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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high-intensity discharge halogen" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
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1

High intensity discharge device containing oxytrihalides  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A fill composition for a high intensity discharge device including mercury, niobium oxytrihalide, and a molecular stabilization agent is provided. The molar ratio of niobium oxytrihalide to the molecular stabilization agent in the fill is in the range of from about 5:1 to about 7.5:1. Niobium oxytrihalide is present in the fill in sufficient amount to produce, by dissociation in the discharge, atomic niobium, niobium oxide, NbO, and niobium dioxide, NbO[sub 2], with the molar ratio of niobium-containing vapor species to mercury in the fill being in the range of from about 0.01:1 to about 0.50:1; and mercury pressure of about 1 to about 50 atmospheres at lamp operating temperature. There is also provided a high intensity discharge device comprising a sealed light-transmissive arc tube; the arc tube including the above-described fill; and an energizing means for producing an electric discharge within the arc tube. 7 figs.

Lapatovich, W.P.; Keeffe, W.M.; Liebermann, R.W.; Maya, J.

1987-06-09T23:59:59.000Z

2

High intensity discharge device containing oxytrihalides  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A fill composition for a high intensity discharge device including mercury, niobium oxytrihalide, and a molecular stabilization agent is provided. The molar ratio of niobium oxytrihalide to the molecular stabilization agent in the fill is in the range of from about 5:1 to about 7.5:1. Niobium oxytrihalide is present in the fill in sufficient amount to produce, by dissociation in the discharge, atomic niobium, niobium oxide, NbO, and niobium dioxide, NbO.sub.2, with the molar ratio of niobium-containing vapor species to mercury in the fill being in the range of from about 0.01:1 to about 0.50:1; and mercury pressure of about 1 to about 50 atmospheres at lamp operating temperature. There is also provided a high intensity discharge device comprising a sealed light-transmissive arc tube; the arc tube including the above-described fill; and an energizing means for producing an electric discharge within the arc tube.

Lapatovich, Walter P. (Hudson, MA); Keeffe, William M. (Rockport, MA); Liebermann, Richard W. (Danvers, MA); Maya, Jakob (Brookline, MA)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

3

Electrodeless HID lamp study. Final report. [High intensity discharge  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

High intensity discharge lamps excited by solenoidal electric fields (SEF/HID) were examined for their ability to give high brightness, high efficacy and good color. Frequency of operation was 13.56 MHz (ISM Band) and power to the lamp plasma ranged from about 400 to 1000 W. Radio frequency transformers with air cores and with air core complemented by ferrite material in the magnetic path were used to provide the voltage for excitation. Electrical properties of the matching network and the lamp plasma were measured or calculated and total light from the lamp was measured by an integrating sphere. Efficacies calculated from measurement were found to agree well with the positive column efficacies of conventional HID lamps containing only mercury, and with additives of sodium, thallium, and scandium iodide. Recommendations for future work are given.

Anderson, J.M.; Johnson, P.D.; Jones, C.E.; Rautenberg, T.H.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

4

Max Tech and Beyond: High-Intensity Discharge Lamps  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of color compared with the incandescent reference source isin this report. Standard Incandescent Halogen Low-Pressure:value equivalent to an incandescent filament lamp. Taking

Scholand, Michael

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

5

Max Tech and Beyond: High-Intensity Discharge Lamps  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

High-intensity discharge (HID) lamps are most often found in industrial and commercial applications, and are the light source of choice in street and area lighting, and sports stadium illumination. HID lamps are produced in three types - mercury vapor (MV), high pressure sodium (HPS) and metal halide (MH). Of these, MV and MH are considered white-light sources (although the MV exhibits poor color rendering) and HPS produces a yellow-orange color light. A fourth lamp, low-pressure sodium (LPS), is not a HID lamp by definition, but it is used in similar applications and thus is often grouped with HID lamps. With the notable exception of MV which is comparatively inefficient and in decline in the US from both a sales and installed stock point of view; HPS, LPS and MH all have efficacies over 100 lumens per watt. The figure below presents the efficacy trends over time for commercially available HID lamps and LPS, starting with MV and LPS in 1930's followed by the development of HPS and MH in the 1960's. In HID lamps, light is generated by creating an electric arc between two electrodes in an arc tube. The particles in the arc are partially ionized, making them electrically conductive, and a light-emitting 'plasma' is created. This arc occurs within the arc tube, which for most HID lamps is enclosed within an evacuated outer bulb that thermally isolates and protects the hot arc tube from the surroundings. Unlike a fluorescent lamp that produces visible light through down-converting UV light with phosphors, the arc itself is the light source in an HID lamp, emitting visible radiation that is characteristic of the elements present in the plasma. Thus, the mixture of elements included in the arc tube is one critical factor determining the quality of the light emitted from the lamp, including its correlated color temperature (CCT) and color rendering index (CRI). Similar to fluorescent lamps, HID lamps require a ballast to start and maintain stable operating conditions, and this necessitates additional power beyond that used by the lamp itself. HID lamps offer important advantages compared to other lighting technologies, making them well suited for certain applications. HID lamps can be very efficient, have long operating lives, are relatively temperature-insensitive and produce a large quantity of light from a small package. For these reasons, HID lamps are often used when high levels of illumination are required over large areas and where operating and maintenance costs must be kept to a minimum. Furthermore, if the installation has a significant mounting height, high-power HID lamps can offer superior optical performance luminaires, reducing the number of lamps required to illuminate a given area. The indoor environments best suited to HID lamps are those with high ceilings, such as those commonly found in industrial spaces, warehouses, large retail spaces, sports halls and large public areas. Research into efficacy improvements for HID lighting technologies has generally followed market demand for these lamps, which is in decline for MV and LPS, has reached a plateau for HPS and is growing for MH. Several manufacturers interviewed for this study indicated that although solid-state lighting was now receiving the bulk of their company's R&D investment, there are still strong HID lamp research programs, which concentrate on MH technologies, with some limited amount of investment in HPS for specific niche applications (e.g., agricultural greenhouses). LPS and MV lamps are no longer being researched or improved in terms of efficacy or other performance attributes, although some consider MH HID lamps to be the next-generation MV lamp. Thus, the efficacy values of commercially available MV, LPS and HPS lamps are not expected to increase in the next 5 to 10 years. MH lamps, and more specifically, ceramic MH lamps are continuing to improve in efficacy as well as light quality, manufacturability and lamp life. Within an HID lamp, the light-producing plasma must be heated to sufficiently high temperatures to achieve high efficiencie

Scholand, Michael

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

6

Microwave power spectral density and its effects on exciting electrodeless high intensity discharge lamps  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The effects of a microwave source generating a spectrally dense power spectrum on the operation of an electrodeless high intensity discharge lamp were measured. Spectrally pure sources operating within ISM bands at 915 MHz and 2.45 GHz produce stable capacitively coupled discharges useful for producing flicker-free light for numerous applications. The internal plasma temperature distribution and lamp geometry define acoustic resonance modes within the lamp which can be excited with power sidebands. The operation of lamps with commercially available power sources and custom built generators are discussed. Estimates of the spectral purity required for stable operation are provided.

Butler, S.J.; Goss, H.H.; Lapatovich, W.P. [Osram Sylvania Inc., Salem, MA (United States)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

7

,,,"Incandescent","Standard Fluorescent","Compact Fluorescent","High-Intensity Discharge","Halogen"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia:FAQProved Reserves, Reserves Changes, and Production" ,"Click worksheet name or tabUpcoming8. Energy38.

8

,,,"Incandescent","Standard Fluorescent","Compact Fluorescent","High-Intensity Discharge","Halogen"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia:FAQProved Reserves, Reserves Changes, and Production" ,"Click worksheet name or tabUpcoming8.

9

High intensity femtosecond enhancement cavities  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

To produce extreme ultraviolet radiation via high harmonic generation (HHG) in rare gases, light intensities in excess of 1014 W/cm 2 are required. Usually such high intensity are obtained by parametric amplification of ...

Abram, Gilberto

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

10

FIELD SCREENING FOR HALOGENATED VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Western Research Institute (WRI) initiated exploratory work towards the development of new field screening methodology and a test kit to measure halogenated volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the field. Heated diode and corona discharge sensors are commonly used to detect leaks of refrigerants from air conditioners, freezers, and refrigerators. They are both selective to the presence of carbon-halogen bonds. Commercially available heated diode and corona discharge leak detectors were procured and evaluated for halogenated VOC response. The units were modified to provide a digital readout of signal related to VOC concentration. Sensor response was evaluated with carbon tetrachloride and tetrachloroethylene (perchloroethylene, PCE), which represent halogenated VOCs with and without double bonds. The response characteristics were determined for the VOCs directly in headspace in Tedlar bag containers. Quantitation limits in air were estimated. Potential interferences from volatile hydrocarbons, such as toluene and heptane, were evaluated. The effect of humidity was studied also. The performance of the new devices was evaluated in the laboratory by spiking soil samples and monitoring headspace for halogenated VOCs. A draft concept of the steps for a new analytical method was outlined. The results of the first year effort show that both devices show potential utility for future analytical method development work towards the goal of developing a portable test kit for screening halogenated VOCs in the field.

John F. Schabron; Joseph F. Rovani Jr.; Theresa M. Bomstad

2002-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

11

Max Tech and Beyond: High-Intensity Discharge Lamps  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Ceravision (UK), LG Electronics (South Korea) and Luxim (Milton Keynes, UK), LG Electronics (Seoul, South Korea) andwww.ceravision.com/Page/Home LG Electronics purchased the

Scholand, Michael

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

Very high efficacy electrodeless high intensity discharge lamps  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This patent describes an electrodeless arc lamp for forming a ring shaped plasma in a region therein during operation comprising a tube having a raised bottom center section, and an optically transparent outer jacket hermetically sealing the tube to protect the tube from cooling by convection. The raised center section rises centrally to form a ring shaped reservoir below the region in which the rig shaped plasma is formed to minimize wall cooling during operation of the lamp so that there is enhanced excitation near the center of the tube.

Johnson, P.D.

1987-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

13

Very high efficacy electrodeless high intensity discharge lamps  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An electrodeless arc lamp comprises an outer jacket hermetically sealing and thermally protecting an arc tube inside which has an upwardly convex bottom center section. The absence of chemically reactive electrode material makes it possible to use metal halides other than iodides. The tube contains chlorides, bromides or a mixture thereof of scandium and sodium in a nearly equimolar relationship in addition to mercury and an inert gas. Good color balance can be obtained at reduced reservoir temperature and with less power loss. Reduction in wall temperature makes it possible to attain longer lamp life.

Johnson, P.D.

1985-10-03T23:59:59.000Z

14

Very high efficacy electrodeless high intensity discharge lamps  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An electrodeless arc lamp comprises an outer jacket hermetically sealing and thermally protecting an arc tube inside which has an upwardly convex bottom center section. The absence of chemically reactive electrode material makes it possible to use metal halides other than iodides. The tube contains chlorides, bromides or a mixture thereof of scandium and sodium in a nearly equimolar relationship in addition to mercury and an inert gas. Good color balance can be obtained at reduced reservoir temperature and with less power loss. Reduction in wall temperature makes it possible to attain longer lamp life.

Johnson, Peter D. (Schenectady, NY)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

15

A SPICE Compatible Model of High Intensity Discharge Lamps  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

from the arc's * Corresponding author behavior of HID lamps. This model are derived from the arc-linear resistance of the lamp, is the global specific conductance of the plasma, V is the volume of the plasma, L is the length of plasma and S is the cross section. ~ Vin G1 Lamp Model Ballast v(lamp) i(lamp) Analytical

16

High-Intensity Discharge Lighting Basics | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) "ofEarly Career Scientists'Montana.ProgramJulietip sheetK-4In 2013 many| Department HIGHImage of

17

Radiation Reaction in High-Intense Fields  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

After the development of the radiating electron model by P. A. M. Dirac in 1938, many authors have tried to reformulate this model so-called radiation reaction. Recently, this effects has become important for ultra-intense laser-electron (plasma) interactions. In our recent research, we found a method for the stabilization of radiation reaction in quantum vacuum [PTEP 2014, 043A01 (2014), PTEP 2015, 023A01 (2015)]. In the other hand, the field modification by high-intense fields should be required under 10PW lasers, like ELI-NP facility. In this paper, I propose the combined method how to adopt the high-intense field correction with the stabilization by quantum vacuum as the extension from the model by Dirac.

Seto, Keita

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

18

Future High-Intensity Proton Accelerators  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This paper provides an overview of currently planned high-intensity proton accelerators. While for high energies (>10GeV) synchrotrons remain the preferred tools to produce high-intensity beams, recent years have seen an impressive development of linac-based lower-energy (intensity proton drivers for spallation sources, accelerator driven systems (ADS), production of Radioactive Ion Beams (RIB) and various neutrino applications (beta-beam, superbeam, neutrino factory). This paper discusses the optimum machine types for the various beam requirements and uses a range of projects, which are likely to be realised within the coming decade, to illustrate the different approaches to reach high average beam power with the application-specific time structure. Only machines with a beam power above 100kW are considered.

Gerigk, F

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

19

High intensity performance of the Brookhaven AGS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Experience and results from recent high intensity proton running periods of the Brookhaven AGS, during which a record intensity for a proton synchrotron of 6.3 x 10{sup 13} protons/pulse was reached, is presented. This high beam intensity allowed for the simultaneous operation of three high precision rare kaon decay experiments. The record beam intensities were achieved after the 1.5 GeV Booster was commissioned and a transition jump system, a powerful transverse damper, and an rf upgrade in the AGS were completed. Recently even higher intensity proton synchrotrons are studied for neutron spallation sources or proton driver for a muon collider. Implications of the experiences from the AGS to these proposals and also possible future upgrades for the AGS are discussed.

Brennan, J.M.; Roser, T.

1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

High intensity neutrino oscillation facilities in Europe  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The EUROnu project has studied three possible options for future, high intensity neutrino oscillation facilities in Europe. The first is a Super Beam, in which the neutrinos come from the decay of pions created by bombarding targets with a 4 MW proton beam from the CERN High Power Superconducting Proton Linac. The far detector for this facility is the 500 kt MEMPHYS water Cherenkov, located in the Fr\\'ejus tunnel. The second facility is the Neutrino Factory, in which the neutrinos come from the decay of {\\mu}+ and {\\mu}- beams in a storage ring. The far detector in this case is a 100 kt Magnetised Iron Neutrino Detector at a baseline of 2000 km. The third option is a Beta Beam, in which the neutrinos come from the decay of beta emitting isotopes, in particular 6He and 18Ne, also stored in a ring. The far detector is also the MEMPHYS detector in the Fr\\'ejus tunnel. EUROnu has undertaken conceptual designs of these facilities and studied the performance of the detectors. Based on this, it has determined the ph...

Edgecock, T R; Davenne, T; Densham, C; Fitton, M; Kelliher, D; Loveridge, P; Machida, S; Prior, C; Rogers, C; Rooney, M; Thomason, J; Wilcox, D; Wildner, E; Efthymiopoulos, I; Garoby, R; Gilardoni, S; Hansen, C; Benedetto, E; Jensen, E; Kosmicki, A; Martini, M; Osborne, J; Prior, G; Stora, T; Melo-Mendonca, T; Vlachoudis, V; Waaijer, C; Cupial, P; Chancé, A; Longhin, A; Payet, J; Zito, M; Baussan, E; Bobeth, C; Bouquerel, E; Dracos, M; Gaudiot, G; Lepers, B; Osswald, F; Poussot, P; Vassilopoulos, N; Wurtz, J; Zeter, V; Bielski, J; Kozien, M; Lacny, L; Skoczen, B; Szybinski, B; Ustrycka, A; Wroblewski, A; Marie-Jeanne, M; Balint, P; Fourel, C; Giraud, J; Jacob, J; Lamy, T; Latrasse, L; Sortais, P; Thuillier, T; Mitrofanov, S; Loiselet, M; Keutgen, Th; Delbar, Th; Debray, F; Trophine, C; Veys, S; Daversin, C; Zorin, V; Izotov, I; Skalyga, V; Burt, G; Dexter, A C; Kravchuk, V L; Marchi, T; Cinausero, M; Gramegna, F; De Angelis, G; Prete, G; Collazuol, G; Laveder, M; Mazzocco, M; Mezzetto, M; Signorini, C; Vardaci, E; Di Nitto, A; Brondi, A; La Rana, G; Migliozzi, P; Moro, R; Palladino, V; Gelli, N; Berkovits, D; Hass, M; Hirsh, T Y; Schaumann, M; Stahl, A; Wehner, J; Bross, A; Kopp, J; Neuffer, D; Wands, R; Bayes, R; Laing, A; Soler, P; Agarwalla, S K; Villanueva, A Cervera; Donini, A; Ghosh, T; Cadenas, J J Gómez; Hernández, P; Martín-Albo, J; Mena, O; Burguet-Castell, J; Agostino, L; Buizza-Avanzini, M; Marafini, M; Patzak, T; Tonazzo, A; Duchesneau, D; Mosca, L; Bogomilov, M; Karadzhov, Y; Matev, R; Tsenov, R; Akhmedov, E; Blennow, M; Lindner, M; Schwetz, T; Martinez, E Fernández; Maltoni, M; Menéndez, J; Giunti, C; García, M C González; Salvado, J; Coloma, P; Huber, P; Li, T; López-Pavón, J; Orme, C; Pascoli, S; Meloni, D; Tang, J; Winter, W; Ohlsson, T; Zhang, H; Scotto-Lavina, L; Terranova, F; Bonesini, M; Tortora, L; Alekou, A; Aslaninejad, M; Bontoiu, C; Kurup, A; Jenner, L J; Long, K; Pasternak, J; Pozimski, J; Back, J J; Harrison, P; Beard, K; Bogacz, A; Berg, J S; Stratakis, D; Witte, H; Snopok, P; Bliss, N; Cordwell, M; Moss, A; Pattalwar, S; Apollonio, M

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high-intensity discharge halogen" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Halogenated solvent remediation  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Methods for enhancing bioremediation of ground water contaminated with nonaqueous halogenated solvents are disclosed. An illustrative method includes adding an electron donor for microbe-mediated anaerobic reductive dehalogenation of the halogenated solvents, which electron donor enhances mass transfer of the halogenated solvents from residual source areas into the aqueous phase of the ground water. Illustrative electron donors include C.sub.2-C.sub.4 carboxylic acids and hydroxy acids, salts thereof, esters of C.sub.2-C.sub.4 carboxylic acids and hydroxy acids, and mixtures thereof, of which lactic acid, salts of lactic acid--such as sodium lactate, lactate esters, and mixtures thereof are particularly illustrative. The microbes are either indigenous to the ground water, or such microbes can be added to the ground water in addition to the electron donor.

Sorenson, Jr., Kent S. (Windsor, CO)

2008-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

22

Halogenation of cobalt dicarbollide  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for selectively adding chlorine, bromine, or iodine to cobalt dicarbollide anions by means of electrophilic substitution reactions. Halogens are added only to the B10 and B10{prime} positions of the anion. The process involves use of hypohalous acid or N-halosuccinimide or gaseous chlorine in the presence of iron. 1 fig.

Hurlburt, P.K.; Abney, K.D.; Kinkead, S.A.

1997-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

23

FIELD SCREENING FOR HALOGENATED VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Western Research Institute (WRI) is continuing work toward the development of new screening methodology and a test kit to measure halogenated volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the field. Heated diode and corona discharge sensors are commonly used to detect leaks of refrigerants from air conditioners, freezers, and refrigerators. They are both selective to the presence of halogens. In prior work, the devices were tested for response to carbon tetrachloride, heptane, toluene, and water vapors. In the current work, sensor response was evaluated with sixteen halogenated VOCs relative to carbon tetrachloride. The results show that the response of the various chlorinated VOCs is within an order of magnitude of the response to carbon tetrachloride for each of the sensors. Thus, for field screening a single response factor can be used. Both types of leak detectors are being further modified to provide an on-board LCD signal readout, which is related to VOC concentration. The units will be fully portable and will operate with 115-V line or battery power. Signal background, noise level, and response data on the Bacharach heated diode detector and the TIF corona discharge detector show that when the response curves are plotted against the log of concentration, the plot is linear to the upper limit for the particular unit, with some curvature at lower levels. When response is plotted directly against concentration, the response is linear at the low end and is curved at the high end. The dynamic ranges for carbon tetrachloride of the two devices from the lower detection limit (S/N=2) to signal saturation are 4-850 vapor parts per million (vppm) for the corona discharge unit and 0.01-70 vppm for the heated diode unit. Additional circuit modifications are being made to lower the detection limit and increase the dynamic response range of the corona discharge unit. The results indicate that both devices show potential utility for future analytical method development work toward the goal of developing a portable test kit for screening halogenated VOCs in the field.

John F. Schabron; Joseph F. Rovani, Jr.; Theresa M. Bomstad

2003-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

24

The investigation of high intensity laser driven micro neutron sources  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, access to high temperature states of mat- ter capable of thermonuclear fusion and/or the effi- cientThe investigation of high intensity laser driven micro neutron sources for fusion materials. The application of fast pulse, high intensity lasers to drive low cost DT point neutron sources for fusion

Ghoniem, Nasr M.

25

Metal halogen battery construction with improved technique for producing halogen hydrate  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An improved electrical energy storage system comprising, at least one cell having a positive electrode and a negative electrode separated by aqueous electrolyte, a store means wherein halogen hydrate is formed and stored as part of an aqueous material having a liquid level near the upper part of the store, means for circulating electrolyte through the cell, conduit means for transmitting halogen gas formed in the cell to a hydrate forming apparatus associated with the store, said hydrate forming apparatus including, a pump to which there is introduced quantities of the halogen gas and chilled water, said pump being located in the store and an outlet conduit leading from the pump and being substantially straight and generally vertically disposed and having an exit discharge into the gas space above the liquid level in the store, and wherein said hydrate forming apparatus is highly efficient and very resistant to plugging or jamming. The disclosure also relates to an improved method for producing chlorine hydrate in zinc chlorine batteries.

Fong, Walter L. (Royal Oak, MI); Catherino, Henry A. (Rochester, MI); Kotch, Richard J. (Mt. Clemens, MI)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

26

On the high intensity aspects of AGS Booster proton operation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Observations of high intensity effects on the proton performance of the AGS Booster are presented, including present operational limits and correction methods. The transverse emittances, optimum tune working points, damping of coherent transverse oscillations and correction of stopband resonances through third-order are discussed in addition to the observed tune spread due to space charge forces. The initial longitudinal phase space distribution, capture and acceleration parameters and measurements are also given. Operational tools and strategies relevant to the high intensity setup are mentioned.

Reece, R.K.; Ahrens, L.A.; Bleser, E.J.; Brennan, J.M.; Gardner, C.; Glenn, J.W.; Roser, T.; Shoji, Y.; van Asselt, W.; Weng, W.T.

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

On the high intensity aspects of AGS Booster proton operation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Observations of high intensity effects on the proton performance of the AGS Booster are presented, including present operational limits and correction methods. The transverse emittances, optimum tune working points, damping of coherent transverse oscillations and correction of stopband resonances through third-order are discussed in addition to the observed tune spread due to space charge forces. The initial longitudinal phase space distribution, capture and acceleration parameters and measurements are also given. Operational tools and strategies relevant to the high intensity setup are mentioned.

Reece, R.K.; Ahrens, L.A.; Bleser, E.J.; Brennan, J.M.; Gardner, C.; Glenn, J.W.; Roser, T.; Shoji, Y.; van Asselt, W.; Weng, W.T.

1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

28

MATERIAL STUDIES FOR PULSED HIGH-INTENSITY PROTON BEAM TARGETS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

/mechanical property changes experiment for baseline materials Carbon-Carbon composite This low-Z composite gives;PHASE I: Graphite & Carbon-Carbon Targets #12;E951 Results: ATJ Graphite vs. Carbon-Carbon CompositePLAN MATERIAL STUDIES FOR PULSED HIGH-INTENSITY PROTON BEAM TARGETS Nicholas Simos, Harold Kirk

McDonald, Kirk

29

Drift tube suspension for high intensity linear accelerators  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The disclosure relates to a drift tube suspension for high intensity linear accelerators. The system comprises a series of box-sections girders independently adjustably mounted on a linear accelerator. A plurality of drift tube holding stems are individually adjustably mounted on each girder.

Liska, D.J.; Schamaun, R.G.; Clark, D.C.; Potter, R.C.; Frank, J.A.

1980-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

30

Drift tube suspension for high intensity linear accelerators  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The disclosure relates to a drift tube suspension for high intensity linear accelerators. The system comprises a series of box-sections girders independently adjustably mounted on a linear accelerator. A plurality of drift tube holding stems are individually adjustably mounted on each girder.

Liska, Donald J. (Los Alamos, NM); Schamaun, Roger G. (Los Alamos, NM); Clark, Donald C. (Los Alamos, NM); Potter, R. Christopher (Los Alamos, NM); Frank, Joseph A. (Los Alamos, NM)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

High-power, high-intensity laser propagation and interactions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper presents overviews of a number of processes and applications associated with high-power, high-intensity lasers, and their interactions. These processes and applications include: free electron lasers, backward Raman amplification, atmospheric propagation of laser pulses, laser driven acceleration, atmospheric lasing, and remote detection of radioactivity. The interrelated physical mechanisms in the various processes are discussed.

Sprangle, Phillip [Plasma Physics Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Electrical and Computer Engineering and Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20740 (United States); Hafizi, Bahman [Plasma Physics Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States)

2014-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

32

HELSINKI UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY ENE-47.153 Halogens, dioxins/Halogens, dioxins/furansfurans  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

HELSINKI UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY ENE-47.153 Halogens, dioxins/Halogens, dioxins and fuel gases ·· Dioxins/Dioxins/furansfurans formation and controlformation and control ·· Other-halogen compoundsOrgano-halogen compounds 2,3,7,8 tetrachloro dibenzo - p- dioxin PCB furan 2

Zevenhoven, Ron

33

Transverse spreading of electrons in high-intensity laser fields  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We show that for collisions of electrons with a high-intensity laser, discrete photon emissions introduce a transverse beam spread which is distinct from that due to classical (or beam shape) effects. Via numerical simulations, we show that this quantum induced transverse momentum gain of the electron is manifest in collisions with a realistic laser pulse of intensity within reach of current technology, and we propose it as a measurable signature of strong-field quantum electrodynamics.

D. G. Green; C. N. Harvey

2014-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

34

HIGH INTENSITY DISCHARGE (HID) SOLID STATE BALLAST PROGRAM PHASE I FINAL REPORT  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

change in the output power for the solid state ballast asof the solid state ballast's constant output power withswitching power supplies such as the solid state ballast.

Ailing, W.R.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

35

HIGH INTENSITY DISCHARGE (HID) SOLID STATE BALLAST PROGRAM PHASE I FINAL REPORT  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A trapazoid for each type and lamp wattage is published bylamp wattage for the core-coil ballast was measured with a dynamometer type

Ailing, W.R.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

36

2014-05-05 Issuance: Test Procedures for High-Intensity Discharge...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Documents & Publications 2014-05-16 Issuance: Test Procedures for Integrated Light-Emitting Diode Lamps; Supplemental Notice of Proposed Rulemaking 2014-06-18 Issuance: Test...

37

2014-05-05 Issuance: Test Procedures for High-Intensity Discharge Lamps;  

Energy Savers [EERE]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankCombustionImprovement3 Beryllium-Associated Worker2014 HouseCovered ConsumerProcedures for

38

CW high intensity non-scaling FFAG proton drivers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Accelerators are playing increasingly important roles in basic science, technology, and medicine including nuclear power, industrial irradiation, material science, and neutrino production. Proton and light-ion accelerators in particular have many research, energy and medical applications, providing one of the most effective treatments for many types of cancer. Ultra high-intensity and high-energy (GeV) proton drivers are a critical technology for accelerator-driven sub-critical reactors (ADS) and many HEP programs (Muon Collider). These high-intensity GeV-range proton drivers are particularly challenging, encountering duty cycle and space-charge limits in the synchrotron and machine size concerns in the weaker-focusing cyclotrons; a 10-20 MW proton driver is not presently considered technically achievable with conventional re-circulating accelerators. One, as-yet, unexplored re-circulating accelerator, the Fixed-field Alternating Gradient, or FFAG, is an attractive alternative to the cyclotron. Its strong focusing optics are expected to mitigate space charge effects, and a recent innovation in design has coupled stable tunes with isochronous orbits, making the FFAG capable of fixed-frequency, CW acceleration, as in the classical cyclotron. This paper reports on these new advances in FFAG accelerator technology and references advanced modeling tools for fixed-field accelerators developed for and unique to the code COSY INFINITY.

Johnstone, C.; /Fermilab; Berz, M.; Makino, K.; /Michigan State U.; Snopok, P.; /IIT, Chicago

2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

39

Summary of sessions B and F: High intensity linacs and frontend & proton drivers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper summarizes the sessions B&F of the 33rd ICFA Advanced Beam Dynamics Workshop on High Intensity & High Brightness Hadron Beams held in Bensheim, Germany. It covers high intensity linacs, front ends and proton driver topics.

Ferdinand, R.; /Saclay; Chou, W.; /Fermilab; Galambos, J.; /Oak Ridge

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

40

2, 14571486, 2005 Halogens in peat  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

BGD 2, 1457­1486, 2005 Halogens in peat porewater H. Biester et al. Title Page Abstract Discussions is the access reviewed discussion forum of Biogeosciences Halogens in porewater of peat bogs ­ the role of peat decomposition and dissolved organic matter H. Biester 1 , D. Selimovi´c 1 , S. Hemmerich 1

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high-intensity discharge halogen" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Energy efficient alternatives to halogen torchieres  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A series of novel energy efficient torchiere systems have been developed using compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs). These systems were studied photometrically and compared with the performance of traditional commercially available tungsten halogen sources. Gonio-photometric data and power assessments indicate that significant lighting energy savings can be obtained by utilizing CFL sources instead of standard tungsten halogen sources. This energy savings is jointly due to the higher source efficacy of the CFLs and the surprisingly poor performance of the imported 300 Watt halogen lamps. Experimental data shows that a 50 to 60 Watt CFL will effectively lumen match a variety of 300 Watt tungsten halogen sources with 5 to 10 times the efficacy. CFL torchieres have additional benefits of higher power quality and cooler lamp operating temperature, making them safer fixtures.

Siminovitch, M.; Marr, L.; Mitchell, J.; Page, E.

1997-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

E-Print Network 3.0 - active halogen species Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

organo-halogen gases or solvents. The most abundant... Zevenhoven & Kilpinen Halogens, dioxinsfurans 17.6.2001 7-1 Chapter 7 Halogens, dioxinsfurans 7... .1 Introduction The...

43

Crystallographic studies on enzymatic halogenation of natural products  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Halogenated natural products are common and serve roles as hormones, pesticides, antibiotics, and anti-tumor agents. The incorporation of a halogen atom into an organic scaffold can tune the molecule's potency and selectivity, ...

Blasiak, Leah Cameron

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

44

Method and apparatus for low temperature destruction of halogenated hydrocarbons  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method and apparatus for decomposing halogenated hydrocarbons are provided. The halogenated hydrocarbon is mixed with solvating agents and maintained in a predetermined atmosphere and at a predetermined temperature. The mixture is contacted with recyclable reactive material for chemically reacting with the recyclable material to create dehalogenated hydrocarbons and halogenated inorganic compounds. A feature of the invention is that the process enables low temperature destruction of halogenated hydrocarbons.

Reagen, William Kevin (Stillwater, MN); Janikowski, Stuart Kevin (Idaho Falls, ID)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

High-Intensity Coherent Vacuum Ultraviolet Source Using Unfocussed Commercial Dye Lasers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 High-Intensity Coherent Vacuum Ultraviolet Source Using Unfocussed Commercial Dye Lasers Daniel R Intruments Using two or three commercial pulsed nanosecond dye lasers pumped by a single 30 Hz Nd:YAG laser

Davis, H. Floyd

46

Improved Heat Transfer and Performance of High Intensity Combustion Systems for Reformer Furnace Applications  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and should enable substantial capital cost savings in new furnace applications. Recent performance improvements established from tests of high intensity combustion systems are described along with advances made in the analytical prediction of design...

Williams, F. D. M.; Kondratas, H. M.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

47

The effects of high intensity continuous auditory stimulation on the perception of visual display information  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

THE EFFECTS OF HIGH INTENSITY CONTINUOUS AUDITORY STIMULATION ON THE PERCEPTION OF VISUAL DISPLAY INFORMATION A Thesis by WILLIAM HAROLD PERSKY Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas AS M University in partial fulfillment... of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1972 Major Subject: Industrial Hygiene THE EFFECTS OF HIGH INTENSITY CONTINUOUS AUDITORY STIMULATION ON THE PERCEPTION OF VISUAL DISPLAY INFORMATION A Thesis by WILLIAM HAROLD PERSKY Approved...

Persky, William Harold

1972-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

48

Zevenhoven & Kilpinen Halogens, dioxins/furans 17.6.2001 7-1 Chapter 7 Halogens,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Zevenhoven & Kilpinen Halogens, dioxins/furans 17.6.2001 7-1 Chapter 7 Halogens, dioxins/furans 7 in Figure 7.1. The polychlorinated dibenzo -(p) dioxins and -furans (PCDD/Fs) that are found in PCBs and may, dioxins/furans 17.6.2001 7-2 2,3,7,8 tetrachloro dibenzo - p- dioxin PCB furan 2,3,7,8 tetrachlorodibenzo

Zevenhoven, Ron

49

Retention of Halogens in Waste Glass  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In spite of their potential roles as melting rate accelerators and foam breakers, halogens are generally viewed as troublesome components for glass processing. Of five halogens, F, Cl, Br, I, and At, all but At may occur in nuclear waste. A nuclear waste feed may contain up to 10 g of F, 4 g of Cl, and ?100 mg of Br and I per kg of glass. The main concern is halogen volatility, producing hazardous fumes and particulates, and the radioactive iodine 129 isotope of 1.7x10^7-year half life. Because F and Cl are soluble in oxide glasses and tend to precipitate on cooling, they can be retained in the waste glass in the form of dissolved constituents or as dispersed crystalline inclusions. This report compiles known halogen-retention data in both high-level waste (HLW) and low-activity waste (LAW) glasses. Because of its radioactivity, the main focus is on I. Available data on F and Cl were compiled for comparison. Though Br is present in nuclear wastes, it is usually ignored; no data on Br retention were found.

Hrma, Pavel R.

2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

Project of Rotating Carbon High-Power Neutron Target. Research of Graphite Properties for Production of High Intensity Neutron Source  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Project of Rotating Carbon High-Power Neutron Target. Research of Graphite Properties for Production of High Intensity Neutron Source

Gubin, K V; Bak, P A; Kot, N K; Logatchev, P V

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

51

Laser-Energy Transfer and Enhancement of Plasma Waves and Electron Beams by Interfering High-Intensity Laser Pulses  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Laser-Energy Transfer and Enhancement of Plasma Waves and Electron Beams by Interfering High-Intensity) The effects of interference due to crossed laser beams were studied experimentally in the high- intensity regime. Two ultrashort (400 fs), high-intensity (4 1017 and 1:6 1018 W=cm2) and 1 m wavelength laser

Umstadter, Donald

52

Overview of the High Intensity Neutrino Source Linac R&D program at Fermilab  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Fermilab High Intensity Neutrino Source (HINS) Linac R&D program is building a first-of-a-kind 60 MeV superconducting H- linac. The HINS Linac incorporates superconducting solenoids for transverse focusing, high power RF vector modulators for independent control of multiple cavities powered from a single klystron, and superconducting spoke-type accelerating cavities starting at 10 MeV. This will be the first application and demonstration of any of these technologies in a low-energy, high-intensity proton/H- linear accelerator. The HINS effort is relevant to a high intensity, superconducting H- linac that might serve the next generation of neutrino physics and muon storage ring/collider experiments. An overview of the HINS program, machine design, status, and outlook is presented.

Webber, R.C.; Appollinari, G.; Carneiro, J.P.; Gonin, I.; Hanna, B.; Hays, S.; Khabiboulline, T.; Lanfranco, G.; Madrak, R.L.; Moretti, A.; Nicol, T.; /Fermilab /Argonne

2008-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

53

Process for removal of hydrogen halides or halogens from incinerator gas  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process for reducing the amount of halogens and halogen acids in high temperature combustion gas and through their removal, the formation of halogenated organics at lower temperatures, with the reduction being carried out electrochemically by contacting the combustion gas with the negative electrode of an electrochemical cell and with the halogen and/or halogen acid being recovered at the positive electrode.

Huang, H.S.; Sather, N.F.

1987-08-21T23:59:59.000Z

54

Photofragmentation spectra of halogenated methanes in the VUV photon energy range  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this paper an investigation of the photofragmentation of dihalomethanes CH{sub 2}X{sub 2} (X = F, Cl, Br, I) and chlorinated methanes (CH{sub n}Cl{sub 4?n} with n = 0–3) with VUV helium, neon, and argon discharge lamps is reported and the role played by the different halogen atoms is discussed. Halogenated methanes are a class of molecules used in several fields of chemistry and the study of their physical and chemical proprieties is of fundamental interest. In particular their photodissociation and photoionization are of great importance since the decomposition of these compounds in the atmosphere strongly affects the environment. The results of the present work show that the halogen-loss is the predominant fragmentation channel for these molecules in the VUV photon energy range and confirm their role as reservoir of chlorine, bromine, and iodine atoms in the atmosphere. Moreover, the results highlight the peculiar feature of CH{sub 2}F{sub 2} as a source of both fluorine and hydrogen atoms and the characteristic formation of I{sub 2}{sup +} and CH{sub 2}{sup +} ions from the photofragmentation of the CH{sub 2}I{sub 2} molecule.

Cartoni, Antonella, E-mail: antonella.cartoni@uniroma1.it [Dipartimento di Chimica e Tecnologie del Farmaco, Sapienza Universitŕ di Roma, P.le Aldo Moro 5, Roma 00185 (Italy)] [Dipartimento di Chimica e Tecnologie del Farmaco, Sapienza Universitŕ di Roma, P.le Aldo Moro 5, Roma 00185 (Italy); Bolognesi, Paola; Fainelli, Ettore; Avaldi, Lorenzo [CNR-IMIP, Area della Ricerca di Roma 1, Monterotondo Scalo (Rm) 00015 (Italy)] [CNR-IMIP, Area della Ricerca di Roma 1, Monterotondo Scalo (Rm) 00015 (Italy)

2014-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

55

High intensity picosecond Fourier limited pulses : design of a synchronously pumped dye laser system  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

527 High intensity picosecond Fourier limited pulses : design of a synchronously pumped dye laser picosecond pulses. A Nd : Yag picosecond laser is used to synchronously pump a dye oscillator/amplifier system. The dye oscillator is of the Littman type. Up to 1.5 mJ of energy is obtained in a 20 ps pulse

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

56

Fiber Bragg grating inscription by high-intensity femtosecond UV laser light: comparison  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Fiber Bragg grating inscription by high-intensity femtosecond UV laser light: comparison with other 264-nm laser light and a phase mask technique, Bragg grating inscription in a range of different, that result in a significant photosensitivity enhancement of the in- vestigated fibers in comparison

Nikogosyan, David N.

57

Target Material Irradiation Studies for High-Intensity Accelerator Beams , H. Ludewig1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, an intensive search has been under way for both "smart" target designs and target materials that exhibit and "smart" materials have recently become available to serve the needs of special industries and someTarget Material Irradiation Studies for High-Intensity Accelerator Beams N. Simos1* , H. Kirk1 , H

McDonald, Kirk

58

Electron Cloud induced instabilities in the Fermilab Main Injector (MI) for the High Intensity Neutrino Source (HINS) project  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Fermilab Main Injector (MI) for the High Intensity Neutrinofor the Fermilab maininjector (MI) show the existence of amitance growth. The Fermilab MI is being considered for an

Sonnad, Kiran G.; Furman, Miguel A.; Vay, Jean-Luc; Venturini, Marco; Celata, Christine; Grote, David

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

E-Print Network 3.0 - anesthesiques halogenes pendant Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Collection: Chemistry 38 HELSINKI UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY ENE-47.153 Halogens, dioxinsHalogens, dioxinsfuransfurans Summary: HELSINKI UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY ENE-47.153...

60

Numerical simulations of stripping effects in high-intensity hydrogen ion linacs  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Numerical simulations of H{sup -} stripping losses from blackbody radiation, electromagnetic fields, and residual gas have been implemented into the beam dynamics code TRACK. Estimates of the stripping losses along two high-intensity H{sup -} linacs are presented: the Spallation Neutron Source linac currently being operated at Oak Ridge National Laboratory and an 8 GeV superconducting linac currently being designed at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory.

Carneiro, J.-P.; /Fermilab; Mustapha, B.; Ostroumov, P.N.; /Argonne

2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high-intensity discharge halogen" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

MATERIAL R&D FOR HIGH-INTENSITY PROTON BEAM PROGRESS REPORT  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

MATERIAL R&D FOR HIGH-INTENSITY PROTON BEAM TARGETS PROGRESS REPORT Nick Simos, BNL May 5, 2006 #12-weaved Carbon-Carbon Composite · Toyota "Gum Metal" · Graphite (IG-43) · AlBeMet · Beryllium · Ti Alloy (6Al-4V of it put together in 6 weeks · 3D-weaved Carbon-Carbon Composite · 2D-weaved Carbon-Carbon · Toyota "Gum

McDonald, Kirk

62

HIGH INTENSITY LINAC DRIVER FOR THE SPIRAL-2 PROJECT : DESIGN OF SUPERCONDUCTING 88 MHZ QUARTER WAVE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

HIGH INTENSITY LINAC DRIVER FOR THE SPIRAL-2 PROJECT : DESIGN OF SUPERCONDUCTING 88 MHZ QUARTER to the required energy. · Capability to accelerate ion beams of q/A=1/6 (up to 1 mA) in the future. The initial Abstract A superconducting linac driver, delivering deuterons with an energy up to 40 MeV (5 mA) and heavy

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

63

A High Intensity Linear e+ e- Collider Facility at Low Energy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

I discuss a proposal for a high intensity $e^+e^-$ linear collider operated at low center of mass energies $\\sqrt{s}intensity beams. Such a facility would provide high statistics samples of (charmed) vector mesons and would permit searches for LFV with unprecedented precision in decays of $\\tau$ leptons and mesons. Implications on the design of the linear accelerator are discussed together with requirements to achieve luminosities of $10^{35}$ cm$^{-2}$s$^{-1}$ or more.

A. Schoning

2006-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

64

Proceedings of the third ICFA mini-workshop on high intensity, high brightness hadron accelerators  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The third mini-workshop on high intensity, high brightness hadron accelerators was held at Brookhaven National Laboratory on May 7-9, 1997 and had about 30 participants. The workshop focussed on rf and longitudinal dynamics issues relevant to intense and/or bright hadron synchrotrons. A plenary session was followed by four sessions on particular topics. This document contains copies of the viewgraphs used as well as summaries written by the session chairs.

Roser, T.

1997-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

65

ISSUANCE 2015-01-26: Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for High-Intensity Lamps, Notice to Reopen Comment Period  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for High-Intensity Lamps, Notice to Reopen Comment Period

66

Generation of high intensity rf pulses in the ionosphere by means of in situ compression  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We demonstrate, using a simple model, that high intensity pulses can be generated from a frequency-chirped modifier of much lower intensity by making use of the dispersive properties of the ionosphere. We show that a frequency-chirped pulse can be constructed so that its various components overtake each other at a prescribed height, resulting in large (up to one hundred times) transient intensity enhancements as compared to those achievable from a steady modifier operating at the same power. We examine briefly one possible application: the enhancement of plasma wave amplitudes which occurs as a result of the interaction of such a compressed pulse with pre-generated turbulence.

Cowley, S.C.; Perkins, F.W.; Valeo, E.J.

1993-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

High-intensity laser-driven proton acceleration enhancement from hydrogen containing ultrathin targets  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Laser driven proton acceleration experiments from micron and submicron thick targets using high intensity (2 × 10{sup 21} W/cm{sup 2}), high contrast (10{sup ?15}) laser pulses show an enhancement of maximum energy when hydrogen containing targets were used instead of non-hydrogen containing. In our experiments, using thin (<1?m) plastic foil targets resulted in maximum proton energies that were consistently 20%–100% higher than when equivalent thickness inorganic targets, including Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} and Al, were used. Proton energies up to 20 MeV were measured with a flux of 10{sup 7} protons/MeV/sr.

Dollar, F.; Reed, S. A.; Matsuoka, T.; Bulanov, S. S.; Chvykov, V.; Kalintchenko, G.; McGuffey, C.; Rousseau, P.; Thomas, A. G. R.; Willingale, L.; Yanovsky, V.; Krushelnick, K.; Maksimchuk, A. [Center for Ultrafast Optical Science, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States)] [Center for Ultrafast Optical Science, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Litzenberg, D. W. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States)

2013-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

68

A focusable, convergent fast-electron beam from ultra-high-intensity laser-solid interactions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A novel scheme for the creation of a convergent, or focussing, fast-electron beam generated from ultra-high-intensity laser-solid interactions is described. Self-consistent particle-in-cell simulations are used to demonstrate the efficacy of this scheme in two dimensions. It is shown that a beam of fast-electrons of energy 500 keV - 3 MeV propagates within a solid-density plasma, focussing at depth. The depth of focus of the fast-electron beam is controlled via the target dimensions and focussing optics.

Scott, R H H

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

Observations of the filamentation of high-intensity laser-produced electron beams  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Filamented electron beams have been observed to be emitted from the rear of thin solid targets irradiated by a high-intensity short-pulse laser when there is low-density plasma present at the back of the target. These observations are consistent with a laser-generated beam of relativistic electrons propagating through the target, which is subsequently fragmented by a Weibel-like instability in the low-density plasma at the rear. These measurements are in agreement with particle-in-cell simulations and theory, since the filamentation instability is predicted to be dramatically enhanced when the electron beam density approaches that of the background plasma.

Wei, M.S.; Beg, F.N.; Dangor, A.E.; Gopal, A.; Tatarakis, M.; Krushelnick, K. [Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London SW7 2BZ (United Kingdom); Clark, E.L.; Evans, R.G. [Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London SW7 2BZ (United Kingdom); Plasma Physics Department, AWE plc, Aldermaston, Reading RG7 4PR (United Kingdom); Ledingham, K.W.D. [Department of Physics, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow G4 0NG (United Kingdom); Plasma Physics Department, AWE plc, Aldermaston, Reading RG7 4PR (United Kingdom); McKenna, P. [Department of Physics, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow G4 0NG (United Kingdom); Norreys, P.A. [Central Laser Facility, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Oxon OX11 OQX (United Kingdom); Zepf, M. [Department of Physics, The Queen's University, University Road, Belfast BT7 1NN (United Kingdom)

2004-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

Improvement in surface fatigue life of hardened gears by high-intensity shot peening  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Two groups of carburized, hardened, and ground spur gears that were manufactured from the same heat vacuum induction melted vacuum arc melted (VIM VAR) AISI 9310 steel were endurance tested for surface fatigue. Both groups were manufactured with a standard ground 16 rms surface finish. One group was subjected to a shot peening (SP) intensity of 7 to 9A, and the second group was subjected to a SP intensity of 15 to 17A. All gears were honed after SP to a surface finish of 16 rms. The gear pitch diameter was 8.89 cm. Test conditions were a maximum Hertz stress of 1.71 GPa, a gear temperature of 350 K, and a speed of 10000 rpm. The lubricant used for the tests was a synthetic paraffinic oil with an additive package. The following results were obtained: The 10 pct. surface fatigue (pitting) life of the high intensity (15 to 17A) SPed gears was 2.15 times that of the medium intensity (7 to 9A) SPed gears, the same as that calculated from measured residual stress at a depth of 127 microns. The measured residual stress for the high intensity SPed gears was 57 pct. higher than that for the medium intensity SPed gears at a depth of 127 microns and 540 pct. higher at a depth of 51 microns.

