National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for high voltage large

  1. High voltage coaxial switch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rink, John P. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1983-07-19

    A coaxial high voltage, high current switch having a solid cylindrical cold cathode coaxially surrounded by a thin hollow cylindrical inner electrode and a larger hollow cylindrical outer electrode. A high voltage trigger between the cathode and the inner electrode causes electrons to be emitted from the cathode and flow to the inner electrode preferably through a vacuum. Some of the electrons penetrate the inner electrode and cause a volumetric discharge in the gas (which may be merely air) between the inner and outer electrodes. The discharge provides a low impedance path between a high voltage charge placed on the outer electrode and a load (which may be a high power laser) coupled to the inner electrode. For high repetition rate the gas between the inner and outer electrodes may be continuously exchanged or refreshed under pressure.

  2. High voltage coaxial switch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rink, J.P.

    1983-07-19

    A coaxial high voltage, high current switch having a solid cylindrical cold cathode coaxially surrounded by a thin hollow cylindrical inner electrode and a larger hollow cylindrical outer electrode. A high voltage trigger between the cathode and the inner electrode causes electrons to be emitted from the cathode and flow to the inner electrode preferably through a vacuum. Some of the electrons penetrate the inner electrode and cause a volumetric discharge in the gas (which may be merely air) between the inner and outer electrodes. The discharge provides a low impedance path between a high voltage charge placed on the outer electrode and a load (which may be a high power laser) coupled to the inner electrode. For high repetition rate the gas between the inner and outer electrodes may be continuously exchanged or refreshed under pressure. 3 figs.

  3. High voltage DC power supply

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Droege, Thomas F. (Batavia, IL)

    1989-01-01

    A high voltage DC power supply having a first series resistor at the output for limiting current in the event of a short-circuited output, a second series resistor for sensing the magnitude of output current, and a voltage divider circuit for providing a source of feedback voltage for use in voltage regulation is disclosed. The voltage divider circuit is coupled to the second series resistor so as to compensate the feedback voltage for a voltage drop across the first series resistor. The power supply also includes a pulse-width modulated control circuit, having dual clock signals, which is responsive to both the feedback voltage and a command voltage, and also includes voltage and current measuring circuits responsive to the feedback voltage and the voltage developed across the second series resistor respectively.

  4. High voltage DC power supply

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Droege, T.F.

    1989-12-19

    A high voltage DC power supply having a first series resistor at the output for limiting current in the event of a short-circuited output, a second series resistor for sensing the magnitude of output current, and a voltage divider circuit for providing a source of feedback voltage for use in voltage regulation is disclosed. The voltage divider circuit is coupled to the second series resistor so as to compensate the feedback voltage for a voltage drop across the first series resistor. The power supply also includes a pulse-width modulated control circuit, having dual clock signals, which is responsive to both the feedback voltage and a command voltage, and also includes voltage and current measuring circuits responsive to the feedback voltage and the voltage developed across the second series resistor respectively. 7 figs.

  5. High voltage pulse conditioning

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Springfield, Ray M. (Sante Fe, NM); Wheat, Jr., Robert M. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1990-01-01

    Apparatus for conditioning high voltage pulses from particle accelerators in order to shorten the rise times of the pulses. Flashover switches in the cathode stalk of the transmission line hold off conduction for a determinable period of time, reflecting the early portion of the pulses. Diodes upstream of the switches divert energy into the magnetic and electrostatic storage of the capacitance and inductance inherent to the transmission line until the switches close.

  6. Low power, scalable multichannel high voltage controller

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stamps, James Frederick (Livermore, CA); Crocker, Robert Ward (Fremont, CA); Yee, Daniel Dadwa (Dublin, CA); Dils, David Wright (Fort Worth, TX)

    2006-03-14

    A low voltage control circuit is provided for individually controlling high voltage power provided over bus lines to a multitude of interconnected loads. An example of a load is a drive for capillary channels in a microfluidic system. Control is distributed from a central high voltage circuit, rather than using a number of large expensive central high voltage circuits to enable reducing circuit size and cost. Voltage is distributed to each individual load and controlled using a number of high voltage controller channel switches connected to high voltage bus lines. The channel switches each include complementary pull up and pull down photo isolator relays with photo isolator switching controlled from the central high voltage circuit to provide a desired bus line voltage. Switching of the photo isolator relays is further controlled in each channel switch using feedback from a resistor divider circuit to maintain the bus voltage swing within desired limits. Current sensing is provided using a switched resistive load in each channel switch, with switching of the resistive loads controlled from the central high voltage circuit.

  7. Low power, scalable multichannel high voltage controller

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stamps, James Frederick (Livermore, CA); Crocker, Robert Ward (Fremont, CA); Yee, Daniel Dadwa (Dublin, CA); Dils, David Wright (Fort Worth, TX)

    2008-03-25

    A low voltage control circuit is provided for individually controlling high voltage power provided over bus lines to a multitude of interconnected loads. An example of a load is a drive for capillary channels in a microfluidic system. Control is distributed from a central high voltage circuit, rather than using a number of large expensive central high voltage circuits to enable reducing circuit size and cost. Voltage is distributed to each individual load and controlled using a number of high voltage controller channel switches connected to high voltage bus lines. The channel switches each include complementary pull up and pull down photo isolator relays with photo isolator switching controlled from the central high voltage circuit to provide a desired bus line voltage. Switching of the photo isolator relays is further controlled in each channel switch using feedback from a resistor divider circuit to maintain the bus voltage swing within desired limits. Current sensing is provided using a switched resistive load in each channel switch, with switching of the resistive loads controlled from the central high voltage circuit.

  8. Temperature controlled high voltage regulator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chiaro, Jr., Peter J. (Clinton, TN); Schulze, Gerald K. (Knoxville, TN)

    2004-04-20

    A temperature controlled high voltage regulator for automatically adjusting the high voltage applied to a radiation detector is described. The regulator is a solid state device that is independent of the attached radiation detector, enabling the regulator to be used by various models of radiation detectors, such as gas flow proportional radiation detectors.

  9. High voltage photovoltaic power converter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Haigh, Ronald E. (Arvada, CO); Wojtczuk, Steve (Cambridge, MA); Jacobson, Gerard F. (Livermore, CA); Hagans, Karla G. (Livermore, CA)

    2001-01-01

    An array of independently connected photovoltaic cells on a semi-insulating substrate contains reflective coatings between the cells to enhance efficiency. A uniform, flat top laser beam profile is illuminated upon the array to produce electrical current having high voltage. An essentially wireless system includes a laser energy source being fed through optic fiber and cast upon the photovoltaic cell array to prevent stray electrical signals prior to use of the current from the array. Direct bandgap, single crystal semiconductor materials, such as GaAs, are commonly used in the array. Useful applications of the system include locations where high voltages are provided to confined spaces such as in explosive detonation, accelerators, photo cathodes and medical appliances.

  10. High voltage load resistor array

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lehmann, Monty Ray (Smithfield, VA)

    2005-01-18

    A high voltage resistor comprising an array of a plurality of parallel electrically connected resistor elements each containing a resistive solution, attached at each end thereof to an end plate, and about the circumference of each of the end plates, a corona reduction ring. Each of the resistor elements comprises an insulating tube having an electrode inserted into each end thereof and held in position by one or more hose clamps about the outer periphery of the insulating tube. According to a preferred embodiment, the electrode is fabricated from stainless steel and has a mushroom shape at one end, that inserted into the tube, and a flat end for engagement with the end plates that provides connection of the resistor array and with a load.

  11. High voltage MOSFET switching circuit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McEwan, Thomas E. (Livermore, CA)

    1994-01-01

    The problem of source lead inductance in a MOSFET switching circuit is compensated for by adding an inductor to the gate circuit. The gate circuit inductor produces an inductive spike which counters the source lead inductive drop to produce a rectangular drive voltage waveform at the internal gate-source terminals of the MOSFET.

  12. High voltage MOSFET switching circuit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McEwan, T.E.

    1994-07-26

    The problem of source lead inductance in a MOSFET switching circuit is compensated for by adding an inductor to the gate circuit. The gate circuit inductor produces an inductive spike which counters the source lead inductive drop to produce a rectangular drive voltage waveform at the internal gate-source terminals of the MOSFET. 2 figs.

  13. Welcome to the High Voltage Laboratory The EEH -High Voltage Laboratory is part of the Energy Transmission and High Voltage Laboratory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grabner, Helmut

    Welcome to the High Voltage Laboratory The EEH - High Voltage Laboratory is part of the Energy Transmission and High Voltage Laboratory (EEH) of the Department of Information Technology and Electrical focus of the high voltage laboratory is in the area of technologies for a future sustainable electric

  14. Electro-optic high voltage sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Davidson, James R.; Seifert, Gary D.

    2003-09-16

    A small sized electro-optic voltage sensor capable of accurate measurement of high voltages without contact with a conductor or voltage source is provided. When placed in the presence of an electric field, the sensor receives an input beam of electromagnetic radiation. A polarization beam displacer separates the input beam into two beams with orthogonal linear polarizations and causes one linearly polarized beam to impinge a crystal at a desired angle independent of temperature. The Pockels effect elliptically polarizes the beam as it travels through the crystal. A reflector redirects the beam back through the crystal and the beam displacer. On the return path, the polarization beam displacer separates the elliptically polarized beam into two output beams of orthogonal linear polarization. The system may include a detector for converting the output beams into electrical signals and a signal processor for determining the voltage based on an analysis of the output beams.

  15. Principles of ground relaying for high voltage and extra high voltage transmission lines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Griffin, C.H.

