National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for high world oil

  1. 5 World Oil Trends WORLD OIL TRENDS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    's share of world crude oil production has rebound5 World Oil Trends Chapter 1 WORLD OIL TRENDS INTRODUCTION In considering the outlook for California's petroleum supplies, it is important to give attention to expecta- tions of what the world oil

  2. World Oil: Market or Mayhem?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, James L.

    2008-01-01

    The world oil market is regarded by many as a puzzle. Why are oil prices so volatile? What is OPEC and what does OPEC do? Where are oil prices headed in the long run? Is “peak oil” a genuine concern? Why did oil prices ...

  3. World Oil Transit Chokepoints

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2012-01-01

    Chokepoints are narrow channels along widely used global sea routes, some so narrow that restrictions are placed on the size of vessel that can navigate through them. They are a critical part of global energy security due to the high volume of oil traded through their narrow straits.

  4. World frontiers beckon oil finders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-09-01

    This paper discusses the international aspects of the petroleum industry. Most who work in the industry agree that the possibilities for huge are found largely in international regions. Something that is helping fuel that possibility is the way countries are increasingly opening their doors to US oil industry involvement. Listed in this paper is a partial list of the reported projects now underway around the world involving US companies. It is not intended to be comprehensive, but rather an indication of how work continues despite a general lull atmosphere for the oil industry. These include Albania, Bulgaria, Congo, Czechoslovakia, Dominican Republic, Ethiopia, Ireland, Malta, Madagascar, Mongolia, Mozambique, Nigeria, Panama, Paraquay, and Senegal.

  5. Powering the World: Offshore Oil & Gas Production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Patzek, Tadeusz W.

    Powering the World: Offshore Oil & Gas Production Macondo post-blowout operations Tad Patzek Gulf of Mexico's oil and gas production Conclusions ­ p.5/59 #12;Summary of Conclusions. . . The global rate of production of oil is peaking now, coal will peak in 2-5 years, and natural gas in 20-30 years

  6. Updated Hubbert curves analyze world oil supply

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ivanhoe, L.F.

    1996-11-01

    The question is not whether, but when, world crude oil production will start to decline, ushering in the permanent oil shock era. While global information for predicting this event is not so straightforward as the data M. King Hubbert used in creating his famous Hubbert Curve that predicted the US (Lower 48 states, or US/48) 1970 oil production peak, there are strong indications that most of the world`s large exploration targets have now been found. Meanwhile, the earth`s population is exploding along with the oil needs of Asia`s developing nations. This article reviews Hubbert`s original analyses on oil discovery and production curves for the US/48 and projects his proven methodology onto global oil discoveries and production as of 1992. The world`s oil discovery curve peaked in 1962, and thence declined, as a Hubbert Curve predicts. However, global production was restricted after the 1973 Arab oil embargo. Otherwise, world production would have peaked in the mid-1990s. Two graphs show alternate versions of future global oil production.

  7. Benin: World Oil Report 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-08-01

    This paper reports Ashland discovered additional oil reserves deeper than current production in Seme, Benin's only oil field. The field is on a steep decline, producing as little as 2,500 bopd, down from 7,671 bopd in 1984. In an effort to restart offshore exploration, three offshore blocks have been designated. Hardy Oil and Gas (UK) Ltd. has since acquired 20% interest in Blocks 1 and 2 from International Petroleum Ltd. (IPL). IPL completed seismic work during 1990 that identified two large channel prospects similar to those that produce offshore elsewhere in West Africa. The first well is expected in 1991.

  8. Guatemala: World Oil Report 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-08-01

    This paper reports that government officials have been working on changes to the hydrocarbon law to make it easier for operators to explore. In a reform effort, Minister of Energy and Mines Carlos Hutarte brought a new staff dedicated to spurring oil development into office with him. This includes the Directorate of Hydrocarbons, which held a three-day seminar in Dallas, Texas, to acquaint U.S. firms with new policies. Only one company, Basic Resources International, has been operating in Guatemala over the last year. The firm drilled three onshore wells in 1990 for 16,499 ft, including one oil producer. Two further onshore wells are slated this year. Oil production from 14 active wells out of 16 capable averaged 3,943 bpd, up 8.4% from 1989. Reserves are 191 MMbbl.

  9. Iraq: World Oil Report 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-08-01

    This paper reports that no reliable information on Iraqi E and P operations and only a few reports on oil field facilities damage have been available since last August. Most of what is known originated from the Middle East Economic Survey (MEES), the authoritative newsletter covering the Middle East. According to MEES reports in major northern oil fields (Kirkuk, Bai Hasan and Jambur) is put at 800,000 bpd. The northern fields and the pipeline system through Turkey to the Mediterranean Sea that serves as an export outlet for the area apparently were not damaged much by coalition air strikes or subsequent fighting by the Kurds. Last May production was estimated at 250,000 bpd, presumably from northern fields. If and when U.N. sanctions are lifted, Iraq should be able to export promptly through the Turkish line.

  10. Nigeria: World Oil Report 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-08-01

    This paper reports that Middle East events have renewed interest in Nigeria's proven and potentially productive oil basins and fueled an upsurge in exploration and production activity. Increased oil revenues during the Gulf crisis were a bonus that will help pay for projects to boost production. Official goals are to increase production from current levels to 2.2 million bopd by the end of 1991 and 2.5 million bopd by 1995, and to raise reserves to 22 billion bbl by 1995. Shell, the largest operator, will spend $6.6 billion over five years on exploration and production to up its capacity from 1 million bopd to 1.3 million bopd, primarily with a $750-million investment for four new fields in South Forcados permit. Shell also announced reserve estimates of 400 million bbl of crude and 500 Bcf of gas for the Gharan structure onshore in Rivers State north of Yenogoa. Initial discovery was in January 1967, but the field was considered to be gas until Gbaran 4 was drilled in May 1990.

  11. Philippines: World Oil Report 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khin, J.A. )

    1991-08-01

    This paper reports on the discovery of a major oil field in the West Linapacan area, plus encouraging signs from the Calauit 1B, both offshore Palawan, that have prompted foreign and local firms to increase exploration activity, which should result in the drilling of 22 wells this year, compared to only seven during 1990. The West Linapacan well is reported to have potential recoverable reserves of 109 million bbl, and a consortium led by Alcorn (Production) Philippines plans a two-phase development of the discovery, beginning with two or three follow-up wells. These will be part of the seven additional wells the Office of Energy Affairs has approved for 1991 or early 1992. The OEA expects production from West Linapacan to start by 1992 at an initial rate of 15,000 to 20,000 bopd.

  12. World oil market outlook: recent history and forecasts of world oil prices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-08-01

    Recent world oil price trends and pricing behavior by the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) are examined. An outlook for consumption, production and prices in the world oil market, both for the short-term horizon through 1982 and for the midterm period from 1985 through 1995 is presented. A historical review focuses on OPEC activity in the period from January 1980 to May 1981. Several sensitivity analyses and the impact of supply disruptions are used to determine projections. The appendix provides data on world crude oil prices for each of 23 countries for January, May, and June of 1980 and May of 1981. 22 tables, 9 figures.

  13. Impact of growing Asian markets on the world oil industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Manning, T.J. [Purvin and Gertz, Inc., Houston, TX (United States); Vautrain, J.H. [Purvin and Gertz, Inc., Los Angeles, CA (United States); Adair, P. [Purvin and Gertz, Inc., Singapore (Singapore)

    1996-12-01

    The focus of world petroleum activity has largely shifted from the industrialized OPEC nations to the rapidly developing countries of Asia where new refinery ventures, marketing operations, and trading offices have proliferated. Asia consumed 22% of the world`s petroleum in 1985, but rapid growth in the past decade has raised its share to over 30%. Demand in Asia has grown by an average of 550,000 B/D each year since 1985, accounting for 80% of the world`s total growth in demand. The robust demand growth envisioned for the 1990s cannot last indefinitely. The key factor restricting growth will be the world`s capacity to produce crude oil, which they believe will begin to approach sustainable limits after 2000. When those limits are reached, another oil price shock is likely, and another cycle of conservation and substitution will begin. If growth were to continue at the high rates of the 1990s, crude availability limits would be reached early in the next century. In this paper, they have presented a soft landing path for demand, production, and pricing. They project a gradual slowdown in demand growth, in response to a gradual increase in real crude oil prices. In the real world, a much rougher path is likely, even though both paths start and end at the same point.

  14. Metabolic paths in world economy and crude oil price

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Picciolo, Francesco; Ruzzenenti, Franco

    2015-01-01

    In 1983 Hamilton demonstrated the correlation between the price of oil and gross national product for the U.S. economy. A prolific literature followed exploring the potential correlation of oil prices with other important indices like inflation, industrial production, and food prices, using increasingly refined tools. Our work sheds new light on the role of oil prices in shaping the world economy by investigating the metabolic paths of value across trade between 1960 and 2010, by means of Markov Chain analysis. We show that the interdependence of countries' economies are strictly (anti)correlated to the price of oil. We observed a remarkably high correlation of 0.85, unmatched by any former study addressing the correlation between oil price and major economic indicators.

  15. PEAKING OF WORLD OIL PRODUCTION: IMPACTS, MITIGATION, & RISK MANAGEMENT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laughlin, Robert B.

    PEAKING OF WORLD OIL PRODUCTION: IMPACTS, MITIGATION, & RISK MANAGEMENT Robert L. Hirsch, SAIC OF WORLD OIL PRODUCTION III. WHY TRANSITION WILL BE TIME CONSUMING IV. LESSONS FROM PAST EXPERIENCE V REMARKS APPENDICES #12;4 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY The peaking of world oil production presents the U

  16. Quantifying the Uncertainty in Estimates of World Conventional Oil Resources 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tien, Chih-Ming

    2010-07-14

    Since Hubbert proposed the "peak oil" concept to forecast ultimate recovery of crude oil for the U.S. and the world, there have been countless debates over the timing of peak world conventional oil production rate and ultimate recovery. From review...

  17. Who Are the Major Players Supplying the World Oil Market?

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2013-01-01

    Energy in Brief article on the world supply of oil through ownership of national oil companies and, for some governments, their membership in the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC).

  18. World Oil Price Cases (released in AEO2005)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2005-01-01

    World oil prices in Annual Energy Outlook 2005 are set in an environment where the members of OPEC (Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries) are assumed to act as the dominant producers, with lower production costs than other supply regions or countries. Non-OPEC oil producers are assumed to behave competitively, producing as much oil as they can profitability extract at the market price for oil. As a result, the OPEC member countries will be able effectively to set the price of oil when they can act in concert by varying their aggregate production. Alternatively, OPEC members could target a fixed level of production and let the world market determine the price.

  19. World Oil Prices in AEO2007 (released in AEO2007)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2007-01-01

    Over the long term, the Annual Energy Outlook 2007 (AEO) projection for world oil prices -- defined as the average price of imported low-sulfur, light crude oil to U.S. refiners -- is similar to the AEO2006 projection. In the near term, however, AEO2007 projects prices that are $8 to $10 higher than those in AEO2006.

  20. World Oil Prices in AEO2006 (released in AEO2006)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2006-01-01

    World oil prices in the Annual Energy Outlook 2006 (AEO) reference case are substantially higher than those in the AEO2005 reference case. In the AEO2006 reference case, world crude oil prices, in terms of the average price of imported low-sulfur, light crude oil to U.S. refiners, decline from current levels to about $47 per barrel (2004 dollars) in 2014, then rise to $54 per barrel in 2025 and $57 per barrel in 2030. The price in 2025 is approximately $21 per barrel higher than the corresponding price projection in the AEO2005 reference case.

  1. Peaking of world oil production: Impacts, mitigation, & risk management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hirsch, R.L.; Bezdek, Roger; Wendling, Robert

    2005-02-01

    The peaking of world oil production presents the U.S. and the world with an unprecedented risk management problem. As peaking is approached, liquid fuel prices and price volatility will increase dramatically, and, without timely mitigation, the economic, social, and political costs will be unprecedented. Viable mitigation options exist on both the supply and demand sides, but to have substantial impact, they must be initiated more than a decade in advance of peaking.... The purpose of this analysis was to identify the critical issues surrounding the occurrence and mitigation of world oil production peaking. We simplified many of the complexities in an effort to provide a transparent analysis. Nevertheless, our study is neither simple nor brief. We recognize that when oil prices escalate dramatically, there will be demand and economic impacts that will alter our simplified assumptions. Consideration of those feedbacks will be a daunting task but one that should be undertaken. Our aim in this study is to-- • Summarize the difficulties of oil production forecasting; • Identify the fundamentals that show why world oil production peaking is such a unique challenge; • Show why mitigation will take a decade or more of intense effort; • Examine the potential economic effects of oil peaking; • Describe what might be accomplished under three example mitigation scenarios. • Stimulate serious discussion of the problem, suggest more definitive studies, and engender interest in timely action to mitigate its impacts.

  2. Saudi Arabia: World Oil Report 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-08-01

    This paper reports on the Saudi Arabian Oil Co. (Saudi Aramco), the only operator in the country, that has accelerated its production expansion program aimed at boosting capacity from the current 8.5 million bpd to 10 million bpd. Initially expected to be completed by 1999, it now appears a sustainable 10 million bpd rate may be attainable by 1996. By this time next year, at least nine major onshore projects will have been started as well as five offshore. Included will be development of Hawtah, the initial oil discovery in the Central province south of Riyadh. The program also means significantly increased drilling. In fact, 1991 completions should easily double those of last year.

  3. Future world oil supplies: There is a finite limit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ivanhoe, L.F.

    1995-10-01

    The question is not whether, but when, world crude productivity will start to decline, ushering in the permanent oil shock era. While global information for predicting this ``event`` is not so straightforward as the data M. King Hubbert used in creating his famous curve that predicted the US oil production peak, there are indications that most of the large exploration targets have been found, at the same time that the world`s population is exploding. This theme and a discussion of ``reserve`` and ``resource`` definitions and use, or abuse, are the subjects of this article. Discussions and illustrations give one indication of where the world is in crude production and reserves, and where it is headed.

  4. Future world oil production: Growth, plateau, or peak?1 Larry Hughes and Jacinda Rudolph

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hughes, Larry

    ERG/201005 Future world oil production: Growth, plateau, or peak?1 Larry Hughes and Jacinda Rudolph Energy Systems 2010 #12;Future world oil production: Growth, plateau, or peak? Larry Hughes2 and Jacinda Scotia, Canada Abstract With the exception of two oil shocks in the 1970s, world oil production

  5. World oil model development. Progress report No. 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gately, D.

    1981-01-01

    A newly developed model of the world oil market is described in this report. This model has the following features: (1) energy is disaggregated into oil and non-oil; (2) the world is disaggregated as follows: the US, the rest of the OECD, OPEC, and the rest of WOCA; and (3) an energy-economy feedback is included. This satisfies some of the tasks in the Contract's Statement of Work. The model is described in Section II. Illustrative results are presented in Section III, for a single price-path: actual OPEC prices from 1973 to 1981, then constant real price thru 1990. These results are also compared with actual historical data for 1973 to 1980.

  6. High-Temperature Nuclear Reactors for In-Situ Recovery of Oil from Oil Shale

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Forsberg, Charles W.

    2006-07-01

    The world is exhausting its supply of crude oil for the production of liquid fuels (gasoline, jet fuel, and diesel). However, the United States has sufficient oil shale deposits to meet our current oil demands for {approx}100 years. Shell Oil Corporation is developing a new potentially cost-effective in-situ process for oil recovery that involves drilling wells into oil shale, using electric heaters to raise the bulk temperature of the oil shale deposit to {approx}370 deg C to initiate chemical reactions that produce light crude oil, and then pumping the oil to the surface. The primary production cost is the cost of high-temperature electrical heating. Because of the low thermal conductivity of oil shale, high-temperature heat is required at the heater wells to obtain the required medium temperatures in the bulk oil shale within an economically practical two to three years. It is proposed to use high-temperature nuclear reactors to provide high-temperature heat to replace the electricity and avoid the factor-of-2 loss in converting high-temperature heat to electricity that is then used to heat oil shale. Nuclear heat is potentially viable because many oil shale deposits are thick (200 to 700 m) and can yield up to 2.5 million barrels of oil per acre, or about 125 million dollars/acre of oil at $50/barrel. The concentrated characteristics of oil-shale deposits make it practical to transfer high-temperature heat over limited distances from a reactor to the oil shale deposits. (author)

  7. Cost, Conflict and Climate: U.S. Challenges in the World Oil Market

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Borenstein, Severin

    2008-01-01

    at the world price of oil and prices of gasoline and otherincremental pro?ts when oil prices rise come from both U.S.the recent increases in oil prices and attempts to clarify

  8. Cost, Conflict and Climate: U.S. Challenges in the World Oil Market

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Borenstein, Severin

    2008-01-01

    industry means that all oil demand pushes up the price ofearly 1980s drove down oil demand by 7% worldwide betweento suggest that the demand side of the world oil market or

  9. Available online at www.sciencedirect.com Future world oil production: growth, plateau, or peak?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ito, Garrett

    ], the growth in oil consumption, and hence production, resumed in the mid- 1980s, albeit in a more linearAvailable online at www.sciencedirect.com Future world oil production: growth, plateau, or peak? Larry Hughes and Jacinda Rudolph With the exception of two oil shocks in the 1970s, world oil production

  10. The imperfect price-reversibility of world oil demand

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gately, D. [New York Univ., NY (United States)

    1993-12-31

    This paper examines the price-reversibility of world oil demand, using price-decomposition methods employed previously on other energy demand data. We conclude that the reductions in world oil demand following the oil price increases of the 1970s will not be completely reversed by the price cuts of the 1980s. The response to price cuts in the 1980s is perhaps only one-fifth that for price increases in the 1970s. This has dramatic implications for projections of oil demand, especially under low-price assumptions. We also consider the effect on demand of a price recovery (sub-maximum increase) in the 1990s - due either to OPEC or to a carbon tax-specifically whether the effects would be as large as for the price increases of the 1970s or only as large as the smaller demand reversals of the 1980s. On this the results are uncertain, but a tentative conclusion is that the response to a price recovery would lie midway between the small response to price cuts and the larger response to increases in the maximum historical price. Finally, we demonstrate two implications of wrongly assuming that demand is perfectly price-reversible. First, such an assumption will grossly overestimate the demand response to price declines of the 1980s. Secondly, and somewhat surprisingly, it causes an underestimate of the effect of income growth on future demand. 21 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Fact #578: July 6, 2009 World Oil Reserves, Production, and Consumption, 2007

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The United States was responsible for 8% of the world's petroleum production, held 2% of the world's crude oil reserves, and consumed 24% of the world's petroleum consumption in 2007. The...

  12. Big questions cloud Iraq's future role in world oil market

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tippee, B.

    1992-03-09

    This paper reports that Iraq raises questions for the world oil market beyond those frequently asked about when and under what circumstances it will resume exports. Two wars since 1981 have obscured encouraging results from a 20 year exploration program that were only beginning to come to light when Iraq invaded Kuwait in August 1990. Those results indicate the country might someday be able to produce much more than the 3.2 million b/d it was flowing before a United Nations embargo blocked exports. If exploratory potential is anywhere near what officials asserted in the late 1980s, and if Iraq eventually turns hospitable to international capital, the country could become a world class opportunity for oil companies as well as an exporter with productive capacity approaching that of Saudi Arabia. But political conditions can change quickly. Under a new, secular regime, Iraq might welcome non-Iraqi oil companies and capital as essential to economic recovery. It's a prospect that warrants a new industry look at what the country has revealed about its geology and exploration history.

  13. The response of world energy and oil demand to income growth and changes in oil prices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dargay, J. [Oxford Univ. (United Kingdom). Transport Studies Unit; Gately, D. [New York Univ., NY (United States). Economics Dept.

    1995-11-01

    This paper reviews the path of world oil demand over the past three decades, and the effects of both the oil price increases of the 1970s and the oil price decreases of the 1980s. Compared with demand in the industrialized countries, demand in the Less Developed Countries (LDC) has been more responsive to income growth, less responsive to price increases, and more responsive to price decreases. The LDC has also exhibited much greater heterogeneity in income growth and is effect on demand. The authors expect a smaller demand response to future price increases than to those of the 1970s. The demand response to future income growth will be not substantially smaller than in the past. Finally, given the prospect of growing dependence on OPEC oil, in the event of a major disruption the lessened price-responsiveness of demand could cause dramatic price increases and serious macroeconomic effects.

  14. Finding new reserves of oil and gas As the world's reserves of oil and gas become exhausted, we urgently need to find new

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anderson, Jim

    Finding new reserves of oil and gas As the world's reserves of oil and gas become exhausted, we with oil or natural gas is greatly increased. Southampton academics have led the world in CSEM for more with Norwegian oil and gas company Statoil and UCSD's Scripps Institution of Oceanography. Southampton provided

  15. The bears come out for summer: A world awash in oil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-07-30

    In this issue, Energy Detente examines near term oil price and supply prospects. World oil prices have plunged over the last eight weeks to their lowest levels since 1991. This can be attributed to low world oil demand and bearish speculation on world oil markets that the on-again off-again oil export negotiations between Iraq and the United Nations may result in limited amounts of Iraqi crude being added to already swollen oil supplies. To recessionary economics in consuming countries, trends to raise taxes and reduce fuel price subsidies in many countries, and rising costs of environmental protection, producers also scrutinize a concerned Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC). OPEC's reactive potentials are heightened in a period of such market uncertainities.

  16. World Oil Prices and Production Trends in AEO2010 (released in AEO2010)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2010-01-01

    In Annual Energy Outlook 2010, the price of light, low-sulfur (or "sweet") crude oil delivered at Cushing, Oklahoma, is tracked to represent movements in world oil prices. The Energy Information Administration makes projections of future supply and demand for "total liquids,"" which includes conventional petroleum liquids -- such as conventional crude oil, natural gas plant liquids, and refinery gain -- in addition to unconventional liquids, which include biofuels, bitumen, coal-to-liquids (CTL), gas-to-liquids (GTL), extra-heavy oils, and shale oil.

  17. World Oil Prices and Production Trends in AEO2008 (released in AEO2008)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2008-01-01

    Annual Energy Outlook 2008 (AEO) defines the world oil price as the price of light, low-sulfur crude oil delivered in Cushing, Oklahoma. Since 2003, both "above ground" and "below ground" factors have contributed to a sustained rise in nominal world oil prices, from $31 per barrel in 2003 to $69 per barrel in 2007. The AEO2008 reference case outlook for world oil prices is higher than in the AEO2007 reference case. The main reasons for the adoption of a higher reference case price outlook include continued significant expansion of world demand for liquids, particularly in non-OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development) countries, which include China and India; the rising costs of conventional non-OPEC (Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries) supply and unconventional liquids production; limited growth in non-OPEC supplies despite higher oil prices; and the inability or unwillingness of OPEC member countries to increase conventional crude oil production to levels that would be required for maintaining price stability. The Energy Information Administration will continue to monitor world oil price trends and may need to make further adjustments in future AEOs.

  18. The social costs to the US of monopolization of the world oil market, 1972--1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greene, D.L.; Leiby, P.N.

    1993-03-01

    The partial monopolization of the world oil market by the OPEC cartel has produced significant economic costs to the economies of the world. This paper reports estimates of the costs of monopolization of oil to the US over the period 1972--1991. Two fundamental assumptions of the analysis are, (1) that OPEC has acted as a monopoly, albeit with limited control, knowledge, and ability to act and, (2) that the US and other consuming nations could, through collective (social) action affect the cartel`s ability to act as a monopoly. We measure total costs by comparing actual costs for the 1972--1991 period to a hypothetical ``more competitive`` world oil market scenario. By measuring past costs we avoid the enormous uncertainties about the future course of the world oil market and leave to the reader`s judgment the issue of how much the future will be like the past. We note that total cost numbers cannot be used to determine the value of reducing US oil use by one barrel. They are useful for describing the overall size of the petroleum problem and are one important factor in deciding how much effort should be devoted to solving it. Monopoly pricing of oil transfers wealth from US oil consumers to foreign oil producers and, by increasing theeconomic scarcity of oil, reduces the economy`s potential to produce. The actions of the OPEC cartel have also produced oil price shocks, both upward and downward, that generate additional costs because of the economy`s inherent inability to adjust quickly to a large change in energy prices. Estimated total costs to the United States from these three sources for the 1972--1991 period are put at $4.1 trillion in 1990$($1.2 T wealth transfer, $0.8 T macroeconomic adjustment costs, $2.1 T potential GNP losses). The cost of the US`s primary oil supply contingency program is small ($10 B) by comparison.

  19. The social costs to the US of monopolization of the world oil market, 1972--1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greene, D.L.; Leiby, P.N.

    1993-03-01

    The partial monopolization of the world oil market by the OPEC cartel has produced significant economic costs to the economies of the world. This paper reports estimates of the costs of monopolization of oil to the US over the period 1972--1991. Two fundamental assumptions of the analysis are, (1) that OPEC has acted as a monopoly, albeit with limited control, knowledge, and ability to act and, (2) that the US and other consuming nations could, through collective (social) action affect the cartel's ability to act as a monopoly. We measure total costs by comparing actual costs for the 1972--1991 period to a hypothetical more competitive'' world oil market scenario. By measuring past costs we avoid the enormous uncertainties about the future course of the world oil market and leave to the reader's judgment the issue of how much the future will be like the past. We note that total cost numbers cannot be used to determine the value of reducing US oil use by one barrel. They are useful for describing the overall size of the petroleum problem and are one important factor in deciding how much effort should be devoted to solving it. Monopoly pricing of oil transfers wealth from US oil consumers to foreign oil producers and, by increasing theeconomic scarcity of oil, reduces the economy's potential to produce. The actions of the OPEC cartel have also produced oil price shocks, both upward and downward, that generate additional costs because of the economy's inherent inability to adjust quickly to a large change in energy prices. Estimated total costs to the United States from these three sources for the 1972--1991 period are put at $4.1 trillion in 1990$($1.2 T wealth transfer, $0.8 T macroeconomic adjustment costs, $2.1 T potential GNP losses). The cost of the US's primary oil supply contingency program is small ($10 B) by comparison.

  20. High-Performance Renewable Base Oils for Industrial Lubricants...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High-Performance Renewable Base Oils for Industrial Lubricants Plant-Based Synthetic Lubricant Base Stock Reduces Emissions Dependence on foreign oil is a growing concern, as is...

  1. High Performance Computing Managing world-class supercomputing centers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    - 1 - High Performance Computing Managing world-class supercomputing centers Read caption Leader The High Performance Computing (HPC) Division supports the Laboratory mission by managing world high performance computing, storage, and emerging data-intensive information science production systems

  2. Natural gas: Governments and oil companies in the Third World

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davidson, A.; Hurst, C.; Mabro, R.

    1988-01-01

    It is asserted that oil companies claim to be generally receptive to gas development proposals; however, the lack of potential markets for gas, problems of foreign exchange convertibility, and lack of a legal framework often hinders their engagement. Governments, on the other hand, need to secure domestic energy supply and, if possible, gain some export earnings or royalties. An extensive discussion on the principles of pricing and fiscal regimes, potential points of disagreement is provided. A course of action is outlined from the managerial point of view to circumvent the most common pitfalls in planning and financing a gas project. Eight very detailed case studies are presented for Argentina, Egypt, Malaysia, Nigeria, Pakistan, Tanzania, Tunisia and Thailand.

  3. World heavy oil and bitumen riches - update 1983: Part one, reserves

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1983-05-25

    The fact that there are several OPEC members with significant non-conventional petroleum reserves, coupled with the economic interdependence of OPEC with oil-importing industrialized countries, means it is very much in OPEC's interest to promote international cooperation on non-conventional oil. The rationale behind the goal of decreasing dependence on conventional oil, particularly in the case of imports, is promotive of reducing pressure not only on oil-importing nations, but exporters as well. Thus it is in the interests of all countries to plan for the heavying up of the petroleum barrel, as this will inevitably accompany the decreases in conventional supplies and any increases of non-petroleum participation in the world energy diet. Although the megaprojects in Canada and Venezuela and other ambitious plans for development of heavy oil and bitumen have been shelved or delayed indefinitely due to lower light oil prices and reduced financial support, it was found that these setbacks have been superficial. Both Canada and Venezuela continue to pursue joint research with foreign countries and private companies. Like conservation, non-conventional petroleum-resource development is seen as internationally constructive. In this updating of reserves, it is noted that the geopolitics are inescapable when most of the light and medium oil is in the Middle East, and most heavy oil and tar sands are in the Western Hemisphere. This issue presents the Energy Detente fuel price/tax series and industrial fuel prices for May 1983 for countries of the Western Hemisphere.

  4. BIOENERGIZEME INFOGRAPHIC CHALLENGE: Oil Future of the World

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    This infographic was created by students from Miami Palmetto Senior High School in Pinecrest, FL, as part of the U.S. Department of Energy-BioenergizeME Infographic Challenge. The BioenergizeME...

  5. China's Global Oil Strategy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, Bryan G

    2009-01-01

    growth. For data on world oil consumption and long- term oilOil Production Domestic Oil Consumption a variety of

  6. Modeling of Energy Production Decisions: An Alaska Oil Case Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leighty, Wayne

    2008-01-01

    and Weimer, D.L. (1984) Oil prices shock, market response,OPEC behavior and world oil prices (pp. 175-185) London:many decades. Recent high oil prices have caused oil-holding

  7. Naturally fractured reservoirs contain a significant amount of the world oil reserves. A number of these reservoirs contain several

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arbogast, Todd

    Summary Naturally fractured reservoirs contain a significant amount of the world oil reserves simulation of naturally fractured reservoirs is one of the most important, challenging, and computationally intensive problems in reservoir engineering. Parallel reservoir simulators developed for naturally fractured

  8. Understanding Crude Oil Prices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamilton, James Douglas

    2008-01-01

    From EIA, “World Production of Crude Oil, NGPL, and Otherfrom EIA, “World Production of Crude Oil, NGPL, and Otherfrom EIA, “World Production of Crude Oil, NGPL, and Other

  9. Primary Cementing of a Highly Deviated Oil Well

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fournier, John J.F.

    in the construction of a well. The objective is to provide zonal isolation, i.e., a hydraulic seal between the wellPrimary Cementing of a Highly Deviated Oil Well by Mariana Carrasco-Teja B.Sc., Instituto Tecnol. The study comes from the primary cementing of highly deviated oil and gas wells. Highly deviated wells

  10. World oil flow slips in 1991 amid Mideast, U. S. S. R. woes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beck, R.J.

    1992-03-09

    World crude oil production slipped 0.9% in 1991 to average 59,964 million b/d. This paper reports that production declines related to war damage in Kuwait, United Nations sanctions on exports from Iraq, and oil sector woes in the crumbling U.S.S.R. were almost offset by higher production from other members of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries. OPEC crude production rose 0.6% in 1991 to average 23.425 million b/d, and non-OPEC output fell 1.9% to average 36.539 million b/d in 1991. Excluding the U.S.S.R., non-OPEC production moved up 1.5% to average 26.239 million b/d. World demand inched up about 200,000 b/d, estimates International Energy Agency, and IEA data show about 300,000 b/d was added to stocks in 1991. World crude prices started 1991 at their highest level, then fell off to average $17.82/bbl, down 16.5% from 1990 levels. Meantime, a slight increase in demand is predicted for 1992, and price stability again hinges on OPEC's ability to limit production.

  11. Textile World -TTU Researchers Develop Super-absorbent Nonwoven Cotton Mat For Oil Spills http://www.textileworld.com/Articles/2014/August/TTU_Researchers_Develop_Super-absorbent_Nonwoven_Cotton_Mat_For_Oil_Spills[8/6/2014 8:57:10 AM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rock, Chris

    Textile World - TTU Researchers Develop Super-absorbent Nonwoven Cotton Mat For Oil Spills http://www.textileworld.com/Articles/2014/August/TTU_Researchers_Develop_Super-absorbent_Nonwoven_Cotton_Mat_For_Oil_Spills[8/6/2014 8 August 5, 2014 Medical Grade Innovations Announces New, High-Performance Scrub Line August 5, 2014

  12. Cost, Conflict and Climate: U.S. Challenges in the World Oil Market

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Borenstein, Severin

    2008-01-01

    to understand U.S. oil consumption and production in thechallenges that U.S. oil consumption presents: the economicother valuable assets. Oil Consumption and Greenhouse Gases

  13. Biofuels' Time of Transition Achieving high performance in a world

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    Biofuels' Time of Transition Achieving high performance in a world of increasing fuel diversity #12;2 Table of contents #12;3 Introduction Up close: Highlights of Accenture's first biofuels study An evolving biofuels industry 1 Consumer influence Guest commentary on land-use change In focus: The food

  14. Aquatic primary production in a high-CO2 world

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fussman, Gregor

    Aquatic primary production in a high-CO2 world Etienne Low-De´carie, Gregor F. Fussmann, and Graham-Penfield, Montreal, QC, H3A 1B1, Canada Here, we provide a review of the direct effect of increas- ing CO2 on aquatic: the assessment of theories about limitation of productivity and the integration of CO2 into the co

  15. Cost, Conflict and Climate: U.S. Challenges in the World Oil Market

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Borenstein, Severin

    2008-01-01

    1.1 and 1.1A Figure 6: Uses of Crude Oil in the UnitedStates Other Residual Fuel Oil (bunker fuel) PetrochemicalDiesel Fuel and Heating Oil Jet Fuel Figure 7: Sources of

  16. Cost, Conflict and Climate: U.S. Challenges in the World Oil Market

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Borenstein, Severin

    2008-01-01

    increases in the price of crude oil during the last half ofdollar-denominated price of crude oil increased about 50%.month contract) price per gallon of crude oil and gasoline

  17. Insights from a Simple Hotelling Model of the World Oil Market C.-Y. Cynthia Lina1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, C.-Y. Cynthia

    data used in this study were acquired with the help of Brian Greene and with funds from the Littauer Kennedy School Pre-Doctoral Fellowship in energy policy. All errors are my own. #12;1 1 INTRODUCTION. In a 1980-1981 study by Stanford University's Energy Modeling Forum of ten prominent models of the world oil

  18. Modeling of Energy Production Decisions: An Alaska Oil Case Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leighty, Wayne

    2008-01-01

    2007). The world will reach peak oil production rates, atenergy security costs, and peak oil as emergencies, we willwhen oil price is high, then the first peak in drilling cost

  19. Method for creating high carbon content products from biomass oil

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Parker, Reginald; Seames, Wayne

    2012-12-18

    In a method for producing high carbon content products from biomass, a biomass oil is added to a cracking reactor vessel. The biomass oil is heated to a temperature ranging from about 100.degree. C. to about 800.degree. C. at a pressure ranging from about vacuum conditions to about 20,700 kPa for a time sufficient to crack the biomass oil. Tar is separated from the cracked biomass oil. The tar is heated to a temperature ranging from about 200.degree. C. to about 1500.degree. C. at a pressure ranging from about vacuum conditions to about 20,700 kPa for a time sufficient to reduce the tar to a high carbon content product containing at least about 50% carbon by weight.

  20. A network analysis of the global energy market: an insight on the entanglement between crude oil and the world economy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ruzzenenti, Franco; Papandreou, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    One major hurdle in the road toward a low carbon economy is the present entanglement of developed economies with oil. This tight relationship is mirrored in the correlation between most of economic indicators with oil price. This paper addresses the role of oil compared to the other three main energy commodities -coal, gas and electricity, in shaping the international trading network (ITW or WTW, world trade web) in the light of network theory. It initially surveys briefly the literature on the correlation between oil prices with economic growth and compares the concepts of time correlation with the concept of spatial correlation brought about by network theory. It outlines the conceptual framework underpinning the network measures adopted in the analysis and results are presented. Three measures are taken into account: the ratio of mutual exchanges in the network (reciprocity); the role of distances in determining trades (spatial filling); and the spatial correlation of energy commodities with the whole trad...

