National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for high-concentration low-cost parabolic

  1. Project Profile: High-Concentration, Low-Cost Parabolic Trough...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Concentration, Low-Cost Parabolic Trough System for Baseload CSP Project Profile: High-Concentration, Low-Cost Parabolic Trough System for Baseload CSP SkyFuel logo SkyFuel, under ...

  2. Project Profile: High-Concentration, Low-Cost Parabolic Trough System for Baseload CSP

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    SkyFuel, under the Baseload CSP FOA, is developing an advanced, low-cost CSP collector using higher-concentration, higher-temperature, parabolic trough technology to substantially reduce the cost of baseload utility-scale solar power generation.

  3. Low Cost High Concentration PV Systems for Utility Power Generation |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Low Cost High Concentration PV Systems for Utility Power Generation An overview of the Low Cost High Concentration PV Systems for Utility Power Generation project to transition Amonix's concentrating photovoltaic (PV) systems from low-volume to high-volume production. PDF icon Low Cost High Concentration PV Systems for Utility Power Generation More Documents & Publications Solar America Initiative Low Cost High Concentration PV Systems for Utility Power Generation

  4. Advanced Low-Cost Receivers for Parabolic Troughs

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This fact sheet describes an advanced, low-cost receiver project for parabolic troughs, awarded under the DOE's 2012 SunShot Concentrating Solar Power R&D award program. Norwich Technologies is designing a novel receiver that addresses these issues for parabolic trough concentrating solar power systems. This technology represents significant operational and cost advances in the most trusted and broadly implemented form of CSP and provides a viable pathway to achieving SunShot’s $0.06/kWh goal for utility-scale CSP systems.

  5. Low Cost High Concentration PV Systems for Utility Power Generation Amonix,

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Inc. | Department of Energy Amonix, Inc. Low Cost High Concentration PV Systems for Utility Power Generation Amonix, Inc. A series of brief fact sheet on various topics including:Low Cost High Concentration PV Systems for Utility Power Generation,High Efficiency Concentrating Photovoltaic Power System,Reaching Grid Parity Using BP Solar Crystalline Silicon Technology, Fully Integrated Building Science Solutions for Residential and Commercial Photovoltaic Energy Generation,A Value Chain

  6. Norwich Technologies' Advanced Low-Cost Receivers for Parabolic Troughs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stettenheim, Joel; McBride, Troy O.; Brambles, Oliver J.; Cashin, Emil A.

    2013-12-31

    This report summarizes the successful results of our SunShot project, Advanced Low-Cost Receivers for Parabolic Troughs. With a limited budget of $252K and in only 12 months, we have (1) developed validated optical and thermal models and completed rigorous optimization analysis to identify key performance characteristics as part of developing first-generation laboratory prototype designs, (2) built optical and thermal laboratory prototypes and test systems with associated innovative testing protocols, and (3) performed extensive statistically relevant testing. We have produced fully functioning optical and thermal prototypes and accurate, validated models shown to capture important underlying physical mechanisms. The test results from the first-generation prototype establish performance exceeding the FOA requirement of thermal efficiency >90% for a CSP receiver while delivering an exit fluid temperature of > 650 °C and a cost < $150/kWth. Our vacuum-free SunTrap receiver design provides improvements over conventional vacuum-tube collectors, allowing dramatic reductions in thermal losses at high operating temperature.

  7. Low-Cost High-Concentration Photovoltaic Systems for Utility Power Generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McConnell, R.; Garboushian, V.; Gordon, R.; Dutra, D.; Kinsey, G.; Geer, S.; Gomez, H.; Cameron, C.

    2012-03-31

    Under DOE's Technology Pathway Partnership (TPP) program, Amonix, Inc. developed a new generation of high-concentration photovoltaic systems using multijunction technology and established the manufacturing capacity needed to supply multi-megawatt power plants buing using the new Amonix 7700-series solar energy systems. For this effort, Amonix Collaborated with a variety of suppliers and partners to complete project tasks. Subcontractors included: Evonik/Cyro; Hitek; the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL); Raytech; Spectrolab; UL; University of Nevada, Las Vegas; and TUV Rheinland PTL. The Amonix TPP tasks included: Task 1: Multijunction Cell Optimization for Field Operation, Task 2: Fresnel Lens R&D, Task 3: Cell Package Design & Production, Task 4: Standards Compliance and Reliability Testing, Task 5: Receiver Plate Production, Task 6: MegaModule Performance, Task 7: MegaModule Cost Reduction, Task 8: Factory Setup and MegaModule Production, Task 9: Tracker and Tracking Controller, Task 10: Installation and Balance of System (BOS), Task 11: Field Testing, and Task 12: Solar Advisor Modeling and Market Analysis. Amonix's TPP addressed nearly the complete PV value chain from epitaxial layer design and wafer processing through system design, manufacturing, deployment and O&M. Amonix has made progress toward achieving these reduced costs through the development of its 28%+ efficient MegaModule, reduced manufacturing and installation cost through design for manufacturing and assembly, automated manufacturing processes, and reduced O&M costs. Program highlights include: (1) Optimized multijunction cell and cell package design to improve performance by > 10%; (2) Updated lens design provided 7% increased performance and higher concentration; (3) 28.7% DC STC MegaModule efficiency achieved in Phase II exceeded Phase III performance goal; (4) New 16' focal length MegaModule achieved target materials and manufacturing cost reduction; (5) Designed and placed into production 25 MW/yr manufacturing capacity for complete MegaModules, including cell packages, receiver plates, and structures with lenses; (6) Designed and deployed Amonix 7700 series systems rated at 63 kW PTC ac and higher. Based on an LCOE assessment using NREL's Solar Advisor Model, Amonix met DOE's LCOE targets: Amonix 2011 LCOE 12.8 cents/kWh (2010 DOE goal 10-15); 2015 LCOE 6.4 cents/kWh (2015 goal 5-7) Amonix and TPP participants would like to thank the U.S. Department of Energy Solar Energy Technology Program for funding received under this program through Agreement No. DE-FC36-07GO17042.

  8. Low Cost High Concentration PV Systems for Utility Power Generation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Efficiency Concentrating Photovoltaic Power System,Reaching Grid Parity ... for Residential and Commercial Photovoltaic Energy Generation,A Value Chain ...

  9. Low Cost, Durable Seal

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This presentation, which focuses on low cost, durable seals, was given by George Roberts of UTC Power at a February 2007 meeting on new fuel cell projects.

  10. Low Cost, Durable Seal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roberts, George; Parsons, Jason; Friedman, Jake

    2010-12-17

    Seal durability is critical to achieving the 2010 DOE operational life goals for both stationary and transportation PEM fuel cell stacks. The seal material must be chemically and mechanically stable in an environment consisting of aggressive operating temperatures, humidified gases, and acidic membranes. The seal must also be producible at low cost. Currentlyused seal materials do not meet all these requirements. This project developed and demonstrated a high consistency hydrocarbon rubber seal material that was able to meet the DOE technical and cost targets. Significant emphasis was placed on characterization of the material and full scale molding demonstrations.

  11. Development of an Advanced, Low-Cost parabolic Trough Collector...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    This presentation was delivered at the SunShot Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) Program Review 2013, held April 23-25, 2013 near Phoenix, Arizona. PDF icon cspreviewmeeting042413...

  12. Project Profile: Advanced Low-Cost Receivers for Parabolic Troughs...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    tubes Offers better performance at lower cost: optical efficiency improved by 5%, ... Innovation Norwich Technologies' diverse advances in materials and coatings are capable ...

  13. Advanced Low-Cost Receivers for Parabolic Troughs

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This presentation was delivered at the SunShot Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) Program Review 2013, held April 23–25, 2013 near Phoenix, Arizona.

  14. Advanced Low-Cost Receivers for Parabolic Troughs (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2012-09-01

    Norwich Technologies is one of the 2012 SunShot CSP R&D awardees for their advanced receivers. This fact sheet explains the motivation, description, and impact of the project.

  15. Novel, Low-Cost Nanoparticle Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2011-05-31

    Fact sheet describing a modular hybrid plasma reactor and process to manufacture low-cost nanoparticles

  16. Research and Development of a Low Cost Solar Collector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ansari, Asif; Philip, Lee; Thouppuarachchi, Chirath

    2012-08-01

    This is a Final Technical Report on the Research and Development completed towards the development of a Low Cost Solar Collector conducted under the DOE cost-sharing award EE-0003591. The objective of this project was to develop a new class of solar concentrators with geometries and manufacturability that could significantly reduce the fully installed cost of the solar collector field for concentrated solar thermal power plants. The goal of the project was to achieve an aggressive cost target of $170/m2, a reduction of up to 50% in the total installed cost of a solar collector field as measured against the current industry benchmark of a conventional parabolic trough. The project plan, and the detailed activities conducted under the scope of the DOE Award project addressed all major drivers that affect solar collector costs. In addition to costs, the study also focused on evaluating technical performance of new collector architectures and compared them to the performance of the industry benchmark parabolic trough. The most notable accomplishment of this DOE award was the delivery of a full-scale integrated design, manufacturing and field installation solution for a new class of solar collector architecture which has been classified as the Bi-Planar Fresnel Collector (BPFC) and may be considered as a viable alternative to the conventional parabolic trough, as well as the conventional Fresnel collectors. This was in part accomplished through the design and development, all the way through fabrication and test validation of a new class of Linear Planar Fresnel Collector architecture. This architecture offers a number of key differentiating features which include a planar light-weight frame geometry with small mass-manufacturable elements utilizing flat mirror sections. The designs shows significant promise in reducing the material costs, fabrication costs, shipping costs, and on-site field installation costs compared to the benchmark parabolic trough, as well as the conventional Fresnel collector. The noteworthy design features of the BPFC architecture include the use of relatively cheaper flat mirrors and a design which allows the mirror support beam sections to act as load-bearing structural elements resulting in more than a 36% reduction in the overall structural weight compared to an optimized parabolic trough. Also, it was shown that the utilization of small mass-produced elements significantly lowers mass-production and logistics costs that can more quickly deliver economies of scale, even for smaller installations while also reducing shipping and installation costs. Moreover, unlike the traditional Fresnel trough the BPFC architecture does not require complex articulating drive mechanisms but instead utilizes a standard parabolic trough hydraulic drive mechanism. In addition to the development of the Bi-Planar Fresnel Collector, an optimized conventional space-frame type parabolic trough was also designed, built, analyzed and field-tested during the first phase of this award. The design of the conventional space-frame parabolic collector was refined with extensive FEA and CFD analysis to reduce material costs and re-designed for simpler fabrication and more accurate lower-cost field assembly. This optimized parabolic trough represented an improvement over the state-of-the art of the traditional parabolic trough architecture and also served as a more rigorous and less subjective benchmark that was used for comparison of new candidate design architectures. The results of the expanded 1st phase of the DOE award project showed that both the Optimized Parabolic Trough and the new Bi-Planar Fresnel Collector design concepts failed to meet the primary objectives for the project of achieving a 50% cost reduction from the industry reference total installed cost of $350/m2. Results showed that the BPFC came in at projected total installed cost of $237/m2 representing a 32% savings compared to the industry benchmark conventional parabolic trough. And the cost reduction obtained by the Optimized Parabolic Trough compared to the

  17. Low Cost Hydrogen Production Platform

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Timothy M. Aaron, Jerome T. Jankowiak

    2009-10-16

    A technology and design evaluation was carried out for the development of a turnkey hydrogen production system in the range of 2.4 - 12 kg/h of hydrogen. The design is based on existing SMR technology and existing chemical processes and technologies to meet the design objectives. Consequently, the system design consists of a steam methane reformer, PSA system for hydrogen purification, natural gas compression, steam generation and all components and heat exchangers required for the production of hydrogen. The focus of the program is on packaging, system integration and an overall step change in the cost of capital required for the production of hydrogen at small scale. To assist in this effort, subcontractors were brought in to evaluate the design concepts and to assist in meeting the overall goals of the program. Praxair supplied the overall system and process design and the subcontractors were used to evaluate the components and system from a manufacturing and overall design optimization viewpoint. Design for manufacturing and assembly (DFMA) techniques, computer models and laboratory/full-scale testing of components were utilized to optimize the design during all phases of the design development. Early in the program evaluation, a review of existing Praxair hydrogen facilities showed that over 50% of the installed cost of a SMR based hydrogen plant is associated with the high temperature components (reformer, shift, steam generation, and various high temperature heat exchange). The main effort of the initial phase of the program was to develop an integrated high temperature component for these related functions. Initially, six independent concepts were developed and the processes were modeled to determine overall feasibility. The six concepts were eventually narrowed down to the highest potential concept. A US patent was awarded in February 2009 for the Praxair integrated high temperature component design. A risk analysis of the high temperature component was conducted to identify any potential design deficiency related to the concept. The analysis showed that no fundamental design flaw existed with the concept, but additional simulations and prototypes would be required to verify the design prior to fabricating a production unit. These identified risks were addressed in detail during Phase II of the development program. Along with the models of the high temperature components, a detailed process and 3D design model of the remainder of system, including PSA, compression, controls, water treatment and instrumentation was developed and evaluated. Also, in Phase II of the program, laboratory/fullscale testing of the high temperature components was completed and stable operation/control of the system was verified. The overall design specifications and test results were then used to develop accurate hydrogen costs for the optimized system. Praxair continued development and testing of the system beyond the Phase II funding provided by the DOE through the end of 2008. This additional testing is not documented in this report, but did provide significant additional data for development of a prototype system as detailed in the Phase III proposal. The estimated hydrogen product costs were developed (2007 basis) for the 4.8 kg/h system at production rates of 1, 5, 10, 100 and 1,000 units built per year. With the low cost SMR approach, the product hydrogen costs for the 4.8 kg/h units at 50 units produced per year were approximately $3.02 per kg. With increasing the volume production to 1,000 units per year, the hydrogen costs are reduced by about 12% to $2.67 per kg. The cost reduction of only 12% is a result of significant design and fabrication efficiencies being realized in all levels of production runs through utilizing the DFMA principles. A simplified and easily manufactured design does not require large production volumes to show significant cost benefits. These costs represent a significant improvement and a new benchmark in the cost to produce small volume on-site hydrogen using existing process technologies. The cost models assume a natural gas cost of $5/MMBtu (HHV). Praxair has, in Phases I and II of this program, shown that significant improvements in cost, plant layout, system integration and overall system optimization are achievable. Phase III of the program, submitted in January 2007, was to focus on demonstrating both the technical feasibility and economic viability of the design developed in Phases I and II through a full-scale prototype design, construction, installation, analysis and operation at a hydrogen fueling station. Due to funding limitations, Phase III of the program was not approved by the DOE.

  18. Low Cost Durable Seal | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Cost Durable Seal Low Cost Durable Seal Part of a 100 million fuel cell award announced by DOE Secretary Bodman on Oct. 25, 2006. PDF icon 4utc.pdf More Documents & Publications ...

  19. Low Cost Heliostat Development | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    blackmon.pdf More Documents & Publications Next Generation Solar Collectors for CSP - FY13 Q1 Next Generation Solar Collectors for CSP - FY12 Q4 Low-Cost Heliostat for Modular Systems - FY13 Q1

  20. Low-cost inertial measurement unit.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deyle, Travis Jay

    2005-03-01

    Sandia National Laboratories performs many expensive tests using inertial measurement units (IMUs)--systems that use accelerometers, gyroscopes, and other sensors to measure flight dynamics in three dimensions. For the purpose of this report, the metrics used to evaluate an IMU are cost, size, performance, resolution, upgradeability and testing. The cost of a precision IMU is very high and can cost hundreds of thousands of dollars. Thus the goals and results of this project are as follows: (1) Examine the data flow in an IMU and determine a generic IMU design. (2) Discuss a high cost IMU implementation and its theoretically achievable results. (3) Discuss design modifications that would save money for suited applications. (4) Design and implement a low cost IMU and discuss its theoretically achievable results. (5) Test the low cost IMU and compare theoretical results with empirical results. (6) Construct a more streamlined printed circuit board design reducing noise, increasing capabilities, and constructing a self-contained unit. Using these results, we can compare a high cost IMU versus a low cost IMU using the metrics from above. Further, we can examine and suggest situations where a low cost IMU could be used instead of a high cost IMU for saving cost, size, or both.

  1. Renewable Low-Cost Carbon Fiber Workshop Agenda | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Low-Cost Carbon Fiber Workshop Agenda Renewable Low-Cost Carbon Fiber Workshop Agenda Renewable Low-Cost Carbon Fiber Workshop Agenda PDF icon carbonfiberworkshopagenda.pdf More ...

  2. Solid State Processing of New Low Cost Titanium Powders Enabling...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Processing of New Low Cost Titanium Powders Enabling Affordable Automotive Components Solid State Processing of New Low Cost Titanium Powders Enabling Affordable Automotive ...

  3. Low Cost, High Temperature, High Ripple Current DC Bus Capacitors...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Low Cost, High Temperature, High Ripple Current DC Bus Capacitors Low Cost, High Temperature, High Ripple Current DC Bus Capacitors 2010 DOE Vehicle Technologies and Hydrogen...

  4. Renewable, Low-Cost Carbon Fiber for Lightweight Vehicles: Summary...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Renewable, Low-Cost Carbon Fiber for Lightweight Vehicles: Summary Report Renewable, Low-Cost Carbon Fiber for Lightweight Vehicles: Summary Report This report outlines the final...

  5. Manufacturing of Monolithic Electrodes from Low-Cost Renewable...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    of Monolithic Electrodes from Low-Cost Renewable Resources Lignin, a low-cost, biomass derived precursor, was selected as an alternative for carbon based free standing...

  6. Low-Cost, Lightweight Solar Concentrator | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Concentrator Low-Cost, Lightweight Solar Concentrator This fact sheet describes a low-cost, lightweight solar conductor project awarded under the DOE's 2012 SunShot Concentrating ...

  7. Development of a Low Cost Ultra Specular Advanced Polymer Film...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Low Cost Ultra Specular Advanced Polymer Film Solar Reflector Development of a Low Cost Ultra Specular Advanced Polymer Film Solar Reflector This presentation was delivered at the ...

  8. Low-Cost Manufacturable Microchannel Systems for Passive PEM...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Low-Cost Manufacturable Microchannel Systems for Passive PEM Water Management Low-Cost Manufacturable Microchannel Systems for Passive PEM Water Management This presentation, which ...

  9. Low Cost Manufacturable Microchannel Systems for Passive PEM...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Low Cost Manufacturable Microchannel Systems for Passive PEM Water Management Low Cost Manufacturable Microchannel Systems for Passive PEM Water Management Part of a 100 million ...

  10. Renewable, Low-Cost Carbon Fiber for Lightweight Vehicles: Summary...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Renewable, Low-Cost Carbon Fiber for Lightweight Vehicles: Summary Report Renewable, Low-Cost Carbon Fiber for Lightweight Vehicles: Summary Report This report outlines the final ...

  11. Development of Low Cost Industrially Scalable PCM Capsules for...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Low Cost Industrially Scalable PCM Capsules for Thermal Energy Storage in CSP Plants Development of Low Cost Industrially Scalable PCM Capsules for Thermal Energy Storage in CSP ...

  12. Low-Cost Packaged CHP System with Reduced Emissions - Presentation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Low-Cost Packaged CHP System with Reduced Emissions - Presentation by Cummins Power Generation, June 2011 Low-Cost Packaged CHP System with Reduced Emissions - Presentation by ...

  13. Modular Process Equipment for Low Cost Manufacturing of High...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Process Equipment for Low Cost Manufacturing of High Capacity Prismatic Li-Ion Cell Alloy Anodes Modular Process Equipment for Low Cost Manufacturing of High Capacity Prismatic Li-...

  14. Low-Cost Ventilation in Production Housing - Building America...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Low-Cost Ventilation in Production Housing - Building America Top Innovation Low-Cost Ventilation in Production Housing - Building America Top Innovation This drawing shows simple ...

  15. Low-cost laser diode array

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Freitas, Barry L.; Skidmore, Jay A.

    1999-01-01

    A substrate is used to fabricate a low-cost laser diode array. A substrate is machined from an electrically insulative material that is thermally conductive, or two substrates can be bonded together in which the top substrate is electrically as well as thermally conductive. The substrate thickness is slightly longer than the cavity length, and the width of the groove is wide enough to contain a bar and spring (which secures the laser bar firmly along one face of the groove). The spring also provides electrical continuity from the backside of the bar to the adjacent metalization layer on the laser bar substrate. Arrays containing one or more bars can be formed by creating many grooves at various spacings. Along the groove, many bars can be adjoined at the edges to provide parallel electrical conduction. This architecture allows precise and predictable registration of an array of laser bars to a self-aligned microlens array at low cost.

  16. Low-cost laser diode array

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Freitas, B.L.; Skidmore, J.A.

    1999-06-01

    A substrate is used to fabricate a low-cost laser diode array. A substrate is machined from an electrically insulative material that is thermally conductive, or two substrates can be bonded together in which the top substrate is electrically as well as thermally conductive. The substrate thickness is slightly longer than the cavity length, and the width of the groove is wide enough to contain a bar and spring (which secures the laser bar firmly along one face of the groove). The spring also provides electrical continuity from the backside of the bar to the adjacent metalization layer on the laser bar substrate. Arrays containing one or more bars can be formed by creating many grooves at various spacings. Along the groove, many bars can be adjoined at the edges to provide parallel electrical conduction. This architecture allows precise and predictable registration of an array of laser bars to a self-aligned microlens array at low cost. 19 figs.

  17. Low-Cost Spectral Sensor Development Description.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Armijo, Kenneth Miguel; Yellowhair, Julius

    2014-11-01

    Solar spectral data for all parts of the US is limited due in part to the high cost of commercial spectrometers. Solar spectral information is necessary for accurate photovoltaic (PV) performance forecasting, especially for large utility-scale PV installations. A low-cost solar spectral sensor would address the obstacles and needs. In this report, a novel low-cost, discrete- band sensor device, comprised of five narrow-band sensors, is described. The hardware is comprised of commercial-off-the-shelf components to keep the cost low. Data processing algorithms were developed and are being refined for robustness. PV module short-circuit current ( I sc ) prediction methods were developed based on interaction-terms regression methodology and spectrum reconstruction methodology for computing I sc . The results suggest the computed spectrum using the reconstruction method agreed well with the measured spectrum from the wide-band spectrometer (RMS error of 38.2 W/m 2 -nm). Further analysis of computed I sc found a close correspondence of 0.05 A RMS error. The goal is for ubiquitous adoption of the low-cost spectral sensor in solar PV and other applications such as weather forecasting.

  18. Development of an Advanced, Low-Cost parabolic Trough Collector for Baseload Operation

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This presentation was delivered at the SunShot Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) Program Review 2013, held April 23–25, 2013 near Phoenix, Arizona.

  19. Advanced Low-Cost Receivers for Parabolic Troughs- FY13 Q2

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This document summarizes the progress of this Norwich Technologies project, funded by SunShot, for the second quarter of fiscal year 2013.

  20. Advanced Low-Cost Recievers for Parabolic Troughs- FY13 Q3

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This document summarizes the progress of this Norwich project, funded by SunShot, for the third quarter of fiscal year 2013.

  1. Solar parabolic trough

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None, None

    2009-01-18

    The solar parabolic trough section of the Renewable Energy Technology Characterizations describes the technical and economic status of this emerging renewable energy option for electricity supply.

  2. Low-Cost Microchannel Heat Exchanger

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ALTEX TECHNOLOGIES CORPORATION Low-Cost Microchannel Heat Exchanger DOE Grant DE-EE0004541 2013-2014 Dr. John T. Kelly Altex Technologies Corporation 244 Sobrante Way Sunnyvale, CA 94086 Phone: 408-328-8302 E-mail: john@altextech.com U.S. DOE Advanced Manufacturing Office PEER Review Meeting Washington, D.C. May 6-7, 2014 This presentation does not contain any proprietary, confidential, or otherwise restricted information. ALTEX TECHNOLOGIES CORPORATION Project Objectives  Define and test low

  3. Low Cost SiOx-Graphite and Olivine Materials | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Inc. | Department of Energy A series of brief fact sheet on various topics including:Low Cost High Concentration PV Systems for Utility Power Generation,High Efficiency Concentrating Photovoltaic Power System,Reaching Grid Parity Using BP Solar Crystalline Silicon Technology, Fully Integrated Building Science Solutions for Residential and Commercial Photovoltaic Energy Generation,A Value Chain Partnership to Accelerate U.S. Photovoltaic Industry Growth,AC Module PV System,Flexible Organic

  4. Development and Commercialization of a Novel Low-Cost Carbon...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Commercialization of a Novel Low-Cost Carbon Fiber Development and Commercialization of a Novel Low-Cost Carbon Fiber 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle ...

  5. Low-Cost Illumination-Grade LEDs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Epler, John

    2013-08-31

    Solid State Lighting is a cost-effective, energy-conserving technology serving a rapidly expand- ing multi-billion dollar market. This program was designed to accelerate this lighting revolution by reducing the manufacturing cost of Illumination-Grade LEDs. The technical strategy was to investigate growth substrate alternatives to standard planar sapphire, select the most effective and compatible option, and demonstrate a significant increase in Lumen/$ with a marketable LED. The most obvious alternate substrate, silicon, was extensively studied in the first two years of the program. The superior thermal and mechanical properties of Si were expected to improve wavelength uniformity and hence color yield in the manufacture of high-power illumination- grade LEDs. However, improvements in efficiency and epitaxy uniformity on standard c-plane sapphire diminished the advantages of switching to Si. Furthermore, the cost of sapphire decreased significantly and the cost of processing Si devices using our thin film process was higher than expected. We concluded that GaN on Si was a viable technology but not a practical option for Philips Lumileds. Therefore in 2012 and 2013, we sought and received amendments which broadened the scope to include other substrates and extended the time of execution. Proprietary engineered substrates, off-axis (non-c-plane) sapphire, and c-plane patterned sapphire substrates (PSS) were all investigated in the final 18 months of this program. Excellent epitaxy quality was achieved on all three candidates; however we eliminated engineered substrates and non-c-plane sapphire because of their higher combined cost of substrate, device fabrication and packaging. Ultimately, by fabricating a flip-chip (FC) LED based upon c-plane PSS we attained a 42% reduction in LED manufacturing cost relative to our LUXEON Rebel product (Q1-2012). Combined with a flux gain from 85 to 102 Lm, the LUXEON Q delivered a 210% increase in Lm/$ over this time period. The technology was commercialized in our LUXEON Q product in Sept., 2013. Also, the retention of the sapphire increased the robustness of the device, enabling sales of low-cost submount-free chips to lighting manufacturers. Thus, blue LED die sales were initiated in the form of a PSS-FC in February, 2013.

  6. Durable Low Cost Improved Fuel Cell Membranes | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Durable Low Cost Improved Fuel Cell Membranes Durable Low Cost Improved Fuel Cell Membranes Part of a $100 million fuel cell award announced by DOE Secretary Bodman on Oct. 25, 2006. PDF icon 1_arkema.pdf More Documents & Publications Polyvinylidene Fluoride-Based Membranes for Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Applications Durable, Low Cost, Improved Fuel Cell Membranes Novel Materials for High Efficiency Direct Methanol Fuel Cells

  7. Hot Electron Photovoltaics Using Low Cost Materials and Simple...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Hot Electron Photovoltaics Using Low Cost Materials and Simple Cell Design Lawrence ... Similarly, complex cell designs or designs that feature nano-architectures such as quantum ...

  8. An integrated approach towards efficient, scalable, and low cost...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    An integrated approach towards efficient, scalable, and low cost thermoelectric waste heat recovery devices for vehicles An integrated approach towards efficient, scalable, and low ...

  9. An integrated approach towards efficient, scalable, and low cost...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Efficient, scalable, and low cost vehicular thermoelectric generators development will ... More Documents & Publications An integrated approach towards efficient, scalable, and low ...

  10. Low cost fuel cell diffusion layer configured for optimized anode...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    for optimized anode water management Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Low cost fuel cell diffusion layer configured for optimized anode water management A fuel cell ...

  11. An integrated approach towards efficient, scalable, and low cost...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    2011 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle ... NSFDOE Thermoelectric Partnership: High-Performance ... approach towards efficient, scalable, and low cost ...

  12. Low Cost, High Efficiency Tandem Silicon Solar Cells and LEDs...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Building Energy Efficiency Building Energy ... Return to Search Low Cost, High Efficiency Tandem Silicon Solar Cells and LEDs ... gaps will lead to efficient power conversion. ...

  13. Project Profile: Low-Cost, Lightweight Solar Concentrators |...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    components and associated control system Design, integrate, and test a low-cost concentrator Analyze the system's cost to demonstrate achieving the 75m2 collector system target. ...

  14. Retro-Commissioning Increases Data Center Efficiency at Low Cost...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    project at the Department of Energy's Savannah River Site to increase data center energy efficiency at low costs. PDF icon datacentersavannah.pdf More Documents & Publications ...

  15. Low Cost Injection Mold Creation via Hybrid Additive and Conventional...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Low Cost Injection Mold Creation via Hybrid Additive and Conventional Manufacturing Citation Details ... reduce the cost of the tooling (machining and materials) required to create ...

  16. Low Cost Exploration, Testing, And Development Of The Chena Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Conference Paper: Low Cost Exploration, Testing, And Development Of The Chena Geothermal Resource Abstract The...

  17. Low Cost Exploration, Testing, and Development of the Chena Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal Article: Low Cost Exploration, Testing, and Development of the Chena Geothermal Resource Abstract The...

  18. Low Cost Carbon Fiber Overview | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    02_warren_2011_o.pdf More Documents & Publications Low Cost Carbon Fiber Overview Lower Cost, Higher Performance Carbon Fiber Lower Cost Carbon Fiber Precursors

  19. A Low-Cost Continuous Emissions Monitoring System for Mobile...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    A Low-Cost Continuous Emissions Monitoring System for Mobile and Stationary Engine SCRDPF ApplicationsData-Logger for Vehicle Data Acquisition This project describes a novel ...

  20. Utilizing Bacteria for Sustainable Manufacturing of Low-Cost...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Bacteria for Sustainable Manufacturing of Low-Cost Nanoparticles Chad Duty, Ph.D. ... bacteria Valuable mass produced nanoparticles Cheap sugar 4 Managed by UT-Battelle ...

  1. Low-Cost Electrochemical Compressor Utilizing Green Refrigerants...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Electrochemical Compressor Utilizing Green Refrigerants for HVAC Applications Low-Cost ... 31, 2017 Funding Opportunity: Building Energy Efficiency Frontiers and Innovation ...

  2. Low-cost Electromagnetic Heating Technology for Polymer Extrusion...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Heating Technology for Polymer Extrusion-based Additive Manufacturing Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Low-cost Electromagnetic Heating Technology for Polymer ...

  3. Low-Cost Solutions for Dynamic Window Material | Department of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Solutions for Dynamic Window Material Low-Cost Solutions for Dynamic Window Material ... More Documents & Publications Atmospheric Pressure Deposition for Electrochromic Windows ...

  4. Low-Cost, Lightweight Solar Concentrators - FY13 Q1 | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Low-Cost, Lightweight Solar Concentrators FY13 Q2 Low-Cost, Lightweight Solar Concentrator Low-Cost Light Weigh Thin Film Solar Concentrators

  5. Session: Parabolic Troughs (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kutscher, C.

    2008-04-01

    The project description is R and D activities at NREL and Sandia aimed at lowering the delivered energy cost of parabolic trough collector systems and FOA awards to support industry in trought development. The primary objectives are: (1) support development of near-term parabolic trought technology for central station power generation; (2) support development of next-generation trought fields; and (3) support expansion of US trough industry. The major FY08 activities were: (1) improving reflector optics; (2) reducing receiver heat loss (including improved receiver coating and mitigating hydrogen accumulation); (3) measuring collector optical efficiency; (4) optimizing plant performance and reducing cost; (5) reducing plant water consumption; and (6) directly supporting industry needs, including FOA support.

  6. Efficient, Low-cost Microchannel Heat Exchanger - Energy Innovation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Find More Like This Return to Search Efficient, Low-cost Microchannel Heat Exchanger ... will not only be much more efficient, but will also be manufactured at a much lower cost. ...

  7. low-cost-sorbent | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Low Cost Sorbent for Capturing CO2 Emissions Generated by Existing Coal-Fired Power Plants Project No.: DE-NT0005497 TDA sorbent test equipment TDA sorbent test equipment. TDA ...

  8. Print-based Manufacturing of Integrated, Low Cost, High Performance...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    a new low-cost, high-efficiency LED architecture made possible by novel large-area ... Related Publications PDF icon 2015 BTO Peer Review Presentation - Print-based ...

  9. Low-Cost Electrochemical Compressor Utilizing Green Refrigerants...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Key Milestones: 1. Test Novel (low cost) Membrane systems 2. Develop Advanced MEA based on Membranes 3. Design and build prototype ECC system for testing 4. Design and build ...

  10. Bio-oil Upgrading with Novel Low Cost Catalysts Presentation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Technologies Office (BETO) 2015 Project Peer Review Bio-oil Upgrading with Novel Low Cost Catalysts March 24, 2015 Bio-oil Technology Area Review Jae-Soon Choi Oak Ridge National ...

  11. Low-Cost LED Luminaire for General Illumination

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    paulfini@cree.com CREE SBTC Low-Cost LED Luminaire for General Illumination 2014 Building Technologies Office Peer Review Paul Fini CREE Santa Barbara Technology Center 2 Project ...

  12. Low-Cost Direct Bonded Aluminum (DBA) Substrates

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    for mass production and that produces high adhesive strength of the ceramic-metal interfaces. Consider the fabrication and use of low-cost AlN as a potential (and...

  13. Low-cost exterior insulation process and structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vohra, A.

    1999-03-02

    A low-cost exterior insulation process of stacking bags of insulating material against a wall and covering them with wire mesh and stucco provides a durable structure with good insulating value. 2 figs.

  14. Low-cost exterior insulation process and structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vohra, Arun

    1999-01-01

    A low-cost exterior insulation process of stacking bags of insulating material against a wall and covering them with wire mesh and stucco provides a durable structure with good insulating value.

  15. Low Cost Nanostructured Smart Window Coatings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Low Cost Nanostructured Smart Window Coatings Low Cost Nanostructured Smart Window Coatings Addthis 1 of 3 A Heliotrope scientist prepares slot die coater for solution based deposition of electrochromic layer. Image: Heliotrope Technologies 2 of 3 A Heliotrope scientist investigates the coating quality of a slot die deposition of electrochromic layer. Image: Heliotrope Technologies 3 of 3 A Heliotrope scientist investigates the spray coater for a solution based deposition of electrochromic

  16. Low-Cost Ventilation in Production Housing - Building America Top

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Innovation | Department of Energy Low-Cost Ventilation in Production Housing - Building America Top Innovation Low-Cost Ventilation in Production Housing - Building America Top Innovation This drawing shows simple and cost-effective ventilation strategies for homes. As high-performance homes get more air tight and better insulated, attention to good indoor air quality becomes essential. This Top Innovation profile describes Building America research by Building Science Corporation to develop

  17. Low Cost Injection Mold Creation via Hybrid Additive and Conventional

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Manufacturing (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Low Cost Injection Mold Creation via Hybrid Additive and Conventional Manufacturing Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Low Cost Injection Mold Creation via Hybrid Additive and Conventional Manufacturing The purpose of the proposed project between Cummins and ORNL is to significantly reduce the cost of the tooling (machining and materials) required to create injection molds to make plastic components. Presently, the high cost of this

  18. Transforming Ordinary Buildings into Smart Buildings via Low-Cost,

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Self-Powering Wireless Sensors and Sensor Networks | Department of Energy Ordinary Buildings into Smart Buildings via Low-Cost, Self-Powering Wireless Sensors and Sensor Networks Transforming Ordinary Buildings into Smart Buildings via Low-Cost, Self-Powering Wireless Sensors and Sensor Networks Lead Performer: Case Western Reserve University - Cleveland, OH Partner: Intwine Inc. - Cleveland, OH DOE Funding: $750,000 Cost Share: N/A Project Term: October 2014 - September 2016 Funding

  19. Project Profile: Low-Cost Heliostat Development | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Cost Heliostat Development Project Profile: Low-Cost Heliostat Development HiTek logo HiTek Services, under the Baseload CSP FOA, is conducting fundamental parametric analyses of the optimum heliostat size and developing a novel low-cost heliostat design. Approach There are four tasks under this award: Photo of a machine with two round discs connected by intertwined chains. Develop a means to determine the optimum size range of the heliostat, in terms of the applied forces and moments,

  20. An integrated approach towards efficient, scalable, and low cost

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    thermoelectric waste heat recovery devices for vehicles | Department of Energy Efficient, scalable, and low cost vehicular thermoelectric generators development will include rapid synthesis of thermoelectric materials, different device geometries, heat sink designs, and durability and long-term performance tests PDF icon huxtable.pdf More Documents & Publications An integrated approach towards efficient, scalable, and low cost thermoelectric waste heat recovery devices for vehicles

  1. PROJECT PROFILE: Enabling High Concentration Photovoltaics with...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    The efficiency and concentration of III-V multi-junction solar cells are essential to reduce the cost of high concentration photovoltaic systems (HCPV). This project will push the ...

  2. High efficiency and high concentration in photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yamaguchi, Masafumi; Luque, A.

    1999-10-01

    In this paper, the authors present the state-of-the-art of multijunction solar cells and the future prospects of this technology. Their use in terrestrial applications will likely be for concentrators operating at very high concentrations. Some trends are also discussed and the authors present a cost calculation showing that highly efficient cells under very high concentration would be able to produce electricity at costs competitive with electricity generation costs for some utilities.

  3. Key issues for low-cost FGD installations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DePriest, W.; Mazurek, J.M.

    1995-12-01

    This paper will discuss various methods for installing low-cost FGD systems. The paper will include a discussion of various types of FGD systems available, both wet and dry, and will compare the relative cost of each type. Important design issues, such as use of spare equipment, materials of construction, etc. will be presented. An overview of various low-cost construction techniques (i.e., modularization) will be included. This paper will draw heavily from Sargent & Lundy`s database of past and current FGD projects together with information we gathered for several Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) studies on the subject.

  4. Gelatin/graphene systems for low cost energy storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Landi, Giovanni; Fedi, Filippo; Sorrentino, Andrea; Iannace, Salvatore; Neitzert, Heinz C.

    2014-05-15

    In this work, we introduce the possibility to use a low cost, biodegradable material for temporary energy storage devices. Here, we report the use of biologically derived organic electrodes composed of gelatin ad graphene. The graphene was obtained by mild sonication in a mixture of volatile solvents of natural graphite flakes and subsequent centrifugation. The presence of exfoliated graphene sheets was detected by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and Raman spectroscopy. The homogeneous dispersion in gelatin demonstrates a good compatibility between the gelatin molecules and the graphene particles. The electrical characterization of the resulting nanocomposites suggests the possible applications as materials for transient, low cost energy storage device.

  5. Project Profile: Low-Cost Heliostat for Modular Systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    -- This project is inactive -- The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), under the National Laboratory R&D competitive funding opportunity, is developing and demonstrating a novel collector design and low-cost heliostat that will reduce equipment and installation costs while improving or maintaining performance, thereby reaching SunShot Initiative cost and performance targets for concentrating solar power (CSP) collector systems.

  6. Low Cost Carbon Fiber Research in the LM Materials Program Overview...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Research in the LM Materials Program Overview Low Cost Carbon Fiber Research in the LM ... More Documents & Publications Low Cost Carbon Fiber Overview FY 2009 Progress Report for ...

  7. Scalable, Low-Cost, High Performance IPM Motor for Hybrid Vehicles...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Scalable, Low-Cost, High Performance IPM Motor for Hybrid Vehicles Scalable, Low-Cost, High Performance IPM Motor for Hybrid Vehicles Vehicle ...

  8. Scalable, Low-Cost, High Performance IPM Motor for Hybrid Vehicles...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Scalable, Low-Cost, High Performance IPM Motor for Hybrid Vehicles Scalable, Low-Cost, High Performance IPM Motor for Hybrid Vehicles ...

  9. Low-Cost Light Weigh Thin Film Solar Concentrators | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    313_ganapathi.pdf More Documents & Publications Low-Cost, Lightweight Solar Concentrators - FY13 Q1 Low-Cost, Lightweight Solar Concentrators FY13 Q2

  10. Low-Cost Hydrogen-from-Ethanol: A Distributed Production System...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Low-Cost Hydrogen-from-Ethanol: A Distributed Production System (Presentation) Low-Cost Hydrogen-from-Ethanol: A Distributed Production System (Presentation) Presented at the 2007 ...

  11. Innovative Manufacturing and Materials for Low-Cost Lithium-Ion...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    for Low-Cost Lithium-Ion Batteries Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Innovative Manufacturing and Materials for Low-Cost Lithium-Ion Batteries Vehicle Technologies ...

  12. Highly concentrated foam formulation for blast mitigation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tucker, Mark D.; Gao, Huizhen

    2010-12-14

    A highly concentrated foam formulation for blast suppression and dispersion mitigation for use in responding to a terrorism incident involving a radiological dispersion device. The foam formulation is more concentrated and more stable than the current blast suppression foam (AFC-380), which reduces the logistics burden on the user.

  13. Low-Cost Phase Change Material for Building Envelopes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abhari, Ramin

    2015-08-06

    A low-cost PCM process consisting of conversion of fats and oils to PCM-range paraffins, and subsequent “encapsulation” of the paraffin using conventional plastic compounding/pelletizing equipment was demonstrated. The PCM pellets produced were field-tested in a building envelope application. This involved combining the PCM pellets with cellulose insulation, whereby 33% reduction in peak heat flux and 12% reduction in heat gain was observed (average summertime performance). The selling price of the PCM pellets produced according to this low-cost process is expected to be in the $1.50-$3.00/lb range, compared to current encapsulated PCM price of about $7.00/lb. Whole-building simulations using corresponding PCM thermal analysis data suggest a payback time of 8 to 16 years (at current energy prices) for an attic insulation retrofit project in the Phoenix climate area.