    1983-02-01

    This paper is a tutorial discussion of the basic principles of ground relaying for high voltage and extra high voltage transmission lines. Three different HV configurations are considered: Long lines, lines with a weak mid-point station, and mutually-coupled lines. Application criteria for EHV circuits are also discussed, and specific setting calculations are included where appropriate.

  16. Modular high voltage power supply for chemical analysis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stamps, James F. (Livermore, CA); Yee, Daniel D. (Dublin, CA)

    2007-01-09

    A high voltage power supply for use in a system such as a microfluidics system, uses a DC--DC converter in parallel with a voltage-controlled resistor. A feedback circuit provides a control signal for the DC--DC converter and voltage-controlled resistor so as to regulate the output voltage of the high voltage power supply, as well as, to sink or source current from the high voltage supply.

  17. Modular high voltage power supply for chemical analysis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stamps, James F. (Livermore, CA); Yee, Daniel D. (Dublin, CA)

    2008-07-15

    A high voltage power supply for use in a system such as a microfluidics system, uses a DC-DC converter in parallel with a voltage-controlled resistor. A feedback circuit provides a control signal for the DC-DC converter and voltage-controlled resistor so as to regulate the output voltage of the high voltage power supply, as well as, to sink or source current from the high voltage supply.

  18. Modular high voltage power supply for chemical analysis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stamps, James F. (Livermore, CA); Yee, Daniel D. (Dublin, CA)

    2010-05-04

    A high voltage power supply for use in a system such as a microfluidics system, uses a DC-DC converter in parallel with a voltage-controlled resistor. A feedback circuit provides a control signal for the DC-DC converter and voltage-controlled resistor so as to regulate the output voltage of the high voltage power supply, as well as, to sink or source current from the high voltage supply.

  19. Digital Architecture for Driving Large LED Arrays with Dynamic Bus Voltage Regulation and Phase Shifted PWM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    - This paper introduces a digital architecture suitable for driving a large number of High Brightness LightDigital Architecture for Driving Large LED Arrays with Dynamic Bus Voltage Regulation and Phase distinct performance advantage over conventional lighting technology. Higher optical efficiency, long

  20. Digital measurement system for the LHC klystron high voltage modulator.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mikkelsen, Anders

    Accelerating voltage in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is created by a means of 16 superconducting standing wave RF cavities, each fed by a 400MHz/300kW continuous wave klystron amplifier. Part of the upgrade program for the LHC long shutdown one is to replace the obsolete analogue current and voltage measurement circuitry located in the high voltage bunkers by a new, digital system, using ADCs and optical fibres. A digital measurement card is implemented and integrated into the current HV modulator oil tank (floating at -58kV) and interfaced to the existing digital VME boards collecting the data for several klystrons at the ground potential. Measured signals are stored for the logging, diagnostics and post-mortem analysis purposes.

  1. Field Optimization of Three Dimensional High Voltage C. Trinitis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stamatakis, Alexandros

    The design of high voltage systems and their com­ ponents (e.g. gas insulated switchgear, trans­ formers etc

  2. Safe epoxy encapsulant for high voltage magnetics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sanchez, R.O.; Archer, W.E.

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes the use of Formula 456, an aliphatic amine cured epoxy for impregnating coils and high voltage transformers. Sandia has evaluated a number of MDA-free epoxy encapsulants which relied on either anhydride or other aromatic amine curing agents. The use of aliphatic amine curing agents was more recently evaluated and has resulted in the definition of Formula 456 resin. Methylene dianiline (MDA) has been used for more than 20 years as the curing agent for various epoxy formulations throughout the Department of Energy and much of industry. Sandia National Laboratories began the process of replacing MDA with other formulations because of regulations imposed by OSHA on the use of MDA. OSHA has regulated MDA because it is a suspect carcinogen. Typically the elimination of OSHA-regulated materials provides a rare opportunity to qualify new formulations in a range of demanding applications. It was important to take full advantage of that opportunity, although the associated materials qualification effort was costly. Small high voltage transformers are one of those demanding applications. The successful implementation of the new formulation for high reliability transformers will be described. The test results that demonstrate the parts are qualified for use in DOE weapon systems will be presented.

  3. Low voltage amplifier architecture for high speed switched capacitor circuits 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shankar, Asit

    2001-01-01

    This work concentrates on circuit realization of high speed and low voltage switched capacitor circuits, with emphasis on the operational transconductance amplifier (OTA). An overview of switched capacitor circuits is given. Speed and voltage...

  4. Generation of large-scale, barrier-free diffuse plasmas in air at atmospheric pressure using array wire electrodes and nanosecond high-voltage pulses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Teng, Yun; Li, Lee Liu, Yun-Long; Liu, Lun; Liu, Minghai

    2014-10-15

    This paper introduces a method to generate large-scale diffuse plasmas by using a repetition nanosecond pulse generator and a parallel array wire-electrode configuration. We investigated barrier-free diffuse plasmas produced in the open air in parallel and cross-parallel array line-line electrode configurations. We found that, when the distance between the wire-electrode pair is small, the discharges were almost extinguished. Also, glow-like diffuse plasmas with little discharge weakening were obtained in an appropriate range of line-line distances and with a cathode-grounding cross-electrode configuration. As an example, we produced a large-scale, stable diffuse plasma with volumes as large as 18?×?15?×?15?cm{sup 3}, and this discharge region can be further expanded. Additionally, using optical and electrical measurements, we showed that the electron temperature was higher than the gas temperature, which was almost the same as room temperature. Also, an array of electrode configuration with more wire electrodes had helped to prevent the transition from diffuse discharge to arc discharge. Comparing the current waveforms of configurations with 1 cell and 9 cells, we found that adding cells significantly increased the conduction current and the electrical energy delivered in the electrode gaps.

  5. Production of high voltage by ion bombardment 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Phinney, Lucas Carter

    2003-01-01

    and was embedded in a Teflon rod. The beam energies were varied between 30 and 100 kV. A maximum voltage of approximately 90 kV was achieved on the target, and at this voltage, the power efficiency was approximately 85 percent. This power efficiency was greater...

  6. High-Voltage Solid Polymer Batteries for Electric Drive Vehicles...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Solid Polymer Batteries for Electric Drive Vehicles High-Voltage Solid Polymer Batteries for Electric Drive Vehicles 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle...

  7. Nanoscale Morphological and Chemical Changes of High Voltage...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nanoscale Morphological and Chemical Changes of High Voltage Lithium-Manganese Rich NMC Composite Cathodes with Cycling Friday, August 29, 2014 Renewable energy is critical for the...

  8. Measurement of high voltage using Rutherford backscattering spectrometry 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abrego, Celestino Pete

    2007-04-25

    A novel variation of Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS) has been utilized to measure a high voltage collected on an aluminum target by Direct Energy Conversion. The maximum high voltage on the target was measured to be 97.5 kV +/- 2 k...

  9. Planar LTCC transformers for high voltage flyback converters.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schofield, Daryl (NASCENT Technology Inc. , Watertown, SD); Schare, Joshua M.; Glass, Sarah Jill; Roesler, Alexander William; Ewsuk, Kevin Gregory; Slama, George (NASCENT Technology Inc. , Watertown, SD); Abel, Dave (NASCENT Technology Inc. , Watertown, SD)

    2007-06-01

    This paper discusses the design and use of low-temperature (850 C to 950 C) co-fired ceramic (LTCC) planar magnetic flyback transformers for applications that require conversion of a low voltage to high voltage (> 100V) with significant volumetric constraints. Measured performance and modeling results for multiple designs showed that the LTCC flyback transformer design and construction imposes serious limitations on the achievable coupling and significantly impacts the transformer performance and output voltage. This paper discusses the impact of various design factors that can provide improved performance by increasing transformer coupling and output voltage. The experiments performed on prototype units demonstrated LTCC transformer designs capable of greater than 2 kV output. Finally, the work investigated the effect of the LTCC microstructure on transformer insulation. Although this paper focuses on generating voltages in the kV range, the experimental characterization and discussion presented in this work applies to designs requiring lower voltage.

  10. E-beam high voltage switching power supply

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shimer, D.W.; Lange, A.C.

    1996-10-15

    A high-power power supply produces a controllable, constant high voltage output under varying and arcing loads. The power supply includes a voltage regulator, an inductor, an inverter for producing a high frequency square wave current of alternating polarity, an improved inverter voltage clamping circuit, a step up transformer, an output rectifier for producing a dc voltage at the output of each module, and a current sensor for sensing output current. The power supply also provides dynamic response to varying loads by controlling the voltage regulator duty cycle and circuitry is provided for sensing incipient arc currents at the output of the power supply to simultaneously decouple the power supply circuitry from the arcing load. The power supply includes a plurality of discrete switching type dc--dc converter modules. 5 figs.

  11. E-beam high voltage switching power supply

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shimer, Daniel W. (Danville, CA); Lange, Arnold C. (Livermore, CA)

    1996-01-01

    A high-power power supply produces a controllable, constant high voltage put under varying and arcing loads. The power supply includes a voltage regulator, an inductor, an inverter for producing a high frequency square wave current of alternating polarity, an improved inverter voltage clamping circuit, a step up transformer, an output rectifier for producing a dc voltage at the output of each module, and a current sensor for sensing output current. The power supply also provides dynamic response to varying loads by controlling the voltage regulator duty cycle and circuitry is provided for sensing incipient arc currents at the output of the power supply to simultaneously decouple the power supply circuitry from the arcing load. The power supply includes a plurality of discrete switching type dc--dc converter modules.

