National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for high yield tropical

  1. Olefins from High Yield Autothermal Reforming Process

    Energy Innovation Portal (Marketing Summaries) [EERE]

    2012-03-06

    The autothermal reforming method employs an improved dehydrogenation process for olefin production, utilizing platinum based dehydrogenation catalysts in the presence of oxygen. The autothermal process requires no external energy input following ignition and produces high conversions and yields from the gaseous hydrocarbon feeds. Autothermal reforming is an effective solution that meets the high demands of the chemical market industry by producing high yields...

  2. High-Yield Hybrid Cellulosic Ethanol

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Hig gh-Yield Hy ybrid Cellulosic Ethanol Process Using High-Impact Feedstock WBS 5.5.11.1 ... Markets Poplar C2 Platform End Markets Ethanol Acetic Acid Ethylene Vinyl Acetate 2 ...

  3. Laser Seeding Yields High-Power Coherent Terahertz Radiation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Laser Seeding Yields High-Power Coherent Terahertz Radiation Laser Seeding Yields High-Power Coherent Terahertz Radiation Print Wednesday, 25 April 2007 00:00 Researchers at ...

  4. Energy Design Guidelines for High Performance Schools: Tropical Island Climates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2004-11-01

    Design guidelines outline high performance principles for the new or retrofit design of K-12 schools in tropical island climates. By incorporating energy improvements into construction or renovation plans, schools can reduce energy consumption and costs.

  5. Yield

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Yield scalings of clusters with fewer than 100 nucleons James B. Elliott ∗ , Kyrill A. Bugaev ∗ , Luciano G. Moretto ∗ and Larry Phair ∗ ∗ Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 Abstract. This chapter gives a historical review of the scaling of particles yields emitted from excited nuclei. The focus will be on what scaling is, what can be learned from scaling, the underlying theory of why one might expect particle yields to scale,

  6. Metabolic engineering for the high-yield production of isoprenoid...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Metabolic engineering for the high-yield production of isoprenoid-based C5 alcohols in E. coli Citation ... Type: Accepted Manuscript Journal Name: Scientific Reports ...

  7. Laser Seeding Yields High-Power Coherent Terahertz Radiation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Laser Seeding Yields High-Power Coherent Terahertz Radiation Print Researchers at Berkeley ... by femtoslicing (see "Tailored Terahertz Pulses from a Laser-Modulated Electron Beam"). ...

  8. Laser Seeding Yields High-Power Coherent Terahertz Radiation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Laser Seeding Yields High-Power Coherent Terahertz Radiation Laser Seeding Yields High-Power Coherent Terahertz Radiation Print Wednesday, 25 April 2007 00:00 Researchers at Berkeley Lab have been exploring the ways coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) is generated in electron storage rings when femtosecond lasers are used to carve out ultrafast x-ray pulses by femtoslicing (see "Tailored Terahertz Pulses from a Laser-Modulated Electron Beam"). In their most recent work, the

  9. High-Pressure MOF Research Yields Structural Insights

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    High-Pressure MOF Research Yields Structural Insights High-Pressure MOF Research Yields Structural Insights Print Wednesday, 26 February 2014 00:00 Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are a remarkable class of relatively new materials that exist as a subclass of a larger group called coordination networks. MOFs have shown promise in a variety of applications ranging from gas storage to ion exchange. The materials are comprised of organic linkers that bridge discrete metal building units. Accurate

  10. Executive Summary High-Yield Scenario Workshop Series Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leslie Park Ovard; Thomas H. Ulrich; David J. Muth Jr.; J. Richard Hess; Steven Thomas; Bryce Stokes

    2009-12-01

    To get a collective sense of the impact of research and development (R&D) on biomass resource availability, and to determine the feasibility that yields higher than baseline assumptions used for past assessments could be achieved to support U.S. energy independence, an alternate High-Yield Scenario (HYS) concept was presented to industry experts at a series of workshops held in December 2009. The workshops explored future production of corn/agricultural crop residues, herbaceous energy crops (HECs), and woody energy crops (WECs). This executive summary reports the findings of that workshop.

  11. High-Yield Hybrid Cellulosic Ethanol Process Using High-Impact...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Peer Review High-Yield Hybrid Cellulosic Ethanol Process Using High- Impact Feedstock ... & Operations: ZeaChem Inc., Pacific Ethanol Management Services Timeline Barriers ...

  12. Olefins from High Yield Autothermal Reforming Process - Energy Innovation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Portal Olefins from High Yield Autothermal Reforming Process DOE Grant Recipients University of Minnesota Contact University of Minnesota About This Technology <span id="Caption"><span id="ctl00_MainContentHolder_zoomimage_defaultCaption">Isobutylene is used to produce fuel additives.</span></span> Isobutylene is used to produce fuel additives. <span id="Caption"><span

  13. Laser Seeding Yields High-Power Coherent Terahertz Radiation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Laser Seeding Yields High-Power Coherent Terahertz Radiation Print Researchers at Berkeley Lab have been exploring the ways coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) is generated in electron storage rings when femtosecond lasers are used to carve out ultrafast x-ray pulses by femtoslicing (see "Tailored Terahertz Pulses from a Laser-Modulated Electron Beam"). In their most recent work, the researchers reported the first observation of seeding an instability of the electron beam by the

  14. Laser Seeding Yields High-Power Coherent Terahertz Radiation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Laser Seeding Yields High-Power Coherent Terahertz Radiation Print Researchers at Berkeley Lab have been exploring the ways coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) is generated in electron storage rings when femtosecond lasers are used to carve out ultrafast x-ray pulses by femtoslicing (see "Tailored Terahertz Pulses from a Laser-Modulated Electron Beam"). In their most recent work, the researchers reported the first observation of seeding an instability of the electron beam by the

  15. Laser Seeding Yields High-Power Coherent Terahertz Radiation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Laser Seeding Yields High-Power Coherent Terahertz Radiation Print Researchers at Berkeley Lab have been exploring the ways coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) is generated in electron storage rings when femtosecond lasers are used to carve out ultrafast x-ray pulses by femtoslicing (see "Tailored Terahertz Pulses from a Laser-Modulated Electron Beam"). In their most recent work, the researchers reported the first observation of seeding an instability of the electron beam by the

  16. High-Pressure MOF Research Yields Structural Insights

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    High-Pressure MOF Research Yields Structural Insights Print Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are a remarkable class of relatively new materials that exist as a subclass of a larger group called coordination networks. MOFs have shown promise in a variety of applications ranging from gas storage to ion exchange. The materials are comprised of organic linkers that bridge discrete metal building units. Accurate structural knowledge is key to the understanding of the applicability of these materials,

  17. High-Pressure MOF Research Yields Structural Insights

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    High-Pressure MOF Research Yields Structural Insights Print Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are a remarkable class of relatively new materials that exist as a subclass of a larger group called coordination networks. MOFs have shown promise in a variety of applications ranging from gas storage to ion exchange. The materials are comprised of organic linkers that bridge discrete metal building units. Accurate structural knowledge is key to the understanding of the applicability of these materials,

  18. Laser Seeding Yields High-Power Coherent Terahertz Radiation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Laser Seeding Yields High-Power Coherent Terahertz Radiation Print Researchers at Berkeley Lab have been exploring the ways coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) is generated in electron storage rings when femtosecond lasers are used to carve out ultrafast x-ray pulses by femtoslicing (see "Tailored Terahertz Pulses from a Laser-Modulated Electron Beam"). In their most recent work, the researchers reported the first observation of seeding an instability of the electron beam by the

  19. Laser Seeding Yields High-Power Coherent Terahertz Radiation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Laser Seeding Yields High-Power Coherent Terahertz Radiation Print Researchers at Berkeley Lab have been exploring the ways coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) is generated in electron storage rings when femtosecond lasers are used to carve out ultrafast x-ray pulses by femtoslicing (see "Tailored Terahertz Pulses from a Laser-Modulated Electron Beam"). In their most recent work, the researchers reported the first observation of seeding an instability of the electron beam by the

  20. High-Pressure MOF Research Yields Structural Insights

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    High-Pressure MOF Research Yields Structural Insights Print Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are a remarkable class of relatively new materials that exist as a subclass of a larger group called coordination networks. MOFs have shown promise in a variety of applications ranging from gas storage to ion exchange. The materials are comprised of organic linkers that bridge discrete metal building units. Accurate structural knowledge is key to the understanding of the applicability of these materials,

  1. High-Pressure MOF Research Yields Structural Insights

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    High-Pressure MOF Research Yields Structural Insights Print Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are a remarkable class of relatively new materials that exist as a subclass of a larger group called coordination networks. MOFs have shown promise in a variety of applications ranging from gas storage to ion exchange. The materials are comprised of organic linkers that bridge discrete metal building units. Accurate structural knowledge is key to the understanding of the applicability of these materials,

  2. High-Pressure MOF Research Yields Structural Insights

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    High-Pressure MOF Research Yields Structural Insights Print Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are a remarkable class of relatively new materials that exist as a subclass of a larger group called coordination networks. MOFs have shown promise in a variety of applications ranging from gas storage to ion exchange. The materials are comprised of organic linkers that bridge discrete metal building units. Accurate structural knowledge is key to the understanding of the applicability of these materials,

  3. High-Pressure MOF Research Yields Structural Insights

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    High-Pressure MOF Research Yields Structural Insights Print Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are a remarkable class of relatively new materials that exist as a subclass of a larger group called coordination networks. MOFs have shown promise in a variety of applications ranging from gas storage to ion exchange. The materials are comprised of organic linkers that bridge discrete metal building units. Accurate structural knowledge is key to the understanding of the applicability of these materials,

  4. High-Pressure MOF Research Yields Structural Insights

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    High-Pressure MOF Research Yields Structural Insights Print Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are a remarkable class of relatively new materials that exist as a subclass of a larger group called coordination networks. MOFs have shown promise in a variety of applications ranging from gas storage to ion exchange. The materials are comprised of organic linkers that bridge discrete metal building units. Accurate structural knowledge is key to the understanding of the applicability of these materials,

  5. Development of High Yield Feedstocks and Biomass Conversion Technology for Renewable Energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hashimoto, Andrew G.; Crow, Susan; DeBeryshe, Barbara; Ha, Richard; Jakeway, Lee; Khanal, Samir; Nakahata, Mae; Ogoshi, Richard; Shimizu, Erik; Stern, Ivette; Turano, Brian; Turn, Scott; Yanagida, John

    2015-04-09

    This project had two main goals. The first goal was to evaluate several high yielding tropical perennial grasses as feedstock for biofuel production, and to characterize the feedstock for compatible biofuel production systems. The second goal was to assess the integration of renewable energy systems for Hawaii. The project focused on high-yield grasses (napiergrass, energycane, sweet sorghum, and sugarcane). Field plots were established to evaluate the effects of elevation (30, 300 and 900 meters above sea level) and irrigation (50%, 75% and 100% of sugarcane plantation practice) on energy crop yields and input. The test plots were extensive monitored including: hydrologic studies to measure crop water use and losses through seepage and evapotranspiration; changes in soil carbon stock; greenhouse gas flux (CO2, CH4, and N2O) from the soil surface; and root morphology, biomass, and turnover. Results showed significant effects of environment on crop yields. In general, crop yields decrease as the elevation increased, being more pronounced for sweet sorghum and energycane than napiergrass. Also energy crop yields were higher with increased irrigation levels, being most pronounced with energycane and less so with sweet sorghum. Daylight length greatly affected sweet sorghum growth and yields. One of the energy crops (napiergrass) was harvested at different ages (2, 4, 6, and 8 months) to assess the changes in feedstock characteristics with age and potential to generate co-products. Although there was greater potential for co-products from younger feedstock, the increased production was not sufficient to offset the additional cost of harvesting multiple times per year. The feedstocks were also characterized to assess their compatibility with biochemical and thermochemical conversion processes. The project objectives are being continued through additional support from the Office of Naval Research, and the Biomass Research and Development

  6. Film quantum yields of EUV& ultra-high PAG photoresists

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hassanein, Elsayed; Higgins, Craig; Naulleau, Patrick; Matyi, Richard; Gallatin, Greg; Denbeaux, Gregory; Antohe, Alin; Thackery, Jim; Spear, Kathleen; Szmanda, Charles; Anderson, Christopher N.; Niakoula, Dimitra; Malloy, Matthew; Khurshid, Anwar; Montgomery, Cecilia; Piscani, Emil C.; Rudack, Andrew; Byers, Jeff; Ma, Andy; Dean, Kim; Brainard, Robert

    2008-01-10

    Base titration methods are used to determine C-parameters for three industrial EUV photoresist platforms (EUV-2D, MET-2D, XP5496) and twenty academic EUV photoresist platforms. X-ray reflectometry is used to measure the density of these resists, and leads to the determination of absorbance and film quantum yields (FQY). Ultrahigh levels ofPAG show divergent mechanisms for production of photo acids beyond PAG concentrations of 0.35 moles/liter. The FQY of sulfonium PAGs level off, whereas resists prepared with iodonium PAG show FQY s that increase beyond PAG concentrations of 0.35 moles/liter, reaching record highs of 8-13 acids generatedlEUV photons absorbed.

  7. Towards Direct Simulation of Future Tropical Cyclone Statistics in a High-Resolution Global Atmospheric Model

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wehner, Michael F.; Bala, G.; Duffy, Phillip; Mirin, Arthur A.; Romano, Raquel

    2010-01-01

    We present a set of high-resolution global atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM) simulations focusing on the model's ability to represent tropical storms and their statistics. We find that the model produces storms of hurricane strength with realistic dynamical features. We also find that tropical storm statistics are reasonable, both globally and in the north Atlantic, when compared to recent observations. The sensitivity of simulated tropical storm statistics to increases in sea surface temperature (SST) is also investigated, revealing that a credible late 21st century SST increase produced increases in simulated tropical storm numbers and intensities in all ocean basins. Whilemore » this paper supports previous high-resolution model and theoretical findings that the frequency of very intense storms will increase in a warmer climate, it differs notably from previous medium and high-resolution model studies that show a global reduction in total tropical storm frequency. However, we are quick to point out that this particular model finding remains speculative due to a lack of radiative forcing changes in our time-slice experiments as well as a focus on the Northern hemisphere tropical storm seasons.« less

  8. High-Resolution Modeling to Assess Tropical Cyclone Activity in Future Climate Regimes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lackmann, Gary

    2013-06-10

    Applied research is proposed with the following objectives: (i) to determine the most likely level of tropical cyclone intensity and frequency in future climate regimes, (ii) to provide a quantitative measure of uncertainty in these predictions, and (iii) to improve understanding of the linkage between tropical cyclones and the planetary-scale circulation. Current mesoscale weather forecasting models, such as the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, are capable of simulating the full intensity of tropical cyclones (TC) with realistic structures. However, in order to accurately represent both the primary and secondary circulations in these systems, model simulations must be configured with sufficient resolution to explicitly represent convection (omitting the convective parameterization scheme). Most previous numerical studies of TC activity at seasonal and longer time scales have not utilized such explicit convection (EC) model runs. Here, we propose to employ the moving nest capability of WRF to optimally represent TC activity on a seasonal scale using a downscaling approach. The statistical results of a suite of these high-resolution TC simulations will yield a realistic representation of TC intensity on a seasonal basis, while at the same time allowing analysis of the feedback that TCs exert on the larger-scale climate system. Experiments will be driven with analyzed lateral boundary conditions for several recent Atlantic seasons, spanning a range of activity levels and TC track patterns. Results of the ensemble of WRF simulations will then be compared to analyzed TC data in order to determine the extent to which this modeling setup can reproduce recent levels of TC activity. Next, the boundary conditions (sea-surface temperature, tropopause height, and thermal/moisture profiles) from the recent seasons will be altered in a manner consistent with various future GCM/RCM scenarios, but that preserves the large-scale shear and incipient disturbance

  9. Mapping Intra-Field Yield Variation Using High Resolution Satellite...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    future landscape patterns, hydrologic modeling, landscape design, predictive crop yield, red-edge, sub-field scale, SWAT, water quality Abstract Biofuels are important alternatives...

  10. ZeaChem Pilot Project: High-Yield Hybrid Cellulosic Ethanol Process...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ZeaChem Pilot Project: High-Yield Hybrid Cellulosic Ethanol Process Using High-Impact Feedstock for Commercialization ZeaChem Pilot Project: High-Yield Hybrid Cellulosic Ethanol...

  11. High-Yield Synthesis of Stoichiometric Boron Nitride Nanostructures

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Nocua, José E.; Piazza, Fabrice; Weiner, Brad R.; Morell, Gerardo

    2009-01-01

    Boron nimore » tride (BN) nanostructures are structural analogues of carbon nanostructures but have completely different bonding character and structural defects. They are chemically inert, electrically insulating, and potentially important in mechanical applications that include the strengthening of light structural materials. These applications require the reliable production of bulk amounts of pure BN nanostructures in order to be able to reinforce large quantities of structural materials, hence the need for the development of high-yield synthesis methods of pure BN nanostructures. Using borazine ( B 3 N 3 H 6 ) as chemical precursor and the hot-filament chemical vapor deposition (HFCVD) technique, pure BN nanostructures with cross-sectional sizes ranging between 20 and 50 nm were obtained, including nanoparticles and nanofibers. Their crystalline structure was characterized by (XRD), their morphology and nanostructure was examined by (SEM) and (TEM), while their chemical composition was studied by (EDS), (FTIR), (EELS), and (XPS). Taken altogether, the results indicate that all the material obtained is stoichiometric nanostructured BN with hexagonal and rhombohedral crystalline structure.« less

  12. Modeling High-Impact Weather and Climate: Lessons From a Tropical Cyclone Perspective

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Done, James; Holland, Greg; Bruyere, Cindy; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Suzuki-Parker, Asuka

    2012-06-01

    Although the societal impact of a weather event increases with the rarity of the event, our current ability to assess extreme events and their impacts is limited by not only rarity but also by current model fidelity and a lack of understanding of the underlying physical processes. This challenge is driving fresh approaches to assess high-impact weather and climate. Recent lessons learned in modeling high-impact weather and climate are presented using the case of tropical cyclones as an illustrative example. Through examples using the Nested Regional Climate Model to dynamically downscale large-scale climate data the need to treat bias in the driving data is illustrated. Domain size, location, and resolution are also shown to be critical and should be guided by the need to: include relevant regional climate physical processes; resolve key impact parameters; and to accurately simulate the response to changes in external forcing. The notion of sufficient model resolution is introduced together with the added value in combining dynamical and statistical assessments to fill out the parent distribution of high-impact parameters. Finally, through the example of a tropical cyclone damage index, direct impact assessments are presented as powerful tools that distill complex datasets into concise statements on likely impact, and as highly effective communication devices. Capsule: "Combining dynamical modeling of high-impact weather using traditional regional climate models with statistical techniques allows for comprehensive sampling of the full distribution, uncertainty estimation, direct assessment of impacts, and increased confidence in future changes."

  13. Modeling High-Impact Weather and Climate: Lessons From a Tropical Cyclone Perspective

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Done, James; Holland, Greg; Bruyere, Cindy; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Suzuki-Parker, Asuka

    2013-10-19

    Although the societal impact of a weather event increases with the rarity of the event, our current ability to assess extreme events and their impacts is limited by not only rarity but also by current model fidelity and a lack of understanding of the underlying physical processes. This challenge is driving fresh approaches to assess high-impact weather and climate. Recent lessons learned in modeling high-impact weather and climate are presented using the case of tropical cyclones as an illustrative example. Through examples using the Nested Regional Climate Model to dynamically downscale large-scale climate data the need to treat bias in the driving data is illustrated. Domain size, location, and resolution are also shown to be critical and should be guided by the need to: include relevant regional climate physical processes; resolve key impact parameters; and to accurately simulate the response to changes in external forcing. The notion of sufficient model resolution is introduced together with the added value in combining dynamical and statistical assessments to fill out the parent distribution of high-impact parameters. Finally, through the example of a tropical cyclone damage index, direct impact assessments are resented as powerful tools that distill complex datasets into concise statements on likely impact, and as highly effective communication devices.

  14. Microbial Electrolysis Cells (MECs) for High Yield Hydrogen (H2) Production

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    from Biodegradable Materials | Department of Energy Electrolysis Cells (MECs) for High Yield Hydrogen (H2) Production from Biodegradable Materials Microbial Electrolysis Cells (MECs) for High Yield Hydrogen (H2) Production from Biodegradable Materials Presentation by Jason Ren, University of Colorado Boulder, at the Biological Hydrogen Production Workshop held September 24-25, 2013, at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory in Golden, Colorado. bio_h2_workshop_ren.pdf (437.03 KB) More

  15. High-Yielding Method for Converting Biomass to Fermentable Sugars for

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Biofuel Production - Energy Innovation Portal High-Yielding Method for Converting Biomass to Fermentable Sugars for Biofuel Production Inventors: Ronald Raines, Joseph Binder Great Lakes Bioenergy Research Center Contact GLBRC About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary Lignocellulosic biomass is a very desirable feedstock for biofuel production. If the fermentation process for lignocellulose could be optimized, conversion of this biomass could yield 25 to 50 billion gallons of

  16. Z, ZX, and X-1: A Realistic Path to High Fusion Yield

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    COOK, DONALD L.

    1999-10-07

    Z-pinches now constitute the most energetic and powerful sources of x-rays available by a large margin. The Z accelerator at Sandia National Laboratories has produced 1.8 MJ of x-ray energy, 280 TW of power, and hohlraum temperatures of 200 eV. These advances are being applied to inertial confinement fusion (ICF) experiments on Z. The requirements for high fusion yield are exemplified in the target to be driven by the X-1 accelerator. X-1 will drive two z-pinches, each producing 7 MJ of x-ray energy and about 1000 TW of x-ray power. Together, these radiation sources will heat a hohlraum containing the 4-mm diameter ICF capsule to a temperature exceeding 225 eV for about 10 ns, with the pulse shape required to drive the capsule to high fusion yield, in the range of 200--1000 MJ. Since X-1 consists of two identical accelerators, it is possible to mitigate the technical risk of high yield by constructing one accelerator. This accelerator, ZX, will bridge the gap from Z to X-1 by driving an integrated target experiment with a very efficient energy source, ZX will also provide experimental condition that the full specifications of the X-1 accelerator for high yield are achievable, and that a realistic path to high fission yield exists.

  17. Mass production of multi-wall carbon nanotubes by metal dusting process with high yield

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ghorbani, H.; Rashidi, A.M.; Rastegari, S.; Mirdamadi, S.; Alaei, M.

    2011-05-15

    Research highlights: {yields} Synthesis of carbon nanotubes over Fe-Ni nanoparticles supported alloy 304L. {yields} Production of carbon nanotubes with high yield (700-1000%) and low cost catalyst. {yields} Optimum growth condition is CO/H{sub 2} = 1/1, 100 cm{sup 3}/min, at 620 {sup o}C under long term repetitive thermal cycling. {yields} Possibility of the mass production by metal dusting process with low cost. -- Abstract: Carbon nanotube materials were synthesized over Fe-Ni nanoparticles generated during disintegration of the surface of alloy 304L under metal dusting environment. The metal dusting condition was simulated and optimized through exposing stainless steel samples during long term repetitive thermal cycling in CO/H{sub 2} = 1/1, total gas flow rate 100 cm{sup 3}/min, at 620 {sup o}C for 300 h. After reaction, surface morphology of the samples and also carbonaceous deposition which had grown on sample surfaces were examined by stereoscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Results revealed that multi-wall carbon nanotubes could be formed over nanocatalyst generated on the alloy surface by exploiting metal dusting process. By optimization of reaction parameters the yields of carbon nanotube materials obtained were 700-1000%. Also it has been shown herein that the amount of carbon nanotube materials remarkably increases when the reaction time is extended up to 300 h, indicating a possibility of the mass production by this easy method.

  18. BETO Seeks Stakeholder Input on Achieving High Yields from Algal Feedstocks

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy’s Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO) has released a Request for Information (RFI) titled “High Yields through Productivity and Integration Research.” BETO is seeking input from industry, academia, and other stakeholders regarding supply systems and services for the cultivation, logistics, and preprocessing of algal feedstocks.

  19. High Yield Method to Produce LGO from Biomass - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    High Yield Method to Produce LGO from Biomass Great Lakes Bioenergy Research Center Contact GLBRC About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary Levoglucosenone (LGO) is a highly dehydrated sugar typically derived from cellulose. It is an important, non-petroleum building block chemical with potential uses in a wide range of industrial processes. For example, it can be converted to 1,6-hexanediol to be utilized in the production of polyurethanes and polyesters. Conventionally, LGO is derived

  20. Impact of surface coupling grids on tropical cyclone extremes in high-resolution atmospheric simulations

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zarzycki, Colin M.; Reed, Kevin A.; Bacmeister, Julio T.; Craig, Anthony P.; Bates, Susan C.; Rosenbloom, Nan A.

    2016-02-25

    This article discusses the sensitivity of tropical cyclone climatology to surface coupling strategy in high-resolution configurations of the Community Earth System Model. Using two supported model setups, we demonstrate that the choice of grid on which the lowest model level wind stress and surface fluxes are computed may lead to differences in cyclone strength in multi-decadal climate simulations, particularly for the most intense cyclones. Using a deterministic framework, we show that when these surface quantities are calculated on an ocean grid that is coarser than the atmosphere, the computed frictional stress is misaligned with wind vectors in individual atmospheric gridmore » cells. This reduces the effective surface drag, and results in more intense cyclones when compared to a model configuration where the ocean and atmosphere are of equivalent resolution. Our results demonstrate that the choice of computation grid for atmosphere–ocean interactions is non-negligible when considering climate extremes at high horizontal resolution, especially when model components are on highly disparate grids.« less

  1. Surface studies and implanted helium measurements following NOVA high-yield DT experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stoyer, M.A.; Hudson, G.B.

    1997-02-18

    This paper presents the results of three March 6, 1996 direct-drive high-yield DT NOVA experiments and provides `proof-of-principal` results for the quantitative measurement of energetic He ions. Semiconductor quality Si wafers and an amorphous carbon wafer were exposed to NOVA high-yield implosions. Surface damage was sub-micron in general, although the surface ablation was slightly greater for the carbon wafer than for the Si wafers. Melting of a thin ({approx} 0.1{mu}) layer of Si was evident from microscopic investigation. Electron microscopy indicated melted blobs of many different metals (e.g. Al, Au, Ta, Fe alloys, Cu and even Cd) on the surfaces. The yield measured by determining the numbers of atoms of implanted {sup 4}He and {sup 3}He indicate the number of DT fusions to be 9.1({plus_minus}2.3) X 10{sup 12} and DD fusions to be 4.8({plus_minus}1.0) x 10{sup 10}, respectively. The helium DT fusion yield is slightly lower than that of the Cu activation measurement, which was 1.3({plus_minus}0.l) x 10{sup 13} DT fusions.

  2. Thin scintillating tiles (with fiber readout and high light-yield) for the OPAL endcaps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ball, Austin H.

    1998-11-09

    Scintillating tiles with embedded wavelength-shifting fiber readout have recently been installed in the OPAL endcaps to improve trigger performance, time resolution and hermeticity for experiments at LEP II. The design is constrained to provide hermetic coverage of the available area with high single particle efficiency, uniform response and good time resolution, notwithstanding the limited space for the detector and its long readout cables, and despite the strong endcap magnetic field. A high light yield per embedded fiber is required. This paper motivates and describes the design, and demonstrates that the performance meets the required targets. A light yield of 14 photoelectrons/MIP and a time resolution of 3ns have been obtained during 1997 LEP operation.

  3. Thin scintillating tiles (with fiber readout and high light-yield) for the OPAL endcaps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ball, A.H.

    1998-11-01

    Scintillating tiles with embedded wavelength-shifting fiber readout have recently been installed in the OPAL endcaps to improve trigger performance, time resolution and hermeticity for experiments at LEP II. The design is constrained to provide hermetic coverage of the available area with high single particle efficiency, uniform response and good time resolution, notwithstanding the limited space for the detector and its long readout cables, and despite the strong endcap magnetic field. A high light yield per embedded fiber is required. This paper motivates and describes the design, and demonstrates that the performance meets the required targets. A light yield of 14 photoelectrons/MIP and a time resolution of 3ns have been obtained during 1997 LEP operation. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}

  4. Method for reproducibly preparing a low-melting high-carbon yield precursor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, Wesley E.; Napier, Jr., Bradley

    1978-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a method for preparing a reproducible synthetic carbon precursor by the autoclave polymerization of indene (C.sub.9 H.sub.8) at a temperature in the range of 470.degree.-485.degree. C, and at a pressure in the range of about 1000 to about 4300 psi. Volatiles in the resulting liquid indene polymer are removed by vacuum outgassing to form a solid carbon precursor characterized by having a relatively low melting temperature, high-carbon yield, and high reproducibility which provide for the fabrication of carbon and graphite composites having strict requirements for reproducible properties.

  5. A Permanent-Magnet Microwave Ion Source for a Compact High-Yield Neutron Generator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Waldmann, Ole; Ludewigt, Bernhard

    2010-10-11

    We present recent work on the development of a microwave ion source that will be used in a high-yield compact neutron generator for active interrogation applications. The sealed tube generator will be capable of producing high neutron yields, 5x1011 n/s for D-T and ~;;1x1010 n/s for D-D reactions, while remaining transportable. We constructed a microwave ion source (2.45 GHz) with permanent magnets to provide the magnetic field strength of 87.5 mT necessary for satisfying the electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) condition. Microwave ion sources can produce high extracted beam currents at the low gas pressures required for sealed tube operation and at lower power levels than previously used RF-driven ion sources. A 100 mA deuterium/tritium beam will be extracted through a large slit (60x6 mm2) to spread the beam power over a larger target area. This paper describes the design of the permanent-magnet microwave ion source and discusses the impact of the magnetic field design on the source performance. The required equivalent proton beam current density of 40 mA/cm2 was extracted at a moderate microwave power of 400 W with an optimized magnetic field.

  6. Neutron temporal diagnostic for high-yield deuterium-tritium cryogenic implosions on OMEGA

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Stoeckl, C.; Boni, R.; Ehrne, F.; Forrest, C. J.; Glebov, V. Yu.; Katz, J.; Lonobile, D. J.; Magoon, J.; Regan, S. P.; Shoup, III, M. J.; et al

    2016-05-10

    A next-generation neutron temporal diagnostic (NTD) capable of recording high-quality data for the highest anticipated yield cryogenic DT implosion experiments was recently installed at the Omega Laser Facility. A high-quality measurement of the neutron production width is required to determine the hot-spot pressure achieved in inertial confinement fusion experiments—a key metric in assessing the quality of these implosions. The design of this NTD is based on a fast-rise-time plastic scintillator, which converts the neutron kinetic energy to 350- to 450-nm-wavelength light. The light from the scintillator inside the nose-cone assembly is relayed ~16 m to a streak camera in amore » well-shielded location. An ~200× reduction in neutron background was observed during the first high-yield DT cryogenic implosions compared to the current NTD installation on OMEGA. An impulse response of ~40±10 ps was measured in a dedicated experiment using hard x rays from a planar target irradiated with a 10-ps short pulse from the OMEGA EP laser. Furthermore, the measured instrument response includes contributions from the scintillator rise time, optical relay, and streak camera.« less

  7. OPERATIONAL CHALLENGES IN MIXING AND TRANSFER OF HIGH YIELD STRESS SLUDGE WASTE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Caldwell, T.; Bhatt, P.

    2009-12-07

    The ability to mobilize and transport non-Newtonian waste is essential to advance the closure of highly radioactive storage tanks. Recent waste removal operations from Tank 12H at the Savannah River Site (SRS) encountered sludge mixtures with a yield stress too high to pump. The waste removal equipment for Tank 12H was designed to mobilize and transport a diluted slurry mixture through an underground 550m long (1800 ft) 0.075m diameter (3 inch) pipeline. The transfer pump was positioned in a well casing submerged in the sludge slurry. The design allowed for mobilized sludge to enter the pump suction while keeping out larger tank debris. Data from a similar tank with known rheological properties were used to size the equipment. However, after installation and startup, field data from Tank 12H confirmed the yield stress of the slurry to exceed 40 Pa, whereas the system is designed for 10 Pa. A revision to the removal strategy was required, which involved metered dilution, blending, and mixing to ensure effective and safe transfer performance. The strategy resulted in the removal of over 255,000 kgs of insoluble solids with four discrete transfer evolutions for a total transfer volume of 2400 m{sup 3} (634,000 gallons) of sludge slurry.

  8. Synthesis of uniform CdS nanowires in high yield and its single nanowire electrical property

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yan Shancheng; Sun Litao; Qu Peng; Huang Ninping; Song Yinchen; Xiao Zhongdang

    2009-10-15

    Large-scale high quality CdS nanowires with uniform diameter were synthesized by using a rapid and simple solvothermal route. Field emission scan electron microscopy (FESEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images show that the CdS nanowires have diameter of about 26 nm and length up to several micrometres. High resolution TEM (HRTEM) study indicates the single-crystalline nature of CdS nanowires with an oriented growth along the c-axis direction. The optical properties of the products were characterized by UV-vis absorption spectra, photoluminescence spectra and Raman spectra. The resistivity, electron concentration and electron mobility of single NW are calculated by fitting the symmetric I-V curves measured on single NW by the metal-semiconductor-metal model based on thermionic field emission theory. - Graphical abstract: Large-scale high quality CdS nanowires (NWs) with uniform diameter were synthesized by using a rapid and simple solvothermal route. The reaction time is reduced to 2 h, comparing to other synthesis which needed long reaction time up to 12 h. In addition, the as-prepared CdS nanowires have more uniform diameter and high yield. More importantly, the I-V curve of present single CdS nanowire has a good symmetric characteristic as expected by the theory.

  9. High liquid yield process for retorting various organic materials including oil shale

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Coburn, Thomas T.

    1990-01-01

    This invention is a continuous retorting process for various high molecular weight organic materials, including oil shale, that yields an enhanced output of liquid product. The organic material, mineral matter, and an acidic catalyst, that appreciably adsorbs alkenes on surface sites at prescribed temperatures, are mixed and introduced into a pyrolyzer. A circulating stream of olefin enriched pyrolysis gas is continuously swept through the organic material and catalyst, whereupon, as the result of pyrolysis, the enhanced liquid product output is provided. Mixed spent organic material, mineral matter, and cool catalyst are continuously withdrawn from the pyrolyzer. Combustion of the spent organic material and mineral matter serves to reheat the catalyst. Olefin depleted pyrolysis gas, from the pyrolyzer, is enriched in olefins and recycled into the pyrolyzer. The reheated acidic catalyst is separated from the mineral matter and again mixed with fresh organic material, to maintain the continuously cyclic process.

  10. A high liquid yield process for retorting various organic materials including oil shale

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Coburn, T.T.

    1988-07-26

    This invention is a continuous retorting process for various high molecular weight organic materials, including oil shale, that yields an enhanced output of liquid product. The organic material, mineral matter, and an acidic catalyst, that appreciably adsorbs alkenes on surface sites at prescribed temperatures, are mixed and introduced into a pyrolyzer. A circulating stream of olefin enriched pyrolysis gas is continuously swept through the organic material and catalyst, whereupon, as the result of pyrolysis, the enhanced liquid product output is provided. Mixed spent organic material, mineral matter, and cool catalyst are continuously withdrawn from the pyrolyzer. Combustion of the spent organic material and mineral matter serves to reheat the catalyst. Olefin depleted pyrolysis gas, from the pyrolyzer, is enriched in olefins and recycled into the pyrolyzer. The reheated acidic catalyst is separated from the mineral matter and again mixed with fresh organic material, to maintain the continuously cyclic process. 2 figs.

  11. High-Yield Feedstock and Biomass Conversion Technology for Renewable Energy and Economic Development

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Andrew Hashimoto University of Hawaii This presentation does not contain any proprietary, confidential, or otherwise restricted information Develop sustainable, renewable energy systems for Hawaii and the tropics through: * Biomass feedstocks that grow year-round. * Feedstock characteristics that impact conversion processes. * Renewable energy projects that reduce dependence on fossil fuels. * Impact of renewable energy projects on rural communities. This project addresses the BETO goal to

  12. Prospects for high-gain, high yield National Ignition Facility targets driven by 2(omega) (green) light

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Suter, L J; Glenzer, S; Haan, S; Hammel, B; Manes, K; Meezan, N; Moody, J; Spaeth, M; Divol, L; Oades, K; Stevenson, M

    2003-12-16

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF), operating at green (2{omega}) light, has the potential to drive ignition targets with significantly more energy than the 1.8 MJ it will produce with its baseline, blue (3{omega}) operations. This results in a greatly increased 'target design space', providing a number of exciting opportunities for fusion research. These include the prospect of ignition experiments with capsules absorbing energies in the vicinity of 1 MJ. This significant increase in capsule absorbed energy over the original designs at {approx}150 kJ could allow high-gain, high yield experiments on NIF. This paper reports the progress made exploring 2{omega} for NIF ignition, including potential 2{omega} laser performance, 2{omega} ignition target designs and 2{omega} Laser Plasma Interaction (LPI) studies.

  13. MULTI-KEV X-RAY YIELDS FROM HIGH-Z GAS TARGETS FIELDED AT OMEGA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kane, J O; Fournier, K B; May, M J; Colvin, J D; Thomas, C A; Marrs, R E; Compton, S M; Moody, J D; Bond, E J; Davis, J F

    2010-11-04

    The authors report on modeling of x-ray yield from gas-filled targets shot at the OMEGA laser facility. The OMEGA targets were 1.8 mm long, 1.95 mm in diameter Be cans filled with either a 50:50 Ar:Xe mixture, pure Ar, pure Kr or pure Xe at {approx} 1 atm. The OMEGA experiments heated the gas with 20 kJ of 3{omega} ({approx} 350 nm) laser energy delivered in a 1 ns square pulse. the emitted x-ray flux was monitored with the x-ray diode based DANTE instruments in the sub-keV range. Two-dimensional x-ray images (for energies 3-5 keV) of the targets were recorded with gated x-ray detectors. The x-ray spectra were recorded with the HENWAY crystal spectrometer at OMEGA. Predictions are 2D r-z cylindrical with DCA NLTE atomic physics. Models generally: (1) underpredict the Xe L-shell yields; (2) overpredict the Ar K-shell yields; (3) correctly predict the Xe thermal yields; and (4) greatly underpredict the Ar thermal yields. However, there are spreads within the data, e.g. the DMX Ar K-shell yields are correctly predicted. The predicted thermal yields show strong angular dependence.

  14. A Low-cost, High-yield Process for the Direct Productin of High Energy Density Liquid Fuel from Biomass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Agrawal, Rakesh

    2014-02-21

    The primary objective and outcome of this project was the development and validation of a novel, low-cost, high-pressure fast-hydropyrolysis/hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) process (H{sub 2}Bioil) using supplementary hydrogen (H{sub 2}) to produce liquid hydrocarbons from biomass. The research efforts under the various tasks of the project have culminated in the first experimental demonstration of the H2Bioil process, producing 100% deoxygenated >C4+ hydrocarbons containing 36-40% of the carbon in the feed of pyrolysis products from biomass. The demonstrated H{sub 2}Bioil process technology (i.e. reactor, catalyst, and downstream product recovery) is scalable to a commercial level and is estimated to be economically competitive for the cases when supplementary H{sub 2} is sourced from coal, natural gas, or nuclear. Additionally, energy systems modeling has revealed several process integration options based on the H{sub 2}Bioil process for energy and carbon efficient liquid fuel production. All project tasks and milestones were completed or exceeded. Novel, commercially-scalable, high-pressure reactors for both fast-hydropyrolysis and hydrodeoxygenation were constructed, completing Task A. These reactors were capable of operation under a wide-range of conditions; enabling process studies that lead to identification of optimum process conditions. Model compounds representing biomass pyrolysis products were studied, completing Task B. These studies were critical in identifying and developing HDO catalysts to target specific oxygen functional groups. These process and model compound catalyst studies enabled identification of catalysts that achieved 100% deoxygenation of the real biomass feedstock, sorghum, to form hydrocarbons in high yields as part of Task C. The work completed during this grant has identified and validated the novel and commercially scalable H2Bioil process for production of hydrocarbon fuels from biomass. Studies on model compounds as well as real biomass

  15. Characteristics of tropical cyclones in high-resolution models in the present climate

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Shaevitz, Daniel A.; Camargo, Suzana J.; Sobel, Adam H.; Jonas, Jeffrey A.; Kim, Daehyun; Kumar, Arun; LaRow, Timothy E.; Lim, Young -Kwon; Murakami, Hiroyuki; Reed, Kevin A.; et al

    2014-12-05

    The global characteristics of tropical cyclones (TCs) simulated by several climate models are analyzed and compared with observations. The global climate models were forced by the same sea surface temperature (SST) fields in two types of experiments, using climatological SST and interannually varying SST. TC tracks and intensities are derived from each model's output fields by the group who ran that model, using their own preferred tracking scheme; the study considers the combination of model and tracking scheme as a single modeling system, and compares the properties derived from the different systems. Overall, the observed geographic distribution of global TCmore » frequency was reasonably well reproduced. As expected, with the exception of one model, intensities of the simulated TC were lower than in observations, to a degree that varies considerably across models.« less

  16. Characteristics of tropical cyclones in high-resolution models in the present climate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shaevitz, Daniel A.; Camargo, Suzana J.; Sobel, Adam H.; Jonas, Jeffrey A.; Kim, Daehyun; Kumar, Arun; Lim, Young -Kwon; Reed, Kevin A.; Roberts, Malcolm J.; Scoccimarro, Enrico; Vidale, Pier Luigi; Wang, Hui; Zhao, Ming; Henderson, Naomi

    2014-12-05

    The global characteristics of tropical cyclones (TCs) simulated by several climate models are analyzed and compared with observations. The global climate models were forced by the same sea surface temperature (SST) fields in two types of experiments, using climatological SST and interannually varying SST. TC tracks and intensities are derived from each model's output fields by the group who ran that model, using their own preferred tracking scheme; the study considers the combination of model and tracking scheme as a single modeling system, and compares the properties derived from the different systems. Overall, the observed geographic distribution of global TC frequency was reasonably well reproduced. As expected, with the exception of one model, intensities of the simulated TC were lower than in observations, to a degree that varies considerably across models.

  17. Advanced Detector Research - Fabrication and Testing of 3D Active-Edge Silicon Sensors: High Speed, High Yield

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parker, Sherwood I

    2008-09-01

    Development of 3D silicon radiation sensors employing electrodes fabricated perpendicular to the sensor surfaces to improve fabrication yields and increasing pulse speeds.

  18. High temperature pre-digestion of corn stover biomass for improved product yields

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Brunecky, Roman; Hobdey, Sarah E.; Taylor, Larry E.; Tao, Ling; Tucker, Melvin P.; Himmel, Michael E.; Decker, Stephen R.

    2014-12-03

    Introduction: The efficient conversion of lignocellulosic feedstocks remains a key step in the commercialization of biofuels. One of the barriers to cost-effective conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to sugars remains the enzymatic saccharification process step. Here, we describe a novel hybrid processing approach comprising enzymatic pre-digestion with newly characterized hyperthermophilic enzyme cocktails followed by conventional saccharification with commercial enzyme preparations. Dilute acid pretreated corn stover was subjected to this new procedure to test its efficacy. Thermal tolerant enzymes from Acidothermus cellulolyticus and Caldicellulosiruptor bescii were used to pre-digest pretreated biomass at elevated temperatures prior to saccharification by the commercial cellulase formulation.more » Results: We report that pre-digestion of biomass with these enzymes at elevated temperatures prior to addition of the commercial cellulase formulation increased conversion rates and yields when compared to commercial cellulase formulation alone under low solids conditions. In conclusion, Our results demonstrating improvements in rates and yields of conversion point the way forward for hybrid biomass conversion schemes utilizing catalytic amounts of hyperthermophilic enzymes.« less

  19. High temperature pre-digestion of corn stover biomass for improved product yields

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brunecky, Roman; Hobdey, Sarah E.; Taylor, Larry E.; Tao, Ling; Tucker, Melvin P.; Himmel, Michael E.; Decker, Stephen R.

    2014-12-03

    Introduction: The efficient conversion of lignocellulosic feedstocks remains a key step in the commercialization of biofuels. One of the barriers to cost-effective conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to sugars remains the enzymatic saccharification process step. Here, we describe a novel hybrid processing approach comprising enzymatic pre-digestion with newly characterized hyperthermophilic enzyme cocktails followed by conventional saccharification with commercial enzyme preparations. Dilute acid pretreated corn stover was subjected to this new procedure to test its efficacy. Thermal tolerant enzymes from Acidothermus cellulolyticus and Caldicellulosiruptor bescii were used to pre-digest pretreated biomass at elevated temperatures prior to saccharification by the commercial cellulase formulation. Results: We report that pre-digestion of biomass with these enzymes at elevated temperatures prior to addition of the commercial cellulase formulation increased conversion rates and yields when compared to commercial cellulase formulation alone under low solids conditions. In conclusion, Our results demonstrating improvements in rates and yields of conversion point the way forward for hybrid biomass conversion schemes utilizing catalytic amounts of hyperthermophilic enzymes.

  20. A High-Yield Synthesis of Chalcopyrite CuInS2Nanoparticles with Exceptional Size Control

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Sun, Chivin; Gardner, Joseph S.; Shurdha, Endrit; Margulieux, Kelsey R.; Westover, Richard D.; Lau, Lisa; Long, Gary; Bajracharya, Cyril; Wang, Chongmin; Thurber, Aaron; et al

    2009-01-01

    We report high-yield and efficient size-controlled syntheses of Chalcopyrite CuInS2nanoparticles by decomposing molecular single source precursors (SSPs) via microwave irradiation in the presence of 1,2-ethanedithiol at reaction temperatures as low as 100C and times as short as 30?minutes. The nanoparticles sizes were 1.8?nm to 10.8?nm as reaction temperatures were varied from 100C to 200C with the bandgaps from 2.71?eV to 1.28?eV with good size control and high yields (64%95%). The resulting nanoparticles were analyzed by XRD, UV-Vis, ICP-OES, XPS, SEM, EDS, and HRTEM. Titration studies by1H NMR using SSP1with 1,2-ethanedithiol and benzyl mercaptan were conducted to elucidate the formation ofmoreChalcopyrite CuInS2nanoparticles.less

  1. Experimental Determination of DT Yield in High Current DD Dense Plasma Focii

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lowe, D. R.; Hagen, E. C.; Meehan, B. T.; Springs, R. K.; O'Brien, R. J.

    2013-06-18

    Dense Plasma Focii (DPF), which utilize deuterium gas to produce 2.45 MeV neutrons, may in fact also produce DT fusion neutrons at 14.1 MeV due to the triton production in the DD reaction. If beam-target fusion is the primary producer of fusion neutrons in DPFs, it is possible that ejected tritons from the first pinch will interact with the second pinch, and so forth. The 2 MJ DPF at National Security Technologies Losee Road Facility is able to, and has produced, over 1E12 DD neutrons per pulse, allowing an accurate measurement of the DT/DD ratio. The DT/DD ratio was experimentally verified by using the (n,2n) reaction in a large piece of praseodymium metal, which has a threshold reaction of 8 MeV, and is widely used as a DT yield measurement system1. The DT/DD ratio was experimentally determined for over 100 shots, and then compared to independent variables such as tube pressure, number of pinches per shot, total current, pinch current and charge voltage.

  2. High-yield synthesis of brookite TiO.sub.2 nanoparticles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Huber, Dale L.; Monson, Todd C.

    2011-05-17

    A method for forming non-agglomerated brookite TiO.sub.2 nanoparticles without the use of expensive organic surfactants or high temperature processing. Embodiments of this invention use titanium isopropoxide as the titanium precursor and isopropanol as both the solvent and ligand for ligand-stabilized brookite-phase titania. Isopropanol molecules serve as the ligands interacting with the titania surfaces that stabilize the titania nanoparticles. The isopropanol ligands can be exchanged with other alcohols and other ligands during or after the nanoparticle formation reaction.

  3. {phi}{yields}{pi}{sup 0}{eta}{gamma} and {phi}{yields}{pi}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0}{gamma} decays and mixing between low and high mass scalar mesons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Teshima, T.; Kitamura, I.; Morisita, N.

    2007-09-01

    Radiative decays {phi}{yields}{eta}{pi}{sup 0}{gamma} and {phi}{yields}{pi}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0}{gamma} are studied assuming that these decays are caused through the intermediate a{sub 0}(980){gamma} and f{sub 0}(980){gamma} states, respectively. Fitting the experimental data of the {eta}{pi}{sup 0} and {pi}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0} invariant mass spectrum in the decays {phi}{yields}{eta}{pi}{sup 0}{gamma} and {pi}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0}{gamma}, it is shown that the processes {phi}{yields}a{sub 0}{gamma} and {phi}{yields}f{sub 0}{gamma} are dominated by the K{sup +}K{sup -} loop interaction rather than the pointlike {phi}a{sub 0}(f{sub 0}){gamma} one both for the nonderivative and derivative SPP coupling. The experimental data of {gamma}[{phi}{yields}f{sub 0}{gamma}]/{gamma}[{phi}{yields}a{sub 0}{gamma}] predicts that g{sub f{sub 0}}{sub KK}/g{sub a{sub 0}}{sub KK}{approx}2. Considering the effects of the mixing between low mass scalar qqqq states and high mass scalar qq states to these coupling constants g{sub f{sub 0}}{sub KK} and g{sub a{sub 0}}{sub KK}, one suggests that this mixing is rather large.

  4. Expression of barley SUSIBA2 transcription factor yields high-starch low-methane rice

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Su, J.; Hu, C.; Yan, X.; Jin, Y.; Chen, Z.; Guan, Q.; Wang, Y.; Zhong, D.; Jansson, Georg C.; Wang, F.; Schnrer, Anna; Sun, Chuanxin

    2015-07-22

    Atmospheric methane is the second most important greenhouse gas after carbon dioxide, and is responsible for about 20% of the global warming effect since pre-industrial times. Rice paddies are the largest anthropogenic methane source and produce 7–17% of atmospheric methane. Warm waterlogged soil and exuded nutrients from rice roots provide ideal conditions for methanogenesis in paddies with annual methane emissions of 25–100-million tonnes. This scenario will be exacerbated by an expansion in rice cultivation needed to meet the escalating demand for food in the coming decades4. There is an urgent need to establish sustainable technologies for increasing rice production while reducing methane fluxes from rice paddies. However, ongoing efforts for methane mitigation in rice paddies are mainly based on farming practices and measures that are difficult to implement5. Despite proposed strategies to increase rice productivity and reduce methane emissions4,6, no high-starch low-methane-emission rice has been developed. Here we show that the addition of a single transcription factor gene, barley SUSIBA2, conferred a shift of carbon flux to SUSIBA2 rice, favouring the allocation of photosynthates to aboveground biomass over allocation to roots. The altered allocation resulted in an increased biomass and starch content in the seeds and stems, and suppressed methanogenesis, possibly through a reduction in root exudates. Three-year field trials in China demonstrated that the cultivation of SUSIBA2 rice was associated with a significant reduction in methane emissions and a decrease in rhizospheric methanogen levels. SUSIBA2 rice offers a sustainable means of providing increased starch content for food production while reducing greenhouse gas emissions from rice cultivation. Approaches to increase rice productivity and reduce methane emissions as seen in SUSIBA2 rice may be particularly beneficial in a future climate with rising temperatures resulting in increased methane

  5. Gram-scale, high-yield synthesis of a robust metal-organic framework for storing methane and other gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilmer, CE; Farha, OK; Yildirim, T; Eryazici, I; Krungleviciute, V; Sarjeant, AA; Snurr, RQ; Hupp, JT

    2013-04-01

    We have synthesized and characterized a new metal-organic framework (MOF) material, NU-125, that, in the single-crystal limit, achieves a methane storage density at 58 bar (840 psi) and 298 K corresponding to 86% of that obtained with compressed natural gas tanks (CNG) used in vehicles today, when the latter are pressurized to 248 bar (3600 psi). More importantly, the deliverable capacity (58 bar to 5.8 bar) for NU-125 is 67% of the deliverable capacity of a CNG tank that starts at 248 bar. (For crystalline granules or powders, particle packing inefficiencies will yield densities and deliverable capacities lower than 86% and 67% of high-pressure CNG.) This material was synthesized in high yield on a gram-scale in a single-batch synthesis. Methane adsorption isotherms were measured over a wide pressure range (0.1-58 bar) and repeated over twelve cycles on the same sample, which showed no detectable degradation. Adsorption of CO2 and H-2 over a broad range of pressures and temperatures are also reported and agree with our computational findings.

  6. A High-Yield Synthesis of Chalcopyrite CuIn S 2 Nanoparticles with Exceptional Size Control

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Sun, Chivin; Gardner, Joseph S.; Shurdha, Endrit; Margulieux, Kelsey R.; Westover, Richard D.; Lau, Lisa; Long, Gary; Bajracharya, Cyril; Wang, Chongmin; Thurber, Aaron; et al

    2009-01-01

    We repormore » t high-yield and efficient size-controlled syntheses of Chalcopyrite CuIn S 2 nanoparticles by decomposing molecular single source precursors (SSPs) via microwave irradiation in the presence of 1,2-ethanedithiol at reaction temperatures as low as 100 ° C and times as short as 30 minutes. The nanoparticles sizes were 1.8 nm to 10.8 nm as reaction temperatures were varied from 100 ° C to 200 ° C with the bandgaps from 2.71 eV to 1.28 eV with good size control and high yields (64%–95%). The resulting nanoparticles were analyzed by XRD, UV-Vis, ICP-OES, XPS, SEM, EDS, and HRTEM. Titration studies by 1 H NMR using SSP 1 with 1,2-ethanedithiol and benzyl mercaptan were conducted to elucidate the formation of Chalcopyrite CuIn S 2 nanoparticles.« less

  7. Metabolic engineering for the high-yield production of isoprenoid-based C5 alcohols in E. coli

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    George, Kevin W.; Thompson, Mitchell G.; Kang, Aram; Baidoo, Edward; Wang, George; Chan, Leanne Jade G.; Adams, Paul D.; Petzold, Christopher J.; Keasling, Jay D.; Soon Lee, Taek

    2015-06-08

    Branched five carbon (C5) alcohols are attractive targets for microbial production due to their desirable fuel properties and importance as platform chemicals. In this study, we engineered a heterologous isoprenoid pathway in E. coli for the high-yield production of 3-methyl-3-buten-1-ol, 3-methyl-2-buten-1-ol, and 3-methyl-1-butanol, three C5 alcohols that serve as potential biofuels. We first constructed a pathway for 3-methyl-3-buten-1-ol, where metabolite profiling identified NudB, a promiscuous phosphatase, as a likely pathway bottleneck. We achieved a 60% increase in the yield of 3-methyl-3-buten-1-ol by engineering the Shine-Dalgarno sequence of nudB, which increased protein levels by 9-fold and reduced isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP) accumulationmore » by 4-fold. To further optimize the pathway, we adjusted mevalonate kinase (MK) expression and investigated MK enzymes from alternative microbes such as Methanosarcina mazei. Next, we expressed a fusion protein of IPP isomerase and the phosphatase (Idi1~NudB) along with a reductase (NemA) to diversify production to 3-methyl-2-buten-1-ol and 3-methyl-1-butanol. Lastly, we used an oleyl alcohol overlay to improve alcohol recovery, achieving final titers of 2.23 g/L of 3-methyl-3-buten-1-ol (~70% of pathway-dependent theoretical yield), 150 mg/L of 3-methyl-2-buten-1-ol, and 300 mg/L of 3-methyl-1-butanol.« less

  8. Driving Down HB-LED Costs. Implementation of Process Simulation Tools and Temperature Control Methods of High Yield MOCVD Growth

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Quinn, William

    2012-04-30

    The overall objective of this multi-faceted program is to develop epitaxial growth systems that meet a goal of 75% (4X) cost reduction in the epitaxy phase of HB-LED manufacture. A 75% reduction in yielded epitaxy cost is necessary in order to achieve the cost goals for widespread penetration of HB-LED's into back-lighting units (BLU) for LCD panels and ultimately for solid-state lighting (SSL). To do this, the program will address significant improvements in overall equipment Cost of Ownership, or CoO. CoO is a model that includes all costs associated with the epitaxy portion of production. These aspects include cost of yield, capital cost, operational costs, and maintenance costs. We divide the program into three phases where later phases will incorporate the gains of prior phases. Phase one activities are enabling technologies. In collaboration with Sandia National Laboratories we develop a Fluent-compatible chemistry predictive model and a set of mid-infrared and near-ultraviolet pyrometer monitoring tools. Where previously the modeling of the reactor dynamics were studied within FLUENT alone, here, FLUENT and Chemkin are integrated into a comprehensive model of fluid dynamics and the most advanced transport equations developed for Chemkin. Specifically, the Chemkin model offered the key reaction terms for gas-phase nucleation, a key consideration in the optimization of the MOCVD process. This new predictive model is used to design new MOCVD reactors with optimized growth conditions and the newly developed pyrometers are used monitor and control the MOCVD process temperature to within 0.5°C run-to-run and within each wafer. This portion of the grant is in collaboration with partners at Sandia National Laboratories. Phase two activities are continuous improvement projects which extend the current reactor platform along the lines of improved operational efficiency, improved systems control for throughput, and carrier modifications for increased yield

  9. UPDATE: Tropical Storm Isaac

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Information on customer power outages and other impacts on the energy sector as Tropical Storm Isaac develops.