Townsend, D.P.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

Dynamical Schwinger effect and high-intensity lasers. Realising nonperturbative QED  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We consider the possibility of experimental verification of vacuum e^+e^- pair creation at the focus of two counter-propagating optical laser beams with intensities 10^{20}-10^{22} W/cm^2, achievable with present-day petawatt lasers, and approaching the Schwinger limit: 10^{29} W/cm^2 to be reached at ELI. Our approach is based on the collisionless kinetic equation for the evolution of the e^+ and e^- distribution functions governed by a non-Markovian source term for pair production. As possible experimental signals of vacuum pair production we consider e^+e^- annihilation into gamma-pairs and the refraction of a high-frequency probe laser beam by the produced e^+e^- plasma. We discuss the dependence of the dynamical pair production process on laser wavelength, with special emphasis on applications in the X-ray domain (X-FEL), as well as the prospects for \\mu^+\\mu^- and \\pi^+\\pi^- pair creation at high-intensity lasers. We investigate perspectives for using high-intensity lasers as ``boosters'' of ion beams in the few-GeV per nucleon range, which is relevant, e.g., to the exploration of the QCD phase transition in laboratory experiments.

D. B. Blaschke; A. V. Prozorkevich; G. Roepke; C. D. Roberts; S. M. Schmidt; D. S. Shkirmanov; S. A. Smolyansky

2008-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

72

High energy XeBr electric discharge laser  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A high energy XeBr laser for producing coherent radiation at 282 nm. The XeBr laser utilizes an electric discharge as the excitation source to minimize formation of molecular ions thereby minimizing absorption of laser radiation by the active medium. Additionally, HBr is used as the halogen donor which undergoes harpooning reactions with Xe.sub.M * to form XeBr*.

Sze, Robert C. (Santa Fe, NM); Scott, Peter B. (Los Alamos, NM)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

High energy KrCl electric discharge laser  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A high energy KrCl laser for producing coherent radiation at 222 nm. Output energies on the order of 100 mJ per pulse are produced utilizing a discharge excitation source to minimize formation of molecular ions, thereby minimizing absorption of laser radiation by the active medium. Additionally, HCl is used as a halogen donor which undergoes a harpooning reaction with metastable Kr.sub.M * to form KrCl.

Sze, Robert C. (Santa Fe, NM); Scott, Peter B. (Los Alamos, NM)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

Photochemical reductive elimination of halogen from transition metal complexes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This thesis is focused on the synthesis and study of transition metal complexes that undergo halogen elimination when irradiated with UV and visible light. This chemistry is relevant for solar energy storage schemes in ...

Cook, Timothy R. (Timothy Raymond), 1982-

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

Halogenated naphthyl methoxy piperidines for mapping serotonin transporter sites  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Halogenated naphthyl methoxy piperidines having a strong affinity for the serotonin transporter are disclosed. Those compounds can be labeled with positron-emitting and/or gamma emitting halogen isotopes by a late step synthesis that maximizes the useable lifeterm of the label. The labeled compounds are useful for localizing serotonin transporter sites by positron emission tomography and/or single photon emission computed tomography.

Goodman, Mark M. (Atlanta, GA); Faraj, Bahjat (Lithonia, GA)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

Halogenated naphthyl methoxy piperidines for mapping serotonin transporter sites  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Halogenated naphthyl methoxy piperidines having a strong affinity for the serotonin transporter are disclosed. Those compounds can be labeled with positron-emitting and/or gamma emitting halogen isotopes by a late step synthesis that maximizes the useable lifeterm of the label. The labeled compounds are useful for localizing serotonin transporter sites by positron emission tomography and/or single photon emission computed tomography.

Goodman, M.M.; Faraj, B.

1999-07-06T23:59:59.000Z

77

Treatment of halogen-containing waste and other waste materials  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process for treating a halogen-containing waste material. The process provides a bath of molten glass containing a sacrificial metal oxide capable of reacting with a halogen in the waste material. The sacrificial metal oxide is present in the molten glass in at least a stoichiometric amount with respect to the halogen in the waste material. The waste material is introduced into the bath of molten glass to cause a reaction between the halogen in the waste material and the sacrificial metal oxide to yield a metal halide. The metal halide is a gas at the temperature of the molten glass. The gaseous metal halide is separated from the molten glass and contacted with an aqueous scrubber solution of an alkali metal hydroxide to yield a metal hydroxide or metal oxide-containing precipitate and a soluble alkali metal halide. The precipitate is then separated from the aqueous scrubber solution. The molten glass containing the treated waste material is removed from the bath as a waste glass. The process of the invention can be used to treat all types of waste material including radioactive wastes. The process is particularly suited for separating halogens from halogen-containing wastes.

Forsberg, Charles W. (Oak Ridge, TN); Beahm, Edward C. (Oak Ridge, TN); Parker, George W. (Concord, TN)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

Treatment of halogen-containing waste and other waste materials  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process is described for treating a halogen-containing waste material. The process provides a bath of molten glass containing a sacrificial metal oxide capable of reacting with a halogen in the waste material. The sacrificial metal oxide is present in the molten glass in at least a stoichiometric amount with respect to the halogen in the waste material. The waste material is introduced into the bath of molten glass to cause a reaction between the halogen in the waste material and the sacrificial metal oxide to yield a metal halide. The metal halide is a gas at the temperature of the molten glass. The gaseous metal halide is separated from the molten glass and contacted with an aqueous scrubber solution of an alkali metal hydroxide to yield a metal hydroxide or metal oxide-containing precipitate and a soluble alkali metal halide. The precipitate is then separated from the aqueous scrubber solution. The molten glass containing the treated waste material is removed from the bath as a waste glass. The process of the invention can be used to treat all types of waste material including radioactive wastes. The process is particularly suited for separating halogens from halogen-containing wastes. 3 figs.

Forsberg, C.W.; Beahm, E.C.; Parker, G.W.

1997-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

79

Epithermal Neutron Source for Neutron Resonance Spectroscopy (NRS) using High Intensity, Short Pulse Lasers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A neutron source for neutron resonance spectroscopy (NRS) has been developed using high intensity, short pulse lasers. This measurement technique will allow for robust measurements of interior ion temperature of laser-shocked materials and provide insight into equation of state (EOS) measurements. The neutron generation technique uses protons accelerated by lasers off of Cu foils to create neutrons in LiF, through (p,n) reactions with {sup 7}Li and {sup 19}F. The distribution of the incident proton beam has been diagnosed using radiochromic film (RCF). This distribution is used as the input for a (p,n) neturon prediction code which is compared to experimentally measured neutron yields. From this calculation, a total fluence of 1.8 x 10{sup 9} neutrons is infered, which is shown to be a reasonable amount for NRS temperature measurement.

Higginson, D P; McNaney, J M; Swift, D C; Bartal, T; Hey, D S; Pape, S L; Mackinnon, A; Mariscal, D; Nakamura, H; Nakanii, N; Beg, F N

2010-04-22T23:59:59.000Z

80

MR-Guided High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound: Current Status of an Emerging Technology  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The concept of ideal tumor surgery is to remove the neoplastic tissue without damaging adjacent normal structures. High-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) was developed in the 1940s as a viable thermal tissue ablation approach. In clinical practice, HIFU has been applied to treat a variety of solid benign and malignant lesions, including pancreas, liver, prostate, and breast carcinomas, soft tissue sarcomas, and uterine fibroids. More recently, magnetic resonance guidance has been applied for treatment monitoring during focused ultrasound procedures (magnetic resonance-guided focused ultrasound, MRgFUS). Intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging provides the best possible tumor extension and dynamic control of energy deposition using real-time magnetic resonance imaging thermometry. We introduce the fundamental principles and clinical indications of the MRgFUS technique; we also report different treatment options and personal outcomes.

Napoli, Alessandro, E-mail: napoli.alessandro@gmail.com; Anzidei, Michele, E-mail: michele.anzidei@gmail.com; Ciolina, Federica, E-mail: federica.ciolina@gmail.com; Marotta, Eugenio, E-mail: eugenio.marotta@gmail.com; Cavallo Marincola, Beatrice, E-mail: beatrice.cavalloamarincola@gmail.com; Brachetti, Giulia, E-mail: giuliabrachetti@gmail.com; Mare, Luisa Di, E-mail: luisadimare@gmail.com; Cartocci, Gaia, E-mail: gaia.cartocci@gmail.com; Boni, Fabrizio, E-mail: fabrizioboni00@gmail.com; Noce, Vincenzo, E-mail: vinc.noce@hotmail.it; Bertaccini, Luca, E-mail: lucaone84@libero.it; Catalano, Carlo, E-mail: carlo.catalano@uniroma1.it [Sapienza, University of Rome, Department of Radiological Sciences (Italy)] [Sapienza, University of Rome, Department of Radiological Sciences (Italy)

2013-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high-intensity discharge halogen" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Fundamental physics on natures of the macroscopic vacuum under high intense electromagnetic fields with accelerators  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

High intense electromagnetic fields can be unique probes to study natures of macroscopic vacua by themselves. Combining accelerators with the intense field can provide more fruitful probes which can neither be achieved by only intense fields nor only high energy accelerators. We will overview the natures of vacua which can be accessible via intense laser-laser and intense laser-electron interactions. In the case of the laser-laser interaction, we propose how to observe nonlinear QED effects and effects of new fields like light scalar and pseudo scalar fields which may contribute to a macroscopic nature of our universe such as dark energy. In the case of the laser-electron interaction, in addition to nonlinear QED effects, we can further discuss the nature of accelerating field in the vacuum where we can access physics related with event horizons such as Hawking-Unruh radiations. We will introduce a recent experimental trial to search for this kind of odd radiations.

Kensuke Homma

2009-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

82

Project-X: A new high intensity proton accelerator complext at Fermilab  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Fermilab has been working with the international particle physics and nuclear physics communities to explore and develop research programs possible with a new high intensity proton source known as "Project-X". Project X will provide multi-megawatt proton beams from the Fermilab Main Injector over the energy range 60-120 GeV simultaneous with multi-megawatt protons beams at 3 GeV with very flexible beam-timing characteristics and up to 300 kW of pulsed beam at 8 GeV. The Project-X research program includes world leading sensitivity in longbaseline neutrino experiments, neutrino scattering experiments, a rich program of ultra-rare muon and kaon decays, opportunities for next-generation electric dipole moment experiments and other nuclear/particle physics probes that reach far beyond the Standard Model.

R. Tschirhart

2011-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

83

High-intensity positron microprobe at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present a conceptual design for a novel continuous wave electron-linac based high-intensity high-brightness slow-positron production source with a projected intensity on the order of 10{sup 10?}e{sup +}/s. Reaching this intensity in our design relies on the transport of positrons (T{sub +} below 600?keV) from the electron-positron pair production converter target to a low-radiation and low-temperature area for moderation in a high-efficiency cryogenic rare gas moderator, solid Ne. This design progressed through Monte Carlo optimizations of: electron/positron beam energies and converter target thickness, transport of the e{sup +} beam from the converter to the moderator, extraction of the e{sup +} beam from the magnetic channel, a synchronized raster system, and moderator efficiency calculations. For the extraction of e{sup +} from the magnetic channel, a magnetic field terminator plug prototype has been built and experimental results on the effectiveness of the prototype are presented. The dissipation of the heat away from the converter target and radiation protection measures are also discussed.

Golge, S., E-mail: serkan.golge@nasa.gov; Vlahovic, B. [North Carolina Central University, Durham, North Carolina 27707 (United States); Wojtsekhowski, B. [Jefferson Laboratory, 12000 Jefferson Ave., Newport News, Virginia 23606 (United States)

2014-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

84

Simulation of the Beam Dump for a High Intensity Electron Gun  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The CLIC Drive Beam is a high-intensity pulsed electron beam. A test facility for the Drive Beam electron gun will soon be commissioned at CERN. In this contribution we outline the design of a beam dump / Faraday cup capable of resisting the beam’s thermal load. The test facility will operate initially up to 140 keV. At such low energies, the electrons are absorbed very close to the surface of the dump, leading to a large energy deposition density in this thin layer. In order not to damage the dump, the beam must be spread over a large surface. For this reason, a small-angled cone has been chosen. Simulations using Geant4 have been performed to estimate the distribution of energy deposition in the dump. The heat transport both within the electron pulse and between pulses has been modelled using finite element methods to check the resistance of the dump at high repetition rates. In addition, the possibility of using a moveable dump to measure the beam profile and emittance is discussed.

Doebert, S; Lefevre, T; Pepitone, K

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

Halogenated 1'-methyl-1,2'-bipyrroles (MBPs) in the Norwestern Atlantic  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Halogenated 1'-methyl-1,2'-bipyrroles (MBPs) are a distinctive class of marine organic compounds. They are naturally produced, they have a unique carbon structure, they are highly halogenated, and they bioaccumulate in ...

Pangallo, Kristin C

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

E-Print Network 3.0 - agents anesthesiques halogenes Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Chemistry 17 Incompatible Chemicals -Partial list Chemical Incompatibilities Summary: , carbon tetrachloride or other chlorinated hydrocarbons, carbon dioxide, halogens Ammonia...

87

The botanical composition of cattle diets on a 7-pasture high-intensity low-frequency grazing system  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

THE BOTANICAL COMPOSITION OF CATTLE DIETS ON A 7-PASTURE HIGH-INTENSITY LOW-FREQUENCY GRAZING SYSTEM A Thesis by CHARLES ANDREW TAYLOR, JR. Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May, 1973 MaJor SubJect: Range Science THE BOTANICAL COYiPOSITION OF CATTLE DIETS ON A 7-PASTI|RE HIGH-INTENSITY LOW-FREQUENCY GRAZING SYSTFM A Thesis by CHARLES ANDREW TAYLOR, JR. Approved as to style and content by...

Taylor, Charles Andrew

1973-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

88

Symmetric and asymmetric halogen-containing metallocarboranylporphyrins and uses thereof  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention is directed to low toxicity boronated compounds and methods for their use in the treatment, visualization, and diagnosis of tumors. More specifically, the present invention is directed to low toxicity halogenated, carborane-containing 5,10,15,20-tetraphenylporphyrin compounds and methods for their use particularly in boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) and photodynamic therapy (PDT) for the treatment of tumors of the brain, head and neck, and surrounding tissue. The invention is also directed to using these halogenated, carborane-containing tetraphenylporphyrin compounds in methods of tumor imaging and/or diagnosis such as MRI, SPECT, or PET.

Miura, Michiko; Wu, Haitao

2013-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

89

Enhancement of x-ray line emission from plasmas produced by short high-intensity laser double pulses  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Enhancement of x-ray line emission from plasmas produced by short high-intensity laser double laser-produced plasmas are bright ultrafast line x-ray sources potentially suitable for different onto a solid target into the x-ray emission is significantly enhanced when a laser prepulse precedes

Limpouch, Jiri

90

Line X-ray emission from Al targets irradiated by high-intensity, variable-length laser pulses  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Line X-ray emission from Al targets irradiated by high-intensity, variable-length laser pulses J; the scaling rules for the conversion efficiency of the laser radiation into the line X-ray emission are discussed. Keywords: Laser-produced plasma; Line X-ray emission; X-ray sources; X-ray spectroscopy 1

Limpouch, Jiri

91

Long-period fiber grating inscription under high-intensity 352 nm femtosecond irradiation: Three-photon absorption  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Long-period fiber grating inscription under high-intensity 352 nm femtosecond irradiation: Three invented in the mid- 1990s [1]. They represent a periodic change of refractive index in an optical fiber.N. Nikogosyan). Optics Communications 255 (2005) 81­90 www.elsevier.com/locate/optcom #12;recording techniques

Nikogosyan, David N.

92

Ultraviolet poling of pure fused silica by high-intensity femtosecond Costantino Corbari and Peter G. Kazansky  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

field of 200 kV/cm and irradiating it with high-intensity 40 GW/cm2 femtosecond 220 fs laser pulses a second-order nonlinearity in glass by poling has some very intriguing possibilities for fiber optics, first realized by Fujiwara et al.,1 consists of the irradiation of highly Ge-doped 15.7 mol % fused

Nikogosyan, David N.

93

Title: Combined passive detection and ultrafast active imaging of cavitation events induced by short pulses of high intensity  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Title: Combined passive detection and ultrafast active imaging of cavitation events induced by short pulses of high intensity ultrasound Authors: Jérôme GATEAU, Jean-François AUBRY, Mathieu PERNOT / INSERM, U979 / Université Denis Diderot, Paris VII Key words: single nucleation events, ultrafast active

Boyer, Edmond

94

Method for selective dehalogenation of halogenated polyaromatic compounds  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for dehalogenating halogenated polyaromatic compounds is provided wherein the polyaromatic compounds are mixed with a hydrogen donor solvent and a carbon catalyst in predetermined proportions, the mixture is maintained at a predetermined pressure, and the mixture is heated to a predetermined temperature and for a predetermined time.

Farcasiu, Malvina (Pittsburgh, PA); Petrosius, Steven C. (Library, PA)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

95

Wastewater Discharge Program (Maine)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The wastewater discharge regulations require that a license be obtained for the discharge of wastewater to a stream, river, wetland, or lake of the state, or to the ocean. Typical discharges...

96

Oscillations in glow discharges  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

OSCILLATIONS IN GLOW DISCHARGES A Dissertation By Tom Prickett, Jr. June 1950 Approved as to style and content by Chairman of Committee OSCILLATIONS IN GLOW DISCHARGES A Dissertation By Tom Prickett, Jr* June 1950 OSCILLATIONS IN GLOW... 1950 CONTENTS Introduction ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 1 I. Review of Plasma Oscillations in Gas Discharges ? . . 2 II. Review of Relaxation Processes in Gas Discharges ? . 13 III. Report of Laboratory Investigation...

Prickett, Tom

1950-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

Chem 115Lithium-Halogen ExchangeMyers RLi + R'X RX + R'Li  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Chem 115Lithium-Halogen ExchangeMyers RLi + R'X RX + R'Li Lithium-halogen exchange reactions are essentially inert. 2 t-BuLi t-BuI + RLi t-BuLi isobutene + isobutane + LiI Lithium-halogen exchange reactions, and lithium iodide. H OEtBr H H OEtLi H1.1 eq n-BuLi Et2O, !80 °C Lau, K. S.; Schlosser, M. J. Org. Chem. 1978

98

Sensitivity to Dark Energy candidates by searching for four-wave mixing of high-intensity lasers in the vacuum  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Theoretical challenges to understand Dark Matter and Dark Energy suggest the existence of low-mass and weakly coupling fields in the universe. The quasi-parallel photon-photon collision system (QPS) can provide chances to probe the resonant production of these light dark fields and the induced decay by the coherent nature of laser fields simultaneously. By focusing high-intensity lasers with different colors in the vacuum, new colors emerge as the signature of the interaction. Because four photons in the initial and final states interplay via the dark field exchange, this process is analogous to four-wave mixing in quantum optics, where the frequency sum and difference among the incident three waves generate the fourth wave with a new frequency via the nonlinear property of crystals. The interaction rate of the four-wave mixing process has the cubic dependence on the intensity of each wave. Therefore, if high-intensity laser fields are given, the sensitivity to the weakly coupling of dark fields to photons rapidly increases over the wide mass range below sub-eV. Based on the experimentally measurable photon energies and the linear polarization states, we formulate the relation between the accessible mass-coupling domains and the high-intensity laser parameters, where the effects of the finite spectrum width of pulse lasers are taken into account. The expected sensitivity suggests that we have a potential to explore interactions at the Super-Planckian coupling strength in the sub-eV mass range, if the cutting-edge laser technologies are properly combined.

Kensuke Homma

2012-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

99

Development of a Negative Hydrogen Ion Source for Spatial Beam Profile Measurement of a High Intensity Positive Ion Beam  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have been developing a negative hydrogen ion (H{sup -} ion) source for a spatial beam profile monitor of a high intensity positive ion beam as a new diagnostic tool. In case of a high intensity continuous-wave (CW) deuteron (D{sup +}) beam for the International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF), it is difficult to measure the beam qualities in the severe high radiation environment during about one-year cyclic operation period. Conventional techniques are next to unusable for diagnostics in the operation period of about eleven months and for maintenance in the one-month shutdown period. Therefore, we have proposed an active beam probe system by using a negative ion beam and started an experimental study for the proof-of-principle (PoP) of the new spatial beam profile monitoring tool. In this paper, we present the status of development of the H{sup -} ion source as a probe beam source for the PoP experiment.

Shinto, Katsuhiro [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Rokkasho, Aomori 039-3212 (Japan); Wada, Motoi; Nishida, Tomoaki; Demura, Yasuhiro; Sasaki, Daichi [Doshisha University, Kyotanabe, Kyoto 610-0394 (Japan); Tsumori, Katsuyoshi; Nishiura, Masaki; Kaneko, Osamu [National Institute for Fusion Science (NIFS), Toki, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan); Kisaki, Masashi; Sasao, Mamiko [Tohoku University, Aoba, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8579 (Japan)

2011-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

100

Direct Discharge Permit (Vermont)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

A direct discharge permit is required if a project involves the discharge of pollutants to state waters. For generation purposes, this involves the withdrawal of surface water for cooling purposes...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high-intensity discharge halogen" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Preliminary assessment of halogenated alkanes as vapor-phase tracers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

New tracers are needed to evaluate the efficiency of injection strategies in vapor-dominated environments. One group of compounds that seems to meet the requirements for vapor-phase tracing are the halogenated alkanes (HCFCs). HCFCs are generally nontoxic, and extrapolation of tabulated thermodynamic data indicate that they will be thermally stable and nonreactive in a geothermal environment. The solubilities and stabilities of these compounds, which form several homologous series, vary according to the substituent ratios of fluorine, chlorine, and hydrogen. Laboratory and field tests that will further define the suitability of HCFCs as vapor-phase tracers are under way.

Adams, Michael C.; Moore, Joseph N.; Hirtz, Paul

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

102

Efficient and Regioselective Halogenations of 2-Amino-1,3-thiazoles with Copper Salts  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Efficient and Regioselective Halogenations of 2-Amino-1,3-thiazoles with Copper Salts Fabrice G. Halogenations proceed easily in the presence of copper(I) or copper(II) chlorides, bromides, or iodides directly in solution or with supported copper halides. 1,3-Thiazole rings appear in many compounds that exhibit

Shen, Jun

103

High pressure discharges in cavities formed by microfabrication techniques  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

High pressure discharges are the basis of small high intensity light sources. In this work, we demonstrate the formation of high pressure discharges, in cavities formed by applying micromachining and integrated circuit techniques to quartz substrates. Cavities containing varying amounts of mercury and argon were fabricated to obtain high pressure discharges. A high pressure mercury discharge was formed in the electrodeless cavities by exciting them with a microwave source, operating at 2.45 GHz and in the electroded cavities by applying a dc voltage. The contraction of the discharge into a high pressure arc was observed. A broad emission spectrum due to self-absorption and collisions between excited atoms and normal atoms, typical of high pressure mercury discharges, was measured. The light output and efficacy increased with increasing pressure. The measured voltage was used to estimate the pressure within the electroded cavities, which is as high as 127 atm for one of the two cavities discussed in this work. Efficacies over 40 lumens per watt were obtained for the electrodeless cavities and over 50 scr(l)m/W for the electroded cavities. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

Khan, B.A.; Cammack, D.A.; Pinker, R.D.; Racz, J. [Philips Electronics North America Corporation, Philips Research, Briarcliff Manor, New York 10510 (United States)] [Philips Electronics North America Corporation, Philips Research, Briarcliff Manor, New York 10510 (United States)

1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

Observation of a Long-Wavelength Hosing Modulation of a High-Intensity Laser Pulse in Underdense Plasma  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We report the first experimental observation of a long-wavelength hosing modulation of a high-intensity laser pulse. Side-view images of the scattered optical radiation at the fundamental wave-length of the laser reveal a transverse oscillation of the laser pulse during its propagation through underdense plasma. The wavelength of the oscillation \\lambda_hosing depends on the background plasma density n_e and scales as \\lambda_hosing~n_e^-3/2. Comparisons with an analytical model and 2-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations reveal that this laser hosing can be induced by a spatio-temporal asymmetry of the intensity distribution in the laser focus which can be caused by a misalignment of the parabolic focussing mirror or of the diffraction gratings in the pulse compressor.

Kaluza, M C; Thomas, A G R; Najmudin, Z; Dangor, A E; Murphy, C D; Collier, J L; Divall, E J; Foster, P S; Hooker, C J; Langley, A J; Smith, J; Krushelnick, K

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

105

Modelling gamma-ray photon emission and pair production in high-intensity laser–matter interactions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In high-intensity (>10{sup 21} Wcm{sup ?2}) laser–matter interactions gamma-ray photon emission by the electrons can strongly affect the electron's dynamics and copious numbers of electron–positron pairs can be produced by the emitted photons. We show how these processes can be included in simulations by coupling a Monte Carlo algorithm describing the emission to a particle-in-cell code. The Monte Carlo algorithm includes quantum corrections to the photon emission, which we show must be included if the pair production rate is to be correctly determined. The accuracy, convergence and energy conservation properties of the Monte Carlo algorithm are analysed in simple test problems.

Ridgers, C.P. [Clarendon Laboratory, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford, OX1 3PU (United Kingdom) [Clarendon Laboratory, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford, OX1 3PU (United Kingdom); Central Laser Facility, STFC Rutherford-Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Didcot, Oxfordshire, OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Kirk, J.G. [Max-Planck-Institut für Kernphysik, Postfach 10 39 80, 69029 Heidelberg (Germany)] [Max-Planck-Institut für Kernphysik, Postfach 10 39 80, 69029 Heidelberg (Germany); Duclous, R. [Commissariat ŕ l'Energie Atomique, DAM DIF, F-91297 Arpajon (France)] [Commissariat ŕ l'Energie Atomique, DAM DIF, F-91297 Arpajon (France); Blackburn, T.G. [Clarendon Laboratory, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford, OX1 3PU (United Kingdom)] [Clarendon Laboratory, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford, OX1 3PU (United Kingdom); Brady, C.S.; Bennett, K.; Arber, T.D. [Centre for Fusion, Space and Astrophysics, University of Warwick, Coventry, CV4 7AL (United Kingdom)] [Centre for Fusion, Space and Astrophysics, University of Warwick, Coventry, CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Bell, A.R. [Clarendon Laboratory, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford, OX1 3PU (United Kingdom) [Clarendon Laboratory, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford, OX1 3PU (United Kingdom); Central Laser Facility, STFC Rutherford-Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Didcot, Oxfordshire, OX11 0QX (United Kingdom)

2014-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

106

Observation and numerical analysis of plasma parameters in a capillary discharge-produced plasma channel waveguide  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We observed the parameters of the discharge-produced plasma in cylindrical capillary. Plasma parameters of the waveguide were investigated by use of both a Normarski laser interferometer and a hydrogen plasma line spectrum. A space-averaged maximum temperature of 3.3 eV with electron densities of the order of 10{sup 17} cm{sup -3} was observed at a discharge time of 150 ns and a maximum discharge current of 200 A. One-dimensional dissipative magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) code was used to analyze the discharge dynamics in the gas-filled capillary discharge waveguide for high-intensity laser pulses. Simulations were performed for the conditions of the experiment. We compared the temporal behavior of the electron temperature and the radial electron density profiles, measured in the experiment with the results of the numerical simulations. They occurred to be in a good agreement. An ultrashort, intense laser pulse was guided by use of this plasma channel.

Terauchi, Hiromitsu [Department of Advanced Interdisciplinary Sciences, and Center for Optical Research and Education (CORE) Utsunomiya University, Yoto 7-1-2, Utsunomiya, Tochigi 321-8585 (Japan); Bobrova, Nadezhda; Sasorov, Pavel [Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, B. Cheremushkinskaya str. 25, 117259 Moscow (Russian Federation); Kikuchi, Takashi; Sasaki, Toru [Department of Electrical Engineering, Nagaoka University of Technology, Kami-tomiokamachi 1603-1, Nagaoka, Niigata 940-2188 Japan (Japan); Higashiguchi, Takeshi; Yugami, Noboru [Department of Advanced Interdisciplinary Sciences, and Center for Optical Research and Education (CORE) Utsunomiya University, Yoto 7-1-2, Utsunomiya, Tochigi 321-8585 (Japan); Japan Science and Technology Agency, CREST, 4-1-8 Honcho, Kanagawa, Saitama 332-0012 (Japan); Kodama, Ryosuke [Japan Science and Technology Agency, CREST, 4-1-8 Honcho, Kanagawa, Saitama 332-0012 (Japan); Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-6 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

The impact of modern headlamps on the design of sag vertical curves  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to the lens. The housing serves as a reflector and lens, and is made of plastic. These lamps may be comprised of different light emitting diode?s (LEDs), high intensity discharge (HID) lamps, and halogen lamps. Halogen headlamps are further comprised... on. HID lamps produce more light compared to halogen lamps (22). Also, HID lamps have a sharper horizontal cut-off beam pattern further reducing the portion of lighted highway on sag curves (25). Light emitting diode is another headlamp...

Gogula, Madhuri

2006-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

108

Management of Respiratory Motion in Extracorporeal High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound Treatment in Upper Abdominal Organs: Current Status and Perspectives  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Extracorporeal high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) is a minimally invasive therapy considered with increased interest for the ablation of small tumors in deeply located organs while sparing surrounding critical tissues. A multitude of preclinical and clinical studies have showed the feasibility of the method; however, concurrently they showed several obstacles, among which the management of respiratory motion of abdominal organs is at the forefront. The aim of this review is to describe the different methods that have been proposed for managing respiratory motion and to identify their advantages and weaknesses. First, we specify the characteristics of respiratory motion for the liver, kidneys, and pancreas and the problems it causes during HIFU planning, treatment, and monitoring. Second, we make an inventory of the preclinical and clinical approaches used to overcome the problem of organ motion. Third, we analyze their respective benefits and drawbacks to identify the remaining physical, technological, and clinical challenges. We thereby consider the outlook of motion compensation techniques and those that would be the most suitable for clinical use, particularly under magnetic resonance thermometry monitoring.

Muller, A., E-mail: arnaud.muller@chu-lyon.fr [Centre Hospitalier Lyon Sud, Service de Radiologie, Hospices Civils de Lyon (France); Petrusca, L.; Auboiroux, V. [University of Geneva, Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine (Switzerland)] [University of Geneva, Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine (Switzerland); Valette, P. J. [Centre Hospitalier Lyon Sud, Service de Radiologie, Hospices Civils de Lyon (France)] [Centre Hospitalier Lyon Sud, Service de Radiologie, Hospices Civils de Lyon (France); Salomir, R. [University of Geneva, Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine (Switzerland)] [University of Geneva, Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine (Switzerland); Cotton, F. [Centre Hospitalier Lyon Sud, Service de Radiologie, Hospices Civils de Lyon (France)] [Centre Hospitalier Lyon Sud, Service de Radiologie, Hospices Civils de Lyon (France)

2013-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

109

Longitudinal discharge laser electrodes  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The improved longitudinal discharge laser electrode with IR baffle includes an electrode made up of washers spaced along the laser axis in order to form inter-washer spaces for hollow cathode discharge to take place and for IR radiation to be trapped. Additional IR baffles can be placed between the electrode ann the window. 2 figs.

Warner, B.E.; Miller, J.L.; Ault, E.R.

1994-08-23T23:59:59.000Z

110

Dynamic T{sub 2}-mapping during magnetic resonance guided high intensity focused ultrasound ablation of bone marrow  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Focal bone tumor treatments include amputation, limb-sparing surgical excision with bone reconstruction, and high-dose external-beam radiation therapy. Magnetic resonance guided high intensity focused ultrasound (MR-HIFU) is an effective non-invasive thermotherapy for palliative management of bone metastases pain. MR thermometry (MRT) measures the proton resonance frequency shift (PRFS) of water molecules and produces accurate (<1 Degree-Sign C) and dynamic (<5s) thermal maps in soft tissues. PRFS-MRT is ineffective in fatty tissues such as yellow bone marrow and, since accurate temperature measurements are required in the bone to ensure adequate thermal dose, MR-HIFU is not indicated for primary bone tumor treatments. Magnetic relaxation times are sensitive to lipid temperature and we hypothesize that bone marrow temperature can be determined accurately by measuring changes in T{sub 2}, since T{sub 2} increases linearly in fat during heating. T{sub 2}-mapping using dual echo times during a dynamic turbo spin-echo pulse sequence enabled rapid measurement of T{sub 2}. Calibration of T{sub 2}-based thermal maps involved heating the marrow in a bovine femur and simultaneously measuring T{sub 2} and temperature with a thermocouple. A positive T{sub 2} temperature dependence in bone marrow of 20 ms/ Degree-Sign C was observed. Dynamic T{sub 2}-mapping should enable accurate temperature monitoring during MR-HIFU treatment of bone marrow and shows promise for improving the safety and reducing the invasiveness of pediatric bone tumor treatments.

Waspe, Adam C.; Looi, Thomas; Mougenot, Charles; Amaral, Joao; Temple, Michael; Sivaloganathan, Siv; Drake, James M. [Centre for Image Guided Innovation and Therapeutic Intervention, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, ON, M5G 1X8 (Canada); Philips Healthcare Canada, Markham, ON, L6C 2S3 (Canada); Centre for Image Guided Innovation and Therapeutic Intervention, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, ON, M5G 1X8 (Canada); Department of Applied Mathematics, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON, N2L 3G1 (Canada); Centre for Image Guided Innovation and Therapeutic Intervention, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, ON, M5G 1X8 (Canada)

2012-11-28T23:59:59.000Z

111

The Transmutation of Nuclear Waste in the Two-Zone Subcritical System Driven by High- Intensity Neutron Generator - 12098  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The main problems of transmutation of high-level radioactive waste (minor actinides and long-lived fission products) are considered in our work. The range of radioactive waste of nuclear power is analyzed. The conditions under which the transmutation of radioactive waste will be most effective are analyzed too. The modeling results of a transmutation of the main radioactive isotopes are presented and discussed. The transmutation of minor actinides and long-lived fission products are modeled in our work (minor actinides - Np-237, Am-241, Am-242, Am-243, Cm-244, Cm-245; long-lived fission products - I-129, Tc-99). The two-zone subcritical system is calculated with help of different neutron-physical codes (MCNP, Scale, Montebarn, Origen). The ENDF/B-VI nuclear data library used in above calculations. Thus, radioactive wastes can be divided into two main groups that need to be transmuted. The minor actinides form the first group and the long-lived fission products form the second one. For the purpose of effective transmutation these isotopes must be extracted from the spent nuclear fuel with the help of either PUREX technology or pyrometallurgical technology. The two-zone reactor system with fast and thermal regions is more effective for nuclear waste transmutation than the one-zone reactor. Modeling results show that nearly all radioactive wastes can be transmuted in the two-zone subcritical system driven by a high-intensity neutron generator with the external neutron source strength of 1.10{sup 13} n/sec. Obviously, transmutation rate will increase with a rise of the external neutron source strength. From the results above we can also see that the initial loading of radioactive isotopes into the reactor system should exceed by mass those isotopes that are finally produced. (authors)

Babenko, V.O. [Bogolyubov Institute for Theoretical Physics, Metrolohichna str. 14-b, Kiev, 03680 (Ukraine); Gulik, V.I.; Pavlovych, V.M. [Institute for Nuclear Research, pr. Nauky 47, Kyiv, 03680 (Ukraine)

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

112

HILL: The High-Intensity Laser Laboratory Core Team's Reply to Questions from the NNSA Experimental Facilities Panel  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Question 1 - The type of physics regimes that HILL can access for weapons studies is quite interesting. The question that arises for the proposal team is what priority does this type of experimental data have versus data that can be obtained with NIF, and Z. How does HILL rank in priority compared to MARIE 1.0 in terms of the experimental data it will provide? We reiterate that isochoric heating experiments to be conducted with HILL are complementary to the high energy density physics experiments at NIF and Z and uniquely access states of matter that neither other facility can access. It is our belief that HILL will enable several important questions, e.g., as related to mix morphology, radiation transfer from corrugated surfaces, and equations of state, to be run to ground through carefully diagnosed, 'unit-physics' experiments. Such experiments will substantially improve confidence in our computer models and provide a rigorous science basis for certification. Question 2 - A secondary question relates to the interests of LLNL and SNL in the physics that HILL can address. This should be spelled out clearly. I would like to see the other labs be part of the discussion regarding how important this capability would be if built. Both sister Labs have a keen interest in the physics enabled by high-intensity, high-energy lasers, as evinced by the Z Petawatt and NIF ARC upgrades to their signature facilities. LANL scientists have teamed with scientists from both Laboratories in high-intensity laser 'first experiments' envisioned for HILL and we fully intend to continue these profitable discussions going forward. In the preparation of the HILL proposal, feedback was solicited from the broader HEDP and weapons science communities. The consensus view was that HILL filled a critical gap and that there was a need for a facility like HILL to address outstanding questions in weapons science. It was recognized that co-location of HILL with a facility such as MaRIE 1.0, Z, NIF, or Omega may offer additional advantages and we would expect these to be explored and evaluated during the CD process. Question 3 - A laser/optics experts group should review this proposal to ensure the level of R&D is reasonable to provide a sufficient chance of success (>50%). In the preparation of the HILL proposal, we sent our proposal and cost estimates to laser designers/scientists across the complex. Though risks were identified with our design, the prevailing view of those we engaged was that the risks were appropriately represented by the TRL levels assigned and that the enabling R&D planned in our proposal was adequate for risk mitigation. Question 4 - More data and peer review is needed from its sister facilities around the world. It is our specific intent to conduct both scientific and technical workshops with the user community if the High Intensity Science field is further encouraged as part of the NNSA Roadmap. Question 5 - Does HILL have to be co-located with MARIE 1.0? Is that feasible from the point of view of TA-53 real estate? Multiple siting options were considered for HILL, including co-location with MaRIE 1.0 (the most cost-effective and flexible option), as well as in a separate, stand-alone building and in a retro-fitted existing building. The cost estimate included these contingencies and candidate locations for HILL in TA-53 were identified. There is actually significant space at TA-53 on the hill in the northeast end of the mesa. Question 6 - What would be the impact on the weapons program if this facility were NOT built? An inability to elucidate aspects of weapons science in the dense plasma regime and validate computer models for same. This will lead to reduced confidence in the computer tools used for certification. Question 7 - Will HILL allow some of the x-ray vulnerability studies proposed by SPARC? If so what does Sandia's vulnerability group think of this method versus SPARC. It is possible that some of the scope envisioned for SPARC could be achieved on HILL, although likely that the energy produced at HILL not bei

Albright, B J [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-08-02T23:59:59.000Z

113

Glow discharge detector  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A highly sensitive electronic ion cell for the measurement of trace elements in He carrier gas which involves glow discharge. A constant wave (CW) glow discharge detector which is controlled through a biased resistor, can detect the change of electron density caused by impurities in the He carrier gas by many orders of magnitude larger than that caused by direct ionization or electron capture. The glow discharge detector utilizes a floating pseudo-electrode to form a probe in or near the plasma. By using this probe, the large variation of electron density due to trace amounts of impurities can be directly measured.

Koo, Jackson C. (San Ramon, CA); Yu, Conrad M. (Antioch, CA)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

114

Effects of high-intensity ultrasound on Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+x superconductor Tanya Prozorov  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

half of the speed of sound in liquid. Effective tem- peratures at the point of impact can easily exceed In liquid- powder slurries irradiated with high-intensity ultrasound, acoustic cavitation induces turbulent temperatures, 5000 K, and pressures, 300 Mpa,7­9 and the shockwaves launched into the liquid create high

Prozorov, Ruslan

115

Capacitor discharge pulse analysis.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Capacitors used in firing sets and other high discharge current applications are discharge tested to verify performance of the capacitor against the application requirements. Parameters such as capacitance, inductance, rise time, pulse width, peak current and current reversal must be verified to ensure that the capacitor will meet the application needs. This report summarizes an analysis performed on the discharge current data to extract these parameters by fitting a second-order system model to the discharge data and using this fit to determine the resulting performance metrics. Details of the theory and implementation are presented. Using the best-fit second-order system model to extract these metrics results in less sensitivity to noise in the measured data and allows for direct extraction of the total series resistance, inductance, and capacitance.

Baker, Michael Sean; Griffiths, Stewart K.; Tanner, Danelle Mary

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

Analysis of Halogen-Mercury Reactions in Flue Gas  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Oxidized mercury species may be formed in combustion systems through gas-phase reactions between elemental mercury and halogens, such as chorine or bromine. This study examines how bromine species affect mercury oxidation in the gas phase and examines the effects of mixtures of bromine and chlorine on extents of oxidation. Experiments were conducted in a bench-scale, laminar flow, methane-fired (300 W), quartz-lined reactor in which gas composition (HCl, HBr, NO{sub x}, SO{sub 2}) and temperature profile were varied. In the experiments, the post-combustion gases were quenched from flame temperatures to about 350 C, and then speciated mercury was measured using a wet conditioning system and continuous emissions monitor (CEM). Supporting kinetic calculations were performed and compared with measured levels of oxidation. A significant portion of this report is devoted to sample conditioning as part of the mercury analysis system. In combustion systems with significant amounts of Br{sub 2} in the flue gas, the impinger solutions used to speciate mercury may be biased and care must be taken in interpreting mercury oxidation results. The stannous chloride solution used in the CEM conditioning system to convert all mercury to total mercury did not provide complete conversion of oxidized mercury to elemental, when bromine was added to the combustion system, resulting in a low bias for the total mercury measurement. The use of a hydroxylamine hydrochloride and sodium hydroxide solution instead of stannous chloride showed a significant improvement in the measurement of total mercury. Bromine was shown to be much more effective in the post-flame, homogeneous oxidation of mercury than chlorine, on an equivalent molar basis. Addition of NO to the flame (up to 400 ppmv) had no impact on mercury oxidation by chlorine or bromine. Addition of SO{sub 2} had no effect on mercury oxidation by chlorine at SO{sub 2} concentrations below about 400 ppmv; some increase in mercury oxidation was observed at SO{sub 2} concentrations of 400 ppmv and higher. In contrast, SO{sub 2} concentrations as low as 50 ppmv significantly reduced mercury oxidation by bromine, this reduction could be due to both gas and liquid phase interactions between SO{sub 2} and oxidized mercury species. The simultaneous presence of chlorine and bromine in the flue gas resulted in a slight increase in mercury oxidation above that obtained with bromine alone, the extent of the observed increase is proportional to the chlorine concentration. The results of this study can be used to understand the relative importance of gas-phase mercury oxidation by bromine and chlorine in combustion systems. Two temperature profiles were tested: a low quench (210 K/s) and a high quench (440 K/s). For chlorine the effects of quench rate were slight and hard to characterize with confidence. Oxidation with bromine proved sensitive to quench rate with significantly more oxidation at the lower rate. The data generated in this program are the first homogeneous laboratory-scale data on bromine-induced oxidation of mercury in a combustion system. Five Hg-Cl and three Hg-Br mechanisms, some published and others under development, were evaluated and compared to the new data. The Hg-halogen mechanisms were combined with submechanisms from Reaction Engineering International for NO{sub x}, SO{sub x}, and hydrocarbons. The homogeneous kinetics under-predicted the levels of mercury oxidation observed in full-scale systems. This shortcoming can be corrected by including heterogeneous kinetics in the model calculations.

Paula Buitrago; Geoffrey Silcox; Constance Senior; Brydger Van Otten

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

117

Process for removing halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds from petroleum products  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process for removing halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds, e.g., polychlorinated biphenyls, from petroleum products by solvent extraction. The halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds are extracted from a petroleum product into a polar solvent by contacting the petroleum product with the polar solvent. The polar solvent is characterized by a high solubility for the extracted halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds, a low solubility for the petroleum product and considerable solvent power for polyhydroxy compound. The preferred polar solvent is dimethylformamide. A miscible compound, such as, water or a polyhydroxy compound, is added to the polar extraction solvent to increase the polarity of the polar extraction solvent. The halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds are extracted from the highly-polarized mixture of water or polyhydroxy compound and polar extraction solvent into a low polar or nonpolar solvent by contacting the water or polyhydroxy compound-polar solvent mixture with the low polar or nonpolar solvent. The halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds and the low polar or nonpolar solvent are separated by physical means, e.g., vacuum evaporation. The polar and nonpolar solvents are recovered from recycling. The process can easily be designed for continuous operation. Advantages of the process include that the polar solvent and a major portion of the nonpolar solvent can be recycled, the petroleum products are reclaimable and the cost for disposing of waste containing polychlorinated biphenyls is significantly reduced.

Googin, John M. (Oak Ridge, TN); Napier, John M. (Oak Ridge, TN); Travaglini, Michael A. (Oliver Springs, TN)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

Process for removing halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds from petroleum products  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process is described for removing halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds, e.g., polychlorinated biphenyls, from petroleum products by solvent extraction. The halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds are extracted from a petroleum product into a polar solvent by contacting the petroleum product with the polar solvent. The polar solvent is characterized by a high solubility for the extracted halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds, a low solubility for the petroleum product and considerable solvent power for polyhydroxy compound. The preferred polar solvent is dimethylformamide. A miscible compound, such as, water or a polyhydroxy compound, is added to the polar extraction solvent to increase the polarity of the polar extraction solvent. The halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds are extracted from the highly-polarized mixture of water or polyhydroxy compound and polar extraction solvent into a low polar or nonpolar solvent by contacting the water or polyhydroxy compound-polar solvent mixture with the low polar or nonpolar solvent. The halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds and the low polar or nonpolar solvent are separated by physical means, e.g., vacuum evaporation. The polar and nonpolar solvents are recovered from recycling. The process can easily be designed for continuous operation. Advantages of the process include that the polar solvent and a major portion of the nonpolar solvent can be recycled, the petroleum products are reclaimable and the cost for disposing of waste containing polychlorinated biphenyls is significantly reduced. 1 fig.

Googin, J.M.; Napier, J.M.; Travaglini, M.A.

1983-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

119

Propagation In Matter Of Currents Of Relativistic Electrons Beyond The Alfven Limit, Produced In Ultra-High-Intensity Short-Pulse Laser-Matter Interactions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper reports the results of several experiments performed at the LULI laboratory (Palaiseau, France) concerning the propagation of large relativistic currents in matter from ultra-high-intensity laser pulse interaction with target. We present our results according to the type of diagnostics used in the experiments: 1) K{alpha} emission and K{alpha} imaging, 2) study of target rear side emission in the visible region, 3) time resolved optical shadowgraphy.

