H 2 Workshop December 10, 2009 Douglas Horne, PE - CVEF President Rob Adams, P.Eng. - Marathon Technical Services The Facts  NGVs have been used in North America for over 30 years  Codes and Standards (C&S) provide opportunity for safe reliable operation of NGVs  C&S evolve with new technology and field experience  People make mistakes, continuous training is critical for safe operations  Cylinders have a limited life -track your cylinders! 2/25/2010 www.cleanvehicle.org 2 Incidents in North America  Since 1984 CVEF has recorded 97 incidents of which 67 involved CNG vehicles - 37 incidents involve either a CNG leak (15) or a

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high-pressure sodium lamps" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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281

NETL: Staged, High-Pressure Oxy-Combustion Technology: Development and  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Oxy-Combustion CO2 Emissions Control Oxy-Combustion CO2 Emissions Control Staged, High-Pressure Oxy-Combustion Technology: Development and Scale-up Project No.: DE-FE0009702 Washington University in St. Louis is developing a unique pressurized system to capture carbon from coal-fired power plants that incorporates a fuel-staged combustion approach. By staging the combustion, the temperature and heat transfer can be controlled. The potential benefits of the process are: higher efficiency, reduced process gas volume, increased radiative heat transfer, reduced oxygen demands, reduced capital equipment costs, increased CO2 purity entering the carbon compression and purification unit, and reduced auxiliary power demands. These benefits are expected to yield a lower cost of electricity than alternative approaches to pressurized oxy-combustion.

282

A high pressure, high temperature study of 1,1-diamino-2,2-dinitro ethylene  

SciTech Connect

We report a synchrotron energy-dispersive X-ray diffraction study of the novel high explosive 1,1-diamino-2,2-dinitroethylene at high pressures and high temperatures. Pressure was generated using a Paris-Edinburgh cell to employ larger sample volumes. High temperatures were created using a resistive graphite cylinder surrounding the sample. The PT phase diagram was explored in the 3.3 GPa pressure range and in the {approx} 400 C temperature range. We believe that the sample commenced in the {alpha}-phase and then ended up in an amorphous phase when the temperature increased beyond 280 C near 2 GPa, which we believe to be the {gamma}-phase. Further pressure and temperature cycling suggests that the sample transformed reversibly into and out of the amorphous phase near the phase line.

Pravica, Michael; Galley, Martin; Park, Changyong; Ruiz, Harrison; Wojno, Jennifer (UNLV); (CIW)

2012-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

283

Probing of the hydrogen melting line at high pressures by dynamic compression  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

We investigate the capabilities of dynamic compression by intense heavy ion beams to yield information about the high pressure phases of hydrogen. Employing ab initio simulations and experimental data, a new wide range equation of state for hydrogen that covers solid, fluid, gas and plasma phases has been constructed for our hydrodynamic simulations. The results show that the melting line up to its maximum as well as the transition from the molecular fl fluid to the fully ionized, metallic phase can be tested with the beam parameters available at the upcoming FAIR facility at GSI-Darmstadt. Using the structural information from the ab initio simulations, we also demonstrate that x-ray scattering is capable of extracting the information about the structure and the dissociation state.

Grinenko, A; Gericke, D; Glenzer, S H; Vorberger, J

2008-06-09T23:59:59.000Z

284

Development of a High-Pressure/High-Temperature Downhole Turbine Generator  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The objective of this project as originally outlined has been to achieve a viable downhole direct current (DC) power source for extreme high pressure, high temperature (HPHT) environments of >25,000 psi and >250 C. The Phase I investigation posed and answered specific questions about the power requirements, mode of delivery and form factor the industry would like to see for downhole turbine generator tool for the HPHT environment, and noted specific components, materials and design features of that commercial system that will require upgrading to meet the HPHT project goals. During the course of Phase I investigation the scope of the project was HPHT downhole DC power. Phase I also investigated the viability of modifying a commercial expanded, without additional cost expected to the project, to include the addition of HT batteries to the power supply platform.

Timothy F. Price

2007-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

Dispersion of CNG following a high-pressure release. Final report, February 1995-March 1996  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The research described in the report was designed to evaluate the adequacy of the current convention concerning safeguards against CNG-related fires in transit buildings where CNG powered buses are fueled, stored, or maintained. The convention embraces the belief that precautions need to be taken only at or near the ceiling of the buildings. It is based on the premise that, since CNG is primarily methane and methane is approximately one-half the density of air at ambient temperature and pressure, any natural gas released would immediately rise to the ceiling as a buoyant plume. The experiments described here tested theoretical predictions that challenge this premise. During the tests, infrared imaging was used to track the movement of CNG following release from a high-pressure source close to the floor.

Gaumer, R.L.; Raj, P.K.

1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

286

Feasibility study of underground energy storage using high-pressure, high-temperature water. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A technical, operational and economic feasibility study on the storage of energy as heated high pressure water in underground cavities that utilize the rock overburden for containment is presented. Handling peak load requirements of electric utility power networks is examined in some detail. The cavity is charged by heating water with surplus steaming capacity during periods of low power requirement. Later this hot water supplies steam to peaking turbines when high load demands must be met. This system can be applied to either new or existing power plants of nuclear or fossil fuel type. The round trip efficiency (into storage and back) is higher than any other system - over 90%. Capital costs are competitive and the environmental impact is quite benign. Detailed installation and design problems are studied and costs are estimated. The continental United States is examined for the most applicable geology. Formations favorable for these large cavities exist in widespread areas.

Dooley, J.L.; Frost, G.P.; Gore, L.A.; Hammond, R.P.; Rawson, D.L.; Ridgway, S.L.

1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

287

High-pressure coal fuel processor development. Task 1, Proof of principle testing  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of Subtask 1.1 Engine Feasibility was to conduct research needed to establish the technical feasibility of ignition and stable combustion of directly injected, 3,000 psi, low-Btu gas with glow plug ignition assist at diesel engine compression ratios. This objective was accomplished by designing, fabricating, testing and analyzing the combustion performance of synthesized low-Btu coal gas in a single-cylinder test engine combustion rig located at the Caterpillar Technical Center engine lab in Mossville, Illinois. The objective of Subtask 1.2 Fuel Processor Feasibility was to conduct research needed to establish the technical feasibility of air-blown, fixed-bed, high-pressure coal fuel processing at up to 3,000 psi operating pressure, incorporating in-bed sulfur and particulate capture. This objective was accomplished by designing, fabricating, testing and analyzing the performance of bench-scale processors located at Coal Technology Corporation (subcontractor) facilities in Bristol, Virginia. These two subtasks were carried out at widely separated locations and will be discussed in separate sections of this report. They were, however, independent in that the composition of the synthetic coal gas used to fuel the combustion rig was adjusted to reflect the range of exit gas compositions being produced on the fuel processor rig. Two major conclusions resulted from this task. First, direct injected, ignition assisted Diesel cycle engine combustion systems can be suitably modified to efficiently utilize these low-Btu gas fuels. Second, high pressure gasification of selected run-of-the-mine coals in batch-loaded fuel processors is feasible. These two findings, taken together, significantly reduce the perceived technical risks associated with the further development of the proposed coal gas fueled Diesel cycle power plant concept.

Greenhalgh, M.L.

1992-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

288

Spectrographic temperature measurement of a high power breakdown arc in a high pressure gas switch  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A procedure for obtaining an approximate temperature value of conducting plasma generated during self-break closure of a RIMFIRE gas switch is described. The plasma is in the form of a breakdown arc which conducts approximately 12 kJ of energy in 1 {mu}s. A spectrographic analysis of the trigger-section of the 6-MV RIMFIRE laser triggered gas switch used in Sandia National Laboratory's ''Z-Machine'' has been made. It is assumed that the breakdown plasma has sufficiently approached local thermodynamic equilibrium allowing a black-body temperature model to be applied. This model allows the plasma temperature and radiated power to be approximated. The gas dielectric used in these tests was pressurized SF{sub 6}. The electrode gap is set at 4.59 cm for each test. The electrode material is stainless steel and insulator material is poly(methyl methacrylate). A spectrum range from 220 to 550 nanometers has been observed and calibrated using two spectral irradiance lamps and three spectrograph gratings. The approximate plasma temperature is reported.

Yeckel, Christopher; Curry, Randy [Department of Computer and Electrical Engineering, Center for Physical and Power Electronics, University of Missouri--Columbia, Columbia, Missouri 65211 (United States)

2011-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

289

Spectral irradiance model for tungsten halogen lamps in 340-850 nm wavelength range  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We have developed a physical model for the spectral irradiance of 1 kW tungsten halogen incandescent lamps for the wavelength range 340-850 nm. The model consists of the Planck's radiation law, published values for the emissivity of tungsten, and a residual spectral correction function taking into account unknown factors of the lamp. The correction function was determined by measuring the spectra of a 1000 W, quartz-halogen, tungsten coiled filament (FEL) lamp at different temperatures. The new model was tested with lamps of types FEL and 1000 W, 120 V quartz halogen (DXW). Comparisons with measurements of two national standards laboratories indicate that the model can account for the spectral irradiance values of lamps with an agreement better than 1% throughout the spectral region studied. We further demonstrate that the spectral irradiance of a lamp can be predicted with an expanded uncertainty of 2.6% if the color temperature and illuminance values for the lamp are known with expanded uncertainties of 20 K and 2%, respectively. In addition, it is suggested that the spectral irradiance may be derived from resistance measurements of the filament with lamp on and off.

Ojanen, Maija; Kaerhae, Petri; Ikonen, Erkki

2010-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

290

Table lamp with dynamically controlled lighting distribution and uniformly illuminated luminous shade  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A double lamp table or floor lamp lighting system has a pair of compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs) or other lamps arranged vertically, i.e. one lamp above the other, with a reflective septum in between. By selectively turning on one or both of the CFLs, down lighting, up lighting, or both up and down lighting is produced. The control system can also vary the light intensity from each CFL. The reflective septum ensures that almost all the light produced by each lamp will be directed into the desired light distribution pattern which is selected and easily changed by the user. In a particular configuration, the reflective septum is bowl shaped, with the upper CFL sitting in the bowl, and a luminous shade hanging down from the bowl. The lower CFL provides both task lighting and uniform shade luminance. Planar compact fluorescent lamps, e.g. circular CFLs, particularly oriented horizontally, are preferable. CFLs provide energy efficiency. However, other types of lamps, including incandescent, halogen, and LEDs can also be used in the fixture. The lighting system may be designed for the home, hospitality, office or other environments.

Siminovitch, Michael J. (Pinole, CA); Page, Erik R. (Berkeley, CA)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

Radial Diffraction Strength and Elastic Behavior of CaF2 in Low- and High-Pressure Phases  

SciTech Connect

The radial-diffraction lattice behavior of CaF2 was analyzed in its low-pressure (fluorite) and high-pressure phase up to 11.5 GPa using radial x-ray diffraction techniques in the diamond anvil cell. Between 3.5 and 7.1 GPa, fluorite develops a radial-diffraction strength of {approx}0.8 GPa. The corresponding lattice anisotropy of the fluorite phase was measured to be equal to 0.73, in good agreement with previous Brillouin spectroscopy measurements. By 8.8 GPa, CaF2 has undergone a phase transformation to its high-pressure (orthorhombic) phase, with a corresponding volume decrease of 10.4%. By 11.5 GPa, the volume drop between the low-pressure and high-pressure phase has increased to 11.5%. In addition, the high-pressure phase is found to withstand a significantly larger differential stress than the low-pressure fluorite phase, with a large degree of lattice anisotropy. In the maximum stress direction at 8.8 GPa, we observe a time-dependent evolution of the lattice parameters of CaF2, indicating that the high-pressure structure is still undergoing deformation on time scales of hours after the phase boundary has been crossed.

Kavner,A.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

292

Temperature induced immiscibility in the NaCl?H[subscript 2]O system at high pressure  

SciTech Connect

High-pressure polymorphs of H{sub 2}O are a major component in many outer planets, extra solar bodies, and icy satellites. This study sought to examine the influence of ionic impurities on the phase stability, thermal expansion, and melting curve of ice VII. Powder diffraction patterns of ice VII formed from pure H{sub 2}O and 5 wt.% NaCl aqueous solutions were taken at room temperature up to 11.1 {+-} 0.3 and 26.6 {+-} 0.4 GPa, respectively. Thermal expansions, {alpha}, of all ice VII samples were recorded and modeled up to the melting point of the samples. Ice VII formed from a NaCl-bearing aqueous solution at pressures greater than 2.2 GPa and less than 500 K can be indexed by ice VII only, whereas at temperatures greater than 500 K, diffraction lines indicative of halite (NaCl) are observed and become more intense with increasing temperature and only disappear at the melting point of the high-pressure ice. This phenomenon was observed in all NaCl-bearing ice samples that were heated to greater than 500 K. The melting curves of ice VII formed from pure H{sub 2}O and a 5 wt.% NaCl aqueous solution suggest that the presence of Na{sup +} and Cl{sup -} in the ice VII structure results in a depression of the melting curve by approximately 40 K. The exsolution of halite from the NaCl-doped ice VII and the depression of the ice VII melting curve suggest that the presence of ionic impurities in ice VII may promote the formation of a self-segregating zone deep within ice-rich bodies. This zone could initiate the formation of solute-rich melt pockets that may ascend toward the surface and result in surface manifestations such as solute-bearing aqueous vents, unexplained domes/diapirism, and/or salt-rich regions.

Frank, M.R.; Scott, H.P.; Maglio, S.J.; Prakapenka, V.B.; Shen, G. (NIU); (CIW); (UC); (Indiana)

2008-10-09T23:59:59.000Z

293

Experimental Analysis of Water Based Drilling Fluid Aging Processes at High Temperature and High Pressure Conditions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In efforts to render the safest, fastest, and most cost efficient drilling program for a high temperature and high pressure (HT/HP) well the maximization of drilling operational efficiencies is key. Designing an adequate, HT/HP well specific, drilling fluid is of most importance and a technological challenge that can greatly affect the outcome of the overall operational efficiency. It is necessary to have a sound fundamental understanding of the behavior that water-based muds (WBM) exhibit when exposed to HT/HP conditions. Therefore, in order to adequately design and treat a WBM for a HT/HP well specific drilling program, it is essential that the mud be evaluated at HT/HP conditions. Currently, industry standard techniques used to evaluate WBM characteristics involve aging the fluid sample to a predetermined temperature, based on the anticipated bottom hole temperature (BHT), either statically or dynamically, for a predetermined length, then cooling and mixing the fluid and measuring its rheological properties at a significantly lower temperature. This, along with the fact that the fluid is not subjected to the anticipated bottom hole pressure (BHP) during or after the aging process, brings to question if the properties recorded are those that are truly experienced down-hole. Furthermore, these testing methods do not allow the user to effectively monitor the changes during the aging process. The research in this thesis is focused on evaluating a high performance WBM and the current test procedures used to evaluate their validity. Experimental static and dynamic aging tests were developed for comparative analysis as well to offer a more accurate and precise method to evaluate the effects experienced by WBM when subjected to HT/HP conditions. The experimental tests developed enable the user to monitor and evaluate, in real-time, the rheological changes that occur during the aging of a WBM while being subjected to true BHT and BHP. Detailed standard and experimental aging tests were conducted and suggest that the standard industry tests offer false rheological results with respect to true BHT and BHP. Furthermore, the experimental aging tests show that high pressure has a significant effect on the rheological properties of the WBM at elevated temperatures.

Zigmond, Brandon

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

294

A high-pressure atomic force microscope for imaging in supercritical carbon dioxide  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A high-pressure atomic force microscope (AFM) that enables in situ, atomic scale measurements of topography of solid surfaces in contact with supercritical CO{sub 2} (scCO{sub 2}) fluids has been developed. This apparatus overcomes the pressure limitations of the hydrothermal AFM and is designed to handle pressures up to 100 atm at temperatures up to ?350 K. A standard optically-based cantilever deflection detection system was chosen. When imaging in compressible supercritical fluids such as scCO{sub 2} , precise control of pressure and temperature in the fluid cell is the primary technical challenge. Noise levels and imaging resolution depend on minimization of fluid density fluctuations that change the fluid refractive index and hence the laser path. We demonstrate with our apparatus in situ atomic scale imaging of a calcite (CaCO{sub 3}) mineral surface in scCO{sub 2}; both single, monatomic steps and dynamic processes occurring on the (10{overbar 1}4) surface are presented. This new AFM provides unprecedented in situ access to interfacial phenomena at solid–fluid interfaces under pressure.

Lea, A.S.; Higgins, S.R.; Knauss, K.G.; Rosso, K.M.

2011-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

295

A high-pressure atomic force microscope for imaging in supercritical carbon dioxide  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A high-pressure atomic force microscope (AFM) that enables in-situ, atomic scale measurements of topography of solid surfaces in contact with supercritical CO2 (scCO2) fluids has been developed. This apparatus overcomes the pressure limitations of the hydrothermal AFM and is designed to handle pressures up to 100 atm at temperatures up to ~ 350 K. A standard optically-based cantilever deflection detection system was chosen. When imaging in compressible supercritical fluids such as scCO2, precise control of pressure and temperature in the fluid cell is the primary technical challenge. Noise levels and imaging resolution depend on minimization of fluid density fluctuations that change the fluid refractive index and hence the laser path. We demonstrate with our apparatus in-situ atomic scale imaging of a calcite (CaCO3) mineral surface in scCO2; both single, monatomic steps and dynamic processes occurring on the (10¯14) surface are presented. This new AFM provides unprecedented in-situ access to interfacial phenomena at solid-fluid interfaces under pressure.

Lea, Alan S.; Higgins, Steven R.; Knauss, Kevin G.; Rosso, Kevin M.

2011-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

296

Chemical kinetic modeling of high pressure propane oxidation and comparison to experimental results. Revision 1  

SciTech Connect

A pressure dependent kinetic mechanism for propane oxidation is developed and compared to experimental data from a high pressure flow reactor. Experimental conditions range from 10--15 atm, 650--800 K, and a residence time of 198 ms for propane-air mixtures at an equivalence ratio of 0.4. The experimental results clearly indicate a negative temperature coefficient (NTC) behavior. The chemistry describing this phenomena is critical in understanding automotive engine knock and cool flame oscillations. Results of the numerical model are compared to a spectrum of stable species profiles sampled from the flow reactor. Rate constants and product channels for the reaction of propyl radicals, hydroperoxy-propyl radicals and important isomers (radicals) with O{sub 2} were estimated using thermodynamic properties, with multifrequency quantum Kassel Theory for k(E) coupled with modified strong collision analysis for fall-off. Results of the chemical kinetic model show an NTC region over nearly the same temperature regime as observed in the experiments. Sensitivity analysis identified the key reaction steps that control the rate of oxidation in the NTC region. The model reasonably simulates the profiles for many of the major and minor species observed in the experiments.

Koert, D.N. [Wichita State Univ., KS (United States). Mechanical Engineering Dept.; Pitz, W.J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Bozzelli, J.W. [New Jersey Inst. of Tech., Newark, NJ (United States). Chemistry and Chemical Engineering Dept.; Cernansky, N.P. [Drexel Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering and Mechanics

1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

297

Comparison of high pressure transient PVT measurements and model predictions. Part I.  

SciTech Connect

A series of experiments consisting of vessel-to-vessel transfers of pressurized gas using Transient PVT methodology have been conducted to provide a data set for optimizing heat transfer correlations in high pressure flow systems. In rapid expansions such as these, the heat transfer conditions are neither adiabatic nor isothermal. Compressible flow tools exist, such as NETFLOW that can accurately calculate the pressure and other dynamical mechanical properties of such a system as a function of time. However to properly evaluate the mass that has transferred as a function of time these computational tools rely on heat transfer correlations that must be confirmed experimentally. In this work new data sets using helium gas are used to evaluate the accuracy of these correlations for receiver vessel sizes ranging from 0.090 L to 13 L and initial supply pressures ranging from 2 MPa to 40 MPa. The comparisons show that the correlations developed in the 1980s from sparse data sets perform well for the supply vessels but are not accurate for the receivers, particularly at early time during the transfers. This report focuses on the experiments used to obtain high quality data sets that can be used to validate computational models. Part II of this report discusses how these data were used to gain insight into the physics of gas transfer and to improve vessel heat transfer correlations. Network flow modeling and CFD modeling is also discussed.

Felver, Todd G.; Paradiso, Nicholas Joseph; Evans, Gregory Herbert; Rice, Steven F.; Winters, William Stanley, Jr.

2010-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

298

Influence of Intense Beam in High Pressure Hydrogen Gas Filled RF Cavities  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The influence of an intense beam in a high-pressure gas filled RF cavity has been measured by using a 400 MeV proton beam in the Mucool Test Area at Fermilab. The ionization process generates dense plasma in the cavity and the resultant power loss to the plasma is determined by measuring the cavity voltage on a sampling oscilloscope. The energy loss has been observed with various peak RF field gradients (E), gas pressures (p), and beam intensities in nitrogen and hydrogen gases. Observed RF energy dissipation in single electron (dw) in N{sub 2} and H{sub 2} gases was 2 10{sup -17} and 3 10{sup -17} Joules/RF cycle at E/p = 8 V/cm/Torr, respectively. More detailed dw measurement have been done in H{sub 2} gas at three different gas pressures. There is a clear discrepancy between the observed dw and analytical one. The discrepancy may be due to the gas density effect that has already been observed in various experiments.

Yonehara, K.; Chung, M.; Collura, M.G.; Jana, M.R.; Leonova, M.; Moretti, A.; Popovic, M.; Schwarz, T.; Tollestrup, A.; /Fermilab; Johnson, R.P.; Franagan, G.; /Muons, Inc. /IIT

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

299

HIGH-PRESSURE AIR INJECTION: APPLICATION IN A FRACTURED AND KARSTED DOLOMITE RESERVOIR  

SciTech Connect

The Bureau of Economic Geology and Goldrus Producing Company have assembled a multidisciplinary team of geoscientists and engineers to evaluate the applicability of high-pressure air injection (HPAI) in revitalizing a nearly abandoned carbonate reservoir in the Permian Basin of West Texas. The characterization phase of the project is utilizing geoscientists and petroleum engineers from the Bureau of Economic Geology and the Department of Petroleum Engineering (both at The University of Texas at Austin) to define the controls on fluid flow in the reservoir as a basis for developing a reservoir model. This model will be used to define a field deployment plan that Goldrus, a small independent oil company, will implement by drilling both vertical and horizontal wells during the demonstration phase of the project. Additional reservoir data are being gathered during the demonstration phase to improve the accuracy of the reservoir model. The results of the demonstration will being closely monitored to provide a basis for improving the design of the HPAI field deployment plan. The results of the reservoir characterization field demonstration and monitoring program will be documented and widely disseminated to facilitate adoption of this technology by oil operators in the Permian Basin and elsewhere in the U.S.

