National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for high-efficiency solar cells

  1. High Efficiency Low-Cost Perovskite Solar Cell Modules

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    High Efficiency, Low-Cost Perovskite Solar Cell Modules High Efficiency, Low-Cost Perovskite Solar Cell Modules Perovskite solar cells have the ability to greatly increase the adoption of solar power technology: * Low cost - as much as 75% less than current Si solar cells * High efficiency - equal to and possibly slightly greater than Si solar cell technology * Realization of solar panels for grid- based electricity generation * Increased adoption of solar cell technology across the world

  2. High efficiency, radiation-hard solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ager III, J.W.; Walukiewicz, W.

    2004-10-22

    The direct gap of the In{sub 1-x}Ga{sub x}N alloy system extends continuously from InN (0.7 eV, in the near IR) to GaN (3.4 eV, in the mid-ultraviolet). This opens the intriguing possibility of using this single ternary alloy system in single or multi-junction (MJ) solar cells of the type used for space-based surveillance satellites. To evaluate the suitability of In{sub 1-x}Ga{sub x}N as a material for space applications, high quality thin films were grown with molecular beam epitaxy and extensive damage testing with electron, proton, and alpha particle radiation was performed. Using the room temperature photoluminescence intensity as a indirect measure of minority carrier lifetime, it is shown that In{sub 1-x}Ga{sub x}N retains its optoelectronic properties at radiation damage doses at least 2 orders of magnitude higher than the damage thresholds of the materials (GaAs and GaInP) currently used in high efficiency MJ cells. This indicates that the In{sub 1-x}Ga{sub x}N is well-suited for the future development of ultra radiation-hard optoelectronics. Critical issues affecting development of solar cells using this material system were addressed. The presence of an electron-rich surface layer in InN and In{sub 1-x}Ga{sub x}N (0 < x < 0.63) was investigated; it was shown that this is a less significant effect at large x. Evidence of p-type activity below the surface in Mg-doped InN was obtained; this is a significant step toward achieving photovoltaic action and, ultimately, a solar cell using this material.

  3. Low Cost, High Efficiency Tandem Silicon Solar Cells and LEDs...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Building Energy Efficiency Building Energy ... Return to Search Low Cost, High Efficiency Tandem Silicon Solar Cells and LEDs ... gaps will lead to efficient power conversion. ...

  4. Process development for high-efficiency silicon solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gee, J.M.; Basore, P.A.; Buck, M.E.; Ruby, D.S.; Schubert, W.K.; Silva, B.L.; Tingley, J.W.

    1991-01-01

    Fabrication of high-efficiency silicon solar cells in an industrial environment requires a different optimization than in a laboratory environment. Strategies are presented for process development of high-efficiency silicon solar cells, with a goal of simplifying technology transfer into an industrial setting. The strategies emphasize the use of statistical experimental design for process optimization, and the use of baseline processes and cells for process monitoring and quality control. 8 refs.

  5. High Efficiency Multiple-Junction Solar Cells - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Solar Photovoltaic Solar Photovoltaic Find More Like This Return to Search High Efficiency Multiple-Junction Solar Cells Sandia National Laboratories Contact SNL About This Technology Publications: PDF Document Publication Market Sheet (937 KB) Technology Marketing SummarySingle junction solar cells have limited efficiency and fail to extract maximum energy from photons outside of a specific spectral region. Higher efficiency and optical to electrical energy conversion is achieved by stacking

  6. High-Efficiency Solar Cell Concepts: Physics, Materials, and Devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mascarenhas, A.; Francoeur, S.; Seong, M. J.; Fluegel, B.; Zhang, Y.; Wanlass, M. W.

    2005-01-01

    Over the past three decades, significant progress has been made in the area of high-efficiency multijunction solar cells, with the effort primarily directed at current-matched solar cells in tandem. The key materials issues here have been obtaining semiconductors with the required bandgaps for sequential absorption of light in the solar spectrum and that are lattice matched to readily available substrates. The GaInP/GaAs/Ge cell is a striking example of success achieved in this area. Recently, several new approaches for high-efficiency solar cell design have emerged, that involve novel methods for tailoring alloy bandgaps, as well as alternate technologies for hetero-epitaxy of III-V's on Si. The advantages and difficulties expected to be encountered with each approach will be discussed, addressing both the materials issues and device physics whilst contrasting them with other fourth-generation solar cell concepts.

  7. Modelling and fabrication of high-efficiency silicon solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rohatgi, A.; Smith, A.W.; Salami, J.

    1991-10-01

    This report covers the research conducted on modelling and development of high-efficiency silicon solar cells during the period May 1989 to August 1990. First, considerable effort was devoted toward developing a ray-tracing program for the photovoltaic community to quantify and optimize surface texturing for solar cells. Second, attempts were made to develop a hydrodynamic model for device simulation. Such a model is somewhat slower than drift-diffusion type models like PC-1D, but it can account for more physical phenomena in the device, such as hot carrier effects, temperature gradients, thermal diffusion, and lattice heat flow. In addition, Fermi-Dirac statistics have been incorporated into the model to deal with heavy doping effects more accurately. Third and final component of the research includes development of silicon cell fabrication capabilities and fabrication of high-efficiency silicon cells. 84 refs., 46 figs., 10 tabs.

  8. High-efficiency solar cell and method for fabrication

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hou, H.Q.; Reinhardt, K.C.

    1999-08-31

    A high-efficiency 3- or 4-junction solar cell is disclosed with a theoretical AM0 energy conversion efficiency of about 40%. The solar cell includes p-n junctions formed from indium gallium arsenide nitride (InGaAsN), gallium arsenide (GaAs) and indium gallium aluminum phosphide (InGaAlP) separated by n-p tunnel junctions. An optional germanium (Ge) p-n junction can be formed in the substrate upon which the other p-n junctions are grown. The bandgap energies for each p-n junction are tailored to provide substantially equal short-circuit currents for each p-n junction, thereby eliminating current bottlenecks and improving the overall energy conversion efficiency of the solar cell. Additionally, the use of an InGaAsN p-n junction overcomes super-bandgap energy losses that are present in conventional multi-junction solar cells. A method is also disclosed for fabricating the high-efficiency 3- or 4-junction solar cell by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). 4 figs.

  9. High-efficiency solar cell and method for fabrication

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hou, Hong Q.; Reinhardt, Kitt C.

    1999-01-01

    A high-efficiency 3- or 4-junction solar cell is disclosed with a theoretical AM0 energy conversion efficiency of about 40%. The solar cell includes p-n junctions formed from indium gallium arsenide nitride (InGaAsN), gallium arsenide (GaAs) and indium gallium aluminum phosphide (InGaAlP) separated by n-p tunnel junctions. An optional germanium (Ge) p-n junction can be formed in the substrate upon which the other p-n junctions are grown. The bandgap energies for each p-n junction are tailored to provide substantially equal short-circuit currents for each p-n junction, thereby eliminating current bottlenecks and improving the overall energy conversion efficiency of the solar cell. Additionally, the use of an InGaAsN p-n junction overcomes super-bandgap energy losses that are present in conventional multi-junction solar cells. A method is also disclosed for fabricating the high-efficiency 3- or 4-junction solar cell by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD).

  10. Highly Efficient Multigap Solar Cell Materials - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Highly Efficient Multigap Solar Cell Materials Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Contact LBL About This Technology Publications: PDF Document Publication Yu, K. M., Walukeiwicz, W., Wu J., Shan, W., Beeman, J. W., Scarpulla, M. A., Dubon, O. D., Becla, P. "Diluted II-VI Oxide Semiconductors with Multiple Band Gaps," Physical Review Letters, Vo. 91, No. 24, Dec. 12, 2003. (178 KB) Technology Marketing Summary Scientists at Berkeley Lab have invented multiband gap semiconducting

  11. High-efficiency silicon heterojunction solar cells: Status and perspectives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    De Wolf, S.; Geissbuehler, J.; Loper, P.; Martin de Nicholas, S.; Seif, J.; Tomasi, A.; Ballif, C.

    2015-05-11

    Silicon heterojunction technology (HJT) uses silicon thin-film deposition techniques to fabricate photovoltaic devices from mono-crystalline silicon wafers (c-Si). This enables energy-conversion efficiencies above 21 %, also at industrial-production level. In this presentation we review the present status of this technology and point out recent trends. We first discuss how the properties of thin hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) films can be exploited to fabricate passivating contacts, which is the key to high- efficiency HJT solar cells. Such contacts enable very high operating voltages, approaching the theoretical limits, and yield small temperature coefficients. With this approach, an increasing number of groups are reporting devices with conversion efficiencies well over 20 % on both-sides contacted n-type cells, Panasonic leading the field with 24.7 %. Exciting results have also been obtained on p-type wafers. Despite these high voltages, important efficiency gains can still be made in fill factor and optical design. This requires improved understanding of carrier transport across device interfaces and reduced parasitic absorption in HJT solar cells. For the latter, several strategies can be followed: Short-wavelength losses can be reduced by replacing the front a-Si:H films with wider-bandgap window layers, such as silicon alloys or even metal oxides. Long- wavelength losses are mitigated by introducing new high-mobility TCO’s such as hydrogenated indium oxide, and also by designing new rear reflectors. Optical shadow losses caused by the front metallization grid are significantly reduced by replacing printed silver electrodes with fine-line plated copper contacts, leading also to possible cost advantages. The ultimate approach to minimize optical losses is the implementation of back-contacted architectures, which are completely devoid of grid shadow losses and parasitic absorption in the front layers can be minimized irrespective of electrical

  12. High-efficiency silicon heterojunction solar cells: Status and perspectives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    De Wolf, S.

    2015-04-27

    Silicon heterojunction technology (HJT) uses silicon thin-film deposition techniques to fabricate photovoltaic devices from mono-crystalline silicon wafers (c-Si). This enables energy-conversion efficiencies above 21 %, also at industrial-production level. In this presentation we review the present status of this technology and point out recent trends. We first discuss how the properties of thin hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) films can be exploited to fabricate passivating contacts, which is the key to high- efficiency HJT solar cells. Such contacts enable very high operating voltages, approaching the theoretical limits, and yield small temperature coefficients. With this approach, an increasing number of groups are reporting devices with conversion efficiencies well over 20 % on n-type wafers, Panasonic leading the field with 24.7 %. Exciting results have also been obtained on p-type wafers. Despite these high voltages, important efficiency gains can still be made in fill factor and optical design. This requires improved understanding of carrier transport across device interfaces and reduced parasitic absorption in HJT solar cells. For the latter, several strategies can be followed: Short- wavelength losses can be reduced by replacing the front a-Si:H films with wider-bandgap window layers, such as silicon alloys or even metal oxides. Long-wavelength losses are mitigated by introducing new high-mobility TCO’s such as hydrogenated indium oxide, and also by designing new rear reflectors. Optical shadow losses caused by the front metalisation grid are significantly reduced by replacing printed silver electrodes with fine-line plated copper contacts, leading also to possible cost advantages. The ultimate approach to minimize optical losses is the implementation of back-contacted architectures, which are completely devoid of grid shadow losses and parasitic absorption in the front layers can be minimized irrespective of electrical transport requirements. The

  13. Processes for producing low cost, high efficiency silicon solar cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rohatgi, Ajeet; Chen, Zhizhang; Doshi, Parag

    1996-01-01

    Processes which utilize rapid thermal processing (RTP) are provided for inexpensively producing high efficiency silicon solar cells. The RTP processes preserve minority carrier bulk lifetime .tau. and permit selective adjustment of the depth of the diffused regions, including emitter and back surface field (bsf), within the silicon substrate. Silicon solar cell efficiencies of 16.9% have been achieved. In a first RTP process, an RTP step is utilized to simultaneously diffuse phosphorus and aluminum into the front and back surfaces, respectively, of a silicon substrate. Moreover, an in situ controlled cooling procedure preserves the carrier bulk lifetime .tau. and permits selective adjustment of the depth of the diffused regions. In a second RTP process, both simultaneous diffusion of the phosphorus and aluminum as well as annealing of the front and back contacts are accomplished during the RTP step. In a third RTP process, the RTP step accomplishes simultaneous diffusion of the phosphorus and aluminum, annealing of the contacts, and annealing of a double-layer antireflection/passivation coating SiN/SiO.sub.x.

  14. Processes for producing low cost, high efficiency silicon solar cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rohatgi, A.; Doshi, P.; Tate, J.K.; Mejia, J.; Chen, Z.

    1998-06-16

    Processes which utilize rapid thermal processing (RTP) are provided for inexpensively producing high efficiency silicon solar cells. The RTP processes preserve minority carrier bulk lifetime {tau} and permit selective adjustment of the depth of the diffused regions, including emitter and back surface field (bsf), within the silicon substrate. In a first RTP process, an RTP step is utilized to simultaneously diffuse phosphorus and aluminum into the front and back surfaces, respectively, of a silicon substrate. Moreover, an in situ controlled cooling procedure preserves the carrier bulk lifetime {tau} and permits selective adjustment of the depth of the diffused regions. In a second RTP process, both simultaneous diffusion of the phosphorus and aluminum as well as annealing of the front and back contacts are accomplished during the RTP step. In a third RTP process, the RTP step accomplishes simultaneous diffusion of the phosphorus and aluminum, annealing of the contacts, and annealing of a double-layer antireflection/passivation coating SiN/SiO{sub x}. In a fourth RTP process, the process of applying front and back contacts is broken up into two separate respective steps, which enhances the efficiency of the cells, at a slight time expense. In a fifth RTP process, a second RTP step is utilized to fire and adhere the screen printed or evaporated contacts to the structure. 28 figs.

  15. Processes for producing low cost, high efficiency silicon solar cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rohatgi, Ajeet; Doshi, Parag; Tate, John Keith; Mejia, Jose; Chen, Zhizhang

    1998-06-16

    Processes which utilize rapid thermal processing (RTP) are provided for inexpensively producing high efficiency silicon solar cells. The RTP processes preserve minority carrier bulk lifetime .tau. and permit selective adjustment of the depth of the diffused regions, including emitter and back surface field (bsf), within the silicon substrate. In a first RTP process, an RTP step is utilized to simultaneously diffuse phosphorus and aluminum into the front and back surfaces, respectively, of a silicon substrate. Moreover, an in situ controlled cooling procedure preserves the carrier bulk lifetime .tau. and permits selective adjustment of the depth of the diffused regions. In a second RTP process, both simultaneous diffusion of the phosphorus and aluminum as well as annealing of the front and back contacts are accomplished during the RTP step. In a third RTP process, the RTP step accomplishes simultaneous diffusion of the phosphorus and aluminum, annealing of the contacts, and annealing of a double-layer antireflection/passivation coating SiN/SiO.sub.x. In a fourth RTP process, the process of applying front and back contacts is broken up into two separate respective steps, which enhances the efficiency of the cells, at a slight time expense. In a fifth RTP process, a second RTP step is utilized to fire and adhere the screen printed or evaporated contacts to the structure.

  16. Scientists Confirm Robustness of Key Component in Ultra-High-Efficiency Solar Cell (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2011-05-01

    Scientists developed and tested a new, stable 1-eV metamorphic junction for a high efficiency multijunction III-V solar cell for CPV application.

  17. High Efficiency CdTe Ink-Based Solar Cells Using Nanocrystals...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    NREL researchers create a solution-processable "ink" to produce high-efficiency solar cells using low temperature and simple processing. Colloidal nanocrystals (NCs) provide a ...

  18. High-Efficiency GaAs Thin-Film Solar Cell Reliability | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    GaAs Thin-Film Solar Cell Reliability High-Efficiency GaAs Thin-Film Solar Cell Reliability Presented at the PV Module Reliability Workshop, February 26 - 27 2013, Golden, Colorado ...

  19. High-Efficiency, Commercial Ready CdTe Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sites, James R.

    2015-11-19

    Colorado State’s F-PACE project explored several ways to increase the efficiency of CdTe solar cells and to better understand the device physics of those cells under study. Increases in voltage, current, and fill factor resulted in efficiencies above 17%. The three project tasks and additional studies are described in detail in the final report. Most cells studied were fabricated at Colorado State using an industry-compatible single-vacuum closed-space-sublimation (CSS) chamber for deposition of the key semiconductor layers. Additionally, some cells were supplied by First Solar for comparison purposes, and a small number of modules were supplied by Abound Solar.

  20. New approaches for high-efficiency solar cells. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bedair, S.M.; El-Masry, N.A.

    1997-12-01

    This report summarizes the activities carried out in this subcontract. These activities cover, first the atomic layer epitaxy (ALE) growth of GaAs, AlGaAs and InGaP at fairly low growth temperatures. This was followed by using ALE to achieve high levels of doping both n-type and p-type required for tunnel junctions (Tj) in the cascade solar cell structures. Then the authors studied the properties of AlGaAs/InGaP and AlGaAs/GaAs tunnel junctions and their performances at different growth conditions. This is followed by the use of these tunnel junctions in stacked solar cell structures. The effect of these tunnel junctions on the performance of stacked solar cells was studied at different temperatures and different solar fluences. Finally, the authors studied the effect of different types of black surface fields (BSF), both p/n and n/p GaInP solar cell structures, and their potential for window layer applications. Parts of these activities were carried in close cooperation with Dr. Mike Timmons of the Research Triangle Institute.

  1. High-efficiency solar cells using HEM silicon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khattak, C.P.; Schmid, F.; Schubert, W.K.

    1994-12-31

    Developments in Heat Exchanger Method (HEM) technology for production of multicrystalline silicon ingot production have led to growth of larger ingots (55 cm square cross section) with lower costs and reliability in production. A single reusable crucible has been used to produce 18 multicrystalline 33 cm square cross section 40 kg ingots, and capability to produce 44 cm ingots has been demonstrated. Large area solar cells of 16.3% (42 cm{sup 2}) and 15.3% (100 cm{sup 2}) efficiency have been produced without optimization of the material production and the solar cell processing.

  2. Approach towards high efficiency polycrystalline silicon solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rohatgi, A.; Sana, P.; Chen, Z.; Salami, J. )

    1992-12-01

    A combination of theoretical modelling, gettering and passivation, and cell fabrication is presented in this paper to provide guidelines for improving efficiency of polycrystalline solar cells. Theoretical modelling was performed to show that grain boundary barrier height decreases and carrier diffusion length increases with illumination level ([le]50 suns) in those polycrystalline materials where grain boundary dominates the recombination. Model calculations show that the efficiency spread due to grain boundary defect density ([ital N][sub [ital st

  3. Design for the fabrication of high efficiency solar cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Simmons, Joseph H.

    1998-01-01

    A method and apparatus for a photo-active region for generation of free carriers when a first surface is exposed to optical radiation. The photo-active region includes a conducting transparent matrix and clusters of semiconductor materials embedded within the conducting transparent matrix. The clusters are arranged in the matrix material so as to define at least a first distribution of cluster sizes ranging from those with the highest bandgap energy near a light incident surface of the photo-active region to those with the smallest bandgap energy near an opposite second surface of the photo-active region. Also disclosed is a method and apparatus for a solar cell. The solar cell includes a photo-active region containing a plurality of semiconductor clusters of varying sizes as described.

  4. Advanced Nanomaterials for High-Efficiency Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Junhong

    2013-11-29

    Energy supply has arguably become one of the most important problems facing humankind. The exponential demand for energy is evidenced by dwindling fossil fuel supplies and record-high oil and gas prices due to global population growth and economic development. This energy shortage has significant implications to the future of our society, in addition to the greenhouse gas emission burden due to consumption of fossil fuels. Solar energy seems to be the most viable choice to meet our clean energy demand given its large scale and clean/renewable nature. However, existing methods to convert sun light into electricity are not efficient enough to become a practical alternative to fossil fuels. This DOE project aims to develop advanced hybrid nanomaterials consisting of semiconductor nanoparticles (quantum dots or QDs) supported on graphene for cost-effective solar cells with improved conversion efficiency for harvesting abundant, renewable, clean solar energy to relieve our global energy challenge. Expected outcomes of the project include new methods for low-cost manufacturing of hybrid nanostructures, systematic understanding of their properties that can be tailored for desired applications, and novel photovoltaic cells. Through this project, we have successfully synthesized a number of novel nanomaterials, including vertically-oriented graphene (VG) sheets, three-dimensional (3D) carbon nanostructures comprising few-layer graphene (FLG) sheets inherently connected with CNTs through sp{sup 2} carbons, crumpled graphene (CG)-nanocrystal hybrids, CdSe nanoparticles (NPs), CdS NPs, nanohybrids of metal nitride decorated on nitrogen-doped graphene (NG), QD-carbon nanotube (CNT) and QD-VG-CNT structures, TiO{sub 2}-CdS NPs, and reduced graphene oxide (RGO)-SnO{sub 2} NPs. We further assembled CdSe NPs onto graphene sheets and investigated physical and electronic interactions between CdSe NPs and the graphene. Finally we have demonstrated various applications of these

  5. High Efficiency CdTe Ink-Based Solar Cells Using Nanocrystals (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2015-01-01

    This NREL Highlight is being developed for the 2015 February Alliance S&T Board meeting and describes a solution-processable ink to produce high-efficiency solar cells using low temperature and simple processing.

  6. High-Efficiency Solar Cells for Large-Scale Electricity Generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kurtz, S.; Olson, J.; Geisz, J.; Friedman, D.; McMahon, W.; Ptak, A.; Wanlass, M.; Kibbler, A.; Kramer, C.; Bertness, K.; Ward, S.; Duda, A.; Young, M.; Carapella, J.; Steiner, M.

    2008-09-26

    One strategy for helping the solar industry to grow faster is to use very high efficiency cells under concentrating optics. By using lenses or mirrors to concentrate the light, very small solar cells can be used, reducing the amount of semiconductor material and allowing use of higher efficiency cells, which are now >40% efficient.

  7. High Efficiency Low-Cost Perovskite Solar Cell Modules

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (moisture stability not yet demonstrated) (A) Development of 3"x3" solar module temperature controlled thin-film coating * Dr. blading technique: Drag solution on hot-substrate ...

  8. Quantum Dot Solar Cells: High Efficiency through Multiple Exciton Generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hanna, M. C.; Ellingson, R. J.; Beard, M.; Yu, P.; Micic, O. I.; Nozik, A. J.; c.

    2005-01-01

    Impact ionization is a process in which absorbed photons in semiconductors that are at least twice the bandgap can produce multiple electron-hole pairs. For single-bandgap photovoltaic devices, this effect produces greatly enhanced theoretical thermodynamic conversion efficiencies that range from 45-85%, depending upon solar concentration, the cell temperature, and the number of electron-hole pairs produced per photon. For quantum dots (QDs), electron-hole pairs exist as excitons. We have observed astoundingly efficient multiple exciton generation (MEG) in QDs of PbSe (bulk Eg = 0.28 eV), ranging in diameter from 3.9 to 5.7nm (Eg = 0.73, 0.82, and 0.91 eV, respectively). The effective masses of electron and holes are about equal in PbSe, and the onset for efficient MEG occurs at about three times the QD HOMO-LUMO transition (its ''bandgap''). The quantum yield rises quickly after the onset and reaches 300% at 4 x Eg (3.64 eV) for the smallest QD; this means that every QD in the sample produces three electron-hole pairs/photon.

  9. NREL and Partners to Compare High-Efficiency Solar Cells from Three Nations

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    at Sites in Colorado and Yokohama, Japan - News Releases | NREL and Partners to Compare High-Efficiency Solar Cells from Three Nations at Sites in Colorado and Yokohama, Japan April 4, 2011 Golden, Colo., April 4, 2011 - The U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is partnering with major international industrial technology and solar research organizations to test how solar cells from three manufacturers perform in two geographic locations with different

  10. Fabrication and analysis of high efficiency multicrystalline silicon solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rohatgi, A.; Sana, P.; Cai, L.; Doolittle, W.A.; Kamra, S.; Doshi, P.; Krygowski, T.; Crotty, G.

    1996-01-01

    A detailed investigation of quality enhancement techniques, such as plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) of SiO{sub 2}/SiN coating, forming gas anneal (FGA) and Al gettering was conducted to improve the performance of cells fabricated on several promising multicrystalline silicon (mcs) materials. A large amount of hydrogen and positive charge in the PECVD SiN antireflection (AR) coating play an important role in passivating surface and bulk defects in silicon. Appropriate post-PECVD deposition anneal was found to be important in maximizing the benefit from PECVD AR coating. Low temperature anneal at 350{degree}C/20 min improves the short wavelength response due to surface passivation along with some increase in the long wavelength response due to bulk defect passivation in certain mcs materials. Post-PECVD rapid thermal anneals (RTA) in the range of 350 to 750{degree}C significantly improve the long wavelength response of certain materials such as EFG silicon. However, this comes at the expense of short wavelength response due to increased absorption in the SiN film. Electron beam induced current (EBIC) measurements revealed significant increase in the intragrain response of these cells after post-PECVD anneal. Al gettering of mcs showed a significant improvement in bulk lifetime and cell efficiency. Forming gas anneal, after phosphorus and Al diffusions, resulted in additional improvements in bulk lifetime in certain materials due to hydrogen passivation. Cells fabricated on cast mcs from Osaka Titanium Corporation (OTC) and Crystal Systems gave cell efficiencies in the range of 17 to 18{percent}. Without the appropriate gettering and passivation techniques these materials give cell efficiencies in the range of 14.5 to 15.5{percent}. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  11. Light Trapping for High Efficiency Heterojunction Crystalline Si Solar Cells: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Q.; Xu, Y.; Iwaniczko, E.; Page, M.

    2011-04-01

    Light trapping plays an important role to achieve high short circuit current density (Jsc) and high efficiency for amorphous/crystalline Si heterojunction solar cells. Si heterojunction uses hydrogenated amorphous Si for emitter and back contact. This structure of solar cell posses highest open circuit voltage of 0.747 V at one sun for c-Si based solar cells. It also suggests that over 25% record-high efficiency is possible with further improvement of Jsc. Light trapping has two important tasks. The first one is to reduce the surface reflectance of light to zero for the solar spectrum that Si has a response. The second one is to increase the effective absorption length to capture all the photon. For Si heterojunction solar cell, surface texturing, anti-reflectance indium tin oxides (ITO) layer at the front and back are the key area to improve the light trapping.

  12. Current-matched high-efficiency, multijunction monolithic solar cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Olson, Jerry M.; Kurtz, Sarah R.

    1993-01-01

    The efficiency of a two-junction (cascade) tandem photovoltaic device is improved by adjusting (decreasing) the top cell thickness to achieve current matching. An example of the invention was fabricated out of Ga.sub.0.52 In.sub.0.48 P and GaAs. Additional lattice-matched systems to which the invention pertains include Al.sub.x Ga.sub.1-x /GaAS (x= 0.3-0.4), GaAs/Ge and Ga.sub.y In.sub.l-y P/Ga.sub.y+0.5 In.sub.0.5-y As (0

  13. Fundamental understanding and development of low-cost, high-efficiency silicon solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    ROHATGI,A.; NARASIMHA,S.; MOSCHER,J.; EBONG,A.; KAMRA,S.; KRYGOWSKI,T.; DOSHI,P.; RISTOW,A.; YELUNDUR,V.; RUBY,DOUGLAS S.

    2000-05-01

    The overall objectives of this program are (1) to develop rapid and low-cost processes for manufacturing that can improve yield, throughput, and performance of silicon photovoltaic devices, (2) to design and fabricate high-efficiency solar cells on promising low-cost materials, and (3) to improve the fundamental understanding of advanced photovoltaic devices. Several rapid and potentially low-cost technologies are described in this report that were developed and applied toward the fabrication of high-efficiency silicon solar cells.

  14. Highly Efficient Solar Thermochemical Reaction Systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Download presentation slides from the DOE Fuel Cell Technologies Office webinar "Highly Efficient Solar Thermochemical Reaction Systems" held on January 13, 2015.

  15. High Efficiency, Low Cost Solar Cells Manufactured Using 'Silicon Ink' on Thin Crystalline Silicon Wafers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Antoniadis, H.

    2011-03-01

    Reported are the development and demonstration of a 17% efficient 25mm x 25mm crystalline Silicon solar cell and a 16% efficient 125mm x 125mm crystalline Silicon solar cell, both produced by Ink-jet printing Silicon Ink on a thin crystalline Silicon wafer. To achieve these objectives, processing approaches were developed to print the Silicon Ink in a predetermined pattern to form a high efficiency selective emitter, remove the solvents in the Silicon Ink and fuse the deposited particle Silicon films. Additionally, standard solar cell manufacturing equipment with slightly modified processes were used to complete the fabrication of the Silicon Ink high efficiency solar cells. Also reported are the development and demonstration of a 18.5% efficient 125mm x 125mm monocrystalline Silicon cell, and a 17% efficient 125mm x 125mm multicrystalline Silicon cell, by utilizing high throughput Ink-jet and screen printing technologies. To achieve these objectives, Innovalight developed new high throughput processing tools to print and fuse both p and n type particle Silicon Inks in a predetermined pat-tern applied either on the front or the back of the cell. Additionally, a customized Ink-jet and screen printing systems, coupled with customized substrate handling solution, customized printing algorithms, and a customized ink drying process, in combination with a purchased turn-key line, were used to complete the high efficiency solar cells. This development work delivered a process capable of high volume producing 18.5% efficient crystalline Silicon solar cells and enabled the Innovalight to commercialize its technology by the summer of 2010.

  16. Highly Efficient Solar Thermochemical Reaction Systems

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Highly Efficient, Solar Thermochemical Reaction Systems (2014 R&D 100 Award Winner) U.S. Department of Energy Fuel Cell Technologies Office 2 Question and Answer * Please type your question into the question box hydrogenandfuelcells.energy.gov HIGHLY EFFICIENT, SOLAR THERMOCHEMICAL REACTION SYSTEMS Robert S Wegeng, PI FCTO Webinar 2014 R&D 100 Award Winning Technology January 13, 2015 HIGHLY EFFICIENT, SOLAR THERMOCHEMICAL REACTION SYSTEMS Robert S Wegeng, PI FCTO Webinar January 13,

  17. New concepts for high efficiency energy conversion: The avalanche heterostructure and superlattice solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Summers, C.J.; Rohatgi, A.; Torabi, A.; Harris, H.M. )

    1993-01-01

    This report describes investigation into the theory and technology of a novel heterojunction or superlattice, single-junction solar cell, which injects electrons across the heterointerface to produce highly efficient impact ionization of carriers in the lowband-gap side of the junction, thereby conserving their total energy. Also, the superlattice structure has the advantage of relaxing the need for perfect lattice matching at the p-n interface and will inhibit the cross diffusion of dopant atoms that typically occurs in heavy doping. This structure avoids the use of tunnel junctions that make it very difficult to achieve the predicted efficiencies in cascade cells, thus making it possible to obtain energy efficiencies that are competitive with those predicted for cascade solar cells with reduced complexity and cost. This cell structure could also be incorporated into other solar cell structures designed for wider spectral coverage.

  18. Numerical analysis for high-efficiency GaAs solar cells fabricated on Si substrates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yamaguchi, M.; Amano, C.; Itoh, Y.

    1989-07-15

    This paper describes some recent developments in GaAs thin-film solar cells fabricated on Si substrates by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition and numerically analyzes them.GaAs solar cells with efficiency of more than 18% are successfully fabricated on Si substrates by reducing the dislocation density. Photovoltaic properties of GaAs/Si cells are analyzed by considering the effect of nonuniform dislocation distribution on recombination properties of GaAs thin films on Si substrates. Numerical analysis shows that the effect of majority-carrier trapping must be considered. High efficiency GaAs solar cells with total-area efficiency of over 20% on Si substrates can be realized if dislocation density can be reduced to less than 5/times/10/sup 5/ cm/sup /minus/2/.

  19. High-Efficiency GaInP/GaAs Tandem Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bertness, K. A.; Friedman, D. J.; Kurtz, S. R.; Kibbler, A. E.; Cramer, C.; Olson, J. M.

    1996-09-01

    GaInP/GaAs tandem solar cells have achieved efficiencies between 25.7-30.2%, depending on illumination conditions. The efficiencies are the highest confirmed two-terminal values measured for any solar cell within each standard illumination category. The monolithic, series-connected design of the tandem cells allows them to be substituted for silicon or gallium arsenide cells in photovoltaic panel systems with minimal design changes. The advantages of using GaInP/GaAs tandem solar cells in space and terrestrial applications are discussed primarily in terms of the reduction in balance-of-system costs that accrues when using a higher efficiency cell. The new efficiency values represent a significant improvement over previous efficiencies for this materials system, and we identify grid design, back interface passivation, and top interface passivation as the three key factors leading to this improvement. In producing the high-efficiency cells, we have addressed nondestructive diagnostics and materials growth reproducibility as well as peak cell performance.

  20. High-efficiency GaInP/GaAs tandem solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bertness, K.A.; Friedman, D.J.; Kurtz, S.R.; Kibbler, A.E.; Kramer, C.; Olson, J.M.

    1994-12-01

    GaInP/GaAs tandem solar cells have achieved new record efficiencies, specifically 25.7% under air-mass 0 (AM0) illumination, 29.5% under AM 1.5 global (AM1.5G) illumination, and 30.2% at 140-180x concentration under AM 1.5 direct (AM1.5D) illumination. These values are the highest two-terminal efficiencies achieved by any solar cell under these illumination conditions. The monolithic, series-connected design of the tandem cells allows them to be substituted for silicon or gallium arsenide cells in photovoltaic panel systems with minimal design changes. The advantages of using GaInP/GaAs tandem solar cells in space and terrestrial applications are discussed primarily in terms of the reduction in balance-of-system costs that accrues when using a higher efficiency cell. The new efficiency values represent a significant improvement over previous efficiencies for this materials system, and we identify grid design, back interface passivation, and top interface passivation as the three key factors leading to this improvement. In producing the high-efficiency cells, we have addressed nondestructive diagnostics and materials growth reproducibility as well as peak cell performance. 31 refs.

  1. Highly efficient inverted organic solar cells using amino acid modified indium tin oxide as cathode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Aiyuan; Nie, Riming; Deng, Xianyu; Wei, Huaixin; Li, Yanqing; Tang, Jianxin; Zheng, Shizhao; Wong, King-Young

    2014-03-24

    In this paper, we report that highly efficient inverted organic solar cells were achieved by modifying the surface of indium tin oxide (ITO) using an amino acid, Serine (Ser). With the modification of the ITO surface, device efficiency was significantly enhanced from 0.63% to 4.17%, accompanied with an open circuit voltage (Voc) that was enhanced from 0.30?V to 0.55?V. Ultraviolet and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy studies indicate that the work function reduction induced by the amino acid modification resulting in the decreased barrier height at the ITO/organic interface played a crucial role in the enhanced performances.

  2. Webinar: Highly Efficient Solar Thermochemical Reaction Systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Fuel Cell Technologies Office will present a live webinar titled "Highly Efficient Solar Thermochemical Reaction Systems" on Tuesday, January 13, from 12:00 to 1:00 p.m. Eastern Standard Time.

  3. Highly Efficient Solar Thermochemical Reaction Systems

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Highly Efficient, Solar Thermochemical Reaction Systems (2014 R&D 100 Award Winner) U.S. ...andfuelcells.energy.gov HIGHLY EFFICIENT, SOLAR THERMOCHEMICAL REACTION SYSTEMS Robert S ...

  4. Thin silicon foils produced by epoxy-induced spalling of silicon for high efficiency solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martini, R.; Kepa, J.; Stesmans, A.; Debucquoy, M.; Depauw, V.; Gonzalez, M.; Gordon, I.; Poortmans, J.

    2014-10-27

    We report on the drastic improvement of the quality of thin silicon foils produced by epoxy-induced spalling. In the past, researchers have proposed to fabricate silicon foils by spalling silicon substrates with different stress-inducing materials to manufacture thin silicon solar cells. However, the reported values of effective minority carrier lifetime of the fabricated foils remained always limited to ∼100 μs or below. In this work, we investigate epoxy-induced exfoliated foils by electron spin resonance to analyze the limiting factors of the minority carrier lifetime. These measurements highlight the presence of disordered dangling bonds and dislocation-like defects generated by the exfoliation process. A solution to remove these defects compatible with the process flow to fabricate solar cells is proposed. After etching off less than 1 μm of material, the lifetime of the foil increases by more than a factor of 4.5, reaching a value of 461 μs. This corresponds to a lower limit of the diffusion length of more than 7 times the foil thickness. Regions with different lifetime correlate well with the roughness of the crack surface which suggests that the lifetime is now limited by the quality of the passivation of rough surfaces. The reported values of the minority carrier lifetime show a potential for high efficiency (>22%) thin silicon solar cells.

  5. High Efficiency Single Crystal CdTe Solar Cells: November 19, 2009 - January 31, 2011

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carmody, M.; Gilmore, A.

    2011-05-01

    The goal of the program was to develop single crystal CdTe-based top cells grown on Si solar cells as a platform for the subsequent manufacture of high efficiency tandem cells for CPV applications. The keys to both the single junction and the tandem junction cell architectures are the ability to grow high quality single-crystal CdTe and CdZnTe layers on p-type Si substrates, to dope the CdTe and CdZnTe controllably, both n and p-type, and to make low resistance ohmic front and back contacts. EPIR demonstrated the consistent MBE growth of CdTe/Si and CdZnTe/Si having high crystalline quality despite very large lattice mismatches; epitaxial CdTe/Si and CdZnTe/Si consistently showed state-of-the-art electron mobilities and good hole mobilities; bulk minority carrier recombination lifetimes of unintentionally p-doped CdTe and CdZnTe grown by MBE on Si were demonstrated to be consistently of order 100 ns or longer; desired n- and p-doping levels were achieved; solar cell series specific resistances <10 ?-cm2 were achieved; A single-junction solar cell having a state-of-the-art value of Voc and a unverified 16.4% efficiency was fabricated from CdZnTe having a 1.80 eV bandgap, ideal for the top junction in a tandem cell with a Si bottom junction.

  6. High-efficiency, flexible CdTe solar cells on ultra-thin glass substrates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mahabaduge, H. P.; Rance, W. L.; Burst, J. M.; Reese, M. O.; Gessert, T. A.; Metzger, W. K.; Barnes, T. M.; Meysing, D. M.; Wolden, C. A.; Li, J.; Beach, J. D.; Garner, S.

    2015-03-30

    Flexible, high-efficiency, low-cost solar cells can enable applications that take advantage of high specific power, flexible form factors, lower installation and transportation costs. Here, we report a certified record efficiency of 16.4% for a flexible CdTe solar cell that is a marked improvement over the previous standard (14.05%). The improvement was achieved by replacing chemical-bath-deposited CdS with sputtered CdS:O and also replacing the high-temperature sputtered ZnTe:Cu back contact layer with co-evaporated and rapidly annealed ZnTe:Cu. We use quantum efficiency and capacitance-voltage measurements combined with device simulations to identify the reasons for the increase in efficiency. Both device simulations and experimental results show that higher carrier density can quantitatively account for the increased open circuit voltage (V{sub OC}) and Fill Factor (FF), and likewise, the increase in short circuit current density (J{sub SC}) can be attributed to the more transparent CdS:O.

  7. High Efficiency CdTe and CIGS Thin Film Solar Cells: Highlights...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Sponsoring Org: USDOE Country of Publication: United States Language: English Subject: 14 SOLAR ENERGY; 36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; EFFICIENCY; ENERGY CONVERSION; SOLAR CELLS; THIN FILMS ...

  8. High throughput parallel backside contacting and periodic texturing for high-efficiency solar cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Daniel, Claus; Blue, Craig A.; Ott, Ronald D.

    2014-08-19

    Disclosed are configurations of long-range ordered features of solar cell materials, and methods for forming same. Some features include electrical access openings through a backing layer to a photovoltaic material in the solar cell. Some features include textured features disposed adjacent a surface of a solar cell material. Typically the long-range ordered features are formed by ablating the solar cell material with a laser interference pattern from at least two laser beams.

  9. The effects of concentrated ultraviolet light on high-efficiency silicon solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ruby, D.S.; Schubert, W.K.

    1991-01-01

    The importance of stability in the performance of solar cells is clearly recognized as fundamental. Some of the highest efficiency silicon solar cells demonstrated to date, such as the Point Contact solar cell and the Passivated Emitter solar cell, rely upon the passivation of cell surfaces in order to minimize recombination, which reduces cell power output. Recently, it has been shown that exposure to ultraviolet (UV) light of wavelengths present in the terrestrial solar spectrum can damage a passivating silicon-oxide interface and increase recombination. In this study, we compared the performance of Point Contact and Passivated Emitter solar cells after exposure to UV light. We also examined the effect of UV exposure on oxide-passivated silicon wafers. We found that current Passivated Emitter designs are stable at both one-sun and under concentrated sunlight. The evolution of Point Contact concentrator cell performance shows a clear trend towards more stable cells. 15 refs., 18 figs.

  10. NREL Produces Highly Efficient, Wide-Bandgap, Thin-Film Solar Cells (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2012-09-01

    Researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) are finding new ways to manufacture thin-film solar cells made from copper, indium, gallium, and selenium - called CIGS cells - that are different than conventional CIGS solar cells. Their use of high-temperature glass, designed by SCHOTT AG, allows higher fabrication temperatures, opening the door to new CIGS solar cells employing light-absorbing materials with wide 'bandgaps.'

  11. High efficiency solar cells combining a perovskite and a silicon heterojunction solar cells via an optical splitting system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Uzu, Hisashi E-mail: npark@skku.edu; Ichikawa, Mitsuru; Hino, Masashi; Nakano, Kunihiro; Meguro, Tomomi; Yamamoto, Kenji; Hernández, José Luis; Kim, Hui-Seon; Park, Nam-Gyu E-mail: npark@skku.edu

    2015-01-05

    We have applied an optical splitting system in order to achieve very high conversion efficiency for a full spectrum multi-junction solar cell. This system consists of multiple solar cells with different band gap optically coupled via an “optical splitter.” An optical splitter is a multi-layered beam splitter with very high reflection in the shorter-wave-length range and very high transmission in the longer-wave-length range. By splitting the incident solar spectrum and distributing it to each solar cell, the solar energy can be managed more efficiently. We have fabricated optical splitters and used them with a wide-gap amorphous silicon (a-Si) solar cell or a CH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}PbI{sub 3} perovskite solar cell as top cells, combined with mono-crystalline silicon heterojunction (HJ) solar cells as bottom cells. We have achieved with a 550 nm cutoff splitter an active area conversion efficiency of over 25% using a-Si and HJ solar cells and 28% using perovskite and HJ solar cells.

  12. Silicon Ink for High-Efficiency Solar Cells Captures a Share of the Market (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2011-08-01

    Fact sheet on 2011 R&D 100 Award winner Silicon Ink. Liquid silicon has arrived, and with it comes a power boost for solar cells and dramatic cost savings for cell manufacturers.

  13. Incorporating photon recycling into the analytical drift-diffusion model of high efficiency solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lumb, Matthew P.; Steiner, Myles A.; Geisz, John F.; Walters, Robert J.

    2014-11-21

    The analytical drift-diffusion formalism is able to accurately simulate a wide range of solar cell architectures and was recently extended to include those with back surface reflectors. However, as solar cells approach the limits of material quality, photon recycling effects become increasingly important in predicting the behavior of these cells. In particular, the minority carrier diffusion length is significantly affected by the photon recycling, with consequences for the solar cell performance. In this paper, we outline an approach to account for photon recycling in the analytical Hovel model and compare analytical model predictions to GaAs-based experimental devices operating close to the fundamental efficiency limit.