  14. Improved Solar Power Plant Efficiency: Low Cost Solar Irradiance Sensor -

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Innovation Portal Solar Photovoltaic Solar Photovoltaic Industrial Technologies Industrial Technologies Electricity Transmission Electricity Transmission Find More Like This Return to Search Improved Solar Power Plant Efficiency: Low Cost Solar Irradiance Sensor University of Colorado Contact CU About This Technology Publications: PDF Document Publication CU3117D (Irradiance Sensor) Marketing Summary.pdf (149 KB) Technology Marketing Summary A University of Colorado research group led

  15. Low-Cost Gas Heat Pump for Building Space Heating

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Low-Cost Gas Heat Pump for Building Space Heating 2015 Building Technologies Office Peer Review Michael Garrabrant mgarrabrant@stonemtntechnologies.com Stone Mountain Technologies, Inc. Project Summary Timeline: Start date: March 01, 2013 Planned end date: August 31, 2015 Key Milestones: 1. Cycle & System Design: 12/31/2014 2. Breadboard Test Results: 12/31/2014 3. Packaged Prototype Results: 04/01/2015 Budget: Total DOE $ to date: $629,730 Total future DOE $: $273,140 Target

  16. Low Cost Nanostructured Smart Window Coatings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Nanostructured Smart Window Coatings Low Cost Nanostructured Smart Window Coatings 1 of 3 A Heliotrope scientist prepares slot die coater for solution based deposition of electrochromic layer. Image: Heliotrope Technologies 2 of 3 A Heliotrope scientist investigates the coating quality of a slot die deposition of electrochromic layer. Image: Heliotrope Technologies 3 of 3 A Heliotrope scientist investigates the spray coater for a solution based deposition of electrochromic layer. Image:

  17. NREL Funds Research into Low-Cost Solar Electricity

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Funds Research into Low-Cost Solar Electricity Media contact: George Douglas (303) 275-4096 e:mail: george_douglas@nrel.gov Golden, Colo., Dec. 8, 1997 -- C Contracts worth about $60 million over three years will be awarded under the Thin Film PV (photovoltaic) Partnership program at the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). Recipients of the money will research ways to lower the cost of producing electricity from sunlight using photovoltaic semiconductors that

  18. A Flexible, Low Cost, Beam Loss Monitor Evaluation System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoyes, George Garnet; Pimol, Piti; Juthong, Nawin; Attaphibal, Malee

    2007-01-19

    A flexible, low cost, Beam Loss Monitor (BLM) Evaluation System based on Bergoz BLMs has been developed. Monitors can easily be moved to any location for beam loss investigations and/or monitor usefulness evaluations. Different PC pulse counting cards are compared and tested for this application using the display software developed based on LabVIEW. Beam problems uncovered with this system are presented.

  19. Low-Cost Gas Heat Pump fro Building Space Heating

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Low-Cost Gas Heat Pump for Building Space Heating 2014 Building Technologies Office Peer Review Michael Garrabrant mgarrabrant@stonemtntechnologies.com Stone Mountain Technologies, Inc. Project Summary Timeline: Start date: March 01, 2013 Planned end date: February 28, 2015 Key Milestones: 1. Cycle & System Design: 12/31/2014 2. Breadboard Test Results: 06/30/2014 3. Packaged Prototype Results: 02/28/2015 Budget: Total DOE $ to date: $305,396 Total future DOE $: $597,474 Target

  20. Alloy Design and Method for Processing Low-Cost Refractory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Dispersoid-Reinforced Alloys for Harsh Environments - Energy Innovation Portal Advanced Materials Advanced Materials Find More Like This Return to Search Alloy Design and Method for Processing Low-Cost Refractory Dispersoid-Reinforced Alloys for Harsh Environments Ames Laboratory Contact AMES About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary Alloys used in applications such as exhaust valves are increasingly subject to demanding operating environments, such as high temperatures and exposure

  1. Low-cost solar flat-plate-collector development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilhelm, W.G.

    1981-01-01

    Cost goals were developed for the collector which led to the rejection of conventional approaches and to the exploration of thin-film technology. A thin-film sola absorber suited for high-speed continous-roll manufacture at low cost was designed. The absorber comprises two sheets of aluminum-foil/polymeric-material laminate bonded together at intervals to form channels with water as the heat transfer fluid. Several flat-plate panels were fabricated and tested. (MHR)

  2. Development of Low Cost Sensors for Hydrogen Safety Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoffheins, B.S.; Holmes, W., Jr.; Lauf, R.J.; Maxey, L.C.; Salter, C.; Walker, D.

    1999-04-07

    We are developing rugged and reliable hydrogen safety sensors that can be easily manufactured. Potential applications also require an inexpensive sensor that can be easily deployed. Automotive applications demand low cost, while personnel safety applications emphasize light-weight, battery-operated, and wearable sensors. Our current efforts involve developing and optimizing sensor materials for stability and compatibility with typical thick-film manufacturing processes. We are also tailoring the sensor design and size along with various packaging and communication schemes for optimal acceptance by end users.

  3. Low Cost PEM Fuel Cell Metal Bipolar Plates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Conghua

    2013-05-30

    Bipolar plate is an important component in fuel cell stacks and accounts for more than 75% of stack weight and volume. The technology development of metal bipolar plates can effectively reduce the fuel cells stack weight and volume over 50%. The challenge is the metal plate corrosion protection at low cost for the broad commercial applications. This project is aimed to develop innovative technological solutions to overcome the corrosion barrier of low cost metal plates. The feasibility of has been demonstrated and patented (US Patent 7,309,540). The plan is to further reduce the cost, and scale up the technology. The project is built on three pillars: 1) robust experimental evidence demonstrating the feasibility of our technology, 2) a team that consists of industrial leaders in fuel cell stack application, design, and manufactures; 3) a low-risk, significant-milestone driven program that proves the feasibility of meeting program objectives The implementation of this project will reduce the fuel cell stack metal bipolar separator plate cost which accounts 15-21% of the overall stack cost. It will contribute to the market adoption of fuel cell technologies. In addition, this corrosion protection technology can be used similar energy devices, such as batteries and electrolyzers. Therefore, the success of the project will be benefit in broad markets.

  4. Shenandoah parabolic dish solar collector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kinoshita, G.S.

    1985-01-01

    The objectives of the Shenandoah, Georgia, Solar Total Energy System are to design, construct, test, and operate a solar energy system to obtain experience with large-scale hardware systems for future applications. This report describes the initial design and testing activities conducted to select and develop a collector that would serve the need of such a solar total energy system. The parabolic dish was selected as the collector most likely to maximize energy collection as required by this specific site. The fabrication, testing, and installation of the parabolic dish collector incorporating improvements identified during the development testing phase are described.

  5. Parabolic tapers for overmoded waveguides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Doane, J.L.

    1983-11-25

    A waveguide taper with a parabolic profile, in which the distance along the taper axis varies as the square of the tapered dimension, provides less mode conversion than equal length linear tapers and is easier to fabricate than other non-linear tapers.

  6. Low-Cost Methane Liquefaction Plant and Vehicle Refueling Station

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    B. Wilding; D. Bramwell

    1999-01-01

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) is currently negotiating a collaborative effort with Pacific Gas and Electric (PG&E) that will advance the use of liquefied natural gas (LNG) as a vehicle fuel. We plan to develop and demonstrate a small-scale methane liquefaction plant (production of 5,000 to 10,000 gallons per day) and a low-cost ($150,000) LNG refueling station to supply fuel to LNG-powered transit buses and other heavy-duty vehicles. INEEL will perform the research and development work. PG&E will deploy the new facilities commercially in two demonstration projects, one in northern California, and one in southern California.

  7. Low-Cost Solar Water Heating Research and Development Roadmap

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hudon, K.; Merrigan, T.; Burch, J.; Maguire, J.

    2012-08-01

    The market environment for solar water heating technology has changed substantially with the successful introduction of heat pump water heaters (HPWHs). The addition of this energy-efficient technology to the market increases direct competition with solar water heaters (SWHs) for available energy savings. It is therefore essential to understand which segment of the market is best suited for HPWHs and focus the development of innovative, low-cost SWHs in the market segment where the largest opportunities exist. To evaluate cost and performance tradeoffs between high performance hot water heating systems, annual energy simulations were run using the program, TRNSYS, and analysis was performed to compare the energy savings associated with HPWH and SWH technologies to conventional methods of water heating.

  8. Low cost bare-plate solar air collector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maag, W.L.; Wenzler, C.J.; Rom, F.E.; VanArsdale, D.R.

    1980-09-01

    The purpose of this project was to develop a low cost, bare-plate collector, determine its performance for a variety of climatic conditions, analyze the economics of this type of solar collector and evaluate specific applications. Two prototype collectors were designed, fabricated and installed into an instrumented test system. Tests were conducted for a period of five months. Results of the tests showed consistent operating efficiencies of 60% or greater with air preheat temperature uses up to 20/sup 0/F for one of the prototypes. The economic analyses indicated that an installed cost of between $5 and $10 per square foot would make this type of solar system economically viable. For the materials of construction and the type of fabrication and installation perceived, these costs for the bare-plate solar collector are believed to be attainable. Specific applications for preheating ventilation air for schools were evaluated and judged to be economically viable.

  9. LOW-COST LED LUMINAIRE FOR GENERAL ILLUMINATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lowes, Ted

    2014-07-31

    During this two-year Solid-State Lighting (SSL) Manufacturing R&D project Cree developed novel light emitting diode (LED) technologies contributing to a cost-optimized, efficient LED troffer luminaire platform emitting at ~3500K correlated color temperature (CCT) at a color rendering index (CRI) of >90. To successfully achieve program goals, Cree used a comprehensive approach to address cost reduction of the various optical, thermal and electrical subsystems in the luminaire without impacting performance. These developments built on Cree’s high- brightness, low-cost LED platforms to design a novel LED component architecture that will enable low-cost troffer luminaire designs with high total system efficacy. The project scope included cost reductions to nearly all major troffer subsystems as well as assembly costs. For example, no thermal management components were included in the troffer, owing to the optimized distribution of compact low- to mid-power LEDs. It is estimated that a significant manufacturing cost savings will result relative to Cree’s conventional troffers at the start of the project. A chief project accomplishment was the successful development of a new compact, high-efficacy LED component geometry with a broad far-field intensity distribution and even color point vs. emission angle. After further optimization and testing for production, the Cree XQ series of LEDs resulted. XQ LEDs are currently utilized in Cree’s AR series troffers, and they are being considered for use in other platforms. The XQ lens geometry influenced the independent development of Cree’s XB-E and XB-G high-voltage LEDs, which also have a broad intensity distribution at high efficacy, and are finding wide implementation in Cree’s omnidirectional A-lamps.

  10. Low Cost Thin Film Building-Integrated Photovoltaic Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Subhendu Guha; Dr. Jeff Yang

    2012-05-25

    The goal of the program is to develop 'LOW COST THIN FILM BUILDING-INTEGRATED PV SYSTEMS'. Major focus was on developing low cost solution for the commercial BIPV and rooftop PV market and meet DOE LCOE goal for the commercial market segment of 9-12 cents/kWh for 2010 and 6-8 cents/kWh for 2015. We achieved the 2010 goal and were on track to achieve the 2015 goal. The program consists of five major tasks: (1) modules; (2) inverters and BOS; (3) systems engineering and integration; (4) deployment; and (5) project management and TPP collaborative activities. We successfully crossed all stage gates and surpassed all milestones. We proudly achieved world record stable efficiencies in small area cells (12.56% for 1cm2) and large area encapsulated modules (11.3% for 800 cm2) using a triple-junction amorphous silicon/nanocrystalline silicon/nanocrystalline silicon structure, confirmed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. We collaborated with two inverter companies, Solectria and PV Powered, and significantly reduced inverter cost. We collaborated with three universities (Syracuse University, University of Oregon, and Colorado School of Mines) and National Renewable Energy Laboratory, and improved understanding on nanocrystalline material properties and light trapping techniques. We jointly published 50 technical papers in peer-reviewed journals and International Conference Proceedings. We installed two 75kW roof-top systems, one in Florida and another in New Jersey demonstrating innovative designs. The systems performed satisfactorily meeting/exceeding estimated kWh/kW performance. The 50/50 cost shared program was a great success and received excellent comments from DOE Manager and Technical Monitor in the Final Review.

  11. Development of High-Volume Warm Forming of Low-Cost Magnesium...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High-Volume Warm Forming of Low-Cost Magnesium Sheet Development of High-Volume Warm Forming of Low-Cost Magnesium Sheet 2009 DOE Hydrogen Program and Vehicle Technologies Program...

  12. Development of High-Volume Warm Forming of Low-Cost Magnesium...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of High-Volume Warm Forming of Low-Cost Magnesium Sheet Development of High-Volume Warm Forming of Low-Cost Magnesium Sheet 2010 DOE Vehicle Technologies and Hydrogen Programs...

  13. PROJECT PROFILE: 2D Materials for Low Cost Epitaxial Growth of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Low-cost III-V cells will result in a breakthrough in photovoltaic (PV) market by enabling a lower levelized cost of energy. The project will develop low-cost substrates to ...

  14. Nevada: Geothermal Brine Brings Low-Cost Power with Big Potential...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Nevada: Geothermal Brine Brings Low-Cost Power with Big Potential Nevada: Geothermal Brine Brings Low-Cost Power with Big Potential August 21, 2013 - 12:00am Addthis Utilizing a 1...

  15. R2R Production of Low-Cost Integrated OLED Substrate with Improved...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    R2R Production of Low-Cost Integrated OLED Substrate with Improved Transparent Conductor and Enhanced Light Outcoupling R2R Production of Low-Cost Integrated OLED Substrate with ...

  16. Energy Department Announces up to $4 Million to Advance Low-Cost...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Low-Cost Hydrogen Production from Renewable and Low Carbon Sources Energy Department Announces up to 4 Million to Advance Low-Cost Hydrogen Production from Renewable and Low ...

  17. Low Cost Carbon Fiber Research in the LM Materials Program Overview |

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Department of Energy 2_warren.pdf More Documents & Publications Low Cost Carbon Fiber Overview FY 2009 Progress Report for Lightweighting Materials - 7. Low-Cost Carbon Fiber

  18. Geothermal Brine Brings Low-Cost Power with Big Potential | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Brine Brings Low-Cost Power with Big Potential Geothermal Brine Brings Low-Cost Power with ... The mine's byproduct of geothermal brine allows for an additional revenue stream from ...

  19. Scale Up of Novel, Low-Cost Carbon Fibers Leading to High-Volume...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Scale Up of Novel, Low-Cost Carbon Fibers Leading to High-Volume Commercial Launch Scale Up of Novel, Low-Cost Carbon Fibers Leading to High-Volume Commercial Launch The Dow ...

  20. High-Efficiency Low-Cost Solar Receiver for Use in a Supercritical...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Low-Cost Solar Receiver for Use in a Supercritical CO2 Recompression Cycle - FY13 Q1 High-Efficiency Low-Cost Solar Receiver for Use in a Supercritical CO2 Recompression Cycle - ...

  1. Municipal Bond- Power Purchase Agreement Model Continues to Provide Low-Cost Solar Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Provides an overview for power purchase agreement model to provide low-cost solar energy. Author: National Renewable Energy Laboratory

  2. Recovery Act: Low Cost Integrated Substrate for OLED Lighting Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scott Benton; Abhinav Bhandari

    2012-09-30

    PPG pursued the development of an integrated substrate, including the anode, external, and internal extraction layers. The objective of PPG??s program was to achieve cost reductions by displacing the existing expensive borosilicate or double-side polished float glass substrates and developing alternative electrodes and scalable light extraction layer technologies through focused and short-term applied research. One of the key highlights of the project was proving the feasibility of using PPG??s high transmission Solarphire® float glass as a substrate to consistently achieve organic lightemitting diode (OLED) devices with good performance and high yields. Under this program, four low-cost alternatives to the Indium Tin Oxide (ITO) anode were investigated using pilot-scale magnetron sputtered vacuum deposition (MSVD) and chemical vapor deposition (CVD) technologies. The anodes were evaluated by fabricating small and large phosphorescent organic lightemitting diode (PHOLED) devices at Universal Display Corporation (UDC). The device performance and life-times comparable to commercially available ITO anodes were demonstrated. A cost-benefit analysis was performed to down-select two anodes for further low-cost process development. Additionally, PPG developed and evaluated a number of scalable and compatible internal and external extraction layer concepts such as scattering layers on the outside of the glass substrate or between the transparent anode and the glass interface. In one external extraction layer (EEL) approach, sol-gel sprayed pyrolytic coatings were deposited using lab scale equipment by hand or automated spraying of sol-gel solutions on hot glass, followed by optimizing of scattering with minimal absorption. In another EEL approach, PPG tested large-area glass texturing by scratching a glass surface with an abrasive roller and acid etching. Efficacy enhancements of 1.27x were demonstrated using white PHOLED devices for 2.0mm substrates which are at par with the standard diffuser sheets used by OLED manufacturers. For an internal extraction layer (IEL), PPG tested two concepts combining nanoparticles either in a solgel coating inserted between the anode and OLED or anode and glass interface, or incorporated into the internal surface of the glass. Efficacy enhancements of 1.31x were demonstrated using white PHOLED devices for the IEL by itself and factors of 1.73x were attained for an IEL in combination of thick acrylic block as an EEL. Recent offline measurements indicate that, with further optimization, factors over 2.0x could be achieved through an IEL alone.

  3. Development of a Low-Cost Rotary Steerable Drilling System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roney Nazarian

    2012-01-31

    The project had the goal to develop and commercialize a low-cost rotary steerable system (LCRSS) capable of operating downhole at conventional pressures and temperatures to reduce operating costs by a minimum of 50% and lost-in-hole charges by at least 50% over the currently offered systems. The LCRSS system developed under this project does reduce operating costs by 55% and lost-in-hole charges by at least 50%. The developed product is not commercializable in its current form. The overall objective was to develop and commercialize a low cost rotary steerable system (LCRSS) capable of operating downhole at conventional pressures and temperatures (20,000 psi/150 C) while reducing the operating costs by 50% and the lost-in-hole charges by 50% over the currently available systems. The proposed reduction in costs were to be realized through the significant reduction in tool complexity, a corresponding increase in tool reliability as expressed in the mean-time between failure (MTBF), and a reduction in the time and costs required to service tools after each field operation. Ultimately, the LCRSS system was to be capable of drilling 7 7/8 in. to 9 5/8 in. borehole diameters. The project was divided into three Phases, of which Phases I & II were previously completed and reported on, and are part of the case file. Therefore, the previously reported information is not repeated herein. Phase III included the fabrication of two field ready prototypes that were to be subjected to a series of drilling tests at GTI Catoosa, DOE RMOTC, and at customer partnering wells, if possible, as appropriate in the timing of the field test objectives to fully exercise all elements of the LCRSS. These tests were conducted in an iterative process based on a performance/reliability improvement cycle with the goal of demonstrating the system met all aspects required for commercial viability. These tests were conducted to achieve continuous runs of 100+ hours with well trajectories that fully exercised the tool's build/turn/drop/hold target capabilities and its higher end ratings for bit weight, torque and rotary speed. The tool teardowns were rigorously analyzed at the conclusion of each field run to assess component wear rates and to fully document any detrimental behavior(s) observed.

  4. Testing of a low-cost item monitoring system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frank, D.J.; Cunningham, K.R.; Hoover, C.E.; Trujillo, A.A.

    1988-01-01

    Material control is an important element of any security system which seeks to address the insider threat. Sandia has developed Wireless Alarm Transmission of Container Handling (WATCH) which is a remote sensor system that provides a low-cost, convenient way of monitoring item movement. Rockwell International/Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) and Sandia have conducted a long-term evaluation of the WATCH system in an operating production facility. Testing was conducted in a large scale, remote access storage vault for Special Nuclear Materials (SNM). A total of fourteen WATCH units were placed on storage containers in the vault. A schedule was established which provided prearranged movement of monitored containers on a regular basis. The test objectives were to determine (1) the feasibility of using the WATCH system technology to implement material control concepts, (2) the system performance in an active production area, and high radiation environment, (3) the sensitivity settings required for optimum system performance, and (4) the spatial resolution of the transmitter/receiver utilized.

  5. Testing of a low-cost item monitoring system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frank, D.J.; Cunningham, K.R.; Hoover, C.E.; Trujillo, A.A.

    1988-01-01

    Material control is an important element of any security system which seeks to address the insider threat. Sandia has developed Wireless Alarm Transmission of Container Handling (WATCH) which is a remote sensory system that provides a low-cost, convenient way of monitoring item movement. Rockwell International/Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) and Sandia have conducted a long-term evaluation of the WATCH system in an operating production facility. Testing was conducted in a large scale, remote access storage vault for Special Nuclear Materials (SNM). A total of fourteen WATCH units were placed on storage containers in the vault. A schedule was established which provided prearranged movement of monitored containers on a regular basis. The test objectives were to determine 1) the feasibility of using the WATCH system technology to implement material control concepts, 2) the system performance in an active production area, and high radiation environment, 3) the sensitivity settings required for optimum system performance, and 4) the spatial resolution of the transmitter/receiver utilized.

  6. Low Cost Polymer heat Exchangers for Condensing Boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Butcher, Thomas; Trojanowski, Rebecca; Wei, George; Worek, Michael

    2015-09-30

    Work in this project sought to develop a suitable design for a low cost, corrosion resistant heat exchanger as part of a high efficiency condensing boiler. Based upon the design parameters and cost analysis several geometries and material options were explored. The project also quantified and demonstrated the durability of the selected polymer/filler composite under expected operating conditions. The core material idea included a polymer matrix with fillers for thermal conductivity improvement. While the work focused on conventional heating oil, this concept could also be applicable to natural gas, low sulfur heating oil, and biodiesel- although these are considered to be less challenging environments. An extruded polymer composite heat exchanger was designed, built, and tested during this project, demonstrating technical feasibility of this corrosion-resistant material approach. In such flue gas-to-air heat exchangers, the controlling resistance to heat transfer is in the gas-side convective layer and not in the tube material. For this reason, the lower thermal conductivity polymer composite heat exchanger can achieve overall heat transfer performance comparable to a metal heat exchanger. However, with the polymer composite, the surface temperature on the gas side will be higher, leading to a lower water vapor condensation rate.

  7. Process for Low Cost Domestic Production of LIB Cathode Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thurston, Anthony

    2012-10-31

    The objective of the research was to determine the best low cost method for the large scale production of the Nickel-Cobalt-Manganese (NCM) layered cathode materials. The research and development focused on scaling up the licensed technology from Argonne National Laboratory in BASFs battery material pilot plant in Beachwood Ohio. Since BASF did not have experience with the large scale production of the NCM cathode materials there was a significant amount of development that was needed to support BASFs already existing research program. During the three year period BASF was able to develop and validate production processes for the NCM 111, 523 and 424 materials as well as begin development of the High Energy NCM. BASF also used this time period to provide free cathode material samples to numerous manufactures, OEMs and research companies in order to validate the ma-terials. The success of the project can be demonstrated by the construction of the production plant in Elyria Ohio and the successful operation of that facility. The benefit of the project to the public will begin to be apparent as soon as material from the production plant is being used in electric vehicles.

  8. PEM Electrolyzer Incorporating an Advanced Low-Cost Membrane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hamdan, Monjid

    2013-08-29

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has identified hydrogen production by electrolysis of water at forecourt stations as a critical technology for transition to the hydrogen economy; however, the cost of hydrogen produced by present commercially available electrolysis systems is considerably higher than the DOE 2015 and 2020 cost targets. Analyses of proton-exchange membrane (PEM) electrolyzer systems indicate that reductions in electricity consumption and electrolyzer stack and system capital cost are required to meet the DOE cost targets. The primary objective is to develop and demonstrate a cost-effective energy-based system for electrolytic generation of hydrogen. The goal is to increase PEM electrolyzer efficiency and to reduce electrolyzer stack and system capital cost to meet the DOE cost targets for distributed electrolysis. To accomplish this objective, work was conducted by a team consisting of Giner, Inc. (Giner), Virginia Polytechnic Institute & University (VT), and domnick hunter group, a subsidiary of Parker Hannifin (Parker). The project focused on four (4) key areas: (1) development of a high-efficiency, high-strength membrane; (2) development of a long-life cell-separator; (3) scale-up of cell active area to 290 cm2 (from 160 cm); and (4) development of a prototype commercial electrolyzer system. In each of the key stack development areas Giner and our team members conducted focused development in laboratory-scale hardware, with analytical support as necessary, followed by life-testing of the most promising candidate materials. Selected components were then scaled up and incorporated into low-cost scaled-up stack hardware. The project culminated in the fabrication and testing of a highly efficient electrolyzer system for production of 0.5 kg/hr hydrogen and validation of the stack and system in testing at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL).

  9. Low-cost exterior insulation process and structure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vohra, Arun

    1997-12-01

    The invention relates to a low-cost process for insulating walls comprising: (a) stacking bags filled with insulating material next to the exterior surface of a wall until the wall is covered, the stack of bags thus formed having fasteners to attach to a wire mesh (e.g., straps looped between the bags and fastened to the wall); (b) stretching a wire mesh (e.g., chicken wire or stucco netting) over the stack of bags, covering the side of the bags which is not adjacent to the wall; (c) fastening the wire mesh to stationary objects; (d) attaching the wire mesh to said fasteners on said stack of bags; and (e) applying a cemetitious material (e.g., stucco) to the wire mesh and allowing it to harden. Stacking the bags against the wall is preferably preceded by laying a base on the ground at the foot of the wall using a material such as cement or crushed stone wrapped in a non-woven fabric (e.g., geosynthetic felt). It is also preferred to erect stationary corner posts at the ends of the wall to be insulated, the top ends of the posts being tied to each other and/or tied or otherwise anchored to the wall. The invention also includes the structure made by this process. The structure comprises a stack of bags of insulating material next to the exterior wall of a building, said stack of bags of insulating material being attached to said wall and having a covering of cementitious material on the side not adjacent to said wall.

  10. A low-cost float method of harnessing wave energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    George, M.P.

    1983-12-01

    The author proposes in this paper a low-cost and simple method of harnessing wave energy that should enable coastal regions to be self-sufficient in electric power. The method is eminently applicable to India and such developing countries, being simple and involving a small capital investment. The method was evolved after study of the Indian West Coast fronting the Arabian Sea, and can harness about 50% of the wave energy. A log of wood about 5 metres long and 50 cm. in diameter, having a specific gravity of 0.8 to 0.9, is made to float parallel to the beach and about 50 metres away from it. Its movement is restricted to the vertical plane by means of poles. Two roller chains are attached to the ends of the log which pass over two sprocket free-wheels. When the log is lifted with the crest of the wave, the roller chain moves over the free-wheel. When the trough of the wave reaches the log, its weight is applied to the sprocket wheels through the roller chains. Each sprocket wheel rotates and the rotation is multiplied with a gear wheel. The torque from the high speed spindle of the gear is applied to a small alternating current generator. The AC output from the generator is rectified and used either for charging a battery bank, or connected to the lighting system, or supplied to electrolytic tank for producing hydrogen and other chemicals at the site. A chain of such systems along the coast can supply enough power to light the fishermen's hamlets stretching along the coast.

  11. Low-Cost Precursors to Novel Hydrogen Storage Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Suzanne W. Linehan; Arthur A. Chin; Nathan T. Allen; Robert Butterick; Nathan T. Kendall; I. Leo Klawiter; Francis J. Lipiecki; Dean M. Millar; David C. Molzahn; Samuel J. November; Puja Jain; Sara Nadeau; Scott Mancroni

    2010-12-31

    From 2005 to 2010, The Dow Chemical Company (formerly Rohm and Haas Company) was a member of the Department of Energy Center of Excellence on Chemical Hydrogen Storage, which conducted research to identify and develop chemical hydrogen storage materials having the potential to achieve DOE performance targets established for on-board vehicular application. In collaboration with Center co-leads Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), and other Center partners, Dow's efforts were directed towards defining and evaluating novel chemistries for producing chemical hydrides and processes for spent fuel regeneration. In Phase 1 of this project, emphasis was placed on sodium borohydride (NaBH{sub 4}), long considered a strong candidate for hydrogen storage because of its high hydrogen storage capacity, well characterized hydrogen release chemistry, safety, and functionality. Various chemical pathways for regenerating NaBH{sub 4} from spent sodium borate solution were investigated, with the objective of meeting the 2010/2015 DOE targets of $2-3/gal gasoline equivalent at the pump ($2-3/kg H{sub 2}) for on-board hydrogen storage systems and an overall 60% energy efficiency. With the September 2007 No-Go decision for NaBH{sub 4} as an on-board hydrogen storage medium, focus was shifted to ammonia borane (AB) for on-board hydrogen storage and delivery. However, NaBH{sub 4} is a key building block to most boron-based fuels, and the ability to produce NaBH{sub 4} in an energy-efficient, cost-effective, and environmentally sound manner is critical to the viability of AB, as well as many leading materials under consideration by the Metal Hydride Center of Excellence. Therefore, in Phase 2, research continued towards identifying and developing a single low-cost NaBH4 synthetic route for cost-efficient AB first fill, and conducting baseline cost estimates for first fill and regenerated AB using a variety of synthetic routes. This project utilized an engineering-guided R&D approach, which involved the rapid down-selection of a large number of options (chemical pathways to NaBH{sub 4}) to a smaller, more manageable number. The research began by conducting an extensive review of the technical and patent literature to identify all possible options. The down-selection was based on evaluation of the options against a set of metrics, and to a large extent occurred before experimentation was initiated. Given the vast amount of literature and patents that has evolved over the years, this approach helped to focus efforts and resources on the options with the highest technical and commercial probability of success. Additionally, a detailed engineering analysis methodology was developed for conducting the cost and energy-efficiency calculations. The methodology utilized a number of inputs and tools (Aspen PEA{trademark}, FCHTool, and H2A). The down-selection of chemical pathways to NaBH{sub 4} identified three options that were subsequently pursued experimentally. Metal reduction of borate was investigated in Dow's laboratories, research on electrochemical routes to NaBH{sub 4} was conducted at Pennsylvania State University, and Idaho National Laboratory researchers examined various carbothermal routes for producing NaBH{sub 4} from borate. The electrochemical and carbothermal studies did not yield sufficiently positive results. However, NaBH{sub 4} was produced in high yields and purities by an aluminum-based metal reduction pathway. Solid-solid reactive milling, slurry milling, and solution-phase approaches to metal reduction were investigated, and while both reactive milling and solution-phase routes point to fully recyclable processes, the scale-up of reactive milling processes to produce NaBH{sub 4} is expected to be difficult. Alternatively, a low-cost solution-phase approach to NaBH{sub 4} has been identified that is based on conventional process unit operations and should be amenable to scale-up. Numerous advances in AB synthesis have been made in recent years to improve AB yields and purities. Process analysis of several leading routes to AB (Purdue's formate-based metathesis route and PNNL's NH{sub 4}BH{sub 4}-based route) indicated the cost to produce first-fill AB to be on the order of $9-10/kg AB, assuming a NaBH{sub 4} cost of $5/kg for a 10,000 metric tons/year sized AB plant. The analysis showed that the dominant cost component for producing first-fill AB is the cost of the NaBH4 raw material. At this AB cost and assuming 2.5 moles hydrogen released per mole of AB, it may be possible to meet DOE's 2010 storage system cost target, but the 2015 target will likely require lower cost AB and demonstrates the importance of having a low-cost route to NaBH{sub 4}. Substantial progress has also been made to define feasible pathways for the regeneration of spent ammonia borane fuel.

  12. Building America Whole-House Solutions for New Homes: Low-Cost Evaluation

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy Savings at the Community Scale, Fresno, California | Department of Energy Low-Cost Evaluation of Energy Savings at the Community Scale, Fresno, California Building America Whole-House Solutions for New Homes: Low-Cost Evaluation of Energy Savings at the Community Scale, Fresno, California In this project, U.S. Department of Energy Building America research team IBACOS partnered with builder Wathen Castanos Hybrid Homes to develop a simple and low-cost methodology by which

  13. Low-Cost Wireless Sensors for Building Applications | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Wireless Sensors for Building Applications Low-Cost Wireless Sensors for Building Applications ORNL researchers are experimenting with additive roll-to-roll manufacturing techniques to develop low-cost wireless sensors. ORNL's Pooran Joshi shows how the process enables electronics components to be printed on flexible plastic substrates. Credit: Oak Ridge National Lab ORNL researchers are experimenting with additive roll-to-roll manufacturing techniques to develop low-cost wireless sensors.

  14. Recovery Act: Low-Cost, Highly Lambertian Reflector Composite For Improved

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    LED Fixture Efficiency and Lifetime (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect SciTech Connect Search Results Technical Report: Recovery Act: Low-Cost, Highly Lambertian Reflector Composite For Improved LED Fixture Efficiency and Lifetime Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Recovery Act: Low-Cost, Highly Lambertian Reflector Composite For Improved LED Fixture Efficiency and Lifetime The overall objective of the program was to demonstrate a 98% or greater reflective, highly diffuse, low-cost

  15. Scale Up of Novel, Low-Cost Carbon Fibers Leading to High-Volume Commercial

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Launch | Department of Energy Scale Up of Novel, Low-Cost Carbon Fibers Leading to High-Volume Commercial Launch Scale Up of Novel, Low-Cost Carbon Fibers Leading to High-Volume Commercial Launch The Dow Chemical Company - Midland, MI An extrusion process for making carbon fiber uses a novel polyolefin material in place of conventional polyacrylonitrile. Low-cost carbon fiber has widespread application in automobiles, wind turbines, and other industrial applications. This novel process could

  16. Development and Commercialization of a Novel Low-Cost Carbon Fiber |

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Department of Energy 12 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting PDF icon lm048_husman_2012_o.pdf More Documents & Publications Development and Commercialization of a Novel Low-Cost Carbon Fiber Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Development and Commercialization of a Novel Low-Cost Carbon Fiber Low Cost Carbon Fiber Overview

  17. Novel Low Cost, High Reliability Wind Turbine Drivetrain

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anthony Chobot; Debarshi Das; Tyler Mayer; Zach Markey; Tim Martinson; Hayden Reeve; Paul Attridge; Tahany El-Wardany

    2012-09-13

    Clipper Windpower, in collaboration with United Technologies Research Center, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, and Hamilton Sundstrand Corporation, developed a low-cost, deflection-compliant, reliable, and serviceable chain drive speed increaser. This chain and sprocket drivetrain design offers significant breakthroughs in the areas of cost and serviceability and addresses the key challenges of current geared and direct-drive systems. The use of gearboxes has proven to be challenging; the large torques and bending loads associated with use in large multi-MW wind applications have generally limited demonstrated lifetime to 8-10 years [1]. The large cost of gearbox replacement and the required use of large, expensive cranes can result in gearbox replacement costs on the order of $1M, representing a significant impact to overall cost of energy (COE). Direct-drive machines eliminate the gearbox, thereby targeting increased reliability and reduced life-cycle cost. However, the slow rotational speeds require very large and costly generators, which also typically have an undesirable dependence on expensive rare-earth magnet materials and large structural penalties for precise air gap control. The cost of rare-earth materials has increased 20X in the last 8 years representing a key risk to ever realizing the promised cost of energy reductions from direct-drive generators. A common challenge to both geared and direct drive architectures is a limited ability to manage input shaft deflections. The proposed Clipper drivetrain is deflection-compliant, insulating later drivetrain stages and generators from off-axis loads. The system is modular, allowing for all key parts to be removed and replaced without the use of a high capacity crane. Finally, the technology modularity allows for scalability and many possible drivetrain topologies. These benefits enable reductions in drivetrain capital cost by 10.0%, levelized replacement and O&M costs by 26.7%, and overall cost of energy by 10.2%. This design was achieved by: (1) performing an extensive optimization study that deter-mined the preliminary cost for all practical chain drive topologies to ensure the most competitive configuration; (2) conducting detailed analysis of chain dynamics, contact stresses, and wear and efficiency characteristics over the chain???????¢????????????????s life to ensure accurate physics-based predictions of chain performance; and (3) developing a final product design, including reliability analysis, chain replacement procedures, and bearing and sprocket analysis. Definition of this final product configuration was used to develop refined cost of energy estimates. Finally, key system risks for the chain drive were defined and a comprehensive risk reduction plan was created for execution in Phase 2.

  18. Flexible low-cost packaging for lithium ion batteries.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jansen, A. N.; Amine, K.; Chaiko, D. J.; Henriksen, G. L.; Chemical Engineering

    2004-01-01

    Batteries with various types of chemistries are typically sold in rigid hermetically sealed containers that, at the simplest level, must contain the electrolyte while keeping out the exterior atmosphere. However, such rigid containers can have limitations in packaging situations where the form of the battery is important, such as in hand-held electronics like personal digital assistants (PDAs), laptops, and cell phones. Other limitations exist as well. At least one of the electrode leads must be insulated from the metal can, which necessitates the inclusion of an insulated metal feed-through in the containment hardware. Another limitation may be in hardware and assembly cost, such as exists for the lithium-ion batteries that are being developed for use in electric vehicles (EVs) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). The large size (typically 10-100 Ah) of these batteries usually results in electric beam or laser welding of the metal cap to the metal can. The non-aqueous electrolyte used in these batteries are usually based on flammable solvents and therefore require the incorporation of a safety rupture vent to relieve pressure in the event of overcharging or overheating. Both of these features add cost to the battery. Flexible packaging provides an alternative to the rigid container. A common example of this is the multi-layered laminates used in the food packaging industry, such as for vacuum-sealed coffee bags. However, flexible packaging for batteries does not come without concerns. One of the main concerns is the slow egress of the electrolyte solvent through the face of the inner laminate layer and at the sealant edge. Also, moisture and air could enter from the outside via the same method. These exchanges may be acceptable for brief periods of time, but for the long lifetimes required for batteries in electric/hybrid electric vehicles, batteries in remote locations, and those in satellites, these exchanges are unacceptable. Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), in collaboration with several industrial partners, is working on low-cost flexible packaging as an alternative to the packaging currently being used for lithium-ion batteries. This program is funded by the FreedomCAR & Vehicle Technologies Office of the U.S. Department of Energy. (It was originally funded under the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles, or PNGV, Program, which had as one of its mandates to develop a power-assist hybrid electric vehicle with triple the fuel economy of a typical sedan.) The goal in this packaging effort is to reduce the cost associated with the packaging of each cell several-fold to less than $1 per cell ({approx}50 cells are required per battery, 1 battery per vehicle), while maintaining the integrity of the cell contents for a 15-year lifetime. Even though the battery chemistry of main interest is the lithium-ion system, the methodology used to develop the most appropriate laminate structure will be very similar for other battery chemistries.

  19. Low-Cost Hydrogen Distributed Production System Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    C.E. Thomas, Ph.D., President Franklin D. Lomax, Ph.D, CTO & Principal Investigator, and Maxim Lyubovski, Ph.D.

    2011-03-10

    H{sub 2}Gen, with the support of the Department of Energy, successfully designed, built and field-tested two steam methane reformers with 578 kg/day capacity, which has now become a standard commercial product serving customers in the specialty metals and PV manufacturing businesses. We demonstrated that this reformer/PSA system, when combined with compression, storage and dispensing (CSD) equipment could produce hydrogen that is already cost-competitive with gasoline per mile driven in a conventional (non-hybrid) vehicle. We further showed that mass producing this 578 kg/day system in quantities of just 100 units would reduce hydrogen cost per mile approximately 13% below the cost of untaxed gasoline per mile used in a hybrid electric vehicle. If mass produced in quantities of 500 units, hydrogen cost per mile in a FCEV would be 20% below the cost of untaxed gasoline in an HEV in the 2015-2020 time period using EIA fuel cost projections for natural gas and untaxed gasoline, and 45% below the cost of untaxed gasoline in a conventional car. This 20% to 45% reduction in fuel cost per mile would accrue even though hydrogen from this 578 kg/day system would cost approximately $4.14/kg, well above the DOE hydrogen cost targets of $2.50/kg by 2010 and $2.00/kg by 2015. We also estimated the cost of a larger, 1,500 kg/day SMR/PSA fueling system based on engineering cost scaling factors derived from the two H{sub 2}Gen products, a commercial 115 kg/day system and the 578 kg/day system developed under this DOE contract. This proposed system could support 200 to 250 cars per day, similar to a medium gasoline station. We estimate that the cost per mile from this larger 1,500 kg/day hydrogen fueling system would be 26% to 40% below the cost per mile of untaxed gasoline in an HEV and ICV respectively, even without any mass production cost reductions. In quantities of 500 units, we are projecting per mile cost reductions between 45% (vs. HEVs) and 62% (vs ICVs), with hydrogen costing approximately $2.87/kg, still above the DOE's 2010 $2.50/kg target. We also began laboratory testing of reforming ethanol, which we showed is currently the least expensive approach to making renewable hydrogen. Extended testing of neat ethanol in micro-reactors was successful, and we also were able to reform E-85 acquired from a local fueling station for 2,700 hours, although some modifications were required to handle the 15% gasoline present in E-85. We began initial tests of a catalyst-coated wall reformer tube that showed some promise in reducing the propensity to coke with E-85. These coated-wall tests ran for 350 hours. Additional resources would be required to commercialize an ethanol reformer operating on E-85, but there is no market for such a product at this time, so this ethanol reformer project was moth-balled pending future government or industry support. The two main objectives of this project were: (1) to design, build and test a steam methane reformer and pressure swing adsorption system that, if scaled up and mass produced, could potentially meet the DOE 2015 cost and efficiency targets for on-site distributed hydrogen generation, and (2) to demonstrate the efficacy of a low-cost renewable hydrogen generation system based on reforming ethanol to hydrogen at the fueling station.

  20. Manufacturing Facility Opened Using EERE-Supported Low-Cost Fuel...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    To accomplish this cost reduction, BASF developed a higher throughput coating process, ... Catalyst Licensed for Use in Fuel Cell Hybrid Advanced Vehicles Low-Cost Production of ...

  1. A NEW METHOD FOR LOW-COST PRODUCTION OF TITANIUM ALLOYS FOR REDUCING...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    A novel metallurgical process for producing titanium (Ti) components could produce a ... PDF icon A New Method for Low-Cost Production of Titanium Alloys More Documents & ...

  2. Harsh-environment, Low-cost Sensor Technology for Engine and...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Harsh-environment, Low-cost Sensor Technology for Engine and After-treatment Systems Poster presentation at the 2007 Diesel Engine-Efficiency & Emissions Research Conference (DEER ...

  3. Webinar: Low Cost Carbon Fiber Process Soliciation, April 7th, 2016 |

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Department of Energy Low Cost Carbon Fiber Process Soliciation, April 7th, 2016 Webinar: Low Cost Carbon Fiber Process Soliciation, April 7th, 2016 April 7, 2016 11:00AM to 12:00PM EDT Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) will be hosting a webinar for the AMO supported Low Cost Carbon Fiber Process Solicitation. ORNL is seeking commercialization partners to license a new method to produce industrial-grade structural carbon fiber and flame-retardant fibers from commercially-available low-cost

  4. Low-Cost Magnesium Sheet Production using the Twin Roll Casting...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Low-Cost Magnesium Sheet Production using the Twin Roll Casting Process and Asymmetric Rolling Materials Characterization Capabilities at the High ...

  5. Low-Cost, Third Generation Solar Cells on Solid Ground | U.S...

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    Summary Current solar cell technologies are largely constrained by high production costs, low operating efficiency, and limited durability. A low-cost alternative to current ...

  6. Low-Cost, High Efficiency Integration of SSL and Building Controls...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Packet Energy Transfer (PET) power-supply design that improved conversion efficiency to ... Lighting Pedestrian Areas Daylighting Digital Dimmer R2R Production of Low-Cost ...