Robert Loucks; Steve Ruppel; Julia Gale; Jon Holder; Jon Olsen; Deanna Combs; Dhiraj Dembla; Leonel Gomez

2003-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

300

In Situ High-Pressure X-ray Diffraction Study of H2O Ice VII  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Ice VII was examined over the entire range of its pressure stability by a suite of x-ray diffraction techniques in order to understand a number of unexplained characteristics of its high-pressure behavior. Axial and radial polycrystalline (diamond anvil cell) x-ray diffraction measurements reveal a splitting of diffraction lines accompanied by changes in sample texture and elastic anisotropy. In situ laser heating of polycrystalline samples resulted in the sharpening of diffraction peaks due to release of nonhydrostatic stresses but did not remove the splitting. Radial diffraction measurements indicate changes in strength of the material at this pressure. Taken together, these observations provide evidence for a transition in ice VII near 14 GPa involving changes in the character of the proton order/disorder. The results are consistent with previous reports of changes in phase boundaries and equation of state at this pressure. The transition can be interpreted as ferroelastic with the appearance of spontaneous strain that vanishes at the hydrogen bond symmetrization transition near 60 GPa.

Somayazulu,M.; Shu, J.; Zha, C.; Goncharov, A.; Tschauner, O.; Mao, H.; Hemley, R.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high-pressure sodium lamps" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
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301

High pressure pair distribution function studies of Green River oil shale.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The compression behavior of a silicate-rich oil shale from the Green River formation in the pressure range 0.0-2.4 GPa was studied using in situ high pressure X-ray pair distribution function (PDF) measurements for the sample contained within a Paris-Edinburgh cell. The real-space local structural information in the PDF, G(r), was used to evaluate the compressibility of the oil shale. Specifically, the pressure-induced reduction in the medium- to long-range atom distances ({approx}6-20 {angstrom}) yielded an average sample compressibility corresponding to a bulk modulus of ca. 61-67 GPa. A structural model consisting of a three phase mixture of the principal crystalline oil shale components (quartz, albite and Illite) provided a good fit to the ambient pressure PDF data (R {approx} 30.7%). Indeed the features in the PDF beyond {approx} {angstrom}, were similarly well fit by a single phase model of the highest symmetry, highly crystalline quartz component. The factors influencing the observed compression behavior are discussed.

Chapman, K. W.; Chupas, P. J.; Locke, D. R.; Winans, R. E.; Pugmire, R. J.; Univ. of Utah

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

302

Treating high pressure zones in one trip in Canyon Reef area of Texas  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In the Canyon Reef area near Snyder, Texas, Chevron U.S.A. Inc. is employing ratchet operated, packer type retrievable bridge plugs which have allowed operators to test, treat, or squeeze high pressure zones over a 35-day period on a single trip of the workstring. More zones could have been treated if necessary. The bridge plug was moved and set 31 times while treating the zones. Elapsed time is shown in days starting with T-date being the day tools were first run in for the treatment. The job was run with an average treating pressure of 1,000 psi, and a differential pressure of 2,500 psi that alternated from above the bridge plug to below and back each time the plug was moved to a new zone. The bridge plug used for the job seals by the action of a patented ratcheting mechanism which requires relatively light weight to set. Design of the ratchet enables the sealing elements to hold a seal against the casing wall while the hold-down slips are being set.

Cooley, G.; Mccowen, D.; Fore, M.

1984-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

303

Stability of the bituminous coal microstructure upon exposure to high pressures of helium  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) and ultra-small-angle neutron scattering (USANS) measurements of the structure of two Australian bituminous coals (particle size of 1-0.5 mm) before, during, and after exposure to 155 bar of helium were made to identify any effects of pressure alone on the pore size distribution of coal and any irreversible effects upon exposure to high pressures of helium in the pore size range from 3 nm to 10 {mu}m. No irreversible effects upon exposure were identified for any pore size. No effects of pressure on pore size distribution were observed, except for a small effect at a pore size of about 2 {mu}m for one coal. This study provides a convenient baseline for SANS and USANS investigations on sorption of gases at elevated pressures on coals, by distinguishing between the effect of pressure alone on coal pore size distribution and against the effect of the gas to be investigated. 35 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

Richard Sakurovs; Andrzej P. Radliski; Yuri B. Melnichenko; Tomas Blach; Gang Cheng; Hartmut Lemmel; Helmut Rauch [CSIRO Energy Technology, Newcastle, NSW (Australia)

2009-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

304

High pressure ceramic air heater for indirectly fired gas turbine applications  

SciTech Connect

The EFCC cycle is conceptually simple. Air enters the compressor where it is pressurized and becomes the tube-side flow of the ceramic air heater. Heat transferred from the hot combustion gases flowing through the shell-side raises the air temperature to the desired turbine inlet temperature. Internally insulated high pressure piping returns the heated compressor air to the turbine, where it is expanded providing power to drive the electric generator and gas turbine compressor. Exhaust air from the turbine is used as the combustion air for the coal combustor. The EFCC cycle burns pulverized coal in an atmospheric combustion chamber similar to the combustion system in a conventional steam generator. The combustion gas exits the combustor and enters a slag screen, or impact separator, where the larger ash particles are collected to prevent fouling of the heat exchanger. After the slag screen, the combustion gas enters the shell-side of the CerHX where its thermal energy is transferred to the tube side air flow. Shell-side exit temperatures are sufficiently high to provide thermal energy for the bottoming Rankine Cycle through a heat recovery steam generator. Exhaust gas exiting the steam generator passes through a flue gas desulfurization system and a particulate removal system.

LaHaye, P.G.; Briggs, G.F.; Orozxo, N.J.; Seger, J.L.

1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

305

Ionization and scintillation response of high-pressure xenon gas to alpha particles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

High-pressure xenon gas is an attractive detection medium for a variety of applications in fundamental and applied physics. In this paper we study the ionization and scintillation detection properties of xenon gas at 10 bar pressure. For this purpose, we use a source of alpha particles in the NEXT-DEMO time projection chamber, the large scale prototype of the NEXT-100 neutrinoless double beta decay experiment, in three different drift electric field configurations. We measure the ionization electron drift velocity and longitudinal diffusion, and compare our results to expectations based on available electron scattering cross sections on pure xenon. In addition, two types of measurements addressing the connection between the ionization and scintillation yields are performed. On the one hand we observe, for the first time in xenon gas, large event-by-event correlated fluctuations between the ionization and scintillation signals, similar to that already observed in liquid xenon. On the other hand, we study the field dependence of the average scintillation and ionization yields. Both types of measurements may shed light on the mechanism of electron-ion recombination in xenon gas for highly-ionizing particles. Finally, by comparing the response of alpha particles and electrons in NEXT-DEMO, we find no evidence for quenching of the primary scintillation light produced by alpha particles in the xenon gas.

NEXT Collaboration; V. Álvarez; F. I. G. M. Borges; S. Cárcel; S. Cebrián; A. Cervera; C. A. N. Conde; T. Dafni; J. Díaz; M. Egorov; R. Esteve; P. Evtoukhovitch; L. M. P. Fernandes; P. Ferrario; A. L. Ferreira; E. D. C. Freitas; V. M. Gehman; A. Gil; A. Goldschmidt; H. Gómez; J. J. Gómez-Cadenas; D. González-Díaz; R. M. Gutiérrez; J. Hauptman; J. A. Hernando Morata; D. C. Herrera; I. G. Irastorza; M. A. Jinete; L. Labarga; A. Laing; I. Liubarsky; J. A. M. Lopes; D. Lorca; M. Losada; G. Luzón; A. Marí; J. Martín-Albo; T. Miller; A. Moiseenko; F. Monrabal; C. M. B. Monteiro; F. J. Mora; L. M. Moutinho; J. Muñoz Vidal; H. Natal da Luz; G. Navarro; M. Nebot-Guinot; D. Nygren; C. A. B. Oliveira; R. Palma; J. Pérez; J. L. Pérez Aparicio; J. Renner; L. Ripoll; A. Rodríguez; J. Rodríguez; F. P. Santos; J. M. F. dos Santos; L. Segui; L. Serra; D. Shuman; A. Simón; C. Sofka; M. Sorel; J. F. Toledo; A. Tomás; J. Torrent; Z. Tsamalaidze; D. Vázquez; J. F. C. A. Veloso; R. Webb; J. T White; N. Yahlali

2012-11-19T23:59:59.000Z

306

Force interaction of high pressure glow discharge with fluid flow for active separation control  

SciTech Connect

Radio frequency based discharges at atmospheric pressures are the focus of increased interest in aerodynamics because of the wide range of potential applications including, specifically, actuation in flows at moderate speeds. Recent literature describing promising experimental observations, especially on separation control, has spurred efforts in the development of parallel theoretical modeling to lift limitations in the current understanding of the actuation mechanism. The present effort demonstrates higher fidelity first-principle models in a multidimensional finite-element framework to predict surface discharge-induced momentum exchange. The complete problem of a dielectric barrier discharge at high pressure with axially displaced electrodes is simulated in a self-consistent manner. Model predictions for charge densities, the electric field, and gas velocity distributions are shown to mimic trends reported in the experimental literature. Results show that a residual of electrons remains deposited on the dielectric surface downstream of the exposed powered electrode for the entire duration of the cycle and causes a net electric force in the direction from the electrode to the downstream surface. For the first time, results document the mitigation process of a separation bubble formed due to flow past a flat plate inclined at 12 degree sign angle of attack. This effort sets the basis for extending the formulation further to include polyphase power input in multidimensional settings, and to apply the simulation method to flows past common aerodynamic configurations.

Roy, Subrata; Gaitonde, Datta V. [Computational Plasma Dynamics Laboratory, Mechanical Engineering, Kettering University, Flint, Michigan 48504 (United States); Computational Sciences Branch, Air Vehicles Directorate, Air Force Research Laboratory, Wright Patterson AFB, Ohio 45433 (United States)

2006-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

307

High-pressure shock behavior of WC and Ta2O5 powders.  

SciTech Connect

Planar shock experiments were conducted on granular tungsten carbide (WC) and tantalum oxide (Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5}) using the Z machine and a 2-stage gas gun. Additional shock experiments were also conducted on a nearly fully dense form of Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5}. The experiments on WC yield some of the highest pressure results for granular materials obtained to date. Because of the high distention of Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5}, the pressures obtained were significantly lower, but the very high temperatures generated led to large contributions of thermal energy to the material response. These experiments demonstrate that the Z machine can be used to obtain accurate shock data on granular materials. The data on Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} were utilized in making improvements to the P-{lambda} model for high pressures; the model is found to capture the results not only of the Z and gas gun experiments but also those from laser experiments on low density aerogels. The results are also used to illustrate an approach for generating an equation of state using only the limited data coming from nanoindentation. Although the EOS generated in this manner is rather simplistic, for this material it gives reasonably good results.

Knudson, Marcus D. (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Reinhart, William Dodd (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Vogler, Tracy John; Root, Seth (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM)

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

308

Electrical resistivity studies on graphite at high pressure and low temperature  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

High pressure is shown to give a valuable insight into the intrinsic c-axis resistivity of Highly Oriented Pyrolitic Graphite (HOPG). For the purpose of improving the understanding of the fundamental behavior of this technologically important material, additional forms of graphitic material such as Grafoil, Single Crystal Graphite (SCG) and polycrystalline natural graphite were explored for a comparative analysis. A novel technique utilizing a gasketed diamond-anvil cell is described that permits four probe resistivity measurements at pressures of up to 40 kbar and temperatures extending down to 2 K while maintaining the integrity of samples as fragile as graphite. The four-lead arrangement is designed to avoid contact and lead-wire resistances which might otherwise obscure the comparatively small resistance changes of interest typical of highly conductive materials. The data on HOPG can be fitted well to a model describing conduction along the c-axis as composed of two components acting in parallel: an ordinary metallic one and a tunnelling conduction between crystallites. The total conductivity was found to be a superposition of both conductivities, and their respective weights depend on the quality of the graphite material.

Hockey, R.L.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

309

Isobutane ignition delay time measurements at high pressure and detailed chemical kinetic simulations  

SciTech Connect

Rapid compression machine and shock-tube ignition experiments were performed for real fuel/air isobutane mixtures at equivalence ratios of 0.3, 0.5, 1, and 2. The wide range of experimental conditions included temperatures from 590 to 1567 K at pressures of approximately 1, 10, 20, and 30 atm. These data represent the most comprehensive set of experiments currently available for isobutane oxidation and further accentuate the complementary attributes of the two techniques toward high-pressure oxidation experiments over a wide range of temperatures. The experimental results were used to validate a detailed chemical kinetic model composed of 1328 reactions involving 230 species. This mechanism has been successfully used to simulate previously published ignition delay times as well. A thorough sensitivity analysis was performed to gain further insight to the chemical processes occurring at various conditions. Additionally, useful ignition delay time correlations were developed for temperatures greater than 1025 K. Comparisons are also made with available isobutane data from the literature, as well as with 100% n-butane and 50-50% n-butane-isobutane mixtures in air that were presented by the authors in recent studies. In general, the kinetic model shows excellent agreement with the data over the wide range of conditions of the present study. (author)

Healy, D.; Curran, H.J. [Combustion Chemistry Centre, School of Chemistry, NUI Galway (Ireland); Donato, N.S.; Aul, C.J.; Petersen, E.L. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX (United States); Zinner, C.M. [Mechanical, Materials and Aerospace Engineering, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL (United States); Bourque, G. [Rolls-Royce Canada Limited, 9500 Cote de Liesse, Lachine, Quebec (Canada)

2010-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

310

Study of liquid gallium at high pressure using synchrotron x-ray  

SciTech Connect

Liquid gallium has been studied at high pressure up to 2 GPa and ambient temperature in a diamond anvil cell using high energy synchrotron x-ray beam. The total x-ray scattering data of liquid gallium were collected up to Q = 12 A{sup -1} and analyzed using pair distribution functions (PDF). The results indicate that the first nearest neighbor peak and second nearest neighbor (shoulder) peak of PDF in liquid gallium does not change with pressure, whereas the higher order (i.e., third and fourth) nearest neighbor peaks shift towards shorter distance with increasing pressure. Reverse Monte Carlo modeling based on the observed data shows that the coordination number in the liquid gallium increases with pressure from 10.5 at 0.3 GPa to 11.6 at 2 GPa. An atomic arrangement similar to the crystalline phase of Ga(II) with coordination number of 12 is proposed for the locally dense-packed rigid unit in liquid gallium. The volume compression data derived from the structure modeling yield a bulk modulus of 12.1(6) GPa for liquid gallium.

Yu, Tony; Guo Quanzhong; Parise, John [Department of Geosciences, Mineral Physics Institute, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, New York 11794-2100 (United States); Chen Jiuhua [Department of Geosciences, Mineral Physics Institute, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, New York 11794-2100 (United States); Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Center for the Study of Matters at Extreme Conditions, Florida International University, Miami, Florida 33199 (United States); Ehm, Lars [Department of Geosciences, Mineral Physics Institute, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, New York 11794-2100 (United States); National Synchrotron Light Source, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973-5000 (United States); Huang Shu [Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Center for the Study of Matters at Extreme Conditions, Florida International University, Miami, Florida 33199 (United States); Luo Shengnian [Physics Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

311

Survey of processes for high temperature-high pressure gas purification. [52 references  

SciTech Connect

In order to ensure the optimum operating efficiency of a combined-cycle electric power generating system, it is necessary to provide gas treatment processes capable of operating at high temperatures (> 1000/sup 0/F) and high pressures (> 10 atm (absolute)). These systems will be required to condition the inlet stream to the gas turbine to suitable levels of gas purity (removal of particulate matter, sulfur, nitrogen, and alkali metal compounds) to be compatible with both environmental and machine constraints. A survey of the available and developmental processes for the removal of these various contaminant materials has been conducted. Based on the data obtained from a variety of sources, an analysis has been performed to evaluate the performance of a number of potential cleanup processes in view of the overall system needs. The results indicate that commercially available, reliable, and economically competitive hot-gas cleanup systems (for the removal of H/sub 2/S, particulate matter, alkali, and nitrogen compounds) capable of conditioning raw product gas to the levels required for turbine use will not be available for some time.

Meyer, J.P.; Edwards, M.S.

1978-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

High pressure synthesis gas fermentation, January 15, 1991--April 14,1991  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The components of synthesis gas can be converted into ethanol by the bacterium Clostridium ljunfdahlii, Strain PETC. This microorganism achieves complete conversion of synthesis gas and gives stoichiometric yields of ethanol with high energy efficiency. The reaction rate and bioreactor size are the controlling factors in the commercialization of this process.Synthesis gas fermentations are mass transfer limited due to the very low gas solubilities. It has been demonstrated that reaction rate is proportional to pressure at least up to 10 atm, the limit of existing experimental equipment. The equivalent retention time at 10 atm can be reduced to three minutes. It is felt that retention times of a few seconds are possible and can be demonstrated at higher pressures. With such short equivalent reaction times, the reactor volume for large scale alcohol production becomes nominal and commercial application is assured. The objective of this project is to construct and test a high pressure fermentation system for the production of ethanol from synthesis gas. This system will be fabricated and assembled and the unit used to define the effects of elevated pressure on the growth and performance of C. ljungdahlii. The limits of cell concentration and mass transport relationships will be found in immobilized cell and stirred tank reactors. Minimum retention times and reactor volumes will be found for ethanol production in these reactors.

Not Available

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

High pressure synthesis gas fermentation, January 15, 1991--April 14,1991  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The components of synthesis gas can be converted into ethanol by the bacterium Clostridium ljunfdahlii, Strain PETC. This microorganism achieves complete conversion of synthesis gas and gives stoichiometric yields of ethanol with high energy efficiency. The reaction rate and bioreactor size are the controlling factors in the commercialization of this process.Synthesis gas fermentations are mass transfer limited due to the very low gas solubilities. It has been demonstrated that reaction rate is proportional to pressure at least up to 10 atm, the limit of existing experimental equipment. The equivalent retention time at 10 atm can be reduced to three minutes. It is felt that retention times of a few seconds are possible and can be demonstrated at higher pressures. With such short equivalent reaction times, the reactor volume for large scale alcohol production becomes nominal and commercial application is assured. The objective of this project is to construct and test a high pressure fermentation system for the production of ethanol from synthesis gas. This system will be fabricated and assembled and the unit used to define the effects of elevated pressure on the growth and performance of C. ljungdahlii. The limits of cell concentration and mass transport relationships will be found in immobilized cell and stirred tank reactors. Minimum retention times and reactor volumes will be found for ethanol production in these reactors.

Not Available

1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

314

Survey of industrial coal conversion equipment capabilities: high-temperature, high-pressure gas purification  

SciTech Connect

In order to ensure optimum operating efficiencies for combined-cycle electric generating systems, it is necessary to provide gas treatment equipment capable of operating at high temperatures (>1000/sup 0/F) and high pressure (>10 atmospheres absolute). This equipment, when assembled in a process train, will be required to condition the inlet stream to a gas turbine to suitable levels of gas purity (removal of particulate matter, sulfur, nitrogen, and alkali metal compounds) so that it will be compatible with both environmental and machine constraints. In this work, a survey of the available and developmental equipment for the removal of particulate matter and sulfur compounds has been conducted. In addition, an analysis has been performed to evaluate the performance of a number of alternative process configurations in light of overall system needs. Results from this study indicate that commercially available, reliable, and economically competitive hot-gas cleanup equipment capable of conditioning raw product gas to the levels required for high-temperatue turbine operation will not be available for some time.

Meyer, J. P.; Edwards, M. S.

1978-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

Development of a method for measuring the density of liquid sulfur at high pressures using the falling-sphere technique  

SciTech Connect

We describe a new method for the in situ measurement of the density of a liquid at high pressure and high temperature using the falling-sphere technique. Combining synchrotron radiation X-ray radiography with a large-volume press, the newly developed falling-sphere method enables the determination of the density of a liquid at high pressure and high temperature based on Stokes' flow law. We applied this method to liquid sulfur and successfully obtained the density at pressures up to 9 GPa. Our method could be used for the determination of the densities of other liquid materials at higher static pressures than are currently possible.

Funakoshi, Ken-ichi; Nozawa, Akifumi [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute, Sayo-cho, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan)

2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

316

Appliances and Commercial Equipment Standards  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

High-Intensity Discharge Lamps High-Intensity Discharge Lamps Sign up for e-mail updates on regulations for this and other products There are currently no energy conservation standards for high-intensity discharge (HID) lamps. HID lamps are electric discharge lamps and include high-pressure sodium, mercury vapor, and metal halide lamps. HID lamps require an HID ballast to start and regulate electric current flow through the lamp. HID lamps are used in street and roadway lighting, area lighting such as for parking lots and plazas, industrial and commercial building interior lighting, security lighting for commercial, industrial, and residential spaces, and landscape lighting. The Standards and Test Procedures for this product are related to Rulemaking for High Intensity Discharge Lamps Energy Conservation Standard and Rulemaking for High Intensity Discharge Lamps Test Procedures.

317

METHOD FOR REMOVING SODIUM OXIDE FROM LIQUID SODIUM  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is described for removing sodium oxide from a fluent stream of liquid sodium by coldtrapping the sodium oxide. Apparatus utilizing this method is disclosed in United States Patent No. 2,745,552. Sodium will remain in a molten state at temperatures below that at which sodium oxide will crystallize out and form solid deposits, therefore, the contaminated stream of sodium is cooled to a temperature at which the solubility of sodium oxide in sodium is substantially decreased. Thereafter the stream of sodium is passed through a bed of stainless steel wool maintained at a temperature below that of the stream. The stream is kept in contact with the wool until the sodium oxide is removed by crystal growth on the wool, then the stream is reheated and returned to the system. This method is useful in purifying reactor coolants where the sodium oxide would otherwise deposit out on the walls and eventually plug the coolant tubes.

Bruggeman, W.H.; Voorhees, B.G.