  12. CLNS 03/1827 VERY HIGH VOLTAGE PHOTOEMISSION ELECTRON GUNS*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CLNS 03/1827 VERY HIGH VOLTAGE PHOTOEMISSION ELECTRON GUNS* Charles K. Sinclair # , Cornell voltage DC electron guns with photoemission cathodes are a natural choice for generating the beams gradient in these guns. The photocathode operational lifetime is limited by the gun vacuum and by ion back

  13. High-voltage air-core pulse transformers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rohwein, G. J.

    1981-01-01

    General types of air core pulse transformers designed for high voltage pulse generation and energy transfer applications are discussed with special emphasis on pulse charging systems which operate up to the multi-megavolt range. The design, operation, dielectric materials, and performance are described. It is concluded that high voltage air core pulse transformers are best suited to applications outside the normal ranges of conventional magnetic core transformers. In general these include charge transfer at high power levels and fast pulse generation with comparatively low energy. When properly designed and constructed, they are capable of delivering high energy transfer efficiency and have demonstrated superior high voltage endurance. The principal disadvantage of high voltage air core transformers is that they are not generally available from commercial sources. Consequently, the potential user must become thoroughly familiar with all aspects of design, fabrication and system application before he can produce a high performance transformer system. (LCL)

  14. Electrical system architecture having high voltage bus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hoff, Brian Douglas (East Peoria, IL); Akasam, Sivaprasad (Peoria, IL)

    2011-03-22

    An electrical system architecture is disclosed. The architecture has a power source configured to generate a first power, and a first bus configured to receive the first power from the power source. The architecture also has a converter configured to receive the first power from the first bus and convert the first power to a second power, wherein a voltage of the second power is greater than a voltage of the first power, and a second bus configured to receive the second power from the converter. The architecture further has a power storage device configured to receive the second power from the second bus and deliver the second power to the second bus, a propulsion motor configured to receive the second power from the second bus, and an accessory motor configured to receive the second power from the second bus.

  15. Optically triggered high voltage switch network and method for switching a high voltage

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    El-Sharkawi, Mohamed A. (Renton, WA); Andexler, George (Everett, WA); Silberkleit, Lee I. (Mountlake Terrace, WA)

    1993-01-19

    An optically triggered solid state switch and method for switching a high voltage electrical current. A plurality of solid state switches (350) are connected in series for controlling electrical current flow between a compensation capacitor (112) and ground in a reactive power compensator (50, 50') that monitors the voltage and current flowing through each of three distribution lines (52a, 52b and 52c), which are supplying three-phase power to one or more inductive loads. An optical transmitter (100) controlled by the reactive power compensation system produces light pulses that are conveyed over optical fibers (102) to a switch driver (110') that includes a plurality of series connected optical triger circuits (288). Each of the optical trigger circuits controls a pair of the solid state switches and includes a plurality of series connected resistors (294, 326, 330, and 334) that equalize or balance the potential across the plurality of trigger circuits. The trigger circuits are connected to one of the distribution lines through a trigger capacitor (340). In each switch driver, the light signals activate a phototransistor (300) so that an electrical current flows from one of the energy reservoir capacitors through a pulse transformer (306) in the trigger circuit, producing gate signals that turn on the pair of serially connected solid state switches (350).

  16. Unravelling the Performance Degradation Mechanisms in High-voltage...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Unravelling the Performance Degradation Mechanisms in High-voltage Lithium-ion Battery Composite Oxide Electrodes Apr 11 2014 02:00 PM - 03:00 PM Debasish Mohanty, ORNL, Oak Ridge...

  17. High voltage electrical amplifier having a short rise time

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Christie, David J. (Pleasanton, CA); Dallum, Gregory E. (Livermore, CA)

    1991-01-01

    A circuit, comprising an amplifier and a transformer is disclosed that produces a high power pulse having a fast response time, and that responds to a digital control signal applied through a digital-to-analog converter. The present invention is suitable for driving a component such as an electro-optic modulator with a voltage in the kilovolt range. The circuit is stable at high frequencies and during pulse transients, and its impedance matching circuit matches the load impedance with the output impedance. The preferred embodiment comprises an input stage compatible with high-speed semiconductor components for amplifying the voltage of the input control signal, a buffer for isolating the input stage from the output stage; and a plurality of current amplifiers connected to the buffer. Each current amplifier is connected to a field effect transistor (FET), which switches a high voltage power supply to a transformer which then provides an output terminal for driving a load. The transformer comprises a plurality of transmission lines connected to the FETs and the load. The transformer changes the impedance and voltage of the output. The preferred embodiment also comprises a low voltage power supply for biasing the FETs at or near an operational voltage.

  18. Design & Fabrication of a High-Voltage Photovoltaic Cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Felder, Jennifer; /North Carolina State U. /SLAC

    2012-09-05

    Silicon photovoltaic (PV) cells are alternative energy sources that are important in sustainable power generation. Currently, applications of PV cells are limited by the low output voltage and somewhat low efficiency of such devices. In light of this fact, this project investigates the possibility of fabricating high-voltage PV cells on float-zone silicon wafers having output voltages ranging from 50 V to 2000 V. Three designs with different geometries of diffusion layers were simulated and compared in terms of metal coverage, recombination, built-in potential, and conduction current density. One design was then chosen and optimized to be implemented in the final device design. The results of the simulation serve as a feasibility test for the design concept and provide supportive evidence of the effectiveness of silicon PV cells as high-voltage power supplies.

  19. High voltage series connected tandem junction solar battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hanak, Joseph J. (Lawrenceville, NJ)

    1982-01-01

    A high voltage series connected tandem junction solar battery which comprises a plurality of strips of tandem junction solar cells of hydrogenated amorphous silicon having one optical path and electrically interconnected by a tunnel junction. The layers of hydrogenated amorphous silicon, arranged in a tandem configuration, can have the same bandgap or differing bandgaps. The tandem junction strip solar cells are series connected to produce a solar battery of any desired voltage.

  20. High voltage switch triggered by a laser-photocathode subsystem

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, Ping; Lundquist, Martin L.; Yu, David U. L.

    2013-01-08

    A spark gap switch for controlling the output of a high voltage pulse from a high voltage source, for example, a capacitor bank or a pulse forming network, to an external load such as a high gradient electron gun, laser, pulsed power accelerator or wide band radar. The combination of a UV laser and a high vacuum quartz cell, in which a photocathode and an anode are installed, is utilized as triggering devices to switch the spark gap from a non-conducting state to a conducting state with low delay and low jitter.

  1. Understanding and Improving High Voltage Vacuum Insulators for Microsecond Pulses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Javedani, J B; Goerz, D A; Houck, T L; Lauer, E J; Speer, R D; Tully, L K; Vogtlin, G E; White, A D

    2007-03-05

    High voltage insulation is one of the main areas of pulsed power research and development, and dielectric breakdown is usually the limiting factor in attaining the highest possible performance in pulsed power devices. For many applications the delivery of pulsed power into a vacuum region is the most critical aspect of operation. The surface of an insulator exposed to vacuum can fail electrically at an applied field more than an order or magnitude below the bulk dielectric strength of the insulator. This mode of breakdown, called surface flashover, imposes serious limitations on the power flow into a vacuum region. This is especially troublesome for applications where high voltage conditioning of the insulator and electrodes is not practical and for applications where relatively long pulses, on the order of several microseconds, are required. The goal of this project is to establish a sound fundamental understanding of the mechanisms that lead to surface flashover, and then evaluate the most promising techniques to improve vacuum insulators and enable high voltage operation at stress levels near the intrinsic bulk breakdown limits of the material. The approach we proposed and followed was to develop this understanding through a combination of theoretical and computation methods coupled with experiments to validate and quantify expected behaviors. In this report we summarize our modeling and simulation efforts, theoretical studies, and experimental investigations. The computational work began by exploring the limits of commercially available codes and demonstrating methods to examine field enhancements and defect mechanisms at microscopic levels. Plasma simulations with particle codes used in conjunction with circuit models of the experimental apparatus enabled comparisons with experimental measurements. The large scale plasma (LSP) particle-in-cell (PIC) code was run on multiprocessor platforms and used to simulate expanding plasma conditions in vacuum gap regions. Algorithms were incorporated into LSP to handle secondary electron emission from dielectric materials to enable detailed simulations of flashover phenomenon. Theoretical studies were focused on explaining a possible mechanism for anode initiated surface flashover that involves an electron avalanche process starting near the anode, not a mechanism involving bulk dielectric breakdown. Experiments were performed in Engineering's Pulsed Power Lab using an available 100-kV, 10-{micro}s pulse generator and vacuum chamber. The initial experiments were done with polyethylene insulator material in the shape of a truncated cone cut at +45{sup o} angle between flat electrodes with a gap of 1.0 cm. The insulator was sized so there were no flashovers or breakdowns under nominal operating conditions. Insulator flashover or gap closure was induced by introducing a plasma source, a tuft of velvet, in proximity to the insulator or electrode.

  2. E-beam high voltage switching power supply

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shimer, D.W.; Lange, A.C.

    1997-03-11

    A high power, solid state power supply is described for producing a controllable, constant high voltage output under varying and arcing loads suitable for powering an electron beam gun or other ion source. The present power supply is most useful for outputs in a range of about 100-400 kW or more. The power supply is comprised of a plurality of discrete switching type dc-dc converter modules, each comprising a voltage regulator, an inductor, an inverter for producing a high frequency square wave current of alternating polarity, an improved inverter voltage clamping circuit, a step up transformer, and an output rectifier for producing a dc voltage at the output of each module. The inputs to the converter modules are fed from a common dc rectifier/filter and are linked together in parallel through decoupling networks to suppress high frequency input interactions. The outputs of the converter modules are linked together in series and connected to the input of the transmission line to the load through a decoupling and line matching network. The dc-dc converter modules are phase activated such that for n modules, each module is activated equally 360{degree}/n out of phase with respect to a successive module. The phased activation of the converter modules, combined with the square current waveforms out of the step up transformers, allows the power supply to operate with greatly reduced output capacitance values which minimizes the stored energy available for discharge into an electron beam gun or the like during arcing. The present power supply also provides dynamic response to varying loads by controlling the voltage regulator duty cycle using simulated voltage feedback signals and voltage feedback loops. Circuitry is also provided for sensing incipient arc currents reflected at the output of the power supply and for simultaneously decoupling the power supply circuitry from the arcing load. 7 figs.

