National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for high-pressure sodium cobra

  1. Synthesis of sodium polyhydrides at high pressures

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Struzhkin, Viktor V.; Kim, Duck Young; Stavrou, Elissaios; Muramatsu, Takaki; Mao, Ho-kwang; Pickard, Chris J.; Needs, Richard J.; Prakapenka, Vitali B.; Goncharov, Alexander F.

    2016-07-28

    Archetypal ionic NaH is the only known compound of sodium and hydrogen. Application of high pressure is known to promote states with higher atomic coordination, but extensive searches for polyhydrides with unusual stoichiometry have had only limited success in spite of several theoretical predictions. Here we report the first observation of the formation of polyhydrides of Na (NaH3 and NaH7) above 40 GPa and 2,000 K. Moreover, we combine synchrotron X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy in a laser-heated diamond anvil cell and theoretical random structure searching, which both agree on the stable structures and compositions. Our results support the formationmore » of multicenter bonding in a material with unusual stoichiometry. These results are applicable to the design of new energetic solids and high-temperature superconductors based on hydrogen-rich materials.« less

  2. Grupo Cobra | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Cobra Jump to: navigation, search Name: Grupo Cobra Place: Madrid, Spain Zip: 28016 Sector: Wind energy Product: Madrid based who develops wind farms and cogeneration projetcs....

  3. High pressure oxygen furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morris, D.E.

    1992-07-14

    A high temperature high pressure oxygen furnace having a hybrid partially externally heated construction is disclosed. A metallic bar fabricated from an alloy having a composition of at least 45% nickel, 15% chrome, and 10% tungsten is utilized, the preferred alloy including 55% nickel, 22% chrome, 14% tungsten, 2% molybdenum, 3% iron (maximum) and 5% cobalt (maximum). The disclosed alloy is fabricated into 11/4 inch bar stock and has a length of about 17 inches. This bar stock is gun drilled for over 16 inches of its length with 0.400 inch aperture to define a closed high temperature, high pressure oxygen chamber. The opposite and closed end of the bar is provided with a small support aperture into which both a support and a thermocouple can be inserted. The closed end of the gun drilled bar is inserted into an oven, preferably heated by standard nickel chrome electrical elements and having a heavily insulated exterior. 5 figs.

  4. High pressure oxygen furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morris, Donald E.

    1992-01-01

    A high temperature high pressure oxygen furnace having a hybrid partially externally heated construction is disclosed. A metallic bar fabricated from an alloy having a composition of at least 45% nickel, 15% chrome, and 10% tungsten is utilized (the preferred alloy including 55% nickel, 22% chrome, 14% tungsten, 2% molybdenum, 3% iron (maximum) and 5% cobalt (maximum). The disclosed alloy is fabricated into 11/4 inch bar stock and has a length of about 17 inches. This bar stock is gun drilled for over 16 inches of its length with 0.400 inch aperture to define a closed high temperature, high pressure oxygen chamber. The opposite and closed end of the bar is provided with a small support aperture into which both a support and a thermocouple can be inserted. The closed end of the gun drilled bar is inserted into an oven, preferably heated by standard nickel chrome electrical elements and having a heavily insulated exterior.

  5. High pressure furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morris, D.E.

    1993-09-14

    A high temperature high pressure furnace has a hybrid partially externally heated construction. A metallic vessel fabricated from an alloy having a composition of at least 45% nickel, 15% chrome, and 10% tungsten is utilized (the preferred alloy including 55% nickel, 22% chrome, 14% tungsten, 2% molybdenum, 3% iron (maximum) and 5% cobalt (maximum)). The disclosed alloy is fabricated into 11/4 or 2 inch, 32 mm or 50 mm bar stock and has a length of about 22 inches, 56 cm. This bar stock has an aperture formed therein to define a closed high temperature, high pressure oxygen chamber. The opposite and closed end of the vessel is provided with a small blind aperture into which a thermocouple can be inserted. The closed end of the vessel is inserted into an oven, preferably heated by standard nickel chrome electrical elements and having a heavily insulated exterior. 19 figures.

  6. High pressure furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morris, Donald E.

    1993-01-01

    A high temperature high pressure furnace has a hybrid partially externally heated construction. A metallic vessel fabricated from an alloy having a composition of at least 45% nickel, 15% chrome, and 10% tungsten is utilized (the preferred alloy including 55% nickel, 22% chrome, 14% tungsten, 2% molybdenum, 3% iron (maximum) and 5% cobalt (maximum). The disclosed alloy is fabricated into 11/4 or 2 inch, 32 mm or 50 mm bar stock and has a length of about 22 inches, 56 cm. This bar stock has an aperture formed therein to define a closed high temperature, high pressure oxygen chamber. The opposite and closed end of the vessel is provided with a small blind aperture into which a thermocouple can be inserted. The closed end of the vessel is inserted into an oven, preferably heated by standard nickel chrome electrical elements and having a heavily insulated exterior.

  7. HIGH PRESSURE DIES

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wilson, W.B.

    1960-05-31

    A press was invented for subjecting specimens of bismuth, urania, yttria, or thoria to high pressures and temperatures. The press comprises die parts enclosing a space in which is placed an electric heater thermally insulated from the die parts so as not to damage them by heat. The die parts comprise two opposed inner frustoconical parts and an outer part having a double frustoconical recess receiving the inner parts. The die space decreases in size as the inner die parts move toward one another against the outer part and the inner parts, though very hard, do not fracture because of the mode of support provided by the outer part.

  8. HIGH PRESSURE GAS REGULATOR

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ramage, R.W.

    1962-05-01

    A gas regulator operating on the piston and feedback principle is described. The device is particularly suitable for the delicate regulation of high pressure, i.e., 10,000 psi and above, gas sources, as well as being perfectly adaptable for use on gas supplies as low as 50 psi. The piston is adjustably connected to a needle valve and the movement of the piston regulates the flow of gas from the needle valve. The gas output is obtained from the needle valve. Output pressure is sampled by a piston feedback means which, in turn, regulates the movement of the main piston. When the output is other than the desired value, the feedback system initiates movement of the main piston to allow the output pressure to be corrected or to remain constant. (AEC)

  9. High-Pressure Hydrogen Tanks

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation on High-Pressure Hydrogen Tanks for the DOE Hydrogen Delivery High-Pressure Tanks and Analysis Project Review Meeting held February 8-9, 2005 at Argonne National Laboratory

  10. High pressure capillary connector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Renzi, Ronald F.

    2005-08-09

    A high pressure connector capable of operating at pressures of 40,000 psi or higher is provided. This connector can be employed to position a first fluid-bearing conduit that has a proximal end and a distal end to a second fluid-bearing conduit thereby providing fluid communication between the first and second fluid-bearing conduits. The connector includes (a) an internal fitting assembly having a body cavity with (i) a lower segment that defines a lower segment aperture and (ii) an interiorly threaded upper segment, (b) a first member having a first member aperture that traverses its length wherein the first member aperture is configured to accommodate the first fluid-bearing conduit and wherein the first member is positioned in the lower segment of the internal fitting assembly, and (c) a second member having a second member aperture that traverses its length wherein the second member is positioned in the upper segment of the fitting assembly and wherein a lower surface of the second member is in contact with an upper surface of the first member to assert a compressive force onto the first member and wherein the first member aperture and the second member aperture are coaxial.

  11. Electrokinetically pumped high pressure sprays

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schoeniger, Joseph S.; Paul, Phillip H.; Schoeniger, Luke

    2002-01-01

    An electrokinetic pump capable of producing high pressure is combined with a nozzle having a submicron orifice to provide a high pressure spray device. Because of its small size, the device can be contained within medical devices such as an endoscope for delivering biological materials such as DNA, chemo therapeutic agents, or vaccines to tissues and cells.

  12. Electrokinetically pumped high pressure sprays

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schoeniger, Joseph S.; Paul, Phillip H.; Schoeniger, Luke

    2005-11-01

    An electrokinetic pump capable of producing high pressure is combined with a nozzle having a submicron orifice to provide a high pressure spray device. Because of its small size, the device can be contained within medical devices such as an endoscope for delivering biological materials such as DNA, chemo therapeutic agents, or vaccines to tissues and cells.

  13. COP 21 Shelby Cobra | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    COP 21 Shelby Cobra COP 21 Shelby Cobra Addthis 1 of 12 U.S. Secretary of Agriculture Tom Vilsack visits the Shelby Cobra at the COP 21 conference in Paris. Image: Photo courtesy U.S. Department of Energy 2 of 12 U.S. Ambassador to France and Monaco Jane Hartley discusses 3D printing technology and advanced manufacturing with Rob Ivester from EERE's Advanced Manufacturing Office Image: Photo courtesy U.S. Department of Energy 3 of 12 French Minister of Foreign Affairs and International

  14. High pressure liquid level monitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bean, Vern E.; Long, Frederick G.

    1984-01-01

    A liquid level monitor for tracking the level of a coal slurry in a high-pressure vessel including a toroidal-shaped float with magnetically permeable bands thereon disposed within the vessel, two pairs of magnetic field generators and detectors disposed outside the vessel adjacent the top and bottom thereof and magnetically coupled to the magnetically permeable bands on the float, and signal processing circuitry for combining signals from the top and bottom detectors for generating a monotonically increasing analog control signal which is a function of liquid level. The control signal may be utilized to operate high-pressure control valves associated with processes in which the high-pressure vessel is used.

  15. Electrokinetic high pressure hydraulic system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Paul, Phillip H.; Rakestraw, David J.; Arnold, Don W.; Hencken, Kenneth R.; Schoeniger, Joseph S.; Neyer, David W.

    2003-06-03

    An electrokinetic high pressure hydraulic pump for manipulating fluids in capillary-based system. The pump uses electro-osmotic flow to provide a high pressure hydraulic system, having no moving mechanical parts, for pumping and/or compressing fluids, for providing valve means and means for opening and closing valves, for controlling fluid flow rate, and manipulating fluid flow generally and in capillary-based systems (microsystems), in particular. The compact nature of the inventive high pressure hydraulic pump provides the ability to construct a micro-scale or capillary-based HPLC system that fulfills the desire for small sample quantity, low solvent consumption, improved efficiency, the ability to run samples in parallel, and field portability. Control of pressure and solvent flow rate is achieved by controlling the voltage applied to an electrokinetic pump.

  16. Electrokinetic high pressure hydraulic system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Paul, Phillip H.; Rakestraw, David J.; Arnold, Don W.; Hencken, Kenneth R.; Schoeniger, Joseph S.; Neyer, David W.

    2001-01-01

    An electrokinetic high pressure hydraulic pump for manipulating fluids in capillary-based systems. The pump uses electro-osmotic flow to provide a high pressure hydraulic system, having no moving mechanical parts, for pumping and/or compressing fluids, for providing valve means and means for opening and closing valves, for controlling fluid flow rate, and manipulating fluid flow generally and in capillary-based systems (Microsystems), in particular. The compact nature of the inventive high pressure hydraulic pump provides the ability to construct a micro-scale or capillary-based HPLC system that fulfills the desire for small sample quantity, low solvent consumption, improved efficiency, the ability to run samples in parallel, and field portability. Control of pressure and solvent flow rate is achieved by controlling the voltage applied to an electrokinetic pump.

  17. Electrokinetic high pressure hydraulic system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Paul, Phillip H.; Rakestraw, David J.

    2000-01-01

    A compact high pressure hydraulic pump having no moving mechanical parts for converting electric potential to hydraulic force. The electrokinetic pump, which can generate hydraulic pressures greater than 2500 psi, can be employed to compress a fluid, either liquid or gas, and manipulate fluid flow. The pump is particularly useful for capillary-base systems. By combining the electrokinetic pump with a housing having chambers separated by a flexible member, fluid flow, including high pressure fluids, is controlled by the application of an electric potential, that can vary with time.

  18. High pressure neon arc lamp

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sze, Robert C.; Bigio, Irving J.

    2003-07-15

    A high pressure neon arc lamp and method of using the same for photodynamic therapies is provided. The high pressure neon arc lamp includes a housing that encloses a quantity of neon gas pressurized to about 500 Torr to about 22,000 Torr. At each end of the housing the lamp is connected by electrodes and wires to a pulse generator. The pulse generator generates an initial pulse voltage to breakdown the impedance of the neon gas. Then the pulse generator delivers a current through the neon gas to create an electrical arc that emits light having wavelengths from about 620 nanometers to about 645 nanometers. A method for activating a photosensitizer is provided. Initially, a photosensitizer is administered to a patient and allowed time to be absorbed into target cells. Then the high pressure neon arc lamp is used to illuminate the target cells with red light having wavelengths from about 620 nanometers to about 645 nanometers. The red light activates the photosensitizers to start a chain reaction that may involve oxygen free radicals to destroy the target cells. In this manner, a high pressure neon arc lamp that is inexpensive and efficiently generates red light useful in photodynamic therapy is provided.

  19. High Pressure Hydrogen Tank Manufacturing

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Workshop High Pressure Hydrogen Tank Manufacturing Mark Leavitt Quantum Fuel Systems Technologies Worldwide, Inc. August 11, 2011 This presentation does not contain any proprietary, confidential, or otherwise restricted information History of Innovations... Announced breakthrough in all-composite lightweight, high capacity, low-cost fuel storage technologies. * Developed a series of robust, OEM compatible electronic control products. Developed H 2 storage system for SunLine Tran-sit Hythane®

  20. Electokinetic high pressure hydraulic system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Paul, Phillip H.; Rakestraw, David J.

    2000-01-01

    A compact high pressure hydraulic system having no moving parts for converting electric potential to hydraulic force and for manipulating fluids. Electro-osmotic flow is used to provide a valve and means to compress a fluid or gas in a capillary-based system. By electro-osmotically moving an electrolyte between a first position opening communication between a fluid inlet and outlet and a second position closing communication between the fluid inlet and outlet the system can be configured as a valve. The system can also be used to generate forces as large as 2500 psi that can be used to compress a fluid, either a liquid or a gas.

  1. High pressure xenon ionization detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Markey, John K. (New Haven, CT)

    1989-01-01

    A method is provided for detecting ionization comprising allowing particles that cause ionization to contact high pressure xenon maintained at or near its critical point and measuring the amount of ionization. An apparatus is provided for detecting ionization, the apparatus comprising a vessel containing a ionizable medium, the vessel having an inlet to allow high pressure ionizable medium to enter the vessel, a means to permit particles that cause ionization of the medium to enter the vessel, an anode, a cathode, a grid and a plurality of annular field shaping rings, the field shaping rings being electrically isolated from one another, the anode, cathode, grid and field shaping rings being electrically isolated from one another in order to form an electric field between the cathode and the anode, the electric field originating at the anode and terminating at the cathode, the grid being disposed between the cathode and the anode, the field shaping rings being disposed between the cathode and the grid, the improvement comprising the medium being xenon and the vessel being maintained at a pressure of 50 to 70 atmospheres and a temperature of 0.degree. to 30.degree. C.

  2. High pressure xenon ionization detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Markey, J.K.

    1989-11-14

    A method is provided for detecting ionization comprising allowing particles that cause ionization to contact high pressure xenon maintained at or near its critical point and measuring the amount of ionization. An apparatus is provided for detecting ionization, the apparatus comprising a vessel containing a ionizable medium, the vessel having an inlet to allow high pressure ionizable medium to enter the vessel, a means to permit particles that cause ionization of the medium to enter the vessel, an anode, a cathode, a grid and a plurality of annular field shaping rings, the field shaping rings being electrically isolated from one another, the anode, cathode, grid and field shaping rings being electrically isolated from one another in order to form an electric field between the cathode and the anode, the electric field originating at the anode and terminating at the cathode, the grid being disposed between the cathode and the anode, the field shaping rings being disposed between the cathode and the grid, the improvement comprising the medium being xenon and the vessel being maintained at a pressure of 50 to 70 atmospheres and a temperature of 0 to 30 C. 2 figs.

  3. High-Pressure Hydrogen Tank Testing

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Many types of compressed hydrogen tanks have been certified worldwide and demonstrated in several prototype fuel cell vehicles. The following information discusses high-pressure hydrogen tank...

  4. NETL- High-Pressure Combustion Research Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2013-07-08

    NETL's High-Pressure Combustion Facility is a unique resource within the National Laboratories system. It provides the test capabilities needed to evaluate new combustion concepts for high-pressure, high-temperature hydrogen and natural gas turbines. These concepts will be critical for the next generation of ultra clean, ultra efficient power systems.

  5. NETL- High-Pressure Combustion Research Facility

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2014-06-26

    NETL's High-Pressure Combustion Facility is a unique resource within the National Laboratories system. It provides the test capabilities needed to evaluate new combustion concepts for high-pressure, high-temperature hydrogen and natural gas turbines. These concepts will be critical for the next generation of ultra clean, ultra efficient power systems.

  6. Method of producing a high pressure gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bingham, Dennis N.; Klingler, Kerry M.; Zollinger, William T.

    2006-07-18

    A method of producing a high pressure gas is disclosed and which includes providing a container; supplying the container with a liquid such as water; increasing the pressure of the liquid within the container; supplying a reactant composition such as a chemical hydride to the liquid under pressure in the container and which chemically reacts with the liquid to produce a resulting high pressure gas such as hydrogen at a pressure of greater than about 100 pounds per square inch of pressure; and drawing the resulting high pressure gas from the container.

  7. 3D Printed Shelby Cobra | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    3D Printed Shelby Cobra 3D Printed Shelby Cobra Description ORNL's newly printed 3D car will be showcased at the 2015 NAIAS in Detroit. This "laboratory on wheels" uses the Shelby Cobra design, celebrating the 50th anniversary of this model and honoring the first vehicle to be voted a national monument. The Shelby was printed at the Department of Energy's Manufacturing Demonstration Facility at ORNL using the BAAM (Big Area Additive Manufacturing) machine and is intended as a

  8. High pressure electrical insulated feed thru connector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Oeschger, Joseph E.; Berkeland, James E.

    1979-11-13

    A feed-thru type hermetic electrical connector including at least one connector pin feeding through an insulator block within the metallic body of the connector shell. A compression stop arrangement coaxially disposed about the insulator body is brazed to the shell, and the shoulder on the insulator block bears against this top in a compression mode, the high pressure or internal connector being at the opposite end of the shell. Seals between the pin and an internal bore at the high pressure end of the insulator block and between the insulator block and the metallic shell at the high pressure end are hermetically brazed in place, the first of these also functioning to transfer the axial compressive load without permitting appreciable shear action between the pin and insulator block.

  9. High pressure water jet mining machine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barker, Clark R.

    1981-05-05

    A high pressure water jet mining machine for the longwall mining of coal is described. The machine is generally in the shape of a plowshare and is advanced in the direction in which the coal is cut. The machine has mounted thereon a plurality of nozzle modules each containing a high pressure water jet nozzle disposed to oscillate in a particular plane. The nozzle modules are oriented to cut in vertical and horizontal planes on the leading edge of the machine and the coal so cut is cleaved off by the wedge-shaped body.

  10. Advanced Diagnostics for High Pressure Spray Combustion.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Skeen, Scott A.; Manin, Julien Luc; Pickett, Lyle M.

    2014-06-01

    The development of accurate predictive engine simulations requires experimental data to both inform and validate the models, but very limited information is presently available about the chemical structure of high pressure spray flames under engine- relevant conditions. Probing such flames for chemical information using non- intrusive optical methods or intrusive sampling techniques, however, is challenging because of the physical and optical harshness of the environment. This work details two new diagnostics that have been developed and deployed to obtain quantitative species concentrations and soot volume fractions from a high-pressure combusting spray. A high-speed, high-pressure sampling system was developed to extract gaseous species (including soot precursor species) from within the flame for offline analysis by time-of-flight mass spectrometry. A high-speed multi-wavelength optical extinction diagnostic was also developed to quantify transient and quasi-steady soot processes. High-pressure sampling and offline characterization of gas-phase species formed following the pre-burn event was accomplished as well as characterization of gas-phase species present in the lift-off region of a high-pressure n-dodecane spray flame. For the initial samples discussed in this work several species were identified, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH); however, quantitative mole fractions were not determined. Nevertheless, the diagnostic developed here does have this capability. Quantitative, time-resolved measurements of soot extinction were also accomplished and the novel use of multiple incident wavelengths proved valuable toward characterizing changes in soot optical properties within different regions of the spray flame.

  11. The Reactivity of Energetic Materials Under High Pressure and...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The Reactivity of Energetic Materials Under High Pressure and Temperature Citation Details In-Document Search Title: The Reactivity of Energetic Materials Under High Pressure and ...

  12. Stable magnesium peroxide at high pressure (Journal Article)...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Stable magnesium peroxide at high pressure Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Stable magnesium peroxide at high pressure Authors: Lobanov, Sergey S. ; Zhu, Qiang ; ...

  13. High-pressure, high-temperature plastic deformation of sintered...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: High-pressure, high-temperature plastic deformation of sintered diamonds Citation Details In-Document Search Title: High-pressure, high-temperature plastic ...

  14. A University Consortium on High Pressure, Lean Combustion for...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High Pressure, Lean Combustion for Efficient and Clean IC Engines (UM - lead, MIT, UCB) A University Consortium on High Pressure, Lean Combustion for Efficient and Clean IC Engines ...

  15. Magnetic and Superconducting Materials at High Pressures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Struzhkin, Viktor V.

    2015-03-24

    The work concentrates on few important tasks in enabling techniques for search of superconducting compressed hydrogen compounds and pure hydrogen, investigation of mechanisms of high-Tc superconductivity, and exploring new superconducting materials. Along that route we performed several challenging tasks, including discovery of new forms of polyhydrides of alkali metal Na at very high pressures. These experiments help us to establish the experimental environment that will provide important information on the high-pressure properties of hydrogen-rich compounds. Our recent progress in RIXS measurements opens a whole field of strongly correlated 3d materials. We have developed a systematic approach to measure major electronic parameters, like Hubbard energy U, and charge transfer energy Δ, as function of pressure. This technique will enable also RIXS studies of magnetic excitations in iridates and other 5d materials at the L edge, which attract a lot of interest recently. We have developed new magnetic sensing technique based on optically detected magnetic resonance from NV centers in diamond. The technique can be applied to study superconductivity in high-TC materials, to search for magnetic transitions in strongly correlated and itinerant magnetic materials under pressure. Summary of Project Activities; development of high-pressure experimentation platform for exploration of new potential superconductors, metal polyhydrides (including newly discovered alkali metal polyhydrides), and already known superconductors at the limit of static high-pressure techniques; investigation of special classes of superconducting compounds (high-Tc superconductors, new superconducting materials), that may provide new fundamental knowledge and may prove important for application as high-temperature/high-critical parameter superconductors; investigation of the pressure dependence of superconductivity and magnetic/phase transformations in 3d transition metal compounds, including

  16. EECBG Success Story: Lighting Retrofit Improving Visibility, Saving Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Muscatine, Iowa is replacing 300 high-pressure sodium cobra head streetlights with LED fixtures, thanks to an Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant. Learn more.