  14. Stable, high-efficiency amorphous silicon solar cells with low hydrogen content

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fortmann, C.M.; Hegedus, S.S. )

    1992-12-01

    Results and conclusions obtained during a research program of the investigation of amorphous silicon and amorphous silicon based alloy materials and solar cells fabricated by photo-chemical vapor and glow discharge depositions are reported. Investigation of the effects of the hydrogen content in a-si:H i-layers in amorphous silicon solar cells show that cells with lowered hydrogen content i-layers are more stable. A classical thermodynamic formulation of the Staebler-Wronski effect has been developed for standard solar cell operating temperatures and illuminations. Methods have been developed to extract a lumped equivalent circuit from the current voltage characteristic of a single junction solar cell in order to predict its behavior in a multijunction device.

  15. Numerical simulation: Toward the design of high-efficiency planar perovskite solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Feng; Zhu, Jun E-mail: sydai@ipp.ac.cn; Wei, Junfeng; Li, Yi; Lv, Mei; Yang, Shangfeng; Zhang, Bing; Yao, Jianxi; Dai, Songyuan E-mail: sydai@ipp.ac.cn

    2014-06-23

    Organo-metal halide perovskite solar cells based on planar architecture have been reported to achieve remarkably high power conversion efficiency (PCE, >16%), rendering them highly competitive to the conventional silicon based solar cells. A thorough understanding of the role of each component in solar cells and their effects as a whole is still required for further improvement in PCE. In this work, the planar heterojunction-based perovskite solar cells were simulated with the program AMPS (analysis of microelectronic and photonic structures)-1D. Simulation results revealed a great dependence of PCE on the thickness and defect density of the perovskite layer. Meanwhile, parameters including the work function of the back contact as well as the hole mobility and acceptor density in hole transport materials were identified to significantly influence the performance of the device. Strikingly, an efficiency over 20% was obtained under the moderate simulation conditions.

  16. Development of Highly-Efficient GaInP/Si Tandem Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Essig, Stephanie; Geisz, John F.; Steiner, Myles A.; Merkle, Agnes; Peibst, Robby; Schmidt, Jan; Brendel, Rolf; Ward, Scott; Friedman, Daniel J.; Stradins, Paul; Young, David L.

    2015-06-14

    Dual-junction solar cells consisting of rear-heterojunction GaInP top cells and back-junction, back-contacted crystalline Si bottom cells were fabricated and characterized. Our calculations show that theoretical efficiencies up to 38.9% can be achieved with Si-based tandem devices. In our experiments, the two subcells were fabricated separately and stacked with an index matching fluid. In contrast to conventional mechanically stacked solar cells, that contain two metal grids at the interface, our concept includes a fully back contacted bottom cell which reduces the shadow losses in the device. A 1-sun AM1.5g cumulative efficiency of (26.2 +/- 0.6)% has been achieved with this novel GaInP/Si 4-terminal tandem solar cell.

  17. High Efficiency Solar Integrated Roof Membrane Product

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Partyka, Eric; Shenoy, Anil

    2013-05-15

    This project was designed to address the Solar Energy Technology Program objective, to develop new methods to integrate photovoltaic (PV) cells or modules within a building-integrated photovoltaic (BIPV) application that will result in lower installed cost as well as higher efficiencies of the encapsulated/embedded PV module. The technology assessment and development focused on the evaluation and identification of manufacturing technologies and equipment capable of producing such low-cost, high-efficiency, flexible BIPV solar cells on single-ply roofing membranes.

  18. The operation mechanism of poly(9,9-dioctylfluorenyl-2,7-diyl) dots in high efficiency polymer solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Chunyu; He, Yeyuan; Zhang, Xinyuan; Li, Zhiqi; Li, Jinfeng; Zhang, Zhihui; Guo, Wenbin Ruan, Shengping; Shen, Liang

    2015-05-11

    The highly efficient polymer solar cells were realized by doping poly(9,9-dioctylfluorenyl-2,7-diyl) (PFO) dots into active layer. The dependence of doping amount on devices performance was investigated and a high efficiency of 7.15% was obtained at an optimal concentration, accounting for a 22.4% enhancement. The incorporation of PFO dots (Pdots) is conducted to the improvement of J{sub sc} and fill factor mainly due to the enhancement of light absorption and charge transport property. Pdots blended in active layer provides an interface for charge transfer and enables the formation of percolation pathways for electron transport. The introduction of Pdots was proven an effective way to improve optical and electrical properties of solar cells.

  19. High efficiency epitaxial optical reflector solar cells. Final subcontract report, 1 January 1990--31 October 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dapkus, P.D.; Hummel, S.G.

    1993-08-01

    This report describes work to test the feasibility of a new solar cell concept -- the epitaxial optical reflector (EOR) solar cell. This cell concept alters current designs for high efficiency cells by changing the optical absorption efficiency of single cells. The change is introduced by the use an epitaxial multilayer reflector as an integral part of the cell to increase the optical path length of certain wavelengths of light in the cell. These changes are expected to increase the open circuit voltage at which power is extracted from the cell. The program is designed to test the feasibility of the use of a broad band epitaxial multilayer reflector grown as an integral part of the device structure to reflect the near-band-edge light back through the device for a second absorption pass. This second pass allows the design of a solar cell with a thinner base, and the use of the epitaxial reflector as a heterojunction carrier-reflecting barrier at the rear of the device. The thinner cell design and altered carrier profile that results from the light- and carrier-reflecting barrier will decrease the carrier concentration gradient and increase the open circuit voltage. The program is structured to have three tasks: (1) Solar Cell and Reflector Modeling, (2) Materials Growth and Optimization, and (3) Solar Cell Fabrication and Characterization.

  20. Novel wide band gap materials for highly efficient thin film tandem solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brian E. Hardin, Stephen T. Connor, Craig H. Peters

    2012-06-11

    Tandem solar cells (TSCs), which use two or more materials to absorb sunlight, have achieved power conversion efficiencies of >25% versus 11-20% for commercialized single junction solar cell modules. The key to widespread commercialization of TSCs is to develop the wide-band, top solar cell that is both cheap to fabricate and has a high open-circuit voltage (i.e. >1V). Previous work in TSCs has generally focused on using expensive processing techniques with slow growth rates resulting in costs that are two orders of magnitude too expensive to be used in conventional solar cell modules. The objective of the PLANT PV proposal was to investigate the feasibility of using Ag(In,Ga)Se2 (AIGS) as the wide-bandgap absorber in the top cell of a thin film tandem solar cell (TSC). Despite being studied by very few in the solar community, AIGS solar cells have achieved one of the highest open-circuit voltages within the chalcogenide material family with a Voc of 949mV when grown with an expensive processing technique (i.e. Molecular Beam Epitaxy). PLANT PVâ??s goal in Phase I of the DOE SBIR was to 1) develop the chemistry to grow AIGS thin films via solution processing techniques to reduce costs and 2) fabricate new device architectures with high open-circuit voltage to produce full tandem solar cells in Phase II. PLANT PV attempted to translate solution processing chemistries that were successful in producing >12% efficient Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cells by replacing copper compounds with silver. The main thrust of the research was to determine if it was possible to make high quality AIGS thin films using solution processing and to fully characterize the materials properties. PLANT PV developed several different types of silver compounds in an attempt to fabricate high quality thin films from solution. We found that silver compounds that were similar to the copper based system did not result in high quality thin films. PLANT PV was able to deposit AIGS thin films using a

  1. III-V-N materials for super high-efficiency multijunction solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yamaguchi, Masafumi; Bouzazi, Boussairi; Suzuki, Hidetoshi; Ikeda, Kazuma; Kojima, Nobuaki; Ohshita, Yoshio

    2012-10-06

    We have been studying concentrator multi-junction solar cells under Japanese Innovative Photovoltaic R and D program since FY2008. InGaAsN is one of appropriate materials for 4-or 5-junction solar cell configuration because this material can be lattice-matched to GaAs and Ge substrates. However, present InGaAsN single-junction solar cells have been inefficient because of low minority-carrier lifetime due to N-related recombination centers and low carrier mobility due to alloy scattering and non-homogeneity of N. This paper presents our major results in the understanding of majority and minority carrier traps in GaAsN grown by chemical beam epitaxy and their relationships with the poor electrical properties of the materials.

  2. Webinar: Highly Efficient Solar Thermochemical Reaction Systems |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Highly Efficient Solar Thermochemical Reaction Systems Webinar: Highly Efficient Solar Thermochemical Reaction Systems Below is the text version of the webinar titled "Highly Efficient Solar Thermochemical Reaction Systems," originally presented on January 13, 2015. In addition to this text version of the audio, you can access the presentation slides. Amit Talapatra: Hello, everyone, and thanks for joining today's webinar. Today's webinar is being recorded, so

  3. Device Architecture and Lifetime Requirements for High Efficiency Multicrystalline Silicon Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wagner, H.; Hofstetter, J.; Mitchell, B.; Altermatt, P.; Buonassisi, T.

    2015-03-23

    We present a numerical simulation study of different multicrystalline silicon materials and solar cell architectures to understand today's efficiency limitations and future efficiency possibilities. We compare conventional full-area BSF and PERC solar cells to future cell designs with a gallium phosphide heteroemitter. For all designs, mc-Si materials with different excess carrier lifetime distributions are used as simulation input parameters to capture a broad range of materials. The results show that conventional solar cell designs are sufficient for generalized mean lifetimes between 40 – 90 μs, but do not give a clear advantage in terms of efficiency for higher mean lifetime mc-Si material because they are often limited by recombination in the phosphorus diffused emitter region. Heteroemitter designs instead increase in cell efficiency considerable up to generalized mean lifetimes of 380 μs because they are significantly less limited by recombination in the emitter and the bulk lifetime becomes more important. In conclusion, to benefit from increasing mc-Si lifetime, new cell designs, especially heteroemitter, are desirable.

  4. High efficiency thin film CdTe and a-Si based solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Compaan, A. D.; Deng, X.; Bohn, R. G.

    2000-01-04

    This report describes work done by the University of Toledo during the first year of this subcontract. During this time, the CdTe group constructed a second dual magnetron sputter deposition facility; optimized reactive sputtering for ZnTe:N films to achieve 10 ohm-cm resistivity and {approximately}9% efficiency cells with a copper-free ZnTe:N/Ni contact; identified Cu-related photoluminescence features and studied their correlation with cell performance including their dependence on temperature and E-fields; studied band-tail absorption in CdS{sub x}Te{sub 1{minus}x} films at 10 K and 300 K; collaborated with the National CdTe PV Team on (1) studies of high-resistivity tin oxide (HRT) layers from ITN Energy Systems, (2) fabrication of cells on the HRT layers with 0, 300, and 800-nm CdS, and (3) preparation of ZnTe:N-based contacts on First Solar materials for stress testing; and collaborated with Brooklyn College for ellipsometry studies of CdS{sub x}Te{sub 1{minus}x} alloy films, and with the University of Buffalo/Brookhaven NSLS for synchrotron X-ray fluorescence studies of interdiffusion in CdS/CdTe bilayers. The a-Si group established a baseline for fabricating a-Si-based solar cells with single, tandem, and triple-junction structures; fabricated a-Si/a-SiGe/a-SiGe triple-junction solar cells with an initial efficiency of 9.7% during the second quarter, and 10.6% during the fourth quarter (after 1166 hours of light-soaking under 1-sun light intensity at 50 C, the 10.6% solar cells stabilized at about 9%); fabricated wide-bandgap a-Si top cells, the highest Voc achieved for the single-junction top cell was 1.02 V, and top cells with high FF (up to 74%) were fabricated routinely; fabricated high-quality narrow-bandgap a-SiGe solar cells with 8.3% efficiency; found that bandgap-graded buffer layers improve the performance (Voc and FF) of the narrow-bandgap a-SiGe bottom cells; and found that a small amount of oxygen partial pressure ({approximately}2 {times} 10

  5. Highly efficient ultrathin-film amorphous silicon solar cells on top of imprinted periodic nanodot arrays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yan, Wensheng Gu, Min; Tao, Zhikuo; Ong, Thiam Min Brian

    2015-03-02

    The addressing of the light absorption and conversion efficiency is critical to the ultrathin-film hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) solar cells. We systematically investigate ultrathin a-Si:H solar cells with a 100 nm absorber on top of imprinted hexagonal nanodot arrays. Experimental evidences are demonstrated for not only notable silver nanodot arrays but also lower-cost ITO and Al:ZnO nanodot arrays. The measured external quantum efficiency is explained by the simulation results. The J{sub sc} values are 12.1, 13.0, and 14.3 mA/cm{sup 2} and efficiencies are 6.6%, 7.5%, and 8.3% for ITO, Al:ZnO, and silver nanodot arrays, respectively. Simulated optical absorption distribution shows high light trapping within amorphous silicon layer.

  6. Solion ion source for high-efficiency, high-throughput solar cell manufacturing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koo, John Binns, Brant; Miller, Timothy; Krause, Stephen; Skinner, Wesley; Mullin, James

    2014-02-15

    In this paper, we introduce the Solion ion source for high-throughput solar cell doping. As the source power is increased to enable higher throughput, negative effects degrade the lifetime of the plasma chamber and the extraction electrodes. In order to improve efficiency, we have explored a wide range of electron energies and determined the conditions which best suit production. To extend the lifetime of the source we have developed an in situ cleaning method using only existing hardware. With these combinations, source life-times of >200 h for phosphorous and >100 h for boron ion beams have been achieved while maintaining 1100 cell-per-hour production.

  7. Highly efficient organic multi-junction solar cells with a thiophene based donor material

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meerheim, Rico Krner, Christian; Leo, Karl

    2014-08-11

    The efficiency of organic solar cells can be increased by serial stacked subcells even upon using the same absorber material. For the multi-junction devices presented here, we use the small molecule donor material DCV5T-Me. The subcell currents were matched by optical transfer matrix simulation, allowing an efficiency increase from 8.3% for a single junction up to 9.7% for a triple junction cell. The external quantum efficiency of the subcells, measured under appropriate light bias illumination, is spectrally shifted due to the microcavity of the complete stack, resulting in a broadband response and an increased cell current. The increase of the power conversion efficiency upon device stacking is even stronger for large area cells due to higher influence of the resistance of the indium tin oxide anode, emphasizing the advantage of multi-junction devices for large-area applications.

  8. Controlling the conduction band offset for highly efficient ZnO nanorods based perovskite solar cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dong, Juan; Shi, Jiangjian; Li, Dongmei; Luo, Yanhong; Meng, Qingbo

    2015-08-17

    The mechanism of charge recombination at the interface of n-type electron transport layer (n-ETL) and perovskite absorber on the carrier properties in the perovskite solar cell is theoretically studied. By solving the one dimensional diffusion equation with different boundary conditions, it reveals that the interface charge recombination in the perovskite solar cell can be suppressed by adjusting the conduction band offset (ΔE{sub C}) at ZnO ETL/perovskite absorber interface, thus leading to improvements in cell performance. Furthermore, Mg doped ZnO nanorods ETL has been designed to control the energy band levels. By optimizing the doping amount of Mg, the conduction band minimum of the Mg doped ZnO ETL has been raised up by 0.29 eV and a positive ΔE{sub C} of about 0.1 eV is obtained. The photovoltage of the cell is thus significantly increased due to the relatively low charge recombination.

  9. Final Report: Tunable Narrow Band Gap Absorbers For Ultra High Efficiency Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bedair, Salah M.; Hauser, John R.; Elmasry, Nadia; Colter, Peter C.; Bradshaw, G.; Carlin, C. Z.; Samberg, J.; Edmonson, Kenneth

    2012-07-31

    We report on a joint research program between NCSU and Spectrolab to develop an upright multijunction solar cell structure with a potential efficiency exceeding the current record of 41.6% reported by Spectrolab. The record efficiency Ge/GaAs/InGaP triple junction cell structure is handicapped by the fact that the current generated by the Ge cell is much higher than that of both the middle and top cells. We carried out a modification of the record cell structure that will keep the lattice matched condition and allow better matching of the current generated by each cell. We used the concept of strain balanced strained layer superlattices (SLS), inserted in the i-layer, to reduce the bandgap of the middle cell without violating the desirable lattice matched condition. For the middle GaAs cell, we have demonstrated an n-GaAs/i-(InGaAs/GaAsP)/p-GaAs structure, where the InxGa1-xAs/GaAs1-yPy SLS is grown lattice matched to GaAs and with reduced bandgap from 1.43 eV to 1.2 eV, depending upon the values of x and y.

  10. Highly Efficient 32.3% Monolithic GaInP/GaAs/Ge Triple Junction Concentrator Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cotal, H. L.; Lillington, D. R.; Ermer, J. H.; King, R. R.; Karam, N. H.; Kurtz, S. R.; Friedman, D. J.; Olson, J. M.; Ward, S.; Duda, A.; Emery, K. A.; Moriarty, T.

    2000-01-01

    Based on recent cell improvements for space applications, multijunction cells apear to be ideal candidates for high efficiency, cost effective, PV concentrator systems.

  11. Low-cost, high-efficiency solar cells utilizing GaAs-on-Si technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vernon, S.M. )

    1993-04-01

    This report describes work to develop technology to deposit GaAs on Si using a nucleation layer of atomic-layer-epitaxy-grown GaAs or AlAs on Si. This ensures two-dimensional nucleation and should lead to fewer defects in the final GaAs layer. As an alternative, we also developed technology for depositing GaAs on sawtooth-patterned Si. Preliminary studies showed that this material can have a very low defect density, [approximately] 1 [times] 10[sup 5] cm[sup [minus]5], as opposed to our conventionally grown GaAs on SL which has a typical defect density of over 1 [times]10[sup 7] cm[sup [minus]2]. Using these two now methods of GaAs-on-Si material growth, we made solar cells that are expected to show higher efficiencies than those of previous cells.

  12. High-efficiency photovoltaic cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yang, H.T.; Zehr, S.W.

    1982-06-21

    High efficiency solar converters comprised of a two cell, non-lattice matched, monolithic stacked semiconductor configuration using optimum pairs of cells having bandgaps in the range 1.6 to 1.7 eV and 0.95 to 1.1 eV, and a method of fabrication thereof, are disclosed. The high band gap subcells are fabricated using metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD), liquid phase epitaxy (LPE) or molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) to produce the required AlGaAs layers of optimized composition, thickness and doping to produce high performance, heteroface homojunction devices. The low bandgap subcells are similarly fabricated from AlGa(As)Sb compositions by LPE, MBE or MOCVD. These subcells are then coupled to form a monolithic structure by an appropriate bonding technique which also forms the required transparent intercell ohmic contact (IOC) between the two subcells. Improved ohmic contacts to the high bandgap semiconductor structure can be formed by vacuum evaporating to suitable metal or semiconductor materials which react during laser annealing to form a low bandgap semiconductor which provides a low contact resistance structure.

  13. High Efficiency Organic Solar Cells: December 16, 2009 - February 2, 2011

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walker, K.; Joslin, S.

    2011-05-01

    Details on the development of novel organic solar cells incorporating Trimetasphere based acceptors are presented including: baseline performance for Lu-PCBEH acceptor blended with P3HT demonstrated at 4.89% PCE exceeding the 4.5% PCE goal; an increase of over 250mV in Voc was demonstrated for Lu-PCBEH blended with low band gap polymers compared to a comparable C60-PCBM device. The actual Voc was certified at 260mV higher for a low band gap polymer device using the Lu-PCBEH acceptor; and the majority of the effort was focused on development of a device with over 7% PCE. While low current and fill factors suppressed overall device performance for the low band gap polymers tested, significant discoveries were made that point the way for future development of these novel acceptor materials.

  14. Development of Highly-Efficient GaInP/Si Tandem Solar Cells ...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Research Org: NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)) Sponsoring Org: USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Solar ...

  15. Tandem Microwire Solar Cells for Flexible High Efficiency Low Cost Photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Atwater, Harry A.

    2015-03-10

    This project has developed components of a waferless, flexible, low-cost tandem multijunction III-V/Si microwire array solar cell technology which combines the efficiency of wafered III-V photovoltaic technologies with the process designed to meet the Sunshot object. The project focused on design of lattice-matched GaAsP/SiGe two junction cell design and lattice-mismatched GaInP/Si tandem cell design. Combined electromagnetic simulation/device physics models using realistic microwire tandem structures were developed that predict >22% conversion efficiency for known material parameters, such as tunnel junction structure, window layer structure, absorber lifetimes and optical absorption and these model indicate a clear path to 30% efficiency for high quality III-V heterostructures. SiGe microwire arrays were synthesized via Cu-catalyzed vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) growth with inexpensive chlorosilane and chlorogermance precursors in an atmospheric pressure reactor. SiGe alloy composition in microwires was found to be limited to a maximum of 12% Ge incorporation during chlorogermane growth, due to the melting of the alloy near the solidus composition. Lattice mismatched InGaP double heterostructures were grown by selective epitaxy with a thermal oxide mask on Si microwire substrates using metallorganic vapor phase epitaxy. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis confirms the growth of individual step graded layers and a high density of defects near the wire/III-V interface. Selective epitaxy was initiated with a low temperature nucleation scheme under “atomic layer epitaxy” or “flow mediated epitaxy” conditions whereby the Ga and P containing precursors are alternately introduced into the reactor to promote layer-bylayer growth. In parallel to our efforts on conformal GaInP heteroepitaxy on selectively masked Si microwires, we explored direct, axial growth of GaAs on Si wire arrays as another route to a tandem junction architecture. We proposed axial

  16. Research on high-efficiency, multiple-gap, multijunction, amorphous-silicon-based alloy thin-film solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guha, S. )

    1989-06-01

    This report presents results of research on advancing our understanding of amorphous-silicon-based alloys and their use in small-area multijunction solar cells. The principal objectives of the program are to develop a broad scientific base for the chemical, structural, optical, and electronic properties of amorphous-silicon-based alloys; to determine the optimum properties of these alloy materials as they relate to high-efficiency cells; to determine the optimum device configuration for multijunction cells; and to demonstrate proof-of-concept, multijunction, a-Si-alloy-based solar cells with 18% efficiency under standard AM1.5 global insolation conditions and with an area of at least 1 cm{sup 2}. A major focus of the work done during this reporting period was the optimization of a novel, multiple-graded structure that enhances cell efficiency through band-gap profiling. The principles of the operation of devices incorporating such a structure, computer simulations of those, and experimental results for both single- and multijunction cells prepared by using the novel structure are discussed in detail. 14 refs., 35 figs., 7 tabs.

  17. Highly efficient dye-sensitized solar cell with GNS/MWCNT/PANI as a counter electrode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Al-bahrani, Majid Raissan; Xu, Xiaobao; Ahmad, Waqar; Ren, Xiaoliang; Su, Jun; Cheng, Ze; Gao, Yihua

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • High-performance PANI/MWCNT-CE was incorporated in a Pt-CE in DSSCs. • GNS/MWCNT/PANI-CE exhibits a high power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 7.52%. • GNS/MWCNT/PANI composite has a high catalytic activity for the reduction of I{sub 3}{sup −}. • GNS/MWCNT/PANI composite has a low R{sub CT} on the electrolyte/CE interface. - Abstract: A graphene-based nanosheet composite/multiwalled carbon nanotube/polyaniline (GNS/MWCNT/PANI) was synthesized via an in situ polymerization technique and applied by the spin-coating method as a counter electrode (CE) in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The combination of the high catalytic activity of PANI and outstanding conductivity of GNS/MWCNT improved the photovoltaic performance of the hybrid CE. The cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) showed that the GNS/MWCNT/PANI composite has high catalytic activity for the reduction of triiodide to iodide and low charge-transfer resistance at the electrolyte/electrode interface. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images showed that the GNS/MWCNT/PANI-CE has a rough and porous structure and X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed the formation of PANI coating on the surface of the GNS/CNT. In particular, current–voltage measurements showed the superior power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 7.52% of the DSSC based on GNS/MWCNT/PANI-CE compared to the PCE of 6.69% of the DSSC based on Pt-CE.

  18. Silicon sheet with molecular beam epitaxy for high efficiency solar cells. Final technical report, March 22, 1982-April 30, 1984

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    A two-year program has been carried out for the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in which the UCLA silicon MBE facility has been used to attempt to grow silicon solar cells of high efficiency. MBE ofers the potential of growing complex and arbitrary doping profiles with 10 A depth resolution. It is the only technique taht can readily grow built-in front and back surface fields of any desired depth and value in silicon solar cells, or the more complicated profiles needed for a double junction cascade cell, all in silicon, connected in series by a tunnel junction. Although the dopant control required for such structures has been demonstrated in silicon by UCLA, crystal quality at the p-n junctions is still too poor to allow the other advantages to be exploited. Results from other laboratories indicate that this problem will soon be overcome. A computer analysis of the double cascade all in silicon shows that efficiencies can be raised over that of any single silicon cell by 1 or 2%, and that open circuit voltage of almost twice that of a single cell should be possible.

  19. Technology Development for High-Efficiency Solar Cells and Modules Using Thin (<80 um) Single-Crystal Silicon Wafers Produced by Epitaxy: June 11, 2011 - April 30, 2013

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ravi, T. S.

    2013-05-01

    Final technical progress report of Crystal Solar subcontract NEU-31-40054-01. The objective of this 18-month program was to demonstrate the viability of high-efficiency thin (less than 80 um) monocrystalline silicon (Si) solar cells and modules with a low-cost epitaxial growth process.

  20. Development of Low-Cost High Efficiency Commercial Ready Advanced Silicon Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rohatgi, Ajeet; Zimbardi, Francesco

    2015-01-30

    As a result of the work within this project manufacturing ready devices were developed using 4 different promising Si material technologies with final efficiencies between 20.1% and 21.2%. The starting efficiencies for the FPACE I project were based on best manufactured p-type and n-type cells at the start of the project in 2011. Target efficiencies proposed for the project were 21% for p-type CZ, 20% for p-type cast Si, 21% for n-type and 20% for epi. All Target efficiencies were met or exceeded by the end of the project in 2014. The figure below list displays the 4 highest performing structures for each material with corresponding achieved efficiencies.

  1. Low thermal budget, photonic-cured compact TiO2 layers for high-efficiency perovskite solar cells

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Das, Sanjib; Gu, Gong; Joshi, Pooran C.; Yang, Bin; Aytug, Tolga; Rouleau, Christopher M.; Geohegan, David B.; Xiao, Kai

    2016-05-25

    Rapid advances in organometallic trihalide perovskite solar cells (PSCs) have positioned them to be one of the leading next generation photovoltaic technologies. However, most of the high-performance PSCs, particularly those using compact TiO2 as an electron transport layer, require a high-temperature sintering step, which is not compatible with flexible polymer-based substrates. Considering the materials of interest for PSCs and corresponding device configurations, it is technologically imperative to fabricate high-efficiency cells at low thermal budget so that they can be realized on low-temperature plastic substrates. In this paper, we report on a new photonic curing technique that produces crystalline anatase-phase TiO2more » films on indium tin oxide-coated glass and flexible polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates. Finally, the planar PSCs, using photonic-cured TiO2 films, exhibit PCEs as high as 15.0% and 11.2% on glass and flexible PET substrates, respectively, comparable to the device performance of PSCs incorporating furnace annealed TiO2 films.« less

  2. Low Thermal Budget, Photonic-Cured Compact TiO2 Layer for High-Efficiency Perovskite Solar Cells

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Das, Sanjib; Gu, Gong; Joshi, Pooran C; Aytug, Tolga; Rouleau, Christopher; Geohegan, David B; Xiao, Kai

    2016-01-01

    Rapid advances in organometal trihalide perovskite solar cells (PSCs) have positioned them to be one of the leading next generation photovoltaic technologies. However, most of the high-performance PSCs, particularly those using compact TiO2 as electron transport layer, require a high-temperature sintering step, which is not compatible with flexible polymer-based substrates. Considering the materials of interest for PSCs and corresponding device configurations, it is technologically imperative to fabricate high-efficiency cells at low thermal budget so that they can be realized on low-temperature plastic substrates. We report on a new photonic curing technique that produces high-quality crystalline TiO2 films on indium tinmore » oxide-coated glass and flexible polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates. The planar PSCs, using photonic-cured TiO2 films, exhibit PCEs as high as 15.0% and 11.2% on glass and flexible PET substrates, respectively, comparable to the device performance of PSCs incorporating furnace annealed TiO2 films.« less

  3. High Efficiency Solar Fuels Reactor Concept | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Solar Fuels Reactor Concept High Efficiency Solar Fuels Reactor Concept This presentation was delivered at the SunShot Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) Program Review 2013, held ...

  4. InGaAsN: A Novel Material for High-Efficiency Solar Cells and Advanced Photonic Devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allerman, Andrew A.; Follstaedt, David M.; Gee, James M.; Jones, Eric D.; Kurtz, Steven R.; Modine, Norman A.

    1999-07-01

    This report represents the completion of a 6 month Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) program that focused on research and development of novel compound semiconductor, InGaAsN. This project seeks to rapidly assess the potential of InGaAsN for improved high-efficiency photovoltaic. Due to the short time scale, the project focused on quickly investigating the range of attainable compositions and bandgaps while identifying possible material limitations for photovoltaic devices. InGaAsN is a new semiconductor alloy system with the remarkable property that the inclusion of only 2% nitrogen reduces the bandgap by more than 30%. In order to help understand the physical origin of this extreme deviation from the typically observed nearly linear dependence of alloy properties on concentration, we have investigated the pressure dependence of the excited state energies using both experimental and theoretical methods. We report measurements of the low temperature photoluminescence energy of the material for pressures between ambient and 110 kbar. We describe a simple, density-functional-theory-based approach to calculating the pressure dependence of low lying excitation energies for low concentration alloys. The theoretically predicted pressure dependence of the bandgap is in excellent agreement with the experimental data. Based on the results of our calculations, we suggest an explanation for the strongly non-linear pressure dependence of the bandgap that, surprisingly, does not involve a nitrogen impurity band. Additionally, conduction-band mass measurements, measured by three different techniques, will be described and finally, the magnetoluminescence determined pressure coefficient for the conduction-band mass is measured. The design, growth by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition, and processing of an In{sub 0.07}Ga{sub 0.93}As{sub 0.98}N{sub 0.02} solar cell, with 1.0 eV bandgap, lattice matched to GaAs is described. The hole diffusion length in

  5. Development of low-cost technology for the next generation of high efficiency solar cells composed of earth abundant elements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Agrawal, Rakesh

    2014-09-28

    The development of renewable, affordable, and environmentally conscious means of generating energy on a global scale represents a grand challenge of our time. Due to the “permanence” of radiation from the sun, solar energy promises to remain a viable and sustainable power source far into the future. Established single-junction photovoltaic technologies achieve high power conversion efficiencies (pce) near 20% but require complicated manufacturing processes that prohibit the marriage of large-scale throughput (e.g. on the GW scale), profitability, and quality control. Our approach to this problem begins with the synthesis of nanocrystals of semiconductor materials comprising earth abundant elements and characterized by material and optoelectronic properties ideal for photovoltaic applications, namely Cu2ZnSn(S,Se)4 (CZTSSe). Once synthesized, such nanocrystals are formulated into an ink, coated onto substrates, and processed into completed solar cells in such a way that enables scale-up to high throughput, roll-to-roll manufacturing processes. This project aimed to address the major limitation to CZTSSe solar cell pce’s – the low open-circuit voltage (Voc) reported throughout literature for devices comprised of this material. Throughout the project significant advancements have been made in fundamental understanding of the CZTSSe material and device limitations associated with this material system. Additionally, notable improvements have been made to our nanocrystal based processing technique to alleviate performance limitations due to the identified device limitations. Notably, (1) significant improvements have been made in reducing intra- and inter-nanoparticle heterogeneity, (2) improvements in device performance have been realized with novel cation substitution in Ge-alloyed CZTGeSSe absorbers, (3) systematic analysis of absorber sintering has been conducted to optimize the selenization process for large grain CZTSSe absorbers, (4) novel electrical

  6. New concepts for high efficiency energy conversion: The avalanche heterostructure and superlattice solar cells. Subcontract report, 1 June 1987--31 January 1990

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Summers, C.J.; Rohatgi, A.; Torabi, A.; Harris, H.M.

    1993-01-01

    This report describes investigation into the theory and technology of a novel heterojunction or superlattice, single-junction solar cell, which injects electrons across the heterointerface to produce highly efficient impact ionization of carriers in the lowband-gap side of the junction, thereby conserving their total energy. Also, the superlattice structure has the advantage of relaxing the need for perfect lattice matching at the p-n interface and will inhibit the cross diffusion of dopant atoms that typically occurs in heavy doping. This structure avoids the use of tunnel junctions that make it very difficult to achieve the predicted efficiencies in cascade cells, thus making it possible to obtain energy efficiencies that are competitive with those predicted for cascade solar cells with reduced complexity and cost. This cell structure could also be incorporated into other solar cell structures designed for wider spectral coverage.

  7. High Efficiency and High Rate Deposited Amorphous Silicon-Based Solar Cells: Final Technical Report, 1 September 2001--6 March 2005

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deng, X.

    2006-01-01

    The objectives for the University of Toledo are to: (1) establish a transferable knowledge and technology base for fabricating high-efficiency triple-junction a-Si-based solar cells, and (2) develop high-rate deposition techniques for the growing a-Si-based and related alloys, including poly-Si, c-Si, a-SiGe, and a-Si films and photovoltaic devices with these materials.

  8. Fabrication of Organic-inorganic Perovskites for Highly Efficient Solar

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Cells and Light Emitting Diodes | MIT-Harvard Center for Excitonics Fabrication of Organic-inorganic Perovskites for Highly Efficient Solar Cells and Light Emitting Diodes January 19, 2016 at 4:30pm/36-428 Sandeep Pathak Oxford University Pathak The unprecedented worldwide interest in organic-inorganic lead halide-based perovskite (HC(NH2)2PbX3 or CH3NH3PbX3) solar cells is rooted in its solution process-ability at low temperature as well as its extraordinary device performance. Perovskite

  9. Integrated Solar Thermochemical Reaction System for High Efficiency

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Production of Electricity | Department of Energy Integrated Solar Thermochemical Reaction System for High Efficiency Production of Electricity Integrated Solar Thermochemical Reaction System for High Efficiency Production of Electricity This presentation was delivered at the SunShot Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) Program Review 2013, held April 23-25, 2013 near Phoenix, Arizona. csp_review_meeting_042313_wegeng.pdf (2.22 MB) More Documents & Publications Highly Efficient Solar

  10. High-efficiency, thin-film solar cells. Annual subcontractor report, 1 July 1991--30 June 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gale, R.P.

    1994-01-01

    This report describes work on a 3-year research program to investigate thin-film GaAs/GaInP cells using the cleavage of lateral epitaxial film for transfer (CLEFT) technique, and to determine the process to enable overgrowth of GaAs films using organometallic chemistry. Application of the CLEFT thin-film technique to GaInP/GaAs solar cells and organometallic overgrowth was investigated. A problem of alloy contamination was identified and controlled, leading to higher quality layers. Solar cell structures were grown and fabricated using previously determined growth parameters for GaAs and GaInP. With the improved materials developed significant improvements were made in solar cell performance. Conditions for in-situ overgrowth by organometallic chemical vapor deposition (OMCVD) were determined and continuous GaAs layers were grown over a separation mask layer. The layers were successfully separated from their substrate using the CLEFT process, demonstrating the application of overgrowth using OM chemistry with HCl.

  11. Towards high efficiency thin-film crystalline silicon solar cells: The roles of light trapping and non-radiative recombinations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bozzola, A. Kowalczewski, P.; Andreani, L. C.

    2014-03-07

    Thin-film solar cells based on silicon have emerged as an alternative to standard thick wafers technology, but they are less efficient, because of incomplete absorption of sunlight, and non-radiative recombinations. In this paper, we focus on the case of crystalline silicon (c-Si) devices, and we present a full analytic electro-optical model for p-n junction solar cells with Lambertian light trapping. This model is validated against numerical solutions of the drift-diffusion equations. We use this model to investigate the interplay between light trapping, and bulk and surface recombination. Special attention is paid to surface recombination processes, which become more important in thinner devices. These effects are further amplified due to the textures required for light trapping, which lead to increased surface area. We show that c-Si solar cells with thickness of a few microns can overcome 20% efficiency and outperform bulk ones when light trapping is implemented. The optimal device thickness in presence of light trapping, bulk and surface recombination, is quantified to be in the range of 1080??m, depending on the bulk quality. These results hold, provided the effective surface recombination is kept below a critical level of the order of 100?cm/s. We discuss the possibility of meeting this requirement, in the context of state-of-the-art techniques for light trapping and surface passivation. We show that our predictions are within the capability of present day silicon technologies.

  12. Metal Halide Solid-State Surface Treatment for High Efficiency PbS and PbSe QD Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crisp, R. W.; Kroupa, D. M.; Marshall, A. R.; Miller, E. M.; Zhang, J.; Beard, M. C.; Luther, J. M.

    2015-04-24

    We developed a layer-by-layer method of preparing PbE (E = S or Se) quantum dot (QD) solar cells using metal halide (PbI2, PbCl2, CdI2, or CdCl2) salts dissolved in dimethylformamide to displace oleate surface ligands and form conductive QD solids. The resulting QD solids have a significant reduction in the carbon content compared to films treated with thiols and organic halides. We find that the PbI2 treatment is the most successful in removing alkyl surface ligands and also replaces most surface bound Cl- with I-. The treatment protocol results in PbS QD films exhibiting a deeper work function and band positions than other ligand exchanges reported previously. The method developed here produces solar cells that perform well even at film thicknesses approaching a micron, indicating improved carrier transport in the QD films. We demonstrate QD solar cells based on PbI2 with power conversion efficiencies above 7%.

  13. Metal Halide Solid-State Surface Treatment for High Efficiency PbS and PbSe QD Solar Cells

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Crisp, R. W.; Kroupa, D. M.; Marshall, A. R.; Miller, E. M.; Zhang, J.; Beard, M. C.; Luther, J. M.

    2015-04-24

    We developed a layer-by-layer method of preparing PbE (E = S or Se) quantum dot (QD) solar cells using metal halide (PbI2, PbCl2, CdI2, or CdCl2) salts dissolved in dimethylformamide to displace oleate surface ligands and form conductive QD solids. The resulting QD solids have a significant reduction in the carbon content compared to films treated with thiols and organic halides. We find that the PbI2 treatment is the most successful in removing alkyl surface ligands and also replaces most surface bound Cl- with I-. The treatment protocol results in PbS QD films exhibiting a deeper work function and bandmore » positions than other ligand exchanges reported previously. The method developed here produces solar cells that perform well even at film thicknesses approaching a micron, indicating improved carrier transport in the QD films. We demonstrate QD solar cells based on PbI2 with power conversion efficiencies above 7%.« less

  14. Hydrogenated indium oxide window layers for high-efficiency Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jäger, Timo Romanyuk, Yaroslav E.; Nishiwaki, Shiro; Bissig, Benjamin; Pianezzi, Fabian; Fuchs, Peter; Gretener, Christina; Tiwari, Ayodhya N.; Döbeli, Max

    2015-05-28

    High mobility hydrogenated indium oxide is investigated as a transparent contact for thin film Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} (CIGS) solar cells. Hydrogen doping of In{sub 2}O{sub 3} thin films is achieved by injection of H{sub 2}O water vapor or H{sub 2} gas during the sputter process. As-deposited amorphous In{sub 2}O{sub 3}:H films exhibit a high electron mobility of ∼50 cm{sup 2}/Vs at room temperature. A bulk hydrogen concentration of ∼4 at. % was measured for both optimized H{sub 2}O and H{sub 2}-processed films, although the H{sub 2}O-derived film exhibits a doping gradient as detected by elastic recoil detection analysis. Amorphous IOH films are implemented as front contacts in CIGS based solar cells, and their performance is compared with the reference ZnO:Al electrodes. The most significant feature of IOH containing devices is an enhanced open circuit voltage (V{sub OC}) of ∼20 mV regardless of the doping approach, whereas the short circuit current and fill factor remain the same for the H{sub 2}O case or slightly decrease for H{sub 2}. The overall power conversion efficiency is improved from 15.7% to 16.2% by substituting ZnO:Al with IOH (H{sub 2}O) as front contacts. Finally, stability tests of non-encapsulated solar cells in dry air at 80 °C and constant illumination for 500 h demonstrate a higher stability for IOH-containing devices.

  15. High-Efficiency Solar Cogeneration with Thermophotovoltaic &...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    targeted 'Solar Cogeneration' technologies to maximize energy generation & energy efficiency from the building's solar insolation resources. Project presents a novel, low-cost...

  16. High Efficiency Amorphous and Microcrystalline Silicon Based Double-Junction Solar Cells made with Very-High-Frequency Glow Discharge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Banerjee, Arindam

    2004-10-20

    We have achieved a total-area initial efficiency of 11.47% (active-area efficiency of 12.33%) on a-Si:H/?c-Si:H double-junction structure, where the intrinsic layer bottom cell was made in 50 minutes. On another device in which the bottom cell was made in 30 min, we achieved initial total-area efficiency of 10.58% (active-efficiency of 11.35%). We have shown that the phenomenon of ambient degradation of both ?c-Si:H single-junction and a-Si:H/?c-Si:H double-junction cells can be attributed to impurity diffusion after deposition. Optimization of the plasma parameters led to alleviation of the ambient degradation. Appropriate current matching between the top and bottom component cells has resulted in a stable total-area efficiency of 9.7% (active-area efficiency of 10.42%) on an a-Si:H/?c-Si:H double-junction solar cell in which the deposition time for the ?c-Si:H intrinsic layer deposition was of 30 min.

  17. An easy-to-fabricate low-temperature TiO{sub 2} electron collection layer for high efficiency planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Conings, B.; Baeten, L.; Jacobs, T.; Dera, R.; D’Haen, J.; Manca, J.; Boyen, H.-G.

    2014-08-01

    Organometal trihalide perovskite solar cells arguably represent the most auspicious new photovoltaic technology so far, as they possess an astonishing combination of properties. The impressive and brisk advances achieved so far bring forth highly efficient and solution processable solar cells, holding great promise to grow into a mature technology that is ready to be embedded on a large scale. However, the vast majority of state-of-the-art perovskite solar cells contains a dense TiO{sub 2} electron collection layer that requires a high temperature treatment (>450 °C), which obstructs the road towards roll-to-roll processing on flexible foils that can withstand no more than ∼150 °C. Furthermore, this high temperature treatment leads to an overall increased energy payback time and cumulative energy demand for this emerging photovoltaic technology. Here we present the implementation of an alternative TiO{sub 2} layer formed from an easily prepared nanoparticle dispersion, with annealing needs well within reach of roll-to-roll processing, making this technology also appealing from the energy payback aspect. Chemical and morphological analysis allows to understand and optimize the processing conditions of the TiO{sub 2} layer, finally resulting in a maximum obtained efficiency of 13.6% for a planar heterojunction solar cell within an ITO/TiO{sub 2}/CH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}PbI{sub 3-x}Cl{sub x}poly(3-hexylthiophene)/Ag architecture.

  18. High-Efficiency Amorphous Silicon Alloy Based Solar Cells and Modules; Final Technical Progress Report, 30 May 2002--31 May 2005

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guha, S.; Yang, J.