  3. E-beam high voltage switching power supply

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shimer, Daniel W. (Danville, CA); Lange, Arnold C. (Livermore, CA)

    1997-01-01

    A high power, solid state power supply is described for producing a controllable, constant high voltage output under varying and arcing loads suitable for powering an electron beam gun or other ion source. The present power supply is most useful for outputs in a range of about 100-400 kW or more. The power supply is comprised of a plurality of discrete switching type dc-dc converter modules, each comprising a voltage regulator, an inductor, an inverter for producing a high frequency square wave current of alternating polarity, an improved inverter voltage clamping circuit, a step up transformer, and an output rectifier for producing a dc voltage at the output of each module. The inputs to the converter modules are fed from a common dc rectifier/filter and are linked together in parallel through decoupling networks to suppress high frequency input interactions. The outputs of the converter modules are linked together in series and connected to the input of the transmission line to the load through a decoupling and line matching network. The dc-dc converter modules are phase activated such that for n modules, each module is activated equally 360.degree./n out of phase with respect to a successive module. The phased activation of the converter modules, combined with the square current waveforms out of the step up transformers, allows the power supply to operate with greatly reduced output capacitance values which minimizes the stored energy available for discharge into an electron beam gun or the like during arcing. The present power supply also provides dynamic response to varying loads by controlling the voltage regulator duty cycle using simulated voltage feedback signals and voltage feedback loops. Circuitry is also provided for sensing incipient arc currents reflected at the output of the power supply and for simultaneously decoupling the power supply circuitry from the arcing load.

  4. The design, construction, and operation of long-distance high-voltage electricity transmission technologies.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Molburg, J. C.; Kavicky, J. A.; Picel, K. C.

    2008-03-03

    This report focuses on transmission lines, which operate at voltages of 115 kV and higher. Currently, the highest voltage lines comprising the North American power grid are at 765 kV. The grid is the network of transmission lines that interconnect most large power plants on the North American continent. One transmission line at this high voltage was built near Chicago as part of the interconnection for three large nuclear power plants southwest of the city. Lines at this voltage also serve markets in New York and New England, also very high demand regions. The large power transfers along the West Coast are generally at 230 or 500 kV. Just as there are practical limits to centralization of power production, there are practical limits to increasing line voltage. As voltage increases, the height of the supporting towers, the size of the insulators, the distance between conductors on a tower, and even the width of the right-of-way (ROW) required increase. These design features safely isolate the electric power, which has an increasing tendency to arc to ground as the voltage (or electrical potential) increases. In addition, very high voltages (345 kV and above) are subject to corona losses. These losses are a result of ionization of the atmosphere, and can amount to several megawatts of wasted power. Furthermore, they are a local nuisance to radio transmission and can produce a noticeable hum. Centralized power production has advantages of economies of scale and special resource availability (for instance, hydro resources), but centralized power requires long-distance transfers of power both to reach customers and to provide interconnections for reliability. Long distances are most economically served at high voltages, which require large-scale equipment and impose a substantial footprint on the corridors through which power passes. The most visible components of the transmission system are the conductors that provide paths for the power and the towers that keep these conductors at a safe distance from each other and from the ground and the natural and built environment. Common elements that are generally less visible (or at least more easily overlooked) include the maintained ROW along the path of the towers, access roads needed for maintenance, and staging areas used for initial construction that may be restored after construction is complete. Also visible but less common elements along the corridor may include switching stations or substations, where lines of similar or different voltages meet to transfer power.

  5. Ultra-compact Marx-type high-voltage generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goerz, David A. (Brentwood, CA); Wilson, Michael J. (Modesto, CA)

    2000-01-01

    An ultra-compact Marx-type high-voltage generator includes individual high-performance components that are closely coupled and integrated into an extremely compact assembly. In one embodiment, a repetitively-switched, ultra-compact Marx generator includes low-profile, annular-shaped, high-voltage, ceramic capacitors with contoured edges and coplanar extended electrodes used for primary energy storage; low-profile, low-inductance, high-voltage, pressurized gas switches with compact gas envelopes suitably designed to be integrated with the annular capacitors; feed-forward, high-voltage, ceramic capacitors attached across successive switch-capacitor-switch stages to couple the necessary energy forward to sufficiently overvoltage the spark gap of the next in-line switch; optimally shaped electrodes and insulator surfaces to reduce electric field stresses in the weakest regions where dissimilar materials meet, and to spread the fields more evenly throughout the dielectric materials, allowing them to operate closer to their intrinsic breakdown levels; and uses manufacturing and assembly methods to integrate the capacitors and switches into stages that can be arranged into a low-profile Marx generator.

  6. High Voltage DC Transmission 1.0 Introduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCalley, James D.

    1 High Voltage DC Transmission 1.0 Introduction HVDC has been applied in electric power systems Supplier: ABB Railroa d DC Tie USA - Mission, TX 26°1001N9 8°1925W USA - Mission, TX 26°1001N9 8°1925W 21

  7. High Voltage DC Transmission 2 1.0 Introduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCalley, James D.

    1 High Voltage DC Transmission 2 1.0 Introduction Interconnecting HVDC within an AC system requires conversion from AC to DC and inversion from DC to AC. We refer to the circuits which provide conversion from AC to DC as rectifiers and the circuits which provide conversion from DC to AC as inverters. The term

  8. Chronic Benzodiazepine Administration Potentiates High Voltage-Activated Calcium Currents

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abraham, Nader G.

    effects from drug withdrawal phenomena to dependence on a variety of drugs of abuse. High voltage benzodiazepine physical dependence. Benzodiazepines, a group of positive allosteric modulators of GABAA receptors legitimate prescription of benzodiazepines increases the proportion of patients who develop dependence

  9. Coupled Dual Interleaved Flyback Converter for High Input Voltage Application

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lehman, Brad

    proposed integrated boost converters [7] that are beginning to see applications in automotive power buck-boost (Flyback) power converter [9,10] that utilizes one magnetic core to integrate two FlybackCoupled Dual Interleaved Flyback Converter for High Input Voltage Application Ting Qian, Brad

  10. Optical Spectra of the High Voltage Erosive Water Discharge

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pirozerski, A L

    2008-01-01

    In the present paper kinetics of emission spectra of the high voltage erosive water discharge at near ultraviolet and visible spectral ranges has been investigated. Obtained results show a similarity of physical properties of this discharge (and of corresponding plasmoids) to that of some other types of erosional discharges which also result in the formation of dust-gas fireballs.

  11. CONTROL SYSTEM FOR THE ORNL MULTICHARGED ION RESEARCH FACILITY HIGH-VOLTAGE PLATFORM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -connected via Ethernet uti- lizing fiber optic transmission to bridge the different high voltage environments [1]. The ion source [2], designed and fab- ricated at CEA/Grenoble, produces intense dc beams of the control system are connected via Ethernet, with fiber optic transmission used to bridge the large

  12. High voltage dc--dc converter with dynamic voltage regulation and decoupling during load-generated arcs

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shimer, D.W.; Lange, A.C.

    1995-05-23

    A high-power power supply produces a controllable, constant high voltage output under varying and arcing loads. The power supply includes a voltage regulator, an inductor, an inverter for producing a high frequency square wave current of alternating polarity, an improved inverter voltage clamping circuit, a step up transformer, an output rectifier for producing a dc voltage at the output of each module, and a current sensor for sensing output current. The power supply also provides dynamic response to varying loads by controlling the voltage regulator duty cycle and circuitry is provided for sensing incipient arc currents at the output of the power supply to simultaneously decouple the power supply circuitry from the arcing load. The power supply includes a plurality of discrete switching type dc--dc converter modules. 5 Figs.

  13. High voltage dc-dc converter with dynamic voltage regulation and decoupling during load-generated arcs

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shimer, Daniel W. (Danville, CA); Lange, Arnold C. (Livermore, CA)

    1995-01-01

    A high-power power supply produces a controllable, constant high voltage output under varying and arcing loads. The power supply includes a voltage regulator, an inductor, an inverter for producing a high frequency square wave current of alternating polarity, an improved inverter voltage clamping circuit, a step up transformer, an output rectifier for producing a dc voltage at the output of each module, and a current sensor for sensing output current. The power supply also provides dynamic response to varying loads by controlling the voltage regulator duty cycle and circuitry is provided for sensing incipient arc currents at the output of the power supply to simultaneously decouple the power supply circuitry from the arcing load. The power supply includes a plurality of discrete switching type dc--dc converter modules.

  14. Optimizing performance per watt on GPUs in High Performance Computing: temperature, frequency and voltage effects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Price, D C; Barsdell, B R; Babich, R; Greenhill, L J

    2014-01-01

    The magnitude of the real-time digital signal processing challenge attached to large radio astronomical antenna arrays motivates use of high performance computing (HPC) systems. The need for high power efficiency (performance per watt) at remote observatory sites parallels that in HPC broadly, where efficiency is an emerging critical metric. We investigate how the performance per watt of graphics processing units (GPUs) is affected by temperature, core clock frequency and voltage. Our results highlight how the underlying physical processes that govern transistor operation affect power efficiency. In particular, we show experimentally that GPU power consumption grows non-linearly with both temperature and supply voltage, as predicted by physical transistor models. We show lowering GPU supply voltage and increasing clock frequency while maintaining a low die temperature increases the power efficiency of an NVIDIA K20 GPU by up to 37-48% over default settings when running xGPU, a compute-bound code used in radio...