  17. Sample injector for high pressure liquid chromatography

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Paul, Phillip H.; Arnold, Don W.; Neyer, David W.

    2001-01-01

    Apparatus and method for driving a sample, having a well-defined volume, under pressure into a chromatography column. A conventional high pressure sampling valve is replaced by a sample injector composed of a pair of injector components connected in series to a common junction. The injector components are containers of porous dielectric material constructed so as to provide for electroosmotic flow of a sample into the junction. At an appropriate time, a pressure pulse from a high pressure source, that can be an electrokinetic pump, connected to the common junction, drives a portion of the sample, whose size is determined by the dead volume of the common junction, into the chromatographic column for subsequent separation and analysis. The apparatus can be fabricated on a substrate for microanalytical applications.

  18. Stationary High-Pressure Hydrogen Storage

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Stationary High-Pressure Hydrogen Storage Zhili Feng Oak Ridge National Laboratory 2 Managed by UT-Battelle for the U.S. Department of Energy Technology Gap Analysis for Bulk Storage in Hydrogen Infrastructure Gaseous Hydrogen Delivery Pathway * Bulk storage in hydrogen delivery infrastructure * * Needed at central production plants, geologic storage sites, terminals, and refueling sites * Important to provide surge capacity for hourly, daily, and seasonal demand variations Technical challenges

  19. Exotic stable cesium polynitrides at high pressure

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Peng, Feng; Han, Yunxia; Liu, Hanyu; Yao, Yansun

    2015-11-19

    New polynitrides containing metastable forms of nitrogen are actively investigated as potential high energy-density materials. Using a structure search method based on the CALYPSO methodology, we investigated the stable stoichiometries and structures of cesium polynitrides at high pressures. Along with the CsN3, we identified five new stoichiometric compounds (Cs3N, Cs2N, CsN, CsN2, and CsN5) with interesting structures that may be experimentally synthesizable at modest pressures (i.e., less than 50 GPa). Nitrogen species in the predicted structures have various structural forms ranging from single atom (N) to highly endothermic molecules (N2, N3 , N4, N5, N6) and chains (N∞). Polymeric chainsmore » of nitrogen were found in the high-pressure C2/c phase of CsN2. This structure contains a substantially high content of single N-N bonds that exceeds the previously known nitrogen chains in pure forms, and also exhibit metastability at ambient conditions. We also identified a very interesting CsN crystal that contains novel N44- anion. In conclusion, to our best knowledge, this is the first time a charged N4 species being reported. Results of the present study suggest that it is possible to obtain energetic polynitrogens in main-group nitrides under high pressure.« less

  20. EERE Success Story-Just Plain Cool, the 3D Printed Shelby Cobra |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Just Plain Cool, the 3D Printed Shelby Cobra EERE Success Story-Just Plain Cool, the 3D Printed Shelby Cobra February 4, 2015 - 4:32pm Addthis Indistinguishable from conventional production vehicles on display, the 3D printed Shelby Cobra celebrated its 50th anniversary at the Detroit Auto Show in early January. Printed at the Department of Energy's Manufacturing Demonstration Facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, the Shelby Cobra electric vehicle replica is

  1. Exotic stable cesium polynitrides at high pressure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peng, Feng; Han, Yunxia; Liu, Hanyu; Yao, Yansun

    2015-11-19

    New polynitrides containing metastable forms of nitrogen are actively investigated as potential high energy-density materials. Using a structure search method based on the CALYPSO methodology, we investigated the stable stoichiometries and structures of cesium polynitrides at high pressures. Along with the CsN3, we identified five new stoichiometric compounds (Cs3N, Cs2N, CsN, CsN2, and CsN5) with interesting structures that may be experimentally synthesizable at modest pressures (i.e., less than 50 GPa). Nitrogen species in the predicted structures have various structural forms ranging from single atom (N) to highly endothermic molecules (N2, N3 , N4, N5, N6) and chains (N). Polymeric chains of nitrogen were found in the high-pressure C2/c phase of CsN2. This structure contains a substantially high content of single N-N bonds that exceeds the previously known nitrogen chains in pure forms, and also exhibit metastability at ambient conditions. We also identified a very interesting CsN crystal that contains novel N44- anion. In conclusion, to our best knowledge, this is the first time a charged N4 species being reported. Results of the present study suggest that it is possible to obtain energetic polynitrogens in main-group nitrides under high pressure.

  2. High-pressure liquid chromatographic gradient mixer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Daughton, C.G.; Sakaji, R.H.

    1982-09-08

    A gradient mixer effects the continuous mixing of any two miscible solvents without excessive decay or dispersion of the resultant isocratic effluent or of a linear or exponential gradient. The two solvents are fed under low or high pressure by means of two high performance liquid chromatographic pumps. The mixer comprises a series of ultra-low dead volume stainless steel tubes and low dead volume chambers. The two solvent streams impinge head-on at high fluxes. This initial nonhomogeneous mixture is then passed through a chamber packed with spirally-wound wires which cause turbulent mixing thereby homogenizing the mixture with minimum band-broadening.

  3. High pressure liquid chromatographic gradient mixer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Daughton, Christian G.; Sakaji, Richard H.

    1985-01-01

    A gradient mixer which effects the continuous mixing of any two miscible solvents without excessive decay or dispersion of the resultant isocratic effluent or of a linear or exponential gradient. The two solvents are fed under low or high pressure by means of two high performance liquid chromatographic pumps. The mixer comprises a series of ultra-low dead volume stainless steel tubes and low dead volume chambers. The two solvent streams impinge head-on at high fluxes. This initial nonhomogeneous mixture is then passed through a chamber packed with spirally-wound wires which cause turbulent mixing thereby homogenizing the mixture with minimum "band-broadening".

  4. HIGH PRESSURE COAL COMBUSTON KINETICS PROJECT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stefano Orsino

    2005-03-30

    As part of the U.S. Department of Energy (DoE) initiative to improve the efficiency of coal-fired power plants and reduce the pollution generated by these facilities, DOE has funded the High-Pressure Coal Combustion Kinetics (HPCCK) Projects. A series of laboratory experiments were conducted on selected pulverized coals at elevated pressures with the specific goals to provide new data for pressurized coal combustion that will help extend to high pressure and validate models for burnout, pollutant formation, and generate samples of solid combustion products for analyses to fill crucial gaps in knowledge of char morphology and fly ash formation. Two series of high-pressure coal combustion experiments were performed using SRI's pressurized radiant coal flow reactor. The first series of tests characterized the near burner flame zone (NBFZ). Three coals were tested, two high volatile bituminous (Pittsburgh No.8 and Illinois No.6), and one sub-bituminous (Powder River Basin), at pressures of 1, 2, and 3 MPa (10, 20, and 30 atm). The second series of experiments, which covered high-pressure burnout (HPBO) conditions, utilized a range of substantially longer combustion residence times to produce char burnout levels from 50% to 100%. The same three coals were tested at 1, 2, and 3 MPa, as well as at 0.2 MPa. Tests were also conducted on Pittsburgh No.8 coal in CO2 entrainment gas at 0.2, 1, and 2 MPa to begin establishing a database of experiments relevant to carbon sequestration techniques. The HPBO test series included use of an impactor-type particle sampler to measure the particle size distribution of fly ash produced under complete burnout conditions. The collected data have been interpreted with the help of CFD and detailed kinetics simulation to extend and validate devolatilization, char combustion and pollutant model at elevated pressure. A global NOX production sub-model has been proposed. The submodel reproduces the performance of the detailed chemical reaction

  5. 3D Printing a Classic Shelby Cobra | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    7pt.2PerformanceBasedServiceAcquisition.pdf 37pt.2PerformanceBasedServiceAcquisition.pdf (1022.17 KB) More Documents & Publications Acquisitions___Communications.pdf Acquisition Guide Chapter 7.1 - Acquisition Planning One Acquisition Solution for Integrated Services (OASIS) - Brad DeMers, General Services Administration (GSA)

    3D Printed Shelby Cobra 3D Printed Shelby Cobra Description ORNL's newly printed 3D car will be showcased at the 2015 NAIAS in Detroit. This "laboratory on

  6. High pressure-resistant nonincendive emulsion explosive

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ruhe, Thomas C.; Rao, Pilaka P.

    1994-01-01

    An improved emulsion explosive composition including hollow microspheres/bulking agents having high density and high strength. The hollow microspheres/bulking agents have true particle densities of about 0.2 grams per cubic centimeter or greater and include glass, siliceous, ceramic and synthetic resin microspheres, expanded minerals, and mixtures thereof. The preferred weight percentage of hollow microspheres/bulking agents in the composition ranges from 3.0 to 10.0 A chlorinated paraffin oil, also present in the improved emulsion explosive composition, imparts a higher film strength to the oil phase in the emulsion. The emulsion is rendered nonincendive by the production of sodium chloride in situ via the decomposition of sodium nitrate, a chlorinated paraffin oil, and sodium perchlorate. The air-gap sensitivity is improved by the in situ formation of monomethylamine perchlorate from dissolved monomethylamine nitrate and sodium perchlorate. The emulsion explosive composition can withstand static pressures to 139 bars and dynamic pressure loads on the order of 567 bars.

  7. New developments in high pressure x-ray spectroscopy beamline at High Pressure Collaborative Access Team

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xiao, Y. M. Chow, P.; Boman, G.; Bai, L. G.; Rod, E.; Bommannavar, A.; Kenney-Benson, C.; Sinogeikin, S.; Shen, G. Y.

    2015-07-15

    The 16 ID-D (Insertion Device - D station) beamline of the High Pressure Collaborative Access Team at the Advanced Photon Source is dedicated to high pressure research using X-ray spectroscopy techniques typically integrated with diamond anvil cells. The beamline provides X-rays of 4.5-37 keV, and current available techniques include X-ray emission spectroscopy, inelastic X-ray scattering, and nuclear resonant scattering. The recent developments include a canted undulator upgrade, 17-element analyzer array for inelastic X-ray scattering, and an emission spectrometer using a polycapillary half-lens. Recent development projects and future prospects are also discussed.

  8. High pressure and high temperature apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Voronov, Oleg A.

    2005-09-13

    A design for high pressure/high temperature apparatus and reaction cell to achieve .about.30 GPa pressure in .about.1 cm volume and .about.100 GPa pressure in .about.1 mm volumes and 20-5000.degree. C. temperatures in a static regime. The device includes profiled anvils (28) action on a reaction cell (14, 16) containing the material (26) to be processed. The reaction cell includes a heater (18) surrounded by insulating layers and screens. Surrounding the anvils are cylindrical inserts and supporting rings (30-48) whose hardness increases towards the reaction cell. These volumes may be increased considerably if applications require it, making use of presses that have larger loading force capability, larger frames and using larger anvils.

  9. Urea and deuterium mixtures at high pressures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Donnelly, M. Husband, R. J.; Frantzana, A. D.; Loveday, J. S.; Bull, C. L.; Klotz, S.

    2015-03-28

    Urea, like many network forming compounds, has long been known to form inclusion (guest-host) compounds. Unlike other network formers like water, urea is not known to form such inclusion compounds with simple molecules like hydrogen. Such compounds if they existed would be of interest both for the fundamental insight they provide into molecular bonding and as potential gas storage systems. Urea has been proposed as a potential hydrogen storage material [T. A. Strobel et al., Chem. Phys. Lett. 478, 97 (2009)]. Here, we report the results of high-pressure neutron diffraction studies of urea and D{sub 2} mixtures that indicate no inclusion compound forms up to 3.7 GPa.

  10. High pressure injection of dimethyl ether

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glensvig, M.; Sorenson, S.C.; Abata, D.

    1996-12-31

    Partially oxygenated hydrocarbons produced from natural gas have been shown to be viable alternate fuels for the diesel engine, showing favorable combustion characteristics similar to that of diesel fuel but without exhaust particulates and with significantly reduced NO{sub x} emissions and lower engine noise. Further, engine studies have demonstrated that such compounds, like dimethyl ether (DME), can be injected at much lower pressures than conventional diesel fuel with better overall performance. This experimental study compares the injection of DME to that of conventional diesel fuel. Both fuels were injected into a quiescent high pressure chamber containing Nitrogen at pressures up to 25 atmospheres at room temperature with a pintle nozzle and jerk pump. Comparisons were obtained with high speed photography using a Hycam camera. Results indicate that there are significant differences in spray geometry and penetration which are not predictable with analytical models currently used for diesel fuels.

  11. High pressure chemistry of substituted acetylenes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chellappa, Raja; Dattelbaum, Dana; Sheffield, Stephen; Robbins, David

    2011-01-25

    High pressure in situ synchrotron x-ray diffraction experiments were performed on substituted polyacetylenes: tert-butyl acetylene [TBA: (CH{sub 3}){sub 3}-C{triple_bond}CH] and ethynyl trimethylsilane [ETMS: (CH{sub 3}){sub 3}-Si{triple_bond}CH] to investigate pressure-induced chemical reactions. The starting samples were the low temperature crystalline phases which persisted metastably at room temperature and polymerized beyond 11 GPa and 26 GPa for TBA and ETMS respectively. These reaction onset pressures are considerably higher than what we observed in the shockwave studies (6.1 GPa for TBA and 6.6 GPa for ETMS). Interestingly, in the case of ETMS, it was observed with fluid ETMS as starting sample, reacts to form a semi-crystalline polymer (crystalline domains corresponding to the low-T phase) at pressures less than {approx}2 GPa. Further characterization using vibrational spectroscopy is in progress.

  12. Low energy high pressure miniature screw valve

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fischer, Gary J.; Spletzer, Barry L.

    2006-12-12

    A low energy high pressure screw valve having a valve body having an upper portion and a lower portion, said lower portion of said valve body defining an inlet flow passage and an outlet flow passage traversing said valve body to a valve seat, said upper portion of said valve body defining a cavity at said valve seat, a diaphragm restricting flow between said upper portion of said valve body and said lower portion, said diaphragm capable of engaging said valve seat to restrict fluid communication between said inlet passage and said outlet passage, a plunger within said cavity supporting said diaphragm, said plunger being capable of engaging said diaphragm with said valve seat at said inlet and outlet fluid passages, said plunger being in point contact with a drive screw having threads engaged with opposing threads within said upper portion of said valve body such engagement allowing motion of said drive screw within said valve body.

  13. High-pressure studies of melamine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pravica, Michael; Kim, Eunja; Tkachev, Sergey; Chow, Paul; Xiao, Yuming

    2010-04-05

    We performed the first high-pressure study of melamine using X-ray Raman spectroscopy (XRS) up to -17 GPa in a diamond anvil cell at ambient temperature. We utilized the 16 ID-D undulator beamline at the Advanced Photon Source for the X-ray source. The observed diminishment of the 1s {yields} {pi}* peak as well as other changes in the XRS spectra with pressure suggest the possibility of intra- and inter-molecular bonding changes due to two phase changes in the investigated pressure range or hybridization changes of atomic orbitals in the material with pressure. We also performed a complementary X-ray powder diffraction study of neat melamine up to 24 GPa observing at least two phase transitions with pressure. Pressure cycling indicated that the phase transitions were reversible. Density-functional theory calculations performed on the system at ambient and low pressure show a high level of agreement with the experiments.

  14. DOE Hydrogen Delivery High-Pressure Tanks and Analysis Project...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    DOE Hydrogen Delivery High-Pressure Tanks and Analysis Project Review Meeting On February 8-9, 2005, the Department of Energy held the DOE Hydrogen Delivery High-Pressure Tanks and ...

  15. High-Pressure and High-Temperature Powder Diffraction (Journal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    High-Pressure and High-Temperature Powder Diffraction Citation Details In-Document Search Title: High-Pressure and High-Temperature Powder Diffraction Authors: Fei, Yingwei ; Wang, ...

  16. High-Pressure Multi-Mbar Conductivity Experiments on Hydrogen...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    High-Pressure Multi-Mbar Conductivity Experiments on Hydrogen: The Quest for Solid Metallic Hydrogen Citation Details In-Document Search Title: High-Pressure Multi-Mbar ...

  17. High Temperature, High Pressure Devices for Zonal Isolation in Geothermal

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Wells | Department of Energy High Temperature, High Pressure Devices for Zonal Isolation in Geothermal Wells High Temperature, High Pressure Devices for Zonal Isolation in Geothermal Wells High Temperature, High Pressure Devices for Zonal Isolation in Geothermal Wells fabian_ctd_ zonal_isolation_peer2013.pdf (809.57 KB) More Documents & Publications High Temperature, High Pressure Devices for Zonal Isolation in Geothermal Wells track 3: enhanced geothermal systems (EGS) | geothermal 2015

  18. Consider Installing High-Pressure Boilers with Backpressure

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Turbine-Generators | Department of Energy High-Pressure Boilers with Backpressure Turbine-Generators Consider Installing High-Pressure Boilers with Backpressure Turbine-Generators This tip sheet outlines the benefits of high-pressure boilers with backpressure turbine-generators as part of optimized steam systems. STEAM TIP SHEET #22 Consider Installing High-Pressure Boilers with Backpressure Turbine-Generators (January 2012) (513.44 KB) More Documents & Publications Replace

  19. Photo Gallery: 3D Printing Brings Classic Shelby Cobra to Life

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    All-electric 50th-anniversary Shelby Cobra car was created using large-scale 3D-printer at Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

  20. EERE Success Story-Just Plain Cool, the 3D Printed Shelby Cobra...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Manufacturing Demonstration Facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, the Shelby Cobra electric vehicle replica is showcasing the enormous potential of additive manufacturing. ...

  1. The 3D-Printed Shelby Cobra: Defining Rapid Innovation | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy The 3D-Printed Shelby Cobra: Defining Rapid Innovation The 3D-Printed Shelby Cobra: Defining Rapid Innovation April 24, 2015 - 9:00am Addthis The 3D-Printed Shelby Cobra: Defining Rapid Innovation img-1294_crop.jpg It's been hard to miss in the media and on its almost non-stop road tour, but AMO wanted you to know that our 3D-printed EV version of the 50th anniversary Shelby Cobra just left the Forrestal building lobby after visiting for two weeks. Secretary Moniz dropped in for a

  2. High-Pressure Tube Trailers and Tanks | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Tube Trailers and Tanks High-Pressure Tube Trailers and Tanks Presentation on High-Pressure Tube Trailers and Tanks for the DOE Hydrogen Delivery High-Pressure Tanks and Analysis Project Review Meeting held February 8-9, 2005 at Argonne National Laboratory 03_aceves_llnl.pdf (4.21 MB) More Documents & Publications Cryo-Compressed Hydrogen Storage: Performance and Cost Review Technical Assessment: Cryo-Compressed Hydrogen Storage for Vehicular Applications OEM Perspective on Cryogenic H2

  3. Lessons Learned from Practical Field Experience with High Pressure Gaseous

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fuels | Department of Energy Practical Field Experience with High Pressure Gaseous Fuels Lessons Learned from Practical Field Experience with High Pressure Gaseous Fuels Presentation given by Douglas Horne of the Clean Vehicle Energy Foundation at the CNG and Hydrogen Lessons Learned Workshop on December 10, 2009 cng_h2_workshop_7_horne.pdf (4.54 MB) More Documents & Publications High Pressure Fuel Storage Cylinders Periodic Inspection and End of Life Issues Workshop Notes from

  4. Single Crystal Preparation for High-Pressure Experiments in the...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Experiments in the Diamond Anvil Cell Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Single Crystal Preparation for High-Pressure Experiments in the Diamond Anvil Cell You are ...

  5. High pressure floating zone growth and structural properties...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    quantum paraelectric BaFe12O19 Citation Details In-Document Search Title: High pressure floating zone growth and structural properties of ferrimagnetic quantum ...

  6. Consider Installing High-Pressure Boilers with BackpressureTurbine...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    with backpressure turbine-generators as part of optimized steam systems. STEAM TIP SHEET 22 Consider Installing High-Pressure Boilers with Backpressure Turbine-Generators (January ...

  7. High Temperature, High Pressure Devices for Zonal Isolation in...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    High Temperature, High Pressure Devices for Zonal Isolation in Geothermal Wells track 3: enhanced geothermal systems (EGS) | geothermal 2015 peer review Complete FiberCopper Cable ...

  8. Double Shock Experiments and Reactive Flow Modeling of High Pressure...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Double Shock Experiments and Reactive Flow Modeling of High Pressure LX-17 Detonation Reaction Product States Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Double Shock Experiments ...

  9. Neutron source detection with high pressure capillary arrays...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Neutron source detection with high pressure capillary arrays. No abstract prepared. Authors: Chinn, Douglas Alan ; McClain, Jaime L. ; Ballard, William Parker ; Galambos, ...

  10. Ultrasound Measurements of Cerium under High Pressure in a Large...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Ultrasound Measurements of Cerium under High Pressure in a Large Volume Press Combined ... Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Ultrasound Measurements of Cerium under High ...

  11. Compressibility of Ir-Os alloys under high pressure (Journal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Country of Publication: United States Language: ENGLISH Subject: high-pressure; alloys; iridium; osmium Word Cloud More Like This Full Text Journal Articles DOI: 10.1016...

  12. Ultralow viscosity of carbonate melts at high pressures (Journal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Ultralow viscosity of carbonate melts at high pressures Authors: Kono, Yoshio ; Kenney-Benson, Curtis ; Hummer, Daniel ; Ohfuji, Hiroaki ; Park, Changyong ; Shen, Guoyin ; ...

  13. Pantex High Pressure Fire Loop Project Completed On Time, Under...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    WASHINGTON, D.C. - Work on the National Nuclear Security Administration's (NNSA) High Pressure Fire Loop (HPFL) project at its Pantex Plant, located near Amarillo, Texas, was ...

  14. High Pressure Fuel Storage Cylinders Periodic Inspection and...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fuel Storage Cylinders Periodic Inspection and End of Life Issues High Pressure Fuel Storage Cylinders Periodic Inspection and End of Life Issues These slides were presented at the ...

