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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high-altitude absorbing aerosols" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

Radiative and climate impacts of absorbing aerosols  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

incident radiation are distinguished, and albedos for oceanOceans using multiple satellite datasets in conjunction with MACR (Monte Carlo Aerosol-Cloud-Radiation)ocean temperature is coupled with the rest of the climate system, the dimming of surface radiation

Zhu, Aihua

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

2

Studying trends in biomass burning aerosol using the Absorbing Aerosol Index derived from GOME, SCIAMACHY, and GOME-2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Studying trends in biomass burning aerosol using the Absorbing Aerosol Index derived from GOME the resulting time series, we use tropospheric NO2 data as a reference in the regions dominated by biomass sensitive to desert dust aerosols (DDA) and biomass burning aerosols (BBA). See Figure 1. The AAI

Tilstra, Gijsbert

3

In-flight degradation correction of SCIAMACHY UV reflectances and Absorbing Aerosol Index  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In-flight degradation correction of SCIAMACHY UV reflectances and Absorbing Aerosol Index L. G), In-flight degradation correction of SCIAMACHY UV reflectances and Absorbing Aerosol Index, J. Geophys degradation in the ultraviolet (UV) wavelength range, from which the AAI is determined. An exception

Stoffelen, Ad

4

GOME-2 ABSORBING AEROSOL INDEX: STATISTICAL ANALYSIS, COMPARISON TO GOME-1 AND IMPACT OF INSTRUMENT  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

DEGRADATION Lieuwe G. Tilstra, Olaf N.E. Tuinder, and Piet Stammes Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute the presence of UV-absorbing aerosols. These aerosols are mainly injected into the atmosphere by desert dust that the GOME-2 AAI product is suffering more and more from the effects of instrument degradation. In particular

Tilstra, Gijsbert

5

Detection of smoke and ash from forest fires and volcanic eruptions using the GOME-2 Absorbing Aerosol Index  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the presence of UV-absorbing aerosols such as desert dust and biomass burning aerosol. The AAI is retrieved from the UV spectral range, and allows aerosol detection above land and sea surfaces, even instrument degradation. Instrument degradation is threatening future AAI measurements. 1. Introduction

Tilstra, Gijsbert

6

ANALYSIS OF 5 YEARS SCIAMACHY ABSORBING AEROSOL INDEX DATA L. G. Tilstra1,2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

institutes. The AAI in general is determined from the reflectance at two wavelengths in the UV, and is highly sensitive to er- rors in the absolute radiometric calibration. We apply a degradation correction. Key words: SCIAMACHY; Absorbing Aerosol Index; calibration; degradation. 1. INTRODUCTION OF RESIDUE

Tilstra, Gijsbert

7

Utilization of Wind Energy at High Altitude  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Ground based, wind energy extraction systems have reached their maximum capability. The limitations of current designs are: wind instability, high cost of installations, and small power output of a single unit. The wind energy industry needs of revolutionary ideas to increase the capabilities of wind installations. This article suggests a revolutionary innovation which produces a dramatic increase in power per unit and is independent of prevailing weather and at a lower cost per unit of energy extracted. The main innovation consists of large free-flying air rotors positioned at high altitude for power and air stream stability, and an energy cable transmission system between the air rotor and a ground based electric generator. The air rotor system flies at high altitude up to 14 km. A stability and control is provided and systems enable the changing of altitude. This article includes six examples having a high unit power output (up to 100 MW). The proposed examples provide the following main advantages: 1. Large power production capacity per unit - up to 5,000-10,000 times more than conventional ground-based rotor designs; 2. The rotor operates at high altitude of 1-14 km, where the wind flow is strong and steady; 3. Installation cost per unit energy is low. 4. The installation is environmentally friendly (no propeller noise). -- * Presented in International Energy Conversion Engineering Conference at Providence., RI, Aug. 16-19. 2004. AIAA-2004-5705. USA. Keyword: wind energy, cable energy transmission, utilization of wind energy at high altitude, air rotor, windmills, Bolonkin.

Alexander Bolonkin

2007-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

8

Nonlinear Effects of Coexisting Surface and Atmospheric Forcing of Anthropogenic Absorbing Aerosols: Impact on the South Asian Monsoon Onset  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The direct radiative effect of absorbing aerosols consists of absorption-induced atmospheric heating together with scattering- and absorption-induced surface cooling. It is thus important to understand whether some of the ...

Lee, Shao-Yi

9

The Genetic Architecture of Adaptations to High Altitude in Ethiopia  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Genetic Architecture of Adaptations to High Altitude in Ethiopia Gorka Alkorta-Aranburu1, Ethiopia, 4 Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Chevy Chase, Maryland, United States of America Abstract JK, et al. (2012) The Genetic Architecture of Adaptations to High Altitude in Ethiopia. PLoS Genet 8

Dean, Matthew D.

10

Simultaneous Retrieval of Effective Refractive Index and Density from Size Distribution and Light Scattering Data: Weakly-Absorbing Aerosol  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We propose here a novel approach for retrieving in parallel the effective density and real refractive index of weakly absorbing aerosol from optical and size distribution measurements. Here we define “weakly absorbing” as aerosol single-scattering albedos that exceed 0.95 at 0.5 um.The required optical measurements are the scattering coefficient and the hemispheric backscatter fraction, obtained in this work from an integrating nephelometer. The required size spectra come from a Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer and an Aerodynamic Particle Sizer. The performance of this approach is first evaluated using a sensitivity study with synthetically generated but measurement-related inputs. The sensitivity study reveals that the proposed approach is robust to random noise; additionally the uncertainties of the retrieval are almost linearly proportional to the measurement errors, and these uncertainties are smaller for the real refractive index than for the effective density. Next, actual measurements are used to evaluate our approach. These measurements include the optical, microphysical, and chemical properties of weakly absorbing aerosol which are representative of a variety of coastal summertime conditions observed during the Two-Column Aerosol Project (TCAP; http://campaign.arm.gov/tcap/). The evaluation includes calculating the root mean square error (RMSE) between the aerosol characteristics retrieved by our approach, and the same quantities calculated using the conventional volume mixing rule for chemical constituents. For dry conditions (defined in this work as relative humidity less than 55%) and sub-micron particles, a very good (RMSE~3%) and reasonable (RMSE~28%) agreement is obtained for the retrieved real refractive index (1.49±0.02) and effective density (1.68±0.21), respectively. Our approach permits discrimination between the retrieved aerosol characteristics of sub-micron and sub-10micron particles. The evaluation results also reveal that the retrieved density and refractive index tend to decrease with an increase of the relative humidity.

Kassianov, Evgueni I.; Barnard, James C.; Pekour, Mikhail S.; Berg, Larry K.; Shilling, John E.; Flynn, Connor J.; Mei, Fan; Jefferson, Anne

2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

11

A High-Altitude, Station-Keeping Astronomical Platform  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Several commercial telecommunication ventures together with a well funded US military program make it a likely possibility that an autonomous, high-altitude, light-than-air (LTA) vehicle which could maneuver and station-keep for weeks to many months will be a reality in a few years. Here I outline how this technology could be used to develop a high-altitude astronomical observing platform which could return high-resolution optical data rivaling those from space-based platforms but at a fraction of the cost.

Robert A. Fesen

2006-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

12

A High-Altitude, Station-Keeping Astronomical Platform  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Several commercial telecommunication ventures together with a well funded US military program make it a likely possibility that an autonomous, high-altitude, light-than-air (LTA) vehicle which could maneuver and station-keep for weeks to many months will be a reality in a few years. Here I outline how this technology could be used to develop a high-altitude astronomical observing platform which could return high-resolution optical data rivaling those from space-based platforms but at a fraction of the cost.

Fesen, R A

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

13

From Hydrogen Fuel Cells to High-Altitude-Pilot Protection Suits...  

Energy Savers [EERE]

From Hydrogen Fuel Cells to High-Altitude-Pilot Protection Suits- Mound Science and Energy Museum Programs Cover a Wide Range of Topics From Hydrogen Fuel Cells to...

14

HCN ice in Titan's high-altitude southern polar cloud  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Titan's middle atmosphere is currently experiencing a rapid change of season after northern spring arrived in 2009. A large cloud was observed for the first time above Titan's southern pole in May 2012, at an altitude of 300 km. This altitude previously showed a temperature maximum and condensation was not expected for any of Titan's atmospheric gases. Here we show that this cloud is composed of micron-sized hydrogen cyanide (HCN) ice particles. The presence of HCN particles at this altitude, together with new temperature determinations from mid-infrared observations, indicate a very dramatic cooling of Titan's atmosphere inside the winter polar vortex in early 2012. Such a cooling is completely contrary to previously measured high-altitude warming in the polar vortex, and temperatures are a hundred degrees colder than predicted by circulation models. Besides elucidating the nature of Titan's mysterious polar cloud, these results thus show that post-equinox cooling at the winter pole is much more efficient th...

de Kok, Remco J; Maltagliati, Luca; Irwin, Patrick G J; Vinatier, Sandrine

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

15

Iron supplementation at high altitudes induces inflammation and oxidative injury to lung tissues in rats  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Exposure to high altitudes is associated with hypoxia and increased vulnerability to oxidative stress. Polycythemia (increased number of circulating erythrocytes) develops to compensate the high altitude associated hypoxia. Iron supplementation is, thus, recommended to meet the demand for the physiological polycythemia. Iron is a major player in redox reactions and may exacerbate the high altitudes-associated oxidative stress. The aim of this study was to explore the potential iron-induced oxidative lung tissue injury in rats at high altitudes (6000 ft above the sea level). Iron supplementation (2 mg elemental iron/kg, once daily for 15 days) induced histopathological changes to lung tissues that include severe congestion, dilatation of the blood vessels, emphysema in the air alveoli, and peribronchial inflammatory cell infiltration. The levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1?, IL-6, and TNF-?), lipid peroxidation product and protein carbonyl content in lung tissues were significantly elevated. Moreover, the levels of reduced glutathione and total antioxidant capacity were significantly reduced. Co-administration of trolox, a water soluble vitamin E analog (25 mg/kg, once daily for the last 7 days of iron supplementation), alleviated the lung histological impairments, significantly decreased the pro-inflammatory cytokines, and restored the oxidative stress markers. Together, our findings indicate that iron supplementation at high altitudes induces lung tissue injury in rats. This injury could be mediated through excessive production of reactive oxygen species and induction of inflammatory responses. The study highlights the tissue injury induced by iron supplementation at high altitudes and suggests the co-administration of antioxidants such as trolox as protective measures. - Highlights: • Iron supplementation at high altitudes induced lung histological changes in rats. • Iron induced oxidative stress in lung tissues of rats at high altitudes. • Iron increased the levels of IL-1?, IL-6 and TNF-? in lung tissues at high altitudes. • Trolox alleviated the iron-induced histological and biochemical changes to the lungs.

Salama, Samir A., E-mail: salama.3@buckeyemail.osu.edu [High Altitude Research Center, Taif University, Al-Haweiah, Taif 21974 (Saudi Arabia); Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Al-Azhar University, Cairo 11751 (Egypt); Department of Pharmacology and GTMR Unit, College of Clinical Pharmacy, Taif University, Al-Haweiah, Taif 21974 (Saudi Arabia); Omar, Hany A. [Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Beni-Suef University, Beni-Suef 62514 (Egypt); Maghrabi, Ibrahim A. [Department of Clinical Pharmacy, College of Clinical Pharmacy, Taif University, Al-Haweiah, Taif 21974 (Saudi Arabia); AlSaeed, Mohammed S. [Department of Surgery, College of Medicine, Taif University, Al-Haweiah, Taif 21974 (Saudi Arabia); EL-Tarras, Adel E. [High Altitude Research Center, Taif University, Al-Haweiah, Taif 21974 (Saudi Arabia)

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

16

High Altitude Wind Power Systems: A Survey on Flexible Power Kites Mariam Ahmed*  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

High Altitude Wind Power Systems: A Survey on Flexible Power Kites Mariam Ahmed* Grenoble wind power using a kite-based system, and the proposed structures *Corresponding author Mariam.AHMED@g2

Boyer, Edmond

17

Magnetospheric application of high-altitude long-duration balloon technology: Daylight auroral observations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Magnetospheric application of high-altitude long-duration balloon technology: Daylight auroral; accepted 12 February 2007 Abstract Daylight auroral imaging is a proposed application of the NASA high

Lummerzheim, Dirk

18

Wintertime high-altitude surface energy balance of a Bolivian glacier, Illimani, 6340 m above sea level  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Wintertime high-altitude surface energy balance of a Bolivian glacier, Illimani, 6340 m above sea] The objective of this study is to evaluate the surface energy balance (SEB) of a cold, high-altitude tropical, high altitude, sublimation, turbulent fluxes, net all-wave radiation, energy balance Citation: Wagnon

Berthier, Etienne

19

Effects of high-altitude electromagnetic pulse (HEMP) on telecommunications assets. Final Technical Information Bulletin  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of the Electromagnetic Pulse (EMP) Mitigation Program is the removal of EMP as a significant impediment to timely reestablishment of regional and national telecommunications following an attack against the United States that includes high-altitude nuclear detonations. The program approach involves estimating the effects of High-altitude EMP (HEMP) on telecommunication connectivity and traffic-handling capability, assessing the impact of available HEMP mitigation alternatives, and developing a comprehensive plan for implementating mitigation alternatives. This report summarizes available test results as they apply to the EMP Mitigation Program, and supercedes all previous versions of this report.

Not Available

1988-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

Colonization of high altitudes by alien plants over the last two centuries  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Colonization of high altitudes by alien plants over the last two centuries Petr Pyseka,b,1 an elegant explana- tion for global patterns of alien species richness in mountain regions. These authors for explaining the patterns of alien species richness than dispersal processes or pre- adaptation of species

Kratochvíl, Lukas

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high-altitude absorbing aerosols" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

System for beaming power from earth to a high altitude platform  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Power is transmitted to a high altitude platform by an array of diode pumped solid state lasers each operated at a single range of laser wavelengths outside of infrared and without using adaptive optics. Each laser produces a beam with a desired arrival spot size. An aircraft avoidance system uses a radar system for automatic control of the shutters of the lasers.

Friedman, Herbert W. (Oakland, CA); Porter, Terry J. (Ridgecrest, CA)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

22

Feasibility of observing dayside aurora using NIR camera onboard high-altitude balloons  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Feasibility of observing dayside aurora using NIR camera onboard high-altitude balloons X.-Y. Zhou-duration balloons. This effort is motivated by science interest in the dayside aurora. Model predictions indicate decreases with increasing altitude. To address the question whether aurora can indeed be detected

Lummerzheim, Dirk

23

Operating Water Cherenkov Detectors in high altitude sites for the Large Aperture GRB Observatory  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Water Cherenkov Detectors (WCD) are efficient detectors for detecting GRBs in the 10 GeV - 1 TeV energy range using the single particle technique, given their sensitivity to low energy secondary photons produced by high energy photons when cascading in the atmosphere. The Large Aperture GRB Observatory (LAGO) operates arrays of WCD in high altitude sites (above 4500 m a.s.l.) in Bolivia, Mexico and Venezuela, with planned extension to Peru. Details on the operation and stability of these WCD in remote sites with high background rates of particles will be detailed, and compared to simulations. Specific issues due to operation at high altitude, atmospheric effects and solar activity, as well as possible hardware enhancements will also be presented.

Allard, D; Asorey, H; Barros, H; Bertou, X; Castillo, M; Chirinos, J M; De Castro, A; Flores, S; González, J; Berisso, M Gomez; Grajales, J; Guada, C; Day, W R Guevara; Ishitsuka, J; López, J A; Martínez, O; Melfo, A; Meza, E; Loza, P Miranda; Barbosa, E Moreno; Murrugarra, C; Núñez, L A; Ormachea, L J Otiniano; Pérez, G; Perez, Y; Ponce, E; Quispe, J; Quintero, C; Rivera, H; Rosales, M; Rovero, A C; Saavedra, O; Salazar, H; Tello, J C; Peralda, R Ticona; Varela, E; Velarde, A; Villaseñor, L; Wahl, D; Zamalloa, M A

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

24

Experimental investigations into high-altitude relight of a gas turbine  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Experimental Investigations into High-Altitude Relight of a Gas Turbine Robert William Read Homerton College University of Cambridge This dissertation is submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy 2008 To my mother and father Declaration I... of many ignition events has revealed several distinct modes of ignition failure. Keywords: altitude relight, planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF), gas turbine, lean direct injection, spark ignition. Acknowledgements I would like to thank my supervisor...

Read, Robert William

2008-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

25

Large Aerosols Play Unexpected Role in Ganges Valley | U.S. DOE...  

Office of Science (SC) Website

The data have revealed that large aerosols in this region absorb a greater amount of light than expected. The Science Aerosol particles in the atmosphere may absorb solar...

26

Global observations of desert dust and biomass burning aerosols  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Global observations of desert dust and biomass burning aerosols Martin de Graaf KNMI #12; Outline · Absorbing Aerosol Index - Theory · Absorbing Aerosol Index - Reality · Biomass burning.6 Biomass burning over Angola, 09 Sep. 2004 Absorbing Aerosol Index PMD image #12;biomass burning ocean

Graaf, Martin de

27

aerosol particles emitted: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

aerosols scatter and absorb solar, estimates of the impact of aerosols on visibility, the solar radiation balance, and crop production is presented. 1. INTRODUCTION The attenuation...

28

Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) - Part 1-3: General - The effects of high-altitude EMP (HEMP) on civil equipment and systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) - Part 1-3: General - The effects of high-altitude EMP (HEMP) on civil equipment and systems

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

29

High-resolution sedimentary record of the last deglaciation from a high-altitude lake in Ethiopia  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

High-resolution sedimentary record of the last deglaciation from a high-altitude lake in Ethiopia J Ababa University, P.O. Box 1176, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia d CEREGE, Europôle de l'Arbois, B.P. 80, 13545 long core collected from Lake Garba Guracha (Ethiopia) associated with a precise AMS-14 C time

Brest, Université de

30

High altitude atmospheric discharges according to the runaway air breakdown mechanism  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

High altitude optical transients - red sprites, blue jets, and elves - are modeled in the context of the relativistic electron runaway air breakdown mechanism. These emissions are usually associated with large mesoscale convective systems (hereafter MCS). In thunderstorms cloud electrification proceeds over a time scale long enough to permit the conducting atmosphere above the cloud to polarize and short out the thunderstorm electric field. When a lightning strike rapidly neutralizes a cloud charge layer runaway driving fields can develop in the stratosphere and mesosphere. According to present simulations of the full runaway process the variety of observed optical emissions are due to the nature of the normal lightning event in the MCS that kick starts the runaway avalanche. In this paper the authors describe some details of the model, present the results of the evolution of the primary electron population, and summarize the initial conditions necessary for different types of discharges. Two companion papers present (a) the predicted optical, gamma ray, and radio emissions caused by these electrical discharges, and (b) the time evolution of the secondary electron population and its implications in terms of observables.

Symbalisty, E.; Roussel-Dupre, R.; Yukhimuk, V.; Taranenko, Y.

1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

Remote sensing of terrestrial tropospheric aerosols from aircraft and satellites  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Remote sensing of terrestrial tropospheric aerosols from aircraft and satellites M I Mishchenko1 instruments suitable for aerosol remote sensing and give examples of aerosol retrievals obtained forcing directly by absorbing and reflecting sunlight, thereby cooling or heating the atmosphere

32

E-Print Network 3.0 - atmospheric aerosol size Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

for about ten percent of all aerosols in the atmosphere. We... , can actually absorb solar energy and warm the atmosphere. Atmospheric aerosols are very important... by...

33

E-Print Network 3.0 - aerosol sellest rgivad Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

October 4, 2004 Abstract Atmospheric aerosol particles scatter and absorb shortwave (solar) radiation and Source: Brookhaven National Laboratory, Environmental Chemistry...

34

E-Print Network 3.0 - aerosol biokinetics concentrations Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

October 4, 2004 Abstract Atmospheric aerosol particles scatter and absorb shortwave (solar) radiation and Source: Brookhaven National Laboratory, Environmental Chemistry...

35

E-Print Network 3.0 - aerosols Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

October 4, 2004 Abstract Atmospheric aerosol particles scatter and absorb shortwave (solar) radiation and Source: Brookhaven National Laboratory, Environmental Chemistry...

36

Effects of High-Altitude Electromagnetic Pulse (HEMP) on the Northern Telecom Inc. DMS-100 (trademark) switch. Volume 2. Test program. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report is part of a three volume set that presents the results of simulated High-Altitude Electromagnetic Pulse (HEMP) testing of a DMS-100 Switching System. This volume is a detailed description of the test procedures, test results, and the mitigation alternatives evaluated. This volume also presents a discussion of the conclusion and recommendations of the program.

Not Available

1988-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

37

Sensitivity of the High Altitude Water Cherenkov Detector to Sources of Multi-TeV Gamma Rays  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The High Altitude Water Cherenkov (HAWC) observatory is an array of large water Cherenkov detectors sensitive to gamma rays and hadronic cosmic rays in the energy band between 100 GeV and 100 TeV. The observatory will be used to measure high-energy protons and cosmic rays via detection of the energetic secondary particles reaching the ground when one of these particles interacts in the atmosphere above the detector. HAWC is under construction at a site 4100 meters above sea level on the northern slope of the volcano Sierra Negra, which is located in central Mexico at 19 degrees N latitude. It is scheduled for completion in 2014. In this paper we estimate the sensitivity of the HAWC instrument to point-like and extended sources of gamma rays. The source fluxes are modeled using both unbroken power laws and power laws with exponential cutoffs. HAWC, in one year, is sensitive to point sources with integral power-law spectra as low as 5x10^-13 cm^-2 sec^-1 above 2 TeV (approximately 50 mCrab) over 5 sr of the sky...

Abeysekara, A U; Alvarez, C; Álvarez, J D; Arceo, R; Arteaga-Velázquez, J C; Solares, H A Ayala; Barber, A S; Baughman, B M; Bautista-Elivar, N; Belmont, E; BenZvi, S Y; Berley, D; Rosales, M Bonilla; Braun, J; Caballero-Lopez, R A; Carramiñana, A; Castillo, M; Cotti, U; Cotzomi, J; de la Fuente, E; De León, C; DeYoung, T; Hernandez, R Diaz; Diaz-Velez, J C; Dingus, B L; DuVernois, M A; Ellsworth, R W; Fernandez, A; Fiorino, D W; Fraija, N; Galindo, A; Garcia-Luna, J L; Garcia-Torales, G; Garfias, F; González, L X; González, M M; Goodman, J A; Grabski, V; Gussert, M; Hampel-Arias, Z; Hui, C M; Hüntemeyer, P; Imran, A; Iriarte, A; Karn, P; Kieda, D; Kunde, G J; Lara, A; Lauer, R J; Lee, W H; Lennarz, D; Vargas, H León; Linares, E C; Linnemann, J T; Longo, M; Luna-Garc\\'\\ia, R; Marinelli, A; Martinez, O; Mart\\'\\inez-Castro, J; Matthews, J A J; Miranda-Romagnoli, P; Moreno, E; Mostafá, M; Nava, J; Nellen, L; Newbold, M; Noriega-Papaqui, R; Oceguera-Becerra, T; Patricelli, B; Pelayo, R; Pérez-Pérez, E G; Pretz, J; Rivière, C; Rosa-González, D; Salazar, H; Salesa, F; Sandoval, A; Santos, E; Schneider, M; Silich, S; Sinnis, G; Smith, A J; Sparks, K; Springer, R W; Taboada, I; Toale, P A; Tollefson, K; Torres, I; Ukwatta, T N; Villaseñor, L; Weisgarber, T; Westerhoff, S; Wisher, I G; Wood, J; Yodh, G B; Younk, P W; Zaborov, D; Zepeda, A; Zhou, H

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

38

Radiative and climate impacts of absorbing aerosols  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and less surface solar radiation in China from 1955 to 2000,2001 in China, and meanwhile, both surface solar radiationsolar heating greatly decreases RH in the lower troposphere for both China and

Zhu, Aihua

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

39

Radiative and climate impacts of absorbing aerosols  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

V. Ramanathan (2008), Solar radiation budget and radiativeV. Ramanathan (2008), Solar radiation budget and radiativeapproximation for solar radiation in the NCAR Community

Zhu, Aihua

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

40

aerosols | EMSL  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

aerosols aerosols Leads No leads are available at this time. Magnesium behavior and structural defects in Mg+ ion implanted silicon carbide. Abstract: As a candidate material for...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high-altitude absorbing aerosols" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

E-Print Network 3.0 - aerosol generators Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Dodd Way, Atlanta, GA, 30332, U.S.A. Abstract. Atmospheric aerosols scatter and absorb solar Source: Bergin, Mike - Schools of Civil and Environmental Engineering & Earth and...

42

E-Print Network 3.0 - aerosol monitoring Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Dodd Way, Atlanta, GA, 30332, U.S.A. Abstract. Atmospheric aerosols scatter and absorb solar Source: Bergin, Mike - Schools of Civil and Environmental Engineering & Earth and...

43

E-Print Network 3.0 - atmospheric aerosol characterisation Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

October 4, 2004 Abstract Atmospheric aerosol particles scatter and absorb shortwave (solar) radiation and... of the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract No....

44

E-Print Network 3.0 - aerosols influencing atmospheric Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

October 4, 2004 Abstract Atmospheric aerosol particles scatter and absorb shortwave (solar) radiation and... influencing cloud reflectance and precipitation formation. The...

45

E-Print Network 3.0 - atmospheric aerosol properties Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

October 4, 2004 Abstract Atmospheric aerosol particles scatter and absorb shortwave (solar) radiation and... the industrial period, largely on account of uncertainties in the...

46

Aerosol remote sensing in polar regions  

DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

Multi-year sets of ground-based sun-photometer measurements conducted at 12 Arctic sites and 9 Antarctic sites were examined to determine daily mean values of aerosol optical thickness ?(?) at visible and near-infrared wavelengths, from which best-fit values of Ångström's exponent ? were calculated. Analysing these data, the monthly mean values of ?(0.50 ?m) and ? and the relative frequency histograms of the daily mean values of both parameters were determined for winter–spring and summer–autumn in the Arctic and for austral summer in Antarctica. The Arctic and Antarctic covariance plots of the seasonal median values of ? versus ?(0.50 ?m) showed: (i) a considerable increase in ?(0.50 ?m) for the Arctic aerosol from summer to winter–spring, without marked changes in ?; and (ii) a marked increase in ?(0.50 ?m) passing from the Antarctic Plateau to coastal sites, whereas ? decreased considerably due to the larger fraction of sea-salt aerosol. Good agreement was found when comparing ground-based sun-photometer measurements of ?(?) and ? at Arctic and Antarctic coastal sites with Microtops measurements conducted during numerous AERONET/MAN cruises from 2006 to 2013 in three Arctic Ocean sectors and in coastal and off-shore regions of the Southern Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans, and the Antarctic Peninsula. Lidar measurements were also examined to characterise vertical profiles of the aerosol backscattering coefficient measured throughout the year at Ny-Ålesund. Satellite-based MODIS, MISR, and AATSR retrievals of ?(?) over large parts of the oceanic polar regions during spring and summer were in close agreement with ship-borne and coastal ground-based sun-photometer measurements. An overview of the chemical composition of mode particles is also presented, based on in-situ measurements at Arctic and Antarctic sites. Fourteen log-normal aerosol number size-distributions were defined to represent the average features of nuclei, accumulation and coarse mode particles for Arctic haze, summer background aerosol, Asian dust and boreal forest fire smoke, and for various background austral summer aerosol types at coastal and high-altitude Antarctic sites. The main columnar aerosol optical characteristics were determined for all 14 particle modes, based on in-situ measurements of the scattering and absorption coefficients. Diurnally averaged direct aerosol-induced radiative forcing and efficiency were calculated for a set of multimodal aerosol extinction models, using various Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function models over vegetation-covered, oceanic and snow-covered surfaces. These gave a reliable measure of the pronounced effects of aerosols on the radiation balance of the surface–atmosphere system over polar regions.

Tomasi, C.; Wagener, R.; Kokhanovsky, A. A.; Lupi, A.; Ritter, C.; Smirnov, A.; O Neill, N. T.; Stone, R. S.; Holben, B. N.; Nyeki, S.; Wehrli, C.; Stohl, A.; Mazzola, M.; Lanconelli, C.; Vitale, V.; Stebel, K.; Aaltonen, V.; de Leeuw, G.; Rodriguez, E.; Herber, A. B.; Radionov, V. F.; Zielinski, T.; Petelski, T.; Sakerin, S. M.; Kabanov, D. M.; Xue, Y.; Mei, L.; Istomina, L.; Wagener, R.; McArthur, B.; Sobolewski, P. S.; Kivi, R.; Courcoux, Y.; Larouche, P.; Broccardo, S.; Piketh, S. J.

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

47

EMSL - aerosols  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

aerosols en Magnesium behavior and structural defects in Mg+ ion implanted silicon carbide. http:www.emsl.pnl.govemslwebpublicationsmagnesium-behavior-and-structural-defects-m...

48

Composition for absorbing hydrogen  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A hydrogen absorbing composition is described. The composition comprises a porous glass matrix, made by a sol-gel process, having a hydrogen-absorbing material dispersed throughout the matrix. A sol, made from tetraethyl orthosilicate, is mixed with a hydrogen-absorbing material and solidified to form a porous glass matrix with the hydrogen-absorbing material dispersed uniformly throughout the matrix. The glass matrix has pores large enough to allow gases having hydrogen to pass through the matrix, yet small enough to hold the particles dispersed within the matrix so that the hydrogen-absorbing particles are not released during repeated hydrogen absorption/desorption cycles.

Heung, L.K.; Wicks, G.G.; Enz, G.L.

1995-05-02T23:59:59.000Z

49

REPRESENTING AEROSOL DYNAMICS AND PROPERTIES IN CHEMICAL TRANSPORT MODELS BY THE METHOD OF MOMENTS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

understanding of the key processes that govern the aerosol size distribution: · Gas-to-particle conversion--conversion, suspensions of solid or liquid particles, are an important multi- phase system. Aerosols scatter and absorb retrospectively and prospectively for different emissions scenarios. Important aerosol properties and processes

50

Liquid Hydrogen Absorber for MICE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

REFERENCES Figure 5: Liquid hydrogen absorber and test6: Cooling time of liquid hydrogen absorber. Eight CernoxLIQUID HYDROGEN ABSORBER FOR MICE S. Ishimoto, S. Suzuki, M.

Ishimoto, S.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

51

AEROSOL, CLOUDS, AND CLIMATE CHANGE  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Earth's climate is thought to be quite sensitive to changes in radiative fluxes that are quite small in absolute magnitude, a few watts per square meter, and in relation to these fluxes in the natural climate. Atmospheric aerosol particles exert influence on climate directly, by scattering and absorbing radiation, and indirectly by modifying the microphysical properties of clouds and in turn their radiative effects and hydrology. The forcing of climate change by these indirect effects is thought to be quite substantial relative to forcing by incremental concentrations of greenhouse gases, but highly uncertain. Quantification of aerosol indirect forcing by satellite- or ground-based remote sensing has proved quite difficult in view of inherent large variation in the pertinent observables such as cloud optical depth, which is controlled mainly by liquid water path and only secondarily by aerosols. Limited work has shown instances of large magnitude of aerosol indirect forcing, with local instantaneous forcing upwards of 50 W m{sup 66}-2. Ultimately it will be necessary to represent aerosol indirect effects in climate models to accurately identify the anthropogenic forcing at present and over secular time and to assess the influence of this forcing in the context of other forcings of climate change. While the elements of aerosol processes that must be represented in models describing the evolution and properties of aerosol particles that serve as cloud condensation particles are known, many important components of these processes remain to be understood and to be represented in models, and the models evaluated against observation, before such model-based representations can confidently be used to represent aerosol indirect effects in climate models.

SCHWARTZ, S.E.

2005-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

52

Externally tuned vibration absorber  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A vibration absorber unit or units are mounted on the exterior housing of a hydraulic drive system of the type that is powered from a pressure wave generated, e.g., by a Stirling engine. The hydraulic drive system employs a piston which is hydraulically driven to oscillate in a direction perpendicular to the axis of the hydraulic drive system. The vibration absorbers each include a spring or other resilient member having one side affixed to the housing and another side to which an absorber mass is affixed. In a preferred embodiment, a pair of vibration absorbers is employed, each absorber being formed of a pair of leaf spring assemblies, between which the absorber mass is suspended.

Vincent, Ronald J. (Latham, NY)

1987-09-22T23:59:59.000Z

53

Methods for absorbing neutrons  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A conduction cooled neutron absorber may include a metal matrix composite that comprises a metal having a thermal neutron cross-section of at least about 50 barns and a metal having a thermal conductivity of at least about 1 W/cmK. Apparatus for providing a neutron flux having a high fast-to-thermal neutron ratio may include a source of neutrons that produces fast neutrons and thermal neutrons. A neutron absorber positioned adjacent the neutron source absorbs at least some of the thermal neutrons so that a region adjacent the neutron absorber has a fast-to-thermal neutron ratio of at least about 15. A coolant in thermal contact with the neutron absorber removes heat from the neutron absorber.

Guillen, Donna P. (Idaho Falls, ID); Longhurst, Glen R. (Idaho Falls, ID); Porter, Douglas L. (Idaho Falls, ID); Parry, James R. (Idaho Falls, ID)

2012-07-24T23:59:59.000Z

54

Atmospheric Aerosol Systems | EMSL  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Science Themes Atmospheric Aerosol Systems Overview Atmospheric Aerosol Systems Biosystem Dynamics & Design Energy Materials & Processes Terrestrial & Subsurface Ecosystems...

55

Carbon monoxide absorbing liquid  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The present disclosure is directed to a carbon monoxide absorbing liquid containing a cuprous ion, hydrochloric acid and titanum trichloride. Titanium trichloride is effective in increasing the carbon monoxide absorption quantity. Furthermore, titanium trichloride remarkably increases the oxygen resistance. Therefore, this absorbing liquid can be used continuously and for a long time.

Arikawa, Y.; Horigome, S.; Kanehori, K.; Katsumoto, M.

1981-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

56

Advanced neutron absorber materials  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A neutron absorbing material and method utilizing rare earth elements such as gadolinium, europium and samarium to form metallic glasses and/or noble base nano/microcrystalline materials, the neutron absorbing material having a combination of superior neutron capture cross sections coupled with enhanced resistance to corrosion, oxidation and leaching.

Branagan, Daniel J. (Idaho Falls, ID); Smolik, Galen R. (Idaho Falls, ID)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

57

Internal absorber solar collector  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Thin solar collecting panels are described made from arrays of small rod collectors consisting of a refracting dielectric rod lens with an absorber imbedded within it and a reflecting mirror coated on the back side of the dielectric rod. Non-tracking collector panels on vertical walls or roof tops receive approximately 90% of solar radiation within an acceptance zone 60.degree. in elevation angle by 120.degree. or more in the azimuth sectors with a collector concentration ratio of approximately 3.0. Miniaturized construction of the circular dielectric rods with internal absorbers reduces the weight per area of glass, plastic and metal used in the collector panels. No external parts or insulation are needed as heat losses are low due to partial vacuum or low conductivity gas surrounding heated portions of the collector. The miniature internal absorbers are generally made of solid copper with black selective surface and the collected solar heat is extracted at the collector ends by thermal conductivity along the absorber rods. Heat is removed from end fittings by use of liquid circulants. Several alternate constructions are provided for simplifying collector panel fabrication and for preventing the thermal expansion and contraction of the heated absorber or circulant tubes from damaging vacuum seals. In a modified version of the internal absorber collector, oil with temperature dependent viscosity is pumped through a segmented absorber which is now composed of closely spaced insulated metal tubes. In this way the circulant is automatically diverted through heated portions of the absorber giving higher collector concentration ratios than theoretically possible for an unsegmented absorber.

Sletten, Carlyle J. (106 Nagog Hill Rd., Acton, MA 01720); Herskovitz, Sheldon B. (88 Hammond St., Acton, MA 01720); Holt, F. S. (46 Emerson Rd., Winchester, MA 01890); Sletten, E. J. (Chestnut Hill Rd. R.F.D. Rte. #4, Amherst, NH 03031)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

58

Durability of NOx Absorbers  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Exhaust Flow Through Catalyst During Regen From Engine NOx Absorber Oxidation Catalyst Reactor 1 in Sorption Mode Reactor 2 in Regen Mode Open Valve Closed Valve Diesel Fuel In...

59

Absorbance modulation optical lithography  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this thesis, the concept of absorbance-modulation optical lithography (AMOL) is described, and the feasibility experimentally verified. AMOL is an implementation of nodal lithography, which is not bounded by the diffraction ...

Tsai, Hsin-Yu Sidney

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

Light Absorption by Secondary Organic Aerosol from ?-Pinene: Effects of Oxidants, Seed Aerosol Acidity, and Relative Humidity  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

It is well known that light absorption from dust and black carbon aerosols has a warming effect on climate while light scattering from sulfate, nitrate, and sea salt aerosols has a cooling effect. However, there are large uncertainties associated with light absorption and scattering by different types of organic aerosols, especially in the near-UV and UV spectral regions. In this paper, we present the results from a systematic laboratory study focused on measuring light absorption by secondary organic aerosols (SOA) generated from ozonolysis or NO3 oxidation of ?-pinene in the presence of neutral and acidic sulfate seed aerosols. Light absorption was monitored using photoacoustic spectrometers at four different wavelengths: 355, 405, 532 and 870 nm. Light absorption at 355 and 405 nm was observed by SOA generated from oxidation of ?-pinene in the presence of acidic sulfate seed aerosols, under dry conditions. No absorption was observed when the relative humidity was elevated to greater than 27%, or in the presence of neutral sulfate seed aerosols. The light-absorbing compounds are speculated to be aldol condensation oligomers with organosulfate and organic nitrate groups. The results of this study also indicate that organic nitrates from ?-pinene SOA formed in the presence of neutral sulfate seed aerosols do not appear to absorb near-UV and UV radiation.