  7. Low-Cost Light-Emitting Diode Luminaire for General Illumination...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Low-Cost Light-Emitting Diode Luminaire for General Illumination Presenter: Paul Fini, CREE Santa Barbara Technology Center This project is demonstrating an efficient and stable ...

  8. Low-Cost Heliostat for Modular Systems - Presentation from SunShot...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Cost Heliostat for Modular Systems - Presentation from SunShot Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) Program Review 2013 Low-Cost Heliostat for Modular Systems - Presentation from ...

  9. Building America Case Study: Low-Cost Evaluation of Energy Savings...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Low-Cost Evaluation of Energy Savings at the Community Scale Fresno, California PROJECT INFORMATION Project Name: Evaluation of New Construction Pilot Community Location: Fresno, ...

  10. A Low-Cost, High-Efficiency Periodic Flow Gas Turbine for Distributed Energy Generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Adam London

    2008-06-20

    The proposed effort served as a feasibility study for an innovative, low-cost periodic flow gas turbine capable of realizing efficiencies in the 39-48% range.

  11. Low Cost Solar Water Heating R&D | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Solar Water Heating R&D Low Cost Solar Water Heating R&D Emerging Technologies Project for ... More Documents & Publications Atmospheric Pressure Deposition for Electrochromic Windows ...

  12. Develpment of a low Cost Method to Estimate the Seismic Signiture...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    a Geothemal Field from Ambient Seismic Noise Analysis Develpment of a low Cost Method to Estimate the Seismic Signiture of a Geothemal Field from Ambient Seismic Noise Analysis ...

  13. Innovative Manufacturing and Materials for Low-Cost Lithium-Ion...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    nnovative M anufacturing and M aterials for Low -Cost Lithium -I on Batteries This presentation does not contain any proprietary, confidential, or otherwise restricted information...

  14. PROJECT PROFILE: Enabling High Concentration Photovoltaics with 50%

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Efficient Solar Cells | Department of Energy Enabling High Concentration Photovoltaics with 50% Efficient Solar Cells PROJECT PROFILE: Enabling High Concentration Photovoltaics with 50% Efficient Solar Cells Funding Opportunity: SuNLaMP SunShot Subprogram: Photovoltaics Location: National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO Amount Awarded: $8,000,000 The efficiency and concentration of III-V multi-junction solar cells are essential to reduce the cost of high concentration photovoltaic

  15. Assessment of Parabolic Trough and Power Tower Solar Technology...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of Parabolic Trough and Power Tower Solar Technology Cost and Performance Forecasts ... of Parabolic Trough and Power Tower Solar Technology Cost and Performance Forecasts ...

  16. Executive Summary: Assessment of Parabolic Trough and Power Tower...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of Parabolic Trough and Power Tower Solar Technology Cost and Performance Forecasts ... of Parabolic Trough and Power Tower Solar Technology Cost and Performance Forecasts ...

  17. A New Generation of Parabolic Trough Technology

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    ... m m e r Pro d u ct io n Pro file s Electricity demand (not scaled) Solar Radiation ... design f or parabolic t rough plant s Based on Solar Two molten-salt power tower experience. ...

  18. PROJECT PROFILE: 2D Materials for Low Cost Epitaxial Growth of Single Sun

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Gallium Arsenide (GaAs) Photovoltaics | Department of Energy 2D Materials for Low Cost Epitaxial Growth of Single Sun Gallium Arsenide (GaAs) Photovoltaics PROJECT PROFILE: 2D Materials for Low Cost Epitaxial Growth of Single Sun Gallium Arsenide (GaAs) Photovoltaics Funding Opportunity: SuNLaMP SunShot Subprogram: Photovoltaics Location: National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO SunShot Award Amount: $125,000 Low-cost III-V cells will result in a breakthrough in photovoltaic (PV)

  19. PROJECT PROFILE: High-Efficiency, Low-Cost, One-Sun, III-V Photovoltaics |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy PROJECT PROFILE: High-Efficiency, Low-Cost, One-Sun, III-V Photovoltaics PROJECT PROFILE: High-Efficiency, Low-Cost, One-Sun, III-V Photovoltaics Funding Opportunity: SuNLaMP SunShot Subprogram: Photovoltaics Location: National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO Amount Awarded: $4,000,000 Low-cost III-V photovoltaics have the potential to lower the levelized cost of energy (LCOE) because III-V cells outperform silicon in terms of efficiency and annual energy

  20. PPG Industries Develops a Low-Cost Integrated OLED Substrate | Department

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    of Energy Research & Development » R&D Highlights » PPG Industries Develops a Low-Cost Integrated OLED Substrate PPG Industries Develops a Low-Cost Integrated OLED Substrate With the help of DOE funding, PPG Industries, Inc., has developed a low-cost OLED substrate, using inexpensive soda-lime "float" glass that the company manufactures at high volume for the architectural industry. Float glass is thin sheet glass and is much less expensive than the borosilicate or

  1. Fundamental understanding and development of low-cost, high-efficiency silicon solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    ROHATGI,A.; NARASIMHA,S.; MOSCHER,J.; EBONG,A.; KAMRA,S.; KRYGOWSKI,T.; DOSHI,P.; RISTOW,A.; YELUNDUR,V.; RUBY,DOUGLAS S.

    2000-05-01

    The overall objectives of this program are (1) to develop rapid and low-cost processes for manufacturing that can improve yield, throughput, and performance of silicon photovoltaic devices, (2) to design and fabricate high-efficiency solar cells on promising low-cost materials, and (3) to improve the fundamental understanding of advanced photovoltaic devices. Several rapid and potentially low-cost technologies are described in this report that were developed and applied toward the fabrication of high-efficiency silicon solar cells.

  2. Novel Material for Efficient and Low-Cost Separation of Gases for Fuels and

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Plastics | Center for Gas SeparationsRelevant to Clean Energy Technologies | Blandine Jerome Novel Material for Efficient and Low-Cost Separation of Gases for Fuels and Plastics

  3. An integrated approach towards efficient, scalable, and low cost thermoelectric waste heat recovery devices for vehicles

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Efficient, scalable, and low cost vehicular thermoelectric generators development will include rapid synthesis of thermoelectric materials, different device geometries, heat sink designs, and durability and long-term performance tests

  4. Light-Weight, Low-Cost, Single-Phase, Liquid-Cooled Cold Plate (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Narumanchi, S.

    2013-07-01

    This presentation, 'Light-Weight, Low-Cost, Single-Phase Liquid-Cooled Cold Plate,' directly addresses program goals of increased power density, specific power, and lower cost of power electronics components through improved thermal management.

  5. Building America Whole-House Solutions for New Homes: Low-Cost...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    In this project, U.S. Department of Energy Building America research team IBACOS partnered with builder Wathen Castanos Hybrid Homes to develop a simple and low-cost methodology by ...

  6. Researchers find 3-D printed parts to provide low-cost, custom...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Researchers find 3-D printed parts to provide low-cost, custom alternatives for laboratory equipment By Raphael Rosen February 26, 2015 Tweet Widget Google Plus One Share on...

  7. Light Weight, Low Cost PEM Fuel Cell Stacks | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    on Oct. 25, 2006. PDF icon 5cwru.pdf More Documents & Publications Fuel Cell Kickoff Meeting Agenda Light Weight, Low Cost PEM Fuel Cell Stacks Fuel Cell Projects Kickoff Meeting

  8. Variable-Speed, Low-Cost Motor for Residential HVAC Systems ...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Variable-Speed, Low-Cost Motor for Residential HVAC Systems Lower-Cost, Variable-Speed ... DynaMotors Inc., with the aid of a grant from DOE's Inventions and Innovation Program, ...

  9. Scalable Light Module for Low-Cost, High Efficiency LED Luminaires

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Award DE-EE0006264 Paul Fini, paulfini@cree.com CREE, Inc. Scalable Light Module for Low-Cost, High Efficiency LED Luminaires 2015 Building Technologies Office Peer Review 2 ...

  10. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Low Cost, High Capacity Non-Intercalation Chemistry Automotive Cells

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Sila Nanotechnologies at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about low cost, high capacity...

  11. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Low Cost, Structurally Advanced Novel Electrode and Cell Manufacturing

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by 24M Technologies at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about low cost, structurally...

  12. Renewable, Low-Cost Carbon Fiber for Lightweight Vehicles: Summary Report

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This report outlines the final results and findings from the Renewable, Low-Cost Carbon Fiber for Lightweight Vehicles Workshop, held in June 2013 and hosted by the Bioenergy Technologies Office.

  13. The Approach to Low-Cost High-Efficiency OLED Lighting | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy The Approach to Low-Cost High-Efficiency OLED Lighting The Approach to Low-Cost High-Efficiency OLED Lighting Lead Performer: University of California - Los Angeles - Los Angeles, CA Partners: Polyradiant Corp. - Calabasas, CA DOE Total Funding: $612,733 Cost Share: $153,183 Project Term: September 4, 2014 - August 31, 2016 Funding Opportunity: SSL R&D Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) (DE-FOA-0000973) Project Objective This project will develop an integrated plastic

  14. Low-Cost, Haziness-Free, Transparent Insulation Based On a Porous Silica

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Material | Department of Energy Low-Cost, Haziness-Free, Transparent Insulation Based On a Porous Silica Material Low-Cost, Haziness-Free, Transparent Insulation Based On a Porous Silica Material Image of porous silica material in alcohol.<br /> Photo credit: Oak Ridge National Lab Image of porous silica material in alcohol. Photo credit: Oak Ridge National Lab Lead Performer: Oak Ridge National Laboratory - Oak Ridge, TN Partner: VELUX Design and Development Company USA Inc.,

  15. Low-Cost, Robust Ceramic Membranes for Gas Separation | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Low-Cost, Robust Ceramic Membranes for Gas Separation Low-Cost, Robust Ceramic Membranes for Gas Separation Innovative Ceramic Membrane Reduces Energy and Cost of Industrial Gas Separation Ceramic membranes offer great potential for industrial gas separation. Without a ceramic membrane, gases must be cooled before separation. Unfortunately, even though ceramic membranes can improve the productivity for many reactions and separations in the chemicals and refining industries, they are

  16. Low cost fuel cell diffusion layer configured for optimized anode water

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    management (Patent) | SciTech Connect Patent: Low cost fuel cell diffusion layer configured for optimized anode water management Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Low cost fuel cell diffusion layer configured for optimized anode water management A fuel cell comprises a cathode gas diffusion layer, a cathode catalyst layer, an anode gas diffusion layer, an anode catalyst layer and an electrolyte. The diffusion resistance of the anode gas diffusion layer when operated with anode fuel

  17. Low-cost Electromagnetic Heating Technology for Polymer Extrusion-based

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Additive Manufacturing (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Technical Report: Low-cost Electromagnetic Heating Technology for Polymer Extrusion-based Additive Manufacturing Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Low-cost Electromagnetic Heating Technology for Polymer Extrusion-based Additive Manufacturing To improve the flow of materials used in in polymer additive manufacturing, ORNL and Ajax Tocco created an induction system for heating fused deposition modeling (FDM) nozzles used in

  18. Low-Cost and Lightweight: Strongest titanium alloy aims at improving

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Innovation | Department of Energy Low-Cost Ventilation in Production Housing - Building America Top Innovation Low-Cost Ventilation in Production Housing - Building America Top Innovation This drawing shows simple and cost-effective ventilation strategies for homes. As high-performance homes get more air tight and better insulated, attention to good indoor air quality becomes essential. This Top Innovation profile describes Building America research by Building Science Corporation to develop

  19. Low-Cost, Highly Transparent, Flexible, Low-Emission Coating Film to Enable

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Electrochromic Windows with Increased Energy Savings | Department of Energy Highly Transparent, Flexible, Low-Emission Coating Film to Enable Electrochromic Windows with Increased Energy Savings Low-Cost, Highly Transparent, Flexible, Low-Emission Coating Film to Enable Electrochromic Windows with Increased Energy Savings ITN Energy Systems is using low-cost, high volume roll-to-roll coating techniques to develop a new low-e film with high visible transmission and high infrared reflectivity.

  20. DOE Issues 2 Requests for Information on Low-Cost Hydrogen Production and

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Delivery | Department of Energy 2 Requests for Information on Low-Cost Hydrogen Production and Delivery DOE Issues 2 Requests for Information on Low-Cost Hydrogen Production and Delivery October 29, 2014 - 12:29pm Addthis The U.S. Department of Energy's Fuel Cell Technologies Office has issued two requests for information (RFIs) seeking feedback from the research community and relevant stakeholders about hydrogen production and hydrogen delivery research, development, and demonstration

  1. A NEW METHOD FOR LOW-COST PRODUCTION OF TITANIUM ALLOYS FOR REDUCING ENERGY

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    CONSUMPTION OF MECHANICAL SYSTEMS | Department of Energy A NEW METHOD FOR LOW-COST PRODUCTION OF TITANIUM ALLOYS FOR REDUCING ENERGY CONSUMPTION OF MECHANICAL SYSTEMS A NEW METHOD FOR LOW-COST PRODUCTION OF TITANIUM ALLOYS FOR REDUCING ENERGY CONSUMPTION OF MECHANICAL SYSTEMS The University of Utah - Salt Lake City, UT A novel metallurgical process for producing titanium (Ti) components could produce a ten-fold material usage improvement in aircraft and vehicle manufacturing. This technology

  2. High-Efficiency Low-Cost Solar Receiver for Use in a Supercritical CO2

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Recompression Cycle | Department of Energy 313_sullivan.pdf More Documents & Publications High-Efficiency Low-Cost Solar Receiver for Use in a Supercritical CO2 Recompression Cycle - FY13 Q1 High-Efficiency Receivers for Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Cycles - FY13 Q3 Final Report - High-Efficiency Low-Cost Solar Receiver for use in a Supercritical CO2 Recompression Cycle

  3. Print-based Manufacturing of Integrated, Low Cost, High Performance SSL

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Luminaires | Department of Energy Print-based Manufacturing of Integrated, Low Cost, High Performance SSL Luminaires Print-based Manufacturing of Integrated, Low Cost, High Performance SSL Luminaires Lead Performer: Eaton Corporation - Menomonee Falls, WI Partners: - Heraeus Materials Technology, LLC - Conshohocken, PA - Haiku Tech, Inc - Miami, FL - Eaton Cooper Lighting Innovation Center - Peachtree City, GA DOE Total Funding: $2,468,672 Cost Share: $2,468,676 Project Term: 9/15/2013 -

  4. HIGH-QUALITY, LOW-COST BULK GALLIUM NITRIDE SUBSTRATES GROWN BY THE

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ELECTROCHEMICAL SOLUTION GROWTH METHOD | Department of Energy HIGH-QUALITY, LOW-COST BULK GALLIUM NITRIDE SUBSTRATES GROWN BY THE ELECTROCHEMICAL SOLUTION GROWTH METHOD HIGH-QUALITY, LOW-COST BULK GALLIUM NITRIDE SUBSTRATES GROWN BY THE ELECTROCHEMICAL SOLUTION GROWTH METHOD MEMC Electronic Materials, Inc. - St. Peters, MO Efficient manufacturing of gallium nitride (GaN) could reduce the cost of and improve the output for light-emitting diodes, solid-state lighting, laser displays, and other

  5. R2R Production of Low-Cost Integrated OLED Substrate with Improved

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Transparent Conductor and Enhanced Light Outcoupling | Department of Energy R2R Production of Low-Cost Integrated OLED Substrate with Improved Transparent Conductor and Enhanced Light Outcoupling R2R Production of Low-Cost Integrated OLED Substrate with Improved Transparent Conductor and Enhanced Light Outcoupling Lead Performer: MicroContinuum, Inc. - Cambridge, MA DOE Total Funding: $1,149,037 Project Term: April 6, 2015 - April 5, 2017 Funding Opportunity: FY2015 Phase II Release 1 SBIR

  6. Non-tracking solar concentrator with a high concentration ratio

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hinterberger, Henry

    1977-01-01

    A nontracking solar concentrator with a high concentration ratio is provided. The concentrator includes a plurality of energy absorbers which communicate with a main header by which absorbed heat is removed. Undesired heat flow of those absorbers not being heated by radiant energy at a particular instant is impeded, improving the efficiency of the concentrator.

  7. Low-Cost Packaged CHP System with Reduced Emissions - Presentation by

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Cummins Power Generation, June 2011 | Department of Energy Low-Cost Packaged CHP System with Reduced Emissions - Presentation by Cummins Power Generation, June 2011 Low-Cost Packaged CHP System with Reduced Emissions - Presentation by Cummins Power Generation, June 2011 Presentation on a 330 kWe Packaged CHP System with Reduced Emissions, given by John Pendray of Cummins Power Generation, at the U.S. DOE Industrial Distributed Energy Portfolio Review Meeting in Washington, D.C. on June 1-2,

  8. EERE Success Story-Low-Cost Production of Hydrogen and Electricity |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Low-Cost Production of Hydrogen and Electricity EERE Success Story-Low-Cost Production of Hydrogen and Electricity April 10, 2013 - 12:00am Addthis At an airport in Anchorage, Alaska, EERE provided funds to Bloom Energy in completing a one-year demonstration of two 25-kilowatt fuel cells-providing valuable, real-world data in one of the harshest environments on earth. Each fuel cell showed an impressive peak electrical efficiency of more than 50%. The high operating

  9. EERE Success Story-Nevada: Geothermal Brine Brings Low-Cost Power with

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Big Potential | Department of Energy Nevada: Geothermal Brine Brings Low-Cost Power with Big Potential EERE Success Story-Nevada: Geothermal Brine Brings Low-Cost Power with Big Potential August 21, 2013 - 12:00am Addthis Utilizing a $1 million EERE investment, heat from geothermal fluids-a byproduct of gold mining-will be generating electricity this year for less than $0.06 per kilowatt hour with ElectraTherm's new plug-and-play technology. Building on this first-of-its-kind success, this

  10. Design of a low-cost thermoacoustic electricity generator and its experimental verification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Backhaus, Scott N; Yu, Z; Jaworski, A J

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the design and testing of a low cost thermoacoustic generator. A travelling-wave thermoacoustic engine with a configuration of a looped-tube resonator is designed and constructed to convert heat to acoustic power. A commercially available, low-cost loudspeaker is adopted as the alternator to convert the engine's acoustic power to electricity. The whole system is designed using linear thermoacoustic theory. The optimization of different parts of the thermoacoustic generator, as well as the matching between the thermoacoustic engine and the alternator are discussed in detail. A detailed comparison between the preliminary test results and linear thermoacoustic predictions is provided.

  11. Low-Cost Heliostat for Modular Systems - Presentation from SunShot

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) Program Review 2013 | Department of Energy kutscher.pdf More Documents & Publications Low-Cost Heliostat for Modular Systems - FY13 Q1 High-Temperature Solar Thermoelectric Generators (STEG) SunShot Vision Study: February 2012 (Book), SunShot, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE)

  12. Low Cost Chemical Feedstocks Using an Improved and Energy Efficient Natural Gas Liquid Removal Process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2004-07-01

    This factsheet describes a research project whose goal is to develop a new low-cost and energy efficient NGL recovery process - through a combination of theoretical, bench-scale, and pilot-scale testing - so that it can be offered to the natural gas industry for commercialization.

  13. Developments in Die Pressing Strategies for Low-Cost Titanium Powders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hovanski, Yuri; Weil, K. Scott; Lavender, Curt A.

    2009-05-01

    Recent developments in the production of low-cost titanium powders have rejuvenated interest in manufacturing titanium powder metallurgy components by direct press and sinter techniques. However excessive friction typically observed during titanium powder pressing operations leads to numerous problems ranging from non-homogeneous green densities of the compacted powder to excessive part ejection forces and reduced die life due to wear and galling. An instrumented double-acting die press was developed to both investigate the mechanics of titanium powder pressing (particularly for the new low-cost powder morphologies) and to screen potential lubricants that could reduce frictional effects. As will be discussed, the instrument was used to determine friction coefficients and to evaluate a number of candidate lubricants. These results were then used to optimize the lubricant system to reduce die-wall stresses and improve part density uniformity.

  14. High Volume Method of Making Low Cost, Lightweight Solar Materials - Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Innovation Portal Solar Photovoltaic Solar Photovoltaic Find More Like This Return to Search High Volume Method of Making Low Cost, Lightweight Solar Materials Oak Ridge National Laboratory Contact ORNL About This Technology Technology Marketing SummaryA critical challenge for solar energy is the high cost (>$1/W) of quality solar materials. Researchers at ORNL have invented an approach for producing large volumes of solar cell material at a fraction of the cost of today's solar cells.

  15. Pathways to Low-Cost Electrochemical Energy Storage: A Comparison of

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Aqueous and Nonaqueous Flow Batteries - Joint Center for Energy Storage Research September 16, 2014, Research Highlights Pathways to Low-Cost Electrochemical Energy Storage: A Comparison of Aqueous and Nonaqueous Flow Batteries Comparison of available design space for aqueous and nonaqueous flow batteries to meet long term stationary storage cost goals. The nonaqueous redox flow battery technology has a potentially wider range of chemistry options but takes on new constraints of active

  16. Low-Cost Gas Heat Pump For Building Space Heating | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Gas Heat Pump For Building Space Heating Low-Cost Gas Heat Pump For Building Space Heating Credit: Stone Mountain Technologies Credit: Stone Mountain Technologies Lead Performer: Stone Mountain Technologies - Erwin, TN Partners: -- A.O. Smith - Milwaukee, WI -- Gas Technology Institute - Des Plaines, IL DOE Funding: $903,000 Cost Share: $232,294 Project Term: March 1, 2013 - August 31, 2015 Funding Opportunity: Energy Savings Through Improved Mechanical Systems and Building Envelope Technologies

  17. Low-Cost, High Efficiency Integration of SSL and Building Controls using a

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    PET Power Distribution System | Department of Energy High Efficiency Integration of SSL and Building Controls using a PET Power Distribution System Low-Cost, High Efficiency Integration of SSL and Building Controls using a PET Power Distribution System Lead Performer: VoltServer Inc. - East Greenwich, RI DOE Total Funding: $999,122 Project Term: July 28, 2015 - July 27, 2017 Funding Opportunity: FY2015 Phase II Release 2 SBIR Awards PROJECT OBJECTIVE This project will demonstrate a novel

  18. Researchers find 3-D printed parts to provide low-cost, custom alternatives

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    for laboratory equipment | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab Researchers find 3-D printed parts to provide low-cost, custom alternatives for laboratory equipment By Raphael Rosen February 26, 2015 Tweet Widget Google Plus One Share on Facebook 3-D printed parts provide the stands for the aluminum globes in PPPL's Planeterrella, a device that simulates Northern Lights. (Photo by Elle Starkman/PPPL Office of Communications) 3-D printed parts provide the stands for the aluminum globes in PPPL's

  19. Researchers find 3-D printed parts to provide low-cost, custom alternatives

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    for laboratory equipment | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab Researchers find 3-D printed parts to provide low-cost, custom alternatives for laboratory equipment By Raphael Rosen February 26, 2015 Tweet Widget Google Plus One Share on Facebook 3-D printed parts provide the stands for the aluminum globes in PPPL's Planeterrella, a device that simulates Northern Lights. (Photo by Elle Starkman/PPPL Office of Communications) 3-D printed parts provide the stands for the aluminum globes in PPPL's

  20. Low-Cost Magnesium Sheet Production using the Twin Roll Casting Process and

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Asymmetric Rolling | Department of Energy 2 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting PDF icon lm058_warren_2012_o.pdf More Documents & Publications Low-Cost Magnesium Sheet Production using the Twin Roll Casting Process and Asymmetric Rolling Materials Characterization Capabilities at the High Temperature Materials Laboratory: Focus Lightweighting Materials Materials Characterization Capabilities at the High

  1. State and Local Energy Investment Partnerships: Partnerships for Low Cost Clean Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and Local Energy Investment Partnerships Partnerships for Low Cost Clean Energy The Vision 1. Double the deployment of wind, solar, geothermal, and other renewable electricity generation by 2020. 2. Cut in half the energy wasted by our homes and businesses over the next 20 years. - President Barack Obama, 2013 State of the Union Address The Challenge 1. Taxpayer and ratepayer funds alone cannot finance a 20% increase in energy efficiency across all of America's buildings. 2. Nor can diminishing

  2. Membrane-Electrode Structures for Low Cost Molecular Catalysts in Fuel

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Cells and Other Electrochemical Devices - Energy Innovation Portal Membrane-Electrode Structures for Low Cost Molecular Catalysts in Fuel Cells and Other Electrochemical Devices Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Contact LBL About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary A team of Berkeley Lab researchers has developed a technology to coat electrode surfaces with a homogeneous catalyst that has been immobilized within a polymer layer. The team demonstrated that a 3-D distributed array

  3. Low Cost Fabrication of Thin-Film Ceramic Membranes for Nonshrinking

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Substrates - Energy Innovation Portal Low Cost Fabrication of Thin-Film Ceramic Membranes for Nonshrinking Substrates Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Contact LBL About This Technology Technology Marketing SummaryCertain fuel cell manufacturing specifications require deposition of a thin ceramic membrane onto a substrate that doesn't shrink over it's lifetime. Pre-firing the substrate improves substrate reliability and may lower its cost. This requires a film that has minimal volume

  4. Building America Top Innovations Hall of Fame Profile … Low-Cost Ventilation in Production Housing

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    simple, cost-effective techniques for providing fresh air throughout the home, including exhaust-only and central fan-integrated supply ventilation. Building America has refined simple whole-house ventilation systems that cost less than $350 to install. BUILDING AMERICA TOP INNOVATIONS HALL OF FAME PROFILE INNOVATIONS CATEGORY: 1. Advanced Technologies and Practices 1.3 Assured Health, Safety, and Durability Low-Cost Ventilation in Production Housing As high-performance homes get more air-tight

  5. Develpment of a low Cost Method to Estimate the Seismic Signiture of a

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Geothemal Field from Ambient Seismic Noise Analysis | Department of Energy Develpment of a low Cost Method to Estimate the Seismic Signiture of a Geothemal Field from Ambient Seismic Noise Analysis presentation at the April 2013 peer review meeting held in Denver, Colorado. PDF icon tibuleac_peer2013.pdf More Documents & Publications Seismic Technology Adapted to Analyzing and Developing Geothermal Systems Below Surface-Exposed High-Velocity Rocks Integration of Noise and Coda

  6. The Stirling engine as a low cost tool to educate mechanical engineers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gros, J.; Munoz, M.; Moreno, F.; Valero, A.

    1995-12-31

    The University of Zaragoza through CIRCE, the New Enterprise foundation, an Opel foundation and the local Government of Aragon have been developed a program to introduce the Stirling Engine as a low cost tool to educate students in mechanical engineering. The promotion of a prize like GNAT Power organized by the magazine Model Engineer in London, has improved the practical education of students in the field of mechanical devices and thermal engines. Two editions of the contest, 1993 and 1994, awarded the greatest power Stirling engine made by only using a little candle of paraffin as a heat source. Four engines were presented in the first edition, with an average power of about 100 mW, and seven engines in the second one, achieving a power of about 230 mW. Presentations in Technical Schools and the University have been carried out. Also low cost tools have been made for measuring an electronic device to draw the real internal pressure volume diagram using a PC. A very didactic software to design classic kinematic alpha, beta and gamma engines plus Ringbom beta and gamma engines has been created. A book is going to be published (in Spanish) explaining the design of small Stirling engines as a way to start with low cost research in thermal engines, a very difficult target with IC engines.

  7. Shock initiation studies on high concentration hydrogen peroxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sheffield, Stephen A; Dattelbaum, Dana M; Stahl, David B; Gibson, L. Lee; Bartram, Brian D.

    2009-01-01

    Concentrated hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) has been known to detonate for many years. However, because of its reactivity and the difficulty in handling and confining it, along with the large critical diameter, few studies providing basic information about the initiation and detonation properties have been published. We are conducting a study to understand and quantify the initiation and detonation properties of highly concentrated H{sub 2}O{sub 2} using a gas-driven two-stage gun to produce well defined shock inputs. Multiple magnetic gauges are used to make in-situ measurements of the growth of reaction and subsequent detonation in the liquid. These experiments are designed to be one-dimensional to eliminate any difficulties that might be encountered with large critical diameters. Because of the concern of the reactivity of the H{sub 2}O{sub 2} with the confining materials, a remote loading system has been developed. The gun is pressurized, then the cell is filled and the experiment shot within less than three minutes. TV cameras are attached to the target so the cell filling can be monitored. Several experiments have been completed on {approx}98 wt % H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O mixtures; initiation has been observed in some experiments that shows homogeneous shock initiation behavior. The initial shock pressurizes and heats the mixture. After an induction time, a thermal explosion type reaction produces an evolving reactive wave that strengthens and eventually overdrives the first wave producing a detonation. From these measurements, we have determined unreacted Hugoniot information, times (distances) to detonation (Pop-plot points) that indicate low sensitivity, and detonation velocities of high concentration H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O solutions that agree with earlier estimates.

  8. Optimal Heat Collection Element Shapes for Parabolic Trough Concentrators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bennett, C

    2007-11-15

    For nearly 150 years, the cross section of the heat collection tubes used at the focus of parabolic trough solar concentrators has been circular. This type of tube is obviously simple and easily fabricated, but it is not optimal. It is shown in this article that the optimal shape, assuming a perfect parabolic figure for the concentrating mirror, is instead oblong, and is approximately given by a pair of facing parabolic segments.

  9. A New Generation of Parabolic Trough Technology | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    A New Generation of Parabolic Trough Technology A New Generation of Parabolic Trough Technology This presentation was delivered at the SunShot Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) Program Review 2013, held April 23-25, 2013 near Phoenix, Arizona. PDF icon csp_review_meeting_042513_price.pdf More Documents & Publications Development of Molten-Salt Heat Trasfer Fluid Technology for Parabolic Trough Solar Power Plants POLYMERIC MIRROR FILMS: DURABILITY IMPROVEMENT AND IMPLEMENTATION IN NEW COLLECTOR

  10. NREL: TroughNet - Parabolic Trough Power Plant Market, Economic...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Market Overview The primary market for parabolic trough technology is large-scale bulk power. Because trough plants can be hybridized or can include thermal energy storage, they ...

  11. Hydrogen Removal From Heating Oil of a Parabolic Trough Increases...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    National Renewable Energy Laboratory Contact NREL About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary Parabolic trough power plants use concentrated solar thermal energy to generate ...

  12. Modeling of a Parabolic Trough Solar Field for Acceptance Testing...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    As deployment of parabolic trough concentrating solar power (CSP) systems ramps up, the need for reliable and robust performance acceptance test guidelines for the solar field is ...

  13. NREL: TroughNet - Parabolic Trough System and Component Testing

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    in an operating power plant environment. ... test stand using electric resistance heating to measure the thermal losses from parabolic ... of mirrors coming off the production line. ...

  14. Project Profile: Next-Generation Parabolic Trough Collectors...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    the next generation of lower-cost parabolic trough technologies that can compete on an equal footing with conventional power generation. Innovation Abengoa is focusing on ...

  15. Parabolic Trough Solar Thermal Electric Power Plants (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2006-07-01

    This fact sheet provides an overview of the potential for parabolic trough solar thermal electric power plants, especially in the Southwestern U.S.

  16. Alignment method for parabolic trough solar concentrators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Diver, Richard B.

    2010-02-23

    A Theoretical Overlay Photographic (TOP) alignment method uses the overlay of a theoretical projected image of a perfectly aligned concentrator on a photographic image of the concentrator to align the mirror facets of a parabolic trough solar concentrator. The alignment method is practical and straightforward, and inherently aligns the mirror facets to the receiver. When integrated with clinometer measurements for which gravity and mechanical drag effects have been accounted for and which are made in a manner and location consistent with the alignment method, all of the mirrors on a common drive can be aligned and optimized for any concentrator orientation.

  17. Scalable Light Module for Low-Cost, High-Efficiency Light- Emitting Diode Luminaires

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tarsa, Eric

    2015-08-31

    During this two-year program Cree developed a scalable, modular optical architecture for low-cost, high-efficacy light emitting diode (LED) luminaires. Stated simply, the goal of this architecture was to efficiently and cost-effectively convey light from LEDs (point sources) to broad luminaire surfaces (area sources). By simultaneously developing warm-white LED components and low-cost, scalable optical elements, a high system optical efficiency resulted. To meet program goals, Cree evaluated novel approaches to improve LED component efficacy at high color quality while not sacrificing LED optical efficiency relative to conventional packages. Meanwhile, efficiently coupling light from LEDs into modular optical elements, followed by optimally distributing and extracting this light, were challenges that were addressed via novel optical design coupled with frequent experimental evaluations. Minimizing luminaire bill of materials and assembly costs were two guiding principles for all design work, in the effort to achieve luminaires with significantly lower normalized cost ($/klm) than existing LED fixtures. Chief project accomplishments included the achievement of >150 lm/W warm-white LEDs having primary optics compatible with low-cost modular optical elements. In addition, a prototype Light Module optical efficiency of over 90% was measured, demonstrating the potential of this scalable architecture for ultra-high-efficacy LED luminaires. Since the project ended, Cree has continued to evaluate optical element fabrication and assembly methods in an effort to rapidly transfer this scalable, cost-effective technology to Cree production development groups. The Light Module concept is likely to make a strong contribution to the development of new cost-effective, high-efficacy luminaries, thereby accelerating widespread adoption of energy-saving SSL in the U.S.

  18. A low cost igniter utilizing an SCB and titanium sub-hydride potassium perchlorate pyrotechnic

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bickes, R.W. Jr.; Grubelich, M.C.; Hartman, J.K.; McCampbell, C.B.; Churchill, J.K.

    1993-12-31

    A conventional NSI (NASA standard initiator) normally employs a hot-wire ignition element to ignite ZPP (zirconium potassium perchlorate). With minor modifications to the interior of a header similar to an NSI device to accommodate an SCB (semiconductor bridge), a low cost initiator was obtained. In addition, the ZPP was replaced with THKP (titanium subhydride potassium perchlorate) to obtain increased overall gas production and reduced static-charge sensitivity. This paper reports on the all-fire and no-fire levels obtained and on a dual mix device that uses THKP as the igniter mix and a thermite as the output mix.

  19. Bench-Scale Silicone Process for Low-Cost CO2 Capture

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Bench-Scale Silicone Process for Low-Cost CO2 Capture Project No.: FE0007502 GE Global Research and their project partners are conducting research on the use of a novel silicone solvent to capture CO2 with a continuous bench-scale system. The project will utilize both computational and experimental methods. Previously measured experimental data from a continuous laboratory-scale CO2 capture system will be used to design this bench-scale system. Data from the bench-scale system, such as kinetics

  20. Low Cost Production of InGaN for Next-Generation Photovoltaic Devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nick M. Sbrockey, Shangzhu Sun, Gary S. Tompa,

    2012-07-09

    The goal of this project is to develop a low-cost and low-energy technology for production of photovoltaic devices based on InGaN materials. This project builds on the ongoing development by Structured Materials Industries (SMI), of novel thin film deposition technology for Group III-Nitride materials, which is capable of depositing Group-III nitride materials at significantly lower costs and significantly lower energy usage compared to conventional deposition techniques. During this project, SMI demonstrated deposition of GaN and InGaN films using metalorganic sources, and demonstrated compatibility of the process with standard substrate materials and hardware components.

  1. Low-cost Manufacturing of Wireless Sensors for Building Monitoring Applications

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    ALTEX TECHNOLOGIES CORPORATION Low-Cost Microchannel Heat Exchanger DOE Grant DE-EE0004541 2013-2014 Dr. John T. Kelly Altex Technologies Corporation 244 Sobrante Way Sunnyvale, CA 94086 Phone: 408-328-8302 E-mail: john@altextech.com U.S. DOE Advanced Manufacturing Office PEER Review Meeting Washington, D.C. May 6-7, 2014 This presentation does not contain any proprietary, confidential, or otherwise restricted information. ALTEX TECHNOLOGIES CORPORATION Project Objectives  Define and test low

  2. Noise testing of gearboxes and transmissions using low cost digital analysis and control techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Middleton, A.H.

    1986-01-01

    The combination of low cost personal computer, powerful array processor and intelligent data interface make it possible to carry out multichannel noise and vibration analysis at high speed during acceleration of gearbox on a test rig. Order analysis is used to compare noise signatures with preset targets for up to 20 orders of input shaft rotation. Targets are derived by the computer from practical test results. The computer also controls the test sequence and provides for varying the sequence according to the gearbox to be tested. Design considerations for a Quality Audit system are discussed and practical test results presented.

  3. Development of High-Volume Warm Forming of Low-Cost Magnesium Sheet |

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Department of Energy 0 DOE Vehicle Technologies and Hydrogen Programs Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, June 7-11, 2010 -- Washington D.C. PDF icon lm010_zaluzec_2010_o.pdf More Documents & Publications Development of High-Volume Warm Forming of Low-Cost Magnesium Sheet Magnesium Front End Research and Development AMD 604 Magnesium Front End Development (AMD 603/604/904) Department of Energy

    lm_19_quinn.pdf More Documents & Publications Development of

  4. Low temperature pyrotechnic smokes: A potential low cost alternative to nonpyrotechnic smoke for access delay applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greenholt, C.J.

    1995-07-01

    Smokes are frequently used as visual obscurants in access delay applications. A new generation of low temperature pyrotechnic smokes is being developed. Terephthalic Acid (TPA) smoke was developed by the U.S. Army and Sebacic Acid (SA) smoke is being developed by Thiokol Corp. The advantages these smokes offer over traditional pyrotechnic smokes include; low generation temperature (approximately 450{degree}C), lower toxicity, and lower corrosivity. The low generation temperature reduces smoke layering effects and allows the addition of sensory irritants, such as o-Chlorobenzylidene Malononitrile (CS), to the formulation. Some advantages low temperature pyrotechnic smokes offer over nonpyrotechnic smokes include; low cost, simplicity, compactness, light weight, long storage life, and orientation insensitive operation. Low cost permits distribution of multiple units for reduced vulnerability and refill flexibility. Some disadvantages may include the combustibility of the smoke particulate; however, the published lower explosive limit of the mentioned materials is approximately ten times greater than the concentration required for effective obscuration. The TPA smoke cloud contains small quantities of benzene, formaldehyde, and carbon monoxide; no benzene or formaldehyde was identified during preliminary SA smoke analyses performed by Thiokol Corp. Sandia performed tests and analyses on TPA smoke to determine the smoke cloud composition, the quantity of particulate produced per canister, and the relationship between airborne particulate concentration and measured optical density values. Current activities include characterization of SA smoke.

  5. Low Cost Carbon Fibre: Applications, Performance and Cost Models - Chapter 17

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Warren, Charles David; Wheatley, Dr. Alan; Das, Sujit

    2014-01-01

    Weight saving in automotive applications has a major bearing on fuel economy. It is generally accepted that, typically, a 10% weight reduction in an automobile will lead to a 6-8% improvement in fuel economy. In this respect, carbon fibre composites are extremely attractive in their ability to provide superlative mechanical performance per unit weight. That is why they are specified for high-end uses such as Formula 1 racing cars and the latest aircraft (e.g. Boeing 787, Airbus A350 and A380), where they comprise over 50% by weight of the structure However, carbon fibres are expensive and this renders their composites similarly expensive. Research has been carried out at Oak Ridge National Laboratories (ORNL), Tennessee, USA for over a decade with the aim of reducing the cost of carbon fibre such that it becomes a cost-effective option for the automotive industry. Aspects of this research relating to the development of low cost carbon fibre have been reported in Chapter 3 of this publication. In this chapter, the practical industrial applications of low-cost carbon fibre are presented, together with considerations of the performance and cost models which underpin the work.

  6. Low cost stable air electrode material for high temperature solid oxide electrolyte electrochemical cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kuo, Lewis J. H.; Singh, Prabhakar; Ruka, Roswell J.; Vasilow, Theodore R.; Bratton, Raymond J.

    1997-01-01

    A low cost, lanthanide-substituted, dimensionally and thermally stable, gas permeable, electrically conductive, porous ceramic air electrode composition of lanthanide-substituted doped lanthanum manganite is provided which is used as the cathode in high temperature, solid oxide electrolyte fuel cells and generators. The air electrode composition of this invention has a much lower fabrication cost as a result of using a lower cost lanthanide mixture, either a natural mixture or an unfinished lanthanide concentrate obtained from a natural mixture subjected to incomplete purification, as the raw material in place of part or all of the higher cost individual lanthanum. The mixed lanthanide primarily contains a mixture of at least La, Ce, Pr, and Nd, or at least La, Ce, Pr, Nd and Sm in its lanthanide content, but can also include minor amounts of other lanthanides and trace impurities. The use of lanthanides in place of some or all of the lanthanum also increases the dimensional stability of the air electrode. This low cost air electrode can be fabricated as a cathode for use in high temperature, solid oxide fuel cells and generators.

  7. Low-cost household paint abatement to reduce children's blood lead levels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taha, T.; Kanarek, M.S.; Schultz, B.D.; Murphy, A.

    1999-11-01

    The purpose was to examine the effectiveness of low-cost abatement on children's blood lead levels. Blood lead was analyzed before and after abatement in 37 homes of children under 7 years old with initial blood lead levels of 25--44 {micro}g/dL. Ninety-five percent of homes were built before 1950. Abatement methods used were wet-scraping and repainting deteriorated surfaces and wrapping window wells with aluminum or vinyl. A control group was retrospectively selected. Control children were under 7 years old, had initial blood lead levels of 25--44 {micro}g/dL and a follow-up level at least 28 days afterward, and did not have abatements performed in their homes between blood lead levels. After abatement, statistically significant declines occurred in the intervention children's blood lead levels. The mean decline was 22%, 1 to 6 months after treatment. After adjustment for seasonality and child's age, the mean decline was 6.0 {micro}g/dL, or 18%. The control children's blood levels did not decline significantly. There was a mean decline of 0.25 {micro}g/dL, or 0.39%. After adjustment for seasonality and age, the mean decline for control children was 1.6 {micro}g/dL, or 1.8%. Low-cost abatement and education are effective short-term interim controls.

  8. Low-cost, compact, robust laser-based ultrasound sensors using photo-EMF detection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pepper, D.M.; Dunning, G.J.; Chiao, M.P.; O`Meara, T.R.; Mitchell, P.V.