  15. Electronic Transitions in f-electron Metals at High Pressures...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Technical Report: Electronic Transitions in f-electron Metals at High Pressures: Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Electronic Transitions in f-electron Metals at High ...

  16. Hydrogen sulfide at high pressure: Change in stoichiometry (Journal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Hydrogen sulfide at high pressure: Change in stoichiometry Authors: Goncharov, Alexander F. ; Lobanov, Sergey S. ; Kruglov, Ivan ; Zhao, Xiao-Miao ; Chen, Xiao-Jia ; Oganov, ...

  17. Consider Installing High-Pressure Boilers with Backpressure Turbine...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    turbine-generator maintenance does not interfere with plant thermal deliveries. Cost-Effective Power Generation In a backpressure steam turbine, energy from high-pressure ...

  18. High Pressure Ethanol Reforming for Distributed Hydrogen Production...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Pressure Ethanol Reforming for Distributed Hydrogen Production High Pressure Ethanol Reforming for Distributed Hydrogen Production Presentation by S. Ahmed and S.H.D. Lee at the ...

  19. Hydro-Pac Inc., A High Pressure Company

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Hydro-Pac Inc. A High Pressure Company * Founded in 1972 * Manufacturer of Hydraulically Driven Intensifiers * High Pressure Hydrogen Compressors Hydrogen Compressor Cost Reduction Topics * Standardize Configuration and Fueling Strategy * Simple Designs and Proven Technologies * Identify Economical Hydrogen Compatible Materials * Specify Well Ventilated Sites with Remote Controls Standardize Configuration and Fueling Strategy * Limit the number of compressors and stages * Narrow the range of

  20. Safety analysis of high pressure gasous fuel container punctures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swain, M.R.

    1995-09-01

    The following report is divided into two sections. The first section describes the results of ignitability tests of high pressure hydrogen and natural gas leaks. The volume of ignitable gases formed by leaking hydrogen or natural gas were measured. Leaking high pressure hydrogen produced a cone of ignitable gases with 28{degrees} included angle. Leaking high pressure methane produced a cone of ignitable gases with 20{degrees} included angle. Ignition of hydrogen produced larger overpressures than did natural gas. The largest overpressures produced by hydrogen were the same as overpressures produced by inflating a 11 inch child`s balloon until it burst.

  1. XAS and XMCD spectroscopies to study matter at high pressure...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    XAS and XMCD spectroscopies to study matter at high pressure: Probing the correlation between structure and magnetism in the 3d metals Citation Details In-Document Search Title: ...

  2. Evaluation of high-pressure drilling fluid supply systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McDonald, M.C.; Reichman, J.M.; Theimer, K.J.

    1981-10-01

    A study was undertaken to help determine the technical and economic feasibility of developing a high-pressure fluid-jet drilling system for the production of geothermal wells. Three system concepts were developed and analyzed in terms of costs, component availability, and required new-component development. These concepts included a single-conduit system that supplies the downhole cutting nozzles directly via surface-located high-pressure pumps; a single-conduit system utilizing low-pressure surface pumps to supply and operate a high-pressure downhole pump, which in turn supplies the cutting nozzles; and a dual-conduit system supplying surface-generated high-pressure fluid for cutting via one conduit and low-pressure scavenging fluid via the other. It is concluded that the single-conduit downhole pump system concept has the greatest potential for success in this application. 28 figures, 11 tables.

  3. High Pressure PEM Electrolysis: Status, Key Issues, and Challenges

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High Pressure PEM Electrolysis Status, Key Issues, and Challenges Electrolytic Hydrogen Production Workshop NREL, Golden, Colorado Monjid Hamdan Director of Engineering Giner, Inc. 89 Rumford Ave, Newton, Ma. 02466 February 27-28 th , 2014 Advantages of High Pressure PEM Electrolysis  Eliminates one or more stages of mechanical compression  Reduces system complexity  Lower drying requirements  Low maintenance  No moving parts  No contaminants  Permits hydrogen generation at

  4. Structural behaviour of niobium oxynitride under high pressure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sharma, Bharat Bhooshan Poswal, H. K. Pandey, K. K. Sharma, Surinder M.; Yakhmi, J. V.; Ohashi, Y.; Kikkawa, S.

    2014-04-24

    High pressure investigation of niobium oxynitrides (NbN{sub 0.98}O{sub 0.02}) employing synchrotron based angle dispersive x-ray diffraction experiments was carried out in very fine pressure steps using membrane driven diamond anvil cell. Ambient cubic phase was found to be stable up to ∼18 GPa. At further high pressure cubic phase showed rhombohedral distortion.

  5. High Pressure Ethanol Reforming for Distributed Hydrogen Production |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Pressure Ethanol Reforming for Distributed Hydrogen Production High Pressure Ethanol Reforming for Distributed Hydrogen Production Presentation by S. Ahmed and S.H.D. Lee at the October 24, 2006 Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working Group Kick-Off Meeting. biliwg06_ahmed_anl.pdf (638.37 KB) More Documents & Publications BILIWG Meeting: High Pressure Steam Reforming of Bio-Derived Liquids (Presentation) Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen

  6. High-pressure Storage Vessels for Hydrogen, Natural Gas and

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Hydrogen-Natural Gas Blends | Department of Energy High-pressure Storage Vessels for Hydrogen, Natural Gas and Hydrogen-Natural Gas Blends High-pressure Storage Vessels for Hydrogen, Natural Gas and Hydrogen-Natural Gas Blends These slides were presented at the International Hydrogen Fuel and Pressure Vessel Forum on September 27 - 29, 2010, in Beijing, China. ihfpv_lynch.pdf (4.21 MB) More Documents & Publications Properties, Behavior and Material Compatibility of Hydrogen, Natural Gas

  7. High-Pressure MOF Research Yields Structural Insights

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    High-Pressure MOF Research Yields Structural Insights High-Pressure MOF Research Yields Structural Insights Print Wednesday, 26 February 2014 00:00 Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are a remarkable class of relatively new materials that exist as a subclass of a larger group called coordination networks. MOFs have shown promise in a variety of applications ranging from gas storage to ion exchange. The materials are comprised of organic linkers that bridge discrete metal building units. Accurate

  8. Synchronization and an application of a novel fractional order King Cobra chaotic system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Muthukumar, P. Balasubramaniam, P.; Ratnavelu, K.

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, we design a new three dimensional King Cobra face shaped fractional order chaotic system. The multi-scale synchronization scheme of two fractional order chaotic systems is described. The necessary conditions for the multi-scale synchronization of two identical fractional order King Cobra chaotic systems are derived through feedback control. A new cryptosystem is proposed for an image encryption and decryption by using synchronized fractional order King Cobra chaotic systems with the supports of multiple cryptographic assumptions. The security of the proposed cryptosystem is analyzed by the well known algebraic attacks. Numerical simulations are given to show the effectiveness of the proposed theoretical results.

  9. The 3D-Printed Shelby Cobra: Defining Rapid Innovation | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy The 3D-Printed Shelby Cobra: Defining Rapid Innovation The 3D-Printed Shelby Cobra: Defining Rapid Innovation "He said he’d get in if he could drive." "He said he'd get in if he could drive." It's been hard to miss in the media and on its almost non-stop road tour, but AMO wanted you to know that our 3D-printed EV version of the 50th anniversary Shelby Cobra just left the Forrestal building lobby after visiting for two weeks. Secretary Moniz dropped in for a

  10. Energy Systems High Pressure Test Laboratory (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2011-10-01

    This fact sheet describes the purpose, lab specifications, applications scenarios, and information on how to partner with NREL's Energy Systems High Pressure Test Laboratory at the Energy Systems Integration Facility. The purpose of the Energy Systems High Pressure Test Laboratory at NREL's Energy Systems Integration Facility (ESIF) is to provide space where high pressure hydrogen components can be safely tested. High pressure hydrogen storage is an integral part of energy storage technology for use in fuel cell and in other distributed energy scenarios designed to effectively utilize the variability inherent with renewable energy sources. The high pressure storage laboratory is co-located with energy storage activities such as ultra-capacitors, super conducting magnetic flywheel and mechanical energy storage systems laboratories for an integrated approach to system development and demonstration. Hazards associated with hydrogen storage at pressures up to 10,000 psi include oxygen displacement, combustion, explosion, and pressurization of room air due to fast release and physical hazards associated with burst failure modes. A critical understanding of component failure modes is essential in developing reliable, robust designs that will minimize failure risk beyond the end of service life. Development of test protocol for accelerated life testing to accurately scale to real world operating conditions is essential for developing regulations, codes and standards required for safe operation. NREL works closely with industry partners in providing support of advanced hydrogen technologies. Innovative approaches to product design will accelerate commercialization into new markets. NREL works with all phases of the product design life cycle from early prototype development to final certification testing. High pressure tests are performed on hydrogen components, primarily for the validation of developing new codes and standards for high pressure hydrogen applications. The

  11. Secretary Moniz Test Drives the 3D-Printed Shelby Cobra | Department...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Energy Secretary Ernest Moniz recently took the Shelby Cobra out for a test drive to experince its innovative features first-hand. The overall project was supported by the Energy ...

  12. The 3D-Printed Shelby Cobra: Defining Rapid Innovation | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    It's been hard to miss in the media and on its almost non-stop road tour, but AMO wanted you to know that our 3D-printed EV version of the 50th anniversary Shelby Cobra just left ...

  13. CASL-U-2015-0054-000 COBRA-TF Subchannel Thermal-Hydraulics...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Coolant-Boiling in Rod Arrays-Two Fluids (COBRA-TF) is a Thermal Hydraulic (TH) ... sponsorship of the NRC 68, began as a TH rod-bundle analysis code, but has been ...

  14. Confinement of hydrogen at high pressure in carbon nanotubes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lassila, David H.; Bonner, Brian P.

    2011-12-13

    A high pressure hydrogen confinement apparatus according to one embodiment includes carbon nanotubes capped at one or both ends thereof with a hydrogen-permeable membrane to enable the high pressure confinement of hydrogen and release of the hydrogen therethrough. A hydrogen confinement apparatus according to another embodiment includes an array of multi-walled carbon nanotubes each having first and second ends, the second ends being capped with palladium (Pd) to enable the high pressure confinement of hydrogen and release of the hydrogen therethrough as a function of palladium temperature, wherein the array of carbon nanotubes is capable of storing hydrogen gas at a pressure of at least 1 GPa for greater than 24 hours. Additional apparatuses and methods are also presented.

  15. High pressure rotary piston coal feeder for coal gasification applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gencsoy, Hasan T.

    1977-05-24

    The subject development is directed to an apparatus for feeding pulverized coal into a coal gasifier operating at relatively high pressures and elevated temperatures. This apparatus is a rotary piston feeder which comprises a circular casing having a coal loading opening therein diametrically opposed from a coal discharge and contains a rotatable discoid rotor having a cylinder in which a reciprocateable piston is disposed. The reciprocation of the piston within the cylinder is provided by a stationary conjugate cam arrangement whereby the pulverized coal from a coal hopper at atmospheric pressure can be introduced into the cylinder cavity and then discharged therefrom into the high-pressure gasifier without the loss of high pressure gases from within the latter.

  16. Equation of state of liquid Indium under high pressure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Huaming E-mail: mo.li@gatech.edu; Li, Mo E-mail: mo.li@gatech.edu; Sun, Yongli

    2015-09-15

    We apply an equation of state of a power law form to liquid Indium to study its thermodynamic properties under high temperature and high pressure. Molar volume of molten indium is calculated along the isothermal line at 710K within good precision as compared with the experimental data in an externally heated diamond anvil cell. Bulk modulus, thermal expansion and internal pressure are obtained for isothermal compression. Other thermodynamic properties are also calculated along the fitted high pressure melting line. While our results suggest that the power law form may be a better choice for the equation of state of liquids, these detailed predictions are yet to be confirmed by further experiment.

  17. Capillary toroid cavity detector for high pressure NMR

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gerald, II, Rex E.; Chen, Michael J.; Klingler, Robert J.; Rathke, Jerome W.; ter Horst, Marc

    2007-09-11

    A Toroid Cavity Detector (TCD) is provided for implementing nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) studies of chemical reactions under conditions of high pressures and temperatures. A toroid cavity contains an elongated central conductor extending within the toroid cavity. The toroid cavity and central conductor generate an RF magnetic field for NMR analysis. A flow-through capillary sample container is located within the toroid cavity adjacent to the central conductor to subject a sample material flowing through the capillary to a static magnetic field and to enable NMR spectra to be recorded of the material in the capillary under a temperature and high pressure environment.

  18. Ultra-high pressure water jet: Baseline report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-07-31

    The ultra-high pressure waterjet technology was being evaluated at Florida International University (FIU) as a baseline technology. In conjunction with FIU`s evaluation of efficiency and cost, this report covers the evaluation conducted for safety and health issues. It is a commercially available technology and has been used for various projects at locations throughout the country. The ultra-high pressure waterjet technology acts as a cutting tool for the removal of surface substrates. The Husky{trademark} pump feeds water to a lance that directs the high pressure water at the surface to be removed. The safety and health evaluation during the testing demonstration focused on two main areas of exposure. These were dust and noise. The dust exposure was found to be minimal, which would be expected due to the wet environment inherent in the technology, but noise exposure was at a significant level. Further testing for noise is recommended because of the outdoor environment where the testing demonstration took place. In addition, other areas of concern found were arm-hand vibration, ergonomics, heat stress, tripping hazards, electrical hazards, lockout/tagout, fall hazards, slipping hazards, hazards associated with the high pressure water, and hazards associated with air pressure systems.

  19. Elasticity of single-crystal olivine at high pressures and temperature...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Elasticity of single-crystal olivine at high pressures and temperatures Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Elasticity of single-crystal olivine at high pressures and ...

  20. Plastic deformation and sintering of alumina under high pressure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Fangming; Liu, Pingping; Wang, Haikuo; Xu, Chao; Yin, Shuai; Yin, Wenwen; Li, Yong; He, Duanwei

    2013-12-21

    Plastic deformation of alumina (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) under high pressure was investigated by observing the shape changes of spherical particles, and the near fully dense transparent bulks were prepared at around 5.5 GPa and 900 °C. Through analyzing the deformation features, densities, and residual micro-strain of the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} compacts prepared under high pressures and temperatures (2.0–5.5 GPa and 600–1200 °C), the effects of plastic deformation on the sintering behavior of alumina have been demonstrated. Under compression, the microscopic deviatoric stress caused by grain-to-grain contact could initiate the plastic deformation of individual particles, eliminate pores of the polycrystalline samples, and enhance the local atomic diffusion at the grain boundaries, thus produced transparent alumina bulks.

  1. Intermittently-fed high-pressure gasifier process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bailey, John M.; Zadoks, Abraham L.

    1993-11-30

    An improved gasifier adapted for gasifying a predetermined charge of non-gaseous fuel into fuel gas. Each charge of non-gaseous fuel, which may have optional conditioning materials added to it, is intermittently fed to a gasifier chamber where each charge is partially burned with high-pressure air supplied thereto. High-pressure and temperature fuel gas is produced which is cleansed prior to passing out of the gasifier chamber. After gasification of the charge of fuel is is ended, the gasifier chamber is vented. The residue of the burned charge in the gasifier chamber is removed, along with the contaminated or reacted conditioning materials, and replaced by a fresh charge. The subject invention provides a feasible way of continuously fueling an internal combustion engine with gasified fuel and is compact enough to be practical for even mobile applications.

  2. Intermittently-fed high-pressure gasifier process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bailey, J.M.; Zadoks, A.L.

    1993-11-30

    An improved gasifier is described which is adapted for gasifying a predetermined charge of non-gaseous fuel into fuel gas. Each charge of non-gaseous fuel, which may have optional conditioning materials added to it, is intermittently fed to a gasifier chamber where each charge is partially burned with high-pressure air supplied thereto. High-pressure and temperature fuel gas is produced which is cleansed prior to passing out of the gasifier chamber. After gasification of the charge of fuel is ended, the gasifier chamber is vented. The residue of the burned charge in the gasifier chamber is removed, along with the contaminated or reacted conditioning materials, and replaced by a fresh charge. The subject invention provides a feasible way of continuously fueling an internal combustion engine with gasified fuel and is compact enough to be practical for even mobile applications. 3 figures.

  3. High pressure and Multiferroics materials. A happy marriage

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Gilioli, Edmondo; Ehm, Lars

    2014-10-31

    We found that the community of material scientists is strongly committed to the research area of multiferroic materials, both for the understanding of the complex mechanisms supporting the multiferroism and for the fabrication of new compounds, potentially suitable for technological applications. The use of high pressure is a powerful tool in synthesizing new multiferroic, in particular magneto-electric phases, where the pressure stabilization of otherwise unstable perovskite-based structural distortions may lead to promising novel metastable compounds. Moreover, the in situ investigation of the high-pressure behavior of multiferroic materials has provided insight into the complex interplay between magnetic and electronic properties andmore » the coupling to structural instabilities.« less

  4. Subsea intensifier supplies high pressure to downhole safety valves

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-07-01

    A subsea high-pressure hydraulic intensifier (HPI) is now available as an alternative method of operating downhole surface-controlled subsea safety valves (SCSSVs). By generating high hydraulic pressures on the seafloor, the system eliminates need for transmitting high pressure via hose from surface. The new intensifier can generate up to 15,000 psi (1,035 bar) from the 3,000-psi (210-bar) low pressure actuator supply already within the umbilical. It uses low pressure hydraulic fluid acting on a large-area piston to push a second piston, one-fifth the cross sectional area, acting in a second hydraulic circuit. To reduce pulsation, the unit is double acting, with one piston drawing in fluid while the other discharges it. This paper reviews the design, performance, and construction of this equipment.

  5. High-Pressure MOF Research Yields Structural Insights

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    High-Pressure MOF Research Yields Structural Insights Print Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are a remarkable class of relatively new materials that exist as a subclass of a larger group called coordination networks. MOFs have shown promise in a variety of applications ranging from gas storage to ion exchange. The materials are comprised of organic linkers that bridge discrete metal building units. Accurate structural knowledge is key to the understanding of the applicability of these materials,

  6. High-Pressure MOF Research Yields Structural Insights

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    High-Pressure MOF Research Yields Structural Insights Print Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are a remarkable class of relatively new materials that exist as a subclass of a larger group called coordination networks. MOFs have shown promise in a variety of applications ranging from gas storage to ion exchange. The materials are comprised of organic linkers that bridge discrete metal building units. Accurate structural knowledge is key to the understanding of the applicability of these materials,

  7. Vibratory high pressure coal feeder having a helical ramp

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Farber, Gerald

    1978-01-01

    Apparatus and method for feeding powdered coal from a helical ramp into a high pressure, heated, reactor tube containing hydrogen for hydrogenating the coal and/or for producing useful products from coal. To this end, the helical ramp is vibrated to feed the coal cleanly at an accurately controlled rate in a simple reliable and trouble-free manner that eliminates complicated and expensive screw feeders, and/or complicated and expensive seals, bearings and fully rotating parts.

  8. High Pressure Hydrogen Storage in Carbon Nanotubes - Energy Innovation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Portal Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Find More Like This Return to Search High Pressure Hydrogen Storage in Carbon Nanotubes Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Contact LLNL About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary Hydrogen storage for transportation is one of the most important problems faced in implementing a "hydrogen economy". Hydrogen can be produced in many ways, but then must be stored for use by fuel cells. The U.S. Department of Energy's

  9. High-Pressure MOF Research Yields Structural Insights

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    High-Pressure MOF Research Yields Structural Insights Print Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are a remarkable class of relatively new materials that exist as a subclass of a larger group called coordination networks. MOFs have shown promise in a variety of applications ranging from gas storage to ion exchange. The materials are comprised of organic linkers that bridge discrete metal building units. Accurate structural knowledge is key to the understanding of the applicability of these materials,

  10. High-Pressure MOF Research Yields Structural Insights

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    High-Pressure MOF Research Yields Structural Insights Print Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are a remarkable class of relatively new materials that exist as a subclass of a larger group called coordination networks. MOFs have shown promise in a variety of applications ranging from gas storage to ion exchange. The materials are comprised of organic linkers that bridge discrete metal building units. Accurate structural knowledge is key to the understanding of the applicability of these materials,

  11. High-Pressure MOF Research Yields Structural Insights

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    High-Pressure MOF Research Yields Structural Insights Print Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are a remarkable class of relatively new materials that exist as a subclass of a larger group called coordination networks. MOFs have shown promise in a variety of applications ranging from gas storage to ion exchange. The materials are comprised of organic linkers that bridge discrete metal building units. Accurate structural knowledge is key to the understanding of the applicability of these materials,

  12. High-Pressure MOF Research Yields Structural Insights

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    High-Pressure MOF Research Yields Structural Insights Print Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are a remarkable class of relatively new materials that exist as a subclass of a larger group called coordination networks. MOFs have shown promise in a variety of applications ranging from gas storage to ion exchange. The materials are comprised of organic linkers that bridge discrete metal building units. Accurate structural knowledge is key to the understanding of the applicability of these materials,

  13. High-Pressure MOF Research Yields Structural Insights

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    High-Pressure MOF Research Yields Structural Insights Print Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are a remarkable class of relatively new materials that exist as a subclass of a larger group called coordination networks. MOFs have shown promise in a variety of applications ranging from gas storage to ion exchange. The materials are comprised of organic linkers that bridge discrete metal building units. Accurate structural knowledge is key to the understanding of the applicability of these materials,

  14. Reinvestigation of high pressure polymorphism in hafnium metal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pandey, K. K. Sharma, Surinder M.; Gyanchandani, Jyoti; Dey, G. K.; Somayazulu, M.; Sikka, S. K.

    2014-06-21

    There has been a recent controversy about the high pressure polymorphism of Hafnium (Hf). Unlike, the earlier known ??? structural transition at 38??8?GPa, at ambient temperature, Hrubiak et al. [J. Appl. Phys. 111, 112612 (2012)] did not observe it till 51?GPa. They observed this transition only at elevated temperatures. We have reinvestigated the room temperature phase diagram of Hf, employing x-ray diffraction (XRD) and DFT based first principles calculations. Experimental investigations have been carried out on several pure and impure Hf samples and also with different pressure transmitting media. Besides demonstrating the significant role of impurity levels on the high pressure phase diagram of Hf, our studies re-establish room temperature ??? transition at high pressures, even in quasi-hydrostatic environment. We observed this transition in pure Hf with equilibrium transition pressure P{sub o}?=?44.5?GPa; however, with large hysteresis. The structural sequence, transition pressures, the lattice parameters, the c/a ratio and its variation with compression for the ? and ? phases as predicted by our ab-initio scalar relativistic (SR) calculations are found to be in good agreement with our experimental results of pure Hf.