  1. EIA model documentation: World oil refining logistics demand model,``WORLD`` reference manual. Version 1.1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-04-11

    This manual is intended primarily for use as a reference by analysts applying the WORLD model to regional studies. It also provides overview information on WORLD features of potential interest to managers and analysts. Broadly, the manual covers WORLD model features in progressively increasing detail. Section 2 provides an overview of the WORLD model, how it has evolved, what its design goals are, what it produces, and where it can be taken with further enhancements. Section 3 reviews model management covering data sources, managing over-optimization, calibration and seasonality, check-points for case construction and common errors. Section 4 describes in detail the WORLD system, including: data and program systems in overview; details of mainframe and PC program control and files;model generation, size management, debugging and error analysis; use with different optimizers; and reporting and results analysis. Section 5 provides a detailed description of every WORLD model data table, covering model controls, case and technology data. Section 6 goes into the details of WORLD matrix structure. It provides an overview, describes how regional definitions are controlled and defines the naming conventions for-all model rows, columns, right-hand sides, and bounds. It also includes a discussion of the formulation of product blending and specifications in WORLD. Several Appendices supplement the main sections.

  2. Do High Oil Prices Presage Inflation? The Evidence from G-5 Countries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    LeBlanc, Michael; Chinn, Menzie David

    2004-01-01

    Do High Oil Prices Presage Inflation? The Evidence from G-5to be more sensitive to oil prices than in the U.S. , isa dollar denominated oil price. References Blanchard O.J.

  3. Progress report to the National Science Foundation for the period July 1, 1980 to December 31, 1981 of the project on cartel behavior and exhaustible resource supply : a case study of the world oil market

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    International Energy Studies Program (Massachusetts Institute of Technology)

    1982-01-01

    The M.I.T. World Oil Project has been developing forecasting methods that integrate the following considerations which influence investment in oil capacity and the level of oil exports: (1) the geology and microeconomics ...

  4. Cost, Conflict and Climate: U.S. Challenges in the World Oil Market

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Borenstein, Severin

    2008-01-01

    incremental income from oil production inside the U.S. “U.S.that it would expand oil production in the U.S. by more thanthe wealth created by oil production in the U.S. o?sets the

  5. Cost, Conflict and Climate: U.S. Challenges in the World Oil Market

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Borenstein, Severin

    2008-01-01

    course. Only 45% of re?ned oil product used in the U.S. isand imported re?ned oil products) per day or 7.6 billionto absorb water than re?ned oil products, so more costly to

  6. World Oil Prices and Production Trends in AEO2009 (released in AEO2009)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2009-01-01

    The oil prices reported in Annual Energy Outlook 2009 (AEO) represent the price of light, low-sulfur crude oil in 2007 dollars. Projections of future supply and demand are made for "liquids," a term used to refer to those liquids that after processing and refining can be used interchangeably with petroleum products. In AEO2009, liquids include conventional petroleum liquids -- such as conventional crude oil and natural gas plant liquids -- in addition to unconventional liquids, such as biofuels, bitumen, coal-to-liquids (CTL), gas-to-liquids (GTL), extra-heavy oils, and shale oil.

  7. Mick Jagger Explains High Crude Oil Prices How can Mick Jagger of The Rolling Stones help explain the current high crude oil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ahmad, Sajjad

    Mick Jagger Explains High Crude Oil Prices How can Mick Jagger of The Rolling Stones help explain the current high crude oil price? It does not relate to Mick' short stint at the London School of Economics for crude oil, that they attempted to control the price of crude on international markets. Their ability

  8. Petroleum industry sensitivity and world oil market prices: The Nigerian example

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kalu, T.Ch.U. [Univ. of Ilorin (Nigeria)

    1995-12-31

    Most empirical studies have focused on the demand side of energy with little or no attention to the supply side. To deal with this defect, this paper adopts a microanalytic approach to the problem of the individual oil firms to provide a basis for determining the effects of changes in such macro-variables as prices on their operations. However, instead of the familiar econometric approach to energy studies, a goal programming approach is adopted. Using a multinational oil company as a case study, the effects of change in crude oil prices are examined. The results, among other things, support the hypersensitivity of oil companies to changes in economic cycles, the price inelasticity of demand for crude oil in the short run, and a time lag between price change and the time an oil company responds to it. The management and policy implications of the results are also discussed. 28 refs., 3 tabs.

  9. Y. Yiliyasi and D. Berleant, "World oil reserves data: information quality assessment and analysis," 16th International Conference on Information Quality, Nov. 18-20, 2011, Adelaide, Australia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berleant, Daniel

    have important implications due to the heavy reliance of modern economy on petroleum. Bad data can and governments or are not freely available. In some cases, oil reserve figures are exaggerated for economicY. Yiliyasi and D. Berleant, "World oil reserves data: information quality assessment and analysis

  10. EIA: High Oil Prices, GHG Controls Would Help Clean Energy Grow...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    EIA: High Oil Prices, GHG Controls Would Help Clean Energy Grow EIA: High Oil Prices, GHG Controls Would Help Clean Energy Grow April 1, 2009 - 11:35am Addthis The growth of...

  11. Econometric Modelling of World Oil Supplies: Terminal Price and the Time to Depletion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohaddes, Kamiar

    2012-03-02

    ¤erent to various sources of energy, such as coal, natural gas, oil, and nuclear. Thus it is appropriate to ?rst look at the demand for energy before determining the speci?c demand for oil. The main reason for this is that although its composition will change... -run relationships when it comes to the demand for oil, given that countries impose subsidies and taxes on energy to di¤erent degrees. On the other hand there are often good reasons to expect that long-run relationships between variables are homogeneous across...

  12. High-energy photon transport modeling for oil-well logging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Erik D., Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2009-01-01

    Nuclear oil well logging tools utilizing radioisotope sources of photons are used ubiquitously in oilfields throughout the world. Because of safety and security concerns, there is renewed interest in shifting to ...

  13. Final report to the National Science Foundation for the period July 1, 1978 to June 30, 1980 of project on cartel behavior and exhaustible resource supply : a case study of the world oil market.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M.I.T. World Oil Project.

    1981-01-01

    The M.I.T. World Oil Project has been developing improved methods and data for analysis of the future course of the world oil market. Any forecast of this market depends on analysis of the likely demand for oil imports by ...

  14. High oil production continues to cut U.S. oil imports

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry Natural GasNatural GasEIA lowerslong4,Guide toHigh oil production

  15. The domestic natural gas and oil initiative. Energy leadership in the world economy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-12-01

    Two key overarching goals of this Initiative are enhancing the efficiency and competitiveness of U.S. industry and reducing the trends toward higher imports. These goals take into account new Federal policies that reflect economic needs, including economic growth, deficit reduction, job creation and security, and global competitiveness, as well as the need to preserve the environment, improve energy efficiency, and provide for national security. The success of this Initiative clearly requires coordinated strategies that range far beyond policies primarily directed at natural gas and oil supplies. Therefore, this Initiative proposes three major strategic activities: Strategic Activity 1 -- increase domestic natural gas and oil production and environmental protection by advancing and disseminating new exploration, production, and refining technologies; Strategic Activity 2 -- stimulate markets for natural gas and natural-gas-derived products, including their use as substitutes for imported oil where feasible; and Strategic Activity 3 -- ensure cost-effective environmental protection by streamlining and improving government communication, decision making, and regulation. Finally, the Initiative will reexamine the costs and benefits of increase oil imports through a broad new Department of Energy study. This study will form the basis for additional actions found to be warranted under the study.

  16. The Twilight of the Modern World The Four Stages of the Post-Oil Breakdown

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Keeling, Stephen L.

    . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 2.3 Security gifts, And snatch them straight away? William Shakespeare (Pericles, Prince of Tyre Act III Scene I) 1. Before the Industrial Revolution, the world survived on renewables, either locally-based water

  17. A Real-time World Model for Multi-Robot Teams with High-Latency Communication

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Veloso, Manuela M.

    A Real-time World Model for Multi-Robot Teams with High-Latency Communication Maayan Roth, Douglas Vail, and Manuela Veloso School of Computer Science Carnegie Mellon University Pittsburgh PA, 15213- structing a world model in a multi-robot team. We in- troduce two separate world models, namely

  18. Small-world properties emerge in highly compartmentalized networks with intermediate group sizes and numbers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ishida, Yuko

    Small-world properties emerge in highly compartmentalized networks with intermediate group sizes recent studies have focused on two statistical properties observed in diverse real-world networks: the small-world property and compartmentalization D. J. Watts and S. H. Strogatz, Nature 393, 440 1998 ; M

  19. Process for producing a high quality lube oil stock

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ward, J.W.

    1987-03-10

    A process is described for converting a waxy hydrocarbon feedstock containing a substantial proportion of hydrocarbonaceous material boiling above about 650/sup 0/F into a high quality lube oil stock which comprises: (a) contacting the waxy hydrocarbon feedstock with a dewaxing catalyst in a dewaxing zone under conditions such that the pour point of the feedstock is reduced, the dewaxing catalyst comprising a molecular sieve containing pores defined by 10-membered rings of oxygen atoms; (b) contacting at least a portion of the effluent from the dewaxing zone with molecular hydrogen in the presence of a hydrocracking catalyst in a hydrocracking zone under conditions such that a further reduction in pour point is effected. The hydrocracking catalyst comprises at least one hydrogenation component selected from the group consisting of Group VIB metal components and Group VIII metal components on a support comprising a crystalline aluminosilicate Y zeolite having catalytic activity for cracking hydrocarbons and a porous refractory oxide comprising silica-alumina dispersed in a matrix of gamma alumina; and (c) recovering a high quality lube oil stock from the effluent of the hydrocracking zone.

  20. NEMS International Energy Module, model documentation report: World Oil Market, Petroleum Products Supply and Oxygenates Supply components

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-04-04

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) is developing the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) to enhance its energy forecasting capabilities and to provide the Department of Energy with a comprehensive framework for analyzing alternative energy` futures. NEMS is designed with a multi-level modular structure that represents specific energy supply activities, conversion processes, and demand sectors as a series of self-contained units which are linked by an integrating mechanism. The NEMS International Energy Module (IEM) computes world oil prices and the resulting patterns of international trade in crude oil and refined products. This report is a reference document for energy analysts, model users, and the public that is intended to meet EIA`s legal obligation to provide adequate documentation for all statistical and forecast reports (Public Law 93-275, section 57(b)(1). Its purpose is to describe the structure of the IEM. Actual operation of the model is not discussed here. The report contains four sections summarizing the overall structure of the IEM and its interface with other NEMS modules, mathematical specifications of behavioral relationships, and data sources and estimation methods. Following a general description of the function and rationale of its key components, system and equation level information sufficient to permit independent evaluation of the model`s technical details is presented.

  1. What else did the price crash do. World oil's new-think

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1986-06-18

    The pricing of crude oil in relation to its refined product value should probably be viewed not as the cause of the international price crash touched off in late 1985, but as the consequence. Negotiating tables appear more cozy, with smaller distances between what buyers and sellers recognize as market-oriented prices. To an important degree, OPEC now officially prices by the netback system, and many other producers will likely follow soon. In California, an OPEC light crude and two domestics reveal new-think. This issue also includes the following: (1) ED refining netback data for the US Gulf and West Coasts, Rotterdam, and Singapore for June 1986; (2) ED fuel price/tax series for countries of the Eastern Hemisphere for May 1986 (unless otherwise indicated); and (3) principal industrial fuel prices for countries of the Eastern Hemisphere for March 1986.

  2. Method of upgrading oils containing hydroxyaromatic hydrocarbon compounds to highly aromatic gasoline

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baker, Eddie G. (Richland, WA); Elliott, Douglas C. (Richland, WA)

    1993-01-01

    The present invention is a multi-stepped method of converting an oil which is produced by various biomass and coal conversion processes and contains primarily single and multiple ring hydroxyaromatic hydrocarbon compounds to highly aromatic gasoline. The single and multiple ring hydroxyaromatic hydrocarbon compounds in a raw oil material are first deoxygenated to produce a deoxygenated oil material containing single and multiple ring aromatic compounds. Then, water is removed from the deoxygenated oil material. The next step is distillation to remove the single ring aromatic compouns as gasoline. In the third step, the multiple ring aromatics remaining in the deoxygenated oil material are cracked in the presence of hydrogen to produce a cracked oil material containing single ring aromatic compounds. Finally, the cracked oil material is then distilled to remove the single ring aromatics as gasoline.

  3. Method of upgrading oils containing hydroxyaromatic hydrocarbon compounds to highly aromatic gasoline

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baker, E.G.; Elliott, D.C.

    1993-01-19

    The present invention is a multi-stepped method of converting an oil which is produced by various biomass and coal conversion processes and contains primarily single and multiple ring hydroxyaromatic hydrocarbon compounds to highly aromatic gasoline. The single and multiple ring hydroxyaromatic hydrocarbon compounds in a raw oil material are first deoxygenated to produce a deoxygenated oil material containing single and multiple ring aromatic compounds. Then, water is removed from the deoxygenated oil material. The next step is distillation to remove the single ring aromatic compounds as gasoline. In the third step, the multiple ring aromatics remaining in the deoxygenated oil material are cracked in the presence of hydrogen to produce a cracked oil material containing single ring aromatic compounds. Finally, the cracked oil material is then distilled to remove the single ring aromatics as gasoline.

  4. Biofuels' Time of Transition Achieving high performance in a world

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    the challenges of 2007, biofuels production will probably exceed the International Energy Agency predictions was approximately 20 percent in the United States and approxi- mately 30 percent in Germany.1 ·High and volatile increase).2 ·Low product prices. Ethanol spot prices went from a high of $4/gallon in 2006 to an average

  5. Economic Effects of High Oil Prices (released in AEO2006)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2006-01-01

    The Annual Energy Outlook 2006 projections of future energy market conditions reflect the effects of oil prices on the macroeconomic variables that affect oil demand, in particular, and energy demand in general. The variables include real gross domestic product (GDP) growth, inflation, employment, exports and imports, and interest rates.

  6. INTEGRATION OF HIGH TEMPERATURE GAS REACTORS WITH IN SITU OIL SHALE RETORTING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eric P. Robertson; Michael G. McKellar; Lee O. Nelson

    2011-05-01

    This paper evaluates the integration of a high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) to an in situ oil shale retort operation producing 7950 m3/D (50,000 bbl/day). The large amount of heat required to pyrolyze the oil shale and produce oil would typically be provided by combustion of fossil fuels, but can also be delivered by an HTGR. Two cases were considered: a base case which includes no nuclear integration, and an HTGR-integrated case.

  7. Understanding Crude Oil Prices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamilton, James Douglas

    2008-01-01

    geological limits, global production of crude oil next yearGlobal production of crude petroleum. Notes: Bold line: From EIA, “World Production of Crude Oil,

  8. Displacement of oil from reservoir rock using high molecular weight polymer solutions 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barzi, Houshang

    1972-01-01

    DISPLACEMENT OF OIL FROM RESERVOIR ROCK USING HIGH MOLECULAR MEIGHT POLYMER SOLUTIONS A Thesis by HOUSHANG BARZI Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas AIM University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER... OF SCIENCE Aup;ust l972 Major Subject; Petroleum Engineering DISPLACENJENT OF OIL FROM RESERVOIR ROCK USING HIGH MOLECULAR WEIGHT POLYMER SOLUTIONS A Thesis by HOUSHANG BARZI Approved as +o style and content by~ airman of Commi+tee Member ~ed f' D p...

  9. World Crude Oil Prices

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry NaturalPrices1 Table 1.10 Cooling Degree-Days by038.2

  10. Integration of High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor Technology with Oil Sands Processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    L.E. Demick

    2011-10-01

    This paper summarizes an evaluation of siting an HTGR plant in a remote area supplying steam, electricity and high temperature gas for recovery and upgrading of unconventional crude oil from oil sands. The area selected for this evaluation is the Alberta Canada oil sands. This is a very fertile and active area for bitumen recovery and upgrading with significant quantities piped to refineries in Canada and the U.S Additionally data on the energy consumption and other factors that are required to complete the evaluation of HTGR application is readily available in the public domain. There is also interest by the Alberta oil sands producers (OSP) in identifying alternative energy sources for their operations. It should be noted, however, that the results of this evaluation could be applied to any similar oil sands area.

  11. China's Global Oil Strategy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, Bryan G

    2009-01-01

    unfettered access to oil resources including the possibleChina’s search for oil resources around the world. However,a survey of China’s oil resources, while others focus

  12. Running into an out of oil: Scenarios of global oil use and resource depletion to 2050

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greene, David L.; Hopson, Janet L.; Li, Jia

    2002-07-23

    Is a transition from conventional oil imminent? Is it likely to lock the world into a high-carbon energy future? This report attempts to shed some light on these questions.

  13. International Journal of High Speed Electronics and Systems fc World Scientific Publishing Company

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pulfrey, David L.

    International Journal of High Speed Electronics and Systems fc World Scientific Publishing Company FULL-CHIP POWER-SUPPLY NOISE: THE EFFECT OF ON-CHIP POWER-RAIL INDUCTANCE C.W. FOK Department, if applicable) The importance of on-chip power-rail inductance in generating delta-I power-supply noise

  14. Comment on "Phytoplankton Calcification in a High-CO2 World"

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Morel, François M. M.

    Comment on "Phytoplankton Calcification in a High-CO2 World" Ulf Riebesell,1 * Richard G. J conclusions. T he uptake of anthropogenic CO2 by the ocean is projected to drive seawater pH in the course as increasing ocean carbonation [increasing CO2 partial pres- sure (PCO2)] makes it energetically less expensive

  15. Hydration and strength development of binder based on high-calcium oil shale fly ash

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Freidin, C. [Ben-Gurion Univ. of the Negev, Sede-Boqer (Israel)] [Ben-Gurion Univ. of the Negev, Sede-Boqer (Israel)

    1998-06-01

    The properties of high-calcium oil shale fly ash and low-calcium coal fly ash, which are produced in Israeli power stations, were investigated. High-calcium oil shale fly ash was found to contain a great amount of CaO{sub free} and SO{sub 3} in the form of lime and anhydrite. Mixtures of high-calcium oil shale fly ash and low-calcium coal fly ash, termed fly ash binder, were shown to cure and have improved strength. The influence of the composition and curing conditions on the compressive strength of fly ash binders was examined. The microstructure and the composition of fly ash binder after curing and long-term exposure in moist air, water and open air conditions were studied. It was determined that ettringite is the main variable in the strength and durability of cured systems. The positive effect of calcium silicate hydrates, CSH, which are formed by interaction of high-calcium oil shale fly ash and low-calcium coal fly ash components, on the carbonation and dehydration resistance of fly ash binder in open air is pronounced. It was concluded that high-calcium oil shale fly ash with high CaO{sub free} and SO{sub 3} content can be used as a binder for building products.

  16. UNIVERSITY OF CALGARY PetroVis & FractVis: Interactive Visual Exploration of High-dimensional Oil and Gas Data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sharlin, Ehud

    , ALBERTA July, 2013 c© Ahmed E. Mostafa 2013 #12;Abstract Many processes within the oil and gas domain is crucial to understanding the structure and the be haviour of oil and gas fields, and to the optimization high dimensional oil and gas data. For the exploration we designed, implemented and evaluated two new

  17. Just oil? The distribution of environmental and social impacts of oil production and consumption

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Rourke, D; Connolly, S

    2003-01-01

    Ranking the World’s Top Oil Companies, 2001: Fewer, Bigger,top echelon of “super majors” has been created that far surpasses other publicly traded oil companies

  18. Rheological behavior of heavy oil and water mixtures at high pressures and high temperatures 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Setiadarma, Agustinus

    2002-01-01

    mixtures. The second part of this study evaluated the same heavy oil sample with water mixtures. This research was done to predict the in-situ rheological behavior of heavy oil emulsions that always occurs in water or steam flooding processes. It is shown...

  19. A Real-Time Decision Support System for High Cost Oil-Well Drilling Operations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aamodt, Agnar

    A Real-Time Decision Support System for High Cost Oil-Well Drilling Operations Odd Erik Gundersen and development cost in addition to two case studies are documented. Introduction DrillEdge is a software system for how to handle the current situation. Verdande Technology has developed DrillEdge to reduce the cost

  20. WORLD PRODUCTION AND TRADE IN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    WORLD PRODUCTION AND TRADE IN FISH MEAL AND OIL UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR · FISH ON OF FISH MEAL AND OIL , ESPECIALLY DUR ING 1953 TO 1959, THE PRI NC IPAL MARKET S FOR THE PRODUCTS- DICATE WHAT IS INCLUDED BESIDES FISHMEAL AND FISH BODY OIL. #12;WORLD PRODUCTION AND TRADE IN FISH MEAL

  1. Oil Study Guide - High School | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on DeliciousMathematicsEnergyInterested Parties -DepartmentAvailableHighOffice ofProject | DepartmentRD&DHigh

  2. Have We Run Out of Oil Yet? Oil Peaking Analysis from an Optimist's Perspective

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greene, David L; Hopson, Dr Janet L; Li, Jia

    2005-01-01

    This study addresses several questions concerning the peaking of conventional oil production from an optimist's perspective. Is the oil peak imminent? What is the range of uncertainty? What are the key determining factors? Will a transition to unconventional oil undermine or strengthen OPEC's influence over world oil markets? These issues are explored using a model combining alternative world energy scenarios with an accounting of resource depletion and a market-based simulation of transition to unconventional oil resources. No political or environmental constraints are allowed to hinder oil production, geological constraints on the rates at which oil can be produced are not represented, and when USGS resource estimates are used, more than the mean estimate of ultimately recoverable resources is assumed to exist. The issue is framed not as a question of "running out" of conventional oil, but in terms of the timing and rate of transition from conventional to unconventional oil resources. Unconventional oil is chosen because production from Venezuela's heavy-oil fields and Canada's Athabascan oil sands is already underway on a significant scale and unconventional oil is most consistent with the existing infrastructure for producing, refining, distributing and consuming petroleum. However, natural gas or even coal might also prove to be economical sources of liquid hydrocarbon fuels. These results indicate a high probability that production of conventional oil from outside of the Middle East region will peak, or that the rate of increase of production will become highly constrained before 2025. If world consumption of hydrocarbon fuels is to continue growing, massive development of unconventional resources will be required. While there are grounds for pessimism and optimism, it is certainly not too soon for extensive, detailed analysis of transitions to alternative energy sources.

  3. High efficiency shale oil recovery. Fourth quarterly report, October 1, 1992--December 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adams, D.C.

    1992-12-31

    The overall project objective is to demonstrate the high efficiency of the Adams Counter-Current shale oil recovery process. The efficiency will first be demonstrated on a small scale, in the current phase, after which the demonstration will be extended to the operation of a small pilot plant. Thus the immediate project objective is to obtain data on oil shale retorting operations in a small batch rotary kiln that will be representative of operations in the proposed continuous process pilot plant. Although an oil shale batch sample is sealed in the batch kiln from the start until the end of the run, the process conditions for the batch are the same as the conditions that an element of oil shale would encounter in a continuous process kiln. Similar chemical and physical (heating, mixing) conditions exist in both systems. The two most important data objectives in this phase of the project are to demonstrate (1) that the heat recovery projected for this project is reasonable and (2) that an oil shale kiln will run well and not plug up due to sticking and agglomeration. The following was completed and is reported on this quarter: (1) A software routine was written to eliminate intermittently inaccurate temperature readings. (2) We completed the quartz sand calibration runs, resolving calibration questions from the 3rd quarter. (3) We also made low temperature retorting runs to identify the need for certain kiln modifications and kiln modifications were completed. (4) Heat Conductance data on two Pyrolysis runs were completed on two samples of Occidental oil shale.

  4. In today's world, financial education is crucial; however, many young people are leaving high school lacking

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Relevance In today's world, financial education is crucial; however, many young people are leaving say students are prepared to deal with the financial challenges awaiting them in the adult world. More The Welcome to the Real World! (WTTRW) program consists of two parts: financial education and real-world

  5. Drunk On Oil: Russian Foreign Policy 2000-2007

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brugato, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Julia. “ World Stocks Sag as Oil Price Surges. ” The NewCollapse: Grain and Oil,” On the Issues, Am. Enterpriseet. al. , “Unrelenting Oil Addiction,” Russ. in Global

  6. Dynamics of the Oil Transition: Modeling Capacity, Costs, and Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brandt, Adam R.; Farrell, Alexander E.

    2008-01-01

    1] Andrews, S. and Udall, R. Oil Prophets: Lookingat World Oil Studies Over Time. In Campbell, C.International Workshop on Oil Depletion 2003, Paris, France,

  7. World first in high level waste vitrification - A review of French vitrification industrial achievements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brueziere, J.; Chauvin, E. [AREVA, 1 place Jean Millier, 92084 Paris La Defense (France); Piroux, J.C. [Joint Vitrification Laboratory - LCV, Marcoule, BP171, 30207 Bagnols sur Ceze (France)

    2013-07-01

    AREVA has more than 30 years experience in operating industrial HLW (High Level radioactive Waste) vitrification facilities (AVM - Marcoule Vitrification Facility, R7 and T7 facilities). This vitrification technology was based on borosilicate glasses and induction-heating. AVM was the world's first industrial HLW vitrification facility to operate in-line with a reprocessing plant. The glass formulation was adapted to commercial Light Water Reactor fission products solutions, including alkaline liquid waste concentrates as well as platinoid-rich clarification fines. The R7 and T7 facilities were designed on the basis of the industrial experience acquired in the AVM facility. The AVM vitrification process was implemented at a larger scale in order to operate the R7 and T7 facilities in-line with the UP2 and UP3 reprocessing plants. After more than 30 years of operation, outstanding record of operation has been established by the R7 and T7 facilities. The industrial startup of the CCIM (Cold Crucible Induction Melter) technology with enhanced glass formulation was possible thanks to the close cooperation between CEA and AREVA. CCIM is a water-cooled induction melter in which the glass frit and the waste are melted by direct high frequency induction. This technology allows the handling of highly corrosive solutions and high operating temperatures which permits new glass compositions and a higher glass production capacity. The CCIM technology has been implemented successfully at La Hague plant.

  8. High pressure pair distribution function studies of Green River oil shale.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chapman, K. W.; Chupas, P. J.; Locke, D. R.; Winans, R. E.; Pugmire, R. J.; Univ. of Utah

    2008-01-01

    The compression behavior of a silicate-rich oil shale from the Green River formation in the pressure range 0.0-2.4 GPa was studied using in situ high pressure X-ray pair distribution function (PDF) measurements for the sample contained within a Paris-Edinburgh cell. The real-space local structural information in the PDF, G(r), was used to evaluate the compressibility of the oil shale. Specifically, the pressure-induced reduction in the medium- to long-range atom distances ({approx}6-20 {angstrom}) yielded an average sample compressibility corresponding to a bulk modulus of ca. 61-67 GPa. A structural model consisting of a three phase mixture of the principal crystalline oil shale components (quartz, albite and Illite) provided a good fit to the ambient pressure PDF data (R {approx} 30.7%). Indeed the features in the PDF beyond {approx} {angstrom}, were similarly well fit by a single phase model of the highest symmetry, highly crystalline quartz component. The factors influencing the observed compression behavior are discussed.

  9. Performances of High Numerical Aperture Water and Oil Immersion Objective in Deep-Tissue, Multi-Photon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    So, Peter

    Performances of High Numerical Aperture Water and Oil Immersion Objective in Deep-Tissue, Multi Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 3 Univerlever Edgewater Laboratory, Edgewater, New Jersey 07020 4 Department of Mechanical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute

  10. Production of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyhexanoate) by Ralstonia eutropha in high cell density palm oil fermentations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yusof, Zainal Abidin Mohd

    Improved production costs will accelerate commercialization of polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) polymer and PHA-based products. Plant oils are considered favorable feedstocks, due to their high carbon content and relatively low ...

  11. Do High Oil Prices Presage Inflation? The Evidence from G-5 Countries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    LeBlanc, Michael; Chinn, Menzie David

    2004-01-01

    Historical oil crises have been characterized by widespread concern about the pricehistorical in nature, it would be a mistake to conclude that the impact of oil prices

  12. Heading off the permanent oil crisis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MacKenzie, J.J.

    1996-11-01

    The 1996 spike in gasoline prices was not a signal of any fundamental worldwide shortage of crude oil. But based on a review of many studies of recoverable crude oil that have been published since the 1950s, it looks as though such a shortfall is now within sight. With world demand for oil growing at 2 percent per year, global production is likely to peak between the years 2007 and 2014. As this time approaches, we can expect prices to rise markedly and, most likely, permanently. Policy changes are needed now to ease the transition to high-priced oil. Oil production will continue, though at a declining rate, for many decades after its peak, and there are enormous amounts of coal, oil sands, heavy oil, and oil shales worldwide that could be used to produce liquid or gaseous substitutes for crude oil, albeit at higher prices. But the facilities for making such synthetic fuels are costly to build and environmentally damaging to operate, and their use would substantially increase carbon dioxide emissions (compared to emissions from products made from conventional crude oil). This paper examines ways of heading of the impending oil crisis. 8 refs., 3 figs.

  13. Ultralight carbon aerogel from nanocellulose as a highly selective oil absorption material

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meng, Yujie; Yang, Timothy M; Peizhi, Liu; Contescu, Cristian I; Biao, Huang; Siqun, Wang

    2015-01-01

    The synthesis of a sponge-like carbon aerogel from microfibril cellulose (MFC), with high porosity (99%), ultra-low density (0.01 g/cm3), hydrophobic properties (149 static contact angle) and reusability is reported in this paper. The physical properties, internal morphology, thermal properties, and chemical properties of carbon aerogels heat-treated at 700 and 900 oC (Samples C-700 and C-900) were examined. Stabilization and carbonization parameters were optimized in terms of residual carbon yield. The BET surface area of Sample C-700 (521 m2 /g) was significantly higher than of Sample C-950 (149 m2 /g). Graphitic-like domains were observed in C-950. The highest normalized sorption capacity (86 g/g) for paraffin oil was observed in sample C-700. The removal of hydrophilic function groups during carbonization causes carbon aerogel to present highly hydrophobic properties. Carbon aerogel s ability to absorb oil is enhanced by its highly porous 3D network structure with interconnected cellulose nanofibrils.

  14. Simplified configuration for the combustor of an oil burner using a low pressure, high flow air-atomizing nozzle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Butcher, Thomas A. (Port Jefferson, NY); Celebi, Yusuf (Middle Island, NY); Fisher, Leonard (Colrain, MA)

    2000-09-15

    The invention relates to clean burning of fuel oil with air. More specifically, to a fuel burning combustion head using a low-pressure, high air flow atomizing nozzle so that there will be a complete combustion of oil resulting in a minimum emission of pollutants. The improved fuel burner uses a low pressure air atomizing nozzle that does not result in the use of additional compressors or the introduction of pressurized gases downstream, nor does it require a complex design. Inventors:

  15. Solar energy is abundant and is a largely untapped resource in today's world due to the high cost of materials and high processing costs. While

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Solar energy is abundant and is a largely untapped resource in today's world due to the high cost of materials and high processing costs. While mesoporous perovskite solar cells (PSCs), have rapidly emerged Optimization of Planar Solar Cells Christopher McDonald1, Eric Talbert2, Rizia Bardhan2 1Department of Physics

  16. Corona: A High Performance Publish-Subscribe System for the World Wide Web Venugopalan Ramasubramanian Ryan Peterson Emin Gun Sirer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Keinan, Alon

    Corona: A High Performance Publish-Subscribe System for the World Wide Web Venugopalan,ryanp,egs}@cs.cornell.edu Abstract Despite the abundance of frequently changing informa- tion, the Web lacks a publish imposed by active polling. This paper describes a novel publish-subscribe system for the Web called Corona

  17. SOVENT BASED ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY FOR IN-SITU UPGRADING OF HEAVY OIL SANDS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Munroe, Norman

    2009-01-30

    With the depletion of conventional crude oil reserves in the world, heavy oil and bitumen resources have great potential to meet the future demand for petroleum products. However, oil recovery from heavy oil and bitumen reservoirs is much more difficult than that from conventional oil reservoirs. This is mainly because heavy oil or bitumen is partially or completely immobile under reservoir conditions due to its extremely high viscosity, which creates special production challenges. In order to overcome these challenges significant efforts were devoted by Applied Research Center (ARC) at Florida International University and The Center for Energy Economics (CEE) at the University of Texas. A simplified model was developed to assess the density of the upgraded crude depending on the ratio of solvent mass to crude oil mass, temperature, pressure and the properties of the crude oil. The simplified model incorporated the interaction dynamics into a homogeneous, porous heavy oil reservoir to simulate the dispersion and concentration of injected CO2. The model also incorporated the characteristic of a highly varying CO2 density near the critical point. Since the major challenge in heavy oil recovery is its high viscosity, most researchers have focused their investigations on this parameter in the laboratory as well as in the field resulting in disparaging results. This was attributed to oil being a complex poly-disperse blend of light and heavy paraffins, aromatics, resins and asphaltenes, which have diverse behaviors at reservoir temperature and pressures. The situation is exacerbated by a dearth of experimental data on gas diffusion coefficients in heavy oils due to the tedious nature of diffusivity measurements. Ultimately, the viscosity and thus oil recovery is regulated by pressure and its effect on the diffusion coefficient and oil swelling factors. The generation of a new phase within the crude and the differences in mobility between the new crude matrix and the precipitate readily enables removal of asphaltenes. Thus, an upgraded crude low in heavy metal, sulfur and nitrogen is more conducive for further purification.

  18. Enhanced Oil Recovery in High Salinity High Temperature Reservoir by Chemical Flooding 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bataweel, Mohammed Abdullah

    2012-02-14

    that contain high concentrations of divalent cations without the need to recondition the reservoir by flooding it with less saline/ less hardness brines. This strategy was found ineffective in preparing the reservoir for chemical flooding. Surfactants used...

  19. Cursed Resources? Political Conditions and Oil Market Volatility*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Edwards, Paul N.

    a country's political conditions affect oil production within its borders. We show production, with very democratic regimes exhibiting less volatility in their oil production than more of oil production volatility. Our finding has implications both for understanding world oil markets

  20. The effect of high-pressure injection of gas on the reservoir volume factor of a crude oil 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Honeycutt, Baxter Bewitt

    1957-01-01

    THE EFFECT OF HIGH-PRESSURE INJECTION OF GAS ON THE RESERVOIR VOLUME FACTOR OF A CRUDE OIL A Thesis By+ BAXTER DS'kONEYCUTT o Submitted to the Graduate School of the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August, i957 Major Subject: Petroleum Engineering THE EFFECT OF HIGH-PRESSURE INJECTION OF GAS ON THE RESERVOIR VOLUME FACTOR OF A CRUDE OIL A Thesis By BAXTER D. HONEYCUTT Appro d as to style...

  1. High liquid yield process for retorting various organic materials including oil shale

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Coburn, Thomas T. (Livermore, CA)

    1990-01-01

    This invention is a continuous retorting process for various high molecular weight organic materials, including oil shale, that yields an enhanced output of liquid product. The organic material, mineral matter, and an acidic catalyst, that appreciably adsorbs alkenes on surface sites at prescribed temperatures, are mixed and introduced into a pyrolyzer. A circulating stream of olefin enriched pyrolysis gas is continuously swept through the organic material and catalyst, whereupon, as the result of pyrolysis, the enhanced liquid product output is provided. Mixed spent organic material, mineral matter, and cool catalyst are continuously withdrawn from the pyrolyzer. Combustion of the spent organic material and mineral matter serves to reheat the catalyst. Olefin depleted pyrolysis gas, from the pyrolyzer, is enriched in olefins and recycled into the pyrolyzer. The reheated acidic catalyst is separated from the mineral matter and again mixed with fresh organic material, to maintain the continuously cyclic process.

  2. A high liquid yield process for retorting various organic materials including oil shale

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Coburn, T.T.