Batani, D.; Manclossi, M. [Dipartimento di Fisica 'G.Occhialini', Universita di Milano-Bicocca (Italy); INFM, Universita di Milano-Bicocca (Italy); Laboratoire d'Optique Appliquee, UMR ENSTA-CNRS-Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau (France); Baton, S.D.; Amiranoff, F.; Koenig, M.; Gremillet, L.; Popescu, H. [Laboratoire pour l'Utilisation des Lasers Intenses, UMR 7605 CNRS-CEA-X-Paris VI, Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau (France); Santos, J.J. [Laboratoire d'Optique Appliquee, UMR ENSTA-CNRS-Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau (France); Laboratoire pour l'Utilisation des Lasers Intenses, UMR 7605 CNRS-CEA-X-Paris VI, Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau (France); Martinolli, E. [Dipartimento di Fisica 'G.Occhialini', Universita di Milano-Bicocca (Italy); INFM, Universita di Milano-Bicocca (Italy); Laboratoire pour l'Utilisation des Lasers Intenses, UMR 7605 CNRS-CEA-X-Paris VI, Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau (France); Antonicci, A. [Dipartimento di Fisica 'G.Occhialini', Universita di Milano-Bicocca (Italy); INFM, Universita di Milano-Bicocca (Italy); Rousseaux, C.; Rabec Le Gloahec, M. [Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique, Bruyeres-le-Chatel (France); Hall, T. [University of Essex, Wivenhoe Park, Colchester, Essex, CO4 3SQ (United Kingdom); Malka, V. [Laboratoire d'Optique Appliquee, UMR ENSTA-CNRS-Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau (France); Cowan, T.E.; Stephens, R. [Inertial Fusion Technology Division, Fusion Group, General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Key, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore CA (United States); King, J.; Freeman, R. [Department of Applied Sciences, University of California Davis, CA 95616 (United States)

2004-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

120

Longitudinal discharge laser baffles  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The IR baffles placed between the window and the electrode of a longitudinal discharge laser improve laser performance by intercepting off-axis IR radiation from the laser and in doing so reduce window heating and subsequent optical distortion of the laser beam. 1 fig.

Warner, B.E.; Ault, E.R.

1994-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high-intensity discharge halogen" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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121

Water Pollutant Discharge Act (Illinois)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The discharge of oil in quantities which exceed the standards adopted by the Pollution Control Board, or the discharge of other pollutants directly or indirectly into the waters is prohibited....

122

Powerful glow discharge excilamp  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A powerful glow discharge lamp comprising two coaxial tubes, the outer tube being optically transparent, with a cathode and anode placed at opposite ends of the tubes, the space between the tubes being filled with working gas. The electrodes are made as cylindrical tumblers placed in line to one other in such a way that one end of the cathode is inserted into the inner tube, one end of the anode coaxially covers the end of the outer tube, the inner tube penetrating and extending through the anode. The increased electrodes' surface area increases glow discharge electron current and, correspondingly, average radiation power of discharge plasma. The inner tube contains at least one cooling liquid tube placed along the axis of the inner tube along the entire lamp length to provide cathode cooling. The anode has a circumferential heat extracting radiator which removes heat from the anode. The invention is related to lighting engineering and can be applied for realization of photostimulated processes under the action of powerful radiation in required spectral range.

Tarasenko, Victor F. (Tomsk, RU); Panchenko, Aleksey N. (Tomsk, RU); Skakun, Victor S. (Tomsk, RU); Sosnin, Edward A. (Tomsk, RU); Wang, Francis T. (Danville, CA); Myers, Booth R. (Livermore, CA); Adamson, Martyn G. (Danville, CA)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

GREEN LIVING Replace incandencent and halogen light bulbs with LED and CLFs  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

GREEN LIVING GUIDE ENERGY TRAVEL FOOD sustain yosef WATER Replace incandencent and halogen light for your laundry RESIST THAT SWITCH! Use natural light during the day, and no lights when you are gone USE MORE THAN YOU CAN EAT, reduce your waste stream DRINK FAIR TRADE COFFEE - Check out Conrad

Thaxton, Christopher S.

124

Low-Level Detections of Halogenated Volatile Organic Compounds in Groundwater  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

compounds; Groundwater management; Drinking water. Introduction Approximately one-half of the U and Hitt 2006 , or more complex process-based analyses utilizing groundwater models Eberts et al. 2005Low-Level Detections of Halogenated Volatile Organic Compounds in Groundwater: Use in Vulnerability

125

Generation of high-current electron beam in a wide-aperture open discharge  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In the present study, it was examined generation of nanosecond-duration electron-beam (EB) pulses by a wide-aperture open discharge burning in helium or in a mixture of helium with nitrogen and water vapor. In the experiments, a discharge cell with coaxial electrode geometry, permitting radial injection of the electron beam into operating lasing medium, was used, with the cathode having radius 2.5 cm and length 12 cm. It was shown possible to achieve an efficient generation of a high-intensity electron beam (EB pulse power {approx}250 MW and EB pulse energy up to 4 J) in the kiloampere range of discharge currents (up to 26 kA at {approx}12 kV discharge voltage). The current-voltage characteristics of the discharge proved to be independent of the working-gas pressure. The existence of an unstable dynamic state of EB, conditioned by the presence of an uncompensated space charge accumulated in the discharge cell due to the exponential growth of the current in time during discharge initiation and the hyperbolic growth of current density in the direction towards the tube axis, was revealed. The obtained pulsed electron beam was used to excite the self-terminated laser on He 2{sup 1}P{sub 1}{sup 0}-2{sup 1}S{sub 0} transition. The oscillations developing in the discharge cell at high discharge currents put limit to the pumping energy and emissive power of the laser excited with the radially converging electron beam.

Bokhan, P. A.; Zakrevsky, Dm. E.; Gugin, P. P. [A. V. Rzhanov Institute of Semiconductor Physics, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, prospekt Lavrent'eva 13, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation)

2011-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

126

Large discharge-volume, silent discharge spark plug  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A large discharge-volume spark plug for providing self-limiting microdischarges. The apparatus includes a generally spark plug-shaped arrangement of a pair of electrodes, where either of the two coaxial electrodes is substantially shielded by a dielectric barrier from a direct discharge from the other electrode, the unshielded electrode and the dielectric barrier forming an annular volume in which self-terminating microdischarges occur when alternating high voltage is applied to the center electrode. The large area over which the discharges occur, and the large number of possible discharges within the period of an engine cycle, make the present silent discharge plasma spark plug suitable for use as an ignition source for engines. In the situation, where a single discharge is effective in causing ignition of the combustible gases, a conventional single-polarity, single-pulse, spark plug voltage supply may be used.

Kang, Michael (Los Alamos, NM)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

127

Industrial Lighting Techniques and New Developments  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

families customarily categorized in three major groupings Incandescent, Fluorescent, and High Intensity Discharge sources. In the incandescent family, halogen capsule 'technology has led to many new general lighting sources the 90-Watt and 45-Watt... Par 38 lamps deliver the same light output in the beam as conventional 150- and 75-Watt incandescent Par sources while using 40\\ less wattage and maintaining lamp life. By reducing voltage to the filament in halogen ~apsule sources, lamps can...

Colotti, M. A.

128

Impending U.S. lighting standards will boost market for halogen-infrared lamps: New product line expanding  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Many of the incandescent floodlights and spotlights manufactured today will not meet lighting efficiency standards taking effect in the US in 1995. As these models cease production, demand will grow for higher efficiency units to fill this huge market, which now totals about 100 million lamps per year. One prime contender is a new class of halogen lamps that use a spectrally selective coating to reflect heat back onto the filament, reducing the amount of electricity needed to generate light. GE Lighting`s Halogen-IR line is the only series of such lamps currently available to replace the conventional floodlights and spotlights that will be banned by the new standards. Other manufacturers may adopt the technology, however, and the Japanese producer Ushio already sells in the US a line of smaller halogen lamps with a similar heat-reflective coating. In terms of efficacy and lifetime, Halogen-IR lamps out perform standard incandescents and standard halogens, but fall far short of fluorescent, metal halide, and high-pressure sodium sources. These other lighting systems are more appropriate and cost-effective than incandescents for many ambient lighting applications. For accent lighting and other tasks that are best suited to incandescent lighting, however, the Halogen-IR lamp is often a superior choice.

Sardinsky, R.; Shepard, M.

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

129

Method of increments for the halogen molecular crystals: Cl, Br, and I  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Method of increments (MI) calculations reveal the n-body correlation contributions to binding in solid chlorine, bromine, and iodine. Secondary binding contributions as well as d-correlation energies are estimated and compared between each solid halogen. We illustrate that binding is entirely determined by two-body correlation effects, which account for >80% of the total correlation energy. One-body, three-body, and exchange contributions are repulsive. Using density-fitting (DF) local coupled-cluster singles, doubles, and perturbative triples for incremental calculations, we obtain excellent agreement with the experimental cohesive energies. MI results from DF local second-order Mřller-Plesset perturbation (LMP2) yield considerably over-bound cohesive energies. Comparative calculations with density functional theory and periodic LMP2 method are also shown to be less accurate for the solid halogens.

Steenbergen, Krista G. [Physikalische und Theoretische Chemie, Freie Universität Berlin, Takustr. 3, 14195 Berlin (Germany); MacDiarmid Institute for Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology, Victoria University of Wellington, P.O. Box 600, Wellington 6012 (New Zealand); Gaston, Nicola [MacDiarmid Institute for Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology, Victoria University of Wellington, P.O. Box 600, Wellington 6012 (New Zealand); Müller, Carsten; Paulus, Beate [Physikalische und Theoretische Chemie, Freie Universität Berlin, Takustr. 3, 14195 Berlin (Germany)

2014-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

130

The chemistry of halogens on diamond: effects on growth and electron emission  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Diamond growth using halogenated precursors was studied in several diamond growth reactors. In a conventionao plasma reactor, diamond growth using the following gas mixtures was studied: CF{sub 4}/H{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}/H{sub 2}, CH{sub 3}F/H{sub 2}, and CH{sub 3}CL/H{sub 2}. Both the diamond growth measurements demonstrated ineffective transport of halogen radicals to the diamond surface during the growth process. In order to transport radical halogen species to the diamond surface during growth, a flow-tube reactor was constructed which minimized gas phase reactions. Also, the flow-tube reactor enabled pulsed gs transport to the diamond surface by fast-acting valves. Molecular beam mass spectroscopy was used to find condition which resulted in atomic hydrogen and/or atomic fluorine transport to the growing diamond surface. Although such conditions were found, they required very low pressures (0.5 Torr and below); these low pressures produce radical fluxes which are too low to sustain a reasonable diamond growth rate. The sequential reactor at Stanford was modified to add a halogen-growth step to the conventinoal atomic hydrogen/atomic carbon diamond growth cycle. Since the atomic fluorine, hydrogen and carbon environments are independent in the sequential reactor, the effect of fluorine on diamond growth could be studied independently of gas phase reactions. Although the diamond growth rate was increased by the use of fluorine, the film quality was seen to deteriorate as well as the substrate surface. Moreover, materials incompatibilities with fluorine significantly limited the use of fluorine in this reactor. A diamond growth model incorporating both gas phase and surface reactions was developed for the halocarbon system concurrent with the film growth efforts. In this report, we review the results of the growth experiments, the modeling, and additional experiments done to understand fluorine with diamond surfaces.

Hsu, W.L.; Pan, L.S.; Brown, L.A. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States)] [and others

1997-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

131

Formation of silver nanoparticles inside a soda-lime glass matrix in the presence of a high intensity Ar{sup +} laser beam  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Formation and motion of the silver nanoparticles inside an ion-exchanged soda-lime glass in the presence of a focused high intensity continuous wave Ar{sup +} laser beam (intensity: 9.2 x 10{sup 4} W/cm{sup 2}) have been studied in here. One-dimensional diffusion equation has been used to model the diffusion of the silver ions into the glass matrix, and a two-dimensional reverse diffusion model has been introduced to explain the motion of the silver clusters and their migration toward the glass surface in the presence of the laser beam. The results of the mentioned models were in agreement with our measurements on thickness of the ion-exchange layer by means of optical microscopy and recorded morphology of the glass surface around the laser beam axis by using a Mirau interferometer. SEM micrographs were used to extract the size distribution of the migrated silver particles over the glass surface.

Niry, M. D.; Khalesifard, H. R. [Department of Physics, Institute for Advanced Studies in Basic Sciences (IASBS), Zanjan 45137-66731 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Optics Research Center, Institute for Advanced Studies in Basic Sciences (IASBS), Zanjan 45137-66731 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mostafavi-Amjad, J.; Ahangary, A. [Department of Physics, Institute for Advanced Studies in Basic Sciences (IASBS), Zanjan 45137-66731 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Azizian-Kalandaragh, Y. [Department of Physics, Institute for Advanced Studies in Basic Sciences (IASBS), Zanjan 45137-66731 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Physics, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili (UMA), P.O. Box 179, Ardabil (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

132

Spectral irradiance model for tungsten halogen lamps in 340-850 nm wavelength range  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have developed a physical model for the spectral irradiance of 1 kW tungsten halogen incandescent lamps for the wavelength range 340-850 nm. The model consists of the Planck's radiation law, published values for the emissivity of tungsten, and a residual spectral correction function taking into account unknown factors of the lamp. The correction function was determined by measuring the spectra of a 1000 W, quartz-halogen, tungsten coiled filament (FEL) lamp at different temperatures. The new model was tested with lamps of types FEL and 1000 W, 120 V quartz halogen (DXW). Comparisons with measurements of two national standards laboratories indicate that the model can account for the spectral irradiance values of lamps with an agreement better than 1% throughout the spectral region studied. We further demonstrate that the spectral irradiance of a lamp can be predicted with an expanded uncertainty of 2.6% if the color temperature and illuminance values for the lamp are known with expanded uncertainties of 20 K and 2%, respectively. In addition, it is suggested that the spectral irradiance may be derived from resistance measurements of the filament with lamp on and off.

Ojanen, Maija; Kaerhae, Petri; Ikonen, Erkki

2010-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

133

Neutron Halo Isomers in Stable Nuclei and their Possible Application for the Production of Low Energy, Pulsed, Polarized Neutron Beams of High Intensity and High Brilliance  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We propose to search for neutron halo isomers populated via $\\gamma$-capture in stable nuclei with mass numbers of about A=140-180 or A=40-60, where the $4s_{1/2}$ or $3s_{1/2}$ neutron shell model state reaches zero binding energy. These halo nuclei can be produced for the first time with new $\\gamma$-beams of high intensity and small band width ($\\le$ 0.1%) achievable via Compton back-scattering off brilliant electron beams thus offering a promising perspective to selectively populate these isomers with small separation energies of 1 eV to a few keV. Similar to single-neutron halo states for very light, extremely neutron-rich, radioactive nuclei \\cite{hansen95,tanihata96,aumann00}, the low neutron separation energy and short-range nuclear force allows the neutron to tunnel far out into free space much beyond the nuclear core radius. This results in prolonged half lives of the isomers for the $\\gamma$-decay back to the ground state in the 100 ps-$\\mu$s range. Similar to the treatment of photodisintegration of the deuteron, the neutron release from the neutron halo isomer via a second, low-energy, intense photon beam has a known much larger cross section with a typical energy threshold behavior. In the second step, the neutrons can be released as a low-energy, pulsed, polarized neutron beam of high intensity and high brilliance, possibly being much superior to presently existing beams from reactors or spallation neutron sources.

D. Habs; M. Gross; P. G. Thirolf; P. Böni

2010-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

134

Differential pressure pin discharge apparatus  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Disclosed is a discharge assembly for allowing elongate pins to be discharged from an area of relatively low pressure to an area of relatively greater pressure. The discharge assembly includes a duck valve having a lip piece made of flexible material. The flexible lip piece responds to a fluctuating pressure created downstream by an aspirator. The aspirator reduces the downstream pressure sensed by the duck valve when the discharge assembly is in the open position. This allows elongate pins to be moved through the duck valve with no backflow because the aspirator pressure is less than the pressure in the low pressure area from which the pins originate. Closure of the assembly causes the aspirator static pressure to force the flexible duck valve lip piece into a tightly sealed position also preventing backflow. The discharge assembly can be easily controlled using a single control valve which blocks the flow of aspirator gas and closes the pin passageway extending through the assembly.

Oakley, David J. (Richland, WA)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

Capillary discharge source  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Debris generation from an EUV electric discharge plasma source device can be significantly reduced or essentially eliminated by encasing the electrodes with dielectric or electrically insulating material so that the electrodes are shielded from the plasma, and additionally by providing a path for the radiation to exit wherein the electrodes are not exposed to the area where the radiation is collected. The device includes: (a) a body, which is made of an electrically insulating material, that defines a capillary bore that has a proximal end and a distal end and that defines at least one radiation exit; (b) a first electrode that defines a first channel that has a first inlet end that is connected to a source of gas and a first outlet end that is in communication with the capillary bore, wherein the first electrode is positioned at the distal end of the capillary bore; (c) a second electrode that defines a second channel that has a second inlet end that is in communication with the capillary bore and an outlet end, wherein the second electrode is positioned at the proximal end of the capillary bore; and (d) a source of electric potential that is connected across the first and second electrodes, wherein radiation generated within the capillary bore is emitted through the at least one radiation exit and wherein the first electrode and second electrode are shielded from the emitted radiation.

Bender, III, Howard Albert

2003-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

136

Industrial Discharge Permits (District of Columbia)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

All businesses and government agencies discharging process wastewater to the public sewer system must report their activities to DC Water's Pretreatment Center. Wastewater discharge permits are...

137

Groundwater Discharge Permit and Registration (New Hampshire)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Groundwater Discharge Permitting and Registration Program seeks to protect groundwater quality by establishing standards, criteria, and procedures for wastewater discharges. The program...

138

Process for removing halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds from petroleum products. [Polychlorinated biphenyls; methylene chloride; perchloroethylene; trichlorofluoroethane; trichloroethylene; chlorobenzene  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process for removing halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds, e.g., polychlorinated biphenyls, from petroleum products by solvent extraction. The halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds are extracted from a petroleum product into a polar solvent by contracting the petroleum product with the polar solvent. The polar solvent is characterized by a high solubility for the extracted halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds, a low solubility for the petroleum product and considerable solvent power for polyhydroxy compound. The preferred polar solvent is dimethylformamide. A miscible polyhydroxy compound, such as, water, is added to the polar extraction solvent to increase the polarity of the polar extraction solvent. The halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds are extracted from the highly-polarized mixture of polyhydroxy compound and polar extraction solvent into a low polar or nonpolar solvent by contacting the polyhydroxy compound-polar solvent mixture with the low polar or nonpolar solvent. The halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds in the low polar or nonpolar solvent by physical means, e.g., vacuum evaporation. The polar and nonpolar solvents are recovered for recycling. The process can easily be designed for continuous operation. Advantages of the process include that the polar solvent and a major portion of the nonpolar solvent can be recycled, the petroleum products are reclaimable and the cost for disposing of waste containing polychlorinated biphenyls is significantly reduced. 2 tables.

Googin, J.M.; Napier, J.M.; Travaglini, M.A.

1982-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

139

Discharge cell for ozone generator  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A discharge cell for use in an ozone generator is provided which can suppress a time-related reduction in ozone concentration without adding a catalytic gas such as nitrogen gas to oxygen gas as a raw material gas. The discharge cell includes a pair of electrodes disposed in an opposed spaced relation with a discharge space therebetween, and a dielectric layer of a three-layer structure consisting of three ceramic dielectric layers successively stacked on at least one of the electrodes, wherein a first dielectric layer of the dielectric layer contacting the one electrode contains no titanium dioxide, wherein a second dielectric layer of the dielectric layer exposed to the discharge space contains titanium dioxide in a metal element ratio of not lower than 10 wt %.

Nakatsuka, Suguru (Amagasaki, JP)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

Continuation of full-scale three-dimensional numerical experiments on high-intensity particle and laser beam-matter interactions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present results from the grant entitled, ���¢��������Continuation of full-scale three-dimensional numerical experiments on high-intensity particle and laser beam-matter interactions.���¢������� The research significantly advanced the understanding of basic high-energy density science (HEDS) on ultra intense laser and particle beam plasma interactions. This advancement in understanding was then used to to aid in the quest to make 1 GeV to 500 GeV plasma based accelerator stages. The work blended basic research with three-dimensions fully nonlinear and fully kinetic simulations including full-scale modeling of ongoing or planned experiments. The primary tool was three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations. The simulations provided a test bed for theoretical ideas and models as well as a method to guide experiments. The research also included careful benchmarking of codes against experiment. High-fidelity full-scale modeling provided a means to extrapolate parameters into regimes that were not accessible to current or near term experiments, thereby allowing concepts to be tested with confidence before tens to hundreds of millions of dollars were spent building facilities. The research allowed the development of a hierarchy of PIC codes and diagnostics that is one of the most advanced in the world.

Mori, Warren, B.

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high-intensity discharge halogen" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Relativistic self-focusing of ultra-high intensity X-ray laser beams in warm quantum plasma with upward density profile  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The results of a numerical study of high-intensity X-ray laser beam interaction with warm quantum plasma (WQP) are presented. By means of an upward ramp density profile combined with quantum factors specially the Fermi velocity, we have demonstrated significant relativistic self-focusing (RSF) of a Gaussian electromagnetic beam in the WQP where the Fermi temperature term in the dielectric function is important. For this purpose, we have considered the quantum hydrodynamics model that modifies refractive index of inhomogeneous WQPs with the inclusion of quantum correction through the quantum statistical and diffraction effects in the relativistic regime. Also, to better illustration of the physical difference between warm and cold quantum plasmas and their effect on the RSF, we have derived the envelope equation governing the spot size of X-ray laser beam in Q-plasmas. In addition to the upward ramp density profile, we have found that the quantum effects would be caused much higher oscillation and better focusing of X-ray laser beam in the WQP compared to that of cold quantum case. Our computational results reveal the importance of the use of electrons density profile and Fermi speed in enhancing self-focusing of laser beam.

Habibi, M., E-mail: habibi.physics@gmail.com [Young Researchers and Elite Club, Shirvan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Shirvan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ghamari, F. [Young Researchers and Elite Club, Khorramabad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Khorramabad (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2014-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

142

Characterisation of a MeV Bremsstrahlung x-ray source produced from a high intensity laser for high areal density object radiography  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Results of an experiment to characterise a MeV Bremsstrahlung x-ray emission created by a short (<10 ps) pulse, high intensity (1.4 × 10{sup 19} W/cm{sup 2}) laser are presented. X-ray emission is characterized using several diagnostics; nuclear activation measurements, a calibrated hard x-ray spectrometer, and dosimeters. Results from the reconstructed x-ray energy spectra are consistent with numerical simulations using the PIC and Monte Carlo codes between 0.3 and 30 MeV. The intense Bremsstrahlung x-ray source is used to radiograph an image quality indicator (IQI) heavily filtered with thick tungsten absorbers. Observations suggest that internal features of the IQI can be resolved up to an external areal density of 85 g/cm{sup 2}. The x-ray source size, inferred by the radiography of a thick resolution grid, is estimated to be approximately 400 ?m (full width half maximum of the x-ray source Point Spread Function)

Courtois, C.; Compant La Fontaine, A.; Bazzoli, S.; Bourgade, J. L.; Gazave, J.; Lagrange, J. M.; Landoas, O.; Dain, L. Le; Pichoff, N. [CEA, DAM, DIF, F-91297 Arpajon (France)] [CEA, DAM, DIF, F-91297 Arpajon (France); Edwards, R.; Aedy, C. [AWE Plc., Aldermaston, Reading RG7 4PR (United Kingdom)] [AWE Plc., Aldermaston, Reading RG7 4PR (United Kingdom); Mastrosimone, D.; Pien, G.; Stoeckl, C. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14623 (United States)] [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14623 (United States)

2013-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

143

Sensitivity of Tropospheric Chemical Composition to Halogen-Radical Chemistry Using a Fully Coupled Size-Resolved Multiphase Chemistry-Global Climate System: Halogen Distributions, Aerosol Composition, and Sensitivity of Climate-Relevant Gases  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Observations and model studies suggest a significant but highly non-linear role for halogens, primarily Cl and Br, in multiphase atmospheric processes relevant to tropospheric chemistry and composition, aerosol evolution, radiative transfer, weather, and climate. The sensitivity of global atmospheric chemistry to the production of marine aerosol and the associated activation and cycling of inorganic Cl and Br was tested using a size-resolved multiphase coupled chemistry/global climate model (National Center for Atmospheric Research’s Community Atmosphere Model (CAM); v3.6.33). Simulation results showed strong meridional and vertical gradients in Cl and Br species. The simulation reproduced most available observations with reasonable confidence permitting the formulation of potential mechanisms for several previously unexplained halogen phenomena including the enrichment of Br- in submicron aerosol, and the presence of a BrO maximum in the polar free troposphere. However, simulated total volatile Br mixing ratios were generally high in the troposphere. Br in the stratosphere was lower than observed due to the lack of long-lived organobromine species in the simulation. Comparing simulations using chemical mechanisms with and without reactive Cl and Br species demonstrated a significant temporal and spatial sensitivity of primary atmospheric oxidants (O3, HOx, NOx), CH4, and non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC’s) to halogen cycling. Simulated O3 and NOx were globally lower (65% and 35%, respectively, less in the planetary boundary layer based on median values) in simulations that included halogens. Globally, little impact was seen in SO2 and non-sea-salt SO42- processing due to halogens. Significant regional differences were evident: The lifetime of nss-SO42- was extended downwind of large sources of SO2. The burden and lifetime of DMS (and its oxidation products) were lower by a factor of 5 in simulations that included halogens, versus those without, leading to a 20% reduction in nss-SO42- in the southern hemisphere planetary boundary layer based on median values.

Long, M.; Keene, W. C.; Easter, Richard C.; Sander, Rolf; Liu, Xiaohong; Kerkweg, A.; Erickson, D.

2014-04-07T23:59:59.000Z

144

Solid-State Halogen Atom Source for Chemical Dynamics and Etching. | EMSL  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administrationcontroller systemsBiSite CulturalDepartment2) 1/8Advanced MaterialsHalogen Atom Source

145

Deoxybenzoin-Based Polyarylates as Halogen-Free Fire-Resistant Kenneth A. Ellzey, T. Ranganathan, Joseph Zilberman, E. Bryan Coughlin,*  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, processing, and engineering of halogen-free, low heat release, fire-resistant materials present important with high carbon monoxide emis- sion.7,8 Ideal flame-retardant polymers would possess high thermal stabilityDeoxybenzoin-Based Polyarylates as Halogen-Free Fire-Resistant Polymers Kenneth A. Ellzey, T

146

Process for the solvent extraction for the radiolysis and dehalogenation of halogenated organic compounds in soils, sludges, sediments and slurries  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process of extracting halogenated organic compounds, and particularly PCBs, from soil, sediment, slurry, sludge and dehalogenating the compounds contacts a contaminated soil sample with an extraction medium of a mixture of an alkane and a water miscible alcohol. The organic compounds dissolve in the extraction medium which is separated from the soil by passing water upwardly through the soil. The extraction medium floats to the surface of the water and is separated. Thereafter, the extraction medium containing the halogenated organic contaminants is subjected to ionizing radiation to radiolytically dehalogenate the compounds.

Mincher, Bruce J.; Curry, Randy Dale; Clevenger, Thomas E.; Golden, Jeffry

2003-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

147

Process for the solvent extraction for the radiolysis and dehalogenation of halogenated organic compounds in soils, sludges, sediments and slurries  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process of extracting halogenated organic compounds, and particularly PCBs, from soil, sediment, slurry, sludge and dehalogenating the compounds contacts a contaminated soil sample with an extraction medium of a mixture of an alkane and a water miscible alcohol. The organic compounds dissolve in the extraction medium which is separated from the soil by passing water upwardly through the soil. The extraction medium floats to the surface of the water and is separated. Thereafter, the extraction medium containing the halogenated organic contaminants is subjected to ionizing radiation to radiolytically dehalogenate the compounds.

Golden, Jeffry

2007-02-13T23:59:59.000Z

148

Process for the solvent extraction for the radiolysis and dehalogenation of halogenated organic compounds in soils, sludges, sediments and slurries  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process of extracting halogenated organic compounds, and particularly PCBs, from soil, sediment, slurry, sludge and dehalogenating the compounds contacting a contaminated soil sample with an extraction medium of a mixture of an alkane and a water miscible alcohol. The organic compounds dissolve in the extraction medium which is separated from the soil by passing water upwardly through the soil. The extraction medium floats to the surface of the water and is separated. Thereafter, the extraction medium containing the halogenated organic contaminants is subjected to ionizing radiation to radiolytically dehalogenate the compounds.

Mincher, Bruce J. (3705 Creekside Dr., Idaho Falls, ID 83404); Curry, Randy Dale (1104 Merrill Ct., Columbia, MO 65203); Clevenger, Thomas E. (2512 Bluff Blvd., Columbia, MO 65201); Golden, Jeffry (12612 Cedarbrook La., Laurel, MD 20708)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

Journal of Engineering Mathematics Optimal discharging in a branched estuary Optimal discharging in a branched estuary  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

that returns to the discharge site is less polluted than would 1 #12;Journal of Engineering Mathematics OptimalJournal of Engineering Mathematics Optimal discharging in a branched estuary Optimal discharging the proximity of the discharge site to the branching and upon how the rate of discharge is adjusted. Explicit

150

Constricted glow discharge plasma source  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A constricted glow discharge chamber and method are disclosed. The polarity and geometry of the constricted glow discharge plasma source is set so that the contamination and energy of the ions discharged from the source are minimized. The several sources can be mounted in parallel and in series to provide a sustained ultra low source of ions in a plasma with contamination below practical detection limits. The source is suitable for applying films of nitrides such as gallium nitride and oxides such as tungsten oxide and for enriching other substances in material surfaces such as oxygen and water vapor, which are difficult process as plasma in any known devices and methods. The source can also be used to assist the deposition of films such as metal films by providing low-energy ions such as argon ions.

Anders, Andre (Albany, CA); Anders, Simone (Albany, CA); Dickinson, Michael (San Leandro, CA); Rubin, Michael (Berkeley, CA); Newman, Nathan (Winnetka, IL)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

151

Compact monolithic capacitive discharge unit  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A compact monolithic capacitive discharge unit (CDU) is disclosed in which a thyristor switch and a flyback charging circuit are both sandwiched about a ceramic energy storage capacitor. The result is a compact rugged assembly which provides a low-inductance current discharge path. The flyback charging circuit preferably includes a low-temperature co-fired ceramic transformer. The CDU can further include one or more ceramic substrates for enclosing the thyristor switch and for holding various passive components used in the flyback charging circuit. A load such as a detonator can also be attached directly to the CDU.

Roesler, Alexander W. (Tijeras, NM); Vernon, George E. (Rio Rancho, NM); Hoke, Darren A. (Albuquerque, NM); De Marquis, Virginia K. (Tijeras, NM); Harris, Steven M. (Albuquerque, NM)

2007-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

152

State Waste Discharge Permit application, 183-N Backwash Discharge Pond  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

As part of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order negotiations (Ecology et al. 1994), the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office, the US Environmental Protection Agency, and the Washington State Department of Ecology agreed that liquid effluent discharges to the ground on the Hanford Site which affect groundwater or have the potential to affect groundwater would be subject to permitting under the structure of Chapter 173--216 (or 173--218 where applicable) of the Washington Administrative Code, the State Waste Discharge Permit Program. As a result of this decision, the Washington State Department of Ecology and the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office entered into Consent Order No. DE91NM-177, (Ecology and DOE-RL 1991). The Consent Order No. DE91NM-177 requires a series of permitting activities for liquid effluent discharges. Liquid effluents on the Hanford Site have been classified as Phase I, Phase II, and Miscellaneous Streams. The Consent Order No. DE91NM-177 establishes milestones for State Waste Discharge Permit application submittals for all Phase I and Phase II streams, as well as the following 11 Miscellaneous Streams as identified in Table 4 of the Consent Order No. DE91NM-177.

Not Available

1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

153

Mechanism and computational model for Lyman-{alpha}-radiation generation by high-intensity-laser four-wave mixing in Kr-Ar gas  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present a theoretical model combined with a computational study of a laser four-wave mixing process under optical discharge in which the non-steady-state four-wave amplitude equations are integrated with the kinetic equations of initial optical discharge and electron avalanche ionization in Kr-Ar gas. The model is validated by earlier experimental data showing strong inhibition of the generation of pulsed, tunable Lyman-{alpha} (Ly-{alpha}) radiation when using sum-difference frequency mixing of 212.6 nm and tunable infrared radiation (820-850 nm). The rigorous computational approach to the problem reveals the possibility and mechanism of strong auto-oscillations in sum-difference resonant Ly-{alpha} generation due to the combined effect of (i) 212.6-nm (2+1)-photon ionization producing initial electrons, followed by (ii) the electron avalanche dominated by 843-nm radiation, and (iii) the final breakdown of the phase matching condition. The model shows that the final efficiency of Ly-{alpha} radiation generation can achieve a value of {approx}5x10{sup -4} which is restricted by the total combined absorption of the fundamental and generated radiation.

Louchev, Oleg A.; Saito, Norihito; Wada, Satoshi [Advanced Science Institute, RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama, 351-0198 (Japan); Bakule, Pavel [STFC, ISIS Facility, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Oxfordshire OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Yokoyama, Koji [Advanced Science Institute, RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama, 351-0198 (Japan); Advanced Meson Science Laboratory, RIKEN Nishina Center, RIKEN, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Ishida, Katsuhiko; Iwasaki, Masahiko [Advanced Meson Science Laboratory, RIKEN Nishina Center, RIKEN, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan)

2011-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

154

Introduction The Fiber-Lite MI-150 is a 150 Watt quartz halogen fiber optic illuminator designed for general microscopy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Introduction ® The Fiber-Lite MI-150 is a 150 Watt quartz halogen fiber optic illuminator designed for general microscopy use. When used with specialty fiber optic cables the MI-150 illuminator can also Illuminator from the carton and retain the manual and any additional documents. ! Remove the fiber optic cable

Kleinfeld, David

155

In situ thermally enhanced biodegradation of petroleum fuel hydrocarbons and halogenated organic solvents  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An in situ thermally enhanced microbial remediation strategy and a method for the biodegradation of toxic petroleum fuel hydrocarbon and halogenated organic solvent contaminants are described. The method utilizes nonpathogenic, thermophilic bacteria for the thermal biodegradation of toxic and carcinogenic contaminants, such as benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes, from fuel leaks and the chlorinated ethenes, such as trichloroethylene, chlorinated ethanes, such as 1,1,1-trichloroethane, and chlorinated methanes, such as chloroform, from past solvent cleaning practices. The method relies on and takes advantage of the pre-existing heated conditions and the array of delivery/recovery wells that are created and in place following primary subsurface contaminant volatilization efforts via thermal approaches, such as dynamic underground steam-electrical heating. 21 figs.

Taylor, R.T.; Jackson, K.J.; Duba, A.G.; Chen, C.I.

1998-05-19T23:59:59.000Z

156

In situ thermally enhanced biodegradation of petroleum fuel hydrocarbons and halogenated organic solvents  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An in situ thermally enhanced microbial remediation strategy and a method for the biodegradation of toxic petroleum fuel hydrocarbon and halogenated organic solvent contaminants. The method utilizes nonpathogenic, thermophilic bacteria for the thermal biodegradation of toxic and carcinogenic contaminants, such as benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes, from fuel leaks and the chlorinated ethenes, such as trichloroethylene, chlorinated ethanes, such as 1,1,1-trichloroethane, and chlorinated methanes, such as chloroform, from past solvent cleaning practices. The method relies on and takes advantage of the pre-existing heated conditions and the array of delivery/recovery wells that are created and in place following primary subsurface contaminant volatilization efforts via thermal approaches, such as dynamic underground steam-electrical heating.

Taylor, Robert T. (Livermore, CA); Jackson, Kenneth J. (San Leandro, CA); Duba, Alfred G. (Livermore, CA); Chen, Ching-I (Danville, CA)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

157

FIELD SCREENING FOR HALOGENATED VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS: THE NEW X-WAND HVOC SCREENING DEVICE  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Western Research Institute (WRI) has developed new methodology and a test kit to screen soil or water samples for halogenated volatile organic compounds (HVOCs) in the field. The technology has been designated the X-Wand{trademark} screening tool. The new device uses a heated diode sensor that is commonly used to detect leaks of refrigerants from air conditioners, freezers, and refrigerators. This sensor is selective to halogens. It does not respond to volatile aromatic hydrocarbons, such as those in gasoline, and it is not affected by high humidity. In the current work, the heated diode leak detectors were modified further to provide units with rapid response and enhanced sensitivity. The limit of detection for trichloroethylene TCE in air is 0.1 mg/m{sup 3} (S/N = 2). The response to other HVOCS relative to TCE is similar. Variability between sensors and changes in a particular sensor over time can be compensated for by normalizing sensor readings to a maximum sensor reading at 1,000 mg/m{sup 3} TCE. The soil TCE screening method was expanded to include application to water samples. Assuming complete vaporization, the detection limit for TCE in soil is about 1 ug/kg (ppb) for a 25-g sample in an 8-oz jar. The detection limit for TCE in water is about 1 ug/L (ppb) for a 25-mL sample in an 8-oz jar. This is comparable to quantitation limits of EPA GC/MS laboratory methods. A draft ASTM method for screening TCE contaminated soils using a heated diode sensor was successfully submitted for concurrent main committee and subcommittee balloting in ASTM Committee D 34 on Waste Management. The method was approved as ASTM D 7203-05, Standard Test Method for Screening Trichloroethylene (TCE)-Contaminated Soil Using a Heated Diode Sensor.

John F. Schabron; Susan S. Sorini; Joseph F. Rovani Jr

2006-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

Experimental Diagnostics and Modeling of Microplasma Discharges  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

;Challenge · Difficult to perform conventional diagnostics in micro-plasma discharges because of their small size. Optical diagnostics are most convenient. #12;Plasma Processing Laboratory Experimental SetupExperimental Diagnostics and Modeling of Microplasma Discharges Department of Chemical

Economou, Demetre J.

159

Oklahoma Pollutant Discharge Elimination System Act (Oklahoma)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Department of Environmental Quality regulates facilities that discharge any pollutant into waters of the state. Permits must be acquired before the discharge of any pollutants into state waters...

160

State Surface Water Discharge Permits (New Hampshire)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Rules apply to the discharge of all pollutants from a point source to surface waters of the state. The rule does not apply to facilities that require both a state discharge permit and a federal...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high-intensity discharge halogen" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

2, 22872325, 2005 discharge+sediment  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

HESSD 2, 2287­2325, 2005 Water discharge+sediment flux changes in Lower Mekon River X. X. Lu and R Sciences Water discharge and sediment flux changes in the Lower Mekong River X. X. Lu and R. Y. Siew­2325, 2005 Water discharge+sediment flux changes in Lower Mekon River X. X. Lu and R. Y. Siew Title Page

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

162

State waste discharge permit application for cooling water and condensate discharges  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The following presents the Categorical State Waste Discharge Permit (SWDP) Application for the Cooling Water and Condensate Discharges on the Hanford Site. This application is intended to cover existing cooling water and condensate discharges as well as similar future discharges meeting the criteria set forth in this document.

Haggard, R.D.

1996-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

163

Narrow gap electronegative capacitive discharges  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Narrow gap electronegative (EN) capacitive discharges are widely used in industry and have unique features not found in conventional discharges. In this paper, plasma parameters are determined over a range of decreasing gap length L from values for which an electropositive (EP) edge exists (2-region case) to smaller L-values for which the EN region connects directly to the sheath (1-region case). Parametric studies are performed at applied voltage V{sub rf}=500 V for pressures of 10, 25, 50, and 100 mTorr, and additionally at 50 mTorr for 1000 and 2000 V. Numerical results are given for a parallel plate oxygen discharge using a planar 1D3v (1 spatial dimension, 3 velocity components) particle-in-cell (PIC) code. New interesting phenomena are found for the case in which an EP edge does not exist. This 1-region case has not previously been investigated in detail, either numerically or analytically. In particular, attachment in the sheaths is important, and the central electron density n{sub e0} is depressed below the density n{sub esh} at the sheath edge. The sheath oscillations also extend into the EN core, creating an edge region lying within the sheath and not characterized by the standard diffusion in an EN plasma. An analytical model is developed using minimal inputs from the PIC results, and compared to the PIC results for a base case at V{sub rf}=500 V and 50 mTorr, showing good agreement. Selected comparisons are made at the other voltages and pressures. A self-consistent model is also developed and compared to the PIC results, giving reasonable agreement.

Kawamura, E.; Lieberman, M. A.; Lichtenberg, A. J. [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)] [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

2013-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

164

Non-storm water discharges technical report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) submitted a Notice of Intent to the California State Water Resources Control Board (hereafter State Board) to discharge storm water associated with industrial activities under the California General Industrial Activity Storm Water National Pollutant Elimination System Discharge Permit (hereafter General Permit). As required by the General Permit, LLNL provided initial notification of non-storm water discharges to the Central Valley Regional Water Quality Control Board (hereafter Regional Board) on October 2, 1992. Additional findings and progress towards corrective actions were reported in subsequent annual monitoring reports. LLNL was granted until March 27, 1995, three years from the Notice of Intent submission date, to eliminate or permit the non-storm water discharges. On May 20, 1994, the Regional Board issued Waste Discharge Requirements (WDR Board Order No. 94-131, NPDES No. CA0081396) to LLNL for discharges of non-contact cooling tower wastewater and storm water related to industrial activities. As a result of the issuance of WDR 94-131, LLNL rescinded its coverage under the General Permit. WDR 94-131 allowed continued non-storm water discharges and requested a technical report describing the discharges LLNL seeks to permit. For the described discharges, LLNL anticipates the Regional Board will either waive Waste Discharge Requirements as allowed for in The Water Quality Control Plan for the California Regional Water Quality Control Board, Central Valley Region (hereafter Basin Plan) or amend Board Order 94-131 as appropriate.

Mathews, S.

1994-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

165

Site Discharge Pollution Prevention Plan (SDPPP)  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

SDPPP Individual Permit: Site Discharge Pollution Prevention Plan (SDPPP) The 2012 SDPPP update fully incorporates all changes made during the year and reflects changes projected...

166

EPA - National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System General...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

General Permit for Discharges from Construction Activities Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library PermittingRegulatory Guidance - GuideHandbook: EPA -...

167

Device for generation of pulsed corona discharge  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The invention is a method and system for the generation of high voltage, pulsed, periodic corona discharges capable of being used in the presence of conductive liquid droplets. The method and system can be used, for example, in different devices for cleaning of gaseous or liquid media using pulsed corona discharge. Specially designed electrodes and an inductor increase the efficiency of the system, permit the plasma chemical oxidation of detrimental impurities, and increase the range of stable discharge operations in the presence of droplets of water or other conductive liquids in the discharge chamber.

Gutsol, Alexander F. (San Ramon, CA); Fridman, Alexander (Marlton, NJ); Blank, Kenneth (Philadelphia, PA); Korobtsev, Sergey (Moscow, RU); Shiryaevsky, Valery (Moscow, RU); Medvedev, Dmitry (Moscow, RU)

2012-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

168

Oil and Hazardous Substance Discharge Preparedness (Minnesota)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Anyone who owns or operates a vessel or facility that transports, stores, or otherwise handles hazardous wastes must take reasonable steps to prevent the discharge of those materials.

169

ElectricOIL discharge and post-discharge kinetics experiments and modeling  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

oxygen, ozone, and other excited species adds levels of complexity to the singlet oxygen generator (SOG has been obtained by a near resonant energy transfer from O2(a1 ) produced using a low­pressure oxygen/helium/nitric-oxide discharge. In the electric discharge oxygen-iodine laser (ElectricOIL) the discharge production of atomic

Carroll, David L.

170

Plasma discharge self-cleaning filtration system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention is directed to a novel method for cleaning a filter surface using a plasma discharge self-cleaning filtration system. The method involves utilizing plasma discharges to induce short electric pulses of nanoseconds duration at high voltages. These electrical pulses generate strong Shockwaves that disintegrate and dislodge particulate matter located on the surface of the filter.

Cho, Young I.; Fridman, Alexander; Gutsol, Alexander F.; Yang, Yong

2014-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

171

Kinetic Effects In Hall Thruster Discharge  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of a capacitive discharge. 4 capacitive discharge. For more info: V. Godyak, IEEE TPS 34, 755 (2006). #12 th twall interactions in Hall thrusters Large electron temperature andE JH~1cm secondary electron emission result in large particle and wall losses to the wall E , Jz z Br H~1cm 120 eV High SEE BN channel

Kaganovich, Igor

172

Atmospheric sampling glow discharge ionization source  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An atmospheric sampling glow discharge ionization source that can be used in combination with an analytical instrument which operates at high vacuum, such as a mass spectrometer. The atmospheric sampling glow discharge ionization source comprises a chamber with at least one pair of electrodes disposed therein, an inlet for a gaseous sample to be analyzed and an outlet communicating with an analyzer which operates at subatmospheric pressure. The ionization chamber is maintained at a pressure below atmospheric pressure, and a voltage difference is applied across the electrodes to induce a glow discharge between the electrodes, so that molecules passing through the inlet are ionized by the glow discharge and directed into the analyzer. The ionization source accepts the sample under atmospheric pressure conditions and processes it directly into the high vacuum instrument, bridging the pressure gap and drawing off unwanted atmospheric gases. The invention also includes a method for analyzing a gaseous sample using the glow discharge ionization source described above. 3 figs.

McLuckey, S.A.; Glish, G.L.

1989-07-18T23:59:59.000Z

173

Oxygen Discharge and Post-Discharge Kinetics Experiments and Modeling for the Electric Oxygen-Iodine Laser System  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Oxygen Discharge and Post-Discharge Kinetics Experiments and Modeling for the Electric Oxygen a low-pressure oxygen/helium/nitric oxide discharge. In the electric discharge oxygen-iodine laser (ElectricOIL) the discharge production of atomic oxygen, ozone, and other excited species adds levels

Carroll, David L.

174

Discharge lamp with reflective jacket  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A discharge lamp includes an envelope, a fill which emits light when excited disposed in the envelope, a source of excitation power coupled to the fill to excite the fill and cause the fill to emit light, and a reflector disposed around the envelope and defining an opening, the reflector being configured to reflect some of the light emitted by the fill back into the fill while allowing some light to exit through the opening. The reflector may be made from a material having a similar thermal index of expansion as compared to the envelope and which is closely spaced to the envelope. The envelope material may be quartz and the reflector material may be either silica or alumina. The reflector may be formed as a jacket having a rigid structure which does not adhere to the envelope. The lamp may further include an optical clement spaced from the envelope and configured to reflect an unwanted component of light which exited the envelope back into the envelope through the opening in the reflector. Light which can be beneficially recaptured includes selected wavelength regions, a selected polarization, and selected angular components.

MacLennan, Donald A. (Gaithersburg, MD); Turner, Brian P. (Damascus, MD); Kipling, Kent (Gaithersburg, MD)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

175

Fluid jet electric discharge source  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A fluid jet or filament source and a pair of coaxial high voltage electrodes, in combination, comprise an electrical discharge system to produce radiation and, in particular, EUV radiation. The fluid jet source is composed of at least two serially connected reservoirs, a first reservoir into which a fluid, that can be either a liquid or a gas, can be fed at some pressure higher than atmospheric and a second reservoir maintained at a lower pressure than the first. The fluid is allowed to expand through an aperture into a high vacuum region between a pair of coaxial electrodes. This second expansion produces a narrow well-directed fluid jet whose size is dependent on the size and configuration of the apertures and the pressure used in the reservoir. At some time during the flow of the fluid filament, a high voltage pulse is applied to the electrodes to excite the fluid to form a plasma which provides the desired radiation; the wavelength of the radiation being determined by the composition of the fluid.

Bender, Howard A. (Ripon, CA)

2006-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

176

Separation of toxic metal ions, hydrophilic hydrocarbons, hydrophobic fuel and halogenated hydrocarbons and recovery of ethanol from a process stream  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

This invention provides a process to tremendously reduce the bulk volume of contaminants obtained from an effluent stream produced subsurface remediation. The chemicals used for the subsurface remediation are reclaimed for recycling to the remediation process. Additional reductions in contaminant bulk volume are achieved by the ultra-violet light destruction of halogenated hydrocarbons, and the complete oxidation of hydrophobic fuel hydrocarbons and hydrophilic hydrocarbons. The contaminated bulk volume will arise primarily from the disposal of the toxic metal ions. The entire process is modular, so if there are any technological breakthroughs in one or more of the component process modules, such modules can be readily replaced.