1957-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

High-pressure vapor-liquid equilibria in the propane-1-propanol system  

SciTech Connect

High-pressure isothermal vapor liquid equilibrium data were measured for the propane-1-propanol system at 81.6, 105.2, and 120.1 C in a static equilibrium cell with liquid-phase sampling by a piston-driven sampling rod and homogenizing the sample with a static jet mixer. The vapor phase was sampled by releasing it into an evacuated manifold, and the gas chromatograph was calibrated with a new variable volumetric device. Satisfactory modeling was achieved with the combined method using the UNIQUAC equation with equations of sate: the group contribution EOS, Peng-Robinson EOS, or the two-parameter Virial EOS. Differences between the measured and calculated vapor-phase mole fractions, however, were significant for the lower pressure regions of the 81.6 and 120.1 C isotherms. UNIQUAC parameters, hitherto unavailable, with fairly strong temperature dependence in the 81.6 to 120.1 C range are proposed for the system. The covariance matrix indicated a significant correlation among the parameters. The classical mixing rule interaction parameters required for the original Peng-Robinson EOS in the combined method were obtained using the direct method and were temperature-independent for the isotherms for which the propane was supercritical. The possibility of propane/1-propanol immiscibility was theoretically examined according to the criteria of Baker et al. The plots of Gibbs energy of mixing vs. phase mole fractions did not indicate liquid-phase splitting, but the inferences are EOS-dependent and must await visual confirmation. The authors earlier vapor-phase thermodynamic consistency test indicated the data for all three data sets not to be inconsistent.

Muehlbauer, A.L.; Raal, J.D. (Univ. of Natal, Durban (South Africa))

1993-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

319

Chemical kinetic modeling of high pressure propane oxidation and comparison to experimental results  

SciTech Connect

A pressure dependent kinetic mechanism for propane oxidation is developed and compared to experimental data from a high pressure flow reactor. The experiment conditions range from 10--15 atm, 650--800 K, and were performed at a residence time of 200 {micro}s for propane-air mixtures at an equivalence ratio of 0.4. The experimental results include data on negative temperature coefficient (NTC) behavior, where the chemistry describing this phenomena is considered critical in understanding automotive engine knock and cool flame oscillations. Results of the numerical model are compared to a spectrum of stable species profiles sampled from the flow reactor. Rate constants and product channels for the reaction of propyl radicals, hydroperoxy-propyl radicals and important isomers with O{sub 2} were estimated using thermodynamic properties, with multifrequency quantum Kassel Theory for k(E) coupled with modified strong collision analysis for fall-off. Results of the chemical kinetic model show an NTC region over nearly the same temperature regime as observed in the experiments. The model simulates properly the production of many of the major and minor species observed in the experiments. Numerical simulations show many of the key reactions involving propylperoxy radicals are in partial equilibrium at 10--15 atm. This indicates that their relative concentrations are controlled by a combination of thermochemistry and rate of minor reaction channels (bleed reactions) rather than primary reaction rates. This suggests that thermodynamic parameters of the oxygenated species, which govern equilibrium concentrations, are important. The modeling results show propyl radical and hydroperoxy-propyl radicals reaction with O{sub 2} proceeds, primarily, through thermalized adducts, not chemically activated channels.

Koert, D.N. [Wichita State Univ., KS (United States). Mechanical Engineering Dept.; Pitz, W.J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Bozzelli, J.W. [New Jersey Inst. of Tech., Newark, NJ (United States). Chemistry and Chemical Engineering Dept.; Cernansky, N.P. [Drexel Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering and Mechanics

1995-11-08T23:59:59.000Z

320

Oxidation of automotive primary reference fuels in a high pressure flow reactor  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Automotive engine knock limits the maximum operating compression ratio and ultimate thermodynamic efficiency of spark-ignition (SI) engines. In compression-ignition (CI) or diesel cycle engines the premixed urn phase, which occurs shortly after injection, determines the time it takes for autoignition to occur. In order to improve engine efficiency and to recommend more efficient, cleaner-burning alternative fuels, we must understand the chemical kinetic processes which lead to autoignition in both SI and CI engines. These engines burn large molecular-weight blended fuels, a class to which the primary reference fuels (PRF), n-heptane and isooctane belong. In this study, experiments were performed under engine-like conditions in a high pressure flow reactor using both the pure PRF fuels and their mixtures in the temperature range 550-880 K and at 12.5 atm pressure. These experiments not only provide information on the reactivity of each fuel but also identify the major intermediate products formed during the oxidation process. A detailed chemical kinetic mechanism is used to simulate these experiments and comparisons of experimentally measures and model predicted profiles for O{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O and temperature rise are presented. Intermediates identified in the flow reactor are compared with those present in the computations, and the kinetic pathways leading to their formation are discussed. In addition, autoignition delay times measured in a shock tube over the temperature range 690- 1220 K and at 40 atm pressure were simulated. Good agreement between experiment and simulation was obtained for both the pure fuels and their mixtures. Finally, quantitative values of major intermediates measured in the exhaust gas of a cooperative fuels research engine operating under motored engine conditions are presented together with those predicted by the detailed method.

Curran, H.J.; Pitz, W.J.; Westbrook, C.K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Callahan, C.V.; Dryer, F.L. [Princeton Univ., Areospace Engineering. NJ (United States)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

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321

Deflagration Behavior of PBXN-109 and Composition B at High Pressures and Temperatures  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

We report deflagration rate measurements on PBXN-109 (RDWAVHTPB) and Composition B (RXDTTNThrvax) at pressures from 1,500-100,000 psi (10-700 MPa). This was done with the LLNL High Pressure Strand Burner, in which embedded wires are used to record the time-of-arrival of the burn front in the cylindrical sample as a function of pressure. The propellant samples are 6.4 mm in diameter and 6.4 mm long, with burn wires inserted between samples. Burning on the cylindrical surface is inhibited with an epoxy or polyurethane layer. With this direct measurement we do not have to account for product gas equation of state or heat losses in the system, and the burn wires allow detection of irregular burning. We report deflagration results for PBXN-109 as received, and also after it has been damaged by heating. The burn behavior of pristine PBXN-109 is very regular, and exhibits a reduction in pressure exponent from 1.32 to 0.85 at pressures above 20,000 psi (135 MPa). When PBXN-109 is thermally damaged by heating to 170-180 C, the deflagration rate is increased by more than a factor of 10. This appears to be a physical effect, as the faster burning may be explained by an increase in surface area. Our results with Composition B show an apparent 2nd order pressure dependence for initial deflagration, followed by deconsolidation and onset of very rapid and erratic burning. The deconsolidation may be the result of the TNT melting as heat flows into the sample.

Maienschein, J L; Wardell, J F

2002-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

322

High-Pressure Multi-Mbar Conductivity Experiments on Hydrogen: The Quest for Solid Metallic Hydrogen  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Ultra-dense hydrogen has long been the subject of intense experimental and theoretical research due to the fascinating physics which arises from this supposedly simple system. The properties of ultra-dense hydrogen also have important implications for planetary physics, since the interiors of the giant planets Jupiter and Saturn are believed to consist of cores of dense, metallic hydrogen. Finally, ultra-dense hydrogen is of direct programmatic interest, and multiple-shock compression experiments on hydrogen to the metallic state have stimulated the accelerated development of new hydrogen equation-of-state (EOS) models used for ICF and other applications. The focus of our research has often been described as the ''Holy Grail'' of high-pressure physics research: The metallization of solid hydrogen. Metallic hydrogen has long been considered to be the prototypical system for the study of insulator-to-metal (I-M) transitions. Although metallic hydrogen (Z=1) may superficially appear to be a very simple material, it is in fact an extremely challenging system for theoretical analysis due to the presence of large zero-point atomic motions and the complete absence of any core electrons. Thus, solid metallic hydrogen promises to be a fascinating material. Among its predicted properties is the possibility of being a high temperature superconductor with a critical temperature T{sub c} of the order of {approx} 100K [1]. The successful metallization of solid hydrogen would be a groundbreaking scientific discovery and open up new frontiers in science and possibly technology as well.

Jackson, D

2007-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

323

Development of a High Pressure/High Temperature Down-hole Turbine Generator  

SciTech Connect

As oil & natural gas deposits become more difficult to obtain by conventional means, wells must extend to deeper more heat-intensive environments. The technology of the drilling equipment required to reach these depths has exceeded the availability of electrical power sources needed to operate these tools. Historically, logging while drilling (LWD) and measure while drilling (MWD) devices utilized a wireline to supply power and communication from the operator to the tool. Lithium ion batteries were used in scenarios where a wireline was not an option, as it complicated operations. In current downhole applications, lithium ion battery (LIB) packs are the primary source for electrical power. LIB technology has been proven to supply reliable downhole power at temperatures up to 175 °C. Many of the deeper well s reach ambient temperatures above 200 °C, creating an environment too harsh for current LIB technology. Other downfalls of LIB technology are cost, limitations on charge cycles, disposal issues and possible safety hazards including explosions and fires. Downhole power generation can also be achieved by utilizing drilling fluid flow and converting it to rotational motion. This rotational motion can be harnessed to spin magnets around a series of windings to produce power proportional to the rpm experienced by the driven assembly. These generators are, in most instances, driven by turbine blades or moyno-based drilling fluid pumps. To date, no commercially available downhole power generators are capable of operating at ambient temperatures of 250 °C. A downhole power g enerator capable of operation in a 250 °C and 20,000 psi ambient environment will be an absolute necessity in the future. Dexter Magnetic Technologies’ High-Pressure High-Temperature (HPHT) Downhole Turbine Generator is capable of operating at 250 °C and 20, 000 psi, but has not been tested in an actual drilling application. The technology exists, but to date no company has been willing to test the tool.

Ben Plamp

2008-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

324

Pressurization Tests on High-Pressure Fluid-Filled Underground Transmission Cables of Public Service Electric & Gas Company  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report describes pressurization tests performed on 138-kV and 230-kV high-pressure fluid-filled (HPFF) transmission cable samples. The samples were removed from two Public Service Electric & Gas Company (PSE&G) underground transmission lines.

2009-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

325

Lamp system with conditioned water coolant and diffuse reflector of polytetrafluorethylene(PTFE)  

SciTech Connect

A lamp system with a very soft high-intensity output is provided over a large area by water cooling a long-arc lamp inside a diffuse reflector of polytetrafluorethylene (PTFE) and titanium dioxide (TiO.sub.2) white pigment. The water is kept clean and pure by a one micron particulate filter and an activated charcoal/ultraviolet irradiation system that circulates and de-ionizes and biologically sterilizes the coolant water at all times, even when the long-arc lamp is off.

Zapata, Luis E. (Livermore, CA); Hackel, Lloyd (Livermore, CA)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

326

Lamp system with conditioned water coolant and diffuse reflector of polytetrafluorethylene(PTFE)  

SciTech Connect

A lamp system with a very soft high-intensity output is provided over a large area by water cooling a long-arc lamp inside a diffuse reflector of polytetrafluorethylene (PTFE) and titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) white pigment. The water is kept clean and pure by a one micron particulate filter and an activated charcoal/ultraviolet irradiation system that circulates and de-ionizes and biologically sterilizes the coolant water at all times, even when the long-arc lamp is off.

Zapata, L.E.; Hackel, L.

1999-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

327

Identification of lamp ballasts containing PCBs. Revised edition. Report no. EPS 2/CC/2  

SciTech Connect

Fluorescent lamp ballast capacitors are among the products that may contain polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Questions about lamp ballasts concern the potential for leakage, the risk of heating and exploding, how to identify a ballast which contains PCBs, and the risk to human health. This study identifies those ballasts containing PCB-filled capacitors; the domestic and foreign manufacturers of PCB-containing ballasts; the total quantity of PCBs used in ballasts; and any potential problems. The study does not identify the risks of human health arising from the use of PCB-ballasts in fluorescent lamps.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

328

Human Sodium Risks  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

comes from restaurants and it can be hard for a person to tell how much sodium is in restaurant foods. Brands of foods matter: Different brands of the same foods may have...

329

Miniature UV lamp excited by subnanosecond voltage pulses  

SciTech Connect

Energy, time, and spectral characteristics of emission of the second positive system of N{sub 2} molecules in gaseous nitrogen, Ar - N{sub 2} mixture, and air are investigated. An FPG-10 generator with voltage pulse FWHM of 200 and 400 ps and matched-load amplitudes of 14 and 6 kV, respectively, is used to excite gases. It is shown that excitation can be performed in two regimes using this generator. In the first regime a diffuse discharge is formed at atmospheric pressure, which opens ways to design miniature nanosecond UV lamps. A diffuse discharge is formed due to the generation of runaway electrons, with the aid of electrodes having a small radius of curvature and voltage pulses with a sharp leading edge. In the second regime an elevated average radiation power is obtained under excitation by a barrier discharge. However, the operating pressure is lower in this case, and the sizes of the emitting region and the UV pulse width significantly increase. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

Erofeev, M V; Baksht, E Kh; Tarasenko, Viktor F; Shut'ko, Yu V [Institute of High Current Electronics, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Tomsk (Russian Federation)

2010-08-27T23:59:59.000Z

330

Numerical Modeling of Cased-hole Instability in High Pressure and High Temperature Wells  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Down-hole damages such as borehole collapse, circulation loss and rock tensile/compressive cracking in the open-hole system are well understood at drilling and well completion stages. However, less effort has been made to understand the instability of cemented sections in High Pressure High Temperature (HPHT) wells. The existing analysis shows that, in the perforation zones, casing/cement is subject to instability, particularly in the presence of cavities. This dissertation focuses on the instability mechanism of casing/cement in the non-perforated zones. We investigate the transient thermal behavior in the casing-cement-formation system resulting from the movement of wellbore fluid using finite element method. The critical value of down-hole stresses is identified in both wellbore heating and cooling effects. Differently with the heating effect, the strong cooling effect in a cased hole can produce significant tension inside casing/cement. The confining formation has an obvious influence on the stability of casing/cement. The proposed results reveal that the casing/cement system in the non-homogeneous formation behaves differently from that in homogeneous formation. With this in mind, a three-dimensional layered finite element model is developed to illustrate the casing/cement mechanical behavior in the non-homogeneous formation. The radial stress of cement sheath is found to be highly variable and affected by the contrast in Young’s moduli in the different formation layers. The maximum stress is predicted to concentrate in the casing-cement system confined by the sandstone. Casing wear in the cased-hole system causes significant casing strength reduction, possibly resulting in the casing-cement tangential collapse. In this study, an approach for calculating the stress concentration in the worn casing with considering temperature change is developed, based on boundary superposition. The numerical results indicate that the casing-cement system after casing wear will suffer from severe tangential instability due to the elevated compressive hoop stress. Gas migration during the cementing process results from the fluid cement’s inability to balance formation pore pressure. Past experience emphasized the application of chemical additives to reduce or control gas migration during the cementing process. This report presents the thermal and mechanical behaviors in a cased hole caused by created gas channels after gas migration. In conclusion, the size and the number of gas channels are two important factors in determining mechanical instability in a casing-cement system.

Shen, Zheng 1983-

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

331

Integrated starting and running amalgam assembly for an electrodeless fluorescent lamp  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An integrated starting and running amalgam assembly for an electrodeless SEF fluorescent lamp includes a wire mesh amalgam support constructed to jointly optimize positions of a starting amalgam and a running amalgam in the lamp, thereby optimizing mercury vapor pressure in the lamp during both starting and steady-state operation in order to rapidly achieve and maintain high light output. The wire mesh amalgam support is constructed to support the starting amalgam toward one end thereof and the running amalgam toward the other end thereof, and the wire mesh is rolled for friction-fitting within the exhaust tube of the lamp. The positions of the starting and running amalgams on the wire mesh are jointly optimized such that high light output is achieved quickly and maintained, while avoiding any significant reduction in light output between starting and running operation.

Borowiec, Joseph Christopher (Schenectady, NY); Cocoma, John Paul (Clifton Park, NY); Roberts, Victor David (Burnt Hills, NY)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

332

On the Brightness of the Thomson Lamp: A Prolegomenon to Quantum Recursion Theory  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Some physical aspects related to the limit operations of the Thomson lamp are discussed. Regardless of the formally unbounded and even infinite number of "steps" involved, the physical limit has an operational meaning in agreement with the Abel sums ...

Karl Svozil

2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

333

Development and testing of a high-pressure downhole pump for jet-assist drilling. Topical report, Phase II  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The goal of jet-assisted drilling is to increase the rate of penetration (ROP) in deeper gas and oil wells, where the rocks become harder and more difficult to drill. Increasing the ROP can result in fewer drilling days, and therefore, lower drilling cost. In late 1993, FlowDril and the Gas Research Institute (GRI) began a three-year development of a down hole pump (DHP{reg_sign}) capable of producing 30,000 psi out pressure to provide the high-pressure flow for high-pressure jet-assist of the drill bit. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) through its Morgantown, WV (DOE-Morgantown) field office, joined with GRI and FlowDril to develop and test a second prototype designed for drilling in 7-7/8 inch holes. This project, {open_quotes}Development and Testing of a High-Pressure Down Hole Pump for Jet-Assist Drilling,{close_quotes} is for the development and testing of the second prototype. It was planned in two phases. Phase I included an update of a market analysis, a design, fabrication, and an initial laboratory test of the second prototype. Phase II is continued iterative laboratory and field developmental testing. This report summarizes the results of Phase II. In the downhole pump approach shown in the following figure, conventional drill pipe and drill collars are used, with the DHP as the last component of the bottom hole assembly next to the bit. The DHP is a reciprocating double ended, intensifier style positive displacement, high-pressure pump. The drive fluid and the high-pressure output fluid are both derived from the same source, the abrasive drilling mud pumped downhole through the drill string. Approximately seven percent of the stream is pressurized to 30,000 psi and directed through a high-pressure nozzle on the drill bit to produce the high speed jet and assist the mechanical action of the bit to make it drill faster.

NONE

1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

334

Demonstration of LED Retrofit Lamps at the Jordan Schnitzer Museum of Art  

SciTech Connect

The Jordan Schnitzer Museum of Art in Eugene, Oregon, houses a remarkable permanent collection of Asian art and antiquities, modern art, and sculpture, and also hosts traveling exhibitions. In the winter and spring of 2011, a series of digital photographs by artist Chris Jordan, titled "Running the Numbers," was exhibited in the Coeta and Donald Barker Special Exhibitions Gallery. These works graphically illustrate waste (energy, money, health, consumer objects, etc.) in contemporary culture. The Bonneville Power Administration and the Eugene Water and Electricity Board provided a set of Cree 12W light-emitting diode (LED) PAR38 replacement lamps (Cree LRP38) for the museum to test for accent lighting in lieu of their standard Sylvania 90W PAR38 130V Narrow Flood lamps (which draw 78.9W at 120V). At the same time, the museum tested LED replacement lamps from three other manufacturers, and chose the Cree lamp as the most versatile and most appropriate color product for this exhibit. The lamps were installed for the opening of the show in January 2011. This report describes the process for the demonstration, the energy and economic results, and results of a survey of the museum staff and gallery visitors on four similar clusters of art lighted separately by four PAR38 lamps.

Miller, Naomi J.

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

Hydrogen Selective Inorganic membranes for Gas Separations under High Pressure Intermediate Temperature Hydrocarbonic Envrionment  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In this project, we have successfully developed a full scale commercially ready carbon molecular sieve (CMS) based membrane for applications in H{sub 2} recovery from refinery waste and other aggressive gas streams. Field tests at a refinery pilot plant and a coal gasification facility have successfully demonstrated its ability to recovery hydrogen from hydrotreating and raw syngas respectively. High purity H{sub 2} and excellent stability of the membrane permeance and selectivity were obtained in testing conducted over >500 hours at each site. The results from these field tests as well as laboratory testing conclude that the membranes can be operated at high pressures (up to 1,000 psig) and temperatures (up to 300 C) in presence of aggressive contaminants, such as sulfur and nitrogen containing species (H{sub 2}S, CO{sub 2}, NH{sub 3}, etc), condensable hydrocarbons, tar-like species, heavy metals, etc. with no observable effect on membrane performance. By comparison, similar operating conditions and/or environments would rapidly destroy competing membranes, such as polymeric, palladium, zeolitic, etc. Significant cost savings can be achieved through recovering H{sub 2} from refinery waste gas using this newly developed CMS membrane. Annual savings of $2 to 4MM/year (per 20,000 scfd of waste gas) can be realized by recovering the H{sub 2} for reuse (versus fuel). Projecting these values over the entire US market, potential H{sub 2} savings from refinery waste gases on the order of 750 to 1,000MM scfd and $750 to $1,000MM per year are possible. In addition to the cost savings, potential energy savings are projected to be ca. 150 to 220 tBTU/yr and CO{sub 2} gas emission reductions are projected to be ca. 5,000 to 6,500MMtons/year. The full scale membrane bundle developed as part of this project, i.e., 85 x 30 inch ceramic membrane tubes packaged into a full ceramic potting, is an important accomplishment. No comparable commercial scale product exists in the inorganic membrane field. Further, this newly developed full scale bundle concept can be extended to other thin film inorganic membrane technology (Pd, zeolite, etc), providing a potential commercialization pathway for these membrane materials that demonstrate high potential in a variety of separation applications yet remain a laboratory 'novelty' for lack of a full scale support. Overall, the project has been highly successful and all of the project objectives have been met. We have developed the first of its kind commercial scale carbon molecular sieve membrane and demonstrated its performance in field testing under aggressive operating conditions and in the presence of chemical contaminants that would rapidly destroy alternative organic and inorganic membranes. This innovative membrane permits H{sub 2} recovery from gas streams that up until now have not been successfully treated with membrane or conventional technology. Our end user participant is currently pursuing the field demonstration of this membrane for hydrogen recovery at its refinery site.

Rich Ciora; Paul KT Liu

2012-06-27T23:59:59.000Z

336

A new experimental setup for high-pressure catalytic activity measurements on surface deposited mass-selected Pt clusters  

SciTech Connect

A new experimental setup to study catalytic and electronic properties of size-selected clusters on metal oxide substrates from the viewpoint of cluster-support interaction and to formulate a method for the development of heterogeneous catalysts such as automotive exhaust catalysts has been developed. The apparatus consists of a size-selected cluster source, a photoemission spectrometer, a scanning tunneling microscope (STM), and a high-pressure reaction cell. The high-pressure reaction cell measurements provided information on catalytic properties in conditions close to practical use. The authors investigated size-selected platinum clusters deposited on a TiO{sub 2}(110) surface using a reaction cell and STM. Catalytic activity measurements showed that the catalytic activities have a cluster-size dependency.