    1988-07-26

    This invention is a continuous retorting process for various high molecular weight organic materials, including oil shale, that yields an enhanced output of liquid product. The organic material, mineral matter, and an acidic catalyst, that appreciably adsorbs alkenes on surface sites at prescribed temperatures, are mixed and introduced into a pyrolyzer. A circulating stream of olefin enriched pyrolysis gas is continuously swept through the organic material and catalyst, whereupon, as the result of pyrolysis, the enhanced liquid product output is provided. Mixed spent organic material, mineral matter, and cool catalyst are continuously withdrawn from the pyrolyzer. Combustion of the spent organic material and mineral matter serves to reheat the catalyst. Olefin depleted pyrolysis gas, from the pyrolyzer, is enriched in olefins and recycled into the pyrolyzer. The reheated acidic catalyst is separated from the mineral matter and again mixed with fresh organic material, to maintain the continuously cyclic process. 2 figs.

  3. Apparatus for distilling shale oil from oil shale

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shishido, T.; Sato, Y.

    1984-02-14

    An apparatus for distilling shale oil from oil shale comprises: a vertical type distilling furnace which is divided by two vertical partitions each provided with a plurality of vent apertures into an oil shale treating chamber and two gas chambers, said oil shale treating chamber being located between said two gas chambers in said vertical type distilling furnace, said vertical type distilling furnace being further divided by at least one horizontal partition into an oil shale distilling chamber in the lower part thereof and at least one oil shale preheating chamber in the upper part thereof, said oil shale distilling chamber and said oil shale preheating chamber communication with each other through a gap provided at an end of said horizontal partition, an oil shale supplied continuously from an oil shale supply port provided in said oil shale treating chamber at the top thereof into said oil shale treating chamber continuously moving from the oil shale preheating chamber to the oil shale distilling chamber, a high-temperature gas blown into an oil shale distilling chamber passing horizontally through said oil shale in said oil shale treating chamber, thereby said oil shale is preheated in said oil shale preheating chamber, and a gaseous shale oil is distilled from said preheated oil shale in said oil shale distilling chamber; and a separator for separating by liquefaction a gaseous shale oil from a gas containing the gaseous shale oil discharged from the oil shale preheating chamber.

  4. A REVIEW OF PREVIOUS USGS WORLD ENERGY ASSESSMENTS1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laughlin, Robert B.

    -145-97 (October, 1997), entitled "Changing perceptions of world oil and gas resources as shown........................................................RV-1 World Gas Resources Were Viewed as Less Exploited Than Those of Oil............RV-2 Total World Resources of Conventional Oil and Gas Were Viewed as Approximately Equal

  5. Process for producing modified microorganisms for oil treatment at high temperatures, pressures and salinity

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Premuzic, E.T.; Lin, M.

    1996-02-20

    This invention relates to the preparation of new, modified organisms, through challenge growth processes, that are viable in the extreme temperature, pressure and pH conditions and salt concentrations of an oil reservoir and that are suitable for use in microbial enhanced oil recovery. The modified microorganisms of the present invention are used to enhance oil recovery and remove sulfur compounds and metals from the crude oil. The processes are comprised of steps which successively limit the carbon sources and increase the temperature, pressure and salinity of the media. This is done until microbial strains are obtained that are capable of growing in essentially crude oil as a carbon source and at a temperature range from about 70 C to 90 C, at a pressure range from about 2,000 to 2,500 psi and at a salinity range from about 1.3 to 35%. 68 figs.

  6. Process for producing modified microorganisms for oil treatment at high temperatures, pressures and salinity

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Premuzic, Eugene T. (East Moriches, NY); Lin, Mow (Rocky Point, NY)

    1996-02-20

    This invention relates to the preparation of new, modified organisms, through challenge growth processes, that are viable in the extreme temperature, pressure and pH conditions and salt concentrations of an oil reservoir and that are suitable for use in microbial enhanced oil recovery. The modified microorganisms of the present invention are used to enhance oil recovery and remove sulfur compounds and metals from the crude oil. The processes are comprised of steps which successively limit the carbon sources and increase the temperature, pressure and salinity of the media. This is done until microbial strains are obtained that are capable of growing in essentially crude oil as a carbon source and at a temperature range from about 70.degree. C. to 90.degree. C., at a pressure range from about 2,000 to 2,500 psi and at a salinity range from about 1.3 to 35%.

  7. High-speed video observation and on-line measurements of oil aeration in an internal combustion engine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Manz, Devon L

    2005-01-01

    Along the oil's journey through the oil lube system, the oil lubricates, cools, removes impurities, supports load, and minimizes friction. At the end of the oil's journey it returns to the sump where it remains nearly ...

  8. Oil inventories in industrialized countries to reach record high at end of 2015

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry Natural GasNatural GasEIARegionalMethodologyNorth093 *Oil andOilOil

  9. Oil Market Assessment

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2001-01-01

    Based on Energy Information Administration (EIA) contacts and trade press reports, overall U.S. and global oil supplies appear to have been minimally impacted by yesterday's terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon.

  10. World Biofuels Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alfstad,T.

    2008-10-01

    This report forms part of a project entitled 'World Biofuels Study'. The objective is to study world biofuel markets and to examine the possible contribution that biofuel imports could make to help meet the Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS) of the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA). The study was sponsored by the Biomass Program of the Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), U.S. Department of Energy. It is a collaborative effort among the Office of Policy and International Affairs (PI), Department of Energy and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). The project consisted of three main components: (1) Assessment of the resource potential for biofuel feedstocks such as sugarcane, grains, soybean, palm oil and lignocellulosic crops and development of supply curves (ORNL). (2) Assessment of the cost and performance of biofuel production technologies (NREL). (3) Scenario-based analysis of world biofuel markets using the ETP global energy model with data developed in the first parts of the study (BNL). This report covers the modeling and analysis part of the project conducted by BNL in cooperation with PI. The Energy Technology Perspectives (ETP) energy system model was used as the analytical tool for this study. ETP is a 15 region global model designed using the MARKAL framework. MARKAL-based models are partial equilibrium models that incorporate a description of the physical energy system and provide a bottom-up approach to study the entire energy system. ETP was updated for this study with biomass resource data and biofuel production technology cost and performance data developed by ORNL and NREL under Tasks 1 and 2 of this project. Many countries around the world are embarking on ambitious biofuel policies through renewable fuel standards and economic incentives. As a result, the global biofuel demand is expected to grow very rapidly over the next two decades, provided policymakers stay the course with their policy goals. This project relied on a scenario-based analysis to study global biofuel markets. Scenarios were designed to evaluate the impact of different policy proposals and market conditions. World biofuel supply for selected scenarios is shown in Figure 1. The reference case total biofuel production increases from 12 billion gallons of ethanol equivalent in 2005 to 54 billion gallons in 2020 and 83 billion gallons in 2030. The scenarios analyzed show volumes ranging from 46 to 64 billion gallons in 2020, and from about 72 to about 100 billion gallons in 2030. The highest production worldwide occurs in the scenario with high feedstock availability combined with high oil prices and more rapid improvements in cellulosic biofuel conversion technologies. The lowest global production is found in the scenario with low feedstock availability, low oil prices and slower technology progress.

  11. U.S. Military Expenditures to Protect the Use of Persian-Gulf Oil For Motor Vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Delucchi, Mark A.; Murphy, James

    1996-01-01

    per day, or 29% of world crude-oil production. Saudi Arabia,41.4% of world crude-oil production (Energy Information

  12. Report Title: The Economic Impact of Oil and Gas Extraction in New Mexico Type of Report: Technical Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Eric E.

    presented. Historical oil and gas production, reserves, and price data are also presented and discussed. #12 ..................................................................................................................................................7 Oil Production ...............................................................................................................................................8 World Oil Production

  13. Running Out Of and Into Oil. Analyzing Global Oil Depletion and Transition Through 2050

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greene, David L.; Hopson, Janet L.; Li, Jia

    2003-10-01

    This report presents a risk analysis of world conventional oil resource production, depletion, expansion, and a possible transition to unconventional oil resources such as oil sands, heavy oil and shale oil over the period 2000 to 2050. Risk analysis uses Monte Carlo simulation methods to produce a probability distribution of outcomes rather than a single value.

  14. www.fightbac.o anola oil is

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ca co Th Ca "Canola" c which is Addition Ca he Ca in Th ca Ca m C know? anola oil is ooking oils. he average anola oil is comes fro s another nal Inform anola oil is eart healthy anola oil is n the world. he part of th anola meal anola oil ca many crop va ano the lowest . canola see a good sou m

  15. Dynamics of the Oil Transition: Modeling Capacity, Costs, and Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brandt, Adam R.; Farrell, Alexander E.

    2008-01-01

    Price elasticity of demand for crude oil: estimates for 2327] Krichene, N. World crude oil and natural gas: a demandIn contrast to synthetic crude oils produced from the above

  16. Drunk On Oil: Russian Foreign Policy 2000-2007

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brugato, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    World Stocks Sag as Oil Price Surges. ” The New York Times,Second, the increase in oil prices may make Russia moreof action. Nevertheless, oil prices still have a significant

  17. Crude Existence: The Politics of Oil in Northern Angola

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reed, Kristin

    2009-01-01

    tion. A drop in world oil prices, coupled with a decrease indisbursements declined and oil prices dropped sharply inThe drastic drop in oil prices and further agricultural

  18. Dynamics of the Oil Transition: Modeling Capacity, Costs, and Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brandt, Adam R.; Farrell, Alexander E.

    2008-01-01

    and income on energy and oil demand. Energy Journal, 23(1):conventional oil supply and demand. But, interestingly,World crude oil and natural gas: a demand and supply model.

  19. Dynamics of the Oil Transition: Modeling Capacity, Costs, and Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brandt, Adam R.; Farrell, Alexander E.

    2008-01-01

    D. J. and Cecchine, G. Oil shale development in the Unitedresources of some world oil-shale deposits. Technical Reportfor CO2 evolved from oil shale. Fuel Processing Technology,

  20. Dynamics of the Oil Transition: Modeling Capacity, Costs, and Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brandt, Adam R.; Farrell, Alexander E.

    2008-01-01

    playing key role in peak-oil debate, future energy supply.of di?ering views of peak oil, including Yergin’s, isHubbert’s Peak: The Impending World Oil Shortage. Princeton

  1. Transforming the Oil Industry into the Energy Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sperling, Daniel; Yeh, Sonia

    2009-01-01

    Transforming the Oil Industry into the Energy Industry BYculprit. It consumes half the oil used in the world andconsuming two thirds of the oil and causing about one third

  2. OPEC production: Untapped reserves, world demand spur production expansion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ismail, I.A.H. (Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries, Vienna (Austria))

    1994-05-02

    To meet projected world oil demand, almost all members of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) have embarked on ambitious capacity expansion programs aimed at increasing oil production capabilities. These expansion programs are in both new and existing oil fields. In the latter case, the aim is either to maintain production or reduce the production decline rate. However, the recent price deterioration has led some major OPEC producers, such as Saudi Arabia and Iran, to revise downward their capacity plans. Capital required for capacity expansion is considerable. Therefore, because the primary source of funds will come from within each OPEC country, a reasonably stable and relatively high oil price is required to obtain enough revenue for investing in upstream projects. This first in a series of two articles discusses the present OPEC capacity and planned expansion in the Middle East. The concluding part will cover the expansion plans in the remaining OPEC countries, capital requirements, and environmental concerns.

  3. Air Emissions and Oil Displacement Benefits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McGaughey, Alan

    and the U.S. costs of oil consumption, including supply disruption risks, increases in world oil prices dueAir Emissions and Oil Displacement Benefits from Plug-in Vehicles The electrification of passenger; and (3) reduce gasoline consumption, helping to diminish dependency on imported oil. Current policy

  4. International Oil and Gas Exploration and Development

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    1993-01-01

    Presents country level data on oil reserves, oil production, active drilling rigs, seismic crews, wells drilled, oil reserve additions, and oil reserve to production ratios (R/P ratios) for about 85 countries, where available, from 1970 through 1991. World and regional summaries are given in both tabular and graphical form.

  5. Testing for market integration crude oil, coal, and natural gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bachmeier, L.J.; Griffin, J.M.

    2006-07-01

    Prompted by the contemporaneous spike in coal, oil, and natural gas prices, this paper evaluates the degree of market integration both within and between crude oil, coal, and natural gas markets. Our approach yields parameters that can be readily tested against a priori conjectures. Using daily price data for five very different crude oils, we conclude that the world oil market is a single, highly integrated economic market. On the other hand, coal prices at five trading locations across the United States are cointegrated, but the degree of market integration is much weaker, particularly between Western and Eastern coals. Finally, we show that crude oil, coal, and natural gas markets are only very weakly integrated. Our results indicate that there is not a primary energy market. Despite current price peaks, it is not useful to think of a primary energy market, except in a very long run context.

  6. Dynamics of the Oil Transition: Modeling Capacity, Costs, and Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brandt, Adam R.; Farrell, Alexander E.

    2008-01-01

    response to high oil prices and geopolitical threats tofor the e?ect of the oil price through the price elasticityprojections, corresponding oil price series are extracted

  7. The displacement of oil from unconsolidated sands by high temperature fluid injection 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hossain, A. K. M. Sakhawat

    1965-01-01

    PRESENTATION AND DISCUSSION OF RESULTS 7o CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS So ACKNOWLEDGMENT 9, REFERENCES 10 o APPENDIX 18 22 36 37 00 L'IST OF FIGURES AMD TABLES 1 ISUJIES 1 . Saturation vs ~ Distance Plat 2 ~ Schematic Diagrkm of' Apparatus... Ratio vs Water Satur- ation for Runs Nos, 9 ? lg 11. Water-Oil Relativ'e Permeability' vent Water Saturation for P2 F, 150 F~ 200 F, and 29$m F Runs 12. Irreducible Water Saturation v's. . Temperature 1J. Residual Oi. l. Saturati6n vs Temperatuie...

  8. Middle East sparking increase in world drilling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-02-01

    Global drilling outside the United States appears to have bottomed out last year if official numbers and estimates supplied to World oil prove accurate. The 1990:0090 forecast calls for a 7.8% boost to 22,316 wells (excluding the USSR, Eastern Europe and North Korea), and every region expects to see a net increase. Figures provided by governmental agencies, operating companies and other sources indicate Middle Eastern drilling last year hit a new high for the 1980's with 948 wells. These figures are also given for Western Europe, the Far East, Africa, South America, Canada, Mexico, Costa Rica, and Guatemala.

  9. Financial Times-World Energy Council Energy Leaders Summit |...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    aggressive action to achieve, is indeed critically important. First, let's look at our heavy reliance on oil. The growth in world oil consumption has been averaging about 1.8...

  10. U. S. Military Expenditures to Protect the Use of Persian Gulf Oil for Motor Vehicles: Report #15 in the series: The Annualized Social Cost of Motor-Vehicle Use in the United States, based on 1990-1991 Data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Delucchi, Mark; Murphy, James

    2006-01-01

    only 57% of the world’s oil resources, and the Middle EastFree World access to oil resources, and the limitation offew years has made the oil resource in the Middle East more

  11. Oil and the American Way of Life: Don't Ask, Don't Tell

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Kaufmann, Robert [Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts, United States

    2010-01-08

    In the coming decades, US consumers will face a series of important decisions about oil. To make effective decisions, consumers must confront some disturbing answers to questions they would rather not ask. These questions include: is the US running out of oil, is the world running out of oil, is OPEC increasing its grip on prices, is the US economy reducing its dependence on energy, and will the competitive market address these issues in a timely fashion? Answers to these questions indicate that the market will not address these issues: the US has already run out of inexpensive sources of oil such that rising prices no longer elicit significant increases in supply. The US experience implies that within a couple of decades, the world oil market will change from increasing supply at low prices to decreasing supply at higher prices. As the world approaches this important turning point, OPEC will strengthen its grip on world oil prices. Contrary to popular belief, the US economy continues to be highly dependent on energy, especially inexpensive sources of energy. Together, these trends threaten to undermine the basic way in which the US economy generates a high standard of living.

  12. Investigation on the effects of ultra-high pressure and temperature on the rheological properties of oil-based drilling fluids 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ibeh, Chijioke Stanley

    2009-05-15

    Designing a fit-for-purpose drilling fluid for high-pressure, high-temperature (HP/HT) operations is one of the greatest technological challenges facing the oil and gas industry today. Typically, a drilling fluid is subjected to increasing...

  13. Economic Effect on Agricultural Production of Alternative Energy Input Prices: Texas High Plains 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Adams, B. M.; Lacewell, R. D.; Condra, G. D.

    1976-01-01

    The Arab oil embargo of 1973 awakened the world to the reality of energy shortages and higher fuel prices. Agriculture in the United States is highly mechanized and thus energy intensive. This study seeks to develop an evaluative capability...

  14. High-temperature batteries for geothermal and oil/gas borehole applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    GUIDOTTI,RONALD A.

    2000-05-25

    A literature survey and technical evaluation was carried out of past and present battery technologies with the goal of identifying appropriate candidates for use in geothermal borehole and, to a lesser extent, oil/gas boreholes. The various constraints that are posed by such an environment are discussed. The promise as well as the limitations of various candidate technologies are presented. Data for limited testing of a number of candidate systems are presented and the areas for additional future work are detailed. The use of low-temperature molten salts shows the most promise for such applications and includes those that are liquid at room temperature. The greatest challenges are to develop an appropriate electrochemical couple that is kinetically stable with the most promising electrolytes--both organic as well as inorganic--over the wide operating window that spans both borehole environments.

  15. Unconventional Oil and Gas Resources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2006-09-15

    World oil use is projected to grow to 98 million b/d in 2015 and 118 million b/d in 2030. Total world natural gas consumption is projected to rise to 134 Tcf in 2015 and 182 Tcf in 2030. In an era of declining production and increasing demand, economically producing oil and gas from unconventional sources is a key challenge to maintaining global economic growth. Some unconventional hydrocarbon sources are already being developed, including gas shales, tight gas sands, heavy oil, oil sands, and coal bed methane. Roughly 20 years ago, gas production from tight sands, shales, and coals was considered uneconomic. Today, these resources provide 25% of the U.S. gas supply and that number is likely to increase. Venezuela has over 300 billion barrels of unproven extra-heavy oil reserves which would give it the largest reserves of any country in the world. It is currently producing over 550,000 b/d of heavy oil. Unconventional oil is also being produced in Canada from the Athabasca oil sands. 1.6 trillion barrels of oil are locked in the sands of which 175 billion barrels are proven reserves that can be recovered using current technology. Production from 29 companies now operating there exceeds 1 million barrels per day. The report provides an overview of continuous petroleum sources and gives a concise overview of the current status of varying types of unconventional oil and gas resources. Topics covered in the report include: an overview of the history of Oil and Natural Gas; an analysis of the Oil and Natural Gas industries, including current and future production, consumption, and reserves; a detailed description of the different types of unconventional oil and gas resources; an analysis of the key business factors that are driving the increased interest in unconventional resources; an analysis of the barriers that are hindering the development of unconventional resources; profiles of key producing regions; and, profiles of key unconventional oil and gas producers.

  16. International Oil Supplies and Demands

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-04-01

    The eleventh Energy Modeling Forum (EMF) working group met four times over the 1989--1990 period to compare alternative perspectives on international oil supplies and demands through 2010 and to discuss how alternative supply and demand trends influence the world's dependence upon Middle Eastern oil. Proprietors of eleven economic models of the world oil market used their respective models to simulate a dozen scenarios using standardized assumptions. From its inception, the study was not designed to focus on the short-run impacts of disruptions on oil markets. Nor did the working group attempt to provide a forecast or just a single view of the likely future path for oil prices. The model results guided the group's thinking about many important longer-run market relationships and helped to identify differences of opinion about future oil supplies, demands, and dependence.

  17. International Oil Supplies and Demands

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-09-01

    The eleventh Energy Modeling Forum (EMF) working group met four times over the 1989--90 period to compare alternative perspectives on international oil supplies and demands through 2010 and to discuss how alternative supply and demand trends influence the world's dependence upon Middle Eastern oil. Proprietors of eleven economic models of the world oil market used their respective models to simulate a dozen scenarios using standardized assumptions. From its inception, the study was not designed to focus on the short-run impacts of disruptions on oil markets. Nor did the working group attempt to provide a forecast or just a single view of the likely future path for oil prices. The model results guided the group's thinking about many important longer-run market relationships and helped to identify differences of opinion about future oil supplies, demands, and dependence.

  18. LLM Oil, Gas and Mining Law Module Information: Oil, Gas & Mining Environmental Law I and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Evans, Paul

    LLM Oil, Gas and Mining Law Module Information: Oil, Gas & Mining Environmental Law I and Oil, Gas of the area of Oil, Gas &, Mining Environmental Law; 2. communicate complex legal concepts that apply within the area of Oil, Gas & Mining & Environmental Law to a high level of competence; and 3. deploy a highly

  19. Oil shale technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, S. (Akron Univ., OH (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

    1991-01-01

    Oil shale is undoubtedly an excellent energy source that has great abundance and world-wide distribution. Oil shale industries have seen ups and downs over more than 100 years, depending on the availability and price of conventional petroleum crudes. Market forces as well as environmental factors will greatly affect the interest in development of oil shale. Besides competing with conventional crude oil and natural gas, shale oil will have to compete favorably with coal-derived fuels for similar markets. Crude shale oil is obtained from oil shale by a relatively simple process called retorting. However, the process economics are greatly affected by the thermal efficiencies, the richness of shale, the mass transfer effectiveness, the conversion efficiency, the design of retort, the environmental post-treatment, etc. A great many process ideas and patents related to the oil shale pyrolysis have been developed; however, relatively few field and engineering data have been published. Due to the vast heterogeneity of oil shale and to the complexities of physicochemical process mechanisms, scientific or technological generalization of oil shale retorting is difficult to achieve. Dwindling supplied of worldwide petroleum reserves, as well as the unprecedented appetite of mankind for clean liquid fuel, has made the public concern for future energy market grow rapidly. the clean coal technology and the alternate fuel technology are currently of great significance not only to policy makers, but also to process and chemical researchers. In this book, efforts have been made to make a comprehensive text for the science and technology of oil shale utilization. Therefore, subjects dealing with the terminological definitions, geology and petrology, chemistry, characterization, process engineering, mathematical modeling, chemical reaction engineering, experimental methods, and statistical experimental design, etc. are covered in detail.

  20. High resolution FT-ICR mass spectral analysis of bio-oil and residual water soluble organics produced by hydrothermal liquefaction of the marine microalga Nannochloropsis salina

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sudasinghe, Nilusha; Dungan, Barry; Lammers, Peter; Albrecht, Karl O.; Elliott, Douglas C.; Hallen, Richard T.; Schaub, Tanner

    2014-03-01

    We report a detailed compositional characterization of a bio-crude oil and aqueous by-product from hydrothermal liquefaction of Nannochloropsis salina by direct infusion Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometry (FT-ICR MS) in both positive- and negative-ionization modes. The FT-ICR MS instrumentation approach facilitates direct assignment of elemental composition to >7000 resolved mass spectral peaks and three-dimensional mass spectral images for individual heteroatom classes highlight compositional diversity of the two samples and provide a baseline description of these materials. Aromatic nitrogen compounds and free fatty acids are predominant species observed in both the bio-oil and aqueous fraction. Residual organic compounds present in the aqueous fraction show distributions that are slightly lower in both molecular ring and/or double bond value and carbon number relative to those found in the bio-oil, albeit with a high degree of commonality between the two compositions.

  1. Risk analysis in oil and gas projects : a case study in the Middle East

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zand, Emad Dolatshahi

    2009-01-01

    Global demand for energy is rising around the world. Middle East is a major supplier of oil and gas and remains an important region for any future oil and gas developments. Meanwhile, managing oil and gas projects are ...

  2. World Shale Resource Assessments

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2015-01-01

    Four countries: Chad, Kazakhstan, Oman and the United Arab Emirates (UAE) have been added to report “Technically Recoverable Shale Oil and Shale Gas Resources.” The report provides an estimate of shale resources in selected basins around the world. The new chapters cover shale basins from the Sub-Saharan Africa region, represented by Chad; the Caspian region, represented by Kazakhstan; and the Middle East region, represented by Oman and the United Arab Emirates (UAE) and are available as supplemental chapters to the 2013 report.

  3. Economic Recovery of Oil Trapped at Fan Margins Using High Angle Wells and Multiple Hydraulic Fractures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mike L. Laue

    1997-05-30

    The distal fan margin in the northeast portion of the Yowlumne field contains significant reserves but is not economical to develop using vertical wells. Numerous interbedded shales and deteriorating rock properties limit producibility. In addition, extreme depths (13,000 ft) present a challenging environment for hydraulic fracturing and artificial lift. Lastly, a mature waterflood increases risk because of the uncertainty with size and location of flood fronts. This project attempts to demonstrate the effectiveness of exploiting the distal fan margin of this slope-basin clastic reservoir through the use of a high-angle well completed with multiple hydraulic-fracture treatments. The combination of a high-angle (or horizontal) well and hydraulic fracturing will allow greater pay exposure than can be achieved with conventional vertical wells while maintaining vertical communication between thin interbedded layers and the wellbore. The equivalent production rate and reserves of three vertical wells are anticipated at one-half to two-thirds the cost.

  4. Process for preparing lubricating oil from used waste lubricating oil

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Whisman, Marvin L. (Bartlesville, OK); Reynolds, James W. (Bartlesville, OK); Goetzinger, John W. (Bartlesville, OK); Cotton, Faye O. (Bartlesville, OK)

    1978-01-01

    A re-refining process is described by which high-quality finished lubricating oils are prepared from used waste lubricating and crankcase oils. The used oils are stripped of water and low-boiling contaminants by vacuum distillation and then dissolved in a solvent of 1-butanol, 2-propanol and methylethyl ketone, which precipitates a sludge containing most of the solid and liquid contaminants, unspent additives, and oxidation products present in the used oil. After separating the purified oil-solvent mixture from the sludge and recovering the solvent for recycling, the purified oil is preferably fractional vacuum-distilled, forming lubricating oil distillate fractions which are then decolorized and deodorized to prepare blending stocks. The blending stocks are blended to obtain a lubricating oil base of appropriate viscosity before being mixed with an appropriate additive package to form the finished lubricating oil product.

  5. Fuel Oil",,,"Fuel Oil Consumption",,"Fuel Oil Expenditures"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1. Total Fuel Oil Consumption and Expenditures, 1999" ,"All Buildings Using Fuel Oil",,,"Fuel Oil Consumption",,"Fuel Oil Expenditures" ,"Number of Buildings (thousand)","Floorspac...

  6. Mixing Water and Oil Under Static High Pressure H.K. Ploeg1, M.D. McCluskey2,3, G.J. Hanna2,3

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collins, Gary S.

    Mixing Water and Oil Under Static High Pressure H.K. Ploeg1, M.D. McCluskey2,3, G.J. Hanna2,3 1The and O. Grasset, Journal of Chemical Physics 127, 124506 (2007) Citations: Water in Oil: Procedure: ·The initial experiment was to see a drop of water freeze to ice VI while surrounded by mineral oil

  7. OECD/IEA 2013 World Renewable Energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Canet, Léonie

    © OECD/IEA 2013 World Renewable Energy Outlook 2030-2050 Paolo Frankl Head, Renewable Energy 2030 2035 TWh Coal Renewables Gas Nuclear Oil Source: IEA World Energy Outlook 2012 New Policies important renewable energy source in industry in 2050 solar thermal contributes mainly to low

  8. 61. Nelson, D. C. Oil Shale: New Technologies Defining New Opportunities. Presented at the Platts Rockies Gas & Oil Conference, Denver, CO, April

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kulp, Mark

    61. Nelson, D. C. Oil Shale: New Technologies Defining New Opportunities. Presented at the Platts I, II Modeling of the In-Situ Production of Oil from .',1 l ',".1" Oil Shale ilil 'I' 'I~ :' l of conventional oil reserves amidst increasing liquid fuel demand in the world have renewed interest in oil shale

  9. Fact #742: August 27, 2012 Oil Price and Economic Growth

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Major oil price shocks have disrupted world energy markets five times in the past 30 years (1973-74, 1979-80, 1990-91, 1999-2000, and 2008). Most of the oil price shocks were followed by an...

  10. STEO January 2013 - world oil prices

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home RoomPreservation of Fe(II) byMultidayAlumni > The2/01/12 Page 1NEWSSupportcoal demand

  11. Economic Recovery of Oil Trapped at Fan Margins Using High Angle Wells and Multiple Hydraulic fractures.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laue, M.L.

    1997-08-31

    The long radius, near-horizontal well has been drilled and completion operations are in progress. Upon initial review of log data, two hydraulic fracture treatments were planned. However, the probability of the lower frac growing into thick sands previously swept by waterflood has called for additional information to be obtained prior to proceeding with hydraulic fracture treatments. Should permeabilities prove to be as favorable as some data indicate, produced water volumes could be excessively high. Prior to pumping the first frac, the well will be perforated and produced from lower pay intervals. These perfs will not impact future frac work. Rate data and pressure transient analysis will dictate the need for the lower frac.

  12. Water issues associated with heavy oil production.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Veil, J. A.; Quinn, J. J.; Environmental Science Division

    2008-11-28

    Crude oil occurs in many different forms throughout the world. An important characteristic of crude oil that affects the ease with which it can be produced is its density and viscosity. Lighter crude oil typically can be produced more easily and at lower cost than heavier crude oil. Historically, much of the nation's oil supply came from domestic or international light or medium crude oil sources. California's extensive heavy oil production for more than a century is a notable exception. Oil and gas companies are actively looking toward heavier crude oil sources to help meet demands and to take advantage of large heavy oil reserves located in North and South America. Heavy oil includes very viscous oil resources like those found in some fields in California and Venezuela, oil shale, and tar sands (called oil sands in Canada). These are described in more detail in the next chapter. Water is integrally associated with conventional oil production. Produced water is the largest byproduct associated with oil production. The cost of managing large volumes of produced water is an important component of the overall cost of producing oil. Most mature oil fields rely on injected water to maintain formation pressure during production. The processes involved with heavy oil production often require external water supplies for steam generation, washing, and other steps. While some heavy oil processes generate produced water, others generate different types of industrial wastewater. Management and disposition of the wastewater presents challenges and costs for the operators. This report describes water requirements relating to heavy oil production and potential sources for that water. The report also describes how water is used and the resulting water quality impacts associated with heavy oil production.

  13. World energy consumption

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    Historical and projected world energy consumption information is displayed. The information is presented by region and fuel type, and includes a world total. Measurements are in quadrillion Btu. Sources of the information contained in the table are: (1) history--Energy Information Administration (EIA), International Energy Annual 1992, DOE/EIA-0219(92); (2) projections--EIA, World Energy Projections System, 1994. Country amounts include an adjustment to account for electricity trade. Regions or country groups are shown as follows: (1) Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), US (not including US territories), which are included in other (ECD), Canada, Japan, OECD Europe, United Kingdom, France, Germany, Italy, Netherlands, other Europe, and other OECD; (2) Eurasia--China, former Soviet Union, eastern Europe; (3) rest of world--Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) and other countries not included in any other group. Fuel types include oil, natural gas, coal, nuclear, and other. Other includes hydroelectricity, geothermal, solar, biomass, wind, and other renewable sources.

  14. International Oil Supplies and Demands. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-09-01

    The eleventh Energy Modeling Forum (EMF) working group met four times over the 1989--90 period to compare alternative perspectives on international oil supplies and demands through 2010 and to discuss how alternative supply and demand trends influence the world`s dependence upon Middle Eastern oil. Proprietors of eleven economic models of the world oil market used their respective models to simulate a dozen scenarios using standardized assumptions. From its inception, the study was not designed to focus on the short-run impacts of disruptions on oil markets. Nor did the working group attempt to provide a forecast or just a single view of the likely future path for oil prices. The model results guided the group`s thinking about many important longer-run market relationships and helped to identify differences of opinion about future oil supplies, demands, and dependence.

  15. International Oil Supplies and Demands. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-04-01

    The eleventh Energy Modeling Forum (EMF) working group met four times over the 1989--1990 period to compare alternative perspectives on international oil supplies and demands through 2010 and to discuss how alternative supply and demand trends influence the world`s dependence upon Middle Eastern oil. Proprietors of eleven economic models of the world oil market used their respective models to simulate a dozen scenarios using standardized assumptions. From its inception, the study was not designed to focus on the short-run impacts of disruptions on oil markets. Nor did the working group attempt to provide a forecast or just a single view of the likely future path for oil prices. The model results guided the group`s thinking about many important longer-run market relationships and helped to identify differences of opinion about future oil supplies, demands, and dependence.

  16. Running Out of and Into Oil: Analyzing Global Oil Depletion and Transition Through 2050

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greene, D.L.

    2003-11-14

    This report presents a risk analysis of world conventional oil resource production, depletion, expansion, and a possible transition to unconventional oil resources such as oil sands, heavy oil and shale oil over the period 2000 to 2050. Risk analysis uses Monte Carlo simulation methods to produce a probability distribution of outcomes rather than a single value. Probability distributions are produced for the year in which conventional oil production peaks for the world as a whole and the year of peak production from regions outside the Middle East. Recent estimates of world oil resources by the United States Geological Survey (USGS), the International Institute of Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), the World Energy Council (WEC) and Dr. C. Campbell provide alternative views of the extent of ultimate world oil resources. A model of oil resource depletion and expansion for twelve world regions is combined with a market equilibrium model of conventional and unconventional oil supply and demand to create a World Energy Scenarios Model (WESM). The model does not make use of Hubbert curves but instead relies on target reserve-to-production ratios to determine when regional output will begin to decline. The authors believe that their analysis has a bias toward optimism about oil resource availability because it does not attempt to incorporate political or environmental constraints on production, nor does it explicitly include geologic constraints on production rates. Global energy scenarios created by IIASA and WEC provide the context for the risk analysis. Key variables such as the quantity of undiscovered oil and rates of technological progress are treated as probability distributions, rather than constants. Analyses based on the USGS and IIASA resource assessments indicate that conventional oil production outside the Middle East is likely to peak sometime between 2010 and 2030. The most important determinants of the date are the quantity of undiscovered oil, the rate at which unconventional oil production can be expanded, and the rate of growth of reserves and enhanced recovery. Analysis based on data produced by Campbell indicates that the peak of non-Middle East production will occur before 2010. For total world conventional oil production, the results indicate a peak somewhere between 2020 and 2050. Key determinants of the peak in world oil production are the rate at which the Middle East region expands its output and the minimum reserves-to-production ratios producers will tolerate. Once world conventional oil production peaks, first oil sands and heavy oil from Canada, Venezuela and Russia, and later some other source such as shale oil from the United States must expand if total world oil consumption is to continue to increase. Alternative sources of liquid hydrocarbon fuels, such as coal or natural gas are also possible resources but not considered in this analysis nor is the possibility of transition to a hydrogen economy. These limitations were adopted to simplify the transition analysis. Inspection of the paths of conventional oil production indicates that even if world oil production does not peak before 2020, output of conventional oil is likely to increase at a substantially slower rate after that date. The implication is that there will have to be increased production of unconventional oil after that date if world petroleum consumption is to grow.

  17. Heavy oil hydroprocessing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pratt, R.E.; Nongbri, G.; Clausen, G.A. [Texaco R& D, Port Arthur, TX (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    Many of the crude oils available worldwide are classified as heavy oils (API gravity less than 20). In addition, many of the heavier crude oils are also high in sulfur content. Both the low gravity and high sulfur content make these crude oils difficult to process in many refineries and additional processing equipment is required. Often, deasphalting of the vacuum residuum is one of the processing routes chosen. However, the deasphalted oil (DAO) is often of poor quality and presents problems in processing in existing refinery units. Fixed bed hydrotreater and hydrocracker catalysts are quickly fouled and fluid catalytic cracking units (FCCU) reach regenerator temperature limits with only small amounts of DAO in the feed. Use of the T-STAR ebullated bed process to hydrocrack and upgrade the DAO is an excellent route for making the DAO more palatable to refinery units.