Kansa, Edward J. (Livermore, CA); Anderson, Brian L. (Lodi, CA); Wijesinghe, Ananda M. (Tracy, CA); Viani, Brian E. (Oakland, CA)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

177

Separation of toxic metal ions, hydrophilic hydrocarbons, hydrophobic fuel and halogenated hydrocarbons and recovery of ethanol from a process stream  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

This invention provides a process to tremendously reduce the bulk volume of contaminants obtained from an effluent stream produced subsurface remediation. The chemicals used for the subsurface remediation are reclaimed for recycling to the remediation process. Additional reductions in contaminant bulk volume are achieved by the ultra-violet light destruction of halogenated hydrocarbons, and the complete oxidation of hydrophobic fuel hydrocarbons and hydrophilic hydrocarbons. The contaminated bulk volume will arise primarily from the disposal of the toxic metal ions. The entire process is modular, so if there are any technological breakthroughs in one or more of the component process modules, such modules can be readily replaced. 3 figs.

Kansa, E.J.; Anderson, B.L.; Wijesinghe, A.M.; Viani, B.E.

1999-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

178

Glow discharge plasma deposition of thin films  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A glow discharge plasma reactor for deposition of thin films from a reactive RF glow discharge is provided with a screen positioned between the walls of the chamber and the cathode to confine the glow discharge region to within the region defined by the screen and the cathode. A substrate for receiving deposition material from a reactive gas is positioned outside the screened region. The screen is electrically connected to the system ground to thereby serve as the anode of the system. The energy of the reactive gas species is reduced as they diffuse through the screen to the substrate. Reactive gas is conducted directly into the glow discharge region through a centrally positioned distribution head to reduce contamination effects otherwise caused by secondary reaction products and impurities deposited on the reactor walls.

Weakliem, Herbert A. (Pennington, NJ); Vossen, Jr., John L. (Bridgewater, NJ)

1984-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

179

Discharge dynamics of pin-to-plate dielectric barrier discharge at atmospheric pressure  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The discharge dynamics of pin-to-plate dielectric barrier discharge was studied in atmospheric helium at 20 kHz. The discharge was predominately ignited in positive half cycle of applied voltage with sinusoidal waveform. The temporal evolution of the discharge was investigated vertically along the discharge gap and radically on the dielectric surface by time resolved imaging. It is found that a discharge column with a diameter of 2 mm was ignited above the pin electrode and expanded toward a plate electrode. On the dielectric surface with space charge accumulation, plasma disk in terms of plasma ring was formed with radius up to 25 mm. The expansion velocity of plasma ring can reach a hypersonic speed of 3.0 km/s. The ionization wave due to electron diffusion is considered to be the mechanism for plasma ring formation and dynamics.

Sun Liqun [College of Science, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); Huang, Xiaojiang [College of Science, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); Member of Magnetic Confinement Fusion Research Center, Ministry of Education of the People's Republic of China, Shanghai 201620 (China); Zhang Jie [College of Science, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); State Key Laboratory for Modification of Chemical Fibers and Polymer Materials, College of Material Science and Engineering, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); Zhang Jing; Shi, J. J. [College of Science, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); State Key Laboratory for Modification of Chemical Fibers and Polymer Materials, College of Material Science and Engineering, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); Member of Magnetic Confinement Fusion Research Center, Ministry of Education of the People's Republic of China, Shanghai 201620 (China)

2010-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

180

Impedance response to induced epileptiform discharges  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Subject: Bioengineering IMPEDANCE RESPONSE TO INDUCED EPILEPTIFORM DISCHARGES A Thesis by TERRY LYNN GERBER Approved as to style and content by erald E. Miller ( irman of Committee) William A. H an (Member) / , I / vW C' (gp frt 't- Thomas... W. Adair (Member) Newton C. Ellis (Head of Department) May 1984 ABSTRACT Impedance Response to Induced Epileptiform Discharges. (May 1984) Terry Lynn Gerber, B. S. , Texas A&M University Chairman of Advisory Committee: Dr. Gerald E. Miller...

Gerber, Terry Lynn

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high-intensity discharge halogen" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
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to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Magnetic dipole discharges. II. Cathode and anode spot discharges and probe diagnostics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The high current regime of a magnetron-type discharge has been investigated. The discharge uses a permanent magnet as a cold cathode which emits secondary electrons while the chamber wall or a grounded electrode serves as the anode. As the discharge voltage is increased, the magnet develops cathode spots, which are short duration arcs that provide copious electrons to increase the discharge current dramatically. Short (1 ?s), high current (200 A) and high voltage (750 V) discharge pulses are produced in a relaxation instability between the plasma and a charging capacitor. Spots are also observed on a negatively biased plane Langmuir probe. The probe current pulses are as large as those on the magnet, implying that the high discharge current does not depend on the cathode surface area but on the properties of the spots. The fast current pulses produce large inductive voltages, which can reverse the electrical polarity of the magnet and temporarily operate it as an anode. The discharge current may also oscillate at the frequency determined by the charging capacitor and the discharge circuit inductance. Each half cycle of high-current current pulses exhibits a fast (?10 ns) current rise when a spot is formed. It induces high frequency (10–100 MHz) transients and ringing oscillations in probes and current circuits. Most probes behave like unmatched antennas for the electromagnetic pulses of spot discharges. Examples are shown to distinguish the source of oscillations and some rf characteristics of Langmuir probes.

Stenzel, R. L.; Urrutia, J. M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095-1547 (United States)] [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095-1547 (United States); Ionita, C.; Schrittwieser, R. [Institute for Ion Physics and Applied Physics, University of Innsbruck, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria)] [Institute for Ion Physics and Applied Physics, University of Innsbruck, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria)

2013-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

182

High-intensity beam collimation and targetry  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Principles, design criteria and realization of reliable collimation systems for the high-power accelerators and hadron colliders are described. Functionality of collimators as the key elements of the machine protection system are discussed along with the substantial progress on the crystal collimation front. The key issues are considered in design of high-power target systems and achieving their best performance. Simulation code requirements are presented.

Mokhov, N.V.; /Fermilab

2006-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

183

Aspects of a high intensity neutron source  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A unique methodology for creating a neutron source model was developed for deuterons and protons incident on solid phase beryllium and lithium targets. This model was then validated against experimental results already ...

Chapman, Peter H. (Peter Henry)

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

INVESTIGATION OF THE TOTAL ORGANIC HALOGEN ANALYTICAL METHOD AT THE WASTE SAMPLING CHARACTERIZATION FACILITY (WSCF)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Total organic halogen (TOX) is used as a parameter to screen groundwater samples at the Hanford Site. Trending is done for each groundwater well, and changes in TOX and other screening parameters can lead to costly changes in the monitoring protocol. The Waste Sampling and Characterization Facility (WSCF) analyzes groundwater samples for TOX using the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) SW-846 method 9020B (EPA 1996a). Samples from the Soil and Groundwater Remediation Project (S&GRP) are submitted to the WSCF for analysis without information regarding the source of the sample; each sample is in essence a 'blind' sample to the laboratory. Feedback from the S&GRP indicated that some of the WSCF-generated TOX data from groundwater wells had a number of outlier values based on the historical trends (Anastos 2008a). Additionally, analysts at WSCF observed inconsistent TOX results among field sample replicates. Therefore, the WSCF lab performed an investigation of the TOX analysis to determine the cause of the outlier data points. Two causes were found that contributed to generating out-of-trend TOX data: (1) The presence of inorganic chloride in the groundwater samples: at inorganic chloride concentrations greater than about 10 parts per million (ppm), apparent TOX values increase with increasing chloride concentration. A parallel observation is the increase in apparent breakthrough of TOX from the first to the second activated-carbon adsorption tubes with increasing inorganic chloride concentration. (2) During the sample preparation step, excessive purging of the adsorption tubes with oxygen pressurization gas after sample loading may cause channeling in the activated-carbon bed. This channeling leads to poor removal of inorganic chloride during the subsequent wash step with aqueous potassium nitrate. The presence of this residual inorganic chloride then produces erroneously high TOX values. Changes in sample preparation were studied to more effectively remove inorganic chloride from the activated carbon adsorption tubes. With the TOX sample preparation equipment and TOX analyzers at WSCF, the nitrate wash recommended by EPA SW-846 method 9020B was found to be inadequate to remove inorganic chloride interference. Increasing the nitrate wash concentration from 10 grams per liter (g/L) to 100 g/L potassium nitrate and increasing the nitrate wash volume from 3 milliliters (mL) to 10 mL effectively removed the inorganic chloride up to at least 100 ppm chloride in the sample matrix. Excessive purging of the adsorption tubes during sample preparation was eliminated. These changes in sample preparation have been incorporated in the analytical procedure. The results using the revised sample preparation procedure show better agreement of TOX values both for replicate analyses of single samples and for the analysis of replicate samples acquired from the same groundwater well. Furthermore, less apparent column breakthrough now occurs with the revised procedure. One additional modification made to sample preparation was to discontinue the treatment of groundwater samples with sodium bisulfite. Sodium bisulfite is used to remove inorganic chlorine from the sample; inorganic chlorine is not expected to be a constituent in these groundwater samples. Several other factors were also investigated as possible sources of anomalous TOX results: (1) Instrument instability: examination of the history of results for TOX laboratory control samples and initial calibration verification standards indicate good long-term precision for the method and instrument. Determination of a method detection limit of 2.3 ppb in a deionized water matrix indicates the method and instrumentation have good stability and repeatability. (2) Non-linear instrument response: the instrument is shown to have good linear response from zero to 200 parts per billion (ppb) TOX. This concentration range encompasses the majority of samples received at WSCF for TOX analysis. (3) Improper sample preservation: ion-chromatographic analysis of several samples wit

DOUGLAS JG; MEZNARICH HD, PHD; OLSEN JR; ROSS GA; STAUFFER M

2008-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

185

INVESTIGATION OF THE TOTAL ORGANIC HALOGEN ANALYTICAL METHOD AT THE WASTE SAMPLING AND CHARACTERIZATION FACILITY  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Total organic halogen (TOX) is used as a parameter to screen groundwater samples at the Hanford Site. Trending is done for each groundwater well, and changes in TOX and other screening parameters can lead to costly changes in the monitoring protocol. The Waste Sampling and Characterization Facility (WSCF) analyzes groundwater samples for TOX using the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) SW-S46 method 9020B (EPA 1996a). Samples from the Soil and Groundwater Remediation Project (SGRP) are submitted to the WSCF for analysis without information regarding the source of the sample; each sample is in essence a ''blind'' sample to the laboratory. Feedback from the SGRP indicated that some of the WSCF-generated TOX data from groundwater wells had a number of outlier values based on the historical trends (Anastos 200Sa). Additionally, analysts at WSCF observed inconsistent TOX results among field sample replicates. Therefore, the WSCF lab performed an investigation of the TOX analysis to determine the cause of the outlier data points. Two causes were found that contributed to generating out-of-trend TOX data: (1) The presence of inorganic chloride in the groundwater samples: at inorganic chloride concentrations greater than about 10 parts per million (ppm), apparent TOX values increase with increasing chloride concentration. A parallel observation is the increase in apparent breakthrough of TOX from the first to the second activated-carbon adsorption tubes with increasing inorganic chloride concentration. (2) During the sample preparation step, excessive purging of the adsorption tubes with oxygen pressurization gas after sample loading may cause channeling in the activated carbon bed. This channeling leads to poor removal of inorganic chloride during the subsequent wash step with aqueous potassium nitrate. The presence of this residual inorganic chloride then produces erroneously high TOX values. Changes in sample preparation were studied to more effectively remove inorganic chloride from the activated-carbon adsorption tubes. With the TOX sample preparation equipment and TOX analyzers at WSCF, the nitrate wash recommended by EPA SW-846 method 9020B was found to be inadequate to remove inorganic chloride interference. Increasing the nitrate wash concentration from 10 grams per liter (g/L) to 100 giL potassium nitrate and increasing the nitrate wash volume from 3 milliliters (mL) to 10 mL effectively removed the inorganic chloride up to at least 100 ppm chloride in the sample matrix. Excessive purging of the adsorption tubes during sample preparation was eliminated. These changes in sample preparation have been incorporated in the analytical procedure. The results using the revised sample preparation procedure show better agreement of TOX values both for replicate analyses of single samples and for the analysis of replicate samples acquired from the same groundwater well. Furthermore, less apparent adsorption tube breakthrough now occurs with the revised procedure. One additional modification made to sample preparation was to discontinue the treatment of groundwater samples with sodium bisulfite. Sodium bisulfite is used to remove inorganic chlorine from the sample; inorganic chlorine is not expected to be a constituent in these groundwater samples. Several other factors were also investigated as possible sources of anomalous TOX results: (1) Instrument instability: examination of the history of results for TOX laboratory control samples and initial calibration verification standards indicate good long-term precision for the method and instrument. Determination of a method detection limit of 2.3 ppb in a deionized water matrix indicates the method and instrumentation have good stability and repeatability. (2) Non-linear instrument response: the instrument is shown to have good linear response from zero to 200 parts per billion (ppb) TOX. This concentration range encompasses the majority of samples received at WSCF for TOX analysis. Linear response was checked using both non-volatile TOX species (trichlorophenol) an

JG DOUGLAS; HK MEZNARICH, PHD; JR OLSEN; GA ROSS PHD; M STAUFFER

2009-02-13T23:59:59.000Z

186

Impacts of halogen additions on mercury oxidation, in a slipstream selective catalyst reduction (SCR), reactor when burning sub-bituminous coal  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper presents a comparison of impacts of halogen species on the elemental mercury (Hg(0)) oxidation in a real coal-derived flue gas atmosphere. It is reported there is a higher percentage of Hg(0) in the flue gas when burning sub-bituminous coal (herein Powder River Basin (PRB) coal) and lignite, even with the use of selective catalytic reduction (SCR). The higher Hg(0) concentration in the flue gas makes it difficult to use the wet-FGD process for the mercury emission control in coal-fired utility boilers. Investigation of enhanced Hg(0) oxidation by addition of hydrogen halogens (HF, HCl, HBr, and HI) was conducted in a slipstream reactor with and without SCR catalysts when burning PRB coal. Two commercial SCR catalysts were evaluated. SCR catalyst no. 1 showed higher efficiencies of both NO reduction and Hg(0) oxidation than those of SCR catalyst no. 2. NH{sub 3} addition seemed to inhibit the Hg(0) oxidation, which indicated competitive processes between NH{sub 3} reduction and Hg(0) oxidation on the surface of SCR catalysts. The hydrogen halogens, in the order of impact on Hg(0) oxidation, were HBr, HI, and HCl or HF. Addition of HBr at approximately 3 ppm could achieve 80% Hg(0) oxidation. Addition of HI at approximately 5 ppm could achieve 40% Hg(0) oxidation. In comparison to the empty reactor, 40% Hg(0) oxidation could be achieved when HCl addition was up to 300 ppm. The enhanced Hg(0) oxidation by addition of HBr and HI seemed not to be correlated to the catalytic effects by both evaluated SCR catalysts. The effectiveness of conversion of hydrogen halogens to halogen molecules or interhalogens seemed to be attributed to their impacts on Hg(0) oxidation. 30 refs., 4 figs.

Yan Cao; Zhengyang Gao; Jiashun Zhu; Quanhai Wang; Yaji Huang; Chengchung Chiu; Bruce Parker; Paul Chu; Wei-ping Pan [Western Kentucky University (WKU), Bowling Green, KY (United States). Institute for Combustion Science and Environmental Technology (ICSET)

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

The effect of spin-orbit splitting on the association kinetics of barrierless halogen atom-hydrocarbon radical reactions.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The effect of the geometry dependence of spin-orbit splitting on transition state theory (TST) predictions for radical-radical recombination rate coefficients is examined. The effects are illustrated with direct ab initio variable-reaction-coordinate (VRC)-TST calculations for the reactions of two types of hydrocarbon radicals (R = CH{sub 3} and CH{sub 2}CHCH{sub 2}) with three halogen atoms (X = F, Cl, and Br). These halogen atoms exhibit a range of spin-orbit interaction strengths, while their interactions with the two hydrocarbon radicals exhibit a range of attractiveness. The transition state dividing surfaces for these barrierless reactions occur over a range of R-X fragment separations ({approx}3-7 {angstrom}) where the magnitude of the spin-orbit splitting is strongly geometry dependent. Perturbative models for incorporating the energetic effect of spin-orbit splitting into barrierless kinetics are presented and tested. Simply neglecting the variation in the spin-orbit splitting is demonstrated to contribute an error of less than 15% to the predicted rate coefficients for all but the CH{sub 2}CHCH{sub 2} + Br reaction, where its neglect increases the rate by up to a factor of 2. For the CH{sub 2}CHCH{sub 2} + Br reaction, the effect of spin-orbit splitting is not perturbative and instead qualitatively changes the long-range interaction potential and association dynamics. The present theoretical predictions are compared with available experimental measurements and previous theoretical work. For the CH{sub 3} + F association reaction, the errors associated with limitations in the basis set and in the active space are studied, and a detailed comparison is made between VRC-TST and rigid rotor-harmonic oscillator variational TST.

Jasper, A. W.; Klippenstein, S. J.; Harding, L. B. (Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division); (SNL)

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

Residual dust charges in discharge afterglow  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An on-ground measurement of dust-particle residual charges in the afterglow of a dusty plasma was performed in a rf discharge. An upward thermophoretic force was used to balance the gravitational force. It was found that positively charged, negatively charged, and neutral dust particles coexisted for more than 1 min after the discharge was switched off. The mean residual charge for 200-nm-radius particles was measured. The dust particle mean charge is about -5e at a pressure of 1.2 mbar and about -3e at a pressure of 0.4 mbar.

Coueedel, L.; Mikikian, M.; Boufendi, L.; Samarian, A. A. [GREMI - Groupe de Recherches sur l'Energetique des Milieux Ionises, CNRS/Universite d'Orleans, 14 rue d'Issoudun, 45067 Orleans Cedex 2 (France); School of Physics A28, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia)

2006-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

189

Ternary gas mixture for diffuse discharge switch  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A new diffuse discharge gas switch wherein a mixture of gases is used to take advantage of desirable properties of the respective gases. There is a conducting gas, an insulating gas, and a third gas that has low ionization energy resulting in a net increase in the number of electrons available to produce a current.

Christophorou, Loucas G. (Oak Ridge, TN); Hunter, Scott R. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

190

Electrostatic precipitator having high strength discharge electrode  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

There is disclosed an electrostatic precipitator with a discharge electrode having dimensional and configuration characteristics which provide high field strength and high current density particularly in a wet electrostatic precipitator. The round cylindrical collector tube of length (L) and with an inner diameter (D) has a coaxially positioned discharge electrode having an electrode supporting mast of a diameter from 0.25 to 40 D with an electrically conducting closed screw fli secured to the mast. The screw flight has an overall diameter (D) of from 0.33 to 0.67 D with a pitch of from d-d/2 to d-d and an overall length of from one screw revolution to l-(D-d), preferably one-half L or less and most preferably one to two revolutions. The short screw flight is economical and readily adjusted. The screw flight has a thickness of from about 0.05 to 15 inch and has a symmetrically curved outer edge. Collector tube is flared at its lower end to direct water away from the electrode mast as the water is discharged from the tube. The discharge electrode is supported from above and centered by means of adjustable tie rods at its lower end.

Bakke, E.; Willett, H.P.

1983-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

191

The electrodeless discharge at atmospheric pressure  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Recently the generation and applications of atmospheric pressure plasmas received increased interest in the plasma research community. Applications such as the surface modification of materials, and the decontamination of matter have been under investigation. In this context, the authors introduce a new means of generating an atmospheric pressure discharge, which is suitable for use in the above-mentioned applications, and in the treatment of undesirable or polluting gases, such as VOC's. This device is a capacitively coupled discharge. It is basically made of a non-conducting tube with two independent loops of wire wrapped around it, and separated by a distance d. A stable discharge is generated inside the tube when an AC voltage of few hundred volts to few kilovolts, at a frequency of few kilohertz, is applied between the loops. One end of the tube is completely open to the outside air, and a seed gas (generally a noble gas such as Helium) is introduced in the tube. The plasma generated with this method is weakly ionized, cold, and is maintained by a relatively low input power (few tens of watts, depending on the size of the tube). In this paper, the discharge electrical characteristics, its radiation emission characteristics, and the measurement of relevant plasma parameters will be presented.

Laroussi, M.

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

192

Experimental investigation of electron multipactor discharges at very high frequency  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Multipactor discharges are a resonant condition in which electrons impact a surface in phase with an alternating electric field. The discharge is sustained by electron multiplication from secondary emission. As motivation, ...

Graves, Timothy P. (Timothy Paul)

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

193

Montana Facilities Which Do Not Discharge Process Wastewater...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Which Do Not Discharge Process Wastewater (MDEQ Form 2E) Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Form: Montana Facilities Which Do Not Discharge Process...

194

Residual dust charges in discharge afterglow L. Couedel,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

was performed in a rf discharge. An upward thermophoretic force was used to balance the gravitational force

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

195

Discovery, SAR, and Radiolabeling of Halogenated Benzimidazole Carboxamide Antagonists as Useful Tools for (alpha)4(beta)1 Integrin Expressed on T- and B-cell Lymphomas  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The cell surface receptor {alpha}{sub 4}{beta}{sub 1} integrin is an attractive yet poorly understood target for selective diagnosis and treatment of T- and B-cell lymphomas. This report focuses on the rapid microwave preparation of medicinally pertinent benzimidazole heterocycles, structure-activity relationships (SAR) of novel halobenzimidazole carboxamide antagonists 3-6, and preliminary biological evaluation of radioiodinated agents 7, 8, and 18. The I-125 derivative 18 had good tumor uptake (12 {+-} 1% ID/g at 24 h; 4.5 {+-} 1% ID/g at 48 h) and tumor:kidney ratio ({approx}4:1 at 24 h; 2.5:1 at 48 h) in xenograft murine models of B-cell lymphoma. Molecular homology models of {alpha}{sub 4}{beta}{sub 1} integrin have predicted that docked halobenzimidazole carboxamides have the halogen atom in a suitable orientation for halogen-hydrogen bonding. These high affinity ({approx} pM binding) halogenated ligands are attractive tools for medicinal and biological use; the fluoro and iodo derivatives are potential radiodiagnostic ({sup 18}F) or radiotherapeutic ({sup 131}I) agents, whereas the chloro and bromo analogues could provide structural insight into integrin-ligand interactions through photoaffinity cross-linking/mass spectroscopy experiments, as well as co-crystallization X-ray studies.

Carpenter, R D; Natarajan, A; Lau, E Y; Andrei, M; Solano, D M; Lightstone, F C; DeNardo, S J; Lam, K S; Kurth, M J

2010-02-08T23:59:59.000Z

196

Gas mixture for diffuse-discharge switch  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Gaseous medium in a diffuse-discharge switch of a high-energy pulse generator is formed of argon combined with a compound selected from the group consisting of CF/sub 4/, C/sub 2/F/sub 6/, C/sub 3/F/sub 8/, n-C/sub 4/F/sub 10/, WF/sub 6/, (CF/sub 3/)/sub 2/S and (CF/sub 3/)/sub 2/O.

Christophorou, L.G.; Carter, J.G.; Hunter, S.R.

1982-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

197

Magnetism in Lithium–Oxygen Discharge Product  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Nonaqueous lithium–oxygen batteries have a much superior theoretical gravimetric energy density compared to conventional lithium-ion batteries, and thus could render long-range electric vehicles a reality. A molecular-level understanding of the reversible formation of lithium peroxide in these batteries, the properties of major/minor discharge products, and the stability of the nonaqueous electrolytes is required to achieve successful lithium–oxygen batteries. We demonstrate that the major discharge product formed in the lithium–oxygen cell, lithium peroxide, exhibits a magnetic moment. These results are based on dc-magnetization measurements and a lithium– oxygen cell containing an ether-based electrolyte. The results are unexpected because bulk lithium peroxide has a significant band gap. Density functional calculations predict that superoxide- type surface oxygen groups with unpaired electrons exist on stoichiometric lithium peroxide crystalline surfaces and on nanoparticle surfaces; these computational results are consistent with the magnetic measurement of the discharged lithium peroxide product as well as EPR measurements on commercial lithium peroxide. The presence of superoxide-type surface oxygen groups with spin can play a role in the reversible formation and decomposition of lithium peroxide as well as the reversible formation and decomposition of electrolyte molecules.

Lu, Jun; Jung, Hun-Ji; Lau, Kah Chun; Zhang, Zhengcheng; Schlueter, John A.; Du, Peng; Assary, Rajeev S.; Greeley, Jeffrey P.; Ferguson, Glen A.; Wang, Hsien-Hau; Hassoun, Jusef; Iddir, Hakim; Zhou, Jigang; Zuin, Lucia; Hu, Yongfeng; Sun, Yang-Kook; Scrosati, Bruno; Curtiss, Larry A.; Amine, Khalil

2013-05-13T23:59:59.000Z

198

Capacitor discharge process for welding braided cable  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A capacitor discharge process for welding a braided cable formed from a plurality of individual cable strands to a solid metallic electrically conductive member comprises the steps of: (a) preparing the electrically conductive member for welding by bevelling one of its end portions while leaving an ignition projection extending outwardly from the apex of the bevel; (b) clamping the electrically conductive member in a cathode fixture; (c) connecting the electrically conductive member clamped in the cathode fixture to a capacitor bank capable of being charged to a preselected voltage value; (d) preparing the braided cable for welding by wrapping one of its end portions with a metallic sheet to form a retaining ring operable to maintain the individual strands of the braided cable in fixed position within the retaining ring; (e) clamping the braided cable and the retaining ring as a unit in an anode fixture so that the wrapped end portion of the braided cable faces the ignition projection of the electrically conductive member; and (f) moving the cathode fixture towards the anode fixture until the ignition projection of the electrically conductive member contacts the end portion of the braided cable thereby allowing the capacitor bank to discharge through the electrically conductive member and through the braided cable and causing the electrically conductive member to be welded to the braided cable via capacitor discharge action.

Wilson, Rick D. (Corvallis, OR)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

Sensitive glow discharge ion source for aerosol and gas analysis  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A high sensitivity glow discharge ion source system for analyzing particles includes an aerodynamic lens having a plurality of constrictions for receiving an aerosol including at least one analyte particle in a carrier gas and focusing the analyte particles into a collimated particle beam. A separator separates the carrier gas from the analyte particle beam, wherein the analyte particle beam or vapors derived from the analyte particle beam are selectively transmitted out of from the separator. A glow discharge ionization source includes a discharge chamber having an entrance orifice for receiving the analyte particle beam or analyte vapors, and a target electrode and discharge electrode therein. An electric field applied between the target electrode and discharge electrode generates an analyte ion stream from the analyte vapors, which is directed out of the discharge chamber through an exit orifice, such as to a mass spectrometer. High analyte sensitivity is obtained by pumping the discharge chamber exclusively through the exit orifice and the entrance orifice.

Reilly, Peter T. A. (Knoxville, TN)

2007-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

200

Phenomena of oscillations in atmospheric pressure direct current glow discharges  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Self-sustained oscillations in a dc glow discharge with a semiconductor layer at atmospheric pressure were investigated by means of a one-dimensional fluid model. It is found that the dc glow discharge initially becomes unstable in the subnormal glow region and gives rise to oscillations of plasma parameters. A variety of oscillations with one or more frequencies have been observed under different conditions. The discharge oscillates between the glow discharge mode and the Townsend discharge mode in the oscillations with large amplitude while operates in the subnormal glow discharge mode all the while in the oscillations with small amplitude. Fourier Transform spectra of oscillations reveal the transition mechanism between different oscillations. The effects of semiconductor conductivity on the oscillation frequency of the dominant mode, gas voltage, as well as the discharge current have also been analyzed.

Liu, Fu-cheng [College of Physics Science and Technology, Hebei University, Baoding 071002 (China)] [College of Physics Science and Technology, Hebei University, Baoding 071002 (China); Yan, Wen; Wang, De-zhen [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)] [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)

2013-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high-intensity discharge halogen" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

State waste discharge permit application: Hydrotest, maintenance and construction discharges. Revision 0  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

On December 23, 1991, the US DOE< Richland Operation Office (RL) and the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) agreed to adhere to the provisions of the Department of Ecology Consent Order No. DE91NM-177 (216 Consent Order) (Ecology and US DOE 1991). The 216 Consent Order list regulatory milestones for liquid effluent streams at the Hanford Site and requires compliance with the permitting requirements of Washington Administrative Code. Hanford Site liquid effluent streams discharging to the soil column have been categorized on the 216 Consent Order as follows: Phase I Streams; Phase II Streams; Miscellaneous Streams. Phase I and Phase II Streams were initially addressed in two report. Miscellaneous Streams are subject to the requirements of several milestones identified in the 216 Consent Order. This document constitutes the Categorical State Waste Discharge Permit application for hydrotest,maintenance and construction discharges throughout the Hanford Site. This categorical permit application form was prepared and approved by Ecology.

NONE

1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

Analysis of radiofrequency discharges in plasma  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Separation of laser optogalvanic signals in plasma into two components: (1) an ionization rate change component, and (2) a photoacoustic mediated component. This separation of components may be performed even when the two components overlap in time, by measuring time-resolved laser optogalvanic signals in an rf discharge plasma as the rf frequency is varied near the electrical resonance peak of the plasma and associated driving/detecting circuits. A novel spectrometer may be constructed to make these measurements. Such a spectrometer would be useful in better understanding and controlling such processes as plasma etching and plasma deposition. 15 figs.

Kumar, D.; McGlynn, S.P.

1992-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

203

Low current plasmatron fuel converter having enlarged volume discharges  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A novel apparatus and method is disclosed for a plasmatron fuel converter ("plasmatron") that efficiently uses electrical energy to produce hydrogen rich gas. The volume and shape of the plasma discharge is controlled by a fluid flow established in a plasma discharge volume. A plasmatron according to this invention produces a substantially large effective plasma discharge volume allowing for substantially greater volumetric efficiency in the initiation of chemical reactions within a volume of bulk fluid reactant flowing through the plasmatron.

Rabinovich, Alexander (Swampscott, MA); Alexeev, Nikolai (Moscow, RU); Bromberg, Leslie (Sharon, MA); Cohn, Daniel R. (Chestnut Hill, MA); Samokhin, Andrei (Moscow, RU)

2009-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

204

Point Source Discharges to Surface Waters (North Carolina)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This rule requires permits for control of sources of water pollution by providing the requirements and procedures for application and issuance of state National Pollutant Discharge Elimination...

205

Design of a high precision desktop wire electrical discharge machine.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??This thesis discusses the design of a wire electrical discharge machine that is small enough to be deemed a desktop machine that achieves sub micron… (more)

Dunlop, David James

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

The Physiologic Effects of Multiple Simultaneous Electronic Control Device Discharges  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

physiologic effects of conducted electrical weapon dischargePhysiological effects of a conducted electrical weapon onLL, et al. Respiratory effect of prolonged electrical weapon

Dawes, Donald M.; Ho, Jeffrey D; Reardon, Robert F; Sweeney, James D; Miner, James R

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

atmospheric pressure discharge: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

de 367 Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology A: Chemistry 140 (2001) 185189 The electrodeless discharge lamp: a prospective tool for photochemistry Chemistry Websites...

208

atmospheric pressure discharges: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

de 367 Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology A: Chemistry 140 (2001) 185189 The electrodeless discharge lamp: a prospective tool for photochemistry Chemistry Websites...

209

Oklahoma Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (OPDES) Standards (Oklahoma)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This program of the Water Quality Division of the Department of Environmental Quality sets the point source, biosolids (sewage sludge), and stormwater permitting standards for discharges to the...

210

Notice of Intent (NOI) for Storm Water Discharges Associated...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Intent (NOI) for Storm Water Discharges Associated with Construction Activities under TPDES General Permit (TXR150000) Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to...

211

WAC - 173 - 221 - Discharge Standards and Effluent Limitations...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

WAC - 173 - 221 - Discharge Standards and Effluent Limitations for Domestic Wastewater Facilities Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document-...

212

File:CDPHE Industrial Individual Wastewater Discharge Permit...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Industrial Individual Wastewater Discharge Permit Application.pdf Jump to: navigation, search File File history File usage Metadata File:CDPHE Industrial Individual Wastewater...

213

atmospheric glow discharge: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

34 Glow Discharge Enhanced Chemical Reaction: Application in Ammonia Synthesis and Hydrocarbon Gas Cleanup Texas A&M University - TxSpace Summary: ......

214

ablation glow discharge: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

29 Glow Discharge Enhanced Chemical Reaction: Application in Ammonia Synthesis and Hydrocarbon Gas Cleanup Texas A&M University - TxSpace Summary: ......

215

analytical glow discharge: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

29 Glow Discharge Enhanced Chemical Reaction: Application in Ammonia Synthesis and Hydrocarbon Gas Cleanup Texas A&M University - TxSpace Summary: ......

216

Hydrothermal Heat Discharge In The Cascade Range, Northwestern...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

based on the degree of geothermal warming (after correction for gravitational potential energy effects) and totals 660 MW. Fumarolic heat discharge is calculated by a variety...

217

Vacuum ultra-violet emission of plasma discharges with high Xe partial pressure using a cathode protective layer with high secondary electron emission  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this work, the mechanism of the vacuum ultra-violet (VUV) emission of plasma discharges, with high Xe partial pressure and high ion-induced secondary electrons emission protective layer, is studied by measuring the VUV light emission directly and comparing it with two-dimensional simulations. From the panel measurement, we find that the high intensity of excimer VUV mainly contributes to the high luminous efficacy of SrCaO-plasma display panels (PDP) at a low sustain voltage. The unchanged Xe excitation efficiency indicates that the electron temperature is not decreased by the high secondary electrons emission protective layer, even though the sustain voltage is much lower. From the two-dimensional simulations, we can find that the ratio of excimer VUV to resonant VUV, which is determined by the collision rate in the discharge, is only significantly affected by the Xe partial pressure, while it is independent of the sustain voltage and the secondary-electrons-emission capability of protective layer. The unchanged average electron energy at the moment when the electric field becomes maximum confirms that the improvement of the VUV production efficiency mainly is attributed to the increase in electron heating efficiency of a PDP with high ion-induced secondary electrons emission protective layer. Combining the experimental and the simulation results, we conclude about the mechanism by which the VUV production is improved for the plasma display panel with a high Xe partial pressure and a cold cathode with high ion-induced secondary electrons emission.

Zhu, Di [School of Electronics and Information Engineering, Tianjin Polytechnic University, Tianjin (China); Song, Le, E-mail: songle@tju.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Precision Measuring Technology and Instruments, Tianjin University, Tianjin (China); Zhang, Xiong [School of Electronic Science and Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing (China); Kajiyama, Hiroshi [Graduate School of Advanced Science of Matter, Hiroshima University, Higashi-hiroshima, Hiroshima (Japan)

2014-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

218

Ordered dust structures in a glow discharge  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Highly ordered three-dimensional dust structures are created in a striated glow discharge, and their horizontal cross-sectional images are analyzed. Calculated correlation functions, local correlation parameters, and corresponding approximations are used to classify the state of a structure according to the Kosterlitz-Thouless-Halperin-Nelson-Young (KTHNY) two-dimensional melting theory and a phenomenological approach. An orientational map based on an orientational parameter is proposed to expose domains in a cross section of a structure. It is shown that a plasma crystal is a polycrystal consisting of hexagonal domains (crystallites). Thermophoretic forces are used to create corners of various angles in the perimeter of the structure. Transition between hexagonal and square cell shapes is observed.

Karasev, V. Yu., E-mail: plasmadust@yandex.ru; Ivanov, A. Yu.; Dzlieva, E. S.; Eikhval'd, A. I. [St. Petersburg State University, Institute of Physics (Russian Federation)

2008-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

219

Extreme-UV electrical discharge source  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An extreme ultraviolet and soft x-ray radiation electric capillary discharge source that includes a boron nitride housing defining a capillary bore that is positioned between two electrodes one of which is connected to a source of electric potential can generate a high EUV and soft x-ray radiation flux from the capillary bore outlet with minimal debris. The electrode that is positioned adjacent the capillary bore outlet is typically grounded. Pyrolytic boron nitride, highly oriented pyrolytic boron nitride, and cubic boron nitride are particularly suited. The boron nitride capillary bore can be configured as an insert that is encased in an exterior housing that is constructed of a thermally conductive material. Positioning the ground electrode sufficiently close to the capillary bore outlet also reduces bore erosion.

Fornaciari, Neal R. (Tracey, CA); Nygren, Richard E. (Los Ranchos de Albuquerque, NM); Ulrickson, Michael A. (Albuquerque, NM)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

General Conditions Applicable to Water Discharge Permits and Procedures and Criteria for Issuing Water Discharge Permits (Connecticut)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

These regulations describe permit and facility requirements for facilities which discharge wastewater. Facility construction, expansion, alteration, production increases, or process modifications...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high-intensity discharge halogen" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

State Waste Discharge Permit application for industrial discharge to land: 200 East Area W-252 streams  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document constitutes the WAC 173-216 State Waste Discharge Permit application for six W-252 liquid effluent streams at the Hanford Site. Appendices B through H correspond to Section B through H in the permit application form. Within each appendix, sections correspond directly to the respective questions on the application form. The appendices include: Product or service information; Plant operational characteristics; Water consumption and waterloss; Wastewater information; Stormwater; Other information; and Site assessment.

Not Available

1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

222

Relationships among probability distributions of stream discharges in floods, climate,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Relationships among probability distributions of stream discharges in floods, climate, bed load of both follow power laws. The number N(Q) of days on which the discharge exceeds Q, or the number of the United States. To examine the effect of climate change on bed load transport and river incision, we

Mojzsis, Stephen J.

223

Discharge indices for water quality loads Richard M. Vogel  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

: effective discharge, transport, sediment, constituents, rating curve, half-load Citation: Vogel, R. M., J. RDischarge indices for water quality loads Richard M. Vogel Department of Civil and Environmental load is ultimately the quantity of interest, we define a new index, the half-load discharge, which

Vogel, Richard M.

224

Faraday Accelerator with Radio-frequency Assisted Discharge (FARAD)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

rights reserved. #12;Abstract A new electrodeless accelerator concept, called Faraday Accelerator with Radio-frequency Assisted Discharge (FARAD), that relies on an RF-assisted discharge to produce a plasma, an applied magnetic field to guide the plasma into the acceleration region, and an induced current sheet

Choueiri, Edgar

225

An ultra miniature pinch-focus discharge Leopoldo Soto1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Abstract As a way to investigate the minimum energy to produce a pinch plasma focus discharge, an ultra optimized plasma foci. It is interesting note that plasma parameters practically constant in plasma focusAn ultra miniature pinch-focus discharge Leopoldo Soto1 , Cristian Pavez1, 2 , Mario Barbaglia3

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

226

State Waste Discharge Permit application: 200-E Powerhouse Ash Pit  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

As part of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order negotiations, the US Department and Energy, Richland Operations Office, the US Environmental Protection Agency, and the Washington State Department of Ecology agreed that liquid effluent discharges to the ground on the Hanford Site which affect groundwater or have the potential to affect groundwater would be subject to permitting under the structure of Chapter 173-216 (or 173-218 where applicable) of the Washington Administrative Code, the State Waste Discharge Permit Program. This document constitutes the State Waste Discharge Permit application for the 200-E Powerhouse Ash Pit. The 200-E Powerhouse Ash Waste Water discharges to the 200-E Powerhouse Ash Pit via dedicated pipelines. The 200-E Ash Waste Water is the only discharge to the 200-E Powerhouse Ash Pit. The 200-E Powerhouse is a steam generation facility consisting of a coal-handling and preparation section and boilers.

Atencio, B.P.

1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

227

State Waste Discharge Permit application: 200-W Powerhouse Ash Pit  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

As part of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order negotiations; the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office, the US Environmental Protection Agency, and the Washington State Department of Ecology agreed that liquid effluent discharges to the ground on the Hanford Site which affect groundwater or have the potential to affect groundwater would be subject to permitting under the structure of Chapter 173-216 (or 173-218 where applicable) of the Washington Administrative Code, the State Waste Discharge Permit Program. This document constitutes the State Waste Discharge Permit application for the 200-W Powerhouse Ash Pit. The 200-W Powerhouse Ash Waste Water discharges to the 200-W Powerhouse Ash Pit via dedicated pipelines. The 200-W Powerhouse Ash Waste Water is the only discharge to the 200-W Powerhouse Ash Pit. The 200-W Powerhouse is a steam generation facility consisting of a coal-handling and preparation section and boilers.

Atencio, B.P.

1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

228

State Waste Discharge Permit application: 400 Area Septic System  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

As part of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order negotiations, the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office, the US Environmental Protection Agency, and the Washington State Department of Ecology agreed that liquid effluent discharges to the ground on the Hanford Site which affects groundwater or has the potential to affect groundwater would be subject to permitting under the structure of Chapter 173-216 (or 173-218 where applicable) of the Washington Administrative Code, the State Waste Discharge Permit Program. This document constitutes the State Waste Discharge Permit application for the 400 Area Septic System. The influent to the system is domestic waste water. Although the 400 Area Septic System is not a Public Owned Treatment Works, the Public Owned Treatment Works application is more applicable than the application for industrial waste water. Therefore, the State Waste Discharge Permit application for Public Owned Treatment Works Discharges to Land was used.

Not Available

1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

229

Plasma mixing glow discharge device for analytical applications  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An instrument for analyzing a sample has an enclosure that forms a chamber containing an anode which divides the chamber into a discharge region and an analysis region. A gas inlet and outlet are provided to introduce and exhaust a rare gas into the discharge region. A cathode within the discharge region has a plurality of pins projecting in a geometric pattern toward the anode for exciting the gas and producing a plasma discharge between the cathode and the anode. Low energy electrons (e.g. <0.5 eV) pass into the analysis region through an aperture. The sample to be analyzed is placed into the analysis region and bombarded by the metastable rare gas atoms and the low energy electrons extracted into from the discharge region. A mass or optical spectrometer can be coupled to a port of the analysis region to analyze the resulting ions and light emission. 3 figs.

Pinnaduwage, L.A.

1999-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

230

Plasma mixing glow discharge device for analytical applications  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An instrument for analyzing a sample has an enclosure that forms a chamber containing an anode which divides the chamber into a discharge region and an analysis region. A gas inlet and outlet are provided to introduce and exhaust a rare gas into the discharge region. A cathode within the discharge region has a plurality of pins projecting in a geometric pattern toward the anode for exciting the gas and producing a plasma discharge between the cathode and the anode. Low energy electrons (e.g. <0.5 eV) pass into the analysis region through an aperture. The sample to be analyzed is placed into the analysis region and bombarded by the metastable rare gas atoms and the low energy electrons extracted into from the discharge region. A mass or optical spectrometer can be coupled to a port of the analysis region to analyze the resulting ions and light emission.

Pinnaduwage, Lal A. (Knoxville, TN)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

Properties of water surface discharge at different pulse repetition rates  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The properties of water surface discharge plasma for variety of pulse repetition rates are investigated. A magnetic pulse compression (MPC) pulsed power modulator able to deliver pulse repetition rates up to 1000?Hz, with 0.5?J per pulse energy output at 25?kV, was used as the pulsed power source. Positive pulse with a point-to-plane electrode configuration was used for the experiments. The concentration and production yield of hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) were quantitatively measured and orange II organic dye was treated, to evaluate the chemical properties of the discharge reactor. Experimental results show that the physical and chemical properties of water surface discharge are not influenced by pulse repetition rate, very different from those observed for under water discharge. The production yield of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and degradation rate per pulse of the dye did not significantly vary at different pulse repetition rates under a constant discharge mode on water surface. In addition, the solution temperature, pH, and conductivity for both water surface and underwater discharge reactors were measured to compare their plasma properties for different pulse repetition rates. The results confirm that surface discharge can be employed at high pulse repetition rates as a reliable and advantageous method for industrial and environmental decontamination applications.

Ruma,; Yoshihara, K. [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan); Hosseini, S. H. R., E-mail: hosseini@kumamoto-u.ac.jp; Sakugawa, T.; Akiyama, H. [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan); Institute of Pulsed Power Science, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan); Akiyama, M. [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima 890-0065 (Japan); Lukeš, P. [Institute of Plasma Physics, AS CR, Prague, Prague 18200 (Czech Republic)

2014-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

232

Regulations for the Rhode Island Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (Rhode Island)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

These regulations aim to protect surface water from pollutant discharges. They describe allowable discharges in the state that are subject to permits, discharges which may be made without permits,...

233

A System-Level Electrostatic-Discharge-Protection Modeling Methodology for Time-  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A System-Level Electrostatic-Discharge- Protection Modeling Methodology for Time- Domain Analysis. Index Terms--Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC), electrostatic discharge (ESD), modeling, system level precise simulations of electrostatic discharge (ESD) stress propagation on a printed circuit board (PCB

Boyer, Edmond

234

Plasma Acceleration from RF Discharge in Dielectric Capillary  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Plasma acceleration from rf discharge in dielectric capillary was demonstrated. Observed plasma flow had ion energies of approximately 100 eV and electron energies of approximately 20 eV. The discharge was powered by a MHz-range rf generator and fed by Ar. Experimental results indicate possible validity of assumptions about formation of a potential difference at the open end of the capillary and presence of hot electron fraction in the capillary discharge. Simplicity and small dimensions of the source are attractive for micro-propulsion applications.

A. Dunaevsky; Y. Raitses; N. J. Fisch

2005-08-09T23:59:59.000Z

235

Optical Emission of Dusty RF Discharges: Experiment and Simulation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The spectral emission of argon atoms in a dusty radio frequence (RF) discharge has been investigated experimentally and in simulations. It was observed that the spatially and temporally resolved emission of the argon atoms in the dusty discharge was increased compared to the dust-free case during sheath expansion. The corresponding simulations have revealed that the dust trapped in the sheath of the discharge leads to a small, but important, increase of the amount of high-energy electrons that in turn leads to an increased argon emission.

Melzer, A.; Lewerentz, L.; Schneider, R. [Institute of Physics, University Greifswald, Felix-Hausdorff-Str. 6, 17489 Greifswald (Germany); Huebner, S. [Institute of Physics, University Greifswald, Felix-Hausdorff-Str. 6, 17489 Greifswald (Germany); Department of Applied Physics, Technical University Eindhoven, NL-5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Matyash, K. [Max-Planck-Institute for Plasma Physics, EURATOM Association, D-17491 Greifswald (Germany); Ikkurthi, V. R. [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Ghandinagar, Gujarat (India)

2011-11-29T23:59:59.000Z

236

Entrainment by Spatiotemporal Chaos in Glow Discharge-Semiconductor Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Entrainment of limit cycles by chaos [1] is discovered numerically through specially designed unidirectional coupling of two glow discharge-semiconductor systems. By utilizing the auxiliary system approach [2], it is verified that the phenomenon is not a chaos synchronization. Simulations demonstrate various aspects of the chaos appearance in both drive and response systems. Chaotic control is through the external circuit equation and governs the electrical potential on the boundary. The expandability of the theory to collectives of glow discharge systems is discussed, and this increases the potential of applications of the results. Moreover, the research completes the previous discussion of the chaos appearance in a glow discharge-semiconductor system [3].