Watanabe, Yoshihide; Isomura, Noritake [Toyota Central R and D Labs. Inc., Nagakute, Aichi 480-1192 (Japan); Toyota Motor Corporation, 1200 Mishuku Susono, Shizuoka 410-1193, Japan and Toyota Central R and D Labs. Inc., Nagakute, Aichi 480-1192 (Japan)

2009-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

337

A diamond anvil cell with resistive heating for high pressure and high temperature x-ray diffraction and absorption studies  

SciTech Connect

In this paper we describe a prototype of a diamond anvil cell (DAC) for high pressure/high temperature studies. This DAC combines the use of a resistive oven of 250 W power in a very small volume, associated with special conical seats for Boehler-type diamond anvils in order to have a large angular acceptance. To protect the diamond anvils from burning and to avoid the oven oxidation, the heated DAC is enclosed in a vacuum chamber. The assemblage was used to study the melting curve of germanium at high pressure (up to 20 GPa) and high temperature (up to 1200 K) using x-ray diffraction and x-ray absorption spectroscopy.

Pasternak, Sebastien; Aquilanti, Giuliana; Pascarelli, Sakura; Zhang Lin [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, 6 rue Jules Horowitz, 38043 Grenoble, Cedex (France); Poloni, Roberta [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, 6 rue Jules Horowitz, 38043 Grenoble, Cedex (France); Institut de Ciencia de Materials de Barcelona (CSIC), Campus de la UAB, E-08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona Spain (Spain); Canny, Bernard [IMPMC-CNRS UMR, 7590 Universite Paris VI, 140 rue de Lourmel, 75015 Paris (France); Coulet, Marie-Vanessa [IM2NP-UMR CNRS, 6242 Universite Paul Cezanne Campus de St Jerome, 13397 Marseille Cedex 20 (France)

2008-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

338

Sodium sulfur battery seal  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This disclosure is directed to an improvement in a sodium sulfur battery construction in which a seal between various battery compartments is made by a structure in which a soft metal seal member is held in a sealing position by holding structure. A pressure applying structure is used to apply pressure on the soft metal seal member when it is being held in sealing relationship to a surface of a container member of the sodium sulfur battery by the holding structure. The improvement comprises including a thin, well-adhered, soft metal layer on the surface of the container member of the sodium sulfur battery to which the soft metal seal member is to be bonded.

Mikkor, Mati (Ann Arbor, MI)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

339

In situ multipurpose time-resolved spectrometer for monitoring nanoparticle generation in a high-pressure fluid  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We developed a multipurpose time-resolved spectrometer for studying the dynamics of nanoparticles generated by pulsed-laser ablation (PLA) in a high-pressure fluid. The apparatus consists of a high-pressure optical cell and three spectrometers for in situ measurements. The optical cell was designed for experiments at temperatures up to 400 K and pressures up to 30 MPa with fluctuations within {+-}0.1% h{sup -1}. The three spectrometers were used for the following in situ measurements at high pressures: (i) transient absorption spectrum measurements from 350 to 850 nm to investigate the dynamics of nanoparticle generation from nanoseconds to milliseconds after laser irradiation, (ii) absorption spectrum measurements from 220 to 900 nm to observe the time evolution of nanoparticles from seconds to hours after laser ablation, and (iii) dynamic light scattering measurements to track nanoparticles with sizes from 10 nm to 10 {mu}m in the time range from seconds to hours after laser ablation. By combining these three spectrometers, we demonstrate in situ measurements of gold nanoparticles generated by PLA in supercritical fluids. This is the first report of in situ time-resolved measurements of the dynamics of nanoparticles generated in a supercritical fluid.

Wei, Shaoyu [Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Science, Hiroshima University, 1-3-1 Kagamiyama, 739-8526 Higashi-hiroshima (Japan); Saitow, Ken-ichi [Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Science, Hiroshima University, 1-3-1 Kagamiyama, 739-8526 Higashi-hiroshima (Japan); Natural Science Center for Basic Research and Development (N-BARD), 1-3-1 Kagamiyama, 739-8526 Higashi-hiroshima (Japan)

2012-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

340

OH time-histories during oxidation of n-heptane and methylcyclohexane at high pressures and temperatures  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

OH concentration time-histories during n-heptane and methylcyclohexane (MCH) oxidation were measured behind reflected shock waves in a heated, high-pressure shock tube. Experimental conditions covered temperatures of 1121 to 1332 K, pressures near 15 atm, and initial fuel concentrations of 750 and 1000 ppm (by volume), and an equivalence ratio of 0.5 with O{sub 2} as the oxidizer and argon as the bath gas. OH concentrations were measured using narrow-linewidth ring-dye laser absorption near the R-branchhead of the OH A-X(0,0) system at 306.47 nm. These current measurements together with our recent results for n-dodecane oxidation [S.S. Vasu, D.F. Davidson, Z. Hong, V. Vasudevan, R.K. Hanson, Proc. Combust. Inst. 32 (2009), doi:10.1016/j.proci.2008.05.006] provide critically needed validation targets for jet fuel surrogate kinetic mechanisms and further improve understanding of high-pressure, high-temperature oxidation chemistry. Detailed comparisons of these OH time-histories with the predictions of various kinetic mechanisms were made. Sensitivity and pathway analyses for these reference fuel components were performed, leading to reaction rate recommendations with improved model performance. Current results are the first quantitative measurements of OH time-histories during high-pressure oxidation of these fuels, and hence are a critical step toward development of accurate reaction models for jet fuel surrogates. (author)

Vasu, Subith S.; Davidson, David F.; Hanson, Ronald K. [Mechanical Engineering Department, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States)

2009-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high-pressure sodium lamps" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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341

Advanced Production Surface Preparation Technology Development for Ultra-High Pressure Diesel Injection  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In 2007, An Ultra High Injection Pressure (UHIP) fueling method has been demonstrated by Caterpillar Fuel Systems - Product Development, demonstrating ability to deliver U.S. Environment Protection Agency (EPA) Tier 4 Final diesel engine emission performance with greatly reduced emissions handling components on the engine, such as without NOx reduction after-treatment and with only a through-flow 50% effective diesel particulate trap (DPT). They have shown this capability using multiple multi-cylinder engine tests of an Ultra High Pressure Common Rail (UHPCR) fuel system with higher than traditional levels of CEGR and an advanced injector nozzle design. The system delivered better atomization of the fuel, for more complete burn, to greatly reduce diesel particulates, while CEGR or high efficiency NOx reduction after-treatment handles the NOx. With the reduced back pressure of a traditional DPT, and with the more complete fuel burn, the system reduced levels of fuel consumption by 2.4% for similar delivery of torque and horsepower over the best Tier 4 Interim levels of fuel consumption in the diesel power industry. The challenge is to manufacture the components in high-volume production that can withstand the required higher pressure injection. Production processes must be developed to increase the toughness of the injector steel to withstand the UHIP pulsations and generate near perfect form and finish in the sub-millimeter size geometries within the injector. This project resulted in two developments in 2011. The first development was a process and a machine specification by which a high target of compressive residual stress (CRS) can be consistently imparted to key surfaces of the fuel system to increase the toughness of the steel, and a demonstration of the feasibility of further refinement of the process for use in volume production. The second development was the demonstration of the feasibility of a process for imparting near perfect, durable geometry to these same feature surfaces to withstand the pulsating UHIP diesel injection without fatigue failure, through the expected life of the fuel system's components (10,000 hours for the pump and common rail, 5000 hours for the injector). The potential to Caterpillar of this fueling approach and the overall emissions reduction system is the cost savings of the fuel, the cost savings of not requiring a full emissions module and other emissions hardware, and the enabling of the use of biodiesel fuel due to the reduced dependency on after-treatment. A proprietary production CRS generating process was developed to treat the interior of the sac-type injector nozzle tip region (particularly for the sac region). Ninety-five tips passed ultra high pulsed pressure fatigue testing with no failures assignable to treated surfaces or materials. It was determined that the CRS impartation method does not weaken the tip internal seat area. Caterpillar Fuel Systems - Product Development accepts that the CRS method initial production technical readiness level has been established. A method to gage CRS levels in production was not yet accomplished, but it is believed that monitoring process parameters call be used to guarantee quality. A precision profiling process for injector seat and sac regions has been shown to be promising but not yet fully confirmed. It was demonstrated that this precision profiling process can achieve form and geometry to well under an aggressively small micron peak-to-valley and that there are no surface flaws that approach an even tighter micron peak-to-valley tolerance. It is planned to purchase machines to further develop and move the process towards production. The system is targeted towards the high-power diesel electric power generators and high-power diesel marine power generators, with displacement from 20 liters to 80 liters and with power from 800 brake horsepower (BHP) to 3200BHP (0.6 megawatts to 2.4 megawatts). However, with market adoption, this system has the potential to meet EPA exhaust standards for all diesel engines nine liters and up, or 300B

Grant, Marion B.

2012-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

342

Sodium sulfur battery seal  

SciTech Connect

This invention is directed to a seal for a sodium sulfur battery in which a flexible diaphragm sealing elements respectively engage opposite sides of a ceramic component of the battery which separates an anode compartment from a cathode compartment of the battery.

Topouzian, Armenag (Birmingham, MI)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

343

X-ray Methods in High-Intensity Discharges and Metal-Halide Lamps: X-ray Induced Fluorescence  

SciTech Connect

We describe the use of x-ray induced fluorescence to study metal-halide high-intensity discharge lamps and to measure equilibrium vapor pressures of metal-halide salts. The physical principles of metal-halide lamps, relevant aspects of x-ray-atom interactions, the experimental method using synchrotron radiation, and x-ray induced fluorescence measurements relevant to metal-halide lamps are covered.

Curry, John J.; Lapatovich, Walter P.; Henins, Albert (NIST)

2011-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

344

Determination of the cathode and anode voltage drops in high power low-pressure amalgam lamps  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

For the first time, cathode and anode drops of powerful low-pressure amalgam lamps were measured. The lamp discharge current is 3.2 A, discharge current frequency is 43 kHz, linear electric power is 2.4 W/cm. The method of determination of a cathode drop is based on the change of a lamp operating voltage at variation of the electrode filament current at constant discharge current. The total (cathode plus anode) drop of voltage was measured by other, independent ways. The maximum cathode fall is 10.8 V; the anode fall corresponding to the maximal cathode fall is 2.4 V. It is shown that in powerful low pressure amalgam lamps the anode fall makes a considerable contribution (in certain cases, the basic one) to heating of electrodes. Therefore, the anode fall cannot be neglected, at design an electrode and ballast of amalgam lamps with operating discharge current frequency of tens of kHz.

Vasilyak, L. M., E-mail: vasilyak@ihed.ras.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Joint Institute for High Temperatures (Russian Federation); Vasiliev, A. I., E-mail: vasiliev@npo.lit.ru; Kostyuchenko, S. V.; Sokolov, D. V.; Startsev, A. Yu. [Joint Stock Company NPO LIT (Russian Federation); Kudryavtsev, N. N. [Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (State University) (Russian Federation)

2011-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

345

Energy-Efficient, High-Color-Rendering LED Lamps Using Oxyfluoride and Fluoride Phosphors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

LED lamps using phosphor downconversion can be designed to replace incandescent or halogen sources with a 'warm-white' correlated color temperature (CCT) of 2700-3200 K and a color rendering index (CRI) greater than 90. However, these lamps have efficacies of {approx}70% of standard 'cool-white' LED packages (CCT = 4500-6000 K; CRI = 75-80). In this report, we describe structural and luminescence properties of fluoride and oxyfluoride phosphors, specifically a (Sr,Ca){sub 3}(Al,Si)O{sub 4}(F,O):Ce{sup 3+} yellow-green phosphor and a K{sub 2}TiF{sub 6}:Mn{sup 4+} red phosphor, that can reduce this gap and therefore meet the spectral and efficiency requirements for high-efficacy LED lighting. LED lamps with a warm-white color temperature (3088 K), high CRI (90), and an efficacy of {approx}82 lm/W are demonstrated using these phosphors. This efficacy is {approx}85% of comparable cool-white lamps using typical Y{sub 3}Al{sub 5}O{sub 12}:Ce{sup 3+}-based phosphors, significantly reducing the efficacy gap between warm-white and cool-white LED lamps that use phosphor downconversion.

Setlur, A.; Radkov, E; Henderson, C; Her, J; Srivastava, A; Karkada, N; Kishore, M; Kumar, N; Aesram, D; et al.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

346

SURVEY OF SODIUM PUMP TECHNOLOGY  

SciTech Connect

A review is presented of the current status of sodium pump development as related to nuclear power applications. A description is given of the design features and performance characteristics of the more important types of sodium and sodium-- potassium alloy (NaK) pumps. Some requirements for sodium pumps for future large liquid metal reactor systems are presented with some preliminary consideration of the potential of various pump types to meet these requirements. (auth)

Nixon, D.R.

1963-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

347

High-Pressure Thermodynamic Properties of f-electron Metals, Transition Metal Oxides, and Half-Metallic Magnets  

SciTech Connect

This project involves research into the thermodynamic properties of f-electron metals, transition metal oxides, and half-metallic magnets at high pressure. These materials are ones in which the changing importance of electron-electron interactions as the distance between atoms is varied can tune the system through phase transitions from localized to delocalized electrons, from screened to unscreened magnetic moments, and from normal metal to one in which only a single spin specie can conduct. Three main thrusts are being pursued: (1) Mott transitions in transition metal oxides, (2) magnetism in half-metallic compounds, and (3) large volume-collapse transitions in f-band metals.

Scalettar, Richard T.; Pickett, Warren E.

2004-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

348

High-Pressure Thermodynamic Properties of f-electron Metals, Transition Metal Oxides, and Half-Metallic Magnets  

SciTech Connect

This project involves research into the thermodynamic properties of f-electron metals, transition metal oxides, and half-metallic magnets at high pressure. These materials are ones in which the changing importance of electron-electron interactions as the distance between atoms is varied can tune the system through phase transitions from localized to delocalized electrons, from screened to unscreened magnetic moments, and from normal metal to one in which only a single spin specie can conduct. Three main thrusts are being pursued: (i) Mott transitions in transition metal oxides, (ii) magnetism in half-metallic compounds, and (iii) large volume-collapse transitions in f-band metals.

Richard T. Scalettar; Warren E. Pickett

2005-08-02T23:59:59.000Z

349

Ba-ion extraction from a high pressure Xe gas for double-beta decay studies with EXO  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An experimental setup is being developed to extract Ba ions from a high-pressure Xe gas environment. It aims to transport Ba ions from 10 bar Xe to vacuum conditions. The setup utilizes a converging-diverging nozzle in combination with a radio-frequency (RF) funnel to move Ba ions into vacuum through the pressure drop of several orders of magnitude. This technique is intended to be used in a future multi-ton detector investigating double-beta decay in $^{136}$Xe. Efficient extraction and detection of Ba ions, the decay product of Xe, would allow for a background-free measurement of the $^{136}$Xe double-beta decay.

T. Brunner; D. Fudenberg; A. Sabourov; V. L. Varentsov; G. Gratta; D. Sinclair; for the EXO collaboration

2013-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

350

REVIVING ABANDONED RESERVOIRS WITH HIGH-PRESSURE AIR INJECTION: APPLICATION IN A FRACTURED AND KARSTED DOLOMITE RESERVOIR  

SciTech Connect

The field operator, Goldrus Producing Company, has been unable to secure funding needed to continue the field demonstration phase of the project. Accordingly, we have temporarily halted all project activities until necessary funding is obtained. Goldrus felt confident that funds could be acquired by third quarter 2005 at which time it would have been necessary to request a project extension to complete the originally designed study. A project extension was granted but it appears Goldrus will have difficulty securing funds. We Bureau of Economic Geology are investigating a new approach on how to fulfill our initial objectives of promoting high-pressure air injection of Ellenburger reservoirs.

Robert Loucks; Stephen C. Ruppel

2006-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

351

L-Prize Competition Winner 60W Incandescent Replacement Lamp Update  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Interagency Technology Deployment Working Group L Prize ® Competition Winner 60W Incandescent Replacement Lamp Update James E. Rannels, Senior Advisor L Prize Competition D&R International March 15, 2012 Cost of electricity 1 cent per kilowatt-hour The Washington Post, March 8, 2012 Page One 2 Cost of electricity 11 cents per kilowatt-hour The Washington Post, March 9, 2012 Page Two 3 What Is the L Prize? * Technology competition to spur innovation and exceptional performance * Created by Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA 2007) Sec. 655 * Two key lamp replacements: 60W Incandescent and PAR 38 Halogen * Future focus: 21 st Century Lamp * Cash prizes, federal purchasing, utility programs 4 Philips Wins First L Prize * August 3, 2011: Philips

352

L-Prize Competition Winner 60W Incandescent Replacement Lamp Update  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Interagency Technology Deployment Working Group L Prize ® Competition Winner 60W Incandescent Replacement Lamp Update James E. Rannels, Senior Advisor L Prize Competition D&R International March 15, 2012 Cost of electricity 1 cent per kilowatt-hour The Washington Post, March 8, 2012 Page One 2 Cost of electricity 11 cents per kilowatt-hour The Washington Post, March 9, 2012 Page Two 3 What Is the L Prize? * Technology competition to spur innovation and exceptional performance * Created by Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA 2007) Sec. 655 * Two key lamp replacements: 60W Incandescent and PAR 38 Halogen * Future focus: 21 st Century Lamp * Cash prizes, federal purchasing, utility programs 4 Philips Wins First L Prize * August 3, 2011: Philips

353

Magical Mystery Devices or Not: How do LED Lamps and Luminaires Really Measure-Up?  

SciTech Connect

Solid-state lighting products for general lighting applications are now gaining a market presence, and more and more people are asking, “Which of these are ‘good’ products? Do they perform as claimed? How do they compare? Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) differ from other light sources enough to require new procedures for measuring their performance and comparing to other lighting options, so both manufacturers and buyers are facing a learning curve. The energy-efficiency community has traditionally compared light sources based on system efficacy: rated lamp lumens divided by power into the system. This doesn’t work for LEDs because there are no standard LED “lamp” packages and no lamp ratings, and because LED performance depends heavily on thermal, electrical, and optical design of complete lighting unit or ‘luminaire’. Luminaire efficacy is the preferred metric for LEDs because it measures the net light output from the luminaire divided by power into the system.

Paget, Maria L.; McCullough, Jeffrey J.; Steward, Heidi E.

2008-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

354

Selecting effective fluorescent lamp and ballast for retrofit in the continental United States. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Electrical lighting is a major contributor to daytime peak energy demand, accounting for about 30 percent of total electricity consumption in most Army facilities. Some of this energy may be wasted because many existing lighting systems at Army Installations use outmoded technologies. While recent technology has improved the energy efficiency of all lighting systems, fluorescent lighting-the most widely used interior building lighting-has shown the greatest efficiency gains. Retrofits using high-efficiency fluorescent lamps and ballasts can yield significant operating cost savings. High-efficiency fluorescent lighting systems are widely available, but current information on their performance characteristics is highly technical and not easily accessible to Army facility managers considering retrofit options. This report provides a single, accessible source that summarizes fluorescent lamp and ballast performance characteristics and outlines selection procedures. Fluorescent lamp, Retrofit, Ballast, Lighting. Energy conservation.

Taylor, W.R.

1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

355

Nature of the effect of the ballast volumes of flash lamps on their emission  

SciTech Connect

The cause of the decrease in laser efficiency during pumping by flash lamps with increased ballast volumes is the unproductive loss of radiation, originating from the ballast volumes, and the associated change in the radiation brightness distribution along the length of the lamp. The increase radiation brightness at the electrodes of the light source is not the result of constriction of the discharge or the luminescence of the electrode plasma erosion, but is due to the slowing down of the plasma flows by the surface of the electrodes and to the slowing down of the ionized gas moving from the ballast volumes when it meets the denser plasma of the discharge zone. The profile of the current lines at the electrodes is established and the frequency of the axial oscillations of the plasma in the lamp is determined.

Basov, Yu.G.; Makarov, V.N.; Narkhova, G.I.

1975-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

356

High-pressure structural phase transitions in chromium-doped BaFe[subscript 2]As[subscript 2  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We report on the results from high pressure x-ray powder diffraction and electrical resistance measurements for hole doped BaFe{sub 2-x}Cr{sub x}As{sub 2} (x = 0, 0.05, 0.15, 0.4, 0.61) up to 81 GPa and down to 10 K using a synchrotron source and diamond anvil cell (DAC). At ambient temperature, an isostructural phase transition from a tetragonal (T) phase (I4/mmm) to a collapsed tetragonal (CT) phase is observed at 17 GPa. This transition is found to be dependent on ambient pressure unit cell volume and is slightly shifted to higher pressure upon increase in the Cr-doping. Unlike BaFe{sub 2}As{sub 2} which superconduct under high pressure, we have not detected any evidence of pressure induced superconductivity in chromium doped samples in the pressure and temperature range of this study. The measured equation of state parameters are presented for both the tetragonal and collapsed tetragonal phases for x = 0.05, 0.15, 0.40 and 0.61.

Uhoya, W.O.; Montgomery, J.M.; Samudrala, G.K.; Tsoi, G.M.; Vohra, Y.K.; Weir, S.T.; Sefat, A.S. (UAB); (LLNL); (ORNL)

2012-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

357

High-Pressure Studies on CeO2 Nano-Octahedrons with a (111)-Terminated Surface  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In-situ high-pressure X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopies have been performed on well-shaped CeO{sub 2} nano-octahedrons enclosed by eight (111) planes. The CeO{sub 2} nano-octahedrons are shown to be more stable than their bulk counterparts and some other reported CeO{sub 2} nanocrystals of smaller size. The transition pressure from cubic to orthorhombic phase is approximately 10 GPa higher than that of 12 nm CeO{sub 2} nanocrystals even though they have similar volume expansion at ambient conditions. Additionally, the phase transition to {alpha}-PbCl2 phase is very sluggish and uncompleted even up to 55 GPa. The TEM image of the sample after decompression from 55 GPa clearly shows that the nano-octahedrons preserve the starting shape. Such distinct high-pressure behaviors in CeO{sub 2} nano-octahedrons have been discussed in terms of their special exposure surface. Further analysis shows that the lower compressibility of the exposed (111) planes in the nano-octahedrons is believed to be the major factor to the elevation of the phase transition pressure and the sluggishness of the transition.