  18. Saudi Aramco describes crisis oil flow hike

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-12-02

    On Aug. 2, 1990, Iraqi forces invaded Kuwait and triggered one of the most severe crises in the world's oil supplies since World War II. Within a few days of the invasion, Iraqi and Kuwaiti oil exports were embargoed, and almost 4.6 million b/d oil of production was removed from world markets. This shortfall amounted to about 20% of total Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries production at the time and could have proven disastrous to the world's industrial and financial well-being. However, there was no disruption to the major economies of the world. This paper reports that the primary reason for the cushioning of this impact was the massive expansion in production undertaken by Saudi Arabian Oil Co. (Saudi Aramco).

  19. Oil Market Simulation model user's manual. [Oil market

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-07-01

    The Oil Market Simulation (OMS) model is a LOTUS 1-2-3 spreadsheet that simulates the world oil market. OMS is an annual model that projects the world oil market through the year 2010 from a data base that begins in 1979. The geographic coverage includes all market economies, with net imports from the centrally planned economies taken as an assumption. The model estimates the effects of price changes on oil supply and demand and computes an oil price path over nine that allows supply and demand to remain in balance within the market economies area as a whole. The input assumptions of OMS are highlighted (in color) on the spreadsheet and include the following: The capacity of the OPEC countries to produce petroleum liquids (crude oil, natural gas liquids, condensates, refinery gains); a reference case projection of regional oil supply and demand at some arbitrary reference path of oil prices over time. The reference case provided with this diskette is that used for EIA's latest base case in the International Energy Outlook 1992 DOE/EIA-0484(92). The demonstration requires an IBM PC (or compatible), preferably with a color monitor. The demonstration diskette is self-contained, with all the files needed to run the demonstration. It does not, however, have the DOS system files, so this diskette cannot be used to start (boot) the computer.

  20. ORNL/TM-2003/259 RUNNING OUT OF AND INTO OIL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ORNL/TM-2003/259 RUNNING OUT OF AND INTO OIL: ANALYZING GLOBAL OIL DEPLETION AND TRANSITION THROUGH Government or any agency thereof. #12;#12;ORNL/TM-2003/259 RUNNING OUT OF AND INTO OIL: ANALYZING GLOBAL OIL ...................................................................................................................1 2. WORLD OIL RESOURCE ESTIMATES

  1. Attitudes toward offshore oil development: A summary of current evidence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gramling, R; Freudenburg, Wm R

    2006-01-01

    History of oil well drilling. Houston: Gulf Publishing Co;1955. World’s deepest well. Drilling December:52. [8] Loganwell as ?guratively deeper and more hostile. The loss of the drilling

  2. Pilot application of PalmGHG, the RSPO greenhouse gas calculator for oil palm products , Chase L.D.C.b

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Pilot application of PalmGHG, the RSPO greenhouse gas calculator for oil palm products Bessou C, accounting in 2011 for 31.3% of the global oils and fats production (Oil World, 2012). About 10% of global production is certified by RSPO, the Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil (Oil World, 2012; RSPO, 2013). RSPO

  3. Low-rank coal oil agglomeration

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Knudson, Curtis L. (Grand Forks, ND); Timpe, Ronald C. (Grand Forks, ND)

    1991-01-01

    A low-rank coal oil agglomeration process. High mineral content, a high ash content subbituminous coals are effectively agglomerated with a bridging oil which is partially water soluble and capable of entering the pore structure, and usually coal derived.

  4. Correlation structure and principal components in global crude oil market

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dai, Yue-Hua; Jiang, Zhi-Qiang; Jiang, George J; Zhou, Wei-Xing

    2014-01-01

    This article investigates the correlation structure of the global crude oil market using the daily returns of 71 oil price time series across the world from 1992 to 2012. We identify from the correlation matrix six clusters of time series exhibiting evident geographical traits, which supports Weiner's (1991) regionalization hypothesis of the global oil market. We find that intra-cluster pairs of time series are highly correlated while inter-cluster pairs have relatively low correlations. Principal component analysis shows that most eigenvalues of the correlation matrix locate outside the prediction of the random matrix theory and these deviating eigenvalues and their corresponding eigenvectors contain rich economic information. Specifically, the largest eigenvalue reflects a collective effect of the global market, other four largest eigenvalues possess a partitioning function to distinguish the six clusters, and the smallest eigenvalues highlight the pairs of time series with the largest correlation coefficie...

  5. World`s developing regions provide spark for pipeline construction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koen, A.D.; True, W.R.

    1996-02-05

    This paper reviews the proposed construction of oil and gas pipelines which are underway or proposed to be started in 1996. It breaks down the projects by region of the world, type of product to be carried, and diameter of pipeline. It also provides mileage for each category of pipeline. Major projects in each region are more thoroughly discussed giving details on construction expenditures, construction problems, and political issues.

  6. Innovation and the state : development strategies for high technology industries in a world of fragmented production : Israel, Ireland, and Taiwan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Breznitz, Dan

    2005-01-01

    One of the most unexpected changes of the 1990s is that firms in a number of emerging economies not previously known for their high-technology industries have leapfrogged to the forefront in new Information Technologies ...

  7. The world economy has been undergoing a radical transformation over the past half century, from

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laughlin, Robert B.

    the world's oil production. The challenge of meeting growing demand for oil will be daunting in the years contracts or government relationships between specific buyers and oil producers to a global market system, and competitive global market for oil in which no seller or group of sellers can dominate the market and thereby

  8. Structural characterization of Green River oil-shale at high-pressure using pair distribution function analysis and small angle x-ray scattering.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Locke, D. R.; Chupas, P. J.; Chapman, K. W.; Pugmire, R. J.; Winans, R. E.; Univ. of Utah

    2008-01-01

    The compression behavior of a silicate-rich oil shale from the Green River formation in the pressure range 0.0-2.4 GPa was studied using in situ high pressure X-ray pair distribution function (PDF) measurements for the sample contained within a Paris-Edinburgh cell. The real-space local structural information in the PDF, G(r), was used to evaluate the compressibility of the oil shale. Specifically, the pressure-induced reduction in the medium- to long-range atom distances (6-20 {angstrom}) yielded an average sample compressibility corresponding to a bulk modulus of ca. 61-67 GPa. A structural model consisting of a three phase mixture of the principal crystalline oil shale components (quartz, albite and Illite) provided a good fit to the ambient pressure PDF data (R 30.7%). Indeed the features in the PDF beyond 6 {angstrom}, were similarly well fit by a single phase model of the highest symmetry, highly crystalline quartz component.

  9. OFFICE OF RESPONSE AND RESTORATION ! EMERGENCY RESPONSE DIVISION Deepwater Horizon Oil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ) oil is a South Louisiana sweet crude oil (crude oil is termed sweet if it is low in sulfur). Like all crude oils, MS252 oil is a complex mixture of thousands of chemical compounds. Of those thousands in the environment. Compared with other crude oils, MS252 oil is relatively high in alkanes. Because alkanes are made

  10. Refining Bio-Oil alongside Petroleum | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and conditions for co-processing fast pyrolysis oil, (raw and stabilized) with vacuum gas oils to obtain high-quality data to demonstrate control of product selectivity...

  11. Crude oil and alternate energy production forecasts for the twenty-first century: The end of the hydrocarbon era

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edwards, J.D.

    1997-08-01

    Predictions of production rates and ultimate recovery of crude oil are needed for intelligent planning and timely action to ensure the continuous flow of energy required by the world`s increasing population and expanding economies. Crude oil will be able to supply increasing demand until peak world production is reached. The energy gap caused by declining conventional oil production must then be filled by expanding production of coal, heavy oil and oil shales, nuclear and hydroelectric power, and renewable energy sources (solar, wind, and geothermal). Declining oil production forecasts are based on current estimated ultimate recoverable conventional crude oil resources of 329 billion barrels for the United States and close to 3 trillion barrels for the world. Peak world crude oil production is forecast to occur in 2020 at 90 million barrels per day. Conventional crude oil production in the United States is forecast to terminate by about 2090, and world production will be close to exhaustion by 2100.

  12. Conductivity factor in the electrostatic coalescence of crude oil emulsions 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nelson, James B

    1998-01-01

    parameter on the rate of coalescence. Using previously established procedures, the potential for enhancement of the electrostatic coalescence rate for oil/water emulsions of highly refined oils and different grades of crude oils was explored using a 2-L...

  13. The effect of biofuel on the international oil market

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hochman, Gal; Rajagopal, Deepak; Zilberman, David D.

    2010-01-01

    energy security and high oil prices, as well as greenhousetransaction costs, the oil prices in H equal the prices inat times when crude oil prices surged during 2002 to 2006 (

  14. Asphaltene Precipitation in Crude Oils: Theory and Experiments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Jianzhong

    Asphaltene Precipitation in Crude Oils: Theory and Experiments Eduardo Buenrostro.interscience.wiley.com). The precipitation of asphaltenes in two Mexican crude oils was measured using a combination of high- and tank-oil type of samples of the same crude oils. For the oils investigated, compositional data

  15. Oil production models with normal rate curves Dudley Stark

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stark, Dudley

    Oil production models with normal rate curves Dudley Stark School of Mathematical Sciences Queen;Abstract The normal curve has been used to fit the rate of both world and U.S.A. oil production. In this paper we give the first theoretical basis for these curve fittings. It is well known that oil field

  16. ,"Fuel Oil Consumption",,,"Fuel Oil Expenditures"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4. Fuel Oil Consumption and Expenditure Intensities for Non-Mall Buildings, 2003" ,"Fuel Oil Consumption",,,"Fuel Oil Expenditures" ,"per Building (gallons)","per Square Foot...

  17. ,"Fuel Oil Consumption",,,"Fuel Oil Expenditures"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2. Fuel Oil Consumption and Expenditure Intensities, 1999" ,"Fuel Oil Consumption",,,"Fuel Oil Expenditures" ,"per Building (gallons)","per Square Foot (gallons)","per Worker...

  18. David L. Greene, Janet L. Hopson, and Jia Li A risk analysisis presentedof thepeakingof world conventionaloil pro-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    conventionaloil pro- duction and the likely transition to unconventionaloil resourcessuchas oil sands,heavyoil, and shaleoil. Estimatesof world oil resourcesby the U.S. GeologicalSurvey (USGS)andC. J. Campbell provide alternative viewsof ultimate world oil resources.A global energyscenariocreated bytheInternational Institute

  19. Shifting production trends point to more oil from OPEC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ismail, I.A.H. (Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries, Vienna (Austria))

    1994-12-26

    Oil production from the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries and non-OPEC regions has undergone four major phases of change in relation to oil price since 1960. Patterns visible in those phases offer an indication of world-wide production trends in the future. These four phases are described. Overall, demand for oil during 1960--93 has increased from around 20 million b/d in 1960 to as high as 65 million b/d in 1993. The consensus among energy analysts and forecasters is that this demand growth will continue. This will encourage OPEC and non OPEC producers to invest in the oil industry to meet future demand growth. However, since the resource base is larger in OPEC than in non-OPEC areas, and since the cost of developing these resources is lower in OPEC than outside OPEC, the future call on OPEC oil to meet growth in demand will undoubtedly be substantiated as production from the non-OPEC region diminishes or at best stagnates. The paper discusses OPEC production trends, non-OPEC production, natural gas liquids, future production scenarios, and future constraints on production.

  20. Optimize carbon dioxide sequestration, enhance oil recovery

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    CO2-EOR provides about 5 percent of the total U.S. current crude oil production. Due to carbon capture and storage technology advances, prolonged high oil prices and the...

  1. New world cutaneous leishmaniasis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Trufant, Joshua W; Lewin, Jesse M; Hale, Christopher S; Meehan, Shane A; Pomeranz, Miriam Keltz

    2015-01-01

    Mitropoulos P. , et al. New world cutaneous leishmanaiasis:2014 Case Presentation New world cutaneous leishmaniasishave been identified. Old World CL is most commonly caused

  2. Maximum of oil output of a treadle-powered peanut oil press

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Patel, Ravi M. (Ravi Mahendra)

    2007-01-01

    The manual processing of food products has become a substantial part of the daily routine of a typical household in the developing world. Consumption of oil is an essential part of an individual's diet and thus, the ...

  3. F95 F50 F5 Mean F95 F50 F5 Mean Mean F95 F50 F5 Mean World (excluding United States)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laughlin, Robert B.

    WORLD PETROLEUM ASSESSMENT 2000-- DESCRIPTION AND RESULTS U.S. Geological Survey World Energy Assessment) Table AR-1. World level summary of petroleum estimates for undiscovered conventional petroleum with oil Combined with oil U.S. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY WORLD PETROLEUM ASSESSMENT 2000-- DESCRIPTION AND RESULTS

  4. JOURNAL OF THE WORLD AQUACULTURE SOCIETY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    JOURNAL OF THE WORLD AQUACULTURE SOCIETY Vol. 41, No. S1 February, 2010 Twin Screw Extrusion, soybean oil, vitamin and mineral mix). The blends were moisture balanced to 15% db, then extruded that contained 20 and 27.5% DDGS had the highest durability and sinking velocity values. Extrusion cooking

  5. Peak Population: Timing and Influences of Peak Energy on the World and the United States 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Warner, Kevin 1987-

    2012-11-28

    Peak energy is the notion that the world’s total production of usable energy will reach a maximum value and then begin an inexorable decline. Ninety-two percent of the world’s energy is currently derived from the non-renewable sources (oil, coal...

  6. World trends: Improving fortunes restore upstream health

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-08-01

    After a decade of recovery from the oil price collapse of 1986, the global upstream industry appears headed for a period of renewed strength and growth. Underpinning the prosperity is steady unrelenting growth in crude demand. Stronger global crude demand and heavy natural gas usage in the US are driving higher prices. Operators are reacting to better prices with larger drilling programs. Also boosting drilling levels are crude production expansion projects that many countries have underway in response to perceived future demand. Not surprisingly, World Oil`s outlook calls for global drilling to rise 4.5% to 60,273 wells, a second straight annual increase. Better US activity is helping, but so are stronger-than-expected numbers in Canada. Meanwhile, World Oil`s 51st annual survey of governments and operators indicates that global oil production rose 1.4% last year, to 62,774 million bpd. That was not enough, however, to keep up with demand. The paper discusses financial performance, business practices, other factors, and operating outlook. A table lists the 1996 forecasts, estimated wells drilled in 1995, and total wells and footage drilled in 1994 by country. A second table lists global crude and condensate production and wells actually producing in 1995 versus 1994.

  7. Essays on Macroeconomics and Oil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CAKIR, NIDA

    2013-01-01

    Oil Production . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Oil Production in Venezuela and Mexico . . . . . . . . . .Oil Production and Productivity in Venezuela and

  8. Essays on Macroeconomics and Oil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CAKIR, NIDA

    2013-01-01

    the Oil Industry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .in the Venezuelan Oil Industry . . . . . . . . . . . . .and Productivity: Evidence from the Oil Industry . .

  9. International transmission of oil price effects and the derivation of optimal oil prices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marquez, J.R.

    1983-01-01

    The purpose of this dissertation is to study the international transmission of oil-price effects and the derivation of optimal oil prices not as two separate problems but rather as one problem by recognizing that changes in oil prices affect real income of oil importers and thus feed back to the demand for oil faced by OPEC. To study the international transmission of oil price changes, the author develops a three-region world model where real income, prices, and international trade are endogenously determined. With this model he derives the comparative statics of oil price changes. He also analyzes the feedback effect of oil price changes, allowing for counterinflationary policies in oil-importing countries. A modified version of the theoretical model is econometrically estimated with data for 1960-1979. The quantitative dimension of oil price changes using dynamic multipliers is studied. Also studied are the impacts of restrictive fiscal policy in DC's, greater absorption by OPEC, and increased financial transfers to LDC's on real income, in the international oil market, on inflation, and on international trade of manufacturers and raw materials. It was found that not recognizing the feedback effects of oil price increases introduces a significant upward bias in the total price elasticity and in the optimal oil price path, neither of which is consistent with OPEC's best interest.

  10. Process for oil shale retorting

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jones, John B. (300 Enterprise Bldg., Grand Junction, CO 80501); Kunchal, S. Kumar (300 Enterprise Bldg., Grand Junction, CO 80501)

    1981-10-27

    Particulate oil shale is subjected to a pyrolysis with a hot, non-oxygenous gas in a pyrolysis vessel, with the products of the pyrolysis of the shale contained kerogen being withdrawn as an entrained mist of shale oil droplets in a gas for a separation of the liquid from the gas. Hot retorted shale withdrawn from the pyrolysis vessel is treated in a separate container with an oxygenous gas so as to provide combustion of residual carbon retained on the shale, producing a high temperature gas for the production of some steam and for heating the non-oxygenous gas used in the oil shale retorting process in the first vessel. The net energy recovery includes essentially complete recovery of the organic hydrocarbon material in the oil shale as a liquid shale oil, a high BTU gas, and high temperature steam.

  11. Optimize carbon dioxide sequestration, enhance oil recovery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    - 1 - Optimize carbon dioxide sequestration, enhance oil recovery January 8, 2014 Los Alamos simulation to optimize carbon dioxide (CO2) sequestration and enhance oil recovery (CO2-EOR) based on known production. Due to carbon capture and storage technology advances, prolonged high oil prices

  12. Small-World Propensity in Weighted, Real-World Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Muldoon, Sarah Feldt; Bassett, Danielle S

    2015-01-01

    Quantitative descriptions of network structure in big data can provide fundamental insights into the function of interconnected complex systems. Small-world structure, commonly diagnosed by high local clustering yet short average path length between any two nodes, directly enables information flow in coupled systems, a key function that can differ across conditions or between groups. However, current techniques to quantify small-world structure are dependent on nuisance variables such as density and agnostic to critical variables such as the strengths of connections between nodes, thereby hampering accurate and comparable assessments of small-world structure in different networks. Here, we address both limitations with a novel metric called the Small-World Propensity (SWP). In its binary instantiation, the SWP provides an unbiased assessment of small-world structure in networks of varying densities. We extend this concept to the case of weighted networks by developing (i) a standardized procedure for generati...

  13. Gravity of world crude barrel to rise by 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-12-16

    This paper reports on the loss of crude exports from Iraq and Kuwait in 1990-91 and their gradual reentry into oil markets which will have a profound effect on world crude quality. Accordingly, the proportion of heavy crude in world markets will decline the next 5 years.

  14. ,"Total Fuel Oil Expenditures

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    . Fuel Oil Expenditures by Census Region for Non-Mall Buildings, 2003" ,"Total Fuel Oil Expenditures (million dollars)",,,,"Fuel Oil Expenditures (dollars)" ,,,,,"per...

  15. ,"Total Fuel Oil Consumption

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    0. Fuel Oil Consumption (gallons) and Energy Intensities by End Use for Non-Mall Buildings, 2003" ,"Total Fuel Oil Consumption (million gallons)",,,,,"Fuel Oil Energy Intensity...

  16. ,"Total Fuel Oil Expenditures

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4. Fuel Oil Expenditures by Census Region, 1999" ,"Total Fuel Oil Expenditures (million dollars)",,,,"Fuel Oil Expenditures (dollars)" ,,,,,"per Gallon",,,,"per Square Foot"...

  17. ,"Total Fuel Oil Expenditures

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    A. Fuel Oil Expenditures by Census Region for All Buildings, 2003" ,"Total Fuel Oil Expenditures (million dollars)",,,,"Fuel Oil Expenditures (dollars)" ,,,,,"per Gallon",,,,"per...

  18. ,"Total Fuel Oil Consumption

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    A. Fuel Oil Consumption (gallons) and Energy Intensities by End Use for All Buildings, 2003" ,"Total Fuel Oil Consumption (million gallons)",,,,,"Fuel Oil Energy Intensity...

  19. WORLD RECREATIONAL FISHING CONFERENCE. 21-24 MAY 2002. NORTHERN TERRITORY, AUSTRALIA. PAGE 83 The quality of many recreational fisheries depends on high survival rates of fishes that are captured and released by anglers.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wilde, Gene

    3rd WORLD RECREATIONAL FISHING CONFERENCE. 21-24 MAY 2002. NORTHERN TERRITORY, AUSTRALIA. PAGE 83 Abstract The quality of many recreational fisheries depends on high survival rates of fishes that are captured and released by anglers. Catch and release of fishes may be voluntary or required by regulation (e

  20. Another Small World

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bots, Eliane Esther

    2011-01-01

    Bots, E. “Another Small World. ” http://escholarship.org/uc/ISSN: 2159-2926 Another Small World Eliane Bots Bots, E. “Another Small World. ” http://escholarship.org/uc/

  1. Oil and gas production in the Amu Dar`ya Basin of Western Uzbekistan and Eastern Turkmenistan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sagers, M.J.

    1995-05-01

    The resource base, development history, current output, and future outlook for oil and gas production in Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan are examined by a Western specialist with particular emphasis on the most important gas-oil province in the region, the Amu Dar`ya basin. Oil and gas have been produced in both newly independent countries for over a century, but production from the Amu Dar`ya province proper dates from the post-World War II period. Since that time, however, fields in the basin have provided the basis for a substantial natural gas industry (Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan consistently have trailed only Russia among the former Soviet republics in gas output during the last three decades). Despite high levels of current production, ample oil and gas potential (Turkmenistan, for example, ranks among the top five or six countries in the world in terms of gas reserves) contributes to the region`s prominence as an attractive area for Western investors. The paper reviews the history and status of several international tenders for the development of both gas and oil in the two republics. Sections on recent gas production trends and future outlook reveal considerable differences in consumption patterns and export potential in the region. Uzbekistan consumes most of the gas it produces, whereas Turkmenistan, with larger reserves and a smaller population, exported well over 85% of its output over recent years and appears poised to become a major exporter. A concluding section examines the conditions that will affect these countries` presence on world oil and gas markets over the longer term: reserves, domestic consumption, transportation bottlenecks, the likelihood of foreign investment, and future oil and gas demand. 33 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  2. Oilfields of the World. Third edition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tiratsoo, E.N.

    1985-01-01

    This third edition (updated to 1984) covers all of the world's major producing areas (both onshore and offshore) on six continents. It offers essential geologic, reserves, and production data on 13 nations that have become commercial oil producers in the last five years: Benin, Cameroon, Congo Republic, Ghana, Ivory Coast, Sudan, Zaire, Greece, The Phillippines, Sharjah, Thailand, Guatemala, and Surinam. Numerous maps display the geologic details of each area. This book also contains full-color maps of the oil and gas fields of the North Sea, Persian Gulf, Mexico, Venezuela, and Brazil.

  3. I strongly urge that the forecasts recognize the high oil prices and gas prices experienced in 2008 and not treat them as an unusual occurrence in the next 20 years. In the long term with cap and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    I strongly urge that the forecasts recognize the high oil prices and gas prices experienced in 2008 and the development of carbon capture and storage applied to new coal fired generating stations, gas prices will only that biofuels are made from food crops, the discussion is correct that fertilizer demands will drive gas prices

  4. Do oil markets work; is OPEC dead

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gately, D. (New York Univ., NY (USA). Dept. of Economics)

    1989-01-01

    In this paper the authors review what has happened in world oil markets since the 1970s and examine the prospects for OPEC and world oil prices. The paper summarizes the data for the last two decades: by fuel, by product, and by region. It focuses on OPEC and its members, examining the differences in behavior between its members and non-OPEC producers. The authors find that OPEC is clearly still relevant, if no longer very powerful. Its members have collectively reduced output dramatically, in an unsuccessful attempt to defend the price increases. They examine the important institutional changes of the last two decades, in comparison with the industry's stability for much of the century. They suggest an interpretation of OPEC's current situation. The paper summarizes the outlook for OPEC and the world oil market over the next two decades.

  5. Oil Dependence: The Value of R{ampersand}D

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greene, D.L.

    1997-07-01

    Over the past quarter century the United States` dependence on oil has cost its economy on the order of $5 trillion. Oil dependence is defined as economically significant consumption of oil, given price inelastic demand in the short and long run and given the ability of the OPEC cartel to use market power to influence oil prices. Although oil prices have been lower and more stable over the past decade, OPEC still holds the majority of the world`s conventional oil resources according to the best available estimates. OPEC`s share of the world oil market is likely to grow significantly in the future,restoring much if not all of their former market power. Other than market share, the key determinants of OPEC`s market power are the long and short run price elasticities of world oil demand and supply. These elasticities depend critically on the technologies of oil supply and demand, especially the technology of energy use in transportation. Research and development can change these elasticities in fundamental ways, and given the nature of the problem,the government has an important role to play in supporting such research.

  6. Shale Oil Value Enhancement Research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James W. Bunger

    2006-11-30

    Raw kerogen oil is rich in heteroatom-containing compounds. Heteroatoms, N, S & O, are undesirable as components of a refinery feedstock, but are the basis for product value in agrochemicals, pharmaceuticals, surfactants, solvents, polymers, and a host of industrial materials. An economically viable, technologically feasible process scheme was developed in this research that promises to enhance the economics of oil shale development, both in the US and elsewhere in the world, in particular Estonia. Products will compete in existing markets for products now manufactured by costly synthesis routes. A premium petroleum refinery feedstock is also produced. The technology is now ready for pilot plant engineering studies and is likely to play an important role in developing a US oil shale industry.

  7. U. S. Military Expenditures to Protect the Use of Persian Gulf Oil for Motor Vehicles: Report #15 in the series: The Annualized Social Cost of Motor-Vehicle Use in the United States, based on 1990-1991 Data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Delucchi, Mark; Murphy, James

    2006-01-01

    there to protect world oil demand” (in Plesch et al. , 2005,instability related to U.S. demand for oil. Although to ourassociated with U.S. demand for Persian Gulf oil. If this is

  8. Peanut varieties: potential for fuel oil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hammons, R.O.

    1981-01-01

    Research is beginning in farm crushing of peanuts into fuel oil, the high-protein residue being used as livestock feed. Thirty peanut genotypes were investigated for oil and protein yields in field trials in Georgia. For 11 varieties in an irrigated test, mean oil contents (dry base) were in the 49.7-52.7% range, and the level of protein was in the 22.60-26.70% range. Wider variations in oil and protein contents were found in 19 other genotypes selected for possible use as an oil crop. Breeding for high oil yield has not been practiced in US peanut breeding programs. Convergent improvement to attain higher levels of oil content, shell-out percentage, and stable yield will require 6-10 generations of crossing, backcrossing, selection, and testing.

  9. Canola Oil: The Myths Debunked You're looking for more information about canola -the seed, the oil and the meal. Maybe you've

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Balasundaram, Balabhaskar "Baski"

    Canola Oil: The Myths Debunked You're looking for more information about canola - the seed, the oil's the truth. We promise. Q: What is canola oil? A: Canola oil is the healthiest of all commonly used cooking oils. It is lowest in saturated fat, high in cholesterol-lowering mono-unsaturated fat and the best

  10. Oil, gas tanker industry responding to demand, contract changes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    True, W.R.

    1998-03-02

    Steady if slower growth in demand for crude oil and natural gas, low levels of scrapping, and a moderate newbuilding pace bode well for the world`s petroleum and natural-gas shipping industries. At year-end 1997, several studies of worldwide demand patterns and shipping fleets expressed short and medium-term optimism for seaborne oil and gas trade and fleet growth. The paper discusses steady demand and shifting patterns, the aging fleet, the slowing products traffic, the world`s fleet, gas carriers, LPG demand, and LPG vessels.

  11. Comparative analysis of plant oil based fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ziejewski, M.; Goettler, H.J.; Haines, H.; Huong, C.

    1995-12-31

    This paper presents the evaluation results from the analysis of different blends of fuels using the 13-mode standard SAE testing method. Six high oleic safflower oil blends, six ester blends, six high oleic sunflower oil blends, and six sunflower oil blends were used in this portion of the investigation. Additionally, the results from the repeated 13-mode tests for all the 25/75% mixtures with a complete diesel fuel test before and after each alternative fuel are presented.

  12. Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve System Heating Oil, PIA Office...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve System Heating Oil, PIA Office of Fossil Energy Headquaters Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve System Heating Oil, PIA Office of Fossil Energy...

  13. Method for recovering oil from an underground formation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hesselink, F.T.; Saidi, A.M.

    1982-12-21

    Method for recovering oil from an underground formation consisting of blocks of relatively low permeability with an oilwet pore space containing oil surrounded by a fracture network of relatively high permeability by supplying to the fracture network an aqueous solution of a surfactant adapted for decreasing the surface tension between water and oil and displacing the oil from the oil-wet pore space of the blocks.

  14. Power the world's powers the world's economy.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Power the world's economy BUSINESS #12;powers the world's economy. Put yourself in the driver. · A buyer, merchandiser, planner or manager in a retail operation. · The manager of a restaurant or food materials firm. · A marketer promoting a business, nonprofit organization or public agency. · A small

  15. Low-rank coal oil agglomeration

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Knudson, C.L.; Timpe, R.C.

    1991-07-16

    A low-rank coal oil agglomeration process is described. High mineral content, a high ash content subbituminous coals are effectively agglomerated with a bridging oil which is partially water soluble and capable of entering the pore structure, and is usually coal-derived.

  16. Corona processing of insulating oil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rohwein, G.J.

    1996-07-01

    It is well known that sustained corona discharge in insulating oil lowers its dielectric strength and simultaneously reduces its corona resistance. Therefore, for operating stresses in the corona regime, activity typically increases with time and, if allowed to continue, eventually leads to breakdown of the oil and failure of the component or system. It is, therefore, common practice to periodically replace oil in devices such as large power transformers and switch gear before breakdown occurs. Sealed components such as capacitors are typically replaced. Recent experiments have demonstrated that the dielectric properties of corona weakened oil can not only be restored, but actually improved by a simple regeneration process. These experiments were carried out on high voltage pulse transformer windings which were operated at high rep rates until partial discharges formed. Reprocessing the oil after each operating cycle resulted in successively longer operational periods before partial discharges appeared. In a separate experiment, a process was developed to precondition transformer oil to raise its corona inception voltage before using it to insulate a high voltage component, thus giving it a longer initial service life for a given operating stress or permitting higher stress operation for limited operating times.

  17. UC Cooperative Extension sensory analysis panel enhances the quality of California olive oil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vossen, Paul; Kicenik Devarenne, Alexandra

    2011-01-01

    assessment of virgin olive oil — computer program Ex- celP. 1999. Quality of virgin olive oil as influenced by originArbequina and Arbosana olive oils get a very high rating

  18. Development of miscella refining process for cottonseed oil-isopropyl alcohol system: laboratory-scale evaluations 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chau, Chi-Fai

    1994-01-01

    A technologically feasible cottonseed oil-isopropyl alcohol (IPA) miscella refining process was developed to produce high quality cottonseed oil. Individual steps necessary to refine cottonseed oil-IPA miscella were determined and improved...

  19. World oilseed situation and U. S. export opportunities, March 1984. Foreign agriculture circular

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1984-03-01

    The world oilseed supply situation tightened in this month with estimated world oilseed, meal and oil production all down from the last month. Reduced peanut and sunflower seed output in drought-damaged areas in Africa more than offset an increase in Argentine soybean output. The protein meal sector remained quiet, with an adjustment in peanut meal production and a reduction in Soviet soybean meal imports. The situation for vegetable and marine oils also remained quiet during the month, with offsetting reductions of Singapore's palm oil imports and exports indicating that country's decline as a transshipper of palm oil.

  20. Two-Level Free-Form Deformation for High-Fidelity Aerodynamic Shape Optimization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zingg, David W.

    awakened global awareness.1 Its disastrous impacts on the environ- ment have long been linked to oil, whose diminishing world reserves have led to a substantial rise in fuel prices. As far as the aviation industry of incorporating an high-fidelity finite-element structural solver in the near future. Historically, shape control

  1. Using Fuel Oil",,,"Fuel Oil Consumption",,"Fuel Oil Expenditures...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    . Total Fuel Oil Consumption and Expenditures for Non-Mall Buildings, 2003" ,"All Buildings* Using Fuel Oil",,,"Fuel Oil Consumption",,"Fuel Oil Expenditures" ,"Number of Buildings...

  2. Using Fuel Oil",,,"Fuel Oil Consumption",,"Fuel Oil Expenditures...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    A. Total Fuel Oil Consumption and Expenditures for All Buildings, 2003" ,"All Buildings Using Fuel Oil",,,"Fuel Oil Consumption",,"Fuel Oil Expenditures" ,"Number of Buildings...

  3. About Hercules Offshore Headquartered in Houston, Texas, Hercules Offshore serves the oil and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fisher, Kathleen

    About Hercules Offshore Headquartered in Houston, Texas, Hercules Offshore serves the oil and gas largest in the world. The company's jackup rigs, liftboats and inland barges are used for oil and gas provides shallow-water drilling and support services to the oil and gas industry. The company serves

  4. Energy Management Program of an Integrated National Oil Company in the Middle-East 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kumana, J. D.; Aseeri, A. S.

    2007-01-01

    Saudi Aramco is the largest oil producer/exporter in the world, with a maximum sustained production capacity of over 10 MM bpd of crude oil and 8,000 MM scfd of natural gas. The Company operates approximately 32 large Gas-Oil Separation Plants...

  5. Industrial Use of Fish Oils UNITED STATES DEPART MENT OF THE INTERIOR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Industrial Use of Fish Oils UNITED STATES DEPART MENT OF THE INTERIOR FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE BUREAU OF COMMERCIAL FISHERIES #12;Industrial Use of Fish Oils UNITED STATES DEPART MENT OF THE INTERIOR 16 IIndustrial Use of Fish Oils INTRODUCTION The world's waters annually produce a tremendous harwst

  6. Patterns of crude demand: Future patterns of demand for crude oil as a func-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Langendoen, Koen

    #12;2 #12;Patterns of crude demand: Future patterns of demand for crude oil as a func- tion;5 Summary The crude oil market is actually experiencing dramatic changes on a world wide scale. Most schemes, and/or change quality of the feedstock (crude). Demand for crude oil is growing, especially

  7. Lake Level Controlled Sedimentological I Heterogenity of Oil Shale, Upper Green River

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gani, M. Royhan

    Chapter 3 Lake Level Controlled Sedimentological 1:'_i 'I I Heterogenity of Oil Shale, Upper Green email: mgani@uno.edu t",. The Green River Formation comprises the world's largest deposit of oil-shale characterization of these lacustrine oil-shale deposits in the subsurface is lacking. This study analyzed ~300 m

  8. EFFECTS OF OIL ON MARINE ECOSYSTEMS: A REVIEW FOR ADMINISTRATORS AND POLICY MAKERS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of crude oil and petroleum products should be con- servative and in favor of protecting the natural is reviewed. The focus is on studies on crude oil. and the results are discussed with the purpose of providing of ignorance we have about this world in which we live. Pollution ofthe ocean by oil is a worldwide prob- lem

  9. David L. Greene, Janet L. Hopson, and Jia Li A risk analysisis presentedof thepeakingof world conventionaloil pro-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    alternative viewsof ultimate world oil resources.A global energyscenariocreated bytheInternational Institute resources are indeed finite (1). Additionally, oil resourcesarenotafixed quantityt.-buta vari- able). The question of whether the availability of oil resources will someday soon prevent us from producing

  10. World Bio Markets

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Held in Amsterdam, Netherlands, the 10th anniversary World Bio Markets convened from March 1– 4, 2015.

  11. Simulated Real-World Energy Impacts of a Thermally Sensitive Powertrain Considering Viscous Losses and Enrichment (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wood, E.; Gonder, J.; Lopp, S.; Jehlik, F.