  15. Aging study of boiling water reactor high pressure injection systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Conley, D.A.; Edson, J.L.; Fineman, C.F.

    1995-03-01

    The purpose of high pressure injection systems is to maintain an adequate coolant level in reactor pressure vessels, so that the fuel cladding temperature does not exceed 1,200{degrees}C (2,200{degrees}F), and to permit plant shutdown during a variety of design basis loss-of-coolant accidents. This report presents the results of a study on aging performed for high pressure injection systems of boiling water reactor plants in the United States. The purpose of the study was to identify and evaluate the effects of aging and the effectiveness of testing and maintenance in detecting and mitigating aging degradation. Guidelines from the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s Nuclear Plant Aging Research Program were used in performing the aging study. Review and analysis of the failures reported in databases such as Nuclear Power Experience, Licensee Event Reports, and the Nuclear Plant Reliability Data System, along with plant-specific maintenance records databases, are included in this report to provide the information required to identify aging stressors, failure modes, and failure causes. Several probabilistic risk assessments were reviewed to identify risk-significant components in high pressure injection systems. Testing, maintenance, specific safety issues, and codes and standards are also discussed.

  16. Weatherization and Intergovernmental Program Success Stories...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    energy. Learn more. August 27, 2010 New LED lighting fixtures (right) emit a whiter light than existing high-pressure sodium cobra head streetlights (left) and don't spill...

  17. System Study: High-Pressure Coolant Injection 1998-2014

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schroeder, John Alton

    2015-12-01

    This report presents an unreliability evaluation of the high-pressure coolant injection system (HPCI) at 25 U.S. commercial boiling water reactors. Demand, run hours, and failure data from fiscal year 1998 through 2014 for selected components were obtained from the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO) Consolidated Events Database (ICES). The unreliability results are trended for the most recent 10 year period, while yearly estimates for system unreliability are provided for the entire active period. No statistically significant increasing or decreasing trends were identified in the HPCI results.

  18. System Study: High-Pressure Coolant Injection 1998–2013

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schroeder, John Alton

    2015-01-31

    This report presents an unreliability evaluation of the high-pressure coolant injection system (HPCI) at 25 U.S. commercial boiling water reactors. Demand, run hours, and failure data from fiscal year 1998 through 2013 for selected components were obtained from the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO) Consolidated Events Database (ICES). The unreliability results are trended for the most recent 10-year period, while yearly estimates for system unreliability are provided for the entire active period. No statistically significant increasing or decreasing trends were identified in the HPCI results.

  19. High pressure melting curves of silver, gold and copper

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hieu, Ho Khac

    2013-11-15

    In this work, based on the Lindemann's formula of melting and the pressure-dependent Grüneisen parameter, we have investigated the pressure effect on melting temperature of silver, gold and copper metals. The analytical expression of melting temperature as a function of volume compression has been derived. Our results are compared with available experimental data as well as with previous theoretical studies and the good and reasonable agreements are found. We also proposed the potential of this approach on predicting melting of copper at very high pressure.

  20. Structural Behaviour of Uranium Sulfide under High Pressure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shareef, F.; Singh, S.; Gour, A.; Bhardwaj, P.; Sarwan, M.; Dubey, R. [High Pressure Research Lab, Department of Physics, Barkatullah University, Bhopal-462026 (India); Singh, R. K. [ITM University, Gurgaon, Haryana-122017 (India)

    2011-07-15

    The study of pressure induced structural phase transition of uranium sulphide, which crystallizes in rock salt (B1) structure, has been performed using the well described three body interaction model (TBIPM). Our present TBIP model consists of long range coulombic interaction, three body interactions, Hafemeister and Flygare type short-range overlap repulsion extended upto the second neighbor ions and the van der Waals interaction. The present results are in good agreement with the available experimental data on the phase transition pressure (Pt = 80.2 GPa). So it can be considered as an adequate and suitable model to perform high pressure studies.

  1. System Study: High-Pressure Coolant Injection 1998-2012

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    T. E. Wierman

    2013-10-01

    This report presents an unreliability evaluation of the high-pressure coolant injection system (HPCI) at 69 U.S. commercial nuclear power plants. Demand, run hours, and failure data from fiscal year 1998 through 2012 for selected components were obtained from the Equipment Performance and Information Exchange (EPIX). The unreliability results are trended for the most recent 10 year period while yearly estimates for system unreliability are provided for the entire active period. No statistically significant increasing or decreasing trends were identified in the HPCI results.

  2. System Study: High-Pressure Safety Injection 1998–2012

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    T. E. Wierman

    2013-10-01

    This report presents an unreliability evaluation of the high-pressure safety injection system (HPSI) at 69 U.S. commercial nuclear power plants. Demand, run hours, and failure data from fiscal year 1998 through 2012 for selected components were obtained from the Equipment Performance and Information Exchange (EPIX). The unreliability results are trended for the most recent 10 year period while yearly estimates for system unreliability are provided for the entire active period. No statistically significant increasing or decreasing trends were identified in the HPSI results.

  3. Surface roughening of superalloys by high pressure pure waterjet

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taylor, T.A.

    1995-12-31

    A high pressure waterjet has been used to study the surface roughening of superalloys as preparation for thermal spraying. Designed experiments for Mar-M 509 and Rene 80 were carried out for the effects of jet pressure and mass of water delivered per unit area. Comparisons were made of several superalloys in terms of erosion, surface roughness and topology. The mechanism of jet erosion of Rene 80 was studied in relation to its metallurgical microstructure. An MCrAlY coating by shrouded plasma spray was made over a waterjet prepared surface with excellent bonding and having an ideally clean interface.

  4. System Study: High-Pressure Core Spray 1998-2014

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schroeder, John Alton

    2015-12-01

    This report presents an unreliability evaluation of the high-pressure core spray (HPCS) at eight U.S. commercial boiling water reactors. Demand, run hours, and failure data from fiscal year 1998 through 2014 for selected components were obtained from the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO) Consolidated Events Database (ICES). The unreliability results are trended for the most recent 10 year period while yearly estimates for system unreliability are provided for the entire active period. No statistically significant increasing or decreasing trends were identified in the HPCS results.

  5. System Study: High-Pressure Safety Injection 1998-2014

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schroeder, John Alton

    2015-12-01

    This report presents an unreliability evaluation of the high-pressure safety injection system (HPSI) at 69 U.S. commercial nuclear power plants. Demand, run hours, and failure data from fiscal year 1998 through 2014 for selected components were obtained from the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO) Consolidated Events Database (ICES). The unreliability results are trended for the most recent 10 year period while yearly estimates for system unreliability are provided for the entire active period. No statistically significant increasing or decreasing trends were identified in the HPSI results.

  6. System Study: High-Pressure Core Spray 19982012

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    T. E. Wierman

    2013-10-01

    This report presents an unreliability evaluation of the high-pressure core spray (HPCS) at 8 U.S. commercial boiling water reactors. Demand, run hours, and failure data from fiscal year 1998 through 2012 for selected components were obtained from the Equipment Performance and Information Exchange (EPIX). The unreliability results are trended for the most recent 10 year period while yearly estimates for system unreliability are provided for the entire active period. No statistically significant increasing or decreasing trends were identified in the HPCS results.

  7. Improvements, enhancements, and optimizations of COBRA-TF

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Salko, R. K.; Avramova, M. N.; Hooper, R.; Palmtag, S.; Popov, E.; Turner, J.

    2013-07-01

    The Reactor Dynamics and Fuel Management Group (RDFMG) at The Pennsylvania State University (PSU) has become active in the Consortium for Advanced Simulation of Light Water Reactors (CASL) program by delivering, supporting, and further developing CTF, the PSU version of the Coolant Boiling in Rod Arrays - Two Fluids (COBRA-TF) Thermal/Hydraulic (T/H), sub-channel program. New development work on CTF was primarily geared towards decreasing the execution time of the code so that it may eventually be used for performing pin-by-pin, full-core simulations. Great gains have been made through targeting sections of source code for optimization. For example, wall clock time has been reduced for a one-assembly, three-dimensional model, containing {approx}9,400 mesh cells, from 9.2 min to 1 min. A further improvement has been reduction in code memory usage, which was previously prohibitive for large models. In conjunction with the run time speedups, this has enabled the simulation of a refined quarter-core model ({approx}460,000 mesh cells), which saw a reduction in memory usage from over 130 GB to less than 3 GB. In addition to the optimization work, RDFMG has also created a preprocessor utility for the fast and less error-prone generation of CTF input decks. Furthermore, basic post-processing capabilities have been implemented by creating a CTF subroutine for producing Visualization Tool-Kit (VTK) files that output mesh data and associated simulation results. These VTK files can be opened with visualization software. (authors)

  8. DISRUPTION MITIGATION WITH HIGH-PRESSURE NOBLE GAS INJECTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    WHYTE, DG; JERNIGAN, TC; HUMPHREYS, DA; HYATT, AW; LASNIER, CJ; PARKS, PB; EVANS, TE; TAYLOR, PL; KELLMAN, AG; GRAY, DS; HOLLMANN, EM

    2002-10-01

    OAK A271 DISRUPTION MITIGATION WITH HIGH-PRESSURE NOBLE GAS INJECTION. High-pressure gas jets of neon and argon are used to mitigate the three principal damaging effects of tokamak disruptions: thermal loading of the divertor surfaces, vessel stress from poloidal halo currents and the buildup and loss of relativistic electrons to the wall. The gas jet penetrates as a neutral species through to the central plasma at its sonic velocity. The injected gas atoms increase up to 500 times the total electron inventory in the plasma volume, resulting in a relatively benign radiative dissipation of >95% of the plasma stored energy. The rapid cooling and the slow movement of the plasma to the wall reduce poloidal halo currents during the current decay. The thermally collapsed plasma is very cold ({approx} 1-2 eV) and the impurity charge distribution can include > 50% fraction neutral species. If a sufficient quantity of gas is injected, the neutrals inhibit runaway electrons. A physical model of radiative cooling is developed and validated against DIII-D experiments. The model shows that gas jet mitigation, including runaway suppression, extrapolates favorably to burning plasmas where disruption damage will be more severe. Initial results of real-time disruption detection triggering gas jet injection for mitigation are shown.

  9. Performance of Lanthanum Strontium Manganite Electrodes at High Pressure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomsen, Edwin C.; Coffey, Greg W.; Pederson, Larry R.; Marina, Olga A.

    2009-06-15

    The high-pressure performance of lanthanum strontium manganite (LSM), LSM-zirconia, and LSM/ceria composite electrodes was studied by impedance spectroscopy and dc methods. Electrode resistances decreased in proportion to P(O2)1/2 for the LSM electrode in both cathodic and anodic directions to at least 100 atm, a decrease that was attributed to dissociative oxygen adsorption, surface diffusion, and related phenomena. For the LSM-20/zirconia composite electrode, resistances decreased in proportion to P(O2)1/4 across the entire pressure range considered. Two principal features appeared in the impedance spectra, one that showed a P(O2)1/4 dependence attributed to charge transfer reactions, and one that was nearly pressure-independent, possibly due to transport in the zirconia portion of the composite. For the LSM-20/ceria composite electrode, resistances decreased as P(O2)0.3-0.4 at high pressure, depending on temperature. Two features appeared in the impedance spectra: one at low to intermediate frequency having a P(O2)1/2 dependence and one at high frequency having a P(O2)1/4 dependence. These features are attributed to dissociative oxygen adsorption and to charge transfer reactions, respectively. Results suggest that cathodic losses can be substantially lowered by operation of solid oxide fuel cells at greater than ambient pressure.

  10. Interfacial tension in high-pressure carbon dioxide mixtures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chun, B.S.; Wilkinson, G.T.

    1995-12-01

    High-pressure interfacial- and surface-tension phenomena govern the migration and recovery of oil and gas from hydrocarbon reservoirs. The phenomena are of particular relevance to phase separation and mass transfer in light hydrocarbon fractionation plants and in propane deasphalting in lubricating oil refining. Interfacial tensions of carbon dioxide-water-alcohol mixtures were measured at temperatures in the range 5--71 C and pressures 0.1--18.6 MPa, using the capillary rise method. The alcohols were methanol (0.136 mf), ethanol (to 0.523 mf), and isopropyl alcohol (to 0.226 mf). Interfacial tension (IFT) decreased linearly with both temperature and pressure din the low-pressure range (gaseous CO{sub 2}) but was largely independent of pressure at high pressure (liquid or supercritical CO{sub 2}). There was a zone in the vicinity of the critical pressure of CO{sub 2}-as much as 20 C below and 10 C above the carbon dioxide critical temperature--where IFT became small. This is attributed to the formation of a second CO{sub 2}-rich phase. The isotherms exhibited a crossover pressure near 3 MPa for all systems examined.

  11. High-pressure structural study of MnF2

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Stavrou, Elissaios; Yao, Yansun; Goncharov, Alexander F.; Konopkova, Zuzana; Raptis, Constantine

    2015-02-01

    In this study, manganese fluoride (MnF2) with the tetragonal rutile-type structure has been studied using a synchrotron angle-dispersive powder x-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy in a diamond anvil cell up to 60 GPa at room temperature combined with first-principles density functional calculations. The experimental data reveal two pressure-induced structural phase transitions with the following sequence: rutile → SrI2 type (3 GPa)→ α–PbCl2 type (13 GPa). Complete structural information, including interatomic distances, has been determined in the case of MnF2 including the exact structure of the debated first high-pressure phase. First-principles density functional calculations confirm this phase transition sequence, and themore » two calculated transition pressures are in excellent agreement with the experiment. Lattice dynamics calculations also reproduce the experimental Raman spectra measured for the ambient and high-pressure phases. The results are discussed in line with the possible practical use of rutile-type fluorides in general and specifically MnF2 as a model compound to reveal the HP structural behavior of rutile-type SiO2 (Stishovite).« less

  12. Microhole High-Pressure Jet Drill for Coiled Tubing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ken Theimer; Jack Kolle

    2007-06-30

    Tempress Small Mechanically-Assisted High-Pressure Waterjet Drilling Tool project centered on the development of a downhole intensifier (DHI) to boost the hydraulic pressure available from conventional coiled tubing to the level required for high-pressure jet erosion of rock. We reviewed two techniques for implementing this technology (1) pure high-pressure jet drilling and (2) mechanically-assisted jet drilling. Due to the difficulties associated with modifying a downhole motor for mechanically-assisted jet drilling, it was determined that the pure high-pressure jet drilling tool was the best candidate for development and commercialization. It was also determined that this tool needs to run on commingled nitrogen and water to provide adequate downhole differential pressure and to facilitate controlled pressure drilling and descaling applications in low pressure wells. The resulting Microhole jet drilling bottomhole assembly (BHA) drills a 3.625-inch diameter hole with 2-inch coil tubing. The BHA consists of a self-rotating multi-nozzle drilling head, a high-pressure rotary seal/bearing section, an intensifier and a gas separator. Commingled nitrogen and water are separated into two streams in the gas separator. The water stream is pressurized to 3 times the inlet pressure by the downhole intensifier and discharged through nozzles in the drilling head. The energy in the gas-rich stream is used to power the intensifier. Gas-rich exhaust from the intensifier is conducted to the nozzle head where it is used to shroud the jets, increasing their effective range. The prototype BHA was tested at operational pressures and flows in a test chamber and on the end of conventional coiled tubing in a test well. During instrumented runs at downhole conditions, the BHA developed downhole differential pressures of 74 MPa (11,000 psi, median) and 90 MPa (13,000 psi, peaks). The median output differential pressure was nearly 3 times the input differential pressure available from the

  13. Lighting Retrofit Improving Visibility, Saving Energy | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Retrofit Improving Visibility, Saving Energy Lighting Retrofit Improving Visibility, Saving Energy August 27, 2010 - 10:05am Addthis New LED lighting fixtures (right) emit a whiter light than existing high-pressure sodium cobra head streetlights (left) and don't spill light onto nearby houses. | Photos courtesy of the City of Muscatine New LED lighting fixtures (right) emit a whiter light than existing high-pressure sodium cobra head streetlights (left) and don't spill light onto

  14. Electronic Structure of Crystalline 4He at High Pressures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mao, Ho Kwang; Shirley, Eric L.; Ding, Yang; Eng, Peter; Cai, Yong Q.; Chow, Paul; Xiao, Yuming; Jinfu Shu, A=Kao, Chi-Chang; Hemley, Russell J.; Kao, Chichang; Mao, Wendy L.; ,

    2011-01-10

    Using inelastic X-ray scattering techniques, we have succeeded in probing the high-pressure electronic structure of helium crystal at 300 K which has the widest known electronic energy bandgap of all materials, that was previously inaccessible to measurements due to the extreme energy and pressure range. We observed rich electron excitation spectrum, including a cut-off edge above 23 eV, a sharp exciton peak showing linear volume dependence, and a series of excitations and continuum at 26 to 45 eV. We determined electronic dispersion along the {Gamma}-M direction over two Brillouin zones, and provided a quantitative picture of the helium exciton beyond the simplified Wannier-Frenkel description.

  15. Dynamic high-pressure studies of an electrothermal capillary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benson, D.A.; Cahill, P.A.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes arc discharge tests conducted in a prepressurized, constant-volume pressure vessel to study arc behavior over a wide range of current densities, discharge durations and initial vessel pressures. This method allows controlled access to a wider range of conditions than those previously studied in capillary tests. We have investigated aspects of the radiative heat transfer by calculating the material opacity and mean free paths of photons for conditions typical of arc diagnostics. We also performed one-dimensional Eulerian hydrodynamic calculations of the boundary layer behavior in the radiative diffusion approximation. These calculations, which describe the radial mass flow and heat transfer in the absence of turbulent flow effects, show the characteristic times for equilibrium of the high-pressure arc. Finally, we describe progress on a promising means for increasing the mass flux from the capillary discharge through the use of chemically reactive media on the capillary walls. 20 refs., 7 figs.

  16. Controls for offshore high pressure corrosive gas wells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bailliet, R.M.

    1982-01-01

    In September 1981, Shell Oil Company began production from its first high-pressure corrosive gas well in the Gulf of Mexico. The extreme pressures and corrosive nature of the gas required the installation of a 20,000 psi low alloy steel christmas tree, equipped with 12 hydraulically operated safety and control valves. This study describes the instrumentation and control system developed to operate this complex well. Similar wells have been produced on shore, but the limited space available on an offshore platform has required the development of new techniques for operating these wells. The instrumentation system described utilizes conventional pneumatics and hydraulics for control plus intrinsically-safe electronics for data acquisition. The use of intrinsically-safe field wiring provided maximum safety while avoiding the need for explosion-proof conduit and wiring methods in division one hazardous areas.

  17. Transport signatures of quantum critically in Cr at high pressure.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jaramillo, R.; Feng, Y.; Wang, J.; Rosenbaum, T. F.

    2010-08-03

    The elemental antiferromagnet Cr at high pressure presents a new type of naked quantum critical point that is free of disorder and symmetry-breaking fields. Here we measure magnetotransport in fine detail around the critical pressure, P{sub c} {approx} 10 GPa, in a diamond anvil cell and reveal the role of quantum critical fluctuations at the phase transition. As the magnetism disappears and T {yields} 0, the magntotransport scaling converges to a non-mean-field form that illustrates the reconstruction of the magnetic Fermi surface, and is distinct from the critical scaling measured in chemically disordered Cr:V under pressure. The breakdown of itinerant antiferromagnetism only comes clearly into view in the clean limit, establishing disorder as a relevant variable at a quantum phase transition.

  18. High pressure, high current, low inductance, high reliability sealed terminals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hsu, John S [Oak Ridge, TN; McKeever, John W [Oak Ridge, TN

    2010-03-23

    The invention is a terminal assembly having a casing with at least one delivery tapered-cone conductor and at least one return tapered-cone conductor routed there-through. The delivery and return tapered-cone conductors are electrically isolated from each other and positioned in the annuluses of ordered concentric cones at an off-normal angle. The tapered cone conductor service can be AC phase conductors and DC link conductors. The center core has at least one service conduit of gate signal leads, diagnostic signal wires, and refrigerant tubing routed there-through. A seal material is in direct contact with the casing inner surface, the tapered-cone conductors, and the service conduits thereby hermetically filling the interstitial space in the casing interior core and center core. The assembly provides simultaneous high-current, high-pressure, low-inductance, and high-reliability service.

  19. High-pressure Raman spectroscopy of phase change materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hsieh, Wen-Pin Mao, Wendy L.; Zalden, Peter; Wuttig, Matthias; Lindenberg, Aaron M.

    2013-11-04

    We used high-pressure Raman spectroscopy to study the evolution of vibrational frequencies of the phase change materials (PCMs) Ge{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 5}, GeSb{sub 2}Te{sub 4}, and SnSb{sub 2}Te{sub 4}. We found that the critical pressure for triggering amorphization in the PCMs decreases with increasing vacancy concentration, demonstrating that the presence of vacancies, rather than differences in the atomic covalent radii, is crucial for pressure-induced amorphization in PCMs. Compared to the as-deposited amorphous phase, the pressure-induced amorphous phase has a similar vibrational spectrum but requires much lower laser power to transform into the crystalline phase, suggesting different kinetics of crystallization, which may have implications for applications of PCMs in non-volatile data storage.

  20. Modified approaches for high pressure filtration of fine clean coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, J.; Groppo, J.G.; Parekh, B.K. [Center for Applied Energy Research, Lexington, KY (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Removal of moisture from fine (minus 28 mesh) clean coal to 20% or lower level is difficult using the conventional vacuum dewatering technique. High pressure filtration technique provides an avenue for obtaining low moisture in fine clean coal. This paper describes a couple of novel approaches for dewatering of fine clean coal using pressure filtration which provides much lower moisture in fine clean coal than that obtained using conventional pressure filter. The approaches involve (a) split stream dewatering and (b) addition of paper pulp to the coal slurry. For Pittsburgh No. 8 coal slurry, split stream dewatering at 400 mesh provided filter cake containing 12.9% moisture compared to 24.9% obtained on the feed material. The addition of paper pulp to the slurry provided filter cake containing about 17% moisture.

  1. A new high pressure and temperature equation of state of fcc...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    A new high pressure and temperature equation of state of fcc cobalt Citation Details In-Document Search Title: A new high pressure and temperature equation of state of fcc cobalt ...