  10. High-yield hydrogen production from biomass by in vitro metabolic engineering: Mixed sugars coutilization and kinetic modeling

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Rollin, Joseph A.; Martin del Campo, Julia; Myung, Suwan; Sun, Fangfang; You, Chun; Bakovic, Allison; Castro, Roberto; Chandrayan, Sanjeev K.; Wu, Chang-Hao; Adams, Michael W. W.; et al

    2015-04-06

    The use of hydrogen (H2) as a fuel offers enhanced energy conversion efficiency and tremendous potential to decrease greenhouse gas emissions, but producing it in a distributed, carbon-neutral, low-cost manner requires new technologies. Herein we demonstrate the complete conversion of glucose and xylose from plant biomass to H2 and CO2 based on an in vitro synthetic enzymatic pathway. Glucose and xylose were simultaneously converted to H2 with a yield of two H2 per carbon, the maximum possible yield. Parameters of a nonlinear kinetic model were fitted with experimental data using a genetic algorithm, and a global sensitivity analysis was usedmore » to identify the enzymes that have the greatest impact on reaction rate and yield. After optimizing enzyme loadings using this model, volumetric H2 productivity was increased 3-fold to 32 mmol H2∙L₋1∙h₋1. The productivity was further enhanced to 54 mmol H2∙L₋1∙h₋1 by increasing reaction temperature, substrate, and enzyme concentrations—an increase of 67-fold compared with the initial studies using this method. The production of hydrogen from locally produced biomass is a promising means to achieve global green energy production.« less

  11. High-yield hydrogen production from biomass by in vitro metabolic engineering: Mixed sugars coutilization and kinetic modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rollin, Joseph A.; Martin del Campo, Julia; Myung, Suwan; Sun, Fangfang; You, Chun; Bakovic, Allison; Castro, Roberto; Chandrayan, Sanjeev K.; Wu, Chang-Hao; Adams, Michael W. W.; Senger, Ryan S.; Zhang, Y. -H. Percival

    2015-04-06

    The use of hydrogen (H2) as a fuel offers enhanced energy conversion efficiency and tremendous potential to decrease greenhouse gas emissions, but producing it in a distributed, carbon-neutral, low-cost manner requires new technologies. Herein we demonstrate the complete conversion of glucose and xylose from plant biomass to H2 and CO2 based on an in vitro synthetic enzymatic pathway. Glucose and xylose were simultaneously converted to H2 with a yield of two H2 per carbon, the maximum possible yield. Parameters of a nonlinear kinetic model were fitted with experimental data using a genetic algorithm, and a global sensitivity analysis was used to identify the enzymes that have the greatest impact on reaction rate and yield. After optimizing enzyme loadings using this model, volumetric H2 productivity was increased 3-fold to 32 mmol H2∙L₋1∙h₋1. The productivity was further enhanced to 54 mmol H2∙L₋1∙h₋1 by increasing reaction temperature, substrate, and enzyme concentrations—an increase of 67-fold compared with the initial studies using this method. The production of hydrogen from locally produced biomass is a promising means to achieve global green energy production.

  12. Mapping intra-field yield variation using high resolution satellite imagery to integrate bioenergy and environmental stewardship in an agricultural watershed

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hamada, Yuki; Ssegane, Herbert; Negri, Maria Cristina

    2015-07-31

    Biofuels are important alternatives for meeting our future energy needs. Successful bioenergy crop production requires maintaining environmental sustainability and minimum impacts on current net annual food, feed, and fiber production. The objectives of this study were to: (1) determine under-productive areas within an agricultural field in a watershed using a single date; high resolution remote sensing and (2) examine impacts of growing bioenergy crops in the under-productive areas using hydrologic modeling in order to facilitate sustainable landscape design. Normalized difference indices (NDIs) were computed based on the ratio of all possible two-band combinations using the RapidEye and the National Agricultural Imagery Program images collected in summer 2011. A multiple regression analysis was performed using 10 NDIs and five RapidEye spectral bands. The regression analysis suggested that the red and near infrared bands and NDI using red-edge and near infrared that is known as the red-edge normalized difference vegetation index (RENDVI) had the highest correlation (R2 = 0.524) with the reference yield. Although predictive yield map showed striking similarity to the reference yield map, the model had modest correlation; thus, further research is needed to improve predictive capability for absolute yields. Forecasted impact using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool model of growing switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) on under-productive areas based on corn yield thresholds of 3.1, 4.7, and 6.3 Mg·ha-1 showed reduction of tile NO3-N and sediment exports by 15.9%–25.9% and 25%–39%, respectively. Corresponding reductions in water yields ranged from 0.9% to 2.5%. While further research is warranted, the study demonstrated the integration of remote sensing and hydrologic modeling to quantify the multifunctional value of projected future landscape patterns in a context of sustainable bioenergy crop production.

  13. Mapping intra-field yield variation using high resolution satellite imagery to integrate bioenergy and environmental stewardship in an agricultural watershed

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Hamada, Yuki; Ssegane, Herbert; Negri, Maria Cristina

    2015-07-31

    Biofuels are important alternatives for meeting our future energy needs. Successful bioenergy crop production requires maintaining environmental sustainability and minimum impacts on current net annual food, feed, and fiber production. The objectives of this study were to: (1) determine under-productive areas within an agricultural field in a watershed using a single date; high resolution remote sensing and (2) examine impacts of growing bioenergy crops in the under-productive areas using hydrologic modeling in order to facilitate sustainable landscape design. Normalized difference indices (NDIs) were computed based on the ratio of all possible two-band combinations using the RapidEye and the National Agriculturalmore » Imagery Program images collected in summer 2011. A multiple regression analysis was performed using 10 NDIs and five RapidEye spectral bands. The regression analysis suggested that the red and near infrared bands and NDI using red-edge and near infrared that is known as the red-edge normalized difference vegetation index (RENDVI) had the highest correlation (R2 = 0.524) with the reference yield. Although predictive yield map showed striking similarity to the reference yield map, the model had modest correlation; thus, further research is needed to improve predictive capability for absolute yields. Forecasted impact using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool model of growing switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) on under-productive areas based on corn yield thresholds of 3.1, 4.7, and 6.3 Mg·ha-1 showed reduction of tile NO3-N and sediment exports by 15.9%–25.9% and 25%–39%, respectively. Corresponding reductions in water yields ranged from 0.9% to 2.5%. While further research is warranted, the study demonstrated the integration of remote sensing and hydrologic modeling to quantify the multifunctional value of projected future landscape patterns in a context of sustainable bioenergy crop production.« less

  14. Chemical composition of biomass from tall perennial tropical grasses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prine, G.M.; Stricker, J.A.; Anderson, D.L.

    1995-11-01

    The tall perennial tropical grasses, elephantgrass (Pennisetum purpureum Schum.), sugarcane and energycane (Saccharum sp.) and erianthus (Erianthus arundenaceum (Retz) Jesw.) have given very high oven dry biomass yields in Florida and the warm Lower South USA. No good complete analyses of the chemical composition of these grasses for planning potential energy use was available. We sampled treatments of several tall grass demonstrations and experiments containing high-biomass yielding genotypes of the above tall grass crops at several locations in Florida over the two growing seasons, 1992 and 1993. These samples were analyzed for crude protein, NDF, ADF, cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, and IVDMD or IVOMD. The analysis for the above constituents are reported, along with biomass yields where available, for the tall grass accessions in the various demonstrations and experiments. Particular attention is given to values obtained from the high-yielding tall grasses grown on phosphatic clays in Polk County, FL, the area targeted by a NREL grant to help commercialize bioenergy use from these crops.

  15. Evidence of covalent synergy in silicon–sulfur–graphene yielding highly efficient and long-life lithium-ion batteries

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Hassan, Fathy M.; Batmaz, Rasim; Li, Jingde; Wang, Xiaolei; Xiao, Xingcheng; Yu, Aiping; Chen, Zhongwei

    2015-10-26

    Silicon has the potential to revolutionize the energy storage capacities of lithium-ion batteries to meet the ever increasing power demands of next generation technologies. To avoid the operational stability problems of silicon-based anodes, we propose synergistic physicochemical alteration of electrode structures during their design. This capitalizes on covalent interaction of Si nanoparticles with sulfur-doped graphene and with cyclized polyacrylonitrile to provide a robust nanoarchitecture. This hierarchical structure stabilized the solid electrolyte interphase leading to superior reversible capacity of over 1,000 mAh g-1 for 2,275 cycles at 2 A g-1. Furthermore, the nanoarchitectured design lowered the contact of the electrolyte tomore » the electrode leading to not only high coulombic efficiency of 99.9% but also maintaining high stability even with high electrode loading associated with 3.4 mAh cm-2. As a result, the excellent performance combined with the simplistic, scalable and non-hazardous approach render the process as a very promising candidate for Li-ion battery technology.« less

  16. Evidence of covalent synergy in silicon–sulfur–graphene yielding highly efficient and long-life lithium-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hassan, Fathy M.; Batmaz, Rasim; Li, Jingde; Wang, Xiaolei; Xiao, Xingcheng; Yu, Aiping; Chen, Zhongwei

    2015-10-26

    Silicon has the potential to revolutionize the energy storage capacities of lithium-ion batteries to meet the ever increasing power demands of next generation technologies. To avoid the operational stability problems of silicon-based anodes, we propose synergistic physicochemical alteration of electrode structures during their design. This capitalizes on covalent interaction of Si nanoparticles with sulfur-doped graphene and with cyclized polyacrylonitrile to provide a robust nanoarchitecture. This hierarchical structure stabilized the solid electrolyte interphase leading to superior reversible capacity of over 1,000 mAh g-1 for 2,275 cycles at 2 A g-1. Furthermore, the nanoarchitectured design lowered the contact of the electrolyte to the electrode leading to not only high coulombic efficiency of 99.9% but also maintaining high stability even with high electrode loading associated with 3.4 mAh cm-2. As a result, the excellent performance combined with the simplistic, scalable and non-hazardous approach render the process as a very promising candidate for Li-ion battery technology.

  17. CHARACTERIZATION OF CLOUDS IN TITAN'S TROPICAL ATMOSPHERE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Griffith, Caitlin A.; Penteado, Paulo; Rodriguez, Sebastien; Baines, Kevin H.; Buratti, Bonnie; Sotin, Christophe; Clark, Roger; Nicholson, Phil; Jaumann, Ralf

    2009-09-10

    Images of Titan's clouds, possible over the past 10 years, indicate primarily discrete convective methane clouds near the south and north poles and an immense stratiform cloud, likely composed of ethane, around the north pole. Here we present spectral images from Cassini's Visual Mapping Infrared Spectrometer that reveal the increasing presence of clouds in Titan's tropical atmosphere. Radiative transfer analyses indicate similarities between summer polar and tropical methane clouds. Like their southern counterparts, tropical clouds consist of particles exceeding 5 {mu}m. They display discrete structures suggestive of convective cumuli. They prevail at a specific latitude band between 8 deg. - 20 deg. S, indicative of a circulation origin and the beginning of a circulation turnover. Yet, unlike the high latitude clouds that often reach 45 km altitude, these discrete tropical clouds, so far, remain capped to altitudes below 26 km. Such low convective clouds are consistent with the highly stable atmospheric conditions measured at the Huygens landing site. Their characteristics suggest that Titan's tropical atmosphere has a dry climate unlike the south polar atmosphere, and despite the numerous washes that carve the tropical landscape.

  18. Tropical Western Pacific

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    govSitesTropical Western Pacific TWP Related Links Facilities and Instruments Manus Island Nauru Island Darwin, AUS ES&H Guidance Statement Operations Science Field Campaigns Year of Tropical Convection Visiting the Site TWP Fact Sheet Images Information for Guest Scientists Tropical Western Pacific-Inactive Manus, Papua New Guinea: 2° 3' 39.64" S, 147° 25' 31.43" E Nauru Island: 0° 31' 15.6" S, 166° 54' 57.60" E Darwin, Australia: 12° 25' 28.56" S, 130° 53'

  19. Metabolic engineering for the high-yield production of isoprenoid-based C5 alcohols in E. coli

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    George, Kevin W.; Thompson, Mitchell G.; Kang, Aram; Baidoo, Edward; Wang, George; Chan, Leanne Jade G.; Adams, Paul D.; Petzold, Christopher J.; Keasling, Jay D.; Soon Lee, Taek

    2015-06-08

    Branched five carbon (C5) alcohols are attractive targets for microbial production due to their desirable fuel properties and importance as platform chemicals. In this study, we engineered a heterologous isoprenoid pathway in E. coli for the high-yield production of 3-methyl-3-buten-1-ol, 3-methyl-2-buten-1-ol, and 3-methyl-1-butanol, three C5 alcohols that serve as potential biofuels. We first constructed a pathway for 3-methyl-3-buten-1-ol, where metabolite profiling identified NudB, a promiscuous phosphatase, as a likely pathway bottleneck. We achieved a 60% increase in the yield of 3-methyl-3-buten-1-ol by engineering the Shine-Dalgarno sequence of nudB, which increased protein levels by 9-fold and reduced isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP) accumulation by 4-fold. To further optimize the pathway, we adjusted mevalonate kinase (MK) expression and investigated MK enzymes from alternative microbes such as Methanosarcina mazei. Next, we expressed a fusion protein of IPP isomerase and the phosphatase (Idi1~NudB) along with a reductase (NemA) to diversify production to 3-methyl-2-buten-1-ol and 3-methyl-1-butanol. Lastly, we used an oleyl alcohol overlay to improve alcohol recovery, achieving final titers of 2.23 g/L of 3-methyl-3-buten-1-ol (~70% of pathway-dependent theoretical yield), 150 mg/L of 3-methyl-2-buten-1-ol, and 300 mg/L of 3-methyl-1-butanol.

  20. Recyclable transmission line (RTL) and linear transformer driver (LTD) development for Z-pinch inertial fusion energy (Z-IFE) and high yield.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sharpe, Robin Arthur; Kingsep, Alexander S. (Kurchatov Institute, Moscow, Russia); Smith, David Lewis; Olson, Craig Lee; Ottinger, Paul F. (Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC); Schumer, Joseph Wade (Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC); Welch, Dale Robert (Voss Scientific, Albuquerque, NM); Kim, Alexander (High Currents Institute, Tomsk, Russia); Kulcinski, Gerald L. (University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI); Kammer, Daniel C. (University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI); Rose, David Vincent (Voss Scientific, Albuquerque, NM); Nedoseev, Sergei L. (Kurchatov Institute, Moscow, Russia); Pointon, Timothy David; Smirnov, Valentin P.; Turgeon, Matthew C.; Kalinin, Yuri G. (Kurchatov Institute, Moscow, Russia); Bruner, Nichelle "Nicki" (Voss Scientific, Albuquerque, NM); Barkey, Mark E. (University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL); Guthrie, Michael (University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI); Thoma, Carsten (Voss Scientific, Albuquerque, NM); Genoni, Tom C. (Voss Scientific, Albuquerque, NM); Langston, William L.; Fowler, William E.; Mazarakis, Michael Gerrassimos

    2007-01-01

    Z-Pinch Inertial Fusion Energy (Z-IFE) complements and extends the single-shot z-pinch fusion program on Z to a repetitive, high-yield, power plant scenario that can be used for the production of electricity, transmutation of nuclear waste, and hydrogen production, all with no CO{sub 2} production and no long-lived radioactive nuclear waste. The Z-IFE concept uses a Linear Transformer Driver (LTD) accelerator, and a Recyclable Transmission Line (RTL) to connect the LTD driver to a high-yield fusion target inside a thick-liquid-wall power plant chamber. Results of RTL and LTD research are reported here, that include: (1) The key physics issues for RTLs involve the power flow at the high linear current densities that occur near the target (up to 5 MA/cm). These issues include surface heating, melting, ablation, plasma formation, electron flow, magnetic insulation, conductivity changes, magnetic field diffusion changes, possible ion flow, and RTL mass motion. These issues are studied theoretically, computationally (with the ALEGRA and LSP codes), and will work at 5 MA/cm or higher, with anode-cathode gaps as small as 2 mm. (2) An RTL misalignment sensitivity study has been performed using a 3D circuit model. Results show very small load current variations for significant RTL misalignments. (3) The key structural issues for RTLs involve optimizing the RTL strength (varying shape, ribs, etc.) while minimizing the RTL mass. Optimization studies show RTL mass reductions by factors of three or more. (4) Fabrication and pressure testing of Z-PoP (Proof-of-Principle) size RTLs are successfully reported here. (5) Modeling of the effect of initial RTL imperfections on the buckling pressure has been performed. Results show that the curved RTL offers a much greater buckling pressure as well as less sensitivity to imperfections than three other RTL designs. (6) Repetitive operation of a 0.5 MA, 100 kV, 100 ns, LTD cavity with gas purging between shots and automated operation is

  1. 0.15 {mu}m InGaAs/AlGaAs/GaAs HEMT production process for high performance and high yield v-band power MMICs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lai, R.; Biedenbender, M.; Lee, J.

    1995-12-31

    The authors present a unique high yield, high performance 0.15 {mu}m HEMT production process which supports fabrication of MMW power MMICs up to 70 GHz. This process has been transferred successfully from an R&D process to TRW`s GaAs production line. This paper reports the on-wafer test results of more than 1300 V-band MMIC PA circuits measured over 24 wafers. The best 2-stage V-band power MMICs have demonstrated state-of-the-art performance with 9 dB power gain, 20% PAE and 330 mW output power. An excellent RF yield of 60% was achieved with an 8 dB power gain and 250 mW output power specification.

  2. Yield Improvement in Steel Casting (Yield II)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richard A. Hardin; Christoph Beckermann; Tim Hays

    2002-02-18

    This report presents work conducted on the following main projects tasks undertaken in the Yield Improvement in Steel Casting research program: Improvement of Conventional Feeding and Risering Methods, Use of Unconventional Yield Improvement Techniques, and Case Studies in Yield Improvement. Casting trials were conducted and then simulated using the precise casting conditions as recorded by the participating SFSA foundries. These results present a statistically meaningful set of experimental data on soundness versus feeding length. Comparisons between these casting trials and casting trials performed more than forty years ago by Pellini and the SFSA are quite good and appear reasonable. Comparisons between the current SFSA feeding rules and feeding rules based on the minimum Niyama criterion reveal that the Niyama-based rules are generally less conservative. The niyama-based rules also agree better with both the trials presented here, and the casting trails performed by Pellini an d the SFSA years ago. Furthermore, the use of the Niyama criterion to predict centerline shrinkage for horizontally fed plate sections has a theoretical basis according to the casting literature reviewed here. These results strongly support the use of improved feeding rules for horizontal plate sections based on the Niyama criterion, which can be tailored to the casting conditions for a given alloy and to a desired level of soundness. The reliability and repeatability of ASTM shrinkage x-ray ratings was investigated in a statistical study performed on 128 x-rays, each of which were rated seven different times. A manual ''Feeding and Risering Guidelines for Steel Castings' is given in this final report. Results of casting trials performed to test unconventional techniques for improving casting yield are presented. These use a stacked arrangement of castings and riser pressurization to increase the casting yield. Riser pressurization was demonstrated to feed a casting up to four time s the

  3. ARM - Publications: Science Team Meeting Documents: Tropical...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Tropical Cloud Overlap Structure and Cloud Area Vogelmann, Andrew Brookhaven National Laboratory Jensen, Michael Brookhaven National Laboratory Boer, Erwin LUEBEC The Tropical ...

  4. Role of high-spin hyperon resonances in the reaction of {gamma}p{yields}K{sup +}K{sup +}{Xi}{sup -}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Man, J. Ka Shing; Oh, Yongseok; Nakayama, K.

    2011-05-15

    The recent data taken by the CLAS Collaboration at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility for the reaction of {gamma}p{yields}K{sup +}K{sup +}{Xi}{sup -} are reanalyzed within a relativistic meson-exchange model of hadronic interactions. The present model is an extension of the one developed in an earlier work by Nakayama, Oh, and Haberzettl [Phys. Rev. C 74, 035205 (2006)]. In particular, the role of the spin-5/2 and -7/2 hyperon resonances, which were not included in the previous model, is investigated in the present study. It is shown that the contribution of the {Sigma}(2030) hyperon having spin-7/2 and positive parity has a key role to bring the model predictions into a fair agreement with the measured data for the K{sup +}{Xi}{sup -} invariant mass distribution.

  5. Significant Increase in Hydrogen Photoproduction Rates and Yields by Wild-Type Algae is Detected at High Photobioreactor Gas Phase Volume (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2012-07-01

    This NREL Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technical Highlight describes how hydrogen photoproduction activity in algal cultures can be improved dramatically by increasing the gas-phase to liquid-phase volume ratio of the photobioreactor. NREL, in partnership with subcontractors from the Institute of Basic Biological Problems in Pushchino, Russia, demonstrated that the hydrogen photoproduction rate in algal cultures always decreases exponentially with increasing hydrogen partial pressure above the culture. The inhibitory effect of high hydrogen concentrations in the photobioreactor gas phase on hydrogen photoproduction by algae is significant and comparable to the effect observed with some anaerobic bacteria.

  6. Structure-Guided, Single-Point Modifications in the Phosphinic Dipeptide Structure Yield Highly Potent and Selective Inhibitors of Neutral Aminopeptidases

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Vassiliou, Stamatia; Węglarz-Tomczak, Ewelina; Berlicki, Łukasz; Pawełczak, Małgorzata; Nocek, Bogusław; Mulligan, Rory; Joachimiak, Andrzej; Mucha, Artur

    2014-10-09

    Seven crystal structures of alanyl aminopeptidase from Neisseria meningitides (the etiological agent of meningitis, NmAPN) complexed with organophosphorus compounds were resolved to determine the optimal inhibitor–enzyme interactions. The enantiomeric phosphonic acid analogs of Leu and hPhe, which correspond to the P1 amino acid residues of well-processed substrates, were used to assess the impact of the absolute configuration and the stereospecific hydrogen bond network formed between the aminophosphonate polar head and the active site residues on the binding affinity. For the hPhe analog, an imperfect stereochemical complementarity could be overcome by incorporating an appropriate P1 side chain. The constitution of P1'-extendedmore » structures was rationally designed and the lead, phosphinic dipeptide hPhePψ[CH2]Phe, was modified in a single position. Introducing a heteroatom/heteroatom-based fragment to either the P1 or P1' residue required new synthetic pathways. The compounds in the refined structure were low nanomolar and subnanomolar inhibitors of N. meningitides, porcine and human APNs, and the reference leucine aminopeptidase (LAP). The unnatural phosphinic dipeptide analogs exhibited a high affinity for monozinc APNs associated with a reasonable selectivity versus dizinc LAP. In conclusion, another set of crystal structures containing the NmAPN dipeptide ligand were used to verify and to confirm the predicted binding modes; furthermore, novel contacts, which were promising for inhibitor development, were identified, including a π–π stacking interaction between a pyridine ring and Tyr372.« less

  7. Drilling ban yields verdict

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nation, L.M.

    1992-01-01

    This paper briefly reviews a lawsuit which is under appeal by the State of Michigan regarding a takings claim filed over a petroleum exploration site. The dispute arose as a result of a 1987 decision by the Michigan Department of Natural Resources forbidding the property owners from developing the mineral rights leased to Miller Brothers in the Huron/Manistee National Forest. This area is bisected by a trend of Silurian Niagaran reef complexes which has a known production history throughout the State. The dunes area of the national forest has been deemed a wilderness area. As a result of the State's decision, the courts have awarded a sum of 71 million dollars to the developer to cover damages and lost resources. The reserve estimates were taken from adjacent areas which showed that the Niagaran reefs are relatively consistent in their yield.

  8. Tropical forest soil microbial communities couple iron and carbon biogeochemistry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dubinsky, E.A.; Silver, W.L.; Firestone, M.K.

    2009-10-15

    We report that iron-reducing bacteria are primary mediators of anaerobic carbon oxidation in upland tropical soils spanning a rainfall gradient (3500 - 5000 mm yr-1) in northeast Puerto Rico. The abundant rainfall and high net primary productivity of these tropical forests provide optimal soil habitat for iron-reducing and iron-oxidizing bacteria. Spatially and temporally dynamic redox conditions make iron-transforming microbial communities central to the belowground carbon cycle in these wet tropical forests. The exceedingly high abundance of iron-reducing bacteria (up to 1.2 x 10{sup 9} cells per gram soil) indicated that they possess extensive metabolic capacity to catalyze the reduction of iron minerals. In soils from the higher rainfall sites, measured rates of ferric iron reduction could account for up to 44 % of organic carbon oxidation. Iron reducers appeared to compete with methanogens when labile carbon availability was limited. We found large numbers of bacteria that oxidize reduced iron at sites with high rates of iron reduction and large numbers of iron-reducers. the coexistence of large populations of ironreducing and iron-oxidizing bacteria is evidence for rapid iron cycling between its reduced and oxidized states, and suggests that mutualistic interactions among these bacteria ultimately fuel organic carbon oxidation and inhibit CH4 production in these upland tropical forests.

  9. The Tropical Warm Pool International Cloud Experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    May, Peter T.; Mather, James H.; Vaughan, Geraint; Jakob, Christian; McFarquhar, Greg; Bower, Keith; Mace, Gerald G.

    2008-05-01

    One of the most complete data sets describing tropical convection ever collected will result from the upcoming Tropical Warm Pool International Cloud Experiment (TWP-ICE) in the area around Darwin, Northern Australia in January and February 2006. The aims of the experiment, which will be operated in conjunction with the DOE Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) site in Darwin, will be to examine convective cloud systems from their initial stages through to the decay of the cirrus generated and to measure their impact on the environment. The experiment will include an unprecedented network of ground-based observations (soundings, active and passive remote sensors) combined with low, mid and high altitude aircraft for in-situ and remote sensing measurements. A crucial outcome of the experiment will be a data set suitable to provide the forcing and evaluation data required by cloud resolving and single column models as well as global climate models (GCMs) with the aim to contribute to parameterization development. This data set will provide the necessary link between the observed cloud properties and the models that are attempting to simulate them. The experiment is a large multi-agency experiment including substantial contributions from the United States DOE ARM program, ARM-UAV program, NASA, the Australian Bureau of Meteorology, CSIRO, EU programs and many universities.

  10. Ecotoxicology of tropical marine ecosystems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peters, E.C.; Gassman, N.J.; Firman, J.C.; Richmond, R.H.; Power, E.A.

    1997-01-01

    The negative effects of chemical contaminants on tropical marine ecosystems are of increasing concern as human populations expand adjacent to these communities. Watershed streams and ground water carry a variety of chemicals from agricultural, industrial, and domestic activities, while winds and currents transport pollutants from atmospheric and oceanic sources to these coastal ecosystems. The implications of the limited information available on impacts of chemical stressors on mangrove forests, seagrass meadows, and coral reefs are discussed in the context of ecosystem management and ecological risk assessment. Three classes of pollutants have received attention: heavy metals, petroleum, and synthetic organics. Heavy metals have been detected in all three ecosystems, causing physiological stress, reduced reproductive success, and outright mortality in associated invertebrates and fishes. Oil spills have been responsible for the destruction of entire coastal shallow-water communities, with recovery requiring years. Herbicides are particularly detrimental to mangroves and seagrasses and adversely affect the animal-algal symbioses in corals. Pesticides interfere with chemical cues responsible for key biological processes, including reproduction and recruitment of a variety of organisms. Information is lacking with regard to long-term recovery, indicator species, and biomarkers for tropical communities. Critical areas that are beginning to be addressed include the development of appropriate benchmarks for risk assessment, baseline monitoring criteria, and effective management strategies to protect tropical marine ecosystems in the face of mounting anthropogenic disturbance.

  11. Tropical Forest Foundation | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Virginia. About "The Tropical Forest Foundation (TFF) is an international, non-profit, educational institution committed to advancing environmental stewardship, economic...

  12. Tropical Cloud Life Cycle and Overlap Structure

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Tropical Cloud Life Cycle and Overlap Structure Vogelmann, Andrew Brookhaven National Laboratory Jensen, Michael Brookhaven National Laboratory Kollias, Pavlos Brookhaven National ...

  13. Differences between nonprecipitating tropical and trade wind...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    wind marine shallow cumuli This content will become publicly available on November 13, 2016 Prev Next Title: Differences between nonprecipitating tropical and trade wind ...

  14. The Role of the Tropics in Abrupt Climate Changes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fedorov, Alexey

    2013-12-07

    Topics addressed include: abrupt climate changes and ocean circulation in the tropics; what controls the ocean thermal structure in the tropics; a permanent El Niño in paleoclimates; the energetics of the tropical ocean.

  15. Carbon Dioxide Effects Research and Assessment Program. The role of tropical forests on the world carbon cycle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, S.; Lugo, A. E.; Liegel, B.

    1980-08-01

    Tropical forests constitute about half of the world's forest and are characterized by rapid rates of organic matter turnover and high storages of organic matter. Tropical forests are considered to be one of the most significant terrestrial elements in the equation that balances the carbon cycle of the world. As discussed in the paper by Tosi, tropical and subtropical latitudes are more complex in terms of climate and vegetation composition than temperate and boreal latitudes. The implications of the complexity of the tropics and the disregard of this complexity by many scientists is made evident in the paper by Brown and Lugo which shows that biomass estimates for tropical ecosystems have been overestimated by at least 100%. The paper by Brown shows that that rates of succession in the tropics are extremely rapid in terms of the ability of moist and wet forests to accumulate organic matter. Yet, in arid tropical Life Zones succession is slow. This leads to the idea that the question of whether tropical forests are sinks or sources of carbon must be analyzed in relation to Life Zones and to intensities of human activity in these Zones. The paper by Lugo presents conceptual models to illustrate this point and the paper by Tosi shows how land uses in the tropics also correspond to Life Zone characteristics. The ultimate significance of land use to the question of the carbon balance in a large region is addressed in the paper by Detwiler and Hall.

  16. International Crops Research Institute for the Semi Arid Tropics...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Crops Research Institute for the Semi Arid Tropics Jump to: navigation, search Name: International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics Place: India Sector: Biofuels...

  17. Lunty Tropical Fish Aquaculture Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Lunty Tropical Fish Aquaculture Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Lunty Tropical Fish Aquaculture Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility...

  18. Arctic Stratus and Tropical Deep Convection. Integrating Measurements...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Technical Report: Arctic Stratus and Tropical Deep Convection. Integrating Measurements and Simulations Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Arctic Stratus and Tropical Deep ...

  19. Tropical Cloud Properties and Radiative Heating Profiles (Dataset...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Tropical Cloud Properties and Radiative Heating Profiles Title: Tropical Cloud Properties ... in that it uses the microwave radiometer to scale the radiosonde column water vapor. ...

  20. Positive low cloud and dust feedbacks amplify tropical North...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    amplify tropical North Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation: CLOUD AND DUST FEEDBACK AND AMO Title: Positive low cloud and dust feedbacks amplify tropical North Atlantic ...

  1. A tropical influence on global climate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schneider, E.K.; Kirtman, B.P.; Lindzen, R.S.

    1997-05-15

    A potential influence of tropical sea surface temperature on the global climate response to a doubling of the CO{sub 2} concentration is tested using an atmospheric general circulation model coupled to a slab mixed layer ocean. The warming is significantly reduced when sea surface temperatures in the eastern equatorial Pacific cold tongue region between latitudes 2.25{degrees}N and 2.25{degrees}S are held at the control simulation values. Warming of the global mean temperature outside of the cold tongue region is reduced from 2.4{degrees}C in the unconstrained case to 1.9{degrees}C when the sea surface temperature constraint is applied. The decrease in the warming results from a positive net heat flux into the ocean cold tongue region and implicit heat storage in the subsurface ocean, induced by horizontal atmospheric heat fluxes. The reduced surface temperature warming outside of the cold tongue region is due to reduction in the downward longwave radiative flux at the surface, caused in turn by reduced atmospheric temperature and moisture. The global mean surface temperature responds to the heat storage in the ocean as if the global mean radiative forcing due to the doubled CO{sub 2} (approximately 4 W m{sup {minus}2}) was reduced by the value of the global mean heat flux into the ocean. This mechanism also provides a possible explanation for the observed high correlation on interannual timescales between the global mean tropospheric temperature and sea surface temperature in the eastern tropical Pacific. The results emphasize the importance of correctly modeling the dynamical processes in the ocean and atmosphere that help determine the sea surface temperature in the equatorial eastern Pacific, in addition to the thermodynamical processes, in projecting global warming. 23 refs., 8 figs.

  2. Comparison of oilseed yields: a preliminary review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duke, J.A.; Bagby, M.O.

    1982-01-01

    It was assumed that for most oilseed crops, 90% of the oil yield might be considered as profit. To compare oil seeds, pertinent portions of the yield and energy paragraphs from a summary published by Dr. Duke for DOE Grant No. 59-2246-1-6-054-0 with Dr. Bagby as ADODR were reproduced. The seed yields ranged from 200 to 14,000 kg/ha, the low one too low to consider and the high one suspiciously high. The yield of 14,000 kg oil per hectare is equivalent to more than 30 barrels of oil per hectare. The energy species included ambrette, tung-oil tree, cashew, wood-oil tree, mu-oil tree, peanut, mustard greens; rape, colza; black mustard, turnip, safflower, colocynth, coconut, crambe, African oil palm, soybean, cotton, sunflower, Eastern black walnut, Engligh walnut, meadow foam, flax, macadamia nuts, opium poppy, perilla, almond, castorbean, Chinese tallow tree, sesame, jojoba, yellow mustard, stokes' aster, and Zanzibar oilvine. 1 table. (DP)

  3. A Model Evaluation Data Set for the Tropical ARM Sites

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Jakob, Christian

    This data set has been derived from various ARM and external data sources with the main aim of providing modelers easy access to quality controlled data for model evaluation. The data set contains highly aggregated (in time) data from a number of sources at the tropical ARM sites at Manus and Nauru. It spans the years of 1999 and 2000. The data set contains information on downward surface radiation; surface meteorology, including precipitation; atmospheric water vapor and cloud liquid water content; hydrometeor cover as a function of height; and cloud cover, cloud optical thickness and cloud top pressure information provided by the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP).

  4. A Model Evaluation Data Set for the Tropical ARM Sites

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Jakob, Christian

    2008-01-15

    This data set has been derived from various ARM and external data sources with the main aim of providing modelers easy access to quality controlled data for model evaluation. The data set contains highly aggregated (in time) data from a number of sources at the tropical ARM sites at Manus and Nauru. It spans the years of 1999 and 2000. The data set contains information on downward surface radiation; surface meteorology, including precipitation; atmospheric water vapor and cloud liquid water content; hydrometeor cover as a function of height; and cloud cover, cloud optical thickness and cloud top pressure information provided by the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP).

  5. Tropical BioEnergia SA | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    BioEnergia SA Jump to: navigation, search Name: Tropical BioEnergia SA Place: Edeia, Goias, Brazil Product: Tropical BioEnergia SA is a joint venture which will build and operate...

  6. Benefits of Tropical Forest Management Under the New Climate...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    of Tropical Forest Management Under the New Climate Change Agreement-A Case Study in Cambodia Jump to: navigation, search Name Benefits of Tropical Forest Management Under the New...

  7. Coordinated Airborne Studies in the Tropics (CAST) Field Campaign...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... National Aeronautics and Space Administration National ... Tropical Warm Pool - International Cloud Experiment United ... Daily meteorological measurments from the Momote station. ...

  8. Climate Science: Tropical Expansion by Ocean Swing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Jian

    2014-04-01

    The tropical belt has become wider over the past decades, but climate models fall short of capturing the full rate of the expansion. The latest analysis of the climate simulations suggests that a long-term swing of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation is the main missing cause.

  9. ARM - PI Product - A Model Evaluation Data Set for the Tropical ARM Sites

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ProductsA Model Evaluation Data Set for the Tropical ARM Sites ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send PI Product : A Model Evaluation Data Set for the Tropical ARM Sites This data set has been derived from various ARM and external data sources with the main aim of providing modelers easy access to quality controlled data for model evaluation. The data set contains highly aggregated (in time) data from a

  10. Fast pyrolysis of tropical biomass species and influence of water pretreatment on product distributions

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Morgan, Trevor James; Turn, Scott Q.; Sun, Ning; George, Anthe; Gupta, Vijai

    2016-03-15

    Here, the fast pyrolysis behaviour of pretreated banagrass was examined at four temperatures (between 400 and 600 C) and four residence times (between ~1.2 and 12 s). The pretreatment used water washing/leaching to reduce the inorganic content of the banagrass. Yields of bio-oil, permanent gases and char were determined at each reaction condition and compared to previously published results from untreated banagrass. Comparing the bio-oil yields from the untreated and pretreated banagrass shows that the yields were greater from the pretreated banagrass by 4 to 11 wt% (absolute) at all reaction conditions. The effect of pretreatment (i.e. reducing the amountmore » of ash, and alkali and alkali earth metals) on pyrolysis products is: 1) to increase the dry bio-oil yield, 2) to decrease the amount of undetected material, 3) to produce a slight increase in CO yield or no change, 4) to slightly decrease CO2 yield or no change, and 5) to produce a more stable bio-oil (less aging). Char yield and total gas yield were unaffected by feedstock pretreatment. Four other tropical biomass species were also pyrolyzed under one condition (450°C and 1.4 s residence time) for comparison to the banagrass results. The samples include two hardwoods: leucaena and eucalyptus, and two grasses: sugarcane bagasse and energy-cane. A sample of pretreated energy-cane was also pyrolyzed. Of the materials tested, the best feedstocks for fast pyrolysis were sugarcane bagasse, pretreated energy cane and eucalyptus based on the yields of 'dry bio-oil', CO and CO2. On the same basis, the least productive feedstocks are untreated banagrass followed by pretreated banagrass and leucaena.« less

  11. Experiment to Characterize Tropical Cloud Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    May, Peter T.; Mather, Jim H.; Jakob, Christian

    2005-08-02

    A major experiment to study tropical convective cloud systems and their impacts will take place around Darwin, Northern Australia in early 2006. The Tropical Warm Pool International Cloud Experiment (TWP-ICE) is a collaboration including the DOE ARM (Atmospheric Radiation Measurement) and ARM-UAV programs, NASA centers, the Australian Bureau of Meteorology, CSIRO, and universities in the USA, Australia, Japan, the UK, and Canada. TWP-ICE will be preceded in November/December 2004 by a collaborating European aircraft campaign involving the EU SCOUT-O3 and UK NERC ACTIVE projects. Detailed atmospheric measurements will be made in the Darwin area through the whole Austral summer, giving unprecedented coverage through the pre-monsoon and monsoon periods.

  12. Properties of tropical convection observed by ARM millimeter-radars

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Properties of tropical convection observed by ARM millimeter-radars Haynes, John Colorado State University Stephens, Graeme Colorado State University Category: Cloud Properties The results of an analysis of tropical cloud systems observed from a variety of vertically pointing radar systems are described. In particular, observations taken during five years of operation of the ARM millimeter wavelength radar system (MMCR) at Manus Island in the Tropical West Pacific region are characterized into

  13. The Tropical Warm Pool International Cloud Experiment: Overview

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The Tropical Warm Pool International Cloud Experiment: Overview May, Peter Bureau or Meteorology Research Centre Mather, James Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Jakob,...

  14. A Decade of Atmospheric Research in the Tropical Western Pacific...

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    cloud systems in climate models, long-term measurements of tropical clouds, the environment in which they reside, and their impact on radiation and water budgets are needed. ...

  15. Radiative Energy Balance in the Tropical Tropopause Layer: An...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    tropical cirrus clouds from the CALIPSO satellite and from ground-based micropulse and Raman lidar observations; (v) improving the parameterization of optical properties of cirrus ...

  16. ARM - Field Campaign - Year of Tropical Convection (YOTC)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ARM has three sites within the Tropical Western Pacific that were collecting data during this period: Manus, Papua New Guinea; Nauru Island; and Darwin, Australia. The ARM sites ...

  17. Clarence Strait Tidal Energy Project, Tenax Energy Tropical Tidal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Clarence Strait Tidal Energy Project, Tenax Energy Tropical Tidal Test Centre, Jump to: navigation, search 1 Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleClarenceStrai...

  18. Ocean Barrier Layers Effect on Tropical Cyclone Intensification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balaguru, Karthik; Chang, P.; Saravanan, R.; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Xu, Zhao; Li, M.; Hsieh, J.

    2012-09-04

    Improving a tropical cyclone's forecast and mitigating its destructive potential requires knowledge of various environmental factors that influence the cyclone's path and intensity. Herein, using a combination of observations and model simulations, we systematically demonstrate that tropical cyclone intensification is significantly affected by salinity-induced barrier layers, which are 'quasi-permanent' features in the upper tropical oceans. When tropical cyclones pass over regions with barrier layers, the increased stratification and stability within the layer reduce storm-induced vertical mixing and sea surface temperature cooling. This causes an increase in enthalpy flux from the ocean to the atmosphere and, consequently, an intensification of tropical cyclones. On average, the tropical cyclone intensification rate is nearly 50% higher over regions with barrier layers, compared to regions without. Our finding, which underscores the importance of observing not only the upper-ocean thermal structure but also the salinity structure in deep tropical barrier layer regions, may be a key to more skillful predictions of tropical cyclone intensities through improved ocean state estimates and simulations of barrier layer processes. As the hydrological cycle responds to global warming, any associated changes in the barrier layer distribution must be considered in projecting future tropical cyclone activity.

  19. Differences Between Tropical and Trade-Wind Shallow Cumuli

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Differences Between Tropical and Trade-Wind Shallow Cumuli For original submission and image(s), see ARM Research Highlights http:www.arm.govsciencehighlights Research...

  20. The impact of vertical shear on the sensitivity of tropical cyclogenes...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The impact of vertical shear on the sensitivity of tropical cyclogenesis to environmental rotation and thermodynamic state: TROPICAL CYCLOGENESIS AND SHEAR Citation Details ...

  1. Climate change and maize yield in Iowa

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Xu, Hong; Twine, Tracy E.; Girvetz, Evan

    2016-05-24

    Climate is changing across the world, including the major maize-growing state of Iowa in the USA. To maintain crop yields, farmers will need a suite of adaptation strategies, and choice of strategy will depend on how the local to regional climate is expected to change. Here we predict how maize yield might change through the 21st century as compared with late 20th century yields across Iowa, USA, a region representing ideal climate and soils for maize production that contributes substantially to the global maize economy. To account for climate model uncertainty, we drive a dynamic ecosystem model with output frommore » six climate models and two future climate forcing scenarios. Despite a wide range in the predicted amount of warming and change to summer precipitation, all simulations predict a decrease in maize yields from late 20th century to middle and late 21st century ranging from 15% to 50%. Linear regression of all models predicts a 6% state-averaged yield decrease for every 1°C increase in warm season average air temperature. When the influence of moisture stress on crop growth is removed from the model, yield decreases either remain the same or are reduced, depending on predicted changes in warm season precipitation. Lastly, our results suggest that even if maize were to receive all the water it needed, under the strongest climate forcing scenario yields will decline by 10-20% by the end of the 21st century.« less

  2. High-Pressure MOF Research Yields Structural Insights

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the field of crystal engineering and stand to potentially revolutionize the field of solid-state chemistry. The narrow definition of these materials is still under debate;...

  3. High-Pressure MOF Research Yields Structural Insights

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of research. As research has identified potential industrial viability for these materials, there has risen a need to better understand their mechanical and physical...

  4. High-Pressure MOF Research Yields Structural Insights

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    understanding of the applicability of these materials, and thus the use of single-crystal x-ray diffraction is invaluable in this field of research. As research has identified...

  5. High-Yield Feedstock and Biomass Conversion Technology for Renewable...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... Bioresource Technology. 102 (2). Publications (continued): ... In conference proceedings of Sun Grant National Conference: ... Andrew. 2011. "Sustainable Bioenergy Systems for Hawaii." ...

  6. Microbial Electrolysis Cells (MECs) for High Yield Hydrogen ...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Microbial Electrochemical Technology (MxCs): Challenges and Opportunities 2013 Biological Hydrogen Production Workshop Summary Report Hydrogen and Biogas Production using Microbial ...

  7. High-Pressure MOF Research Yields Structural Insights

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of crystal engineering and stand to potentially revolutionize the field of solid-state chemistry. The narrow definition of these materials is still under debate; however, the...

  8. Laser Seeding Yields High-Power Coherent Terahertz Radiation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    electron storage rings when femtosecond lasers are used to carve out ultrafast x-ray ... They already are experts at the use of lasers with ultrashort pulses to carve out ...

  9. High-Pressure MOF Research Yields Structural Insights

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    field of crystal engineering and stand to potentially revolutionize the field of solid-state chemistry. The narrow definition of these materials is still under debate; however,...

  10. Laser Seeding Yields High-Power Coherent Terahertz Radiation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... the match between the 1-kHz line and its harmonics with the laser repetition frequency. ... The 1-kHz line and harmonics clearly disappear when the laser is switched off. The ...

  11. BETO Seeks Stakeholder Input on Achieving High Yields from Algal...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    BETO is seeking input from industry, academia, and other stakeholders regarding supply systems and services for the cultivation, logistics, and preprocessing of algal feedstocks. ...

  12. Anomalous softening of yield strength in tantalum at high pressures...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    with previous results obtained by the pressure gradient method and shock wave experiments. ... National Key Laboratory of Shock Wave and Detonation Physics, Institute of Fluid Physics, ...

  13. Microbial Electrolysis Cells (MECs) for High Yield Hydrogen ...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Reducednon-toxic chemicals Microbial Desalination Cell (MDC) Desalinated water >90% H 2 ... H2 production-Batch H2 production-CSTR Desalination-Batch Desalination-CSTR 100 40 80 30 ...

  14. Laser Seeding Yields High-Power Coherent Terahertz Radiation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    But an increasingly important stretch of the vast spectrum of electromagnetic waves (or more familiarly, light) is not well served by synchrotron sources, or for that matter by any ...

  15. High-Pressure MOF Research Yields Structural Insights

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... A whole new family of piezofunctional materials may arise from the study of MOFs under ... Solid black lines in the bottom represent calculated mean planes. The O1-Zn1-O2' internal ...

  16. Microbes Produce High Yields of Fatty Alcohols From Glucose ...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    glucose using genetically engineered microorganisms. The organism, e.g., a modified E. coli strain, overexpresses several genes (including FadDand a recombinant thioesterase gene,...

  17. High-Pressure MOF Research Yields Structural Insights

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The narrow definition of these materials is still under debate; however, the broad definition includes compounds exhibiting some level of dimensionality that are composed of...

  18. Neutron temporal diagnostic for high-yield deuterium-tritium...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Type: Publisher's Accepted Manuscript Journal Name: Review of Scientific Instruments ... Publisher: American Institute of Physics Sponsoring Org: USDOE Country of Publication: ...

  19. Potential Yield Mapping of Dedicated Energy Crops

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Breakout Session 1B—Integration of Supply Chains I: Breaking Down Barriers Potential Yield Mapping of Dedicated Energy Crops Chris Daly, Director, PRISM Climate Group, Oregon State University

  20. Tropical Cloud Properties and Radiative Heating Profiles

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Mather, James

    We have generated a suite of products that includes merged soundings, cloud microphysics, and radiative fluxes and heating profiles. The cloud microphysics is strongly based on the ARM Microbase value added product (Miller et al., 2003). We have made a few changes to the microbase parameterizations to address issues we observed in our initial analysis of the tropical data. The merged sounding product is not directly related to the product developed by ARM but is similar in that it uses the microwave radiometer to scale the radiosonde column water vapor. The radiative fluxes also differ from the ARM BBHRP (Broadband Heating Rate Profile) product in terms of the radiative transfer model and the sampling interval.

  1. Tropical Cloud Properties and Radiative Heating Profiles

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Mather, James

    2008-01-15

    We have generated a suite of products that includes merged soundings, cloud microphysics, and radiative fluxes and heating profiles. The cloud microphysics is strongly based on the ARM Microbase value added product (Miller et al., 2003). We have made a few changes to the microbase parameterizations to address issues we observed in our initial analysis of the tropical data. The merged sounding product is not directly related to the product developed by ARM but is similar in that it uses the microwave radiometer to scale the radiosonde column water vapor. The radiative fluxes also differ from the ARM BBHRP (Broadband Heating Rate Profile) product in terms of the radiative transfer model and the sampling interval.

  2. Acid hydrolysis of cellulose to yield glucose

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tsao, George T.; Ladisch, Michael R.; Bose, Arindam

    1979-01-01

    A process to yield glucose from cellulose through acid hydrolysis. Cellulose is recovered from cellulosic materials, preferably by pretreating the cellulosic materials by dissolving the cellulosic materials in Cadoxen or a chelating metal caustic swelling solvent and then precipitating the cellulose therefrom. Hydrolysis is accomplished using an acid, preferably dilute sulfuric acid, and the glucose is yielded substantially without side products. Lignin may be removed either before or after hydrolysis.

  3. Caldwell Ranch: Innovative Exploration Technologies Yield Geothermal

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Potential | Department of Energy Caldwell Ranch: Innovative Exploration Technologies Yield Geothermal Potential Caldwell Ranch: Innovative Exploration Technologies Yield Geothermal Potential July 11, 2013 - 4:55pm Addthis Photo of a ranch in the mountains. As part of a geothermal exploration effort to search for geothermal resources nationwide, a $5 million U.S. Department of Energy investment to Calpine Corporation this year culminated in the confirmation of an initial 11.4 MW of equivalent

  4. The Energy Department Prepares for Tropical Storm Karen | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy The Energy Department Prepares for Tropical Storm Karen The Energy Department Prepares for Tropical Storm Karen October 4, 2013 - 3:00pm Addthis Marissa Newhall Marissa Newhall Director of Digital Strategy and Communications What does this mean for me? Follow the latest news on Tropical Storm Karen by visiting the FEMA blog. Stay up-to-date on energy delivery impacts by reading twice-daily situation reports from the Energy Department. Visit ready.gov for more information about

  5. Evaluation and compilation of fission product yields 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    England, T.R.; Rider, B.F.

    1995-12-31

    This document is the latest in a series of compilations of fission yield data. Fission yield measurements reported in the open literature and calculated charge distributions have been used to produce a recommended set of yields for the fission products. The original data with reference sources, and the recommended yields axe presented in tabular form. These include many nuclides which fission by neutrons at several energies. These energies include thermal energies (T), fission spectrum energies (F), 14 meV High Energy (H or HE), and spontaneous fission (S), in six sets of ten each. Set A includes U235T, U235F, U235HE, U238F, U238HE, Pu239T, Pu239F, Pu241T, U233T, Th232F. Set B includes U233F, U233HE, U236F, Pu239H, Pu240F, Pu241F, Pu242F, Th232H, Np237F, Cf252S. Set C includes U234F, U237F, Pu240H, U234HE, U236HE, Pu238F, Am241F, Am243F, Np238F, Cm242F. Set D includes Th227T, Th229T, Pa231F, Am241T, Am241H, Am242MT, Cm245T, Cf249T, Cf251T, Es254T. Set E includes Cf250S, Cm244S, Cm248S, Es253S, Fm254S, Fm255T, Fm256S, Np237H, U232T, U238S. Set F includes Cm243T, Cm246S, Cm243F, Cm244F, Cm246F, Cm248F, Pu242H, Np237T, Pu240T, and Pu242T to complete fission product yield evaluations for 60 fissioning systems in all. This report also serves as the primary documentation for the second evaluation of yields in ENDF/B-VI released in 1993.

  6. Coordinated Airborne Studies in the Tropics (CAST) Field Campaign...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... believe that this may be the result of a change in air-mass origin arriving at the site. ... 2014. "Rapid transport of East Asian pollution to the deep tropics," Atmospheric ...

  7. Differences between nonprecipitating tropical and trade wind marine shallow cumuli

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ghate, Virendra P.; Miller, Mark A.; Zhu, Ping

    2015-11-13

    In this study, marine nonprecipitating cumulus topped boundary layers (CTBLs) observed in a tropical and in a trade wind region are contrasted based on their cloud macrophysical, dynamical, and radiative structures. Data from the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) observational site previously operating at Manus Island, Papua New Guinea, and data collected during the deployment of ARM Mobile Facility at the island of Graciosa, in the Azores, were used in this study. The tropical marine CTBLs were deeper, had higher surface fluxes and boundary layer radiative cooling, but lower wind speeds compared to their trade wind counterparts. The radiative velocity scale was 50%-70% of the surface convective velocity scale at both locations, highlighting the prominent role played by radiation in maintaining turbulence in marine CTBLs. Despite greater thicknesses, the chord lengths of tropical cumuli were on average lower than those of trade wind cumuli, and as a result of lower cloud cover, the hourly averaged (cloudy and clear) liquid water paths of tropical cumuli were lower than the trade wind cumuli. At both locations ~70% of the cloudy profiles were updrafts, while the average amount of updrafts near cloud base stronger than 1 m s–1 was ~22% in tropical cumuli and ~12% in the trade wind cumuli. The mean in-cloud radar reflectivity within updrafts and mean updraft velocity was higher in tropical cumuli than the trade wind cumuli. Despite stronger vertical velocities and a higher number of strong updrafts, due to lower cloud fraction, the updraft mass flux was lower in the tropical cumuli compared to the trade wind cumuli. The observations suggest that the tropical and trade wind marine cumulus clouds differ significantly in their macrophysical and dynamical structures

  8. Differences between nonprecipitating tropical and trade wind marine shallow cumuli

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ghate, Virendra P.; Miller, Mark A.; Zhu, Ping

    2015-11-13

    In this study, marine nonprecipitating cumulus topped boundary layers (CTBLs) observed in a tropical and in a trade wind region are contrasted based on their cloud macrophysical, dynamical, and radiative structures. Data from the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) observational site previously operating at Manus Island, Papua New Guinea, and data collected during the deployment of ARM Mobile Facility at the island of Graciosa, in the Azores, were used in this study. The tropical marine CTBLs were deeper, had higher surface fluxes and boundary layer radiative cooling, but lower wind speeds compared to their trade wind counterparts. The radiative velocity scalemore » was 50%-70% of the surface convective velocity scale at both locations, highlighting the prominent role played by radiation in maintaining turbulence in marine CTBLs. Despite greater thicknesses, the chord lengths of tropical cumuli were on average lower than those of trade wind cumuli, and as a result of lower cloud cover, the hourly averaged (cloudy and clear) liquid water paths of tropical cumuli were lower than the trade wind cumuli. At both locations ~70% of the cloudy profiles were updrafts, while the average amount of updrafts near cloud base stronger than 1 m s–1 was ~22% in tropical cumuli and ~12% in the trade wind cumuli. The mean in-cloud radar reflectivity within updrafts and mean updraft velocity was higher in tropical cumuli than the trade wind cumuli. Despite stronger vertical velocities and a higher number of strong updrafts, due to lower cloud fraction, the updraft mass flux was lower in the tropical cumuli compared to the trade wind cumuli. The observations suggest that the tropical and trade wind marine cumulus clouds differ significantly in their macrophysical and dynamical structures« less

  9. Lagrangian Diagnostics of Tropical Cirrus over TWP CART Sites

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lagrangian Diagnostics of Tropical Cirrus over TWP CART Sites Horvath, Akos University of Miami Soden, Brian UM/RSMAS Category: Cloud Properties Cirrus clouds associated with tropical deep convection play an important role in regulating Earth's climate by influencing the radiative and moisture budgets of the upper troposphere. In this study, we sought to better understand the evolution of such clouds using geostationary satellite observations coupled with ground-based radar and lidar

  10. Limiting Factors for Convective Cloud Top Height in the Tropics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Limiting Factors for Convective Cloud Top Height in the Tropics M. P. Jensen and A. D. Del Genio National Aeronautics and Space Administration Goddard Institute for Space Studies Columbia University New York, New York Introduction Populations of tropical convective clouds are mainly comprised of three types: shallow trade cumulus, mid-level cumulus congestus and deep convective clouds (Johnson et al. 1999). Each of these cloud types has different impacts on the local radiation and water budgets.