    2014-09-01

    It is widely understood that cold-temperature engine operation negatively impacts vehicle fuel use due to a combination of increased friction (high-viscosity engine oil) and temporary enrichment (accelerated catalyst heating). However, relatively little effort has been dedicated to thoroughly quantifying these impacts across a large number of driving cycles and ambient conditions. This work leverages high-quality dynamometer data collected at various ambient conditions to develop a modeling framework for quantifying engine cold-start fuel penalties over a wide array of real-world usage profiles. Additionally, mitigation strategies including energy retention and exhaust heat recovery are explored with benefits quantified for each approach.

  12. Studyatatop20 world university

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Applebaum, David

    Studyatatop20 world university www.kcl.ac.uk Opendayguide2015 #12;Welcome to King's College London Universities surveys. 6th in the UK Times Higher Education World University Rankings, 2014-15. If you want to make a difference and help shape the world in which we live, King's is the university for you. Ranked

  13. World Views From fragmentation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    World Views From fragmentation to integration Diederik Aerts Leo Apostel Bart De Moor Staf in 1994 by VUB Press: Brussels Internet edition by Clément Vidal and Alexander Riegler #12;World Views 2................................................................................................................... 5 1.1 The fragmentation of our world

  14. Manhattan World James Coughlan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yuille, Alan L.

    Manhattan World James Coughlan Smith-Kettlewell Eye Research Institute San Francisco, CA 94115 Alan@stat.ucla.edu In Neural Computation. Vol. 15. No. 5. pp 1063-1088. May. 2003. 1 #12;Manhattan World: Orientation are unaligned to the grid. To determine the applicability of the Manhattan world model we implement a null

  15. Scienceandthe DevelopingWorld

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -quality research and to provide education in order to promote science in the developing world. As we celebrate our to evolve in response to a changing world, initiating efforts where new priorities--and new potential and supporting science in the developing world. 2 New Research Areas: Develop new research areas

  16. Wireless World Research Forum

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sasse, Angela

    Wireless World Research Forum Working Group 1 IEEE Communications Magazine Article Draft Considering the User in the Wireless World Authors: Ken Crisler (Motorola, US) Andrew Aftelak (Motorola, UK Dainesi (University of Pavia, Italy) Thea Turner (Motorola, US) #12;Abstract The Wireless World Research

  17. The outlook for US oil dependence

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greene, D.L.; Jones, D.W.; Leiby, P.N.

    1995-05-11

    Market share OPEC lost in defending higher prices from 1979-1985 is being steadily regained and is projected to exceed 50% by 2000. World oil markets are likely to be as vulnerable to monopoly influence as they were 20 years ago, as OPEC regains lost market share. The U.S. economy appears to be as exposed as it was in the early 1970s to losses from monopoly oil pricing. A simulated 2-year supply reduction in 2005-6 boosts OPEC revenues by roughly half a trillion dollars and costs the U.S. economy an approximately equal amount. The Strategic Petroleum Reserve appears to be of little benefit against such a determined, multi-year supply curtailment either in reducing OPEC revenues or protecting the U.S. economy. Increasing the price elasticity of oil demand and supply in the U.S. and the rest of the world, however, would be an effective strategy.

  18. Understanding Crude Oil Prices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamilton, James Douglas

    2008-01-01

    Figure 5. Monthly oil production for Iran, Iraq, and Kuwait,day. Monthly crude oil production Iran Iraq Kuwait Figure 6.and the peak in U.S. oil production account for the broad

  19. Understanding Crude Oil Prices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamilton, James Douglas

    2008-01-01

    per day. Monthly crude oil production Iran Iraq KuwaitEIA Table 1.2, “OPEC Crude Oil Production (Excluding Lease2008, from EIA, “Crude Oil Production. ” Figure 16. U.S.

  20. Understanding Crude Oil Prices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamilton, James Douglas

    2008-01-01

    2004. “OPEC’s Optimal Crude Oil Price,” Energy Policy 32(2),the Predictive Accuracy of Crude Oil Futures Prices,” EnergyFigure 3. Price of crude oil contract maturing December of

  1. Understanding Crude Oil Prices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamilton, James Douglas

    2008-01-01

    2004. “OPEC’s Optimal Crude Oil Price,” Energy Policy 32(2),percent change in real oil price. Figure 3. Price of crude023 Understanding Crude Oil Prices James D. Hamilton June

  2. Understanding Crude Oil Prices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamilton, James Douglas

    2008-01-01

    and Income on Energy and Oil Demand,” Energy Journal 23(1),the faster its growth in oil demand over the last half ofthe income elasticity of oil demand to fall signi?cantly.

  3. China's Global Oil Strategy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, Bryan G

    2009-01-01

    current pace of growth in oil demand as staying consistentthis point, China’s demand Oil Demand vs. Domestic Supply inand predictions of oil supply and demand affected foreign

  4. China's Global Oil Strategy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, Bryan G

    2009-01-01

    Michael T. Klare, Blood and Oil: The Dangers of America’sDowns and Jeffrey A. Bader, “Oil-Hungry China Belongs at BigChina, Africa, and Oil,” (Council on Foreign Relations,

  5. Understanding Crude Oil Prices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamilton, James Douglas

    2008-01-01

    Natural Gas, Heating Oil and Gasoline,” NBER Working Paper.2006. “China’s Growing Demand for Oil and Its Impact on U.S.and Income on Energy and Oil Demand,” Energy Journal 23(1),

  6. China's Global Oil Strategy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, Bryan G

    2009-01-01

    China made an Iranian oil investment valued at $70 billion.across Iran, China’s oil investment may exceed $100 billionthese involving investment in oil and gas, really undermine

  7. Understanding Crude Oil Prices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamilton, James Douglas

    2008-01-01

    in U.S. real GDP and oil consumption, 1949-2006. slope =Historical Chinese oil consumption and projection of trend.1991-2006: Chinese oil consumption in millions of barrels

  8. Understanding Crude Oil Prices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamilton, James Douglas

    2008-01-01

    2004. “OPEC’s Optimal Crude Oil Price,” Energy Policy 32(2),023 Understanding Crude Oil Prices James D. Hamilton Junedirectly. Understanding Crude Oil Prices* James D. Hamilton

  9. The toxicity of two crude oils and kerosine to cattle 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rowe, Loyd Douglas

    1972-01-01

    in this study: c (1) a west Texas raw sour crude oil relatively low in gasoline, naphtha, and kerosine and relatively high in gas oil, lubricating distillates, residue, and sulfur; (2) a west Texas raw sweet d crude oil relatively high in gasoline, naphtha... and Kerosine Administered to Cattle* Characteristic Sweet crude Sour crude Kerosine Light gasoline (/) 14. 2 9. 6 Total gasoline plus naphtha (%) 43. 0 31. 6 Kerosine (/) Gas oil Lubricating distillates (%) Residue (%) Distillation loss (%%d) Sulfur...

  10. Oil Security Metrics Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greene, David L.; Leiby, Paul N.

    2005-03-06

    A presentation to the IWG GPRA USDOE, March 6, 2005, Washington, DC. OSMM estimates oil security benefits of changes in the U.S. oil market.

  11. China's Global Oil Strategy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, Bryan G

    2009-01-01

    China’s domestic oil supply will peak, and demand Robertpeak will come around 2020, 24 and that by this point, China’s demand Oil

  12. Understanding Crude Oil Prices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamilton, James Douglas

    2008-01-01

    historical data for claiming to be able to predict oil pricehistorical data. The second is to look at the predictions of economic theory as to how oil prices

  13. Biochemically enhanced oil recovery and oil treatment

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Premuzic, Eugene T. (East Moriches, NY); Lin, Mow (Rocky Point, NY)

    1994-01-01

    This invention relates to the preparation of new, modified organisms, through challenge growth processes, that are viable in the extreme temperature, pressure and pH conditions and salt concentrations of an oil reservoir and that are suitable for use in microbial enhanced oil recovery. The modified microorganisms of the present invention are used to enhance oil recovery and remove sulfur compounds and metals from the crude oil.

  14. Biochemically enhanced oil recovery and oil treatment

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Premuzic, E.T.; Lin, M.

    1994-03-29

    This invention relates to the preparation of new, modified organisms, through challenge growth processes, that are viable in the extreme temperature, pressure and pH conditions and salt concentrations of an oil reservoir and that are suitable for use in microbial enhanced oil recovery. The modified microorganisms of the present invention are used to enhance oil recovery and remove sulfur compounds and metals from the crude oil. 62 figures.

  15. A predictive ocean oil spill model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sanderson, J.; Barnette, D.; Papodopoulos, P.; Schaudt, K.; Szabo, D.

    1996-07-01

    This is the final report of a two-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Initially, the project focused on creating an ocean oil spill model and working with the major oil companies to compare their data with the Los Alamos global ocean model. As a result of this initial effort, Los Alamos worked closely with the Eddy Joint Industry Project (EJIP), a consortium oil and gas producing companies in the US. The central theme of the project was to use output produced from LANL`s global ocean model to look in detail at ocean currents in selected geographic areas of the world of interest to consortium members. Once ocean currents are well understood this information could be used to create oil spill models, improve offshore exploration and drilling equipment, and aid in the design of semi-permanent offshore production platforms.

  16. Coal reserves in the United States and around the world

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jubert, K.; Masudi, H.

    1995-03-01

    There is an urgent need to examine the role that coal might play in meeting world energy needs during the next 20 years. Oil from the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) can no longer be relied upon to provide expanding supplies of energy, even with rapidly rising prices. Neither can nuclear energy be planned on for rapid expansion worldwide until present uncertainties about it are resolved. Yet, the world`s energy needs will continue to grow, even with vigorous energy conservation programs and with optimistic rates of expansion in the use of solar energy. Coal already supplies 25% of the world`s energy, its reserves are vast, and it is relatively inexpensive. This study, with the aid of reports from the World Coal Study (WOCOL) examines the needs for coal on a global scale, its availability past and present, and its future prospects.

  17. MARATHON OIl COMpANy TeAMS wITH MSU'S eARTH SCIeNCeS DepARTMeNT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barge, Marcy

    MARATHON OIl COMpANy TeAMS wITH MSU'S eARTH SCIeNCeS DepARTMeNT When Marathon Oil Corporation, one of the world's leading oil companies, wanted to support research and teaching excellence in earth science Marathon Oil Corporation and MSU that promotes the research and educational objectives of both

  18. Oil market simulation model user's manual

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1988-05-01

    The Oil Market Simulation (OMS) Model is a LOTUS 1-2-3 Spreadsheet that simulates the world oil market. OMS is an annual model with a data base that begins in 1979 and computes projections through the year 2000. The geographic coverage includes all market economies, with net imports from the centrally planned economies taken as an assumption. The model estimate the effects of price changes on oil supply and demand and computes an oil price path over time that allows supply and demand to remain in balance within the market economics area as a whole. The input assumptions of OMS are highlighted (in color) on the spreadsheet and include the following: 1. The capacity of the OPEC countries to produce petroleum liquids (crude oil, natural gas liquids, condensates, refinery gains); 2. A reference case projection of regional oil supply and demand at some arbitrary reference path of oil prices over time. The reference case provided with this diskette is that used or EIA's latest base case in the International Energy Outlook, 1987 DOE/EIA-0484(87). 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Strategies of Asian oil-importing countries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, M.

    1997-04-01

    Various strategies are used by oil-importing countries to reduce their economic dependence on imported oil: national oil production, energy conservation, and the change of economic structures from high energy intensity sectors to low ones. In this article, the roles of these different strategies have been identified for 10 selected oil-importing countries in Asia: Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, the Philippines, Thailand, Hong Kong, R.O Korea, and Taiwan. The results show that most of the selected countries (although Hong Kong and Taiwan are independent economic entities, for simplicity, the author refers to them as countries) have succeeded in reducing their national economy dependence on imported oil since 1973. Hong Kong, Sri Lanka, Thailand, and India are among the most successful countries, with more than 40% reduction in their economic dependence on imported oil.

  20. Jeffrey Sachs Director, Earth Institute at Columbia University; Author, "To Move the World: JFK's

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , Canada to the US Gulf Coast, carrying petroleum produced from Alberta's oil sands to the Gulf refineries extraction and use of Canada's enormous unconventional supplies. Therein lies the problem. The overwhelming implications of the climate science are clear. Either we keep some of the world's oil, gas, and coal reserves

  1. Eco Oil 4

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brett Earl; Brenda Clark

    2009-10-26

    This article describes the processes, challenges, and achievements of researching and developing a biobased motor oil.

  2. OIL & GAS INSTITUTE Introduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Strathclyde, University of

    OIL & GAS INSTITUTE CONTENTS Introduction Asset Integrity Underpinning Capabilities 2 4 4 6 8 9 10 COMPETITIVENESS UNIVERSITY of STRATHCLYDE OIL & GAS INSTITUTE OIL & GAS EXPERTISE AND PARTNERSHIPS #12;1 The launch of the Strathclyde Oil & Gas Institute represents an important step forward for the University

  3. The growing world LP-gas supply

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoare, M.C.

    1988-11-01

    The possible range of future (LPG) export availabilities is huge, but actual production levels depend on factors, many of which are beyond our direct control - world demand for crude oil and gas, developments in technology, and the price of both energy in general and LPG specifically. Although these factors limit some of the potential developments, a substantial increase in LPG supply is certain, and this is likely to depress its price relative to other products. Over the last few years, a dramatic expansion has taken place in the industry. From 1980 to 1987, non-Communist world production of LPG increased by close to 35%, to a total of 115 million tonnes. If this is set against the general energy scene, LPG represented 3.7% of crude oil production by weight in 1980, rising to 5.4% in 1987. This growth reflects rise in consciousness around the world of the value of the product. LPG is no longer regarded as a byproduct, which is flared or disposed of at low value, but increasingly as a co-product, and much of the growth in production has been due to the installation of tailored recovery systems. LPG markets historically developed around sources of supply, constrained by the costs of transportation. The major exceptions, of course, were the Middle East, the large exporter, and Japan, the large importer.

  4. Transporting US oil imports: The impact of oil spill legislation on the tanker market

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rowland, P.J. (Rowland (P.) Associates (United States))

    1992-05-01

    The Oil Pollution Act of 1990 ( OPA'') and an even more problematic array of State pollution laws have raised the cost, and risk, of carrying oil into and out of the US. This report, prepared under contract to the US Department of energy's Office of Domestic and International Policy, examines the impact of Federal and State oil spill legislation on the tanker market. It reviews the role of marine transportation in US oil supply, explores the OPA and State oil spill laws, studies reactions to OPA in the tanker and tank barge industries and in related industries such as insurance and ship finance, and finally, discusses the likely developments in the years ahead. US waterborne oil imports amounted to 6.5 million B/D in 1991, three-quarters of which was crude oil. Imports will rise by almost 3 million B/D by 2000 according to US Department of energy forecasts, with most of the crude oil growth after 1995. Tanker demand will grow even faster: most of the US imports and the increased traffic to other world consuming regions will be on long-haul trades. Both the number of US port calls by tankers and the volume of offshore lightering will grow. Every aspect of the tanker industry's behavior is affected by OPA and a variety of State pollution laws.

  5. Statements on Oil by the Energy Committee at

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Keeling, Stephen L.

    in Africa, may not even be able to develop economically in the absence of cheap oil. With China and India. Continued high oil prices will jeopardize their chances of economic growth. Many countries, for example today could lead to a serious international economic recession, similar to those that followed the oil

  6. Factors Contributing to Petroleum Foaming. 1. Crude Oil Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kilpatrick, Peter K.

    by unwanted foaming. To study this phenomenon, 20 crude oils were subjected to low-pressure foaming volume, not collapse slope, strongly related to crude oil surface tension. For low asphaltenic crudes the production of crude oil and gas is the high pressure separator, often followed by one or more separators

  7. COMPARING ALASKA'S OIL PRODUCTION TAXES: INCENTIVES AND ASSUMPTIONS1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pantaleone, Jim

    1 COMPARING ALASKA'S OIL PRODUCTION TAXES: INCENTIVES AND ASSUMPTIONS1 Matthew Berman In a recent analysis comparing the current oil production tax, More Alaska Production Act (MAPA, also known as SB 21 oil prices, production rates, and costs. He noted that comparative revenues are highly sensitive

  8. PERISHSaving an Oil Industry at Risk FEBRUARY 2013

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peak, Derek

    historically reliant on overseas imports are facing high feedstock prices and restricted access to crude oil or anticipated needs: > Transportation bottlenecks in the US Midwest are driving down North American oil pricesPIPEOR PERISHSaving an Oil Industry at Risk FEBRUARY 2013 MICHAEL HOLDEN, SENIOR ECONOMIST #12;The

  9. ,"Total Fuel Oil Consumption (trillion Btu)",,,,,"Fuel Oil Energy...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    A. Fuel Oil Consumption (Btu) and Energy Intensities by End Use for All Buildings, 2003" ,"Total Fuel Oil Consumption (trillion Btu)",,,,,"Fuel Oil Energy Intensity (thousand Btu...

  10. Brane-world Cosmology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wands, David [Institute of Cosmology and Gravitation, University of Portsmouth, Mercantile House, Portsmouth P01 2EG (United Kingdom)

    2006-06-19

    Brane-world models, where observers are restricted to a brane in a higher dimensional spacetime, offer a novel perspective on cosmology. I discuss some approaches to cosmology in extra dimensions and some interesting aspects of gravity and cosmology in brane-world models.

  11. Costs of U.S. Oil Dependence: 2005 Update

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greene, D.L.

    2005-03-08

    For thirty years, dependence on oil has been a significant problem for the United States. Oil dependence is not simply a matter of how much oil we import. It is a syndrome, a combination of the vulnerability of the U.S. economy to higher oil prices and oil price shocks and a concentration of world oil supplies in a small group of oil producing states that are willing and able to use their market power to influence world oil prices. Although there are vitally important political and military dimensions to the oil dependence problem, this report focuses on its direct economic costs. These costs are the transfer of wealth from the United States to oil producing countries, the loss of economic potential due to oil prices elevated above competitive market levels, and disruption costs caused by sudden and large oil price movements. Several enhancements have been made to methods used in past studies to estimate these costs, and estimates of key parameters have been updated based on the most recent literature. It is estimated that oil dependence has cost the U.S. economy $3.6 trillion (constant 2000 dollars) since 1970, with the bulk of the losses occurring between 1979 and 1986. However, if oil prices in 2005 average $35-$45/bbl, as recently predicted by the U.S. Energy Information Administration, oil dependence costs in 2005 will be in the range of $150-$250 billion. Costs are relatively evenly divided between the three components. A sensitivity analysis reflecting uncertainty about all the key parameters required to estimate oil dependence costs suggests that a reasonable range of uncertainty for the total costs of U.S. oil dependence over the past 30 years is $2-$6 trillion (constant 2000 dollars). Reckoned in terms of present value using a discount rate of 4.5%, the costs of U.S. oil dependence since 1970 are $8 trillion, with a reasonable range of uncertainty of $5 to $13 trillion.

  12. Enhanced oil recovery system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goldsberry, Fred L. (Spring, TX)

    1989-01-01

    All energy resources available from a geopressured geothermal reservoir are used for the production of pipeline quality gas using a high pressure separator/heat exchanger and a membrane separator, and recovering waste gas from both the membrane separator and a low pressure separator in tandem with the high pressure separator for use in enhanced oil recovery, or in powering a gas engine and turbine set. Liquid hydrocarbons are skimmed off the top of geothermal brine in the low pressure separator. High pressure brine from the geothermal well is used to drive a turbine/generator set before recovering waste gas in the first separator. Another turbine/generator set is provided in a supercritical binary power plant that uses propane as a working fluid in a closed cycle, and uses exhaust heat from the combustion engine and geothermal energy of the brine in the separator/heat exchanger to heat the propane.

  13. Oil field management system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fincke, James R.

    2003-09-23

    Oil field management systems and methods for managing operation of one or more wells producing a high void fraction multiphase flow. The system includes a differential pressure flow meter which samples pressure readings at various points of interest throughout the system and uses pressure differentials derived from the pressure readings to determine gas and liquid phase mass flow rates of the high void fraction multiphase flow. One or both of the gas and liquid phase mass flow rates are then compared with predetermined criteria. In the event such mass flow rates satisfy the predetermined criteria, a well control system implements a correlating adjustment action respecting the multiphase flow. In this way, various parameters regarding the high void fraction multiphase flow are used as control inputs to the well control system and thus facilitate management of well operations.

  14. Ras Al Khaimah (RAK): World Oil Report 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-08-01

    This paper reports on Ras Al Khalmah (RAK) that had no drilling activity in 1990. In 1991, International Petroleum Ltd., (IPL), which holds a 1,100 sq mi concession onshore, may spud their West Jiri prospect. Amoco holds an offshore concession and was to have completed seismic last year. the RAK Gas Commission was reported to be operating the offshore Saleh gas field in 1990, which a former foreign concessionaire relinquished in mid-1989 since it had reached its economic limit. Production from Saleh last year is estimated at 1,000 bcpd and about 9 MMcfgd.

  15. World Oils`s 1995 coiled tubing tables

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-03-01

    Increasingly in demand in almost every aspect of today`s E and P market because of flexibility, versatility and economy, coiled tubing is being used for a variety of drilling, completion and production operations that previously required conventional jointed pipe, workover and snubbing units, or rotary drilling rigs. For 1995 the popular coiled tubing tables have been reformatted, expanded and improved to give industry engineering and field personnel additional, more specific selection, operational and installation information. Traditional specifications and dimensions have been augmented by addition of calculated performance properties for downhole workover and well servicing applications. For the first time the authors are presenting this information as a stand-alone feature, separate from conventional jointed tubing connection design tables, which are published annually in the January issue. With almost seven times as much usable data as previous listings, the authors hope that their new coiled tubing tables are even more practical and useful to their readers.

  16. UAE-Abu Dhabi: World Oil Report 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-08-01

    This paper reports that production expansion projects remain the focus in Abu Dhabi, with increased drilling operations underway both on and offshore. Only Abu Dhabi Co. for Onshore Operations (Adco) and Abu Dhabi Marine Operating Co. (Adma-Opco) provide any information about activity in the Emirate. Plans call for boosting productive capacity by 1 million bpd to near 3 million bpd. Present sustainable capacity is estimated at 1.8 million bpd by the CIA. This rate has been exceeded recently (it reached over 2 million bpd) to take advantage of higher prices in late 1990 and to make up for the shortfall due to loss of Iraqi and Kuwaiti exports. However, it does not appear higher rates can be sustained for a long period of time. By year-end 1992, sustainable output has been projected to reach 2.3 million bpd.

  17. Essays on Macroeconomics and Oil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CAKIR, NIDA

    2013-01-01

    is described below. Data Crude oil production data is fromproductivity measure is crude oil production per worker, andwhich is measured as crude oil production per worker, is

  18. The Politics of Oil Nationalizations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mahdavi, Paasha

    2015-01-01

    in the oil and gas sectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . .of regime change, using oil and gas income per capita as aregime change, using fitted oil and gas income per capita as

  19. Essays on Macroeconomics and Oil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CAKIR, NIDA

    2013-01-01

    Venezuelan Oil Industry Total Wells Drilled and InvestmentWells Drilled and Investment in the Venezuelan Oil Industryopenness of the oil sector to foreign investment contributes

  20. Oil Market Simulation model user`s manual

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-07-01

    The Oil Market Simulation (OMS) model is a LOTUS 1-2-3 spreadsheet that simulates the world oil market. OMS is an annual model that projects the world oil market through the year 2010 from a data base that begins in 1979. The geographic coverage includes all market economies, with net imports from the centrally planned economies taken as an assumption. The model estimates the effects of price changes on oil supply and demand and computes an oil price path over nine that allows supply and demand to remain in balance within the market economies area as a whole. The input assumptions of OMS are highlighted (in color) on the spreadsheet and include the following: The capacity of the OPEC countries to produce petroleum liquids (crude oil, natural gas liquids, condensates, refinery gains); a reference case projection of regional oil supply and demand at some arbitrary reference path of oil prices over time. The reference case provided with this diskette is that used for EIA`s latest base case in the International Energy Outlook 1992 DOE/EIA-0484(92). The demonstration requires an IBM PC (or compatible), preferably with a color monitor. The demonstration diskette is self-contained, with all the files needed to run the demonstration. It does not, however, have the DOS system files, so this diskette cannot be used to start (boot) the computer.

  1. Spot-Oiling Johnsongrass. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Elliott, Fred C.; Norris, M. J.; Rea, H. E.

    1955-01-01

    -treat Johnsongrass in cotton in 19 54. Power-driven sprayers normally used for in- tect control in row crops were modified for Yose. A spray pressure of 12 pounds re inch was used. Two systems of the grass were tried. In one system the crenr applying the oil... crown-oilings with naphtha, 83 percent in 7 tests by 3 oil- ings, 95 percent in 6 tests by 4 oilings and 98 percent in 4 tests by 5 to 7 oilings. The use of mixtures of 50 percent naphtha and 50 per- cent kerosene or diesel fuel oil reduced...

  2. A world-classuniversity in aWorld Heritage city

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burton, Geoffrey R.

    A world-classuniversity in aWorld Heritage city strategy university 2013-16 #12;shapingour future-choiceuniversityforstudentsworldwide.Weoffer adistinctiveblendofacademicreputation,anoutstandinggraduate employmentrecord,world-classsportsfacilities,andafullprogramme ofsocial our alumni, research and strategic partnerships. A world-class university in a World Heritage city

  3. Collaborative Lubricating Oil Study on Emissions (CLOSE) Project...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    CLOSE) Project Collaborative Lubricating Oil Study on Emissions (CLOSE) Project Extensive chemical and physical characterization performed on emissions from normal and high...

  4. Supplying Synthetic Crude Oil from Canadian Oil Sands: A Comparative Study of the Costs and CO2 Emissions of Mining and In-Situ Recovery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Méjean, A.; Hope, Chris

    Aurélie Méjean and Chris Hope High crude oil prices and the eventual decline of conventional oil production raise the issue of alternative fuels such as non-conventional oil. The paper describes a simple probabilistic model of the costs of synthetic... and production constraints on the costs of supplying synthetic crude oil from Canadian bitumen deposits. The results show the uncertainties associated with the future costs of synthetic crude oil. Carbon costs have a large impact of the total costs...

  5. WORLD EDITOR TRAINING GUIDE

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    when selected. 4. In the panel on the right-hand side of the World Editor, select the Browser Tree tab (the tab turns blue when it is active). 5. In the Browser Tree hierarchy...

  6. China's Global Oil Strategy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, Bryan G

    2009-01-01

    21, 2008. Ying, Wang. “ China, Venezuela firms to co-developApril 21, “China and Venezuela sign oil agreements. ” Chinaaccessed April 21, “Venezuela and China sign oil deal. ” BBC

  7. Understanding Crude Oil Prices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamilton, James Douglas

    2008-01-01

    an alternative investment strategy to buying oil today andinvestments necessary to catch up. This was the view o?ered by oilinvestment strategy. date t) in order to purchase a quantity Q barrels of oil

  8. Managing large oil Spills in the Mediterranean

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Madrid, J A Jiménez; Poy, J Ballabrera; García-Ladona, E

    2015-01-01

    For the first time a statistical analysis of oil spill beaching is applied to the whole Mediterranean Sea. A series of probability maps of beaching in case of an oil spill incident are proposed as a complementary tool to vulnerability analysis and risk assessment in the whole basin. As a first approach a set of spill source points are selected along the main paths of tankers and a few points of special interest related with hot spot areas or oil platforms. Probability of beaching on coastal segments are obtained for 3 types of oil characterised by medium to highly persistence in water. The approach is based on Lagrangian simulations using particles as a proxy of oil spills evolving according the environmental conditions provided by a hincast model of the Mediterranean circulation.

  9. Vegetable oils for tractors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moroney, M.

    1981-11-14

    Preliminary tests by the Agricultural Institute, show that tractors can be run on a 50:50 rape oil-diesel mixture or on pure rape oil. In fact, engine power actually increased slightly with the 50:50 blend but decreased fractionally with pure rape oil. Research at the North Dakota State University on using sunflower oil as an alternative to diesel fuel is also noted.

  10. SRC Residual fuel oils

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tewari, Krishna C. (Whitehall, PA); Foster, Edward P. (Macungie, PA)

    1985-01-01

    Coal solids (SRC) and distillate oils are combined to afford single-phase blends of residual oils which have utility as fuel oils substitutes. The components are combined on the basis of their respective polarities, that is, on the basis of their heteroatom content, to assure complete solubilization of SRC. The resulting composition is a fuel oil blend which retains its stability and homogeneity over the long term.

  11. SRC residual fuel oils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tewari, K.C.; Foster, E.P.

    1985-10-15

    Coal solids (SRC) and distillate oils are combined to afford single-phase blends of residual oils which have utility as fuel oils substitutes. The components are combined on the basis of their respective polarities, that is, on the basis of their heteroatom content, to assure complete solubilization of SRC. The resulting composition is a fuel oil blend which retains its stability and homogeneity over the long term.

  12. Enhanced Oil Recovery of Viscous Oil by Injection of Water-in-Oil Emulsion Made with Used Engine Oil 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fu, Xuebing

    2012-08-20

    Solids-stabilized water-in-oil emulsions have been suggested as a drive fluid to recover viscous oil through a piston-like displacement pattern. While crude heavy oil was initially suggested as the base oil, an alternative oil ? used engine oil...

  13. World’s Largest Solar Energy Project Heads to Mojave

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A California company will harness the Mojave Desert sunshine to create the world’s largest solar energy system by the end of 2013.

  14. Oil Quantity : The histori

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, C.-Y. Cynthia

    120 140 160 19 Oil Quantity Con Wel N E A N N ng Results e Bay : The histori Bay over tim : Prudhoe Ba returns plan n in percent m 0% to 300% 968 1973 Oil Productio Productio 5000600 4000500 3000400 2000300 model for Prudhoe Bay. Figure 11: Historical Prudhoe Bay oil production data, modeled economically

  15. Biochemical upgrading of oils

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Premuzic, Eugene T. (East Moriches, NY); Lin, Mow S. (Rocky Point, NY)

    1999-01-12

    A process for biochemical conversion of heavy crude oils is provided. The process includes contacting heavy crude oils with adapted biocatalysts. The resulting upgraded oil shows, a relative increase in saturated hydrocarbons, emulsions and oxygenates and a decrease in compounds containing in organic sulfur, organic nitrogen and trace metals. Adapted microorganisms which have been modified under challenged growth processes are also disclosed.

  16. Biochemical upgrading of oils

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Premuzic, E.T.; Lin, M.S.

    1999-01-12

    A process for biochemical conversion of heavy crude oils is provided. The process includes contacting heavy crude oils with adapted biocatalysts. The resulting upgraded oil shows, a relative increase in saturated hydrocarbons, emulsions and oxygenates and a decrease in compounds containing organic sulfur, organic nitrogen and trace metals. Adapted microorganisms which have been modified under challenged growth processes are also disclosed. 121 figs.

  17. Oil spill response resources 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Muthukrishnan, Shankar

    1996-01-01

    source in an effective manner. Oil spills are fast becoming pollution sources that are causing the maximum damage to the environment. This is owing to the compounds that are released and the way oil spreads in both water and land. Preventing the oil spill...

  18. Oil and Gas Exploration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tingley, Joseph V.

    , oil and gas, and geothermal activities and accomplishments in Nevada: production statistics Products 23. Sloan dolomite quarry 24. Weiser gypsum quarry Oil Fields 1. Blackburn field 2. North WillowMetals Industrial Minerals Oil and Gas Geothermal Exploration Development Mining Processing Nevada

  19. Lower oil prices and their implications for energy research and development policy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1983-01-01

    Two panels of witnesses from federal agencies, industrial and university research organizations, and the Congressional Budget Office discussed the effect that lower world oil prices might have on the level of government funding for energy research and development. The witnesses were asked to consider the long-term price of oil; recent changes in oil price, supply, and demand; the adequacy of projection models and forecasts in assessing the impacts of lower oil prices; and whether it is appropriate to link research and development funding to oil prices. Additional reports, analyses, statements, and responses to committee questions submitted for the record follow the testimony of the eight witnesses. (DCK)

  20. World pipeline work set for rapid growth

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-08-01

    This paper reports on international pipeline construction which has entered a fast-growth period, accelerated by the new political and economic realities around the world and increasing demand for natural gas, crude oil and refined petroleum products. Many projects are under way or in planning for completion in the mid- to late 1990s in Europe, South America, Asia and the Middle East. Pipeline And Gas Journal's projection calls for construction or other work on 30,700 miles of new natural gas, crude oil and refined products pipelines in the 1992-93 period outside Canada and the U.S. These projects will cost an estimated $30 billion-plus. Natural gas pipelines will comprise most of the mileage, accounting for almost 23,000 miles at an estimated cost of $26.3 billion. Products pipelines, planned or under construction, will add another 5,800 miles at a cost of $2.8 billion. Crude oil pipelines, at a minimum, will total 1,900 new miles at a cost of slightly under $1 billion.

  1. Utah Heavy Oil Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. Bauman; S. Burian; M. Deo; E. Eddings; R. Gani; R. Goel; C.K. Huang; M. Hogue; R. Keiter; L. Li; J. Ruple; T. Ring; P. Rose; M. Skliar; P.J. Smith; J.P. Spinti; P. Tiwari; J. Wilkey; K. Uchitel

    2009-10-20

    The Utah Heavy Oil Program (UHOP) was established in June 2006 to provide multidisciplinary research support to federal and state constituents for addressing the wide-ranging issues surrounding the creation of an industry for unconventional oil production in the United States. Additionally, UHOP was to serve as an on-going source of unbiased information to the nation surrounding technical, economic, legal and environmental aspects of developing heavy oil, oil sands, and oil shale resources. UHOP fulGilled its role by completing three tasks. First, in response to the Energy Policy Act of 2005 Section 369(p), UHOP published an update report to the 1987 technical and economic assessment of domestic heavy oil resources that was prepared by the Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission. The UHOP report, entitled 'A Technical, Economic, and Legal Assessment of North American Heavy Oil, Oil Sands, and Oil Shale Resources' was published in electronic and hard copy form in October 2007. Second, UHOP developed of a comprehensive, publicly accessible online repository of unconventional oil resources in North America based on the DSpace software platform. An interactive map was also developed as a source of geospatial information and as a means to interact with the repository from a geospatial setting. All documents uploaded to the repository are fully searchable by author, title, and keywords. Third, UHOP sponsored Give research projects related to unconventional fuels development. Two projects looked at issues associated with oil shale production, including oil shale pyrolysis kinetics, resource heterogeneity, and reservoir simulation. One project evaluated in situ production from Utah oil sands. Another project focused on water availability and produced water treatments. The last project considered commercial oil shale leasing from a policy, environmental, and economic perspective.

  2. Wind Turbine Gearbox Oil Filtration and Condition Monitoring

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sheng, Shuangwen

    2015-10-25

    This is an invited presentation for a pre-conference workshop, titled advances and opportunities in lubrication: wind turbine, at the 2015 Society of Tribologists and Lubrication Engineers (STLE) Tribology Frontiers Conference held in Denver, CO. It gives a brief overview of wind turbine gearbox oil filtration and condition monitoring by highlighting typical industry practices and challenges. The presentation starts with an introduction by covering recent growth of global wind industry, reliability challenges, benefits of oil filtration and condition monitoring, and financial incentives to conduct wind operation and maintenance research, which includes gearbox oil filtration and condition monitoring work presented herein. Then, the presentation moves on to oil filtration by stressing the benefits of filtration, discussing typical main- and offline-loop practices, highlighting important factors considered when specifying a filtration system, and illustrating real-world application challenges through a cold-start example. In the next section on oil condition monitoring, a discussion on oil sample analysis, oil debris monitoring, oil cleanliness measurements and filter analysis is given based on testing results mostly obtained by and at NREL, and by pointing out a few challenges with oil sample analysis. The presentation concludes with a brief touch on future research and development (R and D) opportunities. It is hoping that the information presented can inform the STLE community to start or redirect their R and D work to help the wind industry advance.