  15. High-Voltage Solid Polymer Batteries for Electric Drive Vehicles |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum12,ExecutiveFinancingR Walls - Building America Topa High BindingVoltage

  16. Fiber optic current monitor for high-voltage applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Renda, G.F.

    1992-04-21

    A current monitor which derives its power from the conductor being measured for bidirectionally measuring the magnitude of current (from DC to above 50 khz) flowing through a conductor across which a relatively high level DC voltage is applied, includes a pair of identical transmitter modules connected in opposite polarity to one another in series with the conductor being monitored, for producing from one module a first light signal having an intensity directly proportional to the magnitude of current flowing in one direction through the conductor during one period of time, and from the other module a second light signal having an intensity directly proportional to the magnitude of current flowing in the opposite direction through the conductor during another period of time, and a receiver located in a safe area remote from the high voltage area for receiving the first and second light signals, and converting the same to first and second voltage signals having levels indicative of the magnitude of current being measured at a given time. 6 figs.

  17. Magnetic shielding of Hall thrusters at high discharge voltages

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mikellides, Ioannis G., E-mail: Ioannis.G.Mikellides@jpl.nasa.gov; Hofer, Richard R.; Katz, Ira; Goebel, Dan M. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91109 (United States)

    2014-08-07

    A series of numerical simulations and experiments have been performed to assess the effectiveness of magnetic shielding in a Hall thruster operating in the discharge voltage range of 300–700?V (I{sub sp}???2000–2700?s) at 6?kW, and 800?V (I{sub sp} ? 3000) at 9?kW. At 6?kW, the magnetic field topology with which highly effective magnetic shielding was previously demonstrated at 300?V has been retained for all other discharge voltages; only the magnitude of the field has been changed to achieve optimum thruster performance. It is found that magnetic shielding remains highly effective for all discharge voltages studied. This is because the channel is long enough to allow hot electrons near the channel exit to cool significantly upon reaching the anode. Thus, despite the rise of the maximum electron temperature in the channel with discharge voltage, the electrons along the grazing lines of force remain cold enough to eliminate or reduce significantly parallel gradients of the plasma potential near the walls. Computed maximum erosion rates in the range of 300–700?V are found not to exceed 10{sup ?2}?mm/kh. Such rates are ?3 orders of magnitude less than those observed in the unshielded version of the same thruster at 300?V. At 9?kW and 800?V, saturation of the magnetic circuit did not allow for precisely the same magnetic shielding topology as that employed during the 6-kW operation since this thruster was not designed to operate at this condition. Consequently, the maximum erosion rate at the inner wall is found to be ?1 order of magnitude higher (?10{sup ?1}?mm/kh) than that at 6?kW. At the outer wall, the ion energy is found to be below the sputtering yield threshold so no measurable erosion is expected.

  18. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: High-Voltage, High-Capacity Polyanion Cathodes

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by U of Texas at Austin at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about high-voltage, high...

  19. High voltage design structure for high temperature superconducting device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tekletsadik, Kasegn D. (Rexford, NY)

    2008-05-20

    In accordance with the present invention, modular corona shields are employed in a HTS device to reduce the electric field surrounding the HTS device. In a exemplary embodiment a fault current limiter module in the insulation region of a cryogenic cooling system has at least one fault current limiter set which employs a first corona shield disposed along the top portion of the fault current limiter set and is electrically coupled to the fault current limiter set. A second corona shield is disposed along the bottom portion of the fault current limiter set and is electrically coupled to the fault current limiter set. An insulation barrier is disposed within the insulation region along at least one side of the fault current limiter set. The first corona shield and the second corona shield act together to reduce the electric field surrounding the fault limiter set when voltage is applied to the fault limiter set.

  20. Experimental validation of a high voltage pulse measurement method.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cular, Stefan; Patel, Nishant Bhupendra; Branch, Darren W.

    2013-09-01

    This report describes X-cut lithium niobate's (LiNbO3) utilization for voltage sensing by monitoring the acoustic wave propagation changes through LiNbO3 resulting from applied voltage. Direct current (DC), alternating current (AC) and pulsed voltage signals were applied to the crystal. Voltage induced shift in acoustic wave propagation time scaled quadratically for DC and AC voltages and linearly for pulsed voltages. The measured values ranged from 10 - 273 ps and 189 ps - 2 ns for DC and non-DC voltages, respectively. Data suggests LiNbO3 has a frequency sensitive response to voltage. If voltage source error is eliminated through physical modeling from the uncertainty budget, the sensor's U95 estimated combined uncertainty could decrease to ~0.025% for DC, AC, and pulsed voltage measurements.

  1. Curing system for high voltage cross linked cables

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bahder, George (Edison, NJ); Katz, Carlos (Edison, NJ); Bopp, Louis A. (Fair Haven, NJ)

    1978-01-01

    This invention makes extruded, vulcanized, high voltage cables insulated with thermosetting compounds at much higher rates of production and with superior insulation of reduced thickness and with reduced cavities or voids in the insulation. As the cable comes from an extruder, it passes into a curing chamber with a heat booster that quickly raises the insulation to a temperature at which it is cured much more quickly than with steam heating of the prior art. A high temperature liquid in contact with the insulation maintains the high temperature; and because of the greater curing heat, the cable can travel through the curing chamber at a faster rate and into a cooling tube where it contacts with a cooling liquid under high pressure. The insulation compound is treated to reduce the size of cavities; and the high pressure maintained by the curing and cooling mediums prevent expansion of cavities before the insulation is set.

  2. Strongly nonlinear dynamics of electrolytes in large ac voltages Laurits Hjgaard Olesen,1,2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    the results have been developed for over a century 1 . Current applications include energy storage; published 2 July 2010 We study the response of a model microelectrochemical cell to a large ac voltage of frequency comparable to the inverse cell relaxation time. To bring out the basic physics, we consider

  3. Self-monitoring high voltage transmission line suspension insulator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stemler, Gary E. (Vancouver, WA); Scott, Donald N. (Vancouver, WA)

    1981-01-01

    A high voltage transmission line suspension insulator (18 or 22) which monitors its own dielectric integrity. A dielectric rod (10) has one larger diameter end fitting attachable to a transmission line and another larger diameter end fitting attachable to a support tower. The rod is enclosed in a dielectric tube (14) which is hermetically sealed to the rod's end fittings such that a liquidtight space (20) is formed between the rod and the tube. A pressurized dielectric liquid is placed within that space. A discoloring dye placed within this space is used to detect the loss of the pressurized liquid.

  4. Induction of nuclear fission by high-voltage application

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hirokazu Maruyama

    2007-11-20

    In nuclear power generation, fissile materials are mainly used. For example, $U^{235}$ is fissile and therefore quite essential for use of nuclear energy. However, the material $U^{235}$ has very small natural abundance less than 1 %. We should seek possibility of utilizing fissionable materials such as $U^{238}$ because natural abundance of such fissionable materials is generally much larger than fissile ones. In this paper, we show that thermal neutrons with vanishing kinetic energy can induce nuclear fission when high voltage is applied to fissionable materials. To obtain this result, we use the liquid-drop model for nuclei. Finally, we propose how fissionable materials can be utilized.

  5. An accurate continuous calibration system for high voltage current transformer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tong Yue; Li Binhong [College of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074, Hubei Province (China)

    2011-02-15

    A continuous calibration system for high voltage current transformers is presented in this paper. The sensor of this system is based on a kind of electronic instrument current transformer, which is a clamp-shape air core coil. This system uses an optical fiber transmission system for its signal transmission and power supply. Finally the digital integrator and fourth-order convolution window algorithm as error calculation methods are realized by the virtual instrument with a personal computer. It is found that this system can calibrate a high voltage current transformer while energized, which means avoiding a long calibrating period in the power system and the loss of power metering expense. At the same time, it has a wide dynamic range and frequency band, and it can achieve a high accuracy measurement in a complex electromagnetic field environment. The experimental results and the on-site operation results presented in the last part of the paper, prove that it can reach the 0.05 accuracy class and is easy to operate on site.

  6. High-voltage atmospheric breakdown across intervening rutile dielectrics.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williamson, Kenneth Martin; Simpson, Sean; Coats, Rebecca Sue; Jorgenson, Roy Eberhardt; Hjalmarson, Harold Paul; Pasik, Michael Francis

    2013-09-01

    This report documents work conducted in FY13 on electrical discharge experiments performed to develop predictive computational models of the fundamental processes of surface breakdown in the vicinity of high-permittivity material interfaces. Further, experiments were conducted to determine if free carrier electrons could be excited into the conduction band thus lowering the effective breakdown voltage when UV photons (4.66 eV) from a high energy pulsed laser were incident on the rutile sample. This report documents the numerical approach, the experimental setup, and summarizes the data and simulations. Lastly, it describes the path forward and challenges that must be overcome in order to improve future experiments for characterizing the breakdown behavior for rutile.

  7. Monolithic high voltage nonlinear transmission line fabrication process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cooper, G.A.

    1994-10-04

    A process for fabricating sequential inductors and varistor diodes of a monolithic, high voltage, nonlinear, transmission line in GaAs is disclosed. An epitaxially grown laminate is produced by applying a low doped active n-type GaAs layer to an n-plus type GaAs substrate. A heavily doped p-type GaAs layer is applied to the active n-type layer and a heavily doped n-type GaAs layer is applied to the p-type layer. Ohmic contacts are applied to the heavily doped n-type layer where diodes are desired. Multiple layers are then either etched away or Oxygen ion implanted to isolate individual varistor diodes. An insulator is applied between the diodes and a conductive/inductive layer is thereafter applied on top of the insulator layer to complete the process. 6 figs.