Song, Chen; Gyawali, Madhu S.; Zaveri, Rahul A.; Shilling, John E.; Arnott, W. Patrick

2013-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high-altitude absorbing aerosols" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

E-Print Network 3.0 - aerosol particle concentration Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

and absorb shortwave (solar) radiation and... of the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC02-98CH10886. AEROSOLS AND CLIMATE CHANGE... -5000 October 2004 Presented at...

62

E-Print Network 3.0 - atmospheric aerosol concentration Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

and absorb shortwave (solar) radiation and... of the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC02-98CH10886. AEROSOLS AND CLIMATE CHANGE... : A TUTORIAL S. E. Schwartz...

63

E-Print Network 3.0 - atmospheric aerosol desarrollo Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

and absorb shortwave (solar) radiation and... of the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC02-98CH10886. AEROSOLS AND CLIMATE CHANGE... : A TUTORIAL S. E. Schwartz...

64

E-Print Network 3.0 - affect atmospheric aerosols Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

and absorb shortwave (solar) radiation and... of the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC02-98CH10886. AEROSOLS AND CLIMATE CHANGE... : A TUTORIAL S. E. Schwartz...

65

Neutron Absorbing Alloys  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention is drawn to new classes of advanced neutron absorbing structural materials for use in spent nuclear fuel applications requiring structural strength, weldability, and long term corrosion resistance. Particularly, an austenitic stainless steel alloy containing gadolinium and less than 5% of a ferrite content is disclosed. Additionally, a nickel-based alloy containing gadolinium and greater than 50% nickel is also disclosed.

Mizia, Ronald E. (Idaho Falls, ID); Shaber, Eric L. (Idaho Falls, ID); DuPont, John N. (Whitehall, PA); Robino, Charles V. (Albuquerque, NM); Williams, David B. (Bethlehem, PA)

2004-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

66

Aerosol products from GOME-2 on Metop-A: development and status report  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of UV-absorbing aerosols. It is mostly sensitive to desert dust aerosols (DDA) and biomass burning, caused by instrument degradation, had to be removed from the GOME-2 AAI. Figure B. GOME-2 AAI versus degradation Instrument degradation is an annoying phenomenon affecting the AAI. Figure F presents the global

Graaf, Martin de

67

Point and column aerosol radiative closure during ACE 1: Effects of particle shape and size  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

impact the earth's climate and photo- chemistry by directly scattering and absorbing solar radia- tion these impacts [e.g., Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, 2001]. Because of the short temporal and spatial scales of aerosol heterogeneity, numerical models of aerosol optical behavior are required to make

68

Optical Properties of Mixed Black Carbon, Inorganic and Secondary Organic Aerosols  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Summarizes the achievements of the project, which are divided into four areas: 1) Optical properties of secondary organic aerosols; 2) Development and of a polar nephelometer to measure aerosol optical properties and theoretical approaches to several optical analysis problems, 3) Studies on the accuracy of measurements of absorbing carbon by several methods, and 4) Environmental impacts of biodiesel.

Paulson, S E

2012-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

69

Development and Characterization of a Thermodenuder for Aerosol Volatility Measurements  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This SBIR Phase I project addressed the critical need for improved characterization of carbonaceous aerosol species in the atmosphere. The proposed work focused on the development of a thermodenuder (TD) system capable of systematically measuring volatility profiles of primary and secondary organic aerosol species and providing insight into the effects of absorbing and nonabsorbing organic coatings on particle absorption properties. This work provided the fundamental framework for the generation of essential information needed for improved predictions of ambient aerosol loadings and radiative properties by atmospheric chemistry models. As part of this work, Aerodyne Research, Inc. (ARI) continued to develop and test, with the final objective of commercialization, an improved thermodenuder system that can be used in series with any aerosol instrument or suite of instruments (e.g., aerosol mass spectrometers-AMS, scanning mobility particle sizers-SMPS, photoacoustic absorption spectrometers-PAS, etc.) to obtain aerosol chemical, physical, and optical properties as a function of particle volatility. In particular, we provided the proof of concept for the direct coupling of our improved TD design with a full microphysical model to obtain volatility profiles for different organic aerosol components and to allow for meaningful comparisons between different TD-derived aerosol measurements. In a TD, particles are passed through a heated zone and a denuding (activated charcoal) zone to remove semi-volatile material. Changes in particle size, number concentration, optical absorption, and chemical composition are subsequently detected with aerosol instrumentation. The aerosol volatility profiles provided by the TD will strengthen organic aerosol emission inventories, provide further insight into secondary aerosol formation mechanisms, and provide an important measure of particle absorption (including brown carbon contributions and identification, and absorption enhancements due to coatings on soot particles). The successfully completed Phase I project included construction of a prototype design for the TD with detailed physical modeling, testing with laboratory and ambient aerosol particles, and the initiation of a detailed microphysical model of the aerosol particles passing through the TD to extract vapor pressure distributions. The objective of the microphysical model is to derive vapor pressure distributions (i.e. vapor pressure ranges, including single chemical compounds, mixtures of known compounds, and complex ‘real-world’ aerosols, such as SOA, and soot particles with absorbing and nonabsorbing coatings) from TD measurements of changes in particle size, mass, and chemical composition for known TD temperatures and flow rates (i.e. residence times). The proposed Phase II project was designed to optimize several TD systems for different instrument applications and to combine the hardware and modeling into a robust package for commercial sales.

Dr. Timothy Onasch

2009-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

70

Corrosion resistant neutron absorbing coatings  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of forming a corrosion resistant neutron absorbing coating comprising the steps of spray or deposition or sputtering or welding processing to form a composite material made of a spray or deposition or sputtering or welding material, and a neutron absorbing material. Also a corrosion resistant neutron absorbing coating comprising a composite material made of a spray or deposition or sputtering or welding material, and a neutron absorbing material.

Choi, Jor-Shan; Farmer, Joseph C; Lee, Chuck K; Walker, Jeffrey; Russell, Paige; Kirkwood, Jon; Yang, Nancy; Champagne, Victor

2013-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

71

Corrosion resistant neutron absorbing coatings  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of forming a corrosion resistant neutron absorbing coating comprising the steps of spray or deposition or sputtering or welding processing to form a composite material made of a spray or deposition or sputtering or welding material, and a neutron absorbing material. Also a corrosion resistant neutron absorbing coating comprising a composite material made of a spray or deposition or sputtering or welding material, and a neutron absorbing material.

Choi, Jor-Shan (El Cerrito, CA); Farmer, Joseph C. (Tracy, CA); Lee, Chuck K. (Hayward, CA); Walker, Jeffrey (Gaithersburg, MD); Russell, Paige (Las Vegas, NV); Kirkwood, Jon (Saint Leonard, MD); Yang, Nancy (Lafayette, CA); Champagne, Victor (Oxford, PA)

2012-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

72

Synthesis of information on aerosol optical properties Hongqing Liu,1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

revealed a significant decrease in sur- face solar heating due to the presence of absorbing aerosols, which spectral dependence derived from AERONET retrievals. The asymmetry parameter over the solar spectrum radiation balance [Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, 2001]. Their potential to increase reflected

Chin, Mian

73

Improved solid aerosol generator  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An improved solid aerosol generator used to produce a gas borne stream of dry, solid particles of predetermined size and concentration. The improved solid aerosol generator nebulizes a feed solution of known concentration with a flow of preheated gas and dries the resultant wet heated aerosol in a grounded, conical heating chamber, achieving high recovery and flow rates. 2 figs.

Prescott, D.S.; Schober, R.K.; Beller, J.

1988-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

74

Broadband patterned magnetic microwave absorber  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

It is a tough task to greatly improve the working bandwidth for the traditional flat microwave absorbers because of the restriction of available material parameters. In this work, a simple patterning method is proposed to drastically broaden the absorption bandwidth of a conventional magnetic absorber. As a demonstration, an ultra-broadband microwave absorber with more than 90% absorption in the frequency range of 4–40 GHz is designed and experimentally realized, which has a thin thickness of 3.7?mm and a light weight equivalent to a 2-mm-thick flat absorber. In such a patterned absorber, the broadband strong absorption is mainly originated from the simultaneous incorporation of multiple ?/4 resonances and edge diffraction effects. This work provides a facile route to greatly extend the microwave absorption bandwidth for the currently available absorbing materials.

Li, Wei; Wu, Tianlong; Wang, Wei; Guan, Jianguo, E-mail: guanjg@whut.edu.cn [State Key Lab of Advanced Technology for Materials Synthesis and Processing, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China); Zhai, Pengcheng [School of Science, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China)

2014-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

75

STUDYING TRENDS IN AEROSOL PRESENCE USING THE ABSORBING AEROSOL INDEX DERIVED FROM  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

instrument degradation in the ultraviolet (UV) wavelength range from which the AAI is derived. To be able to perform a reliable analysis on the AAI time series, we first remove the effects of instrument degradation, it is possible to accurately remove the effects of instrument degradation and to combine the AAI data from

Graaf, Martin de

76

Aerosol Retrievals from ARM SGP MFRSR Data  

DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

The Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR) makes precise simultaneous measurements of the solar direct normal and diffuse horizontal irradiances at six wavelengths (nominally 415, 500, 615, 673, 870, and 940 nm) at short intervals (20 sec for ARM instruments) throughout the day. Time series of spectral optical depth are derived from these measurements. Besides water vapor at 940 nm, the other gaseous absorbers within the MFRSR channels are NO2 (at 415, 500, and 615 nm) and ozone (at 500, 615, and 670 nm). Aerosols and Rayleigh scattering contribute atmospheric extinction in all MFRSR channels. Our recently updated MFRSR data analysis algorithm allows us to partition the spectral aerosol optical depth into fine and coarse modes and to retrieve the fine mode effective radius. In this approach we rely on climatological amounts of NO2 from SCIAMACHY satellite retrievals and use daily ozone columns from TOMS.

Alexandrov, Mikhail

77

An optimal fitting approach to improve the GISS ModelE aerosol optical property parameterization using AERONET data  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and absorbing solar radiation and the indirect effect by interacting with water vapor to affect cloud formation and lifetime. Absorbing aerosols also have the semidirect effect by heating the atmosphere layer, reducing; Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, 2001]. [3] Globalscale models, which simulate the emission, transport

78

Direct and semidirect aerosol effects of Southern African biomass burning aerosol  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The direct and semi-direct radiative effects of biomass burning aerosols from Southern African fires during July-October are investigated using 20 year runs of the Community Atmospheric Model (CAM) coupled to a slab ocean model. The aerosol optical depth is constrained using observations in clear skies from MODIS and for aerosol layers above clouds from CALIPSO. Over the ocean, where the absorbing biomass burning aerosol layers are primarily located above cloud, negative top of atmosphere (TOA) semi-direct radiative effects associated with increased low cloud cover dominate over a weaker positive all-sky direct radiative effect (DRE). In contrast, over the land where the aerosols are often below or within cloud layers, reductions in cloud liquid water path (LWP) lead to a positive semi-direct radiative effect that dominates over a near-zero DRE. Over the ocean, the cloud response can be understood as a response to increased lower tropospheric stability (LTS) which is caused both by aerosol absorptive warming in overlying layers and surface cooling in response to direct aerosol forcing. The ocean cloud changes are robust to changes in the cloud parameterization (removal of the hard-wired dependence of clouds on LTS), suggesting that they are physically realistic. Over land where cloud cover changes are minimal, decreased LWP is consistent with weaker convection driven by increased static stability. Over the entire region the overall TOA radiative effect from the biomass burning aerosols is almost zero due to opposing effects over the land and ocean. However, the surface forcing is strongly negative requiring a reduction in precipitation. This is primarily realized through reductions in convective precipitation on both the southern and northern flanks of the convective precipitation region spanning the equatorial rainforest and the ITCZ in the southern Sahel. The changes are consistent with the low-level aerosol forced cooling pattern. The results highlight the importance of semi-direct radiative effects and precipitation responses for determining the climatic effects of aerosols in the African region.

Sakaeda, Naoko; Wood, Robert; Rasch, Philip J.

2011-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

79

Method of dispersing particulate aerosol tracer  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A particulate aerosol tracer which comprises a particulate carrier of sheet silicate composition having a particle size up to one micron, and a cationic dopant chemically absorbed in solid solution in the carrier. The carrier is preferably selected from the group consisting of natural mineral clays such as bentonite, and the dopant is selected from the group consisting of rare earth elements and transition elements. The tracers are dispersed by forming an aqueous salt solution with the dopant present as cations, dispersing the carriers in the solution, and then atomizing the solution under heat sufficient to superheat the solution droplets at a level sufficient to prevent reagglomeration of the carrier particles.

O'Holleran, Thomas P. (Belleville, MI)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

Countercurrent flow absorber and desorber  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Countercurrent flow absorber and desorber devices are provided for use in absorption cycle refrigeration systems and thermal boosting systems. The devices have increased residence time and surface area resulting in improved heat and mass transfer characteristics. The apparatuses may be incorporated into open cycle thermal boosting systems in which steam serves both as the refrigerant vapor which is supplied to the absorber section and as the supply of heat to drive the desorber section of the system. 9 figs.

Wilkinson, W.H.

1984-10-16T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high-altitude absorbing aerosols" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Countercurrent flow absorber and desorber  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Countercurrent flow absorber and desorber devices are provided for use in absorption cycle refrigeration systems and thermal boosting systems. The devices have increased residence time and surface area resulting in improved heat and mass transfer characteristics. The apparatuses may be incorporated into open cycle thermal boosting systems in which steam serves both as the refrigerant vapor which is supplied to the absorber section and as the supply of heat to drive the desorber section of the system.

Wilkinson, William H. (Columbus, OH)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

82

Crossing the Transition Region High Altitude Observatory,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

: enhanced emission at TR temperatures Much lower density in umbra and plume: (log(Ne/cm 3)=10 Lyman line profiles not reversed in umbra and plume TR above sunspots is higher and probably more extended than in the surrounding plage region ------plage -.-.-.penumbra ......umbra ____plume #12;Outline Recent observations

83

Direct Aerosol Forcing Uncertainty  

DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

Understanding sources of uncertainty in aerosol direct radiative forcing (DRF), the difference in a given radiative flux component with and without aerosol, is essential to quantifying changes in Earth's radiation budget. We examine the uncertainty in DRF due to measurement uncertainty in the quantities on which it depends: aerosol optical depth, single scattering albedo, asymmetry parameter, solar geometry, and surface albedo. Direct radiative forcing at the top of the atmosphere and at the surface as well as sensitivities, the changes in DRF in response to unit changes in individual aerosol or surface properties, are calculated at three locations representing distinct aerosol types and radiative environments. The uncertainty in DRF associated with a given property is computed as the product of the sensitivity and typical measurement uncertainty in the respective aerosol or surface property. Sensitivity and uncertainty values permit estimation of total uncertainty in calculated DRF and identification of properties that most limit accuracy in estimating forcing. Total uncertainties in modeled local diurnally averaged forcing range from 0.2 to 1.3 W m-2 (42 to 20%) depending on location (from tropical to polar sites), solar zenith angle, surface reflectance, aerosol type, and aerosol optical depth. The largest contributor to total uncertainty in DRF is usually single scattering albedo; however decreasing measurement uncertainties for any property would increase accuracy in DRF. Comparison of two radiative transfer models suggests the contribution of modeling error is small compared to the total uncertainty although comparable to uncertainty arising from some individual properties.

Mccomiskey, Allison

84

ARM: 1-minute Raman Lidar: aerosol extinction profiles and aerosol optical thickness, from first Ferrare algorithm  

DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

1-minute Raman Lidar: aerosol extinction profiles and aerosol optical thickness, from first Ferrare algorithm

Sivaraman, Chitra; Flynn, Connor

85

ARM: 10-minute Raman Lidar: aerosol extinction profiles and aerosol optical thickness, from first Ferrare algorithm  

DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

10-minute Raman Lidar: aerosol extinction profiles and aerosol optical thickness, from first Ferrare algorithm

Newsom, Rob; Goldsmith, John

86

Modal aerosol dynamics modeling  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The report presents the governing equations for representing aerosol dynamics, based on several different representations of the aerosol size distribution. Analytical and numerical solution techniques for these governing equations are also reviewed. Described in detail is a computationally efficient numerical technique for simulating aerosol behavior in systems undergoing simultaneous heat transfer, fluid flow, and mass transfer in and between the gas and condensed phases. The technique belongs to a general class of models known as modal aerosol dynamics (MAD) models. These models solve for the temporal and spatial evolution of the particle size distribution function. Computational efficiency is achieved by representing the complete aerosol population as a sum of additive overlapping populations (modes), and solving for the time rate of change of integral moments of each mode. Applications of MAD models for simulating aerosol dynamics in continuous stirred tank aerosol reactors and flow aerosol reactors are provided. For the application to flow aerosol reactors, the discussion is developed in terms of considerations for merging a MAD model with the SIMPLER routine described by Patankar (1980). Considerations for incorporating a MAD model into the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Regional Particulate Model are also described. Numerical and analytical techniques for evaluating the size-space integrals of the modal dynamics equations (MDEs) are described. For multimodal logonormal distributions, an analytical expression for the coagulation integrals of the MDEs, applicable for all size regimes, is derived, and is within 20% of accurate numerical evaluation of the same moment coagulation integrals. A computationally efficient integration technique, based on Gauss-Hermite numerical integration, is also derived.

Whitby, E.R.; McMurry, P.H.; Shankar, U.; Binkowski, F.S.

1991-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

Damage tolerant light absorbing material  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A light absorbing article comprised of a composite of carbon-bonded carbon fibers, is prepared by: blending carbon fibers with a carbonizable organic powder to form a mixture; dispersing the mixture into an aqueous slurry; vacuum molding the aqueous slurry to form a green article; drying and curing the green article to form a cured article; and, carbonizing the cured article at a temperature of at least about 1000 C to form a carbon-bonded carbon fiber light absorbing composite article having a bulk density less than 1 g/cm[sup 3]. 9 figures.

Lauf, R.J.; Hamby, C. Jr.; Akerman, M.A.; Seals, R.D.

1993-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

88

Damage tolerant light absorbing material  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A light absorbing article comprised of a composite of carbon-bonded carbon fibers, prepared by: blending carbon fibers with a carbonizable organic powder to form a mixture; dispersing the mixture into an aqueous slurry; vacuum molding the aqueous slurry to form a green article; drying and curing the green article to form a cured article; and, carbonizing the cured article at a temperature of at least about 1000.degree. C. to form a carbon-bonded carbon fiber light absorbing composite article having a bulk density less than 1 g/cm.sup.3.

Lauf, Robert J. (Oak Ridge, TN); Hamby, Jr., Clyde (Harriman, TN); Akerman, M. Alfred (Knoxville, TN); Seals, Roland D. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

Perfectly Reflectionless Omnidirectional Electromagnetic Absorber  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We demonstrate the existence of metamaterial blueprints describing, and fundamental limitations concerning, perfectly reflectionless omnidirectional electromagnetic absorbers (PR-OEMA). Previous attempts to define PR-OEMA blueprints have led to active (gain), rather than passive, media. We explain this fact and unveil new, distinct limitations of true PR-OEMA devices including the appearance of an "electromagnetic horizon" on physical solutions. As practical alternatives, we introduce two new OEMA blueprints. While these two blueprints do not correspond to reflectionless media, they are effective in absorbing incident waves in a manner robust to incident wave diversity.

Sainath, Kamalesh

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

90

Aerosol Cans? -Aerosol cans use a pressurized  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

? - The waste generated in the processing of images/photos contains silver. Silver is a toxic heavy metal the product. Propellants are often flammable and/or toxic. Therefore, never store aerosol cans near ignition of this pamphlet. -Carefully transfer the old paint thinner from the one gallon closable can to the 30 gallon metal

Jia, Songtao

91

Aerosol Sampler Operations Manual  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-1123 Laboratory FAX (916) 752-4107 Standard Operating Procedures Technical Information Document TI 201A #12;TI 201.................................................................................................................................................. 3 1.0 Weekly Maintenance ProceduresIMPROVE Aerosol Sampler Operations Manual February 10, 1997 Air Quality Group Crocker Nuclear

Fischer, Emily V.

92

The impact of biogenic carbon emissions on aerosol absorption inMexico City  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In order to determine the wavelength dependence of atmospheric aerosol absorption in the Mexico City area, the absorption angstrom exponents (AAEs) were calculated from aerosol absorption measurements at seven wavelengths obtained with a seven-channel aethalometer during two field campaigns, the Mexico City Metropolitan Area study in April 2003 (MCMA 2003) and the Megacity Initiative: Local and Global Research Observations in March 2006 (MILAGRO). The AAEs varied from 0.76 to 1.56 in 2003 and from 0.54 to 1.52 in 2006. The AAE values determined in the afternoon were consistently higher than the corresponding morning values, suggesting the photochemical formation of absorbing secondary organic aerosols (SOA) in the afternoon. The AAE values were compared to stable and radiocarbon isotopic measurements of aerosol samples collected at the same time to determine the sources of the aerosol carbon. The fraction of modern carbon (fM) in the aerosol samples, as determined from {sup 14}C analysis, showed that 70% of the carbonaceous aerosols in Mexico City were from modern sources, indicating a significant impact from biomass burning during both field campaigns. The {sup 13}C/{sup 12}C ratios of the aerosol samples illustrate the significant impact of Yucatan forest fires (C-3 plants) in 2003 and local grass fires (C-4 plants) at site T1 in 2006. A direct comparison of the fM values, stable carbon isotope ratios, and calculated aerosol AAEs suggested that the wavelength dependence of the aerosol absorption was controlled by the biogenically derived aerosol components.

Marley, N; Gaffney, J; Tackett, M J; Sturchio, N; Hearty, L; Martinez, N; Hardy, K D; Machany-Rivera, A; Guilderson, T P; MacMillan, A; Steelman, K

2009-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

93

5, 79658026, 2005 Simulating aerosol  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

composition, number concentration, and size distribution of the global submicrometer aerosol. The present, coagulation, condensation, nucleation of sulfuric acid vapor, aerosol chemistry, cloud processing, and sizeACPD 5, 7965­8026, 2005 Simulating aerosol microphysics with ECHAM/MADE A. Lauer et al. Title Page

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

94

Aerosol engineering: design and stability of aerosol reactors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A theoretical study of the performance of aerosol reactors is presented. The goals of this study are (1) to identify the appropriate reactor types (batch, CSTR, and tubular) for production of aerosol with specific properties (for example, uniform size particles, high aerosol surface area, etc.) and (2) to investigate the effect of various process parameters on product aerosol characteristics and on the stability of operation of aerosol reactors. In all the reactors considered, the aerosol dynamics were detemined by chemical reaction, nucleation, and aerosol growth in the free molecule regime in the absence of coagulation at isothermal conditions. Formulation of the aerosol dynamics in terms of moments of the aerosol size distribution facilitated the numerical solution of the resulting systems of ordinary or partial differential equations. The stability characteristics of a continuous stirred tank aerosol reactor (CSTAR) were investigated since experimental data in the literature indicate that under certain conditions this reactor exhibits oscillatory behavior with respect to product aerosol concentration and size distribution.

Pratsinis, S.E.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

95

Highly stable aerosol generator  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An improved compressed air nebulizer has been developed such that a uniform aerosol particle size and concentration may be produced over long time periods. This result is achieved by applying a vacuum pressure to the makeup assembly and by use of a vent tube between the atmosphere and the makeup solution. By applying appropriate vacuum pressures to the makeup solution container and by proper positioning of the vent tube, a constant level of aspirating solution may be maintained within the aspirating assembly with aspirating solution continuously replaced from the makeup solution supply. This device may also be adapted to have a plurality of aerosol generators and only one central makeup assembly. 2 figs.

DeFord, H.S.; Clark, M.L.

1981-11-03T23:59:59.000Z

96

Porcelain enamel neutron absorbing material  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A porcelain enamel composition as a neutron absorbing material can be prepared of a major proportion by weight of a cadmium compound and a minor proportion of compounds of boron, lithium and silicon. These compounds in the form of a porcelain enamel coating or layer on several alloys has been found to be particularly effective in enhancing the nuclear safety of equipment for use in the processing and storage of fissile material. The composition of the porcelain enamel coating can be tailored to match the coefficient of thermal expansion of the equipment to be coated and excellent coating adhesion can be achieved.

Iverson, Daniel C. (Aiken, SC)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

Porcelain enamel neutron absorbing material  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A porcelain enamel composition as a neutron absorbing material can be prepared of a major proportion by weight of a cadmium compound and a minor proportion of compound of boron, lithium and silicon. These compounds in the form of a porcelain enamel coating or layer on several alloys has been found to be particularly effective in enhancing the nuclear safety of equipment for use in the processing and storage of fissile material. The composition of the porcelain enamel coating can be tailored to match the coefficient of thermal expansion of the equipment to be coated and excellent coating adhesion can be achieved. 2 figs.

Iverson, D.C.

1987-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

98

Vadose Zone Soil Moisture Wicking Using Super Absorbent Polymers...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Vadose Zone Soil Moisture Wicking Using Super Absorbent Polymers. Vadose Zone Soil Moisture Wicking Using Super Absorbent Polymers. Abstract: Super-absorbent polymers (SAPs) have...

99

Electrostatics and radioactive aerosol behavior  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Radioactive aerosols differ from their nonradioactive counterparts by their ability to charge themselves by emitting charged particles during the radioactive decay process. Evidence that electrostatics, including this charging process, can affect the transport of the aerosols was summarized previously. Charge distributions and the mean charge for a monodisperse radioactive aerosol have been considered in detail. The principal results of theory to calculate charge distributions on a aerosol with a size distribution, changes to Brownian coagulation rates for an aerosol in a reactor containment, and possible changes to aerosol deposition resulting from the charging will be presented. The main purpose of the work has been to improve calculations of aerosol behavior in reactor containments, but behavior in less ionizing environments will be affected more strongly, and some problems remain to be solved in performing reliable calculations.

Clement, C.F.

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

100

Chapter 3: Evaluating the impacts of carbonaceous aerosols on clouds and climate  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Any attempt to reconcile observed surface temperature changes within the last 150 years to changes simulated by climate models that include various atmospheric forcings is sensitive to the changes attributed to aerosols and aerosol-cloud-climate interactions, which are the main contributors that may well balance the positive forcings associated with greenhouse gases, absorbing aerosols, ozone related changes, etc. These aerosol effects on climate, from various modeling studies discussed in Menon (2004), range from +0.8 to -2.4 W m{sup -2}, with an implied value of -1.0 W m{sup -2} (range from -0.5 to -4.5 W m{sup -2}) for the aerosol indirect effects. Quantifying the contribution of aerosols and aerosol-cloud interactions remain complicated for several reasons some of which are related to aerosol distributions and some to the processes used to represent their effects on clouds. Aerosol effects on low lying marine stratocumulus clouds that cover much of the Earth's surface (about 70%) have been the focus of most of prior aerosol-cloud interaction effect simulations. Since cumulus clouds (shallow and deep convective) are short lived and cover about 15 to 20% of the Earth's surface, they are not usually considered as radiatively important. However, the large amount of latent heat released from convective towers, and corresponding changes in precipitation, especially in biomass regions due to convective heating effects (Graf et al. 2004), suggest that these cloud systems and aerosol effects on them, must be examined more closely. The radiative heating effects for mature deep convective systems can account for 10-30% of maximum latent heating effects and thus cannot be ignored (Jensen and Del Genio 2003). The first study that isolated the sensitivity of cumulus clouds to aerosols was from Nober et al. (2003) who found a reduction in precipitation in biomass burning regions and shifts in circulation patterns. Aerosol effects on convection have been included in other models as well (cf. Jacobson, 2002) but the relative impacts on convective and stratiform processes were not separated. Other changes to atmospheric stability and thermodynamical quantities due to aerosol absorption are also known to be important in modifying cloud macro/micro properties. Linkages between convection and boreal biomass burning can also impact the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere, radiation and cloud microphysical properties via transport of tropospheric aerosols to the lower stratosphere during extreme convection (Fromm and Servranckx 2003). Relevant questions regarding the impact of biomass aerosols on convective cloud properties include the effects of vertical transport of aerosols, spatial and temporal distribution of rainfall, vertical shift in latent heat release, phase shift of precipitation, circulation and their impacts on radiation. Over land surfaces, a decrease in surface shortwave radiation ({approx} 3-6 W m{sup -2} per decade) has been observed between 1960 to 1990, whereas, increases of 0.4 K in land temperature during the same period that occurred have resulted in speculations that evaporation and precipitation should also have decreased (Wild et al. 2004). However, precipitation records for the same period over land do not indicate any significant trend (Beck et al. 2005). The changes in precipitation are thought to be related to increased moisture advection from the oceans (Wild et al. 2004), which may well have some contributions from aerosol-radiation-convection coupling that could modify circulation patterns and hence moisture advection in specific regions. Other important aspects of aerosol effects, besides the direct, semi-direct, microphysical and thermodynamical impacts include alteration of surface albedos, especially snow and ice covered surfaces, due to absorbing aerosols. These effects are uncertain (Jacobson, 2004) but may produce as much as 0.3 W m{sup -2} forcing in the Northern hemisphere that could contribute to melting of ice and permafrost and change in the length of the season (e.g. early arrival of Spring

Menon, Surabi; Del Genio, Anthony D.

2007-09-03T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high-altitude absorbing aerosols" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

aerosols and climate : uncertainties  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

contributes to creating a level playing field. (BC emissions tradeble like CO2 emissions?) OUTLINE #12;size. policy measures, is even more uncertain (emissions & their chemical fingerprint are uncertain (not just aerosol emissions, not just climate impacts) OUTLINE #12;- Standardization doesn't reduce

102

REPRESENTING AEROSOL DYNAMICS AND PROPERTIES IN CHEMICAL TRANSPORT MODELS BY THE METHOD OF MOMENTS.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Atmospheric aerosols, suspensions of solid or liquid particles, are an important multi-phase system. Aerosols scatter and absorb shortwave (solar) radiation, affecting climate (Charlson et al., 1992; Schwartz, 1996) and visibility; nucleate cloud droplet formation, modifying the reflectivity of clouds (Twomey et al., 1984; Schwartz and Slingo, 1996) as well as contributing to composition of cloudwater and to wet deposition (Seinfeld and Pandis, 1998); and affect human health through inhalation (NRC, 1998). Existing and prospective air quality regulations impose standards on concentrations of atmospheric aerosols to protect human health and welfare (EPA, 1998). Chemical transport and transformation models representing the loading and geographical distribution of aerosols and precursor gases are needed to permit development of effective and efficient strategies for meeting air quality standards, and for examining aerosol effects on climate retrospectively and prospectively for different emissions scenarios. Important aerosol properties and processes depend on their size distribution: light scattering, cloud nucleating properties, dry deposition, and penetration into airways of lungs. The evolution of the mass loading itself depends on particle size because of the size dependence of growth and removal processes. For these reasons it is increasingly recognized that chemical transport and transformation models must represent not just the mass loading of atmospheric particulate matter but also the aerosol microphysical properties and the evolution of these properties if aerosols are to be accurately represented in these models. If the size distribution of the aerosol is known, a given property can be evaluated as the integral of the appropriate kernel function over the size distribution. This has motivated the approach of determining aerosol size distribution, and of explicitly representing this distribution and its evolution in chemical transport models.

SCHWARTZ,S.E.; MCGRAW,R.; BENKOVITZ,C.M.; WRIGHT,D.L.

2001-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

103

Residence times of fine tropospheric aerosols as determined by {sup 210}Pb progeny.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Fine tropospheric aerosols can play important roles in the radiative balance of the atmosphere. The fine aerosols can act directly to cool the atmosphere by scattering incoming solar radiation, as well as indirectly by serving as cloud condensation nuclei. Fine aerosols, particularly carbonaceous soots, can also warm the atmosphere by absorbing incoming solar radiation. In addition, aerosols smaller than 2.5 {micro}m have recently been implicated in the health effects of air pollution. Aerosol-active radioisotopes are ideal tracers for the study of atmospheric transport processes. The source terms of these radioisotopes are relatively well known, and they are removed from the atmosphere only by radioactive decay or by wet or dry deposition of the host aerosol. The progeny of the primordial radionuclide {sup 238}U are of particular importance to atmospheric studies. Uranium-238 is common throughout Earth's crust and decays to the inert gas {sup 222}Rn, which escapes into the atmosphere. Radon-222 decays by the series of alpha and beta emissions shown in Figure 1 to the long-lived {sup 210}Pb. Once formed, {sup 210}Pb becomes attached to aerosol particles with average attachment times of 40 s to 3 min.

Marley, N. A.; Gaffney, J. S.; Drayton, P. J.; Cunningham, M. M.; Mielcarek, C.; Ravelo, R.; Wagner, C.

1999-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

104

ARM: 10-minute TEMPORARY Raman Lidar: aerosol extinction profiles and aerosol optical thickness, from first Ferrare algorithm  

DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

10-minute TEMPORARY Raman Lidar: aerosol extinction profiles and aerosol optical thickness, from first Ferrare algorithm

Sivaraman, Chitra; Flynn, Connor

105

Experimental study of nuclear workplace aerosol samplers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

LITERATURE REVIEW Aerosol Losses in an Inlet . Aerosol Losses in a Transport System Aerosol Losses in CAMs Critical Flow Venturi 8 13 15 16 EXPERIMENT PROCEDURE 18 CAM Evaluation Consideration FAS Evaluation Consideration Test Protocol Mixing... Chamber Setup High Speed Aerosol Wind Tunnel Setup Low Speed Aerosol Wind Tunnel Setup Critical Flow Venturi 18 19 21 22 24 25 27 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Page 28 Aerosol Penetration through Transport Systems and CAM Areal Uniformity Deposits...

Parulian, Antony

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

106

Molecular Characterization of Biomass Burning Aerosols Using...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Biomass Burning Aerosols Using High Resolution Mass Spectrometry. Molecular Characterization of Biomass Burning Aerosols Using High Resolution Mass Spectrometry. Abstract: Chemical...

107

Nonequilibrium Atmospheric Secondary Organic Aerosol Formation...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Aerosol Formation and Growth. Abstract: Airborne particles play a critical role in air quality, human health effects, visibility and climate. Secondary organic aerosols (SOA)...

108

Multiple reflection solar energy absorber  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A method of converting solar energy into heat energy thereby generating power is described comprising the steps: (a) focusing said solar energy by means of a primary concentrator, (b) concentrating said solar energy from said primary concentrator by means of a secondary concentrator located at the focal point of said primary concentrator, (c) slowing the flux of said solar energy from said secondary concentrator by means of a multiple reflection chamber attached to the rear aperture of the secondary concentrator, (d) circulating a working fluid by means of a working fluid delivery tube into said secondary concentrator and said multiple reflection chamber, (e) absorbing said solar energy into said working fluid by means of an ultra high concentration of said solar energy in said multiple reflection chamber, (f) insulating said working fluid by means of a surrounding thermal barrier, (g) exhausting the heat working fluid by means as of a nozzle joined to said multiple reflection chamber, (h) replacing said working fluid by means of a working fluid delivery tube, thereby completing a cycle for generating power.

Cooley, W.L.

1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

109

Optical trapping and rotation of airborne absorbing particles with a single focused laser beam  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We measure the periodic circular motion of single absorbing aerosol particles that are optically trapped with a single focused Gaussian beam and rotate around the laser propagation direction. The scattered light from the trapped particle is observed to be directional and change periodically at 0.4–20?kHz. The instantaneous positions of the moving particle within a rotation period are measured by a high-speed imaging technique using a charge coupled device camera and a repetitively pulsed light-emitting diode illumination. The centripetal acceleration of the trapped particle as high as ?20 times the gravitational acceleration is observed and is attributed to the photophoretic forces.

Lin, Jinda; Li, Yong-qing, E-mail: liy@ecu.edu [Department of Physics, East Carolina University, Greenville, North Carolina 27858-4353 (United States)] [Department of Physics, East Carolina University, Greenville, North Carolina 27858-4353 (United States)

2014-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

110

Photoacoustic optical properties at UV, VIS, and near IR wavelengths for laboratory generated and winter time ambient urban aerosols  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present the laboratory and ambient photoacoustic (PA) measurement of aerosol light absorption coefficients at ultraviolet wavelength (i.e., 355 nm) and compare with measurements at 405, 532, 870, and 1047 nm. Simultaneous measurements of aerosol light scattering coefficients were achieved by the integrating reciprocal nephelometer within the PA's acoustic resonator. Absorption and scattering measurements were carried out for various laboratory generated aerosols, including salt, incense, and kerosene soot to evaluate the instrument calibration and gain insight on the spectral dependence of aerosol light absorption and scattering. Ambient measurements were obtained in Reno, Nevada, between 18 December 2009 and 18 January 2010. The measurement period included days with and without strong ground level temperature inversions, corresponding to highly polluted (freshly emitted aerosols) and relatively clean (aged aerosols) conditions. Particulate matter (PM) concentrations were measured and analyzed with other tracers of traffic emissions. The temperature inversion episodes caused very high concentration of PM{sub 2.5} and PM{sub 10} (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameters less than 2.5 {mu}m and 10 {mu}m, respectively) and gaseous pollutants: carbon monoxide (CO), nitric oxide (NO), and nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}). The diurnal change of absorption and scattering coefficients during the polluted (inversion) days increased approximately by a factor of two for all wavelengths compared to the clean days. The spectral variation in aerosol absorption coefficients indicated a significant amount of absorbing aerosol from traffic emissions and residential wood burning. The analysis of single scattering albedo (SSA), Angstrom exponent of absorption (AEA), and Angstrom exponent of scattering (AES) for clean and polluted days provides evidences that the aerosol aging and coating process is suppressed by strong temperature inversion under cloudy conditions. In general, measured UV absorption coefficients were found to be much larger for biomass burning aerosol than for typical ambient aerosols.