  11. ARM - PI Product - Tropical Cloud Properties and Radiative Heating Profiles

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ProductsTropical Cloud Properties and Radiative Heating Profiles ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send PI Product : Tropical Cloud Properties and Radiative Heating Profiles We have generated a suite of products that includes merged soundings, cloud microphysics, and radiative fluxes and heating profiles. The cloud microphysics is strongly based on the ARM Microbase value added product (Miller et al.,

  12. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Tropical Warm Pool International Cloud Experiment

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Tropical Warm Pool International Cloud Experiment General Description The Tropical Warm Pool - International Cloud Experiment (TWP-ICE) was a collaborative effort led by the U.S. Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program and the Australian Bureau of Meteorology. Beginning January 21 and ending February 14, 2006, the experiment was conducted in the region near the ARM Climate Research Facility in Darwin, Northern Australia. This permanent facility is fully equipped

  13. Patterns of Convection in the Tropical Western Pacific

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Patterns of Convection in the Tropical Western Pacific J. H. Mather Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Richland, Washington Introduction Convection is ubiquitous throughout the maritime continent region. However, the frequency of convec- tion is not uniform. While much of this region does not experience seasons to the same degree as one finds in mid-latitudes, the annual cycle of the sun's passage does have a large impact on convection throughout the maritime continent and the tropical

  14. Collaboration yields 'The Right Glasses' for observing mystery behavior

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    in electrons Observing mystery behavior In electrons Collaboration yields 'The Right Glasses' for observing mystery behavior in electrons The research may lead to a better understanding of superconductors or development of better materials for powering high-speed electronics. December 13, 2007 Los Alamos National Laboratory sits on top of a once-remote mesa in northern New Mexico with the Jemez mountains as a backdrop to research and innovation covering multi-disciplines from bioscience,

  15. Energy-related pollution of semi-tropical and tropical nearshore ecosystems. Annual report, 1981-1982

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thorhaug, A.; Marcus, J.H.

    1982-01-01

    The major components of the nearshore marine ecosystems in the subtropics and tropics (seagrasses, mangroves, and corals) are examined and compound sublethal and lethal effects from extremes in some energy-related effects (temperature, salinity and light) are discussed.

  16. Global crop yield losses from recent warming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lobell, D; Field, C

    2006-06-02

    Global yields of the world-s six most widely grown crops--wheat, rice, maize, soybeans, barley, sorghum--have increased since 1961. Year-to-year variations in growing season minimum temperature, maximum temperature, and precipitation explain 30% or more of the variations in yield. Since 1991, climate trends have significantly decreased yield trends in all crops but rice, leading to foregone production since 1981 of about 12 million tons per year of wheat or maize, representing an annual economic loss of $1.2 to $1.7 billion. At the global scale, negative impacts of climate trends on crop yields are already apparent. Annual global temperatures have increased by {approx}0.4 C since 1980, with even larger changes observed in several regions (1). While many studies have considered the impacts of future climate changes on food production (2-5), the effects of these past changes on agriculture remain unclear. It is likely that warming has improved yields in some areas, reduced them in others, and had negligible impacts in still others; the relative balance of these effects at the global scale is unknown. An understanding of this balance would help to anticipate impacts of future climate changes, as well as to more accurately assess recent (and thereby project future) technologically driven yield progress. Separating the contribution of climate from concurrent changes in other factors--such as crop cultivars, management practices, soil quality, and atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) levels--requires models that describe the response of yields to climate. Studies of future global impacts of climate change have typically relied on a bottom-up approach, whereby field scale, process-based models are applied to hundreds of representative sites and then averaged (e.g., ref 2). Such approaches require input data on soil and management conditions, which are often difficult to obtain. Limitations on data quality or quantity can thus limit the utility of this approach

  17. Holocene Paleohydrology of the tropical andes from lake records

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abbott, M. B., LLNL

    1997-03-03

    Two century-scale time series in northern Bolivia constrain the ages of abrupt changes in the physical, geochemical, and biological characteristics of sediments obtained from lakes that formed during deglaciation from the late Pleistocene glacial maximum. The watersheds of Laguna Viscachani (16{degrees}12`S, 68{degrees}07`W, 3780m) and Lago Taypi Chaka Kkota (16{degrees}13`S, 68{degrees}21`W, 4300m), located on the eastern and western slopes of the Cordillera Real, respectively, contain small cirque glaciers. A high-resolution chronology of the lake sediments is provided by 23 AMS {sup 14}C dates of discrete macro-fossils. Late Pleistocene glaciers retreated rapidly, exposing the lake basins between 10,700 and 9700 {sup 14}C yr B.P. The sedimentary facies suggest that after 8900 {sup 14}C B.P. glaciers were absent from the watersheds and remained so during the middle Holocene. An increase in the precipitation-evaporation balance is indicated above unconformities dated to about 2300 {sup 14}C yr B.P. in both Lago Taypi Chaka Kkota and Laguna Viscachani. An abrupt increase in sediment accumulation rated after 1400 {sup 14}C yr B.P. signals the onset of Neoglaciation. A possible link exists between the observed millennial-scale shifts in the regional precipitation- evaporation balance and seasonal shifts in tropical insolation.

  18. Potential Yield Mapping of Dedicated Energy Crops

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Yield Mapping of Dedicated Energy Crops Christopher Daly and Michael Halbleib PRISM Climate Group Sun Grant Western Region GIS Center Oregon State University Corvallis, Oregon, USA Sun Grant Initiative  Consortium of the nation's land-grant universities addressing national bioenergy and bioproduct challenges  Five Regional University Centers  Engaging agricultural and natural resource colleges in every state and territory Regional Feedstock Partnership U.S. Department of Agriculture

  19. Evaluation of stress experienced by soldiers wearing chemical protective clothing during varying work loads in desert or tropical environments. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hudgens, G.A.; Banderet, L.E.; Cadarette, B.S.

    1994-04-01

    A stress evaluation was conducted in a laboratory test in which the physiological and psychological reactions of soldiers were monitored while they wore either the standard battle dress overgarment (MOPPI) or the full complement of chemical protective clothing with mask (MOPPIV) and worked at low, moderate, or high work loads in simulated desert (hot and dry) or tropic (hot and humid) environments. The psychological instruments indicated greater stress responses for soldiers wearing MOPPIV than wearing MOPPI and for soldiers working at a high work load than working at a low work load. Chemical protective clothing, MOPPIV, Tropics, Desert, Psychological stress, Work load, MOPPI, Stress evaluation.

  20. Structures for Three Membrane Transport Proteins Yield Functional...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Structures for Three Membrane Transport Proteins Yield Functional Insights Structures for Three Membrane Transport Proteins Yield Functional Insights Print Wednesday, 27 January ...

  1. Limits of optimal control yields achievable with quantum controllers...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Limits of optimal control yields achievable with quantum controllers Prev Next Title: Limits of optimal control yields achievable with quantum controllers Authors: Wu, ...

  2. Green Ocean Amazon 2014/15 High-Volume Filter Sampling: Atmospheric

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Particulate Matter of an Amazon Tropical City and its Relationship to Population Health Field Campaign Report (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Green Ocean Amazon 2014/15 High-Volume Filter Sampling: Atmospheric Particulate Matter of an Amazon Tropical City and its Relationship to Population Health Field Campaign Report Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Green Ocean Amazon 2014/15 High-Volume Filter Sampling: Atmospheric Particulate Matter of an Amazon Tropical City and its

  3. Evaluation of tropical channel refinement using MPAS-A aquaplanet simulations: TROPICAL CHANNEL REFINEMENT IN MPAS-A

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Martini, Matus N.; Gustafson, William I.; O'Brien, Travis A.; Ma, Po-Lun

    2015-09-01

    Climate models with variable-resolution grids offer a computationally less expensive way to provide more detailed information at regional scales and increased accuracy for processes that cannot be resolved by a coarser grid. This study uses the Model for Prediction Across Scales–Atmosphere (MPAS22A), consisting of a nonhydrostatic dynamical core and a subset of Advanced Research Weather Research and Forecasting (ARW-WRF) model atmospheric physics that have been modified to include the Community Atmosphere Model version 5 (CAM5) cloud fraction parameterization, to investigate the potential benefits of using increased resolution in an tropical channel. The simulations are performed with an idealized aquaplanet configurationmore » using two quasi-uniform grids, with 30 km and 240 km grid spacing, and two variable-resolution grids spanning the same grid spacing range; one with a narrow (20°S–20°N) and one with a wide (30°S–30°N) tropical channel refinement. Results show that increasing resolution in the tropics impacts both the tropical and extratropical circulation. Compared to the quasi-uniform coarse grid, the narrow-channel simulation exhibits stronger updrafts in the Ferrel cell as well as in the middle of the upward branch of the Hadley cell. The wider tropical channel has a closer correspondence to the 30 km quasi-uniform simulation. However, the total atmospheric poleward energy transports are similar in all simulations. The largest differences are in the low-level cloudiness. The refined channel simulations show improved tropical and extratropical precipitation relative to the global 240 km simulation when compared to the global 30 km simulation. All simulations have a single ITCZ. The relatively small differences in mean global and tropical precipitation rates among the simulations are a promising result, and the evidence points to the tropical channel being an effective method for avoiding the extraneous numerical artifacts seen in earlier

  4. Tropical cyclone motion and recurvature in TCM-90. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fitzpatrick, M.E.

    1992-01-01

    Rawinsonde and satellite data collected during the Tropical Cyclone Motion (TCM90) experiment, which was conducted during the summer of 1990 in the Western North pacific, is used to examine tropical cyclone steering motion and recurvature. TCM-90 composite results are compared with those found in a composite study using twenty-one years (1957-77) of Western North Pacific rawinsonde data during the same August-September period and also for all months during this same 21-year period. Both data sets indicate that the composite deep-layer-mean (850-300 mb) winds 5-7 deg from the cyclone center provide an important component of the steering flow for tropical cyclones. However, despite the rawinsonde data enhancements of the TCM-90 experiment, data limitations prevented an accurate observation of steering flow conditions at individual time periods or for the average of only 5-10 time periods when composited together.

  5. Multi-institutional project to study climate change's effect on tropical

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    forests Multi-institutional project to study climate change's effect on tropical forests Alumni Link: Opportunities, News and Resources for Former Employees Latest Issue:September 2015 all issues All Issues » submit Multi-institutional project to study climate change's effect on tropical forests An expansive new project called Next Generation Ecosystem Experiments-Tropics aims to bring the future of tropical forests into much clearer focus May 1, 2015 Overhead view of Amazon forest, at risk

  6. Multi-institutional project to study climate change's effect on tropical

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    forests Climate change's effect on tropical forests Multi-institutional project to study climate change's effect on tropical forests An expansive new project called Next Generation Ecosystem Experiments-Tropics aims to bring the future of tropical forests into much clearer focus April 1, 2015 Overhead view of Amazon forest, at risk from a warming climate. Photo credit: Hugo Glendinning Overhead view of Amazon forest, at risk from a warming climate. Photo credit: Hugo Glendinning Contact Los

  7. Survival and distribution of Vibrio cholerae in a tropical rain forest stream

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Perez-Rosas, N.; Hazen, T.C.

    1988-12-31

    For 12 months Vibrio cholerae and fecal coliforms were monitored along with 9 other water quality parameters at 12 sites in a rain forest watershed in Puerto Rico. Densities of V. cholerae and fecal coliforms were not significantly correlated even though the highest densities of both bacteria were found at a sewage outfall. High densities of V. cholerae were also found at pristine sites high in the watershed. V. cholerae and Escherichia coli were inoculated into membrane diffusion chambers, placed at two sites and monitored for 5 days on two different occasions. Two different direct count methods indicated that the density of E. coli and V. cholerae did not change significantly during the course of either study. Physiological activity, as measured by INT-reduction and relative nucleic acid composition declined for E. coli during the first 12 h then increased and remained variable during the remainder of the study. V. cholerae activity, as measured by relative nucleic acid concentrations, remained high and unchanged for the entire study. INT-reduction in V. cholerae declined initially but regained nearly all of it`s original activity within 48 h. This study suggests that V. cholerae is an indigenous organism in tropical freshwaters and that assays other than fecal coliforms or E. coli must be used for assessing public health risk in tropical waters.

  8. Modeling tropical Pacific sea surface temperature with satellite-derived solar radiative forcing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seager, R.; Blumenthal, M.B.

    1994-12-01

    Two independent datasets for the solar radiation at the surface derived from satellites are compared. The data derived from the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) is for the net solar radiation at the surface whereas the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) data is for the downward flux only and was corrected with a space- and time-varying albedo. The ISCCP net flux is at all times higher than the ERBE flux. The difference can be divided into an offset that decreases with latitude and another component that correlates with high tropical cloud cover. With this latter exception the two datasets provide spatial patterns of solar flux that are very similar. A tropical Pacific Ocean model is forced with these two datasets and observed climatological winds. The upward heat flux is parameterized taking into account separately the longwave radiative, latent, and sensible heat fluxes. Best fit values for the uncertain parameters are found using an optimization procedure that seeks to minimize the difference between model and observed SST by varying the parameters within a reasonable range of uncertainty. The SST field the model produces with the best fit parameters is the best the model can do. If the differences between the model and data are larger than can be accounted for by remaining uncertainties in the heat flux parameterization and forcing data then the ocean model must be held to be at fault. Using this method of analysis, a fundamental model fault is identified. Inadequate treatment of mixed layer/entrainment processes in upwelling regions of the eastern tropical Pacific leads to a large and seasonally varying error in the model SST. Elsewhere the model SST is insufficiently different from observed to be able to identify model errors.

  9. Boosting investor yields through bond insurance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mosbacher, M.L.; Burkhardt, D.A.

    1993-02-01

    The market for utility securities generally tends to be fairly static. Innovative financing techniques are rarely used because of the marketability of utility securities stemming from the companies' generally strong financial credit and the monopoly markets most utilities serve. To many people, utility securities are considered the pillars of the financial world, and innovation is not needed. Further, plain vanilla utility issues are easily understood by investors, as well as by regulators and customers. Over the past several years, however, a new utility bond product has crept into the world of utility securities - insured secondary utility bonds. These insured bonds may possibly be used as an alternative financing technique for newly issued debt. Individual investors often tend to rely on insurance as a tool for reducing credit risk and are willing to take the lower yields as a tradeoff. Insured utility bonds are created by brokerage firms through the acqusition of a portion of an outstanding utility bond issue and subsequent solicitation of the insurance companies for bids. The insurance company then agrees to insure that portion of the issue until maturity for a fee, and the brokerage firm sells those bonds to their customers as a AAA-insured bond. Issuers are encouraged to explore the retail market as a financing alternative. They may find a most cost-effective means of raising capital.

  10. Small-Scale Carbon Sequestration Field Test Yields Significant...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Small-Scale Carbon Sequestration Field Test Yields Significant Lessons Learned Small-Scale Carbon Sequestration Field Test Yields Significant Lessons Learned May 20, 2009 - 1:00pm ...

  11. Uncertainty in Simulating Wheat Yields Under Climate Change

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Asseng, S.; Ewert, F.; Rosenzweig, C.; Jones, J.W.; Hatfield, Jerry; Ruane, Alex; Boote, K. J.; Thorburn, Peter; Rotter, R.P.; Cammarano, D.; Brisson, N.; Basso, B.; Martre, P.; Aggarwal, P.K.; Angulo, C.; Bertuzzi, P.; Biernath, C.; Challinor, AJ; Doltra, J.; Gayler, S.; Goldberg, R.; Grant, Robert; Heng, L.; Hooker, J.; Hunt, L.A.; Ingwersen, J.; Izaurralde, Roberto C.; Kersebaum, K.C.; Mueller, C.; Naresh Kumar, S.; Nendel, C.; O'Leary, G.O.; Olesen, JE; Osborne, T.; Palosuo, T.; Priesack, E.; Ripoche, D.; Semenov, M.A.; Shcherbak, I.; Steduto, P.; Stockle, Claudio O.; Stratonovitch, P.; Streck, T.; Supit, I.; Tao, F.; Travasso, M.; Waha, K.; Wallach, D.; White, J.W.; Williams, J.R.; Wolf, J.

    2013-09-01

    Anticipating the impacts of climate change on crop yields is critical for assessing future food security. Process-based crop simulation models are the most commonly used tools in such assessments1,2. Analysis of uncertainties in future greenhouse gas emissions and their impacts on future climate change has been increasingly described in the literature3,4 while assessments of the uncertainty in crop responses to climate change are very rare. Systematic and objective comparisons across impact studies is difficult, and thus has not been fully realized5. Here we present the largest coordinated and standardized crop model intercomparison for climate change impacts on wheat production to date. We found that several individual crop models are able to reproduce measured grain yields under current diverse environments, particularly if sufficient details are provided to execute them. However, simulated climate change impacts can vary across models due to differences in model structures and algorithms. The crop-model component of uncertainty in climate change impact assessments was considerably larger than the climate-model component from Global Climate Models (GCMs). Model responses to high temperatures and temperature-by-CO2 interactions are identified as major sources of simulated impact uncertainties. Significant reductions in impact uncertainties through model improvements in these areas and improved quantification of uncertainty through multi-model ensembles are urgently needed for a more reliable translation of climate change scenarios into agricultural impacts in order to develop adaptation strategies and aid policymaking.

  12. The ARM program in the Tropical Western Pacific

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clements, W.E.; Barnes, F.J.; Ackerman, T.P.; Mather, J.H.

    1998-12-01

    The Department of Energy`s Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program was created in 1989 as part of the US Global Change Research Program to improve the treatment of atmospheric radiative and cloud processes in computer models used to predict climate change. The overall goal of the ARM program is to develop and test parameterizations of important atmospheric processes, particularly cloud and radiative processes, for use in atmospheric models. This goal is being achieved through a combination of field measurements and modeling studies. Three primary locales were chosen for extensive field measurement facilities. These are the Southern Great Plains of the United States, the Tropical Western Pacific, and the North Slope of Alaska and Adjacent Arctic Ocean. This paper describes the ARM program in the Tropical Western Pacific locale.

  13. Method and apparatus for sampling low-yield wells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Last, George V.; Lanigan, David C.

    2003-04-15

    An apparatus and method for collecting a sample from a low-yield well or perched aquifer includes a pump and a controller responsive to water level sensors for filling a sample reservoir. The controller activates the pump to fill the reservoir when the water level in the well reaches a high level as indicated by the sensor. The controller deactivates the pump when the water level reaches a lower level as indicated by the sensors. The pump continuously activates and deactivates the pump until the sample reservoir is filled with a desired volume, as indicated by a reservoir sensor. At the beginning of each activation cycle, the controller optionally can select to purge an initial quantity of water prior to filling the sample reservoir. The reservoir can be substantially devoid of air and the pump is a low volumetric flow rate pump. Both the pump and the reservoir can be located either inside or outside the well.

  14. A TWP-ICE High-Level Cloud Case Study

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and high-level cloud data set that will increase our understanding of the processes that result in the formation and maintenance of tropical anvils and extended cirrus layers. ...

  15. A Low-Cost High-Yield Process for the Direct Production of High...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... ProgressResults Task E: Energy Systems Analysis (M.4.19.7) Augmented processes ... Global optimization of Mixed-Integer Nonlinear Programming, 2002 An example ...

  16. Prospects for High-Gain, High Yield NIF Targets Driven by 2w (green) Light

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oades, K; Divol, L; Stevenson, M; Glenzer, S; Suter, L J; Meezan, N; Spaeth, M; Manes, K; Moody, J; Hammel, B; Haan, S

    2003-12-17

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF), operating at green (2{omega}) light, has the potential to drive ignition targets with significantly more energy than the 1.8 MJ it will produce in its baseline, blue (3{omega}) operations. This results in a greatly increased ''target design space'', providing a number of exciting opportunities for fusion research including the possibility of ignition experiments with capsules absorbing energies in the vicinity of 1 MJ. We report the progress made exploring 2{omega} for NIF ignition, including potential 2{omega} laser performance, 2{omega} ignition target designs and 2{omega} Laser Plasma Interaction (LPI) studies.

  17. To study of different level of nitrogen manure and density on yield and yield component of variety of K.S.C 704 in dry region of sistan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dahmardeh, M.; Forghani, F.; Khammari, E.

    2008-01-30

    Out of three grain of the world, Corn is one of the best, About 7 to 10 thousand years ago in south of Mexico corn become domesticated. In the year 1995 culfivation of corn in the world was 130 mil/ha, and to Total production of the world of corn is 507 M/Tons. Average yield of corn in the year 1995 Among Producer countries was 7.78 To 7.60 t/ha in fance and united state was state was 2.36 To 2.20 t/ha, but in Brazil and Mexico Production of corn was different. With this regards, special manner has been arranged for the suitable cultivation or suitable density plants in one heactar on cultivation variety of K.S.C 704 corn. Also suitable level of Nitrogen manure, this Protect in climatic condition of Sistan region done, sith complete block design with 3 replication. Experiment has been selected as split plot, the main plot with 4 different concentration level such as (200-250-3500 and 350 Kg/ha) and sub plot density with 3 different level such as 111000,83000 and 66000 plan/ha respectively. From stage growth up to harvesting of corn in this reache having Data for each treat. ment, After harvesting Analysis of variance and companion of Average of each treatment has been done by DunKan method. Results has been shown, Measurment of characteristics (yield component) seed yield effected different density level of manure, with increasing of manure weight of one thousand seed yield and also in high density showed high significant differente amoung each other. These are with suitable climatic condition of sistan region if enough water will be available ed using Amount of 350 ks/ha Nitrogen manure and with density 111000 plants/ha we can product suitable seed yield Biological yield.

  18. FACT SHEET U.S. Department of Energy Tropical Western Pacific

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Tropical Western Pacific The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility established its second research facility, the Tropical Western Pacific (TWP) field measurement site, in 1996. This site consists of three research facilities: Manus (established in 1996), Nauru (1998), and Darwin (2002). The data collected at these sites help scientists better understand the role of the tropics in modulating or controlling significant aspects of the global climate and improve models

  19. Tropical Storm Frances Situation Report, September 7, 2004 (4:00 PM EDT)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2004-09-07

    The report provides highlights related to impacts of Tropical Storm Frances. Sections on electric information, oil and gas information, storm track, and county outage data are provided.

  20. Tropical Storm Frances Situation Report, September 6, 2004 (10:00 AM EDT)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2004-09-06

    The report provides highlights related to impacts of Tropical Storm Frances. Sections on electric information, oil and gas information, storm track, and county outage data are provided.

  1. Tropical Storm Frances Situation Report, September 6, 2004 (10:00 PM EDT)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2004-09-06

    The report provides highlights related to impacts of Tropical Storm Frances. Sections on electric information, oil and gas information, storm track, and county outage data are provided.

  2. Tropical Storm Frances Situation Report, September 7, 2004 (10:00 AM EDT)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2004-09-07

    The report provides highlights related to impacts of Tropical Storm Frances. Sections on electric information, oil and gas information, storm track, and county outage data are provided.

  3. Amazon Column CO2 and CO Observations to Elucidate Tropical Ecosystem...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Amazon Column CO2 and CO Observations to Elucidate Tropical Ecosystem Processes Authors: Dubey, Manvendra Krishna 1 ; Parker, Harrison Alexander 1 ; Myers, Katherine ...

  4. Tropical Storm Frances Situation Report, September 6, 2004 (4:00 PM EDT)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2004-09-06

    The report provides highlights related to impacts of Tropical Storm Frances. Sections on electric information, oil and gas information, storm track, and county outage data are provided.

  5. Interactions between a tropical mixed boundary layer and cumulus convection in a radiative-convective model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dean, C.L.

    1993-05-01

    This report details a radiative-convective model, combining previously developed cumulus, stable cloud and radiation parameterizations with a boundary layer scheme, which was developed in the current study. The cloud model was modified to incorporate the effects of both small and large clouds. The boundary layer model was adapted from a mixed layer model was only slightly modified to couple it with the more sophisticated cloud model. The model was tested for a variety of imposed divergence profiles, which simulate the regions of the tropical ocean from approximately the intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) to the subtropical high region. The sounding used to initialize the model for most of the runs is from the trade wind region of ATEX. For each experiment, the model was run with a timestep of 300 seconds for a period of 7 days.

  6. Secondary electron yield of emissive materials for large-area...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conference: Secondary electron yield of emissive materials for large-area micro-channel plate detectors: surface composition and film thickness dependencies Citation Details ...

  7. 2D Monolayers Could Yield Thinnest Solar Cells Ever

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    yield thinner, more lightweight solar panels that ... was how well do these materials absorb light," he said. "And that is ... The researchers also used the National Science ...

  8. Feedstocks with Reduced Acetylation for Higher Product Yields...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Institute (JBEI) has developed a method of using plants that have reduced levels of acetylation of their cellulose. The plants are positioned to provide higher yields of sugar ...

  9. A Metabolic Pathway in Cyanobacteria Could Yield Better Biofuels...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A Metabolic Pathway in Cyanobacteria Could Yield Better Biofuels and Bioproducts from ... chemicals that can be used to produce a variety of bio-based chemicals and biofuels. ...

  10. Direct laboratory tensile testing of select yielding rock bolt systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    VandeKraats, J.D.; Watson, S.O.

    1996-12-01

    Yielding rock bolt support systems have been developed to accommodate ground movement in shifting ground such as in coal operations; in creeping ground such as salt, trona, and potash; and in swelling ground associated with some clays. These systems, designed to remain intact despite ground movement, should enhance mine safety and help contain costs in areas where revolting of rigid non-yielding systems is typically required. Four such systems were tested in straight tensile pulls in the laboratory. They include the Slip Nut System from Dywidag Systems International USA, Inc., Ischebeck`s bolt mounted Titan Load Indicator, Rocky Mountain Bolt Company`s Yielding Cable Bolt, and a rock bolt installed variation of the yielding steel post developed by RE/SPEC Inc. The first two systems are currently marketed products and the latter two are prototype systems. Each system responds to load and displacement by yielding in a unique manner. All are designed to yield at predetermined loads. A description of each system and its yield function is provided. Each system was tested over its prescribed yield range in a test machine. At least five tests were performed on each system. Each system yielded and continued to provide support according to its design. Each shows promise for ground control use in shifting or creeping rock. This work helps to illustrate the comparative differences in performance between these specialized systems and the applications where they may be most useful.

  11. Direct laboratory tensile testing of select yielding rock bolt systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    VandeKraats, J.D.; Watson, S.O.

    1996-08-01

    Yielding rock bolt support systems have been developed to accommodate ground movement in shifting ground such as in coal operations; in creeping ground such as salt, trona, and potash; and in swelling ground associated with some clays. These systems, designed to remain intact despite ground movement, should enhance mine safety and help contain costs in areas where rebolting of rigid non-yielding systems is typically required. Four such systems were tested in straight tensile pulls in the laboratory. They include the Slip Nut System from Dywidag Systems International USA, Inc., Ischebeck`s bolt mounted Titan Load Indicator, Rocky Mountain Bolt Company`s Yielding Cable Bolt, and a rock bolt installed variation of the yielding steel post developed by RE/SPEC Inc. The first two systems are currently marketed products and the latter two are prototype systems. Each system responds to load and displacement by yielding in an unique manner. All are designed to yield at predetermined loads. A description of each system and its yield function is provided. Each system was tested over its prescribed yield range in a test machine. At least five tests were performed on each system. Each system yielded and continued to provide support according to its design. Each shows promise for ground control use in shifting or creeping rock. This work helps to illustrate the comparative differences in performance between these specialized systems and the applications where they may be most useful.

  12. Laser fusion experiment yields record energy at NIF | National...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Laser fusion experiment yields record energy at NIF | National Nuclear Security Administration Facebook Twitter Youtube Flickr RSS People Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing...

  13. Limits of optimal control yields achievable with quantum controllers...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    SciTech Connect Search Results Journal Article: Limits of optimal control yields achievable with quantum controllers Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Limits of optimal ...

  14. Tropical Africa: Land use, biomass, and carbon estimates for 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, S.; Gaston, G.; Daniels, R.C.

    1996-06-01

    This document describes the contents of a digital database containing maximum potential aboveground biomass, land use, and estimated biomass and carbon data for 1980 and describes a methodology that may be used to extend this data set to 1990 and beyond based on population and land cover data. The biomass data and carbon estimates are for woody vegetation in Tropical Africa. These data were collected to reduce the uncertainty associated with the possible magnitude of historical releases of carbon from land use change. Tropical Africa is defined here as encompassing 22.7 x 10{sup 6} km{sup 2} of the earth`s land surface and includes those countries that for the most part are located in Tropical Africa. Countries bordering the Mediterranean Sea and in southern Africa (i.e., Egypt, Libya, Tunisia, Algeria, Morocco, South Africa, Lesotho, Swaziland, and Western Sahara) have maximum potential biomass and land cover information but do not have biomass or carbon estimate. The database was developed using the GRID module in the ARC/INFO{sup TM} geographic information system. Source data were obtained from the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), the U.S. National Geophysical Data Center, and a limited number of biomass-carbon density case studies. These data were used to derive the maximum potential and actual (ca. 1980) aboveground biomass-carbon values at regional and country levels. The land-use data provided were derived from a vegetation map originally produced for the FAO by the International Institute of Vegetation Mapping, Toulouse, France.

  15. Calculated fission-fragment yield systematics in the region 74

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Möller, Peter; Randrup, Jørgen

    2015-04-01

    Background: In the seminal experiment by Schmidt et al. [Nucl. Phys. A 665, 221 (2000)] in which fission-fragment charge distributions were obtained for 70 nuclides, asymmetric distributions were seen above nucleon number A ≈ 226 and symmetric ones below. Because asymmetric fission had often loosely been explained as a preference for the nucleus to always exploit the extra binding of fragments near ¹³²Sn it was assumed that all systems below A ≈ 226 would fission symmetrically because available isotopes do not have a proton-to-neutron Z/N ratio that allows division into fragments near ¹³²Sn. But the finding by Andreyev et al.more »[Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 252502 (2010)] did not conform to this expectation because the compound system ¹⁸⁰Hg was shown to fission asymmetrically. It was suggested that this was a new type of asymmetric fission, because no strong shell effects occur for any possible fragment division. Purpose: We calculate a reference database for fission-fragment mass yields for a large region of the nuclear chart comprising 987 nuclides. A particular aim is to establish whether ¹⁸⁰Hg is part of a contiguous region of asymmetric fission, and if so, its extent, or if not, in contrast to the actinides, there are scattered smaller groups of nuclei that fission asymmetrically in this area of the nuclear chart. Methods: We use the by now well benchmarked Brownian shape-motion method and perform random walks on the previously calculated five-dimensional potential-energy surfaces. The calculated shell corrections are damped out with energy according to a prescription developed earlier. Results: We have obtained a theoretical reference database of fission-fragment mass yields for 987 nuclides. These results show an extended region of asymmetric fission with approximate extension 74 ≤ Z ≤ 85 and 100 ≤ N ≤ 120. The calculated yields are highly variable. We show 20 representative plots of these variable features and summarize the main

  16. Decays Z{yields}gg{gamma} and Z{sup '}{yields}gg{gamma} in the minimal 331 model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Flores-Tlalpa, A.; Montano, J.; Ramirez-Zavaleta, F.; Toscano, J. J.

    2009-10-01

    The one-loop induced Z{yields}gg{gamma} and Z{sup '}{yields}gg{gamma} decays are studied within the context of the minimal 331 model, which predicts the existence of new gauge bosons and three exotic quarks. It is found that the Z{yields}gg{gamma} decay is insensitive to the presence of the exotic quarks, as it is essentially governed by the first two families of known quarks. As to the Z{sup '}{yields}gg{gamma} decay, it is found that the exotic quark contribution dominates and that for a heavy Z{sup '} boson it leads to a {gamma}(Z{sup '}{yields}gg{gamma}) that is more than 1 order of magnitude larger than that associated with {gamma}(Z{sup '}{yields}ggg). This result may be used to distinguish a new neutral Z{sup '} boson from those models that do not introduce exotic quarks.

  17. ARM - Tropical Warm Pool - International Cloud Experiment (TWP-ICE)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Related Links TWP-ICE Home Tropical Western Pacific Home ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Post-Experiment Data Sets Weather Summary (pdf, 6M) New York Workshop Presentations Experiment Planning TWP-ICE Proposal Abstract Detailed Experiment Description Science Plan (pdf, 1M) Operations Plan (pdf, 321K) Maps Contact Info Related Links Daily Report Report Archives Press Media Coverage TWP-ICE Fact Sheet (pdf, 211K) Press Releases TWP-ICE Images ARM flickr site <="" li=""

  18. Yield Line Evaluation Methodology for Reinforced Concrete Structures

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1998-12-30

    Yield line theory is an analytical technique that can be used to determine the ultimate bending capacity of flat reinforced concrete plates subject to distributed and concentrated loadings. Alternately, yield line theory, combined with rotation limits can be used to determine the energy absorption capacity of plates subject to impulsive and impact loadings. Typical components analyzed by yield line theory are basemats, floor and roof slabs subject to vertical loads along with walls subject tomore » out of plane loadings. One limitation of yield line theory is that it is computationally difficult to evaluate some mechanisms. This problem is aggravated by the complex geometry and reinforcing layouts commonly found in practice. The program has the capability to either evaluate a single user defined mechanism or to iterate over a range of mechanisms to determine the minimum ultimate capacity. The program is verified by comparison to a series of yield line mechanisms with known solutions.« less

  19. Interaction of clouds, radiation, and the tropical warm pool sea surface temperatures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schneider, N.; Zhang, G.J.; Barnett, T.P.; Ramanathan, V.

    1996-04-01

    The primary focus of this study is the Tropical Western Pacific (TWP). In this study, we combine in-situ observations Tropical Ocean Global Atmosphere [TOGA]-Coupled Ocean Atmosphere Response Experiment [COARE] and Central Equatorial Pacific Experiment [CEPEX] with satellite cloud data.

  20. Utilization of geothermal heat in tropical fruit-drying process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, B.H.; Lopez, L.P.; King, R.; Fujii, J.; Tanaka, M.

    1982-10-01

    The power plant utilizes only the steam portion of the HGP-A well production. There are approximately 50,000 pounds per hour of 360/sup 0/F water produced (approximately 10 million Btu per hour) and the water is currently not used and is considered a waste. This tremendous resource could very well be used in applications such as food processing, food dehydration and other industrial processing that requires low-grade heat. One of the applications is examined, namely the drying of tropical fruits particularly the papaya. The papaya was chosen for the obvious reason that it is the biggest crop of all fruits produced on the Big Island. A conceptual design of a pilot plant facility capable of processing 1000 pounds of raw papaya per day is included. This facility is designed to provide a geothermally heated dryer to dehydrate papayas or other tropical fruits available on an experimental basis to obtain data such as drying time, optimum drying temperature, etc.

  1. Autecology of Vibrio vulnificus and Vibrio parahaemolyticus in tropical waters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rivera, S.; Lugo, T.; Hazen, T.C.

    1988-12-31

    Water and shellfish samples collected from estuaries, mangroves, and beaches along the coast of Puerto Rico were examined for Vibrio vulnificus and Vibrio parahaemolyticus. An array of water quality parameters were also measured simultaneous with bacteria sampling. Both species of vibrio were associated with estuary and mangrove locations, and neither was isolated from sandy beaches. Densities of V. vulnificus were negatively correlated with salinity, 10--15 ppt being optimal. V. parahaemolyticus was isolated from sites with salinities between 20 and 35 ppt, the highest densities occurring at 20 ppt. Densities of Vibrio spp. and V. parahaemolyticus for a tropical estuary surpassed those reported for temperate estuaries by several orders of magnitude. Both densities of total Vibrio spp. and V. parahaemolyticus in the water were directly related to densities of fecal coliforms, unlike V. vulnificus. The incidence of ONPG(+) strains among sucrose({minus}) Vibrio spp. served as an indicator of the frequency of V. vulnificus in this group. More than 63% of the V. vulnificus isolated were pathogenic. V. vulnificus and V. parahaemolyticus occupy clearly separate niches within the tropical estuarine-marine ecosystem.

  2. Changes in diurnal temperature range and national cereal yields

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lobell, D

    2007-04-26

    Models of yield responses to temperature change have often considered only changes in average temperature (Tavg), with the implicit assumption that changes in the diurnal temperature range (DTR) can safely be ignored. The goal of this study was to evaluate this assumption using a combination of historical datasets and climate model projections. Data on national crop yields for 1961-2002 in the 10 leading producers of wheat, rice, and maize were combined with datasets on climate and crop locations to evaluate the empirical relationships between Tavg, DTR, and crop yields. In several rice and maize growing regions, including the two major nations for each crop, there was a clear negative response of yields to increased DTR. This finding reflects a nonlinear response of yields to temperature, which likely results from greater water and heat stress during hot days. In many other cases, the effects of DTR were not statistically significant, in part because correlations of DTR with other climate variables and the relatively short length of the time series resulted in wide confidence intervals for the estimates. To evaluate whether future changes in DTR are relevant to crop impact assessments, yield responses to projected changes in Tavg and DTR by 2046-2065 from 11 climate models were estimated. The mean climate model projections indicated an increase in DTR in most seasons and locations where wheat is grown, mixed projections for maize, and a general decrease in DTR for rice. These mean projections were associated with wide ranges that included zero in nearly all cases. The estimated impacts of DTR changes on yields were generally small (<5% change in yields) relative to the consistently negative impact of projected warming of Tavg. However, DTR changes did significantly affect yield responses in several cases, such as in reducing US maize yields and increasing India rice yields. Because DTR projections tend to be positively correlated with Tavg, estimates of yields

  3. Explicit CP violation in the MSSM through gg{yields}H{sub 1{yields}{gamma}{gamma}}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hesselbach, S.; Moretti, S.; Munir, S.; Poulose, P.

    2010-10-01

    We prove the strong sensitivity of the gg{yields}H{sub 1{yields}{gamma}{gamma}} cross section at the Large Hadron Collider on the explicitly CP-violating phases of the minimal supersymmetric standard model, where H{sub 1} is the lightest supersymmetric Higgs boson.

  4. The Start Of Ebullition In Quiescent, Yield-Stress Fluids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reed, G. R.; Sherwood, David J.; Saez, A. Eduardo

    2012-08-30

    Non-Newtonian rheology is typical for the high-level radioactive waste (HLW) slurries processed in the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). Hydrogen and other flammable gases are generated in the aqueous phase by radiolytic and chemical reactions. HLW slurries have a capacity for retaining gas characterized by the shear strength holding the bubbles still. The sizes and degassing characteristics of flammable gas bubbles in the HLW slurries expected to be processed by the WTP are important considerations for designing equipment and operating procedures. Slurries become increasingly susceptible to degassing as the bubble concentration increases. This susceptibility and the process of ebullitive bubble enlargement are described here. When disturbed, the fluid undergoes localized flow around neighboring bubbles which are dragged together and coalesce, producing an enlarged bubble. For the conditions considered in this work, bubble size increase is enough to displace the weight required to overcome the fluid shear strength and yield the surroundings. The buoyant bubble ascends and accumulates others within a zone of influence, enlarging by a few orders of magnitude. This process describes how the first bubbles appear on the surface of a 7 Pa shear strength fluid a few seconds after being jarred.

  5. Testing actinide fission yield treatment in CINDER90 for use in MCNP6 burnup calculations

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Fensin, Michael Lorne; Umbel, Marissa

    2015-09-18

    Most of the development of the MCNPX/6 burnup capability focused on features that were applied to the Boltzman transport or used to prepare coefficients for use in CINDER90, with little change to CINDER90 or the CINDER90 data. Though a scheme exists for best solving the coupled Boltzman and Bateman equations, the most significant approximation is that the employed nuclear data are correct and complete. Thus, the CINDER90 library file contains 60 different actinide fission yields encompassing 36 fissionable actinides (thermal, fast, high energy and spontaneous fission). Fission reaction data exists for more than 60 actinides and as a result, fissionmore » yield data must be approximated for actinides that do not possess fission yield information. Several types of approximations are used for estimating fission yields for actinides which do not possess explicit fission yield data. The objective of this study is to test whether or not certain approximations of fission yield selection have any impact on predictability of major actinides and fission products. Further we assess which other fission products, available in MCNP6 Tier 3, result in the largest difference in production. Because the CINDER90 library file is in ASCII format and therefore easily amendable, we assess reasons for choosing, as well as compare actinide and major fission product prediction for the H. B. Robinson benchmark for, three separate fission yield selection methods: (1) the current CINDER90 library file method (Base); (2) the element method (Element); and (3) the isobar method (Isobar). Results show that the three methods tested result in similar prediction of major actinides, Tc-99 and Cs-137; however, certain fission products resulted in significantly different production depending on the method of choice.« less

  6. Testing actinide fission yield treatment in CINDER90 for use in MCNP6 burnup calculations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fensin, Michael Lorne; Umbel, Marissa

    2015-09-18

    Most of the development of the MCNPX/6 burnup capability focused on features that were applied to the Boltzman transport or used to prepare coefficients for use in CINDER90, with little change to CINDER90 or the CINDER90 data. Though a scheme exists for best solving the coupled Boltzman and Bateman equations, the most significant approximation is that the employed nuclear data are correct and complete. Thus, the CINDER90 library file contains 60 different actinide fission yields encompassing 36 fissionable actinides (thermal, fast, high energy and spontaneous fission). Fission reaction data exists for more than 60 actinides and as a result, fission yield data must be approximated for actinides that do not possess fission yield information. Several types of approximations are used for estimating fission yields for actinides which do not possess explicit fission yield data. The objective of this study is to test whether or not certain approximations of fission yield selection have any impact on predictability of major actinides and fission products. Further we assess which other fission products, available in MCNP6 Tier 3, result in the largest difference in production. Because the CINDER90 library file is in ASCII format and therefore easily amendable, we assess reasons for choosing, as well as compare actinide and major fission product prediction for the H. B. Robinson benchmark for, three separate fission yield selection methods: (1) the current CINDER90 library file method (Base); (2) the element method (Element); and (3) the isobar method (Isobar). Results show that the three methods tested result in similar prediction of major actinides, Tc-99 and Cs-137; however, certain fission products resulted in significantly different production depending on the method of choice.

  7. Plasmonic light yield enhancement of a liquid scintillator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bignell, Lindsey J.; Jackson, Timothy W.; Mume, Eskender; Center of Excellence in Anti-matter Matter Studies, Research School of Physics and Engineering, The Australian National University, Canberra ; Lee, George P.

    2013-05-27

    We demonstrate modifications to the light yield properties of an organic liquid scintillator due to the localization of the tertiary fluorophore component to the surface of Ag-core silica-shell nanoparticles. We attribute this enhancement to the near-field interaction of Ag nanoparticle plasmons with these fluor molecules. The scintillation light yield enhancement is shown to be equal to the fluorescence enhancement within measurement uncertainties. With a suitable choice of plasmon energy and scintillation fluor, this effect may be used to engineer scintillators with enhanced light yields for radiation detection applications.

  8. This may come as a surprise, but bigger yields

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    may come as a surprise, but bigger yields are not always better. Nuclear weapons were generally designed not to be as powerful as possible-but to be as precise as possible. For example, the Department of Defense (DoD) typically tasked Los Alamos to design and build nuclear weapons that produced the specific yield required to destroy one or several types of specific targets. Too little yield and the weapon would fail to destroy the target; too much and the blast would cause unanticipated,

  9. Mathematical and statistical analysis of the effect of boron on yield parameters of wheat

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rawashdeh, Hamzeh; Sala, Florin; Boldea, Marius

    2015-03-10

    The main objective of this research is to investigate the effect of foliar applications of boron at different growth stages on yield and yield parameters of wheat. The contribution of boron in achieving yield parameters is described by second degree polynomial equations, with high statistical confidence (p<0.01; F theoretical < F calculated, according to ANOVA test, for Alfa = 0.05). Regression analysis, based on R{sup 2} values obtained, made it possible to evaluate the particular contribution of boron to the realization of yield parameters. This was lower for spike length (R{sup 2} = 0.812), thousand seeds weight (R{sup 2} = 0.850) and higher in the case of the number of spikelets (R{sup 2} = 0.936) and the number of seeds on a spike (R{sup 2} = 0.960). These results confirm that boron plays an important part in achieving the number of seeds on a spike in the case of wheat, as the contribution of this element to the process of flower fertilization is well-known. In regards to productivity elements, the contribution of macroelements to yield quantity is clear, the contribution of B alone being R{sup 2} = 0.868.

  10. Fragment Yields Calculated in a Time-Dependent Microscopic Theory...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Fragment Yields Calculated in a Time-Dependent Microscopic Theory of Fission Citation ... Word Cloud More Like This Full Text preview image File size NAView Full Text View Full ...

  11. Hierarchy of scales in B{yields}PS decays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Delepine, D.; Lucio M, J. L.; Mendoza S, J. A.; Ramirez, Carlos A.

    2008-08-31

    We show that the naive factorization approach can accommodate the existence of the observed hierarchy of branching ratios for the B{yields}PS decays (P stands for pseudoscalar and S for scalar mesons respectively.

  12. Calculated secondary yields for proton broadband using DECAY TURTLE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sondgeroth, A.

    1995-02-01

    The calculations for the yields were done by Al Sondgeroth and Anthony Malensek. The authors used the DECAY deck called PBSEC{_}E.DAT from the CMS DECKS library. After obtaining the run modes and calibration modes from the liaison physicist, they made individual decay runs, using DECAY TURTLE from the CMS libraries and a production spectrum subroutine which was modified by Anthony, for each particle and decay mode for all particle types coming out of the target box. Results were weighted according to branching ratios for particles with more than one decay mode. The production spectra were produced assuming beryllium as the target. The optional deuterium target available to broadband will produce slightly higher yields. It should be noted that they did not include pion yields from klong decays because they could not simulate three body decays. Pions from klongs would add a very small fraction to the total yield.

  13. Spinning Electrons Yield Positrons for Research | Jefferson Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Spinning Electrons Yield Positrons for Research Electron-positron pairs (e- e+) result when an energetic electron beam strikes matter. If the electron beam is polarized, the polarization can be passed on to the new electrons and positrons. Spinning Electrons Yield Positrons for Research NEWPORT NEWS, VA, June 1, 2016 - Researchers use accelerators to coax the electron into performing a wide range of tricks to enable medical tests and treatments, improve product manufacturing, and power

  14. New Tool Yields Custom Environmental Data for Lifecycle Analysis |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Tool Yields Custom Environmental Data for Lifecycle Analysis New Tool Yields Custom Environmental Data for Lifecycle Analysis September 10, 2012 - 1:00pm Addthis Washington, DC - A new, free online tool developed by a Department of Energy (DOE) laboratory allows users to customize and analyze the environmental impact of various fuels before they are used to create power. Information from the Excel™-based Upstream Dashboard - developed by the Office of Fossil Energy's

  15. 2D 'Flat' Boron Yields a Superconducting Surprise

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2D 'Flat' Boron Yields a Superconducting Surprise 2D 'Flat' Boron Yields a Superconducting Surprise Simulations Run at NERSC Help Reveal Material's Superconducting Superpowers April 22, 2016 2Dboron Electrons with opposite momenta and spins pair up via lattice vibrations at low temperatures in 2D boron and give it superconducting properties. Image: Evgeni Penev, Rice University Density functional theory simulations run at NERSC helped Rice University researchers determine that two-dimensional

  16. 2D Monolayers Could Yield Thinnest Solar Cells Ever

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Thinnest solar cells ever 2D Monolayers Could Yield Thinnest Solar Cells Ever October 21, 2013 Contact: Kathy Kincade, +1 510 495 2124, kkincade@lbl.gov Efforts to improve solar cells have historically focused on improving energy conversion efficiencies and lowering manufacturing costs. But new computer simulations have shown how using a different type of material could yield thinner, more lightweight solar panels that provide power densities - watts per kilogram of material - orders of

  17. Secretary of Energy Recognizes Federal Employees for Efforts Yielding $18

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Million in Energy Savings | Department of Energy Recognizes Federal Employees for Efforts Yielding $18 Million in Energy Savings Secretary of Energy Recognizes Federal Employees for Efforts Yielding $18 Million in Energy Savings November 1, 2007 - 4:21pm Addthis 2007 Federal Energy and Water Management Awardees Honored WASHINGTON, DC - U.S. Department of Energy Secretary Samuel W. Bodman today honored 25 individuals, teams, and organizations throughout the Federal government with the 2007

  18. Innovative, Lower Cost Sensors and Controls Yield Better Energy Efficiency

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    | Department of Energy Innovative, Lower Cost Sensors and Controls Yield Better Energy Efficiency Innovative, Lower Cost Sensors and Controls Yield Better Energy Efficiency March 23, 2015 - 1:05pm Addthis ORNL researchers are experimenting with additive roll-to-roll manufacturing techniques to develop low-cost wireless sensors. ORNL’s Pooran Joshi shows how the process enables electronics components to be printed on flexible plastic substrates. Credit: Oak Ridge National Lab ORNL

  19. Latest NERSC/Intel/Cray 'Dungeon Session' Yields Impressive Code

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Speedups Latest NERSC/Intel/Cray 'Dungeon Session' Yields Impressive Code Speedups Latest NERSC/Intel/Cray 'Dungeon Session' Yields Impressive Code Speedups Six NESAP Teams + 3 Days = Optimized Codes for KNL, Cori August 19, 2016 Contact: Kathy Kincade, +1 510 495 2124, kkincade@lbl.gov ixpug2015 Six application development teams participating in NESAP, NERSC's next-generation code optimization effort, gathered at Intel in early August for a marathon "dungeon" session designed to

  20. Higher Precision Analysis Doesn't Yield Pentaquark | Jefferson Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Higher Precision Analysis Doesn't Yield Pentaquark Deuterium Researchers sent photons into deuterium nuclei to try to produce pentaquarks. If pentaquarks had been produced, sensitive detectors would have measured a particular mix of Kaons (K-mesons) and protons; neutrons could have been inferred from the data. The researchers did not detect this reaction. Image credit: JLab Higher Precision Analysis Doesn't Yield Pentaquark July 1, 2005 New, higher precision data that could only have been

  1. Structures for Three Membrane Transport Proteins Yield Functional Insights

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Structures for Three Membrane Transport Proteins Yield Functional Insights Structures for Three Membrane Transport Proteins Yield Functional Insights Print Wednesday, 27 January 2010 00:00 Cells depend on contact with their outside environment in order to thrive. Two examples illustrate why: In one, information needed to guide cellular processes is constantly transmitted across cell membranes by specialized proteins, and in the other, maintaining the right gradient of ions across the membrane is

  2. Management of Philippine tropical forests: Implications to global warming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lasco, R.D.

    1997-12-31

    The first part of the paper presents the massive changes in tropical land management in the Philippines as a result of a {open_quotes}paradigm shift{close_quotes} in forestry. The second part of the paper analyzes the impacts of the above management strategies on global warming, in general, preserved forests are neither sinks not sources of greenhouse gasses (GHG). Reforestation activities are primarily net sinks of carbon specially the use of fast growing reforestation species. Estimates are given for the carbon-sequestering ability of some commonly used species. The last part of the paper policy recommendations and possible courses of action by the government to maximize the role of forest lands in the mitigation of global warming. Private sector initiatives are also explored.

  3. Neutral monosaccharides from a hypersaline tropical environment: Applications to the characterization of modern and ancient ecosystems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moers, M.E.C.; Larter, S.R. )

    1993-07-01

    Surficial and buried sediment samples from a hypersaline lagoon-sabkha system (Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates) were analyzed for carbohydrates (as neutral monosaccharides) to distinguish and characterize various types of recent and ancient tropical ecosystems on a molecular level. The samples consisted of surficial and buried microbial mats, lagoonal sediments containing seagrass (Halodule uninervis), and mangrove (Avicennia marine) paleosoils and handpicked mangrove leaves, ranging in age from contemporary to ca. 6000 yr BP. Analysis of quantitative neutral monosaccharide data by multivariate techniques shows that various groups can be distinguished: intact vascular plant material (mangrove leaf) contains high amounts of arabinose and glucose and hardly any partially methylated monosaccharides, whereas microbial mats in general and lagoonal seagrass sediments show high contributions of fucose, ribose, mannose, galactose, and partially methylated monosaccharides. Moreover, surficial microbial mats consisting of filamentous cyanobacteria (Microcoleus chtonoplastes, Lyngbya aestuarii) can be distinguished from other mats and sediments containing coccoid cyanobacteria (Entophysalis major) and/or fermenting, sulphate reducing, and methanogenic bacteria on the basis of high contributions of specific groups of partially methylated monosaccharides and other [open quotes]minor[close quotes] saccharides. The neutral monosaccharides present in mangrove paleosoils are for a substantial part derived from microorganisms. 22 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  4. Development of Yield and Tensile Strength Design Curves for Alloy 617

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nancy Lybeck; T. -L. Sham

    2013-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Very High Temperature Reactor Program is acquiring data in preparation for developing an Alloy 617 Code Case for inclusion in the nuclear section of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Boiler and Pressure Vessel (B&PV) Code. A draft code case was previously developed, but effort was suspended before acceptance by ASME. As part of the draft code case effort, a database was compiled of yield and tensile strength data from tests performed in air. Yield strength and tensile strength at temperature are used to set time independent allowable stress for construction materials in B&PV Code, Section III, Subsection NH. The yield and tensile strength data used for the draft code case has been augmented with additional data generated by Idaho National Laboratory and Oak Ridge National Laboratory in the U.S. and CEA in France. The standard ASME Section II procedure for generating yield and tensile strength at temperature is presented, along with alternate methods that accommodate the change in temperature trends seen at high temperatures, resulting in a more consistent design margin over the temperature range of interest.

  5. Strain rate, temperature and representative length scale influence on plasticity and yield stress in copper

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dupont, Virginie; Germann, Timothy C

    2011-01-18

    Shock compression of materials constitutes a complex process involving high strain rates, elevated temperatures and compression of the lattice. Materials properties are greatly affected by temperature, the representative length scale and the strain rate of the deformation. Experimentally, it is difficult to study the dynamic microscopic mechanisms that affect materials properties following high intensity shock loading, but they can be investigated using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Moreover, MD allows a better control over some parameters. We are using MD simulations to study the effect of the strain rate, representative length scale and temperature on the properties of metals during compression. A half-million-atom Cu sample is subjected to strain rates ranging from 10{sup 7} s{sup -1} to 10{sup 12} s{sup -1} at different temperatures ranging from 50K to 1500K. Single crystals as well as polycrystals are investigated. Plasticity mechanisms as well as the evolution of the micro- and macro-yield stress are observed. Our results show that the yield stress increases with increasing strain rate and decreasing temperature. We also show that the strain rate at which the transition between constant and increasing yield stress as a function of the temperature occurs increases with increasing temperature. Calculations at different grain sizes will give an insight into the grain size effect on the plasticity mechanisms and the yield stress.