    2005-10-01

    The principal objective of this R&D program is to expand, enhance, and accelerate knowledge and capabilities for development of high-efficiency hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) and amorphous silicon-germanium alloy (a-SiGe:H) related thin-film multijunction solar cells and modules with low manufacturing cost and high reliability. Our strategy has been to use the spectrum-splitting triple-junction structure, a-Si:H/a-SiGe:H/a-SiGe:H, to improve solar cell and module efficiency, stability, and throughput of production. The methodology used to achieve the objectives included: (1) explore the highest stable efficiency using the triple-junction structure deposited using RF glow discharge at a low rate, (2) fabricate the devices at a high deposition rate for high throughput and low cost, and (3) develop an optimized recipe using the R&D batch large-area reactor to help the design and optimization of the roll-to-roll production machines. For short-term goals, we have worked on the improvement of a-Si:H and a-SiGe:H alloy solar cells. a-Si:H and a-SiGe:H are the foundation of current a-Si:H based thin-film photovoltaic technology. Any improvement in cell efficiency, throughput, and cost reduction will immediately improve operation efficiency of our manufacturing plant, allowing us to further expand our production capacity.

  19. SOLAR POWERING OF HIGH EFFICIENCY ABSORPTION CHILLER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Randy C. Gee

    2004-11-15

    This is the Final Report for two solar cooling projects under this Cooperative Agreement. The first solar cooling project is a roof-integrated solar cooling and heating system, called the Power Roof{trademark}, which began operation in Raleigh, North Carolina in late July 2002. This system provides 176 kW (50 ton) of solar-driven space cooling using a unique nonimaging concentrating solar collector. The measured performance of the system during its first months of operation is reported here, along with a description of the design and operation of this system. The second solar cooling system, with a 20-ton capacity, is being retrofit to a commercial office building in Charleston, South Carolina but has not yet been completed.

  20. High-Efficiency CdTe and CIGS Thin-Film Solar Cells: Highlights and Challenges; Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Noufi, R.; Zweibel, K.

    2006-05-01

    Thin-film photovoltaic (PV) modules of CdTe and Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) have the potential to reach cost-effective PV-generated electricity. These technologies have transitioned from the laboratory to the market place. Pilot production and first-time manufacturing are ramping up to higher capacity and enjoying a flood of venture-capital funding. CIGS solar cells and modules have achieved 19.5% and 13% efficiencies, respectively. Likewise, CdTe cells and modules have reached 16.5% and 10.2% efficiencies, respectively. Even higher efficiencies from the laboratory and from the manufacturing line are only a matter of time. Manufacturing-line yield continues to improve and is surpassing 85%. Long-term stability has been demonstrated for both technologies; however, some failures in the field have also been observed, emphasizing the critical need for understanding degradation mechanisms and packaging options. The long-term potential of the two technologies require R&D emphasis on science and engineering-based challenges to find solutions to achieve targeted cost-effective module performance, and in-field durability. Some of the challenges are common to both, e.g., in-situ process control and diagnostics, thinner absorber, understanding degradation mechanisms, protection from water vapor, and innovation in high-speed processing and module design. Other topics are specific to the technology, such as lower-cost and fast-deposition processes for CIGS, and improved back contact and voltage for CdTe devices.

  1. Remnant PbI{sub 2}, an unforeseen necessity in high-efficiency hybrid perovskite-based solar cells?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cao, Duyen H.; Stoumpos, Constantinos C.; Malliakas, Christos D.; Katz, Michael J.; Hupp, Joseph T. E-mail: m-kanatzidis@northwestern.edu; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G. E-mail: m-kanatzidis@northwestern.edu; Farha, Omar K.

    2014-09-01

    Perovskite-containing solar cells were fabricated in a two-step procedure in which PbI{sub 2} is deposited via spin-coating and subsequently converted to the CH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}PbI{sub 3} perovskite by dipping in a solution of CH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}I. By varying the dipping time from 5 s to 2 h, we observe that the device performance shows an unexpectedly remarkable trend. At dipping times below 15 min the current density and voltage of the device are enhanced from 10.1 mA/cm{sup 2} and 933 mV (5 s) to 15.1 mA/cm{sup 2} and 1036 mV (15 min). However, upon further conversion, the current density decreases to 9.7 mA/cm{sup 2} and 846 mV after 2 h. Based on X-ray diffraction data, we determined that remnant PbI{sub 2} is always present in these devices. Work function and dark current measurements showed that the remnant PbI{sub 2} has a beneficial effect and acts as a blocking layer between the TiO{sub 2} semiconductor and the perovskite itself reducing the probability of back electron transfer (charge recombination). Furthermore, we find that increased dipping time leads to an increase in the size of perovskite crystals at the perovskite-hole-transporting material interface. Overall, approximately 15 min dipping time (?2% unconverted PbI{sub 2}) is necessary for achieving optimal device efficiency.

  2. Novel Materials for High Efficiency Direct Methanol Fuel Cells...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Materials for High Efficiency Direct Methanol Fuel Cells Novel Materials for High Efficiency Direct Methanol Fuel Cells Presented at the Department of Energy Fuel Cell Projects ...

  3. Webinar January 13: Highly Efficient Solar Thermochemical Reaction Systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Energy Department will present a live webinar entitled "Highly Efficient Solar Thermochemical Reaction Systems" on Tuesday, January 13, from 12:00 to 1:00 p.m. Eastern Standard Time.

  4. High-Efficiency Solar Cells for Large-Scale Electricity Generation & Design Considerations for the Related Optics (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kurtz, S.; Olson, J.; Geisz, J.; Friedman, D.; McMahon, W.; Ptak, A.; Wanlass, M.k; Kibbler, A.; Kramer, C.; Ward, S.; Duda, A.; Young, M.; Carapella, J.

    2007-09-17

    The photovoltaic industry has been growing exponentially at an average rate of about 35%/year since 1979. Recently, multijunction concentrator cell efficiencies have surpassed 40%. Combined with concentrating optics, these can be used for electricity generation.

  5. InGaAs/GaAsP strain balanced multi-quantum wires grown on misoriented GaAs substrates for high efficiency solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alonso-lvarez, D.; Thomas, T.; Fhrer, M.; Hylton, N. P.; Ekins-Daukes, N. J.; Lackner, D.; Philipps, S. P.; Bett, A. W.; Sodabanlu, H.; Fujii, H.; Watanabe, K.; Sugiyama, M.; Nasi, L.; Campanini, M.

    2014-08-25

    Quantum wires (QWRs) form naturally when growing strain balanced InGaAs/GaAsP multi-quantum wells (MQW) on GaAs [100] 6 misoriented substrates under the usual growth conditions. The presence of wires instead of wells could have several unexpected consequences for the performance of the MQW solar cells, both positive and negative, that need to be assessed to achieve high conversion efficiencies. In this letter, we study QWR properties from the point of view of their performance as solar cells by means of transmission electron microscopy, time resolved photoluminescence and external quantum efficiency (EQE) using polarised light. We find that these QWRs have longer lifetimes than nominally identical QWs grown on exact [100] GaAs substrates, of up to 1??s, at any level of illumination. We attribute this effect to an asymmetric carrier escape from the nanostructures leading to a strong 1D-photo-charging, keeping electrons confined along the wire and holes in the barriers. In principle, these extended lifetimes could be exploited to enhance carrier collection and reduce dark current losses. Light absorption by these QWRs is 1.6 times weaker than QWs, as revealed by EQE measurements, which emphasises the need for more layers of nanostructures or the use light trapping techniques. Contrary to what we expected, QWR show very low absorption anisotropy, only 3.5%, which was the main drawback a priori of this nanostructure. We attribute this to a reduced lateral confinement inside the wires. These results encourage further study and optimization of QWRs for high efficiency solar cells.

  6. Manufacturing of High-Efficiency Bi-Facial Tandem Concentrator Solar Cells: February 20, 2009--August 20, 2010

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wojtczuk , S.

    2011-06-01

    Spire Semiconductor made concentrator photovoltaic (CPV) cells using a new bi-facial growth process and met both main program goals: a) 42.5% efficiency 500X (AM1.5D, 25C, 100mW/cm2); and b) Ready to supply at least 3MW/year of such cells at end of program. We explored a unique simple fabrication process to make a N/P 3-junction InGaP/GaAs/InGaAs tandem cells . First, the InGaAs bottom cell is grown on the back of a GaAs wafer. The wafers are then loaded into a cassette, spin-rinsed to remove particles, dipped in dilute NH4OH and spin-dried. The wafers are then removed from the cassette loaded the reactor for GaAs middle and InGaP top cell growth on the opposite wafer face (bi-facial growth). By making the epitaxial growth process a bit more complex, we are able to avoid more complex processing (such as large area wafer bonding or epitaxial liftoff) used in the inverted metamorphic (IMM) approach to make similar tandem stacks. We believe the yield is improved compared to an IMM process. After bi-facial epigrowth, standard III-V cell steps (back metal, photolithography for front grid, cap etch, AR coat, dice) are used in the remainder of the process.

  7. Process Optimization for High Efficiency Heterojunction c-Si Solar Cells Fabrication Using Hot-Wire Chemical Vapor Deposition: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ai, Y.; Yuan, H. C.; Page, M.; Nemeth, W.; Roybal, L.; Wang, Q.

    2012-06-01

    The researchers extensively studied the effects of annealing or thermal history of cell process on the minority carrier lifetimes of FZ n-type c-Si wafers with various i-layer thicknesses from 5 to 60 nm, substrate temperatures from 100 to 350 degrees C, doped layers both p- and n-types, and transparent conducting oxide (TCO).

  8. Basic studies of 3-5 high efficiency cell components

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lundstrom, M.S.; Melloch, M.R.; Pierret, R.F.; Carpenter, M.S.; Chuang, H.L.; Dodd, P.E.; Keshavarzi, A.; Klausmeier-Brown, M.E.; Lush, G.B.; Stellwag, T.B. )

    1993-01-01

    This project's objective is to improve our understanding of the generation, recombination, and transport of carriers within III-V homo- and heterostructures. The research itself consists of fabricating and characterizing solar cell building blocks'' such as junctions and heterojunctions as well as basic measurements of material parameters. A significant effort is also being directed at characterizing loss mechanisms in high-quality, III-V solar cells fabricated in industrial research laboratories throughout the United States. The project's goal is to use our understanding of the device physics of high-efficiency cell components to maximize cell efficiency. A related goal is the demonstration of new cell structures fabricated by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). The development of measurement techniques and characterization methodologies is also a project objective. This report describes our progress during the fifth and final year of the project. During the past five years, we've teamed a great deal about heavy doping effects in p[sup +] and n[sup +] GaAs and have explored their implications for solar cells. We have developed an understanding of the dominant recombination losses in present-day, high-efficiency cells. We've learned to appreciated the importance of recombination at the perimeter of the cell and have developed techniques for chemically passivating such edges. Finally, we've demonstrated that films grown by molecular beam epitaxy are suitable for high-efficiency cell research.

  9. Material requirements for the adoption of unconventional silicon crystal and wafer growth techniques for high-efficiency solar cells

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Hofstetter, Jasmin; del Cañizo, Carlos; Wagner, Hannes; Castellanos, Sergio; Buonassisi, Tonio

    2015-10-15

    Silicon wafers comprise approximately 40% of crystalline silicon module cost and represent an area of great technological innovation potential. Paradoxically, unconventional wafer-growth techniques have thus far failed to displace multicrystalline and Czochralski silicon, despite four decades of innovation. One of the shortcomings of most unconventional materials has been a persistent carrier lifetime deficit in comparison to established wafer technologies, which limits the device efficiency potential. In this perspective article, we review a defect-management framework that has proven successful in enabling millisecond lifetimes in kerfless and cast materials. Control of dislocations and slowly diffusing metal point defects during growth, coupled tomore » effective control of fast-diffusing species during cell processing, is critical to enable high cell efficiencies. As a result, to accelerate the pace of novel wafer development, we discuss approaches to rapidly evaluate the device efficiency potential of unconventional wafers from injection-dependent lifetime measurements.« less

  10. Material requirements for the adoption of unconventional silicon crystal and wafer growth techniques for high-efficiency solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hofstetter, Jasmin; del Cañizo, Carlos; Wagner, Hannes; Castellanos, Sergio; Buonassisi, Tonio

    2015-10-15

    Silicon wafers comprise approximately 40% of crystalline silicon module cost and represent an area of great technological innovation potential. Paradoxically, unconventional wafer-growth techniques have thus far failed to displace multicrystalline and Czochralski silicon, despite four decades of innovation. One of the shortcomings of most unconventional materials has been a persistent carrier lifetime deficit in comparison to established wafer technologies, which limits the device efficiency potential. In this perspective article, we review a defect-management framework that has proven successful in enabling millisecond lifetimes in kerfless and cast materials. Control of dislocations and slowly diffusing metal point defects during growth, coupled to effective control of fast-diffusing species during cell processing, is critical to enable high cell efficiencies. As a result, to accelerate the pace of novel wafer development, we discuss approaches to rapidly evaluate the device efficiency potential of unconventional wafers from injection-dependent lifetime measurements.

  11. Preparation of copper-indium-gallium-diselenide precursor films by electrodeposition for fabricating high efficiency solar cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bhattacharya, Raghu N.; Hasoon, Falah S.; Wiesner, Holm; Keane, James; Noufi, Rommel; Ramanathan, Kannan

    1999-02-16

    A photovoltaic cell exhibiting an overall conversion efficiency of 13.6% is prepared from a copper-indium-gallium-diselenide precursor thin film. The film is fabricated by first simultaneously electrodepositing copper, indium, gallium, and selenium onto a glass/molybdenum substrate (12/14). The electrodeposition voltage is a high frequency AC voltage superimposed upon a DC voltage to improve the morphology and growth rate of the film. The electrodeposition is followed by physical vapor deposition to adjust the final stoichiometry of the thin film to approximately Cu(In.sub.1-n Ga.sub.x)Se.sub.2, with the ratio of Ga/(In+Ga) being approximately 0.39.

  12. High efficiency diamond solar cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gruen, Dieter M.

    2008-05-06

    A photovoltaic device and method of making same. A layer of p-doped microcrystalline diamond is deposited on a layer of n-doped ultrananocrystalline diamond such as by providing a substrate in a chamber, providing a first atmosphere containing about 1% by volume CH.sub.4 and about 99% by volume H.sub.2 with dopant quantities of a boron compound, subjecting the atmosphere to microwave energy to deposit a p-doped microcrystalline diamond layer on the substrate, providing a second atmosphere of about 1% by volume CH.sub.4 and about 89% by volume Ar and about 10% by volume N.sub.2, subjecting the second atmosphere to microwave energy to deposit a n-doped ultrananocrystalline diamond layer on the p-doped microcrystalline diamond layer. Electrodes and leads are added to conduct electrical energy when the layers are irradiated.

  13. High-Efficiency Amorphous Silicon and Nanocrystalline Silicon Based Solar Cells and Modules: Annual Technical Progress Report, 30 January 2006 - 29 January 29, 2007

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guha, S.; Yang, J.

    2007-07-01

    United Solar used a-Si:H/a-SiGe:H/a-SiGe:H in two manufacturing plants and improved solar efficiency and reduced manufacturing cost by new deposition methods, optimized deposition parameters, and new materials and cell structures.

  14. Development of a New Generation, High Efficiency PEM Fuel Cell...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    a New Generation, High Efficiency PEM Fuel Cell Based, CHP System Development of a New Generation, High Efficiency PEM Fuel Cell Based, CHP System Part of a 100 million fuel cell ...

  15. GaInNAs Structures Grown by MBE for High-Efficiency Solar Cells: Final Report; 25 June 1999--24 August 2002

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tu, C. W.

    2003-08-01

    The focus of this work is to improve the quality of GaInNAs by advanced thin-film growth techniques, such as digital-alloy growth techniques and migration-enhanced epitaxy (MEE). The other focus is to further investigate the properties of such materials, which are potentially beneficial for high-efficiency, multijunction solar cells. 400-nm-thick strain-compensated Ga0.92In0.08As/GaN0.03As0.97 short-period superlattices (SPSLs) are grown lattice-matched to GaAs substrates. The photoluminescence (PL) intensity of digital alloys is 3 times higher than that of random alloys at room temperature, and the improvement is even greater at low temperature, by a factor of about 12. The room-temperature PL intensity of the GaInNAs quantum well grown by the strained InAs/GaN0.023As SPSL growth mode is higher by a factor 5 as compare to the continuous growth mode. The SPSL growth method allows for independent adjustment of the In-to-Ga ratio without group III competition. MEE reduces the low-energy tail of PL, and PL peaks become more intense and sharper. The twin peaks photoluminescence of GaNAs grown on GaAs was observed at room temperature. The peaks splitting increase with increase in nitrogen alloy content. The strain-induced splitting of light-hole and heavy-hole bands of tensile-strained GaNAs is proposed as an explanation of such behavior.

  16. The Importance of Domain Size and Purity in High-Efficiency Organic Solar

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Cells The Importance of Domain Size and Purity in High-Efficiency Organic Solar Cells The Importance of Domain Size and Purity in High-Efficiency Organic Solar Cells Print Wednesday, 27 March 2013 00:00 The efficiency of polymer/organic photovoltaic cells hinges on excitons-electron/hole pairs energized by sunlight-getting to the interfaces of donor and acceptor domains quickly, before recombining. At the interfaces, they become free charges that must then reach device electrodes. With the

  17. Recent developments in high-efficiency PV cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deb, S.

    2000-05-22

    Enormous progress has been made in recent years on a number of photovoltaic (PV) materials and devices in terms of conversion efficiencies. Ultrahigh-efficiency (>30{percent}) PV cells have been fabricated from gallium arsenide (GaAs) and its ternary alloys such as gallium indium phosphide (GaInP{sub 2}). The high-efficiency GaAs-based solar cells are being produced on a commercial scale, particularly for space applications. Efficiencies in the range of 18{percent} to 24{percent} have been achieved in traditional silicon-based devices fabricated from both multicrystalline and single-crystal materials. Major advances in efficiency have also been made on various thin-film solar cells based on amorphous silicon (aSi:H), copper gallium indium diselenide (CIGS), and cadmium telluride materials. This paper gives a brief overview of the recent progress in PV cell efficiencies based on these materials and devices.

  18. High-Temperature High-Efficiency Solar Thermoelectric Generators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baranowski, LL; Warren, EL; Toberer, ES

    2014-03-01

    Inspired by recent high-efficiency thermoelectric modules, we consider thermoelectrics for terrestrial applications in concentrated solar thermoelectric generators (STEGs). The STEG is modeled as two subsystems: a TEG, and a solar absorber that efficiently captures the concentrated sunlight and limits radiative losses from the system. The TEG subsystem is modeled using thermoelectric compatibility theory; this model does not constrain the material properties to be constant with temperature. Considering a three-stage TEG based on current record modules, this model suggests that 18% efficiency could be experimentally expected with a temperature gradient of 1000A degrees C to 100A degrees C. Achieving 15% overall STEG efficiency thus requires an absorber efficiency above 85%, and we consider two methods to achieve this: solar-selective absorbers and thermally insulating cavities. When the TEG and absorber subsystem models are combined, we expect that the STEG modeled here could achieve 15% efficiency with optical concentration between 250 and 300 suns.

  19. Low Cost High Efficiency InP-Based Solar Cells: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-09-344

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wanlass, M.

    2012-07-01

    NREL will develop a method of growing and fabricating single junction InP solar cells on 2-inch InP substrates on which a release layer has been deposited by MicroLink Devices. NREL will transfer to MicroLink the details of the InP solar cell layer structure and test results in order that the 2-inch results can be replicated on 4-inch InP substrates. NREL will develop a method of growing and fabricating single junction InP solar cells, including a metamorphic layer, on 2-inch GaAs substrates on which a release layer has been deposited by MicroLink Devices. NREL will transfer to MicroLink the details of the InP solar cell layer structure and test results in order that the 2-inch results can be replicated on 6-inch GaAs substrates. NREL will perform characterization measurements of the solar cells, including I-V and quantum efficiency measurements at AM1.5 1-sun.

  20. Facile method for synthesis of TiO{sub 2} film and its application in high efficiency dye sensitized-solar cell (DSSC)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Widiyandari, Hendri Gunawan, S. K.V.; Suseno, Jatmiko Endro; Purwanto, Agus; Diharjo, Kuncoro

    2014-02-24

    Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC) is a device which converts a solar energy to electrical energy. Different with semiconductor thin film based solar cell, DSSC utilize the sensitized-dye to absorb the photon and semiconductor such as titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) and zinc oxide (ZnO) as a working electrode photoanode. In this report, the preparation of TiO{sub 2} film using a facile method of spray deposition and its application in DSSC have been presented. TiO{sub 2} photoanode was synthesized by growing the droplet of titanium tetraisopropoxide diluted in acid solution on the substrate of conductive glass flourine-doped tin oxide (FTO) with variation of precursor volume. DSSC was assemblied by sandwiching both of photoanode electrode and platinum counter electrode subsequently filling the area between these electrodes with triodine/iodine electrolite solution as redox pairs. The characterization of the as prepared DSSC using solar simulator (AM 1.5G, 100 mW/cm{sup 2}) and I-V source meter Keithley 2400 showed that the performance of DSSC was affected by the precursor volume.. The overall conversion efficiency of DSSC using the optimum TiO{sub 2} film was about 1.97% with the open circuit voltage (V{sub oc}) of 0.73 V, short circuit current density (J{sub sc}) of 4.61 mA and fill factor (FF) of 0.58.

  1. The Importance of Domain Size and Purity in High-Efficiency Organic Solar

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Cells The Importance of Domain Size and Purity in High-Efficiency Organic Solar Cells Print The efficiency of polymer/organic photovoltaic cells hinges on excitons-electron/hole pairs energized by sunlight-getting to the interfaces of donor and acceptor domains quickly, before recombining. At the interfaces, they become free charges that must then reach device electrodes. With the discovery of mixed domains of donor and acceptor molecules, many have pictured the excitons' journey as easy

  2. The Importance of Domain Size and Purity in High-Efficiency Organic Solar

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Cells The Importance of Domain Size and Purity in High-Efficiency Organic Solar Cells Print The efficiency of polymer/organic photovoltaic cells hinges on excitons-electron/hole pairs energized by sunlight-getting to the interfaces of donor and acceptor domains quickly, before recombining. At the interfaces, they become free charges that must then reach device electrodes. With the discovery of mixed domains of donor and acceptor molecules, many have pictured the excitons' journey as easy

  3. The Importance of Domain Size and Purity in High-Efficiency Organic Solar

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Cells The Importance of Domain Size and Purity in High-Efficiency Organic Solar Cells Print The efficiency of polymer/organic photovoltaic cells hinges on excitons-electron/hole pairs energized by sunlight-getting to the interfaces of donor and acceptor domains quickly, before recombining. At the interfaces, they become free charges that must then reach device electrodes. With the discovery of mixed domains of donor and acceptor molecules, many have pictured the excitons' journey as easy

  4. The Importance of Domain Size and Purity in High-Efficiency Organic Solar

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Cells The Importance of Domain Size and Purity in High-Efficiency Organic Solar Cells Print The efficiency of polymer/organic photovoltaic cells hinges on excitons-electron/hole pairs energized by sunlight-getting to the interfaces of donor and acceptor domains quickly, before recombining. At the interfaces, they become free charges that must then reach device electrodes. With the discovery of mixed domains of donor and acceptor molecules, many have pictured the excitons' journey as easy

  5. The Importance of Domain Size and Purity in High-Efficiency Organic Solar

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Cells The Importance of Domain Size and Purity in High-Efficiency Organic Solar Cells Print The efficiency of polymer/organic photovoltaic cells hinges on excitons-electron/hole pairs energized by sunlight-getting to the interfaces of donor and acceptor domains quickly, before recombining. At the interfaces, they become free charges that must then reach device electrodes. With the discovery of mixed domains of donor and acceptor molecules, many have pictured the excitons' journey as easy

  6. The Importance of Domain Size and Purity in High-Efficiency Organic Solar

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Cells The Importance of Domain Size and Purity in High-Efficiency Organic Solar Cells Print The efficiency of polymer/organic photovoltaic cells hinges on excitons-electron/hole pairs energized by sunlight-getting to the interfaces of donor and acceptor domains quickly, before recombining. At the interfaces, they become free charges that must then reach device electrodes. With the discovery of mixed domains of donor and acceptor molecules, many have pictured the excitons' journey as easy

  7. The Importance of Domain Size and Purity in High-Efficiency Organic Solar

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Cells The Importance of Domain Size and Purity in High-Efficiency Organic Solar Cells Print The efficiency of polymer/organic photovoltaic cells hinges on excitons-electron/hole pairs energized by sunlight-getting to the interfaces of donor and acceptor domains quickly, before recombining. At the interfaces, they become free charges that must then reach device electrodes. With the discovery of mixed domains of donor and acceptor molecules, many have pictured the excitons' journey as easy

  8. Novel Materials for High Efficiency Direct Methanol Fuel Cells | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy Materials for High Efficiency Direct Methanol Fuel Cells Novel Materials for High Efficiency Direct Methanol Fuel Cells Presented at the Department of Energy Fuel Cell Projects Kickoff Meeting, September 1 - October 1, 2009 roger_arkema_kickoff.pdf (394.12 KB) More Documents & Publications Polyvinylidene Fluoride-Based Membranes for Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Applications Advance Patent Waiver W(A)2010-028 Durable, Low Cost, Improved Fuel Cell Membranes

  9. Low-cost, high-efficiency solar cells utilizing GaAs-on-Si technology. Annual subcontract report, 1 August 1991--31 July 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vernon, S.M.

    1993-04-01

    This report describes work to develop technology to deposit GaAs on Si using a nucleation layer of atomic-layer-epitaxy-grown GaAs or AlAs on Si. This ensures two-dimensional nucleation and should lead to fewer defects in the final GaAs layer. As an alternative, we also developed technology for depositing GaAs on sawtooth-patterned Si. Preliminary studies showed that this material can have a very low defect density, {approximately} 1 {times} 10{sup 5} cm{sup {minus}5}, as opposed to our conventionally grown GaAs on SL which has a typical defect density of over 1 {times}10{sup 7} cm{sup {minus}2}. Using these two now methods of GaAs-on-Si material growth, we made solar cells that are expected to show higher efficiencies than those of previous cells.

  10. Fabrication and characterization of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} /Si composite nanodome structures for high efficiency crystalline Si thin film solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Ruiying; Zhu, Jian; Zhang, Zhen; Wang, Yanyan; Qiu, Bocang; Liu, Xuehua; Zhang, Jinping; Zhang, Yi; Fang, Qi; Ren, Zhong; Bai, Yu

    2015-12-15

    We report on our fabrication and characterization of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Si composite nanodome (CND) structures, which is composed of Si nanodome structures with a conformal cladding Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} layer to evaluate its optical and electrical performance when it is applied to thin film solar cells. It has been observed that by application of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}thin film coating using atomic layer deposition (ALD) to the Si nanodome structures, both optical and electrical performances are greatly improved. The reflectivity of less than 3% over the wavelength range of from 200 nm to 2000 nm at an incident angle from 0° to 45° is achieved when the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} film is 90 nm thick. The ultimate efficiency of around 27% is obtained on the CND textured 2 μm-thick Si solar cells, which is compared to the efficiency of around 25.75% and 15% for the 2 μm-thick Si nanodome surface-decorated and planar samples respectively. Electrical characterization was made by using CND-decorated MOS devices to measure device’s leakage current and capacitance dispersion. It is found the electrical performance is sensitive to the thickness of the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} film, and the performance is remarkably improved when the dielectric layer thickness is 90 nm thick. The leakage current, which is less than 4x10{sup −9} A/cm{sup 2} over voltage range of from -3 V to 3 V, is reduced by several orders of magnitude. C-V measurements also shows as small as 0.3% of variation in the capacitance over the frequency range from 10 kHz to 500 kHz, which is a strong indication of surface states being fully passivated. TEM examination of CND-decorated samples also reveals the occurrence of SiO{sub x} layer formed between the interface of Si and the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} film, which is thin enough that ensures the presence of field-effect passivation, From our theoretical and experimental study, we believe Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} coated CND structures is a truly viable approach to achieving higher device

  11. Reliable wet-chemical cleaning of natively oxidized high-efficiency Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} thin-film solar cell absorbers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lehmann, Jascha; Lehmann, Sebastian; Lauermann, Iver; Rissom, Thorsten; Kaufmann, Christian A.; Lux-Steiner, Martha Ch.; Br, Marcus; Sadewasser, Sascha

    2014-12-21

    Currently, Cu-containing chalcopyrite-based solar cells provide the highest conversion efficiencies among all thin-film photovoltaic (PV) technologies. They have reached efficiency values above 20%, the same performance level as multi-crystalline silicon-wafer technology that dominates the commercial PV market. Chalcopyrite thin-film heterostructures consist of a layer stack with a variety of interfaces between different materials. It is the chalcopyrite/buffer region (forming the p-n junction), which is of crucial importance and therefore frequently investigated using surface and interface science tools, such as photoelectron spectroscopy and scanning probe microscopy. To ensure comparability and validity of the results, a general preparation guide for realistic surfaces of polycrystalline chalcopyrite thin films is highly desirable. We present results on wet-chemical cleaning procedures of polycrystalline Cu(In{sub 1-x}Ga{sub x})Se{sub 2} thin films with an average x?=?[Ga]/([In]?+?[Ga])?=?0.29, which were exposed to ambient conditions for different times. The hence natively oxidized sample surfaces were etched in KCN- or NH{sub 3}-based aqueous solutions. By x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, we find that the KCN treatment results in a chemical surface structure which is apart from a slight change in surface composition identical to a pristine as-received sample surface. Additionally, we discover a different oxidation behavior of In and Ga, in agreement with thermodynamic reference data, and we find indications for the segregation and removal of copper selenide surface phases from the polycrystalline material.

  12. High-Efficiency Solar Thermochemical Reactor for Hydrogen Production

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Efficiency Solar Thermochemical Reactor for Hydrogen Production - Sandia Energy Energy ... Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power ...

  13. High Efficiency Nanostructured III-V Photovoltaics for Solar Concentrator Application

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hubbard, Seth

    2012-09-12

    The High Efficiency Nanostructured III-V Photovoltaics for Solar Concentrators project seeks to provide new photovoltaic cells for Concentrator Photovoltaics (CPV) Systems with higher cell efficiency, more favorable temperature coefficients and less sensitivity to changes in spectral distribution. The main objective of this project is to provide high efficiency III-V solar cells that will reduce the overall cost per Watt for power generation using CPV systems.This work is focused both on a potential near term application, namely the use of indium arsenide (InAs) QDs to spectrally "tune" the middle (GaAs) cell of a SOA triple junction device to a more favorable effective bandgap, as well as the long term goal of demonstrating intermediate band solar cell effects. The QDs are confined within a high electric field i-region of a standard GaAs solar cell. The extended absorption spectrum (and thus enhanced short circuit current) of the QD solar cell results from the increase in the sub GaAs bandgap spectral response that is achievable as quantum dot layers are introduced into the i-region. We have grown InAs quantum dots by OMVPE technique and optimized the QD growth conditions. Arrays of up to 40 layers of strain balanced quantum dots have been experimentally demonstrated with good material quality, low residual stain and high PL intensity. Quantum dot enhanced solar cells were grown and tested under simulated one sun AM1.5 conditions. Concentrator solar cells have been grown and fabricated with 5-40 layers of QDs. Testing of these devices show the QD cells have improved efficiency compared to baseline devices without QDs. Device modeling and measurement of thermal properties were performed using Crosslight APSYS. Improvements in a triple junction solar cell with the insertion of QDs into the middle current limiting junction was shown to be as high as 29% under one sun illumination for a 10 layer stack QD enhanced triple junction solar cell. QD devices have strong

  14. Project Profile: Development and Productization of High-Efficiency, Low-Cost Building-Integrated PV Shingles Using Monocrystalline Silicon Thin-Film Solar Cells

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The Solexel-OC team is developing a BIPV roofing shingle product that includes low-profile solar modules and a unique attachment system that will be fastened directly to the roof and incorporates...

  15. High-Efficiency Low-Cost Solar Receiver for Use in a Supercritical...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Low-Cost Solar Receiver for Use in a Supercritical CO2 Recompression Cycle High-Efficiency Low-Cost ... This presentation was delivered at the SunShot Concentrating Solar Power ...

  16. High-Efficiency Amorphous Silicon and Nanocrystalline Silicon-Based Solar Cells and Modules: Final Technical Progress Report, 30 January 2006 - 29 January 2008

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guha, S.; Yang, J.

    2008-05-01

    United Solar Ovonic successfully used its spectrum-splitting a-Si:H/a-SiGe:H/a-SiGe:H triple-junction structure in their manufacturing plants, achieving a manufacturing capacity of 118 MW in 2007, and set up a very aggressive expansion plan to achieve grid parity.

  17. Highly Efficient, Scalable Microbial Fuel Cell - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Biomass and Biofuels Biomass and Biofuels Advanced Materials Advanced Materials Find More Like This Return to Search Highly Efficient, Scalable Microbial Fuel Cell University of Colorado Contact CU About This Technology Publications: PDF Document Publication CU2773D (Microbial Fuel Cell) Marketing Summary (129 KB) Technology Marketing Summary With present day environmental and energy concerns rising, the development of environmentally friendly energy

  18. New GaInP/GaAs/GaInAs, Triple-Bandgap, Tandem Solar Cell for High-Efficiency Terrestrial Concentrator Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kurtz, S.; Wanlass, M.; Kramer, C.; Young, M.; Geisz, J.; Ward, S.; Duda, A.; Moriarty, T.; Carapella, J.; Ahrenkiel, P.; Emery. K.; Jones, K.; Romero, M.; Kibbler, A.; Olson, J.; Friedman, D.; McMahon, W.; Ptak, A.

    2005-11-01

    GaInP/GaAs/GaInAs three-junction cells are grown in an inverted configuration on GaAs, allowing high quality growth of the lattice matched GaInP and GaAs layers before a grade is used for the 1-eV GaInAs layer. Using this approach an efficiency of 37.9% was demonstrated.

  19. Webinar January 13: Highly Efficient Solar Thermochemical Reaction...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    efficiency, converting methane and water into syngas-a mix of hydrogen and carbon monoxide-and the technology received an R&D 100 Award in 2014. As the solar energy is stored...

  20. Integrated Solar Thermochemical Reaction System for High Efficiency...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    This presentation was delivered at the SunShot Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) Program Review 2013, held April 23-25, 2013 near Phoenix, Arizona. cspreviewmeeting042313wegeng.p...

  1. Conversion Tower for Dispatchable Solar Power: High-Efficiency Solar-Electric Conversion Power Tower

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-01-11

    HEATS Project: Abengoa Solar is developing a high-efficiency solar-electric conversion tower to enable low-cost, fully dispatchable solar energy generation. Abengoa’s conversion tower utilizes new system architecture and a two-phase thermal energy storage media with an efficient supercritical carbon dioxide (CO2) power cycle. The company is using a high-temperature heat-transfer fluid with a phase change in between its hot and cold operating temperature. The fluid serves as a heat storage material and is cheaper and more efficient than conventional heat-storage materials, like molten salt. It also allows the use of a high heat flux solar receiver, advanced high thermal energy density storage, and more efficient power cycles.

  2. High-Efficiency Polycrystalline CdTe Thin-Film Solar Cells with an Oxygenated Amorphous CdS (a-CdS:O) Window Layer: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, X.; Dhere, R. G.; Yan, Y.; Romero, M. J.; Zhang, Y.; Zhou, J.; DeHart, C.; Duda, A.; Perkins, C.; To, B.

    2002-05-01

    In the conventional CdS/CdTe device structure, the poly-CdS window layer has a bandgap of {approx}2.4 eV, which causes absorption in the short-wavelength region. Higher short-circuit current densities (Jsc) can be achieved by reducing the CdS thickness, but this can adversely impact device open-circuit voltage (Voc) and fill factor (FF). Also, poly-CdS film has about 10% lattice mismatch related to the CdTe film, which limits the improvement of device Voc and FF. In this paper, we report a novel window material: oxygenated amorphous CdS film (a-CdS:O) prepared at room temperature by rf sputtering. The a-CdS:O film has a higher optical bandgap (2.5-3.1 eV) than the poly-CdS film and an amorphous structure. The preliminary device results have demonstrated that Jsc of the CdTe device can be greatly improved while maintaining higher Voc and FF. We have fabricated a CdTe cell demonstrating an NREL-confirmed Jsc of 25.85 mA/cm2 and a total-area efficiency of 15.4%.

  3. Advanced processing technology for high-efficiency, thin-film CuInSe{sub 2} and CdTe solar cells. Annual subcontract report, 1 March 1993--28 February 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morel, D.L.; Ferekides, C.S.

    1994-07-01

    This annual report details activities in research on advanced processing technology for high-effiency, thin-film solar cells.

  4. High-Efficiency Low-Cost Solar Receiver for Use in a Supercritical CO2

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Recompression Cycle | Department of Energy Low-Cost Solar Receiver for Use in a Supercritical CO2 Recompression Cycle High-Efficiency Low-Cost Solar Receiver for Use in a Supercritical CO2 Recompression Cycle This presentation was delivered at the SunShot Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) Program Review 2013, held April 23-25, 2013 near Phoenix, Arizona. csp_review_meeting_042313_sullivan.pdf (1.45 MB) More Documents & Publications High-Efficiency Low-Cost Solar Receiver for Use in a

  5. Fuel Cell/Turbine Ultra High Efficiency Power System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hossein, Ghezel-Ayagh

    2001-11-06

    FuelCell Energy, INC. (FCE) is currently involved in the design of ultra high efficiency power plants under a cooperative agreement (DE-FC26-00NT40) managed by the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) as part of the DOE's Vision 21 program. Under this project, FCE is developing a fuel cell/turbine hybrid system that integrates the atmospheric pressure Direct FuelCell{reg_sign} (DFC{reg_sign}) with an unfired Brayton cycle utilizing indirect heat recovery from the power plant. Features of the DFC/T{trademark} system include: high efficiency, minimal emissions, simplicity in design, direct reforming internal to the fuel cell, no pressurization of the fuel cell, independent operating pressure of the fuel cell and turbine, and potential cost competitiveness with existing combined cycle power plants at much smaller sizes. Objectives of the Vision 21 Program include developing power plants that will generate electricity with net efficiencies approaching 75 percent (with natural gas), while producing sulfur and nitrogen oxide emissions of less than 0.01 lb/million BTU. These goals are significant improvements over conventional power plants, which are 35-60 percent efficient and produce emissions of 0.07 to 0.3 lb/million BTU of sulfur and nitrogen oxides. The nitrogen oxide and sulfur emissions from the DFC/T system are anticipated to be better than the Vision 21 goals due to the non-combustion features of the DFC/T power plant. The expected high efficiency of the DFC/T will also result in a 40-50 percent reduction in carbon dioxide emissions compared to conventional power plants. To date, the R&D efforts have resulted in significant progress including proof-of-concept tests of a sub-scale power plant built around a state-of-the-art DFC stack integrated with a modified Capstone Model 330 Microturbine. The objectives of this effort are to investigate the integration aspects of the fuel cell and turbine and to obtain design information and operational data that will

  6. Heterojunction solar cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Olson, J.M.

    1994-08-30

    A high-efficiency single heterojunction solar cell is described wherein a thin emitter layer (preferably Ga[sub 0.52]In[sub 0.48]P) forms a heterojunction with a GaAs absorber layer. The conversion efficiency of the solar cell is at least 25.7%. The solar cell preferably includes a passivating layer between the substrate and the absorber layer. An anti-reflection coating is preferably disposed over the emitter layer. 1 fig.

  7. Heterojunction solar cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Olson, Jerry M.

    1994-01-01

    A high-efficiency single heterojunction solar cell wherein a thin emitter layer (preferably Ga.sub.0.52 In.sub.0.48 P) forms a heterojunction with a GaAs absorber layer. The conversion effiency of the solar cell is at least 25.7%. The solar cell preferably includes a passivating layer between the substrate and the absorber layer. An anti-reflection coating is preferably disposed over the emitter layer.

  8. Project Profile: High-Efficiency Thermal Storage System for Solar Plants |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Thermal Storage System for Solar Plants Project Profile: High-Efficiency Thermal Storage System for Solar Plants SENER logo SENER, under the Baseload CSP FOA, aimed to develop a highly efficient, low-maintenance and economical thermal energy storage (TES) system using solid graphite modular blocks for CSP plants. Approach Graphic of a rectangle shape to the left of a row or smaller rectangles stacked in two rows. The main objective was to evaluate a TES system able to

  9. Novel Materials for High Efficiency Direct Methanol Fuel Cells

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Number: Arkema Inc. (1281) This presentation does not contain any proprietary, confidential, or otherwise restricted information Novel Materials for High Efficiency Direct Methanol ...

  10. High-Efficiency Solar Cogeneration with Thermophotovoltaic & Fiber-Optic

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Daylighting | Department of Energy Efficiency Solar Cogeneration with Thermophotovoltaic & Fiber-Optic Daylighting High-Efficiency Solar Cogeneration with Thermophotovoltaic & Fiber-Optic Daylighting Credit: Creative Light Source, Inc. Credit: Creative Light Source, Inc. Lead Performer: Creative Light Source, Inc. DOE Funding: $1,724,521 (total for SBIR Phases I and 2) Cost Share: N/A Project Term: 7/28/14 - 7/28/16 Funding Opportunity Announcement: 2013 - Small Business Innovation

  11. Los Alamos develops new technique for growing high-efficiency...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    technique for growing high-efficiency perovskite ... growth of highly efficient and reproducible solar cells from large-area ... clean global energy solutions for the ...

  12. Productization and Manufacturing Scaling of High-Efficiency Solar Cell and Module Products Based on a Disruptive Low-Cost, Mono-Crystalline Technology: Final Technical Progress Report, April 1, 2009 - December 30, 2010

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fatemi, H.

    2012-07-01

    Final report for PV incubator subcontract with Solexel, Inc. The purpose of this project was to develop Solexel's Unique IP, productize it, and transfer it to manufacturing. Silicon constitutes a significant fraction of the total solar cell cost, resulting in an industry-wide drive to lower silicon usage. Solexel's disruptive Solar cell structure got around these challenges and promised superior light trapping, efficiency and mechanical strength, despite being significantly thinner than commercially available cells. Solexel's successful participation in this incubator project became evident as the company is now moving into commercial production and position itself to be competitive for the next Technology Pathway Partnerships (TPP) funding opportunity.

  13. New III-V cell design approaches for very high efficiency

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lundstrom, M.S.; Melloch, M.R.; Lush, G.B.; Patkar, M.P.; Young, M.P. )

    1993-04-01

    This report describes to examine new solar cell desip approaches for achieving very high conversion efficiencies. The program consists of two elements. The first centers on exploring new thin-film approaches specifically designed for M-III semiconductors. Substantial efficiency gains may be possible by employing light trapping techniques to confine the incident photons, as well as the photons emitted by radiative recombination. The thin-film approach is a promising route for achieving substantial performance improvements in the already high-efficiency, single-junction, III-V cell. The second element of the research involves exploring desip approaches for achieving high conversion efficiencies without requiring extremely high-quality material. This work has applications to multiple-junction cells, for which the selection of a component cell often involves a compromise between optimum band pp and optimum material quality. It could also be a benefit manufacturing environment by making the cell's efficiency less dependent on materialquality.