B Liu

2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

358

The Structural Transition Behavior of CdSe/ZnS Core/shell Quantum Dots under High Pressure  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The structural phase transition of CdSe/ZnS core/shell quantum dots (QDs) has been studied by in situ angle-dispersive X-ray diffraction under high pressure up to 53.6?GPa. The CdSe core transforms from wurtzite to rock-salt structure near 6.3?GPa and then to Cmcm or distorted Cmcm structure probably occurs at 45.1?GPa which has not been observed in CdSe nanomaterials before. The critical pressure from wurtzite to rock-salt and the bulk modulus of rock-salt phase are much higher than those for bulky and uncapped nanoparticle CdSe. The released sample can be kept in rock-salt phase for a certain time, verified by photoluminescence (PL) spectra, quite different from the reversible transition for pure CdSe. A reasonable interpretation of the experimental phenomena is given by comparing the bulk modulus of the core and shell and studying the stress sate of the core after decompression. Our study suggests that capping a hard shell is an effective approach to quench the high pressure phase of nanomaterial with a reversible phase transition.

Z Li; L Wang; B Liu; J Wang; B Liu; Q Li; B Zou; T Cui; Y Meng; H Mao

2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

359

Potential Environmental Impacts from the Metals in Incandescent, Compact Fluorescent Lamp (CFL), and Light-Emitting Diode (LED)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

), and Light-Emitting Diode (LED) Bulbs Seong-Rin Lim, Daniel Kang, Oladele A. Ogunseitan,,§ and Julie M sources with compact fluorescent lamp (CFL) and light-emitting diode (LED) bulbs that use about 70% and 85 lighting systems are transitioning from incandes- cent to compact fluorescent lamp (CFL) and light

Short, Daniel

360

High-Pressure Fluid-Filled Cable Condition Assessment Through Electrical Impulse Testing of PSE&G 230-kV Service-Aged Cable  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report describes electrical and mechanical testing of a service-aged 230-kV high-pressure fluid-filled (HPFF) cable sample that was removed from a Public Service Electric & Gas (PSE&G) underground transmission line.

2008-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high-pressure sodium lamps" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Petrological and geochronological constraints on the metamorphic evolution of high-pressure granulites and eclogites of the Snowbird tectonic zone, Canada  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis examines the petrology and geochronology of high-pressure granulites and eclogites within the Snowbird tectonic zone of the western Canadian Shield. The focus of this study is the East Athabasca mylonite triangle ...

Baldwin, Julia A. (Julia Ann), 1974-

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

362

A light diet for a giant appetite: An assessment of China's proposed fluorescent lamp standard  

SciTech Connect

Lighting has been one of the fastest growing electric end-uses in China over the last twenty years, with an average annual growth rate of 14%. Fluorescent lighting provides a significant portion of China's lighting need. In 1998, China produced 680 million fluorescent lamps, of which 420 million were linear fluorescent lamps of various diameters (T8 to T12). There are substantial variations both in energy efficiency and lighting performance among locally produced fluorescent lamps. Such variations present a perfect opportunity for policy intervention through efficiency standards to promote the adoption of more efficient fluorescent lamps in China. This paper analyzes China's proposed minimum efficiency standard for fluorescent lamps and presents an assessment of its likely impacts on China's lighting energy consumption and GHG emissions.

Lin, Jiang

2002-04-11T23:59:59.000Z

363

High frequency transformerless electronics ballast using double inductor-capacitor resonant power conversion for gas discharge lamps  

SciTech Connect

A novel high frequency LCLC double resonant electronic ballast has been developed for gas discharge lamp applications. The ballast consists of a half-bridge inverter which switches at zero voltage crossing and an LCLC resonant circuit which converts a low ac voltage to a high ac voltage. The LCLC resonant circuit has two LC stages. The first LC stage produces a high voltage before the lamp is ignited. The second LC stage limits lamp current with the circuit inductance after the lamp is ignited. In another embodiment a filament power supply is provided for soft start up and for dimming the lamp. The filament power supply is a secondary of the second resonant inductor. 27 figs.

Lai, J.S.

1995-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

364

15 KJ FLASH LAMP, POWER CONDITIONING UNIT DESIGNED FOR SAFTY, RELIABILITY & MANUFACTURABILITY*  

SciTech Connect

A 15kJoule, Flash Lamp Power Conditioning Unit has been successfully designed, developed, and deployed in the National Ignition Facility (NIF) Preamplifier Modules (PAM). The primary design philosophy of this power conditioning unit (PCU) is safety, reliability, and manufacturability. Cost reduction over commercially equivalent systems was also achieved through an easily manufactured packaging design optimized to meet NIF requirements. While still maintaining low cost, the PCU design includes a robust control system, fault diagnostic system, and safety features. The pulsed power design includes 6 PFN modules, each including a dual series injection trigger transformer, that drive a total of 12 flash lamp loads. The lamps are individually triggered via a 20kV pulse produced by a 1kV, MCT switched capacitive discharge unit on the primary side of the trigger transformer. The remote control interface includes an embedded controller that captures flash lamp current wave forms and fault status for each shot. The embedded controller provides the flexibility of remotely adjusting both the main drive voltage from 1.6 to 2.5 kV and the trigger voltage from 0 to 20 kV.

James, G; Merritt, B; Dreifuerst, G; Strickland, S

2007-08-07T23:59:59.000Z

365

Method and apparatus for powering an electrodeless lamp with reduced radio frequency interference  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An electrodeless lamp waveguide structure includes tuned absorbers for spurious RF signals. A lamp waveguide with an integral frequency selective attenuation includes resonant absorbers positioned within the waveguide to absorb spurious out-of-band RF energy. The absorbers have a negligible effect on energy at the selected frequency used to excite plasma in the lamp. In a first embodiment, one or more thin slabs of lossy magnetic material are affixed to the sidewalls of the waveguide at approximately one quarter wavelength of the spurious signal from an end wall of the waveguide. The positioning of the lossy material optimizes absorption of power from the spurious signal. In a second embodiment, one or more thin slabs of lossy magnetic material are used in conjunction with band rejection waveguide filter elements. In a third embodiment, one or more microstrip filter elements are tuned to the frequency of the spurious signal and positioned within the waveguide to couple and absorb the spurious signal's energy. All three embodiments absorb negligible energy at the selected frequency and so do not significantly diminish the energy efficiency of the lamp.

Simpson, James E. (Gaithersburg, MD)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

366

RF driven sulfur lamp having driving electrodes which face each other  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A high intensity discharge lamp without mercury is disclosed radiating a selected spectrum of which can be almost entirely in the visible range from an envelope that contains a sulfur containing substance. The lamp utilizes a signal source that generates an excitation signal that is externally coupled to the exterior surface of the envelope to excite the enclosed sulfur containing substance. Various embodiments of the lamp use electrodes adjacent the envelope to couple the excitation signal thereto with the face of the electrodes shaped to complement the shape of the exterior surface of the envelope. Two shapes discussed are spherical and cylindrical. To minimize filamentary discharges each envelope may include an elongated stem affixed to the exterior thereof whereby a rotational subsystem spins the envelope. In yet another embodiment the envelope has a Dewar configuration with two electrodes, one positioned near the external curved side surface of the body, and a second to the inner surface of the hole through the envelope. Further, the envelope may contain a backfill of a selected inert gas to assist in the excitation of lamp with that backfill at a pressure of less than 1 atmosphere, wherein the backfill pressure is directly related to the increase or decrease of peak output and inversely related to the increase and decrease of the emitted spectrum from the envelope. The emitting fill can be less than 6 mg/cc, or at least 2 mg/cc of the envelope of a sulfur containing substance. 17 figs.

Gabor, G.; Orr, T.R.; Greene, C.M.; Crawford, D.G.; Berman, S.M.

1999-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

367

Method and apparatus for powering an electrodeless lamp with reduced radio frequency interference  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An electrodeless lamp waveguide structure includes tuned absorbers for spurious RF signals. A lamp waveguide with an integral frequency selective attenuation includes resonant absorbers positioned within the waveguide to absorb spurious out-of-band RF energy. The absorbers have a negligible effect on energy at the selected frequency used to excite plasma in the lamp. In a first embodiment, one or more thin slabs of lossy magnetic material are affixed to the sidewalls of the waveguide at approximately one quarter wavelength of the spurious signal from an end wall of the waveguide. The positioning of the lossy material optimizes absorption of power from the spurious signal. In a second embodiment, one or more thin slabs of lossy magnetic material are used in conjunction with band rejection waveguide filter elements. In a third embodiment, one or more microstrip filter elements are tuned to the frequency of the spurious signal and positioned within the waveguide to couple and absorb the spurious signal's energy. All three embodiments absorb negligible energy at the selected frequency and so do not significantly diminish the energy efficiency of the lamp. 18 figs.

Simpson, J.E.

1999-06-08T23:59:59.000Z

368

Issues, Models and Solutions for Triac Modulated Phase Dimming of LED Lamps  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

/a 30 lumens 0.1 Incandescent Bulb 15 W 225 lumens 15 Fluorescent Tube Lamp 10 W 500 lumens 50 White LED bulbs, and fluorescent lights, produce light that is radiated in all directions, LEDs produce a focused especially on the potential of white LED lights, which are an important and newly emerging lighting

Lehman, Brad

369

A Local AFOS MOS Program (LAMP) and its Application to Wind Prediction  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Techniques Development Laboratory has a project called the local AFOS MOS Program (LAMP). Its purpose is the development of a system which can produce at any hour of the day in a Weather Service Forecast Office (WSFO) environment Model Output ...

Harry R. Glahn; David A. Unger

1986-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

370

The Fuzzy Design of the Intelligent System for the Energy-Saving Lamps  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In the paper, a intelligent system was proposed. It consists of variable converter and intelligent controller. Variable reactor which concludes variable reactance converter and power converter has wide applications in the soft starting, speed controlling ... Keywords: fuzzy control, variable reactor, intelligent control, power converter, Energy-Saving Lamps

Youxin Yuan; Kaihua Cui; Yiping Xiao; Tieliang Xu

2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

371

Energy Performance and Emissions of Electronic Ballasts Powering 4-Foot Fluorescent Lamps  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This power quality (PQ) case study presents tests performed at the Worcester Polytechnic Institute, in contract with the EPRI Power Electronics Applications Center (PEAC) to determine the average efficacy (lumens per watt), displacement power factor, total power factor, and current harmonic distortion of modern electronic ballasts powering fluorescent lamps.

2003-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

372

High frequency electronic ballast for HID lamps. Technical progress report, October 1, 1993--December 31, 1994  

SciTech Connect

Electronic Ballast Systems Corp. has been working on the development of highly efficient (94%) electronic ballast for HID lamps (35W,...,400W) providing energy savings of up to thirty five percent (35%) as compared to the only available alternative, the standard core and coil HID ballasts currently on the market.

1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

373

Electronic screw-in ballast and improved circline lamp phase I. Final report  

SciTech Connect

A solid state ballast has been designed for the efficient operation of a 10 in circline fluorescent lamp. The circuit can be manufactured using power hybrid technology. Eight discrete component versions of the ballasts have been delivered to LBL for testing. The results show the solid state fluorescent ballast system is more efficient than the core-coil ballasted systems on the market.

Kohler, T.P.

1980-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

374

A Comparative Verification of Localized Aviation Model Output Statistics Program (LAMP) and Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) Model Forecasts of Ceiling Height and Visibility  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In an effort to support aviation forecasting, the National Weather Service’s Meteorological Development Laboratory (MDL) has recently redeveloped the Localized Aviation Model Output Statistics (MOS) Program (LAMP) system. LAMP is designed to run ...

David E. Rudack; Judy E. Ghirardelli

2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

375

It's Elemental - The Element Sodium  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Neon Neon Previous Element (Neon) The Periodic Table of Elements Next Element (Magnesium) Magnesium The Element Sodium [Click for Isotope Data] 11 Na Sodium 22.98976928 Atomic Number: 11 Atomic Weight: 22.98976928 Melting Point: 370.95 K (97.80°C or 208.04°F) Boiling Point: 1156 K (883°C or 1621°F) Density: 0.97 grams per cubic centimeter Phase at Room Temperature: Solid Element Classification: Metal Period Number: 3 Group Number: 1 Group Name: Alkali Metal What's in a name? From the English word soda and from the Medieval Latin word sodanum, which means "headache remedy." Sodium's chemical symbol comes from the Latin word for sodium carbonate, natrium. Say what? Sodium is pronounced as SO-dee-em. History and Uses: Although sodium is the sixth most abundant element on earth and comprises

376

Stress Testing of the Philips 60W Replacement Lamp L Prize Entry  

SciTech Connect

The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, operated by Battelle for the U.S. Department of Energy, worked with Intertek to develop a procedure for stress testing medium screw-base light sources. This procedure, composed of alternating stress cycles and performance evaluation, was used to qualitatively compare and contrast the durability and reliability of the Philips 60W replacement lamp L Prize entry with market-proven compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs) with comparable light output and functionality. The stress cycles applied simultaneous combinations of electrical, thermal, vibration, and humidity stresses of increasing magnitude. Performance evaluations measured relative illuminance, x chromaticity and y chromaticity shifts after each stress cycle. The Philips L Prize entry lamps appear to be appreciably more durable than the incumbent energy-efficient technology, as represented by the evaluated CFLs, and with respect to the applied stresses. Through the course of testing, all 15 CFL samples permanently ceased to function as a result of the applied stresses, while only 1 Philips L Prize entry lamp exhibited a failure, the nature of which was minor, non-destructive, and a consequence of a known (and resolved) subcontractor issue. Given that current CFL technology appears to be moderately mature and no Philips L Prize entry failures could be produced within the stress envelope causing 100 percent failure of the benchmark CFLs, it seems that, in this particular implementation, light-emitting diode (LED) technology would be much more durable in the field than current CFL technology. However, the Philips L Prize entry lamps used for testing were carefully designed and built for the competition, while the benchmark CFLs were mass produced for retail sale—a distinction that should be taken into consideration. Further reliability testing on final production samples would be necessary to judge the extent to which the results of this analysis apply to production versions of the Philips L Prize entry.

Poplawski, Michael E.; Ledbetter, Marc R.; Smith, Mark

2012-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

377

Fluid transport properties of rock fractures at high pressure and temperature. Progress report, July 1, 1976--June 30, 1977  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Initial stages of a study on the fluid transport properties of rock at high pressure and temperature are reported. Emphasis is placed on the mechanical hydraulic interactions, in an attempt to clarify the process of fracture closure and its influence on fracture permeability. To determine the fluid transport properties of a fracture, the effect of surface roughness, geometry, and filling on fracture permeability was investigated. Permeability of these fractures was measured at various effective normal stresses at room temperature. The law of effective stress appears valid for fractures without filling but permeability of filled fractures is more sensitive to confining pressure than pore pressure. Permeability of smooth surfaces varied 5 to 0.5 darcys over a range of effective stresses from 0 to 3000 bars. Filled fractures were an order of magnitude more permeable.

Engelder, T.; Scholz, C.

1977-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

378

Phase Transition of ZnxMn1-xS Dilute Magnetic Semiconductor Nanoparticles under Ultra-high Pressure  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The high-pressure behavior of different doping content of ZnS nanocrystals has been investigated using angle-dispersive synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction up to 45.1 GPa. A phase transformation from the zinc-blende(ZB) to the rock-salt (RS) structure is observed at pressures of about 17.7 and 18.3 GPa at room temperature, corresponding to the Mn{sup 2+} ion mole percent content solutions 0.85% and 1.26%, respectively. The obtained results indicate that the Mn{sup 2+} doping could obviously enhance the phase transition pressure of ZnS nanocrystal. The elevation of phase transition pressure could origin from the higher surface energy induced by ion doping.

Z Zong; Y Ma; T Hu; Q Cui; M Zhang; G Zou

2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

379

High Pressure Coolant Injection (HPCI) System Risk-Based Inspection Guide for Browns Ferry Nuclear Power Station  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The High Pressure Coolant Injection (HPCI) system has been examined from a risk perspective. A System Risk-Based Inspection Guide (S-RIG) has been developed as an aid to HPCI system inspections at the Browns Ferry Nuclear Power Plant, Units 1, 2 and 3. The role of. the HPCI system in mitigating accidents is discussed in this S-RIG, along with insights on identified risk-based failure modes which could prevent proper operation of the system. The S-RIG provides a review of industry-wide operating experience, including plant-specific illustrative examples to augment the PRA and operational considerations in identifying a catalogue of basic PRA failure modes for the HPCI system. It is designed to be used as a reference for routine inspections, self-initiated safety system functional inspections (SSFIs), and the evaluation of risk significance of component failures at the nuclear power plant.

Wong, S.; DiBiasio, A.; Gunther, W. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

380

Phase Diagram and Physical Properties of H[subscript 2]O at High Pressures and temperatures: Applications to Planetary Interiors  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Here we discuss the phase diagram and physical properties of H{sub 2}O under pressure-temperature conditions relevant to planetary interiors. Recent studies show that the melting curve of H{sub 2}O increases rapidly above a recently discovered triple point at approximately 35 to 47 GPa and 1000 K, indicating a large increase in {Delta}V/{Delta}S (volume versus entropy change) and associated changes in the physical properties of H{sub 2}O at high pressures and temperatures. Existence of the triple point is thought to be associated with the formation of a superionic phase, dynamically-disordered ice VII, or extension of the ice VII-ice X phase boundary; although the precise pressure and temperature of the triple point, curvature of the melting line, and nature of the solid-solid transition below the triple point all remain to be further explored. The steep increase in the melting curve of H{sub 2}O at high pressures and temperatures has important implications on our understanding of planetary interiors. Depending on its curvature, the melting line of H{sub 2}O may intersect the isentropes of Neptune and Uranus as well as the geotherm of Earth's lower mantle. Furthermore, if the triple point is due to the occurrence of the theoretically predicted superionic phase, besides leading to significant ionic conductivity, fast proton diffusion would cause enhanced chemical reactivity and formation of complex compounds in these planets. For example, reaction of H{sub 2}O with iron and other metals to form metal hydrides such as FeH{sub x} could provide a mechanism for incorporation of hydrogen as a light element into Earth's core. The equation of state of water is also presented as it pertains to the properties of hydrous fluid and melt phases in the mantle.

Lin, Jung-Fu; Schwegler, Eric; Yoo, Choong-Shik (LLNL)

2007-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high-pressure sodium lamps" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Evaluation of ceramic filters for high-temperature/high-pressure fine particulate control. Final report Dec 75-Jun 76  

SciTech Connect

High temperature gas turbines used to generate electric power require gas streams virtually free of particulate matter. Gas streams from high temperature, high pressure coal processes, such as low Btu gasification and pressurized fluidized bed combustion, require considerable particulate removal. In order to maintain high thermal efficiency the particulate clean-up must be done at the high temperatures of the process. Many new concepts for fine particulate control at elevated temperatures are presently being proposed. One such concept utilizes ceramic membrane filters. The report gives results of a study to analyze and evaluate ceramic membrane filters as a new, fine particulate (<3 um) control concept for high-temperature (approx. 900/sup 0/C), high-pressure processes. Several ceramic filters were identified as potential candidates for fine particulate removal. There does not seem to be any inherent material limitation to high-temperature operation; however, no evidence of high-temperature filter application was found. The filters typically are 2-6 mm thick, cylindrical, and available with various pore sizes, increasing upward from 0.5 um. These elements may be suitable for fine particulate control in hot gas streams. The most promising, although undeveloped, idea for a ceramic filter is to use ceramic honeycomb monoliths similar to those available for catalyst supports and heat exchangers. The walls of the monoliths are about 0.2-0.4 mm thick and of varying pore size and porosity. Geometric configurations are available which would force the gas to flow through the membrane walls. Pressure losses would be very small relative to those of standard ceramic filter elements. The application of ceramic monoliths to high-temperature fine particulate control appears very promising. It is strongly recommended that this concept be investigated further.

Poe, G.G.; Evans, R.M.; Bonnett, W.S.; Waterland, L.R.

1977-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

382

Coal desulfurization with sodium hypochlorite.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Wet desulfurization of Pittsburgh No. 8 coal and Illinois No. 6 coal were conducted with sodium hypochlorite in the laboratory. Pittsburgh No. 8 coal was… (more)

Li, Wei, M.S.

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

383

Thermophysical Properties of Sodium Nitrate and Sodium Chloride  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

Thermophysical Properties of Sodium Nitrate and Sodium Chloride Thermophysical Properties of Sodium Nitrate and Sodium Chloride Solutions and Their Effects on Fluid Flow in Unsaturated Media Tianfu Xu and Karsten Pruess Earth Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 ABSTRACT. Understanding movement of saline sodium nitrate (NaNO 3 ) waste solutions is important for assessing the contaminant migration near leaking waste storage tanks in the unsaturated zone at the Hanford site (Washington, USA). The purpose of this study is to contribute a basic understanding of effects of the thermophysical behavior of NaNO 3 solutions on fluid flow in unsaturated media. We first present mathematical expressions for the dependence of density, viscosity, solubility and vapor pressure of

384

High pressure ceramic joint  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Many recuperators have components which react to corrosive gases and are used in applications where the donor fluid includes highly corrosive gases. These recuperators have suffered reduced life, increased service or maintenance, and resulted in increased cost. The present joint when used with recuperators increases the use of ceramic components which do not react to highly corrosive gases. Thus, the present joint used with the present recuperator increases the life, reduces the service and maintenance, and reduces the increased cost associated with corrosive action of components used to manufacture recuperators. The present joint is comprised of a first ceramic member, a second ceramic member, a mechanical locking device having a groove defined in one of the first ceramic member and the second ceramic member. The joint and the mechanical locking device is further comprised of a refractory material disposed in the groove and contacting the first ceramic member and the second ceramic member. The present joint mechanically provides a high strength load bearing joint having good thermal cycling characteristics, good resistance to a corrosive environment and good steady state strength at elevated temperatures. 4 figures.

Ward, M.E.; Harkins, B.D.