Marat Akhmet; Ismail Rafatov; Mehmet Onur Fen

2014-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

237

E-Print Network 3.0 - active liquid discharges Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

discharge in synthetic air... Online at stacks.iop.orgJPhysD41035212 Abstract The barrier discharge in the coplanar ... Source: Greifswald, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-Universitt...

238

Permit Program Regulating Discharge of Nondomestic Wastewater into a POTW (Ohio)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Any significant industrial user is required to apply for and obtain an individual indirect discharge permit if they discharge water or waste into a publicly owned treatment works.

239

Discharging a DC bus capacitor of an electrical converter system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A system and method of discharging a bus capacitor of a bidirectional matrix converter of a vehicle are presented here. The method begins by electrically shorting the AC interface of the converter after an AC energy source is disconnected from the AC interface. The method continues by arranging a plurality of switching elements of a second energy conversion module into a discharge configuration to establish an electrical current path from a first terminal of an isolation module, through an inductive element, and to a second terminal of the isolation module. The method also modulates a plurality of switching elements of a first energy conversion module, while maintaining the discharge configuration of the second energy conversion module, to at least partially discharge a DC bus capacitor.

Kajouke, Lateef A; Perisic, Milun; Ransom, Ray M

2014-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

240

Use of microalgae to remove pollutants from power plant discharges  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method and system for removing pollutants dissolved in the aqueous discharge of a plant, such as a power plant, from a body of water having known hydraulogy and physicochemical characteristics, the method comprising (a) modifying the hydraulic system of the body of water including use of physical barriers to define a zone in a portion of the body of water which zone includes the discharge point and where the water has a range of physicochemical characteristics; (b) selecting a large and preferably filamentous, planktonically growing strain of algae adapted to absorb the particular pollutants and genetically dominating algae at the physicochemical characteristics of the zone; (c) establishing a colony of the selected algal strain in the zone; (d) harvesting a portion of the colony; and (e) reinnoculating the zone near the discharge point with a fraction of the harvested portion. The fraction used for reinnoculation can be adjusted to balance the rate of pollutant removal to the rate of pollutant discharge.

Wilde, Edward W. (1833 Pisgah Rd., North Augusta, SC 29841); Benemann, John R. (2741 O'Harte, San Pablo, CA 94806); Weissman, Joseph C. (2086 N. Porpoise Pt. La., Vero Beach, FL 32963); Tillett, David M. (911-3 Coquina La., Vero Beach, FL 32963)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high-intensity discharge halogen" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

UPDES General Permit for Discharges from Construction Activities...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Discharges from Construction Activities (Permit No. UTRC00000) Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document- OtherOther: UPDES General Permit...

242

AZPDES General Permit for Stormwater Discharges Associated with...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Stormwater Discharges Associated with Construction Activity (Permit No. AZG2013-001) Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document- OtherOther:...

243

Electrical discharge machining of titanium diboride and its composites  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ELECTRICAL DISCHARGE MACHINING OF TITANIUM DIBORIDE AND ITS COMPOSITES A Thesis by HARMOHINDER SINGH BEDI Submitted to the office of Graduate Studies of Texas ARM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER... OF SCIENCE December 1990 Major Subject: Chemical Engineering ELECTRICAL DISCHARGE MACHINING OF TITANIUM DIBORIDE AND ITS COMPOSITES A THESIS by HARMOHINDER SINGH BEDI Approved as to style and content by: Ahmed M. Gadalla (Chair of Committee) Ralph...

Bedi, Harmohinder Singh

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

244

Discharge source with gas curtain for protecting optics from particles  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A gas curtain device is employed to deflect debris that is generated by an extreme ultraviolet and soft x-ray radiation discharge source such as an electric discharge plasma source. The gas curtain device projects a stream of gas over the path of the radiation to deflect debris particles into a direction that is different from that of the path of the radiation. The gas curtain can be employed to prevent debris accumulation on the optics used in photolithography.

Fornaciari, Neal R.; Kanouff, Michael P.

2004-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

245

Spent nuclear fuel discharges from U.S. reactors 1994  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Spent Nuclear Fuel Discharges from US Reactors 1994 provides current statistical data on fuel assemblies irradiated at commercial nuclear reactors operating in the US. This year`s report provides data on the current inventories and storage capacities at these reactors. Detailed statistics on the data are presented in four chapters that highlight 1994 spent fuel discharges, storage capacities and inventories, canister and nonfuel component data, and assembly characteristics. Five appendices, a glossary, and bibliography are also included. 10 figs., 34 tabs.

NONE

1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

246

Fiber optic diagnostic techniques for the electrical discharge machining process  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

FIBER OPTIC DIAGNOSTIC TECHNIQUES FOR THE ELECTRICAL DISCHARGE MACHINING PROCESS A Thesis by BRANDON WILLIAM PILLANS Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas AB M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August t 998 Major Subject: Electrical Engineering FIBER OPTIC DIAGNOSTIC TECHNIQUES FOR THE ELECTRICAL DISCHARGE MACHINING PROCESS A Thesis by BRANDON WILLIAM PILLANS Submitted to Texas A8M University in partial...

Pillans, Brandon William

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

247

Interaction of a surface glow discharge with a gas flow  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A surface glow discharge in a gas flow is of particular interest as a possible tool for controlling the flow past hypersonic aircrafts. Using a hydrodynamic model of glow discharge, two-dimensional calculations for a kilovolt surface discharge in nitrogen at a pressure of 0.5 Torr are carried out in a stationary gas, as well as in a flow with a velocity of 1000 m/s. The discharge structure and plasma parameters are investigated near a charged electrode. It is shown that the electron energy in a cathode layer reaches 250-300 eV. Discharge is sustained by secondary electron emission. The influence of a high-speed gas flow on the discharge is considered. It is shown that the cathode layer configuration is flow-resistant. The distributions of the electric field and electron energy, as well as the ionization rate profile in the cathode layer, do not change qualitatively under the action of the flow. The basic effect of the flow's influence is a sharp decrease in the region of the quasineutral plasma surrounding the cathode layer due to fast convective transport of ions.

Aleksandrov, A. L., E-mail: a_alex@itam.nsc.ru; Schweigert, I. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Khristianovich Institute of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics, Siberian Branch (Russian Federation)

2010-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

248

State waste discharge permit application, 200-E chemical drain field  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

As part of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order negotiations (Ecology et al. 1994), the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office, the US Environmental Protection Agency, and the Washington State Department of Ecology agreed that liquid effluent discharges to the ground on the Hanford Site which affect groundwater or have the potential to affect ground would be subject to permitting under the structure of Chapter 173-216 (or 173-218 where applicable) of the Washington Administrative Code, the State Waste Discharge Permit Program. As a result of this decision, the Washington State Department of Ecology and the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office entered into Consent Order No. DE 91NM-177, (Ecology and DOE-RL 1991). The Consent Order No. DE 91NM-177 requires a series of permitting activities for liquid effluent discharges. This document presents the State Waste Discharge Permit (SWDP) application for the 200-E Chemical Drain Field. Waste water from the 272-E Building enters the process sewer line directly through a floor drain, while waste water from the 2703-E Building is collected in two floor drains, (north and south) that act as sumps and are discharged periodically. The 272-E and 2703-E Buildings constitute the only discharges to the process sewer line and the 200-E Chemical Drain Field.

Not Available

1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

249

Self-pulsing of hollow cathode discharge in various gases  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this paper, we investigate the self-pulsing phenomenon of cavity discharge in a cylindrical hollow cathode in various gases including argon, helium, nitrogen, oxygen, and air. The current-voltage characteristics of the cavity discharge, the waveforms of the self-pulsing current and voltage as well as the repetition frequency were measured. The results show that the pulsing frequency ranges from a few to tens kilohertz and depends on the averaged current and the pressure in all gases. The pulsing frequency will increase with the averaged current and decrease with the pressure. The rising time of the current pulse is nearly constant in a given gas or mixture. The self-pulsing does not depend on the external ballast but is affected significantly by the external capacitor in parallel with the discharge cell. The low-current self-pulsing in hollow cathode discharge is the mode transition between Townsend and glow discharges. It can be described by the charging-discharging process of an equivalent circuit consisting of capacitors and resistors.

Qin, Y.; He, F., E-mail: hefeng@bit.edu.cn; Jiang, X. X.; Ouyang, J. T., E-mail: jtouyang@bit.edu.cn [School of Physics, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China); Xie, K. [School of Aerospace Engineering, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China)

2014-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

250

Advances in Lighting  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

colour rendition. The quartz-halogen incandescent lam s operate at higher temperatures, and have a somewhat higher efficacy, but they are rarely used except for special applicati ns. 3-2 High Intensity Discharge Lamps. Mercury is the grandfather... of the H.I.D. lamps. Its blue-green light, has been used almost exclusively for streetlighti and, often with colour-improving phospho it is still being used in industrial and commercial applications. Reactor-type ballasted mercury lamps can now...

Tumber, A. J.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

251

Capillary - Discharge Based Hand-Held Detector For Chemical Vapor Monitoring  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A handheld/portable detector for chemical vapor monitoring includes a housing and a discharge chamber that is established therein. The plasma discharge has a relatively small volume, e.g., in the micro-liter range. A first electrode and a second electrode are disposed within the discharge chamber and a discharge gap is established therebetween. A sample gas tube is in fluid communication with the discharge chamber and provides a sample gas to the discharge chamber. Also, a plasma gas tube is in fluid communication with the discharge chamber and provides a plasma gas thereto. Accordingly, the plasma gas can be used to maintain microplasma discharge between the electrodes and the sample gas can be introduced into the microplasma discharge. A spectrometer optically connected to the handheld/portable detector is used to measure the radiation emitted by the sample gas when subjected to the microplasma discharge.

Duan, Yixiang (White Rock, NM)

2005-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

252

Rules and Regulations Pertaining to a User Fee System for Point Source Dischargers that Discharge Pollutants into the Waters of the State (Rhode Island)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

These regulations establish a user fee system for point source dischargers that discharge pollutants into the surface waters of the State. The funds from such fees are used by the Department of...

253

Temporal modulation of plasma species in atmospheric dielectric barrier discharges  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge in helium is a pulsed discharge in nature and the moment of maximum species densities is almost consistent with peak discharge current density. In this paper, a one-dimensional fluid model is used to investigate the temporal structure of plasma species in an atmospheric He-N{sub 2} dielectric barrier discharge (DBD). It is demonstrated that there exist microsecond delays of the moments of the maximum electron and ion densities from the peak of discharge current density. These time delays are caused by a competition between the electron impact and Penning ionizations, modulated by the N{sub 2} level in the plasma-forming gas. Besides, significant electron wall losses lead to the DBD being more positively charged and, with a distinct temporal separation in the peak electron and cation densities, the plasma is characterized with repetitive bursts of net positive charges. The temporal details of ionic and reactive plasma species may provide a new idea for some biological processes.

Yang, Aijun; Wang, Xiaohua, E-mail: xhw@mail.xjtu.edu.cn, E-mail: mzrong@mail.xjtu.edu.cn; Liu, Dingxin; Rong, Mingzhe, E-mail: xhw@mail.xjtu.edu.cn, E-mail: mzrong@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [Centre for Plasma Biomedicine, State Key Laboratory of Electrical Insulation and Power Equipment, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710049 (China); Kong, Michael G. [Centre for Plasma Biomedicine, State Key Laboratory of Electrical Insulation and Power Equipment, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710049 (China); Frank Reidy Research Center for Bioelectrics, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Old Dominion University, Virginia 23508 (United States); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, Virginia 23529 (United States)

2014-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

254

State Waste Discharge Permit application, 100-N Sewage Lagoon  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

As part of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order negotiations (Ecology et al. 1994), the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office, the US Environmental Protection Agency, and the Washington State Department of Ecology agreed that liquid effluent discharges to the ground on the Hanford Site which affect groundwater or have the potential to affect groundwater would be subject to permitting under the structure of Chapter 173--216 (or 173--218 where applicable) of the Washington Administrative Code, the State Waste Discharge Permit Program. As a result of this decision, the Washington State Department of Ecology and the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office entered into Consent Order No. DE 91NM-177, (Ecology and DOE-RL 1991). This document constitutes the State Waste Discharge Permit application for the 100-N Sewage Lagoon. Since the influent to the sewer lagoon is domestic waste water, the State Waste Discharge Permit application for Public Owned Treatment Works Discharges to Land was used. Although the 100-N Sewage Lagoon is not a Public Owned Treatment Works, the Public Owned Treatment Works application is more applicable than the application for industrial waste water. The 100-N Sewage Lagoon serves the 100-N Area and other Hanford Site areas by receiving domestic waste from two sources. A network of sanitary sewer piping and lift stations transfers domestic waste water from the 100-N Area buildings directly to the 100-N Sewage Lagoon. Waste is also received by trucks that transport domestic waste pumped from on site septic tanks and holding tanks. Three ponds comprise the 100-N Sewage Lagoon treatment system. These include a lined aeration pond and stabilization pond, as well as an unlined infiltration pond. Both piped-in and trucked-in domestic waste is discharged directly into the aeration pond.

Not Available

1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

255

Large area, surface discharge pumped, vacuum ultraviolet light source  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Large area, surface discharge pumped, vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) light source is disclosed. A contamination-free VUV light source having a 225 cm{sup 2} emission area in the 240-340 nm region of the electromagnetic spectrum with an average output power in this band of about 2 J/cm{sup 2} at a wall-plug efficiency of approximately 5% is described. Only ceramics and metal parts are employed in this surface discharge source. Because of the contamination-free, high photon energy and flux, and short pulse characteristics of the source, it is suitable for semiconductor and flat panel display material processing. 3 figs.

Sze, R.C.; Quigley, G.P.

1996-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

256

Characteristics of electromagnetic interference generated during discharge of Mylar samples  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper discusses the measurements of the electromagnetic interference (EMI) generated during discharges of Mylar samples. The two components of EMI, the conducted emission and the radiated emission, are characterized by the replacement current and the radiated RF spectrum respectively. The measured radiated RF spectra reveal important information on the source of the electromagnetic radiation. The possible sources are the replacement current pulse and the discharged generated plasma. The scaling of the amplitudes of the EMI, as a function of the area of the test sample, is also discussed.

Leung, P.L.

1984-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

257

Features of plasma glow in low pressure terahertz gas discharge  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Investigations of the low pressure (1–100 Torr) gas discharge in the powerful (1 kW) quasi-optical terahertz (0.55 THz) wave beams were made. An intense afterglow was observed after the end of gyrotron terahertz radiation pulse. Afterglow duration significantly exceeded radiation pulse length (8 ?s). This phenomenon could be explained by the strong dependence of the collisional-radiative recombination rate (that is supposed to be the most likely mechanism of electron losses from the low pressure terahertz gas discharge) on electron temperature.

Bratman, V. L.; Golubev, S. V.; Izotov, I. V.; Kalynov, Yu. K.; Koldanov, V. A.; Razin, S. V. [Institute of Applied Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Nizhny Novgorod 603950 (Russian Federation)] [Institute of Applied Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Nizhny Novgorod 603950 (Russian Federation); Litvak, A. G.; Sidorov, A. V.; Skalyga, V. A.; Zorin, V. G. [Institute of Applied Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Nizhny Novgorod 603950 (Russian Federation) [Institute of Applied Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Nizhny Novgorod 603950 (Russian Federation); Lobachevsky State University of Nizhny Novgorod (UNN), 23 Gagarina st., 603950 Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation)

2013-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

258

Electrostatic Discharge Sensitivity and Electrical Conductivity of Composite Energetic Materials  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Composite energetic material response to electrical stimuli was investigated and a correlation between electrical conductivity and ignition sensitivity was examined. The composites consisted of micrometer particle aluminum combined with another metal, metal oxide, or fluoropolymer. Of the nine tested mixtures, aluminum with copper oxide was the only mixture to ignite by electrostatic discharge with minimum ignition energy (MIE) of 25 mJ and an electrical conductivity of 1246.25 nS; two orders of magnitude higher than the next composite. This study showed a similar trend in MIE for ignition triggered by a discharged spark compared with a thermal hot wire source.

Michael A. Daniels; Daniel J. Prentice; Chelsea Weir; Michelle L. Pantoya; Gautham Ramachandran; Tim Dallas

2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

259

High-order harmonic generation in a capillary discharge  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A pre-ionized medium created by a capillary discharge results in more efficient use of laser energy in high-order harmonic generation (HHG) from ions. It extends the cutoff photon energy, and reduces the distortion of the laser pulse as it propagates down the waveguide. The observed enhancements result from a combination of reduced ionization energy loss and reduced ionization-induced defocusing of the driving laser as well as waveguiding of the driving laser pulse. The discharge plasma also provides a means to spectrally tune the harmonics by tailoring the initial level of ionization of the medium.

Rocca, Jorge J.; Kapteyn, Henry C.; Mumane, Margaret M.; Gaudiosi, David; Grisham, Michael E.; Popmintchev, Tenio V.; Reagan, Brendan A.

2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

260

Large area, surface discharge pumped, vacuum ultraviolet light source  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Large area, surface discharge pumped, vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) light source. A contamination-free VUV light source having a 225 cm.sup.2 emission area in the 240-340 nm region of the electromagnetic spectrum with an average output power in this band of about 2 J/cm.sup.2 at a wall-plug efficiency of approximately 5% is described. Only ceramics and metal parts are employed in this surface discharge source. Because of the contamination-free, high photon energy and flux, and short pulse characteristics of the source, it is suitable for semiconductor and flat panel display material processing.

Sze, Robert C. (Santa Fe, NM); Quigley, Gerard P. (Los Alamos, NM)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high-intensity discharge halogen" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility Discharges in 2011  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report documents radioactive discharges from the TA50 Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facilities (RLWTF) during calendar 2011. During 2011, three pathways were available for the discharge of treated water to the environment: discharge as water through NPDES Outfall 051 into Mortandad Canyon, evaporation via the TA50 cooling towers, and evaporation using the newly-installed natural-gas effluent evaporator at TA50. Only one of these pathways was used; all treated water (3,352,890 liters) was fed to the effluent evaporator. The quality of treated water was established by collecting a weekly grab sample of water being fed to the effluent evaporator. Forty weekly samples were collected; each was analyzed for gross alpha, gross beta, and tritium. Weekly samples were also composited at the end of each month. These flow-weighted composite samples were then analyzed for 37 radioisotopes: nine alpha-emitting isotopes, 27 beta emitters, and tritium. These monthly analyses were used to estimate the radioactive content of treated water fed to the effluent evaporator. Table 1 summarizes this information. The concentrations and quantities of radioactivity in Table 1 are for treated water fed to the evaporator. Amounts of radioactivity discharged to the environment through the evaporator stack were likely smaller since only entrained materials would exit via the evaporator stack.

Del Signore, John C. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-05-16T23:59:59.000Z

262

Corrosion mitigation considerations in planning for zero liquid discharge  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A reduction in the availability and in the quality of water, coupled with more significantly more stringent water discharge restrictions, has resulted in increasing numbers of industrial complexes investigating water reuse and zero liquid discharge. Their investigation generally includes a survey of the potential impact of increased dissolved solids on the formation of mineral salt scales on heat transfer surfaces. These predictive tools are readily available and fairly accurate. The prediction of corrosion potential, however, is not as clearly defined, and as a consequence, little consideration is given to the effects of increased solids on corrosion. In addition to the potential for accelerated corrosion related to increased dissolved solids, many reuse waters contain elevated levels of biological activity and are rich in the nutrients that feed these micro organisms. This paper looks at the reasons for selecting zero liquid discharge as a means of water conservation and discharge reduction, the unit operations available to achieve these goals, and the corrosion mechanisms and mitigation associated with reuse water.

DeWitt-Dick, D.B. [Ashland Chemical Co., Portland, TX (United States). Drew Industrial Division; Lee, B. [Ashland Chemical Co., Boonton, NJ (United States). Drew Industrial Division

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

263

Aluminum-Enhanced Underwater Electrical Discharges for Steam Explosion Triggering  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

For a number of years, we have been initiating steam explosions of single drops of molten materials with pressure and flow (bubble growth) transients generated by discharging a capacitor bank through gold bridgewires placed underwater. Recent experimental and theoretical advances in the field of steam explosions, however, have made it important to substantially increase these relatively mild transients in water without using high explosives, if possible. To do this with the same capacitor bank, we have discharged similar energies through tiny strips of aluminum foil submerged in water. By replacing the gold wires with the aluminum strips, we were able to add the energy of the aluminum-water combustion to that normally deposited electrically by the bridgewire explosion in water. The chemical enhancement of the explosive characteristics of the discharges was substantial: when the same electrical energies were discharged through the aluminum strips, peak pressures increased as much as 12-fold and maximum bubble volumes as much as 5-fold above those generated with the gold wires. For given weights of aluminum, the magnitudes of both parameters appeared to exceed those produced by the underwater explosion of equivalent weights of high explosives.

HOGELAND, STEVE R.; NELSON, LLOYD S.; ROTH, THOMAS CHRISTOPHER

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

264

Wire-chamber radiation detector with discharge control  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A wire chamber; radiation detector has spaced apart parallel electrodes and grids defining an ignition region in which charged particles or other ionizing radiations initiate brief localized avalanche discharges and defining an adjacent memory region in which sustained glow discharges are initiated by the primary discharges. Conductors of the grids at each side of the memory section extend in orthogonal directions enabling readout of the X-Y coordinates of locations at which charged particles were detected by sequentially transmitting pulses to the conductors of one grid while detecting transmissions of the pulses to the orthogonal conductors of the other grid through glow discharges. One of the grids bounding the memory region is defined by an array of conductive elements each of which is connected to the associated readout conductor through a separate resistance. The wire chamber avoids ambiguities and imprecisions in the readout of coordinates when large numbers of simultaneous or; near simultaneous charged particles have been detected. Down time between detection periods and the generation of radio frequency noise are also reduced.

Perez-Mendez, V.; Mulera, T.A.

1982-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

265

Condenser for extreme-UV lithography with discharge source  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Condenser system, for use with a ringfield camera in projection lithography, employs quasi grazing-incidence collector mirrors that are coated with a suitable reflective metal such as ruthenium to collect radiation from a discharge source to minimize the effect of contaminant accumulation on the collecting mirrors.

Sweatt, William C. (Albuquerque, NM); Kubiak, Glenn D. (Livermore, CA)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

266

Use of microalgae to remove pollutants from power plant discharges  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method and system are described for removing pollutants dissolved in the aqueous discharge of a plant, such as a power plant, from a body of water having known hydraulic and physicochemical characteristics, the method comprising (a) modifying the hydraulic system of the body of water including use of physical barriers to define a zone in a portion of the body of water which zone includes the discharge point and where the water has a range of physicochemical characteristics; (b) selecting a large and preferably filamentous, planktonically growing strain of algae adapted to absorb the particular pollutants and genetically dominating algae at the physicochemical characteristics of the zone; (c) establishing a colony of the selected algal strain in the zone; (d) harvesting a portion of the colony; and (e) reinoculating the zone near the discharge point with a fraction of the harvested portion. The fraction used for reinoculation can be adjusted to balance the rate of pollutant removal to the rate of pollutant discharge. 4 figures.

Wilde, E.W.; Benemann, J.R.; Weissman, J.C.; Tillett, D.M.

1991-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

267

Brookhaven National Laboratory State Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (SPDES)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

;6 Alternate Disposal Options Hold & Haul · Collect waste in drums or tanks and ship offsite Small scale Influent: 100-200 ppt Clarifier: 5-45 ppt Discharge: 60- 120 ppt85% 15% Water table Under drain collection Groundwater: 2-9 ppt Sewage Treatment Plant Sand Filter Beds Rainwater: 5-9 ppt Aquifer #12;8 Factors

Homes, Christopher C.

268

COLLISIONLESS ELECTRON HEATING IN RF GAS DISCHARGES: I. QUASILINEAR THEORY  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

COLLISIONLESS ELECTRON HEATING IN RF GAS DISCHARGES: I. QUASILINEAR THEORY Yu.M. Aliev1 , I an interest in mechanisms of electron heating and power deposition in the plasma main- tained by radio parameters. Due to the large value of the mean free path (MFP) the main mechanism of electron heating turns

Kaganovich, Igor

269

SYNAPTIC MECHANISMS Weber's law implies neural discharge more regular than  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

SYNAPTIC MECHANISMS Weber's law implies neural discharge more regular than a Poisson process Jing, interspike interval, psychophysical law, spike rate Abstract Weber's law is one of the basic laws established. In this paper, we carried out an analysis on the spike train statistics when Weber's law holds

Feng, Jianfeng

270

High-speed micro-electro-discharge machining.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

When two electrodes are in close proximity in a dielectric liquid, application of a voltage pulse can produce a spark discharge between them, resulting in a small amount of material removal from both electrodes. Pulsed application of the voltage at discharge energies in the range of micro-Joules results in the continuous material removal process known as micro-electro-discharge machining (micro-EDM). Spark erosion by micro-EDM provides significant opportunities for producing small features and micro-components such as nozzle holes, slots, shafts and gears in virtually any conductive material. If the speed and precision of micro-EDM processes can be significantly enhanced, then they have the potential to be used for a wide variety of micro-machining applications including fabrication of microelectromechanical system (MEMS) components. Toward this end, a better understanding of the impacts the various machining parameters have on material removal has been established through a single discharge study of micro-EDM and a parametric study of small hole making by micro-EDM. The main avenues for improving the speed and efficiency of the micro-EDM process are in the areas of more controlled pulse generation in the power supply and more controlled positioning of the tool electrode during the machining process. Further investigation of the micro-EDM process in three dimensions leads to important design rules, specifically the smallest feature size attainable by the process.

Chandrasekar, Srinivasan Dr. (.School of Industrial Engineering, West Lafayette, IN); Moylan, Shawn P. (School of Industrial Engineering, West Lafayette, IN); Benavides, Gilbert Lawrence

2005-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

271

Estimating discharge in rivers using remotely sensed hydraulic information  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

SAR images of three braided rivers were coupled with channel slope data obtained from topographic maps­100%) of the observed, with the mean estimate accuracy within 10%. This level of accuracy was achieved using calibration functions developed from observed discharge. The calibration functions use reach specific geomorphic

Smith, Laurence C.

272

ICE SHEET SOURCES OF SEA LEVEL RISE AND FRESHWATER DISCHARGE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ICE SHEET SOURCES OF SEA LEVEL RISE AND FRESHWATER DISCHARGE DURING THE LAST DEGLACIATION Anders E the sources of sea level rise and freshwater dis- charge to the global oceans associated with retreat of ice­10 m sea level rise at 19.0­19.5 ka, sourced largely from Northern Hemisphere ice sheet retreat

Carlson, Anders

273

Treated wastewater discharged from municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) contains  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Treated wastewater discharged from municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) contains to provide rapid, field-ready, inexpen- sive testing of these chemicals in wastewater is also needed estrogenic chemicals, and 2) develop sensor technology for the rapid measure- ment in wastewater of two key

Fay, Noah

274

THE POSSIBILITY OF PRODUCING THERMONUCLEAR REACTIONS IN A GASEOUS DISCHARGE*  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

THE POSSIBILITY OF PRODUCING THERMONUCLEAR REACTIONS IN A GASEOUS DISCHARGE* I.V. Kurchatov of the energy of thermonuclear reactions. Physicists the world over are attracted by the extraordinarily interest- ing and very difficult task of controlling thermonuclear reactiom. Investigations in this field

275

Relationships Between Rate and Pattern of Unitary Discharges in Medial  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Department of Psychobiology, School of Biological Sciences, University of California, Iwine, California 92664, a relatively brief sample of the single-unit record is often the basis for characterizing the stimulus-response charac- teristics of a unit. If unit discharge char- acteristics are invariant over time, a sample record

Weinberger, Norman M.

276

Joint probability of precipitation and discharge deficits in the Netherlands  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Joint probability of precipitation and discharge deficits in the Netherlands Jules J. Beersma and T. Adri Buishand Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute, De Bilt, The Netherlands Received 14 April] The Netherlands are situated at the downstream end of the Rhine River. A large part of the country can be supplied

Beersma, Jules

277

High-intensity drying processes: Impulse drying. Annual report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Experiments were conducted on a sheet-fed pilot-scale shoe press to compare impulse drying and double-felted pressing. Both an IPST (Institute of Paper Science and Technology) ceramic coated and Beloit Type A press roll were evaluated for lienrboard sheet structures having a wide range of z-direction permeability. Purpose was to find ways of correcting sheet sticking problems observed in previous pilot-scale shoe press experiments. Results showed that impulse drying was superior to double felted pressing in both press dryness and in important paper physical properties. Impulse drying critical temperature was found to depend on specific surface of the heated layer of the sheet, thermal properties of the press roll surface, and choice of felt. Impulse drying of recycled and two-ply liner was demonstrated for both Southern Pile and Douglas fir-containing furnishes.

Orloff, D.I.; Phelan, P.M.

1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

278

High intensity proton operation at the Brookhaven AGS accelerator complex  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

With the completion of the AGS rf upgrade, and the implementation of a transition {open_quotes}jump{close_quotes}, all of accelerator systems were in place in 1994 to allow acceleration of the proton intensity available from the AGS Booster injector to AGS extraction energy and delivery to the high energy users. Beam commissioning results with these new systems are presented. Progress in identifying and overcoming other obstacles to higher intensity are given. These include a careful exploration of the stopband strengths present on the AGS injection magnetic porch, and implementation of the AGS single bunch transverse dampers throughout the acceleration cycle.

Ahrens, L.A.; Blaskiewicz, M.; Bleser, E.; Brennan, J.M.; Gardner, C.; Glenn, J.W.; Onillon, E.; Reece, R.K.; Roser, T.; Soukas, A. [and others

1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

279

FETSHIPSTER (Front End Test Stand High Intensity Proton Source for  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. · Activated samples would be supplied to collaborating institutes for post irradiation examination to a water cooled back plate Main Challenges ­ Potentially high heat flux to cooling water Pulsed power density results in unsteady sample temperature Temperature difference between sample and cooling plate

McDonald, Kirk

280

HIGH INTENSITY LOW-ENERGY POSITRON SOURCE AT JEFFERSON  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present a novel concept of a low-energy e{sup +} source with projected intensity on the order of 10{sup 10} slow e{sup +}/s. The key components of this concept are a continuous wave e{sup -} beam, a rotating positron-production target, a synchronized raster/anti-raster, a transport channel, and extraction of e{sup +} into a field-free area through a magnetic plug for moderation in a cryogenic solid. Components were designed in the framework of GEANT4-based (G4beamline) Monte Carlo simulation and TOSCA magnetic field calculation codes. Experimental data to demonstrate the effectiveness of the magnetic plug is presented.

Serkan Golge, Bogdan Wojtsekhowski, Branislav Vlahovic

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high-intensity discharge halogen" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Diffraction Gratings for High-Intensity Laser Applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The scattering of light into wavelength-dependent discrete directions (orders) by a device exhibiting a periodic modulation of a physical attribute on a spatial scale similar to the wavelength of light has been the subject of study for over 200 years. Such a device is called a diffraction grating. Practical applications of diffraction gratings, mainly for spectroscopy, have been around for over 100 years. The importance of diffraction gratings in spectroscopy for the measurement of myriad properties of matter can hardly be overestimated. Since the advent of coherent light sources (lasers) in the 1960's, applications of diffraction gratings in spectroscopy have further exploded. Lasers have opened a vast application space for gratings, and apace, gratings have enabled entirely new classes of laser systems. Excellent reviews of the history, fundamental properties, applications and manufacturing techniques of diffraction gratings up to the time of their publication can be found in the books by Hutley (1) and more recently Loewen and Popov (2). The limited scope of this chapter can hardly do justice to such a comprehensive subject, so the focus here will be narrowly limited to characteristics required for gratings suitable for high-power laser applications, and methods to fabricate them. A particular area of emphasis will be on maximally-efficient large-aperture gratings for short-pulse laser generation.

Britten, J

2008-01-23T23:59:59.000Z

282

PHOTOACOUSTIC IMAGING AND HIGH INTENSITY FOCUSED ULTRASOUND IN BIOMEDICAL APPLICATIONS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Optical and acoustical technologies for biomedical devices have been developed rapidly in the past years. These non-invasive technologies are used for diagnostic and therapeutic studies with great potential for improving ...

Jo, Janggu

2014-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

283

NEUTRALIZED TRANSPORT OF HIGH INTENSITY BEAMS E. Henestroza #  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for specific degrees of neutralization. PLASMA NEUTRALIZATION Neutralization is essential for focusing heavy (~ 10-3 Torr). Final focus magnet Target Volumetric plasma Converging ion beam Chamber Wall at the Heavy Ion Fusion Virtual National Laboratory is exploring the performance of neutralized final focus

Gilson, Erik

284

Evaluation of a High Intensity Focused Ultrasound-Immobilized...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

is simple, reproducible, cost effective, and rapid, and thus well-suited for automation. Citation: Lopez-Ferrer D, KK Hixson, HS Smallwood, TC Squier, K Petritis, and RD...

285

Title of dissertation: NOVEL APPLICATIONS OF HIGH INTENSITY FEMTOSECOND LASERS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-cycle seed pulse of terahertz radiation: a short, intense optical pulse (or sequence of pulses) aligns for amplification of few-cycle, high energy pulses of terahertz radiation. We report the development of corrugated the limitations of diffraction, phase matching, and material damage thresholds and promise to allow high

Anlage, Steven

286

High Intensity Gamma-Ray Source (HIGS) Program Advisory Committee  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsruc DocumentationP-SeriesFlickr FlickrGuidedCH2M HILLAdministration | National|Gradient

287

Ultra-High Intensity Magnetic Field Generation in Dense Plasma  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

I. Grant Objective The main objective of this grant proposal was to explore the efficient generation of intense currents. Whereasthefficient generation of electric current in low-­?energy-­? density plasma has occupied the attention of the magnetic fusion community for several decades, scant attention has been paid to carrying over to high-­?energy-­? density plasma the ideas for steady-­?state current drive developed for low-­?energy-­? density plasma, or, for that matter, to inventing new methodologies for generating electric current in high-­?energy-­?density plasma. What we proposed to do was to identify new mechanisms to accomplish current generation, and to assess the operation, physics, and engineering basis of new forms of current drive in regimes appropriate for new fusion concepts.

Fisch, Nathaniel J

2014-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

288

A LIQUID FILM STRIPPER FOR HIGH INTENSITY HEAVY ION BEAMS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Alonso, b. T. Leemann, "Fluorocarbon Stripping of Low Betalower the viscosity of the fluorocarbon diffusion pump oil "

Leemann, B.T.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

289

Evaluation of a High Intensity Focused Ultrasound-Immobilized Trypsin  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation ProposedUsing ZirconiaPolicy and Assistance100 ton

290

A High Intensity Positron Source at Saclay: The SOPHI Project  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We are building the SOPHI experiment in Saclay, which is a device based on a small 5 MeV electron linac to produce positrons via pair production on a tungsten target. This device should provide 10{sup 8} slow e{sup +}/s, i.e. a factor 300 greater than the strongest activity Na{sub 22} based setup. The SOPHI system has been finalized at the end of 2006 and the main components have been studied and built during 2007. The experiment is currently being assembled and first results are expected for autumn 2008. The electron linac, positron beam production and transport system will be presented, and expected positron production rate reported.

Rey, J.-M.; Blideanu, V.; Carty, M.; Coulloux, G.; Curtoni, A.; Delferriere, O.; Liszkay, L.; Perez, P.; Ruiz, N.; Sauce, Y. [CEA-Saclay, DSM/IRFU, 91191 Gif sur Yvette (France); Forest, F.; Lancelot, J. L.; Neuveglise, D. [SIGMAPHI, Z.I. du Prat, Rue des freres Montgolfier, Vannes, Morbihan 56000 (France)

2009-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

291

Applications of Cu{sub 2}O octahedral particles on ITO glass in photocatalytic degradation of dye pollutants under a halogen tungsten lamp  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Photocatalytic activity of Cu{sub 2}O octahedral microcrystals on ITO glass was studied. • They showed high abilities in degradation of methylene blue in the presence of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. • H{sub 2}O{sub 2} amount could affect the degradation efficiency. • Such particles could be easily recycled and still kept high activity. • Many dye pollutants and their mixtures could be efficiently degraded. - Abstract: Cu{sub 2}O octahedral microcrystals were prepared on the ITO glass by galvanostatic electrodeposition in CuSO{sub 4} solution with poly(vinylpryrrolidone) as the surfactant. By controlling the electrodeposition time, the microcrystals could be randomly distributed on the ITO glass and separated from each other, resulting in as many as possible (1 1 1) crystalline planes were exposed. Such microcrystals immobilized on ITO glass were employed in photodegradation of dye pollutants in the presence of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} under a 150 W halogen tungsten lamp. The photodegradation of methylene blue was taken as an example to evaluate the photocatalytic activities of the octahedral Cu{sub 2}O microcrystals. Effects of electrodeposition time and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} amount on the degradation efficiency was discussed, giving the optimum conditions and the corresponding degradation mechanism. The catalyst showed high ability in degradation of methylene blue, methyl orange, rhodamine B, eosin B and their mixtures under identical conditions.

Zhai, Wei [School of Chemistry and Environment, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Sun, Fengqiang, E-mail: fqsun@scnu.edu.cn [School of Chemistry and Environment, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Key Laboratory of Theoretical Chemistry of Environment, Ministry of Education, South China Normal University (China); Exhibition Base of Production, Study and Research on New Polymer Materials and Postgraduate Students’ Innovation Training of Guangdong Higher Education Institutes (China); Chen, Wei; Zhang, Lihe; Min, Zhilin; Li, Weishan [School of Chemistry and Environment, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China)

2013-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

292

Macroscopic behavior and discrete dynamo in high-[Theta] reversed-field pinch discharges  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) activity and the discrete dynamo in high-[Theta] reversed-field pinch (RFP) discharges are studied through comparisons with those in normal-[Theta] RFP discharges, where [Theta]=[ital B][sub [theta

Arimoto, H.; Nakamura, A.; Sato, K.I.; Nagata, A.; Ando, T.; Kubota, S.; Masamune, S.; Nagatsu, M.; Tsukishima, T. (Plasma Science Center, Nagoya University, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-01 (Japan))

1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

293

Utah Code Ann. § 19-5-107: Discharge of pollutants unlawful...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Ann. 19-5-107: Discharge of pollutants unlawful -- Discharge permit required Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document- StatuteStatute:...

294

Microdischarge-assisted ignition of dielectric-barrier high-pressure glow discharges  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in the ignition of high-pressure arc lamps8 and volume dc discharges.6 Here, we employ a hybrid discharge source of uniform, nonequilibrium glow plasmas for a variety of applications at pressures of 100

Raja, Laxminarayan L.

295

E-Print Network 3.0 - air vents discharge Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1519 6.2. Compressed air energy storage... and discharge rates for many cycles. Indeed, the high cycling...

296

E-Print Network 3.0 - abnormal glow discharge Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Collection: Mathematics 24 Transition from Townsend to glow discharge: Subcritical, mixed, or supercritical characteristics Danijela D. Sijacic1 Summary: Transition...

297

Experimental Effects of Atomic Oxygen on the Development of an Electric Discharge Oxygen Iodine Laser  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

state I. Conventionally, a two-phase (gas-liquid) chemistry singlet oxygen generator (SOG) producesExperimental Effects of Atomic Oxygen on the Development of an Electric Discharge Oxygen Iodine of the electric discharge iodine laser continues, the role of oxygen atoms downstream of the discharge region

Carroll, David L.

298

Transition from Townsend to glow discharge: Subcritical, mixed, or supercritical characteristics Danijela D. Sijacic1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Transition from Townsend to glow discharge: Subcritical, mixed, or supercritical characteristics, the transition from Townsend to glow discharge can show the textbook subcritical behavior, but for smaller values long discharges that have a clearly pronounced subcritical characteristics, i.e., for fixed large pd

Ebert, Ute

299

Light Emission of Argon Discharges: Importance of Heavy Particle Processes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Simulation studies on argon glow discharges established between flat disc electrodes, at pressure x electrode separation (pd) of 45 Pa cm are reported, with special attention to heavy-particle processes including excitation-induced light emission. The discharges are investigated through self-consistent hybrid modelling, consisting of a fluid description for components near local hydrodynamic equilibrium (slow electrons and ions), and Monte Carlo treatment of energetic electrons and heavy particles (ions and neutral atoms). The light emission profiles are analyzed for a wide range of operating conditions. The numerical results for the relative intensities and the shapes of the negative glow (created by electron impact excitation) and the cathode glow (created by heavy particle impact excitation) are in good agreement with experimental data obtained by Maric et al.

Hartmann, Peter [Research Institute for Solid State Physics and Optics, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, POB 49, H-1525 Budapest (Hungary)

2004-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

300

Spent nuclear fuel discharges from US reactors 1993  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Energy Information Administration (EIA) of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) administers the Nuclear Fuel Data Survey, Form RW-859. This form is used to collect data on fuel assemblies irradiated at commercial nuclear reactors operating in the United States, and the current inventories and storage capacities of those reactors. These data are important to the design and operation of the equipment and facilities that DOE will use for the future acceptance, transportation, and disposal of spent fuels. The data collected and presented identifies trends in burnup, enrichment, and spent nuclear fuel discharged form commercial light-water reactor as of December 31, 1993. The document covers not only spent nuclear fuel discharges; but also site capacities and inventories; canisters and nonfuel components; and assembly type characteristics.

Not Available

1995-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high-intensity discharge halogen" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Lead acid battery pulse discharge investigation. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The effects of high current pulses caused by electric vehicle silicon-controlled rectifier and transistor chopper controllers on battery energy, lifetime, and microstructure were studied. Test equipment and results are described. It was found that the energy of improved golf cart-type batteries deteriorated under pulsed conditions by about 10% with respect to dc conditions for pulses between 16 and 333 Hz - no difference was noted above 333 Hz. Frequencies and duty cycles characteristic of electric vehicle controllers produce ampere-hour capacities similar in magnitude to dc discharges of the same average currents. The amount of positive plate corrosion under pulsed conditions was about twice that ot the unpulsed. Unusually large lead sulfate crystals were found in isolated colonies in pulsed plates, whereas a battery that had been discharged each cycle at an equivalent steady state did not show these large crystals. 5 figures, 3 tables. (RWR)

Dowgiallo, E

1980-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

302

Optogalvanic effect in a hollow cathode discharge with nonlaser sources  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Several atomic emission sources were investigated for their potential to induce optogalvanic signals in hollow cathode lamps. The sources included an inductively coupled argon plasma, a H/sub 2/--O/sub 2/ flame, a high-temperature furnace, electrodeless microwave discharge lamps, and hollow cathode lamps. Successful results were obtained with argon emission from the inductively coupled plasma focused into an argon-filled hollow cathode tube and with atomic emission from one hollow cathode discharge focused into a hollow cathode tube containing the same element. Very low level optogalvanic signals were observed from the other sources but could not be unambiguously ascribed to emission from a specific element. A problem encountered was the presence of a background signal due to photoelectric emission and possibly radiative heating of the cathode.

Apel, C.T.; Keller, R.A.; Zalewski, E.F.; Engleman, R. Jr.

1982-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

303

Temporal process of plasma discharge by an electron beam  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The process of the plasma discharge due to an electron beam is experimentally investigated. A pulse ({approximately}540 {mu}s) of an electron beam (0.5{endash}1.5 keV, {le}20 mA) is injected into argon gas (5{times}10{sup {minus}5}{endash}5{times}10{sup {minus}4} Torr) in a magnetic field (50{endash}300 G). The discharge based on a gas break down occurs cascade-likely in time. The gas beak down with some steps is explained by the two stream instability of an electron beam-plasma system, from the observation of the temporal evolution of the frequency spectra (0{endash}3.0 GHz) of the instability and the measurement of the temporal plasma density and temperature. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

Sugawa, M.; Sugaya, R.; Isobe, S.; Kumar, A. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Ehime University, Matsuyama 790 (Japan); Honda, H. [Institute of Laser Engineering, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka 565 (Japan)

1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

304

Redox reactions with empirical potentials: Atomistic battery discharge simulations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Batteries are pivotal components in overcoming some of today's greatest technological challenges. Yet to date there is no self-consistent atomistic description of a complete battery. We take first steps toward modeling of a battery as a whole microscopically. Our focus lies on phenomena occurring at the electrode-electrolyte interface which are not easily studied with other methods. We use the redox split-charge equilibration (redoxSQE) method that assigns a discrete ionization state to each atom. Along with exchanging partial charges across bonds, atoms can swap integer charges. With redoxSQE we study the discharge behavior of a nano-battery, and demonstrate that this reproduces the generic properties of a macroscopic battery qualitatively. Examples are the dependence of the battery's capacity on temperature and discharge rate, as well as performance degradation upon recharge.

Dapp, Wolf B

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

305

Focused shock spark discharge drill using multiple electrodes  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A spark discharge focused drill provided with one pulse forming line or a number of pulse forming lines. The pulse forming line is connected to an array of electrodes which would form a spark array. One of the electrodes of each of the array is connected to the high voltage side of the pulse forming line and the other electrodes are at ground potential. When discharged in a liquid, these electrodes produce intense focused shock waves that can pulverize or fracture rock. By delaying the firing of each group of electrodes, the drill can be steered within the earth. Power can be fed to the pulse forming line either downhole or from the surface area. A high voltage source, such as a Marx generator, is suitable for pulse charging the lines.

Moeny, William M. (Albuquerque, NM); Small, James G. (Albuquerque, NM)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

306

Equilibrium analysis of tokamak discharges with toroidal variation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Tokamaks provide a field structure that is almost axisymmetric around the torus axis. There are however always small toroidal variations due to the limited number of toroidal field coils, the magnetic field ripple. On the other hand, non-axisymmetric external fields are applied on purpose to ergodise the field structure close to the separatrix, to control the heat and particle transport across the plasma boundary. We present a perturbation method to calculate the magnetic field of tokamak discharges with with weak toroidal variation. The method is applied for the equilibrium reconstruction of Tore Supra discharges with toroidal ripple. The perturbation method does not rely on a flux surface representation and can therefore be applied to structures with magnetic islands. We obtain the plasma response to the field of ergodising external coils, as proposed for the ITER device.

Zwingmann, W.; Becoulet, M.; Moreau, Ph.; Nardon, E. [Ass Euratom-CEA/DSM/DRFC Cadarache, 13108 St.-Paul-Lez-Durance (France)

2006-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

307

Machinability of a Stainless Steel by Electrochemical Discharge Microdrilling  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Due to the chemical elements included in their structure for ensuring an increased resistance to the environment action, the stainless steels are characterized by a low machinability when classical machining methods are applied. For this reason, sometimes non-traditional machining methods are applied, one of these being the electrochemical discharge machining. To obtain microholes and to evaluate the machinability by electrochemical discharge microdrilling, test pieces of stainless steel were used for experimental research. The electrolyte was an aqueous solution of sodium silicate with different densities. A complete factorial plan was designed to highlight the influence of some input variables on the sizes of the considered machinability indexes (electrode tool wear, material removal rate, depth of the machined hole). By mathematically processing of experimental data, empirical functions were established both for stainless steel and carbon steel. Graphical representations were used to obtain more suggestive vision concerning the influence exerted by the considered input variables on the size of the machinability indexes.