  6. Evaluation of tropical channel refinement using MPAS-A aquaplanet simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martini, Matus N.; Gustafson, Jr., William I.; O'Brien, Travis A.; Ma, Po -Lun

    2015-09-13

    Climate models with variable-resolution grids offer a computationally less expensive way to provide more detailed information at regional scales and increased accuracy for processes that cannot be resolved by a coarser grid. This study uses the Model for Prediction Across Scales–Atmosphere (MPAS22A), consisting of a nonhydrostatic dynamical core and a subset of Advanced Research Weather Research and Forecasting (ARW-WRF) model atmospheric physics that have been modified to include the Community Atmosphere Model version 5 (CAM5) cloud fraction parameterization, to investigate the potential benefits of using increased resolution in an tropical channel. The simulations are performed with an idealized aquaplanet configuration using two quasi-uniform grids, with 30 km and 240 km grid spacing, and two variable-resolution grids spanning the same grid spacing range; one with a narrow (20°S–20°N) and one with a wide (30°S–30°N) tropical channel refinement. Results show that increasing resolution in the tropics impacts both the tropical and extratropical circulation. Compared to the quasi-uniform coarse grid, the narrow-channel simulation exhibits stronger updrafts in the Ferrel cell as well as in the middle of the upward branch of the Hadley cell. The wider tropical channel has a closer correspondence to the 30 km quasi-uniform simulation. However, the total atmospheric poleward energy transports are similar in all simulations. The largest differences are in the low-level cloudiness. The refined channel simulations show improved tropical and extratropical precipitation relative to the global 240 km simulation when compared to the global 30 km simulation. All simulations have a single ITCZ. Furthermore, the relatively small differences in mean global and tropical precipitation rates among the simulations are a promising result, and the evidence points to the tropical channel being an effective method for avoiding the extraneous numerical artifacts seen in earlier

  7. Evaluation of Tropical Channel Refinement using MPAS-A Aquaplanet Simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martini, Matus; Gustafson, William I.; O'Brien, Travis A.; Ma, Po-Lun

    2015-09-13

    Climate models with variable-resolution grids offer a computationally less expensive way to provide more detailed information at regional scales and increased accuracy for processes that cannot be resolved by a coarser grid. This study uses the Model for Prediction Across Scales–Atmosphere (MPAS22A), consisting of a nonhydrostatic dynamical core and a subset of Advanced Research Weather Research and Forecasting (ARW-WRF) model atmospheric physics that have been modified to include the Community Atmosphere Model version 5 (CAM5) cloud fraction parameterization, to investigate the potential benefits of using increased resolution in an tropical channel. The simulations are performed with an idealized aquaplanet configuration using two quasi-uniform grids, with 30 km and 240 km grid spacing, and two variable-resolution grids spanning the same grid spacing range; one with a narrow (20°S–20°N) and one with a wide (30°S–30°N) tropical channel refinement. Results show that increasing resolution in the tropics impacts both the tropical and extratropical circulation. Compared to the quasi-uniform coarse grid, the narrow-channel simulation exhibits stronger updrafts in the Ferrel cell as well as in the middle of the upward branch of the Hadley cell. The wider tropical channel has a closer correspondence to the 30 km quasi-uniform simulation. However, the total atmospheric poleward energy transports are similar in all simulations. The largest differences are in the low-level cloudiness. The refined channel simulations show improved tropical and extratropical precipitation relative to the global 240 km simulation when compared to the global 30 km simulation. All simulations have a single ITCZ. The relatively small differences in mean global and tropical precipitation rates among the simulations are a promising result, and the evidence points to the tropical channel being an effective method for avoiding the extraneous numerical artifacts seen in earlier studies that

  8. ARM - Field Campaign - Co-ordinated Airborne Studies in the Tropics - CAST

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    govCampaignsCo-ordinated Airborne Studies in the Tropics - CAST Campaign Links Field Campaign Report ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign : Co-ordinated Airborne Studies in the Tropics - CAST 2014.01.01 - 2014.02.28 Lead Scientist : Geraint Vaughan For data sets, see below. Abstract CAST (Co-ordinated Airborne Studies in the Tropics) was a research project funded by the UK's Natural Environment

  9. Process gg{yields}h{sub 0}{yields}{gamma}{gamma} in the Lee-Wick standard model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krauss, F.; Underwood, T. E. J.; Zwicky, R.

    2008-01-01

    The process gg{yields}h{sub 0}{yields}{gamma}{gamma} is studied in the Lee-Wick extension of the standard model (LWSM) proposed by Grinstein, O'Connell, and Wise. In this model, negative norm partners for each SM field are introduced with the aim to cancel quadratic divergences in the Higgs mass. All sectors of the model relevant to gg{yields}h{sub 0}{yields}{gamma}{gamma} are diagonalized and results are commented on from the perspective of both the Lee-Wick and higher-derivative formalisms. Deviations from the SM rate for gg{yields}h{sub 0} are found to be of the order of 15%-5% for Lee-Wick masses in the range 500-1000 GeV. Effects on the rate for h{sub 0}{yields}{gamma}{gamma} are smaller, of the order of 5%-1% for Lee-Wick masses in the same range. These comparatively small changes may well provide a means of distinguishing the LWSM from other models such as universal extra dimensions where same-spin partners to standard model fields also appear. Corrections to determinations of Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa (CKM) elements |V{sub t(b,s,d)}| are also considered and are shown to be positive, allowing the possibility of measuring a CKM element larger than unity, a characteristic signature of the ghostlike nature of the Lee-Wick fields.

  10. Soft collinear effective theory analysis of B{yields}K{pi}, B{yields}KK, and B{yields}{pi}{pi} decays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bauer, Christian W.; Rothstein, Ira Z.; Stewart, Iain W.

    2006-08-01

    B{yields}K{pi} and related decays are studied in the heavy quark limit of QCD using the soft collinear effective theory (SCET). We focus on results that follow solely from integrating out the scale m{sub b}, without expanding the amplitudes for the physics at smaller scales such as {alpha}{sub s}({radical}(E{sub {pi}}{lambda}{sub QCD})). The reduction in the number of hadronic parameters in SCET leads to multiple predictions without the need of SU(3). We find that the CP-asymmetry in B{sup -}{yields}{pi}{sup 0}K{sup -} should have a similar magnitude and the same sign as the well measured asymmetry in B{sup 0}{yields}{pi}{sup +}K{sup -}. Our prediction for Br(K{sup +}{pi}{sup -}) exceeds the current experimental value at the 2{sigma} level. We also use our results to determine the corrections to the Lipkin and CP-asymmetry sum rules in the standard model and find them to be quite small, thus sharpening their utility as a tool to look for new physics.

  11. Tropical Storm Frances Situation Report, September 8, 2004 (10:00 AM EDT)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2004-09-08

    The report provides highlights related to impacts of Tropical Storm Frances in the Florida area. Sections on electric information, oil and gas information, and county outage data are provided.

  12. Tropical Storm Frances Situation Report, September 8, 2004 (10:00 PM EDT)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2004-09-08

    The report provides highlights related to impacts of Tropical Storm Frances n the Florida area. Sections on electric information, oil and gas information, and county outage data are provided.

  13. Minimizing the environmental impact of oil and gas developments in the tropics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rosenfeld, A.B.; Gordon, D.L.; Guerin-McManus, M.

    1997-07-01

    The next big frontier for oil and gas development will be the humid tropics, where more than 80% of exploration and production is expected to take place in the next decade. The tropical areas targeted by these operations not only hold large stores of oil and gas, but are also frequently undeveloped and remote, located in or near important and sensitive ecosystems. Within the tropics the most heavily targeted area is the Latin American Neotropics (New World tropics), which include South America, Mesoamerica and the Caribbean. A regionwide move toward privatization of state oil industries, growing liberalization of markets, and contractual incentives for foreign investment make this region a prime target for oil exploration and development. Proper evaluation of available technologies and planning will help determine how and where mitigation efforts should be directed to prevent and control environmental impacts.

  14. Variability of radiatively forced diurnal cycle of intense convection in the tropical west pacific

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gray, W.M.; Sheaffer, J.D.; Thorson, W.B.

    1996-04-01

    Strong differences occur in daytime versus nighttime (DVN) net radiative cooling in clear versus cloudy areas of the tropical atmosphere. Daytime average cooling is approximately -0.7{degrees}C/day, whereas nighttime net tropospheric cooling rates are about -1.5{degrees}C/day, an approximately two-to-one difference. The comparatively strong nocturnal cooling in clear areas gives rise to a diurnally varying vertical circulation and horizontal convergence cycle. Various manifestations of this cyclic process include the observed early morning heavy rainfall maxima over the tropical oceans. The radiatively driven DVN circulation appears to strongly modulate the resulting diurnal cycle of intense convection which creates the highest, coldest cloudiness over maritime tropical areas and is likely a fundamental mechanism governing both small and large scale dynamics over much of the tropical environment.

  15. STOIC: An Assessment of Coupled Model Climatology and Variability in Tropical Ocean Regions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davey, M.K.; Sperber, K.R.; Huddleston, M

    2000-08-30

    The tropics are regions of strong ocean-atmosphere interaction on seasonal and interannual timescales, so a good representation of observed tropical behavior is a desirable objective for coupled ocean-atmosphere general circulation models (CGCMs). To broaden and update previous assessments (Mechoso et al. 1995, Neelin et al. 1992), two complementary projects were initiated by the CLIVAR Working Group on Seasonal to Interannual Prediction (WGSIP): the El Nino Simulation Intercomparison Project (ENSIP, by Mojib Latif) and STOIC (Study of Tropical Oceans In Coupled models). The aim was to compare models against observations to identify common weaknesses and strengths. Results from ENSIP concentrating on the equatorial Pacific have been described by Latif et al. (2000), hereafter ENSIP2000. A detailed report on STOIC is available via anonymous ftp at email.meto.gov.uk/pub/cr/ ''stoic'' and is summarized in Davey et al. (2000). The STOIC analyses extend beyond the equatorial Pacific, to examine behavior in all three tropical ocean regions.

  16. Tropical Storm Frances Situation Report, September 7, 2004 (10:00 PM EDT)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2004-09-07

    The report provides highlights related to impacts of Tropical Storm Frances in the Florida area. Sections on electric information, oil and gas information, storm track, and county outage data are provided.

  17. Finite-element analysis of earing using non-quadratic yield surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Logan, R.W.

    1995-06-18

    During deep draw cupping, the phenomenon known as earing may occur as the cup wall is formed, resulting in a periodic variation of cup wall height around the perimeter of the finished cup. This is generally due to planar anisotropy of flow in rolled sheet product. It is generally observed that the anisotropy parameter R will vary in the plane of the sheet when ears are observed in cupping, with a parameter {Delta}R describing the variation of R in the plane of the sheet. For many common textures in face-centered and body-centered materials, the ears form relative to the sheet rolling direction at 0{degrees} and 90{degrees} around the perimeter if {Delta}R>0, and at -45{degrees} and +45{degrees} if {Delta}R<0. There is extensive experimental evidence that ear height shows a linear correlation with {Delta}R/R, but attempts to duplicate this using the finite-element method are highly dependent on both the methodology and yield surface used. It was shown previously that using a coarse mesh and the quadratic Hill yield surface tends to greatly under predict earing. In this study, we have used two different finite-element codes developed at LLNL to examine the predicted earing using both quadratic Hill and alternative non-quadratic yield surfaces. These results are compared to experimental data and conclusions drawn about the most desirable closed-form yield surfaces to duplicate the observed earing phenomena.

  18. Global climate change and maize production in Spain: Risk assessment and impacts of weather on yields

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feijoo, M.L.; Mestre, F.; Iglesias, A.; Rosenzweig, C.

    1996-12-31

    The study evaluates the potential effect of climate change on maize production in Spain, combining climate models, a crop productivity model, a decision support system and a yield-response model. The study was carried out for two agricultural regions that include the largest areas of Spain where maize is grown as a high input crop. The paper combines the output from a crop model with different techniques of analysis. The scenarios used in this study were generated from the output of two General Circulation Models (GCMs): the Goddard Institute for Space Studies model (GISS) and the Canadian Climate Change Model (CCCM). The study also includes a preliminary evaluation of the potential changes in monetary returns taking into account the possible variability of grain yields and prices, using mean-Gini stochastic dominance (MGSD). A yield response model was estimated using simulated data from the crop model. Weather variables are included. Typically, temperature and precipitation are the only weather variables included in these models. However, solar radiation is another important climate factor for plant growth and development and were included in the yield response model.

  19. Research Leads to Improved Fuel Yields from Smaller Antenna Algae |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Research Leads to Improved Fuel Yields from Smaller Antenna Algae Research Leads to Improved Fuel Yields from Smaller Antenna Algae May 13, 2014 - 12:06pm Addthis Tasios Melis (center) shows plates with tla3 algae and its parent strain to Katie Randolph (left) and Sunita Satyapal during a site visit to his lab at the University of California, Berkeley. Tasios Melis (center) shows plates with tla3 algae and its parent strain to Katie Randolph (left) and Sunita Satyapal

  20. Material and methods to increase plant growth and yield

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kirst, Matias

    2015-09-15

    The present invention relates to materials and methods for modulating growth rates, yield, and/or resistance to drought conditions in plants. In one embodiment, a method of the invention comprises increasing expression of an hc1 gene (or a homolog thereof that provides for substantially the same activity), or increasing expression or activity of the protein encoded by an hc1 gene thereof, in a plant, wherein expression of the hc1 gene or expression or activity of the protein encoded by an hc1 gene results in increased growth rate, yield, and/or drought resistance in the plant.

  1. CKM-suppressed top quark decays t{yields}s(d)+W in the standard model and beyond

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Diaz-Cruz, J. L.; Gaitan-Lozano, R.; Castro, G. Lopez; Pagliarone, C. E.

    2008-05-01

    As it is well known, top quark decays are of particular interest as a means to test the standard model (SM) predictions, these include the dominant (t{yields}b+W), the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa (CKM)-suppressed process t{yields}cWW, and the rare decays (t{yields}cV, cVV, c{phi}{sup 0}, bWZ). As all of them are highly suppressed, they become an excellent window to probe the predictions of theories beyond the SM. In this paper, we evaluate the corrections from new physics to the CKM-suppressed SM top quark decay t{yields}q+W(q=d,s), both within an effective model with right-handed currents and for the minimal SUSY extension of the SM. We also discuss the perspectives to probe those predictions at the International Linear Collider.

  2. Consistent scenario for B{yields}PS decays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Delepine, D.; Lucio M, J. L.; Mendoza S, J. A.; Ramirez, Carlos A.

    2008-12-01

    We consider B{yields}PS decays where P stands for pseudoscalar and S for a heavy (1500 MeV) scalar meson. We achieve agreement with available experimental data, which includes two orders of magnitude hierarchy, assuming the scalars mesons are two quark states. The contribution of the dipolar penguin operator O{sub 11} is quantified.

  3. Z{yields}bb and chiral currents in Higgsless models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abe, Tomohiro; Tanabashi, Masaharu; Chivukula, R. Sekhar; Christensen, Neil D.; Hsieh, Ken; Simmons, Elizabeth H.; Matsuzaki, Shinya

    2009-04-01

    In this paper we compute the flavor-dependent chiral-logarithmic corrections to the decay Z{yields}bb in the three-site Higgsless model. We compute these corrections diagrammatically in the gaugeless limit in which the electroweak couplings vanish. We also compute the chiral-logarithmic corrections to the decay Z{yields}bb using a renormalization group equation analysis in effective field theory, and show that the results agree. In the process of this computation, we compute the form of the chiral current in the gaugeless limit of the three-site model, and consider the generalization to the N-site case. We elucidate the Ward-Takahashi identities which underlie the gaugeless limit calculation in the three-site model, and describe how the result for the Z{yields}bb amplitude is obtained in unitary gauge in the full theory. We find that the phenomenological constraints on the three-site Higgsless model arising from measurements of Z{yields}bb are relatively mild, requiring only that the heavy Dirac fermion be heavier than 1 TeV or so, and are satisfied automatically in the range of parameters allowed by other precision electroweak data.

  4. DOE national user facility in the Tropical Western Pacific.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, L. A.; Porch, W. M.; Sisterson, Doug L.; Mather, J. H.; Long, C. N.

    2004-01-01

    In July 2003, the Department of Energy's Office of Biological and Environmental Research designated the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement sites as National User Facilities and renamed them the ARM Climate Research Facility (ACRF). As a result, the former ARM Cloud and Radiation Test bed (CART) sites are now collectively called Climate Research Sites. Part of the conditions associated with funding for ACRF is that the ARM program must attract new users. Located in Australia, and the island nations of Papua New Guinea and the Republic of Nauru, the three Tropical Western Pacific (TWP) research facilities offer unique scientific opportunities to prospective users. Although the locations of the facilities pose significant logistical challenges, particularly the two island sites, the TWP Office addresses these issues so that prospective users can focus on their research. The TWP Office oversees the operation of these sites by collaborating with the governments of Australia, Papua New Guinea, and the Republic of Nauru. Local observers are trained to effectively operate and maintain the facilities, and the state-side TWP Office offers supporting resources including daily instrument monitoring; equipment shipping, inventory tracking; customs coordination; and a readily deployable technical maintenance team at relatively minimal cost to prospective users. Satellite communications allow continuous, near-real time data from all three stations. The TWP Office also works diligently to maintain good local government and community relations with active outreach programs. This paper presents the TWP research facilities as the valuable resources they are to the scientific community.

  5. SLUDGE BATCH SUPPLEMENTAL SRAT RUNS EFFECTS OF YIELD STRESS AND CYCLE TIME INCREASE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fernandez, A.

    2010-08-10

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) has transitioned from Sludge Batch 5 (SB5) processing to Sludge Batch 6 (SB6) processing. Phase III-Tank 40 Chemical Process Cell (CPC) flowsheet simulations have been completed to determine the initial processing conditions for the DWPF transition. The impact of higher yield stress (SB-25) and cycle time extension (SB6-26) on the physical and chemical effects of SB6 processing during the SRAT (Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank) cycle were evaluated. No significant impacts on the SRAT chemistry were noted during the higher yield stress run. In particular, no impact on mercury stripping was noted, indicating that settling of elemental mercury was not the primary factor in the low mercury recovery noted in the flowsheet testing. The SRAT product from this run retained the higher yield stress of the starting sludge. The run indicated that ultrasonication is an effective tool to increase the yield stress of simulants to targeted values and the chemistry of downstream processing is not impacted. Significant differences were noted in the cycle time extension test compared to the Phase III flowsheet baseline runs. Large decreases in the ammonia and hydrogen generation rates were noted along with reduced mercury stripping efficiency. The latter effect is similar to that of operating under a high acid stoichiometry. It is conceivable that, under the distinctly different conditions of high formic acid concentration (high acid run) or slow formic acid addition (extended run), that mercury could form amalgams with noble metals, possibly rendering both inert. Thus, the removal of free mercury and noble metals could decrease the rate of catalytic formic acid reactions which would decrease generation of ammonium and hydrogen. The potential underlying reasons for the behavior noted during this run would require additional testing.

  6. Study, Development, and Design of Replaceable Shear Yielding Steel Panel Damper

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murakami, Katsuhide; Keii, Michio

    2008-07-08

    For middle-high rise buildings, vibration controlled structures to reduce the damage of main frames are recently becoming general in Japan. A steel material damper is low price and excellent in the energy absorption efficiency at a large earthquake. Though the exchange of the dampers are necessary when an excessive accumulation of plasticity deformation occurs, a steel material damping system, which received an excessive accumulation of plasticity deformation after a large earthquake, can recover a seismic-proof performance and property value of the building after the replacement. In the paper, shear yielding steel panel dampers installed in the web of a beam connected with high tension bolt joint is introduced. This damper is made of low-yield point steel, and the advantages of this system are low cost, easy-production and easy-replacement. For this steel panel damper, the finite element method (FEM) analysis using the shell element model adjusted to 1/2 of 6.4 m beam span is executed to make the design most effective. Yielding property of the beam installing this damper, shape of the splice plate and the bolt orientation for the connecting are examined in this analysis. As a result, we found that the plastic strain extends uniformly to the entire damping panel when making the splice plate a trapezoidal shape. The basic performance confirmation examination was also done using the real scale examination model besides the FEM analysis, and the performance of the system was confirmed. In addition, design of a high rise building in which the steel shear-yielding panel dampers and oil dampers were adopted without disturbing an architectural plan is also introduced.

  7. Lidar Investigation of Tropical Nocturnal Boundary Layer Aerosols and Cloud Macrophysics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Manoj, M. G.; Devara, PC S.; Taraphdar, Sourav

    2013-10-01

    Observational evidence of two-way association between nocturnal boundary layer aerosols and cloud macrophysical properties under different meteorological conditions is reported in this paper. The study has been conducted during 2008-09 employing a high space-time resolution polarimetric micro-pulse lidar over a tropical urban station in India. Firstly, the study highlights the crucial role of boundary layer aerosols and background meteorology on the formation and structure of low-level stratiform clouds in the backdrop of different atmospheric stability conditions. Turbulent mixing induced by the wind shear at the station, which is associated with a complex terrain, is found to play a pivotal role in the formation and structural evolution of nocturnal boundary layer clouds. Secondly, it is shown that the trapping of energy in the form of outgoing terrestrial radiation by the overlying low-level clouds can enhance the aerosol mixing height associated with the nocturnal boundary layer. To substantiate this, the long-wave heating associated with cloud capping has been quantitatively estimated in an indirect way by employing an Advanced Research Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF-ARW) model version 2.2 developed by National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR), Colorado, USA, and supplementary data sets; and differentiated against other heating mechanisms. The present investigation as well establishes the potential of lidar remote-sensing technique in exploring some of the intriguing aspects of the cloud-environment relationship.

  8. Environment and the Lifetime of Tropical Deep Convection in a Cloud-Permitting Regional Model Simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hagos, Samson M.; Feng, Zhe; McFarlane, Sally A.; Leung, Lai-Yung R.

    2013-08-01

    By applying a cloud tracking algorithm to tropical convective systems simulated by a regional high resolution model, the study documents environmental conditions before and after convective systems are initiated over ocean and land by following them during their lifetime. The comparative roles of various environmental fields in affecting the lifetime of convection are also quantified. The statistics of lifetime, maximum area, propagation speed and direction of the simulated deep convection agrees well with geostationary satellite observations. Over ocean, convective systems enhance surface fluxes through the associated wind gusts as well as cooling and drying of the boundary layer. A significant relationship is found between the mean surface fluxes during their lifetime and the longevity of the systems which in turn is related to the initial intensity of the moist updraft and to a lesser extent upper level shear. Over land, on the other hand, convective activity suppresses surface fluxes through cloud cover and the lifetime of convection is related to the upper level shear during their lifetime and strength of the heat fluxes several hours before the initiation of convection. For systems of equal lifetime, those over land are significantly more intense than those over ocean especially during early stages of their lifetime.

  9. Evaluation of tropical cloud and precipitation statistics of CAM3 using CloudSat and CALIPSO data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Y; Klein, S; Boyle, J; Mace, G G

    2008-11-20

    The combined CloudSat and CALIPSO satellite observations provide the first simultaneous measurements of cloud and precipitation vertical structure, and are used to examine the representation of tropical clouds and precipitation in the Community Atmosphere Model Version 3 (CAM3). A simulator package utilizing a model-to-satellite approach facilitates comparison of model simulations to observations, and a revised clustering method is used to sort the subgrid-scale patterns of clouds and precipitation into principal cloud regimes. Results from weather forecasts performed with CAM3 suggest that the model underestimates the horizontal extent of low and mid-level clouds in subsidence regions, but overestimates that of high clouds in ascending regions. CAM3 strongly overestimates the frequency of occurrence of the deep convection with heavy precipitation regime, but underestimates the horizontal extent of clouds and precipitation at low and middle levels when this regime occurs. This suggests that the model overestimates convective precipitation and underestimates stratiform precipitation consistent with a previous study that used only precipitation observations. Tropical cloud regimes are also evaluated in a different version of the model, CAM3.5, which uses a highly entraining plume in the parameterization of deep convection. While the frequency of occurrence of the deep convection with heavy precipitation regime from CAM3.5 forecasts decreases, the incidence of the low clouds with precipitation and congestus regimes increases. As a result, the parameterization change does not reduce the frequency of precipitating convection that is far too high relative to observations. For both versions of CAM, clouds and precipitation are overly reflective at the frequency of the CloudSat radar and thin clouds that could be detected by the lidar only are underestimated.

  10. Evaluation of Tropical Cirrus Cloud Properties and Dynamical Processes Derived from ECMWF Model Output and Ground Based Mea...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Tropical Cirrus Cloud Properties and Dynamical Processes Derived from ECMWF Model Output and Ground-Based Measurements Over Nauru Island J. M. Comstock and J. H. Mather Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Richland, Washington C. Jakob Bureau of Meteorology Research Centre Melbourne, Australia Introduction Identifying the mechanisms responsible for the formation of cirrus clouds is important in understanding the role of cirrus in the tropical atmosphere. Thin cirrus clouds near the tropical

  11. Detailed analysis of the energy yield of systems with covered sheet-and-tube PVT collectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Santbergen, R.; Rindt, C.C.M.; van Zolingen, R.J.Ch.; Zondag, H.A.

    2010-05-15

    Solar cells have a typical efficiency in the range of 5-20%, implying that 80% or more of the incident solar energy can be harvested in the form of heat and applied for low-temperature heating. In a PVT collector one tries to collect this heat. In this work, the electrical and thermal yield of solar domestic hot water systems with one-cover sheet-and-tube PVT collectors were considered. Objectives of the work were to understand the mechanisms determining these yields, to investigate measures to improve these yields and to investigate the yield consequences if various solar cell technologies are being used. The work was carried out using numerical simulations. A detailed quantitative understanding of all loss mechanisms was obtained, especially of those being inherent to the use of PVT collectors instead of PV modules and conventional thermal collectors. The annual electrical efficiencies of the PVT systems investigated were up to 14% (relative) lower compared to pure PV systems and the annual thermal efficiencies up to 19% (relative) lower compared to pure thermal collector systems. The loss of electrical efficiency is mainly caused by the relatively high fluid temperature. The loss of thermal efficiency is caused both by the high emissivity of the absorber and the withdrawal of electrical energy. However, both the loss of electrical and thermal efficiency can be reduced further by the application of anti-reflective coatings. The thermal efficiency can be improved by the application of a low-emissivity coating on the absorber, however at the cost of a reduced electrical efficiency. (author)

  12. Comparison of Fission Product Yields and Their Impact

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S. Harrison

    2006-02-01

    This memorandum describes the Naval Reactors Prime Contractor Team (NRPCT) Space Nuclear Power Program (SNPP) interest in determining the expected fission product yields from a Prometheus-type reactor and assessing the impact of these species on materials found in the fuel element and balance of plant. Theoretical yield calculations using ORIGEN-S and RACER computer models are included in graphical and tabular form in Attachment, with focus on the desired fast neutron spectrum data. The known fission product interaction concerns are the corrosive attack of iron- and nickel-based alloys by volatile fission products, such as cesium, tellurium, and iodine, and the radiological transmutation of krypton-85 in the coolant to rubidium-85, a potentially corrosive agent to the coolant system metal piping.

  13. Realization of Algae Potential Algae Biomass Yield Program

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Realization of Algae Potential Algae Biomass Yield Program March 25, 2015 Technology Area Review Peter Lammers, P.I. New Mexico State University -> Arizona State University This presentation does not contain any proprietary, confidential, or otherwise restricted information Goal Statement * Develop an integrated process for producing 2,500 gallons of bio-fuel intermediate per acre per year through radical improvements in algal areal productivity and lipid content * Successful demonstration

  14. Nature-inspired nanostructures yield first atomic resolution of peptide

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    nanosheet Nature-inspired nanostructures yield first atomic resolution of peptide nanosheet Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window) Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window) Click to share on Reddit (Opens in new window) Click to share on Pinterest (Opens in new window) This atomic-resolution simulation of a two-dimensional peptoid nanosheet reveals a snake-like structure never seen before. This research could help scentists design incredibly sensitive chemical detectors or

  15. Modified Yeast to Boost Biofuel Yields - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Modified Yeast to Boost Biofuel Yields Great Lakes Bioenergy Research Center Contact GLBRC About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary Producing biofuel on an industrial scale requires efficient fermentation of cellulosic plant material. Glucose and xylose are two of the most abundant sugars found in biomass. The yeast most commonly used for fermentation - Saccharomyces cerevisiae - can ferment glucose but not xylose. Researchers hope to improve fermentation by identifying/mutating

  16. Increasing Sugar Yields with IL-final-sm

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Ionic Liquid Processing Increasing sugar yields from diverse biomass feedstock with ionic liquid processing and cultivation of renewable ionic liquids Liberating Sugars from Biomass Lignocellulose, one of the most abundant plants on Earth, has the potential to displace a substantial portion of the fossil fuels currently consumed within the transportation sector. Converting lignocellulose to biofuels requires the disruption of the lignin-carbohydrate complex within the plant and conversion into

  17. Nuclear Physics Accelerator Technology Yields New Process for Producing

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Boron-Nitride Nanotubes | U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC) Nuclear Physics Accelerator Technology Yields New Process for Producing Boron-Nitride Nanotubes Nuclear Physics (NP) NP Home About Research Facilities Science Highlights Benefits of NP Funding Opportunities Nuclear Science Advisory Committee (NSAC) Community Resources Contact Information Nuclear Physics U.S. Department of Energy SC-26/Germantown Building 1000 Independence Ave., SW Washington, DC 20585 P: (301) 903-3613 F: (301)

  18. Structures for Three Membrane Transport Proteins Yield Functional Insights

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Structures for Three Membrane Transport Proteins Yield Functional Insights Print Cells depend on contact with their outside environment in order to thrive. Two examples illustrate why: In one, information needed to guide cellular processes is constantly transmitted across cell membranes by specialized proteins, and in the other, maintaining the right gradient of ions across the membrane is a process critical to the life and death of a cell. Membrane transport proteins-functioning either as

  19. Structures for Three Membrane Transport Proteins Yield Functional Insights

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Structures for Three Membrane Transport Proteins Yield Functional Insights Print Cells depend on contact with their outside environment in order to thrive. Two examples illustrate why: In one, information needed to guide cellular processes is constantly transmitted across cell membranes by specialized proteins, and in the other, maintaining the right gradient of ions across the membrane is a process critical to the life and death of a cell. Membrane transport proteins-functioning either as

  20. Structures for Three Membrane Transport Proteins Yield Functional Insights

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Structures for Three Membrane Transport Proteins Yield Functional Insights Print Cells depend on contact with their outside environment in order to thrive. Two examples illustrate why: In one, information needed to guide cellular processes is constantly transmitted across cell membranes by specialized proteins, and in the other, maintaining the right gradient of ions across the membrane is a process critical to the life and death of a cell. Membrane transport proteins-functioning either as

  1. Structures for Three Membrane Transport Proteins Yield Functional Insights

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Structures for Three Membrane Transport Proteins Yield Functional Insights Print Cells depend on contact with their outside environment in order to thrive. Two examples illustrate why: In one, information needed to guide cellular processes is constantly transmitted across cell membranes by specialized proteins, and in the other, maintaining the right gradient of ions across the membrane is a process critical to the life and death of a cell. Membrane transport proteins-functioning either as

  2. Evaluation of tropical channel refinement using MPAS-A aquaplanet simulations

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Martini, Matus N.; Gustafson, Jr., William I.; O'Brien, Travis A.; Ma, Po -Lun

    2015-09-13

    Climate models with variable-resolution grids offer a computationally less expensive way to provide more detailed information at regional scales and increased accuracy for processes that cannot be resolved by a coarser grid. This study uses the Model for Prediction Across Scales–Atmosphere (MPAS22A), consisting of a nonhydrostatic dynamical core and a subset of Advanced Research Weather Research and Forecasting (ARW-WRF) model atmospheric physics that have been modified to include the Community Atmosphere Model version 5 (CAM5) cloud fraction parameterization, to investigate the potential benefits of using increased resolution in an tropical channel. The simulations are performed with an idealized aquaplanet configurationmore » using two quasi-uniform grids, with 30 km and 240 km grid spacing, and two variable-resolution grids spanning the same grid spacing range; one with a narrow (20°S–20°N) and one with a wide (30°S–30°N) tropical channel refinement. Results show that increasing resolution in the tropics impacts both the tropical and extratropical circulation. Compared to the quasi-uniform coarse grid, the narrow-channel simulation exhibits stronger updrafts in the Ferrel cell as well as in the middle of the upward branch of the Hadley cell. The wider tropical channel has a closer correspondence to the 30 km quasi-uniform simulation. However, the total atmospheric poleward energy transports are similar in all simulations. The largest differences are in the low-level cloudiness. The refined channel simulations show improved tropical and extratropical precipitation relative to the global 240 km simulation when compared to the global 30 km simulation. All simulations have a single ITCZ. Furthermore, the relatively small differences in mean global and tropical precipitation rates among the simulations are a promising result, and the evidence points to the tropical channel being an effective method for avoiding the extraneous numerical artifacts seen in

  3. Land cover change and remote sensing: Examples of quantifying spatiotemporal dynamics in tropical forests

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krummel, J.R.; Su, Haiping; Fox, J.; Yarnasan, S.; Ekasingh, M.

    1995-06-01

    Research on human impacts or natural processes that operate over broad geographic areas must explicitly address issues of scale and spatial heterogeneity. While the tropical forests of Southeast Asia and Mexico have been occupied and used to meet human needs for thousands of years, traditional forest management systems are currently being transformed by rapid and far-reaching demographic, political, economic, and environmental changes. The dynamics of population growth, migration into the remaining frontiers, and responses to national and international market forces result in a demand for land to produce food and fiber. These results illustrate some of the mechanisms that drive current land use changes, especially in the tropical forest frontiers. By linking the outcome of individual land use decisions and measures of landscape fragmentation and change, the aggregated results shows the hierarchy of temporal and spatial events that in summation result in global changes to the most complex and sensitive biome -- tropical forests. By quantifying the spatial and temporal patterns of tropical forest change, researchers can assist policy makers by showing how landscape systems in these tropical forests are controlled by physical, biological, social, and economic parameters.

  4. Tropical Ocean Climate Study (TOCS) and Japan-United States Tropical Ocean Study (JUSTOS) on the R/V KAIYO, 25 Jan to 2 March 1997, to the Tropical Western Pacific Ocean BNL component

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reynolds, R.M.; Smith, S.

    1997-04-11

    The Japanese U.S. Tropical Ocean Study (JUSTOS) cruise on the R/V KAIYO in the Tropical Western Pacific Ocean was a collaborative effort with participants from the Japanese Marine Science and Technology Center (JAMSTEC), the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR), and Brookhaven National Laboratory BNL. This report is a summary of the instruments, measurements, and initial analysis of the BNL portion of the cruise only. It includes a brief description of the instrument system, calibration procedures, problems and resolutions, data collection, processing and data file descriptions. This is a working document, which is meant to provide both a good description of the work and as much information as possible in one place for future analysis.

  5. Relativistic Corrections to e+e- {yields} J/{psi} + {eta}c in...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Relativistic Corrections to e+e- yields Jpsi + etac in a Potential Model Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Relativistic Corrections to e+e- yields Jpsi + ...

  6. Model-independent Higgs coupling measurements at the LHC using the H{yields}ZZ{yields}4l lineshape

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Logan, Heather E.; Salvail, Jeff Z.

    2011-10-01

    We show that combining a direct measurement of the Higgs total width from the H{yields}ZZ{yields}4l lineshape with Higgs signal rate measurements allows Higgs couplings to be extracted in a model-independent way from CERN LHC data. Using existing experimental studies with 30 fb{sup -1} at one detector of the 14 TeV LHC, we show that the couplings squared of a 190 GeV Higgs to WW, ZZ, and gg can be extracted with statistical precisions of about 10%, and a 95% confidence level upper limit on an unobserved component of the Higgs decay width of about 22% of the standard model Higgs width can be set. The method can also be applied for heavier Higgs masses.

  7. The {alpha}-induced thick-target {gamma}-ray yield from light elements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heaton, R.K. |

    1994-10-01

    The {alpha}-induced thick-target {gamma}-ray yield from light elements has been measured in the energy range 5.6 MeV {le} E{sub {alpha}} {le} 10 MeV. The {gamma}-ray yield for > 2.1 MeV from thick targets of beryllium, boron nitride, sodium fluoride, magnesium, aluminum and silicon were measured using the {alpha}-particle beam from the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratories 88 in. cyclotron. The elemental yields from this experiment were used to construct the {alpha}-induced direct production {gamma}-ray spectrum from materials in the SNO detector, a large volume ultra-low background neutrino detector located in the Creighton mine near Sudbury, Canada. This background source was an order of magnitude lower than predicted by previous calculations. These measurements are in good agreement with theoretical calculations of this spectrum based on a statistical nuclear model of the reaction, with the gross high energy spectrum structure being reproduced to within a factor of two. Detailed comparison of experimental and theoretical excitation population distribution of several residual nuclei indicate the same level of agreement within experimental uncertainties.

  8. Runaway electrons as a source of impurity and reduced fusion yield in the dense plasma focus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lerner, Eric J.; Yousefi, Hamid R.

    2014-10-15

    Impurities produced by the vaporization of metals in the electrodes may be a major cause of reduced fusion yields in high-current dense plasma focus devices. We propose here that a major, but hitherto-overlooked, cause of such impurities is vaporization by runaway electrons during the breakdown process at the beginning of the current pulse. This process is sufficient to account for the large amount of erosion observed in many dense plasma focus devices on the anode very near to the insulator. The erosion is expected to become worse with lower pressures, typical of machines with large electrode radii, and would explain the plateauing of fusion yield observed in such machines at higher peak currents. Such runaway electron vaporization can be eliminated by the proper choice of electrode material, by reducing electrode radii and thus increasing fill gas pressure, or by using pre-ionization to eliminate the large fields that create runaway electrons. If these steps are combined with monolithic electrodes to eliminate arcing erosion, large reductions in impurities and large increases in fusion yield may be obtained, as the I{sup 4} scaling is extended to higher currents.

  9. Do yield and quality of big bluestem and switchgrass feedstock decline over winter?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jane M.F. Johnson; Garold L. Gresham

    2014-03-01

    Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) and big bluestem (Andropogon gerdardii Vitman) are potential perennial bioenergy feedstocks. Feedstock storage limitations, labor constraints for harvest, and environmental benefits provided by perennials are rationales for developing localized perennial feedstock as an alternative or in conjunction with annual feedstocks (i.e., crop residues). Little information is available on yield, mineral, and thermochemical properties of native species as related to harvest time. The study’s objectives were to compare the feedstock quantity and quality between grasses harvested in the fall or the following spring. It was hypothesized that biomass yield may decline, but translocation and/or leaching of minerals from the feedstock would improve feedstock quality. Feedstock yield did not differ by crop, harvest time, or their interactions. Both grasses averaged 6.0 Mg ha-1 (fall) and 5.4 Mg ha-1 (spring) with similar high heating value (17.7 MJ kg-1). The K/(Ca + Mg) ratio, used as a quality indicator declined to below a 0.5 threshold, but energy yield (Megajoule per kilogram) decreased 13% by delaying harvest until spring. Only once during the four study-years were conditions ideal for early spring harvest, in contrast during another spring, very muddy conditions resulted in excessive soil contamination. Early spring harvest may be hampered by late snow, lodging, and muddy conditions that may delay or prevent harvest, and result in soil contamination of the feedstock. However, reducing slagging/fouling potential and the mass of mineral nutrients removed from the field without a dramatic loss in biomass or caloric content are reasons to delay harvest until spring.

  10. High Titer and Yields Achieved with Novel, Low-Severity Pretreatment...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Researchers at NREL have developed a DMR process that uses a moderate temperature (80C), low severity, dilute alkali chemical treatment, followed by a mechanical treatment, to ...

  11. Cirrus cloud-temperature interactions over a tropical station, Gadanki from lidar and satellite observations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S, Motty G Satyanarayana, M. Krishnakumar, V. Dhaman, Reji k.

    2014-10-15

    The cirrus clouds play an important role in the radiation budget of the earth's atmospheric system and are important to characterize their vertical structure and optical properties. LIDAR measurements are obtained from the tropical station Gadanki (13.5{sup 0} N, 79.2{sup 0} E), India, and meteorological indicators derived from Radiosonde data. Most of the cirrus clouds are observed near to the tropopause, which substantiates the strength of the tropical convective processes. The height and temperature dependencies of cloud height, optical depth, and depolarization ratio were investigated. Cirrus observations made using CALIPSO satellite are compared with lidar data for systematic statistical study of cirrus climatology.

  12. Knoop Hardness - Apparent Yield Stress Relationship in Ceramics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swab, Jeffrey J; LaSalvia, Jerry; Wereszczak, Andrew A; Strong, Kevin T; Danna, Dominic; Ragan, Meredith E; Ritt, Patrick J

    2012-01-01

    In Tabor's classical studies of the deformation of metals, the yield stress (Y) and hardness (H) were shown to be related according to H/Y {approx} 3 for complete or fully plastic deformation. Since then it has been anecdotally shown for ceramics that this ratio is <3. Interest exists to explore this further so Hertzian indentation was used to measure the apparent yield stress of numerous ceramics and metals and their results were compared with each material's load-dependent Knoop hardness. The evaluated ceramics included standard reference materials for hardness (silicon nitride and tungsten carbide), silicon carbide, alumina, and glass. Several steel compositions were also tested for comparison. Knoop hardness measurements at 19.6 N (i.e., toward 'complete or fully plastic deformation'), showed that 2 < H/Y < 3 for the metals and 0.8 < H/Y < 1.8 for the glasses and ceramics. Being that H/Y {ne} 3 for the ceramics indicates that Tabor's analysis is either not applicable to ceramics or that full plastic deformation is not achieved with a Knoop indentation or both.

  13. Waveform inversion of acoustic waves for explosion yield estimation

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kim, K.; Rodgers, A. J.

    2016-07-08

    We present a new waveform inversion technique to estimate the energy of near-surface explosions using atmospheric acoustic waves. Conventional methods often employ air blast models based on a homogeneous atmosphere, where the acoustic wave propagation effects (e.g., refraction and diffraction) are not taken into account, and therefore, their accuracy decreases with increasing source-receiver distance. In this study, three-dimensional acoustic simulations are performed with a finite difference method in realistic atmospheres and topography, and the modeled acoustic Green's functions are incorporated into the waveform inversion for the acoustic source time functions. The strength of the acoustic source is related to explosionmore » yield based on a standard air blast model. The technique was applied to local explosions (<10 km) and provided reasonable yield estimates (<~30% error) in the presence of realistic topography and atmospheric structure. In conclusion, the presented method can be extended to explosions recorded at far distance provided proper meteorological specifications.« less

  14. Characterization of Trapped Lignin-Degrading Microbes in Tropical Forest Soil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeAngelis, Kristen; Allgaier, Martin; Chavarria, Yaucin; Fortney, Julian; Hugenholtz, Phillip; Simmons, Blake; Sublette, Kerry; Silver, Whendee; Hazen, Terry

    2011-07-14

    Lignin is often the most difficult portion of plant biomass to degrade, with fungi generally thought to dominate during late stage decomposition. Lignin in feedstock plant material represents a barrier to more efficient plant biomass conversion and can also hinder enzymatic access to cellulose, which is critical for biofuels production. Tropical rain forest soils in Puerto Rico are characterized by frequent anoxic conditions and fluctuating redox, suggesting the presence of lignin-degrading organisms and mechanisms that are different from known fungal decomposers and oxygen-dependent enzyme activities. We explored microbial lignin-degraders by burying bio-traps containing lignin-amended and unamended biosep beads in the soil for 1, 4, 13 and 30 weeks. At each time point, phenol oxidase and peroxidase enzyme activity was found to be elevated in the lignin-amended versus the unamended beads, while cellulolytic enzyme activities were significantly depressed in lignin-amended beads. Quantitative PCR of bacterial communities showed more bacterial colonization in the lignin-amended compared to the unamended beads after one and four weeks, suggesting that the lignin supported increased bacterial abundance. The microbial community was analyzed by small subunit 16S ribosomal RNA genes using microarray (PhyloChip) and by high-throughput amplicon pyrosequencing based on universal primers targeting bacterial, archaeal, and eukaryotic communities. Community trends were significantly affected by time and the presence of lignin on the beads. Lignin-amended beads have higher relative abundances of representatives from the phyla Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, Acidobacteria and Proteobacteria compared to unamended beads. This study suggests that in low and fluctuating redox soils, bacteria could play a role in anaerobic lignin decomposition.

  15. Characterization of trapped lignin-degrading microbes in tropical forest soil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeAngelis, K.M.; Allgaier, M.; Chavarria, Y.; Fortney, J.L.; Hugenholz, P.; Simmons, B.; Sublette, K.; Silver, W.L.; Hazen, T.C.

    2011-03-01

    Lignin is often the most difficult portion of plant biomass to degrade, with fungi generally thought to dominate during late stage decomposition. Lignin in feedstock plant material represents a barrier to more efficient plant biomass conversion and can also hinder enzymatic access to cellulose, which is critical for biofuels production. Tropical rain forest soils in Puerto Rico are characterized by frequent anoxic conditions and fluctuating redox, suggesting the presence of lignin-degrading organisms and mechanisms that are different from known fungal decomposers and oxygen-dependent enzyme activities. We explored microbial lignin-degraders by burying bio-traps containing lignin-amended and unamended biosep beads in the soil for 1, 4, 13 and 30 weeks. At each time point, phenol oxidase and peroxidase enzyme activity was found to be elevated in the lignin-amended versus the unamended beads, while cellulolytic enzyme activities were significantly depressed in lignin-amended beads. Quantitative PCR of bacterial communities showed more bacterial colonization in the lignin-amended compared to the unamended beads after one and four weeks, suggesting that the lignin supported increased bacterial abundance. The microbial community was analyzed by small subunit 16S ribosomal RNA genes using microarray (PhyloChip) and by high-throughput amplicon pyrosequencing based on universal primers targeting bacterial, archaeal, and eukaryotic communities. Community trends were significantly affected by time and the presence of lignin on the beads. Lignin-amended beads have higher relative abundances of representatives from the phyla Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, Acidobacteria and Proteobacteria compared to unamended beads. This study suggests that in low and fluctuating redox soils, bacteria could play a role in anaerobic lignin decomposition.

  16. Radiative Energy Balance in the Tropical Tropopause Layer: An Investigation with ARM Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fu, Qiang

    2013-10-22

    The overall objective of this project is to use the ARM observational data to improve our understanding of cloud-radiation effects in the tropical tropopause layer (TTL), which is crucial for improving the simulation and prediction of climate and climate change. In last four and half years, we have been concentrating on (i) performing the comparison of the ice cloud properties from the ground-based lidar observations with those from the satellite CALIPSO lidar observations at the ARM TWP sites; (ii) analyzing TTL cirrus and its relation to the tropical planetary waves; (iii) calculating the radiative heating rates using retrieved cloud microphysical properties by combining the ground-based lidar and radar observations at the ARM TWP sites and comparing the results with those using cloud properties retrieved from CloudSat and CALIPSO observations; (iv) comparing macrophysical properties of tropical cirrus clouds from the CALIPSO satellite and from ground-based micropulse and Raman lidar observations; (v) improving the parameterization of optical properties of cirrus clouds with small effective ice particle sizes; and (vi) evaluating the enhanced maximum warming in the tropical upper troposphere simulated by the GCMs. The main results of our research efforts are reported in the 12 referred journal publications that acknowledge the DOE Grant No. DE-FG02-09ER64769.

  17. Linking the uncertainty of low frequency variability in tropical forcing in regional climate change

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Forest, Chris E.; Barsugli, Joseph J.; Li, Wei

    2015-02-20

    The project utilizes multiple atmospheric general circulation models (AGCMs) to examine the regional climate sensitivity to tropical sea surface temperature forcing through a series of ensemble experiments. The overall goal for this work is to use the global teleconnection operator (GTO) as a metric to assess the impact of model structural differences on the uncertainties in regional climate variability.

  18. Measurement of break away yield stress of waxy crude oil and pipeline restart system design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, T.M.; Hsu, J.J.C.; Patterson, H.L.

    1996-12-31

    Break Away Yield Stress (BAYS) has been measured on waxy crude oil from the South China Sea to help develop appropriate design specifications for the HZ production system. Design of subsea production systems for handling relatively high BAYS crude oils will be discussed. A BAYS measurement system for measuring the live and dead oils at various cooling rates and the effect of cooling rate on BAYS will also be discussed. The measured BAYS of the HZ crude at seabed temperature indicated that if production was interrupted and the crude in the pipeline cooled to seabed temperature, the restart pressure would exceed the pressure rating of the originally planned pipeline. For waxy crude with high yield stress at seawater temperature, the production system must be designed to allow the production to be restarted after unplanned shutdowns. BAYS of the oil can affect the economics of a crude production system. Accurate knowledge of the BAYS will allow optimum spacing of emergency clean out parts or other system modifications that may be considered for an optimum restart system design.

  19. ZeaChem Pilot Project: High-Yield Hybrid Cellulosic Ethanol Process Using High-Impact Feedstock for Commercialization

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This pilot-scale integrated biorefinery will produce 250,000 gallons per year of cellulosic ethanol when running at full operational status.

  20. Invariant-mass distribution of cc in {upsilon}(1S){yields}cc+X

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chung, Hee Sok; Kim, Taewon; Lee, Jungil

    2008-12-01

    We calculate the invariant-mass distribution for the cc pair produced in the inclusive {upsilon}(1S) decay based on the color-singlet mechanism of the nonrelativistic quantum chromodynamics factorization approach at leading order in the bottom-quark velocity v{sub b} in the meson rest frame. As the short-distance processes, we consider bb{yields}g*gg followed by g*{yields}cc and bb{yields}{gamma}*{yields}cc at leading order in the strong coupling. The invariant-mass distribution of the bb{yields}ccgg contribution has a sharp peak just above the threshold and that of the bb{yields}{gamma}*{yields}cc channel is concentrated at the maximally allowed kinematic end point. We predict that {gamma}[{upsilon}(1S){yields}cc+X]/{gamma}[{upsilon}(1S){yields}light hadrons]=(0.065{+-}0.048){alpha}{sub s}, which is in agreement with a previous result within errors.

  1. Geographical Distribution of Biomass Carbon in Tropical Southeast Asian Forests: A Database

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, S

    2001-05-22

    A database was generated of estimates of geographically referenced carbon densities of forest vegetation in tropical Southeast Asia for 1980. A geographic information system (GIS) was used to incorporate spatial databases of climatic, edaphic, and geomorphological indices and vegetation to estimate potential (i.e., in the absence of human intervention and natural disturbance) carbon densities of forests. The resulting map was then modified to estimate actual 1980 carbon density as a function of population density and climatic zone. The database covers the following 13 countries: Bangladesh, Brunei, Cambodia (Campuchea), India, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar (Burma), Nepal, the Philippines, Sri Lanka, Thailand, and Vietnam. The data sets within this database are provided in three file formats: ARC/INFOTM exported integer grids, ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange) files formatted for raster-based GIS software packages, and generic ASCII files with x, y coordinates for use with non-GIS software packages. This database includes ten ARC/INFO exported integer grid files (five with the pixel size 3.75 km x 3.75 km and five with the pixel size 0.25 degree longitude x 0.25 degree latitude) and 27 ASCII files. The first ASCII file contains the documentation associated with this database. Twenty-four of the ASCII files were generated by means of the ARC/INFO GRIDASCII command and can be used by most raster-based GIS software packages. The 24 files can be subdivided into two groups of 12 files each. These files contain real data values representing actual carbon and potential carbon density in Mg C/ha (1 megagram = 10{sup 6} grams) and integer-coded values for country name, Weck's Climatic Index, ecofloristic zone, elevation, forest or non-forest designation, population density, mean annual precipitation, slope, soil texture, and vegetation classification. One set of 12 files contains these data at a spatial resolution of 3.75 km, whereas the other

  2. Geographical Distribution of Biomass Carbon in Tropical Southeast Asian Forests: A Database

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, S.

    2002-02-07

    A database was generated of estimates of geographically referenced carbon densities of forest vegetation in tropical Southeast Asia for 1980. A geographic information system (GIS) was used to incorporate spatial databases of climatic, edaphic, and geomorphological indices and vegetation to estimate potential (i.e., in the absence of human intervention and natural disturbance) carbon densities of forests. The resulting map was then modified to estimate actual 1980 carbon density as a function of population density and climatic zone. The database covers the following 13 countries: Bangladesh, Brunei, Cambodia (Campuchea), India, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar (Burma), Nepal, the Philippines, Sri Lanka, Thailand, and Vietnam. The data sets within this database are provided in three file formats: ARC/INFO{trademark} exported integer grids, ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange) files formatted for raster-based GIS software packages, and generic ASCII files with x, y coordinates for use with non-GIS software packages. This database includes ten ARC/INFO exported integer grid files (five with the pixel size 3.75 km x 3.75 km and five with the pixel size 0.25 degree longitude x 0.25 degree latitude) and 27 ASCII files. The first ASCII file contains the documentation associated with this database. Twenty-four of the ASCII files were generated by means of the ARC/INFO GRIDASCII command and can be used by most raster-based GIS software packages. The 24 files can be subdivided into two groups of 12 files each. These files contain real data values representing actual carbon and potential carbon density in Mg C/ha (1 megagram = 10{sup 6} grams) and integer- coded values for country name, Weck's Climatic Index, ecofloristic zone, elevation, forest or non-forest designation, population density, mean annual precipitation, slope, soil texture, and vegetation classification. One set of 12 files contains these data at a spatial resolution of 3.75 km, whereas

  3. Maximizing the ExoEarth candidate yield from a future direct imaging mission

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stark, Christopher C.; Roberge, Aki; Mandell, Avi; Robinson, Tyler D.

    2014-11-10

    ExoEarth yield is a critical science metric for future exoplanet imaging missions. Here we estimate exoEarth candidate yield using single visit completeness for a variety of mission design and astrophysical parameters. We review the methods used in previous yield calculations and show that the method choice can significantly impact yield estimates as well as how the yield responds to mission parameters. We introduce a method, called Altruistic Yield Optimization, that optimizes the target list and exposure times to maximize mission yield, adapts maximally to changes in mission parameters, and increases exoEarth candidate yield by up to 100% compared to previous methods. We use Altruistic Yield Optimization to estimate exoEarth candidate yield for a large suite of mission and astrophysical parameters using single visit completeness. We find that exoEarth candidate yield is most sensitive to telescope diameter, followed by coronagraph inner working angle, followed by coronagraph contrast, and finally coronagraph contrast noise floor. We find a surprisingly weak dependence of exoEarth candidate yield on exozodi level. Additionally, we provide a quantitative approach to defining a yield goal for future exoEarth-imaging missions.

  4. Cold War Films Yield New Effects-Data for U.S. Nuclear Weapons

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Cold War Films Yield New Effects National Security Science Latest Issue:April 2016 past issues All Issues submit Cold War Films Yield New Effects-Data for U.S. Nuclear Weapons ...

  5. Energy Dependence of Fission Product Yields for 239Pu, 235U,...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Energy Dependence of Fission Product Yields for 239Pu, 235U, and 238U Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Energy Dependence of Fission Product Yields for 239Pu, 235U, and ...

  6. X-ray power and yield measurements at the refurbished Z machine

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Jones, M. C.; Ampleford, D. J.; Cuneo, M. E.; Hohlfelder, R.; Jennings, C. A.; Johnson, D. W.; Jones, B.; Lopez, M. R.; MacArthur, J.; Mills, J. A.; et al

    2014-08-04

    Advancements have been made in the diagnostic techniques to measure accurately the total radiated x-ray yield and power from z-pinch loads at the Z Machine with high accuracy. The Z-accelerator is capable of outputting 2MJ and 330 TW of x-ray yield and power, and accurately measuring these quantities is imperative. We will describe work over the past several years which include the development of new diagnostics, improvements to existing diagnostics, and implementation of automated data analysis routines. A set of experiments were conducted on the Z machine where the load and machine configuration were held constant. During this shot series,more » it was observed that total z-pinch x-ray emission power determined from the two common techniques for inferring the x-ray power, Kimfol filtered x-ray diode diagnostic and the Total Power and Energy diagnostic gave 450 TW and 327 TW respectively. Our analysis shows the latter to be the more accurate interpretation. More broadly, the comparison demonstrates the necessity to consider spectral response and field of view when inferring xray powers from z-pinch sources.« less

  7. New class of supersymmetric signatures in the processes gg{yields}HH', VH

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gounaris, G. J.; Layssac, J.; Renard, F. M.