Gyawali, Madhu S.; Arnott, W. Patrick; Zaveri, Rahul A.; Song, Chen; Moosmuller, H.; Liu, Li; Mishchenko, M.; Chen, L-W A.; Green, M.; Watson, J. G.; Chow, J. C.

2012-03-08T23:59:59.000Z

111

6, 75197562, 2006 Simulating aerosol  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, particle number concentration and aerosol size-distribution. The model takes into account sulfate (SO4. This model system enables explicit simulations of the particle number concentration and size-distribution of aerosol dynamical processes (nucleation, condensation, coagulation) is evaluated by comparison

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

112

Thin film absorber for a solar collector  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

This invention pertains to energy absorbers for solar collectors, and more particularly to high performance thin film absorbers. The solar collectors comprising the absorber of this invention overcome several problems seen in current systems, such as excessive hardware, high cost and unreliability. In the preferred form, the apparatus features a substantially rigid planar frame with a thin film window bonded to one planar side of the frame. An absorber in accordance with the present invention is comprised of two thin film layers that are sealed perimetrically. In a preferred embodiment, thin film layers are formed from a metal/plastic laminate. The layers define a fluid-tight planar envelope of large surface area to volume through which a heat transfer fluid flows. The absorber is bonded to the other planar side of the frame. The thin film construction of the absorber assures substantially full envelope wetting and thus good efficiency. The window and absorber films stress the frame adding to the overall strength of the collector.

Wilhelm, William G. (Cutchogue, NY)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

113

The Nearby Supernova Factory Ozone + Aerosol + Rayleigh  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Rayleigh + Aerosol Extinction monitor filter Auxiliary Camera CCD Spectrograph picko ff mirror Umbra

114

Black nickel selective absorber, optimization of parameters  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Electroplated black nickel selective absorber is one of the most commercially used element of solar energy systems. Electrodeposition parameters such as time of deposition, pH, current density, electrolyte temperature should be optimized to produce the most efficient selective absorber. The topology of the substrate material is very effective on selectivity and it should also be optimized. In this study, by controlling the conditions of electrodeposition black nickel selective absorbers are produced and their reflectivities are measured. The effects of the electrodeposition parameters together with the topology of the substrate, on the selective properties are investigated.

Akinoglu, B.; Cercioglu, V.; Ecevit, A.

1983-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

aerosol particles collected: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Saller 2002-05-07 6 Nanomaterials from Aerosols Aerosols are suspensions of liquid or solid particles in a gas. Aerosol particles Materials Science Websites Summary: being clouds...

116

Mexico City Aerosol Analysis during MILAGRO using High Resolution...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

2: Mexico City Aerosol Analysis during MILAGRO using High Resolution Aerosol Mass Spectrometry at the Urban Supersite (T0). Part 2: Abstract: Submicron aerosol was analyzed during...

117

Mexico City Aerosol Analysis during MILAGRO using High Resolution...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

1: Mexico City Aerosol Analysis during MILAGRO using High Resolution Aerosol Mass Spectrometry at the Urban Supersite (T0). Part 1: Abstract: Submicron aerosol was analyzed during...

118

Neutron absorbing coating for nuclear criticality control  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A neutron absorbing coating for use on a substrate, and which provides nuclear criticality control is described and which includes a nickel, chromium, molybdenum, and gadolinium alloy having less than about 5% boron, by weight.

Mizia, Ronald E. (Idaho Falls, ID); Wright, Richard N. (Idaho Falls, ID); Swank, William D. (Idaho Falls, ID); Lister, Tedd E. (Idaho Falls, ID); Pinhero, Patrick J. (Idaho Falls, ID)

2007-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

119

Large historical changes of fossil-fuel black carbon aerosols  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Anthropogenic emissions of fine black carbon (BC) particles, the principal light-absorbing atmospheric aerosol, have varied during the past century in response to changes of fossil-fuel utilization, technology developments, and emission controls. We estimate historical trends of fossil-fuel BC emissions in six regions that represent about two-thirds of present day emissions and extrapolate these to global emissions from 1875 onward. Qualitative features in these trends show rapid increase in the latter part of the 1800s, the leveling off in the first half of the 1900s, and the re-acceleration in the past 50 years as China and India developed. We find that historical changes of fuel utilization have caused large temporal change in aerosol absorption, and thus substantial change of aerosol single scatter albedo in some regions, which suggests that BC may have contributed to global temperature changes in the past century. This implies that the BC history needs to be represented realistically in climate change assessments.

Novakov, T.; Ramanathan, V.; Hansen, J.E.; Kirchstetter, T.W.; Sato, M.; Sinton, J.E.; Sathaye, J.A.

2002-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

120

AERONET: The Aerosol Robotic Network  

DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

AERONET collaboration provides globally distributed observations of spectral aerosol optical Depth (AOD), inversion products, and precipitable water in diverse aerosol regimes. Aerosol optical depth data are computed for three data quality levels: Level 1.0 (unscreened), Level 1.5 (cloud-screened), and Level 2.0 (cloud screened and quality-assured). Inversions, precipitable water, and other AOD-dependent products are derived from these levels and may implement additional quality checks.[Copied from http://aeronet.gsfc.nasa.gov/new_web/system_descriptions.html

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high-altitude absorbing aerosols" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Method of absorbance correction in a spectroscopic heating value sensor  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A method and apparatus for absorbance correction in a spectroscopic heating value sensor in which a reference light intensity measurement is made on a non-absorbing reference fluid, a light intensity measurement is made on a sample fluid, and a measured light absorbance of the sample fluid is determined. A corrective light intensity measurement at a non-absorbing wavelength of the sample fluid is made on the sample fluid from which an absorbance correction factor is determined. The absorbance correction factor is then applied to the measured light absorbance of the sample fluid to arrive at a true or accurate absorbance for the sample fluid.

Saveliev, Alexei; Jangale, Vilas Vyankatrao; Zelepouga, Sergeui; Pratapas, John

2013-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

122

Formation of Nitrogen- and Sulfur-Containing Light-Absorbing...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Nitrogen- and Sulfur-Containing Light-Absorbing Compounds Accelerated by Evaporation of Water from Secondary Formation of Nitrogen- and Sulfur-Containing Light-Absorbing Compounds...

123

absorbed gamma dose: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Index 1 Absorbed dose in target cell nuclei and dose conversion coefficient of radon progeny Biology and Medicine Websites Summary: Absorbed dose in target cell nuclei and...

124

absorbed dose profiles: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Index 1 Absorbed dose in target cell nuclei and dose conversion coefficient of radon progeny Biology and Medicine Websites Summary: Absorbed dose in target cell nuclei and...

125

astronaut absorbed dose: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Index 1 Absorbed dose in target cell nuclei and dose conversion coefficient of radon progeny Biology and Medicine Websites Summary: Absorbed dose in target cell nuclei and...

126

absorbed dose kerma: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Index 1 Absorbed dose in target cell nuclei and dose conversion coefficient of radon progeny Biology and Medicine Websites Summary: Absorbed dose in target cell nuclei and...

127

absorbed dose estimates: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

NTS tests 3 Absorbed dose in target cell nuclei and dose conversion coefficient of radon progeny Biology and Medicine Websites Summary: Absorbed dose in target cell nuclei and...

128

absorbed doses: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Index 1 Absorbed dose in target cell nuclei and dose conversion coefficient of radon progeny Biology and Medicine Websites Summary: Absorbed dose in target cell nuclei and...

129

absorbed doses received: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Index 1 Absorbed dose in target cell nuclei and dose conversion coefficient of radon progeny Biology and Medicine Websites Summary: Absorbed dose in target cell nuclei and...

130

absorbed energy avaliacao: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

45 Absorbed dose in target cell nuclei and dose conversion coefficient of radon progeny Biology and Medicine Websites Summary: Absorbed dose in target cell nuclei and...

131

absorbed radiation dose: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

10 Absorbed dose in target cell nuclei and dose conversion coefficient of radon progeny Biology and Medicine Websites Summary: Absorbed dose in target cell nuclei and...

132

average absorbed doses: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Index 1 Absorbed dose in target cell nuclei and dose conversion coefficient of radon progeny Biology and Medicine Websites Summary: Absorbed dose in target cell nuclei and...

133

absorbed dose optimization: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Index 1 Absorbed dose in target cell nuclei and dose conversion coefficient of radon progeny Biology and Medicine Websites Summary: Absorbed dose in target cell nuclei and...

134

absorbed dose estimation: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

NTS tests 3 Absorbed dose in target cell nuclei and dose conversion coefficient of radon progeny Biology and Medicine Websites Summary: Absorbed dose in target cell nuclei and...

135

absorbed glandular dose: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Index 1 Absorbed dose in target cell nuclei and dose conversion coefficient of radon progeny Biology and Medicine Websites Summary: Absorbed dose in target cell nuclei and...

136

absorbed dose metrology: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Index 1 Absorbed dose in target cell nuclei and dose conversion coefficient of radon progeny Biology and Medicine Websites Summary: Absorbed dose in target cell nuclei and...

137

absorbed doses profiles: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Index 1 Absorbed dose in target cell nuclei and dose conversion coefficient of radon progeny Biology and Medicine Websites Summary: Absorbed dose in target cell nuclei and...

138

absorbed dose appears: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Index 1 Absorbed dose in target cell nuclei and dose conversion coefficient of radon progeny Biology and Medicine Websites Summary: Absorbed dose in target cell nuclei and...

139

absorbed dose computations: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Index 1 Absorbed dose in target cell nuclei and dose conversion coefficient of radon progeny Biology and Medicine Websites Summary: Absorbed dose in target cell nuclei and...

140

absorbed dose evaluation: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Index 1 Absorbed dose in target cell nuclei and dose conversion coefficient of radon progeny Biology and Medicine Websites Summary: Absorbed dose in target cell nuclei and...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high-altitude absorbing aerosols" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

absorber rod measurements: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Domain: Absorbing Boundary Condition, Domain Decomposition and Hydrodynamic Wave Model M2NIMathCnam 12;Absorbing Mancini, Simona 30 Dynamic Loading of Polycrystalline...

142

8, 68456901, 2008 Aerosol optical  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of solar radiation by atmospheric aerosols is a key el- ement of the Earth's radiative energy balance, Germany 2 Helmholtz Center Munich, German Research Center for Environmental Health, Institute

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

143

AAI Absorbing Aerosol Index ADAGUC Atmospheric Data Access for the Geospatial User Community  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Change IPT Integrated Profiling Technique IR Infrared IsA International standard Atmosphere (recommended by WMO) IsCCP International satellite Cloud Climatology Project IsO International Organization in Europe (EU project) IPC International Pyrheliometer Comparison IPCC Intergovernmental Panel on Climate

Haak, Hein

144

Measurement Needs and Challenges for Absorbing Aerosol Black Carbon, Brown Carbon, Dust and Coatings  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and Carmichael 2008) 1. BC mixing state. 2. BC vertical distributions. 3. Inventories. 4. Indirect effect mixing state. 2. BC vertical distributions. 3. Inventories. 4. Indirect effect. · Most information comes

145

Ferrite HOM Absorber for the RHIC ERL  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A superconducting Energy Recovery Linac is under construction at Brookhaven National Laboratory to serve as test bed for RHIC upgrades. The damping of higher-order modes in the superconducting five-cell cavity for the Energy-Recovery linac at RHIC is performed exclusively by two ferrite absorbers. The ferrite properties have been measured in ferrite-loaded pill box cavities resulting in the permeability values given by a first-order Debye model for the tiled absorber structure and an equivalent permeability value for computer simulations with solid ring dampers. Measured and simulated results for the higher-order modes in the prototype copper cavity are discussed. First room-temperature measurements of the finished niobium cavity are presented which confirm the effective damping of higher-order modes in the ERL. by the ferrite absorbers.

Hahn,H.; Choi, E.M.; Hammons, L.

2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

Absorber Materials at Room and Cryogenic Temperatures  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We recently reported on investigations of RF absorber materials at cryogenic temperatures conducted at Jefferson Laboratory (JLab). The work was initiated to find a replacement material for the 2 Kelvin low power waveguide Higher Order Mode (HOM) absorbers employed within the original cavity cryomodules of the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF). This effort eventually led to suitable candidates as reported in this paper. Furthermore, though constrained by small funds for labor and resources, we have analyzed a variety of lossy ceramic materials, several of which could be usable as HOM absorbers for both normal conducting and superconducting RF structures, e.g. as loads in cavity waveguides and beam tubes either at room or cryogenic temperatures and, depending on cooling measures, low to high operational power levels.

F. Marhauser, T.S. Elliott, A.T. Wu, E.P. Chojnacki, E. Savrun

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

Durability of Polymeric Glazing and Absorber Materials  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Solar Heating and Lighting Program has set the goal of reducing the cost of solar water heating systems by at least 50%. An attractive approach to such large cost reduction is to replace glass and metal parts with less-expensive, lighter-weight, more-integrated polymeric components. The key challenge with polymers is to maintain performance and assure requisite durability for extended lifetimes. We have begun evaluation of several new UV-screened polycarbonate sheet glazing constructions. This has involved interactions with several major polymer industry companies to obtain improved candidate samples. Proposed absorber materials were tested for UV resistance, and appear adequate for unglazed ICS absorbers.

Jorgensen, G.; Terwilliger, K.; Bingham, C.; Lindquist, C.; Milbourne, M.

2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

Method for manufacture of neutron absorbing articles  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A one-step curing method for the manufacture of a neutron absorbing article which comprises irreversibly curing, in desired article form, a form-retaining mixture of boron carbide particles, curable phenolic resin in solid state and in particula te form and a minor proportion of a liquid medium, which boils at a temperature below 200*c., at an elevated temperature so as to obtain bonding of the irreversibly cured phenolic polymer resulting to the boron carbide particles and production of the neutron absorbing article in desired form.

Owens, D.

1980-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

149

SELECTIVE ABSORBER COATED FOILS FOR SOLAR COLLECTORS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Solar absorber metal foils are discussed in terms of materials and basic processing science. Also included is the use of finished heavy sheet stock for direct fabrication of solar collector panels. Both the adhesives and bonding methods for foils and sheet are surveyed. Developmental and representative commercial foils are used as illustrative examples. As a result it was found that foils can compete economically with batch plating but are limited by adhesive temperature stability. Also absorber foils are very versatile and direct collector fabrication from heavy foils appears very promising.

Lampert, Carl M.

1980-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

150

Direct and semi-direct aerosol effects of Southern African1 biomass burning aerosol2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Direct and semi-direct aerosol effects of Southern African1 biomass burning aerosol2 Naoko effects of biomass burning aerosols from Southern African fires9 during July-October are investigated region the overall TOA radiative effect from the23 biomass burning aerosols is almost zero due

Wood, Robert

151

Composition and Reactions of Atmospheric Aerosol Particles  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Source type and mechanism information for the four aerosol samples gathered from the Caribbean, the Sea of Japan, and New Jersey. One way to gauge an aerosol's ability to stay...

152

Optical Properties of Moderately-Absorbing Organic and Mixed Organic/Inorganic Particles at Very High Humidities  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Relative humidity (RH) affects the water content of an aerosol, altering its ability to scatter and absorb light, which is important for aerosol effects on climate and visibility. This project involves in situ measurement and modeling of aerosol optical properties including absorption, scattering and extinction at three visible wavelengths (467, 530, 660 nm), for organic carbon (OC) generated by pyrolysis of biomass, ammonium sulfate and sodium chloride, and their mixtures at controlled RH conditions. Novel components of this project include investigation of: (1) Changes in all three of these optical properties at scanned RH conditions; (2) Optical properties at RH values up to 95%, which are usually extrapolated instead of measured; and (3) Examination of aerosols generated by the pyrolysis of wood, which is representative of primary atmospheric organic carbon, and its mixture with inorganic aerosol. Scattering and extinction values were used to determine light absorption by difference and single scattering albedo values. Extensive instrumentation development and benchmarking with independently measured and modeled values were used to obtain and evaluate these new results. The single scattering albedo value for a dry absorbing polystyrene microsphere benchmark agreed within 0.02 (absolute value) with independently published results at 530 nm. Light absorption by a nigrosin (sample light-absorbing) benchmark increased by a factor of 1.24 +/-0.06 at all wavelengths as RH increased from 38 to 95%. Closure modeling with Mie theory was able to reproduce this increase with the linear volume average (LVA) refractive index mixing rule for this water soluble compound. Absorption by biomass OC aerosol increased by a factor of 2.1 +/- 0.7 and 2.3 +/- 1.2 between 32 and 95% RH at 467 nm and 530 nm, but there was no detectable absorption at 660 nm. Additionally, the spectral dependence of absorption by OC that was observed with filter measurements was confirmed qualitatively in situ at 467 and 530 nm. Closure modeling with the dynamic effective medium approximation (DEMA) refractive index model was able to capture the increasing absorption trend with RH indicating that the droplets were heterogeneously mixed while containing dispersed insoluble absorbing material within those droplets. Seven other refractive index mixing models including LVA did not adequately describe the measurements for OC. Mixing the biomass OC aerosol with select mass fractions of ammonium sulfate ranging from 25 to 36% and sodium chloride ranging from 21 to 30% resulted in an increase in light scattering and extinction with RH and inorganic mass fraction. However, no detectable difference in light absorption behavior in comparison to pure biomass OC was observed. The main finding of this research is a measured increase in absorption with increasing RH, which is currently not represented in radiative transfer models even though biomass burning produces most of the primary OC aerosol in the atmosphere.

Bond, Tami C; Rood, Mark J; Brem, Benjamin T; Mena-Gonzalez, Francisco C; Chen, Yanju

2012-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

153

Influence of Absorbers on the Electromagnetic Radiation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The phenomenon of the electromagnetic absorption by arbitrarily distributed discrete absorbers is analyzed from the photon point of view. It is shown that apart from the decrease in the intensity of the signal the net effect of absorption includes a relative increase in the photon bunching.

Budko, Neil V

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

Influence of Absorbers on the Electromagnetic Radiation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The phenomenon of the electromagnetic absorption by arbitrarily distributed discrete absorbers is analyzed from the photon point of view. It is shown that apart from the decrease in the intensity of the signal the net effect of absorption includes a relative increase in the photon bunching.

Neil V. Budko

2007-12-05T23:59:59.000Z

155

Optical guiding of absorbing nanoclusters in air  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Optical guiding of absorbing nanoclusters in air Vladlen G. Shvedov1-3, Anton S. Desyatnikov1124@rsphysse.anu.edu.au Abstract: We suggest a novel approach in all-optical trapping employing number of particles in a dual beam optical trap created by two counter-propagating and co

156

Moving core beam energy absorber and converter  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method and apparatus for the prevention of overheating of laser or particle beam impact zones through the use of a moving-in-the-coolant-flow arrangement for the energy absorbing core of the device. Moving of the core spreads the energy deposition in it in 1, 2, or 3 dimensions, thus increasing the effective cooling area of the device.

Degtiarenko, Pavel V.

2012-12-18T23:59:59.000Z

157

Composition for absorbing hydrogen from gas mixtures  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A hydrogen storage composition is provided which defines a physical sol-gel matrix having an average pore size of less than 3.5 angstroms which effectively excludes gaseous metal hydride poisons while permitting hydrogen gas to enter. The composition is useful for separating hydrogen gas from diverse gas streams which may have contaminants that would otherwise render the hydrogen absorbing material inactive.

Heung, Leung K. (Aiken, SC); Wicks, George G. (Aiken, SC); Lee, Myung W. (Aiken, SC)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

Notes 10. The dynamic vibration absorber  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

] Luis San Andres (c) 2008 MEEN 363 - 617 THE VIBRATION ABSORBER Preamble - A NEED arises: Consider the periodic forced response of a primary system (Kp-Mp) defined by X p (t) K p F(t) M P M p 10 3 lb?:= K p 110 5 ? lbf in ?:= Its natural frequency is...

San Andres, Luis

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

159

Development of a crash energy absorber  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A new energy absorbing cartridge, named the "Z-tube" was developed for use in a new conceptualized highway safety appurtenance. The Z-tube was developed to provide a low cost method of dissipating the kinetic energy of errant motor vehicles. The Z...

Bullard, Delbert Lance

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

6, 93519388, 2006 Aerosol-cloud  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ACPD 6, 9351­9388, 2006 Aerosol-cloud interaction inferred from MODIS and models G. Myhre et al Chemistry and Physics Discussions Aerosol-cloud interaction inferred from MODIS satellite data and global 6, 9351­9388, 2006 Aerosol-cloud interaction inferred from MODIS and models G. Myhre et al. Title

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high-altitude absorbing aerosols" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Neutron absorbers and methods of forming at least a portion of a neutron absorber  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Methods of forming at least a portion of a neutron absorber include combining a first material and a second material to form a compound, reducing the compound into a plurality of particles, mixing the plurality of particles with a third material, and pressing the mixture of the plurality of particles and the third material. One or more components of neutron absorbers may be formed by such methods. Neutron absorbers may include a composite material including an intermetallic compound comprising hafnium aluminide and a matrix material comprising pure aluminum.

Guillen, Donna P; Porter, Douglas L; Swank, W David; Erickson, Arnold W

2014-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

162

Wide band cryogenic ultra-high vacuum microwave absorber  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An absorber wave guide assembly for absorbing higher order modes of microwave energy under cryogenic ultra-high vacuum conditions, that absorbs wide-band multi-mode energy. The absorber is of a special triangular shape, made from flat tiles of silicon carbide and aluminum nitride. The leading sharp end of the absorber is located in a corner of the wave guide and tapers to a larger cross-sectional area whose center is located approximately in the center of the wave guide. The absorber is relatively short, being of less height than the maximum width of the wave guide.

Campisi, Isidoro E. (Newport News, VA)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

163

Wide band cryogenic ultra-high vacuum microwave absorber  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An absorber waveguide assembly for absorbing higher order modes of microwave energy under cryogenic ultra-high vacuum conditions, that absorbs wide-band multi-mode energy. The absorber is of a special triangular shape, made from flat tiles of silicon carbide and aluminum nitride. The leading sharp end of the absorber is located in a corner of the waveguide and tapers to a larger cross-sectional area whose center is located approximately in the center of the wave guide. The absorber is relatively short, being of less height than the maximum width of the waveguide. 11 figs.

Campisi, I.E.

1992-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

164

Review of models applicable to accident aerosols  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Estimations of potential airborne-particle releases are essential in safety assessments of nuclear-fuel facilities. This report is a review of aerosol behavior models that have potential applications for predicting aerosol characteristics in compartments containing accident-generated aerosol sources. Such characterization of the accident-generated aerosols is a necessary step toward estimating their eventual release in any accident scenario. Existing aerosol models can predict the size distribution, concentration, and composition of aerosols as they are acted on by ventilation, diffusion, gravity, coagulation, and other phenomena. Models developed in the fields of fluid mechanics, indoor air pollution, and nuclear-reactor accidents are reviewed with this nuclear fuel facility application in mind. The various capabilities of modeling aerosol behavior are tabulated and discussed, and recommendations are made for applying the models to problems of differing complexity.

Glissmeyer, J.A.

1983-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

165

Shock wave absorber having apertured plate  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The shock or energy absorber disclosed herein utilizes an apertured plate maintained under the normal level of liquid flowing in a piping system and disposed between the normal liquid flow path and a cavity pressurized with a compressible gas. The degree of openness (or porosity) of the plate is between 0.01 and 0.60. The energy level of a shock wave travelling down the piping system thus is dissipated by some of the liquid being jetted through the apertured plate toward the cavity. The cavity is large compared to the quantity of liquid jetted through the apertured plate, so there is little change in its volume. The porosity of the apertured plate influences the percentage of energy absorbed.

Shin, Yong W. (Western Springs, IL); Wiedermann, Arne H. (Chicago Heights, IL); Ockert, Carl E. (Vienna, VA)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

166

Shock wave absorber having apertured plate  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The shock or energy absorber disclosed herein utilizes an apertured plate maintained under the normal level of liquid flowing in a piping system and disposed between the normal liquid flow path and a cavity pressurized with a compressible gas. The degree of openness (or porosity) of the plate is between 0.01 and 0.60. The energy level of a shock wave travelling down the piping system thus is dissipated by some of the liquid being jetted through the apertured plate toward the cavity. The cavity is large compared to the quantity of liquid jetted through the apertured plate, so there is little change in its volume. The porosity of the apertured plate influences the percentage of energy absorbed.

Shin, Y.W.; Wiedermann, A.H.; Ockert, C.E.

1983-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

167

Design and Manufacture of Energy Absorbing Materials  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Learn about an ordered cellular material that has been designed and manufactured using direct ink writing (DIW), a 3-D printing technology being developed at LLNL. The new material is a patterned cellular material that can absorb mechanical energy-a cushion-while also providing protection against sheering. This material is expected to find utility in application spaces that currently use unordered foams, such as sporting and consumer goods as well as defense and aerospace.

Duoss, Eric

2014-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

168

Tech Transfer Webinar: Energy Absorbing Materials  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

A new material has been designed and manufactured at LLNL that can absorb mechanical energy--a cushion--while also providing protection against sheering. This ordered cellular material is 3D printed using direct ink writing techniques under development at LLNL. It is expected to find utility in application spaces that currently use unordered foams, such as sporting and consumer goods as well as defense and aerospace.

Duoss, Eric

2014-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

169

Design and Manufacture of Energy Absorbing Materials  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

Learn about an ordered cellular material that has been designed and manufactured using direct ink writing (DIW), a 3-D printing technology being developed at LLNL. The new material is a patterned cellular material that can absorb mechanical energy-a cushion-while also providing protection against sheering. This material is expected to find utility in application spaces that currently use unordered foams, such as sporting and consumer goods as well as defense and aerospace.

Duoss, Eric

2014-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

170

Tech Transfer Webinar: Energy Absorbing Materials  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A new material has been designed and manufactured at LLNL that can absorb mechanical energy--a cushion--while also providing protection against sheering. This ordered cellular material is 3D printed using direct ink writing techniques under development at LLNL. It is expected to find utility in application spaces that currently use unordered foams, such as sporting and consumer goods as well as defense and aerospace.

Duoss, Eric

2014-06-17T23:59:59.000Z

171

Stratospheric Aerosol Geoengineering ALAN ROBOCK  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Stratospheric Aerosol Geoengineering ALAN ROBOCK ABSTRACT In response to global warming, one suggested geoengineering response involves creating a cloud of particles in the stratosphere to reflect some, the volcano analog also warns against geoengineering because of responses such as ozone depletion, regional

Robock, Alan

172

Shock wave absorber having a deformable liner  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

This invention discloses a shock wave absorber for a piping system carrying liquid. The absorber has a plastically deformable liner defining the normal flow boundary for an axial segment of the piping system, and a nondeformable housing is spaced outwardly from the liner so as to define a gas-tight space therebetween. The flow capacity of the liner generally corresponds to the flow capacity of the piping system line, but the liner has a noncircular cross section and extends axially of the piping system line a distance between one and twenty times the diameter thereof. Gas pressurizes the gas-tight space equal to the normal liquid pressure in the piping system. The liner has sufficient structural capacity to withstand between one and one-half and two times this normal liquid pressures; but at greater pressures it begins to plastically deform initially with respect to shape to a more circular cross section, and then with respect to material extension by circumferentially stretching the wall of the liner. A high energy shock wave passing through the liner thus plastically deforms the liner radially into the gas space and progressively also as needed in the axial direction of the shock wave to minimize transmission of the shock wave beyond the absorber.

Youngdahl, C.K.; Wiedermann, A.H.; Shin, Y.W.; Kot, C.A.; Ockert, C.E.

1983-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

173

The current situation of high-altitude wind power.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

?? The importance of the use of renewable energy sources is obviously. But what the problem confused us, is that renewable energy unlike the fossil… (more)

Tang, Yunmo

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

174

Condition and Potential for Improvement of High Altitude Rangelands  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

%, and increased plants cover by about 30%. Rafi (1965) recommended a minimum period of five years of complete protection before initiating proper grazing management practices. Although conventional grazing management systems as practised in the west... with mulch and composts from forests and shrubs in the surrounding slopes to build up soil organic matter and nutrient content. Such plots can be sown with high yield seeds introduced and local species of legumes and grasses, and intensively managed...

Gyamtsho, Pema

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

175

High Altitude Balloon Project At Penn State Wilkes-Barre  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

· Plasma Probes · Solar Cell Array · CO2 Horizon Sensor · Torque Coil Test · Viper PC104 Flight Test · Boom diameter at burst · 72 inch parachute · Payload · Multiple Pods · Student experiments · Sensors, cameras. · Magnetometer · OPT101 Light Sensors · Spectrometers · Geiger Counters · Altitude Valve Control · CUBE Sat

Lozano-Nieto, Albert

176

High Altitude Unmanned Air System for Atmospheric Science Missions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

designed to enable the construction of an emulator (surrogate model) of an atmospheric quantity across-launched dropsonde will record temperature, dewpoint, ambient pressure and GPS-derived wind speed. b) Pollution industry is that a safe level of ash density is around 2 Ã? 10-3 g/m3 (corresponding to an engine core

Sóbester, András

177

A Solar Power System for High Altitude Airships.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??This research is intended to produce a power system suitable for an aerostat operating at 67,500 ft and powered only by solar energy. A battery… (more)

Mei, Qiang

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

absorbed dose calculation: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

2010-01-01 4 Absorbed dose in target cell nuclei and dose conversion coefficient of radon progeny Biology and Medicine Websites Summary: Absorbed dose in target cell nuclei and...

179

absorbed dose measurements: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

2013-01-01 3 Absorbed dose in target cell nuclei and dose conversion coefficient of radon progeny Biology and Medicine Websites Summary: Absorbed dose in target cell nuclei and...

180

air dose absorbed: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

2009-01-01 3 Absorbed dose in target cell nuclei and dose conversion coefficient of radon progeny Biology and Medicine Websites Summary: Absorbed dose in target cell nuclei and...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high-altitude absorbing aerosols" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

absorbed dose distribution: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

2010-01-01 3 Absorbed dose in target cell nuclei and dose conversion coefficient of radon progeny Biology and Medicine Websites Summary: Absorbed dose in target cell nuclei and...

182

absorbed dose measurement: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

2013-01-01 3 Absorbed dose in target cell nuclei and dose conversion coefficient of radon progeny Biology and Medicine Websites Summary: Absorbed dose in target cell nuclei and...

183

absorbed dose determination: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

2012-06-07 5 Absorbed dose in target cell nuclei and dose conversion coefficient of radon progeny Biology and Medicine Websites Summary: Absorbed dose in target cell nuclei and...

184

absorbed dose effective: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

2010-01-01 2 Absorbed dose in target cell nuclei and dose conversion coefficient of radon progeny Biology and Medicine Websites Summary: Absorbed dose in target cell nuclei and...

185

absorbed dose standard: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

2010-01-01 4 Absorbed dose in target cell nuclei and dose conversion coefficient of radon progeny Biology and Medicine Websites Summary: Absorbed dose in target cell nuclei and...

186

absorbed doses distribution: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

2010-01-01 3 Absorbed dose in target cell nuclei and dose conversion coefficient of radon progeny Biology and Medicine Websites Summary: Absorbed dose in target cell nuclei and...

187

absorbed dose distributions: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

2010-01-01 3 Absorbed dose in target cell nuclei and dose conversion coefficient of radon progeny Biology and Medicine Websites Summary: Absorbed dose in target cell nuclei and...

188

absorbed dose rate: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

2010-01-01 3 Absorbed dose in target cell nuclei and dose conversion coefficient of radon progeny Biology and Medicine Websites Summary: Absorbed dose in target cell nuclei and...

189

absorbed dose determinations: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

2012-06-07 5 Absorbed dose in target cell nuclei and dose conversion coefficient of radon progeny Biology and Medicine Websites Summary: Absorbed dose in target cell nuclei and...

190

absorbed dose calculations: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

2010-01-01 4 Absorbed dose in target cell nuclei and dose conversion coefficient of radon progeny Biology and Medicine Websites Summary: Absorbed dose in target cell nuclei and...

191

Compressed absorbing boundary conditions for the Helmholtz equation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Absorbing layers are sometimes required to be impractically thick in order to offer an accurate approximation of an absorbing boundary condition for the Helmholtz equation in a heterogeneous medium. It is always possible ...

Bélanger-Rioux, Rosalie

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

192

DO AEROSOLS CHANGE CLOUD COVER AND AFFECT CLIMATE?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

BALANCE Global and annual average energy fluxes in watts per square meter Schwartz, 1996, modified from;AEROSOL INFLUENCES ON CLIMATE AND CLIMATE CHANGE #12;DMS #12;AEROSOL IN MEXICO CITY BASIN #12;AEROSOL IN MEXICO CITY BASIN Light scattering by aerosols decreases absorption of solar radiation. #12;AEROSOLS

Schwartz, Stephen E.

193

absorbing structural material: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

terahertz frequencies Engineering Websites Summary: Flexible metamaterial absorbers for stealth applications at terahertz frequencies Krzysztof: We have wrapped metallic...

194

Method for absorbing an ion from a fluid  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for absorbing an ion from a fluid by using dispersing an organic acid into an anion surfactant solution, mixing in a divalent-metal containing compound and a trivalent-metal containing compound and calcining the resulting solid layered double hydroxide product to form an absorbent material and then contacting the absorbent material with an aqueous solution of cations or anions to be absorbed.

Gao, Huizhen (Carlsbad, NM); Wang, Yifeng (Albuquerque, NM); Bryan, Charles R. (Albuquerque, NM)

2007-07-03T23:59:59.000Z

195

Method and apparatus for aerosol particle absorption spectroscopy  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method and apparatus for determining the absorption spectra, and other properties, of aerosol particles. A heating beam source provides a beam of electromagnetic energy which is scanned through the region of the spectrum which is of interest. Particles exposed to the heating beam which have absorption bands within the band width of the heating beam absorb energy from the beam. The particles are also illuminated by light of a wave length such that the light is scattered by the particles. The absorption spectra of the particles can thus be determined from an analysis of the scattered light since the absorption of energy by the particles will affect the way the light is scattered. Preferably the heating beam is modulated to simplify the analysis of the scattered light. In one embodiment the heating beam is intensity modulated so that the scattered light will also be intensity modulated when the particles absorb energy. In another embodiment the heating beam passes through an interferometer and the scattered light reflects the Fourier Transform of the absorption spectra.

Campillo, Anthony J. (Nesconset, NY); Lin, Horn-Bond (Manorville, NY)

1983-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

196

Physical Properties of Ambient and Laboratory-Generated Secondary Organic Aerosol  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The size and thickness of organic aerosol particles collected by impaction in five field campaigns were compared to those of laboratory generated secondary organic aerosols (SOA). Scanning transmission x-ray microscopy (STXM) was used to measure the total carbon absorbance (TCA) by individual particles as a function of their projection areas on the substrate. Because they flatten less upon impaction, particles with higher viscosity and surface tension can be identified by a steeper slope on a plot of TCA vs. size. The slopes of the ambient data are statistically similar indicating a small range of average viscosities and surface tensions across five field campaigns. Steeper slopes were observed for the plots corresponding to ambient particles, while smaller slopes were indicative of the laboratory generated SOA. This comparison indicates that ambient organic particles have higher viscosities and surface tensions than those typically generated in laboratory SOA studies.

O'Brien, Rachel E.; Neu, Alexander; Epstein, Scott A.; MacMillan, Amanda; Wang, Bingbing; Kelly, Stephen T.; Nizkorodov, Sergey; Laskin, Alexander; Moffet, Ryan C.; Gilles, Mary K.

2014-06-17T23:59:59.000Z

197

Safeguards Verification Measurements using Laser Ablation, Absorbance Ratio Spectrometry in Gaseous Centrifuge Enrichment Plants  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Laser Ablation Absorbance Ratio Spectrometry (LAARS) is a new verification measurement technology under development at the US Department of Energy’s (DOE) Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). LAARS uses three lasers to ablate and then measure the relative isotopic abundance of uranium compounds. An ablation laser is tightly focused on uranium-bearing solids producing a small plume containing uranium atoms. Two collinear wavelength-tuned spectrometry lasers transit through the plume and the absorbance of U-235 and U-238 isotopes are measured to determine U-235 enrichment. The measurement has high relative precision and detection limits approaching the femtogram range for uranium. It is independent of chemical form and degree of dilution with nuisance dust and other materials. High speed sample scanning and pinpoint characterization allow measurements on millions of particles/hour to detect and analyze the enrichment of trace uranium in samples. The spectrometer is assembled using commercially available components at comparatively low cost, and features a compact and low power design. Future designs can be engineered for reliable, autonomous deployment within an industrial plant environment. Two specific applications of the spectrometer are under development: 1) automated unattended aerosol sampling and analysis and 2) on-site small sample destructive assay measurement. The two applications propose game-changing technological advances in gaseous centrifuge enrichment plant (GCEP) safeguards verification. The aerosol measurement instrument, LAARS-environmental sampling (ES), collects aerosol particles from the plant environment in a purpose-built rotating drum impactor and then uses LAARS-ES to quickly scan the surface of the impactor to measure the enrichments of the captured particles. The current approach to plant misuse detection involves swipe sampling and offsite analysis. Though this approach is very robust it generally requires several months to obtain results from a given sample collection. The destructive assay instrument, LAARS-destructive assay (DA), uses a simple purpose-built fixture with a sampling planchet to collect adsorbed UF6 gas from a cylinder valve or from a process line tap or pigtail. A portable LAARS-DA instrument scans the microgram quantity of uranium collected on the planchet and the assay of the uranium is measured to ~0.15% relative precision. Currently, destructive assay samples for bias defect measurements are collected in small sample cylinders for offsite mass spectrometry measurement.