    1996-12-31

    There is a great need in the manufacturing, aerospace, commercial, energy, automotive, microelectronics and DoD communities for diagnostic systems that can improve the efficiency, yield and performance of various materials processes--while reducing cost, labor, scrap, and machine downtime. Laser-based ultrasound (LBU) represents a noncontact, reconfigurable, high-bandwidth ultrasonic inspection and process control technology. LBU enables remote ultrasonic sensing by replacing conventional PZT transducers, squirters, and immersion systems with laser beams. One laser beam generates the ultrasound in an opaque workpiece, while a second laser beam probes the sample to sense minute surface displacements, induced by the ultrasound or via other acoustic emission mechanisms. LBU systems have yet to be fielded commercially, owing primarily to the cost, size, and complexity of the system components. The authors have developed a low-cost, compact sensor which can potentially enable LBU systems to become a reality. The sensor employs a semiconductor crystal (GaAs) using a mechanism called nonsteady-state photo-induced emf. When combined with a laser diode as an optical source, the result is a very compact, low-cost robust sensor, which can function under in-factory conditions, including inspection of rough-cut workpieces which undergo rapid platform motion, such as high-speed, scanning laser welders. Experimental results will be discussed, including the potential for optical fiber delivery.

  9. Low cost stable air electrode material for high temperature solid oxide electrolyte electrochemical cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kuo, L.J.H.; Singh, P.; Ruka, R.J.; Vasilow, T.R.; Bratton, R.J.

    1997-11-11

    A low cost, lanthanide-substituted, dimensionally and thermally stable, gas permeable, electrically conductive, porous ceramic air electrode composition of lanthanide-substituted doped lanthanum manganite is provided which is used as the cathode in high temperature, solid oxide electrolyte fuel cells and generators. The air electrode composition of this invention has a much lower fabrication cost as a result of using a lower cost lanthanide mixture, either a natural mixture or an unfinished lanthanide concentrate obtained from a natural mixture subjected to incomplete purification, as the raw material in place of part or all of the higher cost individual lanthanum. The mixed lanthanide primarily contains a mixture of at least La, Ce, Pr, and Nd, or at least La, Ce, Pr, Nd and Sm in its lanthanide content, but can also include minor amounts of other lanthanides and trace impurities. The use of lanthanides in place of some or all of the lanthanum also increases the dimensional stability of the air electrode. This low cost air electrode can be fabricated as a cathode for use in high temperature, solid oxide fuel cells and generators. 4 figs.

  10. Wet oxidation of high-concentration reactive dyes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, G.; Lei, L.; Yue, P.L.

    1999-05-01

    Advanced oxidation methods were used to degrade reactive dyes at high concentrations in aqueous solutions. Wet peroxide oxidation (WPO) was found to be the best method in terms of the removal of color and total organic carbon (TOC). Reactive blue (Basilen Brilliant Blue P-3R) was chosen as a model dye for determining the suitable reaction conditions. The variables studied include reaction temperature, H{sub 2}O{sub 2} dosage, solution pH, dye concentration, and catalyst usage. The removal of TOC and color by wet oxidation is very sensitive to the reaction temperature. At 150 C, the removal of 77% TOC and 90% color was obtained in less than 30 min. The initial TOC removal rate is proportional to the H{sub 2}O{sub 2} dosage. The TOC removal is insignificant even when 50% of the stoichiometric amount of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} is used. No color change is observed until the dosage of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} is 100% of the stoichiometric amount. The color removal is closely related to TOC removal. When the pH of the solution is adjusted to 3.5, the dye degradation rate increases significantly. The rates of TOC and color removal are enhanced by using a Cu{sup 2+} catalyst. Another four reactive dyes, Procion Red PX-4B, Cibacron Yellow P-6GS, Cibacron Brown P-6R, and Procion Black PX-2R, were treated at 150 C using WPO. More than 80% TOC was removed from the solution in less than 15 min. The process can remove the colors of al these dyes except Procion Black PX-2R.

  11. Energy Department Announces up to $4 Million to Advance Low-Cost Hydrogen Production from Renewable and Low Carbon Sources

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In support of the Obama Administration's all-of-the-above energy strategy, the Energy Department today announced up to$4 million in new funding to address critical challenges and barriers for low-cost, low-carbon hydrogen production.

  12. Ion Torren Semiconductor Sequencing Allows Rapid, Low Cost Sequencing of the Human Exome ( 7th Annual SFAF Meeting, 2012)

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Jenkins, David [EdgeBio

    2013-03-22

    David Jenkins on "Ion Torrent semiconductor sequencing allows rapid, low-cost sequencing of the human exome" at the 2012 Sequencing, Finishing, Analysis in the Future Meeting held June 5-7, 2012 in Santa Fe, New Mexico.

  13. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Low-cost, High Energy Si/Graphene Anodes for Li-ion Batteries

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by XG Sciences at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about low-cost, high energy Si/graphene...

  14. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Thick Low-Cost, High-Power Lithium-Ion Electrodes via Aqueous Processing

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Oak Ridge National Laboratory at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about thick low-cost,...

  15. Tri-Lateral Noor al Salaam High Concentration Solar Central Receiver Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blackmon, James B

    2008-03-31

    This report documents the efforts conducted primarily under the Noor al Salaam (“Light of Peace”) program under DOE GRANT NUMBER DE-FC36-02GO12030, together with relevant technical results from a closely related technology development effort, the U.S./Israel Science and Technology Foundation (USISTF) High Concentration Solar Central Receiver program. These efforts involved preliminary design, development, and test of selected prototype power production subsystems and documentation of an initial version of the system definition for a high concentration solar hybrid/gas electrical power plant to be built in Zaafarana, Egypt as a first step in planned commercialization. A major part of the planned work was halted in 2007 with an amendment in October 2007 requiring that we complete the technical effort by December 31, 2007 and provide a final report to DOE within the following 90 days. This document summarizes the work conducted. The USISTF program was a 50/50 cost-shared program supported by the Department of Commerce through the U.S./Israel Science and Technology Commission (USISTC). The USISTC was cooperatively developed by President Clinton and the late Prime Minister Rabin of Israel "to encourage technological collaboration" and "support peace in the Middle East through economic development". The program was conducted as a follow-on effort to Israel's Magnet/CONSOLAR Program, which was an advanced development effort to design, fabricate, and test a solar central receiver and secondary optics for a "beam down" central receiver concept. The status of these hardware development programs is reviewed, since they form the basis for the Noor al Salaam program. Descriptions are provided of the integrated system and the major subsystems, including the heliostat, the high temperature air receiver, the power conversion unit, tower and tower reflector, compound parabolic concentrator, and the master control system. One objective of the USISTF program was to conduct marketing research, identify opportunities for use of this technology, and to the extent possible, secure an agreement leading to a pre-commercialization demonstration or prototype plant. This was accomplished with the agreement to conduct the Noor al Salaam program as a tri-lateral project between Egypt, Israel, and the U.S. The tri-lateral project was led by the University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAH); this included the Egyptian New and Renewable Energy Authority and the Israeli USISTC participants. This project, known was Noor al Salaam, was funded by the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) through the Department of Energy (DOE). The Egyptian activity was under the auspices of the Egyptian Ministry of Energy and Electricity, New and Renewable Energy Authority (NREA) as part of Egypt's plans for renewable energy development. The objective of the Noor al Salaam project was to develop the conditions necessary to obtain funding and construct and operate an approximately 10 to 20 Megawatt hybrid solar/natural gas demonstration power plant in Zaafarana, Egypt that could serve both as a test bed for advanced solar technology evaluations, and as a forerunner to commercial plant designs. This plant, termed Noor Al Salaam, or “Light of Peace”, reached the initial phase of system definition before being curtailed, in part by changes in USAID objectives, coupled with various delays that were beyond the scope of the program to resolve. The background of the USISTF technology development and pre-commercialization effort is provided in this report, together with documentation of the technology developments conducted under the Noor al Salaam program. It should be noted that only a relatively small part of the Noor al Salaam funding was expended over the approximately five years for which UAH was prime contractor before the program was ordered closed (Reference 1) so that the remaining funds could be returned to USAID.

  16. Low-cost evacuated-tube solar collector appendices. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beecher, D.T.

    1980-05-31

    A low cost solar heat energy collector module and array has been designed using the evacuated tube, selective absorber, air cooled concept. Glass tubing as used in fluorescent lamps with automatic sealing methods is a key feature of the evacuated tube design. A molded fiber glass concentrating reflector panel and sheet metal header assembly are proposed. Major design problems involved included the cost of materials and labor, thermal expansion and distortion problems, high stagnation and operating temperatures, isolation, thermal efficiency, sealing, joining, air pressure drop, and weight of the preassembled module. A cost of less than $5 per active square foot of collecting surface has been estimated for materials and labor of the module and its mounting frame.

  17. A simple, low-cost, data logging pendulum built from a computer mouse

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gintautas, Vadas; Hubler, Alfred

    2009-01-01

    Lessons and homework problems involving a pendulum are often a big part of introductory physics classes and laboratory courses from high school to undergraduate levels. Although laboratory equipment for pendulum experiments is commercially available, it is often expensive and may not be affordable for teachers on fixed budgets, particularly in developing countries. We present a low-cost, easy-to-build rotary sensor pendulum using the existing hardware in a ball-type computer mouse. We demonstrate how this apparatus may be used to measure both the frequency and coefficient of damping of a simple physical pendulum. This easily constructed laboratory equipment makes it possible for all students to have hands-on experience with one of the most important simple physical systems.

  18. Low-Cost Substrates for High-Performance Nanorod Array LEDs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sands, Timothy; Stach, Eric; Garcia, Edwin

    2009-04-30

    The completed project, entitled Low-Cost Substrates for High-Performance Nanorod LEDs, targeted the goal of a phosphor-free nanorod-based white LED with IQE > 50% across the spectrum from 450 nm to 600 nm on metallized silicon substrates. The principal achievements of this project included: Demonstration of (In,Ga)N nanopyramid heterostructures by a conventional OMVPE process. Verification of complete filtering of threading dislocations to yield dislocation-free pyramidal heterostructures. Demonstration of electroluminescence with a peak wavelength of ~600 nm from an (In,Ga)N nanopyramid array LED. Development of a reflective ZrN/AlN buffer layer for epitaxial growth of GaN films and GaN nanopyramid arrays on (111)Si.

  19. Advanced gas turbines: The choice for low-cost, environmentally superior electric power generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zeh, C.M.

    1996-08-01

    In July 1993, the US Department of Energy (DOE) initiated an ambitious 8-year program to advance state-of-the-art gas turbine technology for land-based electric power generation. The program, known as the Advanced Turbine System (ATS) Program, is a joint government/industry program with the objective to demonstrate advanced industrial and utility gas turbine systems by the year 2000. The goals of the ATS Program are to develop gas turbine systems capable of providing low-cost electric power, while maintaining environmental superiority over competing power generation options. A progress report on the ATS Program pertaining to program status at DOE will be presented and reviewed in this paper. The technical challenges, advanced critical technology requirements, and systems designs meeting the goals of the program will be described and discussed.

  20. Final Report- Low Cost, Epitaxial Growth of II-VI Materials for Multijunction Photovoltaic Cells

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Multijunction solar cells have theoretical power conversion efficiencies in excess of 29% under one sun illumination and could become a highly disruptive technology if fabricated using low cost processing techniques to epitaxially grow defect tolerant, thin films on silicon. The PLANT PV/Molecular Foundry team studied the feasibility of using cadmium selenide (CdSe) as the wide band-gap, top cell and Si as the bottom cell in monolithically integrated tandem architecture. The greatest challenge in developing tandem solar cells is depositing wide band gap semiconductors that are both highly doped and have minority carrier lifetimes greater than 1 ns. The proposed research was to determine whether it is possible to rapidly grow CdSe films with sufficient minority carrier lifetimes and doping levels required to produce an open-circuit voltage (Voc) greater than 1.1V using close-space sublimation (CSS).

  1. Performance predictions of alternative, low cost absorbents for open-cycle absorption solar cooling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ameel, T.A.; Gee, K.G.; Wood, B.D.

    1995-02-01

    To achieve solar fractions greater than 0.90 using the open-cycle absorption refrigeration system, considerable sorbent solution storage is necessary. Having identified the absorber as the system component whose performance is affected the most by a change in absorbent, an absorber model was selected from available literature pertaining to simultaneous heat and mass transfer. Low-cost absorbent candidates were selected and their physical properties were either located in the literature, measured, or estimated. The most promising of the absorbents considered was a mixture of two parts lithium chloride and one part zinc chloride. Both the lithium-zinc chloride mixture and lithium bromide solutions had estimated pumping powers of less than 0.1 kW. The solubility of the lithium-zinc chloride mixture at absorber conditions was improved over that of lithium bromide, reducing the risk of solidification of the solution. 16 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Development of High Rate Coating Technology for Low Cost Electrochromic Dynamic Windows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kwak, B.; Joshi, Ajey

    2013-03-31

    Objectives of the Project: The objective of this project was to develop and demonstrate the feasibility of depositing critical electrochromic layers at high rate using new novel vacuum coating sources, to develop a full electrochromic process flow by combining conventional processes with new deposition sources, to characterize, test, evaluate, and optimize the resulting coatings and devices, and, to demonstrate an electrochromic device using the new process flow and sources. As addendum objectives, this project was to develop and demonstrate direct patterning methods with novel integration schemes. The long term objective, beyond this program, is to integrate these innovations to enable production of low-cost, high-performance electrochromic windows produced on highly reliable and high yielding manufacturing equipment and systems.

  3. Design Strategies and Preliminary Prototype for a Low-Cost Arsenic Removal System for Rural Bangladesh

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mathieu, Johanna L.; Gadgil, Ashok J.; Kowolik, Kristin; Qazi, Shefah; Agogino, Alice M.

    2009-09-14

    Researchers have invented a material called ARUBA -- Arsenic Removal Using Bottom Ash -- that effectively and affordably removes arsenic from Bangladesh groundwater. Through analysis of studies across a range of disciplines, observations, and informal interviews conducted over three trips to Bangladesh, we have applied mechanical engineering design methodology to develop eight key design strategies, which were used in the development of a low-cost, community-scale water treatment system that uses ARUBA to removearsenic from drinking water. We have constructed, tested, and analysed a scale version of the system. Experiments have shown that the system is capable of reducing high levels of arsenic (nearly 600 ppb) to below the Bangladesh standard of 50 ppb, while remaining affordable to people living on less than US$2/day. The system could be sustainably implemented as a public-private partnership in rural Bangladesh.

  4. Polycrystalline GaAs solar cells on low-cost Silicon-Film{trademark} substrates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mauk, M.G.; Feyock, B.W.; Hall, R.B.; Cavanaugh, K.D.; Cotter, J.E.

    1997-12-31

    The authors assess the potential of a low-cost, large-area Silicon-Film{trademark} sheet as a substrate for thin-film polycrystalline GaAs solar cells. Silicon-Film is a relatively inexpensive material on which large-grain (>2 mm) polycrystalline GaAs films can be formed. The GaAs epitaxial layers are grown by a simple close-spaced vapor transport (CSVT) technique using water vapor as a transport agent. A recrystallized Ge{sub 1{minus}x}Si{sub x} buffer layer between the GaAs epilayer and Silicon-Film substrate can facilitate growth of the GaAs. Selective epitaxy on patterned, oxide-masked substrates is effective in reducing thermal stress effects.

  5. Flat-plate solar collectors utilizing polymeric film for high performance and very low cost

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilhelm, W.G.

    1981-01-01

    Polymeric films are used in the construction of the absorber and window portions of a flat plate solar collector. The absorber heat exchanger consists of a channeled liquid envelope constructed using a polymeric film and metal foil laminate. In addition, the composite films and light frame monocoque construction contribute to very light weight and low cost. The use of high-performance polymers permits low-loss designs with high thermal performance. The construction concepts are consistent with high speed mass production and installation with manufacturing cost projections of $15/m/sup 2/. Tests performed at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) and elsewhere indicate performance potential consistent with applications incorporating solar absorption air conditioning.

  6. Low cost, bare plate solar air collector. Semi-annual progress report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    A low cost, bare plate solar collector that is specifically designed to preheat ambient air with solar energy is discussed. Two prototype solar collector test systems have been designed, fabricated and assembled. Each system has been instrumented to provide instantaneous and average thermal performance data by means of a computerized data logger system. This data logger system is currently being made operational. Data collection is scheduled to begin March 1, 1980 and continue until the project completion date of June 17, 1980. Some preliminary test data have been obtained for both prototype systems. The results showed that ambient air was preheated between 5/sup 0/F and 10/sup 0/F with the systems achieving a thermal performance of between 15% and 30% efficiency.

  7. Microphotonic parabolic light directors fabricated by two-photon lithography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Atwater, Jackson H; Spinelli, P.; Kosten, Emily D; Parsons, J.; Van Lare, C; Van de Groep, J; Garcia de Abajo, J.; Polman, Albert; Atwater, Harry A.

    2011-01-01

    We have fabricated microphotonic parabolic light directors using two-photon lithography, thin-film processing, and aperture formation by focused ion beam lithography. Optical transmission measurements through upright parabolic directors 22 ?m high and 10 ?m in diameter exhibit strong beam directivity with a beam divergence of 5.6, in reasonable agreement with ray-tracing and full-field electromagnetic simulations. The results indicate the suitability of microphotonic parabolic light directors for producing collimated beams for applications in advanced solar cell and light-emitting diode designs.

  8. Enery Efficient Press and Sinter of Titanium Powder for Low-Cost Components in Vehicle Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas Zwitter; Phillip Nash; Xiaoyan Xu; Chadwick Johnson

    2011-03-31

    This is the final technical report for the Department of Energy NETL project NT01931 Energy Efficient Press and Sinter of Titanium Powder for Low-Cost Components in Vehicle Applications. Titanium has been identified as one of the key materials with the required strength that can reduce the weight of automotive components and thereby reduce fuel consumption. Working with newly developed sources of titanium powder, Webster-Hoff will develop the processing technology to manufacture low cost vehicle components using the single press/single sinter techniques developed for iron based powder metallurgy today. Working with an automotive or truck manufacturer, Webster-Hoff will demonstrate the feasibility of manufacturing a press and sinter titanium component for a vehicle application. The project objective is two-fold, to develop the technology for manufacturing press and sinter titanium components, and to demonstrate the feasibility of producing a titanium component for a vehicle application. The lowest cost method for converting metal powder into a net shape part is the Powder Metallurgy Press and Sinter Process. The method involves compaction of the metal powder in a tool (usually a die and punches, upper and lower) at a high pressure (up to 60 TSI or 827 MPa) to form a green compact with the net shape of the final component. The powder in the green compact is held together by the compression bonds between the powder particles. The sinter process then converts the green compact to a metallurgically bonded net shape part through the process of solid state diffusion. The goal of this project is to expand the understanding and application of press and sinter technology to Titanium Powder applications, developing techniques to manufacture net shape Titanium components via the press and sinter process. In addition, working with a vehicle manufacturer, demonstrate the feasibility of producing a titanium component for a vehicle. This is not a research program, but rather a project to develop a process for press and sinter of net shape Titanium components. All of these project objectives have been successfully completed.

  9. Near-Net Shape Fabrication Using Low-Cost Titanium Alloy Powders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. David M. Bowden; Dr. William H. Peter

    2012-03-31

    The use of titanium in commercial aircraft production has risen steadily over the last half century. The aerospace industry currently accounts for 58% of the domestic titanium market. The Kroll process, which has been used for over 50 years to produce titanium metal from its mineral form, consumes large quantities of energy. And, methods used to convert the titanium sponge output of the Kroll process into useful mill products also require significant energy resources. These traditional approaches result in product forms that are very expensive, have long lead times of up to a year or more, and require costly operations to fabricate finished parts. Given the increasing role of titanium in commercial aircraft, new titanium technologies are needed to create a more sustainable manufacturing strategy that consumes less energy, requires less material, and significantly reduces material and fabrication costs. A number of emerging processes are under development which could lead to a breakthrough in extraction technology. Several of these processes produce titanium alloy powder as a product. The availability of low-cost titanium powders may in turn enable a more efficient approach to the manufacture of titanium components using powder metallurgical processing. The objective of this project was to define energy-efficient strategies for manufacturing large-scale titanium structures using these low-cost powders as the starting material. Strategies include approaches to powder consolidation to achieve fully dense mill products, and joining technologies such as friction and laser welding to combine those mill products into near net shape (NNS) preforms for machining. The near net shape approach reduces material and machining requirements providing for improved affordability of titanium structures. Energy and cost modeling was used to define those approaches that offer the largest energy savings together with the economic benefits needed to drive implementation. Technical feasibility studies were performed to identify the most viable approaches to NNS preform fabrication using basic powder metallurgy mill product forms as the building blocks and advanced joining techniques including fusion and solid state joining to assemble these building blocks into efficient machining performs.

  10. NREL: Concentrating Solar Power Research - Parabolic Trough Thermal...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of solar power Help reduce the cost of solar electricity. Parabolic trough technology currently has one thermal energy storage option-a two-tank, indirect, molten-salt system. ...

  11. Promising Technology: Parabolic Aluminized Reflector Light-Emitting Diodes

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Parabolic aluminized reflectors, or PARs, are directional lamps typically used in recessed lighting. In contrast to CFLs, LEDs offer additional advantages including no warm up time, improved dimming and control capabilities, and for some products much greater efficacy ratings.

  12. Solargenix Energy Advanced Parabolic Trough Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gee, R. C.; Hale, M. J.

    2005-11-01

    The Solargenix Advanced Trough Development Project was initiated in the Year 2000 with the support of the DOE CSP Program and, more recently, with the added support of the Nevada Southwest Energy Partnership. Parabolic trough plants are the most mature solar power technology, but no large-scale plants have been built in over a decade. Given this lengthy lull in deployment, our first Project objective was development of improved trough technology for near-term deployment, closely patterned after the best of the prior-generation troughs. The second objective is to develop further improvements in next-generation trough technology that will lead to even larger reductions in the cost of the delivered energy. To date, this Project has successfully developed an advanced trough, which is being deployed on a 1-MW plant in Arizona and will soon be deployed in a 64-MW plant in Nevada. This advanced trough offers a 10% increase in performance and over an 20% decrease in cost, relative to prior-generation troughs.

  13. FirstOPTIC Software Package for Parabolic Trough Evaluation - Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Innovation Portal Find More Like This Return to Search FirstOPTIC Software Package for Parabolic Trough Evaluation National Renewable Energy Laboratory Contact NREL About This Technology Publications: PDF Document Publication ASME Article (900 KB) Technology Marketing Summary Parabolic trough collectors are one of the main concentrating solar power (CSP) technologies used in commercial utility-scale power generation plants. A key param-eter for trough performance evaluation is the collector

  14. Binder-free highly conductive graphene laminate for low cost printed radio frequency applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Xianjun; Leng, Ting; Zhang, Xiao; Hu, Zhirun; Chen, Jia Cing; Chang, Kuo Hsin; Geim, Andre K.; Novoselov, Kostya S.

    2015-05-18

    In this paper, we demonstrate realization of printable radio frequency identification (RFID) antenna by low temperature processing of graphene ink. The required ultra-low resistance is achieved by rolling compression of binder-free graphene laminate. With compression, the conductivity of graphene laminate is increased by more than 50 times compared to that of as-deposited one. Graphene laminate with conductivity of 4.3??10{sup 4?}S/m and sheet resistance of 3.8 ?/sq (with thickness of 6??m) is presented. Moreover, the formation of graphene laminate from graphene ink reported here is simple and can be carried out in low temperature (100?C), significantly reducing the fabrication costs. A dipole antenna based on the highly conductive graphene laminate is further patterned and printed on a normal paper to investigate its RF properties. The performance of the graphene laminate antenna is experimentally measured. The measurement results reveal that graphene laminate antenna can provide practically acceptable return loss, gain, bandwidth, and radiation patterns, making it ideal for low cost printed RF applications, such as RFID tags and wearable wireless sensor networks.

  15. Nonequilibrium Thermoelectrics: Low-Cost, High-Performance Materials for Cooling and Power Generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Q.

    2011-05-18

    Thermoelectric materials can be made into coolers (TECs) that use electricity to develop a temperature difference, cooling something, or generators (TEGs) that convert heat directly to electricity. One application of TEGs is to place them in a waste heat stream to recuperate some of the power being lost and putting it to use more profitably. To be effective thermoelectrics, however, materials must have both high electrical conductivity and low thermal conductivity, a combination rarely found in nature. Materials selection and processing has led to the development of several systems with a figure of merit, ZT, of nearly unity. By using non-equilibrium techniques, we have fabricated higher efficiency thermoelectric materials. The process involves creating an amorphous material through melt spinning and then sintering it with either spark plasma or a hot press for as little as two minutes. This results in a 100% dense material with an extremely fine grain structure. The grain boundaries appear to retard phonons resulting in a reduced thermal conductivity while the electrons move through the material relatively unchecked. The techniques used are low-cost and scaleable to support industrial manufacturing.

  16. Defect Engineering, Cell Processing, and Modeling for High-Performance, Low-Cost Crystalline Silicon Photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buonassisi, Tonio

    2013-02-26

    The objective of this project is to close the efficiency gap between industrial multicrystalline silicon (mc-Si) and monocrystalline silicon solar cells, while preserving the economic advantage of low-cost, high-volume substrates inherent to mc-Si. Over the course of this project, we made significant progress toward this goal, as evidenced by the evolution in solar-cell efficiencies. While most of the benefits of university projects are diffuse in nature, several unique contributions can be traced to this project, including the development of novel characterization methods, defect-simulation tools, and novel solar-cell processing approaches mitigate the effects of iron impurities ("Impurities to Efficiency" simulator) and dislocations. In collaboration with our industrial partners, this project contributed to the development of cell processing recipes, specialty materials, and equipment that increased cell efficiencies overall (not just multicrystalline silicon). Additionally, several students and postdocs who were either partially or fully engaged in this project (as evidenced by the publication record) are currently in the PV industry, with others to follow.

  17. Low-cost, low-weight CNG cylinder development. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richards, Mark E.; Melford, K.; Wong, J.; Gambone, L.

    1999-09-01

    This program was established to develop and commercialize new high-strength steel-lined, composite hoop-wrapped compressed natural gas (CNG) cylinders for vehicular applications. As much as 70% of the cost of natural gas vehicles can be related to on-board natural gas storage costs. The cost and weight targets for this program represent significant savings in each characteristic when compared to comparable containers available at the initiation of the program. The program objectives were to optimize specific weight and cost goals, yielding CNG cylinders with dimensions that should, allowing for minor modifications, satisfy several vehicle market segments. The optimization process encompassed material, design, and process improvement. In optimizing the CNG cylinder design, due consideration was given to safety aspects relative to national, international, and vehicle manufacturer cylinder standards and requirements. The report details the design and development effort, encompassing plant modifications, material selection, design issues, tooling development, prototype development, and prototype testing. Extenuating circumstances prevented the immediate commercialization of the cylinder designs, though significant progress was made towards improving the cost and performance of CNG cylinders. A new low-cost fiber was successfully employed while the weight target was met and the cost target was missed by less than seven percent.

  18. Novel Low Cost Organic Vapor Jet Printing of Striped High Efficiency Phosphorescent OLEDs for White Lighting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mike Hack

    2008-12-31

    In this program, Universal Display Corporation and University of Michigan proposed to integrate three innovative concepts to meet the DOE's Solid State Lighting (SSL) goals: (1) high-efficiency phosphorescent organic light emitting device (PHOLED{trademark}) technology, (2) a white lighting design that is based on a series of red, green and blue OLED stripes, and (3) the use of a novel cost-effective, high rate, mask-less deposition process called organic vapor jet printing (OVJP). Our PHOLED technology offers up to four-times higher power efficiency than other OLED approaches for general lighting. We believe that one of the most promising approaches to maximizing the efficiency of OLED lighting sources is to produce stripes of the three primary colors at such a pitch (200-500 {mu}m) that they appear as a uniform white light to an observer greater than 1 meter (m) away from the illumination source. Earlier work from a SBIR Phase 1 entitled 'White Illumination Sources Using Striped Phosphorescent OLEDs' suggests that stripe widths of less than 500 {mu}m appear uniform from a distance of 1m without the need for an external diffuser. In this program, we intend to combine continued advances in this PHOLED technology with the striped RGB lighting design to demonstrate a high-efficiency, white lighting source. Using this background technology, the team has focused on developing and demonstrating the novel cost-effective OVJP process to fabricate these high-efficiency white PHOLED light sources. Because this groundbreaking OVJP process is a direct printing approach that enables the OLED stripes to be printed without a shadow mask, OVJP offers very high material utilization and high throughput without the costs and wastage associated with a shadow mask (i.e. the waste of material that deposits on the shadow mask itself). As a direct printing technique, OVJP also has the potential to offer ultra-high deposition rates (> 1,000 Angstroms/second) for any size or shaped features. As a result, we believe that this work will lead to the development of a cost-effective manufacturing solution to produce very-high efficiency OLEDs. By comparison to more common ink-jet printing (IJP), OVJP can also produce well-defined patterns without the need to pattern the substrate with ink wells or to dry/anneal the ink. In addition, the material set is not limited by viscosity and solvent solubility. During the program we successfully demonstrated a 6-inch x 6-inch PHOLED lighting panel consisting of fine-featured red, green and blue (R-G-B) stripes (1mm width) using an OVJP deposition system that was designed, procured and installed into UDC's cleanroom as part of this program. This project will significantly accelerate the DOE's ability to meet its 2015 DOE SSL targets of 70-150 lumens/Watt and less than $10 per 1,000 lumens for high CRI lighting index (76-90). Coupled with a low cost manufacturing path through OVJP, we expect that this achievement will enable the DOE to achieve its 2015 performance goals by the year 2013, two years ahead of schedule. As shown by the technical work performed under this program, we believe that OVJP is a very promising technology to produce low cost, high efficacy, color tunable light sources. While we have made significant progress to develop OVJP technology and build a pilot line tool to study basic aspects of the technology and demonstrate a lighting panel prototype, further work needs to be performed before its full potential and commercial viability can be fully assessed.

  19. A LOW COST AND HIGH QUALITY SOLID FUEL FROM BIOMASS AND COAL FINES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John T. Kelly; George Miller; Mehdi Namazian

    2001-07-01

    Use of biomass wastes as fuels in existing boilers would reduce greenhouse gas emissions, SO2 and NOx emissions, while beneficially utilizing wastes. However, the use of biomass has been limited by its low energy content and density, high moisture content, inconsistent configuration and decay characteristics. If biomass is upgraded by conventional methods, the cost of the fuel becomes prohibitive. Altex has identified a process, called the Altex Fuel Pellet (AFP) process, that utilizes a mixture of biomass wastes, including municipal biosolids, and some coal fines, to produce a strong, high energy content, good burning and weather resistant fuel pellet, that is lower in cost than coal. This cost benefit is primarily derived from fees that are collected for accepting municipal biosolids. Besides low cost, the process is also flexible and can incorporate several biomass materials of interest The work reported on herein showed the technical and economic feasibility of the AFP process. Low-cost sawdust wood waste and light fractions of municipal wastes were selected as key biomass wastes to be combined with biosolids and coal fines to produce AFP pellets. The process combines steps of dewatering, pellet extrusion, drying and weatherizing. Prior to pilot-scale tests, bench-scale test equipment was used to produce limited quantities of pellets for characterization. These tests showed which pellet formulations had a high potential. Pilot-scale tests then showed that extremely robust pellets could be produced that have high energy content, good density and adequate weatherability. It was concluded that these pellets could be handled, stored and transported using equipment similar to that used for coal. Tests showed that AFP pellets have a high combustion rate when burned in a stoker type systems. While NOx emissions under stoker type firing conditions was high, a simple air staging approach reduced emissions to below that for coal. In pulverized-fuel-fired tests it was found that the ground pellets could be used as an effective NOx control agent for pulverized-coal-fired systems. NOx emissions reductions up to 63% were recorded, when using AFP as a NOx control agent. In addition to performance benefits, economic analyses showed the good economic benefits of AFP fuel. Using equipment manufacturer inputs, and reasonable values for biomass, biosolids and coal fines costs, it was determined that an AFP plant would have good profitability. For cases where biosolids contents were in the range of 50%, the after tax Internal Rates of Return were in the range of 40% to 50%. These are very attractive returns. Besides the baseline analysis for the various AFP formulations tested at pilot scale, sensitivity analysis showed the impact of important parameters on return. From results, it was clear that returns are excellent for a range of parameters that could be expected in practice. Importantly, these good returns are achieved even without incentives related to the emissions control benefits of biomass.

  20. Investigation of low-cost LNG vehicle fuel tank concepts. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O`Brien, J.E.; Siahpush, A.

    1998-02-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate development of a low-cost liquid natural gas (LNG) vehicle fuel storage tank with low fuel boil-off, low tank pressure, and high safety margin. One of the largest contributors to the cost of converting a vehicle to LNG is the cost of the LNG fuel tank. To minimize heat leak from the surroundings into the low-temperature fuel, these tanks are designed as cryogenic dewars with double walls separated by an evacuated insulation space containing multi-layer insulation. The cost of these fuel tanks is driven by this double-walled construction, both in terms of materials and labor. The primary focus of the analysis was to try to devise a fuel tank concept that would allow for the elimination of the double-wall requirement. Results of this study have validated the benefit of vacuum/MLI insulation for LNG fuel tanks and the difficulty in identifying viable alternatives. The thickness of a non-vacuum insulation layer would have to be unreasonably large to achieve an acceptable non-venting hold time. Reasonable hold times could be achieved by using an auxiliary tank to accept boil-off vapor from a non-vacuum insulated primary tank, if the vapor in the auxiliary tank can be stored at high pressure. The primary focus of the analysis was to try to devise a fuel tank concept that allowed for the elimination of the double-wall requirement. Thermodynamic relations were developed for analyzing the fuel tank transient response to heat transfer, venting of vapor, and out-flow of either vapor or liquid. One of the major costs associated with conversion of a vehicle to LNG fuel is the cost of the LNG fuel tank. The cost of these tanks is driven by the cryogenic nature of the fuel and by the fundamental design requirements of long non-venting hold times and low storage pressure.

  1. A Low Cost, High Capacity Regenerable Sorbent for Pre-combustion CO{sub 2} Capture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alptekin, Gokhan

    2012-09-30

    The overall objective of the proposed research is to develop a low cost, high capacity CO{sub 2} sorbent and demonstrate its technical and economic viability for pre-combustion CO{sub 2} capture. The specific objectives supporting our research plan were to optimize the chemical structure and physical properties of the sorbent, scale-up its production using high throughput manufacturing equipment and bulk raw materials and then evaluate its performance, first in bench-scale experiments and then in slipstream tests using actual coal-derived synthesis gas. One of the objectives of the laboratory-scale evaluations was to demonstrate the life and durability of the sorbent for over 10,000 cycles and to assess the impact of contaminants (such as sulfur) on its performance. In the field tests, our objective was to demonstrate the operation of the sorbent using actual coal-derived synthesis gas streams generated by air-blown and oxygen-blown commercial and pilot-scale coal gasifiers (the CO{sub 2} partial pressure in these gas streams is significantly different, which directly impacts the operating conditions hence the performance of the sorbent). To support the field demonstration work, TDA collaborated with Phillips 66 and Southern Company to carry out two separate field tests using actual coal-derived synthesis gas at the Wabash River IGCC Power Plant in Terre Haute, IN and the National Carbon Capture Center (NCCC) in Wilsonville, AL. In collaboration with the University of California, Irvine (UCI), a detailed engineering and economic analysis for the new CO{sub 2} capture system was also proposed to be carried out using Aspen PlusTM simulation software, and estimate its effect on the plant efficiency.

  2. Ranking low cost sorbents for mercury capture from simulated flue gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    H. Revata Seneviratne; Cedric Charpenteau; Anthe George; Marcos Millan; Denis R. Dugwell; Rafael Kandiyoti

    2007-12-15

    Coal fired utility boilers are the largest anthropogenic source of mercury release to the atmosphere, and mercury abatement legislation is already in place in the USA. The present study aimed to rank low cost mercury sorbents (char and activated carbon from the pyrolysis of scrap tire rubber and two coal fly ashes from UK power plants) against Norit Darco HgTM for mercury retention by using a novel bench-scale reactor. In this scheme, a fixed sorbent bed was tested for mercury capture efficiency from a simulated flue gas stream. Experiments with a gas stream of only mercury and nitrogen showed that while the coal ashes were the most effective in mercury capture, char from the pyrolysis of scrap tire rubber was as effective as the commercial sorbent Norit Darco HgTM. Tests conducted at 150{sup o}C, with a simulated flue gas mix that included N{sub 2}, NO, NO{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, O{sub 2}, SO{sub 2} and HCl, showed that all the sorbents captured approximately 100% of the mercury in the gas stream. The introduction of NO and NO{sub 2} was found to significantly improve the mercury capture, possibly by reactions between NOx and the mercury. Since the sorbents' efficiency decreased with increasing test temperature, physical sorption could be the initial step in the mercury capture process. As the sorbents were only exposed to 64 ng of mercury in the gas stream, the mercury loadings on the samples were significantly less than their equilibrium capacities. The larger capacities of the activated carbons due to their more microporous structure were therefore not utilized. Although the sorbents have been characterized by BET surface area analysis and XRD analysis, further analysis is needed in order to obtain a more conclusive correlation of how the characteristics of the different sorbents correlate with the observed variations in mercury capture ability. 34 refs., 8 figs., 6 tabs.

  3. Final Technical Report - Recovery Act: Organic Coatings as Encapsulants for Low Cost, High Performance PV Modules

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stuart Hellring; Jiping Shao; James Poole

    2011-12-05

    The objective of this project was to evaluate the feasibility of utilizing PPG's commercial organic coatings systems as efficient, modernized encapsulants for low cost, high performance, thin film photovoltaic modules. Our hypothesis was that the combination of an anticorrosive coating with a more traditional barrier topcoat would mitigate many electrochemical processes that are now responsible for the significant portion of photovoltaic (PV) failures, thereby nullifying the extremely high moisture barrier requirements of currently used encapsulation technology. Nine commercially available metal primer coatings and six commercially available top coatings were selected for screening. Twenty-one different primer/top coat combinations were evaluated. The primer coatings were shown to be the major contributor to corrosion inhibition, adhesion, and barrier properties. Two primer coatings and one top coating were downselected for testing on specially-fabricated test modules. The coated test modules passed initial current leakage and insulation testing. Damp Heat testing of control modules showed visible corrosion to the bus bar metal, whereas the coated modules showed none. One of the primer/top coat combinations retained solar power performance after Damp Heat testing despite showing some delamination at the EVA/solar cell interface. Thermal Cycling and Humidity Freeze testing resulted in only one test module retaining its power performance. Failure modes depended on the particular primer/top coating combination used. Overall, this study demonstrated that a relatively thin primer/top coating has the potential to replace the potting film and backsheet in crystalline silicon-based photovoltaic modules. Positive signals were received from commercially available coatings developed for applications having performance requirements different from those required for photovoltaic modules. It is likely that future work to redesign and customize these coatings would result in a coating system meeting the requirements for photovoltaic module encapsulation.

  4. Low Cost High-H2 Syngas Production for Power and Liquid Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, S. James

    2015-07-31

    This report summarizes the technical progress made of the research project entitled “Low Cost High-H2 Syngas Production for Power and Liquid Fuels,” under DOE Contract No. DE-FE-0011958. The period of performance was October 1, 2013 through July 30, 2015. The overall objectives of this project was to determine the technical and economic feasibility of a systems approach for producing high hydrogen syngas from coal with the potential to reduce significantly the cost of producing power, chemical-grade hydrogen or liquid fuels, with carbon capture to reduce the environmental impact of gasification. The project encompasses several areas of study and the results are summarized here. (1) Experimental work to determine the technical feasibility of a novel hybrid polymer/metal H2-membrane to recover pure H2 from a coal-derived syngas was done. This task was not successful. Membranes were synthesized and show impermeability of any gases at required conditions. The cause of this impermeability was most likely due to the densification of the porous polymer membrane support made from polybenzimidazole (PBI) at test temperatures above 250 °C. (2) Bench-scale experimental work was performed to extend GTI's current database on the University of California Sulfur Recovery Process-High Pressure (UCSRP-HP) and recently renamed Sulfur Removal and Recovery (SR2) process for syngas cleanup including removal of sulfur and other trace contaminants, such as, chlorides and ammonia. The SR2 process tests show >90% H2S conversion with outlet H2S concentrations less than 4 ppmv, and 80-90% ammonia and chloride removal with high mass transfer rates. (3) Techno-economic analyses (TEA) were done for the production of electric power, chemical-grade hydrogen and diesel fuels, from a mixture of coal- plus natural gas-derived syngas using the Aerojet Rocketdyne (AR) Advanced Compact coal gasifier and a natural gas partial oxidation reactor (POX) with SR2 technology. Due to the unsuccessful experimental results with the hybrid polymer/metal H2 membrane, a conventional CO2 capture (single-stage Selexol) and hydrogen purification (PSA) technologies were used in the appropriate cases. In all cases, the integrated system of Advanced Compact coal gasifier, non-catalytic natural gas partial oxidation, and SR2 multicontaminant removal with state-of-the-art auxiliary system provided a 5-25% cost advantage over the base line plants using GEE coal gasifier with conventional Selexol/Claus sulfur removal and recovery. These plants also produce 18-30% less CO2 than with the conventional coal gasification plants.

  5. Development of advanced manufacturing technologies for low cost hydrogen storage vessels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leavitt, Mark; Lam, Patrick

    2014-12-29

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) defined a need for low-cost gaseous hydrogen storage vessels at 700 bar to support cost goals aimed at 500,000 units per year. Existing filament winding processes produce a pressure vessel that is structurally inefficient, requiring more carbon fiber for manufacturing reasons, than would otherwise be necessary. Carbon fiber is the greatest cost driver in building a hydrogen pressure vessel. The objective of this project is to develop new methods for manufacturing Type IV pressure vessels for hydrogen storage with the purpose of lowering the overall product cost through an innovative hybrid process of optimizing composite usage by combining traditional filament winding (FW) and advanced fiber placement (AFP) techniques. A numbers of vessels were manufactured in this project. The latest vessel design passed all the critical tests on the hybrid design per European Commission (EC) 79-2009 standard except the extreme temperature cycle test. The tests passed include burst test, cycle test, accelerated stress rupture test and drop test. It was discovered the location where AFP and FW overlap for load transfer could be weakened during hydraulic cycling at 85°C. To design a vessel that passed these tests, the in-house modeling software was updated to add capability to start and stop fiber layers to simulate the AFP process. The original in-house software was developed for filament winding only. Alternative fiber was also investigated in this project, but the added mass impacted the vessel cost negatively due to the lower performance from the alternative fiber. Overall the project was a success to show the hybrid design is a viable solution to reduce fiber usage, thus driving down the cost of fuel storage vessels. Based on DOE’s baseline vessel size of 147.3L and 91kg, the 129L vessel (scaled to DOE baseline) in this project shows a 32% composite savings and 20% cost savings when comparing Vessel 15 hybrid design and the Quantum baseline all filament wound vessel. Due to project timing, there was no additional time available to fine tune the design to improve the load transfer between AFP and FW. Further design modifications will likely help pass the extreme temperature cycle test, the remaining test that is critical to the hybrid design.