    2009-07-01

    Within the minimal supersymmetric model (MSSM) and standard model (SM) frameworks, we analyze the 1loop electroweak predictions for the helicity amplitudes describing the 17 processes gg{yields}HH', and the 9 processes gg{yields}VH; where H, H{sup '} denote Higgs or Goldstone bosons, while V=Z, W{sup {+-}}. Concentrating on MSSM, we then investigate how the asymptotic helicity conservation (HCns) property of supersymmetry (SUSY) affects the amplitudes at the LHC energy range and what is the corresponding situation in the SM, where no HCns theorem exists. HCns is subsequently used to construct many relations among the cross sections of the above MSSM processes, depending only on the standard MSSM angles {alpha} and {beta} characterizing the two Higgs doublets. These relations should be asymptotically exact but as the energy decreases toward the LHC range, mass-depending deviations should start appearing. Provided the SUSY scale is not too high, these relations may remain roughly correct, even at the LHC energy range.

  8. Analytical estimation of neutron yield in a micro gas-puff X pinch

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Derzon, M. S.; Galambos, P. C. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States); Hagen, E. C. [NSTec, North Las Vegas, Nevada 89031 (United States)

    2012-12-01

    In this paper, we present the basic concepts for developing a micro x pinch as a small-scale neutron source. For compact sources, these concepts offer repetitive function at higher yields and pulsing rates than competing methods. The uniqueness of these concepts arises from the use of microelectronic technology to reduce the size of the target plasma and to efficiently heat the target gas. The use of repetitive microelectromechanical systems (MEMs) gas puff technology, as compared to cryogenic wires or solid targets (for the beam-target alternatives), has the potential to be robust and have a long lifetime because the plasma is not created from solid surfaces. The modeling suggests that a 50 J at the wall plug pulse could provide >10{sup 5} tritium (DT) neutrons and 10{sup 3} deuterium (DD) neutrons at temperatures of a few keV. At 1 kHz, this would be >10{sup 8} and 10{sup 6} neutrons per second, DT and DD, respectively, with a 250 {mu}m anode-cathode gap. DT gas puff devices may provide >10{sup 12} neutrons/s operating at 1 kHz and requiring 100 kW. The MEMs approach offers potentially high pulse rates and yields.

  9. Declassification of the Yields of 11 Nuclear Tests Conducted as Part

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Declassification of the Yields of 11 Nuclear Tests Conducted as Part of the Plowshare Peaceful Uses for Nuclear Explosives Program The Department of Energy and the Department of Defense have jointly declassified the specific yields of 11 nuclear tests conducted between 1962 and 1968 at the Nevada Test Site, including three tests that, as previously announced, leaked radioactivity. Also declassified are the yields of two detonations that, together with another detonation whose yield has already

  10. SU-E-T-602: Beryllium Seeds Implant for Photo-Neutron Yield Using External Beam Therapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koren, S; Veltchev, I; Furhang, E

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the Neutron yield obtained during prostate external beam irradiation. Methods: Neutrons, that are commonly a radiation safety concern for photon beams with energy above 10 MV, are induced inside a PTV from Beryllium implemented seeds. A high megavoltage photon beam delivered to a prostate will yield neutrons via the reaction Be-9(?,n)2?. Beryllium was chosen for its low gamma,n reaction cross-section threshold (1.67 MeV) to be combined with a high feasible 25 MV photon beam. This beam spectra has a most probable photon energy of 2.5 to 3.0 MeV and an average photon energy of about 5.8 MeV. For this feasibility study we simulated a Beryllium-made common seed dimension (0.1 cm diameter and 0.5 cm height) without taking into account encapsulation. We created a 0.5 cm grid loading pattern excluding the Urethra, using Variseed (Varian inc.) A total of 156 seeds were exported to a 4cm diameter prostate sphere, created in Fluka, a particle transport Monte Carlo Code. Two opposed 25 MV beams were simulated. The evaluation of the neutron dose was done by adjusting the simulated photon dose to a common prostate delivery (e.g. 7560 cGy in 42 fractions) and finding the corresponding neutron dose yield from the simulation. A variance reduction technique was conducted for the neutrons yield and transported. Results: An effective dose of 3.65 cGy due to neutrons was found in the prostate volume. The dose to central areas of the prostate was found to be about 10 cGy. Conclusion: The neutron dose yielded does not justify a clinical implant of Beryllium seeds. Nevertheless, one should investigate the Neutron dose obtained when a larger Beryllium loading is combined with commercially available 40 MeV Linacs.

  11. Hydrologic responses of a tropical catchment in Thailand and two temperate/cold catchments in north America to global warming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gan, T.Y.; Ahmad, Z.

    1997-12-31

    The hydrologic impact or sensitivities of three medium-sized catchments to global warming, one of tropical climate in Northern Thailand and two of temperate climate in the Sacramento and San Joaquin River basins of California, were investigated.

  12. A Reassessment of the Integrated Impact of Tropical Cyclones on Surface Chlorophyll in the Western Subtropical North Atlantic

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Foltz, Gregory R.; Balaguru, Karthik; Leung, Lai-Yung R.

    2015-02-28

    The impact of tropical cyclones on surface chlorophyll concentration is assessed in the western subtropical North Atlantic Ocean during 19982011. Previous studies in this area focused on individual cyclones and gave mixed results regarding the importance of tropical cyclone-induced mixing for changes in surface chlorophyll. Using a more integrated and comprehensive approach that includes quantification of cyclone-induced changes in mixed layer depth, here it is shown that accumulated cyclone energy explains 22% of the interannual variability in seasonally-averaged (JuneNovember) chlorophyll concentration in the western subtropical North Atlantic, after removing the influence of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). The variance explained by tropical cyclones is thus about 70% of that explained by the NAO, which has well-known impacts in this region. It is therefore likely that tropical cyclones contribute significantly to interannual variations of primary productivity in the western subtropical North Atlantic during the hurricane season.

  13. Tropical Western Pacific site science mission plan. Semiannual project report, January--June 1998

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ackerman, T.; Mather, J.; Clements, W.; Barnes, F.

    1998-11-01

    The Department of Energy`s Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program was created in 1989 as part of the US Global Change Research Program to improve the treatment of atmospheric radiative and cloud processes in computer models used to predict climate change. The overall goal of the ARM program is to develop and test parameterizations of important atmospheric processes, particularly cloud and radiative processes, for use in atmospheric models. This goal is being achieved through a combination of field measurements and modeling studies. Three primary locales were chosen for extensive field measurement facilities. These are the Southern Great Plains (SGP) of the United States, the Tropical Western Pacific (TWP), and the North Slope of Alaska and Adjacent Arctic Ocean (NSA/AAO). This Site Science Mission Plan [RPT(TWP)-010.000] describes the ARM program in the Tropical Western Pacific locale.

  14. Linkages of Remote Sea Surface Temperatures and Atlantic Tropical Cyclone Activity Mediated by the African Monsoon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taraphdar, Sourav; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Hagos, Samson M.

    2015-01-28

    Warm sea surface temperatures (SSTs) in North Atlantic and Mediterranean (NAMED) can influence tropical cyclone (TC) activity in the tropical East Atlantic by modulating summer convection over western Africa. Analysis of 30 years of observations show that the NAMED SST is linked to a strengthening of the Saharan heat low and enhancement of moisture and moist static energy in the lower atmosphere over West Africa, which favors a northward displacement of the monsoonal front. These processes also lead to a northward shift of the African easterly jet that introduces an anomalous positive vorticity from western Africa to the main development region (50W20E; 10N20N) of Atlantic TC. By modulating multiple processes associated with the African monsoon, this study demonstrates that warm NAMED SST explains 8% of interannual variability of Atlantic TC frequency. Thus NAME SST may provide useful predictability for Atlantic TC activity on seasonal-to-interannual time scale.

  15. Reduced yield stress for zirconium exposed to iodine: Reactive force field simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rossi, Matthew L.; Taylor, Christopher D.; van Duin, Adri C. T.

    2014-11-04

    Iodine-induced stress-corrosion cracking (ISCC), a known failure mode for nuclear fuel cladding, occurs when iodine generated during the irradiation of a nuclear fuel pellet escapes the pellet through diffusion or thermal cracking and chemically interacts with the inner surface of the clad material, inducing a subsequent effect on the cladding’s resistance to mechanical stress. To complement experimental investigations of ISCC, a reactive force field (ReaxFF) compatible with the Zr-I chemical and materials systems has been developed and applied to simulate the impact of iodine exposure on the mechanical strength of the material. The study shows that the material’s resistance to stress (as captured by the yield stress of a high-energy grain boundary) is related to the surface coverage of iodine, with the implication that ISCC is the result of adsorption-enhanced decohesion.

  16. Reduced yield stress for zirconium exposed to iodine: Reactive force field simulation

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Rossi, Matthew L.; Taylor, Christopher D.; van Duin, Adri C. T.

    2014-11-04

    Iodine-induced stress-corrosion cracking (ISCC), a known failure mode for nuclear fuel cladding, occurs when iodine generated during the irradiation of a nuclear fuel pellet escapes the pellet through diffusion or thermal cracking and chemically interacts with the inner surface of the clad material, inducing a subsequent effect on the cladding’s resistance to mechanical stress. To complement experimental investigations of ISCC, a reactive force field (ReaxFF) compatible with the Zr-I chemical and materials systems has been developed and applied to simulate the impact of iodine exposure on the mechanical strength of the material. The study shows that the material’s resistance tomore » stress (as captured by the yield stress of a high-energy grain boundary) is related to the surface coverage of iodine, with the implication that ISCC is the result of adsorption-enhanced decohesion.« less

  17. Application of fall-line mix models to understand degraded yield

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Welser-Sherrill, L; Cooley, J H; Haynes, D A; Wilson, D C; Sherrill, M E; Mancini, R C; Tommasini, R

    2008-02-28

    Mixing between fuel and shell material is an important topic in the inertial confinement fusion community, and is commonly accepted as the primary mechanism for neutron yield degradation. Typically, radiation hydrodynamic simulations that lack mixing (clean simulations) tend to considerably overestimate the neutron yield. We present here a series of yield calculations based on a variety of fall-line inspired mix models. The results are compared to a series of OMEGA experiments which provide total neutron yields and time-dependent yield rates.

  18. Observations of tropical clouds from the upgraded MMCR at Darwin and

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    comparisons with C-Pol and satellite observations Observations of tropical clouds from the upgraded MMCR at Darwin and comparisons with C-Pol and satellite observations Jensen, Michael Brookhaven National Laboratory Kollias, Pavlos Brookhaven National Laboratory Vogelmann, Andrew Brookhaven National Laboratory Mather, James Pacific Northwest National Laboratory May, Peter Bureau or Meteorology Research Centre Category: Instruments The upgrade of the processor for the millimeter cloud radar

  19. Observed Regimes of Mid-Latitude.and Tropical Cirrus Microphysical Behavior

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Observed Regimes of Mid-Latitude and Tropical Cirrus Microphysical Behavior A. D. Del Genio and A. B. Wolf National Aeronautics Space Administration Goddard Institute for Space Studies New York, New York G. G. Mace University of Utah Salt Lake City, Utah L. M. Miloshevich National Center for Atmospheric Research Boulder, Colorado Introduction Little is known about the climatological microphysical properties of cirrus clouds. Thus, general circulation model (GCM) cirrus parameterizations often

  20. Microbase Cloud Products and Associated Heating Rates in the Tropical Western Pacific

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Microbase Cloud Products and Associated Heating Rates in the Tropical Western Pacific J. H. Mather and S. A. McFarlane Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Richland, Washington Introduction The microbase value added product (Miller et al. 2003) provides a standardized framework for calculating and storing continuous retrievals of cloud microphysical properties including liquid water content (LWC), ice water content (IWC), and cloud droplet size. Microbase is part of the larger broadband heating

  1. "A New Paradigm for Secondary Eyewall Formation in Tropical Cyclones",

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Chun-Chieh Wu (National Taiwan University) | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab July 27, 2012, 12:00pm to 1:15pm Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory Smagorinsky Seminar Room Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory Princeton University Forrestal Campus 201 Forrestal Road Princeton, NJ 08540-6649 "A New Paradigm for Secondary Eyewall Formation in Tropical Cyclones", Chun-Chieh Wu (National Taiwan University) Contact Information Website: Website

  2. Remote Sensing Observations from MTI Satellites and GMS Over Tropical Island of Nauru

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Remote Sensing Laboratory Department of Energy's chief risk officer visits Nevada National Security Site Earlier this month, Associate Deputy Secretary John MacWilliams visited the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) in his role as Chief Risk Officer for the Department of Energy. He reviewed the various ways the NNSS contributes to the department's and NNSA's missions, including radiological

    Remote Sensing Observations from MTI Satellites and GMS Over Tropical Island of Nauru W. M. Porch, P.

  3. Final Technical Report for "Radiative Heating Associated with Tropical Convective Cloud Systems: Its Importance at Meso and Global Scales"

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schumacher, Courtney

    2012-12-13

    Heating associated with tropical cloud systems drive the global circulation. The overall research objectives of this project were to i) further quantify and understand the importance of heating in tropical convective cloud systems with innovative observational techniques, and ii) use global models to determine the large-scale circulation response to variability in tropical heating profiles, including anvil and cirrus cloud radiative forcing. The innovative observational techniques used a diversity of radar systems to create a climatology of vertical velocities associated with the full tropical convective cloud spectrum along with a dissection of the of the total heating profile of tropical cloud systems into separate components (i.e., the latent, radiative, and eddy sensible heating). These properties were used to validate storm-scale and global climate models (GCMs) and were further used to force two different types of GCMs (one with and one without interactive physics). While radiative heating was shown to account for about 20% of the total heating and did not have a strong direct response on the global circulation, the indirect response was important via its impact on convection, esp. in how radiative heating impacts the tilt of heating associated with the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO), a phenomenon that accounts for most tropical intraseasonal variability. This work shows strong promise in determining the sensitivity of climate models and climate processes to heating variations associated with cloud systems.

  4. Clouds, radiation, and the diurnal cycle of sea surface temperature in the tropical Western Pacific

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Webster, P.J.; Clayson, C.A.; Curry, J.A.

    1996-04-01

    In the tropical Western Pacific (TWP) Ocean, the clouds and the cloud-radiation feedback can only be understood in the context of air/sea interactions and the ocean mixed layer. Considerable interest has been shown in attempting to explain why sea surface temperature (SST) rarely rises above 30{degrees}C, and gradients of the SST. For the most part, observational studies that address this issue have been conducted using monthly cloud and SST data, and the focus has been on intraseasonal and interannual time scales. For the unstable tropical atmosphere, using monthly averaged data misses a key feedback between clouds and SST that occurs on the cloud-SST coupling time scale, which was estimated to be 3-6 days for the unstable tropical atmosphere. This time scale is the time needed for a change in cloud properties, due to the change of ocean surface evaporation caused by SST variation, to feed back to the SST variation, to feed back to the SST through its effect on the surface heat flux. This paper addresses the relationship between clouds, surface radiation flux and SST of the TWP ocean over the diurnal cycle.

  5. Tropical Africa: Land Use, Biomass, and Carbon Estimates for 1980 (NDP-055)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, S.

    2002-04-16

    This document describes the contents of a digital database containing maximum potential aboveground biomass, land use, and estimated biomass and carbon data for 1980. The biomass data and carbon estimates are associated with woody vegetation in Tropical Africa. These data were collected to reduce the uncertainty associated with estimating historical releases of carbon from land use change. Tropical Africa is defined here as encompassing 22.7 x 10{sup 6} km{sup 2} of the earth's land surface and is comprised of countries that are located in tropical Africa (Angola, Botswana, Burundi, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Congo, Benin, Equatorial Guinea, Ethiopia, Djibouti, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Ivory Coast, Kenya, Liberia, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mauritania, Mozambique, Namibia, Niger, Nigeria, Guinea-Bissau, Zimbabwe (Rhodesia), Rwanda, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Somalia, Sudan, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda, Burkina Faso (Upper Volta), Zaire, and Zambia). The database was developed using the GRID module in the ARC/INFO{trademark} geographic information system. Source data were obtained from the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), the U.S. National Geophysical Data Center, and a limited number of biomass-carbon density case studies. These data were used to derive the maximum potential and actual (ca. 1980) aboveground biomass values at regional and country levels. The land-use data provided were derived from a vegetation map originally produced for the FAO by the International Institute of Vegetation Mapping, Toulouse, France.

  6. Long-Term Operation Of Ground-Based Atmospheric Sensing Systems In The Tropical Western Pacific

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ivey, Mark; Jones, Larry J.; Porch, W. M.; Apple, Monty L.; Widener, Kevin B.

    2004-10-14

    Three semi-autonomous atmospheric sensing systems were installed in the tropical western Pacific region. The first of these Atmospheric Radiation and Cloud Stations (ARCS) began operation in 1996. Each ARCS is configured as a system-of-systems since it comprises an ensemble of independent instrument systems. The ARCS collect, process, and transmit large volumes of cloud, solar and thermal radiation, and meteorological data to support climate studies and climate-modeling improvements as part of the U.S Department of Energys Atmospheric and Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program. Data from these tropical ARCS stations have been used for satellite ground-truth data comparisons and validations, including comparisons for MTI and AQUA satellite data. Our experiences with these systems in the tropics led to modifications in their design. An ongoing international logistics effort is required to keep gigabytes per day of quality-assured data flowing to the ARM programs archives. Design criteria, performance, communications methods, and the day-to-day logistics required to support long-term operations of ground-based remote atmospheric sensing systems are discussed. End-to-end data flow from the ARCS systems to the ARM Program archives is discussed.

  7. Teleconnections of the Southern Oscillation in the tropical Atlantic sector in the OSU coupled upper ocean-atomosphere GCM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hameed, S.; Meinster, A. ); Sperber, K.R. )

    1993-03-01

    The Oregon State University coupled upper ocean-atmosphere GCM has been shown to qualitatively simulate the Southern Oscillation. A composite analysis of the warm and cold events simulated in this 23-year integration has been performed. During the low phase of the Southern Oscillation, when warm anomalies occur in the eastern Pacific, the model simulates for the Atlantic region during March-May (1) a deficit of precipitation over the tropical South American continent, (2) Caribbean and Gulf of Mexico sea level pressure and sea surface temperature are in phase with the eastern Pacific anomalies, while those east of the Nordeste region are out of phase, and (3) northeast trade winds are anomalously weak and southwest trade winds are anomalously strong (as inferred from surface current anomalies). The anomalies in the oceanic processes are induced by perturbations in the atmospheric circulation over the Atlantic and are coupled to changes in the Walker circulation. During the high phase of the simulated Southern Oscillation, conditions in the atmosphere and ocean are essentially the reverse of the low phase. The model produces a response in the South American region during the opposing phases of the Southern Oscillation that is in general agreement with observations. The interannual variation of Nordeste rainfall is shown to be dominated by a few band-limited frequencies. These frequencies are found in the SST series of those regions of the Atlantic and Pacific oceans where strong correlations with Nordeste precipitation exist.

  8. Stellar yields of rotating first stars. I. Yields of weak supernovae and abundances of carbon-enhanced hyper-metal-poor stars

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Takahashi, Koh; Umeda, Hideyuki [Department of Astronomy, The University of Tokyo, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Yoshida, Takashi, E-mail: ktakahashi@astron.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa-Oiwakecho, Sakyo-Ku, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan)

    2014-10-10

    We perform a stellar evolution simulation of first stars and calculate stellar yields from the first supernovae. The initial masses are taken from 12 to 140 M {sub ?} to cover the whole range of core-collapse supernova progenitors, and stellar rotation is included, which results in efficient internal mixing. A weak explosion is assumed in supernova yield calculations, thus only outer distributed matter, which is not affected by the explosive nucleosynthesis, is ejected in the models. We show that the initial mass and the rotation affect the explosion yield. All the weak explosion models have abundances of [C/O] larger than unity. Stellar yields from massive progenitors of >40-60 M {sub ?} show enhancement of Mg and Si. Rotating models yield abundant Na and Al, and Ca is synthesized in nonrotating heavy massive models of >80 M {sub ?}. We fit the stellar yields to the three most iron-deficient stars and constrain the initial parameters of the mother progenitor stars. The abundance pattern in SMSS 03136708 is well explained by 50-80 M {sub ?} nonrotating models, rotating 30-40 M {sub ?} models well fit the abundance of HE 0107-5240, and both nonrotating and rotating 15-40 M {sub ?} models explain HE 1327-2326. The presented analysis will be applicable to other carbon-enhanced hyper-metal-poor stars observed in the future. The abundance analyses will give valuable information about the characteristics of the first stars.

  9. Role of the N*(1535) resonance and the {pi}{sup -}p{yields}KY amplitudes in the OZI forbidden {pi}N{yields}{phi}N reaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doering, M.; Oset, E.; Zou, B. S.

    2008-08-15

    We study the {pi}N{yields}{phi}N reaction close to the {phi}N threshold within the chiral unitary approach, by combining the {pi}{sup -}p{yields}K{sup +}{sigma}{sup -},{pi}{sup -}p{yields}K{sup 0}{sigma}{sup 0}, and {pi}{sup -}p{yields}K{sup 0}{lambda} amplitudes with the coupling of {phi} to the K components of the final states of these reactions via quantum loops. We obtain good agreement with experiment when the dominant {pi}{sup -}p{yields}K{sup 0}{lambda} amplitude is constrained with its experimental cross section. We also evaluate the coupling of N*(1535) to {phi}N and find a moderate coupling as a consequence of partial cancellation of the large KY components of N*(1535). We also show that the N*(1535) pole approximation is too small to reproduce the measured cross section for the {pi}{sup -}N{yields}{phi}N reaction.

  10. {upsilon}(1S){yields}{gamma}f{sub 2}(1270) decay

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li Bingan

    2009-12-01

    Decay {upsilon}(1S){yields}{gamma}f{sub 2}(1270) is studied by an approach in which the tensor meson, f{sub 2}(1270), is strongly coupled to gluons. Besides the strong suppression of the amplitude {upsilon}(1S){yields}{gamma}gg, gg{yields}f{sub 2} by the mass of the b-quark, d-wave dominance in {upsilon}(1S){yields}{gamma}f{sub 2}(1270) is revealed from this approach, which provides a large enhancement. The combination of these two factors leads to larger B({upsilon}(1S){yields}{gamma}f{sub 2}(1270)). The decay rate of {upsilon}(1S){yields}{gamma}f{sub 2}(1270) and the ratios of the helicity amplitudes are obtained and they are in agreement with the data.

  11. Lepton flavor violating Higgs bosons and {tau}{yields}{mu}{gamma}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davidson, Sacha; Grenier, Gerald

    2010-05-01

    We update phenomenological constraints on a two Higgs doublet model with lepton flavor nonconserving Yukawa couplings. We review that tan{beta} is ambiguous in such 'type III' models, and define it from the {tau} Yukawa coupling. The neutral scalars {phi} could be searched for at hadron colliders in {phi}{yields}{tau}{mu} and are constrained by the rare decay {tau}{yields}{mu}{gamma}. The Feynman diagrams for the collider process, with Higgs production via gluon fusion, are similar to the two-loop ''Barr-Zee'' diagrams, which contribute to {tau}{yields}{mu}{gamma}. Some ''tuning'' is required to obtain a collider cross section of order the standard model expectation for {sigma}(gg{yields}h{sub SM{yields}{tau}}{sup +{tau}-}), while agreeing with the current bound from {tau}{yields}{mu}{gamma}.

  12. In-situ determination of energy species yields of intense particle beams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kugel, Henry W.; Kaita, Robert

    1987-01-01

    An arrangement is provided for the in-situ determination of energy species yields of intense particle beams. The beam is directed onto a target surface of known composition, such that Rutherford backscattering of the beam occurs. The yield-energy characteristic response of the beam to backscattering from the target is analyzed using Rutherford backscattering techniques to determine the yields of energy species components of the beam.

  13. In-situ determination of energy species yields of intense particle beams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kugel, Henry W.; Kaita, Robert

    1987-03-03

    An arrangement is provided for the in-situ determination of energy species yields of intense particle beams. The beam is directed onto a target surface of known composition, such that Rutherford backscattering of the beam occurs. The yield-energy characteristic response of the beam to backscattering from the target is analyzed using Rutherford backscattering techniques to determine the yields of energy species components of the beam.

  14. Integrated semiconductor quantum dot scintillation detector: Ultimate limit for speed and light yield

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Oktyabrsky, Serge; Yakimov, Michael; Tokranov, Vadim; Murat, Pavel

    2016-03-30

    Here, a picosecond-range timing of charged particles and photons is a long-standing challenge for many high-energy physics, biophysics, medical and security applications. We present a design, technological pathway and challenges, and some properties important for realization of an ultrafast high-efficient room-temperature semiconductor scintillator based on self-assembled InAs quantum dots (QD) embedded in a GaAs matrix. Low QD density (<; 1015 cm-3), fast (~5 ps) electron capture, luminescence peak redshifted by 0.2-0.3 eV from GaAs absorption edge with fast decay time (0.5-1 ns) along with the efficient energy transfer in the GaAs matrix (4.2 eV/pair) allows for fabrication of a semiconductormore » scintillator with the unsurpassed performance parameters. The major technological challenge is fabrication of a large volume (> 1 cm3 ) of epitaxial QD medium. This requires multiple film separation and bonding, likely using separate epitaxial films as waveguides for improved light coupling. Compared to traditional inorganic scintillators, the semiconductor-QD based scintillators could have about 5x higher light yield and 20x faster decay time, opening a way to gamma detectors with the energy resolution better than 1% and sustaining counting rates MHz. Picosecond-scale timing requires segmented low-capacitance photodiodes integrated with the scintillator. For photons, the proposed detector inherently provides the depth-of-interaction information.« less

  15. (Collection of data on tropical forest inventories, Rome, Italy, March 20--25, 1989): Foreign trip report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, S.; Gillespie, A.

    1989-04-06

    All forestry information in the library of FAO was organized into country ''boxes,'' and all boxes for countries in tropical Asia and tropical America were searched for data on forest inventories. Information on location and extent of inventories and resulting stand and stock tables were obtained for (1) converting to biomass by using methods that were already developed and (2) calculating expansion factors (commercial volume to total biomass). This work was conducted by the University of Illinois (Drs. Sandra Brown, Principal Investigator, and Andrew Gillespie, Research Associate) for the Department of Energy's Energy Systems Program managed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The travelers were successful in obtaining copies of some data for most countries in tropical Asia and tropical America. Most of the inventories for Asia were for only parts of countries, whereas most in America were national in scale. With the information gathered, the travelers will be able to make biomass estimates, geographically referenced, for many forest types representing thousands of hectares in most countries in these two tropical regions.

  16. Calculated fission-fragment yield systematics in the region 74 <=Z <= 94 and 90 <=N <= 150

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Möller, Peter; Randrup, Jørgen

    2015-04-01

    Background: In the seminal experiment by Schmidt et al. [Nucl. Phys. A 665, 221 (2000)] in which fission-fragment charge distributions were obtained for 70 nuclides, asymmetric distributions were seen above nucleon number A ≈ 226 and symmetric ones below. Because asymmetric fission had often loosely been explained as a preference for the nucleus to always exploit the extra binding of fragments near ¹³²Sn it was assumed that all systems below A ≈ 226 would fission symmetrically because available isotopes do not have a proton-to-neutron Z/N ratio that allows division into fragments near ¹³²Sn. But the finding by Andreyev et al.more » [Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 252502 (2010)] did not conform to this expectation because the compound system ¹⁸⁰Hg was shown to fission asymmetrically. It was suggested that this was a new type of asymmetric fission, because no strong shell effects occur for any possible fragment division. Purpose: We calculate a reference database for fission-fragment mass yields for a large region of the nuclear chart comprising 987 nuclides. A particular aim is to establish whether ¹⁸⁰Hg is part of a contiguous region of asymmetric fission, and if so, its extent, or if not, in contrast to the actinides, there are scattered smaller groups of nuclei that fission asymmetrically in this area of the nuclear chart. Methods: We use the by now well benchmarked Brownian shape-motion method and perform random walks on the previously calculated five-dimensional potential-energy surfaces. The calculated shell corrections are damped out with energy according to a prescription developed earlier. Results: We have obtained a theoretical reference database of fission-fragment mass yields for 987 nuclides. These results show an extended region of asymmetric fission with approximate extension 74 ≤ Z ≤ 85 and 100 ≤ N ≤ 120. The calculated yields are highly variable. We show 20 representative plots of these variable features and summarize the main

  17. Calculated fission-fragment yield systematics in the region 74 <=Z <= 94 and 90 <=N <= 150

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mller, Peter; Randrup, Jrgen

    2015-04-01

    Background: In the seminal experiment by Schmidt et al. [Nucl. Phys. A 665, 221 (2000)] in which fission-fragment charge distributions were obtained for 70 nuclides, asymmetric distributions were seen above nucleon number A ? 226 and symmetric ones below. Because asymmetric fission had often loosely been explained as a preference for the nucleus to always exploit the extra binding of fragments near Sn it was assumed that all systems below A ? 226 would fission symmetrically because available isotopes do not have a proton-to-neutron Z/N ratio that allows division into fragments near Sn. But the finding by Andreyev et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 252502 (2010)] did not conform to this expectation because the compound system ??Hg was shown to fission asymmetrically. It was suggested that this was a new type of asymmetric fission, because no strong shell effects occur for any possible fragment division. Purpose: We calculate a reference database for fission-fragment mass yields for a large region of the nuclear chart comprising 987 nuclides. A particular aim is to establish whether ??Hg is part of a contiguous region of asymmetric fission, and if so, its extent, or if not, in contrast to the actinides, there are scattered smaller groups of nuclei that fission asymmetrically in this area of the nuclear chart. Methods: We use the by now well benchmarked Brownian shape-motion method and perform random walks on the previously calculated five-dimensional potential-energy surfaces. The calculated shell corrections are damped out with energy according to a prescription developed earlier. Results: We have obtained a theoretical reference database of fission-fragment mass yields for 987 nuclides. These results show an extended region of asymmetric fission with approximate extension 74 ? Z ? 85 and 100 ? N ? 120. The calculated yields are highly variable. We show 20 representative plots of these variable features and summarize the main aspects of our results

  18. Calculated fission-fragment yield systematics in the region 74 <=Z <= 94 and 90 <=N <= 150

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Möller, Peter; Randrup, Jørgen

    2015-04-01

    Background: In the seminal experiment by Schmidt et al. [Nucl. Phys. A 665, 221 (2000)] in which fission-fragment charge distributions were obtained for 70 nuclides, asymmetric distributions were seen above nucleon number A ≈ 226 and symmetric ones below. Because asymmetric fission had often loosely been explained as a preference for the nucleus to always exploit the extra binding of fragments near ¹³²Sn it was assumed that all systems below A ≈ 226 would fission symmetrically because available isotopes do not have a proton-to-neutron Z/N ratio that allows division into fragments near ¹³²Sn. But the finding by Andreyev et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 252502 (2010)] did not conform to this expectation because the compound system ¹⁸⁰Hg was shown to fission asymmetrically. It was suggested that this was a new type of asymmetric fission, because no strong shell effects occur for any possible fragment division. Purpose: We calculate a reference database for fission-fragment mass yields for a large region of the nuclear chart comprising 987 nuclides. A particular aim is to establish whether ¹⁸⁰Hg is part of a contiguous region of asymmetric fission, and if so, its extent, or if not, in contrast to the actinides, there are scattered smaller groups of nuclei that fission asymmetrically in this area of the nuclear chart. Methods: We use the by now well benchmarked Brownian shape-motion method and perform random walks on the previously calculated five-dimensional potential-energy surfaces. The calculated shell corrections are damped out with energy according to a prescription developed earlier. Results: We have obtained a theoretical reference database of fission-fragment mass yields for 987 nuclides. These results show an extended region of asymmetric fission with approximate extension 74 ≤ Z ≤ 85 and 100 ≤ N ≤ 120. The calculated yields are highly variable. We show 20 representative plots of these variable features and summarize the

  19. Active Wake Redirection Control to Improve Energy Yield (Poster)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Churchfield, M. J.; Fleming, P.; DeGeorge, E.; Bulder, B; White, S. M.

    2014-10-01

    Wake effects can dramatically reduce the efficiency of waked turbines relative to the unwaked turbines. Wakes can be deflected, or 'redirected,' by applying yaw misalignment to the turbines. Yaw misalignment causes part of the rotor thrust vector to be pointed in the cross-stream direction, deflecting the flow and the wake. Yaw misalignment reduces power production, but the global increase in wind plant power due to decreased wake effect creates a net increase in power production. It is also a fairly simple control idea to implement at existing or new wind plants. We performed high-fidelity computational fluid dynamics simulations of the wake flow of the proposed Fishermen's Atlantic City Windfarm (FACW) that predict that under certain waking conditions, wake redirection can increase plant efficiency by 10%. This means that by applying wake redirection control, for a given watersheet area, a wind plant can either produce more power, or the same amount of power can be produced with a smaller watersheet area. With the power increase may come increased loads, though, due to the yaw misalignment. If misalignment is applied properly, or if layered with individual blade pitch control, though, the load increase can be mitigated. In this talk we will discuss the concept of wake redirection through yaw misalignment and present our CFD results of the FACW project. We will also discuss the implications of wake redirection control on annual energy production, and finally we will discuss plans to implement wake redirection control at FACW when it is operational.

  20. {eta} Prime {yields}{pi}{sup 0}{gamma}{gamma} and {eta} Prime {yields}{eta}{gamma}{gamma}: A primer analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Escribano, Rafel

    2012-10-23

    The electromagnetic rare decays {eta} Prime {yields}{pi}{sup 0}{gamma}{gamma} and {eta} Prime {yields}{pi}{sup 0}{gamma}{gamma} are analysed for the first time and their predicted branching ratios given. The vector meson exchange dominant contribution is treated using Vector Meson Dominance and the scalar component is estimated by means of the Linear Sigma Model. The agreement between our calculation and the measurement of the related process {eta} Prime {yields}{pi}{sup 0}{gamma}{gamma} is a check of the procedure. Scalar meson effects are seen to be irrelevant for {eta} Prime {yields}{pi}{sup 0}{gamma}{gamma}, while a significant scalar contribution due to the {sigma}(500) resonance seems to emerge in the case of {eta} Prime {yields}{pi}{sup 0}{gamma}{gamma}. Future measurements coming from KLOE-2, Crystal Ball, WASA, and BES-III will elucidate if any of these processes carry an important scalar contribution or they are simply driven by the exchange of vector mesons.

  1. Intercropping of two Leucaena spp. with sweet potato: yield, growth rate and biomass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swift, J.F.

    1982-01-01

    Results of trials with Leucaena leucocephala and Leucaena diversifolia at Wau, Papua New Guinea, showed potential benefits of the agroforestry cropping system. The total biomass yield (sweet potato plus firewood and green manure) was considerably greater than the yield per unit area of sweet potato alone. 3 references.

  2. Calculations to assist in a new Hiroshima yield estimate. Final report, August 19-December 31, 1983

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kennedy, L.W.; Roth, L.A.; Needham, C.E.

    1984-06-15

    This report describes calculations and analysis performed in an attempt to provide a new estimate for the yield of the Hiroshima weapon. Newly discovered meteorological data was adapted for use in one- and two-dimensional hydrodynamic codes, and a series of calculations was then run for different values of yield. The objective was to determine what yield produced an overpressure record which could best be correlated with an actual trace measured at a parachute-dropped canister. Altitude of the bomb and canister-carrying aircraft at drop time was also a variable parameter. The analysis provides an estimate of 16.6 + 0.3 kt for the yield of the Hiroshima weapon. A drop altitude of near 35,500 feet is shown to be consistent with the signal time-of-arrival. This yield value is within the range of other estimates, but the drop altitude is higher than that previously assumed to be reasonable.

  3. Models of carbon flow in tropical ecosystems with emphasis on their role in the global carbon cycle. Final report, September 15, 1978-September 14, 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, S.; Lugo, A.E.

    1980-01-01

    The role of tropical forests on the carbon balance of the world is studied with four different approaches: (1) to quantify the area of tropical forests and the changes in forest cover; (2) to calculate the storage and production of organic carbon in tropical forests; (3) the modelling of land use changes in tropical countries using computer simulation models; and (4) the synthesis of information from many sources into conceptual schemes using Life Zone and energy use concepts. Results are not yet conclusive but indicate that tropical forests play a significant role in the global carbon cycle, and they are likely to be small sources of carbon to the atmosphere. The basis for this statement is: (1) the large area of tropical forests do not appear to be changing as fast as suggested earlier; (2) the storage of carbon in the tropics is about one half as previously suggested; (3) the turnover of carbon in the tropics is very fast with large exports to the ocean via rivers; and (4) models of land use change using data from Bolivia show only a small net addition of carbon to the atmosphere.

  4. Quantifying Diurnal Cloud Radiative Effects by Cloud Type in the Tropical Western Pacific

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burleyson, Casey D.; Long, Charles N.; Comstock, Jennifer M.

    2015-06-01

    Cloud radiative effects are examined using long-term datasets collected at the three Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facilities in the tropical western Pacific. We quantify the surface radiation budget, cloud populations, and cloud radiative effects by partitioning the data by cloud type, time of day, and as a function of large scale modes of variability such as El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) phase and wet/dry seasons at Darwin. The novel facet of our analysis is that we break aggregate cloud radiative effects down by cloud type across the diurnal cycle. The Nauru cloud populations and subsequently the surface radiation budget are strongly impacted by ENSO variability whereas the cloud populations over Manus only shift slightly in response to changes in ENSO phase. The Darwin site exhibits large seasonal monsoon related variations. We show that while deeper convective clouds have a strong conditional influence on the radiation reaching the surface, their limited frequency reduces their aggregate radiative impact. The largest source of shortwave cloud radiative effects at all three sites comes from low clouds. We use the observations to demonstrate that potential model biases in the amplitude of the diurnal cycle and mean cloud frequency would lead to larger errors in the surface energy budget compared to biases in the timing of the diurnal cycle of cloud frequency. Our results provide solid benchmarks to evaluate model simulations of cloud radiative effects in the tropics.

  5. Coupled interactions of organized deep convection over the tropical western pacific

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hong, X.; Raman, S.

    1996-04-01

    The relationship between sea surface temperature (SST) and deep convection is complex. In general, deep convection occurs more frequently and with more intensity as SSTs become higher. This theory assumes that the atmospheric stability is sufficiently reduced to allow the onset of moist convection. However, the amount and intensity of convection observed tends to decrease with increasing SST because very warm SSTs. A reason for such decrease is the enhancements to surface fluxes of heat and moisture out of the ocean surface because of the vertical overturning associated with deep convection. Early studies used the radiative-convective models of the atmosphere to examine the role of the convective exchange of heat and moisture in maintaining the vertical temperature profile. In this paper we use a Coupled Ocean/Atmosphere Mesoscale Prediction System (COAMPS) to simulate a squall line over a tropical ocean global atmosphere/coupled ocean atmosphere response experiment (TOGA/COARE) area and to investigate how the ocean cooling mechanisms associated with organized deep convection act to limit tropical SSTs.

  6. Interannual variation of the surface temperature of tropical forests from satellite observations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gao, Huilin; Zhang, Shuai; Fu, Rong; Li, Wenhong; Dickinson, Robert E.

    2016-01-01

    Land surface temperatures (LSTs) within tropical forests contribute to climate variations. However, observational data are very limited in such regions. This study used passive microwave remote sensing data from the Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) and the Special Sensor Microwave Imager Sounder (SSMIS), providing observations under all weather conditions, to investigate the LST over the Amazon and Congo rainforests. The SSM/I and SSMIS data were collected from 1996 to 2012. The morning and afternoon observations from passive microwave remote sensing facilitate the investigation of the interannual changes of LST anomalies on a diurnal basis. As a result of the variability of cloud cover and the corresponding reduction of solar radiation, the afternoon LST anomalies tend to vary more than the morning LST anomalies. The dominant spatial and temporal patterns for interseasonal variations of the LST anomalies over the tropical rainforest were analyzed. The impacts of droughts and El Niños on this LST were also investigated. Lastly, the differences between early morning and late afternoon LST anomalies were identified by the remote sensing product, with the morning LST anomalies controlled by humidity (according to comparisons with the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) reanalysis data).

  7. Interannual variation of the surface temperature of tropical forests from satellite observations

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Gao, Huilin; Zhang, Shuai; Fu, Rong; Li, Wenhong; Dickinson, Robert E.

    2016-01-01

    Land surface temperatures (LSTs) within tropical forests contribute to climate variations. However, observational data are very limited in such regions. This study used passive microwave remote sensing data from the Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) and the Special Sensor Microwave Imager Sounder (SSMIS), providing observations under all weather conditions, to investigate the LST over the Amazon and Congo rainforests. The SSM/I and SSMIS data were collected from 1996 to 2012. The morning and afternoon observations from passive microwave remote sensing facilitate the investigation of the interannual changes of LST anomalies on a diurnal basis. As a result of the variability ofmore » cloud cover and the corresponding reduction of solar radiation, the afternoon LST anomalies tend to vary more than the morning LST anomalies. The dominant spatial and temporal patterns for interseasonal variations of the LST anomalies over the tropical rainforest were analyzed. The impacts of droughts and El Niños on this LST were also investigated. Lastly, the differences between early morning and late afternoon LST anomalies were identified by the remote sensing product, with the morning LST anomalies controlled by humidity (according to comparisons with the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) reanalysis data).« less

  8. A coupled theory of tropical climatology: Warm pool, cold tongue, and Walker circulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhengyu Liu; Boyin Huang

    1997-07-01

    Based on results from analytic and general circulation models, the authors propose a theory for the coupled warm pool, cold tongue, and Walker circulation system. The intensity of the coupled system is determined by the coupling strength, the local equilibrium time, and latitudinal differential heating. Most importantly, this intensity is strongly regulated in the coupled system, with a saturation level that can be reached at a modest coupling strength. The saturation west-east sea surface temperature difference (and the associated Walker circulation) corresponds to about one-quarter of the latitudinal differential equilibrium temperature. This regulation is caused primarily by the decoupling of the SST gradient from a strong ocean current. The author`s estimate suggests that the present Pacific is near the saturation state. Furthermore, the much weaker Walker circulation system in the Atlantic Ocean is interpreted as being the result of the influence of the adjacent land, which is able to extend into the entire Atlantic to change the zonal distribution of the trade wind. The theory is also applied to understand the tropical climatology in coupled GCM simulations, in the Last Glacial Maximum climate, and in the global warming climate, as well as in the regulation of the tropical sea surface temperature. 41 refs., 15 figs.

  9. Experimental search for the radiative capture reaction d + d {yields} {sup 4}He + {gamma} from the dd{mu} muonic molecule state J = 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baluev, V. V.; Bogdanova, L. N.; Bom, V. R.; Demin, D. L.; Eijk, C. W. E. van; Filchenkov, V. V.; Grafov, N. N.; Grishechkin, S. K.; Gritsaj, K. I.; Konin, A. D.; Mikhailyukov, K. L.; Rudenko, A. I.; Vinogradov, Yu. I.; Volnykh, V. P.; Yukhimchuk, A. A.; Yukhimchuk, S. A.

    2011-07-15

    A search for the muon-catalyzed fusion reaction d + d {yields} {sup 4}He + {gamma} in the dd{mu} muonic molecule was performed using the experimental installation TRITON with BGO detectors for {gamma}-quanta. A high-pressure target filled with deuterium was exposed to the negative muon beam of the JINR Phasotron to detect {gamma}-quanta with the energy 23.8 MeV. An experimental estimation for the yield of radiative deuteron capture from the dd{mu} state J = 1 was obtained at the level of {eta}{sub {gamma}} {<=} 8 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -7} per fusion.

  10. Mechanisms of Convective Cloud Organization by Cold Pools over Tropical Warm Ocean during the AMIE/DYNAMO Field Campaign

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feng, Zhe; Hagos, Samson M.; Rowe, Angela; Burleyson, Casey D.; Martini, Matus; de Szoeke, S.

    2015-06-01

    This paper investigates the mechanisms of convective cloud organization by precipitation-driven cold pools over the warm tropical Indian Ocean during the 2011 Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) Investigation Experiment / Dynamics of the MJO (AMIE/DYNAMO) field campaign. A high-resolution regional model simulation is performed using the Weather Research and Forecasting model during the transition from suppressed to active phases of the November 2011 MJO. The simulated cold pool lifetimes, spatial extent and thermodynamic properties agree well with the radar and ship-borne observations from the field campaign. The thermodynamic and dynamic structures of the outflow boundaries of isolated and intersecting cold pools in the simulation and the associated secondary cloud populations are examined. Intersecting cold pools last more than twice as long, are twice as large, 41% more intense (measured by buoyancy), and 62% deeper than isolated cold pools. Consequently, intersecting cold pools trigger 73% more convective clouds than isolated ones. This is possibly due to stronger outflows that enhance secondary updraft velocities by up to 45%. However, cold pool-triggered convective clouds grow into deep convection not because of the stronger secondary updrafts at cloud base, but rather due to closer spacing (aggregation) between clouds and larger cloud clusters that formed along the cold pool boundaries when they intersect. The close spacing of large clouds moistens the local environment and reduces entrainment drying, allowing the clouds to further develop into deep convection. Implications to the design of future convective parameterization with cold pool-modulated entrainment rates are discussed.

  11. High Voltage Connector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kurita, C.H.; /Fermilab

    1987-03-06

    The originally designed high voltage connectors were to be made of brass. However, if treated like a Bellevile spring with the initially given dimensions, the stresses of the connector when crimped were calculated to be much higher than the yield stress of brass. Since the flange and outer diameters of the connector are to remain small, it was necessary to alter the other dimensions and choice of material in order to bring down the stresses applied to the connector.

  12. Combined Tevatron upper limit on gg{yields}H{yields}W{sup +}W{sup -} and constraints on the Higgs boson mass in fourth-generation fermion models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aaltonen, T.; Mehtala, P.; Orava, R.; Osterberg, K.; Saarikko, H.; Remortel, N. van; Abazov, V. M.; Alexeev, G. D.; Artikov, A.; Budagov, J.; Chokheli, D.; Glagolev, V.; Golovanov, G.; Kharzheev, Y. N.; Malyshev, V. L.; Poukhov, O.; Prokoshin, F.; Semenov, A.; Simonenko, A.; Sisakyan, A.

    2010-07-01

    We combine results from searches by the CDF and D0 collaborations for a standard model Higgs boson (H) in the process gg{yields}H{yields}W{sup +}W{sup -} in pp collisions at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider at {radical}(s)=1.96 TeV. With 4.8 fb{sup -1} of integrated luminosity analyzed at CDF and 5.4 fb{sup -1} at D0, the 95% confidence level upper limit on {sigma}(gg{yields}H)xB(H{yields}W{sup +}W{sup -}) is 1.75 pb at m{sub H}=120 GeV, 0.38 pb at m{sub H}=165 GeV, and 0.83 pb at m{sub H}=200 GeV. Assuming the presence of a fourth sequential generation of fermions with large masses, we exclude at the 95% confidence level a standard-model-like Higgs boson with a mass between 131 and 204 GeV.

  13. High Selectivity Oxygen Delignification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arthur J. Ragauskas Lucian A. Lucia Hasan Jameel

    2005-09-30

    The overall objective of this program was to develop improved extended oxygen delignification (EOD) technologies for current U.S. pulp mill operations. This was accomplished by: (1) Identifying pulping conditions that optimize O and OO performance; (2) Identifying structural features of lignin that enhance reactivity towards EOD of high kappa pulps; (3) Identifying factors minimizing carbohydrate degradation and improve pulp strength of EOD high kappa pulps; (4) Developing a simple, reproducible method of quantifying yield gains from EOD; and (5) Developing process conditions that significantly reduce the capital requirements of EOD while optimizing the yield benefits. Key research outcomes included, demonstrating the use of a mini-O sequence such as (E+O)Dkf:0.05(E+O) or Dkf:0.05(E+O)(E+O) without interstage washing could capture approximately 60% of the delignification efficiency of a conventional O-stage without the major capital requirements associated with an O-stage for conventional SW kraft pulps. The rate of formation and loss of fiber charge during an O-stage stage can be employed to maximize net fiber charge. Optimal fiber charge development and delignification are two independent parameters and do not parallel each other. It is possible to utilize an O-stage to enhance overall cellulosic fiber charge of low and high kappa SW kraft pulps which is beneficial for physical strength properties. The application of NIR and multi-variant analysis was developed into a rapid and simple method of determining the yield of pulp from an oxygen delignification stage that has real-world mill applications. A focus point of this program was the demonstration that Kraft pulping conditions and oxygen delignification of high and low-kappa SW and HW pulps are intimately related. Improved physical pulp properties and yield can be delivered by controlling the H-factor and active alkali charge. Low AA softwood kraft pulp with a kappa number 30 has an average improvement of 2% in

  14. Measurement of Pressure Dependent Fluorescence Yield of Air: Calibration Factor for UHECR Detectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Belz, J.W.; Burt, G.W.; Cao, Z.; Chang, F.Y.; Chen, C.C.; Chen, C.W.; Chen, P.; Field, C.; Findlay, J.; Huntemeyer, Petra; Huang, M.A.; Hwang, W.-Y.P.; Iverson, R.; Jones, B.F.; Jui, C.C.H.; Kirn, M.; Lin, G.-L.; Loh, E.C.; Maestas, M.M.; Manago, N.; Martens, K.; /Montana U. /Utah U. /Taiwan, Natl. Taiwan U. /SLAC /Rutgers U., Piscataway

    2005-07-06

    In a test experiment at the Final Focus Test Beam of the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, the fluorescence yield of 28.5 GeV electrons in air and nitrogen was measured. The measured photon yields between 300 and 400 nm at 1 atm and 29 C are Y(760 Torr){sup air} = 4.42 {+-} 0.73 and Y(760 Torr){sup N{sub 2}} = 29.2 {+-} 4.8 photons per electron per meter. Assuming that the fluorescence yield is proportional to the energy deposition of a charged particle traveling through air, good agreement with measurements at lower particle energies is observed.

  15. Effect of oxidant concentration, exposure time, and seed particles on secondary organic aerosol chemical composition and yield

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Lambe, A. T.; Chhabra, P. S.; Onasch, T. B.; Brune, W. H.; Hunter, J. F.; Kroll, J. H.; Cummings, M. J.; Brogan, J. F.; Parmar, Y.; Worsnop, D. R.; et al

    2015-03-18

    We performed a systematic intercomparison study of the chemistry and yields of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) generated from OH oxidation of a common set of gas-phase precursors in a Potential Aerosol Mass (PAM) continuous flow reactor and several environmental chambers. In the flow reactor, SOA precursors were oxidized using OH concentrations ranging from 2.0 × 108 to 2.2 × 1010 molec cm-3 over exposure times of 100 s. In the environmental chambers, precursors were oxidized using OH concentrations ranging from 2 × 106 to 2 × 107 molec cm-3 over exposure times of several hours. The OH concentration in themore » chamber experiments is close to that found in the atmosphere, but the integrated OH exposure in the flow reactor can simulate atmospheric exposure times of multiple days compared to chamber exposure times of only a day or so. In most cases, for a specific SOA type the most-oxidized chamber SOA and the least-oxidized flow reactor SOA have similar mass spectra, oxygen-to-carbon and hydrogen-to-carbon ratios, and carbon oxidation states at integrated OH exposures between approximately 1 × 1011 and 2 × 1011 molec cm-3 s, or about 1–2 days of equivalent atmospheric oxidation. This observation suggests that in the range of available OH exposure overlap for the flow reactor and chambers, SOA elemental composition as measured by an aerosol mass spectrometer is similar whether the precursor is exposed to low OH concentrations over long exposure times or high OH concentrations over short exposure times. This similarity in turn suggests that both in the flow reactor and in chambers, SOA chemical composition at low OH exposure is governed primarily by gas-phase OH oxidation of the precursors rather than heterogeneous oxidation of the condensed particles. In general, SOA yields measured in the flow reactor are lower than measured in chambers for the range of equivalent OH exposures that can be measured in both the flow reactor and chambers. The influence of

  16. Using CAD software to simulate PV energy yield - The case of product integrated photovoltaic operated under indoor solar irradiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reich, N.H.; van Sark, W.G.J.H.M.; Turkenburg, W.C.; Sinke, W.C.

    2010-08-15

    In this paper, we show that photovoltaic (PV) energy yields can be simulated using standard rendering and ray-tracing features of Computer Aided Design (CAD) software. To this end, three-dimensional (3-D) sceneries are ray-traced in CAD. The PV power output is then modeled by translating irradiance intensity data of rendered images back into numerical data. To ensure accurate results, the solar irradiation data used as input is compared to numerical data obtained from rendered images, showing excellent agreement. As expected, also ray-tracing precision in the CAD software proves to be very high. To demonstrate PV energy yield simulations using this innovative concept, solar radiation time course data of a few days was modeled in 3-D to simulate distributions of irradiance incident on flat, single- and double-bend shapes and a PV powered computer mouse located on a window sill. Comparisons of measured to simulated PV output of the mouse show that also in practice, simulation accuracies can be very high. Theoretically, this concept has great potential, as it can be adapted to suit a wide range of solar energy applications, such as sun-tracking and concentrator systems, Building Integrated PV (BIPV) or Product Integrated PV (PIPV). However, graphical user interfaces of 'CAD-PV' software tools are not yet available. (author)

  17. Tropical Warm Pool International Cloud Experiment TWP-ICE Cloud and rain characteristics in the Australian Monsoon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    May, P.T., Jakob, C., and Mather, J.H.

    2004-05-31

    The impact of oceanic convection on its environment and the relationship between the characteristics of the convection and the resulting cirrus characteristics is still not understood. An intense airborne measurement campaign combined with an extensive network of ground-based observations is being planned for the region near Darwin, Northern Australia, during January-February, 2006, to address these questions. The Tropical Warm Pool International Cloud Experiment (TWP-ICE) will be the first field program in the tropics that attempts to describe the evolution of tropical convection, including the large scale heat, moisture, and momentum budgets, while at the same time obtaining detailed observations of cloud properties and the impact of the clouds on the environment. The emphasis will be on cirrus for the cloud properties component of the experiment. Cirrus clouds are ubiquitous in the tropics and have a large impact on their environment but the properties of these clouds are poorly understood. A crucial product from this experiment will be a dataset suitable to provide the forcing and testing required by cloud-resolving models and parameterizations in global climate models. This dataset will provide the necessary link between cloud properties and the models that are attempting to simulate them.

  18. Land use change and carbon exchange in the tropics. I. Detailed estimates for Costa Rice, Panama, Peru, and Bolivia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hall, C.A.S.; Detwiler, R.P.; Bogdonoff, P.; Underhill, S.

    1985-01-01

    This group, composed of modelers working in conjunction with tropical ecologists, has produced a simulation model that quantifies the net carbon exchange between tropical vegetation and the atmosphere due to land use change. The model calculates this net exchange by combining estimates of land use change with several estimates of the carbon stored in tropical vegetation and general assumptions about the fate of cleared vegetation. In this report, the authors use estimates of land use and carbon of land use and carbon storage organized into six life zone (sensu Holdridge) categories to calculate the exchange between the atmosphere and the vegetation of four tropical countries. Their analyses of these countries indicate that this life zone approach has several advantages because (a) the carbon content of vegetation varies significantly among life zones, (b) much of the land use change occurs in life zones of only moderate carbon storage, and (c) the fate of cleared vegetation varies among life zones. Their analyses also emphasize the importance of distinguishing between temporary and permanent land use change, as the recovery of vegetation on abandoned areas decreases the net release of carbon due to clearing. They include sensitivity analysis of those factors that they found to be important but are difficult to quantify at present.

  19. Shear-transformation-zone theory of yielding in athermal amorphous materials

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Langer, J. S.

    2015-01-01

    Yielding transitions in athermal amorphous materials undergoing steady-state shear flow resemble critical phenomena. Historically, they have been described by the Herschel-Bulkley rheological formula, which implies singular behaviors at yield points. In this paper, I examine this class of phenomena using an elementary version of the thermodynamic shear-transformation-zone (STZ) theory, focusing on the role of the effective disorder temperature, and paying special attention to scaling and dimensional arguments. I find a wide variety of Herschel-Bulkley-like rheologies but, for fundamental reasons not specific to the STZ theory, conclude that the yielding transition is not truly critical. Specifically, for realistic many-body models withmore » short-range interactions, there is a correlation length that grows rapidly but ultimately saturates near the yield point.« less

  20. Calculation of K-shell fluorescence yields for low-Z elements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nekkab, M.; Kahoul, A.; Deghfel, B.; Aylikci, N. Küp; Aylikçi, V.