Coteata, Margareta; Pop, Nicolae; Slatineanu, Laurentiu ['Gheorghe Asachi' Technical University of Iasi, Department of Machine Manufacturing Technology, Blvd. D Mangeron 59A, 700050 Iasi (Romania); Schulze, Hans-Peter [Otto-von-Guericke-University Magdeburg, Institute of Fundamental Electrical Engineering and EMC Universitaetsplatz 2, D-39106 Magdeburg (Germany); Besliu, Irina [University 'Stefan cel Mare' of Suceava, Department of Technologies and Management, Str. Universitatii, 13, 720 229 Suceava (Romania)

2011-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

308

Depth Profile Analysis of New Materials in Hollow Cathode Discharge  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this review the possibility of hollow cathode discharge for depth profile analysis is demonstrated for several new materials: planar optical waveguides fabricated by Ag+-Na+ ion exchange process in glasses, SnO2 thin films for gas sensors modified by hexamethildisilazane after rapid thermal annealing, W- and WC- CVD layers deposited on Co-metalloceramics and WO3- CVD thin films deposited on glass. The results are compared with different standard techniques.

Djulgerova, R.; Mihailov, V.; Gencheva, V.; Popova, L.; Panchev, B. [Institute of Solid State Physics - Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 1784 Sofia (Bulgaria); Michaylova, V. [Technical University of Sofia, 1797 Sofia (Bulgaria); Szytula, A.; Gondek, L.; Dohnalik, T.M. [Smoluchowski Institute of Physics - Jagellonian University, 30-059 Cracow (Poland); Petrovic, Z.Lj. [Institute of Physics, 11080 Zemun, Belgrade (Serbia and Montenegro)

2004-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

309

Method and apparatus for processing exhaust gas with corona discharge  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention is placing a catalyst coating upon surfaces surrounding a volume containing corona discharge. In addition, the electrodes are coated with a robust dielectric material. Further, the electrodes are arranged so that at least a surface portion of each electrode extends into a flow path of the exhaust gas to be treated and there is only exhaust gas in the volume between each pair of electrodes. 12 figs.

Barlow, S.E.; Orlando, T.M.; Tonkyn, R.G.

1999-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

310

Negative ion source with hollow cathode discharge plasma  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A negative ion source of the type where negative ions are formed by bombarding a low-work-function surface with positive ions and neutral particles from a plasma, wherein a highly ionized plasma is injected into an anode space containing the low-work-function surface is described. The plasma is formed by hollow cathode discharge and injected into the anode space along the magnetic field lines. Preferably, the negative ion source is of the magnetron type.

Hershcovitch, A.; Prelec, K.

1980-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

311

The Use of DC Glow Discharges as Undergraduate Educational Tools  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Plasmas have a beguiling way of getting students excited and interested in physics. We argue that plasmas can and should be incorporated into the undergraduate curriculum as both demonstrations and advanced investigations of electromagnetism and quantum effects. Our device, based on a direct current (DC) glow discharge tube, allows for a number of experiments into topics such as electrical breakdown, spectroscopy, magnetism, and electron temperature.

Stephanie A. Wissel and Andrew Zwicker, Jerry Ross, and Sophia Gershman

2012-10-09T23:59:59.000Z

312

Reactor-specific spent fuel discharge projections: 1985 to 2020  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The creation of four spent-fuel data bases that contain information on the projected amounts of spent fuel to be discharged from US commercial nuclear reactors through the year 2020 is described. The data bases contain detailed spent-fuel information from existing, planned, and projected pressurized water reactors (PWR) and boiling water reactors (BWR). The projections are based on individual reactor information supplied by the US reactor owners. The basic information is adjusted to conform to Energy Information Agency (EIA) forecasts for nuclear installed capacity, generation, and spent fuel discharged. The EIA cases considered are: (1) No New Orders with Extended Burnup, (2) No New Orders with Constant Burnup, (3) Middle Case with Extended Burnup, and (4) Middle Case with Constant Burnup. Detailed, by-reactor tables are provided for annual discharged amounts of spent fuel, for storage requirements assuming maximum-at-reactor storage, and for storage requirements assuming maximum-at-reactor plus intra-utility transshipment of spent fuel.

Heeb, C.M.; Libby, R.A.; Walling, R.C.; Purcell, W.L.

1986-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

Ignition and extinction phenomena in helium micro hollow cathode discharges  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Micro hollow cathode discharges (MHCD) were produced using 250??m thick dielectric layer of alumina sandwiched between two nickel electrodes of 8??m thickness. A through cavity at the center of the chip was formed by laser drilling technique. MHCD with a diameter of few hundreds of micrometers allowed us to generate direct current discharges in helium at up to atmospheric pressure. A slowly varying ramped voltage generator was used to study the ignition and the extinction periods of the microdischarges. The analysis was performed by using electrical characterisation of the V-I behaviour and the measurement of He*({sup 3}S{sub 1}) metastable atoms density by tunable diode laser spectroscopy. At the ignition of the microdischarges, 2??s long current peak as high as 24?mA was observed, sometimes followed by low amplitude damped oscillations. At helium pressure above 400?Torr, an oscillatory behaviour of the discharge current was observed just before the extinction of the microdischarges. The same type of instability in the extinction period at high pressure also appeared on the density of He*({sup 3}S{sub 1}) metastable atoms, but delayed by a few ?s relative to the current oscillations. Metastable atoms thus cannot be at the origin of the generation of the observed instabilities.

Kulsreshath, M. K.; Schwaederle, L.; Dufour, T.; Lefaucheux, P.; Dussart, R. [GREMI, CNRS/Université d'Orléans (UMR7344), Orléans (France); Sadeghi, N. [LIPhy, CNRS and Universite Joseph Fourier (UMR5588), Grenoble (France); Overzet, L. J. [GREMI, CNRS/Université d'Orléans (UMR7344), Orléans (France); PSAL, UTDallas, Richardson, Texas 75080-3021 (United States)

2013-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

314

Reactor-specific spent fuel discharge projections, 1987-2020  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The creation of five reactor-specific spent fuel data bases that contain information on the projected amounts of spent fuel to be discharged from U.S. commercial nuclear reactors through the year 2020 is described. The data bases contain detailed spent fuel information from existing, planned, and projected pressurized water reactors (PWR) and boiling water eactors (BWR), and one existing high temperature gas reactor (HTGR). The projections are based on individual reactor information supplied by the U.S. reactor owners. The basic information is adjusted to conform to Energy Information Administration (EIA) forecasts for nuclear installed capacity, generation, and spent fuel discharged. The EIA cases considered are: No New Orders (assumes increasing burnup), No New Orders with No Increased Burnup, Upper Reference (assumes increasing burnup), Upper Reference with No Increased Burnup, and Lower Reference (assumes increasing burnup). Detailed, by-reactor tables are provided for annual discharged amounts of spent fuel, for storage requirements assuming maximum at-reactor storage, and for storage requirements assuming maximum at-reactor storage plus intra-utility transshipment of spent fuel. 8 refs., 8 figs., 10 tabs.

Walling, R.C.; Heeb, C.M.; Purcell, W.L.

1988-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

COMMENTS ON THE SEARCH FOR ELECTROSTATIC DISCHARGES ON MARS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ruf et al. used the Deep Space Network (DSN) to search for the emission of non-thermal radiation by martian dust storms, theoretically predicted by Renno et al. They detected the emission of non-thermal radiation that they were searching for, but were surprised that it contained spectral peaks suggesting modulation at various frequencies and their harmonics. Ruf et al. hypothesized that the emission of non-thermal radiation was caused by electric discharges in a deep convective dust storm, modulated by Schumann resonances (SRs). Anderson et al. used the Allen Telescope Array (ATA) to search for similar emissions. They stated that they found only radio frequency interference (RFI) during their search for non-thermal emission by martian dust storms and implicitly suggested that the signal detected by Ruf et al. was also RFI. However, their search was not conducted during the dust storm season when deep convective storms are most likely to occur. Here, we show that the ubiquitous dust devils and small-scale dust storms that were instead likely present during their observations are too shallow to excite SRs and produce the signals detected by Ruf et al. We also show that the spectral and temporal behavior of the signals detected by Anderson et al. corroborates the idea that they originated from man-made pulse-modulated telecommunication signals rather than martian electric discharges. In contrast, an identical presentation of the signals detected by Ruf et al. demonstrates that they do not resemble man-made signals. The presentation indicates that the DSN signals were consistent with modulation by martian SRs, as originally hypothesized by Ruf et al. We propose that a more comprehensive search for electrostatic discharges be conducted with either the ATA or DSN during a future martian dust storm season to test the hypothesis proposed by Ruf et al.

Renno, Nilton O.; Ruf, Christopher S., E-mail: renno@alum.mit.edu [Atmospheric, Oceanic and Space Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

2012-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

316

Dusty Plasma in He-Ar Glow Discharge  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The paper reports on the first experiments with plasma-dust formations in dc gas discharge plasma for He-Ar mixture. It is shown that under the conventional conditions of the experiments with dusty structures in plasma, the choice of light and heavy gases for the mixture suppresses electron heating in electric field and results in a supersonic jet with high Mach numbers. Distribution functions for drifting ions in the gas mixture are calculated for various mixture concentrations, electric field strengths and gas pressures.

Maiorov, S. A. [A. M. Prokhorov Institute for General Physics under Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Ramazanov, T. S.; Dzhumagulova, K. N.; Dosbolayev, M. K.; Jumabekov, A. N. [IETP, al-Farabi Kazakh National University, 96a, Tole bi St., Almaty, 050012 (Kazakhstan)

2008-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

317

Surface charge in dielectric barrier discharge plasma actuators  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Direct measurements of the dielectric surface potential and its dynamics in asymmetric dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma actuators show that the charge builds up at the dielectric surface and extends far downstream of the plasma. The surface charge persists for a long time (tens of minutes) after the driving voltage has been turned off. For a sinusoidal voltage waveform, the dielectric surface charges positively. With the voltage waveform consisting of nanosecond pulses superimposed on a dc bias, the sign of the dielectric surface charge is the same as the sign (polarity) of the bias voltage. The surface charging significantly affects DBD plasma actuator performance.

Opaits, D. F.; Shneider, M. N.; Miles, Richard B. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States); Likhanskii, A. V. [Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802 (United States); Macheret, S. O. [Lockheed Martin Aeronautics Company, Palmdale, California 93599 (United States)

2008-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

318

Ethanol reforming in non-equilibrium plasma of glow discharge  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The results of a detailed kinetic study of the main plasma chemical processes in non-equilibrium ethanol/argon plasma are presented. It is shown that at the beginning of the discharge the molecular hydrogen is mainly generated in the reaction of ethanol H-abstraction. Later hydrogen is formed from active H, CH2OH and CH3CHOH and formaldehyde. Comparison with experimental data has shown that the used kinetic mechanism predicts well the concentrations of main species at the reactor outlet.

Levko, D

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

319

Synthesizing aluminum particles towards controlling electrostatic discharge ignition sensitivity  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Aluminum particles were synthesized with shell thicknesses ranging from 2.7 to 8.3 nm and a constant diameter of 95 nm. These fuel particles were combined with molybdenum trioxide particles and the electrostatic discharge (ESD) sensitivity of the mixture was measured. Results show ignition delay increased as the alumina shell thickness increased. These results correlated with electrical resistivity measurements of the mixture which increased with alumina concentration. A model was developed using COMSOL for ignition of a single Al particle. The ignition delay in the model was consistent with the experimental results suggesting that the primary ESD ignition mechanism is joule heating.

Eric S. Collins; Jeffery P. Gesner; Michelle L. Pantoya; Michael A. Daniels

2014-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

320

A model for the self-pulsing regime of microhollow cathode discharges  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Microhollow cathode discharges may operate in different regimes depending of the discharge current. They are subject to relaxation oscillations in the so-called self-pulsing regime in which the discharge oscillates between two quasiequilibria: at low current it remains confined in the microhole whereas it expands on the cathode backside during short high-current pulses. A model based on a nonlinear discharge resistance is proposed to describe the phenomenon. The analysis of the dynamics reveals that the current pulse rises in an extremely short time while the characteristic (longer) decay time is imposed by the resistance when the discharge is expanded outside the hole. It is shown how the nonlinear discharge resistance may be inferred from the experimental current-voltage signals.

Chabert, P.; Lazzaroni, C.; Rousseau, A. [LPP, Ecole Polytechnique, UPMC, CNRS, Paris XI, 91128 Palaiseau (France)

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high-intensity discharge halogen" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Modeling a short dc discharge with thermionic cathode and auxiliary anode  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A short dc discharge with a thermionic cathode can be used as a current and voltage stabilizer, but is subject to current oscillation. If instead of one anode two anodes are used, the current oscillations can be reduced. We have developed a kinetic model of such a discharge with two anodes, where the primary anode has a small opening for passing a fraction of the discharge current to an auxiliary anode. The model demonstrates that the current-voltage relationship of the discharge with two anodes is characterized everywhere by positive slope, i.e., positive differential resistance. Therefore, the discharge with two anodes is expected to be stable to the spontaneous oscillation in current that is induced by negative differential resistance. As a result, such a discharge can be used in an engineering application that requires stable plasma, such as a current and voltage stabilizer.

Bogdanov, E. [St. Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg 199034 (Russian Federation) [St. Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg 199034 (Russian Federation); University ITMO, Kronverkskiy pr. 49, St. Petersburg 197101 (Russian Federation); Demidov, V. I. [St. Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg 199034 (Russian Federation) [St. Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg 199034 (Russian Federation); West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia 26506 (United States); Kaganovich, I. D. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States)] [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States); Koepke, M. E. [West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia 26506 (United States)] [West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia 26506 (United States); Kudryavtsev, A. A. [St. Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg 199034 (Russian Federation)] [St. Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg 199034 (Russian Federation)

2013-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

322

Regulations For State Administration Of The National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (Arkansas)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Regulations For State Administration Of The National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) is created Pursuant to the provisions of the Arkansas Water and Air Pollution Control Act,...

323

Long range temporal correlation in the chaotic oscillations of a dc glow discharge plasma  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Long range temporal correlations in the fluctuations of the plasma floating potentials (measured using a Langmuir probe) are investigated in a dc glow discharge plasma. Keeping the neutral pressure constant, the discharge voltage was varied and at the formation of the plasma, quasi periodic oscillations were excited and on further increase of the discharge voltage they became chaotic (irregular) beyond a threshold voltage. We compared the Lyapunov exponent with the Hurst exponent obtained from R/S statistics which showed an opposite behaviour at the transition point. These results are perhaps new since we have not come across such comparative analysis for chaotic oscillations in a glow discharge plasma before.

Lahiri, S. [Dinabandhu Mahavidyalaya, Bongaon, North 24 Parganas, Kolkata 743235 (India); Roychowdhury, D. [Techno India, EM4/1 Sector V, Salt Lake, Kolkata 700091 (India); Sekar Iyengar, A. N. [Plasma Physics Division, Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF Bidhannagar, Kolkata 700064 (India)

2012-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

324

Self-excited nonlinear plasma series resonance oscillations in geometrically symmetric capacitively coupled radio frequency discharges  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

At low pressures, nonlinear self-excited plasma series resonance (PSR) oscillations are known to drastically enhance electron heating in geometrically asymmetric capacitively coupled radio frequency discharges by nonlinear electron resonance heating (NERH). Here we demonstrate via particle-in-cell simulations that high-frequency PSR oscillations can also be excited in geometrically symmetric discharges if the driving voltage waveform makes the discharge electrically asymmetric. This can be achieved by a dual-frequency (f+2f) excitation, when PSR oscillations and NERH are turned on and off depending on the electrical discharge asymmetry, controlled by the phase difference of the driving frequencies.

Donko, Z. [Research Institute for Solid State Physics and Optics, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 49, H-1525 Budapest (Hungary); Schulze, J.; Czarnetzki, U.; Luggenhoelscher, D. [Institute for Plasma and Atomic Physics, Ruhr-University Bochum, Bochum 44780 (Germany)

2009-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

325

E-Print Network 3.0 - assisted discharge cleaning Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

will discharge to a gravel bed for absorption into the ground. 99 Source: Pint, Bruce A. - Materials Science & Technology Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory...

326

E-Print Network 3.0 - act thermal discharge Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

has been investigated using a hollow cathode discharge Source: Howard, John - Plasma Research Laboratory, Research School of Physical Sciences and Engineering, Australian...

327

Active electron energy distribution function control in direct current discharge using an auxiliary electrode  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The electron energy distribution functions are studied in the low voltage dc discharge with a constriction, which is a diaphragm with an opening. The dc discharge glows in helium and is sustained by the electron current emitted from a heated cathode. We performed kinetic simulations of dc discharge characteristics and electron energy distribution functions for different gas pressures (0.8 Torr-4 Torr) and discharge current of 0.1 A. The results of these simulations indicate the ability to control the shape of the electron energy distribution functions by variation of the diaphragm opening radius.

Schweigert, I. V. [Institute of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation) [Institute of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); George Washington University, Washington, DC 20052 (United States); Kaganovich, I. D. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States)] [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Demidov, V. I. [West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26506 (United States) [West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26506 (United States); St. Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

2013-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

328

Nonlocal control of electron temperature in short direct current glow discharge plasma  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

To demonstrate controlling the electron temperature in nonlocal plasma, experiments have been performed on a short (without positive column) dc glow discharge with a cold cathode by applying different voltages to the conducting discharge wall. The experiments have been performed for low-pressure noble gas discharges. The applied voltage can modify trapping the energetic electrons emitted from the cathode sheath and arising from the atomic and molecular processes in the plasma within the device volume. This phenomenon results in the energetic electrons heating the slow plasma electrons, which consequently modifies the electron temperature. Furthermore, a numerical model of the discharge has demonstrated the electron temperature modification for the above case.

Demidov, V. I. [Department of Optics and Spectroscopy, St. Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg 199034 (Russian Federation); International Laboratory “Nonlocal Plasma in Nanotechnology and Medicine”, ITMO University, Kronverkskiy pr. 49, St. Petersburg 197101 (Russian Federation); Department of Physics and Astronomy, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia 26506 (United States); Kudryavtsev, A. A.; Stepanova, O. M. [Department of Optics and Spectroscopy, St. Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg 199034 (Russian Federation); Kurlyandskaya, I. P. [International Laboratory “Nonlocal Plasma in Nanotechnology and Medicine”, ITMO University, Kronverkskiy pr. 49, St. Petersburg 197101 (Russian Federation); St. Petersburg University of State Fire Service of EMERCOM RF, Murmansk Branch, Murmansk 183040 (Russian Federation)

2014-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

329

E-Print Network 3.0 - assisted discharge inductive Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

studies Summary: words: capacity fade, interfacial impedance, lithium ion batterysupercapacitor hybrid, pulse discharge... supercapacitor hybrid and a battery alone has been...

330

Medication Adherence and Health Care Utilization among Schizophrenia Inpatients after Discharged: A Cohort Study in Taiwan.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Purpose: This study investigate the relationship and factors between medication adherence and health care utilization among Schizophrenia inpatients after discharged, for reducing relapse rate, helping… (more)

Lin, Pei-Yu

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

331

Micro Electro Discharge Machining of Electrically Nonconductive Ceramics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

EDM is a known process for machining of hard and brittle materials. Due to its noncontact and nearly forceless behaviour, it has been introduced into micro manufacturing and through constant development it is now an important means for producing high-precision micro geometries. One restriction of EDM is its limitation to electrically conducting materials.Today many applications, especially in the biomedical field, make use of the benefits of ceramic materials, such as high strength, very low wear and biocompatibility. Common ceramic materials such as Zirconium dioxide are, due to their hardness in the sintered state, difficult to machine with conventional cutting techniques. A demand for the introduction of EDM to these materials could so far not be satisfied because of their nonconductive nature.At the Chemnitz University of Technology and the Fraunhofer IWU, investigations in the applicability of micro-EDM for the machining of nonconductive ceramics are being conducted. Tests are undertaken using micro-EDM drilling with Tungsten carbide tool electrodes and ZrO{sub 2} ceramic workpieces. A starting layer, in literature often referred to as 'assisting electrode' is used to set up a closed electric circuit to start the EDM process. Combining carbon hydride based dielectric and a specially designed low-frequency vibration setup to excite the workpiece, the process environment can be held within parameters to allow for a constant EDM process even after the starting layer is machined. In the experiments a cylindrical 120 {mu}m diameter Tungsten carbide tool electrode and Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}- and MgO- stabilized ZrO{sub 2} worpieces are used. The current and voltage signals of the discharges within the different stages of the process (machining of the starting layer, machining of the base material, transition stage) are recorded and their characteristics compared to discharges in metallic material. Additionally, the electrode feed is monitored. The influences of the process parameters are analysed with regard to the discharge type, electrode wear and process speed.Using the found parameters, micro geometries can be successfully machined into nonconductive Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}- and MgO- stabilized ZrO{sub 2} ceramic by means of micro-EDM.

Schubert, A. [Chair Micromanufacturing Technology, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Chemnitz University of Technology, 09107 Chemnitz (Germany); Fraunhofer Institute for Machine Tools and Forming Technology IWU, 09126 Chemnitz (Germany); Zeidler, H.; Hackert, M. [Chair Micromanufacturing Technology, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Chemnitz University of Technology, 09107 Chemnitz (Germany); Wolf, N. [Fraunhofer Institute for Machine Tools and Forming Technology IWU, 09126 Chemnitz (Germany)

2011-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

332

One-dimensional simulations of reversed field pinch discharges  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A simple one-dimensional time-dependent model for simulating the magnetic field profiles in a reversed field pinch (RFP) plasma is presented. The model, which is derived from basic MHD equations with the addition of a phenomenological dynamo electric field, is able, through the tuning of a few free parameters, to simulate the time evolution of RFP discharges in a large range of operating conditions, successfully reproducing quantities such as the average toroidal field, the loop voltage and the on-axis safety factor. The application to several experimental conditions obtained on the RFX-mod machine [P. Sonato et al., Fusion Eng. Des. 66, 161 (2003)], including oscillating poloidal current drive (OPCD) is shown and the simulation outcome is discussed.

Martines, E.; Spagnolo, S. [Consorzio RFX, Associazione Euratom-ENEA sulla Fusione, Padova (Italy)

2008-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

333

Atlas of uranium emission intensities in a hollow cathode discharge  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The uranium emission spectrum from a hollow cathode discharge is displayed from 11,000 to 26,000 cm/sup -1/. This atlas lists 4928 spectral lines of uranium; 3949 are classified to the neutral spectrum and 431 are classified to the singly ionized spectrum. Listed wavenumbers are accurate to +-0.003 cm/sup -1/ and the listed relative intensities to +-8%. The richness of the spectrum makes this atlas useful for wavenumber calibration of lasers, spectrographs, and monochromators to an accuracy of 1 part in 10/sup 7/. This atlas is also useful as a guide to the uranium spectrum, and relative oscillator strengths (gf values) can be calculated from the intensities to a precision of +-20%.

Palmer, B.A.; Keller, R.A.; Engleman, R. Jr.

1980-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

334

Long-term multipactor discharge in multicarrier systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A new mechanism of long-term multipactor in multicarrier systems is studied employing both analytical and numerical methods. In particular, the investigation is focused on the impact that a realistic secondary emission yield at low energies produces on the development of long term multipactor. A novel analytical model for this interperiod charge accumulation is presented using the traditional multipactor theory for parallel plates, and approximating the multicarrier signal as a single-carrier signal modulated by a pulsed signal envelope. The analytical predictions are verified by numerical simulations for a typical rectangular waveguide. The analytical and numerical results demonstrate that the susceptibility of the system to develop a long-term multipactor discharge increases with higher values of low-energy secondary emission yield.

Anza, S.; Vicente, C.; Gimeno, B.; Boria, V. E.; Armendariz, J. [Aurora Software and Testing S.L., Parque Cientifico Universitat de Valencia, Poligono 'La Coma' s/n, 46980 Paterna (Spain); Departamento de Comunicaciones, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia Camino de Vera s/n, 46022 Valencia (Spain); Departamento de Fisica Aplicada y Electromagnetismo - ICMUV, Universitat de Valencia c/ Dr. Moliner, 50, 46100 Valencia (Spain); Departamento de Comunicaciones, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia Camino de Vera s/n, 46022 Valencia (Spain); Aurora Software and Testing S.L., Parque Cientifico Universitat de Valencia, Poligono 'La Coma' s/n, 46980 Paterna (Spain)

2007-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

335

Trace elements in coal by glow discharge mass spectrometry  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A need and a demand exist for determining trace elements in coal and coal related by-products, especially those elements which may potentially be a health hazard. The provisions of the 1990 clean air act require that the EPA evaluate the emissions of electric utilities for trace elements and other potentially hazardous organic compounds. The coal fired electric utility industry supplies roughly 60% of the total generating capacity of 2,882,525 million kilowatt hours (nearly 3 trillion kilowatt hours) generated in the U.S. This is accomplished by 414 power plants scattered across the country that burned 813,508,000 short tons of coal in 1993. The relative volatility of some inorganic constituents in coal makes them more prone to be emitted to the atmosphere following combustion. The production of analytical data for trace elements is known to be a difficult task in coal and by-products of coal combustion (fly ash, bottom ash, gas streams, etc.), in terms of both sample collection and analytical determinations. There are several common analytical methods available to the analyst to determine trace elements in coal and coal by-products. In general analytical germs, the material to be analyzed can be totally solubilized (or extracted), or the elements analytes can be determined in the material as a solid. A relatively new elemental technique, Glow Discharge Mass Spectrometry (GDMS) can be used with solids as well. This new analytical technique had never before been applied directly to coal. The radio frequency-glow discharge quadropole mass spectrometer was used to analyze coal directly for the first time ever by rf-GDMS. The rf-GDMS technique is described.

Jacobs, M.L.; Wilson, C.R.; Pestovich, J. Jr. [WAL Inc., Wheat Ridge, CO (United States)] [and others

1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

336

Calculation Method for the Projection of Future Spent Nuclear Fuel Discharges  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report describes the calculation method developed for the projection of future utility spent nuclear fuel (SNF) discharges in regard to their timing, quantity, burnup, and initial enrichment. This projection method complements the utility-supplied RW-859 data on historic discharges and short-term projections of SNF discharges by providing long-term projections that complete the total life cycle of discharges for each of the current U.S. nuclear power reactors. The method was initially developed in mid-1999 to update the SNF discharge projection associated with the 1995 RW-859 utility survey (CRWMS M&O 1996). and was further developed as described in Rev. 00 of this report (CRWMS M&O 2001a). Primary input to the projection of SNF discharges is the utility projection of the next five discharges from each nuclear unit, which is provided via the revised final version of the Energy Information Administration (EIA) 1998 RW-859 utility survey (EIA 2000a). The projection calculation method is implemented via a set of Excel 97 spreadsheets. These calculations provide the interface between receipt of the utility five-discharge projections that are provided in the RW-859 survey, and the delivery of projected life-cycle SNF discharge quantities and characteristics in the format requisite for performing logistics analysis to support design of the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System (CRWMS). Calculation method improvements described in this report include the addition of a reactor-specific maximum enrichment-based discharge burnup limit. This limit is the consequence of the enrichment limit, currently 5 percent. which is imposed as a Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) license condition on nuclear fuel fabrication plants. In addition, the calculation method now includes the capability for projecting future nuclear plant power upratings, consistent with many such recent plant uprates and the prospect of additional future uprates. Finally. this report summarizes the results of the 2002 Reference SNF Discharge Projection.

B. McLeod

2002-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

337

PARTIAL DISCHARGE TESTING OF DEFECTIVE THREE-PHASE PILC CABLE UNDER RATED CONDITIONS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

PARTIAL DISCHARGE TESTING OF DEFECTIVE THREE-PHASE PILC CABLE UNDER RATED CONDITIONS J. A. Hunter 1 lifespan. An increase in the failure rates of paper insulated lead covered (PILC) cables that make up is to document the effects of mechanical stress on the generation of partial discharge (PD) for cables of PILC

Southampton, University of

338

Synthesis Gas Production from Partial Oxidation of Methane with Air in AC Electric Gas Discharge  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Synthesis Gas Production from Partial Oxidation of Methane with Air in AC Electric Gas Discharge K 73019 Received October 11, 2002 In this study, synthesis gas production in an AC electric gas discharge of methane and air mixtures at room temperature and ambient pressure was investigated. The objective

Mallinson, Richard

339

Growth of tungsten nanoparticles in direct-current argon glow discharges  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The growth of nanoparticles from the sputtering of a tungsten cathode in DC argon glow discharges is reported. The study was performed at fixed argon pressure and constant discharge current. The growth by successive agglomerations is evidenced. First, tungsten nanocrystallites agglomerate into primary particles, the most probable size of which being {approx}30 nm. Primary particles of this size are observed for all plasma durations and always remain the most numerous in the discharge. Primary particles quickly agglomerate to form particles with size up to {approx}150 nm. For short plasma duration, log-normal functions describe accurately the dust particle size distributions. On the contrary, for long discharge durations, a second hump appears in the distributions toward large particle sizes. In the meantime, the discharge voltage, electron density, and emission line intensities strongly evolve. Their evolutions can be divided in four separate phases and exhibit unusual distinctive features compared to earlier observations in discharges in which particles were growing. The evolution of the different parameters is explained by a competition between the surface state of the tungsten cathode and the influence of the growing nanoparticles. The differences with sputtering glow discharges and chemically active plasmas suggest that the nanoparticle growth and its influence on discharge parameters is system and material dependent.

Kishor Kumar, K.; Coueedel, L.; Arnas, C. [Laboratoire de Physique des Interactions Ioniques et Moleculaires, CNRS-Aix-Marseille Universite, 13397 Marseille (France)

2013-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

340

BOWLING GREEN STATE UNIVERSITY LIABILITY RELEASE, WAIVER, DISCHARGE AND AGREEMENT NOT TO SUE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

BOWLING GREEN STATE UNIVERSITY LIABILITY RELEASE, WAIVER, DISCHARGE AND AGREEMENT NOT TO SUE 1. I, forever discharge, and covenant not to sue the State of Ohio, Bowling Green State University, and its employment with Bowling Green State University. If I am a driver, driving my personal vehicle, I certify

Moore, Paul A.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high-intensity discharge halogen" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Demonstration of an iodine laser pumped by an air-helium electric discharge  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

issues with this chemical singlet oxygen generator (SOG) motivated many investigations-He-NO gas mixture. Active oxygen and nitrogen species were observed downstream of the discharge regionW in a supersonic flow cavity. Keywords: electric oxygen iodine laser, electric discharge, singlet oxygen, active

Carroll, David L.

342

Active species downstream of an ArO surface-wave microwave discharge for biomedicine,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Active species downstream of an Ar­O 2 surface-wave microwave discharge for biomedicine, surface.1088/0963-0252/20/3/035006 Active species downstream of an Ar­O2 surface-wave microwave discharge for biomedicine, surface treatment in a 0.5 cm diameter tube at pressures between 1 and 12 mbar. The early afterglow that occurs downstream

Guerra, Vasco

343

Optical Investigations of Dust Particles Distribution in RF and DC Discharges  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Optical emission spectroscopy is used to study dust particles movement and conditions of a formation of ordered plasma-dust structures in a capacitively coupled RF discharge. 3D binocular diagnostics of plasma-dust structures in dc discharge was made.

Ramazanov, T. S.; Dosbolayev, M. K.; Jumabekov, A. N.; Amangaliyeva, R. Zh. [Al-Farabi Kazakh National University, IETP, 96a Tole Bi St., Almaty 050012 (Kazakhstan); Filatova, I. I.; Azharonok, V. V. [B. I. Stepanov Institute of Physics NAS of Belarus, Nezavisimosti Ave., 68, 220072, Minsk (Belarus)

2008-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

344

Faraday Acceleration with Radio-frequency Assisted Discharge Edgar Y. Choueiri and Kurt A. Polzin  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Electric Propulsion and Plasma Dynamics Laboratory (EPPDyL) Princeton University, Mechanical and Aerospace Abstract A new electrodeless accelerator concept that relies on an RF-assisted discharge, an applied of a preionized plasma allows for current sheet formation at lower discharge voltages and energies than those

Choueiri, Edgar

345

Many Task Computing for Modeling the Fate of Oil Discharged from the Deep Water Horizon Well  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Florida and a 3D oil spill model. The ocean models used here resolve the Gulf at 2 km and the SouthMany Task Computing for Modeling the Fate of Oil Discharged from the Deep Water Horizon Well tons of crude oil into the Gulf of Mexico. In order to understand the fate and impact of the discharged

346

Electric organ discharge patterns during group hunting by a mormyrid fish  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Electric organ discharge patterns during group hunting by a mormyrid fish Matthew E. Arnegard1 Department of Biology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904, USA Weakly electric fish emit and receive low-voltage electric organ discharges (EODs) for electrolocation and communication. Since

Hopkins, Carl D.

347

Design of a Continuous Supersonic Expansion Discharge Source for the Acquisition of a Rotationally-Cold  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Design of a Continuous Supersonic Expansion Discharge Source for the Acquisition of a Rotationally-Cold. However, even when the walls of these discharge cells are cryogenically cooled, the ion temperatures ionization techniques are needed. In order to produce cold gas-phase ions for spectroscopy, many groups have

McCall, Benjamin J.

348

Review of river discharge records and gauging stations in the Rwenzori Mountains of Uganda  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Review of river discharge records and gauging stations in the Rwenzori Mountains of Uganda Richard Department Directorate of Water Development Entebbe, Uganda November 2004 Review of river discharge records and gauging stations in the Rwenzori Mountains of Uganda 1 #12;Summary This report provides an overview

Jones, Peter JS

349

Tesla coil discharges guided by femtosecond laser filaments in air Yohann Brelet1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Tesla coil discharges guided by femtosecond laser filaments in air Yohann Brelet1 , Aurélien, Palaiseau, France A Tesla coil generator was designed to produce high voltage pulses oscillating at 100 k experiments of laser guided discharges obtained in air by high voltage bursts delivered by a compact Tesla

Boyer, Edmond

350

The Effects of Geometry on the Corona-to-Streamer Discharge Transition  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The electric spark discharge has been studied for hundreds of years, yet many details of the phenomenon remain elusive. One particular area in the field of spark discharges that has yet to be explored in depth is the transition region between...

Humbird, Kelli D

2013-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

351

Role of trace impurities in large-volume noble gas atmospheric-pressure glow discharges  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Role of trace impurities in large-volume noble gas atmospheric-pressure glow discharges Xiaohui. Large-volume APG discharges find numerous applications in processing of material surfaces,1 ozone-purity helium is presented, and the role of trace impurities in such noble gas plasmas is established. Trace

Raja, Laxminarayan L.

352

Determining Spatial and Temporal Inputs of Freshwater, Including Submarine Groundwater Discharge,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of freshwater into the bay. A second model using Sr2+ /Ca2+ ratios was developed to discern fresh groundwater. Florida . Submarine groundwater discharge Introduction The timing and sources of freshwater deliveryDetermining Spatial and Temporal Inputs of Freshwater, Including Submarine Groundwater Discharge

Miami, University of

353

Phase-resolved optical emission of dusty rf discharges: Experiment and simulation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The spectral emission of atoms in a dusty radio frequence (rf) discharge plasma in argon and helium has been measured with a gated ICCD camera. The spatially and temporally resolved emission/excitation of the argon and helium atoms during the rf cycle in the dusty discharge was compared to the dust-free case. In the bulk plasma above the dust cloud, the emission is clearly enhanced in the dusty discharge with respect to the pure discharge, whereas in the sheath the emission is reduced. In addition, the emission of a dusty argon plasma is studied via particle-particle particle-mesh (P{sup 3}M) simulations. The rf dynamics with a single dust particle trapped in the sheath was calculated. Like in the experiment the dust modifies the atomic emission. The spatiotemporal excitation pattern of the experiment is reproduced and a detailed understanding of the difference in excitation of the discharge with and without dust is presented.

Melzer, Andre; Huebner, Simon; Lewerentz, Lars; Schneider, Ralf [Institut fuer Physik, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-Universiaet, D-17489 Greifswald (Germany); Matyash, Konstantin [Max-Planck Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, D-17491 Greifswald (Germany); Ikkurthi, Ramana [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Ghandinagar, Gujarat (India)

2011-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

354

Studies on discharges in Micro Pattern Gaseous Detectors, towards a spark resistant THGEM detector  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The problem afflicting any of MPGDs is the phenomenon of discharging which might be destructive in some highly energetic cases, at least being responsible of a slow aging of the detector. So far one solution has been cascading several gain elements (GEM, THGEM detectors) reducing the gain of each one; this method, spreading the charges along their path, reduce effectively the likelihood of a discharge but introduce more material due to the multiple stages of amplification. Our goal is developing a single stage THGEM detector which could withstand discharges, not reducing the gain, hence being still able to amplify low level ionizing particles while implementing some methodologies to reduce the damages due to discharge induced by high rate of particles’ flux and/or highly ionizing particles. This report describes the test bench set up to study discharges between simple structures, which are actually models of the bigger detector. The idea behind this approach is to reduce the complexity of the whole phenomen...

Cantini, Cosimo; De Oliveira, Rui

355

Temporally, spatially, and spectrally resolved barrier discharge produced in trapped helium gas at atmospheric pressure  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Experimental study was made on induced effects by trapped helium gas in the pulsed positive dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) operating in symmetrical electrode configuration at atmospheric pressure. Using fast photography technique and electrical measurements, the differences in the discharge regimes between the stationary and the flowing helium are investigated. It was shown experimentally that the trapped gas atmosphere (TGA) has notable impact on the barrier discharge regime compared with the influence of the flowing gas atmosphere. According to our experimental results, the DBD discharge produced in trapped helium gas can be categorized as a multi-glow (pseudo-glow) discharge, each discharge working in the sub-normal glow regime. This conclusion is made by considering the duration of current pulse (few {mu}s), their maximum values (tens of mA), the presence of negative slope on the voltage-current characteristic, and the spatio-temporal evolution of the most representative excited species in the discharge gap. The paper focuses on the space-time distribution of the active species with a view to better understand the pseudo-glow discharge mechanism. The physical basis for these effects was suggested. A transition to filamentary discharge is suppressed in TGA mode due to the formation of supplementary source of seed electrons by surface processes (by desorption of electrons due to vibrationally excited nitrogen molecules, originated from barriers surfaces) rather than volume processes (by enhanced Penning ionisation). Finally, we show that the pseudo-glow discharge can be generated by working gas trapping only; maintaining unchanged all the electrical and constructive parameters.

Chiper, Alina Silvia; Popa, Gheorghe [Faculty of Physics, Alexandru Ioan Cuza University, 700506 Iasi (Romania)] [Faculty of Physics, Alexandru Ioan Cuza University, 700506 Iasi (Romania)

2013-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

356

State Waste Discharge Permit Application: Electric resistance tomography testing  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This permit application documentation is for a State Waste Discharge Permit issued in accordance with requirements of Washington Administrative Code 173-216. The activity being permitted is a technology test using electrical resistance tomography. The electrical resistance tomography technology was developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and has been used at other waste sites to track underground contamination plumes. The electrical resistance tomography technology measures soil electrical resistance between two electrodes. If a fluid contaminated with electrolytes is introduced into the soil, the soil resistance is expected to drop. By using an array of measurement electrodes in several boreholes, the areal extent of contamination can be estimated. At the Hanford Site, the purpose of the testing is to determine if the electrical resistance tomography technology can be used in the vicinity of large underground metal tanks without the metal tank interfering with the test. It is anticipated that the electrical resistance tomography technology will provide a method for accurately detecting leaks from the bottom of underground tanks, such as the Hanford Site single-shell tanks.

Not Available

1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

357

MERCURY OXIDIZATION IN NON-THERMAL PLASMA BARRIER DISCHARGE SYSTEM  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In the past decade, the emission of toxic elements from human activities has become a matter of great public concern. Hg, As, Se and Cd typically volatilize during a combustion process and are not easily caught with conventional air pollution control techniques. In addition, there is no pollution prevention technique available now or likely be available in the foreseeable future that can prevent the emission of these trace elements. These trace elements pose additional scientific challenge as they are present at only ppb levels in large gas streams. Mercury, in particular, has attracted significant attention due to its high volatility, toxicity and potential threat to human health. In the present research work, a non-thermal plasma dielectric barrier discharge technique has been used to oxidize Hg{sup 0}(g) to HgO. The basic premise of this approach is that Hg{sup 0} in vapor form cannot be easily removed in an absorption tower whereas HgO as a particulate is amiable to water scrubbing. The work presented in this report consists of three steps: (1) setting-up of an experimental apparatus to generate mercury vapors at a constant rate and modifying the existing non-thermal plasma reactor system, (2) solving the analytical challenge for measuring mercury vapor concentration at ppb level, and (3) conducting experiments on mercury oxidation under plasma conditions to establish proof of concept.

V.K. Mathur

2003-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

358

Transport of dust particles in inductively coupled discharges  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Contamination by particulates, or ``dust``, in plasma processing reactors decreases the yield of microelectronic components. In low temperature plasmas, such as those used in etching or deposition reactors to fabricate semiconductor devices, the particles can form to appreciable densities. These particles can be trapped or expelled from the reactor, depending on which forces dominate their transport. Quantities that affect dust motion in Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP) discharges are the charge of the dust particles (electrostatic forces), momentum transfer with ions (viscous ion-drag forces), temperature gradients from heated electrodes (thermophoretic forces), and gas flow (fluid drag forces). The authors have developed a 2-D Monte Carlo simulation to investigate the trajectories of dust particles in ICP reactors. The model may have an arbitrary number and variety of dust species, and different gas mixtures may be used. The self-consistent electric fields, ion energy distributions, and species densities are imported from a companion Monte Carlo-fluid hybrid model. A semi-analytic model is used to determine the dust charge as well as the momentum transfer cross sections between dust and ions. The electrode topography can also affect the trapping locations of dust. Grooves on the electrodes perturb electrical forces and heated washers can change the thermophoretic forces; hence the spatial dust density varies from the case with a smooth, nonheated electrode. These effects on particle trapping will be presented. Other factors on trapping locations, such as dust particle size and varying power flow with time, will also be discussed.

Hwang, H.H.; Ventzek, P.L.G.; Hoekstra, R.; Kushner, M.J. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

359

CORONA DISCHARGE IGNITION FOR ADVANCED STATIONARY NATURAL GAS ENGINES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An ignition source was constructed that is capable of producing a pulsed corona discharge for the purpose of igniting mixtures in a test chamber. This corona generator is adaptable for use as the ignition source for one cylinder on a test engine. The first tests were performed in a cylindrical shaped chamber to study the characteristics of the corona and analyze various electrode geometries. Next a test chamber was constructed that closely represented the dimensions of the combustion chamber of the test engine at USC. Combustion tests were performed in this chamber and various electrode diameters and geometries were tested. The data acquisition and control system hardware for the USC engine lab was updated with new equipment. New software was also developed to perform the engine control and data acquisition functions. Work is underway to design a corona electrode that will fit in the new test engine and be capable igniting the mixture in one cylinder at first and eventually in all four cylinders. A test engine was purchased for the project that has two spark plug ports per cylinder. With this configuration it will be possible to switch between corona ignition and conventional spark plug ignition without making any mechanical modifications.

Dr. Paul D. Ronney

2003-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

360

Plasma potential mapping of high power impulse magnetron sputtering discharges  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Pulsed emissive probe techniques have been used to determine the plasma potential distribution of high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) discharges. An unbalanced magnetron with a niobium target in argon was investigated for pulse length of 100 ?s at a pulse repetition rate of 100 Hz, giving a peak current of 170 A. The probe data were taken with a time resolution of 20 ns and a spatial resolution of 1 mm. It is shown that the local plasma potential varies greatly in space and time. The lowest potential was found over the target’s racetrack, gradually reaching anode potential (ground) several centimeters away from the target. The magnetic pre-sheath exhibits a funnel-shaped plasma potential resulting in an electric field which accelerates ions toward the racetrack. In certain regions and times, the potential exhibits weak local maxima which allow for ion acceleration to the substrate. Knowledge of the local E and static B fields lets us derive the electrons’ E×B drift velocity, which is about 105 m/s and shows structures in space and time.

Rauch, Albert; Mendelsberg, Rueben J.; Sanders, Jason M.; Anders, Andre

2011-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high-intensity discharge halogen" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Modeling the Physical and Biochemical Influence of Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Plant Discharges into their Adjacent Waters  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Modeling the Physical and Biochemical Influence of Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Plant Discharges into their Adjacent Waters

362

Dual Feedback Controlled High Performance Ar Seeded ELMy H-mode Discharges in JET including Trace Tritium Experiments  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Dual Feedback Controlled High Performance Ar Seeded ELMy H-mode Discharges in JET including Trace Tritium Experiments

363

COLLISIONLESS ELECTRON HEATING IN RF GAS DISCHARGES: II. THE ROLE OF COLLISIONS AND NON-LINEAR EFFECTS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

COLLISIONLESS ELECTRON HEATING IN RF GAS DISCHARGES: II. THE ROLE OF COLLISIONS AND NON of electrons ( ) is large (comparable with discharge slab) and collisionless heating dominates Ohmic one. Being initially proposed for plasma heating in 1 , it was rst explored in gas discharge plasma for a capacitively

Kaganovich, Igor

364

Generation of plasma inhomogeneities and their total suppression in a volume self-sustained discharge  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The principle types of inhomogeneities formed in a volume self-sustained discharge are analyzed. Possible mechanisms and conditions for suppression of their development are considered. An ultimately homogeneous volume self-sustained discharge in CO{sub 2}: N{sub 2}: He mixtures where local plasma inhomogeneities are absent is obtained. At the energy contribution of 170 J/l, the duration of steady discharge burning in the CO{sub 2}: N{sub 2}: He = 1: 2: 3 mixtures at atmospheric pressure is 10 {mu}s.

Khomich, V. Yu.; Yamschikov, V. A., E-mail: yamschikov52@mail.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute for Electrophysics and Electroenergetics (Russian Federation)

2011-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

365

Dynamics of an excitable glow-discharge plasma under external forcing  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Glow discharge plasma in the excitable regime shows rich dynamical behavior under external forcing. By perturbing the plasma with a subthreshold sawtooth periodic signal, we obtained small subthreshold oscillations that showed resonance with the perturbation frequency. The resonance phenomenon can be useful to estimate characteristic of an excitable system. However, for suprathreshold perturbation, frequency entrainment was observed. In this case, the system showed harmonic frequency entrainment for the perturbation frequencies greater than the characteristic frequency of the system and the excitable behavior for the perturbation frequencies well below the characteristic frequency. The experiments were performed in a glow-discharge plasma where excitability was achieved at a suitable discharge voltage and gas pressure.

Nurujjaman, Md.; Iyengar, A. N. Sekar [Centre for Applicable Mathematics, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Sharada Nagar, Chikkabommasandra, Bangalore 560065 (India) and Plasma Physics Division, Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF, Bidhannagar, Kolkata 700064 (India); Plasma Physics Division, Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF, Bidhannagar, Kolkata 700064 (India)

2010-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

366

The evidence of cathodic micro-discharges during plasma electrolytic oxidation process  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) processing of EV31 magnesium alloy has been carried out in fluoride containing electrolyte under bipolar pulse current regime. Unusual PEO cathodic micro-discharges have been observed and investigated. It is shown that the cathodic micro-discharges exhibit a collective intermittent behavior, which is discussed in terms of charge accumulations at the layer/electrolyte and layer/metal interfaces. Optical emission spectroscopy is used to determine the electron density (typ. 10{sup 15}?cm{sup ?3}) and the electron temperature (typ. 7500?K) while the role of F{sup ?} anions on the appearance of cathodic micro-discharges is pointed out.