  8. High Temperature, High Voltage Fully Integrated Gate Driver Circuit |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum12,ExecutiveFinancing ProgramsDepartment of¡High HIGHofWasteDepartment of

  9. High Temperature, High Voltage Fully Integrated Gate Driver Circuit |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum12,ExecutiveFinancing ProgramsDepartment of¡High HIGHofWasteDepartment

  10. Low-profile high-voltage compact gas switch

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goerz, D.A.; Wilson, M.J.; Speer, R.D.

    1997-06-30

    This paper discusses the development and testing of a low-profile, high-voltage, spark-gap switch designed to be closely coupled with other components into an integrated high-energy pulsed-power source. The switch is designed to operate at 100 kV using SF6 gas pressurized to less than 0.7 MPa. The volume of the switch cavity region is less than 1.5 cm3, and the field stress along the gas-dielectric interface is as high as 130 kV/cm. The dielectric switch body has a low profile that is only I -cm tall at its greatest extent and nominally 2-mm thick over most of its area. This design achieves a very low inductance of less than 5 nH, but results in field stresses exceeding 500 kV/cm in the dielectric material. Field modeling was done to determine the appropriate shape for the highly stressed insulator and electrodes, and special manufacturing techniques were employed to mitigate the usual mechanisms that induce breakdown and failure in solid dielectrics. Static breakdown tests verified that the switch operates satisfactorily at 100 kV levels. The unit has been characterized with different shaped electrodes having nominal gap spacings of 2.0, 2.5, and 3.0 mm. The relationship between self-break voltage and operating pressure agrees well with published data on gas properties, accounting for the field enhancements of the electrode shapes being used. Capacitor discharge tests in a low inductance test fixture exhibited peak currents up to 25 kA with characteristic frequencies of the ringdown circuit ranging from 10 to 20 MHz. The ringdown waveforms and scaling of measured parameters agree well with circuit modeling of the switch and test fixture. Repetitive operation has been demonstrated at moderate rep-rates up to 15 Hz, limited by the power supply being used. Preliminary tests to evaluate lifetime of the compact switch assembly have been encouraging. In one case, after more than 7,000 high-current ringdown tests with approximately 30 C of total charge transferred, the switch continued to operate satisfactorily with no apparent tracking or deterioration of the insulator.

  11. Large voltage-induced modification of spin-orbit torques in Pt/Co/GdOx

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Emori, Satoru Bauer, Uwe; Woo, Seonghoon; Beach, Geoffrey S. D.

    2014-12-01

    We report on large modifications of current-induced spin-orbit torques in a gated Pt/Co/Gd-oxide microstrip due to voltage-driven O{sup 2?} migration. The Slonczewski-like and field-like torques are quantified using a low-frequency harmonic technique based on the polar magneto-optical Kerr effect. Voltage-induced oxidation of Co enhances the Slonczewski-like torque by as much as an order of magnitude and simultaneously reduces the anisotropy energy barrier by a factor of ?5. Such magneto-ionic tuning of interfacial spin-orbit effects may significantly enhance the efficiency of magnetization switching and provide additional degrees of freedom in spintronic devices.

  12. A new class of high force, low-voltage, compliant actuation system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    RODGERS,M. STEVEN; KOTA,SRIDHAR; HETRICK,JOEL; LI,ZHE; JENSEN,BRIAN D.; KRYGOWSKI,THOMAS W.; MILLER,SAMUEL L.; BARNES,STEPHEN MATTHEW; BURG,MICHAEL STANLEY

    2000-04-10

    Although many actuators employing electrostatic comb drives have been demonstrated in a laboratory environment, widespread acceptance in mass produced microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) may be limited due to issues associated with low drive force, large real estate demands, high operating voltages, and reliability concerns due to stiction. On the other hand, comb drives require very low drive currents, offer predictable response, and are highly compatible with the fabrication technology. The expand the application space and facilitate the widespread deployment of self-actuated MEMS, a new class of advanced actuation systems has been developed that maintains the highly desirable aspects of existing components, while significantly diminishing the issues that could impede large scale acceptance. In this paper, the authors will present low-voltage electrostatic actuators that offer a dramatic increase in force over conventional comb drive designs. In addition, these actuators consume only a small fraction of the chip area previously used, yielding significant gains in power density. To increase the stroke length of these novel electrostatic actuators, the authors have developed highly efficient compliant stroke amplifiers. The coupling of compact, high-force actuators with fully compliant displacement multipliers sets a new paradigm for highly integrated microelectromechanical systems.

  13. High voltage power supply with modular series resonant inverters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dreifuerst, G.R.; Merritt, B.T.

    1995-07-18

    A relatively small and compact high voltage, high current power supply for a laser utilizes a plurality of modules containing series resonant half bridge inverters. A pair of reverse conducting thyristors are incorporated in each series resonant inverter module such that the series resonant inverter modules are sequentially activated in phases 360{degree}/n apart, where n=number of modules for n>2. Selective activation of the modules allows precise output control reducing ripple and improving efficiency. Each series resonant half bridge inverter module includes a transformer which has a cooling manifold for actively circulating a coolant such as water, to cool the transformer core as well as selected circuit elements. Conductors connecting and forming various circuit components comprise hollow, electrically conductive tubes such as copper. Coolant circulates through the tubes to remove heat. The conductive tubes act as electrically conductive lines for connecting various components of the power supply. Where it is desired to make electrical isolation breaks, tubes comprised of insulating material such as nylon are used to provide insulation and continue the fluid circuit. 11 figs.

  14. High voltage power supply with modular series resonant inverters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dreifuerst, Gary R. (Livermore, CA); Merritt, Bernard T. (Livermore, CA)

    1995-01-01

    A relatively small and compact high voltage, high current power supply for a laser utilizes a plurality of modules containing series resonant half bridge inverters. A pair of reverse conducting thyristors are incorporated in each series resonant inverter module such that the series resonant inverter modules are sequentially activated in phases 360.degree./n apart, where n=number of modules for n>2. Selective activation of the modules allows precise output control reducing ripple and improving efficiency. Each series resonant half bridge inverter module includes a transformer which has a cooling manifold for actively circulating a coolant such as water, to cool the transformer core as well as selected circuit elements. Conductors connecting and forming various circuit components comprise hollow, electrically conductive tubes such as copper. Coolant circulates through the tubes to remove heat. The conductive tubes act as electrically conductive lines for connecting various components of the power supply. Where it is desired to make electrical isolation breaks, tubes comprised of insulating material such as nylon are used to provide insulation and continue the fluid circuit.

  15. Design, conditioning, and performance of a high voltage, high brightness dc photoelectron gun with variable gap

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maxson, Jared; Bazarov, Ivan; Dunham, Bruce; Dobbins, John; Liu, Xianghong; Smolenski, Karl

    2014-09-15

    A new high voltage photoemission gun has been constructed at Cornell University which features a segmented insulator and a movable anode, allowing the cathode-anode gap to be adjusted. In this work, we describe the gun's overall mechanical and high voltage design, the surface preparation of components, as well as the clean construction methods. We present high voltage conditioning data using a 50 mm cathode-anode gap, in which the conditioning voltage exceeds 500 kV, as well as at smaller gaps. Finally, we present simulated emittance results obtained from a genetic optimization scheme using voltage values based on the conditioning data. These results indicate that for charges up to 100 pC, a 30 mm gap at 400 kV has equal or smaller 100% emittance than a 50 mm gap at 450 kV, and also a smaller core emittance, when placed as the source for the Cornell energy recovery linac photoinjector with bunch length constrained to be <3 ps rms. For 100 pC up to 0.5 nC charges, the 50 mm gap has larger core emittance than the 30 mm gap, but conversely smaller 100% emittance.

  16. Method and apparatus for connecting high voltage leads to a high temperature super-conducting transformer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Golner, Thomas M.; Mehta, Shirish P.

    2005-07-26

    A method and apparatus for connecting high voltage leads to a super-conducting transformer is provided that includes a first super-conducting coil set, a second super-conducting coil set, and a third super-conducting coil set. The first, second and third super-conducting coil sets are connected via an insulated interconnect system that includes insulated conductors and insulated connectors that are utilized to connect the first, second, and third super-conducting coil sets to the high voltage leads.

  17. A Low Voltage, Rail-to-Rail, Class AB CMOS Amplifier With High Drive and Low Output Impedance Characteristics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rincon-Mora, Gabriel A.

    1 A Low Voltage, Rail-to-Rail, Class AB CMOS Amplifier With High Drive and Low Output Impedance describes a CMOS rail-to-rail class AB operational amplifier designed to have extremely low output impedance. The source follower ensures low output impedance, which enables it to drive relatively large load capacitors

  18. High frequency AC power converter for low voltage circuits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Salazar, Nathaniel Jay Tobias

    2012-01-01

    This thesis presents a novel AC power delivery architecture that is suitable for VHF frequency (50-100MHz) polyphase AC/DC power conversion in low voltage integrated circuits. A complete AC power delivery architecture was ...

  19. High-Voltage Solid Polymer Batteries for Electric Drive Vehicles...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Voltage Solid Polymer Batteries for Electric Drive Vehicles Eitouni, Hany; Yang, Jin; Pratt, Russell; Wang, Xiao; Grape, Ulrik The purpose of this project was for Seeo to develop a...