  2. High pressure effects on U L[subscript 3] x-ray absorption in...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    High pressure effects on U Lsubscript 3 x-ray absorption in partial fluorescence yield ... Citation Details In-Document Search Title: High pressure effects on U Lsubscript 3 x-ray ...

  3. Structural Deformation of Sm@C88 Under High Pressure (Journal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Deformation of Sm@C88 Under HighPressure Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Structural Deformation of Sm@C88 Under High Pressure Authors: J Cui ; M Yao ; H Yang ; Z Liu ; ...

  4. A Reversible Structural Phase Transition in ZnV2O6 at High Pressures...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    A Reversible Structural Phase Transition in ZnV2O6 at High Pressures Citation Details In-Document Search Title: A Reversible Structural Phase Transition in ZnV2O6 at High Pressures ...

  5. High-pressure X-ray diffraction, Raman, and computational studies...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    High-pressure X-ray diffraction, Raman, and computational studies of MgCl2 up to 1 Mbar: ... Citation Details In-Document Search Title: High-pressure X-ray diffraction, Raman, and ...

  6. DOE Hydrogen Delivery Analysis and High Pressure Tanks R&D Project...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Delivery Analysis and High Pressure Tanks R&D Project Review Meeting Agenda DOE Hydrogen Delivery Analysis and High Pressure Tanks R&D Project Review Meeting Agenda DOE Hydrogen ...

  7. Flash High-Pressure Condensate to Regenerate Low-Pressure Steam...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    2 Flash High-Pressure Condensate to Regenerate Low-Pressure Steam Low-pressure process steam requirements are usually met by throttling high- pressure steam, but a portion of the ...

  8. Engine having a high pressure hydraulic system and low pressure lubricating system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bartley, Bradley E.; Blass, James R.; Gibson, Dennis H.

    2000-01-01

    An engine includes a high pressure hydraulic system having a high pressure pump and at least one hydraulically-actuated device attached to an engine housing. A low pressure engine lubricating system is attached to the engine housing and includes a circulation conduit fluidly connected to an outlet from the high pressure pump.

  9. Devices and process for high-pressure magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hoyt, David W; Sears, Jr., Jesse A; Turcu, Romulus V.F.; Rosso, Kevin M; Hu, Jian Zhi

    2014-04-08

    A high-pressure magic angle spinning (MAS) rotor is detailed that includes a high-pressure sample cell that maintains high pressures exceeding 150 bar. The sample cell design minimizes pressure losses due to penetration over an extended period of time.

  10. High-Pressure Tailored Compression: Controlled Thermodynamic Paths

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nguyen, J H; Orlikowski, D; Streitz, F H; Moriarty, J A; Holmes, N C

    2005-10-21

    We have recently carried out novel and exploratory dynamic experiments where the sample follows a prescribed thermodynamic path. In typical dynamic compression experiments, the samples are thermodynamically limited to the principal Hugoniot or quasi-isentrope. With recent developments in the functionally graded material impactor, we can prescribe and shape the applied pressure profile with similarly-shaped, non-monotonic impedance profile in the impactor. Previously inaccessible thermodynamic states beyond the quasi-isentropes and Hugoniot can now be reached in dynamic experiments with these impactors. In the light gas-gun experiments on copper reported here, we recorded the particle velocities of the Cu-LiF interfaces and employed hydrodynamic simulations to relate them to the thermodynamic phase diagram. Peak pressures for these experiments were on the order of megabars, and the time-scales ranged from nanoseconds to several microseconds. The strain rates of the quasi-isentropic experiments are approximately 10{sup 4} s{sup -1} to 10{sup 6} s{sup -1} in samples with thicknesses up to 5 mm. Though developed at a light-gas gun facility, such shaped pressure-profiles are also feasible in principle with laser ablation or magnetic driven compression techniques allowing for new directions to be taken in high pressure physics.

  11. Vitiated ethane oxidation in a high-pressure flow reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walters, K.M.; Bowman, C.T.

    2009-10-15

    Vitiated combustion processes offer the potential to improve the thermodynamic efficiency in hydrocarbon-fueled combustion systems, providing a subsequent decrease in energy-specific CO{sub 2} emissions along with a decrease in the emission levels of nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) and particulate matter. The present work comprises an experimental and modeling study of vitiated ethane oxidation in a high-pressure flow reactor, with pressures of 1-6 bar, O{sub 2} mole fractions of 3.5-7.0%, temperatures of 1075-1100 K and 15-18 mole.% H{sub 2}O. Time-history measurements of species are used to characterize the overall rate of reaction and track the fuel-carbon through intermediate and product species. A one-dimensional mixing-reacting model that accounts for partial oxidation during reactant mixing is used in conjunction with a detailed kinetic mechanism. Changes in competing pathways due to variations in pressure and O{sub 2} mole fraction give rise to the complex pressure dependence seen in the experiments. (author)

  12. TENSILE TESTING OF CARBON STEEL IN HIGH PRESSURE HYDROGEN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duncan, A; Thad Adams, T; Ps Lam, P

    2007-05-02

    An infrastructure of new and existing pipelines and systems will be required to carry and to deliver hydrogen as an alternative energy source under the hydrogen economy. Carbon and low alloy steels of moderate strength are currently used in hydrogen delivery systems as well as in the existing natural gas systems. It is critical to understand the material response of these standard pipeline materials when they are subjected to pressurized hydrogen environments. The methods and results from a testing program to quantify hydrogen effects on mechanical properties of carbon steel pipeline and pipeline weld materials are provided. Tensile properties of one type of steel (A106 Grade B) in base metal, welded and heat affected zone conditions were tested at room temperature in air and high pressure (10.34 MPa or 1500 psig) hydrogen. A general reduction in the materials ability to plastically deform was noted in this material when specimens were tested in hydrogen. Furthermore, the primary mode of fracture was changed from ductile rupture in air to cleavage with secondary tearing in hydrogen. The mechanical test results will be applied in future analyses to evaluate service life of the pipelines. The results are also envisioned to be part of the bases for construction codes and structural integrity demonstrations for hydrogen service pipeline and vessels.

  13. MECHANICAL TESTING OF CARBON STEEL IN HIGH PRESSURE HYDROGEN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duncan, A

    2006-05-11

    The methods and interim results from a testing program to quantify hydrogen effects on mechanical properties of carbon steel pipeline and pipeline weld materials are provided. The scope is carbon steels commonly used for natural gas pipelines in the United States that are candidates for hydrogen service in the hydrogen economy. The mechanical test results will be applied in future analyses to evaluate service life of the pipelines. The results are also envisioned to be part of the bases for construction codes and structural integrity demonstrations for hydrogen service pipeline and vessels. Tensile properties of one type of steel (A106 Grade B) in base metal, welded and heat affected zone conditions were tested at room temperature in air and high pressure (1500 psig) hydrogen. A general reduction in the materials ability to plastically deform was noted in this material when specimens were tested in 1500 psig hydrogen. Furthermore, the primary mode of fracture was changed from ductile rupture in air to cleavage with secondary tearing in hydrogen. The mechanical test program will continue with tests to quantify the fracture behavior in terms of J-R curves for these materials at air and hydrogen pressure conditions.

  14. High Pressure Burn Rate Measurements on an Ammonium Perchlorate Propellant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glascoe, E A; Tan, N

    2010-04-21

    High pressure deflagration rate measurements of a unique ammonium perchlorate (AP) based propellant are required to design the base burn motor for a Raytheon weapon system. The results of these deflagration rate measurements will be key in assessing safety and performance of the system. In particular, the system may experience transient pressures on the order of 100's of MPa (10's kPSI). Previous studies on similar AP based materials demonstrate that low pressure (e.g. P < 10 MPa or 1500 PSI) burn rates can be quite different than the elevated pressure deflagration rate measurements (see References and HPP results discussed herein), hence elevated pressure measurements are necessary in order understand the deflagration behavior under relevant conditions. Previous work on explosives have shown that at 100's of MPa some explosives will transition from a laminar burn mechanism to a convective burn mechanism in a process termed deconsolidative burning. The resulting burn rates that are orders-of-magnitude faster than the laminar burn rates. Materials that transition to the deconsolidative-convective burn mechanism at elevated pressures have been shown to be considerably more violent in confined heating experiments (i.e. cook-off scenarios). The mechanisms of propellant and explosive deflagration are extremely complex and include both chemical, and mechanical processes, hence predicting the behavior and rate of a novel material or formulation is difficult if not impossible. In this work, the AP/HTPB based material, TAL-1503 (B-2049), was burned in a constant volume apparatus in argon up to 300 MPa (ca. 44 kPSI). The burn rate and pressure were measured in-situ and used to calculate a pressure dependent burn rate. In general, the material appears to burn in a laminar fashion at these elevated pressures. The experiment was reproduced multiple times and the burn rate law using the best data is B = (0.6 {+-} 0.1) x P{sup (1.05{+-}0.02)} where B is the burn rate in mm/s and

  15. Materials for High-Pressure Fuel Injection Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blau, P.; Shyam, A.; Hubbard, C.; Howe, J.; Trejo, R.; Yang, N.; Pollard, M.

    2011-09-30

    The high-level goal of this multi-year effort was to facilitate the Advanced Combustion Engine goal of 20% improvement (compared to 2009 baseline) of commercial engine efficiency by 2015. A sub-goal is to increase the reliability of diesel fuel injectors by investigating modelbased scenarios that cannot be achieved by empirical, trial and error methodologies alone. During this three-year project, ORNL developed the methodology to evaluate origins and to record the initiation and propagation of fatigue cracks emanating from holes that were electrodischarge machined (EDM), the method used to form spray holes in fuel injector tips. Both x-ray and neutron-based methods for measuring residual stress at four different research facilities were evaluated to determine which, if any, was most applicable to the fuel injector tip geometry. Owing to the shape and small volumes of material involved in the sack area, residual stress data could only be obtained in the walls of the nozzle a few millimeters back from the tip, and there was a hint of only a small compressive stress. This result was consistent with prior studies by Caterpillar. Residual stress studies were suspended after the second year, reserving the possibility of pursuing this in the future, if and when methodology suitable for injector sacks becomes available. The smooth specimen fatigue behavior of current fuel injector steel materials was evaluated and displayed a dual mode initiation behavior. At high stresses, cracks started at machining flaws in the surface; however, below a critical threshold stress of approximately 800 MPa, cracks initiated in the bulk microstructure, below the surface. This suggests that for the next generation for high-pressure fuel injector nozzles, it becomes increasingly important to control the machining and finishing processes, especially if the stress in the tip approaches or exceeds that threshold level. Fatigue tests were also conducted using EDM notches in the gage sections

  16. High pressure HC1 conversion of cellulose to glucose

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Antonoplis, Robert Alexander; Blanch, Harvey W.; Wilke, Charles R.

    1981-08-01

    The production of ethanol from glucose by means of fermentation represents a potential long-range alternative to oil for use as a transportation fuel. Today's rising oil prices and the dwindling world supply of oil have made other fuels, such as ethanol, attractive alternatives. It has been shown that automobiles can operate, with minor alterations, on a 10% ethanol-gasoline mixture popularly known as gasohol. Wood has long been known as a potential source of glucose. Glucose may be obtained from wood following acid hydrolysis. In this research, it was found that saturating wood particles with HCl gas under pressure was an effective pretreatment before subjecting the wood to dilute acid hydrolysis. The pretreatment is necessary because of the tight lattice structure of cellulose, which inhibits dilute acid hydrolysis. HCl gas makes the cellulose more susceptible to hydrolysis and the glucose yield is doubled when dilute acid hydrolysis is preceded by HCl saturation at high pressure. The saturation was most effectively performed in a fluidized bed reactor, with pure HCl gas fluidizing equal volumes of ground wood and inert particles. The fluidized bed effectively dissipated the large amount of heat released upon HCl absorption into the wood. Batch reaction times of one hour at 314.7 p.s.i.a. gave glucose yields of 80% and xylose yields of 95% after dilute acid hydrolysis. A non-catalytic gas-solid reaction model, with gas diffusing through the solid limiting the reaction rate, was found to describe the HCl-wood reaction in the fluidized bed. HCl was found to form a stable adduct with the lignin residue in the wood, in a ratio of 3.33 moles per mole of lignin monomer. This resulted in a loss of 0.1453 lb. of HCl per pound of wood. The adduct was broken upon the addition of water. A process design and economic evaluation for a plant to produce 214 tons per day of glucose from air-dried ground Populus tristi gave an estimated glucose cost of 15.14 cents per pound. This

  17. High-pressure science gets super-sized | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    High-pressure science gets super-sized By Tona Kunz * October 23, 2012 Tweet EmailPrint ARGONNE, Ill. - The study of materials at extreme conditions took a giant leap forward with the discovery of a way to generate super high pressures without using shock waves whose accompanying heat turns solids to liquid. This discovery will allow scientists for the first time to reach static pressure levels exceeding four million atmospheres, a high-pressure environment where new unique compounds could be

  18. DOE Hydrogen Delivery High-Pressure Tanks and Analysis Project Review

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Meeting | Department of Energy Delivery High-Pressure Tanks and Analysis Project Review Meeting DOE Hydrogen Delivery High-Pressure Tanks and Analysis Project Review Meeting On February 8-9, 2005, the Department of Energy held the DOE Hydrogen Delivery High-Pressure Tanks and Analysis Project Review Meeting at Argonne National Laboratory. The purpose of the meeting was to review the progress and plans of the R&D projects and to facilitate collaboration among researchers. The

  19. Flash High-Pressure Condensate to Regenerate Low-Pressure Steam...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Use Steam Jet Ejectors or Thermocompressors to Reduce Venting of Low-Pressure Steam Consider Installing High-Pressure Boilers with Backpressure Turbine-Generators Use Vapor ...

  20. Sandia Energy - High-Pressure and High-Temperature Neutron Reflectomet...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    High-Pressure and High-Temperature Neutron Reflectometry Cell for Solid-Fluid Interface Studies Home Carbon Capture & Storage Climate News News & Events Carbon Capture Carbon...

  1. Novel high pressure monoclinic Fe[subscript 2]O[subscript 3]...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Novel high pressure monoclinic Fesubscript 2Osubscript 3 polymorph revealed by single-crystal synchrotron X-ray diffraction studies Citation Details In-Document Search Title: ...

  2. Hydrogen Bonding Under High-Pressure (Conference) | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conference: Hydrogen Bonding Under High-Pressure Citation Details In-Document Search ... Subject: 37 INORGANIC, ORGANIC, PHYSICAL AND ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY Word Cloud More Like ...

  3. High-pressure experimental studies on geo-liquids using synchrotron...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: High-pressure experimental studies on geo-liquids using synchrotron ... Research Org: Advanced Photon Source (APS), Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Argonne, IL ...

  4. Engine with hydraulic fuel injection and ABS circuit using a single high pressure pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bartley, Bradley E.; Blass, James R.; Gibson, Dennis H.

    2001-01-01

    An engine system comprises a hydraulically actuated fuel injection system and an ABS circuit connected via a fluid flow passage that provides hydraulic fluid to both the fuel injection system and to the ABS circuit. The hydraulically actuated system includes a high pressure pump. The fluid control passage is in fluid communication with an outlet from the high pressure pump.

  5. Diamond anvil cell for spectroscopic investigation of materials at high temperature, high pressure and shear

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Westerfield, C.L.; Morris, J.S.; Agnew, S.F.

    1997-01-14

    Diamond anvil cell is described for spectroscopic investigation of materials at high temperature, high pressure and shear. A cell is described which, in combination with Fourier transform IR spectroscopy, permits the spectroscopic investigation of boundary layers under conditions of high temperature, high pressure and shear. 4 figs.

  6. Diamond anvil cell for spectroscopic investigation of materials at high temperature, high pressure and shear

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Westerfield, Curtis L.; Morris, John S.; Agnew, Stephen F.

    1997-01-01

    Diamond anvil cell for spectroscopic investigation of materials at high temperature, high pressure and shear. A cell is described which, in combination with Fourier transform IR spectroscopy, permits the spectroscopic investigation of boundary layers under conditions of high temperature, high pressure and shear.

  7. An in situ tensile test apparatus for polymers in high pressure hydrogen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alvine, K. J. Kafentzis, T. A.; Pitman, S. G.; Johnson, K. I.; Skorski, D.; Tucker, J. C.; Roosendaal, T. J.; Dahl, M. E.

    2014-10-15

    Degradation of material properties by high-pressure hydrogen is an important factor in determining the safety and reliability of materials used in high-pressure hydrogen storage and delivery. Hydrogen damage mechanisms have a time dependence that is linked to hydrogen outgassing after exposure to the hydrogen atmosphere that makes ex situ measurements of mechanical properties problematic. Designing in situ measurement instruments for high-pressure hydrogen is challenging due to known hydrogen incompatibility with many metals and standard high-power motor materials such as Nd. Here we detail the design and operation of a solenoid based in situ tensile tester under high-pressure hydrogen environments up to 42 MPa (6000 psi). Modulus data from high-density polyethylene samples tested under high-pressure hydrogen at 35 MPa (5000 psi) are also reported as compared to baseline measurements taken in air.

  8. An In-situ Tensile Test Apparatus for Polymers in High Pressure Hydrogen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alvine, Kyle J.; Kafentzis, Tyler A.; Pitman, Stan G.; Johnson, Kenneth I.; Skorski, Daniel C.; Tucker, Joseph C.; Roosendaal, Timothy J.; Dahl, Michael E.

    2014-10-10

    Degradation of material properties by high-pressure hydrogen is an important factor in determining the safety and reliability of materials used in high-pressure hydrogen storage and delivery. Hydrogen damage mechanisms have a time dependence that is linked to hydrogen outgassing after exposure to the hydrogen atmosphere that makes ex-situ measurements of mechanical properties problematic. Designing in-situ measurement instruments for high-pressure hydrogen is challenging due to known hydrogen incompatibility with many metals and standard high-power motor materials like Nd. Here we detail the design and operation of a solenoid based in-situ tensile tester under high-pressure hydrogen environments up to 5,000 psi. Modulus data from high-density polyethylene (HDPE) samples tested under high-pressure hydrogen are also reported as compared to baseline measurements taken in air.

  9. COBRA-SFS (Spent Fuel Storage): A thermal-hydraulic analysis computer code: Volume 2, User's manual

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rector, D.R.; Cuta, J.M.; Lombardo, N.J.; Michener, T.E.; Wheeler, C.L.

    1986-11-01

    COBRA-SFS (Spent Fuel Storage) is a general thermal-hydraulic analysis computer code used to predict temperatures and velocities in a wide variety of systems. The code was refined and specialized for spent fuel storage system analyses for the US Department of Energy's Commercial Spent Fuel Management Program. The finite-volume equations governing mass, momentum, and energy conservation are written for an incompressible, single-phase fluid. The flow equations model a wide range of conditions including natural circulation. The energy equations include the effects of solid and fluid conduction, natural convection, and thermal radiation. The COBRA-SFS code is structured to perform both steady-state and transient calculations; however, the transient capability has not yet been validated. This volume contains the input instructions for COBRA-SFS and an auxiliary radiation exchange factor code, RADX-1. It is intended to aid the user in becoming familiar with the capabilities and modeling conventions of the code.

  10. Super-radiance in the sodium resonance lines from sodium iodide arc lamps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karabourniotis, D.; Drakakis, E.

    2010-08-09

    Super-radiance observed within the centers of the sodium resonance D lines emitted by arc lamps containing sodium iodide as additive in a high-pressure mercury plasma environment was studied by high-resolution emission spectroscopy. The spectral radiance of these self-reversed lines including super-radiance was simulated by considering a local enhancement of the source function due to the presence of an additional source of radiation near the arc wall. Causes of this hitherto unrecognized source of radiation are given.

  11. DOE Hydrogen Delivery Analysis and High Pressure Tanks R&D Project Review Meeting Agenda

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AGENDA DOE Hydrogen Delivery Analysis and High Pressure Tanks R&D Project Review Meeting February 8-9, 2005 Argonne National Laboratory February 8, 2005 7:30 Arrival and breakfast 8:30 Overview Presentations DOE Hydrogen Program Mark Paster, DOE/OHFCIT Overview of FreedomCAR & Fuels Partnership/DOE Delivery Program George Parks, ConocoPhillips 10:00 BREAK 10:15 High-Pressure Tube Trailers and Tanks Salvadore Aceves, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory 11:15 High-Pressure Hydrogen

  12. DOE Hydrogen Delivery Analysis and High Pressure Tanks R&D Project Review

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Meeting Agenda | Department of Energy Delivery Analysis and High Pressure Tanks R&D Project Review Meeting Agenda DOE Hydrogen Delivery Analysis and High Pressure Tanks R&D Project Review Meeting Agenda DOE Hydrogen Delivery Analysis and High Pressure Tanks R&D Project Review Meeting Agenda, held February 8-9, 2005 by Argonne National Laboratory pipeline_agenda.pdf (102.72 KB) More Documents & Publications Meeting Agenda Joint Meeting on Hydrogen Delivery Modeling and

  13. COBRA-SFS: A thermal-hydraulic analysis code for spent fuel storage and transportation casks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michener, T.E.; Rector, D.R.; Cuta, J.M.; Dodge, R.E.; Enderlin, C.W.

    1995-09-01

    COBRA-SFS is a general thermal-hydraulic analysis computer code for prediction of material temperatures and fluid conditions in a wide variety of systems. The code has been validated for analysis of spent fuel storage systems, as part of the Commercial Spent Fuel Management Program of the US Department of Energy. The code solves finite volume equations representing the conservation equations for mass, moment, and energy for an incompressible single-phase heat transfer fluid. The fluid solution is coupled to a finite volume solution of the conduction equation in the solid structure of the system. This document presents a complete description of Cycle 2 of COBRA-SFS, and consists of three main parts. Part 1 describes the conservation equations, constitutive models, and solution methods used in the code. Part 2 presents the User Manual, with guidance on code applications, and complete input instructions. This part also includes a detailed description of the auxiliary code RADGEN, used to generate grey body view factors required as input for radiative heat transfer modeling in the code. Part 3 describes the code structure, platform dependent coding, and program hierarchy. Installation instructions are also given for the various platform versions of the code that are available.

  14. Phase transition and metallization of FeO at high pressures and...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    We performed X-ray diffraction and radiometric measurements on wuestite in a laser-heated diamond anvil cell, finding an insulator-metal transition at high pressures and ...