Nominé, A., E-mail: alexandre.nomine@univ-lorraine.fr [Institut Jean Lamour, UMR 7198 CNRS, Université de Lorraine, Parc de Saurupt, 54011 Nancy (France); National Institute of Science and Technology “MISiS,” 4, Leninskij Prospekt, Moscow 119049 (Russian Federation); Martin, J.; Noël, C.; Henrion, G.; Belmonte, T. [Institut Jean Lamour, UMR 7198 CNRS, Université de Lorraine, Parc de Saurupt, 54011 Nancy (France); Bardin, I. V.; Kovalev, V. L.; Rakoch, A. G. [National Institute of Science and Technology “MISiS,” 4, Leninskij Prospekt, Moscow 119049 (Russian Federation)

2014-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

367

Plutonium discharges to the sanitary sewer: Health impacts at the Livermore Water Reclamation Plant  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is the largest discharger of sewage treated by the Livermore Water Reclamation (LWRP), contributing approximately 7% by volume of the LWRP influent LILNL operations, as potential sources both of industrial pollutants and radioactivity, are therefore of particular concern to the LWRP. For this reason, LLNL has maintained vigorous wastewater discharge control and monitoring programs. In particular, the monitoring program has demonstrated that, except in a few rare instances, the concentration of contaminants in LLNL effluent have always remained below the appropriate regulatory standards. The exceptions have generally been due to inadvertent discharges of metals-bearing solutions produced by metal plating or cleaning operations.

Balke, B.K.

1993-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

368

Laser-heater assisted plasma channel formation in capillary discharge waveguides  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A method of creating plasma channels with controllable depth and transverse profile for the guiding of short, high power laser pulses for efficient electron acceleration is proposed. The plasma channel produced by the hydrogen-filled capillary discharge waveguide is modified by a ns-scale laser pulse, which heats the electrons near the capillary axis. This interaction creates a deeper plasma channel within the capillary discharge that evolves on a ns-time scale, allowing laser beams with smaller spot sizes than would otherwise be possible in the unmodified capillary discharge.

Bobrova, N. A. [Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow 117218 (Russian Federation); Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, Dolgoprudny (Russian Federation); Sasorov, P. V. [Keldysh Institute of Applied Mathematics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, Dolgoprudny (Russian Federation); Benedetti, C.; Geddes, C. G. R.; Schroeder, C. B.; Esarey, E. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Bulanov, S. S. [University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Leemans, W. P. [University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

2013-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

369

Pulsed microwave discharge in a capillary filled with atmospheric-pressure gas  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A pulsed microwave coaxial capillary plasma source generating a thin plasma filament along the capillary axis in an atmospheric-pressure argon flow is described. The dynamics of filament formation is studied, and the parameters of the gas and plasma in the contraction region are determined. A physical model of discharge formation and propagation is proposed. The model is based on the assumption that, under the conditions in which the electric fields is substantially below the threshold value, the discharge operates in a specific form known as a self-sustained-non-self-sustained (SNS) microwave discharge.

Gritsinin, S. I., E-mail: gritsinins@mail.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Prokhorov General Physics Institute (Russian Federation); Gushchin, P. A. [Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas (Russian Federation)] [Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas (Russian Federation); Davydov, A. M. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Prokhorov General Physics Institute (Russian Federation)] [Russian Academy of Sciences, Prokhorov General Physics Institute (Russian Federation); Ivanov, E. V. [Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas (Russian Federation)] [Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas (Russian Federation); Kossyi, I. A. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Prokhorov General Physics Institute (Russian Federation)] [Russian Academy of Sciences, Prokhorov General Physics Institute (Russian Federation)

2013-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

370

Wave modeling in a cylindrical non-uniform helicon discharge  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A radio frequency field solver based on Maxwell's equations and a cold plasma dielectric tensor is employed to describe wave phenomena observed in a cylindrical non-uniform helicon discharge. The experiment is carried out on a recently built linear plasma-material interaction machine: The magnetized plasma interaction experiment [Blackwell et al., Plasma Sources Sci. Technol. (submitted)], in which both plasma density and static magnetic field are functions of axial position. The field strength increases by a factor of 15 from source to target plate, and the plasma density and electron temperature are radially non-uniform. With an enhancement factor of 9.5 to the electron-ion Coulomb collision frequency, a 12% reduction in the antenna radius, and the same other conditions as employed in the experiment, the solver produces axial and radial profiles of wave amplitude and phase that are consistent with measurements. A numerical study on the effects of axial gradient in plasma density and static magnetic field on wave propagations is performed, revealing that the helicon wave has weaker attenuation away from the antenna in a focused field compared to a uniform field. This may be consistent with observations of increased ionization efficiency and plasma production in a non-uniform field. We find that the relationship between plasma density, static magnetic field strength, and axial wavelength agrees well with a simple theory developed previously. A numerical scan of the enhancement factor to the electron-ion Coulomb collision frequency from 1 to 15 shows that the wave amplitude is lowered and the power deposited into the core plasma decreases as the enhancement factor increases, possibly due to the stronger edge heating for higher collision frequencies.

Chang, L.; Hole, M. J.; Caneses, J. F.; Blackwell, B. D.; Corr, C. S. [Plasma Research Laboratory, Research School of Physics and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia); Chen, G. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States)

2012-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

371

Production of Organic Oxygenates in the Partial Oxidation of Methane in a Silent Electric Discharge Reactor  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

that the water- gas shift and rev Reactor David W. Larkin, Lance L. Lobban, and Richard G. Mallinson* Institute for Gas Utilization discharge uses an annular reactor consisting of two metal electrodes separated by a gas gap and a glass

Mallinson, Richard

372

Influence Analysis of Discharge Electrode on Performance of an Electric Precipitator  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The influence factors of discharge electrodes on the performance of an electric precipitator are comprehensively analyzed in this paper. The factors are mainly the following: 1) electrode forms and matches with collecting electrode, 2) electrode...

Luo, Q.; Liu, Z.; Xiong, J.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

373

Utah. Code. Ann. § 19-5-115: Spills or discharges of oil or...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Utah. Code. Ann. 19-5-115: Spills or discharges of oil or other substance Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document- StatuteStatute:...

374

Diagnostic technique for measuring plasma parameters near surfaces in radio frequency discharges  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Diagnostic technique for measuring plasma parameters near surfaces in radio frequency discharges September 1998 A plasma diagnostic technique for measuring the electron density, electron temperature the plasma parameters. The technique is demonstrated by implementing the diagnostic in a computer model

Kushner, Mark

375

Faraday Acceleration with Radio-frequency Assisted Discharge (FARAD) Edgar Y. Choueiri  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Polzin Electric Propulsion and Plasma Dynamics Laboratory (EPPDyL) Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering electrodeless accelerator concept that relies on an RF-assisted discharge, an applied magnetic field efficient plasma production, magnetic field guided mass injection, and electromagnetic acceleration

Choueiri, Edgar

376

Suppression of Phase Separation in LiFePO 4 Nanoparticles During Battery Discharge  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Using a novel electrochemical phase-field model, we question the common belief that LiXFePO? nanoparticles always separate into Li-rich and Li-poor phases during battery discharge. For small currents, spinodal decomposition ...

Bai, Peng

377

Produced water discharges to the Gulf of Mexico: Background information for ecological risk assessments  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report reviews ecological risk assessment concepts and methods; describes important biological resources in the Gulf of Mexico of potential concern for produced water impacts; and summarizes data available to estimate exposure and effects of produced water discharges. The emphasis is on data relating to produced water discharges in the central and western Gulf of Mexico, especially in Louisiana. Much of the summarized data and cited literature are relevant to assessments of impacts in other regions. Data describing effects on marine and estuarine fishes, mollusks, crustaceans and benthic invertebrates are emphasized. This review is part of a series of studies of the health and ecological risks from discharges of produced water to the Gulf of Mexico. These assessments will provide input to regulators in the development of guidelines and permits, and to industry in the use of appropriate discharge practices.

Meinhold, A.F.; Holtzman, S.; DePhillips, M.P.

1996-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

378

E-Print Network 3.0 - advanced tokamak discharges Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Fusion 3 03012006 09:51 AMLoading "People's Daily Online --Chinese experimental thermonuclear reactor on discharge test in July" Page 1 of 1http:english.people.com.cn200603...

379

E-Print Network 3.0 - arc discharge plasma Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

by Explorit Topic List Advanced Search Sample search results for: arc discharge plasma Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 author's e-mail: hirai@plasma.ecei.tohoku.ac.jp...

380

Effect of energetic electrons on dust charging in hot cathode filament discharge  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The effect of energetic electrons on dust charging for different types of dust is studied in hydrogen plasma. The hydrogen plasma is produced by hot cathode filament discharge method in a dusty plasma device. A full line cusped magnetic field cage is used to confine the plasma elements. To study the plasma parameters for various discharge conditions, a cylindrical Langmuir probe having 0.15 mm diameter and 10.0 mm length is used. An electronically controlled dust dropper is used to drop the dust particles into the plasma. For different discharge conditions, the dust current is measured using a Faraday cup connected to an electrometer. The effect of secondary emission as well as discharge voltage on charging of dust grains in hydrogen plasma is studied with different dust.

Kakati, B.; Kausik, S. S.; Saikia, B. K. [Centre of Plasma Physics, Institute for Plasma Research, Nazirakhat, Sonapur 782 402, Kamrup, Assam (India); Bandyopadhyay, M. [ITER-India, Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar 382 428 (India)

2011-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high-intensity discharge halogen" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Seasonal dynamics in costal aquifers : investigation of submarine groundwater discharge through field measurements and numerical models  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The fresh and saline groundwater flowing from coastal aquifers into the ocean comprise submarine groundwater discharge (SGD). This outflow is an important pathway for the transport of nutrients and contaminants, and has ...

Michael, Holly Anne, 1976-

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

382

Microplasma Discharges in High Pressure Gases Scaling Towards the Sub-micron Regime  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Atmospheric pressure microplasmas are uniquely characterized by their very high energy densities and also by their small discharge sizes. These properties allow for unique applications in plasma processing technologies. We have investigated...

Chitre, Aditya Rajeev

2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

383

Non-invasive optoelectronic system for measurement of electrostatic discharge (ESD) induced phenomena  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The design of a high speed optoelectronic system consisting of an electrically floating detector/transmitter module, coupled to a receiver by a fiber optic link, is described. Typical applications of this optical decoupled system, involving electrostatic discharge (ESD), are described. These include: the optical signature characterization of discharges, and the measurement of conducted and radiated electromagnetic interference (EMI) due to ESD. Results of experiments conducted to demonstrate the qualitative performance characteristics of the measurement system are presented.

Greason, W.D.; Kucerovsky, Z.; Bulach, S.; Flatley, M.W. [Univ. of Western Ontario, London, Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Electrical Engineering

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

384

Investigation of complexity dynamics of inverse and normal homoclinic bifurcation in a glow discharge plasma  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Order-chaos-order was observed in the relaxation oscillations of a glow discharge plasma with variation in the discharge voltage. The first transition exhibits an inverse homoclinic bifurcation followed by a homoclinic bifurcation in the second transition. For the two regimes of observations, a detailed analysis of correlation dimension, Lyapunov exponent, and Renyi entropy was carried out to explore the complex dynamics of the system.

Saha, Debajyoti, E-mail: debajyoti.saha@saha.ac.in; Kumar Shaw, Pankaj; Janaki, M. S.; Sekar Iyengar, A. N.; Ghosh, Sabuj; Mitra, Vramori, E-mail: vramorimitra@yahoo.com; Michael Wharton, Alpha [Plasma Physics Division, Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF, Bidhannagar, Kolkata 700064 (India)] [Plasma Physics Division, Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF, Bidhannagar, Kolkata 700064 (India)

2014-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

385

Formation of ozone and oxidation of methane in a direct current corona discharge  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

FORMATION OF OZONE AND OXIDATION OF METHANE IN A DIRECT CURRENT CORONA DISCHARGE A Thesis by UMASHANKER TANGIRALA Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER... OF SCIENCE May 1976 Major Subject: Chemical Engineering FORMATION OF OZONE AND OXIDATION OF METHANE IN A DIRECT CURRENT CORONA DISCHARGE A Thesis by UMASHANKER TANGIRALA Approved as to style and content by: (Chairman of Committee) ( ad of Department...

Tangirala, Umashanker

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

386

Void formation and dust cloud structure in (a)symmetric RF discharges  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The behaviour of dust particles in a discharge is the result of the concerted action of the charging process and forces like gravity, the ion and neutral drag force, and the thermophoretic force. Since the ion drag force plays a major role, the reactor geometry and the ion density profile are important parameters. In this paper we study the influence of the geometrical features of a radio-frequency discharge, such as asymmetry, ring electrodes, and a depression in the electrodes.

Goedheer, W.J.; Akdim, M.R.; Land, V. [FOM Institute for Plasma Physics Rijnhuizen, Association EURATOM-FOM, Trilateral Euregio Cluster, P.O. Box 1207, 3430 BE Nieuwegein (Netherlands)

2005-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

387

Numerical simulation of operation modes in atmospheric pressure uniform barrier discharge excited by a saw-tooth voltage  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The characteristics of dielectric barrier discharge excited by a saw-tooth voltage are simulated in atmospheric pressure helium based on a one-dimensional fluid model. A stepped discharge is obtained per half voltage cycle with gas gap width less than 2 mm by the simulation, which is different to the pulsed discharge excited by a sinusoidal voltage. For the stepped discharge, the plateau duration increases with increasing the voltage amplitude and decreasing the gas gap. Therefore, uniform discharge with high temporal duty ratio can be realized with small gap through increasing the voltage amplitude. The maximal densities of both electron and ion appear near the anode and the electric field is almost uniformly distributed along the gap, which indicates that the stepped discharge belongs to a Townsend mode. In contrast to the stepped discharge with small gas gap, a pulsed discharge can be obtained with large gas gap. Through analyzing the spatial density distributions of electron and ion and the electric field, the pulsed discharge is in a glow mode. The voltage-current (V-I) characteristics are analyzed for the above mentioned discharges under different gas gaps, from which the different discharge modes are verified.

Li Xuechen; Niu Dongying; Yin Zengqian [College of Physics Science and Technology, Hebei University, Baoding 071002 (China); Fang Tongzhen; Wang Long [Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)

2012-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

388

Mechanisms of deflagration-to-detonation transition under initiation by high-voltage nanosecond discharges  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An experimental study of detonation initiation in a stoichiometric propane-oxygen mixture by a high-voltage nanosecond gas discharge was performed in a detonation tube with a single-cell discharge chamber. The discharge study performed in this geometry showed that three modes of discharge development were realized under the experimental conditions: a spark mode with high-temperature channel formation, a streamer mode with nonuniform gas excitation, and a transient mode. Under spark and transient initiation, simultaneous ignition inside the discharge channel occurred, forming a shock wave and leading to a conventional deflagration-to-detonation transition (DDT) via an adiabatic explosion. The DDT length and time at 1 bar of initial pressure in the square smooth tube with a 20-mm transverse size amounted to 50 mm and 50{mu}s, respectively. The streamer mode of discharge development at an initial pressure of 1 bar resulted in nonuniform mixture excitation and a successful DDT via a gradient mechanism, which was confirmed by high-speed time resolved ICCD imaging. The gradient mechanism implied a longer DDT time of 150{mu}s, a DDT run-up distance of 50 mm, and an initiation energy of 1 J, which is two orders of magnitude less than the direct initiation energy for a planar detonation under these conditions. (author)

Rakitin, Aleksandr E.; Starikovskii, Andrei Yu. [Physics of Nonequilibrium Systems Lab, Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, 9 Institutski Lane, Dolgoprudny 141700 (Russian Federation)

2008-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

389

Drainage capture and discharge variations driven by glaciation in the Southern Alps, New Zealand  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Sediment flux in proglacial fluvial settings is primarily controlled by discharge, which usually varies predictably over a glacial–interglacial cycle. However, glaciers can flow against the topographic gradient to cross drainage divides, reshaping fluvial drainage networks and dramatically altering discharge. In turn, these variations in discharge will be recorded by proglacial stratigraphy. Glacial-drainage capture often occurs in alpine environments where ice caps straddle range divides, and more subtly where shallow drainage divides cross valley floors. We investigate discharge variations resulting from glacial-drainage capture over the past 40 k.y. for the adjacent Ashburton, Rangitata, and Rakaia basins in the Southern Alps, New Zealand. Although glacial-drainage capture has previously been inferred in the range, our numerical glacier model provides the first quantitative demonstration that this process drives larger variations in discharge for a longer duration than those that occur due to climate change alone. During the Last Glacial Maximum, the effective drainage area of the Ashburton catchment increased to 160% of the interglacial value with drainage capture, driving an increase in discharge exceeding that resulting from glacier recession. Glacial-drainage capture is distinct from traditional (base level–driven) drainage capture and is often unrecognized in proglacial deposits, complicating interpretation of the sedimentary record of climate change.

Ann V. Rowan; Mitchell A. Plummer; Simon H. Brocklehurst; Merren A. Jones; David M. Schultz

2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

390

An experimental study of atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) in argon  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this paper, experimental results on atmospheric pressure argon dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) have been presented. The discharge was generated using a high voltage (0 to 20 kV) power supply operating at frequency of 10 to 30 kHz and was studied by means of electrical and optical measurements. A homogeneous and steady discharge was observed between the electrodes with gap spacing from 1 mm to 3 mm and with a dielectric barrier of thickness 1.5 mm while argon gas is fed at a controlled flow rate of 2liter per min. The electron temperature (T{sub e}) and electron density (n{sub e}) of the plasma have been determined by means of optical emission spectroscopy. Our results show that the electron density is of the order of 10{sup 16} cm{sup ?3} while the electron temperature is estimated to be ? 1 eV. The homogeneity and non-thermal nature of the discharge were utilized in the investigation of the change in wettabilty of a polymer sample subjected to the treatment by the discharge. Contact angle analysis showed that the discharge was effective in improving the wettability of low density Polyethylene (LDPE) polymer sample after the treatment.

Subedi, D. P. [Department of Natural Sciences, School of Science, Kathmandu University, Dhulikhel (Nepal); Tyata, R. B. [Department of Natural Sciences, School of Science, Kathmandu University, Dhulikhel, Nepal and Department of Electrical, Khwopa College of Engineering, Libali-2, Bhaktapur (Nepal); Shrestha, R. [Department of Natural Sciences, School of Science, Kathmandu University, Dhulikhel, Nepal and Department of Physics, Basu College, Kalighat, Byasi, Bhaktapur (Nepal); Wong, C. S. [Plasma Technology Research Centre, Physics Department, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

2014-03-05T23:59:59.000Z

391

Charging of dust grains in a nonequilibrium plasma of a stratified glow discharge  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A theoretical model is presented that describes the charging of dust grains in the positive plasma column of a stratified glow dc discharge in argon. A one-dimensional self-consistent model is used to obtain axial profiles of the electric field, as well as the electron energy distribution function along the axis of the discharge tube. Radial profiles of the electric field are determined in the ambipolar diffusion approximation. It is assumed that, in the radial direction, the electron distribution function depends only on the total electron energy. Two-dimensional distributions of the discharge plasma parameters are calculated and used to determine the potential and charge of a test dust grain at a certain point within the discharge and the electrostatic forces acting on it. It is shown that the grain charge distribution depends strongly on the nonequilibrium electron distribution function and on the nonuniform distribution of the electric field in a stratified glow discharge. A discussion is presented on the suspension of dust grains, the separation of grains by size in the discharge striations, and a possible mechanism for the onset of vortex dust motion at the edge of a dust cloud.

Sukhinin, G. I.; Fedoseev, A. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Kutateladze Institute of Thermophysics, Siberian Branch (Russian Federation)

2007-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

392

Initiation of long, free-standing Z-discharges by CO2 laser gas heating  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

High current discharge channels can neutralize both current and space charge of very intense ion beams. Therefore they are considered as an interesting alternative for the final focus and beam transport in a heavy ion beam fusion reactor. At the GSI accelerator facility, 50 cm long, stable, free-standing discharge channels with currents in excess of 40 kA in 2 to 25 mbar ammonia (NH{sub 3}) gas are investigated for heavy ion beam transport studies. The discharges are initiated by a CO{sub 2} laser pulse along the channel axis before the discharge is triggered. Resonant absorption of the laser, tuned to the {nu}{sub 2} vibration of the ammonia molecule, causes strong gas heating. Subsequent expansion and rarefaction of the gas prepare the conditions for a stable discharge to fulfill the requirements for ion beam transport. This paper describes the laser-gas interaction and the discharge initiation mechanism. We report on the channel stability and evolution, measured by fast shutter and streak imaging techniques. The rarefaction of the laser heated gas is studied by means of a hydrocode simulation.

Nieman, C.; Tauschwitz, A.; Penache, D.; Neff, S.; Knobloch, R.; Birkner, R.; Presura, R.; Hoffmann, D.H.H.; Yu, S.S.; Sharp, W.M.

2004-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

393

Numerical simulation of discharge structures in Ar/Cs nonequilibrium plasma MHD generator  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

As reported in previous papers, the quasi-one-dimensional simulation code has come to predict almost satisfactorily the performance of the shock tube driven disk MHD generator using cesium seeded argon plasma as working fluid. However, the agreement between experimental and predicted performances was not so good on the conditions that the external load resistance was small, the seed fraction was high or the stagnation pressure was low. On these conditions, it was observed that ionization instabilities occur in the MHD channel. On the other hand, high-speed photographs of the nonequilibrium plasma discharge in the MHD generator were taken on several working conditions during the experiment. From these photographs, discharges were classified into almost three kinds of patterns. (a) A single strong luminous ring-type discharge near the nozzle exit for low seed fraction, (b) an almost uniform discharge inside the MHD channel for medium seed fraction, (c) multiple ring-type or spiral discharges in the MHD channel for high seed fraction. The structures of the discharge were sometimes two-dimensional especially for high seed fraction. Therefore, it may be impossible in this case to simulate them and to predict the performance precisely with one-dimensional simulation code. In the present study, two-dimensional (r-q) numerical simulations were made on the disk MHD power generation experiment (thermal input is about 1.5MW). The objectives were to develop a numerical simulator with high accuracy for the disk MHD generator and to explain some interesting phenomena concerned with nonequilibrium plasma discharges. The system of basic equations was solved mainly using CIP method. The calculation region was taken as that located between the throat to the inlet of the second (final) cathode. The main results are summarized as follows; (A) On the condition that the seed fraction was lower than the optimum value, it was succeeded to simulate numerically the single strong luminous ring-type discharge. The ring-type discharge was caused by the partial ionization of argon due to the rapid increase in the electron temperature in the nozzle. The pressure increase like a shock wave was also induced there. (B) On the condition that the seed fraction was near the optimum value, an almost uniform plasma was obtained in the simulation and in the experiment. (C) On the condition that seed fraction was higher than the optimum value, A similar structure of discharge to experimental one was obtained in the calculation due to an ionization instability (streamer) caused by the partial ionization of seeded cesium. (D) The performances of the generator such as enthalpy extraction can be predicted well with this simulation code.

Okubo, M.; Kabashima, S.; Okuno, Y.; Yamasaki, H.

1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

394

Exposure and effects of oilfield brine discharges on western sandpipers (Calidris mauri) in Nueces Bay, Texas  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Discharge of oilfield brines into fresh and estuarine waters is a common disposal practice in Texas. Petroleum crude oil (PCO) extraction from underground stores includes the removal of a significant amount of water along with the oil. Several methods may be used to separate the oil and water fractions, including tank batteries, heat separation, and skimming ponds. Disposal of the resultant produced water (oilfield brine) may be accomplished by deep-well injection or discharge to surface waters. In Texas, an estimated 766,000 barrels of oilfield brine were discharged daily into tidal waters in 1979. The maximum concentration for oil and grease in these discharges permitted by the Texas Railroad Commission is 25 ppm. Several studies have shown that oilfield brines are toxic to a wide range of marine life, yet little is known about their effects on birds and mammals. Exposure to petroleum in oilfield wastes could evoke toxicological effects in some waterbird species. Avian responses to PCO exposure are highly variable, including cessation of growth, osmoregulatory impairment, endocrine dysfunction, hemolytic anemia, altered blood chemistry, cytochrome P450 induction, reduced reproductive success, and mortality. Oilfield brine discharges may soon be the largest and most pervasive source of contaminants entering Texas estuaries. Migratory and resident birds feeding in the vicinity of discharge sites may be ingesting food items contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons, heavy metals and salts in sufficient quantities to evoke toxicity. The present study of wintering western sandpipers (Calidris mauri) that feed and roost near discharge sites sought to examine oilfield brine exposure and effects through quantification of contaminant burdens, morphological characteristics, and cytochrome P450-associated monooxygenase activities. 20 refs., 2 tabs.

Rattner, B.A.; Melancon, M.J. [National Biological Survey, Laurel, MD (United States); Capizzi, J.L. [Texas A& M Univ., College Station, TX (United States); King, K.A. [Fish and Wildlife Service, Phoenix, AZ (United States); LeCaptain, L.J. [Fish and Wildlife Service, Spokane, WA (United States)

1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

395

Optical pumping in a microfabricated Rb vapor cell using a microfabricated Rb discharge light source  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Miniature (discharge lamp light source, as well as (2) a conventional glass-blown Rb discharge lamp. The microfabricated Rb lamp cell is a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) light source, having the same inner cell volume of around 40?mm{sup 3} as that of the resonance cell, both filled with suitable buffer gases. A miniature (?2?cm{sup 3} volume) test setup based on the M{sub z} magnetometer interrogation technique was used for observation of optical-radiofrequency double-resonance signals, proving the suitability of the microfabricated discharge lamp to introduce efficient optical pumping. The pumping ability of this light source was found to be comparable to or even better than that of a conventional glass-blown lamp. The reported results indicate that the micro-fabricated DBD discharge lamp has a high potential for the development of a new class of miniature atomic clocks, magnetometers, and quantum sensors.

Venkatraman, V.; Kang, S.; Affolderbach, C.; Mileti, G., E-mail: gaetano.mileti@unine.ch [Laboratoire Temps-Fréquence, University of Neuchâtel, Neuchâtel 2000 (Switzerland); Shea, H. [Microsystems for Space Technologies Laboratory, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), Neuchâtel 2002 (Switzerland)

2014-02-03T23:59:59.000Z

396

Numerical study on microwave-sustained argon discharge under atmospheric pressure  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A numerical study on microwave sustained argon discharge under atmospheric pressure is reported in this paper. The purpose of this study is to investigate both the process and effects of the conditions of microwave-excited gas discharge under atmospheric pressure, thereby aiding improvements in the design of the discharge system, setting the appropriate working time, and controlling the operating conditions. A 3D model is presented, which includes the physical processes of electromagnetic wave propagation, electron transport, heavy species transport, gas flow, and heat transfer. The results can be obtained by means of the fluid approximation. The maxima of the electron density and gas temperature are 4.96?×?10{sup 18} m{sup ?3} and 2514.8?K, respectively, and the gas pressure remains almost unchanged for typical operating conditions with a gas flow rate of 20 l/min, microwave power of 1000 W, and initial temperature of 473?K. In addition, the conditions (microwave power, gas flow rate, and initial temperature) of discharge are varied to obtain deeper information about the electron density and gas temperature. The results of our numerical study are valid and clearly describe both the physical process and effects of the conditions of microwave-excited argon discharge.

Yang, Y.; Hua, W., E-mail: huaw@scu.edu.cn; Guo, S. Y. [School of Electronics and Information Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065 (China)] [School of Electronics and Information Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065 (China)

2014-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

397

Development of large volume double ring penning plasma discharge source for efficient light emissions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this paper, the development of large volume double ring Penning plasma discharge source for efficient light emissions is reported. The developed Penning discharge source consists of two cylindrical end cathodes of stainless steel having radius 6 cm and a gap 5.5 cm between them, which are fitted in the top and bottom flanges of the vacuum chamber. Two stainless steel anode rings with thickness 0.4 cm and inner diameters 6.45 cm having separation 2 cm are kept at the discharge centre. Neodymium (Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B) permanent magnets are physically inserted behind the cathodes for producing nearly uniform magnetic field of {approx}0.1 T at the center. Experiments and simulations have been performed for single and double anode ring configurations using helium gas discharge, which infer that double ring configuration gives better light emissions in the large volume Penning plasma discharge arrangement. The optical emission spectroscopy measurements are used to complement the observations. The spectral line-ratio technique is utilized to determine the electron plasma density. The estimated electron plasma density in double ring plasma configuration is {approx}2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 11} cm{sup -3}, which is around one order of magnitude larger than that of single ring arrangement.

Prakash, Ram; Vyas, Gheesa Lal; Jain, Jalaj; Prajapati, Jitendra; Pal, Udit Narayan [Microwave Tubes Division, CSIR-Central Electronics and Engineering Research Institute, Pilani-333031 (India); Chowdhuri, Malay Bikas; Manchanda, Ranjana [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar-382428 (India)

2012-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

398

A MODULAR STEADY STATE GLOW DISCHARGE QUADRUPOLE MASS SPECTROMETER SYSTEM FOR THE AT-LINE ANALYSIS OF PLUTONIUM METAL  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Historically, glow discharge mass and optical spectrometric techniques have been used in industry for the characterization of processed metals, such as steels and other alloys. This technique is especially well suited for this type of product analysis because the glow discharge ionization source accommodates solid conducting samples with minimal or no sample preparation. This characteristic along with minimal matrix effect considerations makes the glow discharge source well suited for these types of applications.

R. STEINER; D. WAYNE

1998-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

399

Numerical simulation of narrow bipolar electromagnetic pulses generated by thunderstorm discharges  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Using the concept of avalanche relativistic runaway electrons (REs), we perform numerical simulations of compact intracloud discharge (CID) as a generator of powerful natural electromagnetic pulses (EMPs) in the HF-VHF range, called narrow bipolar pulses (NBPs). For several values of the field overvoltage and altitude at which the discharge develops, the numbers of seed electrons initiating the avalanche are evaluated, with which the calculated EMP characteristics are consistent with the measured NBP parameters. We note shortcomings in the hypothesis assuming participation of cosmic ray air showers in avalanche initiation. The discharge capable of generating NBPs produces REs in numbers close to those in the source of terrestrial {gamma}-ray flashes (TGFs), which can be an argument in favor of a unified NBP and TGF source.

Bochkov, E. I.; Babich, L. P., E-mail: babich@elph.vniief.ru; Kutsyk, I. M. [All-Russia Research Institute of Experimental Physics, Russian Federal Nuclear Center (Russian Federation)] [All-Russia Research Institute of Experimental Physics, Russian Federal Nuclear Center (Russian Federation)

2013-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

400

Compressor discharge bleed air circuit in gas turbine plants and related method  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A gas turbine system that includes a compressor, a turbine component and a load, wherein fuel and compressor discharge bleed air are supplied to a combustor and gaseous products of combustion are introduced into the turbine component and subsequently exhausted to atmosphere. A compressor discharge bleed air circuit removes bleed air from the compressor and supplies one portion of the bleed air to the combustor and another portion of the compressor discharge bleed air to an exhaust stack of the turbine component in a single cycle system, or to a heat recovery steam generator in a combined cycle system. In both systems, the bleed air diverted from the combustor may be expanded in an air expander to reduce pressure upstream of the exhaust stack or heat recovery steam generator.

Anand, Ashok Kumar (Niskayuna, NY); Berrahou, Philip Fadhel (Latham, NY); Jandrisevits, Michael (Clifton Park, NY)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

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401

Compressor discharge bleed air circuit in gas turbine plants and related method  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A gas turbine system that includes a compressor, a turbine component and a load, wherein fuel and compressor discharge bleed air are supplied to a combustor and gaseous products of combustion are introduced into the turbine component and subsequently exhausted to atmosphere. A compressor discharge bleed air circuit removes bleed air from the compressor and supplies one portion of the bleed air to the combustor and another portion of the compressor discharge bleed air to an exhaust stack of the turbine component in a single cycle system, or to a heat recovery steam generator in a combined cycle system. In both systems, the bleed air diverted from the combustor may be expanded in an air expander to reduce pressure upstream of the exhaust stack or heat recovery steam generator.

Anand, Ashok Kumar (Niskayuna, NY); Berrahou, Philip Fadhel (Latham, NY); Jandrisevits, Michael (Clifton Park, NY)

2003-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

402

Effects of the roughness characteristics on the wire tool surface for the electrical discharge machining properties  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Wire electrical discharge machining (WEDM) has been investigated to obtain the better discharge machining properties of the removal rate and the surface roughness in a few decades. Recently, it revealed that the rough tool electrodes can improve the WEDM properties for some sort of materials. In this study, the rough wire electrodes using a wet blasting method was developed and evaluated the machining performance for the insulated Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} in the WEDM processes. As the results, it could not recognize the advantage of roughness wire electrode under the high-energy condition, but it found that the electro-conductive layer thickness became thinner in comparison with those of normal wires. On the contrary, it could be obtained the better surface roughness in the low energy condition. It was supposed that the roughed wire surface generates the homogeneous dispersion discharges on the workpiece.

Fukuzawa, Yasushi; Yamashita, Masahide; Mamuro, Hiroaki; Yamashita, Ken [Nagaoka University of Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering, 1603-1 Kamitomioka-machi, Nagaoka, Niigata, 940-2188 (Japan); Ogata, Masayoshi [Macoho Co., Ltd. 525 Kanawa, Isurugi-machi, Nagaoka, Niigata 940-2032 JAPAN (Japan)

2011-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

403

Characteristics of produced water discharged to the Gulf of Mexico hypoxiczone.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Each summer, an area of low dissolved oxygen (the hypoxic zone) forms in the shallow nearshore Gulf of Mexico waters from the Mississippi River Delta westward to near the Texas/Louisiana border. Most scientists believe that the leading contributor to the hypoxic zone is input of nutrients (primarily nitrogen and phosphorus compounds) from the Mississippi and Atchafalaya Rivers. The nutrients stimulate growth of phytoplankton. As the phytoplankton subsequently die, they fall to the bottom waters where they are decomposed by microorganisms. The decomposition process consumes oxygen in the bottom waters to create hypoxic conditions. Sources other than the two rivers mentioned above may also contribute significant quantities of oxygen-demanding pollutants. One very visible potential source is the hundreds of offshore oil and gas platforms located within or near the hypoxic zone. Many of these platforms discharge varying volumes of produced water. However, only limited data characterizing oxygen demand and nutrient concentration and loading from offshore produced water discharges have been collected. No comprehensive and coordinated oxygen demand data exist for produced water discharges in the Gulf of Mexico. This report describes the results of a program to sample 50 offshore oil and gas platforms located within the Gulf of Mexico hypoxic zone. The program was conducted in response to a requirement in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) general National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit for offshore oil and gas discharges. EPA requested information on the amount of oxygen-demanding substances contained in the produced water discharges. This information is needed as inputs to several water quality models that EPA intends to run to estimate the relative contributions of the produced water discharges to the occurrence of the hypoxic zone. Sixteen platforms were sampled 3 times each at approximately one-month intervals to give an estimate of temporal variability. An additional 34 platforms were sampled one time. The 50 sampled platforms were scattered throughout the hypoxic zone to give an estimate of spatial variability. Each platform was sampled for biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), total organic carbon (TOC), nitrogen (ammonia, nitrate, nitrite, and total Kjeldahl nitrogen [TKN]), and phosphorus (total phosphorus and orthophosphate). In addition to these parameters, each sample was monitored for pH, conductivity, salinity, and temperature. The sampling provided average platform concentrations for each parameter. Table ES-1 shows the mean, median, maximum, and minimum for the sampled parameters. For some of the parameters, the mean is considerably larger than the median, suggesting that one or a few data points are much higher than the rest of the points (outliers). Chapter 4 contains an extensive discussion of outliers and shows how the sample results change if outliers are deleted from consideration. A primary goal of this study is to estimate the mass loading (lb/day) of each of the oxygen-demanding pollutants from the 50 platforms sampled in the study. Loading is calculated by multiplying concentrations by the discharge volume and then by a conversion factor to allow units to match. The loadings calculated in this study of 50 platforms represent a produced water discharge volume of about 176,000 bbl/day. The total amount of produced water generated in the hypoxic zone during the year 2003 was estimated as 508,000 bbl/day. This volume is based on reports by operators to the Minerals Management Service each year. It reflects the volume of produced water that is generated from each lease, not the volume that is discharged from each platform. The mass loadings from offshore oil and gas discharges to the entire hypoxic zone were estimated by multiplying the 50-platform loadings by the ratio of total water generated to 50-platform discharge volume. The loadings estimated for the 50 platforms and for the entire hypoxic zone are shown in Table ES-2. These estimates and the sampling data from 50 platfo

Veil, J. A.; Kimmell, T. A.; Rechner, A. C.

2005-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

404

Striated microdischarges in an asymmetric barrier discharge in argon at atmospheric pressure  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The investigation of striated microdischarges in barrier discharges in argon at atmospheric pressure is reported. Microdischarges were investigated by means of electrical measurements correlated with intensified CCD camera imaging. The scaling law theory known from low-pressure glow discharge diagnostics was applied in order to describe and explain this phenomenon. The investigated microdischarge is characterized as a transient atmospheric-pressure glow discharge with a stratified column. It can be described by similarity parameters i/r{approx_equal}0.13 A/cm, pr{approx_equal}5 Torr cm, and 3<{lambda}/r<5 with the current i, pressure p, interval of subsequent striations {lambda}, and radius of the plasma channel r. An attempt to describe the mechanism of creation of a striated structure is given, based on an established model of the spatial electron relaxation.

Hoder, Tomas; Loffhagen, Detlef; Wilke, Christian; Grosch, Helge; Schaefer, Jan; Weltmann, Klaus-Dieter; Brandenburg, Ronny [Leibniz Institute for Plasma Science and Technology, Felix-Hausdorff-Str. 2, D-17489 Greifswald (Germany)

2011-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

405

Non-local Effects in a Stratified Glow Discharge With Dusty Particles  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The work is aimed to describe non-local effects in the positive column of a low pressure stratified DC glow discharge in argon with dusty particles in a vertical cylindrical discharge tube. The numerical calculations of plasma parameters in the axis of the discharge tube were performed with the help of hybrid model based on the solution of non-local Boltzmann equation for EEDF. Distributions of optical emission from striations were measured experimentally. It is shown that in a stratified positive column the EEDF is not Maxwellian and even non-monotonous. Also, the effect of displacing of optical emission distribution relative to the electric field is shown both by numerical simulation and experimental measurements.

Sukhinin, G. I. [Institute of Thermophysics SB RAS, Lavrentyev Ave., 1, Novosibirsk, 630090 (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State University, Pirogova Str., 2, Novosibirsk, 630090 (Russian Federation); Fedoseev, A. V. [Institute of Thermophysics SB RAS, Lavrentyev Ave., 1, Novosibirsk, 630090 (Russian Federation); Ramazanov, T. S.; Amangaliyeva, R. Zh.; Dosbolayev, M. K.; Jumabekov, A. N. [Institute of Experimental and Theoretical Physics, Al Farabi Kazakh National University, Tole Bi, 96a, Almaty, 050012 (Kazakhstan)

2008-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

406

Experimental study on hard X-rays emitted from metre-scale negative discharges in air  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We investigate the development of meter long negative discharges and focus on their X-ray emissions. We describe appearance, timing and spatial distribution of the X-rays. They appear in bursts of nanosecond duration mostly in the cathode area. The spectrum can be characterized by an exponential function with 200 keV characteristic photon energy. With nanosecond-fast photography we took detailed images of the pre-breakdown phenomena during the time when X-rays were registered. We found bipolar discharge structures, also called "pilot systems", in the vicinity of the cathode. As in our previous study of X-rays from positive discharges, we correlate the X-ray emission with encounters between positive and negative streamers. We suggest that a similar process is responsible for X-rays generated by lightning leaders.

Kochkin, P O; Ebert, Ute

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

407

Partial discharge measurements on a high voltage direct current mass impregnated paper cable  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Partial discharge measurement has been a good tool for the quality assurance of cables under alternating voltage. With the growing interest in High Voltage Direct Current cables it seems therefore logical to extend this technique for use at direct voltage. The paper describes this technique as used on a HVDC cable with mass impregnated paper. The different phases of operation (no load, full load, cooling phase, etc.) are characterized by a different discharge behavior. Special attention is given to the dangerous cooling phase. Models have been developed which can explain the discharge patterns that were measured. This paper gives an insight in the electrical behavior of a HVDC cable with mass impregnated paper insulation.

Jeroense, M.J.P. [NKF KABEL B.V., Delft (Netherlands); Kreuger, F.H. [Delft Univ. of Technology (Netherlands)

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

408

Dynamics of multiple double layers in high pressure glow discharge in a simple torus  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Parametric characterization of multiple double layers is done during high pressure glow discharge in a toroidal vessel of small aspect ratio. Although glow discharge (without magnetic field) is known to be independent of device geometry, but the toroidal boundary conditions are conducive to plasma growth and eventually the plasma occupy the toroidal volume partially. At higher anode potential, the visibly glowing spots on the body of spatially extended anode transform into multiple intensely luminous spherical plasma blob structures attached to the tip of the positive electrode. Dynamics of multiple double layers are observed in argon glow discharge plasma in presence of toroidal magnetic field. The radial profiles of plasma parameters measured at various toroidal locations show signatures of double layer formation in our system. Parametric dependence of double layer dynamics in presence of toroidal magnetic field is presented here.

Kumar Paul, Manash, E-mail: manashkr@gmail.com [Department of Physics, National Institute of Technology Agartala, Tripura–799 046 (India); Sharma, P. K.; Thakur, A.; Kulkarni, S. V.; Bora, D. [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar, Gujarat–382 428 (India)

2014-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

409

Ambient-atmosphere glow discharge for determination of elemental concentration in solutions in a high-throughput or transient fashion  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An ambient atmosphere glow discharge spectrometer is disclosed having a capillary, two electrodes and a means for recording the atomic emissions.

Webb, Michael R. (Somerville, MA); Hieftje, Gary M. (Bloomington, IN); Andrade, Francisco (Leeds, GB)

2011-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

410

Plasma Kinetics in Electrical Discharge in Mixture of Air, Water and Ethanol Vapors for Hydrogen Enriched Syngas Production  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The complex theoretical and experimental investigation of plasma kinetics of the electric discharge in the mixture of air and ethanol-water vapors is carried out. The discharge was burning in the cavity, formed by air jets pumping between electrodes, placed in aqueous ethanol solution. It is found out that the hydrogen yield from the discharge is maximal in the case when ethanol and water in the solution are in equal amounts. It is shown that the hydrogen production increases with the discharge power and reaches the saturation at high value. The concentrations of the main stable gas-phase components, measured experimentally and calculated numerically, agree well in the most cases.

Shchedrin, A I; Ryabtsev, A V; Chernyak, V Ya; Yukhymenko, V V; Olszewski, S V; Naumov, V V; Prysiazhnevych, I V; Solomenko, E V; Demchina, V P; Kudryavtsev, V S

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

411

GAS PUFF FUELED H-MODE DISCHARGES WITH GOOD ENERGY CONFINEMENT ABOVE THE GREENWALD DENSITY LIMIT ON DIII-D  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A261. GAS PUFF FUELED H-MODE DISCHARGES WITH GOOD ENERGY CONFINEMENT ABOVE THE GREENWALD DENSITY LIMIT ON DIII-D

T.H. OSBORNE; A.W. LEONARD; M.A. MAHDAVI; M.S. CHU; M.E. FENSTERMACHER; R.J. LA HAYE; G.R. McKEE; T.W. PETRIE; E.J. DOYLE; G.M. STAEBLER; M.R. WADE

2000-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

412

Mach 5 bow shock control by a nanosecond pulse surface dielectric barrier discharge  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Bow shock perturbations in a Mach 5 air flow, produced by low-temperature, nanosecond pulse, and surface dielectric barrier discharge (DBD), are detected by phase-locked schlieren imaging. A diffuse nanosecond pulse discharge is generated in a DBD plasma actuator on a surface of a cylinder model placed in air flow in a small scale blow-down supersonic wind tunnel. Discharge energy coupled to the actuator is 7.3-7.8 mJ/pulse. Plasma temperature inferred from nitrogen emission spectra is a few tens of degrees higher than flow stagnation temperature, T = 340 {+-} 30 K. Phase-locked Schlieren images are used to detect compression waves generated by individual nanosecond discharge pulses near the actuator surface. The compression wave propagates upstream toward the baseline bow shock standing in front of the cylinder model. Interaction of the compression wave and the bow shock causes its displacement in the upstream direction, increasing shock stand-off distance by up to 25%. The compression wave speed behind the bow shock and the perturbed bow shock velocity are inferred from the Schlieren images. The effect of compression waves generated by nanosecond discharge pulses on shock stand-off distance is demonstrated in a single-pulse regime (at pulse repetition rates of a few hundred Hz) and in a quasi-continuous mode (using a two-pulse sequence at a pulse repetition rate of 100 kHz). The results demonstrate feasibility of hypersonic flow control by low-temperature, repetitive nanosecond pulse discharges.

Nishihara, M.; Takashima, K.; Rich, J. W.; Adamovich, I. V. [Michael A. Chaszeyka Nonequilibrium Thermodynamics Laboratories, Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States)

2011-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

413

Transverse-type laser assembly using induced electrical discharge excitation and method  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A transverse-type laser assembly is disclosed herein. This assembly defines a laser cavity containing a vapor or gaseous substance which lases when subjected to specific electrical discharge excitation between a pair of spaced-apart electrodes located within the cavity in order to produce a source of light. An arrangement located entirely outside the laser cavity is provided for inducing a voltage across the electrodes within the cavity sufficient to provide the necessary electrical discharge excitation to cause a vapor substance between the electrodes to lase. 3 figures.

Ault, E.R.

1994-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

414

Estimation of the relationship between remotely sensed anthropogenic heat discharge and building energy use  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper examined the relationship between remotely sensed anthropogenic heat discharge and energy use from residential and commercial buildings across multiple scales in the city of Indianapolis, Indiana, USA. Anthropogenic heat discharge was estimated based on a remote sensing-based surface energy balance model, which was parameterized using land cover, land surface temperature, albedo, and meteorological data. Building energy use was estimated using a GIS-based building energy simulation model in conjunction with Department of Energy/ Energy Information Administration survey data, Assessor's parcel data, GIS floor areas data, and remote sensing-derived building height data.

Zhou, Yuyu; Weng, Qihao; Gurney, Kevin R.; Shuai, Yanmin; Hu, Xuefei

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

415

Metod And Apparatus For Debris Mitigation For An Electrical Discharge Source  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Method and apparatus for mitigating the transport of debris generated and dispersed from electric discharge sources by thermophoretic and electrostatic deposition. A member is positioned adjacent the front electrode of an electric discharge source and used to establish a temperature difference between it and the front electrode. By flowing a gas between the member and the front electrode a temperature gradient is established that can be used for thermophoretic deposition of particulate debris on either the member or front electrode depending upon the direction of the thermal gradient. Establishing an electric field between the member and front electrode can aid in particle deposition by electrostatic deposition.

Klebanoff, Leonard E. (San Clemente, CA); Silfvast, William T. (St. Helena, CA); Rader, Daniel J. (Albuquerque, NM)

2005-05-03T23:59:59.000Z

416

Method and apparatus for debris mitigation for an electrical discharge source  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Method and apparatus for mitigating the transport of debris generated and dispersed from electric discharge sources by thermophoretic and electrostatic deposition. A member is positioned adjacent the front electrode of an electric discharge source and used to establish a temperature difference between it and the front electrode. By flowing a gas between the member and the front electrode a temperature gradient is established that can be used for thermophoretic deposition of particulate debris on either the member or front electrode depending upon the direction of the thermal gradient. Establishing an electric field between the member and front electrode can aid in particle deposition by electrostatic deposition.