  14. CdTe portfolio offers commercial ready high efficiency solar - Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Innovation Portal Find More Like This Return to Search CdTe portfolio offers commercial ready high efficiency solar National Renewable Energy Laboratory Contact NREL About This Technology Publications: PDF Document Publication MktgSummary CdTe.pdf (117 KB) Schematic illustration of a typical CdTe superstrate thin-film PV device. In this design, the layers of the device are deposited onto a glass &quot;superstrate&quot; that allows sunlight to enter. The sunlight passes through the

  15. High-Efficiency Solar Cogeneration with T-PV and Fiber Optic Daylighting

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    DiMasi joseph@CreativeLightSource.com Creative Light Source, inc. High-Efficiency Solar Cogeneration with T-PV and Fiber Optic Daylighting 2015 Building Technologies Office Peer Review ‹#› Project Summary Timeline: Start date: August, 2014 Planned end date: July, 2016 Key Milestones: 1. Y1 prototype test-bed functional; 7/15 2. Full IR-PV cogeneration system; 3/16 3. Building Trials at customer facility; 6/16 Budget: Total DOE $ to date: $975,000 (P1 + P2, Y1) Total future DOE $: $750,000

  16. Proposal of high efficiency solar cells with closely stacked InAs/In{sub 0.48}Ga{sub 0.52}P quantum dot superlattices: Analysis of polarized absorption characteristics via intermediateband

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yoshikawa, H. Kotani, T.; Kuzumoto, Y.; Izumi, M.; Tomomura, Y.; Hamaguchi, C.

    2014-07-07

    We present a theoretical study of the electronic structures and polarized absorption properties of quantum dot superlattices (QDSLs) using widegap matrix material, InAs/In{sub 0.48}Ga{sub 0.52}P QDSLs, for realizing intermediateband solar cells (IBSCs) with twostep photonabsorption. The planewave expanded BurtForeman operator ordered 8band kp theory is used for this calculation, where strain effect and piezoelectric effect are taken into account. We find that the absorption spectra of the second transitions of twostep photonabsorption can be shifted to higher energy region by using In{sub 0.48}Ga{sub 0.52}P, which is latticematched material to GaAs substrate, as a matrix material instead of GaAs. We also find that the transverse magnetic polarized absorption spectra in InAs/In{sub 0.48}Ga{sub 0.52}P QDSL with a separate IB from the rest of the conduction minibands can be shifted to higher energy region by decreasing the QD height. As a result, the second transitions of twostep photonabsorption by the sunlight occur efficiently. These results indicate that InAs/In{sub 0.48}Ga{sub 0.52}P QDSLs are suitable material combination of IBSCs toward the realization of ultrahigh efficiency solar cells.

  17. Development of a New Generation, High Efficiency PEM Fuel Cell Based, CHP

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    System | Department of Energy a New Generation, High Efficiency PEM Fuel Cell Based, CHP System Development of a New Generation, High Efficiency PEM Fuel Cell Based, CHP System Part of a $100 million fuel cell award announced by DOE Secretary Bodman on Oct. 25, 2006. 7_intelligent.pdf (22.28 KB) More Documents & Publications 2012 Pathways to Commercial Success: Technologies and Products Supported by the Fuel Cell Technologies Program 2011 Pathways to Commercial Success: Technologies and

  18. Preparation of cuxinygazsen (X=0-2, Y=0-2, Z=0-2, N=0-3) precursor films by electrodeposition for fabricating high efficiency solar cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bhattacharya, Raghu N.; Contreras, Miguel A.; Keane, James; Tennant, Andrew L.; Tuttle, John R.; Ramanathan, Kannan; Noufi, Rommel

    1998-03-24

    High quality thin films of copper-indium-gallium-diselenide useful in the production of solar cells are prepared by electrodepositing at least one of the constituent metals onto a glass/Mo substrate, followed by physical vapor deposition of copper and selenium or indium and selenium to adjust the final stoichiometry of the thin film to approximately Cu(In,Ga)Se.sub.2. Using an AC voltage of 1-100 KHz in combination with a DC voltage for electrodeposition improves the morphology and growth rate of the deposited thin film. An electrodeposition solution comprising at least in part an organic solvent may be used in conjunction with an increased cathodic potential to increase the gallium content of the electrodeposited thin film.

  19. Bandgap Engineering in High-Efficiency Multijunction Concentrator Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    King, R. R.; Sherif, R. A.; Kinsey, G. S.; Kurtz, S.; Fetzer, C. M.; Edmondson, K. M.; Law, D. C.; Cotal, H. L.; Krut, D. D.; Ermer, J. H.; Karam, N. H.

    2005-08-01

    This paper discusses semiconductor device research paths under investigation with the aim of reaching the milestone efficiency of 40%. A cost analysis shows that achieving very high cell efficiencies is crucial for the realization of cost-effective photovoltaics, because of the strongly leveraging effect of efficiency on module packaging and balance-of systems costs. Lattice-matched (LM) GaInP/ GaInAs/ Ge 3-junction cells have achieved the highest independently confirmed efficiency at 175 suns, 25?C, of 37.3% under the standard AM1.5D, low-AOD terrestrial spectrum. Lattice-mismatched, or metamorphic (MM), materials offer still higher potential efficiencies, if the crystal quality can be maintained. Theoretical efficiencies well over 50% are possible for a MM GaInP/ 1.17-eV GaInAs/ Ge 3-junction cell limited by radiative recombination at 500 suns. The bandgap - open circuit voltage offset, (Eg/q) - Voc, is used as a valuable theoretical and experimental tool to characterize multijunction cells with subcell bandgaps ranging from 0.7 to 2.1 eV. Experimental results are presented for prototype 6-junction cells employing an active {approx}1.1-eV dilute nitride GaInNAs subcell, with active-area efficiency greater than 23% and over 5.3 V open-circuit voltage under the 1-sun AM0 space spectrum. Such cell designs have theoretical efficiencies under the terrestrial spectrum at 500 suns concentration exceeding 55% efficiency, even for lattice-matched designs.

  20. Comment on “Towards high efficiency thin-film crystalline silicon solar cells: The roles of light trapping and non-radiative recombinations” [J. Appl. Phys. 115, 094501 (2014)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abenante, L.

    2015-01-14

    In the above paper, an analytical approach including a new solution to the differential diffusion equation in illuminated quasi-neutral regions (QNR) is exploited to calculate the short-circuit current density (J{sub sc}), open-circuit voltage (V{sub oc}), fill factor (FF), and efficiency (η) of light-trapping (LT) c-Si solar cells with a given structure. Comparisons with numerical results calculated by the Silvaco ATLAS device simulator in the same LT cells show that the analytical results are systematically overestimated. According to the authors, the inaccuracies in J{sub sc}, V{sub oc}, and η are due to the fact that assuming ideal collection from space-charge region (SCR) and using the superposition approximation introduce systematic errors into analytical models. In this comment, an analytical approach using reported solutions to the transport equations in QNR and SCR, where ideal collection from SCR is assumed and the superposition approximation is used, is shown to agree with both the Silvaco and PC1d numerical approaches in calculating J{sub sc}, V{sub oc}, and η, in the same LT devices as considered in the commented paper. Reasons for the inaccuracies detected in the commented paper are suggested.

  1. Novel Materials for High Efficiency Direct Methanol Fuel Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carson, Stephen; Mountz, David; He, Wensheng; Zhang, Tao

    2013-12-31

    Direct methanol fuel cell membranes were developed using blends of different polyelectrolytes with PVDF. The membranes showed complex relationships between polyelectrolyte chemistry, morphology, and processing. Although the PVDF grade was found to have little effect on the membrane permselectivity, it does impact membrane conductivity and methanol permeation values. Other factors, such as varying the polyelectrolyte polarity, using varying crosslinking agents, and adjusting the equivalent weight of the membranes impacted methanol permeation, permselectivity, and areal resistance. We now understand, within the scope of the project work completed, how these inter-related performance properties can be tailored to achieve a balance of performance.

  2. High temperature performance of high-efficiency, multi-layer solar selective coatings for tower applications

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Gray, M. H.; Tirawat, R.; Kessinger, K. A.; Ndione, P. F.

    2015-05-01

    The roadmap to next-generation concentrating solar power plants anticipates a progression to central towers with operating temperatures in excess of 650°C. These higher temperatures are required to drive higher power-cycle efficiencies, resulting in lower cost energy. However, these conditions also place a greater burden on the materials making up the receiver. Any novel absorber material developed for next-generation receivers must be stable in air, cost effective, and survive thousands of heating and cooling cycles. The collection efficiency of a power tower plant can be increased if the energy absorbed by the receiver is maximized while the heat loss from themore » receiver to the environment is minimized. Thermal radiation losses can be significant (>7% annual energy loss) with receivers at temperatures above 650°C. We present progress toward highly efficient and durable solar selective absorbers (SSAs) intended for operating temperatures from 650°C to 1000°C. Selective efficiency (ηsel) is defined as the energy retained by the absorber, accounting for both absorptance and emittance, relative to the energy incident on the surface. The low emittance layers of multilayer SSAs are binary compounds of refractory metals whose material properties indicate that coatings formed of these materials should be oxidation resistant in air to 800-1200°C. On this basis, we initially developed a solar selective coating for parabolic troughs. This development has been successfully extended to meet the absorptance and emittance objectives for the more demanding, high temperature regime. We show advancement in coating materials, processing and designs resulting in the initial attainment of target efficiencies ηsel > 0.91 for proposed tower conditions. Additionally, spectral measurements show that these coatings continue to perform at targeted levels after cycling to temperatures of 1000°C in environments of nitrogen and forming gas.« less

  3. High temperature performance of high-efficiency, multi-layer solar selective coatings for tower applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gray, M. H.; Tirawat, R.; Kessinger, K. A.; Ndione, P. F.

    2015-05-01

    The roadmap to next-generation concentrating solar power plants anticipates a progression to central towers with operating temperatures in excess of 650C. These higher temperatures are required to drive higher power-cycle efficiencies, resulting in lower cost energy. However, these conditions also place a greater burden on the materials making up the receiver. Any novel absorber material developed for next-generation receivers must be stable in air, cost effective, and survive thousands of heating and cooling cycles. The collection efficiency of a power tower plant can be increased if the energy absorbed by the receiver is maximized while the heat loss from the receiver to the environment is minimized. Thermal radiation losses can be significant (>7% annual energy loss) with receivers at temperatures above 650C. We present progress toward highly efficient and durable solar selective absorbers (SSAs) intended for operating temperatures from 650C to 1000C. Selective efficiency (?sel) is defined as the energy retained by the absorber, accounting for both absorptance and emittance, relative to the energy incident on the surface. The low emittance layers of multilayer SSAs are binary compounds of refractory metals whose material properties indicate that coatings formed of these materials should be oxidation resistant in air to 800-1200C. On this basis, we initially developed a solar selective coating for parabolic troughs. This development has been successfully extended to meet the absorptance and emittance objectives for the more demanding, high temperature regime. We show advancement in coating materials, processing and designs resulting in the initial attainment of target efficiencies ?sel > 0.91 for proposed tower conditions. Additionally, spectral measurements show that these coatings continue to perform at targeted levels after cycling to temperatures of 1000C in environments of nitrogen and forming gas.

  4. High temperature performance of high-efficiency, multi-layer solar selective coatings for tower applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gray, M. H.; Tirawat, R.; Kessinger, K. A.; Ndione, P. F.

    2015-05-01

    The roadmap to next-generation concentrating solar power plants anticipates a progression to central towers with operating temperatures in excess of 650°C. These higher temperatures are required to drive higher power-cycle efficiencies, resulting in lower cost energy. However, these conditions also place a greater burden on the materials making up the receiver. Any novel absorber material developed for next-generation receivers must be stable in air, cost effective, and survive thousands of heating and cooling cycles. The collection efficiency of a power tower plant can be increased if the energy absorbed by the receiver is maximized while the heat loss from the receiver to the environment is minimized. Thermal radiation losses can be significant (>7% annual energy loss) with receivers at temperatures above 650°C. We present progress toward highly efficient and durable solar selective absorbers (SSAs) intended for operating temperatures from 650°C to 1000°C. Selective efficiency (ηsel) is defined as the energy retained by the absorber, accounting for both absorptance and emittance, relative to the energy incident on the surface. The low emittance layers of multilayer SSAs are binary compounds of refractory metals whose material properties indicate that coatings formed of these materials should be oxidation resistant in air to 800-1200°C. On this basis, we initially developed a solar selective coating for parabolic troughs. This development has been successfully extended to meet the absorptance and emittance objectives for the more demanding, high temperature regime. We show advancement in coating materials, processing and designs resulting in the initial attainment of target efficiencies ηsel > 0.91 for proposed tower conditions. Additionally, spectral measurements show that these coatings continue to perform at targeted levels after cycling to temperatures of 1000°C in environments of nitrogen and forming gas.

  5. Biomimetic Dye Molecules for Solar Cells

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The most cost-effective solar cells are not high-end, high-efficiency single-crystal devices, but rather low-end cells based on organic molecules or conducting polymers. Vital ...

  6. Turning Bacteria into Fuel: Cyanobacteria Designed for Solar-Powered Highly Efficient Production of Biofuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-01-01

    Broad Funding Opportunity Announcement Project: ASU is engineering a type of photosynthetic bacteria that efficiently produce fatty acidsa fuel precursor for biofuels. This type of bacteria, called Synechocystis, is already good at converting solar energy and carbon dioxide (CO2) into a type of fatty acid called lauric acid. ASU has modified the organism so it continuously converts sunlight and CO2 into fatty acidsoverriding its natural tendency to use solar energy solely for cell growth and maximizing the solar-to-fuel conversion process. ASUs approach is different because most biofuels research focuses on increasing cellular biomass and not on excreting fatty acids. The project has also identified a unique way to convert the harvested lauric acid into a fuel that can be easily blended with existing transportation fuels.

  7. High Efficiency Generation of Hydrogen Fuels Using Solar Thermochemical Splitting of Water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heske, Clemens; Moujaes, Samir; Weimer, Alan; Wong, Bunsen; Siegal, Nathan; McFarland, Eric; Miller, Eric; Lewis, Michele; Bingham, Carl; Roth, Kurth; Sabacky, Bruce; Steinfeld, Aldo

    2011-09-29

    The objective of this work is to identify economically feasible concepts for the production of hydrogen from water using solar energy. The ultimate project objective was to select one or more competitive concepts for pilot-scale demonstration using concentrated solar energy. Results of pilot scale plant performance would be used as foundation for seeking public and private resources for full-scale plant development and testing. Economical success in this venture would afford the public with a renewable and limitless source of energy carrier for use in electric power load-leveling and as a carbon-free transportation fuel. The Solar Hydrogen Generation Research (SHGR) project embraces technologies relevant to hydrogen research under the Office of Hydrogen Fuel Cells and Infrastructure Technology (HFCIT) as well as concentrated solar power under the Office of Solar Energy Technologies (SET). Although the photoelectrochemical work is aligned with HFCIT, some of the technologies in this effort are also consistent with the skills and technologies found in concentrated solar power and photovoltaic technology under the Office of Solar Energy Technologies (SET). Hydrogen production by thermo-chemical water-splitting is a chemical process that accomplishes the decomposition of water into hydrogen and oxygen using only heat or a combination of heat and electrolysis instead of pure electrolysis and meets the goals for hydrogen production using only water and renewable solar energy as feed-stocks. Photoelectrochemical hydrogen production also meets these goals by implementing photo-electrolysis at the surface of a semiconductor in contact with an electrolyte with bias provided by a photovoltaic source. Here, water splitting is a photo-electrolytic process in which hydrogen is produced using only solar photons and water as feed-stocks. The thermochemical hydrogen task engendered formal collaborations among two universities, three national laboratories and two private sector

  8. Biomimetic Dye Molecules for Solar Cells

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Biomimetic Dye Molecules for Solar Cells Print Pressing energy problems provide opportunities for solid-state physicists and chemists to solve a major challenge: solar cell adoption. Though solar cells can use energy directly from the Sun to produce electricity that can be converted efficiently into other kinds of energy, they are currently too costly to compete with traditional (polluting) energy sources. The most cost-effective solar cells are not high-end, high-efficiency single-crystal

  9. Biomimetic Dye Molecules for Solar Cells

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Biomimetic Dye Molecules for Solar Cells Print Pressing energy problems provide opportunities for solid-state physicists and chemists to solve a major challenge: solar cell adoption. Though solar cells can use energy directly from the Sun to produce electricity that can be converted efficiently into other kinds of energy, they are currently too costly to compete with traditional (polluting) energy sources. The most cost-effective solar cells are not high-end, high-efficiency single-crystal

  10. Biomimetic Dye Molecules for Solar Cells

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Biomimetic Dye Molecules for Solar Cells Print Pressing energy problems provide opportunities for solid-state physicists and chemists to solve a major challenge: solar cell adoption. Though solar cells can use energy directly from the Sun to produce electricity that can be converted efficiently into other kinds of energy, they are currently too costly to compete with traditional (polluting) energy sources. The most cost-effective solar cells are not high-end, high-efficiency single-crystal

  11. Biomimetic Dye Molecules for Solar Cells

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Biomimetic Dye Molecules for Solar Cells Print Pressing energy problems provide opportunities for solid-state physicists and chemists to solve a major challenge: solar cell adoption. Though solar cells can use energy directly from the Sun to produce electricity that can be converted efficiently into other kinds of energy, they are currently too costly to compete with traditional (polluting) energy sources. The most cost-effective solar cells are not high-end, high-efficiency single-crystal

  12. Key Physical Mechanisms in Nanostructured Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr Stephan Bremner

    2010-07-21

    The objective of the project was to study both theoretically and experimentally the excitation, recombination and transport properties required for nanostructured solar cells to deliver energy conversion efficiencies well in excess of conventional limits. These objectives were met by concentrating on three key areas, namely, investigation of physical mechanisms present in nanostructured solar cells, characterization of loss mechanisms in nanostructured solar cells and determining the properties required of nanostructured solar cells in order to achieve high efficiency and the design implications.

  13. Biomimetic Dye Molecules for Solar Cells

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Biomimetic Dye Molecules for Solar Cells Print Pressing energy problems provide opportunities for solid-state physicists and chemists to solve a major challenge: solar cell adoption. Though solar cells can use energy directly from the Sun to produce electricity that can be converted efficiently into other kinds of energy, they are currently too costly to compete with traditional (polluting) energy sources. The most cost-effective solar cells are not high-end, high-efficiency single-crystal

  14. Biomimetic Dye Molecules for Solar Cells

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Biomimetic Dye Molecules for Solar Cells Print Pressing energy problems provide opportunities for solid-state physicists and chemists to solve a major challenge: solar cell adoption. Though solar cells can use energy directly from the Sun to produce electricity that can be converted efficiently into other kinds of energy, they are currently too costly to compete with traditional (polluting) energy sources. The most cost-effective solar cells are not high-end, high-efficiency single-crystal

  15. Biomimetic Dye Molecules for Solar Cells

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Biomimetic Dye Molecules for Solar Cells Print Pressing energy problems provide opportunities for solid-state physicists and chemists to solve a major challenge: solar cell adoption. Though solar cells can use energy directly from the Sun to produce electricity that can be converted efficiently into other kinds of energy, they are currently too costly to compete with traditional (polluting) energy sources. The most cost-effective solar cells are not high-end, high-efficiency single-crystal

  16. Biomimetic Dye Molecules for Solar Cells

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Biomimetic Dye Molecules for Solar Cells Print Pressing energy problems provide opportunities for solid-state physicists and chemists to solve a major challenge: solar cell adoption. Though solar cells can use energy directly from the Sun to produce electricity that can be converted efficiently into other kinds of energy, they are currently too costly to compete with traditional (polluting) energy sources. The most cost-effective solar cells are not high-end, high-efficiency single-crystal

  17. 15.01.16 RH Perovskite Solar Cells - JCAP

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Fabrication of High Efficiency Perovskite Solar Cells Li, Y., Cooper, J. K., Buonsanti, R., Giannini, G., Liu, Y., Toma, F. M. & Sharp, I. D. Fabrication of Planar Heterojunction ...

  18. Structure of All-Polymer Solar Cells Impedes Efficiency

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Structure of All-Polymer Solar Cells Impedes Efficiency Print Organic solar cells are made of thin ... networks with sharp interfaces in order to produce high-efficiency devices. ...

  19. Structure of All-Polymer Solar Cells Impedes Efficiency

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Structure of All-Polymer Solar Cells Impedes Efficiency Structure of All-Polymer Solar Cells Impedes ... networks with sharp interfaces in order to produce high-efficiency devices. ...

  20. Biomimetic Dye Molecules for Solar Cells

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    traditional (polluting) energy sources. The most cost-effective solar cells are not high-end, high-efficiency ... what makes them so efficient, and how to mimic them ...

  1. Los Alamos develops new technique for growing high-efficiency perovskite

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    solar cells Growing high-efficiency perovskite solar cells Los Alamos develops new technique for growing high-efficiency perovskite solar cells Researchers reveal a new solution-based hot-casting technique that allows growth of highly efficient and reproducible solar cells from large-area perovskite crystals. January 29, 2015 Scientists Aditya Mohite, left, and Wanyi Nie are perfecting a crystal production technique to improve perovskite crystal production for solar cells at Los Alamos

  2. Multiple Exciton Generation Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luther, J. M.; Semonin, O. E.; Beard, M. C.; Gao, J.; Nozik, A. J.

    2012-01-01

    Heat loss is the major factor limiting traditional single junction solar cells to a theoretical efficiency of 32%. Multiple Exciton Generation (MEG) enables efficient use of the solar spectrum yielding a theoretical power conversion efficiency of 44% in solar cells under 1-sun conditions. Quantum-confined semiconductors have demonstrated the ability to generate multiple carriers but present-day materials deliver efficiencies far below the SQ limit of 32%. Semiconductor quantum dots of PbSe and PbS provide an active testbed for developing high-efficiency, inexpensive solar cells benefitting from quantum confinement effects. Here, we will present recent work of solar cells employing MEG to yield external quantum efficiencies exceeding 100%.

  3. Economical Pyrite-Based Solar Cells - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The first generation of solar cells, used in 90% of today's cells, have a focus of high efficiency. These cells use a single p-n junction to extract energy from photons, and are ...

  4. Current and lattice matched tandem solar cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Olson, Jerry M.

    1987-01-01

    A multijunction (cascade) tandem photovoltaic solar cell device is fabricated of a Ga.sub.x In.sub.1-x P (0.505.ltoreq.X.ltoreq.0.515) top cell semiconductor lattice matched to a GaAs bottom cell semiconductor at a low-resistance heterojunction, preferably a p+/n+ heterojunction between the cells. The top and bottom cells are both lattice matched and current matched for high efficiency solar radiation conversion to electrical energy.

  5. Los Alamos develops new technique for growing high-efficiency perovskite

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    solar cells Los Alamos develops new technique for growing high-efficiency perovskite solar cells Alumni Link: Opportunities, News and Resources for Former Employees Latest Issue:September 2015 all issues All Issues » submit Los Alamos develops new technique for growing high-efficiency perovskite solar cells Researchers reveal a new solution-based hot-casting technique that allows growth of highly efficient and reproducible solar cells from large-area perovskite crystals. March 1, 2015

  6. Polycrystalline silicon passivated tunneling contacts for high efficiency

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    silicon solar cells (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Journal Article: Polycrystalline silicon passivated tunneling contacts for high efficiency silicon solar cells Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Polycrystalline silicon passivated tunneling contacts for high efficiency silicon solar cells Authors: Nemeth, Bill ; Young, David L. ; Page, Matthew R. ; LaSalvia, Vincenzo ; Johnston, Steve ; Reedy, Robert ; Stradins, Paul Publication Date: 2016-03-01 OSTI Identifier: 1247961 Report

  7. High Efficiency Solar-based Catalytic Structure for CO{sub 2} Reforming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Menkara, Hisham

    2013-09-30

    Throughout this project, we developed and optimized various photocatalyst structures for CO{sub 2} reforming into hydrocarbon fuels and various commodity chemical products. We also built several closed-loop and continuous fixed-bed photocatalytic reactor system prototypes for a larger-scale demonstration of CO{sub 2} reforming into hydrocarbons, mainly methane and formic acid. The results achieved have indicated that with each type of reactor and structure, high reforming yields can be obtained by refining the structural and operational conditions of the reactor, as well as by using various sacrificial agents (hole scavengers). We have also demonstrated, for the first time, that an aqueous solution containing acid whey (a common bio waste) is a highly effective hole scavenger for a solar-based photocatalytic reactor system and can help reform CO{sub 2} into several products at once. The optimization tasks performed throughout the project have resulted in efficiency increase in our conventional reactors from an initial 0.02% to about 0.25%, which is 10X higher than our original project goal. When acid whey was used as a sacrificial agent, the achieved energy efficiency for formic acid alone was ~0.4%, which is 16X that of our original project goal and higher than anything ever reported for a solar-based photocatalytic reactor. Therefore, by carefully selecting sacrificial agents, it should be possible to reach energy efficiency in the range of the photosynthetic efficiency of typical crop and biofuel plants (1-3%).

  8. Multi-scale framework for the accelerated design of high-efficiency...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Multi-scale framework for the accelerated design of high-efficiency organic photovoltaic cells Organic and hybrid organicinorganic solar cells (OSC) offer a promising low-cost...

  9. High efficiency thermal storage system for solar plants (HELSOLAR). Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Villarroel, Eduardo; Fernandez-Pello, Carlos; Lenartz, Jeff; Parysek, Karen

    2013-02-27

    The project objective was to develop a high temperature Thermal Storage System (TES) based on graphite and able to provide both economical and technical advantages with respect to existing solutions contributing to increase the share of Concentrated Solar Plants (CSP). One of the main disadvantages of most of the renewable energy systems is their dependence to instantaneous irradiation and, thus, lack of predictability. CSP plants with thermal storage have proved to offer a good solution to this problem although still at an elevated price. The identification of alternative concepts able to work more efficiently would help to speed up the convergence of CSP towards grid parity. One way to reduce costs is to work in a range of temperatures higher than those allowed by the actual molten salt systems, currently the benchmark for TES in CSP. This requires the use of alternative energy storage materials such as graphite, as well as the utilization of Heat Transfer Fluids (HTF) other than molten salts or organic oils. The main technical challenges identified are derived from the high temperatures and significant high pressures, which pose risks such as potential graphite and insulation oxidation, creep, fatigue, corrosion and stress-corrosion in the pipes, leakages in the joints, high blower drivers’ electrical power consumption, thermal compatibility or relative deformations of the different materials. At the end, the main challenge of the project, is to identify a technical solution able to overcome all these problems but still at a competitive cost when compared to already existing thermal storage solutions. Special attention is given to all these issues during this project.

  10. Manufacturing of ultra-high efficiency thin-film concentrator cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gale, R. )

    1992-02-01

    This report describes a research project to study developments required to expedite commercializing the GaAs solar cell concentrator technology. We baseline the GaAs concentrator cell and 1000X module design into pilot operation at Kopin Corporation. To attain these improvements, we will use Kopin's existing pilot line to produce cleavage of lateral epitaxial film for transfer (CLEFT) GaAs solar cells; these cells already exhibit efficiencies of about 24% at air mass 1.5. We will modify the CLEFT cell to form concentrators that perform well at 500--1000 suns. We will derive the know-how for this modification from an integration of Kopin and VS Corporation technologies. The pilot line will be broadened to include cell receiver and module assembly, using VS Corporation technology obtained from Varian as a baseline. A second-generation design will be formulated to address improvements in the module, and these will be incorporated into the pilot line along with the CLEFT concentrator cell. In parallel, we integrate Kopin's CLEFT GaAs cell technology with the advanced AlGaAs and InGaAs material technology obtained by VS Corporation from Varian to develop a near-term, two-junction mechanical stack with an efficiency of 35%. The receiver thus developed will be compatible with a three-junction approach that has been proposed elsewhere by Kopin. Using a three-junction stack can yield an efficiency of over 40%, and when such cells become available, the pilot line process will have been designed to use them. 11 refs.

  11. Silicon solar cell assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Burgess, Edward L.; Nasby, Robert D.; Schueler, Donald G.

    1979-01-01

    A silicon solar cell assembly comprising a large, thin silicon solar cell bonded to a metal mount for use when there exists a mismatch in the thermal expansivities of the device and the mount.

  12. Award-Winning Etching Process Cuts Solar Cell Costs (Revised) (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2011-05-01

    The NREL "black silicon" nanocatalytic wet-chemical etch is an inexpensive, one-step method to minimize reflections from crystalline silicon solar cells. The technology enables high-efficiency solar cells without the use of expensive antireflection coatings.

  13. HIGH EFFICIENCY, LOW EMISSIONS, SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL SYSTEMS FOR MULTIPLE APPLICATIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sara Ward; Michael A. Petrik

    2004-07-28

    Technology Management Inc. (TMI), teamed with the Ohio Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, has engineered, constructed, and demonstrated a stationary, low power, multi-module solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) prototype system operating on propane and natural gas. Under Phase I, TMI successfully operated two systems in parallel, in conjunction with a single DC-AC inverter and battery bus, and produced net AC electricity. Phase II testing expanded to include alternative and renewable fuels typically available in rural regions of Ohio. The commercial system is expected to have ultra-low pollution, high efficiency, and low noise. The TMI SOFC uses a solid ceramic electrolyte operating at high temperature (800-1000 C) which electrochemically converts gaseous fuels (hydrogen or mixed gases) and oxygen into electricity. The TMI system design oxidizes fuel primarily via electrochemical reactions and uses no burners (which pollute and consume fuel)--resulting in extremely clean exhaust. The use of proprietary sulfur tolerant materials developed by TMI allows system operation without additional fuel pre-processing or sulfur removal. Further, the combination of high operating temperatures and solid state operation increases the potential for higher reliability and efficiencies compared to other types of fuel cells. Applications for the TMI SOFC system cover a wide range of transportation, building, industrial, and military market sectors. A generic technology, fuel cells have the potential to be embodied into multiple products specific to Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) program areas including: Fuel Cells and Microturbines, School Buildings, Transportation, and Bioenergy. This program focused on low power stationary applications using a multi-module system operating on a range of common fuels. By producing clean electricity more efficiently (thus using less fuel), fuel cells have the triple effect of cleaning up the

  14. Heterojunction solar cell with passivated emitter surface

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Olson, J.M.; Kurtz, S.R.

    1994-05-31

    A high-efficiency heterojunction solar cell is described wherein a thin emitter layer (preferably Ga[sub 0.52]In[sub 0.48]P) forms a heterojunction with a GaAs absorber layer. A passivating window layer of defined composition is disposed over the emitter layer. The conversion efficiency of the solar cell is at least 25.7%. The solar cell preferably includes a passivating layer between the substrate and the absorber layer. An anti-reflection coating is preferably disposed over the window layer. 1 fig.

  15. Heterojunction solar cell with passivated emitter surface

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Olson, Jerry M.; Kurtz, Sarah R.

    1994-01-01

    A high-efficiency heterojunction solar cell wherein a thin emitter layer (preferably Ga.sub.0.52 In.sub.0.48 P) forms a heterojunction with a GaAs absorber layer. A passivating window layer of defined composition is disposed over the emitter layer. The conversion efficiency of the solar cell is at least 25.7%. The solar cell preferably includes a passivating layer between the substrate and the absorber layer. An anti-reflection coating is preferably disposed over the window layer.

  16. Photovoltaic solar cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nielson, Gregory N.; Gupta, Vipin P.; Okandan, Murat; Watts, Michael R.

    2015-09-08

    A photovoltaic solar concentrator is disclosed with one or more transverse-junction solar cells (also termed point contact solar cells) and a lens located above each solar cell to concentrate sunlight onto the solar cell to generate electricity. Piezoelectric actuators tilt or translate each lens to track the sun using a feedback-control circuit which senses the electricity generated by one or more of the solar cells. The piezoelectric actuators can be coupled through a displacement-multiplier linkage to provide an increased range of movement of each lens. Each lens in the solar concentrator can be supported on a frame (also termed a tilt plate) having three legs, with the movement of the legs being controlled by the piezoelectric actuators.

  17. CRADA Final Report: Process development for hybrid solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ager, Joel W

    2011-02-14

    TCF funding of a CRADA between LBNL and RSLE leveraged RSLE's original $1M investment in LBNL research and led to development of a solar cell fabrication process that will bring the high efficiency, high voltage hybrid tandem solar cell closer to commercialization. RSLE has already built a pilot line at its Phoenix, Arizona site.

  18. NREL Solar Cell Wins Federal Technology Transfer Prize - News Releases |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    NREL Solar Cell Wins Federal Technology Transfer Prize May 7, 2009 A new class of ultra-light, high-efficiency solar cells developed by the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory has been awarded a national prize for the commercialization of federally funded research. The Inverted Metamorphic Multijunction (IMM) Solar Cell was named a winner of the 2009 Award for Excellence in Technology Transfer by the Federal Laboratory Consortium for Technology Transfer. The

  19. Innotech Solar AS formerly known as Solar Cell Repower | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Innotech Solar AS formerly known as Solar Cell Repower Jump to: navigation, search Name: Innotech Solar AS (formerly known as Solar Cell Repower) Place: Narvik, Norway Zip: 8512...

  20. High efficiency and high concentration in photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yamaguchi, Masafumi; Luque, A.

    1999-10-01

    In this paper, the authors present the state-of-the-art of multijunction solar cells and the future prospects of this technology. Their use in terrestrial applications will likely be for concentrators operating at very high concentrations. Some trends are also discussed and the authors present a cost calculation showing that highly efficient cells under very high concentration would be able to produce electricity at costs competitive with electricity generation costs for some utilities.

  1. Solar Cells | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Solar Cells Place: Split, Croatia Zip: 21000 Product: manufacturers of PV modules References: Solar Cells1 This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Solar...

  2. Photovoltaic solar cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nielson, Gregory N; Cruz-Campa, Jose Luis; Okandan, Murat; Resnick, Paul J

    2014-05-20

    A photovoltaic solar cell for generating electricity from sunlight is disclosed. The photovoltaic solar cell comprises a plurality of spaced-apart point contact junctions formed in a semiconductor body to receive the sunlight and generate the electricity therefrom, the plurality of spaced-apart point contact junctions having a first plurality of regions having a first doping type and a second plurality of regions having a second doping type. In addition, the photovoltaic solar cell comprises a first electrical contact electrically connected to each of the first plurality of regions and a second electrical contact electrically connected to each of the second plurality of regions, as well as a passivation layer covering major surfaces and sidewalls of the photovoltaic solar cell.

  3. Solar cell array interconnects

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carey, P.G.; Thompson, J.B.; Colella, N.J.; Williams, K.A.

    1995-11-14

    Electrical interconnects are disclosed for solar cells or other electronic components using a silver-silicone paste or a lead-tin (Pb-Sn) no-clean fluxless solder cream, whereby the high breakage of thin (<6 mil thick) solar cells using conventional solder interconnect is eliminated. The interconnects of this invention employs copper strips which are secured to the solar cells by a silver-silicone conductive paste which can be used at room temperature, or by a Pb-Sn solder cream which eliminates undesired residue on the active surfaces of the solar cells. Electrical testing using the interconnects of this invention has shown that no degradation of the interconnects developed under high current testing, while providing a very low contact resistance value. 4 figs.

  4. Photovoltaic solar cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nielson, Gregory N; Okandan, Murat; Cruz-Campa, Jose Luis; Resnick, Paul J

    2013-11-26

    A photovoltaic solar cell for generating electricity from sunlight is disclosed. The photovoltaic solar cell comprises a plurality of spaced-apart point contact junctions formed in a semiconductor body to receive the sunlight and generate the electicity therefrom, the plurality of spaced-apart point contact junctions having a first plurality of regions having a first doping type and a second plurality of regions having a second doping type. In addition, the photovoltaic solar cell comprises a first electrical contact electrically connected to each of the first plurality of regions and a second electrical contact electrically connected to each of the second plurality of regions, as well as a passivation layer covering major surfaces and sidewalls of the photovoltaic solar cell.

  5. Solar cell array interconnects

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carey, Paul G.; Thompson, Jesse B.; Colella, Nicolas J.; Williams, Kenneth A.

    1995-01-01

    Electrical interconnects for solar cells or other electronic components using a silver-silicone paste or a lead-tin (Pb-Sn) no-clean fluxless solder cream, whereby the high breakage of thin (<6 mil thick) solar cells using conventional solder interconnect is eliminated. The interconnects of this invention employs copper strips which are secured to the solar cells by a silver-silicone conductive paste which can be used at room temperature, or by a Pb-Sn solder cream which eliminates undesired residue on the active surfaces of the solar cells. Electrical testing using the interconnects of this invention has shown that no degradation of the interconnects developed under high current testing, while providing a very low contact resistance value.

  6. Nanocrystal Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gur, Ilan

    2006-12-15

    This dissertation presents the results of a research agenda aimed at improving integration and stability in nanocrystal-based solar cells through advances in active materials and device architectures. The introduction of 3-dimensional nanocrystals illustrates the potential for improving transport and percolation in hybrid solar cells and enables novel fabrication methods for optimizing integration in these systems. Fabricating cells by sequential deposition allows for solution-based assembly of hybrid composites with controlled and well-characterized dispersion and electrode contact. Hyperbranched nanocrystals emerge as a nearly ideal building block for hybrid cells, allowing the controlled morphologies targeted by templated approaches to be achieved in an easily fabricated solution-cast device. In addition to offering practical benefits to device processing, these approaches offer fundamental insight into the operation of hybrid solar cells, shedding light on key phenomena such as the roles of electrode-contact and percolation behavior in these cells. Finally, all-inorganic nanocrystal solar cells are presented as a wholly new cell concept, illustrating that donor-acceptor charge transfer and directed carrier diffusion can be utilized in a system with no organic components, and that nanocrystals may act as building blocks for efficient, stable, and low-cost thin-film solar cells.

  7. Solar Cells: Spin-Cast Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells: A Dynamical...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Solar Cells: Spin-Cast Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells: A Dynamical Investigation Solar Cells: Spin-Cast Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells: A Dynamical Investigation Print Wednesday,...

  8. High Efficiency Direct Carbon and Hydrogen Fuel Cells for Fossil Fuel Power Generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steinberg, M; Cooper, J F; Cherepy, N

    2002-01-02

    Hydrogen he1 cells have been under development for a number of years and are now nearing commercial applications. Direct carbon fuel cells, heretofore, have not reached practical stages of development because of problems in fuel reactivity and cell configuration. The carbon/air fuel cell reaction (C + O{sub 2} = CO{sub 2}) has the advantage of having a nearly zero entropy change. This allows a theoretical efficiency of 100 % at 700-800 C. The activities of the C fuel and CO{sub 2} product do not change during consumption of the fuel. Consequently, the EMF is invariant; this raises the possibility of 100% fuel utilization in a single pass. (In contrast, the high-temperature hydrogen fuel cell has a theoretical efficiency of and changes in fuel activity limit practical utilizations to 75-85%.) A direct carbon fuel cell is currently being developed that utilizes reactive carbon particulates wetted by a molten carbonate electrolyte. Pure COZ is evolved at the anode and oxygen from air is consumed at the cathode. Electrochemical data is reported here for the carbon/air cell utilizing carbons derived from he1 oil pyrolysis, purified coal, purified bio-char and petroleum coke. At 800 O C, a voltage efficiency of 80% was measured at power densities of 0.5-1 kW/m2. Carbon and hydrogen fuels may be produced simultaneously at lugh efficiency from: (1) natural gas, by thermal decomposition, (2) petroleum, by coking or pyrolysis of distillates, (3) coal, by sequential hydrogasification to methane and thermal pyrolysis of the methane, with recycle of the hydrogen, and (4) biomass, similarly by sequential hydrogenation and thermal pyrolysis. Fuel production data may be combined with direct C and H2 fuel cell operating data for power cycle estimates. Thermal to electric efficiencies indicate 80% HHV [85% LHV] for petroleum, 75.5% HHV [83.4% LHV] for natural gas and 68.3% HHV [70.8% LHV] for lignite coal. Possible benefits of integrated carbon and hydrogen fuel cell power

  9. High Efficiency Spectrum Splitting Prototype Submodule Using Commercial CPV Cells (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keevers, M.; Lau, J.; Green, M.; Thomas, I.; Lasich, J.; King, R.; Emery, K.

    2014-11-01

    This presentation summarizes progress on the design, fabrication and testing of a proof-of-concept, prototype spectrum splitting CPV submodule using commercial CPV cells, aimed at demonstrating an independently confirmed efficiency above 40% at STC (1000 W/m2, AM1.5D ASTM G173-03, 25 degrees C).

  10. High efficiency direct fuel cell hybrid power cycle for near term application

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steinfeld, G.; Maru, H.C.; Sanderson, R.A.

    1996-12-31

    Direct carbonate fuel cells being developed by Energy Research Corporation can generate power at an efficiency approaching 60% LHV. This unique fuel cell technology can consume natural gas and other hydrocarbon based fuels directly without requiring an external reformer, thus providing a simpler and inherently efficient power generation system. A 2 MW power plant demonstration of this technology has been initiated at an installation in the city of Santa Clara in California. A 2.85 MW commercial configuration shown in Figure 1 is presently being developed. The complete plant includes the carbonate fuel cell modules, an inverter, transformer and switchgear, a heat recovery unit and supporting instrument air and water treatment systems. The emission levels for this 2.85 MW plant are projected to be orders of magnitude below existing or proposed standards. The 30 year levelized cost of electricity, without inflation, is projected to be approximately 5{cents}/kW-h assuming capital cost for the carbonate fuel cell system of $1000/kW.

  11. Final Report- High-Efficiency Low-Cost Solar Receiver for use in a Supercritical CO2 Recompression Cycle

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    This project has performed solar receiver designs for two supercritical carbon dioxide (sCO2) power cycles. The first half of the program focused on a nominally 2 MWe power cycle, with a receiver designed for test at the Sandia Solar Thermal Test Facility. This led to an economical cavity-type receiver. The second half of the program focused on a 10 MWe power cycle, incorporating a surround open receiver. Rigorous component life and performance testing was performed in support of both receiver designs. The receiver performance objectives are set to conform to the US DOE goals of 6¢/kWh by 2020.

  12. ZTEK`s ultra-high efficiency fuel cell/gas turbine system for distributed generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hsu, M.; Nathanson, D.; Bradshaw, D.T.

    1996-12-31

    Ztek`s Planar Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) system has exceptional potential for utility electric power generation because of: simplicity of components construction, capability for low cost manufacturing, efficient recovery of very high quality by-product heat (up to 1000{degrees}C), and system integration simplicity. Utility applications of the Solid Oxide Fuel Cell are varied and include distributed generation units (sub-MW to 30MW capacity), repowering existing power plants (i.e. 30MW to 100MW), and multi-megawatt central power plants. A TVA/EPRI collaboration program involved functional testing of the advanced solid oxide fuel cell stacks and design scale-up for distributed power generation applications. The emphasis is on the engineering design of the utility modules which will be the building blocks for up to megawatt scale power plants. The program has two distinctive subprograms: Verification test on a 1 kW stack and 25kW module for utility demonstration. A 1 kW Planar SOFC stack was successfully operated for 15,000 hours as of December, 1995. Ztek began work on a 25kW SOFC Power System for TVA, which plans to install the 25kW SOFC at a host site for demonstration in 1997. The 25kW module is Ztek`s intended building block for the commercial use of the Planar SOFC. Systems of up to megawatt capacity can be obtained by packaging the modules in 2-dimensional or 3-dimensional arrays.

  13. Broad spectrum solar cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Walukiewicz, Wladyslaw; Yu, Kin Man; Wu, Junqiao; Schaff, William J.