Anheier, Norman C.; Cannon, Bret D.; Qiao, Hong (Amy) [Amy; Phillips, Jon R.

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

198

Safeguards Verification Measurements using Laser Ablation, Absorbance Ratio Spectrometry in Gaseous Centrifuge Enrichment Plants  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Laser Ablation Absorbance Ratio Spectrometry (LAARS) is a new verification measurement technology under development at the US Department of Energy (DOE) Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). LAARS uses three lasers to ablate and then measure the relative isotopic abundance of uranium compounds. An ablation laser is tightly focused on uranium-bearing solids, producing a small atomic uranium vapor plume. Two collinear wavelength-tuned spectrometry lasers transit through the plume and the absorbance of U-235 and U-238 isotopes are measured to determine U-235 enrichment. The measurement is independent of chemical form and degree of dilution with nuisance dust and other materials. LAARS has high relative precision and detection limits approaching the femtogram range for U-235. The sample is scanned and assayed point-by-point at rates reaching 1 million measurements/hour, enabling LAARS to detect and analyze uranium in trace samples. The spectrometer is assembled using primarily commercially available components and features a compact design and automated analysis.Two specific gaseous centrifuge enrichment plant (GCEP) applications of the spectrometer are currently under development: 1) LAARS-Environmental Sampling (ES), which collects and analyzes aerosol particles for GCEP misuse detection and 2) LAARS-Destructive Assay (DA), which enables onsite enrichment DA sample collection and analysis for protracted diversion detection. The two applications propose game-changing technological advances in GCEP safeguards verification.

Anheier, Norman C.; Cannon, Bret D.; Kulkarni, Gourihar R.; Munley, John T.; Nelson, Danny A.; Qiao, Hong (Amy) [Amy; Phillips, Jon R.

2012-07-17T23:59:59.000Z

199

Optimization of aerosol penetration through transport lines  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

will be minimum and -' he penetration of aerosols through the transport system will be maximal. It is the purpose of the study reported herein to experimentally investigate the optimization of aerosol penetration through transport systems and to obtain a... numbers less than 869, bounded the use of this model to Reynolds numbers less than or equal to 1100. 19 IV. SUNNARY OF WORK AND EXPERINENTAL NETHODOLOGY The purpose of the study reported herein was to further analyze the optimization of aerosol...

Wong Luque, Fermin Samuel

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

200

Direct and semidirect aerosol effects of southern African biomass burning aerosol  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Direct and semidirect aerosol effects of southern African biomass burning aerosol Naoko Sakaeda,1 2011; published 21 June 2011. [1] Direct and semidirect radiative effects of biomass burning aerosols static stability. Over the entire region the overall TOA radiative effect from the biomass burning

Wood, Robert

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high-altitude absorbing aerosols" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Container and method for absorbing and reducing hydrogen concentration  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for absorbing hydrogen from an enclosed environment comprising providing a vessel; providing a hydrogen storage composition in communication with a vessel, the hydrogen storage composition further comprising a matrix defining a pore size which permits the passage of hydrogen gas while blocking the passage of gaseous poisons; placing a material within the vessel, the material evolving hydrogen gas; sealing the vessel; and absorbing the hydrogen gas released into the vessel by the hydrogen storage composition. A container for absorbing evolved hydrogen gas comprising: a vessel having an interior and adapted for receiving materials which release hydrogen gas; a hydrogen absorbing composition in communication with the interior, the composition defining a matrix surrounding a hydrogen absorber, the matrix permitting the passage of hydrogen gas while excluding gaseous poisons; wherein, when the vessel is sealed, hydrogen gas, which is released into the vessel interior, is absorbed by the hydrogen absorbing composition.

Wicks, George G. (Aiken, SC); Lee, Myung W. (North Augusta, SC); Heung, Leung K. (Aiken, SC)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

Absorber Alignment Measurement Tool for Solar Parabolic Trough Collectors: Preprint  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

As we pursue efforts to lower the capital and installation costs of parabolic trough solar collectors, it is essential to maintain high optical performance. While there are many optical tools available to measure the reflector slope errors of parabolic trough solar collectors, there are few tools to measure the absorber alignment. A new method is presented here to measure the absorber alignment in two dimensions to within 0.5 cm. The absorber alignment is measured using a digital camera and four photogrammetric targets. Physical contact with the receiver absorber or glass is not necessary. The alignment of the absorber is measured along its full length so that sagging of the absorber can be quantified with this technique. The resulting absorber alignment measurement provides critical information required to accurately determine the intercept factor of a collector.

Stynes, J. K.; Ihas, B.

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

203

Researchers Model Impact of Aerosols Over California  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Impact of Aerosols Over California Research may clarify the effectiveness of regional pollution controls May 28, 2013 | Tags: Climate Research, Hopper Contact: Linda Vu,...

204

Separating Cloud Forming Nuclei from Interstitial Aerosol  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

It has become important to characterize the physicochemical properties of aerosol that have initiated the warm and ice clouds. The data is urgently needed to better represent the aerosol-cloud interaction mechanisms in the climate models. The laboratory and in-situ techniques to separate precisely the aerosol particles that act as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) and ice nuclei (IN), termed as cloud nuclei (CN) henceforth, have become imperative in studying aerosol effects on clouds and the environment. This review summarizes these techniques, design considerations, associated artifacts and challenges, and briefly discusses the need for improved designs to expand the CN measurement database.

Kulkarni, Gourihar R.

2012-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

205

Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

October? 2. To what extent do the different properties of the Arctic aerosol during April produce differences in clouds? * Do the more polluted conditions during April in the...

206

Erbium concentration dependent absorbance in tellurite glass  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Enhancing the optical absorption cross-section in topically important rare earth doped tellurite glasses is challenging for photonic devices. Controlled synthesis and detailed characterizations of the optical properties of these glasses are important for the optimization. The influence of varying concentration of Er{sup 3+} ions on the absorbance characteristics of lead tellurite glasses synthesized via melt-quenching technique are investigated. The UV-Vis absorption spectra exhibits six prominent peaks centered at 490, 526, 652, 800, 982 and 1520 nm ascribed to the transitions in erbium ion from the ground state to the excited states {sup 4}F{sub 7/2}, {sup 2}H{sub 11/2}, {sup 4}F{sub 9/2}, {sup 4}I{sub 9/2}, {sup 2}H{sub 11/2} and {sup 4}I{sub 13/2}, respectively. The results are analyzed by means of optical band gap E{sub g} and Urbach energy E{sub u}. The values of the energy band gap are found decreased from 2.82 to 2.51 eV and the Urbach energy increased from 0.15 to 0.24 eV with the increase of the Er{sub 2}O{sub 3} concentration from 0 to 1.5 mol%. The excellent absorbance of the prepared tellurite glasses makes them suitable for fabricating solid state lasers.

Sazali, E. S., E-mail: mdsupar@utm; Rohani, M. S., E-mail: mdsupar@utm; Sahar, M. R., E-mail: mdsupar@utm; Arifin, R., E-mail: mdsupar@utm; Ghoshal, S. K., E-mail: mdsupar@utm; Hamzah, K., E-mail: mdsupar@utm [Advanced Optical Material Research Group, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310, Skudai, Johor Bahru, Johor (Malaysia)

2014-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

207

Comparative Analysis of Urban Atmospheric Aerosol by Particle...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Analysis of Urban Atmospheric Aerosol by Particle-Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE), Proton Elastic Scattering Analysis Comparative Analysis of Urban Atmospheric Aerosol by...

208

aerosol ratio program: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

contribute a major portion of atmospheric aerosol mass loading 5. The estimated global annual Liou, K. N. 2 Studying Clouds and Aerosols with Lidar Depolarization Ratio and...

209

Reduction in biomass burning aerosol light absorption upon humidificat...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

in biomass burning aerosol light absorption upon humidification: Roles of inorganically-induced hygroscopicity, Reduction in biomass burning aerosol light absorption upon...

210

aerosol optical thickness: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

of solar radiation by atmospheric aerosols is a key el- ement of the Earth's radiative energy balance and climate. The optical properties of aerosol particles are, however,...

211

aerosol black carbon: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

of solar radiation by atmospheric aerosols is a key el- ement of the Earth's radiative energy balance and climate. The optical properties of aerosol particles are, however,...

212

aerosols iii morphologic: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Sciences Websites Summary: of aerosols. Keywords: metal waste recycling; aerosols; fire hazard; explosion hazard. 1. OVERVIEW ProductsRisks generated by the treatment of...

213

The Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

Research projects like the Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign, or ISDAC, increase our knowledge of atmospheric aerosol particles and cloud physics.

Ghan, Steve

2014-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

214

ambient ultrafine aerosols: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

soluble in water: 2. Isolation of acid, neutral, and basic fractions by modified size Weber, Rodney 4 Ambient aerosol sampling using the Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer...

215

The Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Research projects like the Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign, or ISDAC, increase our knowledge of atmospheric aerosol particles and cloud physics.

Ghan, Steve

2014-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

216

Synergy between Secondary Organic Aerosols and Long Range Transport...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

between Secondary Organic Aerosols and Long Range Transport of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons. Synergy between Secondary Organic Aerosols and Long Range Transport of Polycyclic...

217

acid aerosol exposure: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Nenes, Athanasios 8 Neutralization of soil aerosol and its impact on the distribution of acid rain over east Asia Geosciences Websites Summary: Neutralization of soil aerosol and...

218

Aerosol Composition and Source Apportionment in the Mexico City...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Aerosol Composition and Source Apportionment in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area with PIXEPESASTIM and Multivariate Analysis. Aerosol Composition and Source Apportionment in the...

219

Molecular Chemistry of Organic Aerosols Through the Application...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Chemistry of Organic Aerosols Through the Application of High Resolution Mass Spectrometry. Molecular Chemistry of Organic Aerosols Through the Application of High Resolution Mass...

220

aerosol samples collected: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

elements analysis of aerosol samples from some CiteSeer Summary: Aerosols deposits on filters from ten Romanian towns with different kinds and levels of industrial development...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high-altitude absorbing aerosols" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Optical, physical, and chemical properties of springtime aerosol...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Optical, physical, and chemical properties of springtime aerosol over Barrow Alaska in 2008. Optical, physical, and chemical properties of springtime aerosol over Barrow Alaska in...

222

aerosolized pentamidine effect: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

ON CCN CONCENTRATION AND AEROSOL FIRST INDIRECT RADIATIVE composition, aerosol size distribution is the more dominant parameter on CCN activation Feingold, GRL 2003;...

223

aerosols radioactifs artificiels: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

ON CCN CONCENTRATION AND AEROSOL FIRST INDIRECT RADIATIVE composition, aerosol size distribution is the more dominant parameter on CCN activation Feingold, GRL 2003;...

224

aerosol particle analysis: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Summary: data analysis algorithm is presented. Our earlier algorithm assumed a monomodal aerosol size distribution, while the new algorithm allows us to partition the aerosol...

225

aerosol research study: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

in atmospheric thermal structure, burning, bio-sources changes? 12;Aerosol microphysics: size distribution, mixing state, morphology, shape 9 Aerosol Science and Technology,...

226

Building America Webinar: Sealing of Home Enclosures with Aerosol...  

Energy Savers [EERE]

Sealing of Home Enclosures with Aerosol Particles Building America Webinar: Sealing of Home Enclosures with Aerosol Particles This webinar was presented by research team Building...

227

The dependence of ice microphysics on aerosol concentration in...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

The dependence of ice microphysics on aerosol concentration in arctic mixed-phase stratus clouds during ISDAC and M-PACE. The dependence of ice microphysics on aerosol...

228

Heterogeneous Chemistry: Understanding Aerosol/Oxidant Interactions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Global radiative forcing of nitrate and ammonium aerosols has mostly been estimated from aerosol concentrations calculated at thermodynamic equilibrium or using approximate treatments for their uptake by aerosols. In this study, a more accurate hybrid dynamical approach (DYN) was used to simulate the uptake of nitrate and ammonium by aerosols and the interaction with tropospheric reactive nitrogen chemistry in a three-dimensional global aerosol and chemistry model, IMPACT, which also treats sulfate, sea salt and mineral dust aerosol. 43% of the global annual average nitrate aerosol burden, 0.16 TgN, and 92% of the global annual average ammonium aerosol burden, 0.29 TgN, exist in the fine mode (D<1.25 {micro}m) that scatters most efficiently. Results from an equilibrium calculation differ significantly from those of DYN since the fraction of fine-mode nitrate to total nitrate (gas plus aerosol) is 9.8%, compared to 13% in DYN. Our results suggest that the estimates of aerosol forcing from equilibrium concentrations will be underestimated. We also show that two common approaches used to treat nitrate and ammonium in aerosol in global models, including the first-order gas-to-particle approximation based on uptake coefficients (UPTAKE) and a hybrid method that combines the former with an equilibrium model (HYB), significantly overpredict the nitrate uptake by aerosols especially that by coarse particles, resulting in total nitrate aerosol burdens higher than that in DYN by +106% and +47%, respectively. Thus, nitrate aerosol in the coarse mode calculated by HYB is 0.18 Tg N, a factor of 2 more than that in DYN (0.086 Tg N). Excessive formation of the coarse-mode nitrate in HYB leads to near surface nitrate concentrations in the fine mode lower than that in DYN by up to 50% over continents. In addition, near-surface HNO{sub 3} and NO{sub x} concentrations are underpredicted by HYB by up to 90% and 5%, respectively. UPTAKE overpredicts the NO{sub x} burden by 56% and near-surface NO{sub x} concentrations by a factor of 2-5. These results suggest the importance of using the more accurate hybrid dynamical method in the estimates of both aerosol forcing and tropospheric ozone chemistry.

Joyce E. Penner

2005-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

229

Characterization of aerosols produced by surgical procedures  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In many surgeries, especially orthopedic procedures, power tools such as saws and drills are used. These tools may produce aerosolized blood and other biological material from bone and soft tissues. Surgical lasers and electrocautery tools can also produce aerosols when tissues are vaporized and condensed. Studies have been reported in the literature concerning production of aerosols during surgery, and some of these aerosols may contain infectious material. Garden et al. (1988) reported the presence of papilloma virus DNA in the fumes produced from laser surgery, but the infectivity of the aerosol was not assessed. Moon and Nininger (1989) measured the size distribution and production rate of emissions from laser surgery and found that particles were generally less than 0.5 {mu}m diameter. More recently there has been concern expressed over the production of aerosolized blood during surgical procedures that require power tools. In an in vitro study, the production of an aerosol containing the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) was reported when power tools were used to cut tissues with blood infected with HIV. Another study measured the size distribution of blood aerosols produced by surgical power tools and found blood-containing particles in a number of size ranges. Health care workers are anxious and concerned about whether surgically produced aerosols are inspirable and can contain viable pathogens such as HIV. Other pathogens such as hepatitis B virus (HBV) are also of concern. The Occupational Safety and Health funded a project at the National Institute for Inhalation Toxicology Research Institute to assess the extent of aerosolization of blood and other tissues during surgical procedures. This document reports details of the experimental and sampling approach, methods, analyses, and results on potential production of blood-associated aerosols from surgical procedures in the laboratory and in the hospital surgical suite.

Yeh, H.C.; Muggenburg, B.A.; Lundgren, D.L.; Guilmette, R.A.; Snipes, M.B.; Jones, R.K. [Inhalation Toxicology Research Institute, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Turner, R.S. [Lovelace Health Systems, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1994-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

230

ENCAPSULATION EFFECTS ON CARBONACEOUS AEROSOL LIGHT ABSORPTION  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ENCAPSULATION EFFECTS ON CARBONACEOUS AEROSOL LIGHT ABSORPTION Arthur Sedlacek, Brookhaven National of aerosol absorption on direct radiative forcing is still an active area of research, in part, because. This poster presents data on black carbon (BC) light absorption measured by Photothermal Interferometry

231

2, 12871315, 2002 Aerosol sources and  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in climate variability and climate change studies (IPCC, 2001). Radiative forcing of natural and their contribution to the chemical composition of aerosols in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea during summertime J aerosol sources in the Eastern Mediterranean5 Basin could be investigated at this location since the site

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

232

6, 1217912197, 2006 Aerosol formation in  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

troposphere and lower stratosphere. The model implements a first order scheme for resolving the aerosol size distribution within its geometric size10 sections, which efficiently suppresses numerical diffusion. We operate removes freshly nucleated particles by coagulation. The observation of high ultrafine aerosol

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

233

6, 32653319, 2006 Study aerosol with  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ACPD 6, 3265­3319, 2006 Study aerosol with two emission inventories and time factors A. de Meij et in Europe to two different emission inventories and temporal distribution of emissions A. de Meij 1 , M Study aerosol with two emission inventories and time factors A. de Meij et al. Title Page Abstract

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

234

AEROSOL PARTICLE COLLECTOR DESIGN STUDY  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A computational evaluation of a particle collector design was performed to evaluate the behavior of aerosol particles in a fast flowing gas stream. The objective of the work was to improve the collection efficiency of the device while maintaining a minimum specified air throughput, nominal collector size, and minimal power requirements. The impact of a range of parameters was considered subject to constraints on gas flow rate, overall collector dimensions, and power limitations. Potential improvements were identified, some of which have already been implemented. Other more complex changes were identified and are described here for further consideration. In addition, fruitful areas for further study are proposed.

Lee, S; Richard Dimenna, R

2007-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

235

ARM - Field Campaign - Aerosol IOP  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLasDelivered‰PNGExperience4AJ01)3, 2010SeptemberInfrared SpectralgovCampaignsAerosol IOP

236

ON THE KK-THEORY OF STRONGLY SELF-ABSORBING ...  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

be simple and nuclear; moreover, they are either purely infinite or stably finite. The only known examples of strongly self-absorbing C?-algebras are the UHF ...

2007-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

237

absorbing boundary condition: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Summary: Absorbing Boundary Condition, Domain Decomposition and Hydrodynamic Wave Model O. Wilk Introduction. appli. (wave equation) Num. appli. (hydro. wave model)...

238

absorbing boundary conditions: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Summary: Absorbing Boundary Condition, Domain Decomposition and Hydrodynamic Wave Model O. Wilk Introduction. appli. (wave equation) Num. appli. (hydro. wave model)...

239

advanced burnable absorbers: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

utilizing thorium together with gadolinium, erbium, or boron burnable absorber in BWR fuel assemblies for very long cycle is investigated. Nuclear characteristics such as...

240

Distribution of small dispersive coal dust particles and absorbed radioactive chemical elements in conditions of forced acoustic resonance in iodine air filter at nuclear power plant  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The physical features of distribution of the small dispersive coal dust particles and the adsorbed radioactive chemical elements and their isotopes in the absorber with the granular filtering medium with the cylindrical coal granules were researched in the case of the intensive air dust aerosol stream flow through the iodine air filter (IAF). It was shown that, at the certain aerodynamic conditions in the IAF, the generation of the acoustic oscillations is possible. It was found that the acoustic oscillations generation results in an appearance of the standing acoustic waves of the air pressure (density) in the IAF. In the case of the intensive blow of the air dust aerosol, it was demonstrated that the standing acoustic waves have some strong influences on both: 1) the dynamics of small dispersive coal dust particles movement and their accumulation in the IAF; 2) the oversaturation of the cylindrical coal granules by the adsorbed radioactive chemical elements and their isotopes in the regions, where the antin...

Ledenyov, Oleg P

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high-altitude absorbing aerosols" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Linearity of Climate Response to Increases in Black Carbon Aerosols  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The impact of absorbing aerosols on global climate are not completely understood. Here, we present results of idealized experiments conducted with the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM4) coupled to a slab ocean model (CAM4-SOM) to simulate the climate response to increases in tropospheric black carbon aerosols (BC) by direct and semi-direct effects. CAM4-SOM was forced with 0, 1x, 2x, 5x and 10x an estimate of the present day concentration of BC while maintaining their estimated present day global spatial and vertical distribution. The top of the atmosphere (TOA) radiative forcing of BC in these experiments is positive (warming) and increases linearly as the BC burden increases. The total semi-direct effect for the 1x experiment is positive but becomes increasingly negative for higher BC concentrations. The global average surface temperature response is found to be a linear function of the TOA radiative forcing. The climate sensitivity to BC from these experiments is estimated to be 0.42 K $\\textnormal W^{-1} m^{2}$ when the semi-direct effects are accounted for and 0.22 K $\\textnormal W^{-1} m^{2}$ with only the direct effects considered. Global average precipitation decreases linearly as BC increases, with a precipitation sensitivity to atmospheric absorption of 0.4 $\\%$ $\\textnormal W^{-1} \\textnormal m^{2}$ . The hemispheric asymmetry of BC also causes an increase in southward cross-equatorial heat transport and a resulting northward shift of the inter-tropical convergence zone in the simulations at a rate of 4$^{\\circ}$N $\\textnormal PW^{-1}$. Global average mid- and high-level clouds decrease, whereas the low-level clouds increase linearly with BC. The increase in marine stratocumulus cloud fraction over the south tropical Atlantic is caused by increased BC-induced diabatic heating of the free troposphere.

Mahajan, Salil [ORNL; Evans, Katherine J [ORNL; Hack, James J [ORNL; Truesdale, John [National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR)

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

242

Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign: The Impact of Arctic...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Aerosol Campaign: The Impact of Arctic Aerosols on Clouds . Abstract: A comprehensive dataset of microphysical and radiative properties of aerosols and clouds in the arctic...

243

The behavior of constant rate aerosol reactors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An aerosol reactor is a gaseous system in which fine particles are formed by chemical reaction in either a batch or flow process. The particle sizes of interest range from less than 10 angstrom (molecular clusters) to 10 ..mu..m. Such reactors may be operated to study the aerosol formation process, as in a smog reactor, or to generate a product such as a pigment or a catalytic aerosol. Aerosol reactors can be characterized by three temporal or spatial zones or regions of operation for batch and flow reactors, respectively. In zone I, chemical reaction results in the formation of condensable molecular products which nucleate and form very high concentrations of small particles. The number density depends on the concentration of preexisting aerosol. Zone II is a transition region in which the aerosol number concentration levels off as a result of hetergeneous condensation by the stable aerosol. In zone III coagulation becomes sufficiently rapid to reduce the particle number concentration. There may be a zone IV in which agglomerates form.

Friedlander, S.K.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

244

CARES: Carbonaceous Aerosol and Radiative Effects Study Science Plan  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Carbonaceous aerosol components, which include black carbon (BC), urban primary organic aerosols (POA), biomass burning aerosols, and secondary organic aerosols (SOA) from both urban and biogenic precursors, have been previously shown to play a major role in the direct and indirect radiative forcing of climate. The primary objective of the CARES 2010 intensive field study is to investigate the evolution of carbonaceous aerosols of different types and their effects on optical and cloud formation properties.

Zaveri, RA; Shaw, WJ; Cziczo, DJ

2010-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

245

Aerosol, Cloud, and Climate: From Observation to Model (457th Brookhaven Lecture)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In the last 100 years, the Earth has warmed by about 1ºF, glaciers and sea ice have been melting more quickly than previously, especially during the past decade, and the level of the sea has risen about 6-8 inches worldwide. Scientists have long been investigating this phenomenon of “global warming,” which is believed to be at least partly due to the increased carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration in the air from burning fossil fuels. Funded by DOE, teams of researchers from BNL and other national labs have been gathering data in the U.S. and internationally to build computer models of climate and weather to help in understanding general patterns, causes, and perhaps, solutions. Among many findings, researchers observed that atmospheric aerosols, minute particles in the atmosphere, can significantly affect global energy balance and climate. Directly, aerosols scatter and absorb sunlight. Indirectly, increased aerosol concentration can lead to smaller cloud droplets, changing clouds in ways that tend to cool global climate and potentially mask overall warming from man-made CO2.

Wang, Jian (Ph.D., Environmental Sciences Department) [Ph.D., Environmental Sciences Department

2010-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

246

Capstone Depleted Uranium Aerosols: Generation and Characterization  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In a study designed to provide an improved scientific basis for assessing possible health effects from inhaling depleted uranium (DU) aerosols, a series of DU penetrators was fired at an Abrams tank and a Bradley fighting vehicle. A robust sampling system was designed to collect aerosols in this difficult environment and continuously monitor the sampler flow rates. Aerosols collected were analyzed for uranium concentration and particle size distribution as a function of time. They were also analyzed for uranium oxide phases, particle morphology, and dissolution in vitro. The resulting data provide input useful in human health risk assessments.

Parkhurst, MaryAnn; Szrom, Fran; Guilmette, Ray; Holmes, Tom; Cheng, Yung-Sung; Kenoyer, Judson L.; Collins, John W.; Sanderson, T. Ellory; Fliszar, Richard W.; Gold, Kenneth; Beckman, John C.; Long, Julie

2004-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

247

Thermally Induced Nonlinear Optical Absorption in Metamaterial Perfect Absorbers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A metamaterial perfect absorber consisting of a tri-layer (Al/ZnS/Al) metal-dielectric-metal system with top aluminium nano-disks is fabricated by laser-interference lithography and lift-off processing. The metamaterial absorber had peak resonant absorbance at 1090 nm and showed nonlinear absorption for 600ps laser pulses at 1064 nm wavelength. A nonlinear saturation of reflectance was measured to be dependent on the average laser power incident and not the peak laser intensity. The nonlinear behaviour is shown to arise from the heating due to the absorbed radiation and photo-thermal changes in the dielectric properties of aluminium. The metamaterial absorber is seen to be damage resistant at large laser intensities of 25 MW/cm2.

Guddala, Sriram; Ramakrishna, S Anantha

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

248

Photolytic processing of secondary organic aerosols dissolved in cloud droplets  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The effect of UV irradiation on the molecular composition of aqueous extracts of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) was investigated. SOA was prepared by the dark reaction of ozone and d-limonene at 0.05 - 1 ppm precursor concentrations and collected with a particle-into-liquid sampler (PILS). The PILS extracts were photolyzed by 300 - 400 nm radiation for up to 24 hours. Water-soluble SOA constituents were analyzed using high-resolution electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HR-ESI-MS) at different stages of photolysis for all SOA precursor concentrations. Exposure to UV radiation increased the average O/C ratio and decreased the average double bond equivalent (DBE) of the dissolved SOA compounds. Oligomeric compounds were significantly reduced by photolysis relative to the monomeric compounds. Direct pH measurements showed that compounds containing carboxylic acids increased upon photolysis. Methanol reactivity analysis revealed significant photodissociation of molecules containing carbonyl groups and formation of carboxylic acids. Aldehydes, such as limononaldehyde, were almost completely removed. The removal of carbonylswas confirmed by the UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy of the SOA extracts where the absorbance in the carbonyl n??* band decreased significantly upon photolysis. The effective quantum yield (the number of carbonyls destroyed per photon absorbed) was estimated as ~ 0.03. The concentration of peroxides did not change significantly during photolysis as quantified with an iodometric test. Although organic peroxides were photolyzed, the likely end products of photolysis were smaller peroxides, including hydrogen peroxide, resulting in a no net change in the peroxide content.

Bateman, Adam P.; Nizkorodov, Serguei; Laskin, Julia; Laskin, Alexander

2011-05-26T23:59:59.000Z

249

Evaluating Global Aerosol Models and Aerosol and Water Vapor Properties Near Clouds  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Project goals: (1) Use the routine surface and airborne measurements at the ARM SGP site, and the routine surface measurements at the NSA site, to continue our evaluations of model aerosol simulations; (2) Determine the degree to which the Raman lidar measurements of water vapor and aerosol scattering and extinction can be used to remotely characterize the aerosol humidification factor; (3) Use the high temporal resolution CARL data to examine how aerosol properties vary near clouds; and (4) Use the high temporal resolution CARL and Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI) data to quantify entrainment in optically thin continental cumulus clouds.

Richard A. Ferrare; David D. Turner

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

250

ABSORBING WIPP BRINES: A TRU WASTE DISPOSAL STRATEGY  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has completed experiments involving 15 each, 250- liter experimental test containers of transuranic (TRU) heterogeneous waste immersed in two types of brine similar to those found in the underground portion of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). To dispose of the waste without removing the brine from the test containers, LANL added commercially available cross-linked polyacrylate granules to absorb the 190 liters of brine in each container, making the waste compliant for shipping to the WIPP in a Standard Waste Box (SWB). Prior to performing the absorption, LANL and the manufacturer of the absorbent conducted laboratory and field tests to determine the ratio of absorbent to brine that would fully absorb the liquid. Bench scale tests indicated a ratio of 10 parts Castile brine to one part absorbent and 6.25 parts Brine A to one part absorbent. The minimum ratio of absorbent to brine was sought because headspace in the containers was limited. However, full scale testing revealed that the ratio should be adjusted to be about 15% richer in absorbent. Additional testing showed that the absorbent would not apply more than 13.8 kPa pressure on the walls of the vessel and that the absorbent would still function normally at that pressure and would not degrade in the approximately 5e-4 Sv/hr radioactive field produced by the waste. Heat generation from the absorption was minimal. The in situ absorption created a single waste stream of 8 SWBs whereas the least complicated alternate method of disposal would have yielded at least an additional 2600 liters of mixed low level liquid waste plus about two cubic meters of mixed low level solid waste, and would have resulted in higher risk of radiation exposure to workers. The in situ absorption saved $311k in a combination of waste treatment, disposal, material and personnel costs compared to the least expensive alternative and $984k compared to the original plan.

Yeamans, D. R.; Wrights, R. S.

2002-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

251

Absorbing WIPP brines : a TRU waste disposal strategy.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has completed experiments involving 15 each, 250-liter experimental test containers of transuranic (TRU) heterogeneous waste immersed in two types of brine similar to those found in the underground portion of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). To dispose of the waste without removing the brine from the test containers, LANL added commercially available cross-linked polyacrylate granules to absorb the 190 liters of brine in each container, making the waste compliant for shipping to the WlPP in a Standard Waste Box (SWB). Prior to performing the absorption, LANL and the manufacturer of the absorbent conducted laboratory and field tests to determine the ratio of absorbent to brine that would fully absorb the liquid. Bench scale tests indicated a ratio of 10 parts Castile brine to one part absorbent and 6.25 parts Brine A to one part absorbent. The minimum ratio of absorbent to brine was sought because headspace in the containers was limited. However, full scale testing revealed that the ratio should be adjusted to be about 15% richer in absorbent. Additional testing showed that the absorbent would not apply more than 13.8 kPa pressure on the walls of the vessel and that the absorbent would still function normally at that pressure and would not degrade in the approximately 5e-4 Sv/hr radioactive field produced by the waste. Heat generation from the absorption was minimal. The in situ absorption created a single waste stream of 8 SWBs whereas the least complicated alternate method of disposal would have yielded at least an additional 2600 liters of mixed low level liquid waste plus about two cubic meters of mixed low level solid waste, and would have resulted in higher risk of radiation exposure to workers. The in situ absorption saved $3 1 lk in a combination of waste treatment, disposal, material and personnel costs compared to the least expensive alternative and $984k compared to the original plan.

Yeamans, D. R. (David R.); Wright, R. (Robert)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

252

Southern hemisphere tropospheric aerosol microphysics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Aerosol particle size distribution data have been obtained in the southern hemisphere from approximately 4{degree}S to 44{degree}S and between ground level and 6 km, in the vicinity of eastern Australia. The relative shape of the free-tropospheric size distribution for particles with radii larger than approximately 0.04 {mu}m was found to be remarkably stable with time, altitude, and location for the autumn-winter periods considered. This was despite some large concentration changes which were found to be typical of the southeastern Australian coastal region. The majority of free-troposphere large particles were found to have sulfuric acid or lightly ammoniated sulfate morphology. Large particles in the boundary layer almost exclusively had a sea-salt morphology.

Gras, J.L. (Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization, Aspendale (Australia))

1991-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

253

MONITORING AEROSOL PRESENCE OVER A 15-YEAR PERIOD USING THE ABSORBING AEROSOL INDEX MEASURED BY GOME-1, SCIAMACHY, AND GOME-2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. These three satellite instruments suffer, each in their own way, from severe instrument degradation in the ultraviolet (UV) wavelength range from which the AAI is derived. To be able to perform a reliable anal- ysis on the AAI time series, we first remove the effects of instrument degradation from the Earth reflectances be

Tilstra, Gijsbert

254

Aerosol fabrication methods for monodisperse nanoparticles  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Exemplary embodiments provide materials and methods for forming monodisperse particles. In one embodiment, the monodisperse particles can be formed by first spraying a nanoparticle-containing dispersion into aerosol droplets and then heating the aerosol droplets in the presence of a shell precursor to form core-shell particles. By removing either the shell layer or the nanoparticle core of the core-shell particles, monodisperse nanoparticles can be formed.

Jiang, Xingmao; Brinker, C Jeffrey

2014-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

255

Development of plutonium aerosol fractionation system  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

DEVELOPMENT OF A PLUTONIUM AEROSOL FRACTIONATION SYSTEM A Thesis by MALLA R. MEKALA Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August... 1993 Major Subject: Mechanical Engineering DEVELOPMENT OP A PLUTONIUM AEROSOL FRACTIONATION SYSTEM A Thesis by MALLA R. MEKALA Approved as to style and content by: A. R. McFarland (Chair of Committee) N. K. Anand (Mer toer) (', & C. B...

Mekala, Malla R.

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

256

Electrically Driven Technologies for Radioactive Aerosol Abatement  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this research project was to develop an improved understanding of how electriexecy driven processes, including electrocoalescence, acoustic agglomeration, and electric filtration, may be employed to efficiently treat problems caused by the formation of aerosols during DOE waste treatment operations. The production of aerosols during treatment and retrieval operations in radioactive waste tanks and during thermal treatment operations such as calcination presents a significant problem of cost, worker exposure, potential for release, and increased waste volume.

David W. DePaoli; Ofodike A. Ezekoye; Costas Tsouris; Valmor F. de Almeida

2003-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

257

WRF-Chem Simulations of Aerosols and Anthropogenic Aerosol Radiative Forcing in East Asia  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This study aims to provide a first comprehensive evaluation of WRF-Chem for modeling aerosols and anthropogenic aerosol radiative forcing (RF) over East Asia. Several numerical experiments were conducted from November 2007 to December 2008. Comparison between model results and observations shows that the model can generally reproduce the observed spatial distributions of aerosol concentration, aerosol optical depth (AOD) and single scattering albedo (SSA) from measurements at different sites, including the relatively higher aerosol concentration and AOD over East China and the relatively lower AOD over Southeast Asia, Korean, and Japan. The model also depicts the seasonal variation and transport of pollutions over East Asia. Particulate matter of 10 um or less in the aerodynamic diameter (PM10), black carbon (BC), sulfate (SO42-), nitrate (NO3-) and ammonium (NH4+) concentrations are higher in spring than other seasons in Japan due to the pollutant transport from polluted area of East Asia. AOD is high over Southwest and Central China in winter, spring and autumn and over North China in summer while is low over South China in summer due to monsoon precipitation. SSA is lowest in winter and highest in summer. The model also captures the dust events at the Zhangye site in the semi-arid region of China. Anthropogenic aerosol RF is estimated to range from -5 to -20 W m-2 over land and -20 to -40 W m-2 over ocean at the top of atmosphere (TOA), 5 to 30 W m-2 in the atmosphere (ATM) and -15 to -40 W m-2 at the bottom (BOT). The warming effect of anthropogenic aerosol in ATM results from BC aerosol while the negative aerosol RF at TOA is caused by scattering aerosols such as SO4 2-, NO3 - and NH4+. Positive BC RF at TOA compensates 40~50% of the TOA cooling associated with anthropogenic aerosol.

Gao, Yi; Zhao, Chun; Liu, Xiaohong; Zhang, Meigen; Leung, Lai-Yung R.

2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

E-Print Network 3.0 - aerosol chemical vapor Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

chemical and microphysical properties influence aerosol optical properties and radiative effects... distribution of aerosol extensive and intensive properties will aid ......

259

Laboratory Experiments and Instrument Development for the Study of Atmospheric Aerosols  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Soot particles are generated by incomplete combustion of fossil and biomass fuels. Through direct effects clear air aerosols containing black carbon (BC) such as soot aerosols, absorb incoming light heating the atmosphere, while most other aerosols scatter light and produce cooling. Even though BC represents only 1-2% of the total annual emissions of particulate mass to the atmosphere, it has been estimated that the direct radiative effect of BC is the second-most important contributor to global warming after absorption by CO2. Ongoing studies continue to underscore the climate forcing importance of black carbon. However, estimates of the radiative effects of black carbon on climate remain highly uncertain due to the complexity of particles containing black carbon. Quantitative measurement of BC is challenging because BC often occurs in highly non-spherical soot particles of complex morphology. Freshly emitted soot particles are typically fractal hydrophobic aggregates. The aggregates consist of black carbon spherules with diameters typically in the range of about 15-40 nm, and they are usually coated by adsorbed polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) produced during combustion. Diesel-generated soot particles are often emitted with an organic coating composed primarily of lubricating oil and unburned fuel, as well as well as PAH compounds. Sulfuric acid has also been detected in diesel and aircraft-emitted soot particles. In the course of aging, these particle coatings may be substantially altered by chemical reactions and/or the deposition of other materials. Such processes transform the optical and CCN properties of the soot aerosols in ways that are not yet well understood. Our work over the past seven years consisted of laboratory research, instrument development and characterization, and field studies with the central focus of improving our understanding of the black carbon aerosol climate impacts. During the sixth year as well as during this seventh year (no-cost extension period) of our grant, we extended our studies to perform experiments on the controlled production and characterization of secondary organic aerosol.