    2015-03-30

    The analytical methods based on X-ray fluorescence are advantageous for practical applications in a variety of fields including atomic physics, X-ray fluorescence surface chemical analysis and medical research and so the accurate fluorescence yields (ω{sub K}) are required for these applications. In this contribution we report a new parameters for calculation of K-shell fluorescence yields (ω{sub K}) of elements in the range of 11≤Z≤30. The experimental data are interpolated by using the famous analytical function (ω{sub k}/(1−ω{sub k})){sup 1/q} (were q=3, 3.5 and 4) vs Z to deduce the empirical K-shell fluorescence yields. A comparison is made between the results of the procedures followed here and those theoretical and other semi-empirical fluorescence yield values. Reasonable agreement was typically obtained between our result and other works.

  1. Energy Dependence of Fission Product Yields for 239Pu, 235U,...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Energy Dependence of Fission Product Yields for 239Pu, 235U, and 238U Authors: Tornow, Werner 1 ; Bredeweg, Todd Allen 2 ; Wilhelmy, Jerry B. 2 ; Vieira, David J. 2 ...

  2. Shear-transformation-zone theory of yielding in athermal amorphous materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Langer, J. S.

    2015-01-01

    Yielding transitions in athermal amorphous materials undergoing steady-state shear flow resemble critical phenomena. Historically, they have been described by the Herschel-Bulkley rheological formula, which implies singular behaviors at yield points. In this paper, I examine this class of phenomena using an elementary version of the thermodynamic shear-transformation-zone (STZ) theory, focusing on the role of the effective disorder temperature, and paying special attention to scaling and dimensional arguments. I find a wide variety of Herschel-Bulkley-like rheologies but, for fundamental reasons not specific to the STZ theory, conclude that the yielding transition is not truly critical. Specifically, for realistic many-body models with short-range interactions, there is a correlation length that grows rapidly but ultimately saturates near the yield point.

  3. The LANL C-NR counting room and fission product yields

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jackman, Kevin Richard

    2015-09-21

    This PowerPoint presentation focused on the following areas: LANL C-NR counting room; Fission product yields; Los Alamos Neutron wheel experiments; Recent experiments ad NCERC; and Post-detonation nuclear forensics

  4. Neutron yield enhancement in laser-induced deuterium-deuterium fusion using a novel shaped target

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhao, J. R.; Chen, L. M. Li, Y. T.; Li, F.; Zhu, B. J.; Li, Yan. F.; Liao, G. Q.; Huang, K.; Ma, Y.; Li, Yi. F.; Zhang, X. P.; Fu, C. B.; Yuan, D. W.; Zhang, K.; Han, B.; Zhao, G.; Rhee, Y. J.; Liu, C.; Xiong, J.; Huang, X. G.; and others

    2015-06-15

    Neutron yields have direct correlation with the energy of incident deuterons in experiments of laser deuterated target interaction [Roth et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 044802 (2013) and Higginson et al., Phys. Plasmas 18, 100703 (2011)], while deuterated plasma density is also an important parameter. Experiments at the Shenguang II laser facility have produced neutrons with energy of 2.45 MeV using d (d, n) He reaction. Deuterated foil target and K-shaped target were employed to study the influence of plasma density on neutron yields. Neutron yield generated by K-shaped target (nearly 10{sup 6}) was two times higher than by foil target because the K-shaped target results in higher density plasma. Interferometry and multi hydro-dynamics simulation confirmed the importance of plasma density for enhancement of neutron yields.

  5. Combining Low-Temperature Combustion with Lean-NOx Trap Yields Progress

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Toward Targets of Efficient NOx Control for Diesels | Department of Energy Low-Temperature Combustion with Lean-NOx Trap Yields Progress Toward Targets of Efficient NOx Control for Diesels Combining Low-Temperature Combustion with Lean-NOx Trap Yields Progress Toward Targets of Efficient NOx Control for Diesels 2005 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference Presentations and Posters 2005_deer_huff.pdf (547.35 KB) More Documents & Publications Intra-catalyst Reductant Chemistry

  6. Face compression yield strength of the copper-Inconel composite specimen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Horie, T.

    1987-05-01

    A new equation for the face compression yield strength of copper-Inconel composite material has been derived. Elastic-plastic finite element analyses were also made for composite specimens with various aspect ratios to examine the edge effect of the specimen. According to the results of both the new equation and the analyses, the face compression yield strength of the composite should be decreased by about 25% from the value obtained with Becker's equation.

  7. Fragment Yields Calculated in a Time-Dependent Microscopic Theory of

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Fission (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Fragment Yields Calculated in a Time-Dependent Microscopic Theory of Fission Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Fragment Yields Calculated in a Time-Dependent Microscopic Theory of Fission Authors: Younes, W ; Gogny, D Publication Date: 2012-09-28 OSTI Identifier: 1053671 Report Number(s): LLNL-TR-586678 DOE Contract Number: W-7405-ENG-48 Resource Type: Technical Report Research Org: Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL),

  8. Natural h{yields}4g in supersymmetric models and R-hadrons at the LHC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luty, Markus A.; Phalen, Daniel J.; Pierce, Aaron

    2011-04-01

    We construct a simple and natural supersymmetric model where the dominant Higgs decay is h{yields}aa followed by a{yields}gg. In this case m{sub h}yields}gg. The a is a pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone boson of a new global U(1) symmetry, and can naturally have any mass from a few GeV to m{sub h}/2. All interactions can be perturbative up to the GUT scale, and gauge coupling unification is preserved if the colored mediators come in complete GUT representations. In this case a{yields}{gamma}{gamma} has a {approx}1% branching ratio, so h{yields}gg{gamma}{gamma} may be observable. The colored particles that mediate the a{yields}gg decay must be below the TeV scale, and can therefore be produced at the LHC. If these particles are stable on collider time scales, they will appear as R-hadrons, a signal visible in early LHC running. A smoking-gun signal that the stable colored particles are mediators of h{yields}4j is R-hadron production in association with an a. We show that this signal with a{yields}{gamma}{gamma} is observable at the LHC with as little as 10 fb{sup -1} of integrated luminosity. Observation of R-hadrons plus missing energy would show that the superpartner of the R-hadron is R-parity odd, and therefore not an ordinary quark or gluon.

  9. Integrated Energy Systems Multi-Media Webcast: Three CHP Sites Yield

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Important Lessons Learned, September 2005 | Department of Energy Multi-Media Webcast: Three CHP Sites Yield Important Lessons Learned, September 2005 Integrated Energy Systems Multi-Media Webcast: Three CHP Sites Yield Important Lessons Learned, September 2005 Cooling, Heating and Power (CHP) system integration is advancing. The U.S. Department of Energy partnered with industry to accelerate CHP system integration. This is an announcement for a webcast that provided detailed information on

  10. Implications of a {open_quotes}cross-rolled{close_quotes} yield surface approximation on deep drawing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Logan, R.W.

    1996-03-01

    During deep-drawing, two issues manifest themselves that are due to normal and planar anisotropy in the sheet. These are a dependence of the Limiting Draw Ratio (LDR) on the average thinning ratio (R-value), and a dependence of ear formation and thinning around the circumference on the variation of R-value in the plane of the sheet. The quadratic (1948 Hill) yield surface has been applied to these issues and it has been demonstrated that there are numerous higher exponent yield criteria that may more closely duplicate experimental trends. These predict varying degrees of R-value dependencies of uniaxial yields and strength ratios in multiaxial loading paths. The result of this is that there are sometimes subtle and sometimes substantial differences in the predictions of the various yield surfaces on deep drawing regarding LDR and earing. Additional differences arise due to the way the shear term (45-degree yield) and the 0-degree vs. 90-degree strengths are treated in each criterion. These dependencies (in-plane strengths generated by the yield surfaces) are shown to affect the results of both LDR and earing during cupping. In particular, the 1979 Hosford and 1989 Barlat (Tricomponent) criteria, although identical for the normal anisotropy (planar isotropy) case, are strikingly different for cases where there are differences at 45 degrees and 90 degrees from the rolling direction.

  11. B{yields}S transition form factors in the perturbative QCD approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li Runhui; Lue Caidian; Wang Wei; Wang Xiaoxia

    2009-01-01

    Under two different scenarios for the light scalar mesons, we investigate the transition form factors of B(B{sub s}) mesons decay into a scalar meson in the perturbative QCD approach. In the large recoiling region, the form factors are dominated by the short-distance dynamics and can be calculated using perturbation theory. We adopt the dipole parametrization to recast the q{sup 2} dependence of the form factors. Since the decay constants defined by the scalar current are large, our predictions on the B{yields}S form factors are much larger than the B{yields}P transitions, especially in the second scenario. Contributions from various light-cone distribution amplitudes (LCDAs) are elaborated and we find that the twist-3 LCDAs provide more than one-half of the contributions to the form factors. The two terms of the twist-2 LCDAs give destructive contributions in the first scenario while they give constructive contributions in the second scenario. With the form factors, we also predict the decay width and branching ratios of the semileptonic B{yields}Sl{nu} and B{yields}Sl{sup +}l{sup -} decays. The branching ratios of B{yields}Sl{nu} channels are found to have the order of 10{sup -4} while those of B{yields}Sl{sup +}l{sup -} have the order of 10{sup -7}. These predictions can be tested by the future experiments.

  12. Tuberous legumes: preliminary evaluation of tropical Australian and introduced species as fuel crops

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saxon, E.C.

    1981-04-01

    The evaluation of native and introduced legumes with starch-storing roots or tubers was undertaken to test whether plants traditionally collected as food by Australian aborigines might have a role in the development of crops for liquid fuel production (by fermentation of carbohydrates to ethanol). Tuberous-rooted legumes from overseas were planted at the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization, division of Tropical Crops and Pastures, Kimberley Research Station, Western Australia (15/sup 0/39'S, 128/sup 0/42'E) in December 1974, March 1978 and February 1979. Roots from the latter plantings were harvested in June 1979. Native plant material was collected during visits to aboriginal communities in the Kimberleys between April and June 1979. The native and introduced specimens were analyzed for fermentable carbohydrate and protein content. Several native plants appear more promising than introduced species as liquid fuel crops.

  13. A method for estimating direct normal solar irradiation from satellite data for a tropical environment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Janjai, Serm

    2010-09-15

    In order to investigate a potential use of concentrating solar power technologies and select an optimum site for these technologies, it is necessary to obtain information on the geographical distribution of direct normal solar irradiation over an area of interest. In this work, we have developed a method for estimating direct normal irradiation from satellite data for a tropical environment. The method starts with the estimation of global irradiation on a horizontal surface from MTSAT-1R satellite data and other ground-based ancillary data. Then a satellite-based diffuse fraction model was developed and used to estimate the diffuse component of the satellite-derived global irradiation. Based on this estimated global and diffuse irradiation and the solar radiation incident angle, the direct normal irradiation was finally calculated. To evaluate its performance, the method was used to estimate the monthly average hourly direct normal irradiation at seven pyrheliometer stations in Thailand. It was found that values of monthly average hourly direct normal irradiation from the measurements and those estimated from the proposed method are in reasonable agreement, with a root mean square difference of 16% and a mean bias of -1.6%, with respect to mean measured values. After the validation, this method was used to estimate the monthly average hourly direct normal irradiation over Thailand by using MTSAT-1R satellite data for the period from June 2005 to December 2008. Results from the calculation were displayed as hourly and yearly irradiation maps. These maps reveal that the direct normal irradiation in Thailand was strongly affected by the tropical monsoons and local topography of the country. (author)

  14. Effects of total solids concentrations of poultry, cattle, and piggery waste slurries on biogas yield

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Itodo, I.N.; Awulu, J.O.

    1999-12-01

    The effects of total solids concentrations of poultry, cattle and piggery waste slurries on biogas yield was investigated. Twelve laboratory-size anaerobic batch digesters with 25 L volume were constructed and used for the experiments. Three replicates of 5%, 10%, 15%, and 20% TS concentrations of poultry, cattle, and piggery waste slurries were anaerobically digested for a 30-day detention period and gas yield was measured by the method of water displacement. Temperature variation within the digesters was measured with a maximum and minimum thermometer. Anaerobic digestion of the slurries was undertaken in the mesophilic temperature range (20--40 C). The carbon:nitrogen ratio of each of the slurries digested was determined. The carbon content was determined using the wackley-Black method, and nitrogen content was determined by the regular kjeldhal method. The pH was measured weekly during the period of digestion from a digital pH meter. Gas quality (% methane fraction) was also measured weekly from an analyzer. Coefficient of variation was computed to ascertain the status of the digestion process. Analysis of variance was used to determine the significant difference in gas yield at p < 0.05. Duncan's New Multiple Range Test at p < 0.05 was used to analyze the difference in gas yield among the various TS concentrations of the slurries investigated. The results indicate that biogas yield is of the order: 5% TS > 10% TS > 15% TS > 20% TS. This result shows that gas yield increases with decreasing TS concentration of the slurries. The ANOVA showed that the gas yield from the various TS % was significantly different (p < 0.05). DNMRT showed that there was significant difference in gas yield from the slurries and wastetypes investigated. Poultry waste slurries had the greatest gas yield (L CH4/kg TS) as the gas yield from the waste types was of the order: Poultry > Piggery > Cattle. The pH of the slurries was of the range 5.5 to 6.8 (weakly acidic). The C:N of the

  15. Cumulative fission yields of short-lived isotopes under natural-abundance-boron-carbide-moderated neutron spectrum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Finn, Erin C.; Metz, Lori A.; Greenwood, Lawrence R.; Pierson, Bruce; Wittman, Richard S.; Friese, Judah I.; Kephart, Rosara F.

    2015-04-09

    The availability of gamma spectroscopy data on samples containing mixed fission products at short times after irradiation is limited. Due to this limitation, data interpretation methods for gamma spectra of mixed fission product samples, where the individual fission products have not been chemically isolated from interferences, are not well-developed. The limitation is particularly pronounced for fast pooled neutron spectra because of the lack of available fast reactors in the United States. Samples containing the actinide isotopes 233, 235, 238U, 237Np, and 239Pu individually were subjected to a 2$ pulse in the Washington State University 1 MW TRIGA reactor. To achieve a fission-energy neutron spectrum, the spectrum was tailored using a natural abundance boron carbide capsule to absorb neutrons in the thermal and epithermal region of the spectrum. Our tailored neutron spectrum is unique to the WSU reactor facility, consisting of a soft fission spectrum that contains some measurable flux in the resonance region. This results in a neutron spectrum at greater than 0.1 keV with an average energy of 70 keV, similar to fast reactor spectra and approaching that of 235U fission. Unique fission product gamma spectra were collected from 4 minutes to 1 week after fission using single-crystal high purity germanium detectors. Cumulative fission product yields measured in the current work generally agree with published fast pooled fission product yield values from ENDF/B-VII, though a bias was noted for 239Pu. The present work contributes to the compilation of energy-resolved fission product yield nuclear data for nuclear forensic purposes.

  16. Microstructure and nonlinear signatures of yielding in a heterogeneous colloidal gel under large amplitude oscillatory shear

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Juntae; Helgeson, Matthew E.; Merger, Dimitri; Wilhelm, Manfred

    2014-09-01

    We investigate yielding in a colloidal gel that forms a heterogeneous structure, consisting of a two-phase bicontinuous network of colloid-rich domains of fractal clusters and colloid-poor domains. Combining large amplitude oscillatory shear measurements with simultaneous small and ultra-small angle neutron scattering (rheo-SANS/USANS), we characterize both the nonlinear mechanical processes and strain amplitude-dependent microstructure underlying yielding. We observe a broad, three-stage yielding process that evolves over an order of magnitude in strain amplitude between the onset of nonlinearity and flow. Analyzing the intracycle response as a sequence of physical processes reveals a transition from elastic straining to elastoplastic thinning (which dominates in region I) and eventually yielding (which evolves through region II) and flow (which saturates in region III), and allows quantification of instantaneous nonlinear parameters associated with yielding. These measures exhibit significant strain rate amplitude dependence above a characteristic frequency, which we argue is governed by poroelastic effects. Correlating these results with time-averaged rheo-USANS measurements reveals that the material passes through a cascade of structural breakdown from large to progressively smaller length scales. In region I, compression of the fractal domains leads to the formation of large voids. In regions II and III, cluster-cluster correlations become increasingly homogeneous, suggesting breakage and eventually depercolation of intercluster bonds at the yield point. All significant structural changes occur on the micron-scale, suggesting that large-scale rearrangements of hundreds or thousands of particles, rather than the homogeneous rearrangement of particle-particle bonds, dominate the initial yielding of heterogeneous colloidal gels.

  17. Production of extremely low volatile organic compounds from biogenic emissions: Measured yields and atmospheric implications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jokinen, Tuija; Berndt, Torsten; Makkonen, Risto; Kerminen, Veli-Matti; Junninen, Heikki; Paasonen, Pauli; Stratmann, Frank; Herrmann, Hartmut; Guenther, Alex B.; Worsnop, Douglas R.; Kulmala, M.; Ehn, Mikael K.; Sipila, Mikko

    2015-06-09

    Extremely low volatility organic compounds (ELVOC) are suggested to promote aerosol particle formation and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) production in the atmosphere. We show that the capability of biogenic VOC (BVOC) to produce ELVOC depends strongly on their chemical structure and relative oxidant levels. BVOC with an endocyclic double bond, representative emissions from, e.g., boreal forests, efficiently produce ELVOC from ozonolysis. Compounds with exocyclic double bonds or acyclic compounds including isoprene, emission representative of the tropics, produce minor quantities of ELVOC, and the role of OH radical oxidation is relatively larger. Implementing these findings into a global modeling framework shows that detailed assessment of ELVOC production pathways is crucial for understanding biogenic secondary organic aerosol and atmospheric CCN formation.

  18. Collection of High Energy Yielding Strains of Saline Microalgae from the Hawaiian Islands: Final Technical Report, Year 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    York, R. H.

    1986-01-01

    Microalgae were collected from 48 locations in the Hawaiian Islands in 1985. The sites were an aquaculture tank; a coral reef; bays; a geothermal steam vent; Hawaiian fish ponds; a Hawaiian salt punawai (well); the ocean; river mouths; saline lakes; saline pools; saline ponds; a saline swamp; and the ponds, drainage ditches and sumps of commercial shrimp farms. From 4,800 isolations, 100 of the most productive clones were selected to be maintained by periodic transfer to sterile medium. Five clones were tested for growth rate and production in a full-spectrum-transmitting solarium.

  19. Dijet spectroscopy at high luminosity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Green, D.

    1990-07-01

    A study of the dijet mass resolution has been made appropriate to high luminosity operation. As a benchmark, the mass resolution of W {yields} jj for a Higgs boson of 800 GeV has been optimized for no, eight, and sixteen overlapping minbias events. A factor of 2.5 degradation in M{sub jj} width is seen. 6 refs., 10 figs.

  20. Researchers Demonstrate Microstructure and Charge Yield in Semiconducting Polymers (Fact Sheet), NREL Highlights, Science

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2012-02-01

    Microstructure determines the yield of free charge in neat semiconducting polymers. Understanding the fundamental photophysics of poly(3-hyxylthiophene) films, and that of conjugated polymers in general, is essential if we are to realize their full potential as low-cost active layers for coal-competitive solar power generation. Yet, the value of one of the most basic photophysical parameters of these materials - the yield of free charges upon photoexcitation of neat films - has remained controversial because of a wide variation between previous measurements. Researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) have resolved this controversy by showing that the yield of free charges depends sensitively on the solid-state microstructure of the film. The microstructure was varied systematically through control of the polymers molecular weight and processing conditions, while the charge carrier yield was measured using time-resolved microwave conductivity - a unique technique to which only a few groups in the world have access. The researchers found that the yield of long-lived free charges depends on the co-existence of amorphous and crystalline domains in the polymer, and this behavior was attributed to charge separation at the interface between these two domains of order.

  1. Single spin asymmetries in lp{yields}hX processes: A test of factorization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anselmino, M.; Boglione, M.; Prokudin, A.; D'Alesio, U.; Melis, S.; Murgia, F.

    2010-02-01

    Predictions for the transverse single spin asymmetry (SSA), A{sub N}, are given for the inclusive processes lp{sup {up_arrow}{yields}h}X and lp{sup {up_arrow}{yields}j}et+X, which could be measured in operating or future experiments. These estimates are based on the Sivers distributions and the Collins fragmentation functions which fit the azimuthal asymmetries measured in semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering (SIDIS) processes (lp{sup {up_arrow}{yields}l'}hX). The factorization in terms of transverse momentum dependent distribution and fragmentation functions (TMD factorization)--which supplies the theoretical framework in which SIDIS azimuthal asymmetries are analyzed--is assumed to hold also for the lp{yields}hX inclusive process at large P{sub T}. A measurement of A{sub N} would then provide a direct test of the validity of the TMD factorization in this case and would have important consequences for the study and understanding of SSAs in pp{sup {up_arrow}{yields}h}X processes.

  2. Fact #925: May 16, 2016 Improvements in Fuel Economy for Low-MPG Vehicles Yield the Greatest Savings- Dataset

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Excel file and dataset for Improvements in Fuel Economy for Low-MPG Vehicles Yield the Greatest Savings

  3. Radiative Heating of the ISCCP Upper Level Cloud Regimes and its Impact on the Large-scale Tropical Circulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Wei; Schumacher, Courtney; McFarlane, Sally A.

    2013-01-31

    Radiative heating profiles of the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) cloud regimes (or weather states) were estimated by matching ISCCP observations with radiative properties derived from cloud radar and lidar measurements from the Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) sites at Manus, Papua New Guinea, and Darwin, Australia. Focus was placed on the ISCCP cloud regimes containing the majority of upper level clouds in the tropics, i.e., mesoscale convective systems (MCSs), deep cumulonimbus with cirrus, mixed shallow and deep convection, and thin cirrus. At upper levels, these regimes have average maximum cloud occurrences ranging from 30% to 55% near 12 km with variations depending on the location and cloud regime. The resulting radiative heating profiles have maxima of approximately 1 K/day near 12 km, with equal heating contributions from the longwave and shortwave components. Upper level minima occur near 15 km, with the MCS regime showing the strongest cooling of 0.2 K/day and the thin cirrus showing no cooling. The gradient of upper level heating ranges from 0.2 to 0.4 K/(day∙km), with the most convectively active regimes (i.e., MCSs and deep cumulonimbus with cirrus) having the largest gradient. When the above heating profiles were applied to the 25-year ISCCP data set, the tropics-wide average profile has a radiative heating maximum of 0.45Kday-1 near 250 hPa. Column-integrated radiative heating of upper level cloud accounts for about 20% of the latent heating estimated by the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Precipitation Radar (PR). The ISCCP radiative heating of tropical upper level cloud only slightly modifies the response of an idealized primitive equation model forced with the tropics-wide TRMM PR latent heating, which suggests that the impact of upper level cloud is more important to large-scale tropical circulation variations because of convective feedbacks rather than direct forcing by

  4. Negative hydrogen ion yields at plasma grid surface in a negative hydrogen ion source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wada, M.; Kenmotsu, T.; Sasao, M.

    2015-04-08

    Negative hydrogen (H{sup ?}) ion yield from the plasma grid due to incident hydrogen ions and neutrals has been evaluated with the surface collision cascade model, ACAT (Atomic Collision in Amorphous Target) coupled to a negative surface ionization models. Dependence of negative ion fractions upon the velocity component normal to the surface largely affect the calculation results of the final energy and angular distributions of the H{sup ?} ions. The influence is particularly large for H{sup ?} ions desorbed from the surface due to less than several eV hydrogen particle implact. The present calculation predicts that H{sup ?} ion yield can be maximized by setting the incident angle of hydrogen ions and neutrals to be 65 degree. The Cs thickness on the plasma grid should also affect the yields and mean energies of surface produced H{sup ?} ions by back scattering and ion induced desorption processes.

  5. Average M shell fluorescence yields for elements with 70≤Z≤92

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kahoul, A.; Deghfel, B.; Aylikci, V.; Aylikci, N. K.; Nekkab, M.

    2015-03-30

    The theoretical, experimental and analytical methods for the calculation of average M-shell fluorescence yield (ω{sup ¯}{sub M}) of different elements are very important because of the large number of their applications in various areas of physical chemistry and medical research. In this paper, the bulk of the average M-shell fluorescence yield measurements reported in the literature, covering the period 1955 to 2005 are interpolated by using an analytical function to deduce the empirical average M-shell fluorescence yield in the atomic range of 70≤Z≤92. The results were compared with the theoretical and fitted values reported by other authors. Reasonable agreement was typically obtained between our result and other works.

  6. Note: A simple charge neutralization method for measuring the secondary electron yield of insulators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weng, Ming Cao, Meng; Zhao, Hong-Juan; Zhang, Hai-Bo

    2014-03-15

    We report on a simple and effective charge neutralization method for measuring the total electron-induced secondary electron yield of insulators in a measurement system with a single pulsed electron gun. In this method, the secondary electron collector is negatively biased with respect to the sample to force some emitted secondary electrons to return to the sample surface and therefore to neutralize positive charges accumulated in the sample during the previous measurement. The adequate negative bias is determined and the equilibrium state of negative charging is discussed. The efficacy of the method is demonstrated by the measured electron yields in the cases with and without charge neutralization and by comparison with existing electron yield data of polyimide.

  7. In-situ determination of energy species yields of intense particle beams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kugel, H.W.; Kaita, R.

    1983-09-26

    Objects of the present invention are provided for a particle beam having a full energy component at least as great as 25 keV, which is directed onto a beamstop target, such that Rutherford backscattering, preferably near-surface backscattering occurs. The geometry, material composition and impurity concentration of the beam stop are predetermined, using any suitable conventional technique. The energy-yield characteristic response of backscattered particles is measured over a range of angles using a fast ion electrostatic analyzer having a microchannel plate array at its focal plane. The knee of the resulting yield curve, on a plot of yield versus energy, is analyzed to determine the energy species components of various beam particles having the same mass.

  8. Drought effects on composition and yield for corn stover, mixed grasses, and Miscanthus as bioenergy feedstocks

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Emerson, Rachel; Hoover, Amber; Ray, Allison; Lacey, Jeffrey; Cortez, Marnie; Payne, Courtney; Karlen, Douglas; Birrell, Stuart; Laird, David; Kallenbach, Robert; et al

    2014-07-04

    Drought conditions in 2012 were some of the most severe in recent history. The purpose of this study is to examine the impact of drought on quality, quantity, and theoretical ethanol yield (TEY) of three bioenergy feedstocks, corn stover, mixed grasses from Conservation Reserve Program lands, and Miscanthus × giganteus. To assess drought effects on these feedstocks, samples from 2010 (minimal to no drought) and 2012 (severe drought) were compared from multiple locations in the US. In all feedstocks, drought significantly increased extractives and reduced structural sugars and lignin; subsequently, TEYs were reduced 10–15%. Biomass yields were significantly reduced formore » M. × giganteus and mixed grasses. When reduction in quality and quantity were combined, TEYs decreased 26–59%. Drought negatively affected biomass quality and quantity that resulted in significant TEY reductions. As a result, such fluctuations in biomass quality and yield may have significant consequences for developing lignocellulosic biorefineries.« less

  9. Analysis of incident-energy dependence of delayed neutron yields in actinides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nasir, Mohamad Nasrun bin Mohd Metorima, Kouhei Ohsawa, Takaaki Hashimoto, Kengo

    2015-04-29

    The changes of delayed neutron yields (?{sub d}) of Actinides have been analyzed for incident energy up to 20MeV using realized data of precursor after prompt neutron emission, from semi-empirical model, and delayed neutron emission probability data (P{sub n}) to carry out a summation method. The evaluated nuclear data of the delayed neutron yields of actinide nuclides are still uncertain at the present and the cause of the energy dependence has not been fully understood. In this study, the fission yields of precursor were calculated considering the change of the fission fragment mass yield based on the superposition of fives Gaussian distribution; and the change of the prompt neutrons number associated with the incident energy dependence. Thus, the incident energy dependent behavior of delayed neutron was analyzed.The total number of delayed neutron is expressed as ?{sub d}=?Y{sub i} P{sub ni} in the summation method, where Y{sub i} is the mass yields of precursor i and P{sub ni} is the delayed neutron emission probability of precursor i. The value of Y{sub i} is derived from calculation of post neutron emission mass distribution using 5 Gaussian equations with the consideration of large distribution of the fission fragments. The prompt neutron emission ?{sub p} increases at higher incident-energy but there are two different models; one model says that the fission fragment mass dependence that prompt neutron emission increases uniformly regardless of the fission fragments mass; and the other says that the major increases occur at heavy fission fragments area. In this study, the changes of delayed neutron yields by the two models have been investigated.

  10. Yield Improvement and Energy Savings Uing Phosphonates as Additives in Kraft pulping

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ulrike W. Tschirner; Timothy Smith

    2007-03-31

    Project Objective: Develop a commercially viable modification to the Kraft process resulting in energy savings, increased yield and improved bleachability. Evaluate the feasibility of this technology across a spectrum of wood species used in North America. Develop detailed fundamental understanding of the mechanism by which phosphonates improve KAPPA number and yield. Evaluate the North American market potential for the use of phosphonates in the Kraft pulping process. Examine determinants of customer perceived value and explore organizational and operational factors influencing attitudes and behaviors. Provide an economic feasibility assessment for the supply chain, both suppliers (chemical supply companies) and buyers (Kraft mills). Provide background to most effectively transfer this new technology to commercial mills.

  11. Oxidation of NO in Sample Bags to Yield NO2 | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of NO in Sample Bags to Yield NO2 Oxidation of NO in Sample Bags to Yield NO2 Presentation given at DEER 2006, August 20-24, 2006, Detroit, Michigan. Sponsored by the U.S. DOE's EERE FreedomCar and Fuel Partnership and 21st Century Truck Programs. 2006_deer_shah.pdf (106.24 KB) More Documents & Publications Electrostatic Neutralization - A Key to Accurate & Repeatable PM Filter Weighing Urea SCR and DPF System for Diesel Sport Utility Vehicle Meeting Tier II Bin 5 DOE and Ford Motor

  12. Energy-Focused Trade Mission Will Yield Positive Effects for American

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Businesses and the Global Environment | Department of Energy Energy-Focused Trade Mission Will Yield Positive Effects for American Businesses and the Global Environment Energy-Focused Trade Mission Will Yield Positive Effects for American Businesses and the Global Environment April 13, 2015 - 2:35pm Addthis The joint trade mission will make stops in Beijing, Shanghai and Guangzhou. | Map by <a href="/node/712881">Daniel Wood</a>, Department of Energy. The joint trade

  13. Light oil yield improvement project at Granite City Division Coke/By-Product Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holloran, R.A.

    1995-12-01

    Light oil removal from coke oven gas is a process that has long been proven and utilized throughout many North American Coke/By-Products Plants. The procedures, processes, and equipment requirements to maximize light oil recovery at the Granite City By-Products Plant will be discussed. The Light Oil Yield Improvement Project initially began in July, 1993 and was well into the final phase by February, 1994. Problem solving techniques, along with utilizing proven theoretical recovery standards were applied in this project. Process equipment improvements and implementation of Operator/Maintenance Standard Practices resulted in an average yield increase of 0.4 Gals./NTDC by the end of 1993.

  14. A method to calculate fission-fragment yields Y(Z,N) versus proton and

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    neutron number in the Brownian shape-motion model (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect A method to calculate fission-fragment yields Y(Z,N) versus proton and neutron number in the Brownian shape-motion model Citation Details In-Document Search This content will become publicly available on December 23, 2016 Title: A method to calculate fission-fragment yields Y(Z,N) versus proton and neutron number in the Brownian shape-motion model In this study, we propose a method to calculate the

  15. New physics contribution to B{yields}K{pi} decays in soft collinear effective theory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huitu, K.; Khalil, S.

    2010-05-01

    We analyze the 5{sigma} difference between the CP asymmetries of the B{sup 0{yields}}K{sup +{pi}-} and B{sup +{yields}}K{sup +{pi}0} decays within the soft collinear effective theory. We find that in the standard model, such a big difference cannot be achieved. We classify then the requirements for the possible New Physics models, which can be responsible for the experimental results. As an example of a New Physics model we study minimal supersymmetric models, and find that the measured asymmetry can be obtained with nonminimal flavor violation.

  16. The global climate for December 1990-February 1991: Strong temperature and precipitation contrasts over North America and Eurasia; mixed ENSO conditions in the tropics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chelliah, M. )

    1993-07-01

    During most of the December 1990-February 1991 season sharp transcontinental temperature anomaly contrasts were evident in North America, Eurasia, and Australia. Large-scale atmospheric precipitations are more difficult to characterize. In the equatorial tropics there was some evidence of conditions similar to ENSO near the date line, but an almost complete failure of other ENSO components to appear in the east Pacific and in the tropical atmospheric circulation. 12 refs., 21 figs., 1 tab.

  17. The impact of vertical shear on the sensitivity of tropical cyclogenesis to environmental rotation and thermodynamic state

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhou, Wenyu

    2015-11-19

    Here, the impact of vertical wind shear on the sensitivity of tropical cyclogenesis to environmental rotation and thermodynamic state is investigated through idealized cloud-resolving simulations of the intensification of an incipient vortex. With vertical shear, tropical cyclones intensify faster with a higher Coriolis parameter, f, irrespective of the environmental thermodynamic state. The vertical shear develops a vertically tilted vortex, which undergoes a precession process with the midlevel vortices rotating cyclonically around the surface center. With a higher f, the midlevel vortices are able to rotate continuously against the vertical shear, leading to the realignment of the tilted vortex and rapidmore » intensification. With a lower f, the rotation is too slow such that the midlevel vortices are advected away from the surface center and the intensification is suppressed. The parameter, Χb, measuring the effect from the low-entropy downdraft air on the boundary layer entropy, is found to be a good indicator of the environmental thermodynamic favorability for tropical cyclogenesis in vertical shear. Without vertical shear, tropical cyclones are found to intensify faster with a lower f by previous studies. We show this dependency on f is sensitive to the environmental thermodynamic state. The thermodynamical favorability for convection can be measured by Χm, which estimates the time it takes for surface fluxes to moisten the midtroposphere. A smaller Χm not only leads to a faster intensification due to a shorter period for moist preconditioning of the inner region but also neutralizes the faster intensification with a lower f due to enhanced peripheral convection.« less

  18. The impact of vertical shear on the sensitivity of tropical cyclogenesis to environmental rotation and thermodynamic state

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, Wenyu

    2015-11-19

    Here, the impact of vertical wind shear on the sensitivity of tropical cyclogenesis to environmental rotation and thermodynamic state is investigated through idealized cloud-resolving simulations of the intensification of an incipient vortex. With vertical shear, tropical cyclones intensify faster with a higher Coriolis parameter, f, irrespective of the environmental thermodynamic state. The vertical shear develops a vertically tilted vortex, which undergoes a precession process with the midlevel vortices rotating cyclonically around the surface center. With a higher f, the midlevel vortices are able to rotate continuously against the vertical shear, leading to the realignment of the tilted vortex and rapid intensification. With a lower f, the rotation is too slow such that the midlevel vortices are advected away from the surface center and the intensification is suppressed. The parameter, Χb, measuring the effect from the low-entropy downdraft air on the boundary layer entropy, is found to be a good indicator of the environmental thermodynamic favorability for tropical cyclogenesis in vertical shear. Without vertical shear, tropical cyclones are found to intensify faster with a lower f by previous studies. We show this dependency on f is sensitive to the environmental thermodynamic state. The thermodynamical favorability for convection can be measured by Χm, which estimates the time it takes for surface fluxes to moisten the midtroposphere. A smaller Χm not only leads to a faster intensification due to a shorter period for moist preconditioning of the inner region but also neutralizes the faster intensification with a lower f due to enhanced peripheral convection.

  19. Cloud Microphysical and Radiative Properties Derived from MODIS, VIRS, AVHRR, and GMS Data Over the Tropical Western Pacific

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Microphysical and Radiative Properties Derived from MODIS, VIRS, AVHRR, and GMS Data Over the Tropical Western Pacific G. D. Nowicki, M. L. Nordeen, P. W. Heck, D. R. Doelling, and M. M. Khaiyer Analytical Services and Materials, Inc. Hampton, Virginia P. Minnis National Aeronautics and Space Administration Atmospheric Sciences Division Langley Research Center Hampton, Virginia S. Sun-Mack Science Applications International Corporation Hampton, Virginia Introduction Utilization of the

  20. Yields of photoneutron reactions on {sup 197}Au nuclei in the giant-dipole-resonance region

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Belyshev, S. S.; Ermakov, A. N.; Ishkhanov, B. S.; Kuznetsov, A. A.; Kurilik, A. S.; Stopani, K. A.; Troschiev, S. Yu.

    2011-11-15

    Yields of photonuclear reactions on 197Au nuclei were measured in a beam of bremsstrahlung photons, the endpoint energy of the bremsstrahlung spectrum being 29.1 MeV. These measurements were performed by means of the gamma-activation procedure. The results obtained in this way were compared with the results of earlier experiments and theoretical calculations.

  1. Control of the external photoluminescent quantum yield of emitters coupled to nanoantenna phased arrays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guo, Ke; Verschuuren, Marc A.; Lozano, Gabriel

    2015-08-21

    Optical losses in metals represent the largest limitation to the external quantum yield of emitters coupled to plasmonic antennas. These losses can be at the emission wavelength, but they can be more important at shorter wavelengths, i.e., at the excitation wavelength of the emitters, where the conductivity of metals is usually lower. We present accurate measurements of the absolute external photoluminescent quantum yield of a thin layer of emitting material deposited over a periodic nanoantenna phased array. Emission and absorptance measurements of the sample are performed using a custom-made setup including an integrating sphere and variable angle excitation. The measurements reveal a strong dependence of the external quantum yield on the angle at which the optical field excites the sample. Such behavior is attributed to the coupling between far-field illumination and near-field excitation mediated by the collective resonances supported by the array. Numerical simulations confirm that the inherent losses associated with the metal can be greatly reduced by selecting an optimum angle of illumination, which boosts the light conversion efficiency in the emitting layer. This combined experimental and numerical characterization of the emission from plasmonic arrays reveals the need to carefully design the illumination to achieve the maximum external quantum yield.

  2. Yields and composition of syrups resulting from the flash pyrolysis of cellulosic materials using radiant energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    De Jenga, C.I.; Antal, M.J. Jr.; Jones, M. Jr.

    1982-11-01

    Cellulosic materials have been flash pyrolyzed using concentrated solar energy. The syrups obtained were composed mainly of levoglucosan. Radiant flash pyrolysis has thus been identified as a potentially attractive means of selectively degrading biomass material into good yields of relatively few products. The techniques and equipment employed to determine the composition of the pyrolyzates are described.

  3. Differences between soft collinear effective theory and QCD factorization for B{yields}{pi}{pi} decays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bauer, Christian W.; Pirjol, Dan; Stewart, Iain W.; Rothstein, Ira Z.

    2005-11-01

    We give a detailed description of the differences between the factorization and results derived from SCET and QCDF for decays B{yields}M{sub 1}M{sub 2}. This serves as a reply to the preceding Comment. We disagree with their criticisms.

  4. Use of non-quadratic yield surfaces in design of optimal deep-draw blank geometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Logan, R.W.

    1995-12-01

    Planar anisotropy in the deep-drawing of sheet can lead to the formation of ears in cylindrical cups and to undesirable metal flow in the blankholder in the general case. For design analysis purposes in non-linear finite-element codes, this anisotropy is characterized by the use of an appropriate yield surface which is then implemented into codes such as DYNA3D . The quadratic Hill yield surface offers a relatively straightforward implementation and can be formulated to be invariant to the coordinate system. Non-quadratic yield surfaces can provide more realistic strength or strain increment ratios, but they may not provide invariance and thus demand certain approximations. Forms due to Hosford and Badat et al. have been shown to more accurately address the earning phenomenon. in this work, use is made of these non-quadratic yield surfaces in order to determine the optimal blank shape for cups and other shapes using ferrous and other metal blank materials with planar anisotropy. The analyses are compared to previous experimental studies on non-uniform blank motion due to anisotropy and asymmetric geometry.

  5. Method and apparatus for increasing the durability and yield of thin film photovoltaic devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Phillips, James E.; Lasswell, Patrick G.

    1987-01-01

    Thin film photovoltaic cells having a pair of semiconductor layers between an opaque and a transparent electrical contact are manufactured in a method which includes the step of scanning one of the semiconductor layers to determine the location of any possible shorting defect. Upon the detection of such defect, the defect is eliminated to increase the durability and yield of the photovoltaic device.

  6. Relationship of respiratory symptoms and pulmonary function to tar, nicotine, and carbon monoxide yield of cigarettes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krzyzanowski, M.; Sherrill, D.L.; Paoletti, P.; Lebowitz, M.D. )

    1991-02-01

    The data from consecutive surveys of the Tucson Epidemiologic Study (1981-1988) were used to evaluate the relationship in cigarette smokers of respiratory symptoms and pulmonary function to tar, nicotine, and carbon monoxide (CO) yields of the cigarette. There were 690 subjects who reported smoking regularly in at least one survey, over age 15. After adjustment for intensity and duration of smoking and for depth of inhalation, the risk of chronic phlegm, cough, and dyspnea were not related to the tar and nicotine yields. In 414 subjects with pulmonary function tested in at least one of the three surveys the spirometric indices used were significantly related to the daily dose of tar, nicotine, and CO (product of the cigarette yield and daily number of cigarettes smoked). The effects were more pronounced for past than for current doses. However, the differentiation of pulmonary function due to various yields of cigarettes was small in comparison to the difference in pulmonary function between smokers and nonsmokers.

  7. Absolute calibration method for laser megajoule neutron yield measurement by activation diagnostics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Landoas, Olivier; Rosse, Bertrand; Briat, Michelle; Marmouget, Jean Gabriel; Varignon, Cyril; Ledoux, Xavier; Caillaud, Tony; Thfoin, Isabelle; Bourgade, Jean-Luc; Glebov, Vladimir Yu; Sangster, Thomas C.; Duffy, Tim; Disdier, Laurent

    2011-07-15

    The laser megajoule (LMJ) and the National Ignition Facility (NIF) plan to demonstrate thermonuclear ignition using inertial confinement fusion (ICF). The neutron yield is one of the most important parameters to characterize ICF experiment performance. For decades, the activation diagnostic was chosen as a reference at ICF facilities and is now planned to be the first nuclear diagnostic on LMJ, measuring both 2.45 MeV and 14.1 MeV neutron yields. Challenges for the activation diagnostic development are absolute calibration, accuracy, range requirement, and harsh environment. At this time, copper and zirconium material are identified for 14.1 MeV neutron yield measurement and indium material for 2.45 MeV neutrons. A series of calibrations were performed at Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (CEA) on a Van de Graff facility to determine activation diagnostics efficiencies and to compare them with results from calculations. The CEA copper activation diagnostic was tested on the OMEGA facility during DT implosion. Experiments showed that CEA and Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) diagnostics agree to better than 1% on the neutron yield measurement, with an independent calibration for each system. Also, experimental sensitivities are in good agreement with simulations and allow us to scale activation diagnostics for the LMJ measurement range.

  8. Reaction {pi}N {yields} {pi}{pi}N near threshold

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frlez, E.

    1993-11-01

    The LAMPF E1179 experiment used the {pi}{sup 0} spectrometer and an array of charged particle range counters to detect and record {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup 0}, {pi}{sup 0}p, and {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup 0}p coincidences following the reaction {pi}{sup +}p {yields} {pi}{sup 0}{pi}{sup +}p near threshold. The total cross sections for single pion production were measured at the incident pion kinetic energies 190, 200, 220, 240, and 260 MeV. Absolute normalizations were fixed by measuring {pi}{sup +}p elastic scattering at 260 MeV. A detailed analysis of the {pi}{sup 0} detection efficiency was performed using cosmic ray calibrations and pion single charge exchange measurements with a 30 MeV {pi}{sup {minus}} beam. All published data on {pi}N {yields} {pi}{pi}N, including our results, are simultaneously fitted to yield a common chiral symmetry breaking parameter {xi} ={minus}0.25{plus_minus}0.10. The threshold matrix element {vert_bar}{alpha}{sub 0}({pi}{sup 0}{pi}{sup +}p){vert_bar} determined by linear extrapolation yields the value of the s-wave isospin-2 {pi}{pi} scattering length {alpha}{sub 0}{sup 2}({pi}{pi}) = {minus}0.041{plus_minus}0.003 m{sub {pi}}{sup {minus}1}, within the framework of soft-pion theory.

  9. Improved Criteria for Acceptable Yield Point Elongation in Surface Critical Steels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. David Matlock; Dr. John Speer

    2007-05-30

    Yield point elongation (YPE) is considered undesirable in surface critical applications where steel is formed since "strain lines" or Luders bands are created during forming. This project will examine in detail the formation of luders bands in industrially relevant strain states including the influence of substrate properties and coatings on Luders appearance. Mechanical testing and surface profilometry were the primary methods of investigation.

  10. Evaluation of nanoparticle-immobilized cellulase for improved ethanol yield in simultaneous saccharification and fermentation reactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lupoi, Jason; Smith, Emily

    2011-12-01

    Ethanol yields were 2.1 (P = 0.06) to 2.3 (P = 0.01) times higher in simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) reactions of microcrystalline cellulose when cellulase was physisorbed on silica nanoparticles compared to enzyme in solution. In SSF reactions, cellulose is hydrolyzed to glucose by cellulase while yeast simultaneously ferments glucose to ethanol. The 35 C temperature and the presence of ethanol in SSF reactions are not optimal conditions for cellulase. Immobilization onto solid supports can stabilize the enzyme and promote activity at non-optimum reaction conditions. Mock SSF reactions that did not contain yeast were used to measure saccharification products and identify the mechanism for the improved ethanol yield using immobilized cellulase. Cellulase adsorbed to 40 nm silica nanoparticles produced 1.6 times (P = 0.01) more glucose than cellulase in solution in 96 h at pH 4.8 and 35 C. There was no significant accumulation (<250 {mu}g) of soluble cellooligomers in either the solution or immobilized enzyme reactions. This suggests that the mechanism for the immobilized enzyme's improved glucose yield compared to solution enzyme is the increased conversion of insoluble cellulose hydrolysis products to soluble cellooligomers at 35 C and in the presence of ethanol. The results show that silica-immobilized cellulase can be used to produce increased ethanol yields in the conversion of lignocellulosic materials by SSF.

  11. Scalar Meson {sigma}(500) Phase Motion at D+ {yields} {pi}-{pi}+{pi}+ Decay

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miranda, Jussara M. de; Bediaga, Ignacio

    2006-02-11

    Applying the Amplitude Difference Method to Fermilab experiment E791 D+ {yields} {pi}-{pi}+{pi}+ data, we measure the low mass {pi}+{pi}- phase motion. Our results suggest a significant phase variation, compatible with the existence of an isoscalar {sigma}(500) meson, as previously reported using an isobar model fit to the full Dalitz-plot density.

  12. Radiative Corrections to Asymmetry Parameter in the {Omega}{sup -{yields}{Lambda}}+K{sup -} Decay

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Queijeiro, A.

    2010-07-29

    We compute the radiative corrections, to first order in the fine structure constant {alpha}, to the asymmetry parameter {alpha}{sub {Omega}}of the {Omega}{sup -{yields}{Lambda}}+K{sup -} decay. We use previous results where Sirlin's procedure is used to separate the radiative corrections into two parts, one independent model contribution and a model dependent one.

  13. Radiative Heating Profiles in the Convective Tropics: A Comparison of Observations and Models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McFarlane, Sally A.; Mather, Jim H.; Ackerman, Thomas P.

    2005-01-10

    Radiative heating is one of the principal drivers of tropical circulation. While we have good knowledge of radiative fluxes at the top-of-atmosphere and at specific surface sites, observations of atmospheric profiles of radiative heating, particular in cloudy conditions, have been largely unavailable. The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program has begun a program to compute radiative heating profiles routinely at its observational sites at Nauru and Manus Island, Papua New Guinea, using observed and retrieved inputs of water vapor and condensed water phase, particle size, and mass. The accuracy of these profiles can be assessed by comparing the calculated TOA and surface fluxes with observations. We have computed radiative heating profiles every 20 minutes for several months at each of these two sites in the 1999-2000 time period, which represent a unique dataset for model comparison. Here, we compare this dataset to model output from the European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecasting (ECMWF) analysis, the NCAR Community Atmosphere Model (CAM 3.0) and the Multi-Scale Modeling Framework (MMF). These three models, all run using observed SST for this comparison, provide an interesting range of resolution from the 4 km cloud resolving model in the MMF to the approximately 280 km grid-scale of the CAM and a contrast between forecasting and climate models. In general, the model results fail to capture the structure of the observed heating in the upper troposphere because of their failure to simulate cirrus and stratiform cloud adequately.

  14. Validation and analysis of microwave-derived rainfall over the tropics. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fleishauer, R.P.

    1993-01-01

    A recently developed single channel microwave rain rate retrieval algorithm exists to measure global precipitation over the data-sparse tropical oceans. The objective of this study is to retrieve and validate rainfall using this algorithm, followed by an analysis of the derived rainfall fields. Retrieval consists of applying the algorithm technique to the extraction of four years worth of achieved data from the Electrically Scanning Microwave Radiometer (ESMR) instrument flown aboard the NIMBUS 5 satellite. The Pacific Atoll Raingage Data Set is chosen as a ground truth measure to validate the ESMR-Derived rainfall data against, comparing slope, intercept and correlation between 5 deg x 5 deg area average. Despite limitations imposed by the comparison of point measurements to area-averaged rainfall, results show a 0.80 correlation. Monthly and quarterly climatological mean rainfall estimates are produced, with a consequent analysis of prominent signals, especially in the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ), South Pacific Convergence Zone (SPCZ) and the Indian monsoon. Latent heat flux is computed, using the ESMR-derived rainfall, and plotted to show qualitatively where seasonal latent thermodynamic energy sources and sinks exist in the atmosphere. A comparison of the summer and winter quarterly composites of the above products with previously compiled climatologies and Outgoing Longwave Radiation (OLR) showed only minor discrepancies in location and intensity, which are discussed in some detail.

  15. Using biodiversity methods to assess the impacts of oil and gas development in tropical rain forests

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reagan, D.P.; Silva del Poso, X. |

    1995-06-01

    Oil and gas development in tropical rain forests has attracted international attention because of the potentially adverse effects on the forest ecosystems. Biodiversity is a topic of particular concern, but is difficult to assess for small areas of disturbance. In July 1992 we used light traps to compare insect diversity at canopy and ground level as a means of detecting the impacts of an exploratory well site and related facilities within mature Amazonian rain forest in the Oriente Province of Ecuador. Replicate samples were collected at the well site, in a nearby area of agricultural development, and in a reference site within mature forest. Species richness was determined, and diversity indices were calculated for each set of samples. Results indicated that changes in diversity could be detected in the canopy and at ground level at the well site, but that the reduction in diversity was small. Biological diversity was substantially reduced in the area of agricultural development. Limitations and possible applications of this approach are discussed.

  16. Global warming and climate change - predictive models for temperate and tropical regions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malini, B.H.

    1997-12-31

    Based on the assumption of 4{degree}C increase of global temperature by the turn of 21st century due to the accumulation of greenhouse gases an attempt is made to study the possible variations in different climatic regimes. The predictive climatic water balance model for Hokkaido island of Japan (a temperate zone) indicates the possible occurrence of water deficit for two to three months, which is a unknown phenomenon in this region at present. Similarly, India which represents tropical region also will experience much drier climates with increased water deficit conditions. As a consequence, the thermal region of Hokkaido which at present is mostly Tundra and Micro thermal will change into a Meso thermal category. Similarly, the moisture regime which at present supports per humid (A2, A3 and A4) and Humid (B4) climates can support A1, B4, B3, B2 and B1 climates indicating a shift towards drier side of the climatic spectrum. Further, the predictive modes of both the regions have indicated increased evapotranspiration rates. Although there is not much of change in the overall thermal characteristics of the Indian region the moisture regime indicates a clear shift towards the aridity in the country.

  17. Impact of post-mining subsidence on nitrogen transformation in southern tropical dry deciduous forest, India

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tripathi, N.; Singh, R.S.; Singh, J.S.

    2009-04-15

    The goal of our research was to assess the impact of post-mining land subsidence, caused due to underground coal mining operations, on fine root biomass and root tips count; plant available nutrient status, microbial biomass N (MBN) and N-mineralization rates of a Southern tropical dry deciduous forest of Singareni Coalfields of India. The changes were quantified in all the three (rainy, winter and summer) seasons, in slope and depression microsites of the subsided land and an adjacent undamaged forest microsite. Physico-chemical characteristics were found to be altered after subsidence, showing a positive impact of subsidence on soil moisture, bulk density, water holding capacity, organic carbon content, total N and total P. The increase in all the parameters was found in depression microsites, while in slope microsites, the values were lower. Fine root biomass and root tips count increased in the subsided depression microsites, as demonstrated by increases of 62% and 45%, respectively. Soil nitrate-N and phosphate-P concentrations were also found to be higher in depression microsite, showing an increase of 35.68% and 24.74%, respectively. Depression microsite has also shown the higher MBN value with an increase over control. Net nitrification, net N-mineralization and MBN were increased in depression microsite by 29.77%, 25.72% and 34%, respectively. There was a positive relation of microbial N with organic C, fine root biomass and root tips.

  18. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Data from the Tropical Western Pacific (TWP) Site.

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    ARM maintains four major, permanent sites for data collection and deploys the ARM Mobile Facility to other sites as determined. The Tropical Western Pacific (TWP) site is one of the four fixed sites. It consists of three climate research facilities; the Manus facility on Los Negros Island in Manus, Papua New Guinea (established in 1996); the Nauru facility on Nauru Island, Republic of Nauru (1998); and the Darwin facility in Darwin, Northern Territory, Australia (2002). The operations are supported by government agencies in each host country. Covering the area roughly between 10 degrees N and 10 degrees S of the equator and from 130 degrees E to 167 degrees E, the TWP locale includes a region that plays a large role in the interannual variability observed in the global climate system. More than 250,000 TWP data sets from 1996 to the present reside in the ARM Archive. Begin at the TWP information page for links or access data directly from the ARM Archive at http://www.archive.arm.gov/. Users will need to register for a password, but all files are then free for viewing or downloading. The ARM Archive physically resides at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

  19. Elimination of metabolic pathways to all traditional fermentation products increases ethanol yields in Clostridium thermocellum

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Papanek, Beth A.; Biswas, Ranjita; Rydzak, Thomas; Guss, Adam M.

    2015-09-12

    Clostridium thermocellum has the natural ability to convert cellulose to ethanol, making it a promising candidate for consolidated bioprocessing (CBP) of cellulosic biomass to biofuels. To further improve its CBP capabilities, we study a mutant strain of C. thermocellum that was constructed (strain AG553; C. thermocellum Δhpt ΔhydG Δldh Δpfl Δpta-ack) to increase flux to ethanol by removing side product formation. Strain AG553 showed a two- to threefold increase in ethanol yield relative to the wild type on all substrates tested. On defined medium, strain AG553 exceeded 70% of theoretical ethanol yield on lower loadings of the model crystalline cellulosemore » Avicel, effectively eliminating formate, acetate, and lactate production and reducing H2 production by fivefold. On 5 g/L Avicel, strain AG553 reached an ethanol yield of 63.5% of the theoretical maximum compared with 19.9% by the wild type, and it showed similar yields on pretreated switchgrass and poplar. The elimination of organic acid production suggested that the strain might be capable of growth under higher substrate loadings in the absence of pH control. Final ethanol titer peaked at 73.4 mM in mutant AG553 on 20 g/L Avicel, at which point the pH decreased to a level that does not allow growth of C. thermocellum, likely due to CO2 accumulation. In comparison, the maximum titer of wild type C. thermocellum was 14.1 mM ethanol on 10 g/L Avicel. In conclusion, with the elimination of the metabolic pathways to all traditional fermentation products other than ethanol, AG553 is the best ethanol-yielding CBP strain to date and will serve as a platform strain for further metabolic engineering for the bioconversion of lignocellulosic biomass.« less

  20. Assessment of fission product yields data needs in nuclear reactor applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kern, K.; Becker, M.; Broeders, C.