    2007-05-15

    An alloy having a large band gap range is used in a multijunction solar cell to enhance utilization of the solar energy spectrum. In one embodiment, the alloy is In.sub.1-xGa.sub.xN having an energy bandgap range of approximately 0.7 eV to 3.4 eV, providing a good match to the solar energy spectrum. Multiple junctions having different bandgaps are stacked to form a solar cell. Each junction may have different bandgaps (realized by varying the alloy composition), and therefore be responsive to different parts of the spectrum. The junctions are stacked in such a manner that some bands of light pass through upper junctions to lower junctions that are responsive to such bands.

  14. Architectures and criteria for the design of high efficiency organic photovoltaic cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rand, Barry; Forrest, Stephen R; Pendergrast Burk, Diane

    2015-03-31

    A method for fabricating an organic photovoltaic cell includes providing a first electrode; depositing a series of at least seven layers onto the first electrode, each layer consisting essentially of a different organic semiconductor material, the organic semiconductor material of at least an intermediate layer of the sequence being a photoconductive material; and depositing a second electrode onto the sequence of at least seven layers. One of the first electrode and the second electrode is an anode and the other is a cathode. The organic semiconductor materials of the series of at least seven layers are arranged to provide a sequence of decreasing lowest unoccupied molecular orbitals (LUMOs) and a sequence of decreasing highest occupied molecular orbitals (HOMOs) across the series from the anode to the cathode.

  15. Demonstration of a Highly Efficient Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Power System Using Adiabatic Steam Reforming and Anode Gas Recirculation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Powell, Michael R.; Meinhardt, Kerry D.; Sprenkle, Vincent L.; Chick, Lawrence A.; Mcvay, Gary L.

    2012-05-01

    Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) are currently being developed for a wide variety of applications because of their high efficiency at multiple power levels. Applications for SOFCs encompass a large range of power levels including 1-2 kW residential combined heat and power applications, 100-250 kW sized systems for distributed generation and grid extension, and MW-scale power plants utilizing coal. This paper reports on the development of a highly efficient, small-scale SOFC power system operating on methane. The system uses adiabatic steam reforming of methane and anode gas recirculation to achieve high net electrical efficiency. The anode exit gas is recirculated and all of the heat and water required for the endothermic reforming reaction are provided by the anode gas emerging from the SOFC stack. Although the single-pass fuel utilization is only about 55%, because of the anode gas recirculation the overall fuel utilization is up to 93%. The demonstrated system achieved gross power output of 1650 to 2150 watts with a maximum net LHV efficiency of 56.7% at 1720 watts. Overall system efficiency could be further improved to over 60% with use of properly sized blowers.

  16. Architectures and criteria for the design of high efficiency organic photovoltaic cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rand, Barry; Forrest, Stephen R; Burk, Diana Pendergrast

    2015-03-24

    An organic photovoltaic cell includes an anode and a cathode, and a plurality of organic semiconductor layers between the anode and the cathode. At least one of the anode and the cathode is transparent. Each two adjacent layers of the plurality of organic semiconductor layers are in direct contact. The plurality of organic semiconductor layers includes an intermediate layer consisting essentially of a photoconductive material, and two sets of at least three layers. A first set of at least three layers is between the intermediate layer and the anode. Each layer of the first set consists essentially of a different organic semiconductor material having a higher LUMO and a higher HOMO, relative to the material of an adjacent layer of the plurality of organic semiconductor layers closer to the cathode. A second set of at least three layers is between the intermediate layer and the cathode. Each layer of the second set consists essentially of a different organic semiconductor material having a lower LUMO and a lower HOMO, relative to the material of an adjacent layer of the plurality of organic semiconductor layers closer to the anode.

  17. 15.01.16 RH Perovskite Solar Cells - JCAP

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Fabrication of High Efficiency Perovskite Solar Cells Li, Y., Cooper, J. K., Buonsanti, R., Giannini, G., Liu, Y., Toma, F. M. & Sharp, I. D. Fabrication of Planar Heterojunction Perovskite Solar Cells by Controlled Low-Pressure Vapor Annealing. J. Phys. Chem. Lett ., 6, 493-499, DOI: 10.1021/jz502720a (2015). Scientific Achievement A new synthetic method based on low-pressure and reduced-temperature vapor annealing was developed and demonstrated to yield efficient hybrid halide perovskites

  18. Recent improvements in materials for thin GaAs and multibandgap solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benner, J.P.

    1985-05-01

    The High Efficiency Concepts Program at SERI supports research on III-V compound semiconductors with the objective of achieving the maximum attainable photovoltaic conversion efficiencies for terrestrial solar electric power. The outcome of this research may also affect the future of space photovoltaic cells. While the interest in thin-film, high-efficiency solar cells for terrestrial applications is driven principally by consideration of system costs, such cells would also improve the power density of space power arrays.

  19. Computational Challenges for Nanostructure Solar Cells

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Challenges for Nanostructure Solar Cells Computational Challenges for Nanostructure Solar Cells ZZ2.jpg Key Challenges: Current nanostructure solar cells often have energy...

  20. Enabling Thin Silicon Solar Cell Technology

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Enabling Thin Silicon Solar Cell Technology Enabling Thin Silicon Solar Cell Technology Print Friday, 21 June 2013 10:49 Generic silicon solar cells showing +45, -45, and ...

  1. Monolithic tandem solar cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wanlass, Mark W.

    1991-01-01

    A single-crystal, monolithic, tandem, photovoltaic solar cell is described which includes (a) an InP substrate having upper and lower surfaces, (b) a first photoactive subcell on the upper surface of the InP substrate, and (c) a second photoactive subcell on the first subcell. The first photoactive subcell is GaInAsP of defined composition. The second subcell is InP. The two subcells are lattice matched. The solar cell can be provided as a two-terminal device or a three-terminal device.

  2. TJ Solar Cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Friedman, Daniel

    2009-04-17

    This talk will discuss recent developments in III-V multijunction photovoltaic technology which have led to the highest-efficiency solar cells ever demonstrated. The relationship between the materials science of III-V semiconductors and the achievement of record solar cell efficiencies will be emphasized. For instance, epitaxially-grown GAInP has been found to form a spontaneously-ordered GaP/InP (111) superlattice. This ordering affects the band gap of the material, which in turn affects the design of solar cells which incorporate GaInP. For the next generation of ultrahigh-efficiency III-V solar cells, we need a new semiconductor which is lattice-matched to GaAs, has a band gap of 1 eV, and has long minority-carrier diffusion lengths. Out of a number of candidate materials, the recently-discovered alloy GaInNAs appears to have the greatest promise. This material satisfies the first two criteria, but has to date shown very low diffusion lengths, a problem which is our current focus in the development of these next-generation cells.

  3. Module greenhouse with high efficiency of transformation of solar energy, utilizing active and passive glass optical rasters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Korecko, J.; Jirka, V.; Sourek, B.; Cerveny, J.

    2010-10-15

    Since the eighties of the 20th century, various types of linear glass rasters for architectural usage have been developed in the Czech Republic made by the continuous melting technology. The development was focused on two main groups of rasters - active rasters with linear Fresnel lenses in fixed installation and with movable photo-thermal and/or photo-thermal/photo-voltaic absorbers. The second group are passive rasters based on total reflection of rays on an optical prism. During the last years we have been working on their standardization, exact measuring of their optical and thermal-technical characteristics and on creation of a final product that could be applied in solar architecture. With the project supported by the Ministry of Environment of the Czech Republic we were able to build an experimental greenhouse using these active and passive optical glass rasters. The project followed the growing number of technical objectives. The concept of the greenhouse consisted of interdependence construction - structural design of the greenhouse with its technological equipment securing the required temperature and humidity conditions in the interior of the greenhouse. This article aims to show the merits of the proposed scheme and presents the results of the mathematical model in the TRNSYS environment through which we could predict the future energy balance carried out similar works, thus optimizing the investment and operating costs. In this article description of various technology applications for passive and active utilization of solar radiation is presented, as well as some results of short-term and long-term experiments, including evaluation of 1-year operation of the greenhouse from the energy and interior temperature viewpoints. A comparison of the calculated energy flows in the greenhouse to real measured values, for verification of the installed model is also involved. (author)

  4. Solar Cell Simulation

    K-12 Energy Lesson Plans and Activities Web site (EERE)

    Students model the flow of energy from the sun as it enters a photovoltaic cell, moves along a wire and powers a load. The game-like atmosphere involves the younger students and helps them understand the continuous nature of the flow of energy. For a related lesson, please see the activity “Solar Powered System” (PDF 430 KB).

  5. Amorphous semiconductor solar cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dalal, Vikram L.

    1981-01-01

    A solar cell comprising a back electrical contact, amorphous silicon semiconductor base and junction layers and a top electrical contact includes in its manufacture the step of heat treating the physical junction between the base layer and junction layer to diffuse the dopant species at the physical junction into the base layer.

  6. High-efficiency thin-film cadmium telluride photovoltaic cells. Annual subcontract report, January 20, 1995--January 19, 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Compaan, A.D.; Bohn, R.G.; Contreras-Puente, G.

    1996-05-01

    This annual report covers the second year of a 3-year NREL subcontract with the University of Toledo that is focused on improvements in efficiency for radio frequency (rf)-sputtered CdS/CdTe solar cells. In earlier work supported by NREL, the University of Toledo established the viability of two new deposition methods for CdS/CdTe solar cells by fabricating cells with efficiencies greater than 10% at air mass (AM) 1.5 on soda lime glass for all-sputtered cells and also for all-laser-deposited cells. Most of the effort has been placed on radio frequency sputtering (RFS) because it was judged to be more economical and more easily scaled to large-area deposition. However, laser physical vapor deposition (LPVD) has remained the method of choice for the deposition of CdCl{sub 2} layers and also for the exploration of new materials such as the ternary alloys including CdS{sub x} Te{sub 1{minus}x} and dopants such as Cu in ZnTe.

  7. Leakage pathway layer for solar cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luan, Andy; Smith, David; Cousins, Peter; Sun, Sheng

    2015-12-01

    Leakage pathway layers for solar cells and methods of forming leakage pathway layers for solar cells are described.

  8. Current- and lattice-matched tandem solar cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Olson, J.M.

    1985-10-21

    A multijunction (cascade) tandem photovoltaic solar cell device is fabricated of a Ga/sub x/In/sub 1-x/P (0.505 equal to or less than x equal to or less than 0.515) top cell semiconductor lattice-matched to a GaAs bottom cell semiconductor at a low resistance heterojunction, preferably a p/sup +//n/sup +/ heterojunction between the cells. The top and bottom cells are both lattice-matched and current-matched for high efficiency solar radiation conversion to electrical energy.

  9. Intermediate Bandgap Solar Cells From Nanostructured Silicon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Black, Marcie

    2014-10-30

    This project aimed to demonstrate increased electronic coupling in silicon nanostructures relative to bulk silicon for the purpose of making high efficiency intermediate bandgap solar cells using silicon. To this end, we formed nanowires with controlled crystallographic orientation, small diameter, <111> sidewall faceting, and passivated surfaces to modify the electronic band structure in silicon by breaking down the symmetry of the crystal lattice. We grew and tested these silicon nanowires with <110>-growth axes, which is an orientation that should produce the coupling enhancement.

  10. Solar Cells Hellas SA | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Cells Hellas SA Jump to: navigation, search Name: Solar Cells Hellas SA Place: Athens, Greece Product: Greek manufacturer of PV wafers, cells and modules. References: Solar Cells...

  11. Intermediate band solar cells: Recent progress and future directions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Okada, Y. Tamaki, R.; Farrell, D. J.; Yoshida, K.; Ahsan, N.; Shoji, Y.; Sogabe, T.; Ekins-Daukes, N. J. Yoshida, M.; Pusch, A.; Hess, O.; Phillips, C. C.; Kita, T.; Guillemoles, J.-F.

    2015-06-15

    Extensive literature and publications on intermediate band solar cells (IBSCs) are reviewed. A detailed discussion is given on the thermodynamics of solar energy conversion in IBSCs, the device physics, and the carrier dynamics processes with a particular emphasis on the two-step inter-subband absorption/recombination processes that are of paramount importance in a successful implementation high-efficiency IBSC. The experimental solar cell performance is further discussed, which has been recently demonstrated by using highly mismatched alloys and high-density quantum dot arrays and superlattice. IBSCs having widely different structures, materials, and spectral responses are also covered, as is the optimization of device parameters to achieve maximum performance.

  12. Thermodynamics of photon-enhanced thermionic emission solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reck, Kasper; Hansen, Ole

    2014-01-13

    Photon-enhanced thermionic emission (PETE) cells in which direct photon energy as well as thermal energy can be harvested have recently been suggested as a new candidate for high efficiency solar cells. Here, we present an analytic thermodynamical model for evaluation of the efficiency of PETE solar cells including an analysis of the entropy production due to thermionic emission of general validity. The model is applied to find the maximum efficiency of a PETE cell for given cathode and anode work functions and temperatures.

  13. High-efficiency, monolithic, multi-bandgap, tandem photovoltaic...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Tidal Industrial Technologies Solar Photovoltaic Solar Thermal Startup America Vehicles ... High-efficiency, monolithic, multi-bandgap, tandem photovoltaic energy converters United ...

  14. Ultra-High-Efficiency Multijunction Cell and Receiver Module, Phase 1B: High Performance PV Exploring and Accelerating Ultimate Pathways; Final Subcontract Report, 13 May 2005 - 10 December 2008

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    King, R. R.

    2010-03-01

    Spectrolab's two High Performance Photovoltaics primary objectives: (1) develop ultra-high-efficiency concentrator multijunction cells and (2) develop a robust concentrator cell receiver package.

  15. Solar cell module lamination process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carey, Paul G.; Thompson, Jesse B.; Aceves, Randy C.

    2002-01-01

    A solar cell module lamination process using fluoropolymers to provide protection from adverse environmental conditions and thus enable more extended use of solar cells, particularly in space applications. A laminate of fluoropolymer material provides a hermetically sealed solar cell module structure that is flexible and very durable. The laminate is virtually chemically inert, highly transmissive in the visible spectrum, dimensionally stable at temperatures up to about 200.degree. C. highly abrasion resistant, and exhibits very little ultra-violet degradation.

  16. Monolithic tandem solar cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wanlass, M.W.

    1994-06-21

    A single-crystal, monolithic, tandem, photovoltaic solar cell is described which includes (a) an InP substrate having upper and lower surfaces, (b) a first photoactive subcell on the upper surface of the InP substrate, (c) a second photoactive subcell on the first subcell; and (d) an optically transparent prismatic cover layer over the second subcell. The first photoactive subcell is GaInAsP of defined composition. The second subcell is InP. The two subcells are lattice matched. 9 figs.

  17. Monolithic tandem solar cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wanlass, Mark W. (Golden, CO)

    1994-01-01

    A single-crystal, monolithic, tandem, photovoltaic solar cell is described which includes (a) an InP substrate having upper and lower surfaces, (b) a first photoactive subcell on the upper surface of the InP substrate, (c) a second photoactive subcell on the first subcell; and (d) an optically transparent prismatic cover layer over the second subcell. The first photoactive subcell is GaInAsP of defined composition. The second subcell is InP. The two subcells are lattice matched.

  18. Three dimensional amorphous silicon/microcrystalline silicon solar cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kaschmitter, James L.

    1996-01-01

    Three dimensional deep contact amorphous silicon/microcrystalline silicon (a-Si/.mu.c-Si) solar cells which use deep (high aspect ratio) p and n contacts to create high electric fields within the carrier collection volume material of the cell. The deep contacts are fabricated using repetitive pulsed laser doping so as to create the high aspect p and n contacts. By the provision of the deep contacts which penetrate the electric field deep into the material where the high strength of the field can collect many of the carriers, thereby resulting in a high efficiency solar cell.

  19. Three dimensional amorphous silicon/microcrystalline silicon solar cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kaschmitter, J.L.

    1996-07-23

    Three dimensional deep contact amorphous silicon/microcrystalline silicon (a-Si/{micro}c-Si) solar cells are disclosed which use deep (high aspect ratio) p and n contacts to create high electric fields within the carrier collection volume material of the cell. The deep contacts are fabricated using repetitive pulsed laser doping so as to create the high aspect p and n contacts. By the provision of the deep contacts which penetrate the electric field deep into the material where the high strength of the field can collect many of the carriers, thereby resulting in a high efficiency solar cell. 4 figs.

  20. High efficiency multijunction amorphous silicon alloy-based solar cells and modules

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guha, S.; Yang, J.; Banerjeee, A.; Glatfelter, T.; Hoffman, K.; Xu, X. )

    1994-06-30

    We have achieved initial efficiency of 11.4% as confirmed by National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) on a multijunction amorphous silicon alloy photovoltaic module of one-square-foot-area. [bold This] [bold is] [bold the] [bold highest] [bold initial] [bold efficiency] [bold confirmed] [bold by] [bold NREL] [bold for] [bold any] [bold thin] [bold film] [bold photovoltaic] [bold module]. After light soaking for 1000 hours at 50 [degree]C under one-sun illumination, a module with initial efficiency of 11.1% shows a stabilized efficiency of 9.5%. Key factors that led to this high performance are discussed.

  1. Final Report - High efficiency heterojunction solar cell on 30μm...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    To achieve grid parity, photovoltaic (PV) technologies must reduce the production cost of ... The SunShot Swerve Retrospective Benefit-Cost Evaluation of DOE Investment in Photovoltaic ...

  2. Self-Assembled Biomimetic Nanostructured Anti-Reflection Coatings for Highly Efficient Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2009-04-01

    This factsheet describes a study that will further develop the structure-property relationship understanding and performance testing of biomimetic nanostructured ARCs produced by a robust templating nanofabrication platform that combines the simplicity and cost benefits of bottom-up self-assembly with the scalability and compatibility of top-down microfabrication.

  3. Carrier Selective, Passivated Contacts for High Efficiency Silicon Solar Cells based on Transparent Conducting Oxides

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Young, David L.; Nemeth, William; Grover, Sachit; Norman, Andrew; Yuan, Hao-Chih; Lee, Benjamin G.; LaSalvia, Vincenzo; Stradins, Paul

    2014-01-01

    We describe the design, fabrication and results of passivated contacts to n-type silicon utilizing thin SiO2 and transparent conducting oxide layers. High temperature silicon dioxide is grown on both surfaces of an n-type wafer to a thickness <50 Å, followed by deposition of tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) and a patterned metal contacting layer. As deposited, the thin-film stack has a very high J0,contact, and a non-ohmic, high contact resistance. However, after a forming gas anneal, the passivation quality and the contact resistivity improve significantly. The contacts are characterized by measuring the recombination parameter of the contact (J0,contact) and the specificmore » contact resistivity (ρcontact) using a TLM pattern. The best ITO/SiO2 passivated contact in this study has J0,contact = 92.5 fA/cm2 and ρcontact = 11.5 mOhm-cm2. These values are placed in context with other passivating contacts using an analysis that determines the ultimate efficiency and the optimal area fraction for contacts for a given set of (J0,contact, ρcontact) values. The ITO/SiO2 contacts are found to have a higher J0,contact, but a similar ρcontact compared to the best reported passivated contacts.« less

  4. High efficiency low cost thin film silicon solar cell design and method for making

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sopori, Bhushan L.

    1999-01-01

    A semiconductor device having a substrate, a conductive intermediate layer deposited onto said substrate, wherein the intermediate layer serves as a back electrode, an optical reflector, and an interface for impurity gettering, and a semiconductor layer deposited onto said intermediate layer, wherein the semiconductor layer has a grain size at least as large as the layer thickness, and preferably about ten times the layer thickness. The device is formed by depositing a metal layer on a substrate, depositing a semiconductive material on the metal-coated substrate to produce a composite structure, and then optically processing the composite structure by illuminating it with infrared electromagnetic radiation according to a unique time-energy profile that first produces pits in the backside surface of the semiconductor material, then produces a thin, highly reflective, low resistivity alloy layer over the entire area of the interface between the semiconductor material and the metal layer, and finally produces a grain-enhanced semiconductor layer. The time-energy profile includes increasing the energy to a first energy level to initiate pit formation and create the desired pit size and density, then ramping up to a second energy level in which the entire device is heated to produce an interfacial melt, and finally reducing the energy to a third energy level and holding for a period of time to allow enhancement in the grain size of the semiconductor layer.

  5. High efficiency, low cost, thin film silicon solar cell design and method for making

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sopori, Bhushan L.

    2001-01-01

    A semiconductor device having a substrate, a conductive intermediate layer deposited onto said substrate, wherein the intermediate layer serves as a back electrode, an optical reflector, and an interface for impurity gettering, and a semiconductor layer deposited onto said intermediate layer, wherein the semiconductor layer has a grain size at least as large as the layer thickness, and preferably about ten times the layer thickness. The device is formed by depositing a metal layer on a substrate, depositing a semiconductive material on the metal-coated substrate to produce a composite structure, and then optically processing the composite structure by illuminating it with infrared electromagnetic radiation according to a unique time-energy profile that first produces pits in the backside surface of the semiconductor material, then produces a thin, highly reflective, low resistivity alloy layer over the entire area of the interface between the semiconductor material and the metal layer, and finally produces a grain-enhanced semiconductor layer. The time-energy profile includes increasing the energy to a first energy level to initiate pit formation and create the desired pit size and density, then ramping up to a second energy level in which the entire device is heated to produce an interfacial melt, and finally reducing the energy to a third energy level and holding for a period of time to allow enhancement in the grain size of the semiconductor layer.

  6. Forming high efficiency silicon solar cells using density-graded anti-reflection surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yuan, Hao-Chih; Branz, Howard M.; Page, Matthew R.

    2014-09-09

    A method (50) is provided for processing a graded-density AR silicon surface (14) to provide effective surface passivation. The method (50) includes positioning a substrate or wafer (12) with a silicon surface (14) in a reaction or processing chamber (42). The silicon surface (14) has been processed (52) to be an AR surface with a density gradient or region of black silicon. The method (50) continues with heating (54) the chamber (42) to a high temperature for both doping and surface passivation. The method (50) includes forming (58), with a dopant-containing precursor in contact with the silicon surface (14) of the substrate (12), an emitter junction (16) proximate to the silicon surface (14) by doping the substrate (12). The method (50) further includes, while the chamber is maintained at the high or raised temperature, forming (62) a passivation layer (19) on the graded-density silicon anti-reflection surface (14).

  7. Forming high-efficiency silicon solar cells using density-graded anti-reflection surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yuan, Hao-Chih; Branz, Howard M.; Page, Matthew R.

    2015-07-07

    A method (50) is provided for processing a graded-density AR silicon surface (14) to provide effective surface passivation. The method (50) includes positioning a substrate or wafer (12) with a silicon surface (14) in a reaction or processing chamber (42). The silicon surface (14) has been processed (52) to be an AR surface with a density gradient or region of black silicon. The method (50) continues with heating (54) the chamber (42) to a high temperature for both doping and surface passivation. The method (50) includes forming (58), with a dopant-containing precursor in contact with the silicon surface (14) of the substrate (12), an emitter junction (16) proximate to the silicon surface (14) by doping the substrate (12). The method (50) further includes, while the chamber is maintained at the high or raised temperature, forming (62) a passivation layer (19) on the graded-density silicon anti-reflection surface (14).

  8. High efficiency low cost thin film silicon solar cell design and method for making

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sopori, B.L.

    1999-04-27

    A semiconductor device is described having a substrate, a conductive intermediate layer deposited onto said substrate, wherein the intermediate layer serves as a back electrode, an optical reflector, and an interface for impurity gettering, and a semiconductor layer deposited onto said intermediate layer, wherein the semiconductor layer has a grain size at least as large as the layer thickness, and preferably about ten times the layer thickness. The device is formed by depositing a metal layer on a substrate, depositing a semiconductive material on the metal-coated substrate to produce a composite structure, and then optically processing the composite structure by illuminating it with infrared electromagnetic radiation according to a unique time-energy profile that first produces pits in the backside surface of the semiconductor material, then produces a thin, highly reflective, low resistivity alloy layer over the entire area of the interface between the semiconductor material and the metal layer, and finally produces a grain-enhanced semiconductor layer. The time-energy profile includes increasing the energy to a first energy level to initiate pit formation and create the desired pit size and density, then ramping up to a second energy level in which the entire device is heated to produce an interfacial melt, and finally reducing the energy to a third energy level and holding for a period of time to allow enhancement in the grain size of the semiconductor layer. 9 figs.

  9. Biomimetic Dye Molecules for Solar Cells

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Biomimetic Dye Molecules for Solar Cells Print Pressing energy problems provide opportunities for solid-state physicists and chemists to solve a major challenge: solar cell...

  10. Biomimetic Dye Molecules for Solar Cells

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Dye Molecules for Solar Cells Print Pressing energy problems provide opportunities for solid-state physicists and chemists to solve a major challenge: solar cell adoption....

  11. Biomimetic Dye Molecules for Solar Cells

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Pressing energy problems provide opportunities for solid-state physicists and chemists to solve a major challenge: solar cell adoption. Though solar cells can use energy directly ...

  12. Effects of cell area on the performance of dye sensitized solar cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khatani, Mehboob E-mail: noranimuti-mohamed@petronas.com.my E-mail: azclement@yahoo.com Mohamed, Norani Muti E-mail: noranimuti-mohamed@petronas.com.my E-mail: azclement@yahoo.com Hamid, Nor Hisham E-mail: noranimuti-mohamed@petronas.com.my E-mail: azclement@yahoo.com Sahmer, Ahmad Zahrin E-mail: noranimuti-mohamed@petronas.com.my E-mail: azclement@yahoo.com Samsudin, Adel E-mail: noranimuti-mohamed@petronas.com.my E-mail: azclement@yahoo.com

    2014-10-24

    Dye sensitized solar cells (DSCs) have significant advantage over the current silicon cells by having low manufacturing cost and potentially high conversion efficiency. Therefore, DSCs are expected to be used as the next generation solar cell device that covers wide range of new applications. In order to achieve highly efficient DSCs for practical application, study on the effect of increasing the cell’s area on the performance of dye sensitized solar need to be carried out. Three different DSC cell areas namely, 1, 12.96 and 93.5 cm{sup 2} respectively were fabricated and analyzed through solar simulator and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). From the analysis of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), it was observed that the cell’s electron lifetime was influenced significantly by the cell’s area. Although the collection efficiency of all cells recorded to be approximately 100% but higher recombination rate with increased cell area reduced the performance of the cell.

  13. Module level solutions to solar cell polarization

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Xavier, Grace , Li; Bo

    2012-05-29

    A solar cell module includes interconnected solar cells, a transparent cover over the front sides of the solar cells, and a backsheet on the backsides of the solar cells. The solar cell module includes an electrical insulator between the transparent cover and the front sides of the solar cells. An encapsulant protectively packages the solar cells. To prevent polarization, the insulator has resistance suitable to prevent charge from leaking from the front sides of the solar cells to other portions of the solar cell module by way of the transparent cover. The insulator may be attached (e.g., by coating) directly on an underside of the transparent cover or be a separate layer formed between layers of the encapsulant. The solar cells may be back junction solar cells.

  14. Un-Nanostructuring Solar Cells | ANSER Center | Argonne-Northwestern...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Un-Nanostructuring Solar Cells Home > Research > ANSER Research Highlights > Un-Nanostructuring Solar Cells...

  15. High-Efficiency Receivers for Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Cycles...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications High-Efficiency Low-Cost Solar Receiver for Use in a Supercritical CO2 Recompression Cycle - FY13 Q1 High-Efficiency Receivers for...

  16. Defect behavior of polycrystalline solar cell silicon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schroder, D.K.; Park, S.H.; Hwang, I.G.; Mohr, J.B.; Hanly, M.P.

    1993-05-01

    The major objective of this study, conducted from October 1988 to September 1991, was to gain an understanding of the behavior of impurities in polycrystalline silicon and the influence of these impurities on solar cell efficiency. The authors studied edge-defined film-fed growth (EFG) and cast poly-Si materials and solar cells. With EFG Si they concentrated on chromium-doped materials and cells to determine the role of Cr on solar cell performance. Cast poly-Si samples were not deliberately contaminated. Samples were characterized by cell efficiency, current-voltage, deep-level transient spectroscopy (DLTS), surface photovoltage (SPV), open-circuit voltage decay, secondary ion mass spectrometry, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy measurements. They find that Cr forms Cr-B pairs with boron at room temperature and these pairs dissociate into Cr{sub i}{sup +} and B{sup {minus}} during anneals at 210{degrees}C for 10 min. Following the anneal, Cr-B pairs reform at room temperature with a time constant of 230 h. Chromium forms CrSi{sub 2} precipitates in heavily contaminated regions and they find evidence of CrSi{sub 2} gettering, but a lack of chromium segregation or precipitation to grain boundaries and dislocations. Cr-B pairs have well defined DLTS peaks. However, DLTS spectra of other defects are not well defined, giving broad peaks indicative of defects with a range of energy levels in the band gap. In some high-stress, low-efficiency cast poly-Si they detect SiC precipitates, but not in low-stress, high-efficiency samples. SPV measurements result in nonlinear SPV curves in some materials that are likely due to varying optical absorption coefficients due to locally varying stress in the material.

  17. Solar cell with back side contacts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nielson, Gregory N; Okandan, Murat; Cruz-Campa, Jose Luis; Resnick, Paul J; Wanlass, Mark Woodbury; Clews, Peggy J

    2013-12-24

    A III-V solar cell is described herein that includes all back side contacts. Additionally, the positive and negative electrical contacts contact compoud semiconductor layers of the solar cell other than the absorbing layer of the solar cell. That is, the positive and negative electrical contacts contact passivating layers of the solar cell.

  18. Solar Cell Wafer

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This photograph features a multi-crystal silicon wafer developed by CaliSolar undergoing performance testing at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). The laboratory’s High-Intensity...

  19. High efficiency incandescent lighting

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bermel, Peter; Ilic, Ognjen; Chan, Walker R.; Musabeyoglu, Ahmet; Cukierman, Aviv Ruben; Harradon, Michael Robert; Celanovic, Ivan; Soljacic, Marin

    2014-09-02

    Incandescent lighting structure. The structure includes a thermal emitter that can, but does not have to, include a first photonic crystal on its surface to tailor thermal emission coupled to, in a high-view-factor geometry, a second photonic filter selected to reflect infrared radiation back to the emitter while passing visible light. This structure is highly efficient as compared to standard incandescent light bulbs.

  20. TOPCAT Solar Cell Alignment & Energy Concentration Technology...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Thermal Solar Thermal Find More Like This Return to Search TOPCAT Solar Cell Alignment & Energy Concentration Technology Sandia National Laboratories Contact SNL About This ...

  1. Geek-Up[11.12.2010]: Alternative Fuel-Cell Electrocatalysts, High-Efficiency Thermoelectrics and Ryanodine Receptors

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    At Brookhaven National Lab, scientists have engineered an alternative fuel-cell electrocatalyst which minimizes the wear and tear on platinum that occurs during stop-and-go driving while also reducing the amount used of this pricey component.

  2. High efficiency photoionization detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, David F.

    1984-01-01

    A high efficiency photoionization detector using tetraaminoethylenes in a gaseous state having a low ionization potential and a relative photoionization cross section which closely matches the emission spectrum of xenon gas. Imaging proportional counters are also disclosed using the novel photoionization detector of the invention. The compound of greatest interest is TMAE which comprises tetrakis(dimethylamino)ethylene which has a measured ionization potential of 5.36.+-.0.02 eV, and a vapor pressure of 0.35 torr at 20.degree. C.

  3. High efficiency photoionization detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, D.F.

    1984-01-31

    A high efficiency photoionization detector is described using tetraaminoethylenes in a gaseous state having a low ionization potential and a relative photoionization cross section which closely matches the emission spectrum of xenon gas. Imaging proportional counters are also disclosed using the novel photoionization detector of the invention. The compound of greatest interest is TMAE which comprises tetrakis(dimethylamino)ethylene which has a measured ionization potential of 5.36 [+-] 0.02 eV, and a vapor pressure of 0.35 torr at 20 C. 6 figs.

  4. Development of concentrator solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-08-01

    A limited pilot production run on PESC silicon solar cells for use at high concentrations (200 to 400 suns) is summarized. The front contact design of the cells was modified for operation without prismatic covers. The original objective of the contract was to systematically complete a process consolidation phase, in which all the, process improvements developed during the contract would be combined in a pilot production run. This pilot run was going to provide, a basis for estimating cell costs when produced at high throughput. Because of DOE funding limitations, the Photovoltaic Concentrator Initiative is on hold, and Applied Solar`s contract was operated at a low level of effort for most of 1993. The results obtained from the reduced scope pilot run showed the effects of discontinuous process optimization and characterization. However, the run provided valuable insight into the technical areas that can be optimized to achieve the original goals of the contract.

  5. Organic Solar Cells: Absolute Measurement of Domain Composition...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Organic Solar Cells: Absolute Measurement of Domain Composition and Nanoscale Size Distribution Explains Performance in Solar Cells Organic Solar Cells: Absolute Measurement of...

  6. Plastic Solar Cells See Bright Future | ANSER Center | Argonne...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Plastic Solar Cells See Bright Future Home > News & Events > Plastic Solar Cells See Bright Future Plastic Solar Cells See Bright Future Evanston, Ill---Energy consumption is ...

  7. NREL: Solar Research - Potential of Perovskite Solar Cells Featured...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    If not, you'll probably hear more about them soon. Perovskites are a family of materials receiving considerable attention by solar cell researchers due to the rapid rise of solar ...

  8. Development and Demonstration of a New Generation High Efficiency 10kW Stationary Fuel Cell System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Howell, Thomas Russell

    2013-04-30

    The overall project objective is to develop and demonstrate a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell combined heat and power (PEMFC CHP) system that provides the foundation for commercial, mass produced units which achieve over 40% electrical efficiency (fuel to electric conversion) from 50-100% load, greater than 70% overall efficiency (fuel to electric energy + usable waste heat energy conversion), have the potential to achieve 40,000 hours durability on all major process components, and can be produced in high volumes at under $400/kW (revised to $750/kW per 2011 DOE estimates) capital cost.

  9. Monolithically interconnected GaAs solar cells: A new interconnection technology for high voltage solar cell output

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dinetta, L.C.; Hannon, M.H.

    1995-10-01

    Photovoltaic linear concentrator arrays can benefit from high performance solar cell technologies being developed at AstroPower. Specifically, these are the integration of thin GaAs solar cell and epitaxial lateral overgrowth technologies with the application of monolithically interconnected solar cell (MISC) techniques. This MISC array has several advantages which make it ideal for space concentrator systems. These are high system voltage, reliable low cost monolithically formed interconnections, design flexibility, costs that are independent of array voltage, and low power loss from shorts, opens, and impact damage. This concentrator solar cell will incorporate the benefits of light trapping by growing the device active layers over a low-cost, simple, PECVD deposited silicon/silicon dioxide Bragg reflector. The high voltage-low current output results in minimal 12R losses while properly designing the device allows for minimal shading and resistance losses. It is possible to obtain open circuit voltages as high as 67 volts/cm of solar cell length with existing technology. The projected power density for the high performance device is 5 kW/m for an AMO efficiency of 26% at 1 5X. Concentrator solar cell arrays are necessary to meet the power requirements of specific mission platforms and can supply high voltage power for electric propulsion systems. It is anticipated that the high efficiency, GaAs monolithically interconnected linear concentrator solar cell array will enjoy widespread application for space based solar power needs. Additional applications include remote man-portable or ultra-light unmanned air vehicle (UAV) power supplies where high power per area, high radiation hardness and a high bus voltage or low bus current are important. The monolithic approach has a number of inherent advantages, including reduced cost per interconnect and increased reliability of array connections. There is also a high potential for a large number of consumer products.

  10. Nontoxic quantum dot research improves solar cells

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Solar cells made with low-cost, nontoxic copper-based quantum dots can achieve ... LOS ALAMOS, N.M., Dec. 10, 2013-Solar cells made with low-cost, nontoxic copper-based ...

  11. Biomimetic Dye Molecules for Solar Cells

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    provide opportunities for solid-state physicists and chemists to solve a major challenge: solar cell adoption. Though solar cells can use energy directly from the Sun to produce...

  12. Cermet layer for amorphous silicon solar cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hanak, Joseph J.

    1979-01-01

    A transparent high work function metal cermet forms a Schottky barrier in a Schottky barrier amorphous silicon solar cell and adheres well to the P+ layer in a PIN amorphous silicon solar cell.

  13. Compensated amorphous silicon solar cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carlson, David E.

    1980-01-01

    An amorphous silicon solar cell incorporates a region of intrinsic hydrogenated amorphous silicon fabricated by a glow discharge wherein said intrinsic region is compensated by P-type dopants in an amount sufficient to reduce the space charge density of said region under illumination to about zero.

  14. Pokeberries Provide Boost for Solar Cells

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Red dye from the pokeberry weed makes their low-cost, fiber-based solar cells even more energy efficient.

  15. Biomimetic Dye Molecules for Solar Cells

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Biomimetic Dye Molecules for Solar Cells Biomimetic Dye Molecules for Solar Cells Print Wednesday, 28 April 2010 00:00 Pressing energy problems provide opportunities for solid-state physicists and chemists to solve a major challenge: solar cell adoption. Though solar cells can use energy directly from the Sun to produce electricity that can be converted efficiently into other kinds of energy, they are currently too costly to compete with traditional (polluting) energy sources. The most

  16. Process of making solar cell module

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Packer, M.; Coyle, P.J.

    1981-03-09

    A process is presented for the manufacture of solar cell modules. A solution comprising a highly plasticized polyvinyl butyral is applied to a solar cell array. The coated array is dried and sandwiched between at last two sheets of polyvinyl butyral and at least two sheets of a rigid transparent member. The sandwich is laminated by the application of heat and pressure to cause fusion and bonding of the solar cell array with the rigid transparent members to produce a solar cell module.

  17. When Function Follows Form: Plastic Solar Cells | ANSER Center...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    When Function Follows Form: Plastic Solar Cells Home > Research > ANSER Research Highlights > When Function Follows Form: Plastic Solar Cells...

  18. Novel High Efficiency Photovoltaic Devices Based on the III-N Material System: Final Technical Report, 7 December 2005 - 29 August 2008

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hornsberg, C.; Doolittle, W. A.; Ferguson, I.

    2008-10-01

    The research shows that InGaN material system can be used to realize high-efficiency solar cells, making contributions to growth, modeling, understanding of loss mechanisms, and process optimization.

  19. High Efficiency, Clean Combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Donald Stanton

    2010-03-31

    Energy use in trucks has been increasing at a faster rate than that of automobiles within the U.S. transportation sector. According to the Energy Information Administration (EIA) Annual Energy Outlook (AEO), a 23% increase in fuel consumption for the U.S. heavy duty truck segment is expected between 2009 to 2020. The heavy duty vehicle oil consumption is projected to grow between 2009 and 2050 while light duty vehicle (LDV) fuel consumption will eventually experience a decrease. By 2050, the oil consumption rate by LDVs is anticipated to decrease below 2009 levels due to CAFE standards and biofuel use. In contrast, the heavy duty oil consumption rate is anticipated to double. The increasing trend in oil consumption for heavy trucks is linked to the vitality, security, and growth of the U.S. economy. An essential part of a stable and vibrant U.S. economy is a productive U.S. trucking industry. Studies have shown that the U.S. gross domestic product (GDP) is strongly correlated to freight transport. Over 90% of all U.S. freight tonnage is transported by diesel power and over 75% is transported by trucks. Given the vital role that the trucking industry plays in the economy, improving the efficiency of the transportation of goods was a central focus of the Cummins High Efficient Clean Combustion (HECC) program. In a commercial vehicle, the diesel engine remains the largest source of fuel efficiency loss, but remains the greatest opportunity for fuel efficiency improvements. In addition to reducing oil consumption and the dependency on foreign oil, this project will mitigate the impact on the environment by meeting US EPA 2010 emissions regulations. Innovation is a key element in sustaining a U.S. trucking industry that is competitive in global markets. Unlike passenger vehicles, the trucking industry cannot simply downsize the vehicle and still transport the freight with improved efficiency. The truck manufacturing and supporting industries are faced with numerous

  20. Thin film solar cells by selenization sulfurization using diethyl selenium as a selenium precursor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dhere, Neelkanth G.; Kadam, Ankur A.

    2009-12-15

    A method of forming a CIGSS absorber layer includes the steps of providing a metal precursor, and selenizing the metal precursor using diethyl selenium to form a selenized metal precursor layer (CIGSS absorber layer). A high efficiency solar cell includes a CIGSS absorber layer formed by a process including selenizing a metal precursor using diethyl selenium to form the CIGSS absorber layer.

  1. Ames Lab 101: Improving Solar Cell Efficiency

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Biswas, Rana

    2012-08-29

    Rana Biswas, a scientist with the Ames Laboratory, discusses his team's research in creating more efficient solar cells and working with Iowa Thin Film to produce these cells.

  2. Mixed ternary heterojunction solar cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Wen S.; Stewart, John M.

    1992-08-25

    A thin film heterojunction solar cell and a method of making it has a p-type layer of mixed ternary I-III-VI.sub.2 semiconductor material in contact with an n-type layer of mixed binary II-VI semiconductor material. The p-type semiconductor material includes a low resistivity copper-rich region adjacent the back metal contact of the cell and a composition gradient providing a minority carrier mirror that improves the photovoltaic performance of the cell. The p-type semiconductor material preferably is CuInGaSe.sub.2 or CuIn(SSe).sub.2.

  3. Solar Cell Nanotechnology Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Das, Biswajit

    2014-05-07

    The objective of this project is to develop a low cost nonlithographic nanofabrication technology for the fabrication of thin film porous templates as well as uniform arrays of semiconductor nanostructures for the implementation of high efficiency solar cells. Solar cells based on semiconductor nanostructures are expected to have very high energy conversion efficiencies due to the increased absorption coefficients of semiconductor nanostructures. In addition, the thin film porous template can be used for optimum surface texturing of solar cells leading to additional enhancement in energy conversion efficiency. An important requirement for these applications is the ability to synthesize nanostructure arrays of different dimensions with good size control. This project employed nanoporous alumina templates created by the anodization of aluminum thin films deposited on glass substrates for the fabrication of the nanostructures and optimized the process parameters to obtain uniform pore diameters. An additional requirement is uniformity or regularity of the nanostructure arrays. While constant current anodization was observed to provide controlled pore diameters, constant voltage anodization was needed for regularity of the nanostructure arrays. Thus a two-step anodization process was investigated and developed in this project for improving the pore size distribution and pore periodicity of the nanoporous alumina templates. CdTe was selected to be the active material for the nanowires, and the process for the successful synthesis of CdTe nanowires was developed in this project. Two different synthesis approaches were investigated in this project, electrochemical and electrophoretic deposition. While electrochemical synthesis was successfully employed for the synthesis of nanowires inside the pores of the alumina templates, the technique was determined to be non-optimum due to the need of elevated temperature that is detrimental to the structural integrity of the

  4. Tianjin Jinneng Solar Cell Co Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Solar Cell Co Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Tianjin Jinneng Solar Cell Co Ltd Place: Tianjin Municipality, China Zip: 300384 Sector: Solar Product: Chinese manufacturer of...