Davidovits, Paul

2011-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

260

AEROSOL CHEMICAL COMPOSITION CHARACTERIZATION AT THE ARM SOUTHERN GREAT PLAINS (SGP) SITE USING AN AEROSOL CHEMICAL  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

AEROSOL CHEMICAL COMPOSITION CHARACTERIZATION AT THE ARM SOUTHERN GREAT PLAINS (SGP) SITE USING AN AEROSOL CHEMICAL SPECIATION MONITOR Yin-Nan Lee1 , Fan Mei1 , Stephanie DeJong1 , Anne Jefferson2 1 Atmospheric Sciences Division, Brookhaven National Lab, Upton, NY 2 CIRES, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high-altitude absorbing aerosols" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Evaluating Global Aerosol Models and Aerosol and Water Vapor Properties Near Clouds  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The 'Evaluating Global Aerosol Models and Aerosol and Water Vapor Properties Near Clouds' project focused extensively on the analysis and utilization of water vapor and aerosol profiles derived from the ARM Raman lidar at the Southern Great Plains ARM site. A wide range of different tasks were performed during this project, all of which improved quality of the data products derived from the lidar or advanced the understanding of atmospheric processes over the site. These activities included: upgrading the Raman lidar to improve its sensitivity; participating in field experiments to validate the lidar aerosol and water vapor retrievals; using the lidar aerosol profiles to evaluate the accuracy of the vertical distribution of aerosols in global aerosol model simulations; examining the correlation between relative humidity and aerosol extinction, and how these change, due to horizontal distance away from cumulus clouds; inferring boundary layer turbulence structure in convective boundary layers from the high-time-resolution lidar water vapor measurements; retrieving cumulus entrainment rates in boundary layer cumulus clouds; and participating in a field experiment that provided data to help validate both the entrainment rate retrievals and the turbulent profiles derived from lidar observations.

Turner, David, D.; Ferrare, Richard, A.

2011-07-06T23:59:59.000Z

262

Aerosol Characterization Data from the Asian Pacific Regional Aerosol Characterization Project (ACE-Asia)  

DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

The Aerosol Characterization Experiments (ACE) were designed to increase understanding of how atmospheric aerosol particles affect the Earth's climate system. These experiments integrated in-situ measurements, satellite observations, and models to reduce the uncertainty in calculations of the climate forcing due to aerosol particles and improve the ability of models to predict the influences of aerosols on the Earth's radiation balance. ACE-Asia was the fourth in a series of experiments organized by the International Global Atmospheric Chemistry (IGAC) Program (A Core Project of the International Geosphere Biosphere Program). The Intensive Field Phase for ACE-Asia took place during the spring of 2001 (mid-March through early May) off the coast of China, Japan and Korea. ACE-Asia pursued three specific objectives: 1) Determine the physical, chemical, and radiative properties of the major aerosol types in the Eastern Asia and Northwest Pacific region and investigate the relationships among these properties. 2) Quantify the physical and chemical processes controlling the evolution of the major aerosol types and in particular their physical, chemical, and radiative properties. 3) Develop procedures to extrapolate aerosol properties and processes from local to regional and global scales, and assess the regional direct and indirect radiative forcing by aerosols in the Eastern Asia and Northwest Pacific region [Edited and shortened version of summary at http://data.eol.ucar.edu/codiac/projs?ACE-ASIA]. The Ace-Asia collection contains 174 datasets.

263

Liquid absorbent solutions for separating nitrogen from natural gas  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Nitrogen-absorbing and -desorbing compositions, novel ligands and transition metal complexes, and methods of using the same, which are useful for the selective separation of nitrogen from other gases, especially natural gas.

Friesen, Dwayne T. (Bend, OR); Babcock, Walter C. (Bend, OR); Edlund, David J. (Redmond, OR); Lyon, David K. (Bend, OR); Miller, Warren K. (Bend, OR)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

264

Energy deposition studies for the LBNE beam absorber  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Results of detailed Monte Carlo energy deposition studies performed for the LBNE absorber core and the surrounding shielding with the MARS15 code are described. The model of the entire facility, that includes a pion-production target, focusing horns, target chase, decay channel, hadron absorber system -- all with corresponding radiation shielding -- was developed using the recently implemented ROOT-based geometry option in the MARS15 code. This option provides substantial flexibility and automation when developing complex geometry models. Both normal operation and accidental conditions were studied. Various design options were considered, in particular the following: (i) filling the decay pipe with air or helium; (ii) the absorber mask material and shape; (iii) the beam spoiler material and size. Results of detailed thermal calculations with the ANSYS code helped to select the most viable absorber design options.

Rakhno, Igor L; Tropin, Igor S

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

The variability of warm absorbers in Active Galactic Nuclei  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This thesis presents three studies of warm (photoionized) absorber variability in Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) using high-resolution X-ray spectra provided by the Chandra High Energy Transmission Grating (HETG). The first ...

Gibson, Robert R. (Robert Ross)

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

266

Overcoming the far-field diffraction limit via absorbance modulation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Diffraction limits the resolution of far-field lithography and imaging to about half of the wavelength, which greatly limits the capability of optical techniques. The proposed technique with absorbance modulation aims to ...

Tsai, Hsin-Yu Sidney

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

267

absorbing film assisted: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

He as the processing gas. The film surfaces were observed by scanning Rocca, Jorge J. 6 Thin-film, wide-angle, design-tunable, selective absorber from near UV to far infrared...

268

A study on the temporal and spatial variability of absorbing aerosols using Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer and  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, individual events, such as the Kuwait oil fire and Australian smoke plum, are isolated in individual higher cycle in the two data sets shows that the cycles agree very well both globally and regionally dust and biomass burning source regions, as well as dust transport. Finally, we find that large

269

Neutron absorbing article and method for manufacture of such article  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A neutron absorbing article, preferably in long, thin, flat form , suitable for but not necessarily limited to use in storage racks for spent nuclear fuel at locations between volumes of such stored fuel, to absorb neutrons from said spent fuel and prevent uncontrolled nuclear reaction of the spent fuel material, is composed of finely divided boron carbide particles and a solid, irreversibly cured phenolic polymer, forming a continuous matrix about the boron carbide particles, in such proportions that at least 6% of b10 from the boron carbide content is present therein. The described articles withstand thermal cycling from repeated spent fuel insertions and removals, withstand radiation from said spent nuclear fuel over long periods of time without losing desirable neutron absorbing and physical properties, are sufficiently chemically inert to water so as to retain neutron absorbing properties if brought into contact with it, are not galvanically corrodible and are sufficiently flexible so as to withstand operational basis earthquake and safe shutdown earthquake seismic events, without loss of neutron absorbing capability and other desirable properties, when installed in storage racks for spent nuclear fuel. The disclosure also relates to a plurality of such neutron absorbing articles in a storage rack for spent nuclear fuel and to a method for the manufacture of the articles.

Hortman, M.T.; Mcmurtry, C.H.; Naum, R.G.; Owens, D.P.

1980-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

270

DOE research on atmospheric aerosols  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Atmospheric aerosols are the subject of a significant component of research within DOE`s environmental research activities, mainly under two programs within the Department`s Environmental Sciences Division, the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program and the Atmospheric Chemistry Program (ACP). Research activities conducted under these programs include laboratory experiments, field measurements, and theoretical and modeling studies. The objectives and scope of these programs are briefly summarized. The ARM Program is the Department`s major research activity focusing on atmospheric processes pertinent to understanding global climate and developing the capability of predicting global climate change in response to energy related activities. The ARM approach consists mainly of testing and improving models using long-term measurements of atmospheric radiation and controlling variables at highly instrumented sites in north central Oklahoma, in the Tropical Western Pacific, and on the North Slope of Alaska. Atmospheric chemistry research within DOE addresses primarily the issue of atmospheric response to emissions from energy-generation sources. As such this program deals with the broad topic known commonly as the atmospheric source-receptor sequence. This sequence consists of all aspects of energy-related pollutants from the time they are emitted from their sources to the time they are redeposited at the Earth`s surface.

Schwartz, S.E.

1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

271

Application of computational fluid dynamics to aerosol sampling and concentration  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

An understanding of gas-liquid two-phase interactions, aerosol particle deposition, and heat transfer is needed. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is becoming a powerful tool to predict aerosol behavior for related design work. In this study...

Hu, Shishan

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

272

Aerosol beam-focus laser-induced plasma spectrometer device  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An apparatus for detecting elements in an aerosol includes an aerosol beam focuser for concentrating aerosol into an aerosol beam; a laser for directing a laser beam into the aerosol beam to form a plasma; a detection device that detects a wavelength of a light emission caused by the formation of the plasma. The detection device can be a spectrometer having at least one grating and a gated intensified charge-coupled device. The apparatus may also include a processor that correlates the wavelength of the light emission caused by the formation of the plasma with an identity of an element that corresponds to the wavelength. Furthermore, the apparatus can also include an aerosol generator for forming an aerosol beam from bulk materials. A method for detecting elements in an aerosol is also disclosed.

Cheng, Meng-Dawn (Oak Ridge, TN)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

273

aerosol particle penetration: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

the subsequent aerosol penetration performance through these tubes were conducted for a aerosol particle size range of 5 nm to 20 nm and a flow rate range of 28 Lmin to 169.9...

274

Effects of operating conditions on a heat transfer fluid aerosol  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of heat transfer fluid aerosols from process leaks. To simulate industrial leaks, aerosol formation from a plain orifice into ambient air is studied by measuring liquid drop sizes and size distributions at various distances from an orifice. Measurements...

Sukmarg, Passaporn

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

275

Generation of concentration density maxima of small dispersive coal dust particles in horizontal iodine air filter at air-dust aerosol blow  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The spatial distributions of the small dispersive coal dust particles with the nano and micro sizes in the granular filtering medium with the cylindrical coal granules in the absorber in the horizontal iodine air filter during its long term operation at the nuclear power plant are researched. It is shown that the concentration density maxima of the small dispersive coal dust particles appear in the granular filtering medium with the cylindrical coal absorbent granules in the horizontal iodine air filter at an action by the air dust aerosol blow. The comparison of the measured aerodynamic resistances of the horizontal and vertical iodine air filters is conducted. The main conclusion is that the magnitude of the aerodynamic resistance of the horizontal iodine air filters is much smaller in comparison with the magnitude of the aerodynamic resistance of the vertical iodine air filters at the same loads of the air dust aerosol volumes. It is explained that the direction of the air dust aerosol blow and the direction of the gravitation force in the horizontal iodine air filter are orthogonal, hence the effective accumulation of the small dispersive coal dust particles takes place at the bottom of absorber in the horizontal iodine air filter. It is found that the air dust aerosol stream flow in the horizontal iodine air filter is not limited by the appearing structures, made of the precipitated small dispersive coal dust particles, in distinction from the vertical iodine air filter, in the process of long term operation of the iodine air filters at the nuclear power plant.

I. M. Neklyudov; O. P. Ledenyov; L. I. Fedorova; P. Ya. Poltinin

2013-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

276

Observations of Secondary Organic Aerosol Production and Soot Aging under Atmospheric Conditions Using a Novel Environmental Aerosol Chamber  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of the processes leading to SOA production under ambient gaseous and particulate concentrations as well as the impact these aerosol types have on climate is poorly understood. Although the majority of atmospheric aerosols scatter radiation either directly...

Glen, Crystal

2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

277

Project of Aerosol Optical Depth Change in South America  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

AerosolDepth Brazil Bolivia French Guiana Suriname Guyana Venezuela Colombia Ecuador Peru Chile Argentina Suriname Guyana Venezuela Colombia Ecuador Peru Chile Argentina Paraguay Uruguay #12;Statistics of Aerosol M ean D ec 01 to 06 Mean Month AerosolDepth Brazil Bolivia French Guiana Suriname Guyana Venezuela

Frank, Thomas D.

278

Sulfuric acid deposition from stratospheric geoengineering with sulfate aerosols  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

aerosols can potentially result in an increase in acid deposition. [4] Acid rain has been studiedSulfuric acid deposition from stratospheric geoengineering with sulfate aerosols Ben Kravitz,1 Alan limit of hydration of all sulfate aerosols into sulfuric acid. For annual injection of 5 Tg of SO2

Robock, Alan

279

Organic and Inorganic Aerosol Below-Cloud Scavenging by  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

concentrations, with an average gravimetric PM1.0 of 8.2 ( 1.6 µg m-3 and an average Fourier transform infrared-rinsing behavior was unaffected by source type. The aerosol OM was hydrophilic throughout the sampling period the description of aerosol lifetimes in global models. Introduction Wet and dry deposition of aerosol particles

Russell, Lynn

280

Phase transformation and growth of hygroscopic aerosols  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ambient aerosols play an important role in many atmospheric processes affecting air quality, visibility degradation, and climatic changes as well. Both natural and anthropogenic sources contribute to the formation of ambient aerosols, which are composed mostly of sulfates, nitrates, and chlorides in either pure or mixed forms. These inorganic salt aerosols are hygroscopic by nature and exhibit the properties of deliquescence and efflorescence in humid air. For pure inorganic salt particles with diameter larger than 0.1 micron, the phase transformation from a solid particle to a saline droplet occurs only when the relative humidity in the surrounding atmosphere reaches a certain critical level corresponding to the water activity of the saturated solution. The droplet size or mass in equilibrium with relative humidity can be calculated in a straightforward manner from thermodynamic considerations. For aqueous droplets 0.1 micron or smaller, the surface curvature effect on vapor pressure becomes important and the Kelvin equation must be used.

Tang, I.N.

1999-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high-altitude absorbing aerosols" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

CADS:Cantera Aerosol Dynamics Simulator.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This manual describes a library for aerosol kinetics and transport, called CADS (Cantera Aerosol Dynamics Simulator), which employs a section-based approach for describing the particle size distributions. CADS is based upon Cantera, a set of C++ libraries and applications that handles gas phase species transport and reactions. The method uses a discontinuous Galerkin formulation to represent the particle distributions within each section and to solve for changes to the aerosol particle distributions due to condensation, coagulation, and nucleation processes. CADS conserves particles, elements, and total enthalpy up to numerical round-off error, in all of its formulations. Both 0-D time dependent and 1-D steady state applications (an opposing-flow flame application) have been developed with CADS, with the initial emphasis on developing fundamental mechanisms for soot formation within fires. This report also describes the 0-D application, TDcads, which models a time-dependent perfectly stirred reactor.

Moffat, Harry K.

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

282

Characterizing the formation of secondary organic aerosols  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Organic aerosol is an important fraction of the fine particulate matter present in the atmosphere. This organic aerosol comes from a variety of sources; primary organic aerosol emitted directly from combustion process, and secondary aerosol formed in the atmosphere from condensable vapors. This secondary organic aerosol (SOA) can result from both anthropogenic and biogenic sources. In rural areas of the United States, organic aerosols can be a significant part of the aerosol load in the atmosphere. However, the extent to which gas-phase biogenic emissions contribute to this organic load is poorly understood. Such an understanding is crucial to properly apportion the effect of anthropogenic emissions in these rural areas that are sometimes dominated by biogenic sources. To help gain insight on the effect of biogenic emissions on particle concentrations in rural areas, we have been conducting a field measurement program at the University of California Blodgett Forest Research Facility. The field location includes has been used to acquire an extensive suite of measurements resulting in a rich data set, containing a combination of aerosol, organic, and nitrogenous species concentration and meteorological data with a long time record. The field location was established in 1997 by Allen Goldstein, a professor in the Department of Environmental Science, Policy and Management at the University of California at Berkeley to study interactions between the biosphere and the atmosphere. The Goldstein group focuses on measurements of concentrations and whole ecosystem biosphere-atmosphere fluxes for volatile organic compounds (VOC's), oxygenated volatile organic compounds (OVOC's), ozone, carbon dioxide, water vapor, and energy. Another important collaborator at the Blodgett field location is Ronald Cohen, a professor in the Chemistry Department at the University of California at Berkeley. At the Blodgett field location, his group his group performs measurements of the concentrations of important gas phase nitrogen compounds. Experiments have been ongoing at the Blodgett field site since the fall of 2000, and have included portions of the summer and fall of 2001, 2002, and 2003. Analysis of both the gas and particle phase data from the year 2000 show that the particle loading at the site correlates with both biogenic precursors emitted in the forest and anthropogenic precursors advected to the site from Sacramento and the Central Valley of California. Thus the particles at the site are affected by biogenic processing of anthropogenic emissions. Size distribution measurements show that the aerosol at the site has a geometric median diameter of approximately 100 nm. On many days, in the early afternoon, growth of nuclei mode particles (<20 nm) is also observed. These growth events tend to occur on days with lower average temperatures, but are observed throughout the summer. Analysis of the size resolved data for these growth events, combined with typical measured terpene emissions, show that the particle mass measured in these nuclei mode particles could come from oxidation products of biogenic emissions, and can serve as a significant route for SOA partitioning into the particle phase. During periods of each year, the effect of emissions for forest fires can be detected at the Blodgett field location. During the summer of 2002 emissions from the Biscuit fire, a large fire located in Southwest Oregon, was detected in the aerosol data. The results show that increases in particle scattering can be directly related to increased black carbon concentration and an appearance of a larger mode in the aerosol size distribution. These results show that emissions from fires can have significant impact on visibility over large distances. The results also reinforce the view that forest fires can be a significant source of black carbon in the atmosphere, which has important climate and visibility. Continuing work with the 2002 data set, particularly the combination of the aerosol and gas phase data, will continue to provide important information o

Lunden, Melissa; Black, Douglas; Brown, Nancy

2004-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

283

Distribution of small dispersive coal dust particles and absorbed radioactive chemical elements in conditions of forced acoustic resonance in iodine air filter at nuclear power plant  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The physical features of distribution of the small dispersive coal dust particles and the adsorbed radioactive chemical elements and their isotopes in the absorber with the granular filtering medium with the cylindrical coal granules were researched in the case of the intensive air dust aerosol stream flow through the iodine air filter (IAF). It was shown that, at the certain aerodynamic conditions in the IAF, the generation of the acoustic oscillations is possible. It was found that the acoustic oscillations generation results in an appearance of the standing acoustic waves of the air pressure (density) in the IAF. In the case of the intensive blow of the air dust aerosol, it was demonstrated that the standing acoustic waves have some strong influences on both: 1) the dynamics of small dispersive coal dust particles movement and their accumulation in the IAF; 2) the oversaturation of the cylindrical coal granules by the adsorbed radioactive chemical elements and their isotopes in the regions, where the antinodes of the acoustic waves are positioned. Finally, we completed the comparative analysis of the theoretical calculations with the experimental results, obtained for the cases of: 1) the experimental aerodynamic modeling of physical processes of the absorbed radioactive chemical elements and their isotopes distribution in the IAF; and 2) the gamma-activation spectroscopy analysis of the absorbed radioactive chemical elements and their isotopes distribution in the IAF. We made the innovative propositions on the necessary technical modifications with the purpose to improve the IAF technical characteristics and increase its operational time at the nuclear power plant (NPP), going from the completed precise characterization of the IAF parameters at the long term operation.

Oleg P. Ledenyov; Ivan M. Neklyudov

2013-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

284

Aerodynamic Focusing Of High-Density Aerosols  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

High-density micron-sized particle aerosols might form the basis for a number of applications in which a material target with a particular shape might be quickly ionized to form a cylindrical or sheet shaped plasma. A simple experimental device was built in order to study the properties of high-density aerosol focusing for 1#22; m silica spheres. Preliminary results recover previous findings on aerodynamic focusing at low densities. At higher densities, it is demonstrated that the focusing properties change in a way which is consistent with a density dependent Stokes number.

Ruiz, D. E.; Fisch, Nathaniel

2014-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

285

Photodetector with absorbing region having resonant periodic absorption between reflectors  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A photodetector is disclosed that is responsive to a wavelength or wavelengths of interest which have heretofore been unrealized. The photodetector includes a resonant cavity structure bounded by first and second reflectors, the resonant cavity structure being resonant at the wavelength or wavelengths of interest for containing a plurality of standing waves therein. The photodetector further includes a radiation absorbing region disposed within the resonant cavity structure, the radiation absorbing region including a plurality of radiation absorbing layers spaced apart from one another by a distance substantially equal to a distance between antinodes of adjacent ones of the standing waves. Each of radiation absorbing layers is spatially positioned at a location of one of the antinodes of one of the standing waves such that radiation absorption is enhanced. The radiation absorbing layers may be either bulk layers or quantum wells includes a plurality of layers, each of which is comprised of a strained layer of InGaAs. Individual ones of the InGaAs layers are spaced apart from one another by a GaAs barrier layer. 11 figs.

Bryan, R.P.; Olbright, G.R.; Brennan, T.M.; Tsao, J.Y.

1995-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

286

Solar thermal aerosol flow reaction process  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention provides an environmentally beneficial process using concentrated sunlight to heat radiation absorbing particles to carry out highly endothermic gas phase chemical reactions ultimately resulting in the production of hydrogen or hydrogen synthesis gases.

Weimer, Alan W.; Dahl, Jaimee K.; Pitts, J. Roland; Lewandowski, Allan A.; Bingham, Carl; Tamburini, Joseph R.

2005-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

287

Near real time vapor detection and enhancement using aerosol adsorption  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A vapor sample detection method where the vapor sample contains vapor and ambient air and surrounding natural background particles. The vapor sample detection method includes the steps of generating a supply of aerosol that have a particular effective median particle size, mixing the aerosol with the vapor sample forming aerosol and adsorbed vapor suspended in an air stream, impacting the suspended aerosol and adsorbed vapor upon a reflecting element, alternatively directing infrared light to the impacted aerosol and adsorbed vapor, detecting and analyzing the alternatively directed infrared light in essentially real time using a spectrometer and a microcomputer and identifying the vapor sample.

Novick, Vincent J.; Johnson, Stanley A.

1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

288

Technical Note: Estimating Aerosol Effects on Cloud Radiative Forcing  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Estimating anthropogenic aerosol effects on the planetary energy balance through the aerosol influence on clouds using the difference in cloud radiative forcing from simulations with and without anthropogenic emissions produces estimates that are positively biased. A more representative method is suggested using the difference in cloud radiative forcing calculated with aerosol radiative effects neglected. The method also yields an aerosol radiative forcing decomposition that includes a term quantifying the impact of changes in surface albedo. The method requires only two additional diagnostic calculations: the whole-sky and clear-sky top-of-atmosphere radiative flux with aerosol radiative effects neglected.

Ghan, Steven J.

2013-10-09T23:59:59.000Z

289

Near real time vapor detection and enhancement using aerosol adsorption  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A vapor sample detection method is described where the vapor sample contains vapor and ambient air and surrounding natural background particles. The vapor sample detection method includes the steps of generating a supply of aerosol that have a particular effective median particle size, mixing the aerosol with the vapor sample forming aerosol and adsorbed vapor suspended in an air stream, impacting the suspended aerosol and adsorbed vapor upon a reflecting element, alternatively directing infrared light to the impacted aerosol and adsorbed vapor, detecting and analyzing the alternatively directed infrared light in essentially real time using a spectrometer and a microcomputer and identifying the vapor sample. 13 figs.

Novick, V.J.; Johnson, S.A.

1999-08-03T23:59:59.000Z

290

Near real time vapor detection and enhancement using aerosol adsorption  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A vapor sample detection method where the vapor sample contains vapor and ambient air and surrounding natural background particles. The vapor sample detection method includes the steps of generating a supply of aerosol that have a particular effective median particle size, mixing the aerosol with the vapor sample forming aerosol and adsorbed vapor suspended in an air stream, impacting the suspended aerosol and adsorbed vapor upon a reflecting element, alternatively directing infrared light to the impacted aerosol and adsorbed vapor, detecting and analyzing the alternatively directed infrared light in essentially real time using a spectrometer and a microcomputer and identifying the vapor sample.

Novick, Vincent J. (Downers Grove, IL); Johnson, Stanley A. (Countryside, IL)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

Aerosol Science and Technology, 41:202216, 2007 Copyright c American Association for Aerosol Research  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

processes, such as con- densation, coagulation, gas-to-particle conversion (Reid et al. 1998), and particle Aerosol size distribution is, along with particle refractive in- dex and shape, one of important

292

Organic aerosol components observed in Northern Hemispheric datasets from Aerosol Mass Spectrometry  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this study we compile and present results from the factor analysis of 43 Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS) datasets (27 of the datasets are reanalyzed in this work). The components from all sites, when taken together, ...

Kroll, Jesse

293

Two Hundred Fifty Years of Aerosols and Climate: The End of the Age of Aerosols  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Carbonaceous and sulfur aerosols have a substantial global and regional influence on climate in addition to their impact on health and ecosystems. The magnitude of this influence has changed substantially over the past and is expected to continue to change into the future. An integrated picture of the changing climatic influence of black carbon, organic carbon and sulfate over the period 1850 through 2100, focusing on uncertainty, is presented using updated historical inventories and a coordinated set of emission projections. While aerosols have had a substantial impact on climate over the past century, by the end of the 21st century aerosols will likely be only a minor contributor to radiative forcing due to increases in greenhouse gas forcing and a global decrease in pollutant emissions. This outcome is even more certain under a successful implementation of a policy to limit greenhouse gas emissions as low-carbon energy technologies that do not emit appreciable aerosol or SO2 are deployed.

Smith, Steven J.; Bond, Tami C.

2014-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

294

High power density test of PXIE MEBT absorber prototype  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

One of the goals of the PXIE program at Fermilab is to demonstrate the capability to form an arbitrary bunch pattern from an initially CW 162.5 MHz H- bunch train coming out of an RFQ. The bunch-by-bunch selection will take place in the 2.1 MeV Medium Energy Beam Transport (MEBT) by directing the undesired bunches onto an absorber that needs to withstand a beam power of up to 21 kW, focused onto a spot with a ~2 mm rms radius. Two prototypes of the absorber were manufactured from molybdenum alloy TZM and tested with a 28 keV DC electron beam up to the peak surface power density required for PXIE, 17W/mm2. Temperatures and flow parameters were measured and compared to analysis. This paper describes the absorber prototypes and key testing results.

Shemyakin, A

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

295

Criticality safety analysis of a borated-concrete absorber  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Fuel cycle facilities use slab tanks to store fissile solutions, because these tanks have both a high volume-to-floorspace efficiency and an easily verifiable, criticality control (thickness). The results of preliminary criticality analyses using a validated computer code and cross-section library, indicate that a slab tank designed without a solid neutron absorber is not economical in view of process requirements (inventory) and space limitations (layout). A subsequent calculational study assessed the possible increase in the thickness of a single, isolated slab tank using a solid neutron absorber. Finally, an analysis was performed to evaluate the maximum slab thickness for an array of tank/absorbers. The result of these studies showed the potential for expansion of slab tank thickness. 7 refs., 5 figs., 7 tabs.

Funabashi, H.; Oka, T.; Matsumoto, T.; Smolen, G.R. (Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan); Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA))

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

296

The precipitation synthesis of broad-spectrum UV absorber nanoceria  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this paper the possibility of nanoceria as broad-spectrum UV absorber was evaluated. Nanoceria were synthesized by precipitation process from cerium nitrate solution and ammonium hydroxide as precipitant agent. Isopropanol was mixed with water as solvent to prevent hard agglomeration. The structure of resulting nanoceria was characterized by x-ray diffractometer (XRD). The transparency in the visible light and efficiency of protection in UV A region were studied using ultraviolet-visible (UV - Vis) spectrophotometer. The results show that nanoceria possess good tranparency in visible light and high UV light absorption. The critical absorption wavelenght of 368 nm was obtained which is desirable for excellent broad-spectrum protection absorbers. Moreover, analysis of photodegradation nanoceria to methylene blue solution shows poor photocatalytic activity. It indicates that nanoceria suitable for used as UV absorber in personal care products.

Nurhasanah, Iis; Sutanto, Heri; Puspaningrum, Nurul Wahyu [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science and Mathematics, Universitas Diponegoro Jl. Prof. Soedarto, S.H, Tembalang Semarang 50275 (Indonesia)] [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science and Mathematics, Universitas Diponegoro Jl. Prof. Soedarto, S.H, Tembalang Semarang 50275 (Indonesia)

2013-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

297

Generation of concentration density maxima of small dispersive coal dust particles in horizontal iodine air filter at air-dust aerosol blow  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The spatial distributions of the small dispersive coal dust particles with the nano and micro sizes in the granular filtering medium with the cylindrical coal granules in the absorber in the horizontal iodine air filter during its long term operation at the nuclear power plant are researched. It is shown that the concentration density maxima of the small dispersive coal dust particles appear in the granular filtering medium with the cylindrical coal absorbent granules in the horizontal iodine air filter at an action by the air dust aerosol blow. The comparison of the measured aerodynamic resistances of the horizontal and vertical iodine air filters is conducted. The main conclusion is that the magnitude of the aerodynamic resistance of the horizontal iodine air filters is much smaller in comparison with the magnitude of the aerodynamic resistance of the vertical iodine air filters at the same loads of the air dust aerosol volumes. It is explained that the direction of the air dust aerosol blow and the directi...

Neklyudov, I M; Fedorova, L I; Poltinin, P Ya

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

298

Integrity of neutron-absorbing components of LWR fuel systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A study of the integrity and behavior of neutron-absorbing components of light-water (LWR) fuel systems was performed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) and sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE). The components studies include control blades (cruciforms) for boiling-water reactors (BWRs) and rod cluster control assemblies for pressurized-water reactors (PWRs). The results of this study can be useful for understanding the degradation of neutron-absorbing components and for waste management planning and repository design. The report includes examples of the types of degradation, damage, or failures that have been encountered. Conclusions and recommendations are listed. 84 refs.

Bailey, W.J.; Berting, F.M.

1991-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

299

The Aerosol Modeling Testbed: A community tool to objectively evaluate aerosol process modules  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This study describes a new modeling paradigm that significantly advances how the third activity is conducted while also fully exploiting data and findings from the first two activities. The Aerosol Modeling Testbed (AMT) is a computational framework for the atmospheric sciences community that streamlines the process of testing and evaluating aerosol process modules over a wide range of spatial and temporal scales. The AMT consists of a fully-coupled meteorology-chemistry-aerosol model, and a suite of tools to evaluate the performance of aerosol process modules via comparison with a wide range of field measurements. The philosophy of the AMT is to systematically and objectively evaluate aerosol process modules over local to regional spatial scales that are compatible with most field campaigns measurement strategies. The performance of new treatments can then be quantified and compared to existing treatments before they are incorporated into regional and global climate models. Since the AMT is a community tool, it also provides a means of enhancing collaboration and coordination among aerosol modelers.

Fast, Jerome D.; Gustafson, William I.; Chapman, Elaine G.; Easter, Richard C.; Rishel, Jeremy P.; Zaveri, Rahul A.; Grell, Georg; Barth, Mary

2011-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

300

Calibration of the On-Line Aerosol Monitor (OLAM) with ammonium chloride and sodium chloride aerosols  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The On-Line Aerosol Monitor (OLAM) is a light attenuation device designed and built at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) by EG&G Idaho. Its purpose is to provide an on-line indication of aerosol concentration in the PHEBUS-FP tests. It does this by measuring the attenuation of a light beam across a tube through which an aerosol is flowing. The OLAM does not inherently give an absolute response and must be calibrated. A calibration has been performed at Sandia National Laboratories` (SNL) Sandia Aerosol Research Laboratory (SARL) and the results are described here. Ammonium chloride and sodium chloride calibration aerosols are used for the calibration and the data for the sodium chloride aerosol is well described by a model presented in this report. Detectable instrument response is seen over a range of 0.1 cm{sup 3} of particulate material per m{sup 3} of gas to 10 cm{sup 3} of particulate material per m{sup 3} of gas.

Brockmann, J.E.; Lucero, D.A.; Romero, T. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Pentecost, G. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high-altitude absorbing aerosols" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

A new aerosol collector for quasi on-line analysis of particulate organic matter: the Aerosol Collection Module (ACM) and first applications with a GC/MS-FID  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In many environments organic matter significantly contributes to the composition of atmospheric aerosol particles influencing its properties. Detailed chemical characterization of ambient aerosols is critical in order to ...

Hohaus, T.

302

Attachment of radon progeny to cigarette-smoke aerosols  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The daughter products of radon gas are now recognized as a significant contributor to radiation exposure to the general public. It is also suspected that a synergistic effect exists with the combination cigarette smoking and radon exposure. We have conducted an experimental investigation to determine the physical nature of radon progeny interactions with cigarette smoke aerosols. The size distributions of the aerosols are characterized and attachment rates of radon progeny to cigarette-smoke aerosols are determined. Both the mainstream and sidestream portions of the smoke aerosol are investigated. Unattached radon progeny are very mobile and, in the presence of aerosols, readily attach to the particle surfaces. In this study, an aerosol chamber is used to contain the radon gas, progeny and aerosol mixture while allowing the attachment process to occur. The rate of attachment is dependent on the size distribution, or diffusion coefficient, of the radon progeny as well as the aerosol size distribution. The size distribution of the radon daughter products is monitored using a graded-screen diffusion battery. The diffusion battery also enables separation of the unattached radon progeny from those attached to the aerosol particles. Analysis of the radon decay products is accomplished using alpha spectrometry. The aerosols of interest are size fractionated with the aid of a differential mobility analyzer and cascade impactor. The measured attachment rates of progeny to the cigarette smoke are compared to those found in similar experiments using an ambient aerosol. The lowest attachment coefficients observed, {approximately}10{sup {minus}6} cm{sup 3}/s, occurred for the ambient aerosol. The sidestream and mainstream smoke aerosols exhibited higher attachment rates in that order. The results compared favorably with theories describing the coagulation process of aerosols.

Biermann, A.H.; Sawyer, S.R.

1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

303

Uncertainties and Frontiers in Aerosol Research  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

;Transport Power Industry Biomass burning Residential Human activity Perspective Aerosol Sources (rather than, Mixing, Chemistry, Climate) Climate Effects Resource: AeroCom, an international model intercomparison of fossil fuel (coal, oil, diesel, gasoline), domestic wood burning, forest fires #12;Natural sources

304

Aerosol Spray Synthesis of Porous Molybdenum Sulfide  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, and colloidal silica, SiO2, was ultrasonically nebulized using a household humidifier; the resulting aerosol in materials science because of their ability to be scaled-up for industrial applications.[2] USP solution, as indicated by Eq. 2. Typically, micron-sized particles are obtained; however, by adding

Suslick, Kenneth S.

305

3, 59195976, 2003 The nitrate aerosol  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ACPD 3, 5919­5976, 2003 The nitrate aerosol field over Europe M. Schaap et al. Title Page Abstract of Utrecht, Institute of Marine and Atmospheric Science, PO Box 80005, 3508 TA, Utrecht, The Netherlands 2, The Netherlands 3 Netherlands Energy Research Foundation (ECN), PO Box 1, 1755 LE Petten, The Netherlands 4 Joint

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

306

Source Apportionment of Carbonaceous Aerosols using  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

are different than the collection of particles from water Filtration has high efficiency for all sizes Size Condensation Nuclei (CCN) Human health Carbonaceous aerosol implicated as important for toxicity and adverse of particulate matter Again, agreement between these two approaches would give a high level of confidence

Einat, Aharonov

307

Exchanging Ohmic Losses in Metamaterial Absorbers with Useful Optical Absorption for Photovoltaics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Using metamaterial absorbers, we have shown that metallic layers in the absorbers do not necessarily constitute undesired resistive heating problem for photovoltaics. Tailoring the geometric skin depth of metals and employing the natural bulk absorbance characteristics of the semiconductors in those absorbers can enable the exchange of undesired resistive losses with the useful optical absorbance in the active semiconductors. Thus, Ohmic loss dominated metamaterial absorbers can be converted into photovoltaic near-perfect absorbers with the advantage of harvesting the full potential of light management offered by the metamaterial absorbers. Based on experimental permittivity data for indium gallium nitride, we have shown that between 75%-95% absorbance can be achieved in the semiconductor layers of the converted metamaterial absorbers. Besides other metamaterial and plasmonic devices, our results may also apply to photodectors and other metal or semiconductor based optical devices where resistive losses and p...

Vora, Ankit; Pala, Nezih; Kulkarni, Anand; Pearce, Joshua M; Güney, Durdu Ö

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

308

Methods for applying microchannels to separate methane using liquid absorbents, especially ionic liquid absorbents from a mixture comprising methane and nitrogen  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Methods of using microchannel separation systems including absorbents to improve thermal efficiency and reduce parasitic power loss. Energy is typically added to desorb methane and then energy or heat is removed to absorb methane using a working solution. The working solution or absorbent may comprise an ionic liquid, or other fluids that demonstrate a difference in affinity between methane and nitrogen in a solution.

Tonkovich, Anna Lee Y. (Dublin, OH); Litt, Robert D. (Westerville, OH); Dongming, Qiu (Dublin, OH); Silva, Laura J. (Plain City, OH); Lamont, Micheal Jay (Plain City, OH); Fanelli, Maddalena (Plain City, OH); Simmons, Wayne W. (Plain city, OH); Perry, Steven (Galloway, OH)

2011-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

309

Absorbed dose measurements during routine equine radiographic procedures  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Absorbed doses were measured for one month at the Texas A&M University Veterinary Teaching Hospital using Li:Mg,Cu,P thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs). All personnel present in the x-ray examination room during eqine radiography were monitored using TLDs...