    2012-07-01

    Studies on the build-up of fission products in fast reactors have been performed, with particular emphasis on the effects related to the physics of the nuclear fission process. Fission product yields, which are required for burn-up calculations, depend on the proton and neutron number of the target nucleus as well as on the incident neutron energy. Evaluated nuclear data on fission product yields are available for all relevant target nuclides in reactor applications. However, the description of their energy dependence in evaluated data is still rather rudimentary, which is due to the lack of experimental fast fission data and reliable physical models. Additionally, physics studies of evaluated JEFF-3.1.1 fission yields data have shown potential improvements, especially for various fast fission data sets of this evaluation. In recent years, important progress in the understanding of the fission process has been made, and advanced model codes are currently being developed. This paper deals with the semi-empirical approach to the description of the fission process, which is used in the GEF code being developed by K.-H. Schmidt and B. Jurado on behalf of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency, and with results from the corresponding author's diploma thesis. An extended version of the GEF code, supporting the calculation of spectrum weighted fission product yields, has been developed. It has been applied to the calculation of fission product yields in the fission rate spectra of a MOX fuelled sodium-cooled fast reactor. Important results are compared to JEFF-3.1.1 data and discussed in this paper. (authors)

  1. Tropical Warm Pool International Cloud Experiment (TWP-ICE): Cloud and Rain Characteristics in the Australian Monsoon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    PT May; C Jakob; JH Mather

    2004-05-30

    The impact of oceanic convection on its environment and the relationship between the characteristics of the convection and the resulting cirrus characteristics is still not understood. An intense airborne measurement campaign combined with an extensive network of ground-based observations is being planned for the region near Darwin, Northern Australia, during January-February, 2006, to address these questions. The Tropical Warm Pool – International Cloud Experiment (TWP-ICE) will be the first field program in the tropics that attempts to describe the evolution of tropical convection, including the large scale heat, moisture, and momentum budgets, while at the same time obtaining detailed observations of cloud properties and the impact of the clouds on the environment. The emphasis will be on cirrus for the cloud properties component of the experiment. Cirrus clouds are ubiquitous in the tropics and have a large impact on their environment but the properties of these clouds are poorly understood. A crucial product from this experiment will be a dataset suitable to provide the forcing and testing required by cloud-resolving models and parameterizations in global climate models. This dataset will provide the necessary link between cloud properties and the models that are attempting to simulate them. The experiment is a collaboration between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program, the Bureau of Meteorology (BoM), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the European Commission DG RTD-1.2, and several United States, Australian, Canadian, and European Universities. This experiment will be undertaken over a 4-week period in early 2006. January and February corresponds to the wet phase of the Australia monsoon. This season has been selected because, despite Darwin’s coastal location, the convection that occurs over and near Darwin at this time is largely of maritime origin with a large fetch over water

  2. Scale Up of Novel, Low-Cost Carbon Fibers Leading to High-Volume...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... in higher yield and at lower cost than the incumbent CF made from specialty- grade PAN fber. ... that will require disciplined innovation. * High-volume production of advanced ...

  3. Investigation of inconsistent ENDF/B-VII.1 independent and cumulative fission product yields with proposed revisions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pigni, Marco T; Francis, Matthew W; Gauld, Ian C

    2015-01-01

    A recent implementation of ENDF/B-VII. independent fission product yields and nuclear decay data identified inconsistencies in the data caused by the use of updated nuclear scheme in the decay sub-library that is not reflected in legacy fission product yield data. Recent changes in the decay data sub-library, particularly the delayed neutron branching fractions, result in calculated fission product concentrations that are incompatible with the cumulative fission yields in the library, and also with experimental measurements. A comprehensive set of independent fission product yields was generated for thermal and fission spectrum neutron induced fission for 235,238U and 239,241Pu in order to provide a preliminary assessment of the updated fission product yield data consistency. These updated independent fission product yields were utilized in the ORIGEN code to evaluate the calculated fission product inventories with experimentally measured inventories, with particular attention given to the noble gases. An important outcome of this work is the development of fission product yield covariance data necessary for fission product uncertainty quantification. The evaluation methodology combines a sequential Bayesian method to guarantee consistency between independent and cumulative yields along with the physical constraints on the independent yields. This work was motivated to improve the performance of the ENDF/B-VII.1 library in the case of stable and long-lived cumulative yields due to the inconsistency of ENDF/B-VII.1 fission p;roduct yield and decay data sub-libraries. The revised fission product yields and the new covariance data are proposed as a revision to the fission yield data currently in ENDF/B-VII.1.

  4. Investigation of inconsistent ENDF/B-VII.1 independent and cumulative fission product yields with proposed revisions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pigni, Marco T; Francis, Matthew W; Gauld, Ian C

    2015-01-01

    A recent implementation of ENDF/B-VII. independent fission product yields and nuclear decay data identified inconsistencies in the data caused by the use of updated nuclear scheme in the decay sub-library that is not reflected in legacy fission product yield data. Recent changes in the decay data sub-library, particularly the delayed neutron branching fractions, result in calculated fission product concentrations that are incompatible with the cumulative fission yields in the library, and also with experimental measurements. A comprehensive set of independent fission product yields was generated for thermal and fission spectrum neutron induced fission for 235,238U and 239,241Pu in order to provide a preliminary assessment of the updated fission product yield data consistency. These updated independent fission product yields were utilized in the ORIGEN code to evaluate the calculated fission product inventories with experimentally measured inventories, with particular attention given to the noble gases. An important outcome of this work is the development of fission product yield covariance data necessary for fission product uncertainty quantification. The evaluation methodology combines a sequential Bayesian method to guarantee consistency between independent and cumulative yields along with the physical constraints on the independent yields. This work was motivated to improve the performance of the ENDF/B-VII.1 library in the case of stable and long-lived cumulative yields due to the inconsistency of ENDF/B-VII.1 fission p;roduct yield and decay data sub-libraries. The revised fission product yields and the new covariance data are proposed as a revision to the fission yield data currently in ENDF/B-VII.1.

  5. Calibration methodology for proportional counters applied to yield measurements of a neutron burst

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tarifeo-Saldivia, Ariel E-mail: atarisal@gmail.com; Pavez, Cristian; Soto, Leopoldo; Center for Research and Applications in Plasma Physics and Pulsed Power, P4, Santiago; Departamento de Ciencias Fisicas, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Universidad Andres Bello, Republica 220, Santiago ; Mayer, Roberto E.

    2014-01-15

    This paper introduces a methodology for the yield measurement of a neutron burst using neutron proportional counters. This methodology is to be applied when single neutron events cannot be resolved in time by nuclear standard electronics, or when a continuous current cannot be measured at the output of the counter. The methodology is based on the calibration of the counter in pulse mode, and the use of a statistical model to estimate the number of detected events from the accumulated charge resulting from the detection of the burst of neutrons. The model is developed and presented in full detail. For the measurement of fast neutron yields generated from plasma focus experiments using a moderated proportional counter, the implementation of the methodology is herein discussed. An experimental verification of the accuracy of the methodology is presented. An improvement of more than one order of magnitude in the accuracy of the detection system is obtained by using this methodology with respect to previous calibration methods.

  6. Road Blocks Yield Key Information about a Catalyst | The Ames Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Road Blocks Yield Key Information about a Catalyst Researchers systematically blocked key chemical reaction pathways to get unambiguous information about how carbon-nitrogen bonds are formed in a catalytic reaction known as hydroamination. Understanding a multi-step catalytic mechanism is like a solving a puzzle where you can't see the pieces. However, you can add your own "pieces" with known shapes to figure out what other pieces of the puzzle then will (or will not) fit.

  7. Measurement of Scintillation and Ionization Yield and Scintillation Pulse Shape from Nuclear Recoils in Liquid Argon

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Cao, H.

    2015-05-26

    We have measured the scintillation and ionization yield of recoiling nuclei in liquid argon as a function of applied electric field by exposing a dual-phase liquid argon time projection chamber (LAr-TPC) to a low energy pulsed narrow band neutron beam produced at the Notre Dame Institute for Structure and Nuclear Astrophysics. Liquid scintillation counters were arranged to detect and identify neutrons scattered in the TPC and to select the energy of the recoiling nuclei. We also report measurements of the scintillation yields for nuclear recoils with energies from 10.3 to 57.3 keV and for median applied electric fields from 0more » to 970 V/cm. For the ionization yields, we report measurements from 16.9 to 57.3 keV and for electric fields from 96.4 to 486 V/cm. Furthermore, we report the observation of an anticorrelation between scintillation and ionization from nuclear recoils, which is similar to the anticorrelation between scintillation and ionization from electron recoils. Assuming that the energy loss partitions into excitons and ion pairs from 83mKr internal conversion electrons is comparable to that from 207Bi conversion electrons, we obtained the numbers of excitons (Nex) and ion pairs (Ni) and their ratio (Nex/Ni) produced by nuclear recoils from 16.9 to 57.3 keV. Motivated by arguments suggesting direction sensitivity in LAr-TPC signals due to columnar recombination, a comparison of the light and charge yield of recoils parallel and perpendicular to the applied electric field is presented for the first time.« less

  8. Measurement of Scintillation and Ionization Yield and Scintillation Pulse Shape from Nuclear Recoils in Liquid Argon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cao, H.

    2015-05-26

    We have measured the scintillation and ionization yield of recoiling nuclei in liquid argon as a function of applied electric field by exposing a dual-phase liquid argon time projection chamber (LAr-TPC) to a low energy pulsed narrow band neutron beam produced at the Notre Dame Institute for Structure and Nuclear Astrophysics. Liquid scintillation counters were arranged to detect and identify neutrons scattered in the TPC and to select the energy of the recoiling nuclei. We also report measurements of the scintillation yields for nuclear recoils with energies from 10.3 to 57.3 keV and for median applied electric fields from 0 to 970 V/cm. For the ionization yields, we report measurements from 16.9 to 57.3 keV and for electric fields from 96.4 to 486 V/cm. Furthermore, we report the observation of an anticorrelation between scintillation and ionization from nuclear recoils, which is similar to the anticorrelation between scintillation and ionization from electron recoils. Assuming that the energy loss partitions into excitons and ion pairs from 83mKr internal conversion electrons is comparable to that from 207Bi conversion electrons, we obtained the numbers of excitons (Nex) and ion pairs (Ni) and their ratio (Nex/Ni) produced by nuclear recoils from 16.9 to 57.3 keV. Motivated by arguments suggesting direction sensitivity in LAr-TPC signals due to columnar recombination, a comparison of the light and charge yield of recoils parallel and perpendicular to the applied electric field is presented for the first time.

  9. Method and apparatus for increasing the durability and yield of thin film photovoltaic devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Phillips, J.E.; Lasswell, P.G.

    1987-02-03

    Thin film photovoltaic cells having a pair of semiconductor layers between an opaque and a transparent electrical contact are manufactured in a method which includes the step of scanning one of the semiconductor layers to determine the location of any possible shorting defect. Upon the detection of such defect, the defect is eliminated to increase the durability and yield of the photovoltaic device. 10 figs.

  10. Argonne discovery yields self-healing diamond-like carbon | Argonne

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Leadership Computing Facility Argonne discovery yields self-healing diamond-like carbon Author: Greg Cunningham and Katie Jones August 5, 2016 Facebook Twitter LinkedIn Google E-mail Printer-friendly version Large-scale reactive molecular dynamics simulations carried out on the Mira supercomputer at the Argonne Leadership Computing Facility, along with experiments conducted by researchers in Argonne's Energy Systems Division, enabled the design of a "self-healing," anti-wear

  11. Bio-energy feedstock yields and their water quality benefits in Mississippi

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parajuli, Prem B.

    2011-08-10

    Cellulosic and agricultural bio-energy crops can, under careful management, be harvested as feedstock for bio-fuels production and provide environmental benefits. However, it is required to quantify their relative advantages in feedstock production and water quality. The primary objective of this research was to evaluate potential feedstock yield and water quality benefit scenarios of bioenergy crops: Miscanthus (Miscanthus-giganteus), Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum), Johnsongrass (Sorghum halepense), Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), Soybean {Glycine max (L.) Merr.}, and Corn (Lea mays) in the Upper Pearl River watershed (UPRW), Mississippi using a Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). The SWAT model was calibrated (January 1981 to December 1994) and validated (January 1995 to September 2008) using monthly measured stream flow data. The calibrated and validated model determined good to very good performance for stream flow prediction (R2 and E from 0.60 to 0.86). The RMSE values (from 14 m3 s-1 to 37 m3 s-1) were estimated at similar levels of errors during model calibration and validation. The long-term average annual potential feedstock yield as an alternative energy source was determined the greatest when growing Miscanthus grass (373,849 Mg) as followed by Alfalfa (206,077 Mg), Switchgrass (132,077 Mg), Johnsongrass (47,576 Mg), Soybean (37,814 Mg), and Corn (22,069 Mg) in the pastureland and cropland of the watershed. Model results determined that average annual sediment yield from the Miscanthus grass scenario determined the least (1.16 Mg/ha) and corn scenario the greatest (12.04 Mg/ha). The SWAT model simulated results suggested that growing Miscanthus grass in the UPRW would have the greatest potential feedstock yield and water quality benefits.

  12. Effect of driver impedance on dense plasma focus Z-pinch neutron yield

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sears, Jason E-mail: schmidt36@llnl.gov; Link, Anthony E-mail: schmidt36@llnl.gov; Schmidt, Andrea E-mail: schmidt36@llnl.gov; Welch, Dale

    2014-12-15

    The Z-pinch phase of a dense plasma focus (DPF) heats the plasma by rapid compression and accelerates ions across its intense electric fields, producing neutrons through both thermonuclear and beam-target fusion. Driver characteristics have empirically been shown to affect performance, as measured by neutron yield per unit of stored energy. We are exploring the effect of driver characteristics on DPF performance using particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations of a kJ scale DPF. In this work, our PIC simulations are fluid for the run-down phase and transition to fully kinetic for the pinch phase, capturing kinetic instabilities, anomalous resistivity, and beam formation during the pinch. The anode-cathode boundary is driven by a circuit model of the capacitive driver, including system inductance, the load of the railgap switches, the guard resistors, and the coaxial transmission line parameters. It is known that the driver impedance plays an important role in the neutron yield: first, it sets the peak current achieved at pinch time; and second, it affects how much current continues to flow through the pinch when the pinch inductance and resistance suddenly increase. Here we show from fully kinetic simulations how total neutron yield depends on the impedance of the driver and the distributed parameters of the transmission circuit. Direct comparisons between the experiment and simulations enhance our understanding of these plasmas and provide predictive design capability for neutron source applications.

  13. Intensity-resolved ionization yields of aniline with femtosecond laser pulses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Strohaber, J.; Hart, N.; Zhu, F.; Nava, R.; Pham, F.; Kolomenskii, A. A.; Paulus, G. G.; Schuessler, H. A.; Mohamed, T.; Schroeder, H.

    2011-12-15

    We present experimental results for the ionization of aniline and benzene molecules subjected to intense ultrashort laser pulses. Measured parent molecular ions yields were obtained using a recently developed technique capable of three-dimensional imaging of ion distributions within the focus of a laser beam. By selecting ions originating from the central region of the focus, where the spatial intensity distribution is nearly uniform, volumetric-free intensity-dependent ionization yields were obtained. The measured data revealed a previously unseen resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization (REMPI)-like process. Comparison of benzene, aniline, and Xe ion yields demonstrates that the observed intensity-dependent structures are not due to geometric artifacts in the focus. Finally for intensities greater than {approx}3x10{sup 13} W/cm{sup 2}, we attribute the ionization of aniline to a stepwise process going through the {pi}{sigma}{sup *} state which sits three photons above the ground state and two photons below the continuum.

  14. The effect of mix on capsule yields as a function of shell thickness and gas fill

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bradley, P. A.

    2014-06-15

    An investigation of direct drive capsules with different shell thicknesses and gas fills was conducted to examine the amount of shock induced (Richtmyer-Meshkov) mix versus Rayleigh-Taylor mix from deceleration of the implosion. The RAGE (Eulerian) code with a turbulent mix model was used to model these capsules for neutron yields along with time-dependent mix amounts. The amount of Richtmyer-Meshkov induced mix from the shock breaking out of the shell is about 0.1 μg (0.15 μm of shell material), while the Rayleigh-Taylor mix is of order 1 μg and determines the mixed simulation yield. The simulations were able to calculate a yield over mix (YOM) ratio (experiment/mix simulation) between 0.5 and 1.0 for capsules with shell thicknesses ranging from 7.5 to 20 μm and with gas fills between 3.8 and 20 atm of D{sub 2} or DT. The simulated burn averaged T{sub ion} values typically lie with 0.5 keV of the data, which is within the measurement error. For capsules with shell thicknesses >25 μm, the YOM values drop to 0.10 ± 0.05, suggesting that some unmodeled effect needs to be accounted for in the thickest capsules.

  15. Excitation-emission spectra and fluorescence quantum yields for fresh and aged biogenic secondary organic aerosols

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Hyun Ji; Laskin, Alexander; Laskin, Julia; Nizkorodov, Sergey A.

    2013-05-10

    Certain biogenic secondary organic aerosols (SOA) become absorbent and fluorescent when exposed to reduced nitrogen compounds such as ammonia, amines and their salts. Fluorescent SOA may potentially be mistaken for biological particles by detection methods relying on fluorescence. This work quantifies the spectral distribution and effective quantum yields of fluorescence of SOA generated from two monoterpenes, limonene and a-pinene, and two different oxidants, ozone (O3) and hydroxyl radical (OH). The SOA was generated in a smog chamber, collected on substrates, and aged by exposure to ~100 ppb ammonia vapor in air saturated with water vapor. Absorption and excitation-emission matrix (EEM) spectra of aqueous extracts of aged and control SOA samples were measured, and the effective absorption coefficients and fluorescence quantum yields (~0.005 for 349 nm excitation) were determined from the data. The strongest fluorescence for the limonene-derived SOA was observed for excitation = 420+- 50 nm and emission = 475 +- 38 nm. The window of the strongest fluorescence shifted to excitation = 320 +- 25 nm and emission = 425 +- 38 nm for the a-pinene-derived SOA. Both regions overlap with the excitation-emission matrix (EEM) spectra of some of the fluorophores found in primary biological aerosols. Our study suggests that, despite the low quantum yield, the aged SOA particles should have sufficient fluorescence intensities to interfere with the fluorescence detection of common bioaerosols.

  16. Quantum yield for carbon monoxide production in the 248 nm photodissociation of carbonyl sulfide (OCS)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhao, Z.; Stickel, R.E.; Wine, P.H. [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)] [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    1995-03-01

    Tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy has been coupled with excimer laser flash photolysis to measure the quantum yield for CO production from 248 nm photodissociation of carbonyl sulfide (OCS) relative to the well known quantum yield for CO production from 248 nm photolysis of phosgene (Cl{sub 2}CO). The temporal resolution of the experiments was sufficient to distinguish CO formed directly by photodissociation from that formed by subsequent S({sup 3}P{sub j}) reaction with OCS. Under the experimental conditions employed, CO formation via the fast S({sup 1}D{sub 2})+OCS reaction was minimal. Measurements at 297K and total pressures from 4 to 100 Torr N{sub 2}+N{sub 2}O show the CO yield to be greater than 0.95 and most likely unity. This result suggests that the contribution of OCS as a precursor to the lower stratospheric sulfate aerosol layer is somewhat larger than previously thought. 25 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  17. D{sup +{yields}}K{sup -{pi}+{pi}+}: three-body FSI

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Magalhaes, P. C.; Robilotta, M. R.

    2010-11-12

    Even with the important advances of the last decade, charmed meson decays are still poorly understood theoretically. We do not understand, for example, why the kappa scalar resonance is responsible for 70% of the fit in the D{sup +{yields}}K{sup -{pi}+{pi}+} decay, as observed by the E791 (2002) experiment and confirmed by different collaborations. The fact that quark c can neither be considered soft nor heavy prevents the direct use of known theoretical results in the description of D. This scenario indicates two big gaps in the knowledge of D{sup +{yields}{pi}+{pi}+}K{sup -} decay. The first concerns the weak vertex, still not suitably treated in literature. The second is the three-body final state interaction (FSI) of the pseudoscalar mesons, until now considered in the literature as a quasi two-body interaction . This investigation aims at calculating the D{sup +{yields}{pi}+{pi}+}K{sup -} decay considering 3 body FSI.

  18. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Data from the Tropical Western Pacific (TWP) Site.

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program is the largest global change research program supported by the U.S. Department of Energy. The primary goal of the ARM Program is to improve the treatment of cloud and radiation physics in global climate models in order to improve the climate simulation capabilities of these models. To achieve this goal, ARM scientists and researchers around the world use continuous data obtained through the ARM Climate Research Facility. ARM maintains four major, permanent sites for data collection and deploys the ARM Mobile Facility to other sites as determined. The Tropical Western Pacific (TWP) site is one of the four fixed sites. It consists of three climate research facilities; the Manus facility on Los Negros Island in Manus, Papua New Guinea (established in 1996); the Nauru facility on Nauru Island, Republic of Nauru (1998); and the Darwin facility in Darwin, Northern Territory, Australia (2002). The operations are supported by government agencies in each host country. Covering the area roughly between 10 degrees N and 10 degrees S of the equator and from 130 degrees E to 167 degrees E, the TWP locale includes a region that plays a large role in the interannual variability observed in the global climate system. More than 250,000 TWP data sets from 1996 to the present reside in the ARM Archive. Begin at the TWP information page for links or access data directly from the ARM Archive at http://www.archive.arm.gov/. Users will need to register for a password, but all files are then free for viewing or downloading. The ARM Archive physically resides at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

  19. GHG Mitigation potential and cost in tropical forestry - Relative role for agroforestry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Makundi, Willy R.; Sathaye, Jayant A.

    2004-01-01

    This paper summarizes studies of carbon mitigation potential (MP) and costs of forestry options in seven developing countries with a focus on the role of agroforestry. A common methodological approach known as comprehensive mitigation assessment process (COMAP) was used in each study to estimate the potential and costs between 2000 and 2030. The approach requires the projection of baseline and mitigation land-use scenarios derived from the demand for forest products and forestland for other uses such as agriculture and pasture. By using data on estimated carbon sequestration, emission avoidance, costs and benefits, the model enables one to estimate cost effectiveness indicators based on monetary benefit per t C, as well as estimates of total mitigation costs and potential when the activities are implemented at equilibrium level. The results show that about half the MP of 6.9 Gt C (an average of 223 Mt C per year) between 2000 and 2030 in the seven countries could be achieved at a negative cost, and the other half at costs not exceeding $100 per t C. Negative cost indicates that non-carbon revenue is sufficient to offset direct costs of about half of the options. The agroforestry options analyzed bear a significant proportion of the potential at medium to low cost per t C when compared to other options. The role of agroforestry in these countries varied between 6% and 21% of the MP, though the options are much more cost effective than most due to the low wage or opportunity cost of rural labor. Agroforestry options are attractive due to the large number of people and potential area currently engaged in agriculture, but they pose unique challenges for carbon and cost accounting due to the dispersed nature of agricultural activities in the tropics, as well as specific difficulties arising from requirements for monitoring, verification, leakage assessment and the establishment of credible baselines.

  20. Mitigation potential and cost in tropical forestry - relative role for agroforestry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Makundi, Willy R.; Sathaye, Jayant A.

    2004-01-01

    This paper summarizes studies of carbon mitigation potential (MP) and costs of forestry options in seven developing countries with a focus on the role of agroforestry. A common methodological approach known as comprehensive mitigation assessment process (COMAP) was used in each study to estimate the potential and costs between 2000 and 2030. The approach requires the projection of baseline and mitigation land-use scenarios derived from the demand for forest products and forestland for other uses such as agriculture and pasture. By using data on estimated carbon sequestration, emission avoidance, costs and benefits, the model enables one to estimate cost effectiveness indicators based on monetary benefit per t C, as well as estimates of total mitigation costs and potential when the activities are implemented at equilibrium level. The results show that about half the MP of 6.9 Gt C (an average of 223 Mt C per year) between 2000 and 2030 in the seven countries could be achieved at a negative cost, and the other half at costs not exceeding $100 per t C. Negative cost indicates that non-carbon revenue is sufficient to offset direct costs of about half of the options. The agroforestry options analyzed bear a significant proportion of the potential at medium to low cost per t C when compared to other options. The role of agroforestry in these countries varied between 6% and 21% of the MP, though the options are much more cost effective than most due to the low wage or opportunity cost of rural labor. Agroforestry options are attractive due to the large number of people and potential area currently engaged in agriculture, but they pose unique challenges for carbon and cost accounting due to the dispersed nature of agricultural activities in the tropics, as well as specific difficulties arising from requirements for monitoring, verification, leakage assessment and the establishment of credible baselines.

  1. Method of increasing the phase stability and the compressive yield strength of uranium-1 to 3 wt. % zirconium alloy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, Robert C.

    1986-01-01

    A uranium-1 to 3 wt. % zirconium alloy characterized by high strength, high ductility and stable microstructure is fabricated by an improved thermal mechanical process. A homogenous ingot of the alloy which has been reduced in thickness of at least 50% in the two-step forging operation, rolled into a plate with a 75% reduction and then heated in vacuum at a temperature of about 750.degree. to 850.degree. C. and then quenched in water is subjected to further thermal-mechanical operation steps to increase the compressive yield strength approximately 30%, stabilize the microstructure, and decrease the variations in mechanical properties throughout the plate is provided. These thermal-mechanical steps are achieved by cold rolling the quenched plate to reduce the thickness thereof about 8 to 12%, aging the cold rolled plate at a first temperature of about 325.degree. to 375.degree. C. for five to six hours and then aging the plate at a higher temperature ranging from 480.degree. to 500.degree. C. for five to six hours prior to cooling the billet to ambient conditions and sizing the billet or plate into articles provides the desired increase in mechanical properties and phase stability throughout the plate.

  2. High speed flow cytometric separation of viable cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sasaki, Dennis T. (Mountain View, CA); Van den Engh, Gerrit J. (Seattle, WA); Buckie, Anne-Marie (Margate, GB)

    1995-01-01

    Hematopoietic cell populations are separated to provide cell sets and subsets as viable cells with high purity and high yields, based on the number of original cells present in the mixture. High-speed flow cytometry is employed using light characteristics of the cells to separate the cells, where high flow speeds are used to reduce the sorting time.

  3. High speed flow cytometric separation of viable cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sasaki, D.T.; Van den Engh, G.J.; Buckie, A.M.

    1995-11-14

    Hematopoietic cell populations are separated to provide cell sets and subsets as viable cells with high purity and high yields, based on the number of original cells present in the mixture. High-speed flow cytometry is employed using light characteristics of the cells to separate the cells, where high flow speeds are used to reduce the sorting time.

  4. Constructing a Merged Cloud-Precipitation Radar Dataset for Tropical Convective Clouds during the DYNAMO/AMIE Experiment at Addu Atoll

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feng, Zhe; McFarlane, Sally A.; Schumacher, Courtney; Ellis, Scott; Comstock, Jennifer M.; Bharadwaj, Nitin

    2014-05-16

    To improve understanding of the convective processes key to the Madden-Julian-Oscillation (MJO) initiation, the Dynamics of the MJO (DYNAMO) and Atmospheric Radiation Measurement MJO Investigation Experiment (AMIE) collected four months of observations from three radars, the S-band Polarization Radar (S-Pol), the C-band Shared Mobile Atmospheric Research & Teaching Radar (SMART-R), and Ka-band Zenith Radar (KAZR) on Addu Atoll in the tropical Indian Ocean. This study compares the measurements from the S-Pol and SMART-R to those from the more sensitive KAZR in order to characterize the hydrometeor detection capabilities of the two scanning precipitation radars. Frequency comparisons for precipitating convective clouds and non-precipitating high clouds agree much better than non-precipitating low clouds for both scanning radars due to issues in ground clutter. On average, SMART-R underestimates convective and high cloud tops by 0.3 to 1.1 km, while S-Pol underestimates cloud tops by less than 0.4 km for these cloud types. S-Pol shows excellent dynamic range in detecting various types of clouds and therefore its data are well suited for characterizing the evolution of the 3D cloud structures, complementing the profiling KAZR measurements. For detecting non-precipitating low clouds and thin cirrus clouds, KAZR remains the most reliable instrument. However, KAZR is attenuated in heavy precipitation and underestimates cloud top height due to rainfall attenuation 4.3% of the time during DYNAMO/AMIE. An empirical method to correct the KAZR cloud top heights is described, and a merged radar dataset is produced to provide improved cloud boundary estimates, microphysics and radiative heating retrievals.

  5. Multiple soil nutrient competition between plants, microbes, and mineral surfaces: model development, parameterization, and example applications in several tropical forests

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhu, Q.; Riley, W. J.; Tang, J.; Koven, C. D.

    2016-01-18

    Soil is a complex system where biotic (e.g., plant roots, micro-organisms) and abiotic (e.g., mineral surfaces) consumers compete for resources necessary for life (e.g., nitrogen, phosphorus). This competition is ecologically significant, since it regulates the dynamics of soil nutrients and controls aboveground plant productivity. Here we develop, calibrate and test a nutrient competition model that accounts for multiple soil nutrients interacting with multiple biotic and abiotic consumers. As applied here for tropical forests, the Nutrient COMpetition model (N-COM) includes three primary soil nutrients (NH4+, NO3− and POx; representing the sum of PO43−, HPO42− and H2PO4−) and five potential competitors (plantmore » roots, decomposing microbes, nitrifiers, denitrifiers and mineral surfaces). The competition is formulated with a quasi-steady-state chemical equilibrium approximation to account for substrate (multiple substrates share one consumer) and consumer (multiple consumers compete for one substrate) effects. N-COM successfully reproduced observed soil heterotrophic respiration, N2O emissions, free phosphorus, sorbed phosphorus and NH4+ pools at a tropical forest site (Tapajos). The overall model uncertainty was moderately well constrained. Our sensitivity analysis revealed that soil nutrient competition was primarily regulated by consumer–substrate affinity rather than environmental factors such as soil temperature or soil moisture. Our results also imply that under strong nutrient limitation, relative competitiveness depends strongly on the competitor functional traits (affinity and nutrient carrier enzyme abundance). We then applied the N-COM model to analyze field nitrogen and phosphorus perturbation experiments in two tropical forest sites (in Hawaii and Puerto Rico) not used in model development or calibration. Under soil inorganic nitrogen and phosphorus elevated conditions, the model accurately replicated the experimentally observed

  6. Multiple soil nutrient competition between plants, microbes, and mineral surfaces: model development, parameterization, and example applications in several tropical forests

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhu, Q.; Riley, W. J.; Tang, J.; Koven, C. D.

    2015-03-05

    Soil is a complex system where biotic (e.g., plant roots, micro-organisms) and abiotic (e.g., mineral surfaces) consumers compete for resources necessary for life (e.g., nitrogen, phosphorus). This competition is ecologically significant, since it regulates the dynamics of soil nutrients and controls aboveground plant productivity. Here we develop, calibrate, and test a nutrient competition model that accounts for multiple soil nutrients interacting with multiple biotic and abiotic consumers. As applied here for tropical forests, the Nutrient COMpetition model (N-COM) includes three primary soil nutrients (NH4+, NO3?, and POx (representing the sum of PO43?, HPO42?, and H2PO4?)) and five potential competitors (plantmoreroots, decomposing microbes, nitrifiers, denitrifiers, and mineral surfaces). The competition is formulated with a quasi-steady-state chemical equilibrium approximation to account for substrate (multiple substrates share one consumer) and consumer (multiple consumers compete for one substrate) effects. N-COM successfully reproduced observed soil heterotrophic respiration, N2O emissions, free phosphorus, sorbed phosphorus, and free NH4+ at a tropical forest site (Tapajos). The overall model posterior uncertainty was moderately well constrained. Our sensitivity analysis revealed that soil nutrient competition was primarily regulated by consumer-substrate affinity rather than environmental factors such as soil temperature or soil moisture. Our results imply that the competitiveness (from most to least competitive) followed this order: (1) for NH4+, nitrifiers ~ decomposing microbes > plant roots, (2) for NO3?, denitrifiers ~ decomposing microbes > plant roots, (3) for POx, mineral surfaces > decomposing microbes ~ plant roots. Although smaller, plant relative competitiveness is of the same order of magnitude as microbes. We then applied the N-COM model to analyze field nitrogen and phosphorus perturbation experiments in two tropical forest sites (in

  7. Modeling the impact of bubbling bed hydrodynamics on tar yield and its fluctuations during biomass fast pyrolysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xiong, Qingang; Ramirez, Emilio; Pannala, Sreekanth; Daw, C. Stuart; Xu, Fei

    2015-10-09

    The impact of bubbling bed hydrodynamics on temporal variations in the exit tar yield for biomass fast pyrolysis was investigated using computational simulations of an experimental laboratory-scale reactor. A multi-fluid computational fluid dynamics model was employed to simulate the differential conservation equations in the reactor, and this was combined with a multi-component, multi-step pyrolysis kinetics scheme for biomass to account for chemical reactions. The predicted mean tar yields at the reactor exit appear to match corresponding experimental observations. Parametric studies predicted that increasing the fluidization velocity should improve the mean tar yield but increase its temporal variations. Increases in the mean tar yield coincide with reducing the diameter of sand particles or increasing the initial sand bed height. However, trends in tar yield variability are more complex than the trends in mean yield. The standard deviation in tar yield reaches a maximum with changes in sand particle size. As a result, the standard deviation in tar yield increases with the increases in initial bed height in freely bubbling state, while reaches a maximum in slugging state.

  8. Modeling the impact of bubbling bed hydrodynamics on tar yield and its fluctuations during biomass fast pyrolysis

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Xiong, Qingang; Ramirez, Emilio; Pannala, Sreekanth; Daw, C. Stuart; Xu, Fei

    2015-10-09

    The impact of bubbling bed hydrodynamics on temporal variations in the exit tar yield for biomass fast pyrolysis was investigated using computational simulations of an experimental laboratory-scale reactor. A multi-fluid computational fluid dynamics model was employed to simulate the differential conservation equations in the reactor, and this was combined with a multi-component, multi-step pyrolysis kinetics scheme for biomass to account for chemical reactions. The predicted mean tar yields at the reactor exit appear to match corresponding experimental observations. Parametric studies predicted that increasing the fluidization velocity should improve the mean tar yield but increase its temporal variations. Increases in themore » mean tar yield coincide with reducing the diameter of sand particles or increasing the initial sand bed height. However, trends in tar yield variability are more complex than the trends in mean yield. The standard deviation in tar yield reaches a maximum with changes in sand particle size. As a result, the standard deviation in tar yield increases with the increases in initial bed height in freely bubbling state, while reaches a maximum in slugging state.« less

  9. Absolute x-ray yields from laser-irradiated germanium-doped low-density aerogels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fournier, K. B.; Satcher, J. H.; May, M. J.; Poco, J. F.; Sorce, C. M.; Colvin, J. D.; Hansen, S. B.; MacLaren, S. A.; Moon, S. J.; Davis, J. F. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94551 (United States); Girard, F.; Villette, B.; Primout, M.; Babonneau, D. [Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique-Direction des Application Militaires (CEA/DAM), Ile-de-France, F91297 Arpajon (France); Coverdale, C. A.; Beutler, D. E. [Sandia National Laboratory, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States)

    2009-05-15

    The x-ray yields from laser-irradiated germanium-doped ultra-low-density aerogel plasmas have been measured in the energy range from sub-keV to {approx_equal}15 keV at the OMEGA laser facility at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester. The targets' x-ray yields have been studied for variation in target size, aerogel density, laser pulse length, and laser intensity. For targets that result in plasmas with electron densities in the range of {approx_equal}10% of the critical density for 3{omega} light, one can expect 10-11 J/sr of x rays with energies above 9 keV, and 600-800 J/sr for energies below 3.5 keV. In addition to the x-ray spectral yields, the x-ray temporal waveforms have been measured and it is observed that the emitted x rays generally follow the delivered laser power, with late-time enhancements of emitted x-ray power correlated with hydrodynamic compression of the hot plasma. Further, the laser energy reflected from the target by plasma instabilities is found to be 2%-7% of the incident energy for individual beam intensities {approx_equal}10{sup 14}-10{sup 15} W/cm{sup 2}. The propagation of the laser heating in the target volume has been characterized with two-dimensional imaging. Source-region heating is seen to be correlated with the temporal profile of the emitted x-ray power.

  10. Technicolor corrections to bb{yields}W{sup {+-}{pi}}{sub t}{sup {+-}}at the CERN Large Hadron Collider

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang Jinshu; Pan, Qunna; Song, Taiping; Lu, Gongru

    2010-07-01

    In this paper we calculate the technicolor correction to the production of a charged top pion in association with a W boson via bb annihilation at the CERN Large Hadron Collider in the context of the topcolor assisted technicolor model. We find that the cross section of pp{yields}bb{yields}W{sup {+-}{pi}}{sub t}{sup {+-}}at the tree level can reach a few hundred femtobarns for reasonable ranges of the parameters, roughly corresponding to the result of the process pp{yields}bb{yields}W{sup {+-}H{+-}}in the minimal supersymmetric standard model; the relative corrections arising from the one-loop diagrams are about a few percent to two dozen percent, and they will increase the cross section at the tree level. As a comparison, we also discuss the size of the hadron cross section via the other subprocess gg{yields}W{sup {+-}{pi}}{sub t}{sup {+-}.}

  11. Structural Basis for Near Unity Quantum Yield Core/Shell Nanostructures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McBride, James; Treadway, Joe; Pennycook, Stephen J; Rosenthal, Sandra

    2006-01-01

    Aberration-corrected Z-contrast scanning transmission electron microscopy of core/shell nanocrystals shows clear correlations between structure and quantum efficiency. Uniform shell coverage is obtained only for a graded CdS/ZnS shell material and is found to be critical to achieving near 100% quantum yield. The sublattice sensitivity of the images confirms that preferential growth takes place on the anion-terminated surfaces. This explains the three-dimensional "nanobullet" shape observed in the case of core/shell nanorods.

  12. Using SU(3) relations to bound the CP asymmetries in B{yields}KKK decays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Engelhard, Guy; Raz, Guy

    2005-12-01

    We consider three-body {delta}s=1 B{yields}f decays with f=KKK. The deviations of -{eta}{sub f}S{sub f} from S{sub {psi}}{sub K{sub S}} and of C{sub f} from zero can be bounded using the approximate SU(3) flavor symmetry of the strong interactions and branching ratios of various {delta}s=0 modes. We present the most promising SU(3) amplitude relations that can be used to obtain these bounds.

  13. Method for improving product yields in an anionic metalloporphyrin-based artificial photosynthesis system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shelnutt, J.A.

    1984-11-29

    A method is disclosed improving product yields in an anionic metalloporphyrin-based artificial photosynthesis system for hydrogen generation. The method comprises forming an aqueous solution comprising an electron donor, methylviologen, and certain metalloporphyrins and metallochlorins, and irradiating said aqueous solution with light in the presence of a catalyst. In the photosynthesis process, solar energy is collected and stored in the form of a hydrogen. Ligands attached above and below the metalloporphyrin and metallochlorin plane are capable of sterically blocking photochemically inactive electrostatically bound ..pi..-..pi.. complexes which can develop.

  14. Method for improving product yields in an anionic metalloporphyrin-based artificial photosynthesis system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shelnutt, John A.

    1986-01-01

    A method for improving product yields in an anionic metalloporphyrin-based artificial photosynthesis system for hydrogen generation which comprises forming an aqueous solution comprising an electron donor, methylviologen, and certain metalloporphyrins and metallochlorins, and irradiating said aqueous solution with light in the presence of a catalyst. In the photosynthesis process, solar energy is collected and stored in the form of a gas hydrogen. Ligands attached above and below the metalloporphyrin and metallochlorin plane are capable of sterically blocking photochemically inactive electrostatically bound .pi.--.pi. complexes which can develop.

  15. Methanol and isoprene emissions from the fast growing tropical pioneer species Vismia guianensis (Aubl.) Pers. (Hypericaceae) in the central Amazon forest

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Jardine, Kolby J.; Jardine, Angela B.; Souza, Vinicius F.; Carneiro, Vilany; Ceron, Joao V.; Gimenez, Bruno O.; Soares, Cilene P.; Durgante, Flavia M.; Higuchi, Niro; Manzi, Antonio O.; et al

    2016-05-26

    Isoprene (Is) emissions by plants represent a loss of carbon and energy resources leading to the initial hypothesis that fast growing pioneer species in secondary tropical forests allocate carbon primarily to growth at the expense of isoprenoid defenses. In this study, we quantified leaf isoprene and methanol emissions from the abundant pantropical pioneer tree species Vismia guianensis and ambient isoprene concentrations above a diverse secondary forest in the central Amazon. As photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) was varied (0 to 3000 µmol m−2 s−1) under standard leaf temperature (30 °C), isoprene emissions from V. guianensis increased without saturation up to 80 nmol m−2 s−1. A nonlinear increase inmore » isoprene emissions with respect to net photosynthesis (Pn) resulted in the fraction of Pn dedicated to isoprene emissions increasing with light intensity (up to 2 % of Pn). Emission responses to temperature under standard light conditions (PAR of 1000 µmol m−2 s−1) resulted in the classic uncoupling of isoprene emissions (Topt, iso > 40 °C) from net photosynthesis (Topt, Pn = 30.0–32.5 °C) with up to 7 % of Pn emitted as isoprene at 40 °C. Under standard environmental conditions of PAR and leaf temperature, young V. guianensis leaves showed high methanol emissions, low Pn, and low isoprene emissions. In contrast, mature leaves showed high Pn, high isoprene emissions, and low methanol emissions, highlighting the differential control of leaf phenology over methanol and isoprene emissions. High daytime ambient isoprene concentrations (11 ppbv) were observed above a secondary Amazon rainforest, suggesting that isoprene emissions are common among neotropical pioneer species. The results are not consistent with the initial hypothesis and support a functional role of methanol during leaf expansion and the establishment of photosynthetic machinery and a protective role of isoprene for

  16. The impact of equilibrating hemispheric albedos on tropical performance in the HadGEM2-ES coupled climate model

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Haywood, Jim M.; Jones, Andy; Dunstone, Nick; Milton, Sean; Vellinga, Michael; Bodas-Salcedo, Alejandro; Hawcroft, Matt; Kravitz, Ben; Cole, Jason; Watanabe, Shingo; et al

    2016-01-14

    The Earth's hemispheric reflectances are equivalent to within ± 0.2 Wm–2, even though the Northern Hemisphere contains a greater proportion of higher reflectance land areas, because of greater cloud cover in the Southern Hemisphere. This equivalence is unlikely to be by chance, but the reasons are open to debate. Here we show that equilibrating hemispheric albedos in the Hadley Centre Global Environment Model version 2-Earth System coupled climate model significantly improves what have been considered longstanding and apparently intractable model biases. Monsoon precipitation biases over all continental land areas, the penetration of monsoon rainfall across the Sahel, the West Africanmore » monsoon “jump”, and indicators of hurricane frequency are all significantly improved. Mechanistically, equilibrating hemispheric albedos improves the atmospheric cross-equatorial energy transport and increases the supply of tropical atmospheric moisture to the Hadley cell. Furthermore, we conclude that an accurate representation of the cross-equatorial energy transport appears to be critical if tropical performance is to be improved.« less

  17. A photorespiratory bypass increases plant growth and seed yield in biofuel crop Camelina sativa

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Dalal, Jyoti; Lopez, Harry; Vasani, Naresh B.; Hu, Zhaohui; Swift, Jennifer E.; Yalamanchili, Roopa; Dvora, Mia; Lin, Xiuli; Xie, Deyu; Qu, Rongda; et al

    2015-10-29

    Camelina sativa is an oilseed crop with great potential for biofuel production on marginal land. The seed oil from camelina has been converted to jet fuel and improved fuel efficiency in commercial and military test flights. Hydrogenation-derived renewable diesel from camelina is environmentally superior to that from canola due to lower agricultural inputs, and the seed meal is FDA approved for animal consumption. However, relatively low yield makes its farming less profitable. Our study is aimed at increasing camelina seed yield by reducing carbon loss from photorespiration via a photorespiratory bypass. Genes encoding three enzymes of the Escherichia coli glycolatemore » catabolic pathway were introduced: glycolate dehydrogenase (GDH), glyoxylate carboxyligase (GCL) and tartronic semialdehyde reductase (TSR). These enzymes compete for the photorespiratory substrate, glycolate, convert it to glycerate within the chloroplasts, and reduce photorespiration. As a by-product of the reaction, CO2 is released in the chloroplast, which increases photosynthesis. Camelina plants were transformed with either partial bypass (GDH), or full bypass (GDH, GCL and TSR) genes. Furthermore, transgenic plants were evaluated for physiological and metabolic traits.« less

  18. Drought effects on composition and yield for corn stover, mixed grasses, and Miscanthus as bioenergy feedstocks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rachel Emerson; Amber Hoover; Allison Ray; Jeffrey Lacey; Marnie Cortez; Courtney Payne; Doug Karlen; Stuart Birrell; David Laird; Robert Kallenbach; Josh Egenolf; Matthew Sousek; Thomas Voigt

    2014-11-01

    Drought conditions in 2012 were some of the most severe reported in the United States. It is necessary to explore the effects of drought on the quality attributes of current and potential bioenergy feedstocks. Compositional analysis data for corn stover, Miscanthus, and CRP grasses from one or more locations for years 2010 (normal precipitation levels) and 2012 (a known severe drought year nationally) was collected. Results & discussion: The general trend for samples that experienced drought was an increase in extractives and a decrease in structural sugars and lignin. The TEY yields were calculated to determine the drought effects on ethanol production. All three feedstocks had a decrease of 12-14% in TEY when only decreases of carbohydrate content was analyzed. When looking at the compounded effect of both carbohydrate content and the decreases in dry matter loss for each feedstock there was a TEY decrease of 25%-59%. Conclusion: Drought had a significant impact on the quality of all three bioenergy crops. In all cases where drought was experienced both the quality of the feedstock and the yield decreased. These drought induced effects could have significant economic impacts on biorefineries.

  19. Structure and scintillation yield of Ce-doped AlGa substituted yttrium garnet

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sidletskiy, Oleg; Kononets, Valerii; Lebbou, Kheirreddine; Neicheva, Svetlana; Voloshina, Olesya; Bondar, Valerii; Baumer, Vyacheslav; Belikov, Konstantin; Gektin, Alexander; Grinyov, Boris; Joubert, Marie-France

    2012-11-15

    Highlights: ? Range of Y{sub 3}(Al{sub 1?x}Ga{sub x}){sub 5}O{sub 12}:Ce solid solution crystals are grown from melt by the Czochralski method. ? Light yield of mixed crystals reaches 130% of the YAG:Ce value at x ? 0.4. ? ?1% of antisite defects is formed in YGG:Ce, but no evidence of this is obtained for the rest of crystals. -- Abstract: Structure and scintillation yield of Y{sub 3}(Al{sub 1?x}Ga{sub x}){sub 5}O{sub 12}:Ce solid solution crystals are studied. Crystals are grown from melt by the Czochralski method. Distribution of host cations in crystal lattice is determined. Quantity of antisite defects in crystals is evaluated using XRD and atomic emission spectroscopy data. Trend of light output at Al/Ga substitution in Y{sub 3}(Al{sub 1?x}Ga{sub x}){sub 5}O{sub 12}:Ce is determined for the first time. Light output in mixed crystals reaches 130% comparative to Ce-doped yttriumaluminum garnet. Luminescence properties at Al/Ga substitution are evaluated.

  20. ENDF/B-VII.1 Nuclear Data for Science and Technology: Cross Sections, Covariances, Fission Product Yields and Decay Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G. Palmiotti

    2011-12-01

    The ENDF/B-VII.1 library is our latest recommended evaluated nuclear data file for use in nuclear science and technology applications, and incorporates advances made in the five years since the release of ENDF/B-VII.0. These advances focus on neutron cross sections, covariances, fission product yields and decay data, and represent work by the US Cross Section Evaluation Working Group (CSEWG) in nuclear data evaluation that utilizes developments in nuclear theory, modeling, simulation, and experiment. The principal advances in the new library are: (1) An increase in the breadth of neutron reaction cross section coverage, extending from 393 nuclides to 418 nuclides; (2) Covariance uncertainty data for 185 of the most important nuclides, as documented in companion papers in this edition; (3) R-matrix analyses of neutron reactions on light nuclei, including isotopes of He, Li, and Be; (4) Resonance parameter analyses at lower energies and statistical high energy reactions at higher energies for isotopes of F, Cl, K, Ti, V, Mn, Cr, Ni, Zr and W; (5) Modifications to thermal neutron reactions on fission products (isotopes of Mo, Tc, Rh, Ag, Cs, Nd, Sm, Eu) and neutron absorber materials (Cd, Gd); (6) Improved minor actinide evaluations for isotopes of U, Np, Pu, and Am (we are not making changes to the major actinides 235,238U and 239Pu at this point, except for delayed neutron data, and instead we intend to update them after a further period of research in experiment and theory), and our adoption of JENDL-4.0 evaluations for isotopes of Cm, Bk, Cf, Es, Fm, and some other minor actinides; (7) Fission energy release evaluations; (8) Fission product yield advances for fission-spectrum neutrons and 14 MeV neutrons incident on 239Pu; and (9) A new Decay Data sublibrary. Integral validation testing of the ENDF/B-VII.1 library is provided for a variety of quantities: For nuclear criticality, the VII.1 library maintains the generally-good performance seen for VII.0 for a wide

  1. A study of the spray injection Reynolds number effects on gasoline yields of an FCC riser reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bowman, B. J.; Zhou, C. Q.; Chang, S. L.; Lottes, S. A.

    2000-04-03

    A computational analysis of the combined effects of feed oil injection parameters in a commercial-scale fluidized catalytic cracking riser reactor was performed using a three-phase, multiple species kinetic cracking computer code. The analysis showed that the injection operating parameters (droplet diameter and injection velocity) had strong impacts on the gasoline yields of the FCC unit. A spray injection Reynolds number combining the two parameters was defined. A correlation between the spray injection Reynolds number and the gasoline product yields for various feed injection conditions was developed. A range of spray injection Reynolds number for the maximum gasoline yield was identified.

  2. Measurement of ratio R = (BR(D{sup 0}{yields}K{pi}{pi}{pi})/BR(D{sup 0}{yields}K{pi})) in {pi}{sup -}-Nucleus interactions at 500 GeV/c

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Solano Salinas, C. J.; Paucarchuco, C.; Fernandez, A.; Sheaff, M.

    2007-10-26

    We report a very preliminary result on the measurement of the ratio of branching ratios, for two decays D{sup 0} meson, R = (BR(D{sup 0}{yields}K{pi}{pi}{pi})/BR(D{sup 0}{yields}K{pi})), using data from the E791 experiment. We find R = 1.96{+-}0.0286 (stat){+-}0.06 (sys). This is in agreement with and of similar precision to the current PDG average value 1.97{+-}0.09.

  3. Solid-Solution CrCoCuFeNi High-Entropy Alloy Thin Films Synthesized...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... tion up to 800C,1-3 high yield strengths at elevated temperatures,4 high ... lowest surface energy planes are the 111 family of planes, which have been numerically ...

  4. High pressure effects on U L[subscript 3] x-ray absorption in...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    High pressure effects on U Lsubscript 3 x-ray absorption in partial fluorescence yield ... Citation Details In-Document Search Title: High pressure effects on U Lsubscript 3 x-ray ...

  5. Primary and secondary organics in tropical Amazonian rainforest aerosols: Chiral analysis of 2-methyltetrols

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gonzalez, Nelida; Borg-Karlson, Anna-Karin; Artaxo, Paulo; Guenther, Alex B.; Krejci, R.; Noziere, Barbara; Noone, Kevin

    2014-06-01

    This work presents the application of a newly developed method to facilitate the distinction between primary and secondary organic compounds in ambient aerosols based on their chiral analysis. The organic constituents chosen for chiral analysis are the four stereomers of the 2-methyltetrols, (2R,3S)- and (2S,3R)- methylerythritol and (2S,3S)- and (2R,3R)- methylthreitol. Ambient PM10 aerosol samples were collected between June 2008 and June 2009 near Manaus, Brazil, in a remote tropical rainforest environment of central Amazonia. The samples were analyzed for the presence of these four stereomers because qualitatively, in a previous study, they have been demonstrated to have partly primary origins. Thus the origin of these compounds may be primary and secondary from the biosynthesis and oxidation processes of isoprene within plants and also in the atmosphere. Using authentic standards, the quantified concentrations were in average 78.2 and 72.8 ng m-3 for (2R,3S)- and (2S,3R)- methylerythritol and 3.1 and 3.3 ng m-3 for (2S,3S)- and (2R,3R)- methylthreitol during the dry season and 7.1, 6.5, 2.0, and 2.2 ng m-3 during the wet season, respectively. Furthermore, these compounds were found to be outside the confidence interval for racemic mixtures (enantiomeric fraction, Ef = 0.5 -0.01) in nearly all the samples, with deviations of up to 32 % (Ef = 0.61) for (2R,3S)-methylerythritol and 47 % (Ef = 0.65) for (2S,3S)-methylthreitol indicating (99% confidence level) biologically-produced 2-methyltetrols. The minimum primary origin contribution ranged between 0.19 and 29.67 ng m-3 for the 2-methylerythritols and between 0.15 and 1.2 ng m-3 for the 2-methylthreitols. The strong correlation of the diatereomers (racemic 2-methylerythritol and 2-methylthreitol) in the wet season implied a secondary origin. Assuming the maximum secondary contribution in the dry season, the secondary fraction in the wet season was 81-99 % and in the dry season, 10 - 95 %. Nevertheless, from the

  6. Light yield of Kuraray SCSF-78MJ scintillating fibers for the Gluex barrel calorimeter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beattie, T.D.; Fischer, A.P.; Krueger, S.T.; Lolos, G.J.; Papandreou, Z.; Plummer, E.L.; Semenov, A.Yu.; Semenova, I.A.; Sichello, L.M.; Teigro, L.A.; Smith, E S

    2014-09-01

    Over three quarters of a million 1-mm-diameter 4-m-long Kuraray double-clad SCSF-78MJ (blue-green) scintillating fibers have been used in the construction of the GlueX electromagnetic barrel calorimeter for the Hall D experimental program at Jefferson Lab. The quality of a random sample of 4,750 of these fibers was evaluated by exciting the fibers at their mid point using a 90Sr source in order to determine the light yield using a calibrated vacuum photomultiplier as the photosensor. A novel methodology was developed to extract the number of photoelectrons detected for measurements where individual photoelectron peaks are not discernible. The average number of photoelectrons from this sample of fibers was 9.17±0.6 at a source distance of 200 cm from the PMT.

  7. Secondary Electron Yield Measurements of Fermilab?s Main Injector Vacuum Vessel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scott, D.J.; Capista, D.; Duel, K.L.; Zwaska, R.M.; Greenwald, S.; Hartung, W.; Li, Y.; Moore, T.P.; Palmer, M.A.; Kirby, R.; Pivi, M.; /SLAC

    2012-05-01

    We discuss the progress made on a new installation in Fermilab's Main Injector that will help investigate the electron cloud phenomenon by making direct measurements of the secondary electron yield (SEY) of samples irradiated in the accelerator. In the Project X upgrade the Main Injector will have its beam intensity increased by a factor of three compared to current operations. This may result in the beam being subject to instabilities from the electron cloud. Measured SEY values can be used to further constrain simulations and aid our extrapolation to Project X intensities. The SEY test-stand, developed in conjunction with Cornell and SLAC, is capable of measuring the SEY from samples using an incident electron beam when the samples are biased at different voltages. We present the design and manufacture of the test-stand and the results of initial laboratory tests on samples prior to installation.

  8. System developed to predict waxy crude`s breakaway yield stress

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, T.M.; Hsu, J.J.C.; Patterson, H.L.