  3. An Empirical Growth Model for Major Oil Exporters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Esfahani, Hadi Salehi; Mohaddes, Kamiar; Pesaran, M. Hashem

    2012-03-21

    . 3See, for example, Amuzegar (2008) and the British Petroleum Statistical Review of World Energy. 3 Figure 1: Oil Export Revenues to Income Ratios for Major Oil Exporters 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1980 1988 1996 2004 2010 Saudi Arabia Iran Norway Venezuela... shows most other OPEC (Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries) member countries such as Saudi Arabia, Venezuela, Nigeria, Algeria, United Arab Emirates and Kuwait, and a few countries outside OPEC such as Norway and Russia have similar oil...

  4. Characterizing shale gas and tight oil drilling and production performance variability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Montgomery, Justin B. (Justin Bruce)

    2015-01-01

    Shale gas and tight oil are energy resources of growing importance to the U.S. and the world. The combination of horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing has enabled economically feasible production from these resources, ...

  5. Production of hydrogen from oil shale

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schora, F. C.; Feldkirchner, H. L.; Janka, J. C.

    1985-12-24

    A process for production of hydrogen from oil shale fines by direct introduction of the oil shale fines into a fluidized bed at temperatures about 1200/sup 0/ to about 2000/sup 0/ F. to obtain rapid heating of the oil shale. The bed is fluidized by upward passage of steam and oxygen, the steam introduced in the weight ratio of about 0.1 to about 10 on the basis of the organic carbon content of the oil shale and the oxygen introduced in less than the stoichiometric quantity for complete combustion of the organic carbonaceous kerogen content of the oil shale. Embodiments are disclosed for heat recovery from the spent shale and heat recovery from the spent shale and product gas wherein the complete process and heat recovery is carried out in a single reaction vessel. The process of this invention provides high conversion of organic carbon component of oil shale and high production of hydrogen from shale fines which when used in combination with a conventional oil shale hydroconversion process results in increased overall process efficiency of greater than 15 percent.

  6. Relationship of Viscosity, Surface Tensions, and Coefficient of Friction of Lubricating Oils

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carson, Earl

    1914-01-01

    between the Coefficient of Friction and Viscosity. Relationship between Viscosity and Surface Tension. 6 B I B L I O G R A P H Y Lubrication and Lubricants, Archbutt & Deeley, London, 1900. * Friction, lubrication, Fats & Oils, Dietrichs. Steam... oils, is easily accounted for. Ilineral lubricating oils are not affected by high pressure steam or alkalies and these character- istics enable them to be used where other lubricants would be quite unfitted for the work. Animal Oils:-- These oils...

  7. Cost of Oil Dependence: A 2000 Update

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greene, D.L.; Tishchishyna, N.I.

    2000-05-01

    Oil dependence remains a potentially serious economic and strategic problem for the United States. This report updates previous estimates of the costs of oil dependence to the U.S. economy and introduces several methodological enhancements. Estimates of the costs to the U.S. economy of the oil market upheavals of the last 30 years are in the vicinity of $7 trillion, present value 1998 dollars, about as large as the sum total of payments on the national debt over the same period. Simply adding up historical costs in 1998 dollars without converting to present value results in a Base Case cost estimate of $3.4 trillion. Sensitivity analysis indicates that cost estimates are sensitive to key parameters. A lower bound estimate of $1.7 trillion and an upper bound of $7.1 trillion (not present value) indicate that the costs of oil dependence have been large under almost any plausible set of assumptions. These cost estimates do not include military, strategic or political costs associated with U.S. and world dependence on oil imports.

  8. Costs of Oil Dependence: A 2000 Update

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greene, D.L.

    2000-05-17

    Oil dependence remains a potentially serious economic and strategic problem for the United States. This report updates previous estimates of the costs of oil dependence to the U.S. economy and introduces several methodological enhancements. Estimates of the costs to the U.S. economy of the oil market upheavals of the last 30 years are in the vicinity of $7 trillion, present value 1998 dollars, about as large as the sum total of payments on the national debt over the same period. Simply adding up historical costs in 1998 dollars without converting to present value results in a Base Case cost estimate of $3.4 trillion. Sensitivity analysis indicates that cost estimates are sensitive to key parameters. A lower bound estimate of $1.7 trillion and an upper bound of $7.1 trillion (not present value) indicate that the costs of oil dependence have been large under almost any plausible set of assumptions. These cost estimates do not include military, strategic or political costs associated with U.S. and world dependence on oil imports.

  9. The Welfare Implications of Oil Privatisation: A Cost-Benefit Analysis of Norway's Statoil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wolf, C.; Pollitt, Michael G.

    producing position on the NCS, all of Statoil’s sales markets have long been competitive: its crude oil production is exported onto the world market, its refined oil products and petrochemicals compete for market share in Scandinavia, the Baltics... sample of global oil privatisations (Wolf 2008b; Wolf and Pollitt 2008)3 – but also relevant 1 For supporters of private markets public ownership per se results in lower economic efficiency; control...

  10. Geologic control of natural marine hydrocarbon seep emissions, Coal Oil Point seep field, California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Luyendyk, Bruce

    ORIGINAL Geologic control of natural marine hydrocarbon seep emissions, Coal Oil Point seep field geology and gas-phase (methane) seepage for the Coal Oil Point (COP) seep field, one of the world (Shindell et al. 2005; Etiope 2009). As a result, future Kyoto- type treaties likely will seek to reduce

  11. Geographically-Distributed Databases: A Big Data Technology for Production Analysis in the Oil & Gas Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    SPE 167844 Geographically-Distributed Databases: A Big Data Technology for Production Analysis advances in the scientific field of "big-data" to the world of Oil & Gas upstream industry. These off-of-the-start IT technologies currently employed in the data management of Oil & Gas production operations. Most current

  12. Integration of nuclear power with oil sands extraction projects in Canada

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Finan, Ashley (Ashley E.)

    2007-01-01

    One of the largest oil reserves in the world is not in the Middle East or in Alaska, but in Canada. This fuel exists in the form of bitumen in Alberta's oil sands. While it takes a tremendous amount of energy to recover ...

  13. Fact #579: July 13, 2009 Oil Price and Economic Growth, 1970-2008

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Major oil price shocks have disrupted world energy markets five times in the past 30 years – 1973-74, 1979-80, 1990-1991, 1999-2000 and again in 2008. Most of the oil price shocks were followed by...

  14. World Cup Blues

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hacker, Randi

    2010-08-18

    Broadcast Transcript: World Cup. 1966. North Korea stuns soccer fans by becoming the first Asian team ever to advance to the quarterfinals where they go up 3-0 against Portugal before finally being defeated at the hands--or rather feet...

  15. oxford world's classics PHILOSOPHICAL CRUMBS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Doyle, Robert

    oxford world's classics REPETITION and PHILOSOPHICAL CRUMBS Søren Aabye Kierkegaard (1813:29:34 PM #12;oxford world's classics For over 100 years Oxford World's Classics have brought readers closer to the world's great literature. Now with over 700 titles --from the 4,000-year-old myths of Mesopotamia

  16. REVIEW PAPER Biodeterioration of crude oil and oil derived

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Appanna, Vasu

    REVIEW PAPER Biodeterioration of crude oil and oil derived products: a review Natalia A. Yemashova January 2007 Ó Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2007 Abstract Biodeterioration of crude oil and oil of operational problems. Nowadays various test-systems are utilized for microbial monitoring in crude oils

  17. Crude Oil Analysis Database

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Shay, Johanna Y.

    The composition and physical properties of crude oil vary widely from one reservoir to another within an oil field, as well as from one field or region to another. Although all oils consist of hydrocarbons and their derivatives, the proportions of various types of compounds differ greatly. This makes some oils more suitable than others for specific refining processes and uses. To take advantage of this diversity, one needs access to information in a large database of crude oil analyses. The Crude Oil Analysis Database (COADB) currently satisfies this need by offering 9,056 crude oil analyses. Of these, 8,500 are United States domestic oils. The database contains results of analysis of the general properties and chemical composition, as well as the field, formation, and geographic location of the crude oil sample. [Taken from the Introduction to COAMDATA_DESC.pdf, part of the zipped software and database file at http://www.netl.doe.gov/technologies/oil-gas/Software/database.html] Save the zipped file to your PC. When opened, it will contain PDF documents and a large Excel spreadsheet. It will also contain the database in Microsoft Access 2002.

  18. Hawaii energy strategy project 2: Fossil energy review. Task 1: World and regional fossil energy dynamics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Breazeale, K.; Isaak, D.T.; Yamaguchi, N.; Fridley, D.; Johnson, C.; Long, S.

    1993-12-01

    This report in the Hawaii Energy Strategy Project examines world and regional fossil energy dynamics. The topics of the report include fossil energy characteristics, the world oil industry including reserves, production, consumption, exporters, importers, refining, products and their uses, history and trends in the global oil market and the Asia-Pacific market; world gas industry including reserves, production, consumption, exporters, importers, processing, gas-based products, international gas market and the emerging Asia-Pacific gas market; the world coal industry including reserves, classification and quality, utilization, transportation, pricing, world coal market, Asia-Pacific coal outlook, trends in Europe and the Americas; and environmental trends affecting fossil fuels. 132 figs., 46 tabs.

  19. Reactive plasma upgrade of squalane - a heavy oil simulant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kong, P.C.; Watkins, A.D.; Detering, B.A. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)] [and others

    1995-07-01

    U.S. light crude oil production has steadily declined over the last two decades. However, huge known heavy oil deposits in the North American continent remain largely untapped. In the past 10 years, the API gravity of crude oils has been decreasing by about 0.17% per year, and the sulfur content has been increasing by about 0.027% per year. As the API gravity of crude oil decreases, there will be an urgent need for economically viable new technologies to ungrade the heavy oil to a high API gravity feed stock for the refineries. The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory is investigating an innovative plasma process to upgrade heavy oil and refinery residuum. This paper will present some of the results and the implications of this technology for heavy oil upgrade and conversion.

  20. Reactive plasma upgrade of squalane - a heavy oil simulant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kong, P.C.; Watkins, A.D.; Detering, B.A.; Thomas, C.P.

    1995-10-01

    U.S. light crude oil production has steadily declined over the last two decades. However, huge known heavy oil deposits in the North American continent remain largely untapped. In the past 10 years, the API gravity of crude oils has been decreasing by about 0.17% per year, and the sulfur content has been increasing by about 0.027% per year. As the API gravity of crude oil decreases, there will be an urgent need for economically viable new technologies to upgrade the heavy oil to a high API gravity feed stock for the refineries. The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory is investigating an innovative plasma process to upgrade heavy oil and refinery residuum. This paper will present some of the results and the implications of this technology for heavy oil upgrade and conversion.

  1. Oil shale as an energy source in Israel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fainberg, V.; Hetsroni, G. [Technion-Israel Inst. of Tech., Haifa (Israel)

    1996-01-01

    Reserves, characteristics, energetics, chemistry, and technology of Israeli oil shales are described. Oil shale is the only source of energy and the only organic natural resource in Israel. Its reserves of about 12 billion tons will be enough to meet Israel`s requirements for about 80 years. The heating value of the oil shale is 1,150 kcal/kg, oil yield is 6%, and sulfur content of the oil is 5--7%. A method of oil shale processing, providing exhaustive utilization of its energy and chemical potential, developed in the Technion, is described. The principal feature of the method is a two-stage pyrolysis of the oil shale. As a result, gas and aromatic liquids are obtained. The gas may be used for energy production in a high-efficiency power unit, or as a source for chemical synthesis. The liquid products can be an excellent source for production of chemicals.

  2. World energy: Building a sustainable future

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schipper, L.; Meyers, S.

    1992-04-01

    As the 20th century draws to a close, both individual countries and the world community face challenging problems related to the supply and use energy. These include local and regional environmental impacts, the prospect of global climate and sea level change associated with the greenhouse effect, and threats to international relations in connection with oil supply or nuclear proliferation. For developing countries, the financial cost of providing energy to provide basic needs and fuel economic development pose an additional burden. To assess the magnitude of future problems and the potential effectiveness of response strategies, it is important to understand how and why energy use has changed in the post and where it is heading. This requires study of the activities for which energy is used, and of how people and technology interact to provide the energy services that are desired. The authors and their colleagues have analyzed trends in energy use by sector for most of the world`s major energy-consuming countries. The approach we use considers three key elements in each sector: the level of activity, structural change, and energy intensity, which expresses the amount of energy used for various activities. At a disaggregated level, energy intensity is indicative of energy efficiency. But other factors besides technical efficiency also shape intensity.

  3. Rising U.S. oil output leads world oil supply growth

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry Natural GasNaturalOctoberheating13, 2014propanepropane2,165

  4. Recent advances in hydrotreating of pyrolysis bio-oil and its oxygen-containing model compounds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Huamin; Male, Jonathan L.; Wang, Yong

    2013-05-01

    There is considerable world-wide interest in discovering renewable sources of energy that can substitute for fossil fuels. Lignocellulosic biomass, which is the most abundant and inexpensive renewable feedstock on the planet, has a great potential for sustainable production of fuels, chemicals, and carbon-based materials. Fast pyrolysis integrated with hydrotreating is one of the simplest, most cost-effective and most efficient processes to convert lignocellulosic biomass to liquid hydrocarbon fuels for transportation, which has attracted significant attention in recent decades. However, effective hydrotreating of pyrolysis bio-oil presents a daunting challenge to the commercialization of biomass conversion via pyrolysis-hydrotreating. Specifically, development of active, selective, and stable hydrotreating catalysts is the bottleneck due to the poor quality of pyrolysis bio-oil feedstock (high oxygen content, molecular complexity, coking propensity, and corrosiveness). Significant research has been conducted to address the practical issues and provide the fundamental understanding of the hydrotreating/hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) of bio-oils and their oxygen-containing model compounds, including phenolics, furans, and carboxylic acids. A wide range of catalysts have been studied, including conventional Mo-based sulfide catalysts and noble metal catalysts, with the latter being the primary focus of the recent research because of their excellent catalytic performances and no requirement of environmentally unfriendly sulfur. The reaction mechanisms of HDO of model compounds on noble metal catalysts as well as their efficacy for hydrotreating or stabilization of bio-oil have been recently reported. This review provides a survey of the relevant literatures of recent 10 years about the advances in the understanding of the HDO chemistry of bio-oils and their model compounds mainly on noble metal catalysts.

  5. Relationships among oils and water compositions in Niger delta

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dickey, P.A.; George, G.O.; Barker, C.

    1987-10-01

    In some fields of the Tertiary Niger delta of Nigeria, heavy, asphaltic oil is found in shallow reservoirs and light, waxy oil is found in deeper reservoirs in the same field. Both oils appears to have had the same source. The change with depth from heavy to light oil is usually abrupt and occurs at a reservoir temperature between 150/sup 0/ and 180/sup 0/F (66/sup 0/ and 82/sup 0/C). In other areas similar degradation of oil has been ascribed to bacteria brought into the oil reservoir by invading meteoric water. In Nigeria, meteoric water is low in dissolved solids and high in bicarbonate, whereas connate water is saltier and contains more chloride. Samples of both types of oil and associated water from six fields were analyzed and compared with previously acquired analyses from these fields. No clear relationship between meteoric water and degraded oil was found. Degraded oil may occur with either meteoric or connate water, and undegraded oil is sometimes found with meteoric water. This suggests extensive secondary migration of oil from one structure to another as well as deep penetration of meteoric water. 14 figures, 1 table.

  6. Understanding Crude Oil Prices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamilton, James Douglas

    2008-01-01

    disruptions, and the peak in U.S. oil production account foroil increased 81.1% (logarithmically) between January 1979 and the peak

  7. Crude Oil Prices

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Petroleum Marketing Annual 2001 41 Table 21. Domestic Crude Oil First Purchase Prices (Dollars per Barrel) - Continued Year Month PAD District II (Continued) PAD District...

  8. Crude Oil Prices

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Petroleum Marketing Annual 2000 41 Table 21. Domestic Crude Oil First Purchase Prices (Dollars per Barrel) - Continued Year Month PAD District II (Continued) PAD District...

  9. Crude Oil Prices

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Petroleum Marketing Annual 1999 41 Table 21. Domestic Crude Oil First Purchase Prices (Dollars per Barrel) - Continued Year Month PAD District II (Continued) PAD District...

  10. Crude Oil Prices

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Petroleum Marketing Annual 1998 41 Table 21. Domestic Crude Oil First Purchase Prices (Dollars per Barrel) - Continued Year Month PAD District II (Continued) PAD District...

  11. Crude Oil Prices

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Petroleum Marketing Annual 2002 41 Table 21. Domestic Crude Oil First Purchase Prices (Dollars per Barrel) - Continued Year Month PAD District II (Continued) PAD District...

  12. Influence of uplift on oil migration: Tulare heavy oil accumulations, west side San Joaquin Valley, California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chamberlain, E.R.; Madrid, V.M.

    1986-07-01

    Shallow (2000 ft), heavy (11/sup 0/-14/sup 0/ API) oil accumulations within the Pleistocene, nonmarine, Tulare sands along the west side of the San Joaquin Valley represent major thermal enhanced oil recovery (EOR) objectives. These low-pressure reservoirs display a variety of petrophysical characteristics indicating a complex history of oil migration resulting from uplift of the Tulare reservoirs above the regional ground-water table (RGT). In the Cymric-McKittrick area, it is possible to correlate Tulare outcrops with subsurface log data and determine the relationship between oil saturation, structural elevation, and proximity to the present RGT. The observed relationship is that economic oil saturations (S/sub 0/ = 30-75%) occur in structural lows and grade updip to reduced oil saturations (S/sub 0/ = 0-30%). The equivalent sands above the RGT exhibit formation density log-compensated neutron log (FDC/CNL) cross-over. Basinward, as the entire Tulare reservoir dips below the RGT, it exhibits characteristics of conventional reservoirs, such as high water saturations in structural lows, grading upward to increased oil saturations in structural highs. The authors present the following model to explain these observations. (1) Oil migrated into Tulare sands and originally filled all stratigraphic/structural traps below the paleo-RGT. (2) Subsequent uplift of the Tulare reservoirs above the paleo-RGT resulted in gravity drainage of original accumulations into structural lows. (3) Washing of the oils by repeated ground-water fluctuations along with biodegradation resulted in the essentially immobile Tulare heavy oil accumulations observed today.

  13. Transporting US oil imports: The impact of oil spill legislation on the tanker market. Draft final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rowland, P.J. [Rowland (P.) Associates (United States)

    1992-05-01

    The Oil Pollution Act of 1990 (``OPA``) and an even more problematic array of State pollution laws have raised the cost, and risk, of carrying oil into and out of the US. This report, prepared under contract to the US Department of energy`s Office of Domestic and International Policy, examines the impact of Federal and State oil spill legislation on the tanker market. It reviews the role of marine transportation in US oil supply, explores the OPA and State oil spill laws, studies reactions to OPA in the tanker and tank barge industries and in related industries such as insurance and ship finance, and finally, discusses the likely developments in the years ahead. US waterborne oil imports amounted to 6.5 million B/D in 1991, three-quarters of which was crude oil. Imports will rise by almost 3 million B/D by 2000 according to US Department of energy forecasts, with most of the crude oil growth after 1995. Tanker demand will grow even faster: most of the US imports and the increased traffic to other world consuming regions will be on long-haul trades. Both the number of US port calls by tankers and the volume of offshore lightering will grow. Every aspect of the tanker industry`s behavior is affected by OPA and a variety of State pollution laws.

  14. Enhanced oil recovery through water imbibition in fractured reservoirs using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hervas Ordonez, Rafael Alejandro

    1994-01-01

    Conventional waterflooding methods of oil recovery are difficult to apply when reservoirs show evidence of natural fractures, because injected water advances through paths of high permeability, and oil trapped in the rock matrix system...

  15. Modelling the costs of non-conventional oil: A case study of Canadian bitumen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Méjean, A.; Hope, Chris

    of the parameter range. However, the issue about non-conventional oil is less to do with the size of the resources than the rate at which they can be produced, (ASPO, 2003). According to the 2004 World Energy Outlook (IEA, 2004a), total non-conventional oil... transformations of the oil market, including 3 the erosion of spare capacity due to lack of investment and strong world economic growth driven by China, the U.S. and the Middle East (EIA, 2007b), see also (Stevens, 2005). Some analysts claim that the recent...

  16. Hefty tests buoy Philippine oil sector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-04-13

    This paper reports that Alcorn International Inc., Houston, has disclosed a test of another hefty oil flow off Philippines. Alcorn last month completed its third high flowing delineation well in the West Linapacan area off Palawan Island. Development of West Linapacan field will help boost lagging Philippines oil production, which fell 31% in 1991 from 1990 levels. Philippines Office of Energy Affairs (OEA) also outlined other aspects of the country's oil and gas activity in 1991. Recent drilling successes have redirected the country's focus north to the West Linapacan area from older Northwest Palawan oil fields. Meantime, two geophysical survey and exploration contracts (GSECs) were awarded in 1991, and two service contracts (SCs) were relinquished during the year. Several seismic program were completed last year, and in agreement between Australia and Philippines will yield added seismic data during the next 3 years.

  17. PIA - Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve System (Heating Oil...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Home Heating Oil Reserve System (Heating Oil) More Documents & Publications PIA - WEB Physical Security Major Application PIA - GovTrip (DOE data) PIA - WEB Unclassified...

  18. Oil Shale and Oil Sands Development Robert Keiter; John Ruple...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conjunctive Surface and Groundwater Management in Utah: Implications for Oil Shale and Oil Sands Development Robert Keiter; John Ruple; Heather Tanana; Rebecca Holt 29 ENERGY...

  19. History and some potentials of oil shale cement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Knutson, C.F.; Smith, R.P.; Russell, B.F. (Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (USA))

    1989-01-01

    The utilization of oil shale as a cement component is discussed. It was investigated in America and Europe during World War I. Additional development occurred in Western Europe, Russia, and China during the 1920s and 1930s. World War II provided further development incentives and a relatively mature technology was in place in Germany, Russia, and China prior to 1980. The utilization of oil shale in cement has taken a number of different paths. One approach has been to utilize the energy in the oil shale as the principal source for the cement plant and to use the combusted shale as a minor constituent of the plant's cement product. A second approach has been to use the combusted shale as a class C or cementitious fly-ash component in portland cement concrete. Other approaches utilizing eastern oil shale have been to use the combusted oil shale with additives as a specialty cement, or to cocombust the oil shale with coal and utilize the sulfur-rich combustion product.

  20. The Politics of Oil Nationalizations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mahdavi, Paasha

    2015-01-01

    model specifications Oil production in the 1930-1950 period,NOCs by type, 1947-2005 . . Oil production, before and afterThe Political Economy of Oil Production in Latin America. ”

  1. The Politics of Oil Nationalizations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mahdavi, Paasha

    2015-01-01

    revenues (adjusted for real oil price) before and after es-to the volatility of oil prices – and thus the volatility ofSonin (2011) shows that oil prices and executive constraints

  2. The Politics of Oil Nationalizations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mahdavi, Paasha

    2015-01-01

    assessment of political and economic factors of oilAssessment of PEMEX’s Performance and Strategy. In Oil andOil Company resembled more of a regulator NOC). I will combine this assessment

  3. The Politics of Oil Nationalizations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mahdavi, Paasha

    2015-01-01

    Markus Br¨ uckner. 2012. “Oil Rents, Corruption, and Statewithin-country variance in oil rents and their effects onshift in the capture of oil rents – but I show why more work

  4. The Legacy of Oil Spills

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Trevors, J. T.; Saier, M. H.

    2010-01-01

    010-0527-5 The Legacy of Oil Spills J. T. Trevors & M. H.workers were killed, and oil has been gushing out everday. It is now June, and oil continues to spew forth into

  5. World Energy Projection System Plus Model Documentation: World Electricity Model

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2011-01-01

    This report documents the objectives, analytical approach and development of the World Energy Projection System Plus (WEPS ) World Electricity Model. It also catalogues and describes critical assumptions, computational methodology, parameter estimation techniques, and model source code.

  6. Chemical Methods for Ugnu Viscous Oils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kishore Mohanty

    2012-03-31

    The North Slope of Alaska has large (about 20 billion barrels) deposits of viscous oil in Ugnu, West Sak and Shraeder Bluff reservoirs. These shallow reservoirs overlie existing productive reservoirs such as Kuparuk and Milne Point. The viscosity of the Ugnu reservoir on top of Milne Point varies from 200 cp to 10,000 cp and the depth is about 3300 ft. The same reservoir extends to the west on the top of the Kuparuk River Unit and onto the Beaufort Sea. The depth of the reservoir decreases and the viscosity increases towards the west. Currently, the operators are testing cold heavy oil production with sand (CHOPS) in Ugnu, but oil recovery is expected to be low (< 10%). Improved oil recovery techniques must be developed for these reservoirs. The proximity to the permafrost is an issue for thermal methods; thus nonthermal methods must be considered. The objective of this project is to develop chemical methods for the Ugnu reservoir on the top of Milne Point. An alkaline-surfactant-polymer (ASP) formulation was developed for a viscous oil (330 cp) where as an alkaline-surfactant formulation was developed for a heavy oil (10,000 cp). These formulations were tested in one-dimensional and quarter five-spot Ugnu sand packs. Micromodel studies were conducted to determine the mechanisms of high viscosity ratio displacements. Laboratory displacements were modeled and transport parameters (such as relative permeability) were determined that can be used in reservoir simulations. Ugnu oil is suitable for chemical flooding because it is biodegraded and contains some organic acids. The acids react with injected alkali to produce soap. This soap helps in lowering interfacial tension between water and oil which in turn helps in the formation of macro and micro emulsions. A lower amount of synthetic surfactant is needed because of the presence of organic acids in the oil. Tertiary ASP flooding is very effective for the 330 cp viscous oil in 1D sand pack. This chemical formulation includes 1.5% of an alkali, 0.4% of a nonionic surfactant, and 0.48% of a polymer. The secondary waterflood in a 1D sand pack had a cumulative recovery of 0.61 PV in about 3 PV injection. The residual oil saturation to waterflood was 0.26. Injection of tertiary alkaline-surfactant-polymer slug followed by tapered polymer slugs could recover almost 100% of the remaining oil. The tertiary alkali-surfactant-polymer flood of the 330 cp oil is stable in three-dimensions; it was verified by a flood in a transparent 5-spot model. A secondary polymer flood is also effective for the 330 cp viscous oil in 1D sand pack. The secondary polymer flood recovered about 0.78 PV of oil in about 1 PV injection. The remaining oil saturation was 0.09. The pressure drops were reasonable (<2 psi/ft) and depended mainly on the viscosity of the polymer slug injected. For the heavy crude oil (of viscosity 10,000 cp), low viscosity (10-100 cp) oil-in-water emulsions can be obtained at salinity up to 20,000 ppm by using a hydrophilic surfactant along with an alkali at a high water-to-oil ratio of 9:1. Very dilute surfactant concentrations (~0.1 wt%) of the synthetic surfactant are required to generate the emulsions. It is much easier to flow the low viscosity emulsion than the original oil of viscosity 10,000 cp. Decreasing the WOR reverses the type of emulsion to water-in-oil type. For a low salinity of 0 ppm NaCl, the emulsion remained O/W even when the WOR was decreased. Hence a low salinity injection water is preferred if an oil-in-water emulsion is to be formed. Secondary waterflood of the 10,000 cp heavy oil followed by tertiary injection of alkaline-surfactants is very effective. Waterflood has early water breakthrough, but recovers a substantial amount of oil beyond breakthrough. Waterflood recovers 20-37% PV of the oil in 1D sand pack in about 3 PV injection. Tertiary alkali-surfactant injection increases the heavy oil recovery to 50-70% PV in 1D sand packs. As the salinity increased, the oil recovery due to alkaline surfactant flood increased, but water-in-oil emulsion was p

  7. Spreading of crude petroleum in brash ice; Effects of oil`s physical properties and water current

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sayed, M.; Kotlyar, L.S.; Sparks, B.D.

    1994-12-31

    Experiments were conducted in a refrigerated, circulating current flume to examine crude oil spreading in brash ice. Amauligak, Hibernia and Norman Wells crudes were tested. Measurements of the physical properties of the oils were also conducted, including: surface and interfacial tensions as well as viscosities. Spreading coefficients were calculated from measured surface and interfacial tensions. Results were obtained for original and weathered oils. For the spreading tests, spill volumes up to 3 liters and water currents up to 0.55 m/s were used. Tests were done using both fresh water ice and saline ice. Slick dimensions were measured, and modes of oil spreading were observed. Slick dimensions depended on oil type, but were not influenced by water current. Oils of high spreading coefficient and low viscosity spread over larger areas than those with low spreading coefficient and high viscosity.

  8. Process for demetallizing and desulfurizing heavy crude oil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, R.E.; Hogan, R.J.; Combs, D.M.; Kukes, S.G.

    1989-12-05

    This patent describes a process for producing a synthetic crude oil of improved properties by desulfurizing, denitrogenating and demetallizing a heavy crude oil feed stock. The feed stock being a crude oil having an average boiling point at least as high as 500{degrees} F., an API gravity at 60{degrees} F. of less than 20, and containing at least about 1 weight percent sulfur.

  9. Surfactant-Polymer Interaction for Improved Oil Recovery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gabitto, Jorge; Mohanty, Kishore K.

    2002-01-07

    The goal of this research was to use the interaction between a surfactant and a polymer for efficient displacement of tertiary oil by improving slug integrity, oil solubility in the displacing fluid and mobility control. Surfactant-polymer flooding has been shown to be highly effective in laboratory-scale linear floods. The focus of this proposal is to design an inexpensive surfactant-polymer mixture that can efficiently recover tertiary oil by avoiding surfactant slug degradation and viscous/heterogeneity fingering.

  10. New Demand for Old Food: the U.S. Demand for Olive Oil Bo Xiong, William Matthews, Daniel Sumner

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schladow, S. Geoffrey

    New Demand for Old Food: the U.S. Demand for Olive Oil Bo Xiong, William Matthews, Daniel Sumner, demand for oils differentiated by origin and quality is price-elastic. These olive oils are highly of olive oil and the spread of Mediterranean diet contribute significantly to the rising demand

  11. Fate of Deepwater Horizon oil in Alabama's beach system: Understanding physical evolution processes based on observational data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clement, Prabhakar

    : Available online 10 December 2014 Keywords: Oil spill Deepwater Horizon spill Beach contamination Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons Crude oil spill a b s t r a c t The impact of MC252 oil on northern Gulf of Mexico impacting these beaches was predominantly in the form of water- in-oil (W/O) emulsions, a highly viscous

  12. A new approach to oil refining with allowance for ecological requirements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nasirov, R.K.; Serikov, P.Yu.; Barsukov, O.V. [and others

    1994-12-01

    More stringent quality requirements are being imposed on oil fuels because of the deteriorating ecological situation. At the same time the new ecological constraints have slightly reduced the supplies of light crudes on the world market because the oil-producing countries have been forced to consume more of their best crudes and only heavier and sour crudes are sent to other countries for refining. In view of this, in recent years work has been focused on thorough refining of oil distillates and residues in a medium of hydrogen-containing gas in the presence of catalysts for hydrorefining and hydrocracking. Hydrorefining destroys sulfur-, nitrogen-, and oxygen-containing compounds of the stock, removes organometallic components, improves the ecological characteristics of the products, reduces the corrosion of the refinery equipment, and reduces atmospheric pollution. Hydrorefining units have been built at almost all refineries, with allowance for the above and the fact that the hydroprocesses are highly technologically suitable and controllable and produce almost no waste. A number of problems pertaining to hydroprocesses, interesting scientific results, and developed theoretical approaches to intensify hydrorefining processes are described.

  13. Balancing oil and environment... responsibly.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weimer, Walter C.; Teske, Lisa

    2007-01-25

    Balancing Oil and Environment…Responsibly As the price of oil continues to skyrocket and global oil production nears the brink, pursuing unconventional oil supplies, such as oil shale, oil sands, heavy oils, and oils from biomass and coal has become increasingly attractive. Of particular significance to the American way is that our continent has significant quantities of these resources. Tapping into these new resources, however, requires cutting-edge technologies for identification, production, processing and environmental management. This job needs a super hero or two for a job of this size and proportion…

  14. Oil & Gas Science and Technology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    F. DAÏM

    2002-11-12

    update of the mechanical displacement and porosity field. In ... water and oil pressures are equal. ... o or w, denote the cell values of the oil and water phase.

  15. Essays on Macroeconomics and Oil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CAKIR, NIDA

    2013-01-01

    Oil Production in Venezuela and Mexico . . . . . . . . . .and Productivity in Venezuela and Mexico . . . . . . . . OilEllner, ”Organized Labor in Venezuela 1958-1991: Behavior

  16. WCI - World Consensus Initiative

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfateSciTechtail.Theory ofDidDevelopmentat LENA|UpcomingVisit Us Download theVisualVolunteerWorld

  17. Corrosivity Of Pyrolysis Oils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keiser, James R; Bestor, Michael A; Lewis Sr, Samuel Arthur; Storey, John Morse

    2011-01-01

    Pyrolysis oils from several sources have been analyzed and used in corrosion studies which have consisted of exposing corrosion coupons and stress corrosion cracking U-bend samples. The chemical analyses have identified the carboxylic acid compounds as well as the other organic components which are primarily aromatic hydrocarbons. The corrosion studies have shown that raw pyrolysis oil is very corrosive to carbon steel and other alloys with relatively low chromium content. Stress corrosion cracking samples of carbon steel and several low alloy steels developed through-wall cracks after a few hundred hours of exposure at 50 C. Thermochemical processing of biomass can produce solid, liquid and/or gaseous products depending on the temperature and exposure time used for processing. The liquid product, known as pyrolysis oil or bio-oil, as produced contains a significant amount of oxygen, primarily as components of water, carboxylic acids, phenols, ketones and aldehydes. As a result of these constituents, these oils are generally quite acidic with a Total Acid Number (TAN) that can be around 100. Because of this acidity, bio-oil is reported to be corrosive to many common structural materials. Despite this corrosive nature, these oils have the potential to replace some imported petroleum. If the more acidic components can be removed from this bio-oil, it is expected that the oil could be blended with crude oil and then processed in existing petroleum refineries. The refinery products could be transported using customary routes - pipelines, barges, tanker trucks and rail cars - without a need for modification of existing hardware or construction of new infrastructure components - a feature not shared by ethanol.

  18. International oil and gas exploration and development: 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-12-01

    This report starts where the previous quarterly publication ended. This first publication of a new annual series contains most of the same data as the quarterly report, plus some new material, through 1991. It also presents historical data covering a longer period of time than the previous quarterly report. Country-level data on oil reserves, oil production, active drilling rigs, seismic crews, wells drilled, oil reserve additions, and oil reserve-to-production rations (R/P ratios) are listed for about 85 countries, where available, from 1970 through 1991. World and regional summaries are given in both tabular and graphical form. The most popular table in the previous quarterly report, a listing of new discoveries, continues in this annual report as Appendix A.

  19. Update: Oil protectionism - three views of US vulnerability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1987-06-30

    World oil prices seem to have stabilized above the US $18 mark, many US publics fear that market power will once again be transferred to the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC). When the price was weak, many observers said the weakness reflected victory over OPEC, as if the 1986 oil price crash were a result of the Organization's failure to exert its selfish will. Now that prices are higher, will US dependency on OPEC mushroom, fueling a campaign to protect indigenous crude oil prices through effective import fees. In this issue, latest available official import statistics for three views on how US oil import dependency might be evolving are supplied. This issue also contains: (1) ED refining netback data for the US Gulf and West Coasts, Rotterdam, and Singapore for late June 1987; and (2) the ED fuel price/tax series for countries of the Eastern Hemisphere, June 1987 edition. 4 figures, 5 tables.