Salinas, Leticia Lamar

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

310

Gas compressor with side branch absorber for pulsation control  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method and system for reducing pulsation in lateral piping associated with a gas compressor system. A tunable side branch absorber (TSBA) is installed on the lateral piping. A pulsation sensor is placed in the lateral piping, to measure pulsation within the piping. The sensor output signals are delivered to a controller, which controls actuators that change the acoustic dimensions of the SBA.

Harris, Ralph E. (San Antonio, TX); Scrivner, Christine M. (San Antonio, TX); Broerman, III, Eugene L. (San Antonio, TX)

2011-05-24T23:59:59.000Z

311

absorber test experiment: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

absorber test experiment First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Testing of the Broadband HOM...

312

absorber pellets: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

absorber pellets First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 I Investigation of Pellet Acceleration...

313

absorber bna pellets: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

absorber bna pellets First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Reproduced with permission from...

314

Calculation of burnup of a black neutron absorber  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The procedure of calculation of burnup of fuel and strong neutron absorber in a nuclear reactor is described. The method proposed here makes it possible to avoid difficulties associated with heterogeneous blocking of the absorption cross section. The effectiveness of the method is demonstrated by an example.

Yudkevich, M. S., E-mail: umark@adis.vver.kiae.ru [Russian Research Centre Kurchatov Institute (Russian Federation)

2011-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

315

The atmosphere absorbs part of the outgoing longwave energy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

intersecting Earth is S0 R2 · The global surface area of Earth is 4R2 · Divide the total energy rate, where R is the radius of the Earth Solar Radiation · The total energy rate for solar radiation7/20/10 1 The atmosphere absorbs part of the outgoing longwave energy Incoming solar radiation

Russell, Lynn

316

Atmospheric response to solar radiation absorbed by phytoplankton  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Atmospheric response to solar radiation absorbed by phytoplankton K. M. Shell and R. Frouin Scripps the absorption of solar radiation, affecting upper ocean temperature and circulation. These changes, in turn: phytoplankton, atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM), absorption of solar radiation, seasonal cycle, sea

Shell, Karen M.

317

The HI Properties and Environment of Lyman-alpha Absorbers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present results from two projects in which we have used the HI 21cm emission line as a tracer of gas-rich galaxy populations in the vicinity of Lyman-alpha absorbers. In the first case, we examine the HI environment of SBS 1543+593, the nearest damped Lyman-alpha absorber. We use a VLA map of the region around this LSB galaxy which itself shows an extended HI disk to identify 3 gas rich neighbors within 185 kpc. While it is not clear whether we should expect local damped Lyman-alpha systems to reside in such gas-rich regions, we would expect this kind of environment to be more prevalent at higher redshifts where less of the gas is in the dense inner regions of galaxies or has been consumed by star formation. This local galaxy is the only system in which we can study the gaseous environment in this kind of detail. In the second case, we examine the HI environment surrounding 16 Lyman-alpha forest absorbers along 4 QSO sightlines. We do not detect any gas-rich galaxies at the absorber positions indicating that, at least down to our sensitivity limits, these absorption lines do not seem to be associated with galaxy halos. For half of the Lyman-alpha absorption systems there is a galaxy within 500 kpc, but for the other half there is not. In two cases there is no galaxy within 2 Mpc of the Lyman-alpha absorption systems indicating that absorbers do, in some cases, reside in voids.

J. L. Rosenberg

2005-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

318

Climate Engineering with Stratospheric Aerosols and Associated Engineering Parameters  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Climate engineering with stratospheric aerosols, an idea inspired by large volcaniceruptions, could cool the Earth’s surface and thus alleviate some of the predicted dangerous impacts of anthropogenic climate change. However, the effectiveness of climate engineering to achieve a particular climate goal, and any associated side effects, depend on certain aerosol parameters and how the aerosols are deployed in the stratosphere. Through the examples of sulfate and black carbon aerosols, this paper examines "engineering" parameters-aerosol composition, aerosol size, and spatial and temporal variations in deployment-for stratospheric climate engineering. The effects of climate engineering are sensitive to these parameters, suggesting that a particle could be found ordesigned to achieve specific desired climate outcomes. This prospect opens the possibility for discussion of societal goals for climate engineering.

Kravitz, Benjamin S.

2013-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

319

Total aerosol effect: forcing or radiative flux perturbation?  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Uncertainties in aerosol forcings, especially those associated with clouds, contribute to a large extent to uncertainties in the total anthropogenic forcing. The interaction of aerosols with clouds and radiation introduces feedbacks which can affect the rate of rain formation. Traditionally these feedbacks were not included in estimates of total aerosol forcing. Here we argue that they should be included because these feedbacks act quickly compared with the time scale of global warming. We show that for different forcing agents (aerosols and greenhouse gases) the radiative forcings as traditionally defined agree rather well with estimates from a method, here referred to as radiative flux perturbations (RFP), that takes these fast feedbacks and interactions into account. Thus we propose replacing the direct and indirect aerosol forcing in the IPCC forcing chart with RFP estimates. This implies that it is better to evaluate the total anthropogenic aerosol effect as a whole.

Lohmann, Ulrike; Storelvmo, Trude; Jones, Andy; Rotstayn, Leon; Menon, Surabi; Quaas, Johannes; Ekman, Annica; Koch, Dorothy; Ruedy, Reto

2009-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

320

Retrieval of ozone and nitrogen dioxide concentrations from Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment III (SAGE III)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Retrieval of ozone and nitrogen dioxide concentrations from Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas extinction. We retrieve ozone and nitrogen dioxide number densities and aerosol extinction from transmission), Retrieval of ozone and nitrogen dioxide concentrations from Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment III

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high-altitude absorbing aerosols" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Correction to "Sulfuric acid deposition from stratospheric geoengineering with sulfate aerosols"  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Correction to "Sulfuric acid deposition from stratospheric geoengineering with sulfate aerosols (2010), Correction to "Sulfuric acid deposition from stratospheric geoengineering with sulfate aerosols from stratospheric geoengineering with sulfate aerosols" (Journal of Geophysical Research, 114, D14109

Robock, Alan

322

Statistical analysis of aerosol species, trace gasses, and meteorology in Chicago  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

possible pollutant sources. Keywords Atmospheric aerosols . Canonical correlation analysis . Chicago air pollution studies involve collection and anal- ysis of atmospheric aerosols and concurrent meteorol- ogy) and principal component analysis (PCA) were applied to atmospheric aerosol and trace gas concentrations

O'Brien, Timothy E.

323

Stackable differential mobility analyzer for aerosol measurement  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A multi-stage differential mobility analyzer (MDMA) for aerosol measurements includes a first electrode or grid including at least one inlet or injection slit for receiving an aerosol including charged particles for analysis. A second electrode or grid is spaced apart from the first electrode. The second electrode has at least one sampling outlet disposed at a plurality different distances along its length. A volume between the first and the second electrode or grid between the inlet or injection slit and a distal one of the plurality of sampling outlets forms a classifying region, the first and second electrodes for charging to suitable potentials to create an electric field within the classifying region. At least one inlet or injection slit in the second electrode receives a sheath gas flow into an upstream end of the classifying region, wherein each sampling outlet functions as an independent DMA stage and classifies different size ranges of charged particles based on electric mobility simultaneously.

Cheng, Meng-Dawn (Oak Ridge, TN); Chen, Da-Ren (Creve Coeur, MO)

2007-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

324

ARM - PI Product - Niamey Aerosol Optical Depths  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsruc Documentation RUC : XDCResearchWarmingMethaneProductsCSSEFProductsMerged andAerosol Optical

325

Aerosol Working Group Contributions Accomplishments for 2006  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth (AOD)ProductssondeadjustsondeadjustAbout the BuildingInnovation 2011 Simulation StudiesAerosol

326

TROPOSPHERIC AEROSOL PROGRAM, PROGRAM PLAN, MARCH 2001  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The goal of Tropospheric Aerosol Program (TAP) will be to develop the fundamental scientific understanding required to construct tools for simulating the life cycle of tropospheric aerosols--the processes controlling their mass loading, composition, and microphysical properties, all as a function of time, location, and altitude. The TAP approach to achieving this goal will be by conducting closely linked field, modeling, laboratory, and theoretical studies focused on the processes controlling formation, growth, transport, and deposition of tropospheric aerosols. This understanding will be represented in models suitable for describing these processes on a variety of geographical scales; evaluation of these models will be a key component of TAP field activities. In carrying out these tasks TAP will work closely with other programs in DOE and in other Federal and state agencies, and with the private sector. A forum to directly work with our counterparts in industry to ensure that the results of this research are translated into products that are useful to that community will be provided by NARSTO (formerly the North American Research Strategy on Tropospheric Ozone), a public/private partnership, whose membership spans government, the utilities, industry, and university researchers in Mexico, the US, and Canada.

SCHWARTZ,S.E.; LUNN,P.

2001-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

327

aerosol characteristic researching: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

as they have significant impacts both on localregional air pollution and global climate. Recent for Aerosol and Cloud Chemistry, Aerodyne Research, Incorporated, Billerica,...

328

aerosol challenge model: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

climate change is important because of its strong capability in causing extinction of solar radiation. A three-dimensional interactive aerosol-climate model has been used to...

329

Iron Speciation and Mixing in Single Aerosol Particles from the...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

iron from atmospheric aerosol is an essential nutrient that can control oceanic productivity, thereby impacting the global carbon budget and climate. Particles collected on...

330

aircraft exhaust aerosol: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Window Location on a King Air 200 Aircraft:aerosol.atmos.und.edu) Objective A Raytheon Beechcraft King Air 200 aircraft has been used to obtain Condensation Particle...

331

aerosol mass spectrometry: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

analysis of aerosol organic nitrates with electron ionization high-resolution mass spectrometry MIT - DSpace Summary: Four hydroxynitrates (R(OH)R'ONO2) representative of...

332

aerosol assisted chemical: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

soluble in water: 2. Isolation of acid, neutral, and basic fractions by modified size Weber, Rodney 5 Simulating Aerosols Using a Chemical Transport Model with Assimilation of...

333

ambient fine aerosols: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

soluble in water: 2. Isolation of acid, neutral, and basic fractions by modified size Weber, Rodney 4 Chemical characterization of the ambient organic aerosol soluble in water:...

334

aerosol chemical characteristion: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

soluble in water: 2. Isolation of acid, neutral, and basic fractions by modified size Weber, Rodney 5 Simulating Aerosols Using a Chemical Transport Model with Assimilation of...

335

aerosol characterization experiment: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

soluble in water: 2. Isolation of acid, neutral, and basic fractions by modified size Weber, Rodney 8 Desert dust aerosol age characterized by massage tracking of tracers...

336

aerosol generation characterization: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

soluble in water: 2. Isolation of acid, neutral, and basic fractions by modified size Weber, Rodney 5 Desert dust aerosol age characterized by massage tracking of tracers...

337

aerosol monitor development: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Paris May 2003John Matthews Monitoring the Aerosol Phase Function University of New Mexico 12;AstroParticles & Atmosphere, Paris May 2003John Matthews 12;AstroParticles &...

338

aerosol particle charger: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Introduction The Universal Serial Bus (USB) port Allen, Jont 9 New approaches for the chemical and physical characterization of aerosols using a single particle mass spectrometry...

339

aerosol mass spectrometer: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

2004. The concentration of a species Zhang, Qi 8 Development of a thermal desorption chemical ionization mobility mass spectrometer for the speciation of ultrafine aerosols. Open...

340

aerosol particles generated: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

the chemical and physical characterization of aerosols using a single particle mass spectrometry based technique University of California eScholarship Repository Summary: Real-...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high-altitude absorbing aerosols" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

aerosol monitors including: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

schemes which explicitly simulate the microphysical processes that determine the particle size distribution. These models enable aerosol optical ... Ridley, David Andrew 33...

342

aerosol retrieval validation: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

off the coast of Chile and Peru, where aerosol-cloud interactions are important to the energy balance (15), and limitations in current observing and modeling capabilities...

343

aerosol detection equipment: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Daniel, Rosenfeld 464 Mixtures of pollution, dust, sea salt, and volcanic aerosol during ACE-Asia: Radiative properties Energy Storage, Conversion and Utilization Websites...

344

Aerosol generation and entrainment model for cough simulations.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??The airborne transmission of diseases is of great concern to the public health community. The possible spread of infectious disease by aerosols is of particular… (more)

Ersahin, Cem.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

atmospheric aerosols basic: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

of atmospheric aerosol. Aplin, KL 2012-01-01 13 1. Introduction The atmospheric greenhouse effect is the basic mechanism Environmental Sciences and Ecology Websites Summary: 1....

346

Aerosols, Clouds, and Climate Change Stephen E. Schwartz  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in atmospheric carbon dioxide associated with fossil fuel combustion. Briefly the options are mitigation work has shown instances of large magnitude of aerosol indirect forcing, with local instantaneous

Schwartz, Stephen E.

347

Atmospheric pressure flow reactor / aerosol mass spectrometer studies of tropospheric aerosol nucleat and growth kinetics. Final report, June, 2001  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this program was to determine the mechanisms and rates of growth and transformation and growth processes that control secondary aerosol particles in both the clear and polluted troposphere. The experimental plan coupled an aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) with a chemical ionization mass spectrometer to provide simultaneous measurement of condensed and particle phases. The first task investigated the kinetics of tropospheric particle growth and transformation by measuring vapor accretion to particles (uptake coefficients, including mass accommodation coefficients and heterogeneous reaction rate coefficients). Other work initiated investigation of aerosol nucleation processes by monitoring the appearance of submicron particles with the AMS as a function of precursor gas concentrations. Three projects were investigated during the program: (1) Ozonolysis of oleic acid aerosols as model of chemical reactivity of secondary organic aerosol; (2) Activation of soot particles by measurement deliquescence in the presence of sulfuric acid and water vapor; (3) Controlled nucleation and growth of sulfuric acid aerosols.

Worsnop, Douglas R.

2001-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

348

Establishing the Connections Between Galaxies and Mg II Absorbing Gas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

HIRES/Keck spectra of Mg II (2796) absorption arising in the "halos" of 15 identified 0.4 < z < 0.9 galaxies are presented. Comparison of the galaxy and absorbing gas properties reveal that the spatial distribution of galactic/halo gas does not follow a smooth galactocentric dependence. The kinematics of absorbing gas in z < 1 galaxies are not suggestive of a single systematic velocity field (i.e. rotation or radial flow) and show little dependence on the QSO-galaxy impact parameter. From the full HIRES dataset of 41 systems (0.4 < z < 1.7), strong redshift evolution in the cloud-cloud velocity dispersion is measured. Direct evidence for turbulent or bulk motion in "high velocity" clouds is found by comparing Fe II and Mg II Doppler parameters.

Christopher W. Churchill

1996-04-22T23:59:59.000Z

349

MAGIICAT I. THE Mg II ABSORBER-GALAXY CATALOG  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We describe the Mg II Absorber-Galaxy Catalog, MAGIICAT, a compilation of 182 spectroscopically identified intermediate redshift (0.07 ? z ? 1.1) galaxies with measurements of Mg II ??2796, 2803 absorption from their circumgalactic medium within projected distances of 200 kpc from background quasars. In this work, we present 'isolated' galaxies, which are defined as having no spectroscopically identified galaxy within a projected distance of 100 kpc and a line of sight velocity separation of 500 km s{sup –1}. We standardized all galaxy properties to the ?CDM cosmology and galaxy luminosities, absolute magnitudes, and rest-frame colors to the B- and K-band on the AB system. We present galaxy properties and rest-frame Mg II equivalent width, W{sub r} (2796), versus galaxy redshift. The well-known anti-correlation between W{sub r} (2796) and quasar-galaxy impact parameter, D, is significant to the 8? level. The mean color of MAGIICAT galaxies is consistent with an Sbc galaxy for all redshifts. We also present B- and K-band luminosity functions for different W{sub r} (2796) and redshift subsamples: 'weak absorbing' [W{sub r} (2796) < 0.3 Å], 'strong absorbing' [W{sub r} (2796) ? 0.3 Å], low redshift (z < (z)), and high redshift (z ? (z)), where (z) = 0.359 is the median galaxy redshift. Rest-frame color B – K correlates with M{sub K} at the 8? level for the whole sample but is driven by the strong absorbing, high-redshift subsample (6?). Using M{sub K} as a proxy for stellar mass and examining the luminosity functions, we infer that in lower stellar mass galaxies, Mg II absorption is preferentially detected in blue galaxies and the absorption is more likely to be weak.

Nielsen, Nikole M.; Churchill, Christopher W. [New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM 88003 (United States); Kacprzak, Glenn G.; Murphy, Michael T., E-mail: nnielsen@nmsu.edu [Swinburne University of Technology, Victoria 3122 (Australia)

2013-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

350

E-Print Network 3.0 - administrado como aerosol Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

del ozono estratosfrico, los aerosoles atmosfricos y... a los cambios en las emisiones que los GEI de larga duracin, como el CO2. Los aerosoles antropgenos... ms...

351

E-Print Network 3.0 - aerosol robotic network Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

), AERONET--A federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization, Remote Sens... Period examining aerosol properties and radiative ... Source: Brookhaven...

352

E-Print Network 3.0 - aerosol condensation model Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Applied Science Collection: Environmental Sciences and Ecology 8 DETERMINING AEROSOL RADIATIVE FORCING AT ARM SITES Summary: OF AEROSOL DIRECT FORCING By linear model and by...

353

SciTech Connect: Results and code predictions for ABCOVE aerosol...  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

Results and code predictions for ABCOVE aerosol code validation - Test AB5 Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Results and code predictions for ABCOVE aerosol code...

354

E-Print Network 3.0 - aerosolized polymerized type Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

spheric aerosol particles and isolated from fog... in atmospheric aerosol particles and rainwater in the 1980's (Si- moneit, 1980; Likens and ... Source: Ecole Polytechnique,...

355

E-Print Network 3.0 - aerosol radiative forcing Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

No. DE- Summary: : WHY MEASUREMENTS ALONE CANNOT QUANTIFY AEROSOL RADIATIVE FORCING OF CLIMATE CHANGE Stephen E. Schwartz... of radiative forcing of climate change by aerosols,...

356

E-Print Network 3.0 - aerosols nanometriques application Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

is studying how aerosol particles affect everything from Summary: of aerosol particles on climate change, public health, and renewable energy applications. In particular, he......

357

E-Print Network 3.0 - aerosol main physical Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AND INTEGRAL AEROSOL PROPERTIES RETRIEVAL FROM RAMAN LIDAR DATA USING PRINCIPLE COMPONENT ANALYSIS Summary: retrievals of physical aerosol parameters from ground-based and...

358

Aerosol-Cloud-Precipitation Interactions in the Trade Wind Boundary Layer.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??This dissertation includes an overview of aerosol, cloud, and precipitation properties associated with shallow marine cumulus clouds observed during the Barbados Aerosol Cloud Experiment (BACEX,… (more)

Jung, Eunsil

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

359

E-Print Network 3.0 - aerosol light absorption Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AND Summary: population centers were used to calculate the aerosol forcing due to light scattering and absorption. Directly... , NY www.bnl.gov ABSTRACT Aerosols influence...

360

E-Print Network 3.0 - aerosol atmospheric interactions Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

for Climate Summary: order estimates of aerosol-climate interaction But... only Earth System Models can include all... of the interactions (in theory at least) 12;Aerosols <>...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high-altitude absorbing aerosols" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

aerosol source-receptor relationships: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

ON CCN CONCENTRATION AND AEROSOL FIRST INDIRECT RADIATIVE composition, aerosol size distribution is the more dominant parameter on CCN activation Feingold, GRL 2003;...

362

E-Print Network 3.0 - aerosol particle size Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Summary: of aerosol over many orders-of-magnitude of particle size range, from subcritical clusters on the molecular... to modeling aerosol dynamics under conditions of new...

363

E-Print Network 3.0 - aerosol load study Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

conditions... reserved. Keywords: India; Aerosol loading; Aerosol forcing; MODIS; TOMS; Remote sensing 1. Introduction... heating effect on the earth surface and in turn...

364

E-Print Network 3.0 - analysis od aerosol Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Tivanski, Rebecca Hopkins, Yury Desyaterik... of Aerosols 12;Aerosol Transport From Mexico City During MILAGRO T0 T1 T2 Mexico ... Source: Brookhaven National Laboratory,...

365

Evaluation of the carbon content of aerosols from the burn- ing of biomass in the Brazilian Amazon using thermal, op- tical and thermal-optical analysis methods  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Aerosol samples were collected at a pasture site in the Amazon Basin as part of the project LBA-SMOCC-2002 (Large-Scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia - Smoke Aerosols, Clouds, Rainfall and Climate: Aerosols from Biomass Burning Perturb Global and Regional Climate). Sampling was conducted during the late dry season, when the aerosol composition was dominated by biomass burning emissions, especially in the submicron fraction. A 13-stage Dekati low-pressure impactor (DLPI) was used to collect particles with nominal aerodynamic diameters (D{sub p}) ranging from 0.03 to 0.10 m. Gravimetric analyses of the DLPI substrates and filters were performed to obtain aerosol mass concentrations. The concentrations of total, apparent elemental, and organic carbon (TC, EC{sub a}, and OC) were determined using thermal and thermal-optical analysis (TOA) methods. A light transmission method (LTM) was used to determine the concentration of equivalent black carbon (BC{sub e}) or the absorbing fraction at 880 nm for the size-resolved samples. During the dry period, due to the pervasive presence of fires in the region upwind of the sampling site, concentrations of fine aerosols (D{sub p} < 2.5 {mu}m: average 59.8 {mu}g m{sup -3}) were higher than coarse aerosols (D{sub p} > 2.5 {mu}m: 4.1 {mu}g m{sup -3}). Carbonaceous matter, estimated as the sum of the particulate organic matter (i.e., OC x 1.8) plus BC{sub e}, comprised more than 90% to the total aerosol mass. Concentrations of EC{sub a} (estimated by thermal analysis with a correction for charring) and BCe (estimated by LTM) averaged 5.2 {+-} 1.3 and 3.1 {+-} 0.8 {mu}g m{sup -3}, respectively. The determination of EC was improved by extracting water-soluble organic material from the samples, which reduced the average light absorption {angstrom} exponent of particles in the size range of 0.1 to 1.0 {mu}m from > 2.0 to approximately 1.2. The size-resolved BC{sub e} measured by the LTM showed a clear maximum between 0.4 and 0.6 m in diameter. The concentrations of OC and BC{sub e} varied diurnally during the dry period, and this variation is related to diurnal changes in boundary layer thickness and in fire frequency.

Soto-Garcia, Lydia L.; Andreae, Meinrat O.; Andreae, Tracey W.; taxo, Paulo Ar-; Maenhaut, Willy; Kirchstetter, Thomas; Novakov, T.; Chow, Judith C.; Mayol-Bracero, Olga L.

2011-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

366

A new neutron absorber material for criticality control  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A new neutron absorber material based on a nickel metal matrix composite has been developed for applications such as the Transport, Aging, and Disposal (TAD) canister for the Yucca Mountain Project. This new material offers superior corrosion resistance to withstand the more demanding geochemical environments found in a 300,000 year to a million year repository. The lifetime of the TAD canister is currently limited to 10,000 years, reflecting the focus of current regulations embodied in 10 CFR 63. The use of DOE-owned nickel stocks from decommissioned enrichment facilities could reduce the cost compared to stainless steel/boron alloy. The metal matrix composite allows the inclusion of more than one neutron absorber compound, so that the exact composition may be adjusted as needed. The new neutron absorber material may also be used for supplementary criticality control of stored or transported PWR spent fuel by forming it into cylindrical pellets that can be inserted into a surrogate control rod. (authors)

Wells, Alan H. [PhD Consultant, 2846 Peachtree Walk, Duluth, GA 30096 (United States)

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

367

Method for increasing boron10 contents of neutron absorbing articles  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A method for increasing the boron10 content of a neutron absorbing article, such as one in flat, flexible sheet shape, includes coating a surface of such article with a solidifiable liquid synthetic organic polymeric material, such as a phenol formaldehyde type resin, applying boron carbide particles to the polymeric material and solidifying the polymer, such as by curing to cross-linked permanently set form, so as to hold the neutron absorbing boron carbide particles in place thereon. In highly preferred embodiments of the invention the boron carbide particles applied will extend beyond the surface of the external material and will serve as anchoring means for applications of subsequent coatings and the plurality of coatings, usually after initial partial curing to solidify them and make them formretaining, will be permanently cross-linked simultaneously. In another aspect of the invention the plurality of flat neutron absorbing articles may be joined together by contacting surfaces thereof with such a coating material, preferably containing boron carbide particles, and curing it.

Hortman, M.T.; Naum, R.G.

1981-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

368

Neutron absorbing article and method for manufacture thereof  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A composite, neutron absorbing, coated article, suitable for installation in storage racks for spent nuclear fuel and for other neutron absorbing applications, includes a backing member, preferably of flexible material such as woven fiberglass cloth, a synthetic organic polymeric coating or a plurality of such coatings on the backing member, preferably of cured phenolic resin, such as phenol formaldehyde or trimethylolphenol formaldehyde and boron carbide particles held to the backing member by the cured coating or a plurality of such coatings. Also within the invention is a method for the manufacture of the neutron absorbing coated article and the use of such an article. In a preferred method the backing member is first coated on both sides thereof with a filling coating of thermosettable liquid phenolic resin, which is then partially cured to solid state, one side of the backing member is then coated with a mixture of thermosettable liquid resin and finely divided boron carbide particles and the resin is partially cured to solid state, the other side is coated with a similar mixture, larger boron carbide particles are applied to it and the resin is partially cured to solid state, such side of the article is coated with thermosettable liquid phenolic resin, the resin is partially cured to solid state and such resin, including previously applied partially cured resins, is cured to final cross-linked and permanently set form.

Forsyth, P.F.; Mcmurtry, C.H.; Naum, R.G.

1980-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

369

CO2 Capture with Liquid-to-Solid Absorbents: CO2 Capture Process Using Phase-Changing Absorbents  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

IMPACCT Project: GE and the University of Pittsburgh are developing a unique CO2 capture process in which a liquid absorbent, upon contact with CO2, changes into a solid phase. Once in solid form, the material can be separated and the CO2 can be released for storage by heating. Upon heating, the absorbent returns to its liquid form, where it can be reused to capture more CO2. The approach is more efficient than other solventbased processes because it avoids the heating of extraneous solvents such as water. This ultimately leads to a lower cost of CO2 capture and will lower the additional cost to produce electricity for coal-fired power plants that retrofit their facilities to include this technology.

None

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

370

E-Print Network 3.0 - absorber materials aging Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

HazMat spill pads. The spill pads can absorb a lot... absorbent into for waste disposal 1 Red Tag for waste disposal. ... Source: Cohen, Robert E. - Department of...

371

A multi-frequency induction heating system for a thermally triggered gel polymer dynamic vibration absorber  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Since its invention in the early part of the twentieth century, the dynamic vibration absorber (DVA) has played an important role in vibration suppression. In its simplest form, a dynamic vibration absorber is a mechanical ...

Rodriguez, John Israel, 1972-

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

372

E-Print Network 3.0 - absorber element lifetime Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

) o - is the change in the ring-down lifetime without and with the absorber present... -water interface as a function of bulk pH by the direct measurement of the absorbance of...

373

Minimax design of vibration absorbers for linear damped systems Brandon Brown, Tarunraj Singh  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

motion of transmission line towers [3]. Since the vibration absorber was introduced in 1909 by Frahm [4

Singh, Tarunraj

374

E-Print Network 3.0 - absorber gadolinum comparative Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Fluoropolymer; Hydrofluorocarbon; 157 nm; Photolithography; Optical absorbance Source: French, Roger H. - Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of...

375

Unglazed transpired solar collector having a low thermal-conductance absorber  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An unglazed transpired solar collector using solar radiation to heat incoming air for distribution, comprises an unglazed absorber formed of low thermal-conductance material having a front surface for receiving the solar radiation and openings in the unglazed absorber for passage of the incoming air such that the incoming air is heated as it passes towards the front surface of the absorber and the heated air passes through the openings in the absorber for distribution. 3 figs.

Christensen, C.B.; Kutscher, C.F.; Gawlik, K.M.

1997-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

376

Unglazed transpired solar collector having a low thermal-conductance absorber  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An unglazed transpired solar collector using solar radiation to heat incoming air for distribution, comprising an unglazed absorber formed of low thermal-conductance material having a front surface for receiving the solar radiation and openings in the unglazed absorber for passage of the incoming air such that the incoming air is heated as it passes towards the front surface of the absorber and the heated air passes through the openings in the absorber for distribution.

Christensen, Craig B. (Boulder, CO); Kutscher, Charles F. (Golden, CO); Gawlik, Keith M. (Boulder, CO)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

377

Randomly accelerated particle in a box: Mean absorption time for partially absorbing and inelastic boundaries  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Randomly accelerated particle in a box: Mean absorption time for partially absorbing and inelastic which is randomly accelerated by Gaussian white noise on the line segment 0 x 1 and is absorbed as soon accelerated particle which moves on the half line x 0 with an absorbing boundary at x=0. The motion

378

Absorbed dose in target cell nuclei and dose conversion coefficient of radon progeny  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Absorbed dose in target cell nuclei and dose conversion coefficient of radon progeny in the human Abstract To calculate the absorbed dose in the human lung due to inhaled radon progeny, ICRP focussed and secretory cells). The absorbed energy for alpha particles emitted by radon progeny in the human respiratory

Yu, K.N.

379

Global warming due to increasing absorbed solar radiation Kevin E. Trenberth1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Global warming due to increasing absorbed solar radiation Kevin E. Trenberth1 and John T. Fasullo1 from an energy budget standpoint comes from increases in absorbed solar radiation that stem directly. T. Fasullo (2009), Global warming due to increasing absorbed solar radiation, Geophys. Res. Lett

Fasullo, John

380

Aerosol radiative forcing and the accuracy of satellite aerosol optical depth retrieval  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

) of the AVHRR (Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer) is typically between 0.06 and 0.15, while the RMSE between t = 0.1 and t = 0.8. The Department of Energy research satellite instrument, the Multispectral aerosol radiative forcing are known, the predictions of future global warming may remain unacceptably high

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high-altitude absorbing aerosols" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Variability of Aerosol Optical Properties from Long-term  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

%) controlled measurements: sp ­ Aerosol total light scattering coefficient at 450, 550, and 700 nm wavelengths automated generation and review of quality control plots · Weekly editing of data by station scientist]. Indirect Forcing Direct Forcing Carbon Dioxide Forcing Total Forcing Importance of Aerosols #12;Direct

Delene, David J.

382

Sulfate Aerosol Geoengineering: The Question of Justice Toby Svoboda1,*  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Sulfate Aerosol Geoengineering: The Question of Justice Toby Svoboda1,* , Klaus Keller2 , Marlos of geoengineering as a means to address global climate change. This paper focuses on the question of whether a particular form of geoengineering, namely deploying sulfate aerosols in the stratosphere to counteract some

383

An overview of geoengineering of climate using stratospheric sulphate aerosols  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

REVIEW An overview of geoengineering of climate using stratospheric sulphate aerosols BY PHILIP J, MD 21218, USA We provide an overview of geoengineering by stratospheric sulphate aerosols. The state after geoengineering, with some regions experiencing significant changes in temperature or precipitation

Robock, Alan

384

aerosol ratio test: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

aerosol ratio test First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Effect of mineral dust aerosol...

385

Organic Aerosol Formation Downwind from the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Organic Aerosol Formation Downwind from the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill Nicole ONeill - ATOC 3500 and aerosol composition of air over the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico. · The lightest chemicals in the oil evaporated within hours, as scientists expected them to do. What they didn't expect

Toohey, Darin W.

386

Spatial and Seasonal Trends in Biogenic Secondary Organic Aerosol  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Spatial and Seasonal Trends in Biogenic Secondary Organic Aerosol Tracers and Water-Soluble Organic biogenic secondary organic aerosol (SOA) tracers via gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC natural and anthropogenic sources and is dominated by terrestrial plant foliage (7). The global

Zheng, Mei

387

CLOUD PHYSICS From aerosol-limited to invigoration  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

CLOUD PHYSICS From aerosol-limited to invigoration of warm convective clouds Ilan Koren,1 * Guy Dagan,1 Orit Altaratz1 Among all cloud-aerosol interactions, the invigoration effect is the most elusive. Most of the studies that do suggest this effect link it to deep convective clouds with a warm base

Napp, Nils

388

Deposition of Biological Aerosols on HVAC Heat Exchangers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

LBNL-47669 Deposition of Biological Aerosols on HVAC Heat Exchangers Jeffrey Siegel and Iain Walker of Biological Aerosols on HVAC Heat Exchangers Jeffrey A. Siegel Iain S. Walker, Ph.D. ASHRAE Student Member that are found in commercial and residential HVAC systems of 1 - 6 m/s (200 - 1200 ft/min), particle diameters

389

Climatology of aerosol optical depth in northcentral Oklahoma: 19922008  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of aerosol models; for identification of aerosols from spe- cific events (e.g., the Central American fires Radiation Measurement Program central facility near Lamont, Oklahoma, since the fall of 1992. Most dimming; that is, the decrease in solar radiation reaching Earth's surface. Additionally, the wavelength

390

Absorption cross-section 139 Accumulation mode, of aerosol 146  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

133, 151 residence times 153 size distributions 144 Air composition 2 molecular weight 4, 6 Albedo 122 dioxide Coagulation (aerosol) 146 Column model 32 Conditional unstability 56 Continuity equation 75261 INDEX A Absorption cross-section 139 Accumulation mode, of aerosol 146 Acetaldehyde (CH3CHO

Jacob, Daniel J.

391

Laboratory Measurements of Sea Salt Aerosol Refractive Index  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 1.2.3 Complex Refractive Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 1.2.4 Size Distribution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 1.3.5 Coagulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 1.4 Sea Salt AerosolsLaboratory Measurements of Sea Salt Aerosol Refractive Index Thesis submitted for the degree

Oxford, University of

392

Cloud Condensation Nuclei (CCN) Analysis of Biogenic Secondary Organic Aerosol  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Cloud Condensation Nuclei (CCN) Analysis of Biogenic Secondary Organic Aerosol Rachel L. Atlas1' gas-phase emissions and the aerosols they form (figure 6), including a cloud condensation nuclei Cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) are particles which water vapor condenses onto to form cloud droplets

Collins, Gary S.

393

The Kinematic Composition of MgII Absorbers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The study of galaxy evolution using quasar absorption lines requires an understanding of what components of galaxies and their surroundings are contributing to the absorption in various transitions. This paper considers the kinematic composition of the class of 0.4 < z < 1.0 MgII absorbers, particularly addressing the question of what fraction of this absorption is produced in halos and what fraction arises from galaxy disks. We design models with various fractional contributions from radial infall of halo material and from a rotating thick disk component. We generate synthetic spectra from lines of sight through model galaxies and compare the resulting ensembles of MgII profiles with the 0.4 < z < 1.0 sample observed with HIRES/Keck. We apply a battery of statistical tests and find that pure disk and pure halo models can be ruled out, but that various models with rotating disk and infall/halo contributions can produce an ensemble that is nearly consistent with the data. A discrepancy in all models that we considered requires the existence of a kinematic component intermediate between halo and thick disk. The variety of MgII profiles can be explained by the gas in disks and halos of galaxies not very much different than galaxies in the local Universe. In any one case there is considerable ambiguity in diagnosing the kinematic composition of an absorber from the low ionization high resolution spectra alone. Future data will allow galaxy morphologies, impact parameters, and orientations, FeII/MgII of clouds, and the distribution of high ionization gas to be incorporated into the kinematic analysis. Combining all these data will permit a more accurate diagnosis of the physical conditions along the line of sight through the absorbing galaxy.

Jane C. Charlton; Christopher W. Churchill

1997-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

394

Study of Aerosol Indirect Effects in China  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security AdministrationcontrollerNanocrystalline Gallium Oxide Thin Films.AdministrationAerosol Indirect

395

Aerosol Remote Sealing System - Energy Innovation Portal  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth (AOD)ProductssondeadjustsondeadjustAbout the BuildingInnovation 2011 Simulation StudiesAerosol Remote Sealing

396

ARM: 10-minute Raman Lidar: aerosol scattering ratio and backscattering coefficient profiles, from first Ferrare algorithm  

DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

10-minute Raman Lidar: aerosol scattering ratio and backscattering coefficient profiles, from first Ferrare algorithm

Newsom, Rob; Goldsmith, John

397

ARM: 2-minute Raman Lidar: aerosol scattering ratio and backscattering coefficient profiles, from first Ferrare algorithm  

DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

2-minute Raman Lidar: aerosol scattering ratio and backscattering coefficient profiles, from first Ferrare algorithm

Sivaraman, Chitra; Flynn, Connor

398

ARM: 10-second Raman Lidar: aerosol scattering ratio and backscattering coefficient profiles, from first Ferrare algorithm  

DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

10-second Raman Lidar: aerosol scattering ratio and backscattering coefficient profiles, from first Ferrare algorithm

Sivaraman, Chitra; Flynn, Connor

399

ARM: 1-minute Raman Lidar: aerosol scattering ratio and backscattering coefficient profiles, from first Ferrare algorithm  

DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

1-minute Raman Lidar: aerosol scattering ratio and backscattering coefficient profiles, from first Ferrare algorithm

Sivaraman, Chitra; Flynn, Connor

400

spectra from size-resolved particle samples col-lected from the Southeastern Aerosol Visibility  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and acrolein aerosols. We believe that these transformations are due to acid-catalyzed heterogeneous reac

Bishop, James K.B.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high-altitude absorbing aerosols" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Assessment of the Upper Particle Size Limit for Quantitative Analysis of Aerosols Using  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the vaporization dynamics of individual aerosol particles, such as thermophoretic forces and vapor expulsion. Since

Hahn, David W.