1993-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

385

High pressure ceramic joint  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Many recuperators have components which react to corrosive gases and are used in applications where the donor fluid includes highly corrosive gases. These recuperators have suffered reduced life, increased service or maintenance, and resulted in increased cost. The present joint when used with recuperators increases the use of ceramic components which do not react to highly corrosive gases. Thus, the present joint used with the present recuperator increases the life, reduces the service and maintenance, and reduces the increased cost associated with corrosive action of components used to manufacture recuperators. The present joint is comprised of a first ceramic member, a second ceramic member, a mechanical locking device having a groove defined in one of the first ceramic member and the second ceramic member. The joint and the mechanical locking device is further comprised of a refractory material disposed in the groove and contacting the first ceramic member and the second ceramic member. The present joint mechanically provides a high strength load bearing joint having good thermal cycling characteristics, good resistance to a corrosive environment and good steady state strength at elevated temperatures.

Ward, Michael E. (Poway, CA); Harkins, Bruce D. (San Diego, CA)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

386

High pressure storage vessel  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Disclosed herein is a composite pressure vessel with a liner having a polar boss and a blind boss a shell is formed around the liner via one or more filament wrappings continuously disposed around at least a substantial portion of the liner assembly combined the liner and filament wrapping have a support profile. To reduce susceptible to rupture a locally disposed filament fiber is added.

Liu, Qiang

2013-08-27T23:59:59.000Z

387

High intensity discharge 400-watt sodium ballast. Phase I. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The results of a research and development program directed toward design, test, and evaluation of energy efficient High Intensity Discharge (HID) Solid State 400-Watt Ballast lighting system are reported. Phase I of the project which was designed to modify the existing Datapower ballast to LBL configuration, measure performance characteristics, and compare efficiency with a core/coil ballast including energy loss analysis is covered. In addition, Datapower was tasked to build six (6) prototype 400-Watt High Pressure Sodium Ballasts for verification tests by an independent test facility and follow-on performance and life tests at LBL.

Felper, G.

1980-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

388

REVIVING ABANDONED RESERVOIRS WITH HIGH-PRESSURE AIR INJECTION: APPLICATION IN A FRACTURED AND KARSTED DOLOMITE RESERVOIR  

SciTech Connect

The Bureau of Economic Geology (BEG) and Goldrus Producing Company have assembled a multidisciplinary team of geoscientists and engineers to evaluate the applicability of high-pressure air injection (HPAI) in revitalizing a nearly abandoned carbonate reservoir in the Permian Basin of West Texas. The characterization phase of the project is utilizing geoscientists and petroleum engineers from the Bureau of Economic Geology (BEG) and the Department of Petroleum and Geosystems Engineering (both at The University of Texas at Austin) to define the controls on fluid flow in the reservoir as a basis for developing a reservoir model. This model will be used to define a field deployment plan that Goldrus, a small independent oil company, will implement by drilling both vertical and horizontal wells during the demonstration phase of the project. Additional reservoir data were to be generated during the demonstration phase to improve the accuracy of the reservoir model. The demonstration phase has been delayed by Goldrus because of funding problems. Since the first of the year, Goldrus has been active in searching for partners to help finance the project. To this end it has commissioned several small consulting studies to technically support its effort to secure a partner. After financial support is obtained, the demonstration phase of the project will proceed. Since just after the beginning of the year, BEG has curtailed project activities and spending of DOE funds except for the continued support of one engineering student. This student has now completed his work and has written a thesis describing his research (titled ''Stimulating enhanced oil recovery (EOR) by high-pressure air injection (HPAI) in west Texas light oil reservoir''). We plan to recommence our work on the project as soon as the operator obtains necessary funding to carry out the demonstration phase of the project. In order to complete all activities specified in the proposal, it will be necessary to request an extension of the project from the originally defined completion date. We are confident that Goldrus will obtain the necessary funding to continue and that we can complete the project if an extension is granted. We strongly believe that the results of this study will provide the impetus for a new approach to enhanced oil recovery in the Permian Basin and elsewhere in the United States.

Robert Loucks; Steve Ruppel; Julia Gale; Jon Holder; Jon Olson; Deanna Combs; Dhiraj Dembla

2004-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

389

Treatability study for removal of leachable mercury in crushed fluorescent lamps  

SciTech Connect

Nonserviceable fluorescent lamps removed from radiological control areas at the Oak Ridge Department of Energy facilities have been crushed and are currently managed as mixed waste (hazardous and radiologically contaminated). We present proposed treatment flowsheets and supporting treatability study data for conditioning this solid waste residue so that it can qualify for disposal in a sanitary landfill. Mercury in spent fluorescent lamps occurs primarily as condensate on high-surface-area phosphor material. It can be solubilized with excess oxidants (e.g., hypochlorite solution) and stabilized by complexation with halide ions. Soluble mercury in dechlorinated saline solution is effectively removed by cementation with zero-valent iron in the form of steel wool. In packed column dynamic flow testing, soluble mercury was reduced to mercury metal and insoluble calomel, loading > 1.2 g of mercury per grain of steel wool before an appreciable breakthrough of soluble mercury in the effluent.

Bostick, W.D.; Beck, D.E.; Bowser, K.T. [and others

1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

390

AN ADVANCED SODIUM-GRAPHITE REACTOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANT  

SciTech Connect

An advanced sodium-cooled, graphite-moderated nuclear power plant is described which utilizes high-pressure, high-temperature steam to generate electricity at a high thermal efficiency. Steam is generated at 2400 psig, superheated to 1050 deg F and, after partial expansion in the turbine, reheated to 1000 deg F. Net thermal efficiency of the plant is 42.3%. In a plant sized to produce a net electrical output of 256 Mw, the estimated cost is 8232/kw. Estimated cost of power generation is 6.7 mills/kwh. In a similar plant with a net electrical output of 530 Mw, the estimated power generating cost is 5.4 mills/ kwh. Most of the components of the plant are within the capability of current technology. The major exception is the fuel material, uranium carbide. Preliminary results of the development work now in progress indicate that uranium carbide would be an excellent fuel for high-temperature reactors, but temperature and burnup limitation have yet to be firmly established. Additional development work is also required on the steam generators. These are the single-barrier type similar to those which will be used in the Enrico Fernri Fast Breeder Reactor plant but produce steam at higher pressure and temperature. Questions also remain regarding the use of nitrogen as a cover gas over sodium at 1200 deg F and compatibility of the materials used in the primary neutron shield. All of these questions are currently under investigation. (auth)

Churchill, J.R.; Renard, J.

1960-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

391

Determination of mercury distribution inside spent compact fluorescent lamps by atomic absorption spectrometry  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer New treatments for CFL are required considering the aim of Directive 202/96/CE. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It is shown that most of the mercury introduced into a CFL is in the phosphor powder. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Experimental conditions for microwave-assisted sample digestion followed by AAS measurements are described. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer By washing the glass it is possible to reduce the concentration below legal limits. - Abstract: In this study, spent compact fluorescent lamps were characterized to determine the distribution of mercury. The procedure used in this research allowed mercury to be extracted in the vapor phase, from the phosphor powder, and the glass matrix. Mercury concentration in the three phases was determined by the method known as cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry. Median values obtained in the study showed that a compact fluorescent lamp contained 24.52 {+-} 0.4 ppb of mercury in the vapor phase, 204.16 {+-} 8.9 ppb of mercury in the phosphor powder, and 18.74 {+-} 0.5 ppb of mercury in the glass matrix. There are differences in mercury concentration between the lamps since the year of manufacture or the hours of operation affect both mercury content and its distribution. The 85.76% of the mercury introduced into a compact fluorescent lamp becomes a component of the phosphor powder, while more than 13.66% is diffused through the glass matrix. By washing and eliminating all phosphor powder attached to the glass surface it is possible to classified the glass as a non-hazardous waste.

Rey-Raap, Natalia [Departamento de Ingenieria Mecanica y Construccion, Universitat Jaume I de Castellon, Av. de Vicent Sos Baynat s/n, 12071 Castellon de la Plana, Espana (Spain); Gallardo, Antonio, E-mail: gallardo@emc.uji.es [Departamento de Ingenieria Mecanica y Construccion, Universitat Jaume I de Castellon, Av. de Vicent Sos Baynat s/n, 12071 Castellon de la Plana, Espana (Spain)

2012-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

392

High-Efficiency, Ultra-High Pressure Electrolysis With Direct Linkage to PV Arrays - Phase II SBIR Final Report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In this Phase II SBIR, Avalence LLC met all proposed objectives. Because the original Phase III partner pulled out of the project, several alternative sites/partners were used to achieve the goals. The on-site operation and PV measurements were performed on a smaller unit at General Motors proving grounds in Milford, MI. The actual equipment targeted for AC Transit will be delivered to Robins Air Force Base in September of 2009 to support the fueling of a fuel cell powered fork lift and 'Bobcat'. In addition the Transit Agency Site Requirements and Constraints were performed for the Greater New Haven Transit District (GNHTD) for the Hamden, CT Public Works building that will be the site for a similar fueling station to be delivered in the Spring of 2010. The Detailed Design Package was also based on the Design for the GNHTD unit. The work on this project successfuly demonstrated the potential of Avalence's high pressure technology to address the need for renewably produced hydrogen fuel for transportation applications. Several follow-on projects in a numerber of related applications are now underway as a result of this SBIR project.

Martin A Shimko

2009-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

393

Effects of high pressure-dependent leakoff and high process-zone stress in coal-stimulation treatments  

SciTech Connect

Hydraulic fracturing in coals has been studied extensively over the last two decades; however, there are factors that were often ignored or incorrectly diagnosed, resulting in screenouts. Assuming that a majority of the perforations are open and there are no problems with the stimulation fluids, screenouts during coal hydraulic-fracture treatments can be attributed to either high pressure-dependent leakoff (PDL), high process-zone stress (PZS) or in some cases both. The objective of this work is to discuss, help identify, and present solutions to address these reservoir-related issues such that screenouts can be avoided in optimized refracture treatments and new well stimulations. The tools for identifying these reservoir-related parameters include a diagnostic fracture-injection test (DFIT) and a grid-oriented fully functional 3D fracture simulator with shear decoupling. An example for each respective case is presented in this paper. In the first example, in which high PZS was considered to be the dominant reason for screenout or pressure out, the well was restimulated successfully by implementing the solutions presented in this paper. In the second example, in which high PDL was considered to be the main reason for screenout, there were several wells in the same project area that exhibited the same behavior resulting in screenouts. After implementing the solutions presented in this paper to address high PDL, all new wells were stimulated successfully without any issues.

Ramurthy, M.; Lyons, B.; Hendrickson, R.B.; Barree, R.D.; Magill, D.R. [Halliburton, Denver, CO (United States)

2009-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

394

Apparatus and method for enhanced chemical processing in high pressure and atmospheric plasmas produced by high frequency electromagnetic waves  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An apparatus and method for creating high temperature plasmas for enhanced chemical processing of gaseous fluids, toxic chemicals, and the like, at a wide range of pressures, especially at atmospheric and high pressures includes an electro-magnetic resonator cavity, preferably a reentrant cavity, and a wave guiding structure which connects an electro-magnetic source to the cavity. The cavity includes an intake port and an exhaust port, each having apertures in the conductive walls of the cavity sufficient for the intake of the gaseous fluids and for the discharge of the processed gaseous fluids. The apertures are sufficiently small to prevent the leakage of the electro-magnetic radiation from the cavity. Gaseous fluid flowing from the direction of the electro-magnetic source through the guiding wave structure and into the cavity acts on the plasma to push it away from the guiding wave structure and the electro-magnetic source. The gaseous fluid flow confines the high temperature plasma inside the cavity and allows complete chemical processing of the gaseous fluids at a wide range of pressures.

Efthimion, Philip C. (Bedminister, NJ); Helfritch, Dennis J. (Flemington, NJ)

1989-11-28T23:59:59.000Z

395

REVIVING ABANDONED RESERVOIRS WITH HIGH-PRESSURE AIR INJECTION: APPLICATION IN A FRACTURED AND KARSTED DOLOMITE RESERVOIR  

SciTech Connect

The Bureau of Economic Geology and Goldrus Producing Company have assembled a multidisciplinary team of geoscientists and engineers to evaluate the applicability of high-pressure air injection (HPAI) in revitalizing a nearly abandoned carbonate reservoir in the Permian Basin of West Texas. The characterization phase of the project is utilizing geoscientists and petroleum engineers from the bureau of Economic Geology and the Department of Petroleum Engineering (both at The University of Texas at Austin) to define the controls on fluid flow in the reservoir as a basis for developing a reservoir model. This model will be used to define a field deployment plant that Goldrus, a small independent oil company, will implement by drilling both vertical and horizontal wells during the demonstration phase of the project. Additional reservoir data are being gathered during the demonstration phase to improve the accuracy of the reservoir model. The results of the demonstration are being closely monitored to provide a basis for improving the design of the HPAI field deployment plan. The results of the reservoir characterization field demonstration and monitoring program will be documented and widely disseminated to facilitate adoption of this technology by oil operators in the Permian Basin and elsewhere in the US.

Robert Loucks; Steve Ruppel; Julia Gale; Jon Holder; Jon Olsen; Deanna Combs; Dhiraj Dembla; Leonel Gomez

2003-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

396

Phase Behavior of H[subscript 2] + H[subscript 2]O at High Pressures and Low Temperatures  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Whereas several clathrate-like structures are known to exist from mixtures of H{sub 2} + H{sub 2}O under pressure, the combined high-pressure and low-temperature region of the phase diagram remains largely unexplored. Here we report a combined Raman spectroscopy and synchrotron X-ray diffraction study on the low-temperature region of the phase diagram. Below 120 K, the H{sub 2} vibron originating from the clathrate 2 (C{sub 2}) phase splits into two distinct components, yet X-ray diffraction measurements reveal no structural change between room temperature and 11 K. We suggest that the two vibrons of the C{sub 2} phase at low temperature originate from vibrational transitions of hydrogen molecules in the ground and first excited rotational energy levels. At 1 GPa we observe the clathrate 1 (C{sub 1}) phase to persist to the lowest temperature measured (80 K). Upon decompression from the C{sub 2} phase we observed the appearance of cubic ice (I{sub c}), which converted to a new phase before transforming to the C{sub 1} phase. The structure of the new phase is consistent with a water framework similar to {alpha}-quartz; the structure could also be related to the tetragonal clathrate phase reported previously for nitrogen and argon guests.

Strobel, Timothy A.; Somayazulu, Maddury; Hemley, Russell J. (CIW)

2011-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

397

In situ high-pressure x-ray diffraction study of H[subscript 2]O ice VII  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Ice VII was examined over the entire range of its pressure stability by a suite of x-ray diffraction techniques in order to understand a number of unexplained characteristics of its high-pressure behavior. Axial and radial polycrystalline (diamond anvil cell) x-ray diffraction measurements reveal a splitting of diffraction lines accompanied by changes in sample texture and elastic anisotropy. In situ laser heating of polycrystalline samples resulted in the sharpening of diffraction peaks due to release of nonhydrostatic stresses but did not remove the splitting. Radial diffraction measurements indicate changes in strength of the material at this pressure. Taken together, these observations provide evidence for a transition in ice VII near 14 GPa involving changes in the character of the proton order/disorder. The results are consistent with previous reports of changes in phase boundaries and equation of state at this pressure. The transition can be interpreted as ferroelastic with the appearance of spontaneous strain that vanishes at the hydrogen bond symmetrization transition near 60 GPa.

Somayazulu, M.; Shu, J.; Zha, C.-S.; Goncharov, A.F. (CIW)

2008-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

398

DEVELOPMENT OF ASME SECTION X CODE RULES FOR HIGH PRESSURE COMPOSITE HYDROGEN PRESSURE VESSELS WITH NON-LOAD SHARING LINERS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Boiler and Pressure Vessel Project Team on Hydrogen Tanks was formed in 2004 to develop Code rules to address the various needs that had been identified for the design and construction of up to 15000 psi hydrogen storage vessel. One of these needs was the development of Code rules for high pressure composite vessels with non-load sharing liners for stationary applications. In 2009, ASME approved new Appendix 8, for Section X Code which contains the rules for these vessels. These vessels are designated as Class III vessels with design pressure ranging from 20.7 MPa (3,000 ps)i to 103.4 MPa (15,000 psi) and maximum allowable outside liner diameter of 2.54 m (100 inches). The maximum design life of these vessels is limited to 20 years. Design, fabrication, and examination requirements have been specified, included Acoustic Emission testing at time of manufacture. The Code rules include the design qualification testing of prototype vessels. Qualification includes proof, expansion, burst, cyclic fatigue, creep, flaw, permeability, torque, penetration, and environmental testing.

Rawls, G.; Newhouse, N.; Rana, M.; Shelley, B.; Gorman, M.

2010-04-13T23:59:59.000Z

399

Significantly improved piezoelectric thermal stability of cellular polypropylene films by high pressure fluorination and post-treatments  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Cellular polypropylene (PP) films were fluorinated under a high pressure of 13 bar of the F{sub 2}/N{sub 2} mixture and were post-treated by nitrous oxide and isothermal crystallization. The fluorinated and post-treated PP films after being expanded and corona charged exhibit a significantly improved piezoelectric thermal stability. After annealing at 70 deg. C for 151 h or at 90 deg. C for 224 h, the piezoelectric d{sub 33} value of the fluorinated and post-treated piezoelectric sample still retains 58% or 45% of its initial d{sub 33} value, while the corresponding value of the virgin piezoelectric sample has decreased to 29% or 15% of the initial value. Chemical composition analysis of the cross section of the fluorinated and post-treated film by energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy indicates that the internal layers have been fluorinated, in spite of a lower degree of fluorination compared with the fluorinated surface layer. Short-circuit and open-circuit TSD current measurements reveal that the fluorinated internal layers, like the fluorinated surface layer, also have very deep charge traps, although there probably is a difference in density of the deep traps between them. The deeply trapped charge on the internal layers of the fluorinated and post-treated piezoelectric sample is responsible for its significantly improved piezoelectric thermal stability.

An Zhenlian [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Advanced Microstructure Materials, Department of Physics, Tongji University, 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai 200092 (China); State Key Laboratory of Electrical Insulation and Power Equipment, Xi'an Jiaotong University, 28 Xianning West Road, Xi'an 710049 (China); Mao Mingjun; Cang Jun; Zhang Yewen; Zheng Feihu [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Advanced Microstructure Materials, Department of Physics, Tongji University, 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai 200092 (China)

2012-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

400

High-Pressure Evolution of Fe2O3 Electronic Structure Revealed by X-ray Absorption  

SciTech Connect

We report the first high pressure measurement of the Fe K-edge in hematite (Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) by X-ray absorption spectroscopy in partial fluorescence yield geometry. The pressure-induced evolution of the electronic structure as Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} transforms from a high-spin insulator to a low-spin metal is reflected in the x-ray absorption pre-edge. The crystal field splitting energy was found to increase monotonically with pressure up to 48 GPa, above which a series of phase transitions occur. Atomic multiplet, cluster diagonalization, and density-functional calculations were performed to simulate the pre-edge absorption spectra, showing good qualitative agreement with the measurements. The mechanism for the pressure-induced phase transitions of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} is discussed and it is shown that ligand hybridization significantly reduces the critical high-spin/low-spin gap pressure.

Kao, Chi-Chang

2011-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high-pressure sodium lamps" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Integrated-circuit control for two-lamp electronic ballast. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Circuitry is described for a solid-state, high-frequency fluorescent ballast designed to operate two F40 T-12 rapid-start lamps. The circuits are designed to be produced by hybrid integrated circuit (IC) technology. The signal components are produced on a single IC chip; the power transistors are attached to an alumina substrate. The initial IC version reduces the component count by about 50%. The cost of each IC in 500K lots is $0.70, replacing discrete parts costing $2.25. Additional savings of more than $1.00 per unit are realized by the decreased assembly time and improved reliability of the ICs. The system performance (two-lamp F40) was compared to the discrete version of the ballast and to an efficient core-coil ballast and found to be 6% less and 20% more efficient, respectively. The decrease in efficiency relative to the discrete version of the ballast is due to retaining some power to the filaments during operation in order to maintain normal lamp life.

Kohler, T.P.

1982-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

402

City of Orrville, Ohio (Utility Company) | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Orrville, Ohio (Utility Company) Orrville, Ohio (Utility Company) Jump to: navigation, search Name City of Orrville Place Ohio Utility Id 14194 Utility Location Yes Ownership M NERC Location RFC NERC RFC Yes RTO PJM Yes Operates Generating Plant Yes Activity Generation Yes Activity Transmission Yes Activity Buying Transmission Yes Activity Distribution Yes Activity Bundled Services Yes References EIA Form EIA-861 Final Data File for 2010 - File1_a[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Utility Rate Schedules Grid-background.png 100 Watt High Pressure Sodium Lamp Metered Lighting 100 Watt High Pressure Sodium Lamp Unmetered Lighting 150 Watt High Pressure Sodium Lamp Metered Lighting

403

Simulation of sodium boiling experiments with THERMIT sodium version  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Natural and forced convection experiments(SBTF and French) are simulated with the sodium version of the thermal-hydraulic computer code THERMIT. Simulation is done for the test secti- -on with the pressure-velocity boundary ...

Huh, Kang Yul

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

404

Performance of electronic ballasts and other new lighting equipment: (Phase 2, The 34-watt F40 rapid start T-12 fluorescent lamp): Final report  

SciTech Connect

This study has measured the performance of energy-saving 34-watt F40, T-12, rapid-start, lite white fluorescent lamps being operated by solid-state ballasts and lighting control equipment. The performances of these lamp systems are compared with those of 40-watt F40, T-12 rapid-start cool white fluorescent lamp systems studied in the prior phase of this project. With the 34-watt F40 lamps and various solid-state ballasts, system efficacy ranged from 67 to 84 lumens per watt and ballast factor from 0.756 to 0.908. Average system efficacy using the 34-watt lamps exceeded that of systems using 40-watt lamps and the same solid-state ballasts by only 1 percent even though the 34-watt lamps is about 6 percent more efficacious than the 40-watt lamp. This apparent discrepancy is due to increased ballast losses when operating the 34-watt lamps. However, the systems efficacy of the 34-watt lamps used with a solid-state ballast exceeded that of a 34-watt, two-lamp system using the standard core-coil ballast by as much as 29 percent. A T-8 fluorescent lamp system with a smaller lamp diameter was also included in the study. Operating this lamp with a solid-state ballast produced a high system efficacy of 90 lumens per watt, a 39 percent improvement over the efficacy of a 40-watt F40 system using the standard core-coil ballast. The use of static controllers with 34-watt F40 lamps can result in excessive flickering (46 percent) and the generation of a second harmonic as high as 96 percent of the fundamental frequency. The dynamic controllers, when used to dim the 34-watt lamps generally cannot be dimmed as low as the 40-watt lamp system without flickering. In general, the 34-watt energy-saving lamps are appropriate as a retrofit to reduce illumination levels. However, for new construction, the 40-watt F40 argon filled lamps cost less, perform better, and provide a more reliable system. 5 refs., 27 figs., 9 tabs.