  5. Hybrid emitter all back contact solar cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Loscutoff, Paul; Rim, Seung

    2016-04-12

    An all back contact solar cell has a hybrid emitter design. The solar cell has a thin dielectric layer formed on a backside surface of a single crystalline silicon substrate. One emitter of the solar cell is made of doped polycrystalline silicon that is formed on the thin dielectric layer. The other emitter of the solar cell is formed in the single crystalline silicon substrate and is made of doped single crystalline silicon. The solar cell includes contact holes that allow metal contacts to connect to corresponding emitters.

  6. Enabling Thin Silicon Solar Cell Technology

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Enabling Thin Silicon Solar Cell Technology Enabling Thin Silicon Solar Cell Technology Print Friday, 21 June 2013 10:49 Generic silicon solar cells showing +45°, -45°, and dendritic crack patterns. The effort to shift U.S. energy reliance from fossil fuels to renewable sources has spurred companies to reduce the cost and increase the reliability of their solar photovoltaics (SPVs). The use of thinner silicon in SPV technologies is being widely adopted because it significantly reduces costs;

  7. HIGH EFFICIENCY SYNGAS GENERATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert J. Copeland; Yevgenia Gershanovich; Brian Windecker

    2005-02-01

    This project investigated an efficient and low cost method of auto-thermally reforming natural gas to hydrogen and carbon monoxide. Reforming is the highest cost step in producing products such as methanol and Fisher Tropsch liquids (i.e., gas to liquids); and reducing the cost of reforming is the key to reducing the cost of these products. Steam reforming is expensive because of the high cost of the high nickel alloy reforming tubes (i.e., indirectly fired reforming tubes). Conventional auto-thermal or Partial Oxidation (POX) reforming minimizes the size and cost of the reformers and provides a near optimum mixture of CO and hydrogen. However POX requires pure oxygen, which consumes power and significantly increases the cost to reforming. Our high efficiency process extracts oxygen from low-pressure air with novel oxygen sorbent and transfers the oxygen to a nickel-catalyzed reformer. The syngas is generated at process pressure (typically 20 to 40 bar) without nitrogen dilution and has a 1CO to 2H{sub 2} ratio that is near optimum for the subsequent production of Fisher-Tropsch liquid to liquids and other chemicals (i.e., Gas to Liquids, GTL). Our high process efficiency comes from the way we transfer the oxygen into the reformer. All of the components of the process, except for the oxygen sorbent, are commonly used in commercial practice. A process based on a longlived, regenerable, oxygen transfer sorbent could substantially reduce the cost of natural gas reforming to syngas. Lower cost syngas (CO + 2H{sub 2}) that is the feedstock for GTL would reduce the cost of GTL and for other commercial applications (e.g., methanol, other organic chemicals). The vast gas resources of Alaska's North Slope (ANS) offer more than 22 Tcf of gas and GTL production in this application alone, and could account for as much as 300,000 to 700,000 bpd for 20 to 30+ years. We developed a new sorbent, which is an essential part of the High Efficiency Oxygen Process (HOP). We tested the

  8. High-efficiency CARM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bratman, V.L.; Kol`chugin, B.D.; Samsonov, S.V.; Volkov, A.B.

    1995-12-31

    The Cyclotron Autoresonance Maser (CARM) is a well-known variety of FEMs. Unlike the ubitron in which electrons move in a periodical undulator field, in the CARM the particles move along helical trajectories in a uniform magnetic field. Since it is much simpler to generate strong homogeneous magnetic fields than periodical ones for a relatively low electron energy ({Brit_pounds}{le}1-3 MeV) the period of particles` trajectories in the CARM can be sufficiently smaller than in the undulator in which, moreover, the field decreases rapidly in the transverse direction. In spite of this evident advantage, the number of papers on CARM is an order less than on ubitron, which is apparently caused by the low (not more than 10 %) CARM efficiency in experiments. At the same time, ubitrons operating in two rather complicated regimes-trapping and adiabatic deceleration of particles and combined undulator and reversed guiding fields - yielded efficiencies of 34 % and 27 %, respectively. The aim of this work is to demonstrate that high efficiency can be reached even for a simplest version of the CARM. In order to reduce sensitivity to an axial velocity spread of particles, a short interaction length where electrons underwent only 4-5 cyclotron oscillations was used in this work. Like experiments, a narrow anode outlet of a field-emission electron gun cut out the {open_quotes}most rectilinear{close_quotes} near-axis part of the electron beam. Additionally, magnetic field of a small correcting coil compensated spurious electron oscillations pumped by the anode aperture. A kicker in the form of a sloping to the axis frame with current provided a control value of rotary velocity at a small additional velocity spread. A simple cavity consisting of a cylindrical waveguide section restricted by a cut-off waveguide on the cathode side and by a Bragg reflector on the collector side was used as the CARM-oscillator microwave system.

  9. NREL Designs Promising New Oxides for Solar Cells (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2012-04-01

    High-efficiency, thin-film solar cells require electrical contacts with high electrical conductivity, and the top contact must also have high optical transparency. This need is currently met by transparent conducting oxides (TCOs), which conduct electricity but are 90% transparent to visible light. Scientists at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) have derived three key design principles for selecting promising materials for TCO contacts. NREL's application of these design principles has resulted in a 10,000-fold improvement in conductivity for one TCO material.

  10. Compensated amorphous silicon solar cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Devaud, Genevieve

    1983-01-01

    An amorphous silicon solar cell including an electrically conductive substrate, a layer of glow discharge deposited hydrogenated amorphous silicon over said substrate and having regions of differing conductivity with at least one region of intrinsic hydrogenated amorphous silicon. The layer of hydrogenated amorphous silicon has opposed first and second major surfaces where the first major surface contacts the electrically conductive substrate and an electrode for electrically contacting the second major surface. The intrinsic hydrogenated amorphous silicon region is deposited in a glow discharge with an atmosphere which includes not less than about 0.02 atom percent mono-atomic boron. An improved N.I.P. solar cell is disclosed using a BF.sub.3 doped intrinsic layer.

  11. Interface engineering for efficient fullerene-free organic solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shivanna, Ravichandran; Narayan, K. S. E-mail: narayan@jncasr.ac.in; Rajaram, Sridhar E-mail: narayan@jncasr.ac.in

    2015-03-23

    We demonstrate the role of zinc oxide (ZnO) morphology and addition of an acceptor interlayer to achieve high efficiency fullerene-free bulk heterojunction inverted organic solar cells. Nanopatterning of the ZnO buffer layer enhances the effective light absorption in the active layer, and the insertion of a twisted perylene acceptor layer planarizes and decreases the electron extraction barrier. Along with an increase in current homogeneity, the reduced work function difference and selective transport of electrons prevent the accumulation of charges and decrease the electron-hole recombination at the interface. These factors enable an overall increase of efficiency to 4.6%, which is significant for a fullerene-free solution-processed organic solar cell.

  12. Review of Back Contact Silicon Solar Cells for Low-Cost Application

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, David D.

    1999-08-04

    Back contact solar cells hold significant promise for increased performance in photovoltaics for the near future. Two major advantages which these cells possess are a lack of grid shading loss and coplanar interconnection. Front contacted cells can have up to 10% shading loss when using screen printed metal grids. A front contact cell must also use solder connections which run from the front of one cell to the back of the next for series interconnection. This procedure is more difficult to automate than the case of co-planar contacts. The back contact cell design is not a recent concept. The earliest silicon solar cell developed by Bell Labs was a back contact device. There have been many design modifications to the basic concept over the years. To name a few, there is the Interdigitated Back Contact (IBC) cell, the Stanford Point contact solar cell, the Emitter Wrap Through (EWT), and its many variations. A number of these design concepts have demonstrated high efficiency. The SunPower back contact solar cell holds the efficiency record for silicon concentrator cells. The challenge is to produce a high efficiency cell at low cost using high throughput techniques. This has yet to be achieved with a back contact cell design. The focus of this paper will be to review the relevant features of back contact cells and progress made toward the goal of a low cost version of this device.

  13. Three-junction solar cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ludowise, Michael J. (Cupertino, CA)

    1986-01-01

    A photovoltaic solar cell is formed in a monolithic semiconductor. The cell contains three junctions. In sequence from the light-entering face, the junctions have a high, a medium, and a low energy gap. The lower junctions are connected in series by one or more metallic members connecting the top of the lower junction through apertures to the bottom of the middle junction. The upper junction is connected in voltage opposition to the lower and middle junctions by second metallic electrodes deposited in holes 60 through the upper junction. The second electrodes are connected to an external terminal.

  14. Spectral sensitization of nanocrystalline solar cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Spitler, Mark T.; Ehret, Anne; Stuhl, Louis S.

    2002-01-01

    This invention relates to dye sensitized polycrystalline photoelectrochemical solar cells for use in energy transduction from light to electricity. It concerns the utility of highly absorbing organic chromophores as sensitizers in such cells and the degree to which they may be utilized alone and in combination to produce an efficient photoelectrochemical cell, e.g., a regenerative solar cell.

  15. Reducing the Cost of Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scanlon, B.

    2012-04-01

    Solar-powered electricity prices could soon approach those of power from coal or natural gas thanks to collaborative research with solar startup Ampulse Corporation at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Silicon wafers account for almost half the cost of today's solar photovoltaic panels, so reducing or eliminating wafer costs is essential to bringing prices down. Current crystalline silicon technology converts energy in a highly efficient manner; however, that technology is manufactured with processes that could stand some improvement. The industry needs a method that is less complex, creates less waste and uses less energy. First, half the refined silicon is lost as dust in the wafer-sawing process, driving module costs higher. Wafers are sawn off of large cylindrical ingots, or boules, of silicon. A typical 2-meter boule loses as many as 6,000 potential wafers during sawing. Second, the wafers produced are much thicker than necessary. To efficiently convert sunlight into electricity, the wafers need be only one-tenth the typical thickness. NREL, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory and Ampulse have partnered on an approach to eliminate this waste and dramatically lower the cost of the finished solar panels. By using a chemical vapor deposition process to grow the silicon on inexpensive foil, Ampulse is able to make the solar cells just thick enough to convert most of the solar energy into electricity. No more sawdust - and no more wasting refined silicon materials. NREL developed the technology to grow high-quality silicon and ORNL developed the metal foil that has the correct crystal structure to support that growth. Ampulse is installing a pilot manufacturing line in NREL's Process Development Integration Laboratory, where solar companies can work closely with lab scientists on integrated equipment to answer pressing questions related to their technology development, as well as rapidly overcoming R and D challenges and risk. NREL's program is focused on

  16. Semi-transparent perovskite solar cells for tandems with silicon and CIGS

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Bailie, Colin D.; Christoforo, M. Greyson; Mailoa, Jonathan P.; Bowring, Andrea R.; Unger, Eva L.; Nguyen, William H.; Burschka, Julian; Pellet, Norman; Lee, Jungwoo Z.; Grätzel, Michael; et al

    2014-12-23

    A promising approach for upgrading the performance of an established low-bandgap solar technology without adding much cost is to deposit a high bandgap polycrystalline semiconductor on top to make a tandem solar cell. We use a transparent silver nanowire electrode on perovskite solar cells to achieve a semi-transparent device. We place the semi-transparent cell in a mechanically-stacked tandem configuration onto copper indium gallium diselenide (CIGS) and low-quality multicrystalline silicon (Si) to achieve solid-state polycrystalline tandem solar cells with a net improvement in efficiency over the bottom cell alone. Furthermore, this work paves the way for integrating perovskites into a low-costmore » and high-efficiency (>25%) tandem cell.« less

  17. Semi-transparent perovskite solar cells for tandems with silicon and CIGS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bailie, Colin D.; Christoforo, M. Greyson; Mailoa, Jonathan P.; Bowring, Andrea R.; Unger, Eva L.; Nguyen, William H.; Burschka, Julian; Pellet, Norman; Lee, Jungwoo Z.; Grätzel, Michael; Noufi, Rommel; Buonassisi, Tonio; Salleo, Alberto; McGehee, Michael D.

    2014-12-23

    A promising approach for upgrading the performance of an established low-bandgap solar technology without adding much cost is to deposit a high bandgap polycrystalline semiconductor on top to make a tandem solar cell. We use a transparent silver nanowire electrode on perovskite solar cells to achieve a semi-transparent device. We place the semi-transparent cell in a mechanically-stacked tandem configuration onto copper indium gallium diselenide (CIGS) and low-quality multicrystalline silicon (Si) to achieve solid-state polycrystalline tandem solar cells with a net improvement in efficiency over the bottom cell alone. Furthermore, this work paves the way for integrating perovskites into a low-cost and high-efficiency (>25%) tandem cell.

  18. High efficiency photovoltaic device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Guha, Subhendu; Yang, Chi C.; Xu, Xi Xiang

    1999-11-02

    An N-I-P type photovoltaic device includes a multi-layered body of N-doped semiconductor material which has an amorphous, N doped layer in contact with the amorphous body of intrinsic semiconductor material, and a microcrystalline, N doped layer overlying the amorphous, N doped material. A tandem device comprising stacked N-I-P cells may further include a second amorphous, N doped layer interposed between the microcrystalline, N doped layer and a microcrystalline P doped layer. Photovoltaic devices thus configured manifest improved performance, particularly when configured as tandem devices.

  19. Molecular helices as electron acceptors in high-performance bulk heterojunction solar cells

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Yu M. Zhong; Nam, Chang -Yong; Trinh, M. Tuan; Chen, Rongsheng; Purdum, Geoffrey E.; Khlyabich, Petr P.; Sezen, Melda; Oh, Seokjoon; Zhu, Haiming; Fowler, Brandon; et al

    2015-09-18

    Despite numerous organic semiconducting materials synthesized for organic photovoltaics in the past decade, fullerenes are widely used as electron acceptors in highly efficient bulk-heterojunction solar cells. None of the non-fullerene bulk heterojunction solar cells have achieved efficiencies as high as fullerene-based solar cells. Design principles for fullerene-free acceptors remain unclear in the field. Here we report examples of helical molecular semiconductors as electron acceptors that are on par with fullerene derivatives in efficient solar cells. We achieved an 8.3% power conversion efficiency in a solar cell, which is a record high for non-fullerene bulk heterojunctions. Femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy revealedmore » both electron and hole transfer processes at the donor–acceptor interfaces. Atomic force microscopy reveals a mesh-like network of acceptors with pores that are tens of nanometres in diameter for efficient exciton separation and charge transport. As a result, this study describes a new motif for designing highly efficient acceptors for organic solar cells.« less

  20. Molecular helices as electron acceptors in high-performance bulk heterojunction solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu M. Zhong; Nam, Chang -Yong; Trinh, M. Tuan; Chen, Rongsheng; Purdum, Geoffrey E.; Khlyabich, Petr P.; Sezen, Melda; Oh, Seokjoon; Zhu, Haiming; Fowler, Brandon; Zhang, Boyuan; Wang, Wei; Sfeir, Matthew Y.; Black, Charles T.; Steigerwald, Michael L.; Loo, Yueh -Lin; Ng, Fay; Zhu, X. -Y.; Nuckolls, Colin

    2015-09-18

    Despite numerous organic semiconducting materials synthesized for organic photovoltaics in the past decade, fullerenes are widely used as electron acceptors in highly efficient bulk-heterojunction solar cells. None of the non-fullerene bulk heterojunction solar cells have achieved efficiencies as high as fullerene-based solar cells. Design principles for fullerene-free acceptors remain unclear in the field. Here we report examples of helical molecular semiconductors as electron acceptors that are on par with fullerene derivatives in efficient solar cells. We achieved an 8.3% power conversion efficiency in a solar cell, which is a record high for non-fullerene bulk heterojunctions. Femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy revealed both electron and hole transfer processes at the donor–acceptor interfaces. Atomic force microscopy reveals a mesh-like network of acceptors with pores that are tens of nanometres in diameter for efficient exciton separation and charge transport. As a result, this study describes a new motif for designing highly efficient acceptors for organic solar cells.

  1. Enabling High Efficiency Ethanol Engines

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High Efficiency Ethanol Engines (VSSP 12) Presented by Robert Wagner Oak Ridge National ... advantage of the unique properties of ethanol and ethanol-gasoline blends.. 3 Managed ...

  2. Search for new solar cell heats up

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lipkin, R.

    1990-11-05

    Researchers are in the process of developing an organic solar energy cell with a plasticlike material that simplifies the complicated process of creating a working cell - one that is cheap, easy to produce and has a variety of potential applications. The chemical is polyacetylene and can be painted on anything to become a solar cell.

  3. Flipping crystals improves solar-cell performance

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Flipping crystals improves solar-cell performance Flipping crystals improves solar-cell performance Perovskite research team spin-casts crystals for efficient and resilient optoelectronic devices. July 6, 2016 Perovskite research team spin-casts crystals for efficient and resilient optoelectronic devices. Three types of large-area solar cells made out of two-dimensional perovskites. At left, a room-temperature cast film; upper middle is a sample with the problematic band gap, and at right is the

  4. Bypass diode for a solar cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rim, Seung Bum; Kim, Taeseok; Smith, David D.; Cousins, Peter J.

    2012-03-13

    Bypass diodes for solar cells are described. In one embodiment, a bypass diode for a solar cell includes a substrate of the solar cell. A first conductive region is disposed above the substrate, the first conductive region of a first conductivity type. A second conductive region is disposed on the first conductive region, the second conductive region of a second conductivity type opposite the first conductivity type.

  5. Solar Cell Modules With Improved Backskin

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gonsiorawski, Ronald C.

    2003-12-09

    A laminated solar cell module comprises a front light transmitting support, a plurality of interconnected solar cells encapsulated by a light-transmitting encapsulant material, and an improved backskin formed of an ionomer/nylon alloy. The improved backskin has a toughness and melting point temperature sufficiently great to avoid any likelihood of it being pierced by any of the components that interconnect the solar cells.

  6. Could Material Defects Actually Improve Solar Cells?

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Could Material Defects Actually Improve Solar Cells? Could Material Defects Actually Improve Solar Cells? March 21, 2016 Contact: Kathy Kincade, kkincade@lbl.gov, +1 510 495 2124 NRELsolarcell Scientists at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) are using supercomputers to study what may seem paradoxical: certain defects in silicon solar cells may actually improve their performance. The findings, published January 11, 2016 in Applied Physics Letters,

  7. Solar Foundational Program to Advance Cell Efficiency Round 1...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    crystalline-Si solar cells for significant efficiency improvements and cost reductions. ... and monocrystalline-Si solar cells, reduce cell costs by 0.10W, and ...

  8. Material and Device Analysis for Efficiency Improvement in Epitaxial Crystalline Solar Cells: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-11-433

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sopori, B.

    2014-01-01

    Crystal Solar has a novel approach for producing low-cost, monocrystalline silicon wafers that are capable of yielding high-efficiency solar cells. The approach involves epitaxial growth of the substrate and a proprietary lift-off technology. Crystal Solar will send selected wafers and cells to NREL for characterization and analyses. NREL will apply a variety of techniques to help identify mechanism(s) that limit the cell efficiency and suggest suitable approaches for mitigation.

  9. Biomimetic Dye Molecules for Solar Cells

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Organic molecules in dye-sensitized solar cells exhibit great potential to increase the efficiency and reduce the cost of photovoltaic power generation by allowing a wide variety ...

  10. Pennsylvania Company Develops Solar Cell Printing Technology

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The technology uses Plextronics’ conductive inks that can be printed by manufacturers worldwide to make solar cells, potentially as easily as they might print a newspaper.

  11. Could Material Defects Actually Improve Solar Cells?

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Deep-level defects frequently hamper the efficiency of solar cells, but NREL theoretical research suggests that defects with properly engineered energy levels can improve carrier ...

  12. Solar Cell Research at Lawrence Berkeley

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This photograph features the Solar cell research in the molecular foundry at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. Pictured is researcher Claudia Piliego.

  13. Efficient Polymer Solar Cells - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Find More Like This Return to Search Efficient Polymer Solar Cells Ames Laboratory Contact ... Ames Laboratory researchers have developed a process for producing more efficient polymer ...

  14. Front contact solar cell with formed emitter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cousins, Peter John

    2014-11-04

    A bipolar solar cell includes a backside junction formed by an N-type silicon substrate and a P-type polysilicon emitter formed on the backside of the solar cell. An antireflection layer may be formed on a textured front surface of the silicon substrate. A negative polarity metal contact on the front side of the solar cell makes an electrical connection to the substrate, while a positive polarity metal contact on the backside of the solar cell makes an electrical connection to the polysilicon emitter. An external electrical circuit may be connected to the negative and positive metal contacts to be powered by the solar cell. The positive polarity metal contact may form an infrared reflecting layer with an underlying dielectric layer for increased solar radiation collection.

  15. Front contact solar cell with formed emitter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cousins, Peter John

    2012-07-17

    A bipolar solar cell includes a backside junction formed by an N-type silicon substrate and a P-type polysilicon emitter formed on the backside of the solar cell. An antireflection layer may be formed on a textured front surface of the silicon substrate. A negative polarity metal contact on the front side of the solar cell makes an electrical connection to the substrate, while a positive polarity metal contact on the backside of the solar cell makes an electrical connection to the polysilicon emitter. An external electrical circuit may be connected to the negative and positive metal contacts to be powered by the solar cell. The positive polarity metal contact may form an infrared reflecting layer with an underlying dielectric layer for increased solar radiation collection.

  16. Method for processing silicon solar cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tsuo, Y. Simon; Landry, Marc D.; Pitts, John R.

    1997-01-01

    The instant invention teaches a novel method for fabricating silicon solar cells utilizing concentrated solar radiation. The solar radiation is concentrated by use of a solar furnace which is used to form a front surface junction and back-surface field in one processing step. The present invention also provides a method of making multicrystallline silicon from amorphous silicon. The invention also teaches a method of texturing the surface of a wafer by forming a porous silicon layer on the surface of a silicon substrate and a method of gettering impurities. Also contemplated by the invention are methods of surface passivation, forming novel solar cell structures, and hydrogen passivation.

  17. Method for processing silicon solar cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tsuo, Y.S.; Landry, M.D.; Pitts, J.R.

    1997-05-06

    The instant invention teaches a novel method for fabricating silicon solar cells utilizing concentrated solar radiation. The solar radiation is concentrated by use of a solar furnace which is used to form a front surface junction and back-surface field in one processing step. The present invention also provides a method of making multicrystalline silicon from amorphous silicon. The invention also teaches a method of texturing the surface of a wafer by forming a porous silicon layer on the surface of a silicon substrate and a method of gettering impurities. Also contemplated by the invention are methods of surface passivation, forming novel solar cell structures, and hydrogen passivation. 2 figs.

  18. Low-temperature fabrication of efficient wide-bandgap organolead trihalide perovskite solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bi, Cheng; Yuan, Yongbo; Fang, Yanjun; Huang, Jinsong

    2014-11-25

    A mixed halide perovskite solar cell with a 1.72 eV bandgap is developed by incorporating Br into perovskite through a low-temperature solution process. A high efficiency of 13.1% is achieved by carefully tuning the thickness, morphology, and surface passivation of the perovskite layers. Furthermore, the fabrication techniques and conditions are compatible with future perovskite/Si tandem cell studies.

  19. GaNPAs Solar Cells Lattice-Matched To GaP: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Geisz, J. F.; Friedman, D. J.; Kurtz, S.

    2002-05-01

    This conference paper describes the III-V semiconductors grown on silicon substrates are very attractive for lower-cost, high-efficiency multijunction solar cells, but lattice-mismatched alloys that result in high dislocation densities have been unable to achieve satisfactory performance. GaNxP1-x-yAsy is a direct-gap III-V alloy that can be grown lattice-matched to Si when y= 4.7x - 0.1. We propose the use of lattice-matched GaNPAs on silicon for high-efficiency multijunction solar cells. We have grown GaNxP1-x-yAsy on GaP (with a similar lattice constant to silicon) by metal-organic chemical vapor phase epitaxy with direct band-gaps in the range of 1.5 to 2.0 eV. We demonstrate the performance of single-junction GaNxP1-x-yAsy solar cells grown on GaP substrates and discuss the prospects for the development of monolithic high-efficiency multijunction solar cells based on silicon substrates.

  20. Solar Cells: Spin-Cast Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells: A Dynamical

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Investigation Solar Cells: Spin-Cast Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells: A Dynamical Investigation Solar Cells: Spin-Cast Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells: A Dynamical Investigation Print Wednesday, 03 April 2013 13:32 Spin-coating is extensively used in the lab-based manufacturing of organic solar cells, including most of the record-setting cells. Aram Amassian and co-workers report in this study the first direct observation of photoactive layer formation as it occurs during spin-coating. The

  1. Method for fabricating silicon cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ruby, Douglas S.; Basore, Paul A.; Schubert, W. Kent

    1998-08-11

    A process for making high-efficiency solar cells. This is accomplished by forming a diffusion junction and a passivating oxide layer in a single high-temperature process step. The invention includes the class of solar cells made using this process, including high-efficiency solar cells made using Czochralski-grown silicon.

  2. Method for fabricating silicon cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ruby, D.S.; Basore, P.A.; Schubert, W.K.

    1998-08-11

    A process is described for making high-efficiency solar cells. This is accomplished by forming a diffusion junction and a passivating oxide layer in a single high-temperature process step. The invention includes the class of solar cells made using this process, including high-efficiency solar cells made using Czochralski-grown silicon. 9 figs.

  3. High-Efficiency Receivers for Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Cycles...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    2012. progressreportsunshotbraytonfy12q4.pdf More Documents & Publications High-Efficiency Low-Cost Solar Receiver for Use in a Supercritical CO2 Recompression Cycle - FY13 Q1...

  4. New Multijunction Design Leads to Ultra-Efficient Solar Cell; Highlights in Research & Development, NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2015-09-01

    NREL has demonstrated a 45.7% conversion efficiency for a four-junction solar cell at 234 suns concentration. This achievement represents one of the highest photovoltaic research cell efficiencies ever achieved across all types of solar cells. NREL's new solar cell, which is designed for operation in a concentrator photovoltaic (CPV) system where it can receive more than 1,000 suns of concentrated sunlight, greatly improves earlier designs by adding an additional high quality absorber layer to achieve an ultra-high efficiency.

  5. Efficient, air-stable colloidal quantum dot solar cells encapsulated using atomic layer deposition of a nanolaminate barrier

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ip, Alexander H.; Labelle, Andr J.; Sargent, Edward H.

    2013-12-23

    Atomic layer deposition was used to encapsulate colloidal quantum dot solar cells. A nanolaminate layer consisting of alternating alumina and zirconia films provided a robust gas permeation barrier which prevented device performance degradation over a period of multiple weeks. Unencapsulated cells stored in ambient and nitrogen environments demonstrated significant performance losses over the same period. The encapsulated cell also exhibited stable performance under constant simulated solar illumination without filtration of harsh ultraviolet photons. This monolithically integrated thin film encapsulation method is promising for roll-to-roll processed high efficiency nanocrystal solar cells.

  6. Advantage of suppressed non-Langevin recombination in low mobility organic solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stolterfoht, Martin; Armin, Ardalan; Pandey, Ajay K.; Burn, Paul L.; Meredith, Paul; Pivrikas, Almantas; Philippa, Bronson; White, Ronald D.

    2014-07-07

    Photovoltaic performance in relation to charge transport is studied in efficient (7.6%) organic solar cells (PTB7:PC{sub 71}BM). Both electron and hole mobilities are experimentally measured in efficient solar cells using the resistance dependent photovoltage technique, while the inapplicability of classical techniques, such as space charge limited current and photogenerated charge extraction by linearly increasing voltage is discussed. Limits in the short-circuit current originate from optical losses, while charge transport is shown not to be a limiting process. Efficient charge extraction without recombination can be achieved with a mobility of charge carriers much lower than previously expected. The presence of dispersive transport with strongly distributed mobilities in high efficiency solar cells is demonstrated. Reduced non-Langevin recombination is shown to be beneficial for solar cells with imbalanced, low, and dispersive electron and hole mobilities.

  7. Amorphous silicon solar cell allowing infrared transmission

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carlson, David E.

    1979-01-01

    An amorphous silicon solar cell with a layer of high index of refraction material or a series of layers having high and low indices of refraction material deposited upon a transparent substrate to reflect light of energies greater than the bandgap energy of the amorphous silicon back into the solar cell and transmit solar radiation having an energy less than the bandgap energy of the amorphous silicon.

  8. High Efficiency Thermal Energy Storage System for CSP | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Thermal Energy Storage System for CSP High Efficiency Thermal Energy Storage System for CSP This presentation was delivered at the SunShot Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) Program Review 2013, held April 23-25, 2013 near Phoenix, Arizona. csp_review_meeting_042413_singh.pdf (1.63 MB) More Documents & Publications High Efficiency Thermal Energy Storage System for CSP - FY13 Q1 High-Efficiency Thermal Energy Storage System for CSP - FY13 Q3 High-Efficiency Thermal Energy Storage

  9. Fullerene surfactants and their use in polymer solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jen, Kwan-Yue; Yip, Hin-Lap; Li, Chang-Zhi

    2015-12-15

    Fullerene surfactant compounds useful as interfacial layer in polymer solar cells to enhance solar cell efficiency. Polymer solar cell including a fullerene surfactant-containing interfacial layer intermediate cathode and active layer.

  10. High-Efficiency Receivers for Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Cycles |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy High-Efficiency Receivers for Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Cycles High-Efficiency Receivers for Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Cycles This fact sheet describes a project awarded under the DOE's 2012 SunShot Concentrating Solar Power R&D award program. The team, led by Brayton Energy, aims to develop and demonstrate a low-cost, high-efficiency solar receiver that is compatible with s-CO2 cycles and modern thermal storage subsystems. Supercritical CO2 Brayton-cycle

  11. High Efficiency Engine Systems Development and Evaluation | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Efficiency Engine Systems Development and Evaluation High Efficiency Engine Systems Development and Evaluation 2011 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies ...

  12. Organic Solar Cells: Absolute Measurement of Domain Composition and

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nanoscale Size Distribution Explains Performance in Solar Cells Organic Solar Cells: Absolute Measurement of Domain Composition and Nanoscale Size Distribution Explains Performance in Solar Cells Organic Solar Cells: Absolute Measurement of Domain Composition and Nanoscale Size Distribution Explains Performance in Solar Cells Print Tuesday, 22 January 2013 00:00 This front cover represents the morphology and resulting device dynamics in organic solar cell blend films of PTB7 and PC71BM, as

  13. Design of cascaded low cost solar cell with CuO substrate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Samson, Mil'shtein; Anup, Pillai; Shiv, Sharma; Garo, Yessayan

    2013-12-04

    For many years the main focus of R and D in solar cells was the development of high-efficiency solar convertors. However with solar technology beginning to be a part of national grids and stand-alone power supplies for variety of individual customers, the emphasis has changed, namely, the cost per kilowatt- hour (kW-hr) started to be an important figure of merit. Although Si does dominate the market of solar convertors, this material has total cost of kilowatt-hour much higher than what the power grid is providing presently to customers. It is well known that the cost of raw semiconductor material is a major factor in formulation of the final cost of a solar cell. That motivated us to search and design a novel solar cell using cheap materials. The new p-i-n solar cell consists of hetero-structure cascade of materials with step by step decreasing energy gap. Since the lattice constant of these three materials do differ not more than 2%, the more expensive epitaxial fabrication methods can be used as well. It should be emphasized that designed solar cell is not a cascade of three solar cells connected in series. Our market study shows that Si solar panel which costs $250400 / m{sup 2} leads to a cost of $0.120.30 / kW-hr. To the contrary, CuO based solar cells with Cadmium compounds on top, would cost $100 / m{sup 2}. This will allow the novel solar cell to produce electricity at a cost of $0.060.08 / kW-hr.

  14. Back-Surface Passivation for High-Efficiency Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells: Final Technical Progress Report, September 2010 -- May 2012

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schultz-Wittmann, O.

    2012-07-01

    Final technical progress report for TetraSun, a Photovoltaic Technology Incubator awardee within the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) SunShot Program.

  15. Method of fabricating high-efficiency Cu(In,Ga)(SeS).sub.2 thin films for solar cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Noufi, Rommel; Gabor, Andrew M.; Tuttle, John R.; Tennant, Andrew L.; Contreras, Miguel A.; Albin, David S.; Carapella, Jeffrey J.

    1995-01-01

    A process for producing a slightly Cu-poor thin film of Cu(In,Ga)(Se,S).sub.2 comprises depositing a first layer of (In,Ga).sub.x (Se,S).sub.y followed by depositing just enough Cu+(Se,S) or Cu.sub.x (Se,S) to produce the desired slightly Cu-poor material. In a variation, most, but not all, (about 90 to 99%) of the (In,Ga).sub.x (Se,S).sub.y is deposited first, followed by deposition of all the Cu+(Se,S) or Cu.sub.x (Se,S) to go near stoichiometric, possibly or even preferably slightly Cu-rich, and then in turn followed by deposition of the remainder (about 1 to 10%) of the (In,Ga).sub.x (Se,S).sub.y to end with a slightly Cu-poor composition. In yet another variation, a small portion (about 1 to 10%) of the (In,Ga).sub.x (Se,S).sub.y is first deposited as a seed layer, followed by deposition of all of the Cu+(Se,S) or Cu.sub.x (Se,S) to make a very Cu-rich mixture, and then followed deposition of the remainder of the (In,Ga).sub.x (Se,S).sub.y to go slightly Cu-poor in the final Cu(In,Ga)(Se,S).sub.2 thin film.

  16. Method of fabricating high-efficiency Cu(In,Ga)(Se,S){sub 2} thin films for solar cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Noufi, R.; Gabor, A.M.; Tuttle, J.R.; Tennant, A.L.; Contreras, M.A.; Albin, D.S.; Carapella, J.J.

    1995-08-15

    A process for producing a slightly Cu-poor thin film of Cu(In,Ga)(Se,S){sub 2} comprises depositing a first layer of (In,Ga){sub x} (Se,S){sub y} followed by depositing just enough Cu+(Se,S) or Cu{sub x} (Se,S) to produce the desired slightly Cu-poor material. In a variation, most, but not all, (about 90 to 99%) of the (In,Ga){sub x} (Se,S){sub y} is deposited first, followed by deposition of all the Cu+(Se,S) or Cu{sub x} (Se,S) to go near stoichiometric, possibly or even preferably slightly Cu-rich, and then in turn followed by deposition of the remainder (about 1 to 10%) of the (In,Ga){sub x} (Se,S){sub y} to end with a slightly Cu-poor composition. In yet another variation, a small portion (about 1 to 10%) of the (In,Ga){sub x} (Se,S){sub y} is first deposited as a seed layer, followed by deposition of all of the Cu+(Se,S) or Cu{sub x} (Se,S) to make a very Cu-rich mixture, and then followed deposition of the remainder of the (In,Ga){sub x} (Se,S){sub y} to go slightly Cu-poor in the final Cu(In,Ga)(Se,S){sub 2} thin film. 5 figs.

  17. New Morphological Paradigm Uncovered in Organic Solar Cells

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Improving Solar Cell Models Organic photovoltaics (OPVs), or solar cells, have the potential to provide a low-cost and renewable source of environmentally friendly energy. ...

  18. Polymer Solar Cells: New Materials, 3D Morphology, and Tandem...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    to occur with high quantum efficiency and with minimal losses in energy. Presently, the best polymer solar cells reach power ... polymers for efficient (>5%) solar cells ...

  19. Structure of All-Polymer Solar Cells Impedes Efficiency

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Structure of All-Polymer Solar Cells Impedes Efficiency Print Organic solar cells are made of thin layers of interpenetrating structures from two different conducting organic...

  20. New Morphological Paradigm Uncovered in Organic Solar Cells

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    New Morphological Paradigm Uncovered in Organic Solar Cells Print Organic solar cells are made of light, flexible, renewable materials; they require simple and inexpensive...

  1. Nanocrystal Solar Cells Squeeze Extra Juice Out of Sunlight ...

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    Nanocrystal Solar Cells Squeeze Extra Juice Out of Sunlight Basic Energy Sciences (BES) ... More Information 12.01.11 Nanocrystal Solar Cells Squeeze Extra Juice Out of Sunlight ...

  2. Solland Solar Cells BV Shanghai | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Cells BV Shanghai Jump to: navigation, search Name: Solland Solar Cells BV (Shanghai) Place: Shanghai, Shanghai Municipality, China Zip: 200030 Sector: Solar Product:...

  3. Understanding Collection-Related Losses in Organic Solar Cells...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Understanding Collection-Related Losses in Organic Solar Cells Home > Research > ANSER Research Highlights > Understanding Collection-Related Losses in Organic Solar Cells...

  4. High-Efficiency Solar Cogeneration with Thermophotovoltaic &...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    predicted to 30% by the end of the decade with decelerating and limited gains thereafter. This technology eliminates electricity consumption during daylight hours, and can increase ...

  5. Fuels and Combustion Strategies for High-Efficiency Clean-Combustion...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Combustion Strategies for High-Efficiency Clean-Combustion Engines Fuels and Combustion Strategies for High-Efficiency Clean-Combustion Engines 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells ...

  6. Final Report: Sintered CZTS Nanoparticle Solar Cells on Metal Foil; July 26, 2011 - July 25, 2012

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leidholm, C.; Hotz, C.; Breeze, A.; Sunderland, C.; Ki, W.; Zehnder, D.

    2012-09-01

    This is the final report covering 12 months of this subcontract for research on high-efficiency copper zinc tin sulfide (CZTS)-based thin-film solar cells on flexible metal foil. Each of the first three quarters of the subcontract has been detailed in quarterly reports. In this final report highlights of the first three quarters will be provided and details will be given of the final quarter of the subcontract.

  7. Fabrication of heterojunction solar cells by improved tin oxide deposition on insulating layer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Feng, Tom; Ghosh, Amal K.

    1980-01-01

    Highly efficient tin oxide-silicon heterojunction solar cells are prepared by heating a silicon substrate, having an insulating layer thereon, to provide a substrate temperature in the range of about 300.degree. C. to about 400.degree. C. and thereafter spraying the so-heated substrate with a solution of tin tetrachloride in a organic ester boiling below about 250.degree. C. Preferably the insulating layer is naturally grown silicon oxide layer.

  8. Bypass diode for a solar cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rim, Seung Bum; Kim, Taeseok; Smith, David D; Cousins, Peter J

    2013-11-12

    Methods of fabricating bypass diodes for solar cells are described. In once embodiment, a method includes forming a first conductive region of a first conductivity type above a substrate of a solar cell. A second conductive region of a second conductivity type is formed on the first conductive region. In another embodiment, a method includes forming a first conductive region of a first conductivity type above a substrate of a solar cell. A second conductive region of a second conductivity type is formed within, and surrounded by, an uppermost portion of the first conductive region but is not formed in a lowermost portion of the first conductive region.

  9. Solar cell with silicon oxynitride dielectric layer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shepherd, Michael; Smith, David D

    2015-04-28

    Solar cells with silicon oxynitride dielectric layers and methods of forming silicon oxynitride dielectric layers for solar cell fabrication are described. For example, an emitter region of a solar cell includes a portion of a substrate having a back surface opposite a light receiving surface. A silicon oxynitride (SiO.sub.xN.sub.y, 0

  10. Cascade solar cell having conductive interconnects

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Borden, Peter G.; Saxena, Ram R.

    1982-10-26

    Direct ohmic contact between the cells in an epitaxially grown cascade solar cell is obtained by means of conductive interconnects formed through grooves etched intermittently in the upper cell. The base of the upper cell is directly connected by the conductive interconnects to the emitter of the bottom cell. The conductive interconnects preferably terminate on a ledge formed in the base of the upper cell.

  11. Solar cell with a gallium nitride electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pankove, Jacques I.

    1979-01-01

    A solar cell which comprises a body of silicon having a P-N junction therein with a transparent conducting N-type gallium nitride layer as an ohmic contact on the N-type side of the semiconductor exposed to solar radiation.

  12. Development of Commercial Technology for Thin Film Silicon Solar Cells on Glass: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-07-209

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sopori, B.

    2013-03-01

    NREL has conducted basic research relating to high efficiency, low cost, thin film silicon solar cell design and the method of making solar cells. Two patents have been issued to NREL in the above field. In addition, specific process and metrology tools have been developed by NREL. Applied Optical Sciences Corp. (AOS) has expertise in the manufacture of solar cells and has developed its own unique concentrator technology. AOS wants to complement its solar cell expertise and its concentrator technology by manufacturing flat panel thin film silicon solar cell panels. AOS wants to take NREL's research to the next level, using it to develop commercially viable flat pane, thin film silicon solar cell panels. Such a development in equipment, process, and metrology will likely produce the lowest cost solar cell technology for both commercial and residential use. NREL's fundamental research capability and AOS's technology and industrial background are complementary to achieve this product development.

  13. LQ Energy LDK Solar Q Cells JV | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    LQ Energy LDK Solar Q Cells JV Jump to: navigation, search Name: LQ Energy (LDK Solar & Q-Cells JV) Place: Saxony-Anhalt, Germany Sector: Solar Product: Germany-based JV between...

  14. Indium oxide/n-silicon heterojunction solar cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Feng, Tom; Ghosh, Amal K.

    1982-12-28

    A high photo-conversion efficiency indium oxide/n-silicon heterojunction solar cell is spray deposited from a solution containing indium trichloride. The solar cell exhibits an Air Mass One solar conversion efficiency in excess of about 10%.

  15. Dye-sensitized solar cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Skotheim, Terje A. [Berkeley, CA

    1980-03-04

    A low-cost dye-sensitized Schottky barrier solar cell comprised of a substrate of semiconductor with an ohmic contact on one face, a sensitizing dye adsorbed onto the opposite face of the semiconductor, a transparent thin-film layer of a reducing agent over the dye, and a thin-film layer of metal over the reducing agent. The ohmic contact and metal layer constitute electrodes for connection to an external circuit and one or the other or both are made transparent to permit light to penetrate to the dye and be absorbed therein for generating electric current. The semiconductor material chosen to be the substrate is one having a wide bandgap and which therefore is transparent; the dye selected is one having a ground state within the bandgap of the semiconductor to generate carriers in the semiconductor, and a first excited state above the conduction band edge of the semiconductor to readily conduct electrons from the dye to the semiconductor; the reducing agent selected is one having a ground state above the ground state of the sensitizer to provide a plentiful source of electrons to the dye during current generation and thereby enhance the generation; and the metal for the thin-film layer of metal is selected to have a Fermi level in the vicinity of or above the ground state of the reducing agent to thereby amply supply electrons to the reducing agent.

  16. Dye-sensitized solar cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Skotheim, T.A.

    1980-03-04

    A low-cost dye-sensitized Schottky barrier solar cell is comprised of a substrate of semiconductor with an ohmic contact on one face, a sensitizing dye adsorbed onto the opposite face of the semiconductor, a transparent thin-film layer of a reducing agent over the dye, and a thin-film layer of metal over the reducing agent. The ohmic contact and metal layer constitute electrodes for connection to an external circuit and one or the other or both are made transparent to permit light to penetrate to the dye and be absorbed therein for generating electric current. The semiconductor material chosen to be the substrate is one having a wide bandgap and which therefore is transparent; the dye selected is one having a ground state within the bandgap of the semiconductor to generate carriers in the semiconductor, and a first excited state above the conduction band edge of the semiconductor to readily conduct electrons from the dye to the semiconductor; the reducing agent selected is one having a ground state above the ground state of the sensitizer to provide a plentiful source of electrons to the dye during current generation and thereby enhance the generation; and the metal for the thin-film layer of metal is selected to have a Fermi level in the vicinity of or above the ground state of the reducing agent to thereby amply supply electrons to the reducing agent. 3 figs.