    1996-12-16

    Breakaway yield stress (BAYS) was measured on waxy crude oil from the South China Sea to help develop appropriate design specifications for the HZ field subsea production system there. The measured BAYS at seabed temperature indicated that if production were interrupted and the crude in the pipeline cooled to seabed temperature, restart pressure would exceed the pressure rating of the originally planned pipeline. Texaco Inc. has designed a system to measure the BAYS of stock tank and live crude oils at selected temperatures. The cooling rate of the oil can be controlled and measurement of BAYS at the selected temperatures delayed to best model field conditions. The paper describes the measurement apparatus, pressure equation, results of the measurement of HZ 32 oils, rate of cooling, special field design, and implications.

  9. Nuclear and in-source laser spectroscopy with the ISAC yield station

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kunz, Peter Bricault, Pierre; Dombsky, Marik; Lassen, Jens; Teigelhöfer, Andrea; Heggen, Henning; Andreoiu, Corina; Wong, Fiona

    2014-05-15

    A new decay station has been built for the ISAC facility at TRIUMF for the rapid and reliable characterization of radioactive ion beam (RIB) compositions and intensities with the capability of simultaneously collecting α, β, and γ decay data from RIB with intensities between a few and ≈10{sup 11} ions per second. It features user-friendly control, data acquisition, and analysis software. The analysis of individual decay time structures allows the unambiguous assignment of α and γ lines even with substantial isobaric contamination present. The capability for accurate half-life measurements is demonstrated with the example of {sup 46}K. The coupling of the yield station to the laser ion source, TRILIS, allows the correlation of radiometric data with automated laser frequency scans. First results of in-source laser spectroscopy measurements on astatine are discussed.

  10. Surface structures for enhancement of quantum yield in broad spectrum emission nanocrystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schreuder, Michael A.; McBride, James R.; Rosenthal, Sandra J.

    2014-07-22

    Disclosed are inorganic nanoparticles comprising a body comprising cadmium and/or zinc crystallized with selenium, sulfur, and/or tellurium; a multiplicity of phosphonic acid ligands comprising at least about 20% of the total surface ligand coverage; wherein the nanocrystal is capable of absorbing energy from a first electromagnetic region and capable of emitting light in a second electromagnetic region, wherein the maximum absorbance wavelength of the first electromagnetic region is different from the maximum emission wavelength of the second electromagnetic region, thereby providing a Stokes shift of at least about 20 nm, wherein the second electromagnetic region comprises an at least about 100 nm wide band of wavelengths, and wherein the nanoparticle exhibits has a quantum yield of at least about 10%. This abstract is intended as a scanning tool for purposes of searching in the particular art and is not intended to be limiting of the present invention.

  11. Effect of pelleting process variables on physical properties and sugar yields of ammonia fiber expansion pretreated corn stover

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Amber N. Hoover; Jaya Shankar Tumuluru; Farzaneh Teymouri; Garold L. Gresham; Janette Moore

    2014-07-01

    Pelletization process variables including grind size (4, 6 mm), die speed (40, 50, 60 Hz), and preheating (none, 70 degrees C) were evaluated to understand their effect on pellet quality attributes and sugar yields of ammonia fiber expansion (AFEX) pretreated biomass. The bulk density of the pelletized AFEX corn stover was three to six times greater compared to untreated and AFEX-treated corn stover. Also the durability of the pelletized AFEX corn stover was >97.5% for all pelletization conditions studied except for preheated pellets. Die speed had no effect on enzymatic hydrolysis sugar yields of pellets. Pellets produced with preheating or a larger grind size (6 mm) had similar or lower sugar yields. Pellets generated with 4 mm AFEX-treated corn stover, a 60 Hz die speed, and no preheating resulted in pellets with similar or greater density, durability, and sugar yields compared to other pelletization conditions.

  12. Precision Crystal Calorimeters in High Energy Physics

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Ren-Yuan Zhu

    2010-01-08

    Precision crystal calorimeters traditionally play an important role in high energy physics experiments. In the last two decades, it faces a challenge to maintain its precision in a hostile radiation environment. This paper reviews the performance of crystal calorimeters constructed for high energy physics experiments and the progress achieved in understanding crystal?s radiation damage as well as in developing high quality scintillating crystals for particle physics. Potential applications of new generation scintillating crystals of high density and high light yield, such as LSO and LYSO, in particle physics experiments is also discussed.

  13. B{yields}M{sub 1}M{sub 2}: Factorization, charming penguins, strong phases, and polarization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bauer, Christian W.; Pirjol, Dan; Stewart, Iain W.; Rothstein, Ira Z.

    2004-09-01

    Using the soft-collinear effective theory we derive the factorization theorem for the decays B{yields}M{sub 1}M{sub 2} with M{sub 1,2}={pi},K,{rho},K*, at leading order in {lambda}/E{sub M} and {lambda}/m{sub b}. The results derived here apply even if {alpha}{sub s}(E{sub M}{lambda}) is not perturbative, and we prove that the physics sensitive to the E{lambda} scale is the same in B{yields}M{sub 1}M{sub 2} and B{yields}M form factors. We argue that cc penguins could give long-distance effects at leading order. Decays to two transversely polarized vector mesons are discussed. Analyzing B{yields}{pi}{pi} we find predictions for B{sup 0}{yields}{pi}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0} and vertical bar V{sub ub} vertical bar f{sub +}{sup B0}{yields}{pi}(0) as a function of {gamma}.

  14. On the connection between continental-scale land surface processes and the tropical climate in a coupled ocean-atmosphere-land system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ma, Hsi-Yen; Mechoso, C. R.; Xue, Yongkang; Xiao, Heng; Neelin, David; Ji, Xuan

    2013-11-15

    The impact of global tropical climate to perturbations in land surface processes (LSP) are evaluated using perturbations given by different LSP representations of continental-scale in a global climate model that includes atmosphere-ocean interactions. One representation is a simple land scheme, which specifies climatological albedos and soil moisture availability. The other representation is the more comprehensive Simplified Simple Biosphere Model, which allows for interactive soil moisture and vegetation biophysical processes. The results demonstrate that LSP processes such as interactive soil moisture and vegetation biophysical processes have strong impacts on the seasonal mean states and seasonal cycles of global precipitation, clouds, and surface air temperature. The impact is especially significant over the tropical Pacific. To explore the mechanisms for such impact, different LSP representations are confined to selected continental-scale regions where strong interactions of climate-vegetation biophysical processes are present. We find that the largest impact is mainly from LSP perturbations over the tropical African continent. The impact is through anomalous convective heating in tropical Africa due to changes in the surface heat fluxes, which in turn affect basinwide teleconnections in the Pacific through equatorial wave dynamics. The modifications in the equatorial Pacific climate are further enhanced by strong air-sea coupling between surface wind stress and upwelling, as well as effect of ocean memory. Our results further suggest that correct representations of land surface processes, land use change and the associated changes in the deep convection over tropical Africa are crucial to reducing the uncertainty when performing future climate projections under different climate change scenarios.

  15. Macrophysical Properties of Tropical Cirrus Clouds from the CALIPSO Satellite and from Ground-based Micropulse and Raman Lidars

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thorsen, Tyler J.; Fu, Qiang; Comstock, Jennifer M.; Sivaraman, Chitra; Vaughan, Mark A.; Winker, D.; Turner, David D.

    2013-08-27

    Lidar observations of cirrus cloud macrophysical properties over the U.S. Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program Darwin, Australia site are compared from the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and In- frared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO) satellite, the ground-based ARM micropulse lidar (MPL), and the ARM Raman lidar (RL). Comparisons are made using the subset of profiles where the lidar beam is not fully attenuated. Daytime measurements using the RL are shown to be relatively unaffected by the solar background and are therefore suited for checking the validity of diurnal cycles. RL and CALIPSO cloud fraction profiles show good agreement while the MPL detects significantly less cirrus, particularly during the daytime. Both MPL and CALIPSO observations show that cirrus clouds occur less frequently during the day than at night at all altitudes. In contrast, the RL diurnal cy- cle is significantly different than zero only below about 11 km; where it is the opposite sign (i.e. more clouds during the daytime). For cirrus geomet- rical thickness, the MPL and CALIPSO observations agree well and both datasets have signficantly thinner clouds during the daytime than the RL. From the examination of hourly MPL and RL cirrus cloud thickness and through the application of daytime detection limits to all CALIPSO data we find that the decreased MPL and CALIPSO cloud thickness during the daytime is very likely a result of increased daytime noise. This study highlights the vast im- provement the RL provides (compared to the MPL) in the ARM program's ability to observe tropical cirrus clouds as well as a valuable ground-based lidar dataset for the validation of CALIPSO observations and to help im- prove our understanding of tropical cirrus clouds.

  16. Understanding the El Niño-like Oceanic Response in the Tropical Pacific to Global Warming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luo, Yiyong; Lu, Jian; Liu, Fukai; Liu, Wei

    2015-10-10

    The enhanced central and eastern Pacific SST warming and the associated ocean processes under global warming are investigated using the ocean component of the Community Earth System Model (CESM), Parallel Ocean Program version 2 (POP2). The tropical SST warming pattern in the coupled CESM can be faithfully reproduced by the POP2 forced with surface fluxes computed using the aerodynamic bulk formula. By prescribing the wind stress and/or wind speed through the bulk formula, the effects of wind stress change and/or the wind-evaporation-SST (WES) feedback are isolated and their linearity is evaluated in this ocean-alone setting. Result shows that, although the weakening of the equatorial easterlies contributes positively to the El Niño-like SST warming, 80% of which can be simulated by the POP2 without considering the effects of wind change in both mechanical and thermodynamic fluxes. This result points to the importance of the air-sea thermal interaction and the relative feebleness of the ocean dynamical process in the El Niño-like equatorial Pacific SST response to global warming. On the other hand, the wind stress change is found to play a dominant role in the oceanic response in the tropical Pacific, accounting for most of the changes in the equatorial ocean current system and thermal structures, including the weakening of the surface westward currents, the enhancement of the near-surface stratification and the shoaling of the equatorial thermocline. Interestingly, greenhouse gas warming in the absence of wind stress change and WES feedback also contributes substantially to the changes at the subsurface equatorial Pacific. Further, this warming impact can be largely replicated by an idealized ocean experiment forced by a uniform surface heat flux, whereby, arguably, a purest form of oceanic dynamical thermostat is revealed.

  17. Saharan dust as a causal factor of hemispheric asymmetry in aerosols and cloud cover over the tropical Atlantic Ocean

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kishcha, Pavel; Da Sliva, Arlindo; Starobinets, Boris; Long, Charles N.; Kalashnikova, Olga; Alpert, Pinhas

    2015-07-09

    Meridional distribution of aerosol optical thickness (AOT) over the tropical Atlantic Ocean (30°N – 30°S) was analyzed to assess seasonal variations of meridional AOT asymmetry. Ten-year MERRA Aerosol Reanalysis (MERRAero) data (July 2002 – June 2012) confirms that the Sahara desert emits a significant amount of dust into the atmosphere over the Atlantic Ocean. Only over the Atlantic Ocean did MERRAero show that desert dust dominates other aerosol species and is responsible for meridional aerosol asymmetry between the tropical North and South Atlantic. Over the 10-year period under consideration, both MISR measurements and MERRAero data showed a pronounced meridional AOTmore » asymmetry. The meridional AOT asymmetry, characterized by the hemispheric ratio (RAOT) of AOT averaged separately over the North and over the South Atlantic, was about 1.7. Seasonally, meridional AOT asymmetry over the Atlantic was the most pronounced between March and July, when dust presence is maximal (RAOT ranged from 2 to 2.4). There was no noticeable meridional aerosol asymmetry in total AOT from September to October. During this period the contribution of carbonaceous aerosols to total AOT in the South Atlantic was comparable to the contribution of dust aerosols to total AOT in the North Atlantic. During the same 10-year period, MODIS cloud fraction (CF) data showed that there was no noticeable asymmetry in meridional CF distribution in different seasons (the hemispheric ratio of CF ranged from 1.0 to 1.2). MODIS CF data illustrated significant cloud cover (CF of 0.7 – 0.9) with limited precipitation ability along the Saharan Air Layer.« less

  18. Saharan dust as a causal factor of hemispheric asymmetry in aerosols and cloud cover over the tropical Atlantic Ocean

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kishcha, Pavel; Da Sliva, Arlindo; Starobinets, Boris; Long, Charles N.; Kalashnikova, Olga; Alpert, Pinhas

    2015-07-09

    Meridional distribution of aerosol optical thickness (AOT) over the tropical Atlantic Ocean (30°N – 30°S) was analyzed to assess seasonal variations of meridional AOT asymmetry. Ten-year MERRA Aerosol Reanalysis (MERRAero) data (July 2002 – June 2012) confirms that the Sahara desert emits a significant amount of dust into the atmosphere over the Atlantic Ocean. Only over the Atlantic Ocean did MERRAero show that desert dust dominates other aerosol species and is responsible for meridional aerosol asymmetry between the tropical North and South Atlantic. Over the 10-year period under consideration, both MISR measurements and MERRAero data showed a pronounced meridional AOT asymmetry. The meridional AOT asymmetry, characterized by the hemispheric ratio (RAOT) of AOT averaged separately over the North and over the South Atlantic, was about 1.7. Seasonally, meridional AOT asymmetry over the Atlantic was the most pronounced between March and July, when dust presence is maximal (RAOT ranged from 2 to 2.4). There was no noticeable meridional aerosol asymmetry in total AOT from September to October. During this period the contribution of carbonaceous aerosols to total AOT in the South Atlantic was comparable to the contribution of dust aerosols to total AOT in the North Atlantic. During the same 10-year period, MODIS cloud fraction (CF) data showed that there was no noticeable asymmetry in meridional CF distribution in different seasons (the hemispheric ratio of CF ranged from 1.0 to 1.2). MODIS CF data illustrated significant cloud cover (CF of 0.7 – 0.9) with limited precipitation ability along the Saharan Air Layer.

  19. High PRF high current switch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moran, Stuart L.; Hutcherson, R. Kenneth

    1990-03-27

    A triggerable, high voltage, high current, spark gap switch for use in pu power systems. The device comprises a pair of electrodes in a high pressure hydrogen environment that is triggered by introducing an arc between one electrode and a trigger pin. Unusually high repetition rates may be obtained by undervolting the switch, i.e., operating the trigger at voltages much below the self-breakdown voltage of the device.

  20. Combined inactivation of the Clostridium cellulolyticum lactate and malate dehydrogenase genes substantially increases ethanol yield from cellulose and switchgrass fermentations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Yongchao; Tschaplinski, Timothy J; Engle, Nancy L; Hamilton, Choo Yieng; Rodriguez, Jr., Miguel; Liao, James C; Schadt, Christopher Warren; Guss, Adam M; Yang, Yunfeng; Graham, David E

    2012-01-01

    Background: The model bacterium Clostridium cellulolyticum efficiently hydrolyzes crystalline cellulose and hemicellulose, using cellulosomes to degrade lignocellulosic biomass. Although it imports and ferments both pentose and hexose sugars to produce a mixture of ethanol, acetate, lactate, H2 and CO2, the proportion of ethanol is low, which impedes its use in consolidated bioprocessing for biofuels. Therefore genetic engineering will likely be required to improve the ethanol yield. Random mutagenesis, plasmid transformation, and heterologous expression systems have previously been developed for C. cellulolyticum, but targeted mutagenesis has not been reported for this organism. Results: The first targeted gene inactivation system was developed for C. cellulolyticum, based on a mobile group II intron originating from the Lactococcus lactis L1.LtrB intron. This markerless mutagenesis system was used to disrupt both the paralogous L-lactate dehydrogenase (Ccel_2485; ldh) and L-malate dehydrogenase (Ccel_0137; mdh) genes, distinguishing the overlapping substrate specificities of these enzymes. Both mutations were then combined in a single strain. This double mutant produced 8.5-times more ethanol than wild-type cells growing on crystalline cellulose. Ethanol constituted 93% of the major fermentation products (by molarity), corresponding to a molar ratio of ethanol to organic acids of 15, versus 0.18 in wild-type cells. During growth on acid-pretreated switchgrass, the double mutant also produced four-times as much ethanol as wild-type cells. Detailed metabolomic analyses identified increased flux through the oxidative branch of the mutant s TCA pathway. Conclusions: The efficient intron-based gene inactivation system produced the first gene-targeted mutations in C. cellulolyticum. As a key component of the genetic toolbox for this bacterium, markerless targeted mutagenesis enables functional genomic research in C. cellulolyticum and rapid genetic engineering to

  1. Pumping up the Yield of Biofuels | U.S. DOE Office of Science...

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    reactor, and are converted into the desired aromatic compounds and olefins, types of hydrocarbon, along with carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, water, and coke, a high-carbon fuel. ...

  2. Algal Pretreatment Improves Biofuels Yield and Value; Highlights in Science, NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2015-05-15

    One of the major challenges associated with algal biofuels production in a biorefinery-type setting is improving biomass utilization in its entirety, increasing the process energetic yields and providing economically viable and scalable co-product concepts. We demonstrate the effectiveness of a novel, integrated technology based on moderate temperatures and low pH to convert the carbohydrates in wet algal biomass to soluble sugars for fermentation, while making lipids more accessible for downstream extraction and leaving a protein-enriched fraction behind. This research has been highlighted in the Green Chemistry journal article mentioned above and a milestone report, and is based on the work the researchers are doing for the AOP projects Algal Biomass Conversion and Algal Biofuels Techno-economic Analysis. That work has demonstrated an advanced process for algal biofuel production that captures the value of both the algal lipids and carbohydrates for conversion to biofuels.  With this process, as much as 150 GGE/ton of biomass can be produced, 2-3X more than can be produced by terrestrial feedstocks.  This can also reduce the cost of biofuel production by as much as 40%. This also represents the first ever design case for the algal lipid upgrading pathway.

  3. EXPECTED LARGE SYNOPTIC SURVEY TELESCOPE (LSST) YIELD OF ECLIPSING BINARY STARS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prsa, Andrej; Pepper, Joshua; Stassun, Keivan G.

    2011-08-15

    In this paper, we estimate the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) yield of eclipsing binary stars, which will survey {approx}20,000 deg{sup 2} of the southern sky during a period of 10 years in six photometric passbands to r {approx} 24.5. We generate a set of 10,000 eclipsing binary light curves sampled to the LSST time cadence across the whole sky, with added noise as a function of apparent magnitude. This set is passed to the analysis-of-variance period finder to assess the recoverability rate for the periods, and the successfully phased light curves are passed to the artificial-intelligence-based pipeline ebai to assess the recoverability rate in terms of the eclipsing binaries' physical and geometric parameters. We find that, out of {approx}24 million eclipsing binaries observed by LSST with a signal-to-noise ratio >10 in mission lifetime, {approx}28% or 6.7 million can be fully characterized by the pipeline. Of those, {approx}25% or 1.7 million will be double-lined binaries, a true treasure trove for stellar astrophysics.

  4. Fusion-neutron-yield, activation measurements at the Z accelerator: Design, analysis, and sensitivity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hahn, K. D. Ruiz, C. L.; Fehl, D. L.; Chandler, G. A.; Knapp, P. F.; Smelser, R. M.; Torres, J. A.; Cooper, G. W.; Nelson, A. J.; Leeper, R. J.

    2014-04-15

    We present a general methodology to determine the diagnostic sensitivity that is directly applicable to neutron-activation diagnostics fielded on a wide variety of neutron-producing experiments, which include inertial-confinement fusion (ICF), dense plasma focus, and ion beam-driven concepts. This approach includes a combination of several effects: (1) non-isotropic neutron emission; (2) the 1/r{sup 2} decrease in neutron fluence in the activation material; (3) the spatially distributed neutron scattering, attenuation, and energy losses due to the fielding environment and activation material itself; and (4) temporally varying neutron emission. As an example, we describe the copper-activation diagnostic used to measure secondary deuterium-tritium fusion-neutron yields on ICF experiments conducted on the pulsed-power Z Accelerator at Sandia National Laboratories. Using this methodology along with results from absolute calibrations and Monte Carlo simulations, we find that for the diagnostic configuration on Z, the diagnostic sensitivity is 0.037% ± 17% counts/neutron per cm{sup 2} and is ∼ 40% less sensitive than it would be in an ideal geometry due to neutron attenuation, scattering, and energy-loss effects.

  5. Effects of inter-nanocrystal distance on luminescence quantum yield in ensembles of Si nanocrystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Valenta, J. Greben, M.; Gutsch, S.; Hiller, D.; Zacharias, M.

    2014-12-15

    The absolute photoluminescence (PL) quantum yield (QY) of multilayers of Silicon nanocrystals (SiNCs) separated by SiO{sub 2} barriers were thoroughly studied as function of the barrier thickness, excitation wavelength, and temperature. By mastering the plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition growth, we produce a series of samples with the same size-distribution of SiNCs but variable interlayer barrier distance. These samples enable us to clearly demonstrate that the increase of barrier thickness from ∼1 to larger than 2 nm induces doubling of the PL QY value, which corresponds to the change of number of close neighbors in the hcp structure. The temperature dependence of PL QY suggests that the PL QY changes are due to a thermally activated transport of excitation into non-radiative centers in dark NCs or in the matrix. We estimate that dark NCs represent about 68% of the ensemble of NCs. The PL QY excitation spectra show no significant changes upon changing the barrier thickness and no clear carrier multiplication effects. The dominant effect is the gradual decrease of the PL QY with increasing excitation photon energy.

  6. Process for improving soluble coal yield in a coal deashing process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rhodes, Donald E.

    1980-01-01

    Coal liquefaction products are contacted with a deashing solvent and introduced into a first separation zone. The first separation zone is maintained at an elevated temperature and pressure, determined to maximize the recovery of soluble coal products, to cause said coal liquefaction products to separate into a first light phase and a first heavy phase. Under these conditions the heavy phase while still fluid-like in character is substantially non-flowable. Flowability is returned to the fluid-like heavy phase by the introduction of an additional quantity of deashing solvent into the first separation zone at a location below the interface between the first light and heavy phases or into the heavy phase withdrawal conduit during withdrawal of the first heavy phase and prior to any substantial pressure reduction. The first heavy phase then is withdrawn from the first separation zone for additional downstream processing without plugging either the withdrawal conduit or the downstream apparatus. The first light phase comprising the soluble coal products is withdrawn and recovered in an increased yield to provide a more economical coal deashing process.

  7. Highly reactive light-dependent monoterpenes in the Amazon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jardine, A. B.; Jardine, K. J.; Fuentes, J. D.; Martin, S. T.; Martins, G.; Durgante, F.; Carneiro, V.; Higuchi, N.; Manzi, A. O.; Chambers, J. Q.

    2015-03-06

    Despite orders of magnitude difference in atmospheric reactivity and great diversity in biological functioning, little is known about monoterpene speciation in tropical forests. Here we report vertically resolved ambient air mixing ratios for 12 monoterpenes in a central Amazon rainforest including observations of the highly reactive cis-β-ocimene (160 ppt), trans-β-ocimene (79 ppt), and terpinolene (32 ppt) which accounted for an estimated 21% of total monoterpene composition yet 55% of the upper canopy monoterpene ozonolysis rate. All 12 monoterpenes showed a mixing ratio peak in the upper canopy, with three demonstrating subcanopy peaks in 7 of 11 profiles. Leaf level emissions of highly reactive monoterpenes accounted for up to 1.9% of photosynthesis confirming light-dependent emissions across several Amazon tree genera. These results suggest that highly reactive monoterpenes play important antioxidant roles during photosynthesis in plants and serve as near-canopy sources of secondary organic aerosol precursors through atmospheric photooxidation via ozonolysis.

  8. Measurements of delayed neutron decay constants and fission yields from {sup 235}U, {sup 237}Np, {sup 241}Am, and {sup 243}Am

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saleh, H.H.; Parish, T.A.; Raman, S.; Shinohara, Nobuo

    1997-01-01

    Isotopes of the higher actinide elements are produced as a result of successive radiative capture reactions in the uranium fuel of nuclear reactors. Typically, these transuranic isotopes decay through long chains, have long half-lives, and dominate the long-term toxicity of spent reactor fuel. One of the options for high level waste management is to remove the higher actinide elements from spent fuel by chemical processing, to load them into new special fuel elements, and to transmute them by neutron-induced fission into shorter-lived fission fragments. Reactors designed to achieve high actinide fission (transmutation) rates are called actinide burners. In such reactors, the actinide wastes would constitute much of the fissionable fuel. Due to the high transuranic isotope loadings in the fuel of actinide burners, the neutronic properties of the higher actinide isotopes will have a significant effect on the criticality and safety characteristics of such reactors. While there is an extensive operational database for reactors fueled with uranium and plutonium, operating experience with fuel containing large amounts of actinide wastes is quite limited. Two important neutronic properties of actinide burner cores are their reactivity and their delayed neutron fraction. Both of these properties will be strongly influenced by the neutronic characteristics of the actinide waste isotopes. Here, delayed neutron yields and decay constants for {sup 235}U, {sup 237}Np, {sup 241}Am, and {sup 243}Am were measured at the Texas A and M University TRIGA reactor using a fast pneumatic transfer system. The detection system consisted of an array of BF{sub 3} proportional counters embedded in a polyethylene cylinder. The measured values of the total delayed neutron yield per 100 fissions from thermal neutron-induced fission of {sup 235}U, {sup 237}Np, {sup 241}Am, and {sup 243}Am were determined to be 1.59 {+-} 0.04, 1.29 {+-} 0.04, 0.49 {+-} 0.02, and 0.84 {+-} 0.04, respectively.

  9. A Bayesian inversion framework for yield and height-of-burst/depth-of-burial for near-surface explosions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johannesson, Gardar; Bulaevskaya, Vera; Ramirez, Abe; Ford, Sean; Rodgers, Artie

    2015-09-07

    A Bayesian inversion framework is presented to estimate the yield of an explosion and height-of-burst/depth-of-burial (HOB/DOB) using seismic and air pressure data. This is accomplished by first calibrating the parameters in the forward models that relate the observations to the yield and HOB/DOB and then using the calibrated model to estimate yield and HOB/DOB associated with a new set of seismic and air pressure observations. The MCMC algorithms required to perform these steps are outlined, and the results with real data are shown. Finally, an extension is proposed for a case when clustering in the seismic displacement occurs as a function of different types of rock and other factors.

  10. Argonne discovery yields self-healing diamond-like carbon | Argonne...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... didn't see the expected rust and surface damage, but an intact ring with an odd blackish ... Looking at the deposit using high-powered optical and laser Raman microscopes, the ...

  11. Hadronic decays of the tau lepton : {tau}- {yields} ({pi}{pi}{pi})- {nu}{tau} within Resonance Chiral Theory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gomez Dumm, D.; Pich, A.; Portoles, J.

    2006-01-12

    {tau} decays into hadrons foresee the study of the hadronization of vector and axial-vector QCD currents, yielding relevant information on the dynamics of the resonances entering into the processes. We analyse {tau} {yields} {pi}{pi}{pi}{nu}{tau} decays within the framework of the Resonance Chiral Theory, comparing this theoretical scheme with the experimental data, namely ALEPH spectral function and branching ratio. Hence we get values for the mass and on-shell width of the a 1 (1260) resonance, and provide the structure functions that have been measured by OPAL and CLEO-II.

  12. Effects of fuel-capsule shimming and drive asymmetry on inertial-confinement-fusion symmetry and yield

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Seguin, F. H.; Li, C. K.; DeCiantis, J. L.; Frenje, J. A.; Rygg, J. R.; Petrasso, R. D.; Marshall, F. J.; Smalyuk, V.; Glebov, V. Yu.; Knauer, J. P.; et al

    2016-03-22

    Three orthogonal proton emission imaging cameras were used to study the 3D effects of low-mode drive asymmetries and target asymmetries on nuclear burn symmetry and yield in direct-drive, inertial-confinement-fusion experiments. The fusion yield decreased quickly as the burn region became asymmetric due to either drive or capsule asymmetry. Here, measurements and analytic scaling are used to predict how intentionally asymmetric capsule shells could improve performance by compensating for drive asymmetry when it cannot be avoided (such as with indirect drive or with polar direct drive).

  13. Full O({alpha}) corrections to e{sup +}e{sup -}{yields}f-tilde{sub i}f-tilde{sub j}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kovarik, K.; Weber, C.; Eberl, H.; Majerotto, W.

    2005-09-01

    We present a complete precision analysis of the sfermion pair production process e{sup +}e{sup -}{yields}f-tilde{sub i}f-tilde{sub j}(f=t,b,{tau},{nu}{sub {tau}}) in the minimal supersymmetric standard model. Our results extend the previously calculated weak corrections by including all one-loop corrections together with higher order QED corrections. We present the details of the analytical calculation and discuss the renormalization scheme. The numerical analysis shows the results for total cross sections, forward-backward, and left-right asymmetries. It is based on the SPS1a{sup '} point from the SPA project. The complete corrections are about 10% and have to be taken into account in a high precision analysis.

  14. Florida CFB demo plant yields low emissions on variety of coals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2005-07-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has reported results of tests conducted at Jacksonville Electric Authority (JEA)'s Northside power plant using mid-to-low-sulfur coal, which indicate the facility is one of the cleanest burning coal-fired power plants in the world. A part of DOE's Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program, the JEA project is a repowering demonstration of the operating and environmental performance of Foster Wheeler's utility-scale circulating fluidized bed combustion (CFB) technology on a range of high-sulfur coals and blends of coal and high-sulfur petroleum coke. The 300 MW demonstration unit has a non-demonstration 300 MW twin unit.

  15. Yield stress and plasticity of nanostructured titanium of different purity at 300, 77, and 4.2 K

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tabachnikova, E. D. Bengus, V. Z.; Podol'skii, A. V.; Smirnov, S. N.; Valiev, R. Z.

    2009-11-15

    Specimens of nanostructured titanium with different dopant concentrations were prepared by intense plastic deformation via equal-channel-angular pressing. The low-temperature mechanical characteristics of the specimens subjected to active deformation under uniaxial tension and compression were studied. The yield stress and the limit uniform deformation of nanostructured and coarse-grained polycrystalline titanium were compared.

  16. QCD Corrections to e{sup +}e{sup -}{yields}J/{psi}+gg at B Factories

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ma Yanqing; Zhang Yujie; Chao Kuangta

    2009-04-24

    In heavy quarkonium production, the measured ratio R{sub cc}={sigma}[J/{psi}+cc+X]/{sigma}[J/{psi}+X] at B factories is much larger than existing theoretical predictions. To clarify this discrepancy, in nonrelativistic QCD we find the next-to-leading-order (NLO) QCD correction to e{sup +}e{sup -}{yields}J/{psi}+gg can enhance the cross section by about 20%. Together with the calculated NLO result for e{sup +}e{sup -}{yields}J/{psi}+cc, we show that the NLO corrections can significantly improve the fit to the ratio R{sub cc}. The effects of leading logarithm resummation near the end point on the J/{psi} momentum distribution and total cross section are also considered. Comparison of the calculated cross section for e{sup +}e{sup -}{yields}J/{psi}+gg with the observed cross section for e{sup +}e{sup -}{yields}J/{psi}+non-(cc) is expected to provide unique information on the issue of color-octet contributions.

  17. Highly charged ion based time of flight emission microscope

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barnes, Alan V.; Schenkel, Thomas; Hamza, Alex V.; Schneider, Dieter H.; Doyle, Barney

    2001-01-01

    A highly charged ion based time-of-flight emission microscope has been designed, which improves the surface sensitivity of static SIMS measurements because of the higher ionization probability of highly charged ions. Slow, highly charged ions are produced in an electron beam ion trap and are directed to the sample surface. The sputtered secondary ions and electrons pass through a specially designed objective lens to a microchannel plate detector. This new instrument permits high surface sensitivity (10.sup.10 atoms/cm.sup.2), high spatial resolution (100 nm), and chemical structural information due to the high molecular ion yields. The high secondary ion yield permits coincidence counting, which can be used to enhance determination of chemical and topological structure and to correlate specific molecular species.

  18. Evidence for island effects and diurnal signals in satellite images of clouds over the tropical western pacific

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barr-Kumarakulasinghe, S.A.; Reynolds, R.M.; Minnett, P.J.

    1996-04-01

    Instruments to measure atmospheric radiation and ancillary meteorological variables will be set up on Manus Island as the first site of the tropical western pacific (TWP) locale of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurements (ARM) program. Manus is in the {open_quotes}warm pool{close_quotes} region of the TWP. This region is critical in establishing global atmospheric circulation patterns and is a primary energy source for the Hadley and Walker cells. The myriad islands and enclosed seas in the immediate vicinity of Manus have been referred to as the {open_quotes}maritime continent{close_quotes}, which has the deepest convective activity in the world. Manus is in a region having a global impact on climate and where island effects on clouds are likely to be important. In this preliminary analysis we have sought evidence of island effects in the cloud fields around Manus and have studied the variability of the diurnal cycles of cloud cover over Manus and over other islands and areas of open sea in the region.

  19. Observations of tropical cirrus properties in the pilot radiation observation experiment using lidar and the CSIRO ARM filter radiometer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Platt, C.M.R.; Young, S.A.; Manson, P.J.; Patterson, G.R.

    1995-04-01

    A narrow beam fast filter radiometer has been developed for the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program. The radiometer is intended to operate alongside a lidar at ARM sites in a lidar/radiometer (LIRAD) configuration. The radiometer detects in three narrow bands at 8.62-, 10.86-, and 12.04-m central wavelengths in the atmospheric window. In addition, it has a variable field aperture that varies the radiance incident on the detector and also allows the field of view to be tailored to that of a lidar used in the LIRAD technique. The radiometer was deployed in the ARM Pilot Radiation Observation Experiment (PROBE) at Kavieng, Papua New Guinea in January-February 1993. The radiometer worked satisfactorily and appeared to be very stable. The radiometer was compared with a previous CSIRO radiometer and the improved performance of the ARM instrument was very evident. The ARM radiometer was also compared with a National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Environmental Technology Laboratories (ETL) interferometer and gave closely equivalent radiances. The LIRAD method was used at Kavieng to obtain the optical properties of cirrus clouds. Continuous observations of water vapor path obtained by the NOAA ETL microwave radiometer were employed to allow for the strong tropical water vapor absorption and emission. Cirrus cells that developed on one morning, independent of other clouds, had measured infrared emittances varying from <0.1 to 1.0.

  20. The annual cycle in the tropical Pacific Ocean based on assimilated ocean data from 1983 to 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, T.M.; Chelliah, M.

    1995-06-01

    An analysis of the tropical Pacific Ocean from January 1983 to December 1992 is used to describe the annual cycle, with the main focus on subsurface temperature variations. Some analysis of ocean-current variations are also considered. Monthly mean fields are generated by assimilation of surface and subsurface temperature observations from ships and buoys. Comparisons with observations show that the analysis reasonably describes large-scale ocean thermal variations. Ocean currents are not assimilated and do not compare as well with observations. However, the ocean-current variations in the analysis are qualitatively similar to the known variations given by others. The authors use harmonic analysis to separate the mean annual cycle and estimate its contribution to total variance. The analysis shows that in most regions the annual cycle of subsurface thermal variations is larger than surface variations and that these variations are associated with changes in the depth of the thermocline. The annual cycle accounts for most of the total surface variance poleward of about 10{degrees} latitude but accounts for much less surface and subsurface total variance near the equator. Large subsurface annual cycles occur near 10{degrees}N associated with shifts of the intertropical convergence zone and along the equator associated with the annual cycle of equatorial wind stress. The hemispherically asymmetric depths of the 20{degrees}C isotherms indicate that the large Southern Hemisphere warm pool, which extends to near the equator, may play an important role in thermal variations on the equator. 51 refs., 18 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Assessing health impacts in complex eco-epidemiological settings in the humid tropics: Modular baseline health surveys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Winkler, Mirko S.; Divall, Mark J.; Krieger, Gary R.; Schmidlin, Sandro; Magassouba, Mohamed L.; Knoblauch, Astrid M.; Singer, Burton H.; Utzinger, Juerg

    2012-02-15

    The quantitative assessment of health impacts has been identified as a crucial feature for realising the full potential of health impact assessment (HIA). In settings where demographic and health data are notoriously scarce, but there is a broad range of ascertainable ecological, environmental, epidemiological and socioeconomic information, a diverse toolkit of data collection strategies becomes relevant for the mainly small-area impacts of interest. We present a modular, cross-sectional baseline health survey study design, which has been developed for HIA of industrial development projects in the humid tropics. The modular nature of our toolkit allows our methodology to be readily adapted to the prevailing eco-epidemiological characteristics of a given project setting. Central to our design is a broad set of key performance indicators, covering a multiplicity of health outcomes and determinants at different levels and scales. We present experience and key findings from our modular baseline health survey methodology employed in 14 selected sentinel sites within an iron ore mining project in the Republic of Guinea. We argue that our methodology is a generic example of rapid evidence assembly in difficult-to-reach localities, where improvement of the predictive validity of the assessment and establishment of a benchmark for longitudinal monitoring of project impacts and mitigation efforts is needed.

  2. Belowground Response to Drought in a Tropical Forest Soil. I. Changes in Microbial Functional Potential and Metabolism

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Bouskill, Nicholas J.; Wood, Tana E.; Baran, Richard; Ye, Zaw; Bowen, Benjamin P.; Lim, HsiaoChien; Zhou, Jizhong; Nostrand, Joy D. Van; Nico, Peter; Northen, Trent R.; et al

    2016-04-20

    We report that global climate models predict a future of increased severity of drought in many tropical forests. Soil microbes are central to the balance of these systems as sources or sinks of atmospheric carbon (C), yet how they respond metabolically to drought is not well-understood. We simulated drought in the typically aseasonal Luquillo Experimental Forest, Puerto Rico, by intercepting precipitation falling through the forest canopy. This approach reduced soil moisture by 13% and water potential by 0.14 MPa (from -0.2 to -0.34). Previous results from this experiment have demonstrated that the diversity and composition of these soil microbial communitiesmore » are sensitive to even small changes in soil water. Here, we show prolonged drought significantly alters the functional potential of the community and provokes a clear osmotic stress response, including the production of compatible solutes that increase intracellular C demand. Subsequently, a microbial population emerges with a greater capacity for extracellular enzyme production targeting macromolecular carbon. Significantly, some of these drought-induced functional shifts in the soil microbiota are attenuated by prior exposure to a short-term drought suggesting that acclimation may occur despite a lack of longer-term drought history.« less

  3. Big Data Analaysis and Visualization: What Do LINACS and Tropical Storms Have In Common?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bethel, E. Wes; Byna, Suren; Chou, Jerry; Cormier-Michel, Estelle; Geddes, Cameron G. R.; Howison, Mark; Li, Fuyu; Qiang, Ji; Ruebel, Oliver; Ryne, Rob D.; Wehner, Michael; Wu, Kesheng

    2012-08-28

    While there is wisdom in the old adage "the two constants in life are death and taxes,'' there are unavoidable truths facing modern experimental and computational science. First is the growing "impedance mismatch'' between our ability to collect and generate data, and our ability to store, manage, and gain understanding from it. The second is the fact that we cannot continue to rely on the same software technologies that have worked well for the past couple of decades for data management, analysis, and visualization. A third is that these complementary activities must be considered in a holistic, rather than Balkanized way. The inseparable interplay between data management, analysis, visualization, and high performance computational infrastructure, are best viewed through the lens of case studies from multiple scientific domains, where teams of computer and scientists combine forces to tackle challenging data understanding problems.

  4. Shock-induced synthesis of high temperature superconducting materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ginley, D.S.; Graham, R.A.; Morosin, B.; Venturini, E.L.

    1987-06-18

    It has now been determined that the unique features of the high pressure shock method, especially the shock-induced chemical synthesis technique, are fully applicable to high temperature superconducting materials. Extraordinarily high yields are achievable in accordance with this invention, e.g., generally in the range from about 20% to about 99%, often in the range from about 50% to about 90%, lower and higher yields, of course, also being possible. The method of this invention involves the application of a controlled high pressure shock compression pulse which can be produced in any conventional manner, e.g., by detonation of a high explosive material, the impact of a high speed projectile or the effect of intense pulsed radiation sources such as lasers or electron beams. Examples and a discussion are presented.

  5. High e

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    e ne rgy data s am ple ● NuMI beam events provide an useful calibration sample ● Collected over 70K candidates before shutdown The highest energy events are prim arily from kaon decays. Two sam ples at high energy provide normalization and shape inform ation for kaon backgrounds to oscillation analysis: ● ν e events passing oscillation event selection cuts ● ν µ induced CCQE, CCπ+events Reconstructed neutrino energy EνQE(GeV) ν from other particles ν from pions ν from Kaons -

  6. Rigidifying Fluorescent Linkers by Metal-Organic Framework Formation for Fluorescence Blue Shift and Quantum Yield Enhancement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wei, ZW; Gu, ZY; Arvapally, RK; Chen, YP; McDougald, RN; Ivy, JF; Yakovenko, AA; Feng, DW; Omary, MA; Zhou, HC

    2014-06-11

    We demonstrate that rigidifying the structure of fluorescent linkers by structurally constraining them in metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) to control their conformation effectively tunes the fluorescence energy and enhances the quantum yield. Thus, a new tetraphenylethylene-based zirconium MOF exhibits a deep-blue fluorescent emission at 470 nm with a unity quantum yield (99.9 +/- 0.5%) under Ar, representing ca. 3600 cm(-1) blue shift and doubled radiative decay efficiency vs the linker precursor. An anomalous increase in the fluorescence lifetime and relative intensity takes place upon heating the solid MOF from cryogenic to ambient temperatures. The origin of these unusual photoluminescence properties is attributed to twisted linker conformation, intramolecular hindrance, and framework rigidity.

  7. Rigidifying Fluorescent Linkers by Metal–Organic Framework Formation for Fluorescence Blue Shift and Quantum Yield Enhancement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wei, Zhangwen; Gu, Zhi-Yuan; Arvapally, Ravi K.; Chen, Ying-Pin; Ivy, Joshua F.; Yakovenko, Andrey A.; Feng, Dawei; Omary, Mohammad A.; Zhou, Hong-Cai

    2014-06-11

    We demonstrate that rigidifying the structure of fluorescent linkers by structurally constraining them in metal–organic frameworks (MOFs) to control their conformation effectively tunes the fluorescence energy and enhances the quantum yield. Thus, a new tetraphenylethylene-based zirconium MOF exhibits a deep-blue fluorescent emission at 470 nm with a unity quantum yield (99.9 ± 0.5%) under Ar, representing ca. 3600 cm⁻¹ blue shift and doubled radiative decay efficiency vs the linker precursor. An anomalous increase in the fluorescence lifetime and relative intensity takes place upon heating the solid MOF from cryogenic to ambient temperatures. The origin of these unusual photoluminescence properties is attributed to twisted linker conformation, intramolecular hindrance, and framework rigidity.

  8. Precision Model Independent Determination of vertical bar V{sub ub} vertical bar from B{yields}{pi}l{nu}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arnesen, Christian M.; Stewart, Iain W.; Grinstein, Benjamin; Rothstein, Ira Z.

    2005-08-12

    A precision method for determining vertical bar V{sub ub} vertical bar using the full range in q{sup 2} of B{yields}{pi}l{nu} data is presented. At large q{sup 2} the form factor is taken from unquenched lattice QCD, at q{sup 2}=0 we impose a model independent constraint obtained from B{yields}{pi}{pi} using the soft-collinear effective theory, and the shape is constrained using QCD dispersion relations. We find vertical bar V{sub ub} vertical bar=(3.54{+-}0.17{+-}0.44)x10{sup -3}. With 5% experimental error and 12% theory error, this is competitive with inclusive methods. Theory error is dominated by the input points, with negligible uncertainty from the dispersion relations.

  9. Explicit Analysis of Transversely Anisotropic and Axisymmetric Sheet Metal Forming Process Using 6-component Barlat Yield Function

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang Jinyan; Sun Jixian; Chen Jun

    2005-08-05

    In most FEM codes, the isotropic-elastic and transversely anisotropic-elastoplastic model using Hill's yield function has been widely adopted in 3D shell elements (modified to meet the plane-stress condition) and 3D solid elements. However, when the 4-node quadrilateral axisymmetric element is used for 2D sheet metal forming simulation, the above transversely anisotropic model is not available in FEM code LS-DYNA3D. A novel approach for the explicit analysis of transversely anisotropic and axisymmetric sheet metal forming using 6-component Barlat yield function is elaborated in detail in this paper. The related formula and parameters are derived directly. Numerical results obtained using the new model fit well with the Hill solution.

  10. Algal Pretreatment Improves Biofuels Yield and Value (Fact Sheet), NREL Highlights, Science, NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Advanced process for algal biofuel production captures the value of both the lipids and carbohydrates for conversion to biofuels. The major challenges associated with algal biofuels production in a biorefinery-type setting include improving biomass uti- lization, increasing the process energetic yields, reducing waste and greenhouse gas emissions, and providing economically viable and scalable coproduct concepts. Researchers from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) have dem-

  11. Laboratory study of nitrate photolysis in Antarctic snow. I. Observed quantum yield, domain of photolysis, and secondary chemistry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meusinger, Carl; Johnson, Matthew S. [Department of Chemistry, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen (Denmark); Berhanu, Tesfaye A.; Erbland, Joseph; Savarino, Joel, E-mail: jsavarino@lgge.obs.ujf-grenoble.fr [Univ. Grenoble Alpes, LGGE, F-38000 Grenoble (France); CNRS, LGGE, F-38000 Grenoble (France)

    2014-06-28

    Post-depositional processes alter nitrate concentration and nitrate isotopic composition in the top layers of snow at sites with low snow accumulation rates, such as Dome C, Antarctica. Available nitrate ice core records can provide input for studying past atmospheres and climate if such processes are understood. It has been shown that photolysis of nitrate in the snowpack plays a major role in nitrate loss and that the photolysis products have a significant influence on the local troposphere as well as on other species in the snow. Reported quantum yields for the main reaction spans orders of magnitude apparently a result of whether nitrate is located at the air-ice interface or in the ice matrix constituting the largest uncertainty in models of snowpack NO{sub x} emissions. Here, a laboratory study is presented that uses snow from Dome C and minimizes effects of desorption and recombination by flushing the snow during irradiation with UV light. A selection of UV filters allowed examination of the effects of the 200 and 305nm absorption bands of nitrate. Nitrate concentration and photon flux were measured in the snow. The quantum yield for loss of nitrate was observed to decrease from 0.44 to 0.003 within what corresponds to days of UV exposure in Antarctica. The superposition of photolysis in two photochemical domains of nitrate in snow is proposed: one of photolabile nitrate, and one of buried nitrate. The difference lies in the ability of reaction products to escape the snow crystal, versus undergoing secondary (recombination) chemistry. Modeled NO{sub x} emissions may increase significantly above measured values due to the observed quantum yield in this study. The apparent quantum yield in the 200nm band was found to be ?1%, much lower than reported for aqueous chemistry. A companion paper presents an analysis of the change in isotopic composition of snowpack nitrate based on the same samples as in this study.

  12. Drought effects on composition and yield for corn stover, mixed grasses, and Miscanthus as bioenergy feedstocks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Emerson, Rachel; Hoover, Amber; Ray, Allison; Lacey, Jeffrey; Cortez, Marnie; Payne, Courtney; Karlen, Douglas; Birrell, Stuart; Laird, David; Kallenbach, Robert; Egenolf, Josh; Sousek, Matthew; Voigt, Thomas

    2014-07-04

    Drought conditions in 2012 were some of the most severe in recent history. The purpose of this study is to examine the impact of drought on quality, quantity, and theoretical ethanol yield (TEY) of three bioenergy feedstocks, corn stover, mixed grasses from Conservation Reserve Program lands, and Miscanthus × giganteus. To assess drought effects on these feedstocks, samples from 2010 (minimal to no drought) and 2012 (severe drought) were compared from multiple locations in the US. In all feedstocks, drought significantly increased extractives and reduced structural sugars and lignin; subsequently, TEYs were reduced 10–15%. Biomass yields were significantly reduced for M. × giganteus and mixed grasses. When reduction in quality and quantity were combined, TEYs decreased 26–59%. Drought negatively affected biomass quality and quantity that resulted in significant TEY reductions. As a result, such fluctuations in biomass quality and yield may have significant consequences for developing lignocellulosic biorefineries.

  13. A search for. mu. yields e. gamma. at the level of 10 sup minus 13

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Amann, J.F.; Black, K.; Bolton, R.D.; Carius, S.; Cooper, M.D.; Foreman, W.; Hansen, C.; Harrison, R.; Hart, G.; Hart, V.; Hoffman, C.M.; Hoffman, N.; Hunter, T.; Hogan, G.E.; June, N.; Kercher, D.; Little, J.; Kozlowski, T.; Mischke, R.E.; Naivar, F.J.; Novak, J.; Oothoudt, M.A.; Pillai, C.; Schilling, S.; Smith, W.; Stanislaus, S.; Sturrock, J.; Szymanski, J.; Van Dyke, J.; Werbeck, R.D.; Whitehouse, D.; Wilkinson, C. (Los A

    1990-01-01

    The status of the MEGA experiment is described. It is a search for the decay {mu} {r arrow} e{gamma} with a branching ratio sensitivity of approximately 10{sup {minus}13}. The observation of this decay would indicate the existence of physics outside the standard model of electroweak interactions. The experiment employs highly modular, fast detectors, state-of-the-art electronics, and a staged trigger with on-line filters. The detectors are contained in a 1.5 T solenoidal field produced by a superconducting magnet. Positrons are confined to the central region and are measured by a set of thin MWPCs. Photons are measured by one of four layers of pair spectrometers in the outer region. Most aspects of the detector design have been validated in engineering runs; data taking will begin in 1990 with most of the electron arm and one pair spectrometer layer installed. 5 refs., 4 figs.

  14. Manufacturing Process Optimization to Improve Stability, Yield and Efficiency of CdS/CdTe PV Devices: Final Report, December 2004 - January 2009

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sampath, W. S.; Enzenroth, A.; Barth, K.

    2009-03-01

    The research by Colorado State University advances the understanding of device stability, efficiency, and process yield for CdTe PV devices.

  15. Highly charged ion secondary ion mass spectroscopy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hamza, Alex V.; Schenkel, Thomas; Barnes, Alan V.; Schneider, Dieter H.

    2001-01-01

    A secondary ion mass spectrometer using slow, highly charged ions produced in an electron beam ion trap permits ultra-sensitive surface analysis and high spatial resolution simultaneously. The spectrometer comprises an ion source producing a primary ion beam of highly charged ions that are directed at a target surface, a mass analyzer, and a microchannel plate detector of secondary ions that are sputtered from the target surface after interaction with the primary beam. The unusually high secondary ion yield permits the use of coincidence counting, in which the secondary ion stops are detected in coincidence with a particular secondary ion. The association of specific molecular species can be correlated. The unique multiple secondary nature of the highly charged ion interaction enables this new analytical technique.

  16. High-efficiency CARM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bratman, V.L.; Kol`chugin, B.D.; Samsonov, S.V.; Volkov, A.B.

    1995-12-31

    The Cyclotron Autoresonance Maser (CARM) is a well-known variety of FEMs. Unlike the ubitron in which electrons move in a periodical undulator field, in the CARM the particles move along helical trajectories in a uniform magnetic field. Since it is much simpler to generate strong homogeneous magnetic fields than periodical ones for a relatively low electron energy ({Brit_pounds}{le}1-3 MeV) the period of particles` trajectories in the CARM can be sufficiently smaller than in the undulator in which, moreover, the field decreases rapidly in the transverse direction. In spite of this evident advantage, the number of papers on CARM is an order less than on ubitron, which is apparently caused by the low (not more than 10 %) CARM efficiency in experiments. At the same time, ubitrons operating in two rather complicated regimes-trapping and adiabatic deceleration of particles and combined undulator and reversed guiding fields - yielded efficiencies of 34 % and 27 %, respectively. The aim of this work is to demonstrate that high efficiency can be reached even for a simplest version of the CARM. In order to reduce sensitivity to an axial velocity spread of particles, a short interaction length where electrons underwent only 4-5 cyclotron oscillations was used in this work. Like experiments, a narrow anode outlet of a field-emission electron gun cut out the {open_quotes}most rectilinear{close_quotes} near-axis part of the electron beam. Additionally, magnetic field of a small correcting coil compensated spurious electron oscillations pumped by the anode aperture. A kicker in the form of a sloping to the axis frame with current provided a control value of rotary velocity at a small additional velocity spread. A simple cavity consisting of a cylindrical waveguide section restricted by a cut-off waveguide on the cathode side and by a Bragg reflector on the collector side was used as the CARM-oscillator microwave system.

  17. Preparation of high nitrogen compound and materials therefrom

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Huynh, My Hang V.; Hiskey, Michael A.

    2006-10-10

    The high-nitrogen compound of the formula ##STR00001## was prepared. Pyrolysis of the compound yields carbon nitrides C.sub.2N.sub.3 and C.sub.3N.sub.5. The carbon nitrides vary in their density, texture, and morphology.

  18. FSU High Energy Physics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prosper, Harrison B.; Adams, Todd; Askew, Andrew; Berg, Bernd; Blessing, Susan K.; Okui, Takemichi; Owens, Joseph F.; Reina, Laura; Wahl, Horst D.

    2014-12-01

    non-zero neutrino masses or the overwhelming astrophysical evidence for an invisible form of matter, called dark matter, that has had a marked effect on the evolution of structure in the universe. The report highlights the main, recent, experimental achievements of the experimental group, which include the investigation of properties of the W and Z bosons; the search for new heavy stable charged particles and the search for a proposed property of nature called supersymmetry in proton-proton collisions that yield high energy photons. In addition, we report a few results from a more general search for supersymmetry at the LHC, initiated by the group. The report also highlights the group's significant contributions, both theoretical and experimental, to the 2012 discovery of the Higgs boson and the measurement of its properties.

  19. A KNOWLEDGE DISCOVERY STRATEGY FOR RELATING SEA SURFACE TEMPERATURES TO FREQUENCIES OF TROPICAL STORMS AND GENERATING PREDICTIONS OF HURRICANES UNDER 21ST-CENTURY GLOBAL WARMING SCENARIOS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Race, Caitlin; Steinbach, Michael; Ganguly, Auroop R; Semazzi, Fred; Kumar, Vipin

    2010-01-01

    The connections among greenhouse-gas emissions scenarios, global warming, and frequencies of hurricanes or tropical cyclones are among the least understood in climate science but among the most fiercely debated in the context of adaptation decisions or mitigation policies. Here we show that a knowledge discovery strategy, which leverages observations and climate model simulations, offers the promise of developing credible projections of tropical cyclones based on sea surface temperatures (SST) in a warming environment. While this study motivates the development of new methodologies in statistics and data mining, the ability to solve challenging climate science problems with innovative combinations of traditional and state-of-the-art methods is demonstrated. Here we develop new insights, albeit in a proof-of-concept sense, on the relationship between sea surface temperatures and hurricane frequencies, and generate the most likely projections with uncertainty bounds for storm counts in the 21st-century warming environment based in turn on the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Special Report on Emissions Scenarios. Our preliminary insights point to the benefits that can be achieved for climate science and impacts analysis, as well as adaptation and mitigation policies, by a solution strategy that remains tailored to the climate domain and complements physics-based climate model simulations with a combination of existing and new computational and data science approaches.

  20. HARP targets pion production cross section and yield measurements. Implications for MiniBooNE neutrino flux

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wickremasinghe, Don Athula Abeyarathna

    2015-07-01

    The prediction of the muon neutrino flux from a 71.0 cm long beryllium target for the MiniBooNE experiment is based on a measured pion production cross section which was taken from a short beryllium target (2.0 cm thick - 5% nuclear interaction length) in the Hadron Production (HARP) experiment at CERN. To verify the extrapolation to our longer target, HARP also measured the pion production from 20.0 cm and 40.0 cm beryllium targets. The measured production yields, d2Nπ± (p; θ )=dpd Ω, on targets of 50% and 100% nuclear interaction lengths in the kinematic rage of momentum from 0.75 GeV/c to 6.5 GeV/c and the range of angle from 30 mrad to 210 mrad are presented along with an update of the short target cross sections. The best fitted extended Sanford-Wang (SW) model parameterization for updated short beryllium target π+ production cross section is presented. Yield measurements for all three targets are also compared with that from the Monte Carlo predictions in the MiniBooNE experiment for different SW parameterization. The comparisons of vμ flux predictions for updated SW model is presented.