Verderber, R.R.; Morse, O.

1988-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

405

Water simulation of sodium reactors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The thermal hydraulic simulation of a large sodium reactor by a scaled water model is examined. The Richardson Number, friction coefficient and the Peclet Number can be closely matched with the water system at full power and the similarity is retained for buoyancy driven flows. The simulation of thermal-hydraulic conditions in a reactor vessel provided by a scaled water experiment is better than that by a scaled sodium test. Results from a correctly scaled water test can be tentatively extrapolated to a full size sodium system.

Grewal, S.S.; Gluekler, E.L.

1981-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

406

High pressure transport characteristics of Bi[subscript 2]Te[subscript 3], Sb[subscript 2]Te[subscript 3], and BiSbTe[subscript 3  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents ambient and high pressure measurements of transport properties of the Bi2Te3-Sb2Te3 series of materials. The electrical resistivity, thermal conductivity, and Seebeck coefficient have been measured on both end compounds and the direct solid solution of the two at pressure up to 10 GPa. An additional discussion involving the high pressure structure will be presented. From this, it was determined that these materials undergo at least two structural phase transitions between 0 and 20 GPa and a discussion is presented regarding this and the changes in the transport properties.

Jacobsen, M.K.; Sinogeikin, S.V.; Kumar, R.S.; Cornelius, A.L. (UNLV); (CIW)

2012-07-25T23:59:59.000Z

407

A New Rb Lamp Exciter Circuit for Rb atomic clocks and Studies on Transition from Ring to Red mode  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this paper we describe the development of novel RF exciter circuit for electrode less Rb lamp. The lamp exciter circuit is a RF oscillator with a a new configuration operating at 60 to 65 MHz frequency with 3 to 4 watt power. The Rb lamp is used in exciting the ground state hyperfine transitions in Rb atom in a glass cell placed inside a tuned microwave cavity, As the frequency of these hyperfine transitions is very stable it is used in the development of Rb atomic clock by phase locking the oven controlled crystal oscillator (OCXO) to this atomic transition frequency. The details of the Rb lamp exciter are presented in the paper.The Lamp is ideally operated in ring mode as in this mode the linewidth is narrow and there is no self reversal. However, high temperature and RF excitation power may drive the Rb lamp to red mode which gives rise to line broadening and self reversal. It is the experience that mode change from ring to red deteriorates the atomic signal strength and S/N. In this paper the reasons of mode change are also discussed.

Savita Singh; Bikash Ghosal; G M Saxena

2010-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

408

Low-Pressure Sodium Lighting  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Low-pressure sodium lighting provides more energy-efficient outdoor lighting than high-intensity discharge lighting, but it has very poor color rendition. Typical applications include highway and...

409

Soot particle sizing during high-pressure Diesel spray combustion via time-resolved laser-induced incandescence  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Single-pulse time-resolved laser-induced incandescence (TiRe-LII) signal transients from soot particulates were acquired during unsteady high pressure Diesel combustion in a constant volume cell for typical top dead center conditions during a Diesel engine cycle. Measurements were performed for initial gas pressures between 1 and 3 MPa, injection pressures between 50 and 130 MPa and laser probe timings between 5 and 16 ms after start of fuel injection. In separate experiments and for the same cell operating conditions gas temperatures were deduced from spectrally resolved soot pyrometry measurements. Implementing the LII model of Kock et al. [Combust. Flame 147 (2006) 79-92] ensemble mean soot particle diameters were evaluated from least-squares fitting of theoretical cooling curves to experimental TiRe-LII signal transients. Since in the experiments the environmental gas temperature and the width of an assumed particle size distribution were not known, the effects of the initial choice of these parameters on retrieved particle diameters were investigated. It is shown that evaluated mean particle diameters are only slightly biased by the choice of typical size distribution widths and gas temperatures. For a fixed combustion phase mean particle diameters are not much affected by gas pressure, however they become smaller at high fuel injection pressure. At a mean chamber pressure of 1.39 MPa evaluated mean particle diameters increased by a factor of two for probe delays between 5 and 16 ms after start of injection irrespective of the choices of first-guess fitting variables, indicating a certain robustness of data analysis procedure. (author)

Ryser, R.; Gerber, T.; Dreier, T. [Reaction Analysis Group, Department of General Energy, Paul Scherrer Institute, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland)

2008-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

410

Soot particle sizing during high-pressure Diesel spray combustion via time-resolved laser-induced incandescence  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Single-pulse time-resolved laser-induced incandescence (TiRe-LII) signal transients from soot particulates were acquired during unsteady high pressure Diesel combustion in a constant volume cell for typical top dead center conditions during a Diesel engine cycle. Measurements were performed for initial gas pressures between 1 and 3 MPa, injection pressures between 50 and 130 MPa and laser probe timings between 5 and 16 ms after start of fuel injection. In separate experiments and for the same cell operating conditions gas temperatures were deduced from spectrally resolved soot pyrometry measurements. Implementing the LII model of Kock et al. [Combust. Flame 147 (20006) 79-92] ensemble mean soot particle diameters were evaluated from least-squares fitting of theoretical cooling curves to experimental TiRe-LII signal transients. Since in the experiments the environmental gas temperature and the width of an assumed particle size distribution were not known, the effects of the initial choice of these parameters on retrieved particle diameters were investigated. It is shown that evaluated mean particle diameters are only slightly biased by the choice of typical size distribution widths and gas temperatures. For a fixed combustion phase mean particle diameters are not much affected by gas pressure, however they become smaller at high fuel injection pressure. At a mean chamber pressure of 1.39 MPa evaluated mean particle diameters increased by a factor of two for probe delays between 5 and 16 ms after start of injection irrespective of the choices of first-guess fitting variables, indicating a certain robustness of data analysis procedure. (author)

Ryser, R.; Gerber, T.; Dreier, T. [Reaction Analysis Group, Department of General Energy, Paul Scherrer Institute, CH-5232 Villigen (Switzerland)

2009-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

411

Field test of two high-pressure direct-contact downhole steam generators. Volume II. Oxygen/diesel system  

SciTech Connect

A field test of an oxygen/diesel fuel, direct contact steam generator has been completed. The field test, which was a part of Project DEEP STEAM and was sponsored by the US Department of Energy, involved the thermal stimulation of a well pattern in the Tar Zone of the Wilmington Oil Field. The activity was carried out in cooperation with the City of Long Beach and the Long Beach Oil Development Company. The steam generator was operated at ground level, with the steam and combustion products delivered to the reservoir through 2022 feet of calcium-silicate insulated tubing. The objectives of the test included demonstrations of safety, operational ease, reliability and lifetime; investigations of reservoir response, environmental impact, and economics; and comparison of those points with a second generator that used air rather than oxygen. The test was extensively instrumented to provide the required data. Excluding interruptions not attributable to the oxygen/diesel system, steam was injected 78% of the time. System lifetime was limited by the combustor, which required some parts replacement every 2 to 3 weeks. For the conditions of this particular test, the use of trucked-in LOX resulted in liess expense than did the production of the equivalent amount of high pressure air using on site compressors. No statistically significant production change in the eight-acre oxygen system well pattern occurred during the test, nor were any adverse effects on the reservoir character detected. Gas analyses during the field test showed very low levels of SOX (less than or equal to 1 ppM) in the generator gaseous effluent. The SOX and NOX data did not permit any conclusion to be drawn regarding reservoir scrubbing. Appreciable levels of CO (less than or equal to 5%) were measured at the generator, and in this case produced-gas analyses showed evidence of significant gas scrubbing. 64 figures, 10 tables.

Moreno, J.B.

1983-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

412

Field test of two high-pressure, direct-contact downhole steam generators. Volume I. Air/diesel system  

SciTech Connect

As a part of the Project DEEP STEAM to develop technology to more efficiently utilize steam for the recovery of heavy oil from deep reservoirs, a field test of a downhole steam generator (DSG) was performed. The DSG burned No. 2 diesel fuel in air and was a direct-contact, high pressure device which mixed the steam with the combustion products and injected the resulting mixture directly into the oil reservoir. The objectives of the test program included demonstration of long-term operation of a DSG, development of operational methods, assessment of the effects of the steam/combustion gases on the reservoir and comparison of this air/diesel DSG with an adjacent oxygen/diesel direct contact generator. Downhole operation of the air/diesel DSG was started in June 1981 and was terminated in late February 1982. During this period two units were placed downhole with the first operating for about 20 days. It was removed, the support systems were slightly modified, and the second one was operated for 106 days. During this latter interval the generator operated for 70% of the time with surface air compressor problems the primary source of the down time. Thermal contact, as evidenced by a temperature increase in the production well casing gases, and an oil production increase were measured in one of the four wells in the air/diesel pattern. Reservoir scrubbing of carbon monoxide was observed, but no conclusive data on scrubbing of SO/sub x/ and NO/sub x/ were obtained. Corrosion of the DSG combustor walls and some other parts of the downhole package were noted. Metallurgical studies have been completed and recommendations made for other materials that are expected to better withstand the downhole combustion environment. 39 figures, 8 tables.

Marshall, B.W.

1983-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

413

Auto-ignition during instationary jet evolution of dimethyl ether (DME) in a high-pressure atmosphere  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The auto-ignition process during transient injection of gaseous dimethyl ether (DME) in a constant high-pressure atmosphere is studied experimentally by laser-optical methods and compared with numerical calculations. With different non-intrusive measurement techniques jet properties and auto-ignition are investigated at high temporal and spatial resolution. The open jet penetrates a constant pressure oxidative atmosphere of up to 4 MPa. During the transient evolution, the fuel jet entrains air at up to 720 K. The subsequent auto-ignition of the ignitable part of the jet occurs simultaneously over a wide spatial extension. The ignition delay times are not affected by variation of the nozzle exit velocity. Thus, the low-temperature oxidation is slow compared with the shorter time scales of mixing, so that chemical kinetics is dominating the process. The typical two-stage ignition is resolved optically with high-speed shadowgraphy at a sampling rate of 10 kHz. The 2D fields of jet velocity and transient mixture fraction are measured phase-coupled with Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) and Tracer Laser Induced Fluorescence (LIF) during the time-frame of ignition. The instationary Probability Density Functions (PDF) of mixture fraction are described very well by Beta functions within the complete area of the open jet. Additional 1D flamelet simulations of the auto-ignition process are computed with a detailed reaction mechanism for DME [S. Fischer, F. Dryer, H. Curran, Int. J. Chem. Kinet. 32 (12) (2000) 713-740; H. Curran, S. Fischer, F. Dryer, Int. J. Chem. Kinet. 32 (12) (2000) 741-759]. Calculated ignition delay times are in very good agreement with the measured mean ignition delay times of 3 ms. Supplemental flamelet simulations address the influence of DME and air temperature, pressure and strain. Underneath a critical strain rate the air temperature is identified to be the most sensitive factor on ignition delay time. (author)

Fast, G.; Kuhn, D.; Class, A.G. [Institut fuer Kern- und Energietechnik, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH, Weberstrasse 5, D-76133 Karlsruhe (Germany); Maas, U. [Institut fuer Technische Thermodynamik, Universitat Karlsruhe (TH), Kaiserstrasse 12, D-76128 Karlsruhe (Germany)

2009-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

414

On the Accuracy of van der Waals Inclusive Density-Functional Theory Exchange-Correlation Functionals for Ice at Ambient and High Pressures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Density-functional theory (DFT) has been widely used to study water and ice for at least 20 years. However, the reliability of different DFT exchange-correlation (xc) functionals for water remains a matter of considerable debate. This is particularly true in light of the recent development of DFT based methods that account for van der Waals (vdW) dispersion forces. Here, we report a detailed study with several xc functionals (semi-local, hybrid, and vdW inclusive approaches) on ice Ih and six proton ordered phases of ice. Consistent with our previous study [Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 185701 (2011)] which showed that vdW forces become increasingly important at high pressures, we find here that all vdW inclusive methods considered improve the relative energies and transition pressures of the high-pressure ice phases compared to those obtained with semi-local or hybrid xc functionals. However, we also find that significant discrepancies between experiment and the vdW inclusive approaches remain in the cohesive properties of the various phases, causing certain phases to be absent from the phase diagram. Therefore, room for improvement in the description of water at ambient and high pressures remains and we suggest that because of the stern test the high pressure ice phases pose they should be used in future benchmark studies of simulation methods for water.

Biswajit Santra; Ji?í Klimeš; Alexandre Tkatchenko; Dario Alfè; Ben Slater; Angelos Michaelides; Roberto Car; Matthias Scheffler

2013-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

415

High-pressure synthesis and crystal structure of the lithium borate HP-LiB{sub 3}O{sub 5}  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The new lithium borate HP-LiB{sub 3}O{sub 5} was synthesized under high-pressure/high-temperature conditions of 6 GPa and 1050 deg. C in a multianvil press with a Walker-type module. The compound crystallizes in the space group Pnma (no. 62) with the lattice parameters a=829.7(2), b=759.6(2), and c=1726.8(4) pm (Z=16). The high-pressure compound HP-LiB{sub 3}O{sub 5} is built up from a three-dimensional network of BO{sub 4} tetrahedra and BO{sub 3} groups, which incorporates Li{sup +} ions in channels along the b-axis. Band assignments of measured IR- and Raman spectra were done via quantum-mechanical calculations. Additionally, the thermal behavior of HP-LiB{sub 3}O{sub 5} was investigated. - Graphical abstract: The new high-pressure compound HP-LiB{sub 3}O{sub 5} is built up from a three-dimensional network of BO4 tetrahedra and BO{sub 3} groups, which incorporates Li{sup +} ions in channels along the b-axis. In this paper, the synthesis, the crystal structure, and the properties of HP-LiB{sub 3}O{sub 5} are described. Highlights: > Synthesis of a new lithium borate with the composition HP-LiB{sub 3}O{sub 5} at high pressure. > In contrast to the non-centrosymmetric phase LiB{sub 3}O{sub 5}, this high-pressure phase is centrosymmetric. > First example of ternary alkali borates exhibiting threefold bridging oxygen atoms.

Neumair, Stephanie C.; Vanicek, Stefan [Institut fuer Allgemeine, Anorganische und Theoretische Chemie, Leopold-Franzens-Universitaet Innsbruck, Innrain 52a, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Kaindl, Reinhard; Toebbens, Daniel M. [Institut fuer Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leopold-Franzens-Universitaet Innsbruck, Innrain 52, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Wurst, Klaus [Institut fuer Allgemeine, Anorganische und Theoretische Chemie, Leopold-Franzens-Universitaet Innsbruck, Innrain 52a, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Huppertz, Hubert, E-mail: Hubert.Huppertz@uibk.ac.at [Institut fuer Allgemeine, Anorganische und Theoretische Chemie, Leopold-Franzens-Universitaet Innsbruck, Innrain 52a, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria)

2011-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

416

The Jamming point street-lamp in the world of granular media  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Jamming of soft spheres at zero temperature, the J-point, has been extensively studied both numerically and theoretically and can now be considered as a safe location in the space of models, where a street lamp has been lit up. However, a recent work by Ikeda et al, 2013 reveals that, in the Temperature/Packing fraction parameter space, experiments on colloids are actually rather far away from the scaling regime illuminated by this lamp. Is it that the J-point has little to say about real system? What about granular media? Such a-thermal, frictional, systems are a-priori even further away from the idealized case of thermal soft spheres. In the past ten years, we have systematically investigated horizontally shaken grains in the vicinity of the Jamming transition. We discuss the above issue in the light of very recent experimental results. First, we demonstrate that the contact network exhibits a remarkable dynamics, with strong heterogeneities, which are maximum at a packing fraction phi star, distinct and smaller than the packing fraction phi dagger, where the average number of contact per particle starts to increase. The two cross-overs converge at point J in the zero mechanical excitation limit. Second, a careful analysis of the dynamics on time scales ranging from a minute fraction of the vibration cycle to several thousands of cycles allows us to map the behaviors of this shaken granular system onto those observed for thermal soft spheres and demonstrate that some light of the J-point street-lamp indeed reaches the granular universe.

Corentin Coulais; Robert P. Behringer; Olivier Dauchot

2013-05-03T23:59:59.000Z

417

REVIVING ABANDONED RESERVOIRS WITH HIGH-PRESSURE AIR INJECTION: APPLICATION IN A FRACTURED AND KARSTED DOLOMITE RESERVOIR  

SciTech Connect

The Bureau of Economic Geology (BEG) and Goldrus Producing Company have assembled a multidisciplinary team of geoscientists and engineers to evaluate the applicability of high-pressure air injection (HPAI) in revitalizing a nearly abandoned carbonate reservoir in the Permian Basin of West Texas. The characterization phase of the project is utilizing geoscientists and petroleum engineers from the Bureau of Economic Geology (BEG) and the Department of Petroleum and Geosystems Engineering (both at The University of Texas at Austin) to define the controls on fluid flow in the reservoir as a basis for developing a reservoir model. This model will be used to define a field deployment plan that Goldrus, a small independent oil company, will implement by drilling both vertical and horizontal wells during the demonstration phase of the project. Additional reservoir data were to be generated during the demonstration phase to improve the accuracy of the reservoir model. The demonstration phase has been delayed by Goldrus because of funding problems. Since the first of the year, Goldrus has been active in searching for partners to help finance the project. After financial support is obtained, the demonstration phase of the project will proceed. Since just after the beginning of the year, BEG has curtailed project activities and spending of DOE funds except for the continued support of one engineering student. This student has now completed his work and his thesis was reported on in the last semi-annual report. We plan to recommence our work on the project as soon as the operator obtains necessary funding to carry out the demonstration phase of the project. In order to complete all activities specified in the proposal, we requested and received an extension of the project to September 30, 2005. We are confident that Goldrus will obtain the necessary funding to continue and that we can complete the project by the end of the extension data. We strongly believe that the results of this study will provide the impetus for a new approach to enhanced oil recovery in the Permian Basin and elsewhere in the United States.

Robert Loucks; Steve Ruppel; Julia Gale; Jon Holder; Jon Olson

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

418

Manufacturing Cost Analysis of Novel Steel/Concrete Composite Vessel for Stationary Storage of High-Pressure Hydrogen  

SciTech Connect

A novel, low-cost, high-pressure, steel/concrete composite vessel (SCCV) technology for stationary storage of compressed gaseous hydrogen (CGH2) is currently under development at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) sponsored by DOE s Fuel Cell Technologies (FCT) Program. The SCCV technology uses commodity materials including structural steels and concretes for achieving cost, durability and safety requirements. In particular, the hydrogen embrittlement of high-strength low-alloy steels, a major safety and durability issue for current industry-standard pressure vessel technology, is mitigated through the use of a unique layered steel shell structure. This report presents the cost analysis results of the novel SCCV technology. A high-fidelity cost analysis tool is developed, based on a detailed, bottom-up approach which takes into account the material and labor costs involved in each of the vessel manufacturing steps. A thorough cost study is performed to understand the SCCV cost as a function of the key vessel design parameters, including hydrogen pressure, vessel dimensions, and load-carrying ratio. The major conclusions include: The SCCV technology can meet the technical/cost targets set forth by DOE s FCT Program for FY2015 and FY2020 for all three pressure levels (i.e., 160, 430 and 860 bar) relevant to the hydrogen production and delivery infrastructure. Further vessel cost reduction can benefit from the development of advanced vessel fabrication technologies such as the highly automated friction stir welding (FSW). The ORNL-patented multi-layer, multi-pass FSW can not only reduce the amount of labor needed for assembling and welding the layered steel vessel, but also make it possible to use even higher strength steels for further cost reductions and improvement of vessel structural integrity. It is noted the cost analysis results demonstrate the significant cost advantage attainable by the SCCV technology for different pressure levels when compared to the industry-standard pressure vessel technology. The real-world performance data of SCCV under actual operating conditions is imperative for this new technology to be adopted by the hydrogen industry for stationary storage of CGH2. Therefore, the key technology development effort in FY13 and subsequent years will be focused on the fabrication and testing of SCCV mock-ups. The static loading and fatigue data will be generated in rigorous testing of these mock-ups. Successful tests are crucial to enabling the near-term impact of the developed storage technology on the CGH2 storage market, a critical component of the hydrogen production and delivery infrastructure. In particular, the SCCV has high potential for widespread deployment in hydrogen fueling stations.

Feng, Zhili [ORNL; Zhang, Wei [ORNL; Wang, Jy-An John [ORNL; Ren, Fei [ORNL

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

419

A high-efficiency indirect lighting system utilizing the solar 1000 sulfur lamp  

SciTech Connect

High-lumen light sources represent unique challenges and opportunities for the design of practical and efficient interior lighting systems. High-output sources require a means of large-scale distribution and avoidance of high-luminance glare while providing efficient delivery. An indirect lighting system has been developed for use with a 1,000 Watt sulfur lamp that efficiently utilizes the high-output source to provide quality interior lighting. This paper briefly describes the design and initial testing of this new system.

Siminovitch, M.; Gould, C.; Page, E.

1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

420

Experimental methodology for determining the system performance of fluorescent lamp, ballast, fixture combinations operating under realistic application conditions  

SciTech Connect

To meet the need for accurate performance data, an experimental method for determining the performance of lamp, ballast, and luminaire combinations operating under a broad range of realistic conditions was developed. The methodology employs a two-part experimental procedure. The first part uses a temperature-controlled luminous flux integrator to characterize the thermal performance of each lamp/ballast combination. This performance characterization is expressed in terms of light output and efficacy as a function of variations in minimum lamp wall temperature (MLWT) and is generated for the range of temperatures typically encountered in interior lighting applications. The second procedure uses a luminaire/plenum simulator to determine the specific MLWT that exists in a particular luminaire application as a function of luminaire type, mounting configuration, plenum integration, and room air temperature. The MLWTs thus measured may be used in conjunction with the lamp/ballast performance data to determine application-specific values of light output and efficacy for a given lamp/ballast/luminaire system.