  15. High Temperature, High Pressure Devices for Zonal Isolation in Geothermal Wells

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE Geothermal Peer Review 2010 - Presentation. Project objectives: Design, demonstrate, and qualify high-temperature high pressure zonal isolation devices compatible with the high temperature downhole Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) environment.

  16. Implementation of micro-ball nanodiamond anvils for high-pressure...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    SciTech Connect Search Results Journal Article: Implementation of micro-ball nanodiamond anvils for high-pressure studies above 6Mbar Citation Details In-Document Search Title: ...

  17. Consider Installing High-Pressure Boilers with Backpressure Turbine-Generators - Steam Tip Sheet #22

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-01-01

    This revised AMO tip sheet on installing high-pressure boilers provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

  18. X-ray imaging for studying behavior of liquids at high pressures...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    X-ray imaging for studying behavior of liquids at high pressures and high temperatures using Paris-Edinburgh press Citation Details In-Document Search Title: X-ray imaging for ...

  19. High-pressure X-ray diffraction, Raman, and computational studies...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    X-ray diffraction, Raman, and computational studies of MgCl2 up to 1 Mbar: Extensive ... Citation Details In-Document Search Title: High-pressure X-ray diffraction, Raman, and ...

  20. Development and utilization of a coiled tubing equipment package for work in high pressure wells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adrichem, W.P. van; Gordon, D.G.; Newlands, D.J.

    1995-12-31

    Cleanouts of deep, high pressure, high temperature gas wells are a common operation in South Texas. Until recently, these cleanouts required the use of snubbing units due to the high pressures encountered. This resulted in time consuming (7--12 days) and thus expensive operations. Because of this expense, efforts have been made to extend the application of coiled tubing (CT) to operations where wellhead pressures approach 10,000 psi. Testing of a specially equipped 1-1/4 inch CT unit in conditions simulating a 10,000 psi South Texas well cleanout proved that the use of a CT unit was a viable alternative to snubbing operations. Since then, some 50 high pressure cleanouts have been successfully performed at an average cost saving of 50% while taking 1--3 days to complete. This paper will focus on the operating parameters, the design, the testing and the field implementation of a high pressure CT unit.

  1. Phase Diagram and Equation of State of Magnesium to High Pressures...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Phase Diagram and Equation of State of Magnesium to High Pressures and High Temperatures Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Phase Diagram and Equation of State of Magnesium ...

  2. First-principles high-pressure unreacted equation of state and...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: First-principles high-pressure unreacted equation of state and heat of formation of crystal 2,6-diamino-3, 5-dinitropyrazine-1-oxide (LLM-105) Authors: Manaa, M R ; Kuo, I W ...

  3. Consider Installing High-Pressure Boilers with Backpressure Turbine-Generators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2006-01-01

    This revised ITP tip sheet on installing high-pressure boilers provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

  4. Developments in time-resolved high pressure x-ray diffraction using rapid compression and decompression

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, Jesse S.; Sinogeikin, Stanislav V.; Lin, Chuanlong; Rod, Eric; Bai, Ligang; Shen, Guoyin

    2015-07-15

    Complementary advances in high pressure research apparatus and techniques make it possible to carry out time-resolved high pressure research using what would customarily be considered static high pressure apparatus. This work specifically explores time-resolved high pressure x-ray diffraction with rapid compression and/or decompression of a sample in a diamond anvil cell. Key aspects of the synchrotron beamline and ancillary equipment are presented, including source considerations, rapid (de)compression apparatus, high frequency imaging detectors, and software suitable for processing large volumes of data. A number of examples are presented, including fast equation of state measurements, compression rate dependent synthesis of metastable states in silicon and germanium, and ultrahigh compression rates using a piezoelectric driven diamond anvil cell.

  5. High-pressure viscosity of liquid Fe and FeS revisited by falling...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    High-pressure viscosity of liquid Fe and FeS revisited by falling sphere viscometry using ultrafast X-ray imaging Citation Details In-Document Search This content will become ...

  6. Microstructure evolution in solution treated Ti15Mo alloy processed by high pressure torsion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jane?ek, Milo; ?ek, Jakub; Strsk, Josef; Vclavov, Kristna; Hruka, Petr; Polyakova, Veronika; Gatina, Svetlana; Semenova, Irina

    2014-12-15

    Microstructure evolution and mechanical properties of ultra-fine grained Ti15Mo alloy processed by high pressure torsion were investigated. High pressure torsion straining resulted in strong grain refinement as-observed by transmission electron microscopy. Microhardness and light microscopy showed two distinct regions (i) a central region with radial material flow and low microhardness (340 HV) and (ii) a peripheral region with rotational material flow and high microhardness (430 HV). Positron annihilation spectroscopy showed that the only detectable defects in the material are dislocations, whose density increases with the radial distance and the number of high pressure torsion revolutions. The local chemical environment around defects does not differ significantly from the average composition. - Highlights: Beta-Ti alloy Ti15Mo was processed by high pressure torsion (HPT). Lateral inhomogeneity of the microstructure and microhardness was found. Dislocations are the only lattice defects detectable by positron annihilation. Molybdenum is not preferentially segregated along dislocation cores.

  7. High-pressure behavior of FeOCl (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    SciTech Connect Search Results Journal Article: High-pressure behavior of FeOCl Citation ... Publication Date: 2014-08-19 OSTI Identifier: 1150123 Resource Type: Journal Article ...

  8. Development of the High-Pressure Direct-Injection ISX G Natural Gas Engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2004-08-01

    Fact sheet details work by Cummins and Westport Innovations to develop a heavy-duty, low-NOx, high-pressure direct-injection natural gas engine for the Next Generation Natural Gas Vehicle activity.

  9. High Pressure Melting Curve of TIn (Journal Article) | SciTech...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    High Pressure Melting Curve of TIn Citation Details ... OSTI Identifier: 1124823 Report Number(s): LLNL-JRNL-522418 DOE Contract Number: W-7405-ENG-48 Resource Type: Journal ...

  10. High Pressure Fuel Storage Cylinders Periodic Inspection and End of Life

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Issues | Department of Energy Fuel Storage Cylinders Periodic Inspection and End of Life Issues High Pressure Fuel Storage Cylinders Periodic Inspection and End of Life Issues These slides were presented at the Onboard Storage Tank Workshop on April 29, 2010. highpressure_fuelcylinders_ostw.pdf (1011.45 KB) More Documents & Publications Lessons Learned from Practical Field Experience with High Pressure Gaseous Fuels The Compelling Case for Natural Gas Vehicles U.S. Department of Energy

  11. BILIWG Meeting: High Pressure Steam Reforming of Bio-Derived Liquids (Presentation)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High Pressure Steam Reforming of Bio-Derived Liquids S. Ahmed, S. Lee, D. Papadias, and R. Kumar November 6, 2007 Laurel, MD Research sponsored by the Hydrogen, Fuel Cells, and Infrastructure Technologies Program of DOE's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Rationale and objective Rationale „ Steam reforming of liquid fuels at high pressures can reduce hydrogen compression costs - Much less energy is needed to pressurize liquids (fuel and water) than compressing gases (reformate or

  12. Pantex High Pressure Fire Loop Project Completed On Time, Under Budget |

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    National Nuclear Security Administration | (NNSA) Pantex High Pressure Fire Loop Project Completed On Time, Under Budget January 09, 2014 WASHINGTON, D.C. - Work on the National Nuclear Security Administration's (NNSA) High Pressure Fire Loop (HPFL) project at its Pantex Plant, located near Amarillo, Texas, was completed in December 2013 on schedule and more than $5 million under budget. Completion of HPFL enhances the reliability of safety-class fire suppression systems to ensure that the

  13. Vehicle having hydraulic and power steering systems using a single high pressure pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bartley, Bradley E.; Blass, James R.; Gibson, Dennis H.

    2001-06-22

    A vehicle comprises a plurality of wheels attached to a vehicle housing. Also attached to the vehicle housing is a power steering system, including a fluid flow circuit, which is operably coupled to a number of the wheels. An internal combustion engine attached to the vehicle housing is connected to a hydraulically actuated system that includes a high pressure pump. An outlet of the high pressure pump is in fluid communication with the fluid flow circuit.

  14. LNG Vehicle High-Pressure Fuel System and ''Cold Energy'' Utilization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    powers,Charles A.; Derbidge, T. Craig

    2001-03-27

    A high-pressure fuel system for LNG vehicles with direct-injection natural gas engines has been developed and demonstrated on a heavy-duty truck. A new concept for utilizing the ''cold energy'' associated with LNG vehicles to generate mechanical power to drive auxiliary equipment (such as high-pressure fuel pumps) has also been developed and demonstrated in the laboratory. The high-pressure LNG fuel system development included the design and testing of a new type of cryogenic pump utilizes multiple chambers and other features to condense moderate quantities of sucked vapor and discharge supercritical LNG at 3,000 to 4,000 psi. The pump was demonstrated on a Class 8 truck with a Westport high-pressure direct-injection Cummins ISX engine. A concept that utilizes LNG's ''cold energy'' to drive a high-pressure fuel pump without engine attachments or power consumption was developed. Ethylene is boiled and superheated by the engine coolant, and it is cooled and condensed by rejecting h eat to the LNG. Power is extracted in a full-admission blowdown process, and part of this power is applied to pump the ethylene liquid to the boiler pressure. Tests demonstrated a net power output of 1.1. hp at 1.9 Lbm/min of LNG flow, which is adequate to isentropically pump the LNG to approximately 3,400 psi..

  15. Nuclear resonant inelastic X-ray scattering at high pressure and low temperature

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Bi, Wenli; Zhao, Jiyong; Lin, Jung -Fu; Jia, Quanjie; Hu, Michael Y.; Jin, Changqing; Ferry, Richard; Yang, Wenge; Struzhkin, Viktor; Alp, E. Ercan

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a new synchrotron radiation experimental capability of coupling nuclear resonant inelastic X-ray scattering with the cryogenically cooled high-pressure diamond anvil cell technique is presented. The new technique permits measurements of phonon density of states at low temperature and high pressure simultaneously, and can be applied to studies of phonon contribution to pressure- and temperature-induced magnetic, superconducting and metal–insulator transitions in resonant isotope-bearing materials. In this report, a pnictide sample, EuFe2As2, is used as an example to demonstrate this new capability at beamline 3-ID of the Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory. A detailed description of the technicalmore » development is given. The Fe-specific phonon density of states and magnetism from the Fe sublattice in Eu57Fe2As2 at high pressure and low temperature were derived by using this new capability.« less

  16. Automated high pressure cell for pressure jump x-ray diffraction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brooks, Nicholas J.; Gauthe, Beatrice L. L. E.; Templer, Richard H.; Ces, Oscar; Seddon, John M.; Terrill, Nick J.; Rogers, Sarah E.

    2010-06-15

    A high pressure cell for small and wide-angle x-ray diffraction measurements of soft condensed matter samples has been developed, incorporating a fully automated pressure generating network. The system allows both static and pressure jump measurements in the range of 0.1-500 MPa. Pressure jumps can be performed as quickly as 5 ms, both with increasing and decreasing pressures. Pressure is generated by a motorized high pressure pump, and the system is controlled remotely via a graphical user interface to allow operation by a broad user base, many of whom may have little previous experience of high pressure technology. Samples are loaded through a dedicated port allowing the x-ray windows to remain in place throughout an experiment; this facilitates accurate subtraction of background scattering. The system has been designed specifically for use at beamline I22 at the Diamond Light Source, United Kingdom, and has been fully integrated with the I22 beamline control systems.

  17. Deformation twinning of a silver nanocrystal under high pressure. Supplementary materials

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Huang, X. J.; Yang, W. G.; Harder, R.; Sun, Y.; Lu, M.; Chu, Y. S.; Robinson, I. K.; Mao, H. K.

    2015-10-20

    Within a high-pressure environment, crystal deformation is controlled by complex processes such as dislocation motion, twinning, and phase transitions, which change materials’ microscopic morphology and alter their properties. Likewise, understanding a crystal’s response to external stress provides a unique opportunity for rational tailoring of its functionalities. It is very challenging to track the strain evolution and physical deformation from a single nanoscale crystal under high-pressure stress. Here, we report an in situ three-dimensional mapping of morphology and strain evolutions in a single-crystal silver nanocube within a high-pressure environment using the Bragg Coherent Diffractive Imaging (CDI) method. We also observed amore » continuous lattice distortion, followed by a deformation twining process at a constant pressure. The ability to visualize stress-introduced deformation of nanocrystals with high spatial resolution and prominent strain sensitivity provides an important route for interpreting and engineering novel properties of nanomaterials.« less

  18. Deformation twinning of a silver nanocrystal under high pressure. Supplementary materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, X. J.; Yang, W. G.; Harder, R.; Sun, Y.; Lu, M.; Chu, Y. S.; Robinson, I. K.; Mao, H. K.

    2015-10-20

    Within a high-pressure environment, crystal deformation is controlled by complex processes such as dislocation motion, twinning, and phase transitions, which change materials microscopic morphology and alter their properties. Likewise, understanding a crystals response to external stress provides a unique opportunity for rational tailoring of its functionalities. It is very challenging to track the strain evolution and physical deformation from a single nanoscale crystal under high-pressure stress. Here, we report an in situ three-dimensional mapping of morphology and strain evolutions in a single-crystal silver nanocube within a high-pressure environment using the Bragg Coherent Diffractive Imaging (CDI) method. We also observed a continuous lattice distortion, followed by a deformation twining process at a constant pressure. The ability to visualize stress-introduced deformation of nanocrystals with high spatial resolution and prominent strain sensitivity provides an important route for interpreting and engineering novel properties of nanomaterials.

  19. High-pressure, transport, and thermodynamic properties of CeTe3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zocco, D.A.

    2010-02-24

    We have performed high-pressure, electrical resistivity, and specific heat measurements on CeTe3 single crystals. Two magnetic phases with nonparallel magnetic easy axes were detected in electrical resistivity and specific heat at low temperatures. We also observed the emergence of an additional phase at high pressures and low temperatures and a possible structural phase transition detected at room temperature and at 45 kbar, which can possibly be related with the lowering of the charge-density wave transition temperature known for this compound.

  20. High-pressure coiled-tubing technology solves resin-sand-control problems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-06-01

    Operators of high-pressure offshore gas wells (> 5,000 psi) have had few options for controlling sand production. Sand-control (SC) processes can be economically prohibitive when they involve extensive mobilization, demobilization, and rig-up cost of the conventional offshore rig or hydraulic workover unit. Bullheading SC chemicals from the surface can damage the formation and prohibit production. Coiled-tubing (CT) technology now allows an offshore operator to remove extensive cement residue effectively from the wellbore and place chemical SC treatments in a high-pressure-gas environment. An example from the Gulf of Mexico illustrates the technology.

  1. High Pressure Fuel Storage Cylinders Periodic Inspection and End of Life Issues

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    6/2010 www.cleanvehicle.org 1 High Pressure Fuel Storage Cylinders Periodic Inspection and End of Life Issues DOE Vehicular Tank Workshop April 29, 2010 Douglas Horne, PE The Facts  High pressure Type 4 gaseous fuel tanks are now designed under standards that specify finite lifetimes of 15, 20 and 25 years based on specific design and testing (the HGV2 standard under development had a life as short as 10 years as an option)  It is unique within the transportation industry to have a

  2. Revisit of the relationship between the elastic properties and sound velocities at high pressures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Chenju; Yan, Xiaozhen; Xiang, Shikai Chen, Haiyan; Gu, Jianbing; Yu, Yin; Kuang, Xiaoyu

    2014-09-14

    The second-order elastic constants and stress-strain coefficients are defined, respectively, as the second derivatives of the total energy and the first derivative of the stress with respect to strain. Since the Lagrangian and infinitesimal strain are commonly used in the two definitions above, the second-order elastic constants and stress-strain coefficients are separated into two categories, respectively. In general, any of the four physical quantities is employed to characterize the elastic properties of materials without differentiation. Nevertheless, differences may exist among them at non-zero pressures, especially high pressures. Having explored the confusing issue systemically in the present work, we find that the four quantities are indeed different from each other at high pressures and these differences depend on the initial stress applied on materials. Moreover, the various relations between the four quantities depicting elastic properties of materials and high-pressure sound velocities are also derived from the elastic wave equations. As examples, we calculated the high-pressure sound velocities of cubic tantalum and hexagonal rhenium using these nexus. The excellent agreement of our results with available experimental data suggests the general applicability of the relations.

  3. Phase transitions in delafossite CuLaO{sub 2} at high pressures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Salke, Nilesh P.; Rao, Rekha Gupta, M. K.; Mittal, R.; Garg, Alka B.; Achary, S. N.; Tyagi, A. K.

    2014-04-07

    Structural stability of a transparent conducting oxide CuLaO{sub 2} at high pressures is investigated using in-situ Raman spectroscopy, electrical resistance, and x-ray diffraction techniques. The present Raman investigations indicate a sequence of structural phase transitions at 1.8?GPa and 7?GPa. The compound remains in the first high pressure phase when pressure is released. Electrical resistance measurements carried out at high pressures confirm the second phase transition. These observations are further supported by powder x-ray diffraction at high pressures which also showed that a-axis is more compressible than c-axis in this compound. Fitting the pressure dependence of unit cell volume to 3{sup rd} order Birch-Murnaghan equation of state, zero pressure bulk modulus of CuLaO{sub 2} is determined to be 154(25) GPa. The vibrational properties in the ambient delafossite phase of CuLaO{sub 2} are investigated using ab-initio calculations of phonon frequencies to complement the Raman spectroscopic measurements. Temperature dependence of the Raman modes of CuLaO{sub 2} is investigated to estimate the anharmonicity of Raman modes.

  4. Development test report for the high pressure water jet system nozzles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Takasumi, D.S.

    1995-09-28

    The high pressure water jet nozzle tests were conducted to identify optimum water pressure, water flow rate, nozzle orifice size and fixture configuration needed to effectively decontaminate empty fuel storage canisters in KE-Basin. This report gives the tests results and recommendations from the these tests.

  5. High-pressure structure made of rings with peripheral weldments of reduced thickness

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Leventry, Samuel C.

    1988-01-01

    A high-pressure structure having a circular cylindrical metal shell made of metal rings joined together by weldments and which have peripheral areas of reduced shell thickness at the weldments which permit a reduction in the amount of weld metal deposited while still maintaining sufficient circumferential or hoop stress strength.

  6. COBRA-SFS (Spent Fuel Storage): A thermal-hydraulic analysis computer code: Volume 3, Validation assessments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lombardo, N.J.; Cuta, J.M.; Michener, T.E.; Rector, D.R.; Wheeler, C.L.

    1986-12-01

    This report presents the results of the COBRA-SFS (Spent Fuel Storage) computer code validation effort. COBRA-SFS, while refined and specialized for spent fuel storage system analyses, is a lumped-volume thermal-hydraulic analysis computer code that predicts temperature and velocity distributions in a wide variety of systems. Through comparisons of code predictions with spent fuel storage system test data, the code's mathematical, physical, and mechanistic models are assessed, and empirical relations defined. The six test cases used to validate the code and code models include single-assembly and multiassembly storage systems under a variety of fill media and system orientations and include unconsolidated and consolidated spent fuel. In its entirety, the test matrix investigates the contributions of convection, conduction, and radiation heat transfer in spent fuel storage systems. To demonstrate the code's performance for a wide variety of storage systems and conditions, comparisons of code predictions with data are made for 14 runs from the experimental data base. The cases selected exercise the important code models and code logic pathways and are representative of the types of simulations required for spent fuel storage system design and licensing safety analyses. For each test, a test description, a summary of the COBRA-SFS computational model, assumptions, and correlations employed are presented. For the cases selected, axial and radial temperature profile comparisons of code predictions with test data are provided, and conclusions drawn concerning the code models and the ability to predict the data and data trends. Comparisons of code predictions with test data demonstrate the ability of COBRA-SFS to successfully predict temperature distributions in unconsolidated or consolidated single and multiassembly spent fuel storage systems.

  7. Shock waves generated by high-pressure fuel sprays directly imaged by x-radiography.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, J.; MacPhee, A.; Powell, C. F.; Yue, Y.; Narayanan, S.; Tate, M. W.; Renzi, M. J.; Ercan, A.; Fontes, E.; Gruner, S. M.; Walther, J.; Schaller, J.

    2001-12-20

    Synchrotron x-radiography and a novel fast x-ray detector are used to visualize the detailed, time-resolved structure of the fluid jets generated by a high pressure diesel-fuel injection. An understanding of the structure of the high-pressure spray is important in optimizing the injection process to increase fuel efficiency and reduce pollutants. It is shown that x-radiography can provide a quantitative measure of the mass distribution of the fuel. Such analysis has been impossible with optical imaging due to the multiple-scattering of visible light by small atomized fuel droplets surrounding the jet. In addition, direct visualization of the jet-induced shock wave proves that the fuel jets become supersonic under appropriate injection conditions. The radiographic images also allow quantitative analysis of the thermodynamic properties of the shock wave.

  8. Systematic prediction of high-pressure melting curves of transition metals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hieu, Ho Khac, E-mail: hieuhk@duytan.edu.vn [Institute of Research and Development, Duy Tan University, K7/25 Quang Trung, Danang (Viet Nam)

    2014-10-28

    The pressure effects on melting temperatures of transition metals have been studied based on the combination of the modified Lindemann criterion with statistical moment method in quantum statistical mechanics. Numerical calculations have been performed for five transition metals including Cu, Pd, Pt, Ni, and Mn up to pressure 100?GPa. Our results are in good and reasonable agreements with available experimental data. This approach gives us a relatively simple method for qualitatively calculating high-pressure melting temperature. Moreover, it can be used to verify future experimental and theoretical works. This research proposes the potential of the combination of statistical moment method and the modified Lindemann criterion on predicting high-pressure melting of materials.

  9. Pressure and Temperature effects on the High Pressure Phase Transformation in Zirconium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Escobedo-Diaz, Juan P.; Cerreta, Ellen K.; Brown, Donald W.; Trujillo, Carl P.; Rigg, Paulo A.; Bronkhorst, Curt A.; Addessio, Francis L.; Lookman, Turab

    2012-06-20

    At high pressure zirconium is known to undergo a phase transformation from the hexagonal close packed (HCP) alpha phase ({alpha}) to the simple hexagonal omega phase ({omega}). Under conditions of shock loading, the high-pressure omega phase is retained upon release. However, the hysteresis in this transformation is not well represented by equilibrium phase diagrams. For this reason, the influence of peak shock pressure and temperature on the retention of omega phase in Zr is explored in this study. In situ VISAR measurements along with post-mortem metallographic and neutron diffraction characterization of soft recovered specimens have been utilized to quantify the volume fraction of retained omega phase, morphology of the shocked alpha and omega phases, and qualitatively understand the kinetics of this transformation. This understanding of the role of peak shock stress will be utilized to address physics to be encoded in our present macro-scale models.