  6. Low-cost flexible packaging for high-power Li-Ion HEV batteries.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jansen, A. N.; Amine, K.; Henriksen, G. L.

    2004-06-18

    Batteries with various types of chemistries are typically sold in rigid hermetically sealed containers that, at the simplest level, must contain the electrolyte while keeping out the exterior atmosphere. However, such rigid containers can have limitations in packaging situations where the form of the battery is important, such as in hand-held electronics like personal digital assistants (PDAs), laptops, and cell phones. Other limitations exist as well. At least one of the electrode leads must be insulated from the metal can, which necessitates the inclusion of an insulated metal feed-through in the containment hardware. Another limitation may be in hardware and assembly cost, such as exists for the lithium-ion batteries that are being developed for use in electric vehicles (EVs) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). The large size (typically 10-100 Ah) of these batteries usually results in electric beam or laser welding of the metal cap to the metal can. The non-aqueous electrolyte used in these batteries are usually based on flammable solvents and therefore require the incorporation of a safety rupture vent to relieve pressure in the event of overcharging or overheating. Both of these features add cost to the battery. Flexible packaging provides an alternative to the rigid container. A common example of this is the multi-layered laminates used in the food packaging industry, such as for vacuum-sealed coffee bags. However, flexible packaging for batteries does not come without concerns. One of the main concerns is the slow egress of the electrolyte solvent through the face of the inner laminate layer and at the sealant edge. Also, moisture and air could enter from the outside via the same method. These exchanges may be acceptable for brief periods of time, but for the long lifetimes required for batteries in electric/hybrid electric vehicles, batteries in remote locations, and those in satellites, these exchanges are unacceptable. Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), in collaboration with several industrial partners, is working on low-cost flexible packaging as an alternative to the packaging currently being used for lithium-ion batteries [1,2]. This program is funded by the FreedomCAR & Vehicle Technologies Office of the U.S. Department of Energy. (It was originally funded under the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles, or PNGV, Program, which had as one of its mandates to develop a power-assist hybrid electric vehicle with triple the fuel economy of a typical sedan.) The goal in this packaging effort is to reduce the cost associated with the packaging of each cell several-fold to less than $1 per cell ({approx} 50 cells are required per battery, 1 battery per vehicle), while maintaining the integrity of the cell contents for a 15-year lifetime. Even though the battery chemistry of main interest is the lithium-ion system, the methodology used to develop the most appropriate laminate structure will be very similar for other battery chemistries.

  7. Tandem Microwire Solar Cells for Flexible High Efficiency Low Cost Photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Atwater, Harry A.

    2015-03-10

    This project has developed components of a waferless, flexible, low-cost tandem multijunction III-V/Si microwire array solar cell technology which combines the efficiency of wafered III-V photovoltaic technologies with the process designed to meet the Sunshot object. The project focused on design of lattice-matched GaAsP/SiGe two junction cell design and lattice-mismatched GaInP/Si tandem cell design. Combined electromagnetic simulation/device physics models using realistic microwire tandem structures were developed that predict >22% conversion efficiency for known material parameters, such as tunnel junction structure, window layer structure, absorber lifetimes and optical absorption and these model indicate a clear path to 30% efficiency for high quality III-V heterostructures. SiGe microwire arrays were synthesized via Cu-catalyzed vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) growth with inexpensive chlorosilane and chlorogermance precursors in an atmospheric pressure reactor. SiGe alloy composition in microwires was found to be limited to a maximum of 12% Ge incorporation during chlorogermane growth, due to the melting of the alloy near the solidus composition. Lattice mismatched InGaP double heterostructures were grown by selective epitaxy with a thermal oxide mask on Si microwire substrates using metallorganic vapor phase epitaxy. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis confirms the growth of individual step graded layers and a high density of defects near the wire/III-V interface. Selective epitaxy was initiated with a low temperature nucleation scheme under “atomic layer epitaxy” or “flow mediated epitaxy” conditions whereby the Ga and P containing precursors are alternately introduced into the reactor to promote layer-bylayer growth. In parallel to our efforts on conformal GaInP heteroepitaxy on selectively masked Si microwires, we explored direct, axial growth of GaAs on Si wire arrays as another route to a tandem junction architecture. We proposed axial, lattice-mismatched growth of a GaAs segment that extrude out of a Si wire via a self-aligned SiO2 hollow cylindrical mask. With this growth strategy, misfit dislocations that would normally form at the GaAs/Si interface during thin film epitaxy may bend over to and thus terminate at the sidewall of the SiO2 tube. A reactive-ion etching technique was employed 1) to remove Si to form a hollow, self-aligned SiO2 cylindrical tube as a growth template for GaAs epitaxy using a vertical, showerhead, low-pressure metal-organic chemical-vapor deposition reactor that was operated at 0.1 atm. Successful epitaxy of axial GaAs wires on non-polar, <111>-oriented Si wire substrates was found at temperatures of ~850C. This and the other III-V/Si heterojunction wire synthesis strategies described here are promising approaches to realize future III-V/Si tandem solar cell designs.

  8. Cost-Effective Cable Insulation: Nanoclay Reinforced Ethylene-Propylene-Rubber for Low-Cost HVDC Cabling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-02-24

    GENI Project: GE is developing new, low-cost insulation for high-voltage direct current (HVDC) electricity transmission cables. The current material used to insulate HVDC transmission cables is very expensive and can account for as much as 1/3 of the total cost of a high-voltage transmission system. GE is embedding nanomaterials into specialty rubber to create its insulation. Not only are these materials less expensive than those used in conventional HVDC insulation, but also they will help suppress excess charge accumulation. The excess charge left behind on a cable poses a major challenge for high-voltage insulation—if it’s not kept to a low level, it could ultimately lead the insulation to fail. GE’s low-cost insulation is compatible with existing U.S. cable manufacturing processes, further enhancing its cost effectiveness.

  9. Executive Summary: Assessment of Parabolic Trough and Power Tower Solar Technology Cost and Performance Forecasts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2003-10-01

    Sargent& Lundy LLC conducted an independent analysis of parabolic trough and power tower solar technology cost and performance.

  10. Assessment of Parabolic Trough and Power Tower Solar Technology Cost and Performance Forecasts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2003-10-01

    Sargent and Lundy LLC conducted an independent analysis of parabolic trough and power tower solar technology cost and performance.

  11. Compound parabolic concentrator with cavity for tubular absorbers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Winston, Roland

    1983-01-01

    A compond parabolic concentrator with a V-shaped cavity is provided in which an optical receiver is emplaced. The cavity redirects all energy entering between the receiver and the cavity structure onto the receiver, if the optical receiver is emplaced a distance from the cavity not greater than 0.27 r (where r is the radius of the receiver).

  12. IR Spectrometer Using 90-degree Off-axis Parabolic Mirrors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert M. Malone, Richard, G. Hacking, Ian J. McKenna, and Daniel H. Dolan

    2008-09-02

    A gated spectrometer has been designed for real-time, pulsed infrared (IR) studies at the National Synchrotron Light ource at the Brookhaven National Laboratory. A pair of 90-degree, off-axis parabolic mirrors are used to relay the light from an entrance slit to an output IR recording camera. With an initial wavelength range of 15004500 nm required, gratings could not be used in the spectrometer because grating orders would overlap. A magnesium oxide prism, placed between these parabolic mirrors, serves as the dispersion element. The spectrometer is doubly telecentric. With proper choice of the air spacing between the prism and the second parabolic mirror, any spectral region of interest within the InSb camera arrays sensitivity region can be recorded. The wavelengths leaving the second parabolic mirror are collimated, thereby relaxing the camera positioning tolerance. To set up the instrument, two different wavelength (visible) lasers are introduced at the entrance slit and made collinear with the optical axis via flip mirrors. After dispersion by the prism, these two laser beams are directed to tick marks located on the outside housing of the gated IR camera. This provides first-order wavelength calibration for the instrument. Light that is reflected off the front prism face is coupled into a high-speed detector to verify steady radiance during the gated spectral imaging. Alignment features include tick marks on the prism and parabolic mirrors. This instrument was designed to complement singlepoint pyrometry, which provides continuous time histories of a small collection of spots from shock-heated targets.

  13. Further development of a Low Cost Solar Panel. Semiannual technical progress report, September 28, 1979-March 31, 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Muller, T.; Erskine, D.; Short, R.; Torok, R.

    1980-04-01

    The primary objective of this phase of the Low Cost Solar Panel (LCSP) development is to fabricate, test, and gain practical operational experience on a full-scale prototype panel section, with emphasis on the unglazed configuration. The program includes design refinement, fabrication of full-scale prototypes by hand and semiautomated equipment, subscale and full-scale structural testing, outdoor performance tests, and an assessment of manufacturing requirements and production costs. The report describes the LCSP concept in more detail, the project approach and the more significant accomplishments to date.

  14. Further development of a low-cost solar panel. Final report, September 28, 1979-May 31, 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Muller, T.; Torok, R.; Erskine, D.; Short, R.

    1980-07-01

    The primary objective of this project was to fabricate, test, and gain practical operational experience on a full-scale prototype panel section, with emphasis on the unglazed configuration. The project included design refinement, fabrication of full-scale prototypes by hand and semiautomated equipment, subscale and full-scale structural testing, outdoor performance tests, and an assessment of manufacturing requirements and production costs. The Low Cost Solar Panel, the project approach, and the more significant accomplishments of this contract are described in detail.

  15. A New Method of Low Cost Production of Ti Alloys to Reduce Energy Cpnsumption of Mechanical Systems

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Zak Fang, PI, University of Utah, U.S. DOE Advanced Manufacturing Office Peer Review Meeting Washington, D.C. May 6-7, 2014 This presentation does not contain any proprietary, confidential, or otherwise restricted information. Project Objective  Develop a novel low cost method for manufacturing Ti  Demonstrate the mechanical properties of Ti using the new method to be equivalent to that of wrought Ti at a fraction of its cost.  Demonstrate advantages of using Ti (by this technology) in

  16. The Investigation and Development of Low Cost Hardware Components for Proton-Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells - Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    George A. Marchetti

    1999-12-15

    Proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell components, which would have a low-cost structure in mass production, were fabricated and tested. A fuel cell electrode structure, comprising a thin layer of graphite (50 microns) and a front-loaded platinum catalyst layer (600 angstroms), was shown to produce significant power densities. In addition, a PEM bipolar plate, comprising flexible graphite, carbon cloth flow-fields and an integrated polymer gasket, was fabricated. Power densities of a two-cell unit using this inexpensive bipolar plate architecture were shown to be comparable to state-of-the-art bipolar plates.

  17. Absorber Alignment Measurement Tool for Solar Parabolic Trough Collectors: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stynes, J. K.; Ihas, B.

    2012-04-01

    As we pursue efforts to lower the capital and installation costs of parabolic trough solar collectors, it is essential to maintain high optical performance. While there are many optical tools available to measure the reflector slope errors of parabolic trough solar collectors, there are few tools to measure the absorber alignment. A new method is presented here to measure the absorber alignment in two dimensions to within 0.5 cm. The absorber alignment is measured using a digital camera and four photogrammetric targets. Physical contact with the receiver absorber or glass is not necessary. The alignment of the absorber is measured along its full length so that sagging of the absorber can be quantified with this technique. The resulting absorber alignment measurement provides critical information required to accurately determine the intercept factor of a collector.

  18. Shock wave convergence in water with parabolic wall boundaries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yanuka, D.; Shafer, D.; Krasik, Ya.

    2015-04-28

    The convergence of shock waves in water, where the cross section of the boundaries between which the shock wave propagates is either straight or parabolic, was studied. The shock wave was generated by underwater electrical explosions of planar Cu wire arrays using a high-current generator with a peak output current of ?45?kA and rise time of ?80?ns. The boundaries of the walls between which the shock wave propagates were symmetric along the z axis, which is defined by the direction of the exploding wires. It was shown that with walls having a parabolic cross section, the shock waves converge faster and the pressure in the vicinity of the line of convergence, calculated by two-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations coupled with the equations of state of water and copper, is also larger.

  19. Proceedings: Fourth Parabolic Dish Solar Thermal Power Program Review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1983-02-01

    The results of activities within the parabolic dish technology and applications development program are presented. Stirling, organic Rankine and Brayton module technologies, associated hardware and test results to date, concentrator development and progress, economic analyses, and international dish development activities are covered. Two panel discussions, concerning industry issues affecting solar thermal dish development and dish technology from a utility/user perspective, are also included.

  20. Gas Turbine/Solar Parabolic Trough Hybrid Designs: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turchi, C. S.; Ma, Z.; Erbes, M.

    2011-03-01

    A strength of parabolic trough concentrating solar power (CSP) plants is the ability to provide reliable power by incorporating either thermal energy storage or backup heat from fossil fuels. Yet these benefits have not been fully realized because thermal energy storage remains expensive at trough operating temperatures and gas usage in CSP plants is less efficient than in dedicated combined cycle plants. For example, while a modern combined cycle plant can achieve an overall efficiency in excess of 55%; auxiliary heaters in a parabolic trough plant convert gas to electricity at below 40%. Thus, one can argue the more effective use of natural gas is in a combined cycle plant, not as backup to a CSP plant. Integrated solar combined cycle (ISCC) systems avoid this pitfall by injecting solar steam into the fossil power cycle; however, these designs are limited to about 10% total solar enhancement. Without reliable, cost-effective energy storage or backup power, renewable sources will struggle to achieve a high penetration in the electric grid. This paper describes a novel gas turbine / parabolic trough hybrid design that combines solar contribution of 57% and higher with gas heat rates that rival that for combined cycle natural gas plants. The design integrates proven solar and fossil technologies, thereby offering high reliability and low financial risk while promoting deployment of solar thermal power.

  1. Analytical Study of High Concentration PCB Paint at the Heavy Water Components Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lowry, N.J.

    1998-10-21

    This report provides results of an analytical study of high concentration PCB paint in a shutdown nuclear test reactor located at the US Department of Energy's Savannah River Site (SRS). The study was designed to obtain data relevant for an evaluation of potential hazards associated with the use of and exposure to such paints.

  2. Finished Prokaryotic Genome Assemblies from a Low-cost Combination of Short and Long Reads (Seventh Annual Sequencing, Finishing, Analysis in the Future (SFAF) Meeting 2012)

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Yin, Shuangye (Broad Institute)

    2013-02-11

    Shuangye Yin on "Finished prokaryotic genome assemblies from a low-cost combination of short and long reads" at the 2012 Sequencing, Finishing, Analysis in the Future Meeting held June 5-7, 2012 in Santa Fe, New Mexico.

  3. Low-Cost Nano-Patterning Process Makes Millions of Holes in Silver Film, Boosting Light-Capturing Qualities of Solar Cells (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2011-02-01

    NREL researchers have demonstrated a simple, low-cost way to pattern nano-sized holes in thin silver films in order to trap light waves and boost the transmission of photons into usable energy.

  4. New Whole-House Solutions Case Study: Low-Cost Evaluation of Energy Savings at the Community Scale - Fresno, California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2014-10-01

    In this project, IBACOS partnered with builder Wathen-Castanos Hybrid Homes to develop a simple and low-cost methodology by which community-scale energy savings can be evaluated based on results at the occupied test house level.Research focused on the builder and trade implementation of a whole-house systems integrated measures package and the actual utility usage in the houses at the community scale of production. Five occupants participated in this community-scale research by providing utility bills and information on occupancy and miscellaneous gas and electric appliance use for their houses. IBACOS used these utility data and background information to analyze the actual energy performance of the houses. Verification with measured data is an important component in predictive energy modeling. The actual utility bill readings were compared to projected energy consumption using BEopt with actual weather and thermostat set points for normalization.

  5. Low-cost electrochemical treatment of indium tin oxide anodes for high-efficiency organic light-emitting diodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hui Cheng, Chuan, E-mail: chengchuanhui@dlut.edu.cn; Shan Liang, Ze; Gang Wang, Li; Dong Gao, Guo; Zhou, Ting; Ming Bian, Ji; Min Luo, Ying [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Tong Du, Guo, E-mail: dugt@dlut.edu.cn [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); State Key Laboratory on Integrated Optoelectronics, College of Electronic Science and Engineering, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China)

    2014-01-27

    We demonstrate a simple low-cost approach as an alternative to conventional O{sub 2} plasma treatment to modify the surface of indium tin oxide (ITO) anodes for use in organic light-emitting diodes. ITO is functionalized with F{sup ?} ions by electrochemical treatment in dilute hydrofluoric acid. An electrode with a work function of 5.2?eV is achieved following fluorination. Using this electrode, a maximum external quantum efficiency of 26.0% (91?cd/A, 102?lm/W) is obtained, which is 12% higher than that of a device using the O{sub 2} plasma-treated ITO. Fluorination also increases the transparency in the near-infrared region.

  6. Chemical gel barriers as low-cost alternative to containment and in situ cleanup of hazardous wastes to protect groundwater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-01-01

    Chemical gel barriers are being considered as a low-cost alternative for containment and in situ cleanup of hazardous wastes to protect groundwater. Most of the available gels in petroleum application are non-reactive and relative impermeable, providing a physical barriers for all fluids and contaminants. However, other potential systems can be envisioned. These systems could include gels that are chemically reactive and impermeable such that most phase are captured by the barriers but the contaminants could diffuse through the barriers. Another system that is chemically reactive and permeable could have potential applications in selectivity capturing contaminants while allowing water to pass through the barriers. This study focused on chemically reactive and permeable gel barriers. The gels used in experiment are DuPont LUDOX SM colloidal silica gel and Pfizer FLOPAAM 1330S hydrolyzed polyacrylamide (HPAM) gel.

  7. Modeling of a Parabolic Trough Solar Field for Acceptance Testing: A Case

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Study (Conference) | SciTech Connect Conference: Modeling of a Parabolic Trough Solar Field for Acceptance Testing: A Case Study Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Modeling of a Parabolic Trough Solar Field for Acceptance Testing: A Case Study As deployment of parabolic trough concentrating solar power (CSP) systems ramps up, the need for reliable and robust performance acceptance test guidelines for the solar field is also amplified. Project owners and/or EPC contractors often

  8. Project Profile: Next-Generation Parabolic Trough Collectors and Components for CSP Applications

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Abengoa Solar, under the CSP R&D FOA, is developing the technology needed to build a competitive parabolic trough industry for the U.S. utility market.

  9. The integrated compound parabolic concentrator: From development to demonstration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Winston, R.; O`Gallagher, J.J.; Duff, W.S.; Cavallaro, A.

    1997-12-31

    The authors describe the fabrication, testing and application of the Integrated Compound Parabolic Concentrator (ICPC) to solar cooling. The cooling technology is a double effect absorption cycle chiller operating at 165 C. The design parameters are optimized for this temperature range. The optical and mechanical design of the solar collector is chosen for compatibility with mass production. A project to employ approximately 350 of these collector tubes to drive a 20 ton commercial double effect chiller on an office building in Sacramento, CA has started. The authors expect the system to be operational this year.

  10. Development and Industrialization of InGaN/GaN LEDs on Patterned Sapphire Substrates for Low Cost Emitter Architecture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Flemish, Joseph; Soer, Wouter

    2015-11-30

    Patterned sapphire substrate (PSS) technology has proven to be an effective approach to improve efficacy and reduce cost of light-emitting diodes (LEDs). The volume emission from the transparent substrate leads to high package efficiency, while the simple and robust architecture of PSS-based LEDs enables low cost. PSS substrates have gained wide use in mid-power LEDs over the past years. In this project, Lumileds has developed and industrialized PSS and epitaxy technology for high- power flip-chip LEDs to bring these benefits to a broader range of applications and accelerate the adoption of energy-efficient solid-state lighting (SSL). PSS geometries were designed for highly efficient light extraction in a flip-chip architecture and high-volume manufacturability, and corresponding sapphire patterning and epitaxy manufacturing processes were integrally developed. Concurrently, device and package architectures were developed to take advantage of the PSS flip-chip die in different types of products that meet application needs. The developed PSS and epitaxy technology has been fully implemented in manufacturing at Lumileds’ San Jose, CA location, and incorporated in illumination-grade LED products that have been successfully introduced to the market, including LUXEON Q and LUXEON FlipChip White.

  11. A low cost, high energy density and long cycle life potassium-sulfur battery for grid-scale energy storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Xiaochuan; Bowden, Mark E.; Sprenkle, Vincent L.; Liu, Jun

    2015-08-15

    Alkali metal-sulfur batteries are attractive for energy storage applications because of their high energy density. Among the batteries, lithium-sulfur batteries typically use liquid in the battery electrolyte, which causes problems in both performance and safety. Sodium-sulfur batteries can use a solid electrolyte such as beta alumina but this requires a high operating temperature. Here we report a novel potassium-sulfur battery with K+-conducting beta-alumina as the electrolyte. Our studies indicate that liquid potassium exhibits much better wettability on the surface of beta-alumina compared to liquid sodium at lower temperatures. Based on this observation, we develop a potassium-sulfur battery that can operate at as low as 150°C with excellent performance. In particular, the battery shows excellent cycle life with negligible capacity fade in 1000 cycles because of the dense ceramic membrane. This study demonstrates a new battery with a high energy density, long cycle life, low cost and high safety, which is ideal for grid-scale energy storage.

  12. Low Cost Sorbent for Capturing CO{sub 2} Emissions Generated by Existing Coal-fired Power Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elliott, Jeannine

    2013-08-31

    TDA Research, Inc. has developed a novel sorbent based post-combustion CO{sub 2} removal technology. This low cost sorbent can be regenerated with low-pressure (ca. 1 atm) superheated steam without temperature swing or pressure-swing. The isothermal and isobaric operation is a unique and advantageous feature of this process. The objective of this project was to demonstrate the technical and economic merit of this sorbent based CO{sub 2} capture approach. Through laboratory, bench-scale and field testing we demonstrated that this technology can effectively and efficiently capture CO{sub 2} produced at an existing pulverized coal power plants. TDA Research, Inc is developing both the solid sorbent and the process designed around that material. This project addresses the DOE Program Goal to develop a capture technology that can be added to an existing or new coal fired power plant, and can capture 90% of the CO{sub 2} produced with the lowest possible increase in the cost of energy. .

  13. Fifth parabolic dish solar thermal power program annual review: proceedings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1984-03-01

    The primary objective of the Review was to present the results of activities within the Parabolic Dish Technology and Module/Systems Development element of the Department of Energy's Solar Thermal Energy Systems Program. The Review consisted of nine technical sessions covering overall Project and Program aspects, Stirling and Brayton module development, concentrator and engine/receiver development, and associated hardware and test results to date; distributed systems operating experience; international dish development activities; and non-DOE-sponsored domestic dish activities. A panel discussion concerning business views of solar electric generation was held. These Proceedings contain the texts of presentations made at the Review, as submitted by their authors at the beginning of the Review; therefore, they may vary slightly from the actual presentations in the technical sessions.

  14. Is predictive emission monitoring an acceptable low cost alternative to continuous emission monitoring for complying with enhanced monitoring requirements?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jernigan, J.R.

    1995-12-01

    Title VII of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (the {open_quotes}Act{close_quotes}) expanded and clarified the Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA) enforcement capabilities under the Act. Section 702 of the 1990 Amendments clarified EPA`s ability to require sources to provide information. Additionally, Section 702(b) required EPA to promulgate rules on enhanced monitoring and compliance certifications by adding a new section 114(a)(3) of the Act which states in part: {open_quotes}The Administrator shall in the case of any person which is the owner or operator of a major stationary source, and any in the case of any other person, require enhanced monitoring and submission of compliance certifications. Compliance certifications shall include (A) identification of the applicable requirement that is the basis of the certification, (B) the method used for determining the compliance status of the source, (C) the compliance status, (D) whether compliance is continuous or intermittent, (E) such other facts as the Administrator may require...{close_quotes} The 1990 Amendments contained several other changes that either relate directly to section 114(a)(3) or provide additional indications of the intent behind the new section. First, section 504(b) of the Amendments permits the Administrator to promulgate appropriate tests methods and monitoring requirements for determining compliance. That section states that {open_quotes}continuous emissions monitoring need not be required if alternative methods are available that provide sufficiently reliable and timely information for determining compliance.{close_quotes} This paper will describe Predictive Emission Systems (PEMS) and how the applications of PEMS may be a low cost, accurate, and acceptable alternative to Continuous Emission Monitoring Systems (CEMS) for complying with Enhanced Monitoring requirements.

  15. Development of ITM Oxygen Technology for Low-cost and Low-emission Gasification and Other Industrial Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Armstrong, Phillip

    2014-11-01

    Air Products is carrying out a scope of work under DOE Award No. DE-FE0012065 “Development of ITM Oxygen Technology for Low-cost and Low-emission Gasification and Other Industrial Applications.” The Statement of Project Objectives (SOPO) includes a Task 4f in which a Decision Point shall be reached, necessitating a review of Tasks 2-5 with an emphasis on Task 4f. This Topical Report constitutes the Decision Point Application pertaining to Task 4f. The SOPO under DOE Award No. DE-FE0012065 is aimed at furthering the development of the Ion Transport Membrane (ITM) Oxygen production process toward a demonstration scale facility known as the Oxygen Development Facility (ODF). It is anticipated that the completion of the current SOPO will advance the technology significantly along a pathway towards enabling the design and construction of the ODF. Development progress on several fronts is critical before an ODF project can commence; this Topical Report serves as an early update on the progress in critical development areas. Progress was made under all tasks, including Materials Development, Ceramic Processing Development, Engineering Development, and Performance Testing. Under Task 4f, Air Products carried out a cost and performance study in which several process design and cost parameters were varied and assessed with a process model and budgetary costing exercise. The results show that the major variables include ceramic module reliability, ITM operating temperature, module production yield, and heat addition strategy. High-temperature compact heat exchangers are shown to contribute significant cost benefits, while directly firing into the feed stream to an ITM are even a mild improvement on the high-temperature recuperation approach. Based on the findings to-date, Air Products recommends no changes to the content or emphasis in the current SOPO and recommends its completion prior to another formal assessment of these factors.

  16. Commercialization Plan Support for Development of Low Cost Vacuum Insulating Glazing: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-11-449

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dameron, Arrelaine

    2015-07-09

    During the duration of this CRADA, V-Glass and NREL will partner in testing, analysis, performance forecasting, costing, and evaluation of V-Glass’s GRIPWELD™ process technology for creating a low cost hermetic seal for conventional and vacuum glazing. Upon successful evaluation of hermeticity, V-Glass’s GRIPWELD™ will be evaluated for its potential use in highly insulating window glazing.

  17. Preparation of a high concentration of lithium-7 atoms in a magneto-optical trap

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zelener, B. B. Saakyan, S. A.; Sautenkov, V. A.; Manykin, E. A.; Zelener, B. V.; Fortov, V. E.

    2014-11-15

    This study is aimed at obtaining high concentration of optically cooled lithium-7 atoms for preparing strongly interacting ultracold plasma and Rydberg matter. A special setup has been constructed, in which two high-power semiconductor lasers are used to cool lithium-7 atoms in a magneto-optical trap. At an optimum detuning of the cooling laser frequency and a magnetic field gradient of 35 G/cm, the concentration of ultracold lithium-7 atoms reaches about 10{sup 11} cm{sup −3}. Additional independent information about the concentration and number of ultracold lithium-7 atoms on different sublevels of the ground state was obtained by using of an additional probing laser.

  18. Bottom-Up Cost Analysis of a High Concentration PV Module; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Horowitz, K.; Woodhouse, M.; Lee, H.; Smestad, G.

    2015-04-13

    We present a bottom-up model of III-V multi-junction cells, as well as a high concentration PV (HCPV) module. We calculate $0.65/Wp(DC) manufacturing costs for our model HCPV module design with today’s capabilities, and find that reducing cell costs and increasing module efficiency offer the promising pathways for future cost reductions. Cell costs could be significantly reduced via an increase in manufacturing scale, substrate reuse, and improved manufacturing yields. We also identify several other significant drivers of HCPV module costs, including the Fresnel lens primary optic, module housing, thermal management, and the receiver board. These costs could potentially be lowered by employing innovative module designs.

  19. Method and source for producing a high concentration of positively charged molecular hydrogen or deuterium ions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ehlers, Kenneth W.; Leung, Ka-Ngo

    1988-01-01

    A high concentration of positive molecular ions of hydrogen or deuterium gas is extracted from a positive ion source having a short path length of extracted ions, relative to the mean free path of the gas molecules, to minimize the production of other ion species by collision between the positive ions and gas molecules. The ion source has arrays of permanent magnets to produce a multi-cusp magnetic field in regions remote from the plasma grid and the electron emitters, for largely confining the plasma to the space therebetween. The ion source has a chamber which is short in length, relative to its transverse dimensions, and the electron emitters are at an even shorter distance from the plasma grid, which contains one or more extraction apertures.

  20. A Low-cost, High-yield Process for the Direct Productin of High Energy Density Liquid Fuel from Biomass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Agrawal, Rakesh

    2014-02-21

    The primary objective and outcome of this project was the development and validation of a novel, low-cost, high-pressure fast-hydropyrolysis/hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) process (H{sub 2}Bioil) using supplementary hydrogen (H{sub 2}) to produce liquid hydrocarbons from biomass. The research efforts under the various tasks of the project have culminated in the first experimental demonstration of the H2Bioil process, producing 100% deoxygenated >C4+ hydrocarbons containing 36-40% of the carbon in the feed of pyrolysis products from biomass. The demonstrated H{sub 2}Bioil process technology (i.e. reactor, catalyst, and downstream product recovery) is scalable to a commercial level and is estimated to be economically competitive for the cases when supplementary H{sub 2} is sourced from coal, natural gas, or nuclear. Additionally, energy systems modeling has revealed several process integration options based on the H{sub 2}Bioil process for energy and carbon efficient liquid fuel production. All project tasks and milestones were completed or exceeded. Novel, commercially-scalable, high-pressure reactors for both fast-hydropyrolysis and hydrodeoxygenation were constructed, completing Task A. These reactors were capable of operation under a wide-range of conditions; enabling process studies that lead to identification of optimum process conditions. Model compounds representing biomass pyrolysis products were studied, completing Task B. These studies were critical in identifying and developing HDO catalysts to target specific oxygen functional groups. These process and model compound catalyst studies enabled identification of catalysts that achieved 100% deoxygenation of the real biomass feedstock, sorghum, to form hydrocarbons in high yields as part of Task C. The work completed during this grant has identified and validated the novel and commercially scalable H2Bioil process for production of hydrocarbon fuels from biomass. Studies on model compounds as well as real biomass feedstocks were utilized to identify optimized process conditions and selective HDO catalyst for high yield production of hydrocarbons from biomass. In addition to these experimental efforts, in Tasks D and E, we have developed a mathematical optimization framework to identify carbon and energy efficient biomass-to-liquid fuel process designs that integrate the use of different primary energy sources along with biomass (e.g. solar, coal or natural gas) for liquid fuel production. Using this tool, we have identified augmented biomass-to-liquid fuel configurations based on the fast-hydropyrolysis/HDO pathway, which was experimentally studied in this project. The computational approach used for screening alternative process configurations represents a unique contribution to the field of biomass processing for liquid fuel production.

  1. Wind Tunnel Tests of Parabolic Trough Solar Collectors: March 2001--August 2003

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hosoya, N.; Peterka, J. A.; Gee, R. C.; Kearney, D.

    2008-05-01

    Conducted extensive wind-tunnel tests on parabolic trough solar collectors to determine practical wind loads applicable to structural design for stress and deformation, and local component design for concentrator reflectors.

  2. Slope Error Measurement Tool for Solar Parabolic Trough Collectors: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stynes, J. K.; Ihas, B.

    2012-04-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has developed an optical measurement tool for parabolic solar collectors that measures the combined errors due to absorber misalignment and reflector slope error. The combined absorber alignment and reflector slope errors are measured using a digital camera to photograph the reflected image of the absorber in the collector. Previous work using the image of the reflection of the absorber finds the reflector slope errors from the reflection of the absorber and an independent measurement of the absorber location. The accuracy of the reflector slope error measurement is thus dependent on the accuracy of the absorber location measurement. By measuring the combined reflector-absorber errors, the uncertainty in the absorber location measurement is eliminated. The related performance merit, the intercept factor, depends on the combined effects of the absorber alignment and reflector slope errors. Measuring the combined effect provides a simpler measurement and a more accurate input to the intercept factor estimate. The minimal equipment and setup required for this measurement technique make it ideal for field measurements.

  3. Mechanism of Hydrogen Formation in Solar Parabolic Trough Receivers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moens, L.; Blake, D. M.

    2008-03-01

    Solar parabolic trough systems for electricity production are receiving renewed attention, and new solar plants are under construction to help meet the growing demands of the power market in the Western United States. The growing solar trough industry will rely on operating experience it has gained over the last two decades. Recently, researchers found that trough plants that use organic heat transfer fluids (HTF) such as Therminol VP-1 are experiencing significant heat losses in the receiver tubes. The cause has been traced back to the accumulation of excess hydrogen gas in the vacuum annulus that surrounds the steel receiver tube, thus compromising the thermal insulation of the receiver. The hydrogen gas is formed during the thermal decomposition of the organic HTF that circulates inside the receiver loop, and the installation of hydrogen getters inside the annulus has proven to be insufficient for controlling the hydrogen build-up over the lifetime of the receivers. This paper will provide an overview of the chemical literature dealing with the thermal decomposition of diphenyl oxide and biphenyl, the two constituents of Therminol VP-1.

  4. Low Cost Chemical Feedstocks Using an Improved and Energy Efficient Natural Gas Liquid (NGL) Removal Process, Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meyer, Howard, S.; Lu, Yingzhong

    2012-08-10

    The overall objective of this project is to develop a new low-cost and energy efficient Natural Gas Liquid (NGL) recovery process - through a combination of theoretical, bench-scale and pilot-scale testing - so that it could be offered to the natural gas industry for commercialization. The new process, known as the IROA process, is based on U.S. patent No. 6,553,784, which if commercialized, has the potential of achieving substantial energy savings compared to currently used cryogenic technology. When successfully developed, this technology will benefit the petrochemical industry, which uses NGL as feedstocks, and will also benefit other chemical industries that utilize gas-liquid separation and distillation under similar operating conditions. Specific goals and objectives of the overall program include: (i) collecting relevant physical property and Vapor Liquid Equilibrium (VLE) data for the design and evaluation of the new technology, (ii) solving critical R&D issues including the identification of suitable dehydration and NGL absorbing solvents, inhibiting corrosion, and specifying proper packing structure and materials, (iii) designing, construction and operation of bench and pilot-scale units to verify design performance, (iv) computer simulation of the process using commercial software simulation platforms such as Aspen-Plus and HYSYS, and (v) preparation of a commercialization plan and identification of industrial partners that are interested in utilizing the new technology. NGL is a collective term for C2+ hydrocarbons present in the natural gas. Historically, the commercial value of the separated NGL components has been greater than the thermal value of these liquids in the gas. The revenue derived from extracting NGLs is crucial to ensuring the overall profitability of the domestic natural gas production industry and therefore of ensuring a secure and reliable supply in the 48 contiguous states. However, rising natural gas prices have dramatically reduced the economic incentive to extract NGLs from domestically produced natural gas. Successful gas processors will be those who adopt technologies that are less energy intensive, have lower capital and operating costs and offer the flexibility to tailor the plant performance to maximize product revenue as market conditions change, while maintaining overall system efficiency. Presently, cryogenic turbo-expander technology is the dominant NGL recovery process and it is used throughout the world. This process is known to be highly energy intensive, as substantial energy is required to recompress the processed gas back to pipeline pressure. The purpose of this project is to develop a new NGL separation process that is flexible in terms of ethane rejection and can reduce energy consumption by 20-30% from current levels, particularly for ethane recoveries of less than 70%. The new process integrates the dehydration of the raw natural gas stream and the removal of NGLs in such a way that heat recovery is maximized and pressure losses are minimized so that high-value equipment such as the compressor, turbo-expander, and a separate dehydration unit are not required. GTI completed a techno-economic evaluation of the new process based on an Aspen-HYSYS simulation model. The evaluation incorporated purchased equipment cost estimates obtained from equipment suppliers and two different commercial software packages; namely, Aspen-Icarus and Preliminary Design and Quoting Service (PDQ$). For a 100 MMscfd gas processing plant, the annualized capital cost for the new technology was found to be about 10% lower than that of conventional technology for C2 recovery above 70% and about 40% lower than that of conventional technology for C2 recovery below 50%. It was also found that at around 40-50% C2 recovery (which is economically justifiable at the current natural gas prices), the energy cost to recover NGL using the new technology is about 50% of that of conventional cryogenic technology.

  5. Scale-up of Novel Low-Cost Carbon Fibers Leading to High-Volume Commercial Launch

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spalding, Mark A

    2014-08-27

    The project started in September, 2012 with the goal of scaling up from the existing laboratory scale process for producing carbon fiber (CF) from polyolefin (PO) based precursor fiber using a Dow proprietary sulfonation-desulfonation stabilization process. The award was used to develop a process that was capable of producing market development quantities of CF from PO precursor fiber at a rate of 4 kg/h of CF. The CF would target properties that met or exceeded the Department of Energy (DOE) Vehicles Technology [1] standard; i.e., 172 GPa modulus and 1.72 GPa strength at greater than or equal to 1% strain. The Dow proprietary process was capable of meeting and exceeding these targets properties. Project DE-EE0005760 resulted from a Collaborative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between Dow and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) with support from the Michigan Economic Development Corporation (MEDC) and DOE. In the first budget period, the main goal was to design a sulfonation-desulfonation market development plant capable of stabilizing PO precursor fiber at a rate of 5 kg/h using a sulfonation solution. The detailed design, location, and cost estimate were determined as scheduled in the Project Management Plan (PMP). In parallel with this DOE award project was a fundamentals and economic evaluation funded by The Dow Chemical Company (Dow). The goal of the Dow sponsored project was to finalize the mass balances, energy balances, and levelized cost to produce CF using the Dow process. A Go-No-Go decision was scheduled in June, 2013 based on the findings of the DOE sponsored scale up project and the Dow sponsored project. In June, 2013, Dow made the No-Go decision to halt and abandon the Dow proprietary sulfonation-desulfonation process for stabilizing PO precursor fibers for the manufacturing of CF. This No-Go decision was identified in the original proposal and at the start of this project, and the decision was made as scheduled. The decision was based on the high levelized economic cost of the process relative to the manufacture of CF from polyacrylonitrile (PAN) precursor fibers. The capital required to sulfonate the fibers adds a significant cost to the process due to the need for investment in a sulfuric acid recovery plant. This high additional capital over the capital for a PAN based CF plant, reduces the levelized economic cost to slightly advantaged over PAN based CF. The sulfonation-desulfonation stabilization route failed to meet the Dow’s return on investment criterion and the cost advantage target set forth for the DOE project. The DOE and Dow decided to halt spending on the project until a new PO fiber stabilization process could be identified that met the DOE physical properties standard and the levelized economic cost constraints of Dow. When the new technology was developed, then award DE-EE0005760 would be re-started with the same goals of the development of a market development plant capable of producing CF at 4 kg/h with the properties that met or exceed those set forth by the Department of Energy Vehicles Technology standard. Progress on the development of the new process has been slow and thus has delayed the scale up project. Dow’s efforts to date have not progressed to the point of demonstrating a commercially-viable process for production of low cost CF from PO precursors for Dow’s rigorous economic constraints. After extensive discussions within Dow and consultation with DOE’s Advanced Manufacturing Office (AMO) Headquarters and Golden Field Office teams, Dow has decided to proceed with the formal recommendation to terminate subject project. DOE’s AMO Headquarters and Golden Field Office teams agreed with the termination of the project.

  6. Performance of a High-Concentration Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifier with 100 nm Amplification Bandwidth

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hajireza, P.; Shahabuddin, N. S.; Abbasi-Zargaleh, S.; Emami, S. D.; Abdul-Rashid, H. A.; Yusoff, Z.

    2010-07-07

    Increasing demand for higher bandwidth has driven the need for higher Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM) channels. One of the requirements to achieve this is a broadband amplifier. This paper reports the performance of a broadband, compact, high-concentration and silica-based erbium-doped fiber amplifier. The amplifier optimized to a 2.15 m long erbium-doped fiber with erbium ion concentration of 2000 ppm. The gain spectrum of the amplifier has a measured amplification bandwidth of 100 nm using a 980 nm laser diode with power of 150 mW. This silica-based EDFA shows lower noise figure, higher gain and wider bandwidth in shorter wavelengths compared to Bismuth-based EDFA with higher erbium ion concentration of 3250 ppm at equivalent EDF length. The silica-based EDF shows peak gain at 22 dB and amplification bandwidth between 1520 nm and 1620 nm. The lowest noise figure is 5 dB. The gain is further improved with the implementation of enhanced EDFA configurations.

  7. Method and source for producing a high concentration of positively charged molecular hydrogen or deuterium ions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ehlers, K.W.; Leung, K.N.

    1983-07-26

    One principal object of the present invention is to provide a novel method and apparatus for generating a high concentration of H/sub 2//sup +/ or D/sub 2//sup +/ ions by using a new and improved multicusp ion source. The basic principle in achieving a high percentage of H/sub 2//sup +/ or D/sub 2//sup +/ ions is to extract them from the source as soon as they are produced. Otherwise they will react with background gas molecules to form tri-atomic ions H/sub 3//sup +/ or D/sub 3//sup +/ or be dissociated by electrons. The former reaction H/sub 2//sup +/ + H/sub 2/ ..-->.. H/sub 3//sup +/ + H can have a very short mean free path length lambda. Assuming a background neutral gas density of approximately 3.3 x 10/sup 13/ cm/sup -3/ and a cross-section sigma of approximately 6 x 10/sup -15/ cm/sup 2/, lambda = (n/sub 0/ sigma)/sup -1/ is estimated to be about 5 cm. Thus the distance traversed by the H/sub 2//sup +/ ion before it arrives at the extractor electrode cannot exceed this value. This in turn sets a limit on the length of the source chamber.

  8. NREL and Industry Advance Low-Cost Solar Water Heating R&D (Fact Sheet), NREL Highlights in Research & Development, NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and Rhotech develop cost-effective solar water heating prototype to rival natural gas water heaters. Water heating energy use represents the second largest energy demand for homes nationwide, offering an opportunity for innovative solar water heating (SWH) technologies to offset energy use and costs. In the Low-Cost Solar Water Heating Research and Development Roadmap, researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) outlined a strategy to expand the SWH market. Recognizing that

  9. Low-Cost Solar Array Project. Progress report 14, August 1979-December 1979 and proceedings of the 14th Project Integration Meeting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    Progress made by the Low-Cost Solar Array Project during the period August through November 1979, is described. Progress on project analysis and integration; technology development in silicon material, large-area sheet silicon, and encapsulation; production process and equipment development; engineering, and operations, and the steps taken to integrate these efforts are detailed. A report on the Project Integration Meeting held December 5-6, 1979, including copies of the visual materials used, is presented.