  20. Virtual World Grammar (Extended Abstract)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rodríguez, Inmaculada

    Virtual World Grammar (Extended Abstract) Tomas Trescak Artificial Intelligence Research Institute by means of 3D virtual worlds facilitating then the interaction among participants, i.e humans and agents. In this paper we propose a system that can automatically gen- erate a 3D virtual world from formal

  1. Smart World 2004 Semantic Modeling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brock, David

    Smart World 2004 Semantic Modeling December 8th , 2004 Modern business and operations managers decisions, and translate new data capabilities into new waves of productivity? At Smart World 2004, hear how such as interoperable data modeling and interactive simulation. Register now for Smart World 2004 to envision a fully

  2. WATER-TRAPPED WORLDS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Menou, Kristen [Department of Astronomy, Columbia University, 550 West 120th Street, New York, NY 10027 (United States)

    2013-09-01

    Although tidally locked habitable planets orbiting nearby M-dwarf stars are among the best astronomical targets to search for extrasolar life, they may also be deficient in volatiles and water. Climate models for this class of planets show atmospheric transport of water from the dayside to the nightside, where it is precipitated as snow and trapped as ice. Since ice only slowly flows back to the dayside upon accumulation, the resulting hydrological cycle can trap a large amount of water in the form of nightside ice. Using ice sheet dynamical and thermodynamical constraints, I illustrate how planets with less than about a quarter the Earth's oceans could trap most of their surface water on the nightside. This would leave their dayside, where habitable conditions are met, potentially dry. The amount and distribution of residual liquid water on the dayside depend on a variety of geophysical factors, including the efficiency of rock weathering at regulating atmospheric CO{sub 2} as dayside ocean basins dry up. Water-trapped worlds with dry daysides may offer similar advantages as land planets for habitability, by contrast with worlds where more abundant water freely flows around the globe.

  3. MARGINAL EXPENSE OIL WELL WIRELESS SURVEILLANCE MEOWS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mason M. Medizade; John R. Ridgely; Donald G. Nelson

    2004-11-01

    A marginal expense oil well wireless surveillance system to monitor system performance and production from rod-pumped wells in real time from wells operated by Vaquero Energy in the Edison Field, Main Area of Kern County in California has been successfully designed and field tested. The surveillance system includes a proprietary flow sensor, a programmable transmitting unit, a base receiver and receiving antenna, and a base station computer equipped with software to interpret the data. First, the system design is presented. Second, field data obtained from three wells is shown. Results of the study show that an effective, cost competitive, real-time wireless surveillance system can be introduced to oil fields across the United States and the world.

  4. Just oil? The distribution of environmental and social impacts of oil production and consumption

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Rourke, D; Connolly, S

    2003-01-01

    htm ENVIRONMENTAL AND SOCIAL IMPACTS OF OIL Dutch Shell andAnalysis ENVIRONMENTAL AND SOCIAL IMPACTS OF OIL Briefs:ENVIRONMENTAL AND SOCIAL IMPACTS OF OIL Oil obviously

  5. An informal description of Standard OIL and Instance OIL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Murawski, Andrzej

    An informal description of Standard OIL and Instance OIL 28 November 2000 Sean Bechhofer (1) Jeen to be specified in some language. This paper introduces the newest version of OIL ­ the ontology inference layer of the DAML language, with working name DAML-OIL, was proposed in a message to the rdf-logic mailing list

  6. European Market Study for BioOil (Pyrolysis Oil)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    European Market Study for BioOil (Pyrolysis Oil) Dec 15, 2006 Doug Bradley President Climate Change of Contents Scope Executive Summary 1. Background 2. Pyrolysis Oil-Char Supply and Export Potential 2 Competitiveness 3.1. Substitute Fuels 3.2. Price of Fossil Fuels 3.3. Delivered Costs of Pyrolysis Oil/Char 4

  7. Utilization of Estonian oil shale at power plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ots, A. [Tallin Technical Univ. (Estonia). Thermal Engineering Department

    1996-12-31

    Estonian oil shale belongs to the carbonate class and is characterized as a solid fuel with very high mineral matter content (60--70% in dry mass), moderate moisture content (9--12%) and low heating value (LHV 8--10 MJ/kg). Estonian oil shale deposits lie in layers interlacing mineral stratas. The main constituent in mineral stratas is limestone. Organic matter is joined with sandy-clay minerals in shale layers. Estonian oil shale at power plants with total capacity of 3060 MW{sub e} is utilized in pulverized form. Oil shale utilization as fuel, with high calcium oxide and alkali metal content, at power plants is connected with intensive fouling, high temperature corrosion and wear of steam boiler`s heat transfer surfaces. Utilization of Estonian oil shale is also associated with ash residue use in national economy and as absorbent for flue gas desulfurization system.

  8. Current Positions: Director Oil, Gas, & Mining, Vecron Lordstock Group (VLG)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boolchand, Punit

    Current Positions: Director Oil, Gas, & Mining, Vecron Lordstock Group (VLG) VLG is a global high and Project challenges. VLG provides core services: 1. Structured Project finance, 2. Structured Trade finance. Standard Oil of Ohio Publications, Presentations, Review Chapters, and Patents: 37 issued US Patents

  9. Post Production Heavy Oil Operations: A Case for Partial Upgrading 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lokhandwala, Taher

    2012-12-05

    The transportation of heavy oil is a pressing problem. Various methods have been devised to mitigate the reluctance to flow of these highly dense and viscous oils. This study is focused on evaluating a case for post-production partial upgrading...

  10. World energy: Building a sustainable future

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schipper, L.; Meyers, S.

    1992-04-01

    As the 20th century draws to a close, both individual countries and the world community face challenging problems related to the supply and use energy. These include local and regional environmental impacts, the prospect of global climate and sea level change associated with the greenhouse effect, and threats to international relations in connection with oil supply or nuclear proliferation. For developing countries, the financial cost of providing energy to provide basic needs and fuel economic development pose an additional burden. To assess the magnitude of future problems and the potential effectiveness of response strategies, it is important to understand how and why energy use has changed in the post and where it is heading. This requires study of the activities for which energy is used, and of how people and technology interact to provide the energy services that are desired. The authors and their colleagues have analyzed trends in energy use by sector for most of the world's major energy-consuming countries. The approach we use considers three key elements in each sector: the level of activity, structural change, and energy intensity, which expresses the amount of energy used for various activities. At a disaggregated level, energy intensity is indicative of energy efficiency. But other factors besides technical efficiency also shape intensity.

  11. Impacts of oil disturbances: lessons from experience. [1973-1974 Oil Crisis; 1978-1979 Iranian Revolution; 1980-1981 Iran-Iraq War

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Curlee, T R

    1983-01-01

    An analysis of the impacts of previous oil distrubances can be used to suggest the impacts of future oil disturbances. This paper reviews how the 1973-1974 Oil Crisis, the 1978-1979 Iranian Revolution, and the 1980-1981 Iran-Iraq War impacted the US and world oil markets. Various measures of impacts are considered, such as impacts on physical flows of crude and products, crude and product price changes on the US and world markets, impacts on stocks of crude and products, and impacts on refiners' inputs and outputs. Various macroeconomic indicators, such as gross national product, inflation rates, and unemployment, are also considered. Of particular interest in this study are the impacts that oil disturbances have had (and could have) on the availabilities of particular crude types and the abilities of US refiners to process crudes of various types in the short run. In addition, this paper reviews how the actions of the consuming countries and the major oil companies affected the impacts of past disturbances. The paper briefly discusses the likely causes and impacts of future oil distrubances and summarizes the lessons to be learned from past reactions to oil disturbances.

  12. World oilseed situation and US export opportunities, November 1983. Foreign agriculture circular

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1983-11-01

    Tight supplies have continued to dominate the oilseeds and products situation since the October report, with estimated world oilseed production (including flaxseed) dropping by half a million tons. Increased projections of world soybean and peanut supplies were more than offset by reduced estimates of cottonseed output, as well as smaller reductions in prospective sunflower and rapeseed output. Forecast protein meal consumption dropped slightly from last month's level; forecast vegetable oil consumption also dropped slightly from last month's level.

  13. Economic recovery of oil trapped at fan margins using high angle wells and multiple hydraulic fractures. Quarterly report, October 1--December 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laue, M.L.

    1997-02-13

    This project attempts to demonstrate the effectiveness of exploiting thin-layered, low-energy deposits at the distal margin of a prograding turbidite complex through the use of hydraulically- fractured horizontal or high-angle wells. The combination of a horizontal or high-angle well and hydraulic fracturing will allow greater pay exposure than can be achieved with conventional vertical wells while maintaining vertical communication between thin interbedded layers and the wellbore. A high-angle well will be drilled in the fan-margin portion of a slope-basin clastic reservoir and will be completed with multiple hydraulic-fracture treatments. Geologic modeling, reservoir characterization, and fine-grid reservoir simulation will be used to select the well location and orientation. Design parameters for the hydraulic-fracture treatments will be determined, in part, by fracturing an existing test well. Fracture azimuth will be predicted by passive seismic monitoring of a fracture-stimulation treatment in the test well using logging tools in an offset well. The Unites States Department of Energy granted approval of the continuation application to implement Budget Period Two effective November 21, 1996. The only Budget Period One activities for the quarter involved project administration. Budget Period Two activities were initiated with the development of a drilling program for the high-angle slant well. The well was spud on December 4, 1996 and was drilling at 10,830 ft in the vertical section of the hole as of the end of the month.

  14. SolarOil Project, Phase I preliminary design report. [Solar Thermal Enhanced Oil Recovery project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baccaglini, G.; Bass, J.; Neill, J.; Nicolayeff, V.; Openshaw, F.

    1980-03-01

    The preliminary design of the Solar Thermal Enhanced Oil Recovery (SolarOil) Plant is described in this document. This plant is designed to demonstrate that using solar thermal energy is technically feasible and economically viable in enhanced oil recovery (EOR). The SolarOil Plant uses the fixed mirror solar concentrator (FMSC) to heat high thermal capacity oil (MCS-2046) to 322/sup 0/C (611/sup 0/F). The hot fluid is pumped from a hot oil storage tank (20 min capacity) through a once-through steam generator which produces 4.8 MPa (700 psi) steam at 80% quality. The plant net output, averaged over 24 hr/day for 365 days/yr, is equivalent to that of a 2.4 MW (8.33 x 10/sup 6/ Btu/hr) oil-fired steam generator having an 86% availability. The net plant efficiency is 57.3% at equinox noon, a 30%/yr average. The plant will be demonstrated at an oilfield site near Oildale, California.

  15. New Products TACKLING OIL SPILLS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rock, Chris

    New Products TACKLING OIL SPILLS Low-grade nonwoven cotton Texas Tech University researchers its own weight in oil. The results strengthen the use of cotton as a natural sorbent for oil, said Mr Engineering and Environmental Toxicology. "With the 2010 crude oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico. which resulted

  16. World nuclear outlook 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-09-29

    As part of the EIA program to provide energy information, this analysis report presents the current status and projections through 2015 of nuclear capacity, generation, and fuel cycle requirements for all countries in the world using nuclear power to generate electricity for commercial use. It also contains information and forecasts of developments in the uranium market. Long-term projections of US nuclear capacity, generation, and spent fuel discharges for two different scenarios through 2040 are developed for the Department of Energy`s Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM). In turn, the OCRWM provides partial funding for preparation of this report. The projections of uranium requirements are provided to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) for preparation of the Nuclear Energy Agency/OECD report, Summary of Nuclear Power and Fuel Cycle Data in OECD Member Countries.

  17. World nuclear outlook 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1994-12-01

    As part of the EIA program to provide energy information, this analysis report presents the current status and projections through 2010 of nuclear capacity, generation, and fuel cycle requirements for all countries in the world using nuclear power to generate electricity for commercial use. It also contains information and forecasts of developments in the uranium market. Long-term projections of US nuclear capacity, generation, and spent fuel discharges for three different scenarios through 2040 are developed for the Department of Energy`s Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM). In turn, the OCRWM provides partial funding for preparation of this report. The projections of uranium requirements are provided to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) for preparation of the Nuclear Energy Agency/OECD report, Summary of Nuclear Power and Fuel Cycle Data in OECD Member Countries.

  18. Economic recovery of oil trapped at fan margins using high angle wells and multiple hydraulic fractures. Annual report, September 28, 1995--September 27, 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Niemeyer, B.L.

    1997-09-01

    The digital fan margin in the northeast portion of the Yowlumne field contains significant reserves but is not economic to develop using verticle wells. Numerous interbedded shales and deteriorating rock properties limit producibility. In addition, extreme depths (13,000 ft) present a challenging environment for hydraulic fracturing and artificial lift. Lastly, a mature waterflood increases risk because of the uncertainty with size and location of flood fronts. This project attempts to demonstrate the effectiveness of exploiting the distal fan margin of this slope-basin clastic reservoir through the use of a high-angle well completed with multiple hydraulic-fracture treatments. The combination of a high-angle (or horizontal) well and hydraulic fracturing will allow greater pay exposure than can be achieved with conventional verticle wells while maintaining verticle communication between thin interbedded layers and the wellbore. The equivalent production rate and reserves of three verticle wells are anticipated at one-half to two-thirds the cost.

  19. Economic recovery of oil trapped at fan margins using high angle wells and multiple hydraulic fractures. Quarterly report, Apr 1--June 30, 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laue, M.L.

    1997-08-31

    This project attempts to demonstrate the effectiveness of exploiting thin-layered, low-energy deposits at the distal margin of a prograding turbidite complex through the use of hydraulically-fractured horizontal or high-angle wells. The combination of a horizontal or high-angle well and hydraulic fracturing will allow greater pay exposure than can be achieved with conventional vertical wells while maintaining vertical communication between thin interbedded layers and the wellbore. A high-angle well will be drilled in the fan-margin portion of a slope-basin clastic reservoir and will be completed with multiple hydraulic-fracture treatments. Geologic modeling, reservoir characterization, and fine-grid reservoir simulation will be used to select the well location and orientation. Design parameters for the hydraulic-fracture treatments will be determined, in part, by fracturing an existing test well. Fracture azimuth will be predicted by passive seismic monitoring of a fracture-stimulation treatment in the test well using logging tools in an offset well. The long radius, near-horizontal well has been drilled and completion operations are in progress. Upon initial review of log data, two hydraulic fracture treatments were planned. However, the probability of the lower frac growing into thick sands previously swept by waterflood has called for additional information to be obtained prior to proceeding with hydraulic fracture treatments. Should permeabilities prove to be as favorable as some data indicate, produced water volumes could be excessively high. Prior to pumping the first frac, the well will be perforated and produced from lower pay intervals. These perfs will not impact future frac work. Rate data and pressure transient analysis will dictate the need for the lower frac.

  20. Securities Regulation in a Virtual World

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thompson, Shannon L.

    2009-01-01

    Regulation in a Virtual World Shannon L. Thompson* I.A. What Is a Virtual World? . B.The Virtual World of Second Life .. 1. The

  1. Maintenance Scheduling of Oil Storage Tanks using Tabu-based Genetic Algorithm *

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Shu-Ching

    petroleum vendors can sell their oil products in Taiwan now. This liberalization results in high competitionMaintenance Scheduling of Oil Storage Tanks using Tabu-based Genetic Algorithm * Sheng-Tun Li1 and the recently liberalized Petroleum Management Law, the oil market in Taiwan is liberalized and thus is becoming

  2. PEPPER (JALAPEO): Capsicum annuum L., `Milta' CONTROL OF SILVERLEAF WHITEFLY IN PEPPER WITH HORTICULTURAL MINERAL OIL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ma, Lena

    WITH HORTICULTURAL MINERAL OIL AND OTHER INSECTICIDES, 2004 P. A. Stansly University of Florida/IFAS Southwest of horticultural mineral oil (HMO) and various pesticide regimes directed primarily at pepper weevil. Greenhouse of the HMO, PureSpray Green Oil, were made starting 14 Apr using a high clearance sprayer operating at 200

  3. Oil shale research in China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jianqiu, W.; Jialin, Q. (Beijing Graduate School, Petroleum Univ., Beijing (CN))

    1989-01-01

    There have been continued efforts and new emergence in oil shale research in Chine since 1980. In this paper, the studies carried out in universities, academic, research and industrial laboratories in recent years are summarized. The research areas cover the chemical structure of kerogen; thermal behavior of oil shale; drying, pyrolysis and combustion of oil shale; shale oil upgrading; chemical utilization of oil shale; retorting waste water treatment and economic assessment.

  4. Oil Mill Operators 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Unknown

    2011-08-17

    Natural gas and petroleum are non-renewable and scarce energy sources. Although, it is well known that hydrocarbon reserves are depleting through the years, oil and gas remain the principal source of energy upon which our ...

  5. Crude Oil Prices

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    19.11 18.73 18.63 17.97 18.75 18.10 See footnotes at end of table. 21. Domestic Crude Oil First Purchase Prices Energy Information Administration Petroleum Marketing Annual...

  6. Crude Oil Prices

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    20.86 20.67 20.47 20.24 20.32 19.57 See footnotes at end of table. 21. Domestic Crude Oil First Purchase Prices Energy Information Administration Petroleum Marketing Annual...

  7. Using Oils As Pesticides 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bogran, Carlos E.; Ludwig, Scott; Metz, Bradley

    2006-10-30

    Petroleum and plant-derived spray oils show increasing potential for use as part of Integrated Pest Management systems for control of soft-bodied pests on fruit trees, shade trees, woody ornamentals and household plants. ...

  8. Understanding Crude Oil Prices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamilton, James Douglas

    2008-01-01

    that the income elasticity of U.S. petroleum demand hasincome growth over the period and 1.11 for 11 oil-exporting countries.. And it is the latter countries where petroleum

  9. Imbibition assisted oil recovery 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pashayev, Orkhan H.

    2004-11-15

    analyzed in detail to investigate oil recovery during spontaneous imbibition with different types of boundary conditions. The results of these studies have been upscaled to the field dimensions. The validity of the new definition of characteristic length...

  10. High Performance Computing

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Computing HPC High Performance Computing (HPC) Providing world-class high performance computing capability that enables unsurpassed solutions to complex problems of strategic...

  11. Nigeria`s oil production behavior: Tests of alternative hypotheses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Awokuse, T.O.; Jones, C.T.

    1994-12-31

    The sudden quadrupling of world oil prices in 1973-1974 marked the beginning of several formal inquiries by economists into the production behavior of members of the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC). Interest in the organization was further heightened in 1979 when nominal oil prices further doubled. However, oil market analysts have differed in their evaluation of OPEC`s role in the determination of world oil prices. Most energy economists have modeled OPEC as a cartel. Morris Adelman has suggested that OPEC`s true nature lies somewhere between two polar cases of a dominant-firm industry and an imperfect, market-sharing cartel. In the former case, one large, dominant firm (i.e., Saudi Arabia) serves as the {open_quotes}swing producer,{close_quotes} allowing other cartel members and non-OPEC oil producers to produce whatever they wished, controlling the market price by itself through its own output adjustments. The latter case of an imperfect market-sharing cartel is a loose collusive arrangement in which all members agree on an acceptable price level and individual output shares for each producer. Adelman believes that OPEC wobbles between these two cases, depending upon market conditions.

  12. Bold Step by the World to Fusion Energy: ITER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bold Step by the World to Fusion Energy: ITER Gerald A. Navratil 2006 Con Edison Lecture Fu electrically charged particles at very high energy: Threshold temperature for most reactive fusion reaction' FUSION PLASMA REGIME. · US WORKING WITH INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY IS NOW READY TO BUILD THE WORLDS FIRST

  13. Changes in exchange rates and oil prices for Saudi Arabia and other OPEC members

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cooper, R.L.

    1994-12-31

    When the U.S. dollar weakens significantly against currencies of other major trading nations, oil-exporting countries often become concerned about both loss of purchasing power for their imports as well as capital losses on dollar-denominated assets. This paper addresses these issues by (1) examining previous studies, (2) reviewing the historical oil price movements of oil denominated in different G-7 currencies, (3) performing a causality test between changes in exchange rates and the price of oil, (4) using an analytical model to relate changes in exchange rates and the price of oil through the world oil market; and (5) evaluating the gains and losses in terms of purchasing power of Saudi Arabia and other members of the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries for selected historical periods.

  14. Oil/gas collector/separator for underwater oil leaks

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Henning, Carl D. (Livermore, CA)

    1993-01-01

    An oil/gas collector/separator for recovery of oil leaking, for example, from an offshore or underwater oil well. The separator is floated over the point of the leak and tethered in place so as to receive oil/gas floating, or forced under pressure, toward the water surface from either a broken or leaking oil well casing, line, or sunken ship. The separator is provided with a downwardly extending skirt to contain the oil/gas which floats or is forced upward into a dome wherein the gas is separated from the oil/water, with the gas being flared (burned) at the top of the dome, and the oil is separated from water and pumped to a point of use. Since the density of oil is less than that of water it can be easily separated from any water entering the dome.

  15. Seismic stimulation for enhanced oil recovery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pride, S.R.

    2008-01-01

    aims to enhance oil production by sending seismic wavesbe expected to enhance oil production. INTRODUCTION The hopethe reservoir can cause oil production to increase. Quite

  16. WASTEWATER TREATMENT IN THE OIL SHALE INDUSTRY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fox, J.P.

    2010-01-01

    H. H. Peters, Shale Oil Waste Water Recovery by Evaporation,treatment of oil shale waste products. Consequently, bothmost difficult and costly oil shale waste stream requiring

  17. Water Heaters (Storage Oil) | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Oil) Water Heaters (Storage Oil) Water Heater, Storage Oil - v1.0.xlsx More Documents & Publications Water Heaters (Tankless Electric) Water Heaters (Storage Electric)...

  18. WASTEWATER TREATMENT IN THE OIL SHALE INDUSTRY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fox, J.P.

    2010-01-01

    during oil shale retorting: retort water and gas condensate.commercial oil shale plant, retort water and gas condensateunique to an oil shale retort water, gas condensate, and

  19. 2008 world direct reduction statistics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    This supplement discusses total direct reduced iron (DRI) production for 2007 and 2008 by process. Total 2008 production by MIDREX(reg sign) direct reduction process plants was over 39.8 million tons. The total of all coal-based processes was 17.6 million tons. Statistics for world DRI production are also given by region for 2007 and 2008 and by year (1970-2009). Capacity utilization for 2008 by process is given. World DRI production by region and by process is given for 1998-2008 and world DRI shipments are given from the 1970s to 2008. A list of world direct reduction plants is included.

  20. Model of world energy markets and OPEC pricing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choe, B.J.

    1984-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the world energy and petroleum markets, carried out by means of an econometric simulation model. The model accepts a certain pricing path for OPEC crude oil (a price seen as being chosen by OPEC mainly on the basis of its revenue implications) together with assumptions about GDP and population growth, and generates energy balance projections for seven world regions - three industrial country regions and four developing country groups. The demand side of the model consists of three end-use sectors (transportation, industrial and residential/commercial) and one energy transformation sector (thermal power generation). The model presently has an endogenous supply specification only for coal. The performance of the model in simulating the historical period of the 1970s was reasonably satisfactory. Simulation results under a range of assumptions about future economic growth and OPEC pricing portend that world demand for energy and petroleum is likely to remain at relatively low levels throughout the 1980s and the early 1990s. Past and expected petroleum price increases will provide a strong and sustained incentive to substitute away from energy and petroleum; enough to keep the demand for OPEC oil comfortably within OPEC's productive capacity through the early 1990s. Coal will play a key role as a substitute fuel for the next 20 years. About two-thirds of the projected incremental demand for primary energy between 1978 and the year 2000 is accounted for by developing countries. 87 references, 8 figures, 45 tables.

  1. Submitted to The First World Congress on Integrated Design and Process Technology Integrated Production Systems for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Foss, Bjarne A.

    and petrochemical plants, oil-processing plants including re neries, pulp and paper plants, metallurgical plantsSubmitted to The First World Congress on Integrated Design and Process Technology Integrated Production Systems for The Process Industries yBjarne A. Foss 1, zRoger Klev, zMorten Levin, xKristian Lien y

  2. Mild hydrocracking of virgin vacuum gas oil, cycle oils and coker gas oil with the T-STAR{reg_sign} process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nongbri, G.; Rodarte, A.I. [Texaco Fuels and Lubricants Research Dept., Port Arthur, TX (United States); Falsetti, J.S. [Texaco Inc., White Plains, NY (United States). Alternate Energy Resources Dept.

    1996-12-01

    Texaco Fuels and Lubricants Research recently completed a successful pilot plant program demonstrating the use of the T-STAR{reg_sign} process for mild hydrocracking of blends of low value feedstocks (cycle oils, coker gas oils), virgin distillates and vacuum gas oils to generate high quality diesel and improved quality FCC feed. The T-STAR{reg_sign} Process runs at constant temperature. Catalytic activity is maintained by daily catalyst addition and withdrawal while the unit is on stream. No unit shutdown is needed to replace the catalyst. The possibility of bed plugging or blockage from accumulation of fine solids in the feed is virtually eliminated in this ebullated bed system and the reactor operates with a low and constant pressure drop. The process handles a variety of feedstocks including light and heavy coker gas oils and deasphalted oils. Yields and product properties from a blend of virgin vacuum gas oil, light cycle gas oil and heavy coker gas oil are discussed. A scheme for integrating this process in an existing refinery is also presented.

  3. Linkages between the markets for crude oil and the markets for refined products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Didziulis, V.S.

    1990-01-01

    To understand the crude oil price determination process it is necessary to extend the analysis beyond the markets for petroleum. Crude oil prices are determined in two closely related markets: the markets for crude oil and the markets for refined products. An econometric-linear programming model was developed to capture the linkages between the markets for crude oil and refined products. In the LP refiners maximize profits given crude oil supplies, refining capacities, and prices of refined products. The objective function is profit maximization net of crude oil prices. The shadow price on crude oil gives the netback price. Refined product prices are obtained from the econometric models. The model covers the free world divided in five regions. The model is used to analyze the impacts on the markets of policies that affect crude oil supplies, the demands for refined products, and the refining industry. For each scenario analyzed the demand for crude oil is derived from the equilibrium conditions in the markets for products. The demand curve is confronted with a supply curve which maximizes revenues providing an equilibrium solution for both crude oil and product markets. The model also captures crude oil price differentials by quality. The results show that the demands for crude oil are different across regions due to the structure of the refining industries and the characteristics of the demands for refined products. Changes in the demands for products have a larger impact on the markets than changes in the refining industry. Since markets for refined products and crude oil are interrelated they can't be analyzed individually if an accurate and complete assessment of a policy is to be made. Changes in only one product market in one region affect the other product markets and the prices of crude oil.

  4. The Role of the Flexicoking Process in Heavy Oil Processing 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Taylor, R. I.

    1980-01-01

    conversion, the FLEXICOKING process can also be used as the primary technology for Stand Alone Energy Centers upgrading low quality, high metals, heavy crudes. These efficient energy centers can be located either at a heavy oil production field or integrated...

  5. Collaborative Lubricating Oil Study on Emissions (CLOSE) Project

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Extensive chemical and physical characterization performed on emissions from normal and high emitting light-, medium-, and heavy-duty vehicles to evaluate relative contributions of fuel and lubricating oil on tailpipe emissions.

  6. Small-world models Winfried Just

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Just, Winfried

    Small-world models Winfried Just Hannah Callender May 27, 2015 Small-world networks are classes of networks that have both the small-world property and exhibit strong clustering. Two constructions worlds 1.1 The small-world property and small-world networks In our module Exploring distances with IONTW

  7. A field laboratory for improved oil recovery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hildebrandt, A.F.; McDonald, J.; Claridge, E.; Killough, J.

    1992-09-01

    The purpose of Annex III of the Memorandum of Understanding, undertaken by the Houston Petroleum Research Center at the University of Houston, was to develop a field laboratory for research in improved oil recovery using a Gulf Coast reservoir in Texas. The participants: (1) make a field site selection and conducted a high resolution seismic survey in the demonstration field, (2) obtained characteristics of the reservoir (3) developed an evaluation of local flood efficiency in different parts of the demonstration reservoir, (4) used diverse methodology to evaluate the potential recovery of the remaining oil in the test reservoir, (5) developed cross-well seismic tomography, and (6) will transfer the learned technologies to oil operators through publication and workshops. This abstract is an overview of these tasks.

  8. Enhanced Oil Recovery: Aqueous Flow Tracer Measurement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joseph Rovani; John Schabron

    2009-02-01

    A low detection limit analytical method was developed to measure a suite of benzoic acid and fluorinated benzoic acid compounds intended for use as tracers for enhanced oil recovery operations. Although the new high performance liquid chromatography separation successfully measured the tracers in an aqueous matrix at low part per billion levels, the low detection limits could not be achieved in oil field water due to interference problems with the hydrocarbon-saturated water using the system's UV detector. Commercial instrument vendors were contacted in an effort to determine if mass spectrometry could be used as an alternate detection technique. The results of their work demonstrate that low part per billion analysis of the tracer compounds in oil field water could be achieved using ultra performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry.

  9. Oak Ridge 'Jaguar' Supercomputer is World's Fastest | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Jaguar from around the world. High-end visualization helps users make sense of the data flood Jaguar generates. Media contact(s): (202) 586-4940 Addthis Related Articles DOE's...

  10. Monitoring Seismic Attenuation Changes Using a 4D Relative Spectrum Method in Athabsca Heavy Oil Reservoir, Canada

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shabelansky, Andrey Hanan

    2012-01-01

    Heating heavy oil reservoirs is a common method for reducing the high viscosity of heavy oil and thus increasing the recovery factor. Monitoring these changes in the reservoir is essential for delineating the heated region ...

  11. WORLD CONFERENCE AND GENEALOGICAL SEMINAR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Olsen Jr., Dan R.

    WORLD CONFERENCE ON RECORDS AND GENEALOGICAL SEMINAR Salt Lake City, Utah, U.S.A. 5-8 August 1969 Research In Yugoslavia By Joze Zontar COPYRIGHT© 1969 THE GENEALOGICAL SOCIETY OF THE CHURCH OF JESUS CHRIST OF LATTER·DAY SAINTS, INC. AREA 0 -13 WORLD CONFERENCE ON RECORDS AND GENEALOGICAL SEMINAR Salt

  12. Oil and Gas Investor returns climb as oil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arizona, University of

    Oil and Gas Investor returns climb as oil and gas drilling ventures succeed. www #12;Eng-Tips Forum Medical News Building/Construction · Engineers Advance Fuel Cell Technology · Micro

  13. Oil, Water, and Wildlife: The Gulf of Mexico Disaster and Related Environmental Issues

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Bickman, John W. [Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana, United States

    2010-09-01

    The BP Macondo oil field spill in the Gulf of Mexico is the largest oil spill in U.S. history and has the potential to impact sea turtle and marine mammal populations, and others. This presentation will review the genotoxic effects of oil exposure in wildlife and discuss the potential for an oil spill to impact wildlife populations. Whereas some aspects of a spill are predictable, each spill is different because oils are highly variable, as are the environments in which they occur. The presentation will discuss what has been learned from previous spills, including the Exxon Valdez and the soviet oil legacy in Azerbaijan, and the potential dangers of offshore oil development in the Arctic. Related Purdue University research efforts in oil-spill related engineering and science also will be highlighted.

  14. Oil, Water, and Wildlife: The Gulf of Mexico Disaster and Related Environmental Issues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bickman, John W.

    2010-08-04

    The BP Macondo oil field spill in the Gulf of Mexico is the largest oil spill in U.S. history and has the potential to impact sea turtle and marine mammal populations, and others. This presentation will review the genotoxic effects of oil exposure in wildlife and discuss the potential for an oil spill to impact wildlife populations. Whereas some aspects of a spill are predictable, each spill is different because oils are highly variable, as are the environments in which they occur. The presentation will discuss what has been learned from previous spills, including the Exxon Valdez and the soviet oil legacy in Azerbaijan, and the potential dangers of offshore oil development in the Arctic. Related Purdue University research efforts in oil-spill related engineering and science also will be highlighted.

  15. Used Oil and Filter Disposal Used Oil: Create a segregated storage area or container. Label the container "Waste Oil Only".

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maroncelli, Mark

    the container "Waste Oil Only". Maintain a written log to document all amounts and types of oil addedUsed Oil and Filter Disposal Used Oil: Create a segregated storage area or container. Label to the container. No solvents, oil contaminated with solvents, PCBs, non-petroleum based oils, or any other

  16. Coal-oil slurry preparation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tao, John C. (Perkiomenville, PA)

    1983-01-01

    A pumpable slurry of pulverized coal in a coal-derived hydrocarbon oil carrier which slurry is useful as a low-ash, low-sulfur clean fuel, is produced from a high sulfur-containing coal. The initial pulverized coal is separated by gravity differentiation into (1) a high density refuse fraction containing the major portion of non-coal mineral products and sulfur, (2) a lowest density fraction of low sulfur content and (3) a middlings fraction of intermediate sulfur and ash content. The refuse fraction (1) is gasified by partial combustion producing a crude gas product from which a hydrogen stream is separated for use in hydrogenative liquefaction of the middlings fraction (3). The lowest density fraction (2) is mixed with the liquefied coal product to provide the desired fuel slurry. Preferably there is also separately recovered from the coal liquefaction LPG and pipeline gas.

  17. Non-OPEC oil supply gains to outpace demand in 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beck, R.J.

    1997-01-27

    Rising oil supplies in 1997 will relax some of the market tightness that drove up crude prices last year. Worldwide demand for petroleum products in 1996 rose faster than anticipated and faster than supply from outside the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries. This increased demand for OPEC oil and pushed up prices for crude. At year end, the world export price of crude was up more than 25% from the same period a year earlier. Market conditions will change in 1997. While worldwide economic growth will continue to boost demand for energy and petroleum, non-OPEC petroleum supply will grow even more. Increases in North Sea and Latin American production will help boost non-OPEC output by 1.9 million b/d. And revenues from 1996 production gains will make additional investment possible in exploration and production. The paper discusses world economic growth, world oil demand, worldwide supply, supply outlook, prices and international drilling.

  18. Economics, producer politics will shape oil markets through 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-10-25

    Two main forces will shape the oil market during the next 3 years. The pace of worldwide economic growth will determine demand growth. Although energy use efficiency has improved, especially in the industrialized world, demand for energy and oil products remains chiefly a function of economic activity. And producing nation politics will have much to say about supply. A crucial and unpredictable variable is when Iraq, now subject to a United Nations trade embargo, resumes exports at significant rates. Demand growth will exceed production increases outside the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries, which means an ever-increasing role for the exporters' group. The paper discusses the demand outlook, economic projections, energy intensity, regional energy mixes, world energy mix, petroleum demand, petroleum product demand, supply questions, non-OPEC production, reserves and output capacity, production gains, industry operations (drilling, stocks, refining), prices, price forecasts, and the role of taxes.

  19. Virent is Replacing Crude Oil

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Breakout Session 2A—Conversion Technologies II: Bio-Oils, Sugar Intermediates, Precursors, Distributed Models, and Refinery Co-Processing Virent is Replacing Crude Oil Randy Cortright, Founder & Chief Technology Officer, Virent

  20. Business cycles in oil economies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Al-Mutairi, N.H.

    1991-01-01

    This study examines the impact of oil price shocks on output fluctuations of several oil-exporting economies. In most studies of business cycles, the role of oil price is ignored; the few studies that use oil price as one of the variables in the system focus on modeling oil-importing economies. The vector autoregression (VAR) technique is used to consider the cases of Norway, Nigeria, and Mexico. Both atheoretical and structural' VARs are estimated to determine the importance of oil price impulses on output variations. The study reports two types of results: variance decomposition and impulse response functions, with particular emphasis on the issues of stationarity and co-integration among the series. The empirical results suggest that shocks to oil price are important in explaining output variations. In most cases, shocks to oil price are shown to explain more than 20% of the forecast variance of output over a 40-quarter horizon.