  17. Biomimetic Dye Molecules for Solar Cells

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    must be identified and fixed before they can be incorporated for use in mass-produced solar cells. This research represents a first step towards establishing a feedback loop to...

  18. Biomimetic Dye Molecules for Solar Cells

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Though solar cells can use energy directly from the Sun to produce electricity that can be converted efficiently into other kinds of energy, they are currently too costly to ...

  19. Flipping crystals improves solar-cell performance

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Three types of large-area solar cells made out of two-dimensional perovskites. At left, a room-temperature cast film; upper middle is a sample with the problematic band gap, and at ...

  20. NREL Technique Leads to Improved Solar Cells

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Scientists at the Energy Department's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), in collaboration with researchers at Shanghai Jiao Tong University (SJTU), devised a method to improve perovskite solar cells, making them more efficient and reliable with higher reproducibility.

  1. Enhanced Photon Recycling in Multijunction Solar Cells

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Ferreira, X. Li, E. Yablonovitch, a nd J .A. R ogers, " Device A rchitectures f or E nhanced Photon Recycling in Thin---Film MulQjuncQon Solar Cells." Adv. Energy M ater. (2014). ...

  2. New Solar Cells to Boost Satellite Power

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Solar Cells to Boost Satellite Power For more information contact: George Douglas (303) 275-4096 e:mail: georgedouglas@nrel.gov TECSTAR SIGNS PATENT AGREEMENT WITH NREL Golden, ...

  3. Excitons in Highly Efficient Organic Devices | MIT-Harvard Center for

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Excitonics Excitons in Highly Efficient Organic Devices November 29, 2012 at 3pm/36-428 Karl Leo Department of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Department of Physics, Technical University of Dresden bio_Karl_leo_d_e Abstract: Organic semiconductors with conjugated electron system are currently intensively investigated for optoelectronic applications. This interest is spurred by novel devices such as organic light-emitting diodes (OLED), and organic solar cells. For both devices, high

  4. Hybrid Solar Cells via UV Polymerization of Polymer Precursor | Argonne

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    National Laboratory Solar Cells via UV Polymerization of Polymer Precursor Technology available for licensing: A method to create improved hybrid solar cells through the ultraviolet (UV) polymerization of a polymer precursor. Creates high-performing hybrid solar cells through ultraviolet polymerization of a polymer precursor Cost effective, simple method PDF icon hybrid_solar_cells

  5. NREL Researchers Demonstrate External Quantum Efficiency Surpassing 100% in a Quantum Dot Solar Cell (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2011-12-01

    A new device that produces and collects multiple electrons per photon could yield inexpensive, high-efficiency photovoltaics. A new device developed through research at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) reduces conventional losses in photovoltaic (PV) solar cells, potentially increasing the power conversion efficiency-but not the cost-of the solar cells. Solar cells convert optical energy from the sun into usable electricity; however, almost 50% of the incident energy is lost as heat with present-day technologies. High-efficiency, multi-junction cells reduce this heat loss, but their cost is significantly higher. NREL's new device uses excess energy in solar photons to create extra charges rather than heat. This was achieved using 5-nanometer-diameter quantum dots of lead selenide (PbSe) tightly packed into a film. The researchers chemically treated the film, and then fabricated a device that yielded an external quantum efficiency (number of electrons produced per incident photon) exceeding 100%, a value beyond that of all current solar cells for any incident photon. Quantum dots are known to efficiently generate multiple excitons (a bound electron-hole pair) per absorbed high-energy photon, and this device definitively demonstrates the collection of multiple electrons per photon in a PV cell. The internal quantum efficiency corrects for photons that are not absorbed in the photoactive layer and shows that the PbSe film generates 30% to 40% more electrons in the high-energy spectral region than is possible with a conventional solar cell. While the unoptimized overall power conversion efficiency is still low (less than 5%), the results have important implications for PV because such high quantum efficiency can lead to more electrical current produced than possible using present technologies. Furthermore, this fabrication is also amenable to inexpensive, high-throughput roll-to-roll manufacturing.

  6. Nanoparticle Solar Cell Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Breeze, Alison, J; Sahoo, Yudhisthira; Reddy, Damoder; Sholin, Veronica; Carter, Sue

    2008-06-17

    The purpose of this work was to demonstrate all-inorganic nanoparticle-based solar cells with photovoltaic performance extending into the near-IR region of the solar spectrum as a pathway towards improving power conversion efficiencies. The field of all-inorganic nanoparticle-based solar cells is very new, with only one literature publication in the prior to our project. Very little is understood regarding how these devices function. Inorganic solar cells with IR performance have previously been fabricated using traditional methods such as physical vapor deposition and sputtering, and solution-processed devices utilizing IR-absorbing organic polymers have been investigated. The solution-based deposition of nanoparticles offers the potential of a low-cost manufacturing process combined with the ability to tune the chemical synthesis and material properties to control the device properties. This work, in collaboration with the Sue Carter research group at the University of California, Santa Cruz, has greatly expanded the knowledge base in this field, exploring multiple material systems and several key areas of device physics including temperature, bandgap and electrode device behavior dependence, material morphological behavior, and the role of buffer layers. One publication has been accepted to Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells pending minor revision and another two papers are being written now. While device performance in the near-IR did not reach the level anticipated at the beginning of this grant, we did observe one of the highest near-IR efficiencies for a nanoparticle-based solar cell device to date. We also identified several key parameters of importance for improving both near-IR performance and nanoparticle solar cells in general, and demonstrated multiple pathways which showed promise for future commercialization with further research.

  7. Transparent electrodes in silicon heterojunction solar cells: Influence on contact passivation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tomasi, Andrea; Sahli, Florent; Seif, Johannes Peter; Fanni, Lorenzo; de Nicolas Agut, Silvia Martin; Geissbuhler, Jonas; Paviet-Salomon, Bertrand; Nicolay, Sylvain; Barraud, Loris; Niesen, Bjoern; De Wolf, Stefaan; Ballif, Christophe

    2015-10-26

    Charge carrier collection in silicon heterojunction solar cells occurs via intrinsic/doped hydrogenated amorphous silicon layer stacks deposited on the crystalline silicon wafer surfaces. Usually, both the electron and hole collecting stacks are externally capped by an n-type transparent conductive oxide, which is primarily needed for carrier extraction. Earlier, it has been demonstrated that the mere presence of such oxides can affect the carrier recombination in the crystalline silicon absorber. Here, we present a detailed investigation of the impact of this phenomenon on both the electron and hole collecting sides, including its consequences for the operating voltages of silicon heterojunction solar cells. As a result, we define guiding principles for improved passivating contact design for high-efficiency silicon solar cells.

  8. Processing Iron Pyrite Nanocrystals for Use in Solar Cells - Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Innovation Portal Solar Photovoltaic Solar Photovoltaic Find More Like This Return to Search Processing Iron Pyrite Nanocrystals for Use in Solar Cells Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Contact LBL About This Technology Technology Marketing SummaryFor solar energy to become an economically viable energy source, alternative semiconductor materials to be used in solar cells must be found. Silicon, the longtime standard for solar cells, is expensive to process and in ever-growing demand.

  9. Recent progress in degradation and stabilization of organic solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cao, Huanqi; He, Weidong; Mao, Yiwu; Lin, Xiao; Ishikawa, Ken; Dickerson, James H.; Hess, Wayne P.

    2014-10-15

    Stability is of paramount importance in organic semiconductor devices, especially in organic solar cells (OSCs). Serious degradation in air limits wide applications of these flexible, light-weight and low-cost power-generation devices. Studying the stability of organic solar cells will help us understand degradation mechanisms and further improve the stability of these devices. There are many investigations into the efficiency and stability of OSCs. The efficiency and stability of devices even of the same photoactive materials are scattered in different papers. In particular, the extrinsic degradation that mainly occurs near the interface between the organic layer and the cathode is a major stability concern. In the past few years, researchers have developed many new cathodes and cathode buffer layers, some of which have astonishingly improved the stability of OSCs. In this review article, we discuss the recent developments of these materials and summarize recent progresses in the study of the degradation/stability of OSCs, with emphasis on the extrinsic degradation/stability that is related to the intrusion of oxygen and water. The review provides detailed insight into the current status of research on the stability of OSCs and seeks to facilitate the development of highly-efficient OSCs with enhanced stability.

  10. Plastic Schottky-barrier solar cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Waldrop, J.R.; Cohen, M.J.

    1981-12-30

    A photovoltaic cell structure is fabricated from an active medium including an undoped polyacetylene, organic semiconductor. When a film of such material is in rectifying contact with a metallic area electrode, a Schottky-barrier junction is obtained within the body of the cell structure. Also, a gold overlayer passivates a magnesium layer on the undoped polyacetylene film. With the proper selection and location of elements a photovoltaic cell structure and solar cell are obtained.

  11. Third-Generation Solar Cells Using Optical Rectenna - Energy...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The second generation of solar cells focuses on low production costs using thin film cells, which resulted in much lower efficiency rates. The third generation of solar cells has ...

  12. Method of restoring degraded solar cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Staebler, D.L.

    1983-02-01

    Amorphous silicon solar cells have been shown to have efficiencies which degrade as a result of long exposure to light. Annealing such cells in air at a temperature of about 200 C for at least 30 minutes restores their efficiency. 2 figs.

  13. Liquid cooled, linear focus solar cell receiver

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kirpich, A.S.

    1983-12-08

    Separate structures for electrical insulation and thermal conduction are established within a liquid cooled, linear focus solar cell receiver for use with parabolic or Fresnel optical concentrators. The receiver includes a V-shaped aluminum extrusion having a pair of outer faces each formed with a channel receiving a string of solar cells in thermal contact with the extrusion. Each cell string is attached to a continuous glass cover secured within the channel with spring clips to isolate the string from the external environment. Repair or replacement of solar cells is effected simply by detaching the spring clips to remove the cover/cell assembly without interrupting circulation of coolant fluid through the receiver. The lower surface of the channel in thermal contact with the cells of the string is anodized to establish a suitable standoff voltage capability between the cells and the extrusion. Primary electrical insulation is provided by a dielectric tape disposed between the coolant tube and extrusion. Adjacent solar cells are soldered to interconnect members designed to accommodate thermal expansion and mismatches. The coolant tube is clamped into the extrusion channel with a releasably attachable clamping strip to facilitate easy removal of the receiver from the coolant circuit.

  14. Liquid cooled, linear focus solar cell receiver

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kirpich, Aaron S.

    1985-01-01

    Separate structures for electrical insulation and thermal conduction are established within a liquid cooled, linear focus solar cell receiver for use with parabolic or Fresnel optical concentrators. The receiver includes a V-shaped aluminum extrusion having a pair of outer faces each formed with a channel receiving a string of solar cells in thermal contact with the extrusion. Each cell string is attached to a continuous glass cover secured within the channel with spring clips to isolate the string from the external environment. Repair or replacement of solar cells is effected simply by detaching the spring clips to remove the cover/cell assembly without interrupting circulation of coolant fluid through the receiver. The lower surface of the channel in thermal contact with the cells of the string is anodized to establish a suitable standoff voltage capability between the cells and the extrusion. Primary electrical insulation is provided by a dielectric tape disposed between the coolant tube and extrusion. Adjacent solar cells are soldered to interconnect members designed to accommodate thermal expansion and mismatches. The coolant tube is clamped into the extrusion channel with a releasably attachable clamping strip to facilitate easy removal of the receiver from the coolant circuit.

  15. Method of restoring degraded solar cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Staebler, David L.

    1983-01-01

    Amorphous silicon solar cells have been shown to have efficiencies which degrade as a result of long exposure to light. Annealing such cells in air at a temperature of about 200.degree. C. for at least 30 minutes restores their efficiency.

  16. High Rate Laser Pitting Technique for Solar Cell Texturing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hans J. Herfurth; Henrikki Pantsar

    2013-01-10

    High rate laser pitting technique for solar cell texturing Efficiency of crystalline silicon solar cells can be improved by creating a texture on the surface to increase optical absorption. Different techniques have been developed for texturing, with the current state-of-the-art (SOA) being wet chemical etching. The process has poor optical performance, produces surfaces that are difficult to passivate or contact and is relatively expensive due to the use of hazardous chemicals. This project shall develop an alternative process for texturing mc-Si using laser micromachining. It will have the following features compared to the current SOA texturing process: -Superior optical surfaces for reduced front-surface reflection and enhanced optical absorption in thin mc-Si substrates -Improved surface passivation -More easily integrated into advanced back-contact cell concepts -Reduced use of hazardous chemicals and waste treatment -Similar or lower cost The process is based on laser pitting. The objective is to develop and demonstrate a high rate laser pitting process which will exceed the rate of former laser texturing processes by a factor of ten. The laser and scanning technologies will be demonstrated on a laboratory scale, but will use inherently technologies that can easily be scaled to production rates. The drastic increase in process velocity is required for the process to be implemented as an in-line process in PV manufacturing. The project includes laser process development, development of advanced optical systems for beam manipulation and cell reflectivity and efficiency testing. An improvement of over 0.5% absolute in efficiency is anticipated after laser-based texturing. The surface textures will be characterized optically, and solar cells will be fabricated with the new laser texturing to ensure that the new process is compatible with high-efficiency cell processing. The result will be demonstration of a prototype process that is suitable for scale-up to a

  17. NREL Scientists Report First Solar Cell Producing More Electrons In

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Photocurrent Than Solar Photons Entering Cell - News Releases | NREL Scientists Report First Solar Cell Producing More Electrons In Photocurrent Than Solar Photons Entering Cell December 15, 2011 Researchers from the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) have reported the first solar cell that produces a photocurrent that has an external quantum efficiency greater than 100 percent when photoexcited with photons from the high energy region of the solar

  18. High Efficiency Room Air Conditioner

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bansal, Pradeep

    2015-01-01

    This project was undertaken as a CRADA project between UT-Battelle and Geberal Electric Company and was funded by Department of Energy to design and develop of a high efficiency room air conditioner. A number of novel elements were investigated to improve the energy efficiency of a state-of-the-art WAC with base capacity of 10,000 BTU/h. One of the major modifications was made by downgrading its capacity from 10,000 BTU/hr to 8,000 BTU/hr by replacing the original compressor with a lower capacity (8,000 BTU/hr) but high efficiency compressor having an EER of 9.7 as compared with 9.3 of the original compressor. However, all heat exchangers from the original unit were retained to provide higher EER. The other subsequent major modifications included- (i) the AC fan motor was replaced by a brushless high efficiency ECM motor along with its fan housing, (ii) the capillary tube was replaced with a needle valve to better control the refrigerant flow and refrigerant set points, and (iii) the unit was tested with a drop-in environmentally friendly binary mixture of R32 (90% molar concentration)/R125 (10% molar concentration). The WAC was tested in the environmental chambers at ORNL as per the design rating conditions of AHAM/ASHRAE (Outdoor- 95F and 40%RH, Indoor- 80F, 51.5%RH). All these modifications resulted in enhancing the EER of the WAC by up to 25%.

  19. Method of fabricating a solar cell array

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lazzery, Angelo G.; Crouthamel, Marvin S.; Coyle, Peter J.

    1982-01-01

    A first set of pre-tabbed solar cells are assembled in a predetermined array with at least part of each tab facing upward, each tab being fixed to a bonding pad on one cell and abutting a bonding pad on an adjacent cell. The cells are held in place with a first vacuum support. The array is then inverted onto a second vacuum support which holds the tabs firmly against the cell pads they abut. The cells are exposed to radiation to melt and reflow the solder pads for bonding the tab portions not already fixed to bonding pads to these pads.

  20. The Kanatzidis - Chang Cell: dye sensitized all solid state solar...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The Kanatzidis - Chang Cell: dye sensitized all solid state solar cell Home > Research > ANSER Research Highlights > The Kanatzidis - Chang Cell: dye sensitized all solid state ...

  1. Development of high, stable-efficiency triple-junction a-Si alloy solar cells. Annual technical progress report, October 1995--October 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deng, X.; Izu, M.; Jones, S.J.; Kopf, R.

    1997-04-01

    The overall objective of this amorphous silicon research program is to develop high efficiency a-Si solar cells and to develop and improve processes for large area deposition of a-Si solar cells and modules. The knowledge obtained and technologies demonstrated in this program will be incorporated into ECD`s continuous roll-to-roll deposition process to further enhance its photovoltaic manufacturing technology.

  2. Amorphous silicon materials and solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stafford, B.L. )

    1991-01-01

    An International Meeting on Stability of Amorphous Silicon Materials and Solar Cells was held in Denver, CO on February 20--22, 1991. The main objectives of the meeting were to bring to light-and stimulate discussion on-recent advances in (1) understanding the underlying mechanisms of light-induced instability and (2) engineering approaches to stable solar cells. Several of the experimental and theoretical papers presented here, particularly those regarding low-hydrogen-content materials, give cause for optimism that the performance may finally be yielding to worldwide concerted efforts to understand and mitigate it. The four main topics discussed are modeling metastability, experimental data and model verification, materials studies, and solar cell studies.

  3. Fabricating solar cells with silicon nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Loscutoff, Paul; Molesa, Steve; Kim, Taeseok

    2014-09-02

    A laser contact process is employed to form contact holes to emitters of a solar cell. Doped silicon nanoparticles are formed over a substrate of the solar cell. The surface of individual or clusters of silicon nanoparticles is coated with a nanoparticle passivation film. Contact holes to emitters of the solar cell are formed by impinging a laser beam on the passivated silicon nanoparticles. For example, the laser contact process may be a laser ablation process. In that case, the emitters may be formed by diffusing dopants from the silicon nanoparticles prior to forming the contact holes to the emitters. As another example, the laser contact process may be a laser melting process whereby portions of the silicon nanoparticles are melted to form the emitters and contact holes to the emitters.

  4. Method of manufacturing a solar cell panel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dubois, P.

    1982-03-30

    The photovoltaic cells are retained and protected by a transparent elastomer layer extruded when hot prior to vulcanization and applied against the cells with a slight pressure to cause it to go into the spaces between cells, and vulcanized by heating, for example at 110* C. Or at 180* C., thanks to the presence of incorporated peroxides. Application in the production of electricity from solar energy.

  5. Progress toward technology transition of GaInP{sub 2}/GaAs/Ge multijunction solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keener, D.N.; Marvin, D.C.; Brinker, D.J.; Curtis, H.B.; Price, P.M.

    1997-12-31

    The objective of the joint WL/PL/NASA Multijunction Solar Cell Manufacturing Technology (ManTech) Program is to scale up high efficiency GaInP{sub 2}/GaAs/Ge multijunction solar cells to production size, quantity, and yield while limiting the production cost/Watt ($/W) to 15% over GaAs cells. Progress made by the program contractors, Spectrolab and TECSTAR, include, respectively, best cell efficiencies of 25.76% and 24.7% and establishment of 24.2% and 23.8% lot average efficiency baseline designs. The paper also presents side-by-side testing results collected by Phillips Laboratory and NASA Lewis on Phase 1 deliverable cells, which shows compliance with program objectives. Cell performance, pre- and post-radiation, and temperature coefficient results on initial production GaInP{sub 2}/GaAs/Ge solar cells will be presented.

  6. GaNPAs Solar Cells that Can Be Lattice-Matched to Silicon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Geisz, J. F.; Friedman, D. J.; McMahon, W. E.; Ptak, A. J.; Kibbler, A. E.; Olson, J. M.; Kurtz, S.; Kramer, C.; Young, M.; Duda, A.; Reedy, R. C.; Keyes, B. M.; Dippo, P.; Metzger, W. K.

    2003-05-01

    III-V semiconductors grown on silicon substrates are very attractive for lower-cost, high-efficiency multijunction solar cells, but lattice-mismatched alloys that result in high dislocation densities have been unable to achieve satisfactory performance. GaNxP1-x-yAsy is a direct-gap III-V alloy that can be grown lattice-matched to Si when y= 4.7x - 0.1. We have proposed the use of lattice-matched GaNPAs on silicon for high-efficiency multijunction solar cells. We have grown GaNxP1-x-yAsy on GaP (with a similar lattice constant to silicon) by metal-organic chemical vapor phase epitaxy with direct bandgaps in the range of 1.5 to 2.0 eV. We have demonstrated the performance of single-junction GaNxP1-x-yAsy solar cells grown on GaP substrates and shown improvements in material quality by reducing carbon and hydrogen impurities through optimization of growth conditions. We have achieved quantum efficiencies (QE) in these cells as high as 60% and PL lifetimes as high as 3.0 ns.

  7. Solar cell contact formation using laser ablation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Harley, Gabriel; Smith, David D.; Cousins, Peter John

    2014-07-22

    The formation of solar cell contacts using a laser is described. A method of fabricating a back-contact solar cell includes forming a poly-crystalline material layer above a single-crystalline substrate. The method also includes forming a dielectric material stack above the poly-crystalline material layer. The method also includes forming, by laser ablation, a plurality of contacts holes in the dielectric material stack, each of the contact holes exposing a portion of the poly-crystalline materiat layer; and forming conductive contacts in the plurality of contact holes.

  8. High throughput solar cell ablation system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Harley, Gabriel; Pass, Thomas; Cousins, Peter John; Viatella, John

    2012-09-11

    A solar cell is formed using a solar cell ablation system. The ablation system includes a single laser source and several laser scanners. The laser scanners include a master laser scanner, with the rest of the laser scanners being slaved to the master laser scanner. A laser beam from the laser source is split into several laser beams, with the laser beams being scanned onto corresponding wafers using the laser scanners in accordance with one or more patterns. The laser beams may be scanned on the wafers using the same or different power levels of the laser source.

  9. High throughput solar cell ablation system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Harley, Gabriel; Pass, Thomas; Cousins, Peter John; Viatella, John

    2014-10-14

    A solar cell is formed using a solar cell ablation system. The ablation system includes a single laser source and several laser scanners. The laser scanners include a master laser scanner, with the rest of the laser scanners being slaved to the master laser scanner. A laser beam from the laser source is split into several laser beams, with the laser beams being scanned onto corresponding wafers using the laser scanners in accordance with one or more patterns. The laser beams may be scanned on the wafers using the same or different power levels of the laser source.

  10. Solar cell contact formation using laser ablation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Harley, Gabriel; Smith, David; Cousins, Peter

    2012-12-04

    The formation of solar cell contacts using a laser is described. A method of fabricating a back-contact solar cell includes forming a poly-crystalline material layer above a single-crystalline substrate. The method also includes forming a dielectric material stack above the poly-crystalline material layer. The method also includes forming, by laser ablation, a plurality of contacts holes in the dielectric material stack, each of the contact holes exposing a portion of the poly-crystalline material layer; and forming conductive contacts in the plurality of contact holes.

  11. Origami-enabled deformable silicon solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tang, Rui; Huang, Hai; Liang, Hanshuang; Liang, Mengbing; Tu, Hongen; Xu, Yong; Song, Zeming; Jiang, Hanqing; Yu, Hongyu

    2014-02-24

    Deformable electronics have found various applications and elastomeric materials have been widely used to reach flexibility and stretchability. In this Letter, we report an alternative approach to enable deformability through origami. In this approach, the deformability is achieved through folding and unfolding at the creases while the functional devices do not experience strain. We have demonstrated an example of origami-enabled silicon solar cells and showed that this solar cell can reach up to 644% areal compactness while maintaining reasonable good performance upon cyclic folding/unfolding. This approach opens an alternative direction of producing flexible, stretchable, and deformable electronics.

  12. Solar cell contact formation using laser ablation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harley, Gabriel; Smith, David D.; Cousins, Peter John

    2015-07-21

    The formation of solar cell contacts using a laser is described. A method of fabricating a back-contact solar cell includes forming a poly-crystalline material layer above a single-crystalline substrate. The method also includes forming a dielectric material stack above the poly-crystalline material layer. The method also includes forming, by laser ablation, a plurality of contacts holes in the dielectric material stack, each of the contact holes exposing a portion of the poly-crystalline material layer; and forming conductive contacts in the plurality of contact holes.

  13. Award-Winning Etching Process Cuts Solar Cell Costs

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Award-Winning Etching Process Cuts Solar Cell Costs Optimizing solar-cell technology can be a complex job, requiring expertise in material science, physics, and optics to convert as much sunlight as possible into electricity. But despite this complexity, a simple fact is key to making a high-performance solar cell: any sunlight reflected off the cell can't possibly be converted into electricity. Manufacturers have tried to minimize the reflection of sunlight off of solar cells by first

  14. High Efficiency Engine Technologies Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rich Kruiswyk

    2010-07-13

    Caterpillar's Product Development and Global Technology Division carried out a research program on waste heat recovery with support from DOE (Department of Energy) and the DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory. The objective of the program was to develop a new air management and exhaust energy recovery system that would demonstrate a minimum 10% improvement in thermal efficiency over a base heavy-duty on-highway diesel truck engine. The base engine for this program was a 2007 C15 15.2L series-turbocharged on-highway truck engine with a LPL (low-pressure loop) exhaust recirculation system. The focus of the program was on the development of high efficiency turbomachinery and a high efficiency turbocompound waste heat recovery system. The focus of each area of development was as follows: (1) For turbine stages, the focus was on investigation and development of technologies that would improve on-engine exhaust energy utilization compared to the conventional radial turbines in widespread use today. (2) For compressor stages, the focus was on investigating compressor wheel design parameters beyond the range typically utilized in production, to determine the potential efficiency benefits thereof. (3) For turbocompound, the focus was on the development of a robust bearing system that would provide higher bearing efficiencies compared to systems used in turbocompound power turbines in production. None of the turbocharger technologies investigated involved addition of moving parts, actuators, or exotic materials, thereby increasing the likelihood of a favorable cost-value tradeoff for each technology. And the turbocompound system requires less hardware addition than competing bottoming cycle technologies, making it a more attractive solution from a cost and packaging standpoint. Main outcomes of the program are as follows: (1) Two turbine technologies that demonstrated up to 6% improvement in turbine efficiency on gas stand and 1-3% improvement in thermal efficiency in

  15. Multi-junction solar cell device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Friedman, Daniel J.; Geisz, John F.

    2007-12-18

    A multi-junction solar cell device (10) is provided. The multi-junction solar cell device (10) comprises either two or three active solar cells connected in series in a monolithic structure. The multi-junction device (10) comprises a bottom active cell (20) having a single-crystal silicon substrate base and an emitter layer (23). The multi-junction device (10) further comprises one or two subsequent active cells each having a base layer (32) and an emitter layer (23) with interconnecting tunnel junctions between each active cell. At least one layer that forms each of the top and middle active cells is composed of a single-crystal III-V semiconductor alloy that is substantially lattice-matched to the silicon substrate (22). The polarity of the active p-n junction cells is either p-on-n or n-on-p. The present invention further includes a method for substantially lattice matching single-crystal III-V semiconductor layers with the silicon substrate (22) by including boron and/or nitrogen in the chemical structure of these layers.

  16. NREL Measures IMM Solar Cell Performance for CPV (Fact Sheet), NREL Highlights, Science

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2011-09-01

    New measurement capability supports the development of high-efficiency solar cells for concentrating photovoltaic (CPV) application. NREL scientists recently completed a set of measurements on the performance of an inverted metamorphic multijunction (IMM) solar cell as a function of concentration and cell operating temperature. The triple-junction cell had subcell bandgaps of 1.81, 1.40, and 1.00. Much of the work focused on developing and validating the measurement techniques (i.e., the spectral response of the three subcells was measured at five temperatures, and those data were used to properly adjust the solar simulators at each temperature). Multijunction concentrator solar cells are typically evaluated under flash illumination at 25 C, but this condition significantly underestimates the thermal load on the cell in an actual real-world module, where the steady-state concentrated illumination can raise the operating temperature to as high as 100 C. The NREL-developed measurement technique addresses this issue. This work demonstrated that the IMM cell has better temperature coefficients than its traditional upright, germanium-based, lattice-matched counterpart and will thus perform better in actual CPV applications. This new measurement capability will support NREL's development of IMM cells that are optimally designed for operation at temperatures relevant to actual systems operation.

  17. High efficiency laser spectrum conditioner

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Greiner, Norman R.

    1980-01-01

    A high efficiency laser spectrum conditioner for generating a collinear parallel output beam containing a predetermined set of frequencies from a multifrequency laser. A diffraction grating and spherical mirror are used in combination, to disperse the various frequencies of the input laser beam and direct these frequencies along various parallel lines spatially separated from one another to an apertured mask. Selection of the desired frequencies is accomplished by placement of apertures at locations on the mask where the desired frequencies intersect the mask. A recollimated parallel output beam with the desired set of frequencies is subsequently generated utilizing a mirror and grating matched and geometrically aligned in the same manner as the input grating and mirror.

  18. Project Profile: High-Efficiency Receivers for Supercritical Carbon Dioxide

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Cycles | Department of Energy Receivers for Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Cycles Project Profile: High-Efficiency Receivers for Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Cycles Brayton logo --This project is inactive -- Brayton Energy, under the 2012 SunShot Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) R&D FOA, is building and testing a new solar receiver that uses supercritical carbon dioxide (s-CO2) as the heat-transfer fluid. The research team is designing the receiver to withstand higher operating temperatures

  19. High-efficiency, monolithic, multi-bandgap, tandem photovoltaic energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    converters - Energy Innovation Portal High-efficiency, monolithic, multi-bandgap, tandem photovoltaic energy converters National Renewable Energy Laboratory Contact NREL About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary Matching a semiconductor's bandgap to incident photon energy is a well-known method to achieve the most efficient photovoltaic devices. Since solar radiation consists of a wide range of wavelengths, having one semiconductor with a single bandgap to absorb all solar radiation

  20. Radiation damage of GaAs thin-film solar cells on Si substrates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Itoh, Y.; Yamaguchi, M.; Nishioka, T.; Yamamoto, A.

    1987-01-15

    1-MeV electron irradiation damages in GaAs thin-film solar cells on Si substrates are examined for the first time. Damage constant for minority-carrier diffusion length in GaAs heteroepitaxial films on Si substrates is found to be the same as that in GaAs homoepitaxial films on GaAs substrates. This agreement suggests that GaAs/Si has the same defect introduction rate with radiation as GaAs/GaAs. The degradation of GaAs solar cells on Si with electron irradiation is less than that of GaAs solar cells on GaAs, because in the present, GaAs films on Si substrates have lower minority-carrier diffusion length compared to GaAs films on GaAs and these films are insensitive to radiation. The p/sup +/-p/sup +/-n AlGaAs-GaAs heteroface solar cell with junction depth of about 0.3 ..mu..m is concluded to be useful for a high-efficiency and radiation-resistant solar cell fabricated on a Si substrate.

  1. Final Report - High throughput CIGS solar cell fabrication via...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High throughput CIGS solar cell fabrication via ultra-thin absorber layer with optical ... Contact Materials for Improved Performance CdTe Solar Cells Download the SunShot ...

  2. Konca Solar Cell Wuxi Co Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Konca Solar Cell Wuxi Co Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Konca Solar Cell (Wuxi) Co Ltd Place: Wuxi, Jiangsu Province, China Product: China-based PV wafer manufacturer....

  3. Harmful Shunting Mechanisms Found in Silicon Solar Cells (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2011-05-01

    Scientists developed near-field optical microscopy for imaging electrical breakdown in solar cells and identified critical electrical breakdown mechanisms operating in industrial silicon and epitaxial silicon solar cells.

  4. Understanding Collection-Related Losses in Organic Solar Cells | ANSER

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Center | Argonne-Northwestern National Laboratory Understanding Collection-Related Losses in Organic Solar Cells Home > Research > ANSER Research Highlights > Understanding Collection-Related Losses in Organic Solar Cells

  5. When Function Follows Form: Plastic Solar Cells | ANSER Center |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Argonne-Northwestern National Laboratory When Function Follows Form: Plastic Solar Cells Home > Research > ANSER Research Highlights > When Function Follows Form: Plastic Solar Cells

  6. A Supramolecular Complex in Small-Molecule Solar Cells based...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    in Small-Molecule Solar Cells based on Contorted Aromatic Molecules Citation Details In-Document Search Title: A Supramolecular Complex in Small-Molecule Solar Cells based on ...

  7. Ohmic contacts for solar cells by arc plasma spraying

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Narasimhan, Mandayam C.; Roessler, Barton; Loferski, Joseph J.

    1982-01-01

    The method of applying ohmic contacts to a semiconductor, such as a silicon body or wafer used in solar cells, by the use of arc plasma spraying, and solar cells resulting therefrom.

  8. Ultra-Fast Quantum Efficiency Solar Cell Test - Energy Innovation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Ultra-Fast Quantum Efficiency Solar Cell Test National Renewable Energy Laboratory Contact NREL About This Technology Real-Time QE quickly measures how each solar cell responds to ...

  9. Method of fabricating a solar cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pass, Thomas; Rogers, Robert

    2014-02-25

    Methods of fabricating solar cells are described. A porous layer may be formed on a surface of a substrate, the porous layer including a plurality of particles and a plurality of voids. A solution may be dispensed into one or more regions of the porous layer to provide a patterned composite layer. The substrate may then be heated.

  10. Method of fabricating a solar cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pass, Thomas; Rogers, Robert

    2016-02-16

    Methods of fabricating solar cells are described. A porous layer may be formed on a surface of a substrate, the porous layer including a plurality of particles and a plurality of voids. A solution may be dispensed into one or more regions of the porous layer to provide a patterned composite layer. The substrate may then be heated.

  11. Tandem junction amorphous silicon solar cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hanak, Joseph J.

    1981-01-01

    An amorphous silicon solar cell has an active body with two or a series of layers of hydrogenated amorphous silicon arranged in a tandem stacked configuration with one optical path and electrically interconnected by a tunnel junction. The layers of hydrogenated amorphous silicon arranged in tandem configuration can have the same bandgap or differing bandgaps.

  12. Metal electrode for amorphous silicon solar cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Williams, Richard

    1983-01-01

    An amorphous silicon solar cell having an N-type region wherein the contact to the N-type region is composed of a material having a work function of about 3.7 electron volts or less. Suitable materials include strontium, barium and magnesium and rare earth metals such as gadolinium and yttrium.

  13. Parameters influencing the deposition of methylammonium lead halide iodide in hole conductor free perovskite-based solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cohen, Bat-El; Gamliel, Shany; Etgar, Lioz

    2014-08-01

    Perovskite is a promising light harvester for use in photovoltaic solar cells. In recent years, the power conversion efficiency of perovskite solar cells has been dramatically increased, making them a competitive source of renewable energy. An important parameter when designing high efficiency perovskite-based solar cells is the perovskite deposition, which must be performed to create complete coverage and optimal film thickness. This paper describes an in-depth study on two-step deposition, separating the perovskite deposition into two precursors. The effects of spin velocity, annealing temperature, dipping time, and methylammonium iodide concentration on the photovoltaic performance are studied. Observations include that current density is affected by changing the spin velocity, while the fill factor changes mainly due to the dipping time and methylammonium iodide concentration. Interestingly, the open circuit voltage is almost unaffected by these parameters. Hole conductor free perovskite solar cells are used in this work, in order to minimize other possible effects. This study provides better understanding and control over the perovskite deposition through highly efficient, low-cost perovskite-based solar cells.

  14. Plastic Schottky barrier solar cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Waldrop, James R.; Cohen, Marshall J.

    1984-01-24

    A photovoltaic cell structure is fabricated from an active medium including an undoped, intrinsically p-type organic semiconductor comprising polyacetylene. When a film of such material is in rectifying contact with a magnesium electrode, a Schottky-barrier junction is obtained within the body of the cell structure. Also, a gold overlayer passivates the magnesium layer on the undoped polyacetylene film.

  15. NREL Invention Speeds Solar Cell Quality Testing for Industry

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Invention Speeds Solar Cell Quality Testing for Industry A solid-state optical system, invented by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), measures solar cell quantum efficiency (QE) in less than a second, enabling a suite of new capabilities for solar cell manufacturers. The system was developed with funding in part by the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy within the U.S. Department of Energy. QE is a measurement of how cells respond to light across the solar spectrum,

  16. NREL Technique Leads to Improved Perovskite Solar Cells - News Releases |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    NREL NREL Technique Leads to Improved Perovskite Solar Cells August 1, 2016 Photo shows a man looking at a handful of solar cells made of perovskite. NREL researcher Mengjin Yang examines hybrid perovskite solar cells in his lab. (Photo by Dennis Schroeder / NREL) Scientists at the Energy Department's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), in collaboration with researchers at Shanghai Jiao Tong University (SJTU), devised a method to improve perovskite solar cells, making them more

  17. New Morphological Paradigm Uncovered in Organic Solar Cells

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    New Morphological Paradigm Uncovered in Organic Solar Cells New Morphological Paradigm Uncovered in Organic Solar Cells Print Wednesday, 27 April 2011 00:00 Organic solar cells are made of light, flexible, renewable materials; they require simple and inexpensive processing steps and could produce an economically competitive and environmentally friendly energy source. Understanding the fundamentals of organic solar cell function is therefore vital to uncovering their maximum potential. Models

  18. Transparent electrodes in silicon heterojunction solar cells: Influence on contact passivation

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Tomasi, Andrea; Sahli, Florent; Seif, Johannes Peter; Fanni, Lorenzo; de Nicolas Agut, Silvia Martin; Geissbuhler, Jonas; Paviet-Salomon, Bertrand; Nicolay, Sylvain; Barraud, Loris; Niesen, Bjoern; et al

    2015-10-26

    Charge carrier collection in silicon heterojunction solar cells occurs via intrinsic/doped hydrogenated amorphous silicon layer stacks deposited on the crystalline silicon wafer surfaces. Usually, both the electron and hole collecting stacks are externally capped by an n-type transparent conductive oxide, which is primarily needed for carrier extraction. Earlier, it has been demonstrated that the mere presence of such oxides can affect the carrier recombination in the crystalline silicon absorber. Here, we present a detailed investigation of the impact of this phenomenon on both the electron and hole collecting sides, including its consequences for the operating voltages of silicon heterojunction solarmore » cells. As a result, we define guiding principles for improved passivating contact design for high-efficiency silicon solar cells.« less

  19. Nanocluster production for solar cell applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Al Dosari, Haila M.; Ayesh, Ahmad I.

    2013-08-07

    This research focuses on the fabrication and characterization of silver (Ag) and silicon (Si) nanoclusters that might be used for solar cell applications. Silver and silicon nanoclusters have been synthesized by means of dc magnetron sputtering and inert gas condensation inside an ultra-high vacuum compatible system. We have found that nanocluster size distributions can be tuned by various source parameters, such as the sputtering discharge power, flow rate of argon inert gas, and aggregation length. Quadrupole mass filter and transmission electron microscopy were used to evaluate the size distribution of Ag and Si nanoclusters. Ag nanoclusters with average size in the range of 3.68.3 nm were synthesized (herein size refers to the nanocluster diameter), whereas Si nanoclusters' average size was controlled to range between 2.9 and 7.4 nm by controlling the source parameters. This work illustrates the ability of controlling the Si and Ag nanoclusters' sizes by proper optimization of the operation conditions. By controlling nanoclusters' sizes, one can alter their surface properties to suit the need to enhance solar cell efficiency. Herein, Ag nanoclusters were deposited on commercial polycrystalline solar cells. Short circuit current (I{sub SC}), open circuit voltage (V{sub OC}), fill factor, and efficiency (?) were obtained under light source with an intensity of 30 mW/cm{sup 2}. A 22.7% enhancement in solar cell efficiency could be measured after deposition of Ag nanoclusters, which demonstrates that Ag nanoclusters generated in this work are useful to enhance solar cell efficiency.

  20. Diffraction: Enhanced Light Absorption of Solar Cells and Photodetectors -

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Innovation Portal Solar Thermal Solar Thermal Solar Photovoltaic Solar Photovoltaic Advanced Materials Advanced Materials Find More Like This Return to Search Diffraction: Enhanced Light Absorption of Solar Cells and Photodetectors Sandia National Laboratories Contact SNL About This Technology Publications: PDF Document Publication Market Sheet (890 KB) Technology Marketing SummaryThe solar and photovoltaic industry has grown steadily over the last several years. In order to maintain

  1. Flexible thermal cycle test equipment for concentrator solar cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hebert, Peter H.; Brandt, Randolph J.

    2012-06-19

    A system and method for performing thermal stress testing of photovoltaic solar cells is presented. The system and method allows rapid testing of photovoltaic solar cells under controllable thermal conditions. The system and method presents a means of rapidly applying thermal stresses to one or more photovoltaic solar cells in a consistent and repeatable manner.

  2. Superstrate sub-cell voltage-matched multijunction solar cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mascarenhas, Angelo; Alberi, Kirstin

    2016-03-15

    Voltage-matched thin film multijunction solar cell and methods of producing cells having upper CdTe pn junction layers formed on a transparent substrate which in the completed device is operatively positioned in a superstate configuration. The solar cell also includes a lower pn junction formed independently of the CdTe pn junction and an insulating layer between CdTe and lower pn junctions. The voltage-matched thin film multijunction solar cells further include a parallel connection between the CdTe pn junction and lower pn junctions to form a two-terminal photonic device. Methods of fabricating devices from independently produced upper CdTe junction layers and lower junction layers are also disclosed.

  3. Method of fabricating a solar cell with a tunnel dielectric layer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dennis, Tim; Harrington, Scott; Manning, Jane; Smith, David D.; Waldhauer, Ann

    2015-08-18

    Method of fabricating solar cells with tunnel dielectric layers are described. Solar cells with tunnel dielectric layers are also described.

  4. Method of fabricating a solar cell with a tunnel dielectric layer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dennis, Tim; Harrington, Scott; Manning, Jane; Smith, David D; Waldhauer, Ann

    2014-04-29

    Methods of fabricating solar cells with tunnel dielectric layers are described. Solar cells with tunnel dielectric layers are also described.

  5. Method of fabricating a solar cell with a tunnel dielectric layer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dennis, Tim; Harrington, Scott; Manning, Jane; Smith, David; Waldhauer, Ann

    2012-12-18

    Methods of fabricating solar cells with tunnel dielectric layers are described. Solar cells with tunnel dielectric layers are also described.

  6. The Kanatzidis - Chang Cell: dye sensitized all solid state solar cell |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ANSER Center | Argonne-Northwestern National Laboratory The Kanatzidis - Chang Cell: dye sensitized all solid state solar cell Home > Research > ANSER Research Highlights > The Kanatzidis - Chang Cell: dye sensitized all solid state solar cell

  7. Aggregated TiO2 Based Nanotubes for Dye Sensitized Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nie, Zimin; Zhou, Xiaoyuan; Zhang, Qifeng; Cao, Guozhong; Liu, Jun

    2013-11-01

    One-dimensional (1D) semiconducting oxides have attracted great attention for dye sensitized solar cells (DSCs), but the overall performance is still quite limited as compared to TiO2 nanocrystalline DSCs. Here, we report the synthesis of aggregated TiO2 based nanotubes with controlled morphologies and crystalline structures to obtain an overall power conversion efficiency of 9.9% using conventional dye without any additional chemical treatment steps. The high efficiency is attributed to the unique aggregate structure for light harvesting, optimized high surface area, and good crystallinity of the nanotube aggregates obtained through proper thermal annealing. This study demonstrates that high efficiency DSCs can be obtained with 1D nanomaterials, and provides lessons on the importance of optimizing both the nanocrystalline structure and the overall microscale morphology.

  8. PROJECT PROFILE: Stable Perovskite Solar Cells via Chemical Vapor...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Stable Perovskite Solar Cells via Chemical Vapor Deposition PROJECT PROFILE: Stable ... would be suitable for a photovoltaic absorber in a single or multi-junction cell. ...