  10. LCA (Life Cycle Assessment) of Parabolic Trough CSP: Materials Inventory and Embodied GHG Emissions from Two-Tank Indirect and Thermocline Thermal Storage (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heath, G.; Burkhardt, J.; Turchi, C.; Decker, T.; Kutscher, C.

    2009-07-20

    In the United States, concentrating solar power (CSP) is one of the most promising renewable energy (RE) technologies for reduction of electric sector greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and for rapid capacity expansion. It is also one of the most price-competitive RE technologies, thanks in large measure to decades of field experience and consistent improvements in design. One of the key design features that makes CSP more attractive than many other RE technologies, like solar photovoltaics and wind, is the potential for including relatively low-cost and efficient thermal energy storage (TES), which can smooth the daily fluctuation of electricity production and extend its duration into the evening peak hours or longer. Because operational environmental burdens are typically small for RE technologies, life cycle assessment (LCA) is recognized as the most appropriate analytical approach for determining their environmental impacts of these technologies, including CSP. An LCA accounts for impacts from all stages in the development, operation, and decommissioning of a CSP plant, including such upstream stages as the extraction of raw materials used in system components, manufacturing of those components, and construction of the plant. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is undertaking an LCA of modern CSP plants, starting with those of parabolic trough design.

  11. Interband magneto-spectroscopy in InSb square and parabolic quantum wells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kasturiarachchi, T.; Edirisooriya, M.; Mishima, T. D.; Doezema, R. E.; Santos, M. B.; Saha, D.; Pan, X.; Sanders, G. D.; Stanton, C. J.

    2015-06-07

    We measure the magneto-optical absorption due to intersubband optical transitions between conduction and valence subband Landau levels in InSb square and parabolic quantum wells. InSb has the narrowest band gap (0.24 eV at low temperature) of the III–V semiconductors leading to a small effective mass (0.014 m{sub 0}) and a large g–factor (−51). As a result, the Landau level spacing is large at relatively small magnetic fields (<8 T), and one can observe spin-splitting of the Landau levels. We examine two structures: (i) a multiple-square-well structure and (ii) a structure containing multiple parabolic wells. The energies and intensities of the strongest features are well explained by a modified Pidgeon-Brown model based on an 8-band k•p model that explicitly incorporates pseudomorphic strain. The strain is essential for obtaining agreement between theory and experiment. While modeling the square well is relatively straight-forward, the parabolic well consists of 43 different layers of various thickness to approximate a parabolic potential. Agreement between theory and experiment for the parabolic well validates the applicability of the model to complicated structures, which demonstrates the robustness of our model and confirms its relevance for developing electronic and spintronic devices that seek to exploit the properties of the InSb band structure.

  12. Low cost, compact high efficiency, traction motor for electric vehicles/hybrid electric vehicles. Final report for the period September 1998 - December 1999

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mitchell, Jerry; Kessinger, Roy

    2000-04-28

    This final report details technical accomplishments for Phase I of the ''Low Cost, Compact High Efficiency, Traction Motor for Electric Vehicles/Hybrid Electric Vehicles'' program. The research showed that the segmented-electromagnetic array (SEMA) technology combined with an Integrated Motion Module (IMM) concept is highly suited for electric vehicles. IMMs are essentially mechatronic systems that combine the motor, sensing, power electronics, and control functions for a single axis of motion into a light-weight modular unit. The functional integration of these components makes possible significant reductions in motor/alternator size, weight, and cost, while increasing power density and electromechanical conversion efficiency.

  13. Final project report - CRADA with United Solar Technologies and Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL-021): Thin film materials for low-cost high performance solar concentrators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martin, P.M.; Affinito, J.D.; Gross, M.E.; Bennett, W.D.

    1995-03-01

    The objectives of this project were as follows: To develop and evaluate promising low-cost dielectric and polymer-protected thin-film reflective metal coatings to be applied to preformed continuously-curved solar reflector panels to enhance their solar reflectance, and to demonstrate protected solar reflective coatings on preformed solar concentrator panels. The opportunity for this project arose from a search by United Solar Technologies (UST) for organizations and facilities capable of applying reflective coatings to large preformed panels. PNL was identified as being uniquely qualified to participate in this collaborative project.

  14. Final Technical Progress Report: High-Efficiency Low-Cost Thin-Film GaAs Photovoltaic Module Development Program; July 14, 2010 - January 13, 2012

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mattos, L.

    2012-03-01

    This is the final technical progress report of the High-Efficiency Low-Cost Thin-Film GaAs Photovoltaic Module Development Program. Alta Devices has successfully completed all milestones and deliverables established as part of the NREL PV incubator program. During the 18 months of this program, Alta has proven all key processes required to commercialize its solar module product. The incubator focus was on back end process steps directed at conversion of Alta's high quality solar film into high efficiency 1-sun PV modules. This report describes all program deliverables and the work behind each accomplishment.

  15. Wind load design methods for ground-based heliostats and parabolic dish collectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peterka, J A; Derickson, R G

    1992-09-01

    The purpose of this design method is to define wind loads on flat heliostat and parabolic dish collectors in a simplified form. Wind loads are defined for both mean and peak loads accounting for the protective influence of upwind collectors, wind protective fences, or other wind-blockage elements. The method used to define wind loads was to generalize wind load data obtained during tests on model collectors, heliostats or parabolic dishes, placed in a modeled atmospheric wind in a boundary-layer wind-tunnel at Colorado State University. For both heliostats and parabolic dishes, loads are reported for solitary collectors and for collectors as elements of a field. All collectors were solid with negligible porosity; thus the effects of porosity in the collectors is not addressed.

  16. Nexant Parabolic Trough Solar Power Plant Systems Analysis; Task 3: Multiple Plants at a Common Location, 20 January 2005 - 31 December 2005

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kelly, B.

    2006-07-01

    Subcontract report by Nexant, Inc., regarding a system analysis of multiple solar parabolic trough plants at a common location.

  17. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Advanced Low-Cost SiC and GaN Wide Bandgap Inverters for Under-the-Hood Electric Vehicle Traction Drives

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by APEI Inc. at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about Advanced low-cost SIC and GaN wide...

  18. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Advanced Low-Cost SiC and GaN Wide Bandgap Inverters for Under-the-Hood Electric Vehicle Traction Drives

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by APEI Inc. at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about advanced low-cost SiC and GaN wide...

  19. Nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEFs) low cost generator design using power MOSFET and Cockcroft-Walton multiplier circuit as high voltage DC source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sulaeman, M. Y.; Widita, R.

    2014-09-30

    Purpose: Non-ionizing radiation therapy for cancer using pulsed electric field with high intensity field has become an interesting field new research topic. A new method using nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEFs) offers a novel means to treat cancer. Not like the conventional electroporation, nsPEFs able to create nanopores in all membranes of the cell, including membrane in cell organelles, like mitochondria and nucleus. NsPEFs will promote cell death in several cell types, including cancer cell by apoptosis mechanism. NsPEFs will use pulse with intensity of electric field higher than conventional electroporation, between 20100 kV/cm and with shorter duration of pulse than conventional electroporation. NsPEFs requires a generator to produce high voltage pulse and to achieve high intensity electric field with proper pulse width. However, manufacturing cost for creating generator that generates a high voltage with short duration for nsPEFs purposes is highly expensive. Hence, the aim of this research is to obtain the low cost generator design that is able to produce a high voltage pulse with nanosecond width and will be used for nsPEFs purposes. Method: Cockcroft-Walton multiplier circuit will boost the input of 220 volt AC into high voltage DC around 1500 volt and it will be combined by a series of power MOSFET as a fast switch to obtain a high voltage with nanosecond pulse width. The motivation using Cockcroft-Walton multiplier is to acquire a low-cost high voltage DC generator; it will use capacitors and diodes arranged like a step. Power MOSFET connected in series is used as voltage divider to share the high voltage in order not to damage them. Results: This design is expected to acquire a low-cost generator that can achieve the high voltage pulse in amount of ?1.5 kV with falltime 3 ns and risetime 15 ns into a 50? load that will be used for nsPEFs purposes. Further detailed on the circuit design will be explained at presentation.

  20. Design of a Thermal Imaging Diagnostic Using 90-Degree, Off-Axis, Parabolic Mirrors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malone, Robert M.; Becker, Steven A.; Dolan, Daniel H.; Hacking, Richard G.; Hickman, Randy J.; Kaufman, Morris I.; Stevens, Gerald D.; Turley, William D.

    2006-09-01

    Thermal imaging is an important, though challenging, diagnostic for shockwave experiments. Shock-compressed materials undergo transient temperature changes that cannot be recorded with standard (greater than ms response time) infrared detectors. A further complication arises when optical elements near the experiment are destroyed. We have designed a thermal-imaging system for studying shock temperatures produced inside a gas gun at Sandia National Laboratories. Inexpensive, diamond-turned, parabolic mirrors relay an image of the shocked target to the exterior of the gas gun chamber through a sapphire vacuum port. The 30005000-nm portion of this image is directed to an infrared camera which acquires a snapshot of the target with a minimum exposure time of 150 ns. A special mask is inserted at the last intermediate image plane, to provide dynamic thermal background recording during the event. Other wavelength bands of this image are split into high-speed detectors operating at 9001700 nm, and at 17003000 nm for timeresolved pyrometry measurements. This system incorporates 90-degree, off-axis parabolic mirrors, which can collect low f/# light over a broad spectral range, for high-speed imaging. Matched mirror pairs must be used so that aberrations cancel. To eliminate image plane tilt, proper tip-to-tip orientation of the parabolic mirrors is required. If one parabolic mirror is rotated 180 degrees about the optical axis connecting the pair of parabolic mirrors, the resulting image is tilted by 60 degrees. Different focal-length mirrors cannot be used to magnify the image without substantially sacrificing image quality. This paper analyzes performance and aberrations of this imaging diagnostic.

  1. Design of an Actinide Burning, Lead or Lead-Bismuth Cooled Reactor that Produces Low Cost Electricity FY-01 Annual Report, October 2001

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mac Donald, Philip Elsworth; Buongiorno, Jacopo; Davis, Cliff Bybee; Herring, James Stephen; Loewen, Eric Paul; Smolik, Galen Richard; Weaver, Kevan Dean; Todreas, N.

    2001-10-01

    The purpose of this collaborative Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) and Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project is to investigate the suitability of lead or lead-bismuth cooled fast reactors for producing low-cost electricity as well as for actinide burning. The goal is to identify and analyze the key technical issues in core neutronics, materials, thermal-hydraulics, fuels, and economics associated with the development of this reactor concept. Work has been accomplished in four major areas of research: core neutronic design, plant engineering, material compatibility studies, and coolant activation. The publications derived from work on this project (since project inception) are listed in Appendix A.

  2. Design of an Actinide Burning, Lead or Lead-Bismuth Cooled Reactor That Produces Low Cost Electricty - FY-02 Annual Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mac Donald, Philip Elsworth; Buongiorno, Jacopo

    2002-10-01

    The purpose of this collaborative Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) and Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project is to investigate the suitability of lead or lead-bismuth cooled fast reactors for producing low-cost electricity as well as for actinide burning. The goal is to identify and analyze the key technical issues in core neutronics, materials, thermal-hydraulics, fuels, and economics associated with the development of this reactor concept. Work has been accomplished in four major areas of research: core neutronic design, plant engineering, material compatibility studies, and coolant activation. The publications derived from work on this project (since project inception) are listed in Appendix A. This is the third in a series of Annual Reports for this project, the others are also listed in Appendix A as FY-00 and FY-01 Annual Reports.

  3. Low Cost Non-Reactive

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    as chemical reactors, and oil and chemical processing systems); wear resistant surfaces and other tribological uses; and medical applications (such as, prosthetics and implants). ...

  4. Low Cost Titanium ? Propulsion Applications

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2009 DOE Hydrogen Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, May 18-22, 2009 -- Washington D.C.

  5. Low Cost Carbon Fiber Overview

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2010 DOE Vehicle Technologies and Hydrogen Programs Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, June 7-11, 2010 -- Washington D.C.

  6. 100-NR-2 Apatite Treatability Test FY09 Status: High Concentration Calcium-Citrate-Phosphate Solution Injection for In Situ Strontium-90 Immobilization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vermeul, Vincent R.; Fritz, Brad G.; Fruchter, Jonathan S.; Szecsody, James E.; Williams, Mark D.

    2009-12-16

    100-NR-2 Apatite Treatability Test FY09 Status: High Concentration Calcium-Citrate-Phosphate Solution Injection for In Situ Strontium-90 Immobilization INTERIM LETTER REPORT

  7. Design and development of a high-concentration and high-efficiency photovoltaic concentrator using a curved Fresnel lens

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scharlack, R.S.; Moffat, A.

    1983-08-01

    Thermo Electron has designed a high concentration photovoltaic module that uses a domed, point-focus Fresnel lens. Their design, design optimization process, and results from lens and receiver tests are described in this report. A complete module has not been fabricated and probably will not be fabricated in the future; however, Thermo Electron's optical design, analysis, and testing of both secondary optical units and domed Fresnel lenses have made a significant contribution to our project. Tooling errors prevented the lens from reaching its potential efficiency by the end of the contract, and resolution of these tooling problems is currently being attempted with a follow-on contract, No. 68-9463.

  8. Gas Turbine/Solar Parabolic Trough Hybrid Design Using Molten Salt Heat Transfer Fluid: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turchi, C. S.; Ma, Z.

    2011-08-01

    Parabolic trough power plants can provide reliable power by incorporating either thermal energy storage (TES) or backup heat from fossil fuels. This paper describes a gas turbine / parabolic trough hybrid design that combines a solar contribution greater than 50% with gas heat rates that rival those of natural gas combined-cycle plants. Previous work illustrated benefits of integrating gas turbines with conventional oil heat-transfer-fluid (HTF) troughs running at 390?C. This work extends that analysis to examine the integration of gas turbines with salt-HTF troughs running at 450 degrees C and including TES. Using gas turbine waste heat to supplement the TES system provides greater operating flexibility while enhancing the efficiency of gas utilization. The analysis indicates that the hybrid plant design produces solar-derived electricity and gas-derived electricity at lower cost than either system operating alone.

  9. Parabolic sturmians approach to the three-body continuum Coulomb problem

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zaytsev, S. A.; Popov, Yu. V.; Piraux, B.

    2013-03-15

    The three-body continuum Coulomb problem is treated in terms of the generalized parabolic coordinates. Approximate solutions are expressed in the form of a Lippmann-Schwinger-type equation, where the Green's function includes the leading term of the kinetic energy and the total potential energy, whereas the potential contains the non-orthogonal part of the kinetic energy operator. As a test of this approach, the integral equation for the (e{sup -}, e{sup -}, He{sup ++}) system has been solved numerically by using the parabolic Sturmian basis representation of the (approximate) potential. Convergence of the expansion coefficients of the solution has been obtained as the basis set used to describe the potential is enlarged.

  10. THE PARABOLIC JET STRUCTURE IN M87 AS A MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC NOZZLE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nakamura, Masanori; Asada, Keiichi E-mail: asada@asiaa.sinica.edu.tw

    2013-10-01

    The structure and dynamics of the M87 jet from sub-milliarcsec to arcsecond scales are continuously examined. We analyzed the Very Long Baseline Array archival data taken at 43 and 86 GHz to measure the size of very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) cores. Millimeter/sub-millimeter VLBI cores are considered as innermost jet emissions, which has been originally suggested by Blandford and Knigl. Those components fairly follow an extrapolated parabolic streamline in our previous study so that the jet has a single power-law structure with nearly 5 orders of magnitude in the distance starting from the vicinity of the supermassive black hole (SMBH), less than 10 Schwarzschild radius (r{sub s}). We further inspect the jet parabolic structure as a counterpart of the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) nozzle in order to identify the property of a bulk acceleration. We interpret that the parabolic jet consists of Poynting-flux dominated flows, powered by large-amplitude, nonlinear torsional Alfvn waves. We examine the non-relativistic MHD nozzle equation in a parabolic shape. The nature of trans-fast magnetosonic flow is similar to the one of transonic solution of Parker's hydrodynamic solar wind; the jet becomes super-escape as well as super-fast magnetosonic at around ?10{sup 3} r{sub s}, while the upstream trans-Alfvnic flow speed increases linearly as a function of the distance at ?10{sup 2}-10{sup 3} r{sub s}. We here point out that this is the first evidence to identify these features in astrophysical jets. We propose that the M87 jet is magnetically accelerated, but thermally confined by the stratified interstellar medium inside the sphere of gravitational influence of the SMBH potential, which may be a norm in active galactic nucleus jets.

  11. Efficient Phase-Change Materials: Development of a Low-Cost Thermal Energy Storage System Using Phase-Change Materials with Enhanced Radiation Heat Transfer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2011-12-05

    HEATS Project: USF is developing low-cost, high-temperature phase-change materials (PCMs) for use in thermal energy storage systems. Heat storage materials are critical to the energy storage process. In solar thermal storage systems, heat can be stored in these materials during the day and released at nightwhen the sun is not outto drive a turbine and produce electricity. In nuclear storage systems, heat can be stored in these materials at night and released to produce electricity during daytime peak-demand hours. Most PCMs do not conduct heat very well. Using an innovative, electroless encapsulation technique, USF is enhancing the heat transfer capability of its PCMs. The inner walls of the capsules will be lined with a corrosion-resistant, high-infrared emissivity coating, and the absorptivity of the PCM will be controlled with the addition of nano-sized particles. USFs PCMs remain stable at temperatures from 600 to 1,000C and can be used for solar thermal power storage, nuclear thermal power storage, and other applications.

  12. Robust Low-Cost Water-Gas Shift Membrane Reactor for High-Purity Hydrogen Production form Coal-Derived Syngas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James Torkelson; Neng Ye; Zhijiang Li; Decio Coutinho; Mark Fokema

    2008-05-31

    This report details work performed in an effort to develop a low-cost, robust water gas shift membrane reactor to convert coal-derived syngas into high purity hydrogen. A sulfur- and halide-tolerant water gas shift catalyst and a sulfur-tolerant dense metallic hydrogen-permeable membrane were developed. The materials were integrated into a water gas shift membrane reactor in order to demonstrate the production of >99.97% pure hydrogen from a simulated coal-derived syngas stream containing 2000 ppm hydrogen sulfide. The objectives of the program were to (1) develop a contaminant-tolerant water gas shift catalyst that is able to achieve equilibrium carbon monoxide conversion at high space velocity and low steam to carbon monoxide ratio, (2) develop a contaminant-tolerant hydrogen-permeable membrane with a higher permeability than palladium, (3) demonstrate 1 L/h purified hydrogen production from coal-derived syngas in an integrated catalytic membrane reactor, and (4) conduct a cost analysis of the developed technology.

  13. Development of a low-cost integrated 20-kW-AC solar tracking subarray for grid-connected PV power system applications. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stern, M.; Duran, G.; Fourer, G.; Mackamul, K.; Whalen, W.; Loo, M. van; West, R.

    1998-06-01

    This report chronicles Utility Power Group's (UPG) successful two-year Photovoltaic Manufacturing Technology (PVMaT) Phase 4A1 work effort which began in July, 1995. During this period, UPG completed design, fabrication, testing and demonstration of a modular and fully integrated 15-kW-ac, solar tracking PV power system sub-array. The two key and innovative components which were developed are a Modular Panel which optimizes factory assembly of PV modules into a large area, field-deployable, structurally-integrated PV panel, and an Integrated Power Processing Unit which combines all dc and ac power collection, conversion and control functions within a single, field-deployable structurally-integrated electrical enclosure. These two key sub-array elements, when combined with a number of other electrical, mechanical, and structural components, create a low-cost and high-performance PV power system. This system, or sub-array, can be deployed in individual units, or paralleled with any number of other sub-arrays, to construct multi-megawatt P fields. 21 figs.

  14. Towards low-cost high-efficiency GaAs photovoltaics and photoelectrodes grown via vapor transport from a solid source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boucher, Jason; Ritenour, Andrew; Boettcher, Shannon W.

    2013-04-29

    Towards low-cost high-efficiency GaAs photovoltaics and photoelectrodes grown via vapor transport from a solid source GaAs is an attractive material for thin-film photovoltaic applications, but is not widely used for terrestrial power generation due to the high cost of metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) techniques typically used for growth. Close space vapor transport is an alternative that allows for rapid growth rates of III-V materials, and does not rely on the toxic and pyrophoric precursors used in MOCVD. We characterize CSVT films of GaAs using photoelectrochemical current-voltage and quantum efficiency measurements. Hole diffusion lengths which exceed 1.5 um are extracted from internal quantum efficiency measurements using the Gartner model. Device physics simulations suggest that solar cells based on these films could reach efficiencies exceeding 24 %. To reach this goal, a more complete understanding of the electrical properties and characterization of defects will be necessary, including measurements on complete solid-state devices. Doping of films is achieved by using source material containing the desired impurity (e.g., Te or Zn). We discuss strategies for growing III-V materials on inexpensive substrates that are not lattice-matched to GaAs.

  15. The Progress on Low-Cost, High-Quality, High-Temperature Superconducting Tapes Deposited by the Combustion Chemical Vapor Deposition Process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shoup, S.S.; White, M.K.; Krebs, S.L.; Darnell, N.; King, A.C.; Mattox, D.S.; Campbell, I.H.; Marken, K.R.; Hong, S.; Czabaj, B.; Paranthaman, M.; Christen, H.M.; Zhai, H.-Y. Specht, E.

    2008-06-24

    The innovative Combustion Chemical Vapor Deposition (CCVD) process is a non-vacuum technique that is being investigated to enable next generation products in several application areas including high-temperature superconductors (HTS). In combination with the Rolling Assisted Biaxially Textured Substrate (RABiTS) technology, the CCVD process has significant promise to provide low-cost, high-quality lengths of YBCO coated conductor. Over 100 meter lengths of both Ni and Ni-W (3 at. Wt.%) substrates with a surface roughness of 12-18 nm were produced. The CCVD technology has been used to deposit both buffer layer coatings as well as YBCO superconducting layers. Buffer layer architecture of strontium titanate (SrTiO{sub 3}) and ceria (CeO{sub 2}) have been deposited by CCVD on textured nickel substrates and optimized to appropriate thicknesses and microstructures to provide templates for growing PLD YBCO with a J{sub c} of 1.1 MA/cm{sup 2} at 77 K and self-field. The CCVD buffer layers have been scaled to meter plus lengths with good epitaxial uniformity along the length. A short sample cut from one of the lengths enabled high critical current density PLD YBCO. Films of CCVD YBCO superconductors have been grown on single crystal substrates with critical current densities over 1 MA/cm{sup 2}. In addition, superconducting YBCO films with an I{sub c} of 60 A/cm-width (J{sub c} = 1.5 MA/cm{sup 2}) were grown on ORNL RABiTS (CeO{sub 2}/YSZ/Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Ni/Ni-3W) using CCVD process.

  16. Analytical Approach Treating Three-Dimensional Geometrical Effects of Parabolic Trough Collectors: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Binotti, M.; Zhu, G.; Gray, A.; Manzollini, G.

    2012-04-01

    An analytical approach, as an extension of one newly developed method -- First-principle OPTical Intercept Calculation (FirstOPTIC) -- is proposed to treat the geometrical impact of three-dimensional (3-D) effects on parabolic trough optical performance. The mathematical steps of this analytical approach are presented and implemented numerically as part of the suite of FirstOPTIC code. In addition, the new code has been carefully validated against ray-tracing simulation results and available numerical solutions. This new analytical approach to treating 3-D effects will facilitate further understanding and analysis of the optical performance of trough collectors as a function of incidence angle.

  17. Stabilization of the solution of adoubly nonlinear parabolic equation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andriyanova, R; Mukminov, F Kh

    2013-09-30

    The method of Galerkin approximations is employed to prove the existence of astrong global (in time) solution of adoubly nonlinear parabolic equation in an unbounded domain. The second integral identity is established for Galerkin approximations, and passing to the limit in it an estimate for the decay rate of the norm of the solution from below is obtained. The estimates characterizing the decay rate of the solution as x?? obtained here are used to derive an upper bound for the decay rate of the solution with respect to time; the resulting estimate is pretty close to the lower one. Bibliography: 17 titles.

  18. Development of Molten-Salt Heat Trasfer Fluid Technology for Parabolic Trough Solar Power Plants

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    "This PowerPoint presentation was originally given by Dylan Grogan, principal investigator at Abengoa Solar, during a SunShot Initiative Concentrating Solar Power program review on April 24, 2013. The project, Development of Molten-Salt Heat Transfer Fluid Technology for Parabolic Trough Solar Power Plants, seeks to determine whether the inorganic fluids (molten salts) offer a sufficient reduction in levelized energy costs to pursue further development, and to develop the components required for their use. The presentation focuses on presenting conclusions from Phase 1 of the program and looks ahead to review Phase 2 activities."

  19. Effect of calcination temperature on structural and photocatalyst properties of nanofibers prepared from low-cost natural ilmenite mineral by simple hydrothermal method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simpraditpan, Athapon; Wirunmongkol, Thanakorn; Pavasupree, Sorapong; Pecharapa, Wisanu

    2013-09-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: Nanofibers were prepared from low-cost ilmenite mineral via simple hydrothermal. High photocatalyst nanofibers were prepared via post heat treatment method. The nanofibers calcined at 100700 C for 2 h maintained nanofiber structure. The calcined nanofibers at 400 C showed the highest photocatalytic activity. - Abstract: Titanate nanofibers were synthesized via the hydrothermal method (120 C for 72 h) using natural ilmenite mineral (FeTiO{sub 3}) as the starting material. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray fluorescent (XRF), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and BrunauerEmmettTeller (BET) for specific surface area. The nanofibers were 2090 nm in diameter and 27 ?m in length. The as-synthesized nanofibers calcined at 300400 C showed TiO{sub 2} (B) whereas the nanofibers calcined at 500 C revealed a mixture of two phases of TiO{sub 2} (B) and anatase. The nanofibers calcined at high temperature of 6001000 C showed a mixture of tri-crystalline of anatase, rutile, and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The rutile phase increased with increasing calcination temperature. The nanofibers calcined at 300700 C maintained their structure while the morphology of the nanofibers calcined at 8001000 C transformed into submicron rod-like structure. This increase of calcination temperature led to the phase transformation from thermodynamically metastable anatase to the most stable form of rutile phase. The crystallite size of prepared samples increased with increasing calcination temperature. Interestingly, with increasing calcination temperature, the absorption edge of the prepared samples shows an obvious shift to visible light region due to the change of crystallite phase and increased crystallite size. Therefore, the band gap energy of the prepared samples became narrower with increasing calcination temperature. Furthermore, the photocatalytic activity of the nanofibers calcined at 400 C for 2 h was found to be not merely higher than those of the commercially available TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles powders (P-25, JRC-01, and JRC-03) but also the highest of all the samples in this study.

  20. An Alternative Low-Cost Process for Deposition of MCrAlY Bond Coats for Advanced Syngas/Hydrogen Turbine Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Ying

    2015-09-11

    The objective of this project was to develop and optimize MCrAlY bond coats for syngas/hydrogen turbine applications using a low-cost electrolytic codeposition process. Prealloyed CrAlY-based powders were codeposited into a metal matrix of Ni, Co or Ni-Co during the electroplating process, and a subsequent post-deposition heat treatment converted it to the MCrAlY coating. Our research efforts focused on: (1) investigation of the effects of electro-codeposition configuration and parameters on the CrAlY particle incorporation in the NiCo-CrAlY composite coatings; (2) development of the post-deposition heat treating procedure; (3) characterization of coating properties and evaluation of coating oxidation performance; (4) exploration of a sulfurfree electroplating solution; (5) cost analysis of the present electrolytic codeposition process. Different electro-codeposition configurations were investigated, and the rotating barrel system demonstrated the capability of depositing NiCo-CrAlY composite coatings uniformly on the entire specimen surface, with the CrAlY particle incorporation in the range 37-42 vol.%. Post-deposition heat treatment at 1000-1200 °C promoted interdiffusion between the CrAlY particles and the Ni-Co metal matrix, resulting in β/γ’/γ or β/γ’ phases in the heat-treated coatings. The results also indicate that the post-deposition heat treatment should be conducted at temperatures ≤1100 °C to minimize Cr evaporation and outward diffusion of Ti. The electro-codeposited NiCrAlY coatings in general showed lower hardness and surface roughness than thermal spray MCrAlY coatings. Coating oxidation performance was evaluated at 1000-1100 °C in dry and wet air environments. The initial electro-codeposited NiCoCrAlY coatings containing relatively high sulfur did not show good oxidation resistance. After modifications of the coating process, the cleaner NiCoCrAlY coating exhibited good oxidation performance at 1000 °C during the 2,000 1-h cyclic oxidation test. A sulfur-free fluoboratebased plating solution was explored in order to reduce the sulfur level in the electro-codeposited MCrAlY coatings. However, chemical reactions occurred between the CrAlY powder and the fluoborate plating solution, resulting in dark powdery coatings. The fluoborate-based plating bath can thus only be used to codeposit more inert particles (e.g., oxides or carbides) instead of the present Al-containing metallic particles.

  1. Measurement of Hydrogen Purge Rates in Parabolic Trough Receiver Tubes: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glatzmaier, G. C.

    2010-10-01

    The purpose of this research is to investigate and develop methods to remove hydrogen centrally from commercial parabolic trough power plants. A mathematical model was developed that tracks the generation and transport of hydrogen within an operating plant. Modeling results predicted the steady-state partial pressure of hydrogen within the receiver annuli to be ~1 torr. This result agrees with measured values for the hydrogen partial pressure. The model also predicted the rate at which hydrogen must be actively removed from the expansion tank to reduce the partial pressure of hydrogen within the receiver annuli to less than 0.001 torr. Based on these results, mitigation strategies implemented at operating parabolic trough power plants can reduce hydrogen partial pressure to acceptable levels. Transient modeling predicted the time required to reduce the hydrogen partial pressures within receiver annuli to acceptable levels. The times were estimated as a function of bellows temperature, getter quantity, and getter temperature. This work also includes an experimental effort that will determine the time required to purge hydrogen from a receiver annulus with no getter.

  2. Water Use in Parabolic Trough Power Plants: Summary Results from WorleyParsons' Analyses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turchi, C. S.; Wagner, M. J.; Kutscher, C. F.

    2010-12-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) contracted with WorleyParsons Group, Inc. to examine the effect of switching from evaporative cooling to alternative cooling systems on a nominal 100-MW parabolic trough concentrating solar power (CSP) plant. WorleyParsons analyzed 13 different cases spanning three different geographic locations (Daggett, California; Las Vegas, Nevada; and Alamosa, Colorado) to assess the performance, cost, and water use impacts of switching from wet to dry or hybrid cooling systems. NREL developed matching cases in its Solar Advisor Model (SAM) for each scenario to allow for hourly modeling and provide a comparison to the WorleyParsons results.Our findings indicate that switching from 100% wet to 100% dry cooling will result in levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) increases of approximately 3% to 8% for parabolic trough plants throughout most of the southwestern United States. In cooler, high-altitude areas like Colorado's San Luis Valley, WorleyParsons estimated the increase at only 2.5%, while SAM predicted a 4.4% difference. In all cases, the transition to dry cooling will reduce water consumption by over 90%. Utility time-of-delivery (TOD) schedules had similar impacts for wet- and dry-cooled plants, suggesting that TOD schedules have a relatively minor effect on the dry-cooling penalty.

  3. Low cost back contact heterojunction solar cells on thin c-Si wafers. integrating laser and thin film processing for improved manufacturability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hegedus, Steven S.

    2015-09-08

    An interdigitated back contact (IBC) Si wafer solar cell with deposited a-Si heterojunction (HJ) emitter and contacts is considered the ultimate single junction Si solar cell design. This was confirmed in 2014 by both Panasonic and Sharp Solar producing IBC-HJ cells breaking the previous record Si solar cell efficiency of 25%. But manufacturability at low cost is a concern for the complex IBC-HJ device structure. In this research program, our goals were to addressed the broad industry need for a high-efficiency c-Si cell that overcomes the dominant module cost barriers by 1) developing thin Si wafers synthesized by innovative, kerfless techniques; 2) integrating laser-based processing into most aspects of solar cell fabrication, ensuring high speed and low thermal budgets ; 3) developing an all back contact cell structure compatible with thin wafers using a simplified, low-temperature fabrication process; and 4) designing the contact patterning to enable simplified module assembly. There were a number of significant achievements from this 3 year program. Regarding the front surface, we developed and applied new method to characterize critical interface recombination parameters including interface defect density Dit and hole and electron capture cross-section for use as input for 2D simulation of the IBC cell to guide design and loss analysis. We optimized the antireflection and passivation properties of the front surface texture and a-Si/a-SiN/a-SiC stack depositions to obtain a very low (< 6 mA/cm2) front surface optical losses (reflection and absorption) while maintaining excellent surface passivation (SRV<5 cm/s). We worked with kerfless wafer manufacturers to apply defect-engineering techniques to improve bulk minority-carrier lifetime of thin kerfless wafers by both reducing initial impurities during growth and developing post-growth gettering techniques. This led insights about the kinetics of nickel, chromium, and dislocations in PV-grade silicon and to achieving millisecond lifetimes in kerfless silicon materials. Laser fired contacts to n-Si were developed for the first time using a Al/Sb/Ti metal stack giving contact resistances < 5 mOhm-cm2 when fired through several different dielectric layers. A new 2 step laser+chemical etch isolation technique was developed using a sacrificial top coating which avoids laser damage to Si passivation. Regarding the heterojunction emitter, analysis of front FHJ (1D) and IBC (2D) cells with range of p-layer conditions found that a 2-stage high/low doped p-layer was optimum: the low doped region has lower defects giving higher Voc and the high doped region gave a better contact to the metal. A significant effort was spent studying the patterning process and its contribution to degradation of passivation and reproducibility. Several promising new cleaning, contact and deposition patterning and processing approaches were implemented leading to fabrication of several runs with cells having 19-20% efficiency which were stable over several months. This program resulted in the training and support of 12 graduate students, publication of 21 journal papers and 14 conference papers.

  4. Low cost back contact heterojunction solar cells on thin c-Si wafers. Integrating laser and thin film processing for improved manufacturability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hegedus, Steven S.

    2015-09-08

    An interdigitated back contact (IBC) Si wafer solar cell with deposited a-Si heterojunction (HJ) emitter and contacts is considered the ultimate single junction Si solar cell design. This was confirmed in 2014 by both Panasonic and Sharp Solar producing IBC-HJ cells breaking the previous record Si solar cell efficiency of 25%. But manufacturability at low cost is a concern for the complex IBC-HJ device structure. In this research program, our goals were to addressed the broad industry need for a high-efficiency c-Si cell that overcomes the dominant module cost barriers by 1) developing thin Si wafers synthesized by innovative, kerfless techniques; 2) integrating laser-based processing into most aspects of solar cell fabrication, ensuring high speed and low thermal budgets ; 3) developing an all back contact cell structure compatible with thin wafers using a simplified, low-temperature fabrication process; and 4) designing the contact patterning to enable simplified module assembly. There were a number of significant achievements from this 3 year program. Regarding the front surface, we developed and applied new method to characterize critical interface recombination parameters including interface defect density Dit and hole and electron capture cross-section for use as input for 2D simulation of the IBC cell to guide design and loss analysis. We optimized the antireflection and passivation properties of the front surface texture and a-Si/a-SiN/a-SiC stack depositions to obtain a very low (< 6 mA/cm2) front surface optical losses (reflection and absorption) while maintaining excellent surface passivation (SRV<5 cm/s). We worked with kerfless wafer manufacturers to apply defect-engineering techniques to improve bulk minority-carrier lifetime of thin kerfless wafers by both reducing initial impurities during growth and developing post-growth gettering techniques. This led insights about the kinetics of nickel, chromium, and dislocations in PV-grade silicon and to achieving millisecond lifetimes in kerfless silicon materials. Laser fired contacts to n-Si were developed for the first time using a Al/Sb/Ti metal stack giving contact resistances < 5 mOhm-cm2 when fired through several different dielectric layers. A new 2 step laser+chemical etch isolation technique was developed using a sacrificial top coating which avoids laser damage to Si passivation. Regarding the heterojunction emitter, analysis of front FHJ (1D) and IBC (2D) cells with range of p-layer conditions found that a 2-stage high/low doped p-layer was optimum: the low doped region has lower defects giving higher Voc and the high doped region gave a better contact to the metal. A significant effort was spent studying the patterning process and its contribution to degradation of passivation and reproducibility. Several promising new cleaning, contact and deposition patterning and processing approaches were implemented leading to fabrication of several runs with cells having 19-20% efficiency which were stable over several months. This program resulted in the training and support of 12 graduate students, publication of 21 journal papers and 14 conference papers.

  5. High-Power Zinc-Air Energy Storage: Enhanced Metal-Air Energy Storage System with Advanced Grid-Interoperable Power Electronics Enabling Scalability and Ultra-Low Cost

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-10-01

    GRIDS Project: Fluidic is developing a low-cost, rechargeable, high-power module for Zinc-air batteries that will be used to store renewable energy. Zinc-air batteries are traditionally found in small, non-rechargeable devices like hearing aids because they are well-suited to delivering low levels of power for long periods of time. Historically, Zinc-air batteries have not been as useful for applications which require periodic bursts of power, like on the electrical grid. Fluidic hopes to fill this need by combining the high energy, low cost, and long run-time of a Zinc-air battery with new chemistry providing high power, high efficiency, and fast response. The battery module could allow large grid-storage batteries to provide much more power on very short demandthe most costly kind of power for utilitiesand with much more versatile performance.

  6. Current and Future Costs for Parabolic Trough and Power Tower Systems in the US Market: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turchi, C.; Mehos, M.; Ho, C. K.; Kolb, G. J.

    2010-10-01

    NREL's Solar Advisor Model (SAM) is employed to estimate the current and future costs for parabolic trough and molten salt power towers in the US market. Future troughs are assumed to achieve higher field temperatures via the successful deployment of low melting-point, molten-salt heat transfer fluids by 2015-2020. Similarly, it is assumed that molten salt power towers are successfully deployed at 100MW scale over the same time period, increasing to 200MW by 2025. The levelized cost of electricity for both technologies is predicted to drop below 11 cents/kWh (assuming a 10% investment tax credit and other financial inputs outlined in the paper), making the technologies competitive in the marketplace as benchmarked by the California MPR. Both technologies can be deployed with large amounts of thermal energy storage, yielding capacity factors as high as 65% while maintaining an optimum LCOE.

  7. Utility-Scale Parabolic Trough Solar Systems: Performance Acceptance Test Guidelines, April 2009 - December 2010

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kearney, D.

    2011-05-01

    Prior to commercial operation, large solar systems in utility-size power plants need to pass a performance acceptance test conducted by the engineering, procurement, and construction (EPC) contractor or owners. In lieu of the present absence of ASME or other international test codes developed for this purpose, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory has undertaken the development of interim guidelines to provide recommendations for test procedures that can yield results of a high level of accuracy consistent with good engineering knowledge and practice. The Guidelines contained here are specifically written for parabolic trough collector systems with a heat-transport system using a high-temperature synthetic oil, but the basic principles are relevant to other CSP systems.

  8. Parabolic Trough Reference Plant for Cost Modeling with the Solar Advisor Model (SAM)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turchi, C.

    2010-07-01

    This report describes a component-based cost model developed for parabolic trough solar power plants. The cost model was developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), assisted by WorleyParsons Group Inc., for use with NREL's Solar Advisor Model (SAM). This report includes an overview and explanation of the model, two summary contract reports from WorleyParsons, and an Excel spreadsheet for use with SAM. The cost study uses a reference plant with a 100-MWe capacity and six hours of thermal energy storage. Wet-cooling and dry-cooling configurations are considered. The spreadsheet includes capital and operating cost by component to allow users to estimate the impact of changes in component costs.

  9. Current and future costs for parabolic trough and power tower systems in the US market.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turchi, Craig; Kolb, Gregory J.; Mehos, Mark Steven; Ho, Clifford Kuofei

    2010-08-01

    NREL's Solar Advisor Model (SAM) is employed to estimate the current and future costs for parabolic trough and molten salt power towers in the US market. Future troughs are assumed to achieve higher field temperatures via the successful deployment of low melting-point, molten-salt heat transfer fluids by 2015-2020. Similarly, it is assumed that molten salt power towers are successfully deployed at 100MW scale over the same time period, increasing to 200MW by 2025. The levelized cost of electricity for both technologies is predicted to drop below 11 cents/kWh (assuming a 10% investment tax credit and other financial inputs outlined in the paper), making the technologies competitive in the marketplace as benchmarked by the California MPR. Both technologies can be deployed with large amounts of thermal energy storage, yielding capacity factors as high as 65% while maintaining an optimum LCOE.

  10. Cleaning strategies for parabolic-trough solar-collector fields; guidelines for decisions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bergeron, K.D.; Freese, J.M.

    1981-06-01

    This report is intended to assist the owner or operator of a parabolic trough solar collector system to decide on a cleaning strategy (equipment, materials, procedures, and schedules). The guidelines are based on information obtained in past research studies, as well as interviews with vendors and users of cleaning and water treatment equipment. The basic procedure recommended utilizes high pressure portable washing equipment. However, since the cleaning problem is so site-specific, no single, detailed approach can be specified. A systematic procedure for evaluating the particular requirements of a site is therefore given. This will allow the solar energy system operator to develop a cleaning strategy which is cost-effective because it is suited to local conditions.

  11. Parabolic Trough Collector Cost Update for the System Advisor Model (SAM)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kurup, Parthiv; Turchi, Craig S.

    2015-11-01

    This report updates the baseline cost for parabolic trough solar fields in the United States within NREL's System Advisor Model (SAM). SAM, available at no cost at https://sam.nrel.gov/, is a performance and financial model designed to facilitate decision making for people involved in the renewable energy industry. SAM is the primary tool used by NREL and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) for estimating the performance and cost of concentrating solar power (CSP) technologies and projects. The study performed a bottom-up build and cost estimate for two state-of-the-art parabolic trough designs -- the SkyTrough and the Ultimate Trough. The SkyTrough analysis estimated the potential installed cost for a solar field of 1500 SCAs as $170/m2 +/- $6/m2. The investigation found that SkyTrough installed costs were sensitive to factors such as raw aluminum alloy cost and production volume. For example, in the case of the SkyTrough, the installed cost would rise to nearly $210/m2 if the aluminum alloy cost was $1.70/lb instead of $1.03/lb. Accordingly, one must be aware of fluctuations in the relevant commodities markets to track system cost over time. The estimated installed cost for the Ultimate Trough was only slightly higher at $178/m2, which includes an assembly facility of $11.6 million amortized over the required production volume. Considering the size and overall cost of a 700 SCA Ultimate Trough solar field, two parallel production lines in a fully covered assembly facility, each with the specific torque box, module and mirror jigs, would be justified for a full CSP plant.