402

Modeling the Direct and Indirect Effects of Atmospheric Aerosols on Tropical Cyclones  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

’ are conducted under the three aerosol scenarios: 1) the clean case with an aerosol number concentration of 200 cm-1, 2) the polluted case with a number concentration of 1000 cm-1, and 3) the aerosol radiative effects (AR) case with same aerosol concentration...

Lee, Keun-Hee

2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

403

Shock absorber mount assembly for motor vehicle suspension  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A mount assembly is described for mounting a shock absorber/coil assembly in a motor vehicle suspension, the shock absorber/coil assembly including a fluid cylinder, a piston rod movable into and out of the cylinder, a vibration isolator mounted on an end of the piston rod, and a coil spring disposed around the fluid cylinder and the piston rod. The mount assembly consists of: a retainer adapted to be mounted on the vibration isolator and having an attachment portion adapted for attachment to a motor vehicle frame; a spring seat adapted to engage an end of the coil spring; and a thrust bearing interposed between the attachment portion of the retainer and the spring seat and adapted to extend around the vibration isolator, the thrust bearing including a pair of first and second races and a plurality of balls rotatably disposed between the first and second races, the first race engaging the retainer and the second race engaging the spring seat.

Kubo, K.

1987-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

404

Beam Pipe HOM Absorber for 750 MHz RF Cavity Systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This joint project of Muons, Inc., Cornell University and SLAC was supported by a Phase I and Phase II grant monitored by the SBIR Office of Science of the DOE. Beam line HOM absorbers are a critical part of future linear colliders. The use of lossy materials at cryogenic temperatures has been incorporated in several systems. The design in beam pipes requires cylinders of lossy material mechanically confined in such a way as to absorb the microwave energy from the higher-order modes and remove the heat generated in the lossy material. Furthermore, the potential for charge build-up on the surface of the lossy material requires the conductivity of the material to remain consistent from room temperature to cryogenic temperatures. In this program a mechanical design was developed that solved several design constraints: a) fitting into the existing Cornell load vacuum component, b) allowing the use of different material compositions, c) a thermal design that relied upon the compression of the lossy ceramic material without adding stress. Coating experiments were performed that indicated the design constraints needed to fully implement this approach for solving the charge build-up problem inherent in using lossy ceramics. In addition, the ACE3P program, used to calculate the performance of lossy cylinders in beam pipes in general, was supported by this project. Code development and documentation to allow for the more wide spread use of the program was a direct result of this project was well.

Johnson, Rolland; Neubauer, Michael

2014-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

405

Micro-electro-mechanically switchable near infrared complementary metamaterial absorber  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We experimentally demonstrate a micro-electro-mechanically switchable near infrared complementary metamaterial absorber by integrating the metamaterial layer to be the out of plane movable microactuator. The metamaterial layer is electrostatically actuated by applying voltage across the suspended complementary metamaterial layer and the stationary bottom metallic reflector. Thus, the effective spacing between the metamaterial layer and bottom metal reflector is varied as a function of applied voltage. With the reduction of effective spacing between the metamaterial and reflector layers, a strong spectral blue shift in the peak absorption wavelength can be achieved. With spacing change of 300?nm, the spectral shift of 0.7??m in peak absorption wavelength was obtained for near infrared spectral region. The electro-optic switching performance of the device was characterized, and a striking switching contrast of 1500% was achieved at 2.1??m. The reported micro-electro-mechanically tunable complementary metamaterial absorber device can potentially enable a wide range of high performance electro-optical devices, such as continuously tunable filters, modulators, and electro-optic switches that form the key components to facilitate future photonic circuit applications.

Pitchappa, Prakash; Pei Ho, Chong [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, 4 Engineering Drive 3, Singapore 117576 (Singapore); Institute of Microelectronics (IME), 11 Science Park Road, Singapore 117685 (Singapore); Kropelnicki, Piotr; Singh, Navab; Kwong, Dim-Lee [Institute of Microelectronics (IME), 11 Science Park Road, Singapore 117685 (Singapore); Lee, Chengkuo, E-mail: elelc@nus.edu.sg [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, 4 Engineering Drive 3, Singapore 117576 (Singapore)

2014-05-19T23:59:59.000Z

406

CARES Helps Explain Secondary Organic Aerosols  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

What happens when urban man-made pollution mixes with what we think of as pristine forest air? To know more about what this interaction means for the climate, the Carbonaceous Aerosol and Radiative Effects Study, or CARES, field campaign was designed in 2010. The sampling strategy during CARES was coordinated with CalNex 2010, another major field campaign that was planned in California in 2010 by the California Air Resources Board (CARB), the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), and the California Energy Commission (CEC). "We found two things. When urban pollution mixes with forest pollutions we get more secondary organic aerosols," said Rahul Zaveri, FCSD scientist and project lead on CARES. "SOAs are thought to be formed primarily from forest emissions but only when they interact with urban emissions. The data is saying that there will be climate cooling over the central California valley because of these interactions." Knowledge gained from detailed analyses of data gathered during the CARES campaign, together with laboratory experiments, is being used to improve existing climate models.

Zaveri, Rahul

2014-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

407

CARES Helps Explain Secondary Organic Aerosols  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

What happens when urban man-made pollution mixes with what we think of as pristine forest air? To know more about what this interaction means for the climate, the Carbonaceous Aerosol and Radiative Effects Study, or CARES, field campaign was designed in 2010. The sampling strategy during CARES was coordinated with CalNex 2010, another major field campaign that was planned in California in 2010 by the California Air Resources Board (CARB), the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), and the California Energy Commission (CEC). "We found two things. When urban pollution mixes with forest pollutions we get more secondary organic aerosols," said Rahul Zaveri, FCSD scientist and project lead on CARES. "SOAs are thought to be formed primarily from forest emissions but only when they interact with urban emissions. The data is saying that there will be climate cooling over the central California valley because of these interactions." Knowledge gained from detailed analyses of data gathered during the CARES campaign, together with laboratory experiments, is being used to improve existing climate models.

Zaveri, Rahul

2014-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

408

Hyperspectral Aerosol Optical Depths from TCAP Flights  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

4STAR (Spectrometer for Sky-Scanning, Sun-Tracking Atmospheric Research), the world’s first hyperspectral airborne tracking sunphotometer, acquired aerosol optical depths (AOD) at 1 Hz during all July 2012 flights of the Two Column Aerosol Project (TCAP). Root-mean square differences from AERONET ground-based observations were 0.01 at wavelengths between 500-1020 nm, 0.02 at 380 and 1640 nm and 0.03 at 440 nm in four clear-sky fly-over events, and similar in ground side-by-side comparisons. Changes in the above-aircraft AOD across 3-km-deep spirals were typically consistent with integrals of coincident in situ (on DOE Gulfstream 1 with 4STAR) and lidar (on NASA B200) extinction measurements within 0.01, 0.03, 0.01, 0.02, 0.02, 0.02 at 355, 450, 532, 550, 700, 1064 nm, respectively, despite atmospheric variations and combined measurement uncertainties. Finer vertical differentials of the 4STAR measurements matched the in situ ambient extinction profile within 14% for one homogeneous column. For the AOD observed between 350-1660 nm, excluding strong water vapor and oxygen absorption bands, estimated uncertainties were ~0.01 and dominated by (then) unpredictable throughput changes, up to +/-0.8%, of the fiber optic rotary joint. The favorable intercomparisons herald 4STAR’s spatially-resolved high-frequency hyperspectral products as a reliable tool for climate studies and satellite validation.

Shinozuka, Yohei; Johnson, Roy R.; Flynn, Connor J.; Russell, P. B.; Schmid, Beat; Redemann, Jens; Dunagan, Stephen; Kluzek, Celine D.; Hubbe, John M.; Segal-Rosenheimer, Michal; Livingston, J. M.; Eck, T.; Wagener, Richard; Gregory, L.; Chand, Duli; Berg, Larry K.; Rogers, Ray; Ferrare, R. A.; Hair, John; Hostetler, Chris A.; Burton, S. P.

2013-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

409

Particle size distribution of indoor aerosol sources  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

As concern about Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) has grown in recent years, it has become necessary to determine the nature of particles produced by different indoor aerosol sources and the typical concentration that these sources tend to produce. These data are important in predicting the dose of particles to people exposed to these sources and it will also enable us to take effective mitigation procedures. Further, it will also help in designing appropriate air cleaners. A new state of the art technique, DMPS (Differential Mobility Particle Sizer) System is used to determine the particle size distributions of a number of sources. This system employs the electrical mobility characteristics of these particles and is very effective in the 0.01--1.0 {mu}m size range. A modified system that can measure particle sizes in the lower size range down to 3 nm was also used. Experimental results for various aerosol sources is presented in the ensuing chapters. 37 refs., 20 figs., 2 tabs.

Shah, K.B.

1990-10-24T23:59:59.000Z

410

Vapor scavenging by atmospheric aerosol particles  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Particle growth due to vapor scavenging was studied using both experimental and computational techniques. Vapor scavenging by particles is an important physical process in the atmosphere because it can result in changes to particle properties (e.g., size, shape, composition, and activity) and, thus, influence atmospheric phenomena in which particles play a role, such as cloud formation and long range transport. The influence of organic vapor on the evolution of a particle mass size distribution was investigated using a modified version of MAEROS (a multicomponent aerosol dynamics code). The modeling study attempted to identify the sources of organic aerosol observed by Novakov and Penner (1993) in a field study in Puerto Rico. Experimentally, vapor scavenging and particle growth were investigated using two techniques. The influence of the presence of organic vapor on the particle`s hydroscopicity was investigated using an electrodynamic balance. The charge on a particle was investigated theoretically and experimentally. A prototype apparatus--the refractive index thermal diffusion chamber (RITDC)--was developed to study multiple particles in the same environment at the same time.

Andrews, E.

1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

411

Asthmatic responses to airborne acid aerosols  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Controlled exposure studies suggest that asthmatics may be more sensitive to the respiratory effects of acidic aerosols than individuals without asthma. This study investigates whether acidic aerosols and other air pollutants are associated with respiratory symptoms in free-living asthmatics. Daily concentrations of hydrogen ion (H+), nitric acid, fine particulates, sulfates and nitrates were obtained during an intensive air monitoring effort in Denver, Colorado, in the winter of 1987-88. A panel of 207 asthmatics recorded respiratory symptoms, frequency of medication use, and related information in daily diaries. We used a multiple regression time-series model to analyze which air pollutants, if any, were associated with health outcomes reported by study participants. Airborne H+ was found to be significantly associated with several indicators of asthma status, including moderate or severe cough and shortness of breath. Cough was also associated with fine particulates, and shortness of breath with sulfates. Incorporating the participants' time spent outside and exercise intensity into the daily measure of exposure strengthened the association between these pollutants and asthmatic symptoms. Nitric acid and nitrates were not significantly associated with any respiratory symptom analyzed. In this population of asthmatics, several outdoor air pollutants, particularly airborne acidity, were associated with daily respiratory symptoms.

Ostro, B.D.; Lipsett, M.J.; Wiener, M.B.; Selner, J.C. (California Department of Health Services, Berkeley (USA))

1991-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

412

The Two-Column Aerosol Project (TCAP) Science Plan  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Two-Column Aerosol Project (TCAP) field campaign will provide a detailed set of observations with which to (1) perform radiative and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) closure studies, (2) evaluate a new retrieval algorithm for aerosol optical depth (AOD) in the presence of clouds using passive remote sensing, (3) extend a previously developed technique to investigate aerosol indirect effects, and (4) evaluate the performance of a detailed regional-scale model and a more parameterized global-scale model in simulating particle activation and AOD associated with the aging of anthropogenic aerosols. To meet these science objectives, the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility will deploy the ARM Mobile Facility (AMF) and the Mobile Aerosol Observing System (MAOS) on Cape Cod, Massachusetts, for a 12-month period starting in the summer of 2012 in order to quantify aerosol properties, radiation, and cloud characteristics at a location subject to both clear and cloudy conditions, and clean and polluted conditions. These observations will be supplemented by two aircraft intensive observation periods (IOPs), one in the summer and a second in the winter. Each IOP will deploy one, and possibly two, aircraft depending on available resources. The first aircraft will be equipped with a suite of in situ instrumentation to provide measurements of aerosol optical properties, particle composition and direct-beam irradiance. The second aircraft will fly directly over the first and use a multi-wavelength high spectral resolution lidar (HSRL) and scanning polarimeter to provide continuous optical and cloud properties in the column below.

Berkowitz, CM; Berg, LK; Cziczo, DJ; Flynn, CJ; Kassianov, EI; Fast, JD; Rasch, PJ; Shilling, JE; Zaveri, RA; Zelenyuk, A; Ferrare, RA; Hostetler, CA; Cairns, B; Russell, PB; Ervens, B

2011-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

413

Sensitivity of Remote Aerosol Distributions to Representation of Cloud-Aerosol Interactions in a Global Climate Model  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Many global aerosol and climate models, including the widely used Community Atmosphere Model version 5 (CAM5), have large biases in predicting aerosols in remote regions such as upper troposphere and high latitudes. In this study, we conduct CAM5 sensitivity simulations to understand the role of key processes associated with aerosol transformation and wet removal affecting the vertical and horizontal long-range transport of aerosols to the remote regions. Improvements are made to processes that are currently not well represented in CAM5, which are guided by surface and aircraft measurements together with results from a multi-scale aerosol-climate model (PNNL-MMF) that explicitly represents convection and aerosol-cloud interactions at cloud-resolving scales. We pay particular attention to black carbon (BC) due to its importance in the Earth system and the availability of measurements. We introduce into CAM5 a new unified scheme for convective transport and aerosol wet removal with explicit aerosol activation above convective cloud base. This new implementation reduces the excessive BC aloft to better simulate observed BC profiles that show decreasing mixing ratios in the mid- to upper-troposphere. After implementing this new unified convective scheme, we examine wet removal of submicron aerosols that occurs primarily through cloud processes. The wet removal depends strongly on the sub-grid scale liquid cloud fraction and the rate of conversion of liquid water to precipitation. These processes lead to very strong wet removal of BC and other aerosols over mid- to high latitudes during winter months. With our improvements, the Arctic BC burden has a10-fold (5-fold) increase in the winter (summer) months, resulting in a much better simulation of the BC seasonal cycle as well. Arctic sulphate and other aerosol species also increase but to a lesser extent. An explicit treatment of BC aging with slower aging assumptions produces an additional 30-fold (5-fold) increase in the Arctic winter (summer) BC burden. This BC aging treatment, however, has minimal effect on other under-predicted species. Interestingly, our modifications to CAM5 that aim at improving prediction of high-latitude and upper tropospheric aerosols also produce much better AOD and AAOD over various other regions globally when compared to multi-year AERONET retrievals. The improved aerosol distributions have impacts on other aspects of CAM5, improving the simulation of global mean liquid water path and cloud forcing.

Wang, Hailong; Easter, Richard C.; Rasch, Philip J.; Wang, Minghuai; Liu, Xiaohong; Ghan, Steven J.; Qian, Yun; Yoon, Jin-Ho; Ma, Po-Lun; Vinoj, V.

2013-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

414

Aerodynamic size associations of natural radioactivity with ambient aerosols  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The aerodynamic size of /sup 214/Pb, /sup 212/Pb, /sup 210/Pb, /sup 7/Be, /sup 32/P, /sup 35/S (as SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/), and stable SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/ was measured using cascade impactors. The activity distribution of /sup 212/Pb and /sup 214/Pb, measured by alpha spectroscopy, was largely associated with aerosols smaller than 0.52 ..mu..m. Based on 46 measurements, the activity median aerodynamic diameter of /sup 212/Pb averaged 0.13 ..mu..m (sigma/sub g/ = 2.97), while /sup 214/Pb averaged 0.16 ..mu..m (sigma/sub g/ = 2.86). The larger median size of /sup 214/Pb was attributed to ..cap alpha..-recoil depletion of smaller aerosols following decay of aerosol-associated /sup 218/Po. Subsequent /sup 214/Pb condensation on all aerosols effectively enriches larger aerosols. /sup 212/Pb does not undergo this recoil-driven redistribution. Low-pressure impactor measurements indicated that the mass median aerodynamic diameter of SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/ was about three times larger than the activity median diameter /sup 212/Pb, reflecting differences in atmospheric residence times as well as the differences in surface area and volume distributions of the atmospheric aerosol. Cosmogenic radionuclides, especially /sup 7/Be, were associated with smaller aerosols than SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/ regardless of season, while /sup 210/Pb distributions in summer measurements were similar to sulfate but smaller in winter measurements. Even considering recoil following /sup 214/Po ..cap alpha..-decay, the avervage /sup 210/Pb labeled aerosol grows by about a factor of two during its atmospheric lifetime. The presence of 5 to 10% of the /sup 7/Be on aerosols greater than 1 ..mu..m was indicative of post-condensation growth, probably either in the upper atmosphere or after mixing into the boundary layer.

Bondietti, E.A.; Papastefanou, C.; Rangarajan, C.

1986-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

415

Criteria pollutant and acid aerosol characterization study, Catano, Puerto Rico  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The primary objective of the Catano Criteria Pollutant and Acid Aerosol Characterization Study (CPAACS) was to measure criteria pollutant concentrations and acid aerosol concentrations in and around the Ward of Catano, Puerto Rico, during the summer of 1994. Continuous air sampling for criteria pollutants was performed at three fixed stations and one moobile station that was deployed to four locations. Air samples for acid aerosol analyses and particulate matter measurements were collected at three sites. Semicontinuous sulfate analysis was performed at the primary site. Continuous measurements of wind speed, wind direction, temperature, and relative humidity were also made at each site. The study was conducted from June 1 through September 30, 1994.

Edgerton, E.S.; Harlos, D.P.; Sune, J.M.; Akland, G.G.; Vallero, D.A.

1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

416

A New Aerosol Flow System for Photochemical and Thermal Studies of Tropospheric Aerosols  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

For studying the formation and photochemical/thermal reactions of aerosols relevant to the troposphere, a unique, high-volume, slow-flow, stainless steel aerosol flow system equipped with 5 UV lamps has been constructed and characterized experimentally. The total flow system length 6 is 8.5 m and includes a 1.2 m section used for mixing, a 6.1 m reaction section and a 1.2 m 7 transition cone at the end. The 45.7 cm diameter results in a smaller surface to volume ratio than is found in many other flow systems and thus reduces the potential contribution from wall reactions. The latter are also reduced by frequent cleaning of the flow tube walls which is made feasible by the ease of disassembly. The flow tube is equipped with ultraviolet lamps for photolysis. This flow system allows continuous sampling under stable conditions, thus increasing the amount of sample available for analysis and permitting a wide variety of analytical techniques to be applied simultaneously. The residence time is of the order of an hour, and sampling ports located along the length of the flow tube allow for time-resolved measurements of aerosol and gas-phase products. The system was characterized using both an inert gas (CO2) and particles (atomized NaNO3). Instruments interfaced directly to this flow system include a NOx analyzer, an ozone analyzer, relative humidity and temperature probes, a scanning mobility particle sizer spectrometer, an aerodynamic particle sizer spectrometer, a gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer, an integrating nephelometer, and a Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometer equipped with a long path (64 m) cell. Particles collected with impactors and filters at the various sampling ports can be analyzed subsequently by a variety of techniques. Formation of secondary organic aerosol from ?-pinene reactions (NOx photooxidation and ozonolysis) are used to demonstrate the capabilities of this new system.

Ezell, Michael J.; Johnson, Stanley N.; Yu, Yong; Perraud, Veronique; Bruns, Emily; Alexander, M. L.; Zelenyuk, Alla; Dabdub, Donald; Finlayson-Pitts, Barbara J.

2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

417

Mexico City Aerosol Analysis During Milagro Using High Resolution Aerosol Mass Spectrometry at the Urban Supersite (T0) - Part 1: Fine Particle Composition and Organic Source Apportionment.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Submicron aerosol was analyzed during the MILAGRO field campaign in March 2006 at the T0 urban supersite in Mexico City with a High-Resolution Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS) and complementary instrumentation. Positive ...

Aiken, A. C.

418

Sensitivity of aerosol properties to new particle formation mechanism and to primary emissions in a continental-scale chemical  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of aerosol particles and in turn their number concentration and size distribution. Aerosol particles can grow contribution from coagulation. The aerosol mass concentration, which is primarily in the accumulation mode of aerosol number concentration and size distri- bution is important for considerations of the aerosol

419

Boron-copper neutron absorbing material and method of preparation  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A composite, copper clad neutron absorbing material is comprised of copper powder and boron powder enriched with boron 10. The boron 10 content can reach over 30 percent by volume, permitting a very high level of neutron absorption. The copper clad product is also capable of being reduced to a thickness of 0.05 to 0.06 inches and curved to a radius of 2 to 3 inches, and can resist temperatures of 900.degree. C. A method of preparing the material includes the steps of compacting a boron-copper powder mixture and placing it in a copper cladding, restraining the clad assembly in a steel frame while it is hot rolled at 900.degree. C. with cross rolling, and removing the steel frame and further rolling the clad assembly at 650.degree. C. An additional sheet of copper can be soldered onto the clad assembly so that the finished sheet can be cold formed into curved shapes.

Wiencek, Thomas C. (Bolingbrook, IL); Domagala, Robert F. (Indian Head Park, IL); Thresh, Henry (Palos Hts., IL)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

420

Aerosol mass spectrometry systems and methods  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A system according to one embodiment includes a particle accelerator that directs a succession of polydisperse aerosol particles along a predetermined particle path; multiple tracking lasers for generating beams of light across the particle path; an optical detector positioned adjacent the particle path for detecting impingement of the beams of light on individual particles; a desorption laser for generating a beam of desorbing light across the particle path about coaxial with a beam of light produced by one of the tracking lasers; and a controller, responsive to detection of a signal produced by the optical detector, that controls the desorption laser to generate the beam of desorbing light. Additional systems and methods are also disclosed.

Fergenson, David P.; Gard, Eric E.

2013-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high-altitude absorbing aerosols" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Soot particle aerosol dynamics at high pressure  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The authors have used detailed calculations to analyze the coagulation dynamics of a soot aerosol at high pressures (20 and 50 atm). They find that the soot size distribution is altered compared to lower-pressure conditions because the mean free path at high pressures is reduced to the point that the particles are similar in size to the mean free path. At lower pressures the form of the size distribution becomes constant (self-preserving) in time, allowing optical measurements to be easily interpreted. However, the authors find that at pressures above about 5 atm the shape of the size distribution continually changes. As a result, proper and accurate interpretation of optical data at high pressures is more difficult than at lower pressures.

Harris, S.J. (General Motors Research Labs., Warren, MI (USA). Physics Dept.); Kennedy, I.M. (California Univ., Davis, CA (USA). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering)

1989-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

422

Diesel Aerosol Sampling in the Atmosphere  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The University of Minnesota Center for Diesel Research along with a research team including Caterpillar, Cummins, Carnegie Mellon University, West Virginia University (WVU), Paul Scherrer Institute in Switzerland, and Tampere University in Finland have performed measurements of Diesel exhaust particle size distributions under real-world dilution conditions. A mobile aerosol emission laboratory (MEL) equipped to measure particle size distributions, number concentrations, surface area concentrations, particle bound PAHs, as well as CO 2 and NO x concentrations in real time was built and will be described. The MEL was used to follow two different Cummins powered tractors, one with an older engine (L10) and one with a state-of-the-art engine (ISM), on rural highways and measure particles in their exhaust plumes. This paper will describe the goals and objectives of the study and will describe representative particle size distributions observed in roadway experiments with the truck powered by the ISM engine.

David Kittelson; Jason Johnson; Winthrop Watts; Qiang Wei; Marcus Drayton; Dwane Paulsen; Nicolas Bukowiecki

2000-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

423

aerosol content monitoring: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Rings, Jrg 2008-01-01 6 The impact of aerosols on simulated ocean temperature and heat content in the 20th century Environmental Sciences and Ecology Websites Summary: The...

424

Effects of aerosols on deep convective cumulus clouds  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This work investigates the effects of anthropogenic aerosols on deep convective clouds and the associated radiative forcing in the Houston area. The Goddard Cumulus Ensemble model (GCE) coupled with a spectral-bin microphysics is employed...

Fan, Jiwen

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

425

Continuous air monitor for alpha-emitting aerosol particles  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A new alpha Continuous Air Monitor (CAM) sampler is being developed for use in detecting the presence of alpha-emitting aerosol particles. The effort involves design, fabrication and evaluation of systems for the collection of aerosol and for the processing of data to speciate and quantify the alpha emitters of interest. At the present time we have a prototype of the aerosol sampling system and we have performed wind tunnel tests to characterize the performance of the device for different particle sizes, wind speeds, flow rates and internal design parameters. The results presented herein deal with the aerosol sampling aspects of the new CAM sampler. Work on the data processing, display and alarm functions is being done in parallel with the particle sampling work and will be reported separately at a later date. 17 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

McFarland, A.R.; Ortiz, C.A. (Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (USA). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering); Rodgers, J.C.; Nelson, D.C. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA))

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

426

Pressure-flow reducer for aerosol focusing devices  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A pressure-flow reducer, and an aerosol focusing system incorporating such a pressure-flow reducer, for performing high-flow, atmosphere-pressure sampling while delivering a tightly focused particle beam in vacuum via an aerodynamic focusing lens stack. The pressure-flow reducer has an inlet nozzle for adjusting the sampling flow rate, a pressure-flow reduction region with a skimmer and pumping ports for reducing the pressure and flow to enable interfacing with low pressure, low flow aerosol focusing devices, and a relaxation chamber for slowing or stopping aerosol particles. In this manner, the pressure-flow reducer decouples pressure from flow, and enables aerosol sampling at atmospheric pressure and at rates greater than 1 liter per minute.

Gard, Eric (San Francisco, CA); Riot, Vincent (Oakland, CA); Coffee, Keith (Diablo Grande, CA); Woods, Bruce (Livermore, CA); Tobias, Herbert (Kensington, CA); Birch, Jim (Albany, CA); Weisgraber, Todd (Brentwood, CA)

2008-04-22T23:59:59.000Z

427

MELCOR 1. 8. 1 assessment: LACE aerosol experiment LA4  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The MELCOR code has been used to simulate LACE aerosol experiment LA4. In this test, the behavior of single- and double-component, hygroscopic and nonhygroscopic, aerosols in a condensing environment was monitored. Results are compared to experimental data, and to CONTAIN calculations. Sensitivity studies have been done on time step effects and machine dependencies; thermal/hydraulic parameters such as condensation on heat structures and on pool surface, and radiation heat transfer; and aerosol parameters such as number of MAEROS components and sections assumed, the degree to which plated aerosols are washed off heat structures by condensate film draining, and the effect of non-default values for shape factors and diameter limits. 9 refs., 50 figs., 13 tabs.

Kmetyk, L.N.

1991-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

428

Distinguishing Aerosol Impacts on Climate Over the Past Century  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Figure 8a). The IE cooling increases snow/ice by about 10% (Their cooling e?ect on surface temperatures promotes ice androw), cooling from the aerosol DE increases snow/ice cover

Koch, Dorothy

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

429

A review of Secondary Organic Aerosol (SOA) formation from isoprene  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Recent field and laboratory evidence indicates that the oxidation of isoprene, (2-methyl-1,3-butadiene, C[subscript 5]H[subscript 8]) forms secondary organic aerosol (SOA). Global biogenic emissions of isoprene (600 Tg ...

Kroll, Jesse

430

atmospheric aerosol limb: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

coefficient is 0.5 and then 1.0 2. For the same conditions calculate the H Weber, Rodney 5 Secondary organic aerosol 1. Atmospheric chemical mechanism for production...

431

atmospheric aerosols recorded: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

coefficient is 0.5 and then 1.0 2. For the same conditions calculate the H Weber, Rodney 4 Secondary organic aerosol 1. Atmospheric chemical mechanism for production...

432

atmospheric aerosols relation: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

coefficient is 0.5 and then 1.0 2. For the same conditions calculate the H Weber, Rodney 4 Secondary organic aerosol 1. Atmospheric chemical mechanism for production...

433

aerosol source apportionment: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

was analyzed during the MILAGRO field campaign in March 2006 at the T0 urban supersite in Mexico City with a High-Resolution Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS) and complementary...

434

aerosolized bacillus anthracis: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

and remotely sensed aerosol observations. William D. Collins; Phillip J. Rasch; Brian E. Eaton; Boris V. Khattatov; Jean-francois Lamarque; C. Zender 2001-01-01 118 THESE DE...

435

Aerosol Optical Depth Value-Added Product Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document describes the process applied to retrieve aerosol optical depth (AOD) from multifilter rotating shadowband radiometers (MFRSR) and normal incidence multifilter radiometers (NIMFR) operated at the ARM Climate Research Facility’s ground-based facilities.

Koontz, A; Hodges, G; Barnard, J; Flynn, C; Michalsky, J

2013-03-17T23:59:59.000Z

436

Aerosol-Cloud interactions : a new perspective in precipitation enhancement  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Increased industrialization and human activity modified the atmospheric aerosol composition and size-distribution during the last several decades. This has affected the structure and evolution of clouds, and precipitation ...

Gunturu, Udaya Bhaskar

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

437

MICS Asia Phase II - Sensitivity to the aerosol module  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In the framework of the model inter-comparison study - Asia Phase II (MICS2), where eight models are compared over East Asia, this paper studies the influence of different parameterizations used in the aerosol module on the aerosol concentrations of sulfate and nitrate in PM10. An intracomparison of aerosol concentrations is done for March 2001 using different configurations of the aerosol module of one of the model used for the intercomparison. Single modifications of a reference setup for model configurations are performed and compared to a reference case. These modifications concern the size distribution, i.e. the number of sections, and physical processes, i.e. coagulation, condensation/evaporation, cloud chemistry, heterogeneous reactions and sea-salt emissions. Comparing monthly averaged concentrations at different stations, the importance of each parameterization is first assessed. It is found that sulfate concentrations are little sensitive to sea-salt emissions and to whether condensation is computed...

Sartelet, Karine; Sportisse, Bruno

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

438

aerosol optical depths: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AERONET, AVHRR and 3 MODIS 4 A. Hauser, D. Oesch have been used to 9 retrieve the spatial distribution of aerosol optical depth for 10 central Europe. At eight AERONET sites,...

439

aerosol optical depth: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AERONET, AVHRR and 3 MODIS 4 A. Hauser, D. Oesch have been used to 9 retrieve the spatial distribution of aerosol optical depth for 10 central Europe. At eight AERONET sites,...

440

aerosol strong acidity: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

nucleation theories. Citation: Erupe, M. E., et al Lee, Shan-Hu 12 Neutralization of soil aerosol and its impact on the distribution of acid rain over east Asia Geosciences...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high-altitude absorbing aerosols" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Results from simulated upper-plenum aerosol transport tests  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A series of eight aerosol transport experiments, designated as Aerosol Transport Tests (ATT) A101 through A108, has recently been completed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). These tests provide a data base for validation of aerosol transport modeling used in the TRAP-MELT2 computer code (Jordan and Kuhlman, 1985), which was developed at Battelle Columbus Laboratories to calculate aerosol/fission-product transport in the reactor coolant system in postulated light-water reactor (LWR) core-melt accidents. Results from tests A103 and A104 have been summarized in a previous paper (Wright and Pattison, 1985a); the present paper discusses results from tests A105 through A108.

Wright, A.L.; Pattison, W.L.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

442

Thermophoresis and Its Thermal Parameters for Aerosol Collection  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

K/cm (a) Figure 3. (a). Thermophoretic collection ratio vs.Lin, J. , et al. , Thermophoretic deposition of particles inof a plate- to-plate thermophoretic precipitator, Aerosol

Huang, Z.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

443

aerosol particle deposition: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

aerosol particles as an alternative way to determine the electron mean free path of low energy electrons in solid and liquid materials. The mean free path is obtained from fits...

444

An investigation of aerosol physical properties in Houston, Texas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

From June through October 2001, three Tandem Differential Mobility Analyzer (TDMA) systems were operated around Houston, Texas, to obtain a large, high-quality dataset in order to explore characteristics of aerosol size distributions...

Gasparini, Roberto

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

445

Computational Fluid Dynamics Study of Aerosol Transport and Deposition Mechanisms  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this work, various aerosol particle transport and deposition mechanisms were studied through the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling, including inertial impaction, gravitational effect, lift force, interception, and turbophoresis, within...

Tang, Yingjie

2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

446

Climate impacts of carbonaceous and other non-sulfate aerosols: A proposed study  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In addition to sulfate aerosols, carbonaceous and other non-sulfate aerosols are potentially significant contributors to global climate change. We present evidence that strongly suggests that current assessments of the effects of aerosols on climate may be inadequate because major aerosol components, especially carbonaceous aerosols, are not included in these assessments. Although data on the properties and distributions of anthropogenic carbonaceous aerosols are insufficient to allow quantification of their climate impacts, the existing information suggests that climate forcing by this aerosol component may be significant and comparable to that by sulfate aerosols. We propose that a research program be undertaken to support a quantitative assessment of the role in climate forcing of non-sulfate, particularly carbonaceous, aerosols.

Andreae, M.O.; Crutzen, P.J. [Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, Mainz (Germany); Cofer, W.R. III; Hollande, J.M. [NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA (United States). Atmospheric Sciences Division] [and others

1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

447

Balloon-borne photometric studies of the stratospheric aerosol layer after Mt. Pinatubo eruption  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Using Sun-tracking photometers on board balloons, the Pinatubo volcanic aerosol layer has been studied over Hyderabad (17.5 deg N) during October 1991 and April 1992. From the angular distribution of the scattered radiation intensity measurements the aerosol size parameters is derived. Over a decade of aerosol measurements at Hyderabad, aerosol extinction and number density obtained during October 1991 in the stratosphere are found to be the highest ever obtained with a distinct aerosol layer between 16 and 30 km. The derived aerosol size parameter shows layered structures. Analysis of the size parameter obtained during April 1992 indicates formation of aerosols at higher altitudes by coagulation with a subsequent reduction in the aerosol number density. The obtained results are found to agree well with that of an independent lidar measurement made over Ahmedabad (23 deg N) and with the stratospheric aerosol and gas experiment II (SAGE II) results.

Ramachandran, S.; Jayaraman, A.; Acharya, Y.B.; Subbaraya, B.H. [Physical Research Laboratory, Ahmedabad (India)

1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

448

Representing Cloud Processing of Aerosol in Numerical Models  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The satellite imagery in Figure 1 provides dramatic examples of how aerosol influences the cloud field. Aerosol from ship exhaust can serve as nucleation centers in otherwise cloud-free regions, forming ship tracks (top image), or can enhance the reflectance/albedo in already cloudy regions. This image is a demonstration of the first indirect effect, in which changes in aerosol modulate cloud droplet radius and concentration, which influences albedo. It is thought that, through the effects it has on precipitation (drizzle), aerosol can also affect the structure and persistence of planetary boundary layer (PBL) clouds. Regions of cellular convection, or open pockets of cloudiness (bottom image) are thought to be remnants of strongly drizzling PBL clouds. Pockets of Open Cloudiness (POCs) (Stevens et al. 2005) or Albrecht's ''rifts'' are low cloud fraction regions characterized by anomalously low aerosol concentrations, implying they result from precipitation. These features may in fact be a demonstration of the second indirect effect. To accurately represent these clouds in numerical models, we have to treat the coupled cloud-aerosol system. We present the following series of mesoscale and large eddy simulation (LES) experiments to evaluate the important aspects of treating the coupled cloud-aerosol problem. 1. Drizzling and nondrizzling simulations demonstrate the effect of drizzle on a mesoscale forecast off the California coast. 2. LES experiments with explicit (bin) microphysics gauge the relative importance of the shape of the aerosol spectrum on the 3D dynamics and cloud structure. 3. Idealized mesoscale model simulations evaluate the relative roles of various processes, sources, and sinks.

Mechem, D.B.; Kogan, Y.L.

2005-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

449

Simulation of aerosol dynamics: a comparative review of mathematical models  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Three modeling approaches used are based-continuous, discrete (sectional), and parameterized representations of the aerosol size distribution. Simulations of coagulation and condensation are performed with the three models for clear, hazy, and urban atmospheric conditions. Relative accuracies and computational costs are compared. Reference for the comparison is the continuous approach. The results of the study provide useful information for the selection of an aerosol model, depending on the accuracy requirements and computational constraints associated with a specific application.

Seigneur, C.; Hudischewskyj, A.B.; Seinfeld, J.H.; Whitby, K.T.; Whitby, E.R.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

450

Cloud Scavenging Effects on Aerosol Radiative and Cloud-nucleating Properties - Final Technical Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The optical properties of aerosol particles are the controlling factors in determining direct aerosol radiative forcing. These optical properties depend on the chemical composition and size distribution of the aerosol particles, which can change due to various processes during the particles’ lifetime in the atmosphere. Over the course of this project we have studied how cloud processing of atmospheric aerosol changes the aerosol optical properties. A counterflow virtual impactor was used to separate cloud drops from interstitial aerosol and parallel aerosol systems were used to measure the optical properties of the interstitial and cloud-scavenged aerosol. Specifically, aerosol light scattering, back-scattering and absorption were measured and used to derive radiatively significant parameters such as aerosol single scattering albedo and backscatter fraction for cloud-scavenged and interstitial aerosol. This data allows us to demonstrate that the radiative properties of cloud-processed aerosol can be quite different than pre-cloud aerosol. These differences can be used to improve the parameterization of aerosol forcing in climate models.