  9. Nanostructured Thermoelectric Materials and High Efficiency Power...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nanostructured Thermoelectric Materials and High Efficiency Power Generation Modules Home ... electrical conductivity and thermopower and, simultaneously, low thermal conductivity. ...

  10. Ultrahigh Efficiency Multiband Solar Cells Final Report forDirector's Innovation Initiative Project DII-2005-1221

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ager III, Joel W.; Walukiewicz, W.; Yu, Kin Man

    2006-03-29

    The unique properties of the semiconductor ZnTeO were explored and developed to make multiband solar cells. Like a multijunction cell, multiband solar cells use different energy gaps to convert the majority of the solar spectrum to electrical current while minimizing losses due to heating. Unlike a multijunction cell, this is accomplished within a single material in a multiband cell. ZnTe{sub 1-x}O{sub x} films with x up to 2% were synthesized and shown to have the requisite unique band structure (2 conduction bands) for multiband function. Prototype solar cells based on an n-type ZnTe{sub 1-x}O{sub x} multiband top layer and a p-type ZnTe substrate were fabricated. Contacts to the cell and the series resistance of the substrate were identified as challenges for good electrical performance. Both photovoltage and small photocurrents were demonstrated under AMO illumination. A second semiconductor system, GaN{sub x}As{sub 1-y-x}P{sub y}, was shown to have multiband function. This alloy system may have the greatest potential to realize the promise of high efficiency multiband solar cells because of the relatively advanced technology base that exists for the manufacturing of III-V-alloy-based IC and opto-electronic devices (including multijunction solar cells).

  11. Laboratory instrumentation and techniques for characterizing multi-junction solar cells for space applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Woodyard, J.R.

    1995-10-01

    Multi-junction solar cells are attractive for space applications because they can be designed to convert a larger fraction of AMO into electrical power at a lower cost than single-junction cells. The performance of multi-junction cells is much more sensitive to the spectral irradiance of the illuminating source than single-junction cells. The design of high efficiency multi-junction cells for space applications requires matching the optoelectronic properties of the junctions to AMO spectral irradiance. Unlike single-junction cells, it is not possible to carry out quantum efficiency measurements using only a monochromatic probe beam and determining the cell short-circuit current assuming linearity of the quantum efficiency. Additionally, current-voltage characteristics can not be calculated from measurements under non-AMO light sources using spectral-correction methods. There are reports in the literature on characterizing the performance of multi junction cells by measuring and convoluting the quantum efficiency of each junction with the spectral irradiance; the technique is of limited value for the characterization of cell performance under AMO power-generating conditions. The authors report the results of research to develop instrumentation and techniques for characterizing multi junction solar cells for space . An integrated system is described which consists of a standard lamp, spectral radiometer, dual-source solar simulator, and personal computer based current-voltage and quantum efficiency equipment. The spectral radiometer is calibrated regularly using the tungsten-halogen standard lamp which has a calibration based on NIST scales. The solar simulator produces the light bias beam for current-voltage and cell quantum efficiency measurements. The calibrated spectral radiometer is used to `fit` the spectral irradiance of the dual-source solar simulator to WRL AMO data.

  12. High efficiency shale oil recovery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adams, D.C.

    1992-01-01

    The overall project objective is to demonstrate the high efficiency of the Adams Counter-Current shale oil recovery process. The efficiency will first be demonstrated on a small scale, in the current phase, after which the demonstration will be extended to the operation of a small pilot plant. Thus the immediate project objective is to obtain data on oil shale retorting operations in a small batch rotary kiln that will be representative of operations in the proposed continuous process pilot plant. Although an oil shale batch sample is sealed in the batch kiln from the start until the end of the run, the process conditions for the batch are the same as the conditions that an element of oil shale would encounter in a continuous process kiln. Similar chemical and physical (heating, mixing) conditions exist in both systems. The two most important data objectives in this phase of the project are to demonstrate (1) that the heat recovery projected for this project is reasonable and (2) that an oil shale kiln will run well and not plug up due to sticking and agglomeration. The following was completed and is reported on this quarter: (1) A software routine was written to eliminate intermittently inaccurate temperature readings. (2) We completed the quartz sand calibration runs, resolving calibration questions from the 3rd quarter. (3) We also made low temperature retorting runs to identify the need for certain kiln modifications and kiln modifications were completed. (4) Heat Conductance data on two Pyrolysis runs were completed on two samples of Occidental oil shale.

  13. 2D Monolayers Could Yield Thinnest Solar Cells Ever

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Thinnest solar cells ever 2D Monolayers Could Yield Thinnest Solar Cells Ever October 21, 2013 Contact: Kathy Kincade, +1 510 495 2124, kkincade@lbl.gov Efforts to improve solar cells have historically focused on improving energy conversion efficiencies and lowering manufacturing costs. But new computer simulations have shown how using a different type of material could yield thinner, more lightweight solar panels that provide power densities - watts per kilogram of material - orders of

  14. ENGINEERED ELECTRODES AND ELECTRODE-ORGANIC INTERFACES FOR HIGH-EFFICIENCY ORGANIC PHOTOVOLTAICS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tobin J. Marks; R.P.H. Chang; Tom Mason; Ken Poeppelmeier; Arthur J. Freeman

    2008-11-13

    Organic photovoltaic (OPV) cells offer the ultimate promise of low cost, readily manufacturable, and durable solar power. While recent advances have led to cells with impressive performance levels, OPV cells have yet to break the double-digit efficiency barrier. Further gains in efficiency and durability, to that competitive with high-performance inorganic photovoltaics will require breakthroughs in transparent electrode and interfacial materials science and engineering. This project involved an integrated basic research effort carried out by an experienced and highly collaborative interdisciplinary team to address in unconventional ways, critical electrode-interfacial issues underlying OPV performance--controlling band offsets between transparent electrodes and organics, addressing current loss/leakage problems at interfaces, enhancing adhesion, interfacial stability, and device durability while minimizing cost. It synergistically combined materials and interfacial reagent synthesis, nanostructural and photovoltaic characterization, and high level quantum theory. The research foci were: 1) understanding of/development of superior transparent electrode materials and materials morphologies--i.e., better matched electronically and chemically to organic active layers, 2) understanding-based development of inorganic interfacial current-collecting/charge-blocking layers, and 3) understanding-based development of self-assembled adhesion/current-collecting/charge-blocking/cross-linking layers for high-efficiency OPV interfaces. Pursing the goal of developing the fundamental scientific understanding needed to design, fabricate, prototype and ultimately test high-efficiency OPV cells incorporating these new concepts, we achieved a record power conversion efficiency of 5.2% for an organic bulk-heterjunction solar cell.

  15. New Metallization Technique Suitable for 6-MW Pilot Production of Efficient Multicrystalline Solar Cells Using Upgraded Metallurgical Silicon: Final Technical Progress Report, December 17, 2007-- June 16, 2009

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    This report describes CaliSolar's work as a Photovoltaic Technology Incubator awardee within the U.S. Department of Energy's Solar Energy Technologies Program. The term of this subcontract with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory was two years. During this time, CaliSolar evolved from a handful of employees to over 100 scientists, engineers, technicians, and operators. On the technical side, the company transitioned from a proof-of-concept through pilot-scale to large-scale industrial production. A fully automated 60-megawatt manufacturing line was commissioned in Sunnyvale, California. The facility converts upgraded metallurgical-grade silicon feedstock to ingots, wafers, and high-efficiency multicrystalline solar cells.

  16. Solar cell array panel and method of manufacture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fraser, A. F.; Alsbach, W. G.

    1985-09-17

    An integral lightweight solar cell panel containing a plurality of interconnected solar cells bonded to a fiber-reinforced polyimide film made from an isoimide-containing precursor. The solar cells can be placed on the reinforced polyimide film while the film is in a partially cured condition and the cells become bonded to the film upon completion of the cure. A transparent polymeric film, such as a polyimide, can be used as protective means for the front surfaces of the cells.

  17. Modeling of Silicon Heterojunction Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luppina, P.; Lugli, P.; Goodnick, S.

    2015-06-14

    Here we present modeling results on crystalline Si/amorphous Si (a-Si) heterojunction solar cells using Sentaurus including various models for defect states in the a-Si barriers, as well as explicit models for the ITO emitter contact. We investigate the impact of the band offsets and barrier heights of the a-Si/c-Si interface, particularly in terms of the open circuit voltage. It is also shown that the solar cell performance is sensitively dependent on the quality of the a-Si in terms of defect states and their distribution, particularly on the emitter side. Finally, we have investigate the role of tunneling and thermionic emission across the heterointerface in terms of transport from the Si to the ITO contact layer

  18. Compensated amorphous-silicon solar cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Devaud, G.

    1982-06-21

    An amorphous silicon solar cell including an electrically conductive substrate, a layer of glow discharge deposited hydrogenated amorphous silicon having regions of differing conductivity with at least one region of intrinsic hydrogenated amorphous silicon. The layer of hydrogenated amorphous silicon has opposed first and second major surfaces where the first major surface contacts the elecrically conductive substrate and an electrode for electrically contacting the second major surface. The intrinsic hydrogenated amorphous silicon region is deposited in a glow discharge with an atmosphere which includes not less than about 0.02 atom percent mono-atomic boron. An improved N.I.P. solar cell is disclosed using a BF/sub 3/ doped intrinsic layer.

  19. Liquid-phase-deposited siloxane-based capping layers for silicon solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Veith-Wolf, Boris; Wang, Jianhui; Hannu-Kuure, Milja; Chen, Ning; Hadzic, Admir; Williams, Paul; Leivo, Jarkko; Karkkainen, Ari; Schmidt, Jan

    2015-02-02

    We apply non-vacuum processing to deposit dielectric capping layers on top of ultrathin atomic-layer-deposited aluminum oxide (AlO{sub x}) films, used for the rear surface passivation of high-efficiency crystalline silicon solar cells. We examine various siloxane-based liquid-phase-deposited (LPD) materials. Our optimized AlO{sub x}/LPD stacks show an excellent thermal and chemical stability against aluminum metal paste, as demonstrated by measured surface recombination velocities below 10 cm/s on 1.3 Ωcm p-type silicon wafers after firing in a belt-line furnace with screen-printed aluminum paste on top. Implementation of the optimized LPD layers into an industrial-type screen-printing solar cell process results in energy conversion efficiencies of up to 19.8% on p-type Czochralski silicon.

  20. Atomic-Layer-Deposited Transparent Electrodes for Silicon Heterojunction Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Demaurex, Benedicte; Seif, Johannes P.; Smit, Sjoerd; Macco, Bart; Kessels, W. M.; Geissbuhler, Jonas; De Wolf, Stefaan; Ballif, Christophe

    2014-11-01

    We examine damage-free transparent-electrode deposition to fabricate high-efficiency amorphous silicon/crystalline silicon heterojunction solar cells. Such solar cells usually feature sputtered transparent electrodes, the deposition of which may damage the layers underneath. Using atomic layer deposition, we insert thin protective films between the amorphous silicon layers and sputtered contacts and investigate their effect on device operation. We find that a 20-nm-thick protective layer suffices to preserve, unchanged, the amorphous silicon layers beneath. Insertion of such protective atomic-layer-deposited layers yields slightly higher internal voltages at low carrier injection levels. However, we identify the presence of a silicon oxide layer, formed during processing, between the amorphous silicon and the atomic-layer-deposited transparent electrode that acts as a barrier, impeding hole and electron collection.

  1. Solar cells utilizing pulsed-energy crystallized microcrystalline/polycrystalline silicon

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kaschmitter, James L. (Pleasanton, CA); Sigmon, Thomas W. (Beaverton, OR)

    1995-01-01

    A process for producing multi-terminal devices such as solar cells wherein a pulsed high energy source is used to melt and crystallize amorphous silicon deposited on a substrate which is intolerant to high processing temperatures, whereby to amorphous silicon is converted into a microcrystalline/polycrystalline phase. Dopant and hydrogenization can be added during the fabrication process which provides for fabrication of extremely planar, ultra shallow contacts which results in reduction of non-current collecting contact volume. The use of the pulsed energy beams results in the ability to fabricate high efficiency microcrystalline/polycrystalline solar cells on the so-called low-temperature, inexpensive plastic substrates which are intolerant to high processing temperatures.

  2. Atomic-Layer-Deposited Transparent Electrodes for Silicon Heterojunction Solar Cells

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Demaurex, Benedicte; Seif, Johannes P.; Smit, Sjoerd; Macco, Bart; Kessels, W. M.; Geissbuhler, Jonas; De Wolf, Stefaan; Ballif, Christophe

    2014-11-01

    We examine damage-free transparent-electrode deposition to fabricate high-efficiency amorphous silicon/crystalline silicon heterojunction solar cells. Such solar cells usually feature sputtered transparent electrodes, the deposition of which may damage the layers underneath. Using atomic layer deposition, we insert thin protective films between the amorphous silicon layers and sputtered contacts and investigate their effect on device operation. We find that a 20-nm-thick protective layer suffices to preserve, unchanged, the amorphous silicon layers beneath. Insertion of such protective atomic-layer-deposited layers yields slightly higher internal voltages at low carrier injection levels. However, we identify the presence of a silicon oxide layer, formed during processing,more » between the amorphous silicon and the atomic-layer-deposited transparent electrode that acts as a barrier, impeding hole and electron collection.« less

  3. Solar cells utilizing pulsed-energy crystallized microcrystalline/polycrystalline silicon

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kaschmitter, J.L.; Sigmon, T.W.

    1995-10-10

    A process for producing multi-terminal devices such as solar cells wherein a pulsed high energy source is used to melt and crystallize amorphous silicon deposited on a substrate which is intolerant to high processing temperatures, whereby the amorphous silicon is converted into a microcrystalline/polycrystalline phase. Dopant and hydrogenation can be added during the fabrication process which provides for fabrication of extremely planar, ultra shallow contacts which results in reduction of non-current collecting contact volume. The use of the pulsed energy beams results in the ability to fabricate high efficiency microcrystalline/polycrystalline solar cells on the so-called low-temperature, inexpensive plastic substrates which are intolerant to high processing temperatures.

  4. Technology and System Level Demonstration of Highly Efficient and Clean,

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Diesel Powered Class 8 Trucks | Department of Energy 3 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting arravt081_vss_damon_2013_o.pdf (5.05 MB) More Documents & Publications Technology and System Level Demonstration of Highly Efficient and Clean, Diesel Powered Class 8 Trucks Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Technology and System Level Demonstration of Highly Efficient and Clean, Diesel Powered Class 8

  5. Technology and System Level Demonstration of Highly Efficient and Clean,

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Diesel Powered Class 8 Trucks | Department of Energy 2 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting arravt081_vss_newhouse_2012_o.pdf (5.28 MB) More Documents & Publications Technology and System Level Demonstration of Highly Efficient and Clean, Diesel Powered Class 8 Trucks Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Technology and System Level Demonstration of Highly Efficient and Clean, Diesel Powered Class 8

  6. Technology and System Level Demonstration of Highly Efficient and Clean,

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Diesel Powered Class 8 Trucks | Department of Energy and System Level Demonstration of Highly Efficient and Clean, Diesel Powered Class 8 Trucks Technology and System Level Demonstration of Highly Efficient and Clean, Diesel Powered Class 8 Trucks 2011 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation arravt081_vss_newhouse_2011_o.pdf (3.64 MB) More Documents & Publications Technology and System Level Demonstration of Highly

  7. High Efficiency Engine Systems Development and Evaluation | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Systems Development and Evaluation High Efficiency Engine Systems Development and Evaluation 2011 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation ace017_briggs_2011_o.pdf (1.15 MB) More Documents & Publications Achieving and Demonstrating Vehicle Technologies Engine Fuel Efficiency Milestones Identification and Evaluation of Near-term Opportunities for Efficiency Improvement High Efficiency Engine Systems Development

  8. The Silicon Solar Cell Turns 50

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Daryl Chapin, Calvin Fuller, and Gerald Pearson likely never imagined inventing a solar ... Being a solar energy enthusiast, he suggested that the investi- gation include solar ...

  9. Interfacial Engineering for Highly Efficient-Conjugated Polymer-Based Bulk Heterojunction Photovoltaic Devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alex Jen; David Ginger; Christine Luscombe; Hong Ma

    2012-04-02

    The aim of our proposal is to apply interface engineering approach to improve charge extraction, guide active layer morphology, improve materials compatibility, and ultimately allow the fabrication of high efficiency tandem cells. Specifically, we aim at developing: i. Interfacial engineering using small molecule self-assembled monolayers ii. Nanostructure engineering in OPVs using polymer brushes iii. Development of efficient light harvesting and high mobility materials for OPVs iv. Physical characterization of the nanostructured systems using electrostatic force microscopy, and conducting atomic force microscopy v. All-solution processed organic-based tandem cells using interfacial engineering to optimize the recombination layer currents vi. Theoretical modeling of charge transport in the active semiconducting layer The material development effort is guided by advanced computer modeling and surface/ interface engineering tools to allow us to obtain better understanding of the effect of electrode modifications on OPV performance for the investigation of more elaborate device structures. The materials and devices developed within this program represent a major conceptual advancement using an integrated approach combining rational molecular design, material, interface, process, and device engineering to achieve solar cells with high efficiency, stability, and the potential to be used for large-area roll-to-roll printing. This may create significant impact in lowering manufacturing cost of polymer solar cells for promoting clean renewable energy use and preventing the side effects from using fossil fuels to impact environment.

  10. Composition for applying antireflective coating on solar cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whitehouse, D.L.

    1983-10-25

    A method is disclosed, and the composition, for the application of an antireflective coating on solar cells and the subsequent application of metal contacts comprising applying a screen to the surface of a solar cell, applying a paste comprising a metal alkoxide over the screen, heat treating the cell and metal alkoxide paste, and nickel plating the resultant cell.

  11. Method for applying antireflective coating on solar cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whitehouse, D.L.

    1982-05-04

    A method for the application and the composition of an antireflective coating on solar cells and the subsequent application of metal contacts comprises applying a screen to the surface of a solar cell, applying a paste comprising a metal alkoxide over the screen, heat treating the cell and metal alkoxide paste, and nickel plating the resultant cell.

  12. The boron-tailing myth in hydrogenated amorphous silicon solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stuckelberger, M. Bugnon, G.; Despeisse, M.; Schüttauf, J.-W.; Haug, F.-J.; Ballif, C.; Park, B.-S.

    2015-11-16

    The boron-tailing effect in hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) solar cells describes the reduced charge collection specifically in the blue part of the spectrum for absorber layers deposited above a critical temperature. This effect limits the device performance of state-of-the art solar cells: For enhanced current density (reduced bandgap), the deposition temperature should be as high as possible, but boron tailing gets detrimental above 200 °C. To investigate this limitation and to show potential paths to overcome it, we deposited high-efficiency a-Si:H solar cells, varying the deposition temperatures of the p-type and the intrinsic absorber (i) layers between 150 and 250 °C. Using secondary ion mass spectroscopy, we study dedicated stacks of i-p-i layers deposited at different temperatures. This allows us to track boron diffusion at the p-i and i-p interfaces as they occur in the p-i-n and n-i-p configurations of a-Si:H solar cells for different deposition conditions. Finally, we prove step-by-step that the common explanation for boron tailing—boron diffusion from the p layer into the i layer leading to enhanced recombination—is not generally true and propose an alternative explanation for the experimentally observed drop in the external quantum efficiency at short wavelengths.

  13. Solar Photovoltaic Cell/Module Shipments - Energy Information...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Solar Photovoltaic CellModule Shipments Report With data for 2014 | Release Date: July ... changes to strategic planning of companies in the U.S. solar photovoltaic (PV) industry. ...

  14. Student Winners Announced in Solar and Hydrogen Fuel Cell Car...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Student Winners Announced in Solar and Hydrogen Fuel Cell Car Races May 21, 2011 Sixty-five teams from 24 Colorado schools participated in today's Junior Solar Sprint and Hydrogen ...

  15. New Solar Cell Is More Efficient, Less Costly - News Feature...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    New Solar Cell Is More Efficient, Less Costly November 8, 2013 In this photo, a researcher in glasses holds a solar wafer about the size of a CD case. In the background are two ...

  16. Inverted amorphous silicon solar cell utilizing cermet layers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hanak, Joseph J.

    1979-01-01

    An amorphous silicon solar cell incorporating a transparent high work function metal cermet incident to solar radiation and a thick film cermet contacting the amorphous silicon opposite to said incident surface.

  17. Special section guest editorial: Hybrid organic-inorganic solar cells

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Nogueira, Ana Flavia; Rumbles, Garry

    2015-04-06

    In this special section of the Journal of Photonics for Energy, there is a focus on some of the science and technology of a range of different hybrid organic-inorganic solar cells. Prior to 1991 there were many significant scientific research reports of hybrid organic-inorganic solar cells; finally, however, it wasn’t until the dye-sensitized solar cell entered the league table of certified research cell efficiencies that this area experienced an explosion of research activity.

  18. Voltage-matched multijunction solar cell architectures for integrating PV

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    technologies - Energy Innovation Portal Find More Like This Return to Search Voltage-matched multijunction solar cell architectures for integrating PV technologies National Renewable Energy Laboratory Contact NREL About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary The U.S. Department of Energy SunShot Initiative aims to reduce the total installed cost of solar energy systems to $.06 per kilowatt-hour (kWh) by the year 2020. Reducing the cost of solar electricity requires that solar cell

  19. Solar Junction Develops World Record Setting Concentrated Photovoltaic Solar Cell

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    EERE supported the development of Solar Junction's concentrated photovoltaic technology that set a world record for conversion efficiency.

  20. TRANSPARENT COATINGS FOR SOLAR CELLS RESEARCH

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glatkowski, P.J.; Landis, D.A.

    2013-04-16

    Todays solar cells are fabricated using metal oxide based transparent conductive coatings (TCC) or metal wires with optoelectronic performance exceeding that currently possible with Carbon Nanotube (CNT) based TCCs. The motivation for replacing current TCC is their inherent brittleness, high deposition cost, and high deposition temperatures; leading to reduced performance on thin substrates. With improved processing, application and characterization techniques Nanofiber and/or CNT based TCCs can overcome these shortcomings while offering the ability to be applied in atmospheric conditions using low cost coating processes At todays level of development, CNT based TCC are nearing commercial use in touch screens, some types of information displays (i.e. electronic paper), and certain military applications. However, the resistivity and transparency requirements for use in current commercial solar cells are more stringent than in many of these applications. Therefore, significant research on fundamental nanotube composition, dispersion and deposition are required to reach the required performance commanded by photovoltaic devices. The objective of this project was to research and develop transparent conductive coatings based on novel nanomaterial composite coatings, which comprise nanotubes, nanofibers, and other nanostructured materials along with binder materials. One objective was to show that these new nanomaterials perform at an electrical resistivity and optical transparency suitable for use in solar cells and other energy-related applications. A second objective was to generate new structures and chemistries with improved resistivity and transparency performance. The materials also included the binders and surface treatments that facilitate the utility of the electrically conductive portion of these composites in solar photovoltaic devices. Performance enhancement venues included: CNT purification and metallic tube separation techniques, chemical doping, CNT

  1. Solar module having reflector between cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kardauskas, Michael J.

    1999-01-01

    A photovoltaic module comprising an array of electrically interconnected photovoltaic cells disposed in a planar and mutually spaced relationship between a light-transparent front cover member in sheet form and a back sheet structure is provided with a novel light-reflecting means disposed between adjacent cells for reflecting light falling in the areas between cells back toward said transparent cover member for further internal reflection onto the solar cells. The light-reflecting comprises a flexible plastic film that has been embossed so as to have a plurality of small V-shaped grooves in its front surface, and a thin light-reflecting coating on said front surface, the portions of said coating along the sides of said grooves forming light-reflecting facets, said grooves being formed so that said facets will reflect light impinging thereon back into said transparent cover sheet with an angle of incidence greater than the critical angle, whereby substantially all of the reflected light will be internally reflected from said cover sheet back to said solar modules, thereby increasing the current output of the module.

  2. 'Nano'tubes, Surface Area & NanoSolar Cells

    K-12 Energy Lesson Plans and Activities Web site (EERE)

    This unit takes students through several introductory lessons designed to gain a better understanding of the 'nano' scale as it relates to the creation of a (dye-sensitized) solar cell (DSSC). The introductory lessons guide students through activities covering volume, surface area and density and exploration of the relationship between these factors. The unit culminates with students building a Gratzel cell, a solar cell employing a layer of nanospheres of TiO2 as the semiconductor and blackberry juice as the light absorber in a non-Si-based solar cell. Students are able to build a small solar cell and test its efficiency.

  3. A High Efficiency PSOFC/ATS-Gas Turbine Power System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    W.L. Lundberg; G.A. Israelson; M.D. Moeckel; S.E. Veyo; R.A. Holmes; P.R. Zafred; J.E. King; R.E. Kothmann

    2001-02-01

    A study is described in which the conceptual design of a hybrid power system integrating a pressurized Siemens Westinghouse solid oxide fuel cell generator and the Mercury{trademark} 50 gas turbine was developed. The Mercury{trademark} 50 was designed by Solar Turbines as part of the US. Department of Energy Advanced Turbine Systems program. The focus of the study was to develop the hybrid power system concept that principally would exhibit an attractively-low cost of electricity (COE). The inherently-high efficiency of the hybrid cycle contributes directly to achieving this objective, and by employing the efficient, power-intensive Mercury{trademark} 50, with its relatively-low installed cost, the higher-cost SOFC generator can be optimally sized such that the minimum-COE objective is achieved. The system cycle is described, major system components are specified, the system installed cost and COE are estimated, and the physical arrangement of the major system components is discussed. Estimates of system power output, efficiency, and emissions at the system design point are also presented. In addition, two bottoming cycle options are described, and estimates of their effects on overall-system performance, cost, and COE are provided.

  4. Picture of the Week: Perovskite solar power

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    5 Perovskite solar power In recent experiments, Los Alamos National Lab scientists have produced perovskite crystals that exhibit solar conversion efficiencies comparable to those of silicon, the current gold standard. This image shows the kind of high-efficiency perovskite crystals regularly produced at Los Alamos. June 26, 2015 Perovskite solar power x View extra-large image on Flickr » Perovskites are a new class of solar-harvesting materials able to form crystalline solar cells that are

  5. Passivated Tunneling Contacts to N-Type Wafer Silicon and Their Implementation into High Performance Solar Cells: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stradins, P.; Essig, S.; Nemeth, W.; Lee, B. G.; Young, D.; Norman, A.; Liu, Y.; Luo, J.-W.; Warren, E.; Dameron, A.; LaSalvia, V.; Page, M.; Rohatgi, A.; Upadhyaya, A.; Rounsaville, B.; Ok, Y.-W.; Glunz, S.; Benick, J.; Feldmann, F.; Hermle, M.

    2014-12-01

    We present a case that passivated contacts based on a thin tunneling oxide layer, combined with a transport layer with properly selected work function and band offsets, can lead to high efficiency c-Si solar cells. Passivated contacts contribute to cell efficiency as well as design flexibility, process robustness, and a simplified process flow. Material choices for the transport layer are examined, including transparent n-type oxides and n+-doped poly-Si. SiO2/n+-poly-Si full-area, induced-junction back surface field contacts to n-FZ and n-Cz Si are incorporated into high efficiency cells with deep, passivated boron emitters.

  6. 15th Workshop on Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells and Modules: Materials and Processes; Extended Abstracts and Papers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sopori, B. L.

    2005-11-01

    The National Center for Photovoltaics sponsored the 15th Workshop on Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells & Modules: Materials and Processes, held in Vail, CO, August 7-10, 2005. This meeting provided a forum for an informal exchange of technical and scientific information between international researchers in the photovoltaic and relevant non-photovoltaic fields. The workshop addressed the fundamental properties of PV silicon, new solar cell designs, and advanced solar cell processing techniques. A combination of oral presentations by invited speakers, poster sessions, and discussion sessions reviewed recent advances in crystal growth, new cell designs, new processes and process characterization techniques, and cell fabrication approaches suitable for future manufacturing demands. The theme of this year's meeting was 'Providing the Scientific Basis for Industrial Success.' Specific sessions during the workshop included: Advances in crystal growth and material issues; Impurities and defects in Si; Advanced processing; High-efficiency Si solar cells; Thin Si solar cells; and Cell design for efficiency and reliability module operation. The topic for the Rump Session was ''Si Feedstock: The Show Stopper'' and featured a panel discussion by representatives from various PV companies.

  7. TJ Solar Cell (GaInP/GaAs/Ge Ultrahigh-Efficiency Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Friedman, Daniel

    2002-04-17

    This talk will discuss recent developments in III-V multijunction photovoltaic technology which have led to the highest-efficiency solar cells ever demonstrated. The relationship between the materials science of III-V semiconductors and the achievement of record solar cell efficiencies will be emphasized. For instance, epitaxially-grown GAInP has been found to form a spontaneously-ordered GaP/InP (111) superlattice. This ordering affects the band gap of the material, which in turn affects the design of solar cells which incorporate GaInP. For the next generation of ultrahigh-efficiency III-V solar cells, we need a new semiconductor which is lattice-matched to GaAs, has a band gap of 1 eV, and has long minority-carrier diffusion lengths. Out of a number of candidate materials, the recently-discovered alloy GaInNAs appears to have the greatest promise. This material satisfies the first two criteria, but has to date shown very low diffusion lengths, a problem which is our current focus in the development of these next-generation cells.

  8. Solare Cell Roof Tile And Method Of Forming Same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hanoka, Jack I. (Brookline, MA); Real, Markus (Oberberg, CH)

    1999-11-16

    A solar cell roof tile includes a front support layer, a transparent encapsulant layer, a plurality of interconnected solar cells and a backskin layer. The front support layer is formed of light transmitting material and has first and second surfaces. The transparent encapsulant layer is disposed adjacent the second surface of the front support layer. The interconnected solar cells has a first surface disposed adjacent the transparent encapsulant layer. The backskin layer has a first surface disposed adjacent a second surface of the interconnected solar cells, wherein a portion of the backskin layer wraps around and contacts the first surface of the front support layer to form the border region. A portion of the border region has an extended width. The solar cell roof tile may have stand-offs disposed on the extended width border region for providing vertical spacing with respect to an adjacent solar cell roof tile.

  9. GaP/Si heterojunction Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saive, R.; Chen, C.; Emmer, H.; Atwater, H.

    2015-05-11

    Improving the efficiency of solar cells requires the introduction of novel device concepts. Recent developments have shown that in Si solar cell technology there is still room for tremendous improvement. Using the heterojunction with intrinsic thin layer (HIT) approach 25.6 % power conversion efficiency was achieved. However, a-Si as a window and passivation layer comes with disadvantages as a-Si shows low conductivity and high parasitic absorption. Therefore, it is likely that using a crystalline material as window layer with high band gab and high mobility can further improve efficiency. We have studied GaP grown by MOCVD on Si with (001) and (112) orientation. We obtained crystalline layers with carrier mobility around 100 cm2/Vs and which passivate Si as confirmed by carrier lifetime measurements. We performed band alignment studies by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy yielding a valence band offset of 0.3 eV. Comparing this value with the Schottky-model leads to an interface dipole of 0.59 eV. The open circuit voltage increases with increasing doping and is consistent with the theoretical open circuit voltage deduced from work function difference and interface dipole. We obtain an open circuit voltage of 0.38 V for n-doped GaP with doping levels in the order of 10^17 1/cm^3. In our next steps we will increase the doping level further in order to gain higher open circuit voltage. We will discuss the implications of these findings for GaP/Si heterojunction solar cells.

  10. High performance anti-reflection coatings for broadband multi-junction solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    AIKEN,DANIEL J.

    2000-02-23

    The success of bandgap engineering has made high efficiency broadband multi-junction solar cells possible with photo-response out to the band edge of Ge. Modeling has been conducted which suggests that current double layer anti-reflection coating technology is not adequate for these devices in certain cases. Approaches for the development of higher performance anti-reflection coatings are examined. A new AR coating structure based on the use of Herpin equivalent layers is presented. Optical modeling suggests a decrease in the solar weighted reflectance of over 2.5{percent} absolute as a result. This structure requires no additional optical material development and characterization because no new optical materials are necessary. Experimental results and a sensitivity analysis are presented.

  11. Cadmium telluride solar cells: Record-breaking voltages

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poplawsky, Jonathan D.

    2016-01-01

    Here, the performance of CdTe solar cells — cheaper alternatives to silicon photovoltaics — is hampered by their low output voltages, which are normally well below the theoretical limit. Now, record voltages of over 1 V have been reported in single-crystal CdTe heterostructure solar cells, which are close to those of benchmark GaAs cells.

  12. NREL, SLAC Scientists Pinpoint Solar Cell Manufacturing Process - News

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Releases | NREL NREL, SLAC Scientists Pinpoint Solar Cell Manufacturing Process April 1, 2016 Scientists at the Energy Department's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory have been able to pinpoint for the first time what happens during a key manufacturing process of silicon solar cells. Their paper, "The formation mechanism for printed silver-contacts for silicon solar cells," appears in the journal Nature Communications. The paper was

  13. New Morphological Paradigm Uncovered in Organic Solar Cells

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    New Morphological Paradigm Uncovered in Organic Solar Cells Print Organic solar cells are made of light, flexible, renewable materials; they require simple and inexpensive processing steps and could produce an economically competitive and environmentally friendly energy source. Understanding the fundamentals of organic solar cell function is therefore vital to uncovering their maximum potential. Models describing critical device functions such as charge separation and transport often depend on

  14. New Morphological Paradigm Uncovered in Organic Solar Cells

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    New Morphological Paradigm Uncovered in Organic Solar Cells Print Organic solar cells are made of light, flexible, renewable materials; they require simple and inexpensive processing steps and could produce an economically competitive and environmentally friendly energy source. Understanding the fundamentals of organic solar cell function is therefore vital to uncovering their maximum potential. Models describing critical device functions such as charge separation and transport often depend on

  15. New Morphological Paradigm Uncovered in Organic Solar Cells

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    New Morphological Paradigm Uncovered in Organic Solar Cells Print Organic solar cells are made of light, flexible, renewable materials; they require simple and inexpensive processing steps and could produce an economically competitive and environmentally friendly energy source. Understanding the fundamentals of organic solar cell function is therefore vital to uncovering their maximum potential. Models describing critical device functions such as charge separation and transport often depend on

  16. New Morphological Paradigm Uncovered in Organic Solar Cells

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    New Morphological Paradigm Uncovered in Organic Solar Cells Print Organic solar cells are made of light, flexible, renewable materials; they require simple and inexpensive processing steps and could produce an economically competitive and environmentally friendly energy source. Understanding the fundamentals of organic solar cell function is therefore vital to uncovering their maximum potential. Models describing critical device functions such as charge separation and transport often depend on

  17. Engineering Metal Impurities in Multicrystalline Silicon Solar Cells

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Engineering Metal Impurities in Multicrystalline Silicon Solar Cells Print Transition metals are one of the main culprits in degrading the efficiency of multicrystalline solar cells. With a suite of x-ray microprobe techniques, a multi-institutional collaboration led by researchers from the University of California, Berkeley, and Berkeley Lab studied the distribution of metal clusters in a variety of multicrystalline solar cells before and after processing. Their discovery that the size, spatial

  18. Engineering Metal Impurities in Multicrystalline Silicon Solar Cells

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Engineering Metal Impurities in Multicrystalline Silicon Solar Cells Print Transition metals are one of the main culprits in degrading the efficiency of multicrystalline solar cells. With a suite of x-ray microprobe techniques, a multi-institutional collaboration led by researchers from the University of California, Berkeley, and Berkeley Lab studied the distribution of metal clusters in a variety of multicrystalline solar cells before and after processing. Their discovery that the size, spatial

  19. Engineering Metal Impurities in Multicrystalline Silicon Solar Cells

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Engineering Metal Impurities in Multicrystalline Silicon Solar Cells Print Transition metals are one of the main culprits in degrading the efficiency of multicrystalline solar cells. With a suite of x-ray microprobe techniques, a multi-institutional collaboration led by researchers from the University of California, Berkeley, and Berkeley Lab studied the distribution of metal clusters in a variety of multicrystalline solar cells before and after processing. Their discovery that the size, spatial

  20. Engineering Metal Impurities in Multicrystalline Silicon Solar Cells

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Engineering Metal Impurities in Multicrystalline Silicon Solar Cells Print Transition metals are one of the main culprits in degrading the efficiency of multicrystalline solar cells. With a suite of x-ray microprobe techniques, a multi-institutional collaboration led by researchers from the University of California, Berkeley, and Berkeley Lab studied the distribution of metal clusters in a variety of multicrystalline solar cells before and after processing. Their discovery that the size, spatial

  1. Engineering Metal Impurities in Multicrystalline Silicon Solar Cells

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Engineering Metal Impurities in Multicrystalline Silicon Solar Cells Print Transition metals are one of the main culprits in degrading the efficiency of multicrystalline solar cells. With a suite of x-ray microprobe techniques, a multi-institutional collaboration led by researchers from the University of California, Berkeley, and Berkeley Lab studied the distribution of metal clusters in a variety of multicrystalline solar cells before and after processing. Their discovery that the size, spatial

  2. Engineering Metal Impurities in Multicrystalline Silicon Solar Cells

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Engineering Metal Impurities in Multicrystalline Silicon Solar Cells Print Transition metals are one of the main culprits in degrading the efficiency of multicrystalline solar cells. With a suite of x-ray microprobe techniques, a multi-institutional collaboration led by researchers from the University of California, Berkeley, and Berkeley Lab studied the distribution of metal clusters in a variety of multicrystalline solar cells before and after processing. Their discovery that the size, spatial

  3. Engineering Metal Impurities in Multicrystalline Silicon Solar Cells

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Engineering Metal Impurities in Multicrystalline Silicon Solar Cells Engineering Metal Impurities in Multicrystalline Silicon Solar Cells Print Wednesday, 26 October 2005 00:00 Transition metals are one of the main culprits in degrading the efficiency of multicrystalline solar cells. With a suite of x-ray microprobe techniques, a multi-institutional collaboration led by researchers from the University of California, Berkeley, and Berkeley Lab studied the distribution of metal clusters in a

  4. New Morphological Paradigm Uncovered in Organic Solar Cells

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    New Morphological Paradigm Uncovered in Organic Solar Cells Print Organic solar cells are made of light, flexible, renewable materials; they require simple and inexpensive processing steps and could produce an economically competitive and environmentally friendly energy source. Understanding the fundamentals of organic solar cell function is therefore vital to uncovering their maximum potential. Models describing critical device functions such as charge separation and transport often depend on

  5. New Morphological Paradigm Uncovered in Organic Solar Cells

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    New Morphological Paradigm Uncovered in Organic Solar Cells Print Organic solar cells are made of light, flexible, renewable materials; they require simple and inexpensive processing steps and could produce an economically competitive and environmentally friendly energy source. Understanding the fundamentals of organic solar cell function is therefore vital to uncovering their maximum potential. Models describing critical device functions such as charge separation and transport often depend on

  6. New Morphological Paradigm Uncovered in Organic Solar Cells

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    New Morphological Paradigm Uncovered in Organic Solar Cells Print Organic solar cells are made of light, flexible, renewable materials; they require simple and inexpensive processing steps and could produce an economically competitive and environmentally friendly energy source. Understanding the fundamentals of organic solar cell function is therefore vital to uncovering their maximum potential. Models describing critical device functions such as charge separation and transport often depend on

  7. Structure of All-Polymer Solar Cells Impedes Efficiency

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Structure of All-Polymer Solar Cells Impedes Efficiency Structure of All-Polymer Solar Cells Impedes Efficiency Print Wednesday, 27 October 2010 00:00 Organic solar cells are made of thin layers of interpenetrating structures from two different conducting organic materials and are increasingly popular because they are both potentially cheaper to make than those currently in use and can be "painted" or printed onto a variety of surfaces, including flexible films made from the same

  8. Hydrogenation of Dislocation-Limited Heteroepitaxial Silicon Solar Cells:

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Preprint (Conference) | SciTech Connect Conference: Hydrogenation of Dislocation-Limited Heteroepitaxial Silicon Solar Cells: Preprint Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Hydrogenation of Dislocation-Limited Heteroepitaxial Silicon Solar Cells: Preprint Post-deposition hydrogenation by remote plasma significantly improves performance of heteroepitaxial silicon solar cells. Heteroepitaxial deposition of thin crystal silicon on sapphire for photovoltaics (PV) is an excellent model

  9. Method of fabricating bifacial tandem solar cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wojtczuk, Steven J; Chiu, Philip T; Zhang, Xuebing; Gagnon, Edward; Timmons, Michael

    2014-10-07

    A method of fabricating on a semiconductor substrate bifacial tandem solar cells with semiconductor subcells having a lower bandgap than the substrate bandgap on one side of the substrate and with subcells having a higher bandgap than the substrate on the other including, first, growing a lower bandgap subcell on one substrate side that uses only the same periodic table group V material in the dislocation-reducing grading layers and bottom subcells as is present in the substrate and after the initial growth is complete and then flipping the substrate and growing the higher bandgap subcells on the opposite substrate side which can be of different group V material.

  10. Boosting Accuracy of Testing Multijunction Solar Cells (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2015-01-01

    This NREL Highlight describes research into a more precise technology for measuring efficiency of concentrating solar cells, which will enable the industry to advance.

  11. Thinner Film Silicon Solar Cells - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    thin film silicon solar cells with a potential increase in photon energy conversion of up to 20%, a significant improvement over conventional thin film photovoltaic technologies. ...

  12. New Morphological Paradigm Uncovered in Organic Solar Cells

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    layer. This improved understanding will guide the future development and optimization of organic solar cells by reducing laborious trial-and-error development and forcing other...

  13. New Morphological Paradigm Uncovered in Organic Solar Cells

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    competitive and environmentally friendly energy source. Understanding the fundamentals of organic solar cell function is therefore vital to uncovering their maximum...

  14. New Morphological Paradigm Uncovered in Organic Solar Cells

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    an economically competitive and environmentally friendly energy source. Understanding the fundamentals of organic solar cell function is therefore vital to uncovering their maximum...

  15. NREL, SLAC Scientists Pinpoint Solar Cell Manufacturing Process...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Laboratory (NREL) and SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory have been able to pinpoint for the first time what happens during a key manufacturing process of silicon solar cells. ...

  16. New Morphological Paradigm Uncovered in Organic Solar Cells

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Understanding the fundamentals of organic solar cell function is therefore vital to uncovering their maximum potential. Models describing critical device functions such as charge ...

  17. Organics Energize Solar Cell Research | Argonne Leadership Computing...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    energy we have only recently begun to harvest and convert into electricity. Today, most solar panel technologies rely on crystalline silicon photovoltaic cells. Despite their...

  18. Hybrid Organic-Inorganic Halide Perovskite Solar Cells | Department...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    remain before perovskite solar cells can become a competitive commercial technology. ... semiconductor applications, including thin-film transistors and light-emitting diodes, ...

  19. NREL Achieves World Record Performance For Thin Film Solar Cell...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    NREL Achieves World Record Performance For Thin Film Solar Cell Technology Golden, Colo., May 10, 1996 -- Scientists at the U. S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy ...

  20. Simple Method Quantifies Recombination Pathways in Solar Cells (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2013-09-01

    NREL's analytic equation uses open-circuit voltage data to determine how much recombination occurs via different channels in a solar cell.