  12. Development of Performance Acceptance Test Guidelines for Large Commercial Parabolic Trough Solar Fields: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kearney, D.; Mehos, M.

    2010-12-01

    Prior to commercial operation, large solar systems in utility-size power plants need to pass a performance acceptance test conducted by the EPC contractor or owners. In lieu of the present absence of engineering code developed for this purpose, NREL has undertaken the development of interim guidelines to provide recommendations for test procedures that can yield results of a high level of accuracy consistent with good engineering knowledge and practice. The fundamental differences between acceptance of a solar power plant and a conventional fossil-fired plant are the transient nature of the energy source and the necessity to utilize an analytical performance model in the acceptance process. These factors bring into play the need to establish methods to measure steady state performance, potential impacts of transient processes, comparison to performance model results, and the possible requirement to test, or model, multi-day performance within the scope of the acceptance test procedure. The power block and BOP are not within the boundaries of this guideline. The current guideline is restricted to the solar thermal performance of parabolic trough systems and has been critiqued by a broad range of stakeholders in CSP development and technology.

  13. Numerical study on coupled fluid flow and heat transfer process in parabolic trough solar collector tube

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tao, Y.B.; He, Y.L.

    2010-10-15

    A unified two-dimensional numerical model was developed for the coupled heat transfer process in parabolic solar collector tube, which includes nature convection, forced convection, heat conduction and fluid-solid conjugate problem. The effects of Rayleigh number (Ra), tube diameter ratio and thermal conductivity of the tube wall on the heat transfer and fluid flow performance were numerically analyzed. The distributions of flow field, temperature field, local Nu and local temperature gradient were examined. The results show that when Ra is larger than 10{sup 5}, the effects of nature convection must be taken into account. With the increase of tube diameter ratio, the Nusselt number in inner tube (Nu{sub 1}) increases and the Nusselt number in annuli space (Nu{sub 2}) decreases. With the increase of tube wall thermal conductivity, Nu{sub 1} decreases and Nu{sub 2} increases. When thermal conductivity is larger than 200 W/(m K), it would have little effects on Nu and average temperatures. Due to the effect of the nature convection, along the circumferential direction (from top to down), the temperature in the cross-section decreases and the temperature gradient on inner tube surface increases at first. Then, the temperature and temperature gradients would present a converse variation at {theta} near {pi}. The local Nu on inner tube outer surface increases along circumferential direction until it reaches a maximum value then it decreases again. (author)

  14. Parabolized Stability Equations analysis of nonlinear interactions with forced eigenmodes to control subsonic jet instabilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Itasse, Maxime Brazier, Jean-Philippe Léon, Olivier Casalis, Grégoire

    2015-08-15

    Nonlinear evolution of disturbances in an axisymmetric, high subsonic, high Reynolds number hot jet with forced eigenmodes is studied using the Parabolized Stability Equations (PSE) approach to understand how modes interact with one another. Both frequency and azimuthal harmonic interactions are analyzed by setting up one or two modes at higher initial amplitudes and various phases. While single mode excitation leads to harmonic growth and jet noise amplification, controlling the evolution of a specific mode has been made possible by forcing two modes (m{sub 1}, n{sub 1}), (m{sub 2}, n{sub 2}), such that the difference in azimuth and in frequency matches the desired “target” mode (m{sub 1} − m{sub 2}, n{sub 1} − n{sub 2}). A careful setup of the initial amplitudes and phases of the forced modes, defined as the “killer” modes, has allowed the minimizing of the initially dominant instability in the near pressure field, as well as its estimated radiated noise with a 15 dB loss. Although an increase of the overall sound pressure has been found in the range of azimuth and frequency analyzed, the present paper reveals the possibility to make the initially dominant instability ineffective acoustically using nonlinear interactions with forced eigenmodes.

  15. CX-003976: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    976: Categorical Exclusion Determination CX-003976: Categorical Exclusion Determination Development of a High-Concentration Low-Cost Parabolic Trough System for Baseload Concentrated Solar Power Generation CX(s) Applied: A9, B5.1 Date: 09/20/2010 Location(s): Arvada, Colorado Office(s): Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Golden Field Office The Department of Energy is proposing to provide federal funding to SkyFuel to develop and demonstrate an advanced low-cost Concentrated Solar Power

  16. Durable, Low Cost, Improved Fuel Cell Membranes

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This presentation, which focuses on fuel cell membranes, was given by Michel Foure of Arkema at a meeting on new fuel cell projects in February 2007.

  17. Low Cost Titanium … Propulsion Applications

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2011 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation

  18. Low Cost Titanium … Propulsion Applications

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2010 DOE Vehicle Technologies and Hydrogen Programs Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, June 7-11, 2010 -- Washington D.C.

  19. Low Cost Carbon Fiber from Renewable Resources

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2009 DOE Hydrogen Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, May 18-22, 2009 -- Washington D.C.

  20. Low-Cost, Lightweight Solar Concentrators

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Jet Propulsion Laboratory Award Number:0595-1612 | January 15, 2013 | Ganapathi Thin Film mirror is 40-50% cheaper and 60% lighter than SOA * Project leverages extensive space...

  1. Low-cost process for hydrogen production

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cha, C.H.; Bauer, H.F.; Grimes, R.W.

    1993-03-30

    A method is provided for producing hydrogen and carbon black from hydrocarbon gases comprising mixing the hydrocarbon gases with a source of carbon and applying radiofrequency energy to the mixture. The hydrocarbon gases and the carbon can both be the products of gasification of coal, particularly the mild gasification of coal. A method is also provided for producing hydrogen and carbon monoxide by treating a mixture of hydrocarbon gases and steam with radio-frequency energy.

  2. Low-cost process for hydrogen production

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cha, Chang Y.; Bauer, Hans F.; Grimes, Robert W.

    1993-01-01

    A method is provided for producing hydrogen and carbon black from hydrocarbon gases comprising mixing the hydrocarbon gases with a source of carbon and applying radiofrequency energy to the mixture. The hydrocarbon gases and the carbon can both be the products of gasification of coal, particularly the mild gasification of coal. A method is also provided for producing hydrogen an carbon monoxide by treating a mixture of hydrocarbon gases and steam with radio-frequency energy.

  3. Low-Cost Fiber Optic Pressure Sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sheem, Sang K. (Pleasanton, CA)

    2004-05-18

    The size and cost of fabricating fiber optic pressure sensors is reduced by fabricating the membrane of the sensor in a non-planar shape. The design of the sensors may be made in such a way that the non-planar membrane becomes a part of an air-tight cavity, so as to make the membrane resilient due to the air-cushion effect of the air-tight cavity. Such non-planar membranes are easier to make and attach.

  4. Low-Cost Fiber Optic Pressure Sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sheem, Sang K. (Pleasanton, CA)

    2003-07-22

    The size and cost of fabricating fiber optic pressure sensors is reduced by fabricating the membrane of the sensor in a non-planar shape. The design of the sensors may be made in such a way that the non-planar membrane becomes a part of an air-tight cavity, so as to make the membrane resilient due to the air-cushion effect of the air-tight cavity. Such non-planar membranes are easier to make and attach.

  5. Low-Cost, Lightweight Solar Concentrator

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    from Jet Propulsion Laboratory Project Leader: Dr. Gani Ganapathi gani.b.ganapathi@jpl.nasa.gov Printed with a renewable-source ink on paper containing at least 50% wastepaper,...

  6. Low Cost Carbon Fiber from Renewable Resources

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2010 DOE Vehicle Technologies and Hydrogen Programs Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, June 7-11, 2010 -- Washington D.C.

  7. Low-cost Radon Reduction Pilot Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rose, William B.; Francisco, Paul W.; Merrin, Zachary

    2015-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Building America research team Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofits conducted a primary scoping study on the impact of air sealing between the foundation and the living space on radon transport reduction across the foundation and living space floor assembly. Fifteen homes in the Champaign, Illinois, area participated in the study. These homes were instrumented for hourly continuous radon measurements and simultaneous temperature and humidity measurements. Blower door and zone pressure diagnostics were conducted at each house. The treatments consisted of using air-sealing foams at the underside of the floor that separated the living space from the foundation and providing duct sealing on the ductwork that is situated in the foundation area. The hypothesis was that air sealing the floor system that separated the foundation from the living space should better isolate the living space from the foundation; this isolation should lead to less radon entering the living space from the foundation. If the hypothesis had been proven, retrofit energy-efficiency programs may have chosen to adopt these isolation methods for enhanced radon protection to the living space.

  8. Low cost impulse compatible wideband antenna

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rosenbury, Erwin T.; Burke, Gerald J.; Nelson, Scott D.; Stever, Robert D.; Governo, George K.; Mullenhoff, Donald J.

    2002-01-01

    An antenna apparatus and method for building the antenna is disclosed. Impulse signals travel through a feed point of the antenna with respect to a ground plane. A geometric fin structure is connected to the feed point, and through a termination resistance to the ground plane. A geometric ridge structure connected to the ground is positioned with respect to the fin in order to receive and radiate electromagnetic energy from the impulse signal at a predetermined impedance and over a predetermined set of frequencies. The fin and ridge can be either a wire or a planar surface. The fin and ridge may be disposed within a radiation cavity such as a horn. The radiation cavity is constructed of stamped and etched metal sheets bent and then soldered together. The fin and ridge are also formed from metal sheets or wires. The fin is attached to the feed point and then to the cavity through a termination resistance. The ridge is attached to the cavity and disposed with respect to the fin in order to achieve a particular set of antenna characteristics.

  9. Low-Cost Radon Reduction Pilot Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rose, William B.; Francisco, Paul W.; Merrin, Zachary

    2015-09-01

    The aim of the research was to conduct a primary scoping study on the impact of air sealing between the foundation and the living space on radon transport reduction across the foundation-living space floor assembly. Fifteen homes in the Champaign, Illinois area participated in the study. These homes were instrumented for hourly continuous radon measurements and simultaneous temperature and humidity the foundation was improved. However, this improved isolation did not lead to significant reductions in radon concentration in the living space. Other factors such as outdoor temperature were shown to have an impact on radon concentration.

  10. Low-Cost MHTES Systems for CSP

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This presentation was delivered at the SunShot Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) Program Review 2013, held April 23–25, 2013 near Phoenix, Arizona.

  11. Brookhaven National Laboratory's low cost solar technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilhelm, W.G.

    1984-09-01

    The problems identified in early study - cost, architectural compatibility, and reliability - were not likely to be solved with conventional practices in the solar industry. BNL then embarked upon an iterative development process towards a solution founded on the methodology which establish a set of key guidelines for the research. With the derivation of cost goals ($5 to $6 per square foot, installed) and performance targets (consistent with conventional technology) it was considered important to use sophisticated industrial product development technologies to achieve the desired results. The normal industrial practice to reduce cost, for example, is to reduce material intensity, strive for simplicity in design and apply as much mass production as possible. This approach revealed the potential of polymer films as a basic construction material for solar collectors. Further refinements to reduce cost were developed, including the perfection of a non-pressurized absorber/heat exchanger and the adaptability of a printable optical selective surface. Additional significant advantages were acquired through application of a monocoque construction technique borrowed from the aircraft industry. The procedures used, including important support from industry to help identify materials and guide fabrication techniques, eventually resulted in construction and successful testing of a thin polymer film solar collector. To achieve the overall objectives of viable solar economics some system concepts have been explored by BNL. Consistent with the cost goals mentioned, it is believed that the low pressure designs pursued will be successful. Designs for the storage tank and distribution system that have been pursued include the use of polymer film lined sheet metal for the storage tanks and plastic pipe.

  12. Low-Cost Microchannel Heat Exchanger

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    PEER Review Meeting Washington, D.C. May 6-7, 2014 This presentation does not contain any ... simple limited tolerance machining step * Stacks parts to achieve different ...

  13. Development of Molten-Salt Heat Transfer Fluid Technology for Parabolic Trough Solar Power Plants - Public Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grogan, Dylan C. P.

    2013-08-15

    Executive Summary This Final Report for the "Development of Molten-Salt Heat Transfer Fluid (HTF) Technology for Parabolic Trough Solar Power Plants” describes the overall project accomplishments, results and conclusions. Phase 1 analyzed the feasibility, cost and performance of a parabolic trough solar power plant with a molten salt heat transfer fluid (HTF); researched and/or developed feasible component options, detailed cost estimates and workable operating procedures; and developed hourly performance models. As a result, a molten salt plant with 6 hours of storage was shown to reduce Thermal Energy Storage (TES) cost by 43.2%, solar field cost by 14.8%, and levelized cost of energy (LCOE) by 9.8% - 14.5% relative to a similar state-of-the-art baseline plant. The LCOE savings range met the project’s Go/No Go criteria of 10% LCOE reduction. Another primary focus of Phase 1 and 2 was risk mitigation. The large risk areas associated with a molten salt parabolic trough plant were addressed in both Phases, such as; HTF freeze prevention and recovery, collector components and piping connections, and complex component interactions. Phase 2 analyzed in more detail the technical and economic feasibility of a 140 MWe,gross molten-salt CSP plant with 6 hours of TES. Phase 2 accomplishments included developing technical solutions to the above mentioned risk areas, such as freeze protection/recovery, corrosion effects of applicable molten salts, collector design improvements for molten salt, and developing plant operating strategies for maximized plant performance and freeze risk mitigation. Phase 2 accomplishments also included developing and thoroughly analyzing a molten salt, Parabolic Trough power plant performance model, in order to achieve the project cost and performance targets. The plant performance model and an extensive basic Engineering, Procurement, and Construction (EPC) quote were used to calculate a real levelized cost of energy (LCOE) of 11.50¢/kWhe , which achieved the Phase 2 Go/No Go target of less than 0.12¢/kWhe. Abengoa Solar has high confidence that the primary risk areas have been addressed in the project and a commercial plant utilizing molten salt is economically and technically feasible. The strong results from the Phase 1 and 2 research, testing, and analyses, summarized in this report, led Abengoa Solar to recommend that the project proceed to Phase 3. However, a commercially viable collector interconnection was not fully validated by the end of Phase 2, combined with the uncertainty in the federal budget, forced the DOE and Abengoa Solar to close the project. Thus the resources required to construct and operate a molten salt pilot plant will be solely supplied by Abengoa Solar.

  14. 100-NR-2 Apatite Treatability Test: High-Concentration Calcium-Citrate-Phosphate Solution Injection for In Situ Strontium-90 Immobilization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vermeul, Vincent R.; Fritz, Brad G.; Fruchter, Jonathan S.; Szecsody, James E.; Williams, Mark D.

    2010-09-01

    Following an evaluation of potential strontium-90 (90Sr) treatment technologies and their applicability under 100-NR-2 hydrogeologic conditions, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Fluor Hanford, Inc. (now CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company [CHPRC]), Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, and the Washington State Department of Ecology agreed that the long-term strategy for groundwater remediation at the 100-N Area should include apatite as the primary treatment technology. This agreement was based on results from an evaluation of remedial alternatives that identified the apatite permeable reactive barrier (PRB) technology as the approach showing the greatest promise for reducing 90Sr flux to the Columbia River at a reasonable cost. This letter report documents work completed to date on development of a high-concentration amendment formulation and initial field-scale testing of this amendment solution.

  15. Low-cost spray-processed Ag{sub 1−x}Cu{sub x}InS{sub 2} nano-films: Structural and functional investigation within the Lattice Compatibility Theory framework

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gherouel, D.; Yumak, A.; Znaidi, M.; Bouzidi, A.; Boubaker, K.; Yacoubi, N.; Amlouk, M.

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • Cu{sub x}Ag{sub 1−x}InS{sub 2} with a minimal lattice mismatch between absorbers and buffers. • The lattice compatibility for understanding silver–copper kinetics. • Controlled and enhanced spray pyrolisis method as a low-cost synthesis protocol. - Abstract: This work deals with some structural and optical investigations about Cu{sub x}Ag{sub 1−x}InS{sub 2} alloys sprayed films and the beneficial effect of copper incorporation in AgInS{sub 2} ternary matrices. The main purpose of this work is to obtain the band gap energy E{sub g} as well as different lattice parameters. The studied properties led to reaching minimum of lattice mismatch between absorber and buffer layers within solar cell devices. As a principal and original finding, the lattice compatibility between both silver and copper indium disulfide structures has been proposed as a guide for understanding kinetics of these materials crystallization.

  16. Electromagnetic modeling of the energy distribution of a metallic cylindrical parabolic reflector covered with a magnetized plasma layer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Niknam, A. R. Khajehmirzaei, M. R.; Davoudi-Rahaghi, B.; Rahmani, Z.; Jazi, B.; Abdoli-Arani, A.

    2014-07-15

    The energy distribution along the focal axis of a long metallic cylindrical parabolic reflector with a plasma layer on its surface in the presence of an external magnetic field is investigated. The effects of some physical parameters, such as the plasma frequency, the wave frequency and the thickness of plasma layer on the energy distribution and the reflected and transmitted electromagnetic fields, are simulated. These investigations for both S- and P-polarizations have been done separately. It is found that the maximum value of the reflected intensity increases by increasing the incident wave frequency and by decreasing the plasma layer thickness and the plasma frequency for both polarizations. Furthermore, the results show that the increase of the magnetic field strength can cause an increase in the reflected intensity for S-polarization and a slight decrease for P-polarization.

  17. Second harmonic generation by relativistic self-focusing of q-Gaussian laser beam in preformed parabolic plasma channel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singh, Arvinder E-mail: naveens222@rediffmail.com; Gupta, Naveen E-mail: naveens222@rediffmail.com

    2015-01-15

    This paper presents an investigation of relativistic self-focusing effect of a q-Gaussian laser beam on second harmonic generation in a preformed parabolic plasma channel. An expression has been derived for density perturbation associated with the plasma wave excited by the laser beam. This in turn acts as a source of second harmonic generation. The moment theory approach has been used to derive a differential equation that governs the evolution of spot size of the laser beam with the distance of propagation. The detailed effects of intensity distribution deviation from Gaussian distribution, intensity of laser beam, density, and depth of the channel have been studied on self-focusing as well as on second harmonic generation.

  18. Life Cycle Assessment of a Parabolic Trough Concentrating Solar Power Plant and Impacts of Key Design Alternatives: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heath, G. A.; Burkhardt, J. J.; Turchi, C. S.

    2011-09-01

    Climate change and water scarcity are important issues for today's power sector. To inform capacity expansion decisions, hybrid life cycle assessment is used to evaluate a reference design of a parabolic trough concentrating solar power (CSP) facility located in Daggett, California, along four sustainability metrics: life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, water consumption, cumulative energy demand (CED), and energy payback time (EPBT). This wet-cooled, 103 MW plant utilizes mined nitrate salts in its two-tank, thermal energy storage (TES) system. Design alternatives of dry-cooling, a thermocline TES, and synthetically-derived nitrate salt are evaluated. During its life cycle, the reference CSP plant is estimated to emit 26 g CO2eq per kWh, consume 4.7 L/kWh of water, and demand 0.40 MJeq/kWh of energy, resulting in an EPBT of approximately 1 year. The dry-cooled alternative is estimated to reduce life cycle water consumption by 77% but increase life cycle GHG emissions and CED by 8%. Synthetic nitrate salts may increase life cycle GHG emissions by 52% compared to mined. Switching from two-tank to thermocline TES configuration reduces life cycle GHG emissions, most significantly for plants using synthetically-derived nitrate salts. CSP can significantly reduce GHG emissions compared to fossil-fueled generation; however, dry-cooling may be required in many locations to minimize water consumption.

  19. Generation of a Parabolic Trough Collector Efficiency Curve from Separate Measurements of Outdoor Optical Efficiency and Indoor Receiver Heat Loss

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kutscher, C.; Burkholder, F.; Stynes, J. K.

    2012-02-01

    The thermal efficiency of a parabolic trough collector is a function of both the fraction of direct normal radiation absorbed by the receiver (the optical efficiency) and the heat lost to the environment when the receiver is at operating temperature. The thermal efficiency can be determined by testing the collector under actual operating conditions or by separately measuring these two components. This paper describes how outdoor measurement of the optical efficiency is combined with laboratory measurements of receiver heat loss to obtain the thermal efficiency curve. This paper describes this approach and also makes the case that there are advantages to plotting collector efficiency versus the difference between the operating temperature and the ambient temperature at which the receiver heat loss was measured divided by radiation to a fractional power (on the order of 1/3 but obtained via data regression) - as opposed to the difference between operating and ambient temperatures divided by the radiation. The results are shown to be robust over wide ranges of ambient temperature, sky temperature, and wind speed.

  20. Generation of a Parabolic Trough Collector Efficiency Curve from Separate Measurements of Outdoor Optical Efficiency and Indoor Receiver Heat Loss: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kutscher, C.; Burkholder, F.; Stynes, K.

    2010-10-01

    The overall efficiency of a parabolic trough collector is a function of both the fraction of direct normal radiation absorbed by the receiver (the optical efficiency) and the heat lost to the environment when the receiver is at operating temperature. The overall efficiency can be determined by testing the collector under actual operating conditions or by separately measuring these two components. This paper describes how outdoor measurement of the optical efficiency is combined with laboratory measurements of receiver heat loss to obtain an overall efficiency curve. Further, it presents a new way to plot efficiency that is more robust over a range of receiver operating temperatures.

  1. High concentration of deuterium in palladium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Uhm, H.S.; Lee, W.M. )

    1992-01-01

    In this paper, based on theoretical calculations, new schemes to increase the deuterium density in palladium over its initial value are presented. A high deuterium concentration in palladium is needed for application to solid-state fusion. The first deuterium enrichment scheme makes use of plasma ion implantation, which consists of a cylindrical palladium rod (target) preloaded with deuterium atoms, coated with diffusion barrier material, and immersed in a deuterium plasma. The palladium rod is connected to a high-power modulator, which provides a series of negative voltage pulses. During these negative pulses, deuterium ions fall on the target, penetrate the diffusion barrier, and are implanted inside the palladium. For reasonable system parameters allowed by current technology, theoretical calculations indicate that the saturation deuterium density after prolonged ion implantation can be several times the palladium atomic number density. The second deuterium enrichment scheme makes use of temperature gradient effects on the deuterium solubility in palladium. A heat source at temperature T{sub 2} and a heat sink at temperature T{sub 1} (where T{sub 2} {gt} T{sub 1}) are in contact with two different parts of a palladium sample, which has been presoaked with deuterium atoms and has been coated with diffusion barrier material or has been securely locked in a metal case. The temperature gradient created in the sample from such an arrangement forces the deuterium atoms in the hot region to migrate into the cold region, resulting in higher deuterium density in the cold region.

  2. Biological denitrification of high concentration nitrate waste

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Francis, Chester W.; Brinkley, Frank S.

    1977-01-01

    Biological denitrification of nitrate solutions at concentrations of greater than one kilogram nitrate per cubic meter is accomplished anaerobically in an upflow column having as a packing material a support for denitrifying bacteria.

  3. Highly Concentrated Palladium Hydrides/Deuterides; Theory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Papaconstantopoulos, Dimitrios

    2013-11-26

    Accomplishments are reported in these areas: tight-binding molecular dynamics study of palladium; First-principles calculations and tight-binding molecular dynamics simulations of the palladium-hydrogen system; tight-binding studies of bulk properties and hydrogen vacancies in KBH{sub 4}; tight-binding study of boron structures; development of angular dependent potentials for Pd-H; and density functional and tight-binding calculations for the light-hydrides NaAlH4 and NaBH4

  4. Low-Cost Energy Efficiency Goes Block-to-Block

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    An innovative pilot program in Minneapolis, Minnesota, focuses on rallying whole communities around energy efficiency, one neighborhood at a time. Through the program, area residents cash in on a home energy-efficiency upgrade that saves them roughly $130 on their annual energy bill.

  5. Low-Cost Solar Water Heating Research and Development Roadmap

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Versus Electric (% Savings) Zone 1 - Houston, TX 24.9% 38.8% 63.8% 61.4% Zone 1 - Atlanta, GA -2.6% 44.1% 51.7% 57.2% Zone 2 - Chicago, IL -28.3% 35.0% 38.7% 39.9% Zone 3 - ...

  6. Low-cost Wireless Sensors for Building Monitoring Applications

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    ... ORNL's R&D Platform Driving Industries: SHARP, HP, Plastic Logic, Dow Chemical, DuPont, FlexTech, Philips Current wireless sensor Platform: 150 300node Proposed Advanced ...

  7. Low-cost, Rapid DNA Sequencing Technique - Energy Innovation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Biomass and Biofuels Biomass and Biofuels Advanced Materials Advanced Materials Find More ... The nucleic acid strand transport mechanism located on the dielectric surface of the ...

  8. Accessing Low-Cost Capital Through Securitization (Poster)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mendelsohn, M.

    2014-10-01

    Poster for Solar Power International conference presents information on NREL's effort to open capital markets through securitization via Solar Access to Public Capital (SAPC) working group's efforts.

  9. High Quality, Low Cost Bulk Gallium Nitride Substrates Grown...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of crystalline GaN growth in ESG Results and Accomplishments HRXRD vs reference SEM surface view 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 0 10 20 30 40 50 Deposition rate ...

  10. Low-cost Electromagnetic Heating Technology for Polymer Extrusion...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The system is capable of reaching a temperature of 230 C, a typical nozzle temperature for extruding ABS polymers, in 17 seconds. A prototype system was built at ORNL and sent to ...

  11. Low Cost TiO2 Nanoparticles - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Technology Marketing SummaryCurrent methods of producing titanium dioxide nanoparticles ... elegant and economically advantageous method to synthesize titanium dioxide nanoparticles. ...

  12. Low-cost method for producing extreme ultraviolet lithography optics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Folta, James A.; Montcalm, Claude; Taylor, John S.; Spiller, Eberhard A.

    2003-11-21

    Spherical and non-spherical optical elements produced by standard optical figuring and polishing techniques are extremely expensive. Such surfaces can be cheaply produced by diamond turning; however, the roughness in the diamond turned surface prevent their use for EUV lithography. These ripples are smoothed with a coating of polyimide before applying a 60 period Mo/Si multilayer to reflect a wavelength of 134 .ANG. and have obtained peak reflectivities close to 63%. The savings in cost are about a factor of 100.

  13. Modular Low Cost High Energy Exhaust Heat Thermoelectric Generator...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Poster presented at the 16th Directions in Engine-Efficiency and Emissions Research (DEER) Conference in Detroit, MI, September 27-30, 2010. PDF icon p-01stephenson.pdf More ...

  14. Process for Low Cost Domestic Production of LIB Cathode Materials...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    0 DOE Vehicle Technologies and Hydrogen Programs Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, June 7-11, 2010 -- Washington D.C. PDF icon es013thurston2010o...

  15. Recovery Act: Low-Cost, Highly Lambertian Reflector Composite...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Reflector Composite For Improved LED Fixture Efficiency and Lifetime Teather, Eric 32 ENERGY CONSERVATION, CONSUMPTION, AND UTILIZATION; 36 MATERIALS SCIENCE The overall...

  16. Low-Cost Direct Bonded Aluminum (DBA) Substrates

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting

  17. Low-Cost Gas Heat Pump for Building Space Heating

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Long Island HTS Power Cable Long Island HTS Power Cable This project involves the demonstration of a hightemperature superconducting (HTS) power cable in the Long Island Power grid, spanning nearly half a mile and serving as a permanent link in the Long Island Power Authority's (LIPA) grid network. The cable represents the world's first installation of a superconducting cable in a live grid at transmission voltages. PDF icon Long Island HTS Power Cable More Documents & Publications HTS Cable

  18. High Thermal Conductivity Polymer Composites for Low-Cost Heat...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    future heat exchanger development. (1 year project - ... available state of the art) Enable replacement of ... transfer UTRC Innovation Process CURRENT ...

  19. Low Cost, High Temperature, High Ripple Current DC Bus Capacitors

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2010 DOE Vehicle Technologies and Hydrogen Programs Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, June 7-11, 2010 -- Washington D.C.

  20. Advanced High Efficiency Clean Diesel Combustion with Low Cost...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Clean, in-cylinder combustion can be enabled by a micro-variable circular orifice, dual mode PCCI, dew film combustion, and a novel combustion chamber design PDF icon ...

  1. Low-Cost Light Weigh Thin Film Solar Concentrators | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    513ganapathi.pdf More Documents & Publications 2014 SunShot Initiative Portfolio Book: Concentrating Solar Power 2014 SunShot Initiative Peer Review Report

  2. Light Weight, Low Cost PEM Fuel Cell Stacks

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This presentation, which focuses on fuel cell stacks, was given at a February 2007 meeting on new fuel cell projects.

  3. Low Cost Solar Water Heating R&D

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... been expressed from the following countries: - Germany, Austria, South Africa, Mexico, Spain Goal Status Installed Cost: bw 1,000 and 3,000 Current installed cost estimated at ...

  4. Nonequilibrium Thermoelectrics: Low-Cost, High-Performance Materials...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Materials selection and processing has led to the development of several systems with a figure of merit, ZT, of nearly unity. By using non-equilibrium techniques, we have ...

  5. Low cost routes to high purity silicon and derivatives thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Laine, Richard M; Krug, David James; Marchal, Julien Claudius; Mccolm, Andrew Stewart

    2013-07-02

    The present invention is directed to a method for providing an agricultural waste product having amorphous silica, carbon, and impurities; extracting from the agricultural waste product an amount of the impurities; changing the ratio of carbon to silica; and reducing the silica to a high purity silicon (e.g., to photovoltaic silicon).

  6. Low-Cost, Lightweight Solar Concentrators FY13 Q2

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This document summarizes the progress of this Jet Propulsion Laboratory project, funded by SunShot, for the second quarter of fiscal year 2013.

  7. Project Profile: Next-Generation Low-Cost Reflector | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    reduced operation and maintenance costs and a lower overall unit cost of the reflector assembly. ... Innovation The current LS3-sized mirrors use only 55%-65% of the available ...

  8. Recovery Act: Low-Cost, Highly Lambertian Reflector Composite...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The research explored scale-up of coating systems and generated understanding of processing required for high volume manufacturing applications. The work demonstrated how coating ...

  9. Innovative High-Performance Deposition Technology for Low-Cost...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Project Impact The current high manufacturing cost of OLED lighting is a major barrier to market acceptance. The project goal is to be able to supply affordable, high-quality ...

  10. Low Cost Heliostat Development Phase II Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kusek, Stephen M.

    2014-04-21

    The heliostat field in a central receiver plant makes up roughly one half of the total plant cost. As such, cost reductions for the installed heliostat price greatly impact the overall plant cost and hence the plant’s Levelized Cost of Energy. The general trend in heliostat size over the past decades has been to make them larger. One part of our thesis has been that larger and larger heliostats may drive the LCOE up instead of down due to the very nature of the precise aiming and wind-load requirements for typical heliostats. In other words, it requires more and more structure to precisely aim the sunlight at the receiver as one increases heliostat mirror area and that it becomes counter-productive, cost-wise, at some point.

  11. Low Cost Lithography Tool for High Brightness LED Manufacturing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andrew Hawryluk; Emily True

    2012-06-30

    The objective of this activity was to address the need for improved manufacturing tools for LEDs. Improvements include lower cost (both capital equipment cost reductions and cost-ofownership reductions), better automation and better yields. To meet the DOE objective of $1- 2/kilolumen, it will be necessary to develop these highly automated manufacturing tools. Lithography is used extensively in the fabrication of high-brightness LEDs, but the tools used to date are not scalable to high-volume manufacturing. This activity addressed the LED lithography process. During R&D and low volume manufacturing, most LED companies use contact-printers. However, several industries have shown that these printers are incompatible with high volume manufacturing and the LED industry needs to evolve to projection steppers. The need for projection lithography tools for LED manufacturing is identified in the Solid State Lighting Manufacturing Roadmap Draft, June 2009. The Roadmap states that Projection tools are needed by 2011. This work will modify a stepper, originally designed for semiconductor manufacturing, for use in LED manufacturing. This work addresses improvements to yield, material handling, automation and throughput for LED manufacturing while reducing the capital equipment cost.

  12. Materials and Modules for Low Cost, High Performance Fuel Cell...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Advance Patent Waiver W(A)2010-041 Kick-Off Meeting for New Fuel Cell Projects CARISMA: A Networking Project for High Temperature PEMFC MEA Activities ...

  13. Low-Cost, Lightweight Solar Concentrator (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2012-09-01

    Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) is one of the 2012 SunShot CSP R&D awardees for their advanced collectors. This fact sheet explains the motivation, description, and impact of the project.

  14. Low-Cost Packaged Combined Heat and Power System | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    CPG also managed the controls design and thermo-mechanical integration of the system. Once the heat recovery system, 330 kW Genset, and control system were completed, CPG produced ...

  15. Low-Cost Direct Bonded Aluminum (DBA) Substrates

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2011 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation

  16. Process for Low Cost Domestic Production of LIB Cathode Materials

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2010 DOE Vehicle Technologies and Hydrogen Programs Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, June 7-11, 2010 -- Washington D.C.

  17. Fast Low-Cost Multiple Sensor Readout System

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carter-Lewis, David; Krennich, Frank; Le Bohec, Stephane; Petry, Dirk; Sleege, Gary

    2004-04-06

    A low resolution data acquisition system is presented. The data acquisition system has a plurality of readout modules serially connected to a controller. Each readout module has a FPGA in communication with analog to digital (A/D) converters, which are connected to sensors. The A/D converter has eight bit or lower resolution. The FPGA detects when a command is addressed to it and commands the A/D converters to convert analog sensor data into digital data. The digital data is sent on a high speed serial communication bus to the controller. A graphical display is used in one embodiment to indicate if a sensor reading is outside of a predetermined range.

  18. High-Quality, Low-Cost Bulk Gallium Nitride Substrates

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... useable in the production of solid-state lighting, high-brightness LEDs, and laser diodes. ... and developing fow models to optimize ion transport to the growth surface of the GaN seed. ...

  19. Final Report- Low Cost High Performance Nanostructured Spectrally Selective Coating

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Solar absorbing coating is a key enabling technology to achieve hightemperature high-efficiency concentrating solar power operation. A high-performance solar absorbing material must simultaneously meet all the following three stringent requirements: high thermal efficiency (usually measured by figure of merit), hightemperature durability, and oxidation resistance. The objective of this research is to employ a highly scalable process to fabricate and coat black oxide nanoparticles onto solar absorber surface to achieve ultra-high thermal efficiency.

  20. Hydrogen Leak Detection – Low-Cost Distributed Gas Sensors

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation slides from the April 3, 2012, Fuel Cell Technologies Program webinar "America's Next Top Energy Innovator Runner-Up Presents Hydrogen Detection Technologies".

  1. Low-cost conformable storage to maximize vehicle range

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Graham, R.P.

    1998-01-01

    Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) and compressed natural gas (CNG) are currently the leading fuel contenders for converting vehicles from gasoline and diesel to alternative fuels. Two factors that inhibit conversion are additional vehicle costs and reduced range compared to gasoline. In overcoming these barriers, a key element of the alternative fuel system becomes the storage tank for these pressurized fuels. Using cylindrical pressure vessels is the conventional approach, but they do not package well in the available vehicle volume. Thiokol Corporation has developed and is now producing a conformable (non-cylindrical) aluminum storage system for LPG vans. This system increases fuel storage in a given rectangular envelope. The goal of this project was to develop the technology for a lower cost conformable tank made of injection-molded plastic. Much of the cost of the aluminum conformable tank is in the fabrication because several weld seams are required. The injection-molding process has the potential to greatly reduce the fabrication costs. The requirements of a pressurized fuel tank on a vehicle necessitate the proper combination of material properties. Material selection and tank design must be optimized for maximum internal volume and minimum material use to be competitive with other technologies. The material and the design must also facilitate the injection-molding process. Prototype tanks must be fabricated to reveal molding problems, prove solutions, and measure results. In production, efficient fabrication will be key to making these tanks cost competitive. The work accomplished during this project has demonstrated that conformable LPG tanks can be molded with thermoplastics. However, to achieve a competitive tank, improvements are needed in the effective material strength. If these improvements can be made, molded plastics should produce a lower cost tank that can store more LPG on a vehicle than conventional cylinders.

  2. Low Cost Solar Energy Conversion (Carbon Cycle 2.0)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramesh, Ramamoorthy

    2010-02-04

    Ramamoorthy Ramesh from LBNL's Materials Science Division speaks at the Carbon Cycle 2.0 kick-off symposium Feb. 2, 2010. We emit more carbon into the atmosphere than natural processes are able to remove - an imbalance with negative consequences. Carbon Cycle 2.0 is a Berkeley Lab initiative to provide the science needed to restore this balance by integrating the Labs diverse research activities and delivering creative solutions toward a carbon-neutral energy future. http://carboncycle2.lbl.gov/

  3. Low cost materials of construction for biological processes: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-05-13

    The workshop was held, May 1993 in conjunction with the 15th Symposium on Biotechnology for Fuels and Chemicals. The purpose of this workshop was to present information on the biomass to ethanol process in the context of materials selection and through presentation and discussion, identify promising avenues for future research. Six technical presentations were grouped into two sessions: process assessment and technology assessment. In the process assessment session, the group felt that the pretreatment area would require the most extensive materials research due the complex chemical, physical and thermal environment. Discussion centered around the possibility of metals being leached into the process stream and their effect on the fermentation mechanics. Linings were a strong option for pretreatment assuming the economics were favorable. Fermentation was considered an important area for research also, due to the unique complex of compounds and dual phases present. Erosion in feedstock handling equipment was identified as a minor concern. In the technology assessment session, methodologies in corrosion analysis were presented in addition to an overview of current coatings/linings technology. Widely practiced testing strategies, including ASTM methods, as well as novel procedures for micro-analysis of corrosion were discussed. Various coatings and linings, including polymers and ceramics, were introduced. The prevailing recommendations for testing included keeping the testing simple until the problem warranted a more detailed approach and developing standardized testing procedures to ensure the data was reproducible and applicable. The need to evaluate currently available materials such as coatings/linings, carbon/stainless steels, or fiberglass reinforced plastic was emphasized. It was agreed that economic evaluation of each material candidate must be an integral part of any research plan.

  4. Colloidal spray method for low cost thin coating deposition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pham, Ai-Quoc; Glass, Robert S.; Lee, Tae H.

    2002-01-01

    A dense or porous coating of material is deposited onto a substrate by forcing a colloidal suspension through an ultrasonic nebulizer and spraying a fine mist of particles in a carrier medium onto a sufficiently heated substrate. The spraying rate is essentially matched to the evaporation rate of the carrier liquid from the substrate to produce a coating that is uniformly distributed over the surface of the substrate. Following deposition to a sufficient coating thickness, a single sintering step may be used to produce a dense ceramic coating. Using this method, coatings ranging in thickness from about one to several hundred microns can be obtained. By using a plurality of compounds in the colloidal suspension, coatings of mixed composition can be obtained. By using a plurality of solutions and separate pumps and a single or multiple ultrasonic nebulizer(s), and varying the individual pumping rates and/or the concentrations of the solutions, a coating of mixed and discontinuously graded (e.g., stepped) or continuously graded layers may be obtained. This method is particularly useful for depositing ceramic coatings. Dense ceramic coating materials on porous substrates are useful in providing improved electrode performance in devices such as high power density solid oxide fuel cells. Dense ceramic coatings obtained by the invention are also useful for gas turbine blade coatings, sensors, steam electrolyzers, etc. The invention has general use in preparation of systems requiring durable and chemically resistant coatings, or coatings having other specific chemical or physical properties.

  5. Colloidal spray method for low cost thin coating deposition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pham, Ai-Quoc; Glass, Robert S.; Lee, Tae H.

    2005-01-25

    A dense or porous coating of material is deposited onto a substrate by forcing a colloidal suspension through an ultrasonic nebulizer and spraying a fine mist of particles in a carrier medium onto a sufficiently heated substrate. The spraying rate is essentially matched to the evaporation rate of the carrier liquid from the substrate to produce a coating that is uniformly distributed over the surface of the substrate. Following deposition to a sufficient coating thickness, a single sintering step may be used to produce a dense ceramic coating. Using this method, coatings ranging in thickness from about one to several hundred microns can be obtained. By using a plurality of compounds in the colloidal suspension, coatings of mixed composition can be obtained. By using a plurality of solutions and separate pumps and a single or multiple ultrasonic nebulizer(s), and varying the individual pumping rates and/or the concentrations of the solutions, a coating of mixed and discontinuously graded (e.g., stepped) or continuously graded layers may be obtained. This method is particularly useful for depositing ceramic coatings. Dense ceramic coating materials on porous substrates are useful in providing improved electrode performance in devices such as high power density solid oxide fuel cells. Dense ceramic coatings obtained by the invention are also useful for gas turbine blade coatings, sensors, steam electrolyzers, etc. The invention has general use in preparation of systems requiring durable and chemically resistant coatings, or coatings having other specific chemical or physical properties.

  6. Project Profile: Low-Cost Solar Thermal Collector

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    SunTrough, under the Baseload CSP FOA, is developing a new class of solar concentrators with geometries and manufacturability that can significantly reduce the fully installed cost of the solar collector field.

  7. Adaptive PCCI with Variable Orifice Injector for Low Cost High...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Poster presentation from the 2007 Diesel Engine-Efficiency & Emissions Research Conference ... (MVCO) Fuel Injector for Zoned Low Temperature Combustion Advanced High Efficiency ...

  8. Retro-Commissioning Increases Data Center Efficiency at Low Cost

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Achieved at SRS Basic Retro-Cx: 1. Eliminated electric reheat. 2. Turned off humidification devices. 3. Tuned floor tile airflow. 4. Turned off three CRAC units. Total estimated savings ≅ 1,400,000 kWh/year Retro-Cx cost at SRS: Engineering consultant: preliminary, on-site, and follow-up work including data measurements and retrieval. SRS on-site facilities personnel and engineering support. Total estimated cost ≅ $25,000 Simple Payback at SRS: Estimated, at $0.045/kWh = 2.5 months. taken

  9. AMO Announces Funding Opportunity for Low-Cost, Energy Efficient...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Advisors on Science and Technology. Report to the President on Capturing Domestic Competitive Advantage in Advanced Manufacturing. Web. July 2012. Addthis Related Articles...

  10. Low Cost Near Infrared Selective Plasmonic Smart Windows

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... Format 13 Temperature Modulation Using Flush NIR Selective Smart Panes With Improved Seals and Busbar Prototype devices were functional at temperature extremes above ASTM Standards...

  11. Low Cost, Stable Switchable Mirrors: Lithium Ion Mirrors with...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    These energy saving devices have advantages over traditional absorbing electrochromics for radiant energy control because of their large dynamic range in both transmission and ...

  12. Low Cost, High Impact Cable Condition Monitoring System Improves...

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    Plant Operations, Safety, and Systems Reliability Small Business Innovation Research ... Plant Operations, Safety, and Systems Reliability Analysis and Measurement Services ...