  20. A New Four States High Deflection Low Actuation Voltage Electrostatic Mems Switch for RF Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robin, Renaud; Segueni, Karim; Millet, Olivier; Buchaillot, Lionel

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a new electrostatic MEMS (MicroElectroMechanical System) based on a single high reliability totally free flexible membrane. Using four electrodes, this structure enables four states which allowed large deflections (4$\\mu$m) with low actuation voltage (7,5V). This design presents also a good contact force and improve the restoring force of the structure. As an example of application, a Single Pole Double Throw (SPDT) for 24GHz applications, based on this design, has been simulated.

  1. Monolithically interconnected GaAs solar cells: A new interconnection technology for high voltage solar cell output

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dinetta, L.C.; Hannon, M.H.

    1995-10-01

    Photovoltaic linear concentrator arrays can benefit from high performance solar cell technologies being developed at AstroPower. Specifically, these are the integration of thin GaAs solar cell and epitaxial lateral overgrowth technologies with the application of monolithically interconnected solar cell (MISC) techniques. This MISC array has several advantages which make it ideal for space concentrator systems. These are high system voltage, reliable low cost monolithically formed interconnections, design flexibility, costs that are independent of array voltage, and low power loss from shorts, opens, and impact damage. This concentrator solar cell will incorporate the benefits of light trapping by growing the device active layers over a low-cost, simple, PECVD deposited silicon/silicon dioxide Bragg reflector. The high voltage-low current output results in minimal 12R losses while properly designing the device allows for minimal shading and resistance losses. It is possible to obtain open circuit voltages as high as 67 volts/cm of solar cell length with existing technology. The projected power density for the high performance device is 5 kW/m for an AMO efficiency of 26% at 1 5X. Concentrator solar cell arrays are necessary to meet the power requirements of specific mission platforms and can supply high voltage power for electric propulsion systems. It is anticipated that the high efficiency, GaAs monolithically interconnected linear concentrator solar cell array will enjoy widespread application for space based solar power needs. Additional applications include remote man-portable or ultra-light unmanned air vehicle (UAV) power supplies where high power per area, high radiation hardness and a high bus voltage or low bus current are important. The monolithic approach has a number of inherent advantages, including reduced cost per interconnect and increased reliability of array connections. There is also a high potential for a large number of consumer products.

  2. Radio-frequency powered glow discharge device and method with high voltage interface

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Duckworth, Douglas C. (Knoxville, TN); Marcus, R. Kenneth (Clemson, SC); Donohue, David L. (Vienna, AT); Lewis, Trousdale A. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1994-01-01

    A high voltage accelerating potential, which is supplied by a high voltage direct current power supply, is applied to the electrically conducting interior wall of an RF powered glow discharge cell. The RF power supply desirably is electrically grounded, and the conductor carrying the RF power to the sample held by the probe is desirably shielded completely excepting only the conductor's terminal point of contact with the sample. The high voltage DC accelerating potential is not supplied to the sample. A high voltage capacitance is electrically connected in series between the sample on the one hand and the RF power supply and an impedance matching network on the other hand. The high voltage capacitance isolates the high DC voltage from the RF electronics, while the RF potential is passed across the high voltage capacitance to the plasma. An inductor protects at least the RF power supply, and desirably the impedance matching network as well, from a short that might occur across the high voltage capacitance. The discharge cell and the probe which holds the sample are configured and disposed to prevent the probe's components, which are maintained at ground potential, from bridging between the relatively low vacuum region in communication with the glow discharge maintained within the cell on the one hand, and the relatively high vacuum region surrounding the probe and cell on the other hand. The probe and cell also are configured and disposed to prevent the probe's components from electrically shorting the cell's components.

  3. Radio-frequency powered glow discharge device and method with high voltage interface

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Duckworth, D.C.; Marcus, R.K.; Donohue, D.L.; Lewis, T.A.

    1994-06-28

    A high voltage accelerating potential, which is supplied by a high voltage direct current power supply, is applied to the electrically conducting interior wall of an RF powered glow discharge cell. The RF power supply desirably is electrically grounded, and the conductor carrying the RF power to the sample held by the probe is desirably shielded completely excepting only the conductor's terminal point of contact with the sample. The high voltage DC accelerating potential is not supplied to the sample. A high voltage capacitance is electrically connected in series between the sample on the one hand and the RF power supply and an impedance matching network on the other hand. The high voltage capacitance isolates the high DC voltage from the RF electronics, while the RF potential is passed across the high voltage capacitance to the plasma. An inductor protects at least the RF power supply, and desirably the impedance matching network as well, from a short that might occur across the high voltage capacitance. The discharge cell and the probe which holds the sample are configured and disposed to prevent the probe's components, which are maintained at ground potential, from bridging between the relatively low vacuum region in communication with the glow discharge maintained within the cell on the one hand, and the relatively high vacuum region surrounding the probe and cell on the other hand. The probe and cell also are configured and disposed to prevent the probe's components from electrically shorting the cell's components. 11 figures.

  4. Degradation of Photovoltaic Modules Under High Voltage Stress in the Field: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    del Cueto, J. A.; Rummel, S. R.

    2010-08-01

    The degradation in performance for eight photovoltaic (PV) modules stressed at high voltage (HV) is presented. Four types of modules--tandem-junction and triple-junction amorphous thin-film silicon, plus crystalline and polycrystalline silicon modules--were tested, with a pair of each biased at opposite polarities. They were deployed outdoors between 2001 and 2009 with their respective HV leakage currents through the module encapsulation continuously monitored with a data acquisition system, along with air temperature and relative humidity. For the first 5 years, all modules were biased continuously at fixed 600 VDC, day and night. In the last 2 years, the modules were step-bias stressed cyclically up and down in voltage between 10 and 600 VDC, in steps of tens to hundreds of volts. This allowed characterization of leakage current versus voltage under a large range of temperature and moisture conditions, facilitating determination of leakage paths. An analysis of the degradation is presented, along with integrated leakage charge. In HV operation: the bulk silicon modules degraded either insignificantly or at rates of 0.1%/yr higher than modules not biased at HV; for the thin-film silicon modules, the added loss rates are insignificant for one type, or 0.2%/yr-0.6%/yr larger for the other type.

  5. Senderovich 1 Electrode Design Adjustments to a High Voltage Electron Gun

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hoffstaetter, Georg

    Senderovich 1 Electrode Design Adjustments to a High Voltage Electron Gun Igor Senderovich Abstract, a very high voltage electron gun needs to be designed.1 To these ends, several geometric parameters were were performed on off-axis electron acceleration. Introduction The design of the electrode gun has

  6. Evaluation of electropolished stainless steel electrodes for use in DC high voltage photoelectron guns

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    BastaniNejad, Mahzad; Elmustafa, Abdelmageed A.; Forman, Eric; Covert, Steven; Hansknecht, John; Hernandez-Garcia, Carlos; Poelker, Matthew; Das, Lopa; Kelley, Michael; Williams, Phillip

    2015-07-01

    DC high voltage photoelectron guns are used to produce polarized electron beams for accelerator-based nuclear and high-energy physics research. Low-level field emission (~nA) from the cathode electrode degrades the vacuum within the photogun and reduces the photoelectron yield of the delicate GaAs-based photocathode used to produce the electron beams. High-level field emission (>?A) can cause significant damage the photogun. To minimize field emission, stainless steel electrodes are typically diamond-paste polished, a labor-intensive process often yielding field emission performance with a high degree of variability, sample to sample. As an alternative approach and as comparative study, the performance of electrodes electropolished by conventional commercially available methods is presented. Our observations indicate the electropolished electrodes exhibited less field emission upon the initial application of high voltage, but showed less improvement with gas conditioning compared to the diamond-paste polished electrodes. In contrast, the diamond-paste polished electrodes responded favorably to gas conditioning, and ultimately reached higher voltages and field strengths without field emission, compared to electrodes that were only electropolished. The best performing electrode was one that was both diamond-paste polished and electropolished, reaching a field strength of 18.7 MV/m while generating less than 100 pA of field emission. The speculate that the combined processes were the most effective at reducing both large and small scale topography. However, surface science evaluation indicates topography cannot be the only relevant parameter when it comes to predicting field emission performance.

  7. Evaluation of electropolished stainless steel electrodes for use in DC high voltage photoelectron guns

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    BastaniNejad, Mahzad; Elmustafa, Abdelmageed A.; Forman, Eric; Covert, Steven; Hansknecht, John; Hernandez-Garcia, Carlos; Poelker, Matthew; Das, Lopa; Kelley, Michael; Williams, Phillip

    2015-07-01

    DC high voltage photoelectron guns are used to produce polarized electron beams for accelerator-based nuclear and high-energy physics research. Low-level field emission (~nA) from the cathode electrode degrades the vacuum within the photogun and reduces the photoelectron yield of the delicate GaAs-based photocathode used to produce the electron beams. High-level field emission (>?A) can cause significant damage the photogun. To minimize field emission, stainless steel electrodes are typically diamond-paste polished, a labor-intensive process often yielding field emission performance with a high degree of variability, sample to sample. As an alternative approach and as comparative study, the performance of electrodes electropolishedmore »by conventional commercially available methods is presented. Our observations indicate the electropolished electrodes exhibited less field emission upon the initial application of high voltage, but showed less improvement with gas conditioning compared to the diamond-paste polished electrodes. In contrast, the diamond-paste polished electrodes responded favorably to gas conditioning, and ultimately reached higher voltages and field strengths without field emission, compared to electrodes that were only electropolished. The best performing electrode was one that was both diamond-paste polished and electropolished, reaching a field strength of 18.7 MV/m while generating less than 100 pA of field emission. The speculate that the combined processes were the most effective at reducing both large and small scale topography. However, surface science evaluation indicates topography cannot be the only relevant parameter when it comes to predicting field emission performance.« less