  1. Oil | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuelsof EnergyApril 2014DepartmentCouncilOffice of the ChiefResearchOil Oil For

  2. Oil and gas outlook

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry Natural GasNatural GasEIARegionalMethodologyNorth093 *Oil andOil and

  3. Exsolution Enhanced Oil Recovery with Concurrent CO2 Sequestration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zuo, Lin; Benson, Sally M.

    2013-01-01

    A novel EOR method using carbonated water injection followed by depressurization is introduced. Results from micromodel experiments are presented to demonstrate the fundamental principles of this oil recovery method. A depressurization process (1 MPa/hr) was applied to a micromodel following carbonated water injection (Ca ? 10-5). The exsolved CO2 in water-filled pores blocked water flow in swiped portions and displaced water into oil-filled pores. Trapped oil after the carbonated water injection was mobilized by sequentially invading water. This method's self-distributed mobility control and local clogging was tested in a sandstone sample under reservoir conditions. A 10% incremental oil recovery was achieved by lowering the pressure 2 MPa below the CO2 liberation pressure. Additionally, exsolved CO2 resides in the pores of a reservoir as an immobile phase with a high residual saturation after oil production, exhibiting a potential synergy opportunity between CO2 EOR and CO2 sequestration

  4. Soil stabilization using oil-shale solid waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turner, J.P. (Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States). Dept. of Civil and Archeological Engineering)

    1994-04-01

    Oil-shale solid wastes are evaluated for use as soil stabilizers. A laboratory study consisted of the following tests on compacted samples of soil treated with water and spent oil shale: unconfined compressive strength, moisture-density relationships, wet-dry and freeze-thaw durability, and resilient modulus. Significant increases in strength, durability, and resilient modulus were obtained by treating a silty sand with combusted western oil shale. Moderate increases in durability and resilient modulus were obtained by treating a highly plastic clay with combusted western oil shale. Solid waste from eastern oil shale appears to be feasible for soil stabilization only if limestone is added during combustion. Testing methods, results, and recommendations for mix design of spent shale-stabilized pavement subgrades are presented and the mechanisms of spent-shale cementation are discussed.

  5. SOI-Based Integrated Circuits for High-Temperature Applications M. A Huque1,*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tolbert, Leon M.

    -regulator, silicon-on-insulator. I. Introduction Global oil production is predicted to reach its peak by year 2015 [1]. After reaching the maximum, oil production will start to decrease sharply. At present time, the world Potential shortage of world wide petroleum supply in the near future has created an enormous demand

  6. Nineteenth oil shale symposium proceedings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary, J.H.

    1986-01-01

    This book contains 23 selections. Some of the titles are: Effects of maturation on hydrocarbon recoveries from Canadian oil shale deposits; Dust and pressure generated during commercial oil shale mine blasting: Part II; The petrosix project in Brazil - An update; Pathway of some trace elements during fluidized-bed combustion of Israeli Oil Shale; and Decommissioning of the U.S. Department of Energy Anvil Points Oil Shale Research Facility.

  7. Novel Bioplastics and biocomposites from Vegetable Oils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phillip H. Henna

    2008-08-18

    Polymeric materials have been prevalent in our everyday lives for quite a long time. Most of today's polymeric materials are derived from nonrenewable petroleum-based feedstocks. Instabilities in the regions where petroleum is drilled, along with an increased demand in petroleum, have driven the price of crude oil to record high prices. This, in effect, increases the price of petroleum-based polymeric materials, which has caused a heightened awareness of renewable alternatives for polymeric feedstocks. Cellulose, starch, proteins and natural oils have all been examined as possible polymeric feedstocks. Natural oils are commercially available on a large scale and are relatively cheap. It is projected that the U.S. alone will produce 21 billion pounds of soybean oil in the period 2008/2009. Natural oils also have the advantages of inherent biodegradability, low toxicity, high purity and ready availability. Most natural oils possess a triglyceride structure as shown in Figure 1. Most natural oils have a unique distribution of fatty acid side chains, along with varying degrees of unsaturation per triglyceride. Common fatty acid side chains in naturally occurring oils are palmitic acid (C16:0), a 16 carbon fatty acid with no unsaturation; stearic acid (C18:0), an 18 carbon fatty acid with no unsaturation; oleic acid (C18:1), an 18 carbon fatty acid with one double bond; linoleic acid (C18:2), an 18 carbon fatty acid with two double bonds; and linolenic acid (C18:3), an 18 carbon fatty acid with three double bonds. Of course, there are other fatty acids with varying degrees of unsaturation, but their abundance is usually minimal. All of the unsaturated fatty acids mentioned have naturally occurring cis double bonds, which is common for most unsaturated fatty acids. In addition, the afore mentioned fatty acids have the first double bond at the position of carbon 9 (C9), followed by carbon 12 (C12), if there are two degrees of unsaturation, then at carbon 15 (C15), if there are three degrees of unsaturation. In addition, the double bonds are not in conjugation. Table 1 gives the fatty acid make-up of linseed oil. It can be seen that linseed oil has an average of 6.0 double bonds per triglyceride. Its fatty acid content consists of 5.4% palmitic acid (C16:0), 3.5% stearic acid (C18:0), 19% oleic acid (C18:1), 24 % linoleic acid (C18:2) and 47% linolenic (C18:3). Table 1 also gives the fatty acid composition and varying degrees of unsaturation for various other naturally-occurring natural vegetable oils. The regions of unsaturation in natural oils allow for interesting polymer chemistry to take place. Some of this interesting polymer science, however, involves chemical modification of the regions of unsaturation. Acrylated epoxidized soybean oil (AESO) is prepared by epoxidation of the double bonds, followed by ring opening with acrylic acid. The resulting oil has both acrylate groups and hydroxyl groups. Wool and colleagues have further reacted the hydroxyl groups within the oil with maleic anhydride to produce maleated acrylated epoxidized soybean oil (MAESO). The MAESO has been copolymerized with styrene free radically to produce promising thermosetting sheet molding resins. Petrovi? and co-workers have directly ring opened the epoxidized oil to produce polyols that produce promising polyurethanes through condensation polymerization with diisocyanates. Our group's work initially focused on direct cationic copolymerization of the double bonds or conjugated double bonds of natural oils with monomers, such as styrene and divinylbenzene, to produce promising thermosetting resins. The only modification of the oils that was carried out in these studies was conjugation of the double bonds to enhance the reactivity of the oil. This work has been expanded recently with the incorporation of glass fiber to produce promising composites. We have also explored thermal polymerization techniques to make novel thermosets. This dissertation is divided into four chapters. The first chapter discusses the synthesis and characterization of biobased

  8. Oil Conservation Division Environmental Bureau

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oil Conservation Division Environmental Bureau Brine Well Collapse Evaluation Report June 18, 2009 Prukop of the Energy, Minerals and Natural Resources Department (EMNRD) ordered the Oil Conservation directed OCD to work with the Environmental Protection Agency, other states, technical experts, and oil

  9. Hypocholesterolemic Effects of Marine Oils

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hypocholesterolemic Effects of Marine Oils UNITED STATES DEPART MENT OF THE INTERIOR FISH FISHERIES, H. E. Crowther, Director Hypocholesterolemic Effects of Marine Oils By JAMES J. PEIFER Excerpt from Chapter 23 of the book, "Fish Oils,·· M. E. Stansby, editor Avi Publishing Company, Westport

  10. OIL ANALYSIS LAB TRIVECTOR ANALYSIS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    OIL ANALYSIS LAB TRIVECTOR ANALYSIS This test method is a good routine test for the overall condition of the oil, the cleanliness, and can indicate the presence of wear metals that could be coming of magnetic metal particles within the oil. This may represent metals being worn from components (i

  11. Oil shale: Technology status report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1986-10-01

    This report documents the status of the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Oil Shale Program as of the end of FY 86. The report consists of (1) a status of oil shale development, (2) a description of the DOE Oil Shale Program, (3) an FY 86 oil shale research summary, and (4) a summary of FY 86 accomplishments. Discoveries were made in FY 86 about the physical and chemical properties and behavior of oil shales, process chemistry and kinetics, in situ retorting, advanced processes, and the environmental behavior and fate of wastes. The DOE Oil Shale Program shows an increasing emphasis on eastern US oil shales and in the development of advanced oil shale processing concepts. With the award to Foster Wheeler for the design of oil shale conceptual plants, the first step in the development of a systems analysis capability for the complete oil shale process has been taken. Unocal's Parachute Creek project, the only commercial oil shale plant operating in the United States, is operating at about 4000 bbl/day. The shale oil is upgraded at Parachute Creek for input to a conventional refinery. 67 refs., 21 figs., 3 tabs.

  12. The Politics of Oil Nationalizations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mahdavi, Paasha

    2015-01-01

    s ability to use oil wealth to finance its expenditures.Finance Bribes paid to SOCAR officials Bribes through agents to Sonangol, Iraqi oilFinance Act, and in the United States the effective tax rate is 16.7% for shallow-water oil

  13. Possibility in the Actual World

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Webb, Douglas J.

    Possibility in the Actual World Douglas J. Webb I. Introduction If one affirms an unrestricted law of bivalence, then there is a set of present truths that captures everything about the future. To begin, let me explain and briefly criticize... no other way the world (this world) can go. What is true cannot become false; hence what is true is logically fixed, or necessarily true. On the other hand, we suspect that in the reasoning just mentioned we are somehow confusing truth with necessity...

  14. Effects of crossflow velocity and transmembrane pressure on microfiltration of oil-in-water emulsions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Darvishzadeh, Tohid

    2012-01-01

    This study addresses the issue of oil removal from water using hydrophilic porous membranes. The effective separation of oil-in-water dispersions involves high flux of water through the membrane and, at the same time, high rejection rate of the oil phase. The effects of transmembrane pressure and crossflow velocity on rejection of oil droplets and thin oil films by pores of different cross-section are investigated numerically by solving the Navier-Stokes equation. We found that in the absence of crossflow, the critical transmembrane pressure, which is required for the oil droplet entry into a circular pore of a given surface hydrophilicity, agrees well with analytical predictions based on the Young-Laplace equation. With increasing crossflow velocity, the shape of the oil droplet is strongly deformed near the pore entrance and the critical pressure of permeation increases. We determined numerically the phase diagram for the droplet rejection, permeation, and breakup depending of the transmembrane pressure and...

  15. African oil plays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clifford, A.J. )

    1989-09-01

    The vast continent of Africa hosts over eight sedimentary basins, covering approximately half its total area. Of these basins, only 82% have entered a mature exploration phase, 9% have had little or no exploration at all. Since oil was first discovered in Africa during the mid-1950s, old play concepts continue to bear fruit, for example in Egypt and Nigeria, while new play concepts promise to become more important, such as in Algeria, Angola, Chad, Egypt, Gabon, and Sudan. The most exciting developments of recent years in African oil exploration are: (1) the Gamba/Dentale play, onshore Gabon; (2) the Pinda play, offshore Angola; (3) the Lucula/Toca play, offshore Cabinda; (4) the Metlaoui play, offshore Libya/Tunisia; (5) the mid-Cretaceous sand play, Chad/Sudan; and (6) the TAG-I/F6 play, onshore Algeria. Examples of these plays are illustrated along with some of the more traditional oil plays. Where are the future oil plays likely to develop No doubt, the Saharan basins of Algeria and Libya will feature strongly, also the presalt of Equatorial West Africa, the Central African Rift System and, more speculatively, offshore Ethiopia and Namibia, and onshore Madagascar, Mozambique, and Tanzania.

  16. Production of Shale Oil 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Loper, R. D.

    1982-01-01

    part of 40% share up to a maximum of $1.1 billion. North of these two projects are the two prot Federal lease projects in Colorado -- the we most operated by the Rio Blanco Shale Oil Co a limited partnership between Amoco and Gulf Their early...

  17. Dying for oil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sachs, A.

    1996-05-01

    This article discusses the fight and execution of Ken Saro-Wiwa, the Ogoni leader who defended his people`s land on the Niger delta against oil development encouraged by the government and persued by the Royal/Dutch Shell Co. Political reprocussions and heightened vigilance of environmental activists are discussed at length.

  18. Structural Oil Pan With Integrated Oil Filtration And Cooling System

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Freese, V, Charles Edwin (Westland, MI)

    2000-05-09

    An oil pan for an internal combustion engine includes a body defining a reservoir for collecting engine coolant. The reservoir has a bottom and side walls extending upwardly from the bottom to present a flanged lip through which the oil pan may be mounted to the engine. An oil cooler assembly is housed within the body of the oil pan for cooling lubricant received from the engine. The body includes an oil inlet passage formed integrally therewith for receiving lubricant from the engine and delivering lubricant to the oil cooler. In addition, the body also includes an oil pick up passage formed integrally therewith for providing fluid communication between the reservoir and the engine through the flanged lip.

  19. Microsoft Word - high-oil-price.doc

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry NaturalPrices1Markets See(STEO) Highlights11

  20. Energy Policy 34 (2006) 515531 Have we run out of oil yet? Oil peaking analysis from

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2006-01-01

    of conventional oil production from an optimist's perspective. Is the oil peak imminent? What is the range oil production, geological constraints on the rates at which oil can be produced are not represented. Unconventional oil is chosen because production from Venezuela's heavy-oil fields and Canada's Athabascan oil

  1. Toward a defense-dominated world

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wood, L.

    1993-08-01

    Maintaining the large-scale peace in a defense-dominated world necessarily will require not only passive but also active defenses against large-scale aggression that are technically feasible, practical and easy to employ -- and robust against perversion into support of aggression. Such peace maintenance tool-sets will feature means for effectively rebuking aggression as well as providing timely and very widely available seaming of aggression underway anywhere. This report discusses the technology base which currently exists to provide world-wide, high-quality imagery at moderate (5--10 meter) spatial resolution or imagery of 1% of the Earth`s land surface at high ({le} 1 meter) resolution no less frequently than daily, at a total cost of the order of $1 B, with operational capability in the later `90s. Such systems could provide timely warning of aggressive actions anywhere. Similarly, space-based means of defeating aggression conducted with even quite short-range ballistic missiles anywhere in the world could be brought into existence by the end of the `90s for a total cost of about $10 B, and small high-altitude, long flight-duration robotic aircraft carrying high-performance sensors and interceptor missilery could provide both seaming and active defenses against attacks conducted with very short range ballistic missiles, as well as attacks launched with air-breathing threats such as bombers and cruise missiles, for a cost per defended area of the order of $10/km{sup 2}. It appears that all of the associated sensors can find apt dual-use as high-performance systems for monitoring physical aspects of the human environment.

  2. The world price of coal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ellerman, A. Denny

    1994-01-01

    A significant increase in the seaborne trade for coal over the past twenty years has unified formerly separate coal markets into a world market in which prices move in tandem. Due to its large domestic market, the United ...

  3. Entrepreneurial ecosystems around the world

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kumar, Anand R

    2013-01-01

    Entrepreneurship is a vehicle of growth and job creation. America has understood it and benefitted most from following this philosophy. Governments around the world need to build and grow their entrepreneurial ecosystems ...

  4. Following the world's first nuclear...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Laboratory) 35 National Security Science December 2014 From 1943 until the end of World War II (WWII) in 1945, Los Alamos was a secret city-officially it did not exist. Even...

  5. World Best Practice Energy Intensity Values for Selected Industrial Sectors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Worrell, Ernst; Price, Lynn; Neelis, Maarten; Galitsky, Christina; Zhou, Nan

    2007-01-01

    ammonia is made from heavy oil and coal, which is much lessfeedstock, followed by heavy oil, which requires an averagepartial oxidization of heavy fuel oil, gasification of coal,

  6. World Best Practice Energy Intensity Values for Selected Industrial Sectors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Worrell, Ernst; Price, Lynn; Neelis, Maarten; Galitsky, Christina; Zhou, Nan

    2007-01-01

    feedstock, followed by heavy oil, which requires an averageammonia is made from heavy oil and coal, which is much lesspartial oxidization of heavy fuel oil, gasification of coal,

  7. Geometric Constraint in Brane-World

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    E. M. Monte

    2006-02-15

    The brane-worlds model was inspired partly by Kaluza-Klein's theory, where the gravitation and the gauge fields are obtained of a geometry of higher dimension (bulk). Such a model has been showing positive in the sense of we find perspectives and probably deep modifications in the physics, such as: Unification in a scale TeV, quantum gravity in this scale and deviation of Newton's law for small distances. One of the principles of this model is to suppose a space-time embedded in a bulk of high dimension. In this note it is shown, basing on the theorem of Collinson-Szekeres, that the space-time of Schwarzschild cannot be embedded locally and isometrically in a bulk of five dimensions with constant curvature,(for example ADS-5). From the point of view of the semi-Riemannian geometry this last result consists constraints to the model brane-world.

  8. Vegetable oils: Precombustion characteristics and performance as diesel fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bagby, M.O.

    1986-03-01

    Vegetable oils show technical promise as alternative fuels for diesel engines and have good potential as emergency fuels. Realistically, vegetable oils cause a number of problems when used in direct-injection diesel engines, generally attributable to inefficient combustion. At least partially responsible for poor combustion of neat vegetable oils are their high viscosity and non-volatility. To improve combustion several somewhat empirical approaches involving both chemical and physical modifications have been investigated by endurance tests in a variety of engines. Using the EMA 200 h engine screening test, several fuels show technical promise. These include methyl, ethyl, and butyl esters; high-oleic oils:diesel blend (1:3); diesel:soybean oil:butanol:cetane improver (33:33:33:1); and microemulsion fuels (diesel:soybean oil:190 proff ethanol:butanol, 50:25:5:20) and (soybean oil:methanol:2-octanol:cetane improver, 53:13:33:1). Using a pressure vessel, fuel injection system, and high speed motion picture camera, fuel injection characteristics of vegetable oils, e.g., soybean, sunflower, cottonseed, and peanut, have been observed in a quiescent nitrogen atmosphere at 480/sup 0/C and 4.1MPa. Their injection and atomization characteristics are markedly different from those of petroleum derived diesel fuels. Heating the vegetable oils to lower their viscosities increased spray penetration rate, reduced spray cone angles, and resulted in spray characteristics resembling those of diesel fuel. Significant chemical changes occurred following injection. Samples collected at about 400 microseconds after the injection event consisted of appreciable quantities of C/sub 4/-C/sub 16/ hydrocarbons, and free carboxyl groups were present.

  9. Just oil? The distribution of environmental and social impacts of oil production and consumption

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Rourke, D; Connolly, S

    2003-01-01

    bution of the impacts of oil production and consumption. Theof harmful effects from oil production and use. A criticaland procedural impacts of oil production and consumption

  10. Just oil? The distribution of environmental and social impacts of oil production and consumption

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Rourke, D; Connolly, S

    2003-01-01

    of the impacts of oil production and consumption. The reviewimpacts of oil production and consumption conclude theincreased oil production and consumption. But how well do

  11. Just oil? The distribution of environmental and social impacts of oil production and consumption

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Rourke, D; Connolly, S

    2003-01-01

    AND SOCIAL IMPACTS OF OIL product, product that does notthe quantity of oil products that escapes from pipelines. ”transport of crude oil and petroleum products accounted for

  12. Just oil? The distribution of environmental and social impacts of oil production and consumption

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Rourke, D; Connolly, S

    2003-01-01

    VII. IMPACTS OF OIL CONSUMPTION . . . . . . .and the location of oil consumption necessitates that crudere?neries. VII. IMPACTS OF OIL CONSUMPTION The combustion of

  13. Canada's heavy oil, bitumen upgrading activity is growing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Corbett, R.A.

    1989-06-26

    Heavy oil and bitumen upgrading activity in Canada is surging with the recent start-up of two new upgraders and with plans to build others. These new upgraders make use of modern hydrocracking technology. Articles in this special report on upgrading focus on Canada's oil and bitumen reserves, the promising technologies that upgrade them, and present details of some of the current upgrader projects. This article covers the following areas: Canada's heavy oils; Upgrading expands; Upgrading technologies; Test results; Regional upgraders; High-quality light product.

  14. Oil production by entrained pyrolysis of biomass and processing of oil and char

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Knight, James A. (Atlanta, GA); Gorton, Charles W. (Atlanta, GA)

    1990-01-02

    Entrained pyrolysis of lignocellulosic material proceeds from a controlled pyrolysis-initiating temperature to completion of an oxygen free environment at atmospheric pressure and controlled residence time to provide a high yield recovery of pyrolysis oil together with char and non-condensable, combustible gases. The residence time is a function of gas flow rate and the initiating temperature is likewise a function of the gas flow rate, varying therewith. A controlled initiating temperature range of about 400.degree. C. to 550.degree. C. with corresponding gas flow rates to maximize oil yield is disclosed.

  15. The World Bank Group Energy Strategy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    The World Bank Group Energy Strategy Approach Paper Sustainable Development Network October 2009...............................................................................................................................................iii World Bank Group Energy Strategy Approach Paper...............................................................................................................3 World Bank Group Energy Sector Strategy and Performance in Recent Years

  16. Blasting Our World (Joy to The World) Pedrolina "Paige" Delaperrucca and The Greater Westerly Raging Grannies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nightingale, Peter

    Blasting Our World (Joy to The World) Pedrolina "Paige" Delaperrucca and The Greater Westerly of the our They Rem- We Blast- Nu- G 2 truth di- leave they king- do dom D world waste war bomb, world

  17. PRESS RELEASE May 15, 2013, 10:12 a.m. ET Raw Cotton Absorbs Crude Oil Spills; Repels Water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rock, Chris

    PRESS RELEASE May 15, 2013, 10:12 a.m. ET Raw Cotton Absorbs Crude Oil Spills; Repels Water NEW is highly effective at absorbing crude oil spills. The study, published in the most recent issue of low-micronaire cotton can absorb more than 30 pounds of dense crude oil. In addition, the natural

  18. The Expro Engineering Sponsorship Programme Expro International Group is an upstream oil and gas sector service company

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Painter, Kevin

    The Expro Engineering Sponsorship Programme Expro International Group is an upstream oil and gas and process flow from high-value oil and gas wells, from exploration and appraisal through to mature field for the development and delivery of innovative technologies to meet the needs of the oil and gas industry globally

  19. Phytologia (November 2013) 95(4)288 Leaf essential oils of Juniperus in central and southern Iran

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Adams, Robert P.

    Phytologia (November 2013) 95(4)288 Leaf essential oils of Juniperus in central and southern Iran Tehran 14115-154, Iran. ABSTRACT Leaf essential oils from Juniperus from southern Iran were analyzed oils from southern Iran were mainly in two groups: high cedrol (cf. J. excelsa, J. polycarpos and J

  20. "Smart" Multifunctional Polymers for Enhanced Oil Recovery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Charles McCormick; Andrew Lowe

    2007-03-20

    Recent recommendations made by the Department of Energy, in conjunction with ongoing research at the University of Southern Mississippi, have signified a need for the development of 'smart' multi-functional polymers (SMFPs) for Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) processes. Herein we summarize research from the period of September 2003 through March 2007 focusing on both Type I and Type II SMFPs. We have demonstrated the synthesis and behavior of materials that can respond in situ to stimuli (ionic strength, pH, temperature, and shear stress). In particular, Type I SMFPs reversibly form micelles in water and have the potential to be utilized in applications that serve to lower interfacial tension at the oil/water interface, resulting in emulsification of oil. Type II SMFPs, which consist of high molecular weight polymers, have been synthesized and have prospective applications related to the modification of fluid viscosity during the recovery process. Through the utilization of these advanced 'smart' polymers, the ability to recover more of the original oil in place and a larger portion of that by-passed or deemed 'unrecoverable' by conventional chemical flooding should be possible.

  1. The impact of corrosion on the oil and gas industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kermani, M.B.; Harrop, D.

    1996-08-01

    The impact of corrosion on the oil industry has been viewed in terms of its effect on both capital and operational expenditures (CAPEX and OPEX) and health, safety, and the environment (HSE). To fight against the high cost and the impact of corrosion within the oil industry, an overview of topical research and engineering activities is presented. This covers corrosion and metallurgy issues related to drilling, production, transportation, and refinery activities.

  2. The impact of corrosion on oil and gas industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kermani, M.B.; Harrop, D.

    1995-11-01

    The impact of corrosion on the oil industry has been viewed in terms of its effect on both capital and operational expenditures (CAPEX and OPEX) and health, safety and the environment (HSE). To fight against the high cost and the impact of corrosion within the oil industry, an overview of topical research and engineering activities is presented. This covers corrosion and metallurgy issues related to drilling, production, transportation and refinery activities.

  3. Dynamics of the Oil Transition: Modeling Capacity, Costs, and Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brandt, Adam R.; Farrell, Alexander E.

    2008-01-01

    EOR continues to unlock oil resources. Oil & Gas Journal, [of conventional oil resource availability. Estimates ofthe tar sands and heavy oil resource in Figure 10. Note that

  4. Successful Sequestration and Enhanced Oil Recovery Project Could...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Successful Sequestration and Enhanced Oil Recovery Project Could Mean More Oil and Less CO2 Emissions Successful Sequestration and Enhanced Oil Recovery Project Could Mean More Oil...

  5. Shale oil recovery process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zerga, Daniel P. (Concord, CA)

    1980-01-01

    A process of producing within a subterranean oil shale deposit a retort chamber containing permeable fragmented material wherein a series of explosive charges are emplaced in the deposit in a particular configuration comprising an initiating round which functions to produce an upward flexure of the overburden and to initiate fragmentation of the oil shale within the area of the retort chamber to be formed, the initiating round being followed in a predetermined time sequence by retreating lines of emplaced charges developing further fragmentation within the retort zone and continued lateral upward flexure of the overburden. The initiating round is characterized by a plurality of 5-spot patterns and the retreating lines of charges are positioned and fired along zigzag lines generally forming retreating rows of W's. Particular time delays in the firing of successive charges are disclosed.

  6. Oil shale retort apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reeves, Adam A. (Grand Junction, CO); Mast, Earl L. (Norman, OK); Greaves, Melvin J. (Littleton, CO)

    1990-01-01

    A retorting apparatus including a vertical kiln and a plurality of tubes for delivering rock to the top of the kiln and removal of processed rock from the bottom of the kiln so that the rock descends through the kiln as a moving bed. Distributors are provided for delivering gas to the kiln to effect heating of the rock and to disturb the rock particles during their descent. The distributors are constructed and disposed to deliver gas uniformly to the kiln and to withstand and overcome adverse conditions resulting from heat and from the descending rock. The rock delivery tubes are geometrically sized, spaced and positioned so as to deliver the shale uniformly into the kiln and form symmetrically disposed generally vertical paths, or "rock chimneys", through the descending shale which offer least resistance to upward flow of gas. When retorting oil shale, a delineated collection chamber near the top of the kiln collects gas and entrained oil mist rising through the kiln.

  7. The Particle World | U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    Particle World High Energy Physics (HEP) HEP Home About Research Science Drivers of Particle Physics Energy Frontier Intensity Frontier Cosmic Frontier Theoretical Physics Advanced...

  8. Energy Secretary Moniz Dedicates World's Largest Concentrating...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Dedicates World's Largest Concentrating Solar Power Project Energy Secretary Moniz Dedicates World's Largest Concentrating Solar Power Project February 13, 2014 - 5:00am Addthis...

  9. The virtual oil company

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garibaldi, C.A.; Haney, R.M.; Ross, C.E. [Arthur D Little, Houston, TX (United States)

    1995-09-01

    In anticipation of continuing declines in upstream activity levels over the next 15 years, the virtual oil company model articulates a vision of fewer, leaner, but financially stronger firms that concentrate only on their core competencies and outsource the rest through well-structured partnering arrangements. Freed from the ``clutter,`` these leading companies will be in better position to focus on those opportunities that offer the potential for renewed reserve and revenue growth.

  10. 11World-Leading Research with Real-World Impact! Group-Centric Secure Information Sharing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sandhu, Ravi

    11World-Leading Research with Real-World Impact! Group-Centric Secure Information Sharing client © Ravi Sandhu World-Leading Research with Real-World Impact! Goal: Share but protect Policy-Centric Collaboration © Ravi Sandhu World-Leading Research with Real-World Impact! Collaboration Group Individual

  11. Brane-world Quantum Gravity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. D. Maia; Nildsen Silva; M. C. B. Fernandes

    2007-04-10

    The Arnowitt-Deser-Misner canonical formulation of general relativity is extended to the covariant brane-world theory in arbitrary dimensions. The exclusive probing of the extra dimensions makes a substantial difference, allowing for the construction of a non-constrained canonical theory. The quantum states of the brane-world geometry are defined by the Tomonaga-Schwinger equation, whose integrability conditions are determined by the classical perturbations of submanifolds contained in the Nash's differentiable embedding theorem. In principle, quantum brane-world theory can be tested by current experiments in astrophysics and by near future laboratory experiments at Tev energy. The implications to the black-hole information loss problem, to the accelerating cosmology, and to a quantum mathematical theory of four-sub manifolds are briefly commented.

  12. Crude Oil Prices Table 21. Domestic Crude Oil First Purchase...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Information Administration Petroleum Marketing Annual 1995 41 Table 21. Domestic Crude Oil First Purchase Prices (Dollars per Barrel) - Continued Year Month PAD District II...

  13. International Oil and Gas Board International Oil and Gas Board...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Board International Oil and Gas Board Address Place Zip Website Abu Dhabi Supreme Petroleum Council Abu Dhabi Supreme Petroleum Council Abu Dhabi United Arab Emirates http www...

  14. World`s LPG supply picture will change by 2000

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    True, W.R.

    1995-11-06

    Middle East LPG producers will continue to dominate world export markets in 1996. Led by Saudi Arabia, the Middle East will produce nearly 26 million metric tons of LPG in million metric tons of LPG in 1996, more than 54% of the world`s almost 48 million metric tons of export LPG. In 2000, however, with world exports of LPG expanding to 58.9 million metric tons, Middle East suppliers; share will have remained flat, making up 31.7 million metric tons, or 53.9%. Saudi Arabia`s contribution will exceed 15 million metric tons, reflecting essentially no growth since 1995. These and other patterns, from data compiled by Purvin and Gertz, Dallas, and published earlier this year, show other suppliers of LPG, especially African (Algeria/Nigeria), North Sea, and Latin American (Venezuela/Argentina), picking up larger shares in the last 5 years of this decade. This scenario assumes completion of several major supply projects that are either panned, under construction, or nearing start up in most of these areas. The paper discusses the global picture, the supply situation in the Middle East, Africa, the North Sea, and South America.

  15. Strategies of the major oil companies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greene, W.N.

    1982-01-01

    This study identifies, documents, and analyzes the strategies of the seven largest oil companies in the world, collectively called the Majors (Exxon, Shell, Gulf, Mobil, Socal, Texaco, and BP). The period covered for each company begins at its origin, generally near 1900, and concludes in 1976. This study documents and analyzes all the major components of the long-term strategies of these companies since their origins. The policy components of each company's strategy are classified into six categories where major changes have occurred in the growth of the large-scale firm. These policy categories are geographic exapansion, size/scale of operations, vertical integration, horizontal combination, product and industry diversification, and administrative structure. With each category, policies can be compared between firms and overtime to illustrate similarities, differences, and changes in strategy. The main results are discussed.

  16. World class recreation, bold science

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home RoomPreservationBio-Inspired SolarAbout /Two0PhotosPresentations WorkshopSynchrotronWorldWorld class

  17. Enhanced Microbial Pathways for Methane Production from Oil Shale

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul Fallgren

    2009-02-15

    Methane from oil shale can potentially provide a significant contribution to natural gas industry, and it may be possible to increase and continue methane production by artificially enhancing methanogenic activity through the addition of various substrate and nutrient treatments. Western Research Institute in conjunction with Pick & Shovel Inc. and the U.S. Department of Energy conducted microcosm and scaled-up reactor studies to investigate the feasibility and optimization of biogenic methane production from oil shale. The microcosm study involving crushed oil shale showed the highest yield of methane was produced from oil shale pretreated with a basic solution and treated with nutrients. Incubation at 30 C, which is the estimated temperature in the subsurface where the oil shale originated, caused and increase in methane production. The methane production eventually decreased when pH of the system was above 9.00. In the scaled-up reactor study, pretreatment of the oil shale with a basic solution, nutrient enhancements, incubation at 30 C, and maintaining pH at circumneutral levels yielded the highest rate of biogenic methane production. From this study, the annual biogenic methane production rate was determined to be as high as 6042 cu. ft/ton oil shale.

  18. CORROSIVITY AND COMPOSITION OF RAW AND TREATED PYROLYSIS OILS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keiser, Jim; Howell, Michael; Connatser, Raynella M.; Lewis, Sam; Elliott, Douglas C.

    2012-10-14

    Fast pyrolysis offers a relatively low cost method of processing biomass to produce a liquid product that has the potential for conversion to several types of liquid fuels. The liquid product of fast pyrolysis, known as pyrolysis oil or bio-oil, contains a high oxygen content primarily in the form of water, carboxylic acids, phenols, ketones and aldehydes. These oils are typically very acidic with a Total Acid Number that is often in the range of 50 to 100, and previous studies have shown this material to be quite corrosive to common structural materials. Removal of at least some of the oxygen and conversion of this oil to a more useful product that is considerably less corrosive can be accomplished through a hydrogenation process. The product of such a treatment is considered to have the potential for blending with crude oil for processing in petroleum refineries. Corrosion studies and chemical analyses have been conducted using as produced bio-oil samples as well as samples that have been subjected to different levels of oxygen removal. Chemical analyses show treatment affected the concentrations of carboxylic acids contained in the oil, and corrosion studies showed a positive benefit of the oxygen removal. Results of these studies will be presented in this paper.

  19. Oil spill fingerprinting - the practical benefits for the operator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sinclair, J.W.; Grigson, S.J.W.

    1996-11-01

    The oil company operates North Sea Oil Production Platforms which have several subsea developments connected by subsea pipelines. A specialist research institute was contracted by the company to obtain reference crude oil fingerprints for each subsea oil pipeline and store this information in a specially constructed computer database and fingerprint matching system. Both crews from the platform`s stand-by vessels were then trained in the correct procedures for sampling small slicks at sea, with laboratory validation of samples collected during the training exercise. Subsequently, during two incidents of leaking subsea pipelines, oil spill samples were taken by stand-by vessel crews. Analysis of the samples onshore, followed by computer comparison of their fingerprints to those of the reference oils in the database, allowed early identification of the leaking pipeline prior to confirmation by ROV inspection. Oil spill fingerprinting proved a highly cost effective tool, ensuring optimum use of expensive DSV/ROV mobilization and use. It also permitted pipelines not implicated in the leak to be rapidly put back into operation.

  20. Recycled waste oil: A fuel for medium speed diesel engines?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheng, A.B.L.; Poynton, W.A.; Howard, J.G.

    1996-12-31

    This paper describes the exploratory engine trials that Mirrlees Blackstone has undertaken to investigate the effect of fueling an engine using waste oil derived from used lubricants. The effect on the engine`s mechanical components, and thermal performance are examined, and the steps taken to overcome problems are discussed. The proposed engine is sited within the Research and Development facilities, housed separately from the manufacturing plant. The unit is already capable of operating on two different types of fuel with single engine set up. It is a 3 cylinder, 4-stroke turbocharged direct injection engine mounted on an underbase and it operates at 600 rpm, 15.0 bar B.M.E.P. (Brake Mean Effective Pressure). It is a mature engine, built {approximately} 20 years previously, and used for emergency stand-by duties in the company`s powerhouse. The test engine is coupled to an alternator and the electricity generated is fed to the national grid. Initial samples of treated fuel oil, analyzed by an independent oil analysis consultant, indicated that the fuel oil does not correspond to a normal fuel oil. They contained high concentrations of trace elements (i.e. calcium, phosphorus, lead, aluminum and silicon) which was consistent with sourcing from waste lubricating oils. The fuel oil was considered to be too severe for use in an engine.