  13. Low Cost Carbon Fiber Composites for Lightweight Vehicle Parts | Department

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    of Energy 2 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting PDF icon lm047_stike_2012

  14. Low Cost Carbon Fiber Composites for Lightweight Vehicle Parts | Department

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    of Energy 1 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation PDF icon lm047_stike_2011

  15. Low Cost Titanium … Propulsion Applications | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    lm

  16. A LOW-COST GPR GAS PIPE & LEAK DETECTOR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David Cist; Alan Schutz

    2005-03-30

    A light-weight, easy to use ground penetrating radar (GPR) system for tracking metal/non-metal pipes has been developed. A pre-production prototype instrument has been developed whose production cost and ease of use should fit important market niches. It is a portable tool which is swept back and forth like a metal detector and which indicates when it goes over a target (metal, plastic, concrete, etc.) and how deep it is. The innovation of real time target detection frees the user from having to interpret geophysical data and instead presents targets as dots on the screen. Target depth is also interpreted automatically, relieving the user of having to do migration analysis. In this way the user can simply walk around looking for targets and, by ''connecting the dots'' on the GPS screen, locate and follow pipes in real time. This is the first tool known to locate metal and non-metal pipes in real time and map their location. This prototype design is similar to a metal detector one might use at the beach since it involves sliding a lightweight antenna back and forth over the ground surface. The antenna is affixed to the end of an extension that is either clipped to or held by the user. This allows him to walk around in any direction, either looking for or following pipes with the antenna location being constantly recorded by the positioning system. Once a target appears on the screen, the user can locate by swinging the unit to align the cursor over the dot. Leak detection was also a central part of this project, and although much effort was invested into its development, conclusive results are not available at the time of the writing of this document. Details of the efforts that were made as a part of this cooperative agreement are presented.

  17. Hydrogen leak detection - low cost distributed gas sensors

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... and sensitive enough to detect concentrations well below the LFL; * have a rapid response time as well as provide historical information of leaks; and * have a long useful ...

  18. Low Cost Solar Energy Conversion (Carbon Cycle 2.0)

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Ramesh, Ramamoorthy

    2011-06-08

    Ramamoorthy Ramesh from LBNL's Materials Science Division speaks at the Carbon Cycle 2.0 kick-off symposium Feb. 2, 2010. We emit more carbon into the atmosphere than natural processes are able to remove - an imbalance with negative consequences. Carbon Cycle 2.0 is a Berkeley Lab initiative to provide the science needed to restore this balance by integrating the Labs diverse research activities and delivering creative solutions toward a carbon-neutral energy future. http://carboncycle2.lbl.gov/

  19. Innovative High-Performance Deposition Technology for Low-Cost...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... Partners, Subcontractors, and Collaborators: * Bauer Associates: Thermal modeling from SolidWorks CAD models * Arnprior Manufacturing: Fabrication of production nozzle * Joel ...

  20. Low Cost Injection Mold Creation via Hybrid Additive and Conventional...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    parts because Cummins typical production volumes are too low to allow injection molded plastic parts to be cost effective with the amortized cost of the injection molding tooling. ...

  1. Low Cost, High Efficiency, High Pressure Hydrogen Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mark Leavitt

    2010-03-31

    A technical and design evaluation was carried out to meet DOE hydrogen fuel targets for 2010. These targets consisted of a system gravimetric capacity of 2.0 kWh/kg, a system volumetric capacity of 1.5 kWh/L and a system cost of $4/kWh. In compressed hydrogen storage systems, the vast majority of the weight and volume is associated with the hydrogen storage tank. In order to meet gravimetric targets for compressed hydrogen tanks, 10,000 psi carbon resin composites were used to provide the high strength required as well as low weight. For the 10,000 psi tanks, carbon fiber is the largest portion of their cost. Quantum Technologies is a tier one hydrogen system supplier for automotive companies around the world. Over the course of the program Quantum focused on development of technology to allow the compressed hydrogen storage tank to meet DOE goals. At the start of the program in 2004 Quantum was supplying systems with a specific energy of 1.1-1.6 kWh/kg, a volumetric capacity of 1.3 kWh/L and a cost of $73/kWh. Based on the inequities between DOE targets and Quantums then current capabilities, focus was placed first on cost reduction and second on weight reduction. Both of these were to be accomplished without reduction of the fuel systems performance or reliability. Three distinct areas were investigated; optimization of composite structures, development of smart tanks that could monitor health of tank thus allowing for lower design safety factor, and the development of Cool Fuel technology to allow higher density gas to be stored, thus allowing smaller/lower pressure tanks that would hold the required fuel supply. The second phase of the project deals with three additional distinct tasks focusing on composite structure optimization, liner optimization, and metal.

  2. Low Cost Carbon Fiber Composites for Lightweight Vehicle Parts...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    1 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation PDF icon lm047stike2011

  3. Print-based Manufacturing of Integrated, Low Cost, High Performance...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... (L3) Integrated Optimized * Electronics (PCB, Driver, LED's) * Heatsink * Housing * Optics On Track to meet Project End Goal Next Steps Equipment readiness , Process validation, ...

  4. Low Cost SiOx-Graphite and Olivine Materials

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2010 DOE Vehicle Technologies and Hydrogen Programs Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, June 7-11, 2010 -- Washington D.C.

  5. Low-Cost Solutions for Dynamic Window Material

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... we use "terminated cluster growth". * Nanoparticles (copper, vanadium) have been synthesized and analyzed * First oxide nanoparticles have been made and deposited as a film ...

  6. Process for Low Cost Domestic Production of LIB Cathode Materials |

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    PDF icon process_development_nanostructured_pv.pdf More Documents & Publications ITP Nanomanufacturing: Nanomanufacturing Portfolio: Manufacturing Processes and Applications to Accelerate Commercial Use of Nanomaterials, January 2011 2012 Pathways to Commercial Success: Technologies and Products Supported by the Fuel Cell Technologies Program 2013 Pathways to Commercial Success: Technologies and Products Supported by the Fuel Cell Technologies Office Evaluation Volume 4 | Department of

  7. Renewable, Low-Cost Carbon Fiber for Lightweight Vehicles: Summary...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    would need to be developed. Previous work has sought to use lignin from pulp and paper mills as a feedstock for carbon fiber, with varying levels of success. Current...

  8. Low-Cost Production of Hydrogen and Electricity | Department...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    producing hydrogen and electricity. The Fuel Cell Technologies Office (FCTO) conducts comprehensive efforts to overcome the technological, economic, and institutional ...

  9. Recovery Act: Low-Cost, Highly Lambertian Reflector Composite...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Close Cite: Bibtex Format Close 0 pages in this document matching the terms "" Search For Terms: Enter terms in the toolbar above to search the full text of this document for ...

  10. Low Cost PEM Fuel Cell Metal Bipolar Plates

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presented at the Department of Energy Fuel Cell Projects Kickoff Meeting, September 1 – October 1, 2009

  11. Low Cost Carbon Fiber Composites for Lightweight Vehicle Parts

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting

  12. Providing Clean, Low-Cost, Onsite Distributed Generation at Very...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    heat and power (CHP) assembly called the Boiler Burner Energy System Technology (BBEST). ... in annual Boiler Burner Electrical System Technology (BBEST) for packaged boilers. ...

  13. Processes for producing low cost, high efficiency silicon solar cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rohatgi, Ajeet; Doshi, Parag; Tate, John Keith; Mejia, Jose; Chen, Zhizhang

    1998-06-16

    Processes which utilize rapid thermal processing (RTP) are provided for inexpensively producing high efficiency silicon solar cells. The RTP processes preserve minority carrier bulk lifetime .tau. and permit selective adjustment of the depth of the diffused regions, including emitter and back surface field (bsf), within the silicon substrate. In a first RTP process, an RTP step is utilized to simultaneously diffuse phosphorus and aluminum into the front and back surfaces, respectively, of a silicon substrate. Moreover, an in situ controlled cooling procedure preserves the carrier bulk lifetime .tau. and permits selective adjustment of the depth of the diffused regions. In a second RTP process, both simultaneous diffusion of the phosphorus and aluminum as well as annealing of the front and back contacts are accomplished during the RTP step. In a third RTP process, the RTP step accomplishes simultaneous diffusion of the phosphorus and aluminum, annealing of the contacts, and annealing of a double-layer antireflection/passivation coating SiN/SiO.sub.x. In a fourth RTP process, the process of applying front and back contacts is broken up into two separate respective steps, which enhances the efficiency of the cells, at a slight time expense. In a fifth RTP process, a second RTP step is utilized to fire and adhere the screen printed or evaporated contacts to the structure.

  14. Processes for producing low cost, high efficiency silicon solar cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rohatgi, A.; Doshi, P.; Tate, J.K.; Mejia, J.; Chen, Z.

    1998-06-16

    Processes which utilize rapid thermal processing (RTP) are provided for inexpensively producing high efficiency silicon solar cells. The RTP processes preserve minority carrier bulk lifetime {tau} and permit selective adjustment of the depth of the diffused regions, including emitter and back surface field (bsf), within the silicon substrate. In a first RTP process, an RTP step is utilized to simultaneously diffuse phosphorus and aluminum into the front and back surfaces, respectively, of a silicon substrate. Moreover, an in situ controlled cooling procedure preserves the carrier bulk lifetime {tau} and permits selective adjustment of the depth of the diffused regions. In a second RTP process, both simultaneous diffusion of the phosphorus and aluminum as well as annealing of the front and back contacts are accomplished during the RTP step. In a third RTP process, the RTP step accomplishes simultaneous diffusion of the phosphorus and aluminum, annealing of the contacts, and annealing of a double-layer antireflection/passivation coating SiN/SiO{sub x}. In a fourth RTP process, the process of applying front and back contacts is broken up into two separate respective steps, which enhances the efficiency of the cells, at a slight time expense. In a fifth RTP process, a second RTP step is utilized to fire and adhere the screen printed or evaporated contacts to the structure. 28 figs.

  15. Processes for producing low cost, high efficiency silicon solar cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rohatgi, Ajeet; Chen, Zhizhang; Doshi, Parag

    1996-01-01

    Processes which utilize rapid thermal processing (RTP) are provided for inexpensively producing high efficiency silicon solar cells. The RTP processes preserve minority carrier bulk lifetime .tau. and permit selective adjustment of the depth of the diffused regions, including emitter and back surface field (bsf), within the silicon substrate. Silicon solar cell efficiencies of 16.9% have been achieved. In a first RTP process, an RTP step is utilized to simultaneously diffuse phosphorus and aluminum into the front and back surfaces, respectively, of a silicon substrate. Moreover, an in situ controlled cooling procedure preserves the carrier bulk lifetime .tau. and permits selective adjustment of the depth of the diffused regions. In a second RTP process, both simultaneous diffusion of the phosphorus and aluminum as well as annealing of the front and back contacts are accomplished during the RTP step. In a third RTP process, the RTP step accomplishes simultaneous diffusion of the phosphorus and aluminum, annealing of the contacts, and annealing of a double-layer antireflection/passivation coating SiN/SiO.sub.x.

  16. Low-cost evacuated-tube solar collector. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beecher, D. T.

    1981-02-10

    A prototype design for an evacuated tube air cooled solar collector module has been completed. A product cost study, based on the production of 60,000 of the prototype modules per year (approx. 1,000,000 square feet annually), estimates that the module as shipped would have a cost at inventory of $7.09 to $7.40 per square foot of aperture. Computer programs were developed to predict the optical and thermal performance of the module. Antireflective coatings (porous aluminum oxide) which could be formed by spraying or dipping were demonstrated but degraded more rapidly when exposed to a high humidity ambient than acid etched films. A selective black chromium oxide multi-layered graded film was vapor deposited which had an absorptivity of about 0.9 and an emissivity of 0.03. When the film was heated to temperatures of 400/sup 0/C in a gettered vacuum for as little as 24 hours, however, irreversible changes took place both between and within coating layers which resulted in ..cap alpha.. decreasing to about 0.73 and epsilon increasing to 0.14. The product cost studies indicate that module design changes are warranted to reduce product cost prior to tooling for production.

  17. Development of a Low-Cost Particulate Matter Monitor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    White, Richard M.; Apte, Michael G.; Gundel, Lara A.; Black, Justin

    2008-08-01

    We describe a small, inexpensive portable monitor for airborne particulates, composed of the following elements: a. A simple size-selective inlet (vertical elutriator) that permits only particles below a pre-set diameter to pass and enter the measurement section; b. A measurement section in which passing particles are deposited thermophoretically on a micro-fabricated resonant piezoelectric mass sensor; c. An optical characterization module co-located with the mass sensor module that directs infrared and ultraviolet beams through the deposit. The emergent optical beams are detected by a photodiode. The optical absorption of the deposit can be measured in order to characterize the deposit, and determine how much is due to diesel exhaust and/or environmental tobacco smoke; and d. A small pump that moves air through the device, which may also be operated in a passive mode. The component modules were designed by the project team, and fabricated at UCB andLBNL. Testing and validation were performed in a room-sized environmental chamber at LBNL in to which was added either environmental tobacco smoke (ETS, produced by a cigarette smoking machine) or diesel exhaust (from a conventional diesel engine). Two pilot field tests in a dwelling compared the monitor with existing aerosol instruments during exposure to infiltrated ambient air to which cigarette smoke, diesel exhaust, wood smoke and cooking fumes were added. The limit of detection (LOD) derived from statistical analysis of field data is 18 mu g m-3, at the 99percent confidence level. The monitor weighs less than 120 g and has a volume of roughly 250 cm3. Power consumption is approximately 100 milliwatts. During this study, the optical component of the device was not fully implemented and has been left for future efforts. Suggested improvements in the current prototype include use of integrated thermal correction, reconfiguration of the resonator for increased particle collection area, increased thermophoretic collection efficiency using an increased temperature gradient, and shielding the resonator electronics from deposition of ultrafine particles.

  18. High Performance, Low Cost Hydrogen Generation from Renewable Energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ayers, Katherine; Dalton, Luke; Roemer, Andy; Carter, Blake; Niedzwiecki, Mike; Manco, Judith; Anderson, Everett; Capuano, Chris; Wang, Chao-Yang; Zhao, Wei

    2014-02-05

    Renewable hydrogen from proton exchange membrane (PEM) electrolysis is gaining strong interest in Europe, especially in Germany where wind penetration is already at critical levels for grid stability. For this application as well as biogas conversion and vehicle fueling, megawatt (MW) scale electrolysis is required. Proton has established a technology roadmap to achieve the necessary cost reductions and manufacturing scale up to maintain U.S. competitiveness in these markets. This project represents a highly successful example of the potential for cost reduction in PEM electrolysis, and provides the initial stack design and manufacturing development for Proton’s MW scale product launch. The majority of the program focused on the bipolar assembly, from electrochemical modeling to subscale stack development through prototyping and manufacturing qualification for a large active area cell platform. Feasibility for an advanced membrane electrode assembly (MEA) with 50% reduction in catalyst loading was also demonstrated. Based on the progress in this program and other parallel efforts, H2A analysis shows the status of PEM electrolysis technology dropping below $3.50/kg production costs, exceeding the 2015 target.

  19. Low-Cost Self-Cleaning Coatings for CSP Collectors

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This presentation was delivered at the SunShot Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) Program Review 2013, held April 23–25, 2013 near Phoenix, Arizona.

  20. Pathways to low-cost electrochemical energy storage: a comparison...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Energy storage is increasingly seen as a valuable asset for electricity grids composed of high fractions of intermittent sources, such as wind power or, in developing economies, ...

  1. Solar Water Heating with Low-Cost Plastic Systems (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2012-01-01

    Newly developed solar water heating technology can help Federal agencies cost effectively meet the EISA requirements for solar water heating in new construction and major renovations. This document provides design considerations, application, economics, and maintenance information and resources.

  2. Solar Water Heating with Low-Cost Plastic Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-01-01

    Federal buildings consumed over 392,000 billion Btu of site delivered energy for buildings during FY 2007 at a total cost of $6.5 billion. Earlier data indicate that about 10% of this is used to heat water.[2] Targeting energy consumption in Federal buildings, the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA) requires new Federal buildings and major renovations to meet 30% of their hot water demand with solar energy, provided it is cost-effective over the life of the system. In October 2009, President Obama expanded the energy reduction and performance requirements of EISA and its subsequent regulations with his Executive Order 13514.

  3. Low-Cost Financing with Clean Renewable Energy Bonds

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Contains information from the TAP Webcast on June 24, 2009 on clean renewable energy bonds from Claire Kreycik on feed-in tariffs, an economic resource for developing renewable energy.

  4. High Performance, Low Cost Hydrogen Generation from Renewable Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2011 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation

  5. Pathways to Low-Cost Electrochemical Energy Storage: A Comparison...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Comparison of Aqueous and Nonaqueous Flow Batteries Comparison of available design space for aqueous and nonaqueous flow batteries to meet long term stationary storage cost goals. ...

  6. Developing Low-Cost, Highly Efficient Heat Recovery for Fuel...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    higher electrical effciency than an ... of hybrid fuel cell systems also make them a suitable power source for urban and ... for material stability, strength, and ...

  7. Low-Cost, Highly Transparent, Flexible, Low-Emission Coating...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Lead Performer: ITN Energy Systems - Littleton, CO Partners: -- Electric Power Research Institute - Palo Alto, CA -- ... More Documents & Publications CX-011089: Categorical ...

  8. Low cost solar energy collection for cooling applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilhelm, W.G.

    1981-06-01

    Solar energy collector designs utilizing thinfilm polymeric materials in the absorber and glazing are now under development at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The objective is dramatic cost reduction consistent with acceptable performance and life. Originally intended for low temperature applications (< 100/sup 0/F), these collectors now appear capable of high temperature applications including desiccant and absorption cooling (150/sup 0/ to 200/sup 0/ F). The performance and economics of the thin-film collector are compared with those of conventional flat-plate designs in cooling applications.

  9. Deploying Low-Cost Suspension Heliostats | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Engineers Renew Five-Year Partnership to Advance Hydropower | Department of Energy NEWS MEDIA CONTACT 202-586-4940 DOENews@hq.doe.gov WASHINGTON - The U.S. Department of Energy, U.S. Department of the Interior and U.S. Department of the Army for Civil Works announced today that the three agencies have extended their partnership to advance hydropower development for an additional five years. The renewal agreement signed today commits the agencies to a specific, ambitious agenda for

  10. Development of Low Cost Industrially Scalable PCM Capsules for Thermal

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Energy Storage in CSP Plants | Department of Energy 413_goswami.pdf More Documents & Publications High Efficiency Thermal Energy Storage System for CSP Opportunities to Apply Phase Change Materials to Building Enclosures Webinar Halide and Oxy-halide Eutectic Systems for High Performance High Temperature Heat Transfer Fluids

  11. Utilizing Bacteria for Sustainable Manufacturing of Low-Cost Nanoparticles

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation for the Sustainable Nanomaterials Workshop by Oak Ridge National Laboratory held on June 26, 2012

  12. Performance optimization of a bendable parabolic cylinder collimating X-ray mirror for the ALS micro-XAS beamline 10.3.2

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Yashchuk, Valeriy V.; Morrison, Gregory Y.; Marcus, Matthew A.; Domning, Edward E.; Merthe, Daniel J.; Salmassi, Farhad; Smith, Brian V.

    2015-04-08

    The Advanced Light Source (ALS) beamline (BL) 10.3.2 is an apparatus for X-ray microprobe spectroscopy and diffraction experiments, operating in the energy range 2.4–17 keV. The performance of the beamline, namely the spatial and energy resolutions of the measurements, depends significantly on the collimation quality of light incident on the monochromator. In the BL 10.3.2 end-station, the synchrotron source is imaged 1:1 onto a set of roll slits which form a virtual source. The light from this source is collimated in the vertical direction by a bendable parabolic cylinder mirror. Details are presented of the mirror design, which allows formore » precision assembly, alignment and shaping of the mirror, as well as for extending of the mirror operating lifetime by a factor of ~10. Assembly, mirror optimal shaping and preliminary alignment were performed ex situ in the ALS X-ray Optics Laboratory (XROL). Using an original method for optimal ex situ characterization and setting of bendable X-ray optics developed at the XROL, a root-mean-square (RMS) residual surface slope error of 0.31 µrad with respect to the desired parabola, and an RMS residual height error of less than 3 nm were achieved. Once in place at the beamline, deviations from the designed optical geometry (e.g. due to the tolerances for setting the distance to the virtual source, the grazing incidence angle, the transverse position) and/or mirror shape (e.g. due to a heat load deformation) may appear. Due to the errors, on installation the energy spread from the monochromator is typically a few electron-volts. Here, a new technique developed and successfully implemented for at-wavelength (in situ) fine optimal tuning of the mirror, enabling us to reduce the collimation-induced energy spread to ~0.05 eV, is described.« less

  13. Performance optimization of a bendable parabolic cylinder collimating X-ray mirror for the ALS micro-XAS beamline 10.3.2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yashchuk, Valeriy V.; Morrison, Gregory Y.; Marcus, Matthew A.; Domning, Edward E.; Merthe, Daniel J.; Salmassi, Farhad; Smith, Brian V.

    2015-04-08

    The Advanced Light Source (ALS) beamline (BL) 10.3.2 is an apparatus for X-ray microprobe spectroscopy and diffraction experiments, operating in the energy range 2.4–17 keV. The performance of the beamline, namely the spatial and energy resolutions of the measurements, depends significantly on the collimation quality of light incident on the monochromator. In the BL 10.3.2 end-station, the synchrotron source is imaged 1:1 onto a set of roll slits which form a virtual source. The light from this source is collimated in the vertical direction by a bendable parabolic cylinder mirror. Details are presented of the mirror design, which allows for precision assembly, alignment and shaping of the mirror, as well as for extending of the mirror operating lifetime by a factor of ~10. Assembly, mirror optimal shaping and preliminary alignment were performed ex situ in the ALS X-ray Optics Laboratory (XROL). Using an original method for optimal ex situ characterization and setting of bendable X-ray optics developed at the XROL, a root-mean-square (RMS) residual surface slope error of 0.31 µrad with respect to the desired parabola, and an RMS residual height error of less than 3 nm were achieved. Once in place at the beamline, deviations from the designed optical geometry (e.g. due to the tolerances for setting the distance to the virtual source, the grazing incidence angle, the transverse position) and/or mirror shape (e.g. due to a heat load deformation) may appear. Due to the errors, on installation the energy spread from the monochromator is typically a few electron-volts. Here, a new technique developed and successfully implemented for at-wavelength (in situ) fine optimal tuning of the mirror, enabling us to reduce the collimation-induced energy spread to ~0.05 eV, is described.

  14. Parabolic Trough | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Storage FOA) Halotechnics: Deep Eutectic Salt Formulations Suitable as Advanced Heat Transfer Fluids (Thermal Storage FOA) Infinia: Innovative Phase Change Thermal Energy ...

  15. CX-009024: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Advanced Low Cost Receivers for Solar Parabolic Trough CX(s) Applied: B3.6, B5.17 Date: 08/09/2012 Location(s): Vermont Offices(s): Golden Field Office

  16. High concentration of deuterium in palladium from plasma ion implantation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Uhm, H.S.; Lee, W.M. )

    1991-11-01

    Based on a theoretical calculation, a new scheme to increase deuterium density in palladium over its initial value is presented. This deuterium enrichment scheme makes use of plasma ion implantation. A cylindrical palladium rod (target) preloaded with deuterium atoms, coated with a diffusion-barrier material, is immersed in a deuterium plasma. The palladium rod is connected to a high-power modulator which provides a series of negative-voltage pulses. During these negative pulses, deuterium ions fall into the target, penetrate the diffusion barrier, and are implanted inside the palladium. For reasonable system parameters allowed by present technology, it is found from theoretical calculations that the saturation deuterium density after prolonged ion implantation can be several times the palladium atomic number density. Assuming an initial deuterium density, {ital n}{sub 0}=4{times}10{sup 22} cm{sup {minus}3}, it is also found that the deuterium density in palladium can triple its original value within a few days of the ion implantation for a reasonable target size. Because of the small diffusion coefficient in palladium, the incoming ions do not diffuse quickly inward, thereby accumulating near the target surface at the beginning of the implantation.

  17. Predicting the spectral effects of soils on high concentrating...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Summer and winter solstice calcula- tions were performed using SMARTS with inputs modified 470 P.D. Burton et al. Solar Energy 112 (2015) 469-474 for atmospheric data measured on ...

  18. Induction of gene expression using a high concentration sugar mixture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    England, George R.; Kelley, Aaron; Mitchinson, Colin

    2015-05-19

    Described herein is a composition useful for inducing expression of genes whose expression is under control of an inducible promoter sequence and methods for the compositions preparation and use.

  19. Induction of gene expression using a high concentration sugar mixture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    England, George R.; Kelley, Aaron; Mitchinson, Colin

    2010-05-11

    Described herein is a composition useful for inducing expression of genes whose expression is under control of an inducible promoter sequence and methods for the compositions preparation and use.

  20. High concentration low wattage solar arrays and their applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoffmann, R.; OGallagher, J.; Winston, R.

    1997-02-01

    Midway Labs currently produces a 335x concentrator module that has reached as high as 19{percent} active area efficiency in production. The current production module uses the single crystal silicon back contact SunPower cell. The National Renewable Energy Lab has developed a multi junction cell using GalnP/GaAs technologies. The high efficiency ({gt}30{percent}) and high cell voltage offer an opportunity for Midway Labs to develop a tracking concentrator module that will provide 24 volts in the 140 to 160 watt range. This voltage and wattage range is applicable to a range of small scale water pumping applications that make up the bulk of water pumping solar panel sales. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  1. Induction of gene expression using a high concentration sugar...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Inventors: England, George R. ; Kelley, Aaron ; Mitchinson, Colin Issue Date: 2010-05-11 OSTI Identifier: 1176286 Assignee: Danisco US Inc. (Palo Alto, CA) OSTI Patent Number(s): ...

  2. Induction of gene expression using a high concentration sugar...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Inventors: England, George R. ; Kelley, Aaron ; Mitchinson, Colin Issue Date: 2015-05-19 OSTI Identifier: 1179798 Assignee: Danisco US Inc. (Palo Alto, CA) GFO Patent Number(s): ...

  3. A Path to High-Concentration Luminescent Solar Concentrators

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Significance and Impact LSCs enable non-tracking concentration of both direct sunlight and diffuse light onto high- efficiency solar cells, and our work predicts unprecendented ...

  4. Low-Cost Solar-Array Project. Quarterly progress report, April-June 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    The overall objective of the LSA Silicon Material Task is to establish a chemical process for producing silicon at a rate and price commensurate with the production goals of the LSA project for solar-cell modules. As part of the overall Silicon Material Task, Union Carbide developed the silane-silicon process and advanced the technology to the point where it has a definite potential for providing high-purity polysilicon on a commercial scale at a price of $14/kg by 1986 (1980 dollars). This work, completed under Phases I and II of the contract, provided a firm base for the Phase III Program (initiated in April 1979) aimed at establishing the practicality of the process by pursuing the following specific objectives: (1) design, fabricate, install, and operate an Experimental Process System Development Unit (EPSDU) sized for 100 MT/yr to obtain extensive performance data to establish the data base for the design of commercial facilities; (2) perform support research and development to provide an information base usable for the EPSDU and for technological design and economic analysis for potential scale-up of the process; and (3) perform iterative economic analyses of the estimated product cost for the production of semiconductor-grade silicon in a facility capable of producing 1000 MT/yr. This process for preparing semiconductor-grade silicon in the EPSDU from metallurgical-grade (M-G) silicon is based on a well-integrated arrangement of purification steps that provides a cost-effective process system. The three basic steps entail converting M-G silicon to trichlorosilane, redistributing the trichlorosilane to produce silane, and thermally decomposing the silane to form amorphous silicon powder. The powder is then melted and the molten silicon is cast to polycrystalline for subsequent use in fabricating solar cells. Progress is reported in detail. (WHK)

  5. Development of Low-Cost High Efficiency Commercial Ready Advanced Silicon Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rohatgi, Ajeet; Zimbardi, Francesco

    2015-01-30

    As a result of the work within this project manufacturing ready devices were developed using 4 different promising Si material technologies with final efficiencies between 20.1% and 21.2%. The starting efficiencies for the FPACE I project were based on best manufactured p-type and n-type cells at the start of the project in 2011. Target efficiencies proposed for the project were 21% for p-type CZ, 20% for p-type cast Si, 21% for n-type and 20% for epi. All Target efficiencies were met or exceeded by the end of the project in 2014. The figure below list displays the 4 highest performing structures for each material with corresponding achieved efficiencies.

  6. Materials and Modules for Low Cost, High Performance Fuel Cell Humidifiers

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presented at the Department of Energy Fuel Cell Projects Kickoff Meeting, September 1 – October 1, 2009

  7. Scalable Light Module for Low-Cost, High Efficiency LED Luminaires

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Lead Performer: Cree, Inc. – Durham, NCDOE Total Funding: $2,349,704Cost Share: $2,349,704Project Term: 8/1/2013 – 7/31/2015Funding Opportunity: SSL Manufacturing R&D Funding Opportunity...

  8. High Efficiency Low Cost CO2 Compression Using Supersonic Shock Wave Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, J; Aarnio, M; Grosvenor, A; Taylor, D; Bucher, J

    2010-12-31

    Development and testing results from a supersonic compressor are presented. The compressor achieved record pressure ratio for a fully-supersonic stage and successfully demonstrated the technology potential. Several tasks were performed in compliance with the DOE award objectives. A high-pressure ratio compressor was retrofitted to improve rotordynamics behavior and successfully tested. An outside review panel confirmed test results and design approach. A computational fluid dynamics code used to analyze the Ramgen supersonic flowpath was extensively and successfully modified to improve use on high-performance computing platforms. A comprehensive R&D implementation plan was developed and used to lay the groundwork for a future full-scale compressor demonstration. Conceptual design for a CO2 demonstration compressor was developed and reviewed.

  9. Scalable, Low-Cost, High Performance IPM Motor for Hybrid Vehicles...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    10 DOE Vehicle Technologies and Hydrogen Programs Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, June 7-11, 2010 -- Washington D.C. PDF icon ape013elrefaie2010o

  10. Bench-Scale Silicone Process for Low-Cost CO{sub 2} Capture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vipperla, Ravikumar; Yee, Michael; Steele, Ray; Singh, Surinder; Spiry, Irina; Wood, Benjamin

    2013-12-30

    This report presents system and economic analysis for a carbon capture unit which uses an amino-silicone solvent for CO{sub 2} capture and sequestration (CCS) in a pulverized coal (PC) boiler. The amino-silicone solvent is based on GAP-1 with tri-ethylene glycol (TEG) as a co-solvent. For comparison purposes, the report also shows results for a CCS unit based on a conventional approach using mono-ethanol amine (MEA). At a steam temperature of 395 °C (743 °F), the CCS energy penalty for amino-silicone solvent is only 30.4% which compares to a 35.9% energy penalty for MEA. The increase in COE for the amino-silicone solvent relative to the non-capture case is between 98% and 103% (depending on the solvent cost) which compares to an ~109% COE cost increase for MEA. In summary, the amino-silicone solvent has significant advantages over conventional systems using MEA.

  11. TOWARD LOW-COST FABRICATION OF MICROCHANNEL PROCESS TECHNOLOGIES - COST MODELING FOR MANUFACTURING DEVELOPMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leith, Steven D.; King, Dale A.; Paul, Brian

    2010-11-07

    Chemical and energy conversion systems based on microchannel process technology (MPT) demonstrate high performance in applications in which rates are controlled by diffusive heat and mass transfer flux. The performance of MPT-based heat exchangers, absorbers/desorbers and chemical reactors all benefit from process intensification and have been used in a variety of mobile energy conversion systems including fuel reformers/converters, heat pumps and waste heat scavenging technologies. The service environments typical of MPTs often require the devices to be fabricated from metals such as aluminum, titanium, stainless steel or high temperature super alloys. Flow channels and associated critical dimensions in these devices can be as small as 50 um, but generally range from 100 to 1000 um in width and height with characteristic flow channel lengths normally in the mm to cm range. High surface area architectures (e.g. wicks or textured surfaces) are often included in the flow channels as well for enhanced mass transfer and/or catalytic functionality. Fabrication of MPT devices has historically been performed using a stacked-shim approach in which individual metal sheets are first patterned with micro- and meso-scale flow channels and subsequently bonded in a stack to create an array of miniaturized, parallel flow paths. Typical proof-of-concept fabrication efforts have utilized photo chemical machining (PCM) for shim patterning and diffusion bonding or diffusion brazing for joining of shim stacks. While flexible and capable of supporting technology demonstration, however, these techniques can be expensive at prototyping volumes. The high fabrication cost associated with these prototyping processes has contributed to a perception that MPT technology is expensive and will be relegated to a small application space. Recent work at the Microproducts Breakthrough Institute (MBI) has focused on exploring the cost structure of high volume manufacturing of MPT devices in effort to identify new paths to lower cost fabrication. Through systematic exploration of fabrication process capabilities and associated cost structures, the MBI is developing volume-sensitive cost estimation models for predicting manufacturing costs of MPT devices fabricated using different processing technologies. The process-based cost models are used to develop an understanding of the economic trade-offs between candidate processes and are utilized in a design for manufacturing approach to MPT device fabrication. In this paper we present results and analysis of the cost modeling effort to date and apply the methodology in case study of a stainless steel MPT device designed, built and tested by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Extensions of the model to adjacent material sets and the interaction of device designs with fabrication processes will be discussed.

  12. Low-Cost Packaged CHP System with Reduced Emissions - Fact Sheet...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Cummins Power Generation, in collaboration with Cummins Engine Business Unit, is ... The project will result in the highest-efficiency and lowest-emissions system for a CHP ...

  13. Final Report - Low Cost, Epitaxial Growth of II-VI Materials...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    The greatest challenge in developing tandem solar cells is depositing wide band gap semiconductors that are both highly doped and have minority carrier lifetimes greater than 1 ns. ...

  14. Production of Diesel Engine Turbocharger Turbine from Low Cost Titanium Powder

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Muth, T. R.; Mayer, R.

    2012-05-04

    Turbochargers in commercial turbo-diesel engines are multi-material systems where usually the compressor rotor is made of aluminum or titanium based material and the turbine rotor is made of either a nickel based superalloy or titanium, designed to operate under the harsh exhaust gas conditions. The use of cast titanium in the turbine section has been used by Cummins Turbo Technologies since 1997. Having the benefit of a lower mass than the superalloy based turbines; higher turbine speeds in a more compact design can be achieved with titanium. In an effort to improve the cost model, and develop an industrial supply of titanium componentry that is more stable than the traditional aerospace based supply chain, the Contractor has developed component manufacturing schemes that use economical Armstrong titanium and titanium alloy powders and MgR-HDH powders. Those manufacturing schemes can be applied to compressor and turbine rotor components for diesel engine applications with the potential of providing a reliable supply of titanium componentry with a cost and performance advantage over cast titanium.

  15. The Homogeneus Forcing of Mercury Oxidation to provide Low-Cost Capture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John Kramlich; Linda Castiglone

    2007-06-30

    Trace amounts of mercury are found in all coals. During combustion, or during thermal treatment in advanced coal processes, this mercury is vaporized and can be released to the atmosphere with the ultimate combustion products. This has been a cause for concern for a number of years, and has resulted in a determination by the EPA to regulate and control these emissions. Present technology does not, however, provide inexpensive ways to capture or remove mercury. Mercury that exits the furnace in the oxidized form (HgCl{sub 2}) is known to much more easily captured in existing pollution control equipment (e.g., wet scrubbers for SO{sub 2}), principally due to its high solubility in water. Work funded by DOE has helped understand the chemical kinetic processes that lead to mercury oxidation in furnaces. The scenario is as follows. In the flame the mercury is quantitatively vaporized as elemental mercury. Also, the chlorine in the fuel is released as HCl. The direct reaction Hg+HCl is, however, far too slow to be of practical consequence in oxidation. The high temperature region does supports a small concentration of atomic chlorine. As the gases cool (either in the furnace convective passes, in the quench prior to cold gas cleanup, or within a sample probe), the decay in Cl atom is constrained by the slowness of the principal recombination reaction, Cl+Cl+M{yields}Cl{sub 2}+M. This allows chlorine atom to hold a temporary, local superequilibrium concentration . Once the gases drop below about 550 C, the mercury equilibrium shifts to favor HgCl{sub 2} over Hg, and this superequilibrium chlorine atom promotes oxidation via the fast reactions Hg+Cl+M{yields}HgCl+M, HgCl+Cl+M{yields}HgCl{sub 2}+M, and HgCl+Cl{sub 2}{yields}HgCl{sub 2}+Cl. Thus, the high temperature region provides the Cl needed for the reaction, while the quench region allows the Cl to persist and oxidize the mercury in the absence of decomposition reactions that would destroy the HgCl{sub 2}. Promoting mercury oxidation is one means of getting moderate-efficiency, 'free' mercury capture when wet gas cleanup systems are already in place. The chemical kinetic model we developed to describe the oxidation process suggests that in fuel lean gases, the introduction of trace amounts of H{sub 2} within the quench region leads to higher Cl concentrations via chain branching. The amount of additive, and the temperature at the addition point are critical. We investigated this process in a high-temperature quartz flow reactor. The results do indicate a substantial amount of promotion of oxidation with the introduction of relatively small amounts of hydrogen at around 1000 K ({approx}100 ppm relative to the furnace gas). In practical systems the source of this hydrogen is likely to be a small natural gas steam reformer. This would also produce CO, so co-injection of CO was also tested. The CO did not provide any additional promotion, and in some cases led to a reduction in oxidation. We also examined the influence of NO and SO{sub 2} on the promotion process. We did not see any influence under the conditions examined. The present results were for a 0.5 s, isothermal plug flow environment. The next step should be to determine the appropriate injection point for the hydrogen and the performance under realistic temperature quench conditions. This could be accomplished first by chemical kinetic modeling, and then by tunnel flow experiment.

  16. 2012 ARPA-E Energy Innovation Summit: Profiling Sheetak: Low Cost - Solid State Cooling

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None Available

    2012-03-21

    The third annual ARPA-E Energy Innovation Summit was held in Washington D.C. in February, 2012. The event brought together key players from across the energy ecosystem - researchers, entrepreneurs, investors, corporate executives, and government officials - to share ideas for developing and deploying the next generation of energy technologies. A few videos were selected for showing during the Summit to attendees. These 'performer videos' highlight innovative research that is ongoing and related to the main topics of the Summit's sessions. Featured in this video are David Marcus, Founder of General Compression, and Eric Ingersoll, CEO of General Compression. Himanshu Pokharna, Vice President of Sheetak Uttam Ghoshal, President and CEO of Sheetak.

  17. Advanced High Efficiency Clean Diesel Combustion with Low Cost for Hybrid Engines

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Clean, in-cylinder combustion can be enabled by a micro-variable circular orifice, dual mode PCCI, dew film combustion, and a novel combustion chamber design

  18. Advanced Flow Battery Electrodes: Low-cost, High-Performance 50-Year Electrode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-09-01

    GRIDS Project: Primus Power is developing zinc-based, rechargeable liquid flow batteries that could produce substantially more energy at lower cost than conventional batteries. A flow battery is similar to a conventional battery, except instead of storing its energy inside the cell it stores that energy for future use in chemicals that are kept in tanks that sit outside the cell. One of the most costly components in a flow battery is the electrode, where the electrochemical reactions actually occur. Primus Power is investigating and developing mixed-metal materials for their electrodes that could ultimately reduce the lifetime cost of flow batteries because they are more durable and long-lasting than electrodes found in traditional batteries. Using these electrodes, Primus Power’s flow batteries can be grouped together into robust, containerized storage pods for use by utilities, renewable energy developers, businesses, and campuses.

  19. 2012 ARPA-E Energy Innovation Summit: Profiling Sheetak: Low Cost - Solid State Cooling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None Available

    2012-02-29

    The third annual ARPA-E Energy Innovation Summit was held in Washington D.C. in February, 2012. The event brought together key players from across the energy ecosystem - researchers, entrepreneurs, investors, corporate executives, and government officials - to share ideas for developing and deploying the next generation of energy technologies. A few videos were selected for showing during the Summit to attendees. These 'performer videos' highlight innovative research that is ongoing and related to the main topics of the Summit's sessions. Featured in this video are David Marcus, Founder of General Compression, and Eric Ingersoll, CEO of General Compression. Himanshu Pokharna, Vice President of Sheetak Uttam Ghoshal, President and CEO of Sheetak.

  20. Modular Hybrid Plasma Reactor for Low Cost Bulk Production of Nanomaterials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peter C. Kong

    2011-12-01

    INL developed a bench scale modular hybrid plasma system for gas phase nanomaterials synthesis. The system was being optimized for WO3 nanoparticles production and scale model projection to a 300 kW pilot system. During the course of technology development many modifications had been done to the system to resolve technical issues that had surfaced and also to improve the performance. All project tasks had been completed except 2 optimization subtasks. These 2 subtasks, a 4-hour and an 8-hour continuous powder production runs at 1 lb/hr powder feeding rate, were unable to complete due to technical issues developed with the reactor system. The 4-hour run had been attempted twice and both times the run was terminated prematurely. The modular electrode for the plasma system was significantly redesigned to address the technical issues. Fabrication of the redesigned modular electrodes and additional components had been completed at the end of the project life. However, not enough resource was available to perform tests to evaluate the performance of the new modifications. More development work would be needed to resolve these problems prior to scaling. The technology demonstrated a surprising capability of synthesizing a single phase of meta-stable delta-Al2O3 from pure alpha-phase large Al2O3 powder. The formation of delta-Al2O3 was surprising because this phase is meta-stable and only formed between 973-1073 K, and delta-Al2O3 is very difficult to synthesize as a single phase. Besides the specific temperature window to form this phase, this meta-stable phase may have been stabilized by nanoparticle size formed in a high temperature plasma process. This technology may possess the capability to produce unusual meta-stable nanophase materials that would be otherwise difficult to produce by conventional methods. A 300 kW INL modular hybrid plasma pilot scale model reactor had been projected using the experimental data from PPG Industries 300 kW hot wall plasma reactor. The projected size of the INL 300 kW pilot model reactor would be about 15% that of the PPG 300 kW hot wall plasma reactor. Including the safety net factor the projected INL pilot reactor size would be 25-30% of the PPG 300 kW hot wall plasma pilot reactor. Due to the modularity of the INL plasma reactor and the energy cascading effect from the upstream plasma to the downstream plasma the energy utilization is more efficient in material processing. It is envisioning that the material through put range for the INL pilot reactor would be comparable to the PPG 300 kW pilot reactor but the energy consumption would be lower. The INL hybrid plasma technology is rather close to being optimized for scaling to a pilot system. More near term development work is still needed to complete the process optimization before pilot scaling.