  10. Metallization and Hall-effect of Mg{sub 2}Ge under high pressure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Yuqiang; Gao, Yang; Han, Yonghao Liu, Cailong; Peng, Gang; Ke, Feng; Gao, Chunxiao; Wang, Qinglin; Ma, Yanzhang

    2015-10-05

    The electrical transport properties of Mg{sub 2}Ge under high pressure were studied with the in situ temperature-dependent resistivity and Hall-effect measurements. The theoretically predicted metallization of Mg{sub 2}Ge was definitely found around 7.4 GPa by the temperature-dependent resistivity measurement. Other two pressure-induced structural phase transitions were also reflected by the measurements. Hall-effect measurement showed that the dominant charge carrier in the metallic Mg{sub 2}Ge was hole, indicating the “bad metal” nature of Mg{sub 2}Ge. The Hall mobility and charge carrier concentration results pointed out that the electrical transport behavior in the antifluorite phase was controlled by the increase quantity of drifting electrons under high pressure, but in both anticotunnite and Ni{sub 2}In-type phases it was governed by the Hall mobility.

  11. Design and performance of a high-pressure Fischer-Tropsch fluidized bed reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weimer, A.W.; Quarderer, G.J.; Cochran, G.A.; Conway, M.M. )

    1988-01-01

    A 900 kg/day, CO/H/sub 2/, high-pressure, fluidized bed, pilot reactor was designed from first principles to achieve high reactant conversions and heat removal rates for the Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) synthesis of liquefied petroleum gases (LPG's). Suppressed bubble growth at high pressure allowed high reactant conversions which nearly matched those obtained at identical conditions in a lab scale fixed bed reactor. For GHSV approximately 1400 hr/sup -1/ and T = 658 {Kappa} at P approximately 7000 {kappa}Pa, reactant conversion exceeded 75%. The reactor heat removal capability exceeded twice design performance with the fluidized bed easily operating under thermally stable conditions. The fluidized catalyst was a potassium promoted, molybdenum on carbon (Mo/{Kappa}/C) catalyst which did not produce any detrimental waxy products. Long catalyst lifetimes of 1000 hrs on steam between regenerations allowed the fluidized bed to be operated in a batch mode.

  12. Ab Initio Investigation of the Melting Line of Nitrogen at High Pressure |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Argonne Leadership Computing Facility Investigation of the Melting Line of Nitrogen at High Pressure Authors: Donadio, D., Spanu, L., Duchemin, I., Gygi, F., Galli, G. Understanding the behavior of molecular systems under pressure is a fundamental problem in condensed-matter physics. In the case of nitrogen, the determination of the phase diagram and, in particular, of the melting line, are largely open problems. Two independent experiments have reported the presence of a maximum in the

  13. Ion current detector for high pressure ion sources for monitoring separations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, R.D.; Wahl, J.H.; Hofstadler, S.A.

    1996-08-13

    The present invention relates generally to any application involving the monitoring of signal arising from ions produced by electrospray or other high pressure (>100 torr) ion sources. The present invention relates specifically to an apparatus and method for the detection of ions emitted from a capillary electrophoresis (CE) system, liquid chromatography, or other small-scale separation methods. And further, the invention provides a very simple diagnostic as to the quality of the separation and the operation of an electrospray source. 7 figs.

  14. Ion current detector for high pressure ion sources for monitoring separations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, Richard D.; Wahl, Jon H.; Hofstadler, Steven A.

    1996-01-01

    The present invention relates generally to any application involving the monitoring of signal arising from ions produced by electrospray or other high pressure (>100 torr) ion sources. The present invention relates specifically to an apparatus and method for the detection of ions emitted from a capillary electrophoresis (CE) system, liquid chromatography, or other small-scale separation methods. And further, the invention provides a very simple diagnostic as to the quality of the separation and the operation of an electrospray source.

  15. Engine having hydraulic and fan drive systems using a single high pressure pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bartley, Bradley E.; Blass, James R.; Gibson, Dennis H.

    2000-01-01

    An engine comprises a hydraulic system attached to an engine housing that includes a high pressure pump and a hydraulic fluid flowing through at least one passageway. A fan drive system is also attached to the engine housing and includes a hydraulic motor and a fan which can move air over the engine. The hydraulic motor includes an inlet fluidly connected to the at least one passageway.

  16. High Temperature, High Pressure Devices for Zonal Isolation in Geothermal Wells

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Office eere.energy.gov Public Service of Colorado Ponnequin Wind Farm Geothermal Technologies Office 2013 Peer Review New Concepts in Zonal Isolation for EGS High Temperature, High Pressure Devices for Zonal Isolation in Geothermal Wells Track 2, R&D April 25, 2013 This presentation does not contain any proprietary confidential, or otherwise restricted information. Paul E. Fabian, PI Jacob Barker, Project Engineer Composite Technology Development, Inc. Project Overview * Goal: Develop

  17. TURBULENCE SETS THE INITIAL CONDITIONS FOR STAR FORMATION IN HIGH-PRESSURE ENVIRONMENTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rathborne, J. M.; Contreras, Y.; Longmore, S. N.; Bastian, N.; Jackson, J. M.; Kruijssen, J. M. D.; Alves, J. F.; Bally, J.; Foster, J. B.; Garay, G.; Testi, L.; Walsh, A. J.

    2014-11-10

    Despite the simplicity of theoretical models of supersonically turbulent, isothermal media, their predictions successfully match the observed gas structure and star formation activity within low-pressure (P/k < 10{sup 5} K cm{sup 3}) molecular clouds in the solar neighborhood. However, it is unknown whether or not these theories extend to clouds in high-pressure (P/k > 10{sup 7} K cm{sup 3}) environments, like those in the Galaxy's inner 200pc central molecular zone (CMZ) and in the early universe. Here, we present Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array 3mm dust continuum emission within a cloud, G0.253+0.016, which is immersed in the high-pressure environment of the CMZ. While the log-normal shape and dispersion of its column density probability distribution function (PDF) are strikingly similar to those of solar neighborhood clouds, there is one important quantitative difference: its mean column density is one to two orders of magnitude higher. Both the similarity and difference in the PDF compared to those derived from solar neighborhood clouds match predictions of turbulent cloud models given the high-pressure environment of the CMZ. The PDF shows a small deviation from log-normal at high column densities confirming the youth of G0.253+0.016. Its lack of star formation is consistent with the theoretically predicted, environmentally dependent volume density threshold for star formation which is orders of magnitude higher than that derived for solar neighborhood clouds. Our results provide the first empirical evidence that the current theoretical understanding of molecular cloud structure derived from the solar neighborhood also holds in high-pressure environments. We therefore suggest that these theories may be applicable to understand star formation in the early universe.

  18. Early time studies of cylindrical liner implosions at 1 MA on COBRA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Atoyan, L. Byvank, T. Cahill, A. D. Hoyt, C. L. Grouchy, P. W. L. de Potter, W. M. Kusse, B. R. Hammer, D. A.

    2014-12-15

    Tests of the magnetized liner inertial fusion (MagLIF) concept will make use of the 27 MA Z machine at Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, to implode a cylindrical metal liner to compress and heat preheated, magnetized plasma contained within it. While most pulsed power machines produce much lower currents than the Z-machine, there are issues that can still be addressed on smaller scale facilities. Recent work on the Cornell Beam Research Accelerator (COBRA) has made use of 10 mm long and 4 mm diameter metal liners having different wall thicknesses to study the initiation of plasma on the liner’s surface as well as axial magnetic field compression [P.-A. Gourdain et al., Nucl. Fusion 53, 083006 (2013)]. This report presents experimental results with non-imploding liners, investigating the impact the liner’s surface structure has on initiation and ablation. Extreme ultraviolet (XUV) imaging and optical 12 frame camera imaging were used to observe and assess emission non-uniformities as they developed. Axial and side-on interferometry was used to determine the distribution of plasma near the liner surface, including the impact of non-uniformities during the plasma initiation and ablation phases of the experiments.

  19. High pressure phase-transformation induced texture evolution and strengthening in zirconium metal: Experiment and modeling

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Yu, Xiaohui; Zhang, Ruifeng; Weldon, David; Vogel, Sven C.; Zhang, Jianzhong; Brown, Donald W.; Wang, Yanbin; Reiche, Helmut M.; Wang, Shanmin; Du, Shiyu; et al

    2015-07-28

    We studied the phase-transition induced texture changes and strengthening mechanism for zirconium metal under quasi-hydrostatic compression and uni-axial deformation under confined high pressure using the deformation-DIA (D-DIA) apparatus. It is shown that the experimentally obtained texture for ω-phase Zr can be qualitatively described by combining a subset of orientation variants previously proposed in two different models. The determined flow stress for the high-pressure ω-phase is 0.5–1.2 GPa, more than three times higher than that of the α-phase. Using first-principles calculations, we investigated the mechanical and electronic properties of the two Zr polymorphs. We find that the observed strengthening can bemore » attributed to the relatively strong directional bonding in the ω phase, which significantly increases its shear plastic resistance over the α-phase Zr. The present findings provide an alternate route for Zr metal strengthening by high-pressure phase transformation.« less

  20. High pressure phase-transformation induced texture evolution and strengthening in zirconium metal: Experiment and modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu, Xiaohui; Zhang, Ruifeng; Weldon, David; Vogel, Sven C.; Zhang, Jianzhong; Brown, Donald W.; Wang, Yanbin; Reiche, Helmut M.; Wang, Shanmin; Du, Shiyu; Jin, Changqing; Zhao, Yusheng

    2015-07-28

    We studied the phase-transition induced texture changes and strengthening mechanism for zirconium metal under quasi-hydrostatic compression and uni-axial deformation under confined high pressure using the deformation-DIA (D-DIA) apparatus. It is shown that the experimentally obtained texture for ω-phase Zr can be qualitatively described by combining a subset of orientation variants previously proposed in two different models. The determined flow stress for the high-pressure ω-phase is 0.5–1.2 GPa, more than three times higher than that of the α-phase. Using first-principles calculations, we investigated the mechanical and electronic properties of the two Zr polymorphs. We find that the observed strengthening can be attributed to the relatively strong directional bonding in the ω phase, which significantly increases its shear plastic resistance over the α-phase Zr. The present findings provide an alternate route for Zr metal strengthening by high-pressure phase transformation.

  1. Effect of high pressure homogenization on aqueous phase solvent extraction of lipids from Nannochloris Oculata microalgae

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Samarasinghe, Nalin; Fernando, Sandun; Faulkner, William B.

    2012-12-01

    The ability to extract lipids from high-moisture Nannochloris Oculata algal biomass disrupted with high pressure homogenization was investigated. During the first phase, the effect of high pressure homogenization (system pressure and number of passes) on disrupting aqueous algae (of different concentrations and degree of stress) was investigated. Secondly, the effect of degree of cell wall disruption on the amount of lipids extracted with three solvents, namely: hexane, dichloromethane and chloroform, were compared. Studies reveled that high pressure homogenization is effective on cell disruption while the amount of system pressure being the most significant factor affecting the degree of cell breakage. Although the number of passes had some impact, the level of disruption seemed to level-off after a certain number of passes. The study revealed that slightly polar solvents (such as chloroform and dichloromethane) performed better in aqueous-phase lipid extractions as compared to hexane. Also, it was revealed that it was not necessary to disrupt the algal cells completely to achieve appreciable levels of lipid yields. In fact, conditions that exerted only 20% of the cells to completely disrupt, allowed sufficient damage to liberate most of the lipids contained in the remainder of the cells.

  2. Equations of state of ice VI and ice VII at high pressure and high temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bezacier, Lucile; Hanfland, Michael; Journaux, Baptiste; Perrillat, Jean-Philippe; Cardon, Herv; Daniel, Isabelle

    2014-09-14

    High-pressure H{sub 2}O polymorphs among which ice VI and ice VII are abundant in the interiors of large icy satellites and exo-planets. Knowledge of the elastic properties of these pure H{sub 2}O ices at high-temperature and high-pressure is thus crucial to decipher the internal structure of icy bodies. In this study we assess for the first time the pressure-volume-temperature (PVT) relations of both polycrystalline pure ice VI and ice VII at high pressures and temperatures from 1 to 9 GPa and 300 to 450 K, respectively, by using in situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction. The PVT data are adjusted to a second-order Birch-Murnaghan equation of state and give V{sub 0} = 14.17(2) cm{sup 3}?mol{sup ?1}, K{sub 0} = 14.05(23) GPa, and ?{sub 0} = 14.6(14) 10{sup ?5} K{sup ?1} for ice VI and V{sub 0} = 12.49(1) cm{sup 3}?mol{sup ?1}, K{sub 0} = 20.15(16) GPa, and ?{sub 0} = 11.6(5) 10{sup ?5} K{sup ?1} for ice VII.

  3. Pressure Relief Devices for High-Pressure Gaseous Storage Systems: Applicability to Hydrogen Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kostival, A.; Rivkin, C.; Buttner, W.; Burgess, R.

    2013-11-01

    Pressure relief devices (PRDs) are viewed as essential safety measures for high-pressure gas storage and distribution systems. These devices are used to prevent the over-pressurization of gas storage vessels and distribution equipment, except in the application of certain toxic gases. PRDs play a critical role in the implementation of most high-pressure gas storage systems and anyone working with these devices should understand their function so they can be designed, installed, and maintained properly to prevent any potentially dangerous or fatal incidents. As such, the intention of this report is to introduce the reader to the function of the common types of PRDs currently used in industry. Since high-pressure hydrogen gas storage systems are being developed to support the growing hydrogen energy infrastructure, several recent failure incidents, specifically involving hydrogen, will be examined to demonstrate the results and possible mechanisms of a device failure. The applicable codes and standards, developed to minimize the risk of failure for PRDs, will also be reviewed. Finally, because PRDs are a critical component for the development of a successful hydrogen energy infrastructure, important considerations for pressure relief devices applied in a hydrogen gas environment will be explored.

  4. Comparison of diesel spray combustion in different high-temperature, high-pressure facilities.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Christiansen, Caspar; Hermant, Laurent; Malbec, Louis-Marie; Bruneaux, Gilles; Genzale, Caroline L.; Pickett, Lyle M.; Schramm, Jesper

    2010-05-01

    Diesel spray experiments at controlled high-temperature and high-pressure conditions offer the potential for an improved understanding of diesel combustion, and for the development of more accurate CFD models that will ultimately be used to improve engine design. Several spray chamber facilities capable of high-temperature, high-pressure conditions typical of engine combustion have been developed, but uncertainties about their operation exist because of the uniqueness of each facility. For the IMEM meeting, we describe results from comparative studies using constant-volume vessels at Sandia National Laboratories and IFP. Targeting the same ambient gas conditions (900 K, 60 bar, 22.8 kg/m{sup 3}, 15% oxygen) and sharing the same injector (common rail, 1500 bar, KS1.5/86 nozzle, 0.090 mm orifice diameter, n-dodecane, 363 K), we describe detailed measurements of the temperature and pressure boundary conditions at each facility, followed by observations of spray penetration, ignition, and combustion using high-speed imaging. Performing experiments at the same high-temperature, high-pressure operating conditions is an objective of the Engine Combustion Network (http://www.ca.sandia.gov/ECN/), which seeks to leverage the research capabilities and advanced diagnostics of all participants in the ECN. We expect that this effort will generate a high-quality dataset to be used for advanced computational model development at engine conditions.

  5. A reactor for high-throughput high-pressure nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beach, N. J.; Knapp, S. M. M.; Landis, C. R.

    2015-10-15

    The design of a reactor for operando nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) monitoring of high-pressure gas-liquid reactions is described. The Wisconsin High Pressure NMR Reactor (WiHP-NMRR) design comprises four modules: a sapphire NMR tube with titanium tube holder rated for pressures as high as 1000 psig (68 atm) and temperatures ranging from −90 to 90 °C, a gas circulation system that maintains equilibrium concentrations of dissolved gases during gas-consuming or gas-releasing reactions, a liquid injection apparatus that is capable of adding measured amounts of solutions to the reactor under high pressure conditions, and a rapid wash system that enables the reactor to be cleaned without removal from the NMR instrument. The WiHP-NMRR is compatible with commercial 10 mm NMR probes. Reactions performed in the WiHP-NMRR yield high quality, information-rich, and multinuclear NMR data over the entire reaction time course with rapid experimental turnaround.

  6. Effect of high pressure homogenization on aqueous phase solvent extraction of lipids from Nannochloris Oculata microalgae

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Samarasinghe, Nalin; Fernando, Sandun; Faulkner, William B.

    2012-12-01

    The ability to extract lipids from high-moisture Nannochloris Oculata algal biomass disrupted with high pressure homogenization was investigated. During the first phase, the effect of high pressure homogenization (system pressure and number of passes) on disrupting aqueous algae (of different concentrations and degree of stress) was investigated. Secondly, the effect of degree of cell wall disruption on the amount of lipids extracted with three solvents, namely: hexane, dichloromethane and chloroform, were compared. Studies reveled that high pressure homogenization is effective on cell disruption while the amount of system pressure being the most significant factor affecting the degree of cell breakage.more » Although the number of passes had some impact, the level of disruption seemed to level-off after a certain number of passes. The study revealed that slightly polar solvents (such as chloroform and dichloromethane) performed better in aqueous-phase lipid extractions as compared to hexane. Also, it was revealed that it was not necessary to disrupt the algal cells completely to achieve appreciable levels of lipid yields. In fact, conditions that exerted only 20% of the cells to completely disrupt, allowed sufficient damage to liberate most of the lipids contained in the remainder of the cells.« less

  7. High-pressure orthorhombic ferromagnesite as a potential deep-mantle carbon carrier

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Liu, Jin; Lin, Jung -Fu; Prakapenka, Vitali B.

    2015-01-06

    In this study, knowledge of the physical and chemical properties of candidate deep-carbon carriers such as ferromagnesite [(Mg,Fe)CO3] at high pressure and temperature of the deep mantle is necessary for our understanding of deep-carbon storage as well as the global carbon cycle of the planet. Previous studies have reported very different scenarios for the (Mg,Fe)CO3 system at deep-mantle conditions including the chemical dissociation to (Mg,Fe)O+CO2, the occurrence of the tetrahedrally-coordinated carbonates based on CO4 structural units, and various high-pressure phase transitions. Here we have studied the phase stability and compressional behavior of (Mg,Fe)CO3 carbonates up to relevant lower-mantle conditions ofmore » approximately 120 GPa and 2400 K. Our experimental results show that the rhombohedral siderite (Phase I) transforms to an orthorhombic phase (Phase II with Pmm2 space group) at approximately 50 GPa and 1400 K. The structural transition is likely driven by the spin transition of iron accompanied by a volume collapse in the Fe-rich (Mg,Fe)CO3 phases; the spin transition stabilizes the high-pressure phase II at much lower pressure conditions than its Mg-rich counterpart. It is conceivable that the low-spin ferromagnesite phase II becomes a major deep-carbon carrier at the deeper parts of the lower mantle below 1900 km in depth.« less

  8. Development of Designer Diamond Technology for High Pressure High Temperature Experiments in Support of Stockpile Stewardship Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vohra, Yogesh, K.

    2009-10-28

    The role of nitrogen in the fabrication of designer diamond was systematically investigated by adding controlled amount of nitrogen in hydrogen/methane/oxygen plasma. This has led to a successful recipe for reproducible fabrication of designer diamond anvils for high-pressure high-temperature research in support of stockpile stewardship program. In the three-year support period, several designer diamonds fabricated with this new growth chemistry were utilized in high-pressure experiments at UAB and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The designer diamond anvils were utilized in high-pressure studies on heavy rare earth metals, high pressure melting studies on metals, and electrical resistance measurements on iron-based layered superconductors under high pressures. The growth chemistry developed under NNSA support can be adapted for commercial production of designer diamonds.

  9. Analyses of High Pressure Molten Debris Dispersion for a Typical PWR Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Osamu KAawabata; Mitsuhiro Kajimoto [Japan Nuclear Energy Safety Organization (Japan)

    2006-07-01

    In such severe core damage accident, as small LOCAs with no ECCS injection or station blackout, in which the primary reactor system remains pressurized during core melt down, certain modes of vessel failure would lead to a high pressure ejection of molten core material. In case of a local failure of the lower head, the molten materials would initially be ejected into the cavity beneath the pressure vessel may subsequently be swept out from the cavity to the containment atmosphere and it might cause the early containment failure by direct contact of containment steel liner with core debris. When the contribution of a high-pressure scenario in a core damage frequency increases, early conditional containment failure probability may become large. In the present study, the verification analysis of PHOENICS code and the combining analysis with MELCOR and PHOENICS codes were performed to examine the debris dispersion behavior during high pressure melt ejection. The PHOENICS code which can treat thermal hydraulic phenomena, was applied to the verification analysis for melt dispersion experiments conducted by the Purdue university in the United States. A low pressure melt dispersion experiment at initial pressure 1.4 MPas used metal woods as a molten material was simulated. The analytical results with molten debris dispersion mostly from the model reactor cavity compartment showed an agreement with the experimental result, but the analysis result of a volumetric median diameter of the airborne debris droplets was estimated about 1.5 times of the experimental result. The injection rates of molten debris and steam after reactor vessel failure for a typical PWR plant were analyzed using the MELCOR code. In addition, PHOENICS was applied to a 3D analysis for debris dispersion with low primary pressure at the reactor vessel failure. The analysis result showed that almost all the molten debris were dispersed from the reactor vessel cavity compartment by about 45 seconds after the

  10. Phase relations and hardness trends of ZrO[subscript 2] phases at high pressure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Al-Khatatbeh, Yahya; Lee, Kanani K.M.; Kiefer, Boris

    2010-07-23

    We use high-resolution synchrotron x-ray powder diffraction and density-functional theory (DFT) to investigate the phase stability, equations of state (EOSs), and mechanical hardness of zirconia (ZrO{sub 2}) up to {approx}54 and 160 GPa, respectively. For the equilibrium phase at ambient conditions (MI), we provide an experimental EOS that is comparable to results obtained from room-pressure Brillouin scattering experiments and bulk modulus-volume systematics but different from previous high-pressure experiments. The experimental second-order Birch-Murnaghan EOS parameters of MI-ZrO{sub 2} are: ambient-pressure volume (V{sub 0}) of 35.15({+-}0.03) {angstrom}{sup 3}/f.u. with an ambient-pressure bulk modulus K{sub 0} of 210({+-}28) GPa. For the high-pressure OI phase, we find that the K{sub 0} = 290({+-}11) GPa, which is 19%-32% higher than previously determined, and V{sub 0} = 33.65({+-}0.07) {angstrom}{sup 3}/f.u. The small volume decrease of 3.4% across the MI {yields} OI transition at {approx}10 GPa is associated with a 38% increase in the bulk modulus consistent with our DFT calculations that predict a {approx}36% and 39% increase in K{sub 0} for the generalized gradient and local density approximations, respectively. In contrast to the EOS of MI and OI, we find that our experimental EOS for the high-pressure OII phase is in good agreement with previous measurements. The large volume decrease across the OI {yields} OII phase transition as obtained from both our experiments and calculations is {approx}10%. Our estimates, using scaling relations, indicate that this phase, while dense and quenchable, may have a comparatively low mechanical hardness of {approx} 10 GPa.