Ogren, John A.; Sheridan, Patrick S.; Andrews, Elisabeth

2009-03-05T23:59:59.000Z

451

Cloud-Driven Changes in Aerosol Optical Properties - Final Technical Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The optical properties of aerosol particles are the controlling factors in determining direct aerosol radiative forcing. These optical properties depend on the chemical composition and size distribution of the aerosol particles, which can change due to various processes during the particles’ lifetime in the atmosphere. Over the course of this project we have studied how cloud processing of atmospheric aerosol changes the aerosol optical properties. A counterflow virtual impactor was used to separate cloud drops from interstitial aerosol and parallel aerosol systems were used to measure the optical properties of the interstitial and cloud-scavenged aerosol. Specifically, aerosol light scattering, back-scattering and absorption were measured and used to derive radiatively significant parameters such as aerosol single scattering albedo and backscatter fraction for cloud-scavenged and interstitial aerosol. This data allows us to demonstrate that the radiative properties of cloud-processed aerosol can be quite different than pre-cloud aerosol. These differences can be used to improve the parameterization of aerosol forcing in climate models.

Ogren, John A.; Sheridan, Patrick S.; Andrews, Elisabeth

2007-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

452

E-Print Network 3.0 - alterntive substrate absorber Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Mathematics 46 LAYER TRANSFER OF LARGE AREA MACROPOROUS SILICON FOR MONOCRYSTALLINE THIN-FILM SOLAR CELLS Summary: separation layer underneath the low-porosity absorber layer....

453

Enhancing the Dynamic Range of Targeted Energy Transfer in Acoustics Using Several Nonlinear Membrane Absorbers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Membrane Absorbers R. Belleta , B. Cochelinb, , R. C^otec , P.-O. Matteia a CNRS-LMA, UPR 7051, F-13402

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

454

E-Print Network 3.0 - absorbing compounds called Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

which readily collectsabsorbs compounds. Protective clothing (e.g. sleeves, impervious boots or PVC... with detergent and flush thoroughly with water. Absorb wash liquid and place...

455

E-Print Network 3.0 - absorber material standard Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

ceiling of m i n g sites... of absorbing material. An effort to a d that confusion ... Source: Ecole Polytechnique, Centre de mathmatiques Collection: Mathematics 16 Radiation...

456

E-Print Network 3.0 - absorbed light energy Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Composite Technologies Research Group Collection: Materials Science 15 The Greenhouse Effect Temperature Equilibrium Summary: the heat absorbed from the Sun with the heat...

457

E-Print Network 3.0 - absorbed dose onboard Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

To gain insight into the potential impact of intercellular... in the system is hit by radiation decreases as the absorbed dose decreases. Feedback signals generated... by the...

458

E-Print Network 3.0 - absorbed doses onboard Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

To gain insight into the potential impact of intercellular... in the system is hit by radiation decreases as the absorbed dose decreases. Feedback signals generated... by the...

459

The modeling of aerosol dynamics during degraded core events  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

There is substantial interest in developing simple, yet accurate, models for the prediction of aerosol dynamics during degraded core events. The exact aerosol transport equation is given by {partial derivative}n(v,t)/{partial derivative}t = 1/2 {integral}{sub 0}{sup {infinity}} K(u,v {minus} u)n(u,t)n(v {minus} u,t)du {minus} {integral}{sub 0}{sup {infinity}} K(u,v)n(v,t)n(u,t)du {minus} n(v,t)c(v)/h + n{sub p}(v), where n(v,t) is the particle size density distribution function. The kernel, K(v,u), is related to the frequency of coagulation between aerosol particles of volume u and v, and the quantity c(v) is the deposition velocity. The quantity h is the effective height for deposition of aerosol; it is the volume of the aerosol cloud divided by the projected horizontal area A. Finally, the term n{sub p} (v) is the source rate of aerosol. Evaluation of the above equation is discussed.

Clausse, A.; Lahey, R.T. Jr.

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

460

Investigations of cloud altering effects of atmospheric aerosols using a new mixed Eulerian-Lagrangian aerosol model  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Industry, urban development, and other anthropogenic influences have substantially altered the composition and size-distribution of atmospheric aerosol particles over the last century. This, in turn, has altered cloud ...

Steele, Henry Donnan, 1974-

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high-altitude absorbing aerosols" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Real-time characterization of particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in ambient aerosols and from motor-vehicle exhaust  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Response of the Photo-Electric Aerosol Sensor (PAS) to2008 Abstract. A photo-electric aerosol sensor, a diffusionthe measured photo-electric aerosol sensor signal (fA) was

Polidori, A.; Hu, S.; Biswas, S.; Delfino, R. J; Sioutas, C.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

462

Ganges Valley Aerosol Experiment: Science and Operations Plan  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Ganges Valley region is one of the largest and most rapidly developing sections of the Indian subcontinent. The Ganges River, which provides the region with water needed for sustaining life, is fed primarily by snow and rainfall associated with Indian summer monsoons. Impacts of changes in precipitation patterns, temperature, and the flow of the snow-fed rivers can be immense. Recent satellite-based measurements have indicated that the upper Ganges Valley has some of the highest persistently observed aerosol optical depth values. The aerosol layer covers a vast region, extending across the Indo-Gangetic Plain to the Bay of Bengal during the winter and early spring of each year. The persistent winter fog in the region is already a cause of much concern, and several studies have been proposed to understand the economic, scientific, and societal dimensions of this problem. During the INDian Ocean EXperiment (INDOEX) field studies, aerosols from this region were shown to affect cloud formation and monsoon activity over the Indian Ocean. This is one of the few regions showing a trend toward increasing surface dimming and enhanced mid-tropospheric warming. Increasing air pollution over this region could modify the radiative balance through direct, indirect, and semi-indirect effects associated with aerosols. The consequences of aerosols and associated pollution for surface insolation over the Ganges Valley and monsoons, in particular, are not well understood. The proposed field study is designed for use of (1) the ARM Mobile Facility (AMF) to measure relevant radiative, cloud, convection, and aerosol optical characteristics over mainland India during an extended period of 9–12 months and (2) the G-1 aircraft and surface sites to measure relevant aerosol chemical, physical, and optical characteristics in the Ganges Valley during a period of 6–12 weeks. The aerosols in this region have complex sources, including burning of coal, biomass, and biofuels; automobile emissions; and dust. The extended AMF deployment will enable measurements under different regimes of the climate and aerosol abundance—in the wet monsoon period with low aerosol loading; in the dry, hot summer with aerosols dispersed throughout the atmospheric column; and in the cool, dry winter with aerosols confined mostly to the boundary later and mid-troposphere. Each regime, in addition, has its own distinct radiative and atmospheric dynamic drivers. The aircraft operational phase will assist in characterizing the aerosols at times when they have been observed to be at the highest concentrations. A number of agencies in India will collaborate with the proposed field study and provide support in terms of planning, aircraft measurements, and surface sites. The high concentration of aerosols in the upper Ganges Valley, together with hypotheses involving several possible mechanisms with direct impacts on the hydrologic cycle of the region, gives us a unique opportunity to generate data sets that will be useful both in understanding the processes at work and in providing answers regarding the effects of aerosols on climate in a region where the perturbation is the highest.

Kotamarthi, VR

2010-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

463

An Aerosol Condensation Model for Sulfur Trioxide  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document describes a model for condensation of sulfuric acid aerosol given an initial concentration and/or source of gaseous sulfur trioxide (e.g. fuming from oleum). The model includes the thermochemical effects on aerosol condensation and air parcel buoyancy. Condensation is assumed to occur heterogeneously onto a preexisting background aerosol distribution. The model development is both a revisiting of research initially presented at the Fall 2001 American Geophysical Union Meeting [1] and a further extension to provide new capabilities for current atmospheric dispersion modeling efforts [2]. Sulfuric acid is one of the most widely used of all industrial chemicals. In 1992, world consumption of sulfuric acid was 145 million metric tons, with 42.4 Mt (mega-tons) consumed in the United States [10]. In 2001, of 37.5 Mt consumed in the U.S., 74% went into producing phosphate fertilizers [11]. Another significant use is in mining industries. Lawuyi and Fingas [7] estimate that, in 1996, 68% of use was for fertilizers and 5.8% was for mining. They note that H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} use has been and should continue to be very stable. In the United States, the elimination of MTBE (methyl tertiary-butyl ether) and the use of ethanol for gasoline production are further increasing the demand for petroleum alkylate. Alkylate producers have a choice of either a hydrofluoric acid or sulfuric acid process. Both processes are widely used today. Concerns, however, over the safety or potential regulation of hydrofluoric acid are likely to result in most of the growth being for the sulfuric acid process, further increasing demand [11]. The implication of sulfuric acid being a pervasive industrial chemical is that transport is also pervasive. Often, this is in the form of oleum tankers, having around 30% free sulfur trioxide. Although sulfuric acid itself is not a volatile substance, fuming sulfuric acid (referred to as oleum) is [7], the volatile product being sulfur trioxide. Sulfate aerosols and mist may form in the atmosphere on tank rupture. From chemical spill data from 1990-1996, Lawuyi02 and Fingas [7] prioritize sulfuric acid as sixth most serious. During this period, they note 155 spills totaling 13 Mt, out of a supply volume of 3700 Mt. Lawuyi and Fingas [7] summarize information on three major sulfuric acid spills. On 12 February 1984, 93 tons of sulfuric acid were spilled when 14 railroad cars derailed near MacTier, Parry Sound, Ontario. On 13 December 1978, 51 railroad cars derailed near Springhill, Nova Scotia. One car, containing 93% sulfuric acid, ruptured, spilling nearly its entire contents. In July 1993, 20 to 50 tons of fuming sulfuric acid spilled at the General Chemical Corp. plant in Richmond, California, a major industrial center near San Francisco. The release occurred when oleum was being loaded into a nonfuming acid railroad tank car that contained only a rupture disk as a safety device. The tank car was overheated and this rupture disk blew. The resulting cloud of sulfuric acid drifted northeast with prevailing winds over a number of populated areas. More than 3,000 people subsequently sought medical attention for burning eyes, coughing, headaches, and nausea. Almost all were treated and released on the day of the spill. By the day after the release, another 5,000 people had sought medical attention. The spill forced the closure of five freeways in the region as well as some Bay Area Rapid Transit System stations. Apart from corrosive toxicity, there is the additional hazard that the reactions of sulfur trioxide and sulfuric acid vapors with water are extremely exothermic [10, 11]. While the vapors are intrinsically denser than air, there is thus the likelihood of strong, warming-induced buoyancy from reactions with ambient water vapor, water-containing aerosol droplets, and wet environmental surface. Nordin [12] relates just such an occurrence following the Richmond, CA spill, with the plume observed to rise to 300 m. For all practical purposes, sulfur trioxide was the constituent released from the heated tank

Grant, K E

2008-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

464

Levelized cost of coating (LCOC) for selective absorber materials.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A new metric has been developed to evaluate and compare selective absorber coatings for concentrating solar power applications. Previous metrics have typically considered the performance of the selective coating (i.e., solar absorptance and thermal emittance), but cost and durability were not considered. This report describes the development of the levelized cost of coating (LCOC), which is similar to the levelized cost of energy (LCOE) commonly used to evaluate alternative energy technologies. The LCOC is defined as the ratio of the annualized cost of the coating (and associated costs such as labor and number of heliostats required) to the average annual thermal energy produced by the receiver. The baseline LCOC using Pyromark 2500 paint was found to be %240.055/MWht, and the distribution of LCOC values relative to this baseline were determined in a probabilistic analysis to range from -%241.6/MWht to %247.3/MWht, accounting for the cost of additional (or fewer) heliostats required to yield the same baseline average annual thermal energy produced by the receiver. A stepwise multiple rank regression analysis showed that the initial solar absorptance was the most significant parameter impacting the LCOC, followed by thermal emittance, degradation rate, reapplication interval, and downtime during reapplication.

Ho, Clifford Kuofei; Pacheco, James Edward

2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

465

Yucca Mountain Project - Science & Technology Radionuclide Absorbers Development Program Overview  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The proposed Yucca Mountain repository is anticipated to be the first facility for long-term disposal of commercial spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste in the United States. The facility, located in the southern Nevada desert, is currently in the planning stages with initial exploratory excavations completed. It is an underground facility mined into the tuffaceous volcanic rocks that sit above the local water table. The focus of the work described in this paper is the development of radionuclide absorbers or ''getter'' materials for neptunium (Np), iodine (I), and technetium (Tc) for potential deployment in the repository. ''Getter'' materials retard the migration of radionuclides through sorption, reduction, or other chemical and physical processes, thereby slowing or preventing the release and transport of radionuclides. An overview of the objectives and approaches utilized in this work with respect to materials selection and modeling of ion ''getters'' is presented. The benefits of the ''getter'' development program to the United States Department of Energy (US DOE) are outlined.

Hong-Nian Jow; R.C. Moore; K.B. Helean; S. Mattigod; M. Hochella; A.R. Felmy; J. Liu; K. Rosso; G. Fryxell; J. Krumhansl; Y. Wang

2005-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

466

Spent fuel sabotage aerosol test program :FY 2005-06 testing and aerosol data summary.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This multinational, multi-phase spent fuel sabotage test program is quantifying the aerosol particles produced when the products of a high energy density device (HEDD) interact with and explosively particulate test rodlets that contain pellets of either surrogate materials or actual spent fuel. This program has been underway for several years. This program provides source-term data that are relevant to some sabotage scenarios in relation to spent fuel transport and storage casks, and associated risk assessments. This document focuses on an updated description of the test program and test components for all work and plans made, or revised, primarily during FY 2005 and about the first two-thirds of FY 2006. It also serves as a program status report as of the end of May 2006. We provide details on the significant findings on aerosol results and observations from the recently completed Phase 2 surrogate material tests using cerium oxide ceramic pellets in test rodlets plus non-radioactive fission product dopants. Results include: respirable fractions produced; amounts, nuclide content, and produced particle size distributions and morphology; status on determination of the spent fuel ratio, SFR (the ratio of respirable particles from real spent fuel/respirables from surrogate spent fuel, measured under closely matched test conditions, in a contained test chamber); and, measurements of enhanced volatile fission product species sorption onto respirable particles. We discuss progress and results for the first three, recently performed Phase 3 tests using depleted uranium oxide, DUO{sub 2}, test rodlets. We will also review the status of preparations and the final Phase 4 tests in this program, using short rodlets containing actual spent fuel from U.S. PWR reactors, with both high- and lower-burnup fuel. These data plus testing results and design are tailored to support and guide, follow-on computer modeling of aerosol dispersal hazards and radiological consequence assessments. This spent fuel sabotage--aerosol test program, performed primarily at Sandia National Laboratories, with support provided by both the U.S. Department of Energy and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, had significant inputs from, and is strongly supported and coordinated by both the U.S. and international program participants in Germany, France, and the U.K., as part of the international Working Group for Sabotage Concerns of Transport and Storage Casks, WGSTSC.

Gregson, Michael Warren; Brockmann, John E.; Nolte, O. (Fraunhofer institut fur toxikologie und experimentelle Medizin, Germany); Loiseau, O. (Institut de radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, France); Koch, W. (Fraunhofer institut fur toxikologie und experimentelle Medizin, Germany); Molecke, Martin Alan; Autrusson, Bruno (Institut de radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, France); Pretzsch, Gunter Guido (Gesellschaft fur anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit, Germany); Billone, M. C. (Argonne National Laboratory, USA); Lucero, Daniel A.; Burtseva, T. (Argonne National Laboratory, USA); Brucher, W (Gesellschaft fur anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit, Germany); Steyskal, Michele D.

2006-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

467

Design and Development of a High-Altitude, In-Flight-Deployable Micro-UAV  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A micro-UAV system was developed to provide maximum endurance for a small atmospheric sensing payload. The system, composed of a micro-UAV and protective case, folds and fits into a MJU-10/B flare cartridge (7.1” x 2.4” ...

Tao, Tony S.

2012-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

468

Simultaneous radio and satellite optical measurements of high-altitude sprite current and lightning continuing current  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

continuing current Steven A. Cummer,1 Harald U. Frey,2 Stephen B. Mende,2 Rue-Ron Hsu,3 Han-Tzong Su,3 Alfred [Fu¨llekrug and Constable, 2000; Sato and Fukunishi, 2003], and the measurement of lightning charge

California at Berkeley, University of

469

Design and development of a high-altitude, in-flight-deployable micro-UAV  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A micro-UAV ([mu] UAV) system was developed to provide maximum endurance for a small atmospheric sensing payload. The system, composed of a ([mu] UAV) and protective case, folds and fits into a MJU-10/B flare cartridge ...

Tao, Tony S

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

470

HAWC (High Altitude Water Cherenkov) Observatory for Surveying the TeV Sky  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The HAWC observatory is a proposed, large field of view ({approx}2 sr), high duty cycle (>95%) TeV gamma-ray detector which uses a large pond of water (150 m x 150 m) located at 4300 m elevation. The pond contains 900 photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) to observe the relativistic particles and secondary gamma lays in extensive air showers. This technique has been used successfully by the Milagro observatory to detect known, as well as new, TeV sources. The PMTs and much of the data acquisition system of Milagro will be reused for HAWC, resulting in a cost effective detector ({approx}6M$) that can be built quickly in 2-3 years. The improvements of HAWC will result in {approx}15 times the sensitivity of Milagro. HAWC will survey 2{pi} sr of the sky every day with a sensitivity of the Crab flux at a median energy of 1 TeV. After five years of operation half of the sky will be surveyed to 20 mCrab. This sensitivity will likely result in the discovery of new sources as well as allow the identification of which GLAST sources extend to higher energies.

Dingus, Brenda L. [Los Alamos National Lab, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

2007-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

471

Development of ultra-thin polyethylene balloons for high altitude research upto mesosphere  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Ever since its inception four decades back, Balloon Facility of Tata Institute of Fundamental Research (TIFR), Hyderabad has been functioning with the needs of its user scientists at its focus. During the early nineties, when the X-ray astronomy group at TIFR expressed the need for balloons capable of carrying the X-ray telescopes to altitudes up to 42 km, the balloon group initiated research and development work on indigenous balloon grade films in various thickness not only for the main experiment but also in parallel, took up the development of thin films in thickness range 5 to 6 microns for fabrication of sounding balloons required for probing the stratosphere up to 42 km as the regular 2000 grams rubber balloon ascents could not reach altitudes higher than 38 km. By the year 1999, total indigenisation of sounding balloon manufacture was accomplished. The work on balloon grade ultra-thin polyethylene film in thickness range 2.8 to 3.8 microns for fabrication of balloons capable of penetrating mesosphere ...

Kumar, B Suneel; Ojha, D K; Peter, G Stalin; Vasudevan, R; Anand, D; Kulkarni, P M; Reddy, V Anmi; Rao, T V; Sreenivasan, S

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

472

Instruments and Methods Intermediate-depth ice coring of high-altitude and polar glaciers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

an electromechanical drill (EMD) and an ethanol thermal electric drill (ETED). The EMD permitted an average ice in cold and temperate ice and in clean and particle-laden ice. The influence of the ethanol drilling fluid- arctica, 2000) and an ethanol thermal electric drill (ETED; Zagorodnov and others, 1998)). Ice thicknesses

Howat, Ian M.

473

Glacial Chronology of a High Altitude Moraine Series, Tamarack Bench/Francis Canyon, Sierra Nevada, California  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

placed in a clean, 1 L plastic  bottle.  Two hundred mL of to  samples in the plastic bottles, and allowed to soak for etch quartz.   The plastic bottles were then filled with 

Kohut, Daryl Lee

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

474

Phenotypic Plasticity of the Lung Surfactant System at High Altitude in Deer Mice, Peromyscus maniculatus  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

surfactant protein and lipid synthesis, secretion, recyclingthe secretion and amounts of surfactant lipids at highor decreased lipid synthesis or secretion. As a corollary

Diaz, Sonia

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

475

Glacial Chronology of a High Altitude Moraine Series, Tamarack Bench/Francis Canyon, Sierra Nevada, California  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

climate change going back 2700 ka is well preserved (Huber, 1981).      The eastern SN climate is Mediterranean 

Kohut, Daryl Lee

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

476

From Hydrogen Fuel Cells to High-Altitude-Pilot Protection Suits- Mound  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelinesProvedDecember 2005DepartmentDecember U.S.Financialof EnergyFranklinRenewableScience

477

LOS ALAMOS, N.M., Aug. 21, 2013-The High-Altitude Water Cherenkov (HAWC)  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: VegetationEquipment Surfaces and Interfaces Sample Environment: Magnetorders security

478

Use of the high altitude Applications Technology Satellite (ATS-1) in identifying cloud features  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

' Scattered As, 12, 000' Very faint gray area with no organize- tion DELTA 11-7. 5 N, 159 W 7-. 5. 5 N, 159 W 4. 5-4 N& 159 W 4 N, 157=155 W 4 N, 155-157 W 4 N, 158-160 W 6 N, 160-162 W Scattered Cu, tops 3000' Broken Cu, tops 10, 00D' Broken...' Scattered Cu, tops 9000' Scattered Sc, tops 3000' Scattered/Broken Sc, tops 3000' White area with some "cotton ball" appear- ance and some east- west orientation White ares with "cotton ball" appearance Some east-west orientation Black...

Frazee, Donald William

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

479

The Effects of Different Input Excitation on the Dynamic Characterization of an Automotive Shock Absorber  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of an Automotive Shock Absorber Darin Kowalski, Mohan D. Rao Michigan Technological University, Houghton MI 49931 49931 Dave Griffiths Ford Motor Company, Dearborn MI 48121 Copyright © 2001 Society of Automotive Engineers, Inc. ABSTRACT This paper deals with the dynamic characterization of an automotive shock absorber

Rao, Mohan

480

Side branch absorber for exhaust manifold of two-stroke internal combustion engine  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of improving scavenging operation of a two-stroke internal combustion engine. The exhaust pressure of the engine is analyzed to determine if there is a pulsation frequency. Acoustic modeling is used to design an absorber. An appropriately designed side branch absorber may be attached to the exhaust manifold.

Harris, Ralph E. (San Antonio, TX); Broerman, III, Eugene L. (San Antonio, TX); Bourn, Gary D. (Laramie, WY)

2011-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high-altitude absorbing aerosols" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


481

Measurements of photon absorbed fractions and dose profiles using a gelatin-based volumetric dosimeter  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

dosimeter to measure dose profiles in target organs exposed to a known photon field. The dose profiles were then used to calculate an average dose for the entire target along with measured values of absorbed fractions (AF) and specific absorbed fractions...

Walker, Scottie Wayne

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

482

Journal of Computational Acoustics, Vol. 8, No. 1 (2000) 139156 CONTINUED-FRACTION ABSORBING BOUNDARY CONDITIONS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of the Engquist-Majda boundary conditions, their practical success is limited by the difficulties posed-FRACTION ABSORBING BOUNDARY CONDITIONS FOR THE WAVE EQUATION MURTHY N. GUDDATI Department of Civil Engineering, North Revised 1 October 1999 Absorbing boundary conditions are generally required for numerical modeling of wave

Guddati, Murthy N.

483

E-Print Network 3.0 - assessing aerosol retention Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

sources of aerosol OC and assessing its transformations before... ACPD 8, 6539-6569, 2008 ESI FT-ICR MS characterization of aerosol WSOC A. S. Wozniak et al. Title... .0 License....

484

Investigation of the aerosol-cloud interaction using the WRF framework  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Simulations with various aerosol profiles demonstrate that the response of precipitation to the increase of aerosol concentrations is non-monotonic. The maximal cloud cover, core updraft, and maximal vertical velocity exhibit similar responses as precipitation...

Li, Guohui

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

485

Aerodynamic Focusing of High-Density Aerosols D.E. Ruiza,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Aerodynamic Focusing of High-Density Aerosols D.E. Ruiza, , L. Gundersona , M.J. Haya , E. Merinob-density aerosol focusing for 1µm silica spheres. Preliminary results recover previous findings on aerodynamic

486

Investigation of the optical and cloud forming properties of pollution, biomass burning, and mineral dust aerosols  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

properties of a biomass burning aerosol generated from fires on the Yucatan Peninsula. Measured aerosol size distributions and size-resolved hygroscopicity and volatility were used to infer critical supersaturation distributions of the distinct particle types...

Lee, Yong Seob

2006-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

487

Climate effects of seasonally varying Biomass Burning emitted Carbonaceous Aerosols (BBCA)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The climate impact of the seasonality of Biomass Burning emitted Carbonaceous Aerosols (BBCA) is studied using an aerosol-climate model coupled with a slab ocean model in a set of 60-year long simulations, driven by BBCA ...

Jeong, Gill-Ran

488

E-Print Network 3.0 - aerosolized red tide Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

characteristics of desert dust and biomass burning aerosols Summary: in the right panel of Fig. 6. The aerosol scenes spectra are drawn in green, the clear sky scenes in...

489

High Flash-point Fluid Flow System Aerosol Flammability Study and Combustion Mechanism Analysis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

understanding of this combustion process. The potential application of the ignition delay will be beneficial to the mitigation timing and detector sensor setting of facilities to prevent aerosol cloud fires. Finally, the scientific method of aerosol...

Huang, Szu-Ying

2013-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

490

CHASER: An Innovative Satellite Mission Concept to Measure the Effects of Aerosols on Clouds and Climate  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The formation of cloud droplets on aerosol particles, technically known as the activation of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN), is the fundamental process driving the interactions of aerosols with clouds and precipitation. ...

Rosenfeld, Daniel

491

Mechanisms of aerosol-forced AMOC variability in a state of the art climate model  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

with a new state-of-the-art Earth system model. Anthropogenic aerosols have previously been highlighted anthropogenic aerosols force a strengthening of the AMOC by up to 20% in our state-of-the-art Earth system model

492

Elucidating secondary organic aerosol from diesel and gasoline vehicles through detailed characterization of  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Elucidating secondary organic aerosol from diesel and gasoline vehicles through detailed 19, 2012 (received for review July 22, 2012) Emissions from gasoline and diesel vehicles composition, mass distribu- tion, and organic aerosol formation potential of emissions from gasoline

Silver, Whendee

493

The effects of volcanic aerosols on mid-latitude ozone recovery  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this paper, comparisons between the derived Chemistry Climate Model Initiative aerosol data set to balloon sonde measurements of aerosols made in Laramie, Wyoming are made between 1979- 2012. Using the derived CCMI ...

Haskins, Jessica D

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

494

E-Print Network 3.0 - aerosol pool scrubbing Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

sensing of non-aerosol absorption in cloud free atmosphere Yoram J. Kaufman,1 Summary: Remote sensing of non-aerosol absorption in cloud free atmosphere Yoram J. Kaufman,1 Oleg...

495

Aerosol effects on the photochemistry in Mexico City during MCMA-2006/MILAGRO campaign  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In the present study, the impact of aerosols on the photochemistry in Mexico City is evaluated using the WRF-CHEM model for the period from 24 to 29 March during the MCMA-2006/MILAGRO campaign. An aerosol radiative module ...

Li, Guohui

496

Parameterizations of Cloud Microphysics and Indirect Aerosol Effects  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

1. OVERVIEW Aerosols and especially their effect on clouds are one of the key components of the climate system and the hydrological cycle [Ramanathan et al., 2001]. Yet, the aerosol effect on clouds remains largely unknown and the processes involved not well understood. A recent report published by the National Academy of Science states "The greatest uncertainty about the aerosol climate forcing - indeed, the largest of all the uncertainties about global climate forcing - is probably the indirect effect of aerosols on clouds [NRC, 2001]." The aerosol effect on clouds is often categorized into the traditional "first indirect (i.e., Twomey)" effect on the cloud droplet sizes for a constant liquid water path [Twomey, 1977] and the "semi-direct" effect on cloud coverage [e.g., Ackerman et al., 2000]. Enhanced aerosol concentrations can also suppress warm rain processes by producing a narrow droplet spectrum that inhibits collision and coalescence processes [e.g., Squires and Twomey, 1961; Warner and Twomey, 1967; Warner, 1968; Rosenfeld, 1999]. The aerosol effect on precipitation processes, also known as the second type of aerosol indirect effect [Albrecht, 1989], is even more complex, especially for mixed-phase convective clouds. Table 1 summarizes the key observational studies identifying the microphysical properties, cloud characteristics, thermodynamics and dynamics associated with cloud systems from high-aerosol continental environments. For example, atmospheric aerosol concentrations can influence cloud droplet size distributions, warm-rain process, cold-rain process, cloud-top height, the depth of the mixed phase region, and occurrence of lightning. In addition, high aerosol concentrations in urban environments could affect precipitation variability by providing an enhanced source of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). Hypotheses have been developed to explain the effect of urban regions on convection and precipitation [van den Heever and Cotton, 2007 and Shepherd, 2005]. Recently, a detailed spectral-bin microphysical scheme was implemented into the Goddard Cumulus Ensemble (GCE) model. Atmospheric aerosols are also described using number density size-distribution functions. A spectral-bin microphysical model is very expensive from a computational point of view and has only been implemented into the 2D version of the GCE at the present time. The model is tested by studying the evolution of deep tropical clouds in the west Pacific warm pool region and summertime convection over a mid-latitude continent with different concentrations of CCN: a low "clean" concentration and a high "dirty" concentration. The impact of atmospheric aerosol concentration on cloud and precipitation will be investigated. 2. MODEL DESCRIPTION AND CASE STUDIES 2.1 GCE MODEL The model used in this study is the 2D version of the GCE model. Modeled flow is anelastic. Second- or higher-order advection schemes can produce negative values in the solution. Thus, a Multi-dimensional Positive Definite Advection Transport Algorithm (MPDATA) has been implemented into the model. All scalar variables (potential temperature, water vapor, turbulent coefficient and all five hydrometeor classes) use forward time differencing and the MPDATA for advection. Dynamic variables, u, v and w, use a second-order accurate advection scheme and a leapfrog time integration (kinetic energy semi-conserving method). Short-wave (solar) and long-wave radiation as well as a subgrid-scale TKE turbulence scheme are also included in the model. Details of the model can be found in Tao and Simpson (1993) and Tao et al. (2003). 2.2 Microphysics (Bin Model) The formulation of the explicit spectral-bin microphysical processes is based on solving stochastic kinetic equations for the size distribution functions of water droplets (cloud droplets and raindrops), and six types of ice particles: pristine ice crystals (columnar and plate-like), snow (dendrites and aggregates), graupel and frozen drops/hail. Each type is described by a special size distribution function containing 33 categories (bin

Tao, Wei-Kuo [NASA/GSFC] [NASA/GSFC

2014-05-19T23:59:59.000Z

497

Americium Transmutation Feasibility When Used as Burnable Absorbers - 12392  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The use of plutonium in Mixed Oxide (MOX) fuel in traditional Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) assemblies leads to greater americium production which is not addressed in MOX recycling. The transuranic nuclides (TRU) contribute the most to the radiotoxicity of nuclear waste and a reduction of the TRU stockpile would greatly reduce the overall radiotoxicity of what must be managed. Am-241 is a TRU of particular concern because it is the dominant contributor of total radiotoxicity for the first 1000 years in a repository. This research explored the feasibility of transmuting Am-241 by using varying amounts in MOX rods being used in place of burnable absorbers and evaluated with respect to the impact on incineration and transmutation of transuranics in MOX fuel as well as the impact on safety. This research concludes that the addition of americium to a non-uniform fuel assembly is a viable method of transmuting Am-241, holding down excess reactivity in the core while serving as a burnable poison, as well as reducing the radiotoxicity of high level waste that must be managed. The use of Am/MOX hybrid fuel assemblies to transmute americium was researched using multiple computer codes. Am-241 was shown in this study to be able to hold down excess reactivity at the beginning of cycle and shape the power distribution in the core with assemblies of varying americium content loaded in a pattern similar to the traditional use of assemblies with varying amounts of burnable absorbers. The feasibility, safety, and utility of using americium to create an Am/MOX hybrid non-uniform core were also evaluated. The core remained critical to a burnup of 22,000 MWD/MTM. The power coefficient of reactivity as well as the temperature and power defects were sufficiently negative to provide a prompt feedback mechanism in case of a transient and prevent a power excursion, thus ensuring inherent safety and protection of the core. As shown here as well as many other studies, this non-uniform assembly type successfully addresses the concerns of reduced control rod worth within advanced MOX assemblies because the Am/MOX hybrid fuel rods are on the periphery of the assembly. The radiotoxicity of the high level waste that must be managed from a single use of an Am/MOX hybrid batch is reduced for the first 1000 years in comparison to a regular UO{sub 2} batch. However, there is no heat-load advantage without multi-recycling the Am/MOX hybrid assemblies. As shown through numerous studies, the heterogeneous assembly model used as the basis for this research is capable of multiple recycles while still maintaining negative temperature and power coefficients of reactivity. Multi-recycling would provide an even greater reduction to the radiotoxicity of the high level waste as well as provide a heat-load advantage compared to a once through UO{sub 2} fuel cycle. (authors)

Barbaras, Sean A. [United States Military Academy, West Point, New York 10996 (United States); Knight, Travis W. [University of South Carolina, Columbia, South Carolina 29208 (United States)

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

498

Alternative materials to cadmium for neutron absorbers in safeguards applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Cadmium is increasingly difficult to use in safeguards applications because of rising cost and increased safety regulations. This work examines the properties of two materials produced by Ceradyne, inc. that present alternatives to cadmium for neutron shielding. The first is an aluminum metal doped with boron and the second is a boron carbide powder, compressed into a ceramic. Both are enriched in the {sup 10}B isotope. Two sheets of boron doped aluminum (1.1 mm and 5.2mm thick) and one sheet of boron carbide (8.5mm thick) were provided by Ceradyne for testing. An experiment was designed to test the neutron absorption capabilities of these three sheets against two different thicknesses of cadmium (0.6mm and 1.6mm thick). The thinner piece of aluminum boron alloy (1.1mm) performed as well as the cadmium pieces at absorbing neutrons. The thicker aluminum-boron plate provided more shielding than the cadmium sheets and the boron carbide performed best by a relatively large margin. Monte Carlo N-Particle eXtended (MCNPX) transport code modeling of the experiment was performed to provide validaLed computational tools for predicting the behavior of systems in which these materials may be incorporated as alternatives to cadmium. MCNPX calculations predict that approximately 0.17mm of the boron carbide is equivalent to 0.6mm of cadmium. There are drawbacks to these materials that need to be noted when considering using them as replacements for cadmium. Notably, they may need to be thicker than cadmium, and are not malleable, requiring machining to fit any curved forms.

Freeman, Corey R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Geist, William H [Los Alamos National Laboratory; West, James D [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

499

21-PWR WASTE PACKAGE WITH ABSORBER PLATES LOADING CURVE EVALUATION  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this calculation is to evaluate the required minimum burnup as a function of initial pressurized water reactor (PWR) assembly enrichment that would permit loading of spent nuclear fuel into the 21 PWR waste package with absorber plates design as provided in Attachment IV. This calculation is an example of the application of the methodology presented in the ''Disposal Criticality Analysis Methodology Topical Report'' (YMP 2003). The scope of this calculation covers a range of enrichments from 0 through 5.0 weight percent U-235, and a burnup range of 0 through 45 GWd/MTU. Higher burnups were not necessary because 45 GWd/MTU was high enough for the loading curve determination. This activity supports the validation of the use of burnup credit for commercial spent nuclear fuel applications. The intended use of these results will be in establishing PWR waste package configuration loading specifications. Limitations of this evaluation are as follows: (1) The results are based on burnup credit for actinides and selected fission products as proposed in YMP (2003, Table 3-1) and referred to as the ''Principal Isotopes''. Any change to the isotope listing will have a direct impact on the results of this report. (2) The results are based on 1.5 wt% Gd in the Ni-Gd Alloy material and having no tuff inside the waste package. If the Gd loading is reduced or a process to introduce tuff inside the waste package is defined, then this report would need to be reevaluated based on the alternative materials. This calculation is subject to the ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (QARD) (DOE 2004) because it concerns engineered barriers that are included in the ''Q-List'' (BSC 2004k, Appendix A) as items important to safety and waste isolation.

J.M. Scaglione

2004-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

500

CARES: Carbonaceous Aerosol and Radiative Effects Study Operations Plan  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The CARES field campaign is motivated by the scientific issues described in the CARES Science Plan. The primary objectives of this field campaign are to investigate the evolution and aging of carbonaceous aerosols and their climate-affecting properties in the urban plume of Sacramento, California, a mid-size, mid-latitude city that is located upwind of a biogenic volatile organic compound (VOC) emission region. Our basic observational strategy is to make comprehensive gas, aerosol, and meteorological measurements upwind, within, and downwind of the urban area with the DOE G-1 aircraft and at strategically located ground sites so as to study the evolution of urban aerosols as they age and mix with biogenic SOA precursors. The NASA B-200 aircraft, equipped with the High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL), digital camera, and the Research Scanning Polarimeter (RSP), will be flown in coordination with the G-1 to characterize the vertical and horizontal distribution of aerosols and aerosol optical properties, and to provide the vertical context for the G-1 and ground in situ measurements.

Zaveri, RA; Shaw, WJ; Cziczo, DJ

2010-07-12T23:59:59.000Z