Siminovitch, M.J.; Rubinstein, F.M.; Verderber, R.R.

1984-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high-pressure sodium lamps" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Appliances and Commercial Equipment Standards  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

High Intensity Discharge Lamps Test Procedures High Intensity Discharge Lamps Test Procedures Sign up for e-mail updates on regulations for this and other products High-intensity discharge (HID) lamps include mercury vapor (MV), metal halide (MH), and high-pressure sodium (HPS) lamps. The Department of Energy (DOE) is establishing test procedures for HID lamps. This rulemaking is mandated by the Energy Policy and Conservation Act (EPCA). ( 42 U.S.C. 6291-6309) This Rulemaking is related to the High-Intensity Discharge Lamps Standard and Test Procedure. Recent Updates | Public Meeting Information | Submitting Public Comments | Milestones and Documents | Related Rulemakings | Statutory Authority | Contact Information Recent Updates DOE published a notice of proposed rulemaking regarding test procedures for HID lamps. 76 FR 77914 (Dec. 15, 2011).

422

Method of controlling the mercury vapor pressure in a photo-chemical lamp or vapor filter used for Hg.sup.196 enrichment  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention is directed to a method of eliminating the cold spot zones presently used on Hg.sup.196 isotope separation lamps and filters by the use of a mercury amalgams, preferably mercury - indium amalgams. The use of an amalgam affords optimization of the mercury density in the lamp and filter of a mercury enrichment reactor, particularly multilamp enrichment reactors. Moreover, the use of an amalgam in such lamps and/or filters affords the ability to control the spectral line width of radiation emitted from lamps, a requirement for mercury enrichment.

Grossman, Mark W. (Belmont, MA)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

423

Method of controlling the mercury vapor pressure in a photo-chemical lamp or vapor filter used for Hg[sup 196] enrichment  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention is directed to a method of eliminating the cold spot zones presently used on Hg[sup 196] isotope separation lamps and filters by the use of a mercury amalgams, preferably mercury - indium amalgams. The use of an amalgam affords optimization of the mercury density in the lamp and filter of a mercury enrichment reactor, particularly multilamp enrichment reactors. Moreover, the use of an amalgam in such lamps and/or filters affords the ability to control the spectral line width of radiation emitted from lamps, a requirement for mercury enrichment.

Grossman, M.W.

1993-02-16T23:59:59.000Z

424

Synchrotron X-ray diffraction studies of phase transitions and mechanical properties of nanocrystalline materials at high pressure  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The behavior of nanocrystals under extreme pressure was investigated using synchrotron x-ray diffraction. A major part of this investigation was the testing of a prototype synchrotron endstation on a bend magnet beamline at the Advanced Light Source for high pressure work using a diamond anvil cell. The experiments conducted and documented here helped to determine issues of efficiency and accuracy that had to be resolved before the construction of a dedicated ''super-bend'' beamline and endstation. The major conclusions were the need for a cryo-cooled monochromator and a fully remote-controllable pressurization system which would decrease the time to change pressure and greatly reduce the error created by the re-placement of the diamond anvil cell after each pressure change. Two very different types of nanocrystal systems were studied, colloidal iron oxide (Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) and thin film TiN/BN. Iron oxide nanocrystals were found to have a transition from the {gamma} to the {alpha} structure at a pressure strongly dependent on the size of the nanocrystals, ranging from 26 GPa for 7.2 nm nanocrystals to 37 GPa for 3.6 nm nanocrystals. All nanocrystals were found to remain in the {alpha} structure even after release of pressure. The transition pressure was also found, for a constant size (5.7 nm) to be strongly dependent on the degree of aggregation of the nanocrystals, increasing from 30 GPa for completely dissolved nanocrystals to 45 GPa for strongly aggregated nanocrystals. Furthermore, the x-ray diffraction pattern of the pressure induced {alpha} phase demonstrated a decrease in intensity for certain select peaks. Together, these observations were used to make a complete picture of the phase transition in nanocrystalline systems. The size dependence of the transition was interpreted as resulting from the extremely high surface energy of the {alpha} phase which would increase the thermodynamic offset and thereby increase the kinetic barrier to transition that must be overridden with pressure. The anomalous intensities in the x-ray diffraction patterns were interpreted as being the result of stacking faults, indicating that the mechanism of transition proceeds by the sliding of {gamma}(111) planes to form {alpha}(001) planes. The increasing transition pressure for more aggregated samples may be due to a positive activation volume, retarding the transition for nanocrystals with less excess (organic) volume available to them. The lack of a reverse transition upon decompression makes this interpretation more difficult because of the lack of an observable hysteresis, and it is therefore difficult to ascertain kinetic effects for certain. In the case TiN/BN nanocomposite systems, it was found that the bulk modulus (B{sub 0}) of the TiN nanoparticles was not correlated to the observed hardness or Young's modulus of the macroscopic thin film. This indicates that the origin of the observed super-hard nature of these materials is not due to any change in the Ti-N interatomic potential. Rather, the enhanced hardness must be due to nano-structural effects. It was also found that during pressurization the TiN nanoparticles developed a great deal of strain. This strain can be related to defects induced in individual nanoparticles which generates strain in adjacent particles due to the highly coupled nature of the system.

Prilliman, Gerald Stephen

2003-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

425

Reviving Abandoned Reservoirs with High-Pressure Air Injection: Application in a Fractured and Karsted Dolomite Reservoir  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Despite declining production rates, existing reservoirs in the United States contain vast volumes of remaining oil that is not being effectively recovered. This oil resource constitutes a huge target for the development and application of modern, cost-effective technologies for producing oil. Chief among the barriers to the recovery of this oil are the high costs of designing and implementing conventional advanced recovery technologies in these mature, in many cases pressure-depleted, reservoirs. An additional, increasingly significant barrier is the lack of vital technical expertise necessary for the application of these technologies. This lack of expertise is especially notable among the small operators and independents that operate many of these mature, yet oil-rich, reservoirs. We addressed these barriers to more effective oil recovery by developing, testing, applying, and documenting an innovative technology that can be used by even the smallest operator to significantly increase the flow of oil from mature U.S. reservoirs. The Bureau of Economic Geology and Goldrus Producing Company assembled a multidisciplinary team of geoscientists and engineers to evaluate the applicability of high-pressure air injection (HPAI) in revitalizing a nearly abandoned carbonate reservoir in the Permian Basin of West Texas. The Permian Basin, the largest oil-bearing basin in North America, contains more than 70 billion barrels of remaining oil in place and is an ideal venue to validate this technology. We have demonstrated the potential of HPAI for oil-recovery improvement in preliminary laboratory tests and a reservoir pilot project. To more completely test the technology, this project emphasized detailed characterization of reservoir properties, which were integrated to access the effectiveness and economics of HPAI. The characterization phase of the project utilized geoscientists and petroleum engineers from the Bureau of Economic Geology and the Department of Petroleum Engineering (both at The University of Texas at Austin) to define the controls on fluid flow in the reservoir as a basis for developing a reservoir model. The successful development of HPAI technology has tremendous potential for increasing the flow of oil from deep carbonate reservoirs in the Permian Basin, a target resource that can be conservatively estimated at more than 1.5 billion barrels. Successful implementation in the field chosen for demonstration, for example, could result in the recovery of more than 34 million barrels of oil that will not otherwise be produced. Geological and petrophysical analysis of available data at Barnhart field reveals the following important observations: (1) the Barnhart Ellenburger reservoir is similar to most other Ellenburger reservoirs in terms of depositional facies, diagenesis, and petrophysical attributes; (2) the reservoir is characterized by low to moderate matrix porosity much like most other Ellenburger reservoirs in the Permian Basin; (3) karst processes (cave formation, infill, and collapse) have substantially altered stratigraphic architecture and reservoir properties; (4) porosity and permeability increase with depth and may be associated with the degree of karst-related diagenesis; (5) tectonic fractures overprint the reservoir, improving overall connectivity; (6) oil-saturation profiles show that the oil-water contact (OWC) is as much as 125 ft lower than previous estimations; (7) production history and trends suggest that this reservoir is very similar to other solution-gas-drive reservoirs in the Permian Basin; and (8) reservoir simulation study showed that the Barnhart reservoir is a good candidate for HPAI and that application of horizontal-well technology can improve ultimate resource recovery from the reservoir.

Robert Loucks; Stephen C. Ruppel; Dembla Dhiraj; Julia Gale; Jon Holder; Jeff Kane; Jon Olson; John A. Jackson; Katherine G. Jackson

2006-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

426

Bench-Scale Development of a Hot Carbonate Absorption Process with Crystallization-Enabled High Pressure Stripping for Post-Combustion CO2 Capture  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Development of a Hot Development of a Hot Carbonate Absorption Process with Crystallization-Enabled High Pressure Stripping for Post-Combustion CO 2 Capture Background The mission of the U.S. Department of Energy/National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE/NETL) Existing Plants, Emissions & Capture (EPEC) Research & Development (R&D) Program is to develop innovative environmental control technologies to enable full use of the nation's vast coal reserves, while at the same

427

Condition Assessment of 138-kV Iwilei-Archer High-Pressure Fluid-Filled Cable System of Hawaiian Electric Company  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

High-pressure fluid-filled (HPFF) transmission cable systems are characterized by an exceedingly long life, with well-maintained integrity of the pipe and operating pressure. However, some failures have been encountered in the past 15 years, probably due to advancing age and harder use. The cable systemswhich are composed of the cable, splices, terminations, trifurcators, pumping plants, risers, and so onshould be adequately maintained and routinely inspected.

2011-04-13T23:59:59.000Z

428

Seal for sodium sulfur battery  

SciTech Connect

This invention is directed to a seal for a sodium sulfur battery in which the sealing is accomplished by a radial compression seal made on a ceramic component of the battery which separates an anode compartment from a cathode compartment of the battery.

Topouzian, Armenag (Birmingham, MI); Minck, Robert W. (Lathrup Village, MI); Williams, William J. (Northville, MI)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

429

Volume efficient sodium sulfur battery  

SciTech Connect

In accordance with the teachings of this specification, a sodium sulfur battery is formed as follows. A plurality of box shaped sulfur electrodes are provided, the outer surfaces of which are defined by an electrolyte material. Each of the electrodes have length and width dimensions substantially greater than the thicknesses thereof as well as upwardly facing surface and a downwardly facing surface. An electrode structure is contained in each of the sulfur electrodes. A holding structure is provided for holding the plurality of sulfur electrodes in a stacked condition with the upwardly facing surface of one sulfur electrode in facing relationship to the downwardly facing surface of another sulfur electrode thereabove. A small thickness dimension separates each of the stacked electrodes thereby defining between each pair of sulfur electrodes a volume which receives the sodium reactant. A reservoir is provided for containing sodium. A manifold structure interconnects the volumes between the sulfur electrodes and the reservoir. A metering structure controls the flow of sodium between the reservoir and the manifold structure.

Mikkor, Mati (Ann Arbor, MI)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

430

Vacuum pyrolysis of sodium stearate  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Vacuum pyrolysis of sodium stearate was studied to provide useful information for Green River oil shale pyrolysis. Sodium stearate is a typical compound of carboxylic acid salts amounting to 3.6% of total organic materials in the oil shale by methanol extraction. Sodium stearate contained in a stainless steel miniature reactor was heated at 450/sup 0/C in a fluidized sand bath. Pyrolysis times ranged from 15 to 120 minutes. The amounts of gas and liquid products were measured and composition determined by gas chromatography. Ethane, methane, propylene plus propane, hydrogen, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide are the major gaseous products, in order of decreasing concentration. The predominant liquid product is a C/sub 17/ alkene with C/sub 12/-C/sub 21/ alkene/alkane pairs present. The first order decomposition rate constant for sodium stearate at 450/sup 0/C was calculated to be 6.4 x 10/sup -3/ min./sup -1/. 18 refs., 7 figs.

Chong, S.L.

1985-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

431

Energy Savings and NOx Emissions Reduction Potential from the 2012 Federal Legislation to Phase Out Incandescent Lamps in Texas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This report provides detailed information about the potential savings from the 2012 Federal Legislation to phase out incandescent lamps and the NOx emissions reduction from the replacement of incandescent bulbs with Compact Fluorescent Lamps (CFL). In Texas, this analysis includes the savings estimates from both the annual and Ozone Season Day (OSD) NOx reductions. The NOx emissions reduction in this analysis are calculated using estimated emissions factors for 2007 from the US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) eGRID database, which had been specially prepared for this purpose.

Liu, Zi; Baltazar, Juan Carlos; Haberl, Jeff; Soman, Rohit

2010-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

432

Energy Basics: Low-Pressure Sodium Lighting  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Low-Pressure Sodium Lighting Low-pressure sodium lighting provides more energy-efficient outdoor lighting than high-intensity discharge lighting, but it has very poor color...

433

Contribution to the numerical study of turbulence in high intensity discharge lamps  

SciTech Connect

We present in this paper a comparison between results obtained with a laminar and turbulent models for high-pressure mercury arc. The two models are based on the resolution of bidimensional time-dependent equations by a semi-implicit finite-element code. The numerical computation of turbulent model is solved with large eddy simulation model; this approach takes into account the various scales of turbulence by a filtering method on each scale. The results show the quantitative influence of turbulence on the flow fields and also the difference between laminar and turbulent effects on the dynamic thermal behaviour and on the characteristics of the discharge.

Kaziz, S.; Ben Ahmed, R.; Helali, H.; Gazzah, H.; Charrada, K. [Unite d'Etude des Milieux Ionises et Reactifs, IPEIM, 5019 route de Kairouan Monastir (Tunisia)

2011-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

434

Protective tubes for sodium heated water tubes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A heat exchanger in which water tubes are heated by liquid sodium which minimizes the results of accidental contact between the water and the sodium caused by failure of one or more of the water tubes. A cylindrical protective tube envelopes each water tube and the sodium flows axially in the annular spaces between the protective tubes and the water tubes.

Essebaggers, Jan (39 Honeyman Dr., Succasunna, NJ 07876)

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

435

Chloride substitution in sodium borohydride  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The dissolution of sodium chloride and sodium borohydride into each other resulting in formation of solid solutions of composition Na(BH{sub 4}){sub 1-x}Cl{sub x} is studied. The dissolution reaction is facilitated by two methods: ball milling or combination of ball milling and annealing at 300 deg. C for three days of NaBH{sub 4}-NaCl samples in molar ratios of 0.5:0.5 and 0.75:0.25. The degree of dissolution is studied by Rietveld refinement of synchrotron radiation powder X-ray diffraction (SR-PXD) data. The results show that dissolution of 10 mol% NaCl into NaBH{sub 4}, forming Na(BH{sub 4}){sub 0.9}Cl{sub 0.1}, takes place during ball milling. A higher degree of dissolution of NaCl in NaBH{sub 4} is obtained by annealing resulting in solid solutions containing up to 57 mol% NaCl, i.e. Na(BH{sub 4}){sub 0.43}Cl{sub 0.57}. In addition, annealing results in dissolution of 10-20 mol% NaBH{sub 4} into NaCl. The mechanism of the dissolution during annealing and the decomposition pathway of the solid solutions are studied by in situ SR-PXD. Furthermore, the stability upon hydrogen release and uptake were studied by Sieverts measurements. - Graphical Abstract: Dissolution of sodium chloride and sodium borohydride into each other resulting in formation of solid solutions of composition Na(BH{sub 4}){sub 1-x}Cl{sub x} is studied. Dissolution is facilitated by two methods: ball milling or annealing at 300 deg. C for three days of NaBH{sub 4}-NaCl samples. Sample compositions and dissolution mechanism are studied by Rietveld refinement of synchrotron radiation powder X-ray diffraction data. Highlights: > Studies of dissolution of sodium chloride and sodium borohydride into each other. > Solid state diffusion facilitated by mechanical and thermal treatments. > Dissolution is more efficiently induced by heating than by mechanical treatment. > Mechanism for dissolution studied by Rietveld refinement of in situ SR-PXD data.

Ravnsbaek, Dorthe B.; Rude, Line H. [Center for Materials Crystallography (CMC), Interdisciplinary Nanoscience Center (iNANO), Department of Chemistry, Aarhus University, Langelandsgade 140, DK-8000 Arhus C (Denmark); Jensen, Torben R., E-mail: trj@chem.au.dk [Center for Materials Crystallography (CMC), Interdisciplinary Nanoscience Center (iNANO), Department of Chemistry, Aarhus University, Langelandsgade 140, DK-8000 Arhus C (Denmark)

2011-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

436

THERMAL ANNEALING OF ZNO FILMS USING HIGH-DENSITY PLASMA ARC LAMPS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Nanostructured materials are rarely synthesized with appropriate phase and/or morphology. In this study, critical additional of as-synthesized nanostructured materials, such as annealing and/or activation of dopants, are addressed using infrared plasma arc lamps (PAL) over areas as large as 1,000 cm2. The broad spectral range of the PAL and the spectral variation of light absorption in nanostructured materials make the selection of processing parameters extremely difficult, posing a major technological barrier. In this study, the measurement of the surface temperature using various techniques for ZnO films on crystalline silicon wafers is discussed. An energy transport model for the simulation of rapid thermal processing using PAL is presented. The experimental and computational results show that the surface temperature cannot be measured directly and that computer simulation results are an effective tool for obtaining accurate data on processing temperatures.

Sabau, Adrian S [ORNL; Dinwiddie, Ralph Barton [ORNL; Xu, Jun [ORNL; Angelini, Joseph Attilio [ORNL; Harper, David C [ORNL

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

437

NIST energy related inventions: Electronic starter device for fluorescent lamps. Interim report, August--October, 1997  

SciTech Connect

From the Scope of Work document which accompanied the original proposal, three silicon devices were anticipated for development, simulation, and quality assurance fabrication. The status of these are in the same format as the Scope of Work...Attachment-A-: Task 1--design and simulation; Task 2--prototype tooling; Task 3--test engineering; Task 4--product tooling; Task 5--package tooling/manufacturing design and assembly. It is felt the program will meet it`s stated goals of producing a low cost, high performance fluorescent lamp starter which will lower the acquisition and operating cost of fluorescent technology...thus saving significant amounts of energy. The likelihood of success is even greater, now that the TN22 component has been qualified. The challenges of creating a custom ASIC, while still significant, are within the skill and expertise level or the assigned engineers.

Johnson, S.A.

1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

438

Fire suppressing apparatus. [sodium fires  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Apparatus for smothering a liquid sodium fire comprises a pan, a perforated cover on the pan, and tubed depending from the cover and providing communication between the interior of the pan and the ambient atmosphere through the perforations in the cover. Liquid caught in the pan rises above the lower ends of the tubes and thus serves as a barrier which limits the amount of air entering the pan.

Buttrey, K.E.

1980-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

439

Archaeological data visualization in VR: analysis of lamp finds at the great temple of petra, a case study  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We present the results of an evaluation of the ARCHAVE system, an immersive virtual reality environment for archaeological research. ARCHAVE is implemented in a Cave. The evaluation studied researchers analyzing lamp and coin finds throughout the excavation ... Keywords: archaeological data analysis, immersive virtual reality interfaces, scientific visualization

Daniel Acevedo; Eileen Vote; David H. Laidlaw; Martha S. Joukowsky

2001-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

440

The Results From the First High-Pressure Melt Ejection Test Completed in the Molten Fuel Moderator Interaction Facility at Chalk River Laboratories  

SciTech Connect

A high-pressure melt ejection test using prototypical corium was conducted at Atomic Energy of Canada Limited Chalk River Laboratories. This test was planned by the CANDU Owners Group to study the potential for an energetic interaction between molten fuel and water under postulated single-channel flow-blockage events. The experiments were designed to address regulator concerns surrounding this very low probability postulated accident events in CANDU Pressurized Heavy Water Reactors. The objective of the experimental program is to determine whether a highly energetic 'steam explosion' and associated high-pressure pulse, is possible when molten material is finely fragmented as it is ejected from a fuel channel into the heavy-water moderator. The finely fragmented melt particles would transfer energy to the moderator as it is dispersed, creating a modest pressure pulse in the calandria vessel. The high-pressure melt ejection test consisted of heating up a {approx} 5 kg thermite mixture of U, U{sub 3}O{sub 8}, Zr, and CrO{sub 3} inside a 1.14-m length of insulated pressure tube. When the molten material reached the desired temperature of {approx} 2400 deg C, the pressure inside the tube was raised to 11.6 MPa, failing the pressure tube at a pre-machined flaw, and releasing the molten material into the surrounding tank of 68 deg C water. The experiment investigated the dynamic pressure history, debris size, and the effects of the material interacting with tubes representing neighbouring fuel channels. The measured mean particle size was 0.686 mm and the peak dynamic pressures were between 2.54 and 4.36 MPa, indicating that an energetic interaction between the melt and the water did not occur in the test. (authors)

Nitheanandan, T.; Kyle, G.; O'Connor, R.; Sanderson, DB. [Chalk River Laboratories, Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, Ontario, Canada, K0J 1J0 (Canada)

2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high-pressure sodium lamps" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

TECHNICAL BASIS AND APPLICATION OF NEW RULES ON FRACTURE CONTROL OF HIGH PRESSURE HYDROGEN VESSEL IN ASME SECTION VIII, DIVISION 3 CODE  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

As a part of an ongoing activity to develop ASME Code rules for the hydrogen infrastructure, the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code Committee approved new fracture control rules for Section VIII, Division 3 vessels in 2006. These rules have been incorporated into new Article KD-10 in Division 3. The new rules require determining fatigue crack growth rate and fracture resistance properties of materials in high pressure hydrogen gas. Test methods have been specified to measure these fracture properties, which are required to be used in establishing the vessel fatigue life. An example has been given to demonstrate the application of these new rules.

Rawls, G

2007-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

442

X-ray-induced dissociation of H.sub.2O and formation of an O.sub.2-H.sub.2 alloy at high pressure  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A novel molecular alloy of O.sub.2 and H.sub.2 and a method of producing such a molecular alloy are provided. When subjected to high pressure and extensive x-radiation, H.sub.2O molecules cleaved, forming O--O and H--H bonds. In the method of the present invention, the O and H framework in ice VII was converted into a molecular alloy of O.sub.2 and H.sub.2. X-ray diffraction, x-ray Raman scattering, and optical Raman spectroscopy demonstrate that this crystalline solid differs from previously known phases.

Mao, Ho-kwang (Washington, DC); Mao, Wendy L. (Washington, DC)

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