  11. High-pressure orthorhombic ferromagnesite as a potential deep-mantle carbon carrier

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Jin; Lin, Jung -Fu; Prakapenka, Vitali B.

    2015-01-06

    In this study, knowledge of the physical and chemical properties of candidate deep-carbon carriers such as ferromagnesite [(Mg,Fe)CO3] at high pressure and temperature of the deep mantle is necessary for our understanding of deep-carbon storage as well as the global carbon cycle of the planet. Previous studies have reported very different scenarios for the (Mg,Fe)CO3 system at deep-mantle conditions including the chemical dissociation to (Mg,Fe)O+CO2, the occurrence of the tetrahedrally-coordinated carbonates based on CO4 structural units, and various high-pressure phase transitions. Here we have studied the phase stability and compressional behavior of (Mg,Fe)CO3 carbonates up to relevant lower-mantle conditions of approximately 120 GPa and 2400 K. Our experimental results show that the rhombohedral siderite (Phase I) transforms to an orthorhombic phase (Phase II with Pmm2 space group) at approximately 50 GPa and 1400 K. The structural transition is likely driven by the spin transition of iron accompanied by a volume collapse in the Fe-rich (Mg,Fe)CO3 phases; the spin transition stabilizes the high-pressure phase II at much lower pressure conditions than its Mg-rich counterpart. It is conceivable that the low-spin ferromagnesite phase II becomes a major deep-carbon carrier at the deeper parts of the lower mantle below 1900 km in depth.

  12. High-pressure three-phase fluidization: Hydrodynamics and heat transfer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luo, X.; Jiang, P.; Fan, L.S.

    1997-10-01

    High-pressure operations are common in industrial applications of gas-liquid-solid fluidized-bed reactors for resid hydrotreating, Fischer-Tropsch synthesis, coal methanation, methanol synthesis, polymerization, and other reactions. The phase holdups and the heat-transfer behavior were studied experimentally in three-phase fluidized beds over a pressure range of 0.1--15.6 MPa. Bubble characteristics in the bed are examined by direct flow visualization. Pressure effects on the bubble coalescence and breakup are analyzed mechanistically. The study indicates that the pressure affects the hydrodynamics and heat-transfer properties of a three-phase fluidized bed significantly. The average bubble size decreases and the bubble-size distribution becomes narrower with an increase in pressure. The bubble-size reduction leads to an increase in the transition gas velocity from the dispersed bubble regime to the coalesced bubble regime, an increase in the gas holdup, and a decrease in the liquid and solids holdups. The pressure effect is insignificant above 6 MPa. The heat-transfer coefficient between an immersed surface and the bed increases to a maximum at pressure 6--8 MPa and then decreases with an increase in pressure at a given gas and liquid flow rate. This variation is attributed to the pressure effects on phase holdups and physical properties of the gas and liquid phases. A mechanistic analysis revealed that the major heat-transfer resistance in high-pressure three-phase fluidized beds resides in a liquid film surrounding the heat-0transfer surface. An empirical correlation is proposed to predict the heat-transfer coefficient under high-pressure conditions.

  13. Design Strategies for Optically-Accessible, High-Temperature, High-Pressure Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S. F. Rice; R. R. Steeper; C. A. LaJeunesse; R. G. Hanush; J. D. Aiken

    2000-02-01

    The authors have developed two optical cell designs for high-pressure and high-temperature fluid research: one for flow systems, and the other for larger batch systems. The flow system design uses spring washers to balance the unequal thermal expansions of the reactor and the window materials. A typical design calculation is presented showing the relationship between system pressure, operating temperature, and torque applied to the window-retaining nut. The second design employs a different strategy more appropriate for larger windows. This design uses two seals: one for the window that benefits from system pressure, and a second one that relies on knife-edge, metal-to-metal contact.

  14. Design strategies for optically-accessible, high-temperature, high-pressure reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S. F. Rice; R. R. Steeper; C. A. LaJeunesse; R. G. Hanush; J. D. Aiken

    2000-02-01

    The authors have developed two optical cell designs for high-pressure and high-temperature fluid research: one for flow systems, and the other for larger batch systems. The flow system design uses spring washers to balance the unequal thermal expansions of the reactor and the window materials. A typical design calculation is presented showing the relationship between system pressure, operating temperature, and torque applied to the window-retaining nut. The second design employs a different strategy more appropriate for larger windows. This design uses two seals: one for the window that benefits from system pressure, and a second one that relies on knife-edge, metal-to-metal contact.

  15. Innovative high pressure gas MEM's based neutron detector for ICF and active SNM detection.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martin, Shawn Bryan; Derzon, Mark Steven; Renzi, Ronald F.; Chandler, Gordon Andrew

    2007-12-01

    An innovative helium3 high pressure gas detection system, made possible by utilizing Sandia's expertise in Micro-electrical Mechanical fluidic systems, is proposed which appears to have many beneficial performance characteristics with regards to making these neutron measurements in the high bremsstrahlung and electrical noise environments found in High Energy Density Physics experiments and especially on the very high noise environment generated on the fast pulsed power experiments performed here at Sandia. This same system may dramatically improve active WMD and contraband detection as well when employed with ultrafast (10-50 ns) pulsed neutron sources.

  16. Studying single nanocrystals under high pressure using an x-ray nanoprobe

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang Lin; Ding Yang; Yang Wenge; Patel, Umesh; Xiao Zhili; Cai Zhonghou; Mao, Wendy L.; Mao Hokwang

    2011-04-15

    In this report, we demonstrate the feasibility of applying a 250-nm focused x-ray beam to study a single crystalline NbSe{sub 3} nanobelt under high-pressure conditions in a diamond anvil cell. With such a small probe, we not only resolved the distribution and morphology of each individual nanobelt in the x-ray fluorescence maps but also obtained the diffraction patterns from individual crystalline nanobelts with thicknesses of less than 50 nm. Single crystalline diffraction measurements on NbSe{sub 3} nanobelts were performed at pressures up to 20 GPa.

  17. High-pressure cells for in situ multi-anvil experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leinenweber, K.; Mosenfelder, J.; Diedrich, T.; Soignard, E.; Sharp, T.G.; Tyburczy, J.A.; Wang, Y.

    2008-10-14

    A new series of high-pressure cells for in situ multi-anvil experiments is described. The cells are based on the conventional COMPRES cells, but modifications are made to improve the passage of X-rays. The modifications include cutting slits in parts of the assemblies that have very high X-ray absorption, such as lanthanum chromite and rhenium, the use of low-Z thermal insulation, such as forsterite, in place of zirconia, and the partial replacement of zirconia by MgO equatorial windows combined with a mullite octahedron. Details of the designs, thermal characterizations, and examples of the application of these cells are described.

  18. Theory of melting at high pressures: Amending density functional theory with quantum Monte Carlo

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shulenburger, L.; Desjarlais, M. P.; Mattsson, T. R.

    2014-10-01

    We present an improved first-principles description of melting under pressure based on thermodynamic integration comparing Density Functional Theory (DFT) and quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) treatments of the system. The method is applied to address the longstanding discrepancy between density functional theory (DFT) calculations and diamond anvil cell (DAC) experiments on the melting curve of xenon, a noble gas solid where van der Waals binding is challenging for traditional DFT methods. The calculations show excellent agreement with data below 20 GPa and that the high-pressure melt curve is well described by a Lindemann behavior up to at least 80 GPa, a finding in stark contrast to DAC data.

  19. High-Pressure Tritium Targets for Research in Muon-Catalyzed Fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Perevozchikov, V.V.; Yukhimchuk, A.A.; Vinogradov, Yu.I.

    2005-07-15

    The paper presents designs of a set of high-pressure targets developed by RFNC-VNIIEF and JINR collaboration to study muon-catalyzed fusion at high density of hydrogen isotopes in a wide temperature range. Designs, technical and operating characteristics of the targets and service results are described.In 1997-2002 these targets were used to measure basic characteristics of muon catalysis in pure deuterium, binary D/T mixture and triple H/D/T mixture as a function of density ([variant phi] = 0.2 - 1.2 LHD{sup *}), temperature (T = 20-800 K) and concentration of hydrogen isotopes in a mixture.

  20. Thermal model development and validation for rapid filling of high pressure hydrogen tanks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, Terry A.; Bozinoski, Radoslav; Ye, Jianjun; Sartor, George; Zheng, Jinyang; Yang, Jian

    2015-06-30

    This paper describes the development of thermal models for the filling of high pressure hydrogen tanks with experimental validation. Two models are presented; the first uses a one-dimensional, transient, network flow analysis code developed at Sandia National Labs, and the second uses the commercially available CFD analysis tool Fluent. These models were developed to help assess the safety of Type IV high pressure hydrogen tanks during the filling process. The primary concern for these tanks is due to the increased susceptibility to fatigue failure of the liner caused by the fill process. Thus, a thorough understanding of temperature changes of the hydrogen gas and the heat transfer to the tank walls is essential. The effects of initial pressure, filling time, and fill procedure were investigated to quantify the temperature change and verify the accuracy of the models. In this paper we show that the predictions of mass averaged gas temperature for the one and three-dimensional models compare well with the experiment and both can be used to make predictions for final mass delivery. Furthermore, due to buoyancy and other three-dimensional effects, however, the maximum wall temperature cannot be predicted using one-dimensional tools alone which means that a three-dimensional analysis is required for a safety assessment of the system.

  1. Sb{sub 2}O{sub 4} at high pressures and high temperatures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Orosel, D.; Balog, P.; Liu, H.; Qian, J.; Jansen, M. . E-mail: m.jansen@fkf.mpg.de

    2005-09-15

    Investigations on Sb{sub 2}O{sub 4} at high pressure and temperature have been performed up to 600{sup o}C and up to 27.3GPa. The so-called 'high temperature' phase ({beta}-Sb{sub 2}O{sub 4}) was obtained following pressure increase at ambient temperature and at relatively low temperatures. Thus, in contrast to previous perceptions, {beta}-Sb{sub 2}O{sub 4} is the modification more stable at high pressures, i.e., at low temperatures. The fact that the metastable {alpha}-form is typically obtained through the conventional way of preparation has to be attributed to kinetic effects. The pressure-induced phase transitions have been monitored by in-situ X-ray diffraction in a diamond anvil cell, and confirmed ex-situ, by X-ray diffraction at ambient conditions, following temperature decrease and decompression in large volume devices. Bulk modulus values have been derived from the pressure-induced volume changes at room temperature, and are 143GPa for {alpha}-Sb{sub 2}O{sub 4} and 105GPa for the {beta}-Sb{sub 2}O{sub 4}.

  2. Thermal model development and validation for rapid filling of high pressure hydrogen tanks

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Johnson, Terry A.; Bozinoski, Radoslav; Ye, Jianjun; Sartor, George; Zheng, Jinyang; Yang, Jian

    2015-06-30

    This paper describes the development of thermal models for the filling of high pressure hydrogen tanks with experimental validation. Two models are presented; the first uses a one-dimensional, transient, network flow analysis code developed at Sandia National Labs, and the second uses the commercially available CFD analysis tool Fluent. These models were developed to help assess the safety of Type IV high pressure hydrogen tanks during the filling process. The primary concern for these tanks is due to the increased susceptibility to fatigue failure of the liner caused by the fill process. Thus, a thorough understanding of temperature changes ofmore » the hydrogen gas and the heat transfer to the tank walls is essential. The effects of initial pressure, filling time, and fill procedure were investigated to quantify the temperature change and verify the accuracy of the models. In this paper we show that the predictions of mass averaged gas temperature for the one and three-dimensional models compare well with the experiment and both can be used to make predictions for final mass delivery. Furthermore, due to buoyancy and other three-dimensional effects, however, the maximum wall temperature cannot be predicted using one-dimensional tools alone which means that a three-dimensional analysis is required for a safety assessment of the system.« less

  3. Impact of cycle chemistry on fossil-fueled high pressure boilers - BHEL approach and experience

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Somu, M.; Gourishankar, S.

    1995-01-01

    Cycle chemistry in high pressure boilers plays an important role as far as availability and reliability of the boilers are concerned. Up keep of proper cycle chemistry is a stupendous task and care must be taken, right from design stage to commissioning and operation of the boilers. It calls for selection of proper design, method of manufacture of critical components and practicing proper procedures during commissioning and regular operation of boilers. Control of cycle chemistry is important from the view point of proper quality of steam and prevention of corrosion. The corrosion is like a double edged knife which reduces the boiler availability on one side and steam quality on the other. The steam quality dictates the efficiency of the turbine. Apart from the internal and external Water Treatment practices, selection of proper deaerator, sizing of drum, steam loading, selection of appropriate drum internals etc. help achieve the desired cycle chemistry. The impact of such cycle chemistry, selection of equipment, Water Treatment practice and operational practices are presented in this paper, in the back drop of BHEL`s design, fabrication and operational guidelines and experience on high pressure boilers. The critical components in the pre-boiler circuit as well as in the main circuit are assessed from the point of view of appropriate water chemistry parameters.

  4. Phase transition induced strain in ZnO under high pressure

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Yan, Xiaozhi; Dong, Haini; Li, Yanchun; Lin, Chuanlong; Park, Changyong; He, Duanwei; Yang, Wenge

    2016-05-13

    Under high pressure, the phase transition mechanism and mechanical property of material are supposed to be largely associated with the transformation induced elastic strain. However, the experimental evidences for such strain are scanty. The elastic and plastic properties of ZnO, a leading material for applications in chemical sensor, catalyst, and optical thin coatings, were determined using in situ high pressure synchrotron axial and radial x-ray diffraction. The abnormal elastic behaviors of selected lattice planes of ZnO during phase transition revealed the existence of internal elastic strain, which arise from the lattice misfit between wurtzite and rocksalt phase. Furthermore, the strengthmore » decrease of ZnO during phase transition under non-hydrostatic pressure was observed and could be attributed to such internal elastic strain, unveiling the relationship between pressure induced internal strain and mechanical property of material. Ultimately, these findings are of fundamental importance to understanding the mechanism of phase transition and the properties of materials under pressure.« less

  5. Structural phase transitions in Bi2Se3 under high pressure

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Yu, Zhenhai; Gu, Genda; Wang, Lin; Hu, Qingyang; Zhao, Jinggeng; Yan, Shuai; Yang, Ke; Sinogeikin, Stanislav; Mao, Ho -kwang

    2015-11-02

    Raman spectroscopy and angle dispersive X-ray diffraction (XRD) experiments of bismuth selenide (Bi2Se3) have been carried out to pressures of 35.6 and 81.2 GPa, respectively, to explore its pressure-induced phase transformation. The experiments indicate that a progressive structural evolution occurs from an ambient rhombohedra phase (Space group (SG): R-3m) to monoclinic phase (SG: C2/m) and eventually to a high pressure body-centered tetragonal phase (SG: I4/mmm). Evidenced by our XRD data up to 81.2 GPa, the Bi2Se3 crystallizes into body-centered tetragonal structures rather than the recently reported disordered body-centered cubic (BCC) phase. Furthermore, first principles theoretical calculations favor the viewpoint thatmore » the I4/mmm phase Bi2Se3 can be stabilized under high pressure (>30 GPa). Remarkably, the Raman spectra of Bi2Se3 from this work (two independent runs) are still Raman active up to ~35 GPa. Furthermore, it is worthy to note that the disordered BCC phase at 27.8 GPa is not observed here. The remarkable difference in atomic radii of Bi and Se in Bi2Se3 may explain why Bi2Se3 shows different structural behavior than isocompounds Bi2Te3 and Sb2Te3.« less

  6. Focusing polycapillary to reduce parasitic scattering for inelastic x-ray measurements at high pressure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chow, P. Xiao, Y. M.; Rod, E.; Bai, L. G.; Shen, G. Y.; Sinogeikin, S.; Gao, N.; Ding, Y.; Mao, H.-K.

    2015-07-15

    The double-differential scattering cross-section for the inelastic scattering of x-ray photons from electrons is typically orders of magnitude smaller than that of elastic scattering. With samples 10-100 μm size in a diamond anvil cell at high pressure, the inelastic x-ray scattering signals from samples are obscured by scattering from the cell gasket and diamonds. One major experimental challenge is to measure a clean inelastic signal from the sample in a diamond anvil cell. Among the many strategies for doing this, we have used a focusing polycapillary as a post-sample optic, which allows essentially only scattered photons within its input field of view to be refocused and transmitted to the backscattering energy analyzer of the spectrometer. We describe the modified inelastic x-ray spectrometer and its alignment. With a focused incident beam which matches the sample size and the field of view of polycapillary, at relatively large scattering angles, the polycapillary effectively reduces parasitic scattering from the diamond anvil cell gasket and diamonds. Raw data collected from the helium exciton measured by x-ray inelastic scattering at high pressure using the polycapillary method are compared with those using conventional post-sample slit collimation.

  7. Measurement and interpretation of threshold stress intensity factors for steels in high-pressure hydrogen gas.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dadfarnia, Mohsen; Nibur, Kevin A.; San Marchi, Christopher W.; Sofronis, Petros; Somerday, Brian P.; Foulk, James W., III; Hayden, Gary A.

    2010-07-01

    Threshold stress intensity factors were measured in high-pressure hydrogen gas for a variety of low alloy ferritic steels using both constant crack opening displacement and rising crack opening displacement procedures. The sustained load cracking procedures are generally consistent with those in ASME Article KD-10 of Section VIII Division 3 of the Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, which was recently published to guide design of high-pressure hydrogen vessels. Three definitions of threshold were established for the two test methods: K{sub THi}* is the maximum applied stress intensity factor for which no crack extension was observed under constant displacement; K{sub THa} is the stress intensity factor at the arrest position for a crack that extended under constant displacement; and K{sub JH} is the stress intensity factor at the onset of crack extension under rising displacement. The apparent crack initiation threshold under constant displacement, K{sub THi}*, and the crack arrest threshold, K{sub THa}, were both found to be non-conservative due to the hydrogen exposure and crack-tip deformation histories associated with typical procedures for sustained-load cracking tests under constant displacement. In contrast, K{sub JH}, which is measured under concurrent rising displacement and hydrogen gas exposure, provides a more conservative hydrogen-assisted fracture threshold that is relevant to structural components in which sub-critical crack extension is driven by internal hydrogen gas pressure.

  8. Phase transitions of LiAlO{sub 2} at high pressure and high temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lei Li; He Duanwei Zou Yongtao; Zhang Wei; Wang Zhao; Jiang Ming; Du Maolu

    2008-08-15

    This work presents a comprehensive study on phase transitions in LiAlO{sub 2} system at high pressures and temperatures (0.5-5.0 GPa and 300-1873 K, respectively), as well as the phase stability for polymeric phases of LiAlO{sub 2} in the studied P-T space by X-ray diffraction (XRD). Besides the previously described polymorphic hexagonal {alpha}-phase, orthorhombic {beta}-phase and tetragonal {delta}-phase, a possible new phase of LiAlO{sub 2} was observed after the tetragonal {gamma}-LiAlO{sub 2} sample was treated at 5.0 GPa and 389 K. The stable regimes of these high-pressure phases were defined through the observation of coexistence points of the polymeric phases. Our results revealed that LiAlO{sub 2} could experience structural phase transitions from {gamma}-LiAlO{sub 2} to its polymorphs at lower pressures and temperatures compared to the reported results. Hexagonal {alpha}-LiAlO{sub 2} with highly (003) preferential orientation was prepared at 5.0 GPa and 1873 K. - Graphical abstract: Constructing the pressure-temperature phase diagram for LiAlO{sub 2}.

  9. Measurement and interpretation of threshold stress intensity factors for steels in high-pressure hydrogen gas.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nibur, Kevin A.

    2010-11-01

    Threshold stress intensity factors were measured in high-pressure hydrogen gas for a variety of low alloy ferritic steels using both constant crack opening displacement and rising crack opening displacement procedures. The sustained load cracking procedures are generally consistent with those in ASME Article KD-10 of Section VIII Division 3 of the Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, which was recently published to guide design of high-pressure hydrogen vessels. Three definitions of threshold were established for the two test methods: K{sub THi}* is the maximum applied stress intensity factor for which no crack extension was observed under constant displacement; K{sub THa} is the stress intensity factor at the arrest position for a crack that extended under constant displacement; and K{sub JH} is the stress intensity factor at the onset of crack extension under rising displacement. The apparent crack initiation threshold under constant displacement, K{sub THi}*, and the crack arrest threshold, K{sub THa}, were both found to be non-conservative due to the hydrogen exposure and crack-tip deformation histories associated with typical procedures for sustained-load cracking tests under constant displacement. In contrast, K{sub JH}, which is measured under concurrent rising displacement and hydrogen gas exposure, provides a more conservative hydrogen-assisted fracture threshold that is relevant to structural components in which sub-critical crack extension is driven by internal hydrogen gas pressure.

  10. High Pressure Scanning Tunneling Microscopy and High PressureX-ray Photoemission Spectroscopy Studies of Adsorbate Structure,Composition and Mobility during Catalytic Reactions on A Model SingleCrystal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Montano, M.O.

    2006-05-12

    Our research focuses on taking advantage of the ability of scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) to operate at high-temperatures and high-pressures while still providing real-time atomic resolution images. We also utilize high-pressure x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (HPXPS) to monitor systems under identical conditions thus giving us chemical information to compare and contrast with the structural and dynamic data provided by STM.