Klebanoff, Leonard E. (San Clemente, CA); Rader, Daniel J. (Albuquerque, NM); Silfvast, William T. (Helena, CA)

2006-01-24T23:59:59.000Z

417

Binary and ternary gas mixtures for use in glow discharge closing switches  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Highly efficient binary and ternary gas mixtures for use in diffuse glow discharge closing switches are disclosed. The binary mixtures are combinations of helium or neon and selected perfluorides. The ternary mixtures are combinations of helium, neon, or argon, a selected perfluoride, and a small amount of gas that exhibits enhanced ionization characteristics. These mixtures are shown to be the optimum choices for use in diffuse glow discharge closing switches by virtue if the combines physio-electric properties of the mixture components. 9 figs.

Hunter, S.R.; Christophorou, L.G.

1988-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

418

Theoretical investigation of phase-controlled bias effect in capacitively coupled plasma discharges  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We theoretically investigated the effect of phase difference between powered electrodes in capacitively coupled plasma (CCP) discharges. Previous experimental result has shown that the plasma potential could be controlled by using a phase-shift controller in CCP discharges. In this work, based on the previously developed radio frequency sheath models, we developed a circuit model to self-consistently determine the bias voltage from the plasma parameters. Results show that the present theoretical model explains the experimental results quite well and there is an optimum value of the phase difference for which the V{sub dc}/V{sub pp} ratio becomes a minimum.

Kwon, Deuk-Chul; Yoon, Jung-Sik [Convergence Plasma Research Center, National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of)

2011-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

419

Self-consistent modeling of DC and microwave nitrogen discharges and their afterglows  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report presents an investigation on the modeling of stationary DC and microwave nitrogen discharges and their afterglows, operating at pressures around one Torr and ionization degrees between 10-7-10-4. The model is based on the self-consistent solutions to the electron Boltzmann equation coupled to the rate balance equations for the most important neutral and charged species, the wave electrodynamics characteristics and the gas thermal balance equation. The results are obtained as a function of the usual discharge operating parameters, namely gas pressure, discharge current or electron density, and tube radius. It is shown that the vibrationally excited molecules play a central role in the whole problem, ensuring a strong link between different kinetics and directly contributing to the mechanisms of dissociation and gas heating. Furthermore, vibrationally excited molecules in high vibration levels are in the origin of the peaks observed in the flowing afterglow for the concentrations of several species, such as N{sub 2}(A {sup 3}{sigma}{sub g}{sup +}), N2(B 3{pi}g), N{sub 2}{sup +}(B {sup 2}{sigma}{sub u}{sup +}) and electrons, which occur downstream from the discharge after a dark zone as a consequence of the V-V up-pumping mechanism.

Guerra, Vasco [Centro de Fisica dos Plasmas, Instituto Superior Tecnico, 1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal)

2004-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

420

Excessive broadening of hydrogen Balmer lines for discharge-surface interaction monitoring  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A comparative study of the hydrogen H{sub {alpha}} line shapes in titanium and stainless steel hollow cathode discharges, run with hydrogen or argon-hydrogen mixture illustrates the possibility of using the excessively broadened part of line profile for heavy particle-cathode surface interaction monitoring.

Konjevic, N.; Majstorovic, G. Lj.; Sisovic, N.M. [Faculty of Physics, University of Belgrade, 11001 Belgrade, P.O. Box 368 (Serbia and Montenegro); Military Academy, 11105 Belgrade, Generala Pavla Jurisica-Sturma 33 (Serbia and Montenegro); Faculty of Physics, University of Belgrade, 11001 Belgrade, P.O. Box 368 (Serbia and Montenegro)

2005-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high-intensity discharge halogen" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

ANNUAL REPORT General Permit for the Discharger of Storm Water from Small Municipal Separate  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. These activities and structural improvements are referred to as Best Management Practices (BMPs). BMPs9/14/11 1 ANNUAL REPORT General Permit for the Discharger of Storm Water from Small Municipal. Permittee (Agency Name): University of California Santa Cruz 2. Contact Person: _Courtney Trask, Storm Water

California at Santa Cruz, University of

422

ANNUAL REPORT General Permit for the Discharger of Storm Water from Small Municipal Separate  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. These activities and structural improvements are referred to as Best Management Practices (BMPs). BMPs9/14/10 1 ANNUAL REPORT General Permit for the Discharger of Storm Water from Small Municipal. Permittee (Agency Name): University of California Santa Cruz 2. Contact Person: _Courtney Trask, Storm Water

California at Santa Cruz, University of

423

ANNUAL REPORT General Permit for the Discharger of Storm Water from Small Municipal Separate  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, 2013 to June 30, 2014 (Year 5) The University of California at Santa Cruz's Storm Water Management improvements are referred to as Best Management Practices (BMPs). BMPs will be updated as appropriate1 ANNUAL REPORT General Permit for the Discharger of Storm Water from Small Municipal Separate

California at Santa Cruz, University of

424

Plasma-Enhanced Combustion of Hydrocarbon Fuels and Fuel Blends Using Nanosecond Pulsed Discharges  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This project had as its goals the study of fundamental physical and chemical processes relevant to the sustained premixed and non-premixed jet ignition/combustion of low grade fuels or fuels under adverse flow conditions using non-equilibrium pulsed nanosecond discharges.

Cappelli, Mark; Mungal, M Godfrey

2014-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

425

Evolution of the Upper Rhone River discharge and suspended sediment load during the last 80 years  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Versoix, Switzerland Key words: Sediment rating curve, sediment load, dam, deep water lake. ABSTRACTEvolution of the Upper Rhone River discharge and suspended sediment load during the last 80 years in amplitude and frequency. From the available literature data, sediment rating curves have been calculated

Gilli, Adrian

426

Combined Steam Reforming and Partial Oxidation of Methane to Synthesis Gas under Electrical Discharge  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Combined Steam Reforming and Partial Oxidation of Methane to Synthesis Gas under Electrical production from simultaneous steam reforming and partial oxidation of methane using an ac corona discharge production has been steam reforming, shown in reaction 4. It is very useful to use low-cost materials

Mallinson, Richard

427

Gain and continuous-wave laser power enhancement with a secondary discharge to predissociate molecular iodine  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

with this chemical singlet oxygen generator motivated many investi- gations into an electrically driven oxygen molecular iodine in an electric oxygen-iodine laser G. F. Benavides,1 J. W. Zimmerman,2 B. S. Woodard,2 D. L the addition of a secondary discharge to predissociate the molecular iodine in an electric oxygen-iodine laser

Carroll, David L.

428

Radiation transport coupled particle-in-cell simulation of low-pressure inductive discharges  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Radiation transport coupled particle-in-cell simulation of low-pressure inductive discharges Hae driven by an inductive radio frequency wave are simulated with a one-dimensional radiation transport is self-consistently coupled with plasma dynamics. The radiation efficiency is investigated

Lee, Hae June

429

Spectroscopic diagnostics of the plasma in the cathode region of a nitrogen glow discharge  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

323 Spectroscopic diagnostics of the plasma in the cathode region of a nitrogen glow discharge A of the characteristic quantities of the plasma, the diagnostics must be made in situ by non-intrusive methods that offer. Margulis and J. Jolly Laboratoire de Physique des Gaz et des Plasmas, Bâtiment 212, Université de Paris

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

430

Structural properties of dusty plasma in direct current and radio frequency gas discharges  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper presents radial distribution functions of dust particles obtained experimentally in dc and rf discharges. Pressure and interaction energy of dusty particles were calculated on the basis of these functions. The Langevin dynamics computer simulation for each experiment was performed. The comparisons with computer simulations are made.

Ramazanov, T. S.; Dzhumagulova, K. N.; Jumabekov, A. N.; Dosbolayev, M. K. [Al Farabi Kazakh National University, IETP, Tole bi 96a, Almaty, 050012 (Kazakhstan)

2008-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

431

Recombination time of an RF discharge plasma in the presence of water molecules  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The authors show that the introduction of water vapor into an electrodeless rf discharge noticeably reduces the excitation temperature and substantially increases the recombination time of the plasma. An attempt is made to explain the physical processes associated with these phenomena.

Protasevich, E.T.

1986-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

432

Comparative analysis of discharges into Lake Michigan, Phase I - Southern Lake Michigan.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

BP Products North America Inc. (BP) owns and operates a petroleum refinery located on approximately 1,700 acres in Whiting, East Chicago, and Hammond, Indiana, near the southern tip of Lake Michigan. BP provided funding to Purdue University-Calumet Water Institute (Purdue) and Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne) to conduct studies related to wastewater treatment and discharges. Purdue and Argonne are working jointly to identify and characterize technologies that BP could use to meet the previous discharge permit limits for total suspended solids (TSS) and ammonia after refinery modernization. In addition to the technology characterization work, Argonne conducted a separate project task, which is the subject of this report. In Phase I of a two-part study, Argonne estimated the current levels of discharge to southern Lake Michigan from significant point and nonpoint sources in Illinois, Indiana, and portions of Michigan. The study does not consider all of the chemicals that are discharged. Rather, it is narrowly focused on a selected group of pollutants, referred to as the 'target pollutants'. These include: TSS, ammonia, total and hexavalent chromium, mercury, vanadium, and selenium. In Phase II of the study, Argonne will expand the analysis to cover the entire Lake Michigan drainage basin.

Veil, J. A.; Elcock, D.; Gasper, J. R.; Environmental Science Division

2008-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

433

High explosives vapor detection by atmospheric sampling glow discharge ionization/tandem mass spectrometry  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The combination of atmospheric sampling glow discharge ionization with tandem mass spectrometry for the detection of traces of high explosives is described. Particular emphasis is placed on use of the quadrupole ion trap as the type of tandem mass spectrometer. Atmospheric sampling glow discharge provides a simple, rugged, and efficient means for anion formation while the quadrupole ion trap provides for efficient tandem mass spectrometry. Mass selective ion accumulation and non-specific ion activation methods can be used to overcome deleterious effects arising from ion/ion interactions. Such interactions constitute the major potential technical barrier to the use of the ion trap for real-time monitoring of targeted compounds in uncontrolled and highly variable matrices. Tailored waveforms can be used to effect both mass selective ion accumulation and ion activation. Concatenated tailored waveforms allow for both functions in a single experiment thereby providing the capability for monitoring several targeted species simultaneously. The combination of atmospheric sampling glow discharge ionization with a state-of-the-art analytical quadrupole ion trap is a highly sensitive and specific detector for traces of high explosives. The combination is also small and inexpensive relative to virtually any other form of tandem mass spectrometry. The science and technology underlying the glow discharge/ion trap combination is sufficiently mature to form the basis for an engineering effort to make the detector portable. 85 refs.

McLuckey, S.A.; Goeringer, D.E.; Asano, K.G. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Chemical and Analytical Sciences Div.

1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

434

The powerful high-voltage glow discharge electron gun and power unit on its base  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The technical and operational characteristics and features of powerful electron gun with cold cathodes on the basis of high-voltage glow discharge (HGD) are submitted. The systems, ensuring their work are described. Some results of operation and applications of these non-traditional electron guns are presented.

Chernov, V.A. [All-Russian Electrotechnical Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation)

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

435

Mode transition and nonlinear self-oscillations in the beam-driven collisional discharge plasma  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Mode transition and nonlinear self-oscillations in the beam-driven collisional discharge plasma Hae Received 13 February 1998; accepted 19 May 1998 Nonlinear dynamics and self-oscillations in a dc beam. A theory for the critical voltage of mode transition between temperature-limited and anode-glow modes

Lee, Hae June

436

The electric organ discharge (EOD) of weakly electric fish generates transcutaneous electric currents that stimulate  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

2443 The electric organ discharge (EOD) of weakly electric fish generates transcutaneous electric object whose conductivity is different from that of water produces an electric image consisting for the formation of electric images. Rule 1: objects more conductive than water cause a local increase

Grant, Kirsty

437

Rare measurements of a sprite with halo event driven by a negative lightning discharge over Argentina  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Argentina M. J. Taylor,1 M. A. Bailey,1 P. D. Pautet,1 S. A. Cummer,2 N. Jaugey,2 J. N. Thomas,3,4 N. N measurements were made of a mesoscale thunderstorm observed on February 22­23, 2006 over northern Argentina of a sprite with halo event driven by a negative lightning discharge over Argentina, Geophys. Res. Lett., 35

Thomas, Jeremy N.

438

Quantification of Corona Discharges on Nonceramic Insulators B. Pinnangudi, R. S. Gorur and A. J. Kroese *  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

degradation characteristics of housing materials to identify discharge patterns that can pose problems particles, ultraviolet (UV) radiation, and liberation of ozone. Highly oxidizing and hydrated species an advanced stage of degradation while Fig. 1(b) shows degradation that could still be considered minor. Any

439

The Electrodeless Discharge Lamps Coated with the Titania Thin Film for Photocatalysis in a Microwave Field  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

photochemical and photocatalytic reactions for degradation of organic pollutants. The electrodeless discharge lamp (EDL) generates UV/VIS radiation when placed into the microwave field and is connected to the objective of microwave photochemistry [1]. The degradation of mono-chloroacetic acid (MCAA) by microwave

Cirkva, Vladimir

440

Dynamics of the ion flow in a discharge with crossed E and H fields  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The experimental and theoretical results of the investigation of an ion flow in a low-pressure discharge in crossed E and H fields are presented. It is shown that two quasi-stationary current states can be realized in a transonic collisionless flow of ions in a cold plasma.

Movsesyants, Yu. B., E-mail: yumovsesyants@gmail.com; Tyuryukanov, P. M. [All-Russian Electrotechnical Institute (Russian Federation)

2011-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high-intensity discharge halogen" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Two-Dimensional Numerical Modeling of Radio-Frequency Ion Engine Discharge  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, Manuel Martinez-Sanchez August 2010 SSL # 14-10 #12;2 #12;3 Two-Dimensional Numerical Modeling of Radio-Frequency Ion Engine Discharge Michael Meng-Tsuan Tsay, Manuel Martinez-Sanchez August 2010 SSL # 14

442

HYDROTHERMAL ACTIVITY AND CARBON-DIOXIDE DISCHARGE AT SHRUB AND UPPER KLAWASI MUD VOLCANOES,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

HYDROTHERMAL ACTIVITY AND CARBON-DIOXIDE DISCHARGE AT SHRUB AND UPPER KLAWASI MUD VOLCANOES and July 1973 at Shrub and Upper Klawasi mud volcanoes 8 ii #12;HYDROTHERMAL ACTIVITY AND CARBON. Map of diffuse carbon dioxide flow from soils near the summit of Shrub mud volcano 9 TABLES 1

443

Large Plastic Deformation in High-Capacity Lithium-Ion Batteries Caused by Charge and Discharge  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Large Plastic Deformation in High-Capacity Lithium-Ion Batteries Caused by Charge and Discharge, Massachusetts 02138 Evidence has accumulated recently that a high-capacity elec- trode of a lithium-ion battery in the particle is high, possibly leading to fracture and cavitation. I. Introduction LITHIUM-ION batteries

Suo, Zhigang

444

Study of discharge after electron irradiation in sapphires and polycrystalline alumina  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The fraction R of charges undergoing discharge during the time separating two electron pulses is derived from the induced current method developed in a scanning electron microscope. Irradiation is performed via a 10 keV defocused electron beam and low current density. The evolution of R with temperature (in the range 300-663 K) obeys to an Arrhenius type relation. Activation energies connected with the processes involved are deduced. In sapphire, no discernible discharge is observed due to the dominance of deep traps. In silver doped sapphire, R increases sharply from 10% to 70% as the temperature rises from 360 to 420 K, with a corresponding activation energy of 0.51 eV. In contrast, in polycrystalline alumina processed by solid state sintering (grain diameters of 1.7, 2.7, and 4.5 {mu}m) the degree of discharge increases continuously with temperature and grain size. The enhancement with grain size indicates that the sintering conditions influence strongly the efficiency of a gettering effect. The activation energy below 573 K is about 0.12 eV independently of grain size. Above 573 K, a second activation energy of 0.26 eV appears for the smallest grain size sample. The results suggest that discharge may stem from a density of trapping states, associated to grain boundaries in sintered samples, rather than from a single trapping level linked to the doping element as Ag in sapphire.

Zarbout, K. [IM2NP, UMR CNRS 6242, Aix-Marseille Universite, 13397 Marseille Cedex 20 (France); Laboratoire des Materiaux Ceramiques, Composites et Polymeres, Faculte des Sciences de Sfax, Universite de Sfax, BP 1171, 3000 Sfax (Tunisia); Moya, G.; Ahmed, A. Si [IM2NP, UMR CNRS 6242, Aix-Marseille Universite, 13397 Marseille Cedex 20 (France); Damamme, G. [CEA Ile-de-France, BP. 12, 91680 Bruyeres-le-Chatel (France); Kallel, A. [Laboratoire des Materiaux Ceramiques, Composites et Polymeres, Faculte des Sciences de Sfax, Universite de Sfax, BP 1171, 3000 Sfax (Tunisia)

2010-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

445

State waste discharge permit application 400 Area secondary cooling water. Revision 2  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document constitutes the Washington Administrative Code 173-216 State Waste Discharge Permit Application that serves as interim compliance as required by Consent Order DE 91NM-177, for the 400 Area Secondary Cooling Water stream. As part of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order negotiations, the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office, the US Environmental Protection Agency, and the Washington State Department of Ecology agreed that liquid effluent discharges to the ground on the Hanford Site that affect groundwater or have the potential to affect groundwater would be subject to permitting under the structure of Chapter 173-216 of the Washington Administrative Code, the State Waste Discharge Permitting Program. As a result of this decision, the Washington State Department of Ecology and the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office entered into Consent Order DE 91NM-177. The Consent Order DE 91NM-177 requires a series of permitting activities for liquid effluent discharges. Based upon compositional and flow rate characteristics, liquid effluent streams on the Hanford Site have been categorized into Phase 1, Phase 2, and Miscellaneous streams. This document only addresses the 400 Area Secondary Cooling Water stream, which has been identified as a Phase 2 stream. The 400 Area Secondary Cooling Water stream includes contribution streams from the Fuels and Materials Examination Facility, the Maintenance and Storage Facility, the 481-A pump house, and the Fast Flux Test Facility.

NONE

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

446

Fecal coliform accumulation within a river subject to seasonally-disinfected wastewater discharges  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Fecal coliform accumulation within a river subject to seasonally-disinfected wastewater discharges in the implications of seasonal disinfection practices of wastewater effluents for meeting water quality goals from municipal wastewater outfalls along the river, as well as upstream and downstream of each outfall

Mitch, William A.

447

PPPL3243 Preprint: March 1997, UC427 Microinstability Properties of Negative Magnetic Shear Discharges in the  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Discharges in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor and DIII-D G. Rewoldt Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton Reactor (TFTR) and DIII-D experiments with and without confinement transitions are investigated. A comprehensive kinetic lin- ear eigenmode calculation employing the ballooning representation is employed

448

Optimization of EUV laser and discharge devices for high-volume manufacturing  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Optimization of EUV laser and discharge devices for high-volume manufacturing A. Hassanein* , V for improving source brightness is to simulate the source environment in order to optimize the EUV output necessitate investigation and optimization not only of power sources but also plasma irradiation parameters

Harilal, S. S.

449

APPLICATION OF BUTTERFLY VALVES FOR FREE DISCHARGE, MINIMUM PRESSURE DROP, AND FOR CHOKING CAVITATION  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

CAVITATION Butterfly valves are commonly used as control valves in applications where the pressure drops and the use of a butterfly valve for flashing or choking cavitation service. Free discharge typically produces high pipe velocities at moderate pressure drops, and choking cavitation typically produces high

Rahmeyer, William J.

450

Wireless Sensing Framework for Long-Term Measurements of Electric Organ Discharge  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

monitoring and visualization of the electric organ discharges (EOD) of a weakly electric fish (Sternopygus of multiple fish residing in separate tanks. Furthermore, the sensing mechanisms used to detect EOD are non-invasive, minimizing side effects on the fishs' natural behavior. Commercial-off-the- shelf (COTS) components are used

Misra, Satyajayant

451

Chemical Vapor Deposition of Silicon Dioxide by Direct-Current Corona Discharges in Dry Air  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Chemical Vapor Deposition of Silicon Dioxide by Direct-Current Corona Discharges in Dry Air, Si4O4(CH3)8) widely used as additives in personal care products. In both photocopiers and air in indoor air, the gas-phase processes limit the rate of deposition. KEY WORDS: Corona plasma; corona

Chen, Junhong

452

Measurements of time average series resonance effect in capacitively coupled radio frequency discharge plasma  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Self-excited plasma series resonance is observed in low pressure capacitvely coupled radio frequency discharges as high-frequency oscillations superimposed on the normal radio frequency current. This high-frequency contribution to the radio frequency current is generated by a series resonance between the capacitive sheath and the inductive and resistive bulk plasma. In this report, we present an experimental method to measure the plasma series resonance in a capacitively coupled radio frequency argon plasma by modifying the homogeneous discharge model. The homogeneous discharge model is modified by introducing a correction factor to the plasma resistance. Plasma parameters are also calculated by considering the plasma series resonances effect. Experimental measurements show that the self-excitation of the plasma series resonance, which arises in capacitive discharge due to the nonlinear interaction of plasma bulk and sheath, significantly enhances both the Ohmic and stochastic heating. The experimentally measured total dissipation, which is the sum of the Ohmic and stochastic heating, is found to increase significantly with decreasing pressure.

Bora, B.; Bhuyan, H.; Favre, M.; Wyndham, E.; Chuaqui, H. [Facultad de Fisica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Ave. Vicuna Mackenna 4860, Santiago 22 (Chile); Kakati, M. [Thermal Plasma Processed Materials Laboratory, Centre of Plasma Physics, Institute for Plasma Research, Sonapur 782 402, Assam (India)

2011-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

453

REVIEW OF STRATEGIES FOR MODELLING THE ENVIRONMENTAL FATE OF PESTICIDES DISCHARGED INTO RIVERINE SYSTEMS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

can enter the nearby riverine system possibly causing considerable environmental damage (for exampleREVIEW OF STRATEGIES FOR MODELLING THE ENVIRONMENTAL FATE OF PESTICIDES DISCHARGED INTO RIVERINE Warren Spring Laboratory, Gunnels Wood Road, Stevenage, SG1 2BX, UK. 3 School of Environmental Sciences

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

454

Binary and ternary gas mixtures with temperature enhanced diffuse glow discharge characteristics for use in closing switches  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An improvement to the gas mixture used in diffuse glow discharge closing switches is disclosed which includes binary and ternary gas mixtures which are formulated to exhibit decreasing electron attachment with increasing temperature. This increases the efficiency of the conductance of the glow discharge and further inhibits the formation of an arc. 11 figs.

Christophorou, L.G.; Hunter, S.R.

1988-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

455

Control of current and voltage oscillations in a short dc discharge making use of external auxiliary electrode  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Control of current and voltage oscillations in a short dc discharge making use of external://rsi.aip.org/about/rights_and_permissions #12;REVIEW OF SCIENTIFIC INSTRUMENTS 83, 103502 (2012) Control of current and voltage oscillations October 2012) A dc discharge with a hot cathode is subject to current and voltage plasma oscillations

Kaganovich, Igor

456

Capacity fade study of lithium-ion batteries cycled at high discharge rates Gang Ning, Bala Haran, Branko N. Popov*  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Capacity fade study of lithium-ion batteries cycled at high discharge rates Gang Ning, Bala Haran at high discharge rates. # 2003 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved. Keywords: Lithium-ion batteries collectors can affect up to different degrees the capacity fade of lithium-ion batteries [1­5]. Quantifying

Popov, Branko N.

457

Binary and ternary gas mixtures with temperature enhanced diffuse glow discharge characteristics for use in closing switches  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An improvement to the gas mixture used in diffuse glow discharge closing switches is disclosed which includes binary and ternary gas mixtures which are formulated to exhibit decreasing electron attachment with increasing temperature. This increases the efficiency of the conductance of the glow discharge and further inhibits the formation of an arc. 11 figs.

Christophorou, L.G.; Hunter, S.R.

1990-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

458

Electro-hydrodynamics and kinetic modelling of polluted air flow activated by multi-tip-to-plane corona discharge  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The present paper is devoted to the 2D simulation of an Atmospheric Corona Discharge Reactor (ACDR) involving 10 pins powered by a DC high voltage and positioned 7 mm above a grounded metallic plane. The corona reactor is periodically crossed by thin mono filamentary streamers with a natural repetition frequency of some tens of kHz. The simulation involves the electro-dynamic, chemical kinetic, and neutral gas hydrodynamic phenomena that influence the kinetics of the chemical species transformation. Each discharge stage (including the primary and the secondary streamers development and the resulting thermal shock) lasts about one hundred nanoseconds while the post-discharge stages occurring between two successive discharge phases last one hundred microseconds. The ACDR is crossed by a lateral air flow including 400 ppm of NO. During the considered time scale of 10 ms, one hundred discharge/post-discharge cycles are simulated. The simulation involves the radical formation and thermal exchange between the discharges and the background gas. The results show how the successive discharges activate the flow gas and how the induced turbulence phenomena affect the redistribution of the thermal energy and the chemical kinetics inside the ACDR.

Meziane, M.; Eichwald, O.; Ducasse, O.; Marchal, F. [Universite de Toulouse, UPS, INPT, LAPLACE (Laboratoire Plasma et Conversion d'Energie), Toulouse Cedex 9 F-31062 (France); Sarrette, J. P.; Yousfi, M. [Universite de Toulouse, UPS, INPT, LAPLACE (Laboratoire Plasma et Conversion d'Energie), Toulouse Cedex 9 F-31062 (France); CNRS, LAPLACE, Toulouse F-31062 (France)

2013-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

459

The Design of a RapidDischarge Varistor System for the MICE Magnet Circuits  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The need for a magnet circuit discharge system, in order to protect the magnet HTS leads during a power failure, has been discussed in recent MICE reports [1], [2]. In order to rapidly discharge a magnet, one has to put enough resistance across the lead. The resistance in this case is varistor that is put across the magnet in the event of a power outage. The resistance consists of several diodes, which act as constant voltage resistors and the resistance of the cables connecting the magnets in the circuit to each other and to the power supply. In order for the rapid discharge system to work without quenching the magnets, the voltage across the magnets must be low enough so that the diodes in the quench protection circuit don't fire and cause the magnet current to bypass the superconducting coils. It is proposed that six rapid discharge varistors be installed across the three magnet circuits the power the tracker solenoids, which are connected in series. The focusing magnets, which are also connected in series would have three varistors (one for each magnet). The coupling magnets would have a varistor for each magnet. The peak voltage that is allowed per varistor depends on the number of quench protection diodes that make up the quench protection circuit for each magnet coil circuit. It is proposed that the varistors be water cooled as the magnet circuits are being discharged through them. The water cooling circuit can be supplied with tap water. The tap water flows only when the varistor temperature reaches a temperature of 45 C.

Green, Michael A.

2008-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

460

Ionisation in atmospheres of brown dwarfs and extrasolar planets VI: Properties of large-scale discharge events  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Mineral clouds in substellar atmospheres play a special role as a catalyst for a variety of charge processes. If clouds are charged, the surrounding environment becomes electrically activated, and ensembles of charged grains are electrically discharging (e.g. by lightning), which significantly infuences the local chemistry creating conditions similar to those thought responsible for life in early planetary atmospheres. We note that such lightning discharges contribute also to the ionisation state of the atmosphere. We apply scaling laws for electrical discharge processes from laboratory measurements and numerical experiments to Drift-Phoenix model atmosphere results to model the discharge's propagation downwards (as lightning) and upwards (as sprites) through the atmospheric clouds. We evaluate the spatial extent and energetics of lightning discharges. The atmospheric volume affected (e.g. by increase of temperature or electron number) is larger in a brown dwarf atmosphere ($10^8 -~10^{10}$m$^3$) than in a gi...

Bailey, R L; Hodos, G; Bilger, C; Stark, C R

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high-intensity discharge halogen" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Electric Discharge Sintering and Joining of Tungsten Carbide--Cobalt Composite with High-Speed Steel Substrate  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Simultaneous electro discharge sintering of high strength structure of tungsten carbide-cobalt composite and connection it with high-speed steel substrate is investigated and suitable operating parameters are defined. Tungsten carbide-cobalt and high-speed steel joining was produced by the method of high voltage electrical discharge together with application of mechanical pressure to powder compact. It was found that the density and hardness of composite material reach its maximum values at certain magnitudes of applied pressure and high voltage electrical discharge parameters. We show that there is an upper level for the discharge voltage beyond which the powder of composite material disintegrates like an exploding wire. Due to our results it is possible to determine optimal parameters for simultaneous electro discharge sintering of WC-Co and bonding it with high-speed steel substrate.

Grigoryev, Evgeny G. [General Physics Department, Moscow Engineering Physics Institute, Kashirskoe sh. 31, Moscow, 115409 (Russian Federation)

2011-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

462

Experimental observation of standing wave effect in low-pressure very-high-frequency capacitive discharges  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Radial uniformity measurements of plasma density were carried out by using a floating double probe in a cylindrical (21?cm in electrode diameter) capacitive discharge reactor driven over a wide range of frequencies (27–220 MHz). At low rf power, a multiple-node structure of standing wave effect was observed at 130?MHz. The secondary density peak caused by the standing wave effect became pronounced and shifts toward the axis as the driving frequency further to increase, indicative of a much more shortened standing-wave wavelength. With increasing rf power, the secondary density peak shift toward the radial edge, namely, the standing-wave wavelength was increased, in good qualitative agreement with the previous theory and simulation results. At higher pressures and high frequencies, the rf power was primarily deposited at the periphery of the electrode, due to the fact that the waves were strongly damped as they propagated from the discharge edge into the center.

Liu, Yong-Xin; Gao, Fei; Liu, Jia; Wang, You-Nian, E-mail: ynwang@dlut.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Materials Modification by Laser, Ion, and Electron Beams (Ministry of Education), School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)

2014-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

463

Excessive Balmer line broadening in a plane cathode abnormal glow discharge in hydrogen  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Results of a Doppler spectroscopy study of the hydrogen Balmer alpha line in an abnormal glow discharge operated in pure hydrogen are reported. Measurements of line shapes are performed side-on to the discharge axis in a low electric field region of negative glow. The excessive Balmer alpha broadening is detected and its presence and linewidth is related to the collisions of fast hydrogen atoms with molecular hydrogen. The collision model enabled also an estimation of effective cross section data from the Balmer alpha axial intensity decay curves. Large excessive Balmer alpha line broadening in pure hydrogen and its dependence upon the direction of observation with respect to the electric field is in contradiction to the resonance transfer model, proposed byMills et al. in several publications [see, e.g., IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 31, 338 (2003)].

Cvetanovic, N.; Kuraica, M.M.; Konjevic, N. [Center for Science and Development of Technology, Obilicev Venac 26, Belgrade, and Faculty of Transport and Traffic Engineering, University of Belgrade, V. Stepe 305, Belgrade (Serbia and Montenegro); Faculty of Physics, University of Belgrade, P.O. Box 368, 11001 Belgrade, and Center for Science and Development of Technology, Obilicev Venac 26, Belgrade (Serbia and Montenegro); Faculty of Physics, University of Belgrade, P.O. Box 368, 11001 Belgrade (Serbia and Montenegro)

2005-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

464

A hypersonic plasma bullet train traveling in an atmospheric dielectric-barrier discharge jet  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An experimental observation of fast-moving plasma bullets produced in an atmospheric dielectric-barrier discharge jet is reported in this paper. Nanosecond imaging suggests that the atmospheric discharge jet consists of a plasma bullet train traveling at a hypersonic speed from 7.0 km/s to 43.1 km/s. Yet on a millisecond scale, the bullet train appears as a plasma jet of several centimeters long. The plasma bullets are produced through several possible mechanisms, the most likely of which is related to the ionization wave. Time and space resolved optical emission spectroscopy show that reactive plasma species can be delivered to different spatial sites with varying quantities.

Shi Jianjun; Zhong Fangchun; Zhang Jing; Liu, D. W.; Kong, M. G. [College of Science, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); Department of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, Loughborough University, Loughborough, Leicestershire LE11 3TU (United Kingdom)

2008-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

465

Optoelectronic ally automated system for carbon nanotubes synthesis via arc-discharge in solution  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The method of arc discharge in the solution is unique and inexpensive route for synthesis of the carbon nanotubes (CNTs), carbon onions, and other carbon nanostructures. Such a method can be used for in situ synthesis of CNTs decorated with nanoparticles. Herein, we report a simple and inexpensive optoelectronically automated system for arc discharge in solution synthesis of CNTs. The optoelectronic system maintains a constant gap between the two electrodes allowing a continuous synthesis of the carbon nanostructures. The system operates in a feedback loop consisting of an electrode-gap detector and an analog electronic unit, as controller. This computerized feeding system of the anode was used for in situ nanoparticles incorporated CNTs. For example, we have successfully decorated CNTs with ceria, silica, and palladium nanoparticles. Characterizations of nanostructures are performed using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, scanning transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy.

Bera, Debasis; Brinley, Erik; Kuiry, Suresh C.; McCutchen, Matthew; Seal, Sudipta; Heinrich, Helge; Kabes, Bradley [Surface Engineering and Nanotechnology Facility - SNF, Advanced Materials Processing and Analysis Center - AMPAC, and Mechanical, Materials and Aerospace Engineering - MMAE, University of Central Florida - UCF, 4000 Central Florida Blvd., Eng 1, no. 381, Orlando, Florida 32816 (United States); Advanced Materials Processing and Analysis Center - AMPAC and Department of Physics, University of Central Florida, 4000 Central Florida Blvd., Eng 1, no. 381, Orlando, Florida 32816 (United States); NSF REU Site (UCF), Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Minnesota, Duluth, Minnesota 55803 (United States)

2005-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

466

Simulation studies of bus electrode effect on discharge and luminous characteristics of plasma display panels  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have investigated how bus electrodes affect discharge and luminous characteristics of a discharge cell. Three-dimensional simulations have been performed in a coplanar structured alternating current plasma display panel cell, with phosphor saturation effect taken into account. There exists the optimal position of bus electrodes for high luminance and luminous efficiency. Considering bus electrode thickness, we have found that in-bus structure is a promising candidate for high luminance, high luminous efficiency, and fast operation plasma display panels. Our simulation results would be very useful to understand the influence of bus electrode on characteristics of a plasma display panel cell, and would also provide a general guidance to improve its display performances.

Lee, Insook; Choi, K.Y. [Digital Display Research Laboratory, LG Electronics Inc., 16 Woomyeon-Dong, Seocho-Gu, Seoul 137-724 (Korea, Republic of)

2005-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

467

Study on a negative hydrogen ion source with hot cathode arc discharge  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A negative hydrogen (H{sup ?}) ion source with hot cathode arc discharge was designed and fabricated as a primary injector for a 10 MeV PET cyclotron at IMP. 1 mA dc H{sup ?} beam with ? {sub N,} {sub RMS} = 0.08 ??mm?mrad was extracted at 25 kV. Halbach hexapole was adopted to confine the plasma. The state of arc discharge, the parameters including filament current, arc current, gas pressure, plasma electrode bias, and the ratio of I{sub e{sup ?}}/I{sub H{sup ?}} were experimentally studied. The discussion on the result, and opinions to improve the source were given.

Lin, S. H., E-mail: linshh@impcas.ac.cn; Fang, X. [Institute of Modern Physics (IMP), Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China) [Institute of Modern Physics (IMP), Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Zhang, H. J.; Qian, C.; Ma, B. H.; Wang, H.; Li, X. X.; Zhang, X. Z.; Sun, L. T.; Zhang, Z. M.; Yuan, P.; Zhao, H. W. [Institute of Modern Physics (IMP), Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China)] [Institute of Modern Physics (IMP), Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China)

2014-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

468

Translational energy characteristics of radicals and ions in a capillaritron supersonic nozzle discharge  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Cold translational energy distributions (T/sub s/ approx. 7 K) of OH radicals have been created by using the capillaritron, a supersonic nozzle discharge beam source. A mixture of CH/sub 4/ and CO/sub 2/ was used to produce the OH radical whose translational energy was determined by conventional time-of-flight techniques. The radicals were detected with an electron bombardment ionizer-quadrupole mass spectrometer assembly. Ions were also created in the discharge with Ar or CF/sub 4/, but the translational energy distribution was characterized by a temperature greater than or equal to f10/sup 4/ K. Ion energies were measured electrostatically. 35 references, 7 figures, 2 tables.

Allik, T.H.; Brady, B.B.; Flynn, G.W.; Spector, G.B.

1984-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

469

Mechanism behind self-sustained oscillations in direct current glow discharges and in dusty plasmas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

An alternative explanation to the mechanism behind self-sustained oscillations of ions in direct current (DC) glow discharges is provided. Such description is distinguished from the one provided by fluid models, where oscillations are attributed to positive feedback mechanism associated with photoionization of particles and photoemission of electrons from the cathode. Here, oscillations arise as consequence of interaction between an ion and surface charges induced by it at the bounding electrodes. Such mechanism provides an elegant explanation to why self-sustained oscillations occur only in the negative resistance region of the voltage-current characteristic curve in DC glow discharges. It is found that oscillation frequencies increase with ion's surface charge density, but at the rate which is significantly slower than it does with electric field. The presented mechanism also describes the self-sustained oscillations of ions in dusty plasmas, demonstrating that oscillations in dusty plasmas and DC glow disc...

Cho, Sung Nae

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

470

Plasma Kinetics in the Ethanol/Water/Air Mixture in "Tornado" Type Electrical Discharge  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This paper presents the results of a theoretical and experimental study of plasma-assisted reforming of ethanol into molecular hydrogen in a new modification of the "tornado" type electrical discharge. Numerical modeling clarifies the nature of the non-thermal conversion and explains the kinetic mechanism of nonequilibrium plasma-chemical transformations in the gas-liquid system and the evolution of hydrogen during the reforming as a function of discharge parameters and ethanol-to-water ratio in the mixture. We also propose a scheme of chemical reactions for plasma kinetics description. It is shown that some characteristics of the investigated reactor are at least not inferior to characteristics of other plasma chemical reactors.

Levko, D; Chernyak, V; Olszewski, S; Nedybaliuk, O

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

471

Spatially extended void-free dusty plasmas in a laboratory radio-frequency discharge  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Laboratory experiments with thermophoretic levitation of dust are described that aim at the closure of a central dust-free void region. A careful study of the void structure as a function of the discharge and levitation parameters leads to the discovery of an extended parameter region where stable void-free equilibria are found. The void closure is effected by a novel mechanism that involves a self-organized change in the discharge topology, in which the dust cloud becomes surrounded by a toroidal region of plasma production. In this geometry ions are found to stream radially inwards instead of outwards as in clouds with a central void. This change in ion flow is proved by a reversal of the propagation direction of dust-density waves.

Schmidt, C.; Arp, O.; Piel, A. [IEAP, Christian-Albrechts-Universitaet Kiel, D-24098 Kiel (Germany)

2011-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

472

Observation of ? mode electron heating in dusty argon radio frequency discharges  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The time-resolved emission of argon atoms in a dusty plasma has been measured with phase-resolved optical emission spectroscopy using an intensified charge-coupled device camera. For that purpose, three-dimensional dust clouds have been confined in a capacitively coupled rf argon discharge with the help of thermophoretic levitation. While electrons are exclusively heated by the expanding sheath (? mode) in the dust-free case, electron heating takes place in the entire plasma bulk when the discharge volume is filled with dust particles. Such a behavior is known as ? mode, first observed in electronegative plasmas. Furthermore, particle-in-cell simulations have been carried out, which reproduce the trends of the experimental findings. These simulations support previous numerical models showing that the enhanced atomic emission in the plasma can be attributed to a bulk electric field, which is mainly caused by the reduced electrical conductivity due to electron depletion.

Killer, Carsten; Bandelow, Gunnar; Schneider, Ralf; Melzer, André [Institut für Physik, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-Universität Greifswald, 17489 Greifswald (Germany)] [Institut für Physik, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-Universität Greifswald, 17489 Greifswald (Germany); Matyash, Konstantin [Universitätsrechenzentrum, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-Universität Greifswald, 17489 Greifswald (Germany)] [Universitätsrechenzentrum, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-Universität Greifswald, 17489 Greifswald (Germany)

2013-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

473

Control of power characteristics of ion flow in plasma-etching reactor based on beam-plasma discharge  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

It is shown that on the basis of the earlier revealed effect of generating the ion flow in the beam-plasma discharge from the discharge axis, a plasma processing reactor can be created for low-energy etching of semiconductor structures. The possibility of easily controlling the density and energy of ion flow by means of varying the potential of the discharge collector is demonstrated. The charge compensation of the ion flow incident on the nonconducting surface is implemented using the modulation of the potential of the substrate holder as well as the plasma-potential modulation.

Isaev, N. V.; Klykov, I. L.; Shustin, E. G., E-mail: shustin@ms.ire.rssi.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Kotel'nikov Institute of Radio Engineering and Electronics (Fryazino Branch) (Russian Federation)

2011-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

474

Photoelectron Emission from Metal Surfaces Induced by VUV-emission of Filament Driven Hydrogen Arc Discharge Plasma  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Photoelectron emission measurements have been performed using a filament-driven multi-cusp arc discharge volume production H^- ion source (LIISA). It has been found that photoelectron currents obtained with Al, Cu, Mo, Ta and stainless steel (SAE 304) are on the same order of magnitude. The photoelectron currents depend linearly on the discharge power. It is shown experimentally that photoelectron emission is significant only in the short wavelength range of hydrogen spectrum due to the energy dependence of the quantum efficiency. It is estimated from the measured data that the maximum photoelectron flux from plasma chamber walls is on the order of 1 A per kW of discharge power.

Laulainen, J; Koivisto, H; Komppula, J; Tarvainen, O

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

475

Studying of negative ions source based on reflective discharge in regimes with cesium added and without cesium  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The results of theoretical and experimental studies of physical processes in the source of hydrogen negative ions are presented. The source is based on reflective discharge with incandescent cathode and H{sup -} ions extraction across magnetic field. Calculations of gas discharge plasma parameters for given current and energy of electrons emitted from the cathode are performed in theoretical part of the proceeding. Plasma parameters, including H{sup -} ions concentration, are determined on a basis of Boltzman equation solution taking into consideration principal collision reactions in a volume and at a surface of the discharge chamber.

Soloshenko, I. A.; Shchedrin, A. I.; Ryabtsev, A. V. [Institute of Physics of Ukrainian National Academy of Sciences Prospect Nauki, 46, 252022 Kiev 22 (Ukraine)

1998-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

476

Investigation on plasma parameters and step ionization from discharge characteristics of an atmospheric pressure Ar microplasma jet  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this communication, we report a technique to estimate the plasma parameters from the discharge characteristics of a microplasma device, operated in atmospheric pressure on the basis of homogeneous discharge model. By this technique, we investigate the plasma parameters of a microplasma jet produced by microplasma device consisting of coaxial capillary electrodes surrounded by dielectric tube. Our results suggest that the complex dependence of electrical discharge characteristics observed for microplasma device operated with Ar or it admixtures probably signify the existence of step ionization, which is well known in inductively coupled plasma.

Bora, B.; Bhuyan, H.; Favre, M.; Chuaqui, H.; Wyndham, E. [Facultad de Fisica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Ave. Vicuna Mackenna 4860, Santiago (Chile); Kakati, M. [Thermal Plasma Processed Materials Laboratory, Centre of Plasma Physics, Institute for Plasma Research, Sonapur 782 402, Assam (India)

2012-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

477

Tuning carrier density across Dirac point in epitaxial graphene on SiC by corona discharge  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We demonstrate reversible carrier density control across the Dirac point (?n???10{sup 13?}cm{sup ?2}) in epitaxial graphene on SiC (SiC/G) via high electrostatic potential gating with ions produced by corona discharge. The method is attractive for applications where graphene with a fixed carrier density is needed, such as quantum metrology, and more generally as a simple method of gating 2DEGs formed at semiconductor interfaces and in topological insulators.

Lartsev, Arseniy; Yager, Tom; Lara-Avila, Samuel, E-mail: samuel.lara@chalmers.se; Kubatkin, Sergey [Department of Microtechnology and Nanoscience, Chalmers University of Technology, S-41296 Göteborg (Sweden); Bergsten, Tobias [SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden, S-50115 Borĺs (Sweden); Tzalenchuk, Alexander [National Physical Laboratory, Teddington TW110LW (United Kingdom); Royal Holloway, University of London, Egham TW20 0EX (United Kingdom); Janssen, T. J. B. M [National Physical Laboratory, Teddington TW110LW (United Kingdom); Yakimova, Rositza [Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology (IFM), Linköping University, S-58183 Linköping (Sweden)

2014-08-11T23:59:59.000Z

478

Sulfate Removal from Reject Brined in Inland Desalination with Zero Liquid Discharge  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

SULFATE REMOVAL FROM REJECT BRINED IN INLAND DESALINATION WITH ZERO LIQUID DISCHARGE A Thesis by DEMA ALMASRI Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements... and help. I am thankful for my colleagues for their inspiration and assistance throughout the years in Texas A&M at Qatar. I am also grateful to my exceptional friends that were always there during my ups and downs. I am thankful for my irreplaceable...

Almasri, Dema A

2013-07-03T23:59:59.000Z

479

Process integration techniques for optimizing seawater cooling sytems and biocide discharge  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Maximize seawater temperature span while avoiding thermal pollution Calculate revised biocide amount Does biocide discharge in effluent seawater meet regulations? Screen candidates and add biocide- removal unit(s) to meet regulations Regulations met Yes... by process cold streams Residual heat Most negative Residual heat Fig. 4.4 General Cascade Diagram 33 Interval 1Heat added by process hot streams Heat removed by process cold streams Revised residual heat Interval 2Heat added by process...

BinMahfouz, Abdullah S.

2007-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

480

System and method for altering the tack of materials using an electrohydraulic discharge  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A system and method for altering the tack of a material, namely a polymer used as an adhesive, also known as stickies, or pitch. The present invention reduces the tack of the stickies and pitch by exposing the materials for a short duration to low-energy pulsed electrical discharges between a pair of electrodes that are submerged in a liquid medium, such as a fiber stream, water, a pulp slurry, or whitewater.

Banerjee, Sujit (Marietta, GA); Corcoran, Howard (Atlanta, GA)

2007-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high-intensity discharge halogen" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


481

System and method for altering the tack of materials using an electrohydraulic discharge  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A system and method for altering the tack of a material, namely a polymer used as an adhesive, also known as stickies, or pitch. The present invention reduces the tack of the stickies and pitch by exposing the materials for a short duration to low-energy pulsed electrical discharges between a pair of electrodes that are submerged in a liquid medium, such as a fiber stream, water, a pulp slurry, or whitewater.

Banerjee, Sujit (Marietta, GA); Corcoran, Howard (Atlanta, GA)

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

482

Evaluation of asbestos fibre content in discharge air from a portable canister vacuum cleaner  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

: Chairman f ommitt e He d o Department em (Member May 1975 111 ABSTRACT Evaluation of Asbestos Fibre Content In Discharge Air from a Portable Canister Vacuum Cleaner James Turner Wilson Jr. B. S. , Texas ABM University Directed by: Dr. Richard B... PITOI' CENTERLINE READING DURING ASBESTOS PICKUP' . . aooa 47 APPENDIX D ISOKINETIC SAMPLING PROBE DATA. . . ~, . . . , . . . , . . . ~ . ~ . . 49 VITA. ~ ~ ~ I ~ Vli 1 LIST OF TABLES Table 1. Properties of Asbestos Fibres. ~Pa e ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 4...

Wilson, James Turner

1975-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

483

Cyclic powder formation during pulsed injection of hexamethyldisiloxane in an axially asymmetric radiofrequency argon discharge  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A new approach of periodic production of dusty plasma consisting of pulsed injection of hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDSO) in argon axially asymmetric radiofrequency (RF) discharge was investigated in this work. The range of plasma operating conditions in which this dusty plasma can exist was closely