  8. Evaluation of electropolished stainless steel electrodes for use in DC high voltage photoelectron guns

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    BastaniNejad, Mahzad Elmustafa, Abdelmageed A.; Forman, Eric; Covert, Steven; Hansknecht, John; Hernandez-Garcia, Carlos; Poelker, Matthew; Das, Lopa; Kelley, Michael; Williams, Phillip

    2015-07-15

    DC high voltage photoelectron guns are used to produce polarized electron beams for accelerator-based nuclear and high-energy physics research. Low-level field emission (?nA) from the cathode electrode degrades the vacuum within the photogun and reduces the photoelectron yield of the delicate GaAs-based photocathode used to produce the electron beams. High-level field emission (>?A) can cause significant damage the photogun. To minimize field emission, stainless steel electrodes are typically diamond-paste polished, a labor-intensive process often yielding field emission performance with a high degree of variability, sample to sample. As an alternative approach and as comparative study, the performance of electrodes electropolished by conventional commercially available methods is presented. Our observations indicate the electropolished electrodes exhibited less field emission upon the initial application of high voltage, but showed less improvement with gas conditioning compared to the diamond-paste polished electrodes. In contrast, the diamond-paste polished electrodes responded favorably to gas conditioning, and ultimately reached higher voltages and field strengths without field emission, compared to electrodes that were only electropolished. The best performing electrode was one that was both diamond-paste polished and electropolished, reaching a field strength of 18.7 MV/m while generating less than 100?pA of field emission. The authors speculate that the combined processes were the most effective at reducing both large and small scale topography. However, surface science evaluation indicates topography cannot be the only relevant parameter when it comes to predicting field emission performance.

  9. High voltage bus and auxiliary heater control system for an electric or hybrid vehicle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Murty, Balarama Vempaty (West Bloomfield, MI)

    2000-01-01

    A control system for an electric or hybrid electric vehicle includes a vehicle system controller and a control circuit having an electric immersion heater. The heater is electrically connected to the vehicle's high voltage bus and is thermally coupled to a coolant loop containing a heater core for the vehicle's climate control system. The system controller responds to cabin heat requests from the climate control system by generating a pulse width modulated signal that is used by the control circuit to operate the heater at a duty cycle appropriate for the amount of cabin heating requested. The control system also uses the heater to dissipate excess energy produced by an auxiliary power unit and to provide electric braking when regenerative braking is not desirable and manual braking is not necessary. The control system further utilizes the heater to provide a safe discharge of a bank of energy storage capacitors following disconnection of the battery or one of the high voltage connectors used to transmit high voltage operating power to the various vehicle systems. The control circuit includes a high voltage clamping circuit that monitors the voltage on the bus and operates the heater to clamp down the bus voltage when it exceeds a pre-selected maximum voltage. The control system can also be used to phase in operation of the heater when the bus voltage exceeds a lower threshold voltage and can be used to phase out the auxiliary power unit charging and regenerative braking when the battery becomes fully charged.

  10. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON CIRCUITS AND SYSTEMS--I: REGULAR PAPERS, VOL. 55, NO. 6, JULY 2008 1751 Dual Low-Voltage IC Design for High-Voltage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and low side gate drivers are required in most switching power converters to provide on/off control Low-Voltage IC Design for High-Voltage Floating Gate Drives Yan Yin, Member, IEEE, and Regan Zane, Senior Member, IEEE Abstract--An integrated circuit (IC) design for low and high side gate drive in high

  11. Public Opinions of Building Additional High-Voltage Electric Power Lines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tesfatsion, Leigh

    Public Opinions of Building Additional High-Voltage Electric Power Lines A Report to the National-Voltage Electric Power Lines: A Report to the National Science Foundation and the Electric Power Research Center to build new power lines. Residents living in counties with planned routes for new transmission lines

  12. An ultra-low voltage high gain operational transconductance amplifier for biomedical

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    An ultra-low voltage high gain operational transconductance amplifier for biomedical applications that work at ultra low voltage power supply. Moreover, low power dissipation is essential in these systems dissipation is also proposed in [5]. Differential pairs are commonly used as input stages, in an ultra-low

  13. Large-dimension, high-ZT Thermoelectric Nanocomposites for High...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Large-dimension, high-ZT Thermoelectric Nanocomposites for High-Power High-efficiency Waste Heat Recovery for Electricity Generation Large-dimension, high-ZT Thermoelectric...

  14. An Annotated Bibliography of High-Voltage Direct-Current Transmission and Flexible AC Transmission (FACTS) Devices, 1991-1993.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Litzenberger, Wayne; Lava, Val

    1994-08-01

    References are contained for HVDC systems, converter stations and components, overhead transmission lines, cable transmission, system design and operations, simulation of high voltage direct current systems, high-voltage direct current installations, and flexible AC transmission system (FACTS).

  15. Light-weight DC to very high voltage DC converter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Druce, R.L.; Kirbie, H.C.; Newton, M.A.

    1998-06-30

    A DC-DC converter capable of generating outputs of 100 KV without a transformer comprises a silicon opening switch (SOS) diode connected to allow a charging current from a capacitor to flow into an inductor. When a specified amount of charge has flowed through the SOS diode, it opens up abruptly; and the consequential collapsing field of the inductor causes a voltage and current reversal that is steered into a load capacitor by an output diode. A switch across the series combination of the capacitor, inductor, and SOS diode closes to periodically reset the SOS diode by inducing a forward-biased current. 1 fig.

  16. 130kV 130A High Voltage Switching Mode Power Supply for Neutral Injections – Control Issues and Algorithms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    130kV 130A High Voltage Switching Mode Power Supply for Neutral Injections – Control Issues and Algorithms

  17. Princeton Power Systems (TRL 5 6 Component)- Marine High-Voltage Power Conditioning and Transmission System with Integrated Energy Storage

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Princeton Power Systems (TRL 5 6 Component) - Marine High-Voltage Power Conditioning and Transmission System with Integrated Energy Storage

  18. Current mode integrators and their applications in low-voltage high frequency CMOS signal processing 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, Sterling Lane

    1993-01-01

    Low voltage CMOS fully differential integrators for high frequency continuous-time filters using current-mode techniques are presented.. Current mode techniques are employed to avoid the use of the floating differential ...

  19. Applications of an Electrostatic High-Voltage Tether to Radiation Belt Remediation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Applications of an Electrostatic High-Voltage Tether to Radiation Belt Remediation by Christopher F.1.1 Magnetic Mirrors and the Van Allen Belts........................... 10 1.1.2 The Loss Cone

  20. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: High-Voltage Solid Polymer Batteries for Electric Drive Vehicles

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Seeo, Inc. at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about high-voltage solid polymer...

  1. Cermet insert high voltage holdoff improvement for ceramic/metal vacuum devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ierna, W.F.

    1986-03-11

    An improved metal-to-ceramic seal is provided wherein the ceramic body of the seal contains an integral region of cermet material in electrical contact with the metallic member, e.g., an electrode, of the seal. The seal is useful in high voltage vacuum devices, e.g., vacuum switches, and increases the high-voltage holdoff capabilities of such devices. A method of fabricating such seals is also provided.

  2. Neutron burst form a high-voltage discharge between palladium electrodes in D sub 2 gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Y.E. . Dept. of Physics)

    1990-12-01

    In this paper a recent experimental observation of a neutron flux burst at a rate of 2 {times} 10{sup 4} times the background rate during a high ac voltage stimulation between two deuterated palladium electrodes in D{sub 2} gas is explained in terms of the experimentally measured deuterium-deuterium (D-D) fusion cross sections. Theoretical criteria and experimental conditions for improving D-D fusion rates with the use of pulsed high-dc voltages are described.

  3. TiN coated aluminum electrodes for DC high voltage electron guns

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Mamun, Md Abdullah A.; Elmustafa, Abdelmageed A.; Taus, Rhys; Forman, Eric; Poelker, Matthew

    2015-05-01

    Preparing electrodes made of metals like stainless steel, for use inside DC high voltage electron guns, is a labor-intensive and time-consuming process. In this paper, the authors report the exceptional high voltage performance of aluminum electrodes coated with hard titanium nitride (TiN). The aluminum electrodes were comparatively easy to manufacture and required only hours of mechanical polishing using silicon carbide paper, prior to coating with TiN by a commercial vendor. The high voltage performance of three TiN-coated aluminum electrodes, before and after gas conditioning with helium, was compared to that of bare aluminum electrodes, and electrodes manufactured from titanium alloymore »(Ti-6AI-4V). Following gas conditioning, each TiN-coated aluminum electrode reached -225 kV bias voltage while generating less than 100 pA of field emission (« less

  4. Low Voltage High Precision Spatial Light ModulatorsFinal Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Papavasiliou, A P

    2005-02-09

    The goal of this project was to make LLNL a leader in Spatial Light Modulators (SLMs) by developing the technology that will be needed by the next generation of SLMs. We would use new lower voltage actuators and bond those actuators directly to controlling circuitry to break the fundamental limitations that constrain current SLM technology. This three-year project was underfunded in the first year and not funded in the second year. With the funding that was available, we produced actuators and designs for the controlling circuitry that would have been integrated in the second year. Spatial light modulators (SLMs) are arrays of tiny movable mirrors that modulate the wave-fronts of light. SLMs can correct aberrations in incoming light for adaptive optics or modulate light for beam control, optical communication and particle manipulation. MicroElectroMechanical Systems (MEMS) is a technology that utilizes the microfabrication tools developed by the semiconductor industry to fabricate a wide variety of tiny machines. The first generation of MEMS SLMs have improved the functionality of SLMs while drastically reducing per pixel cost making arrays on the order of 1000 pixels readily available. These MEMS SLMs however are limited by the nature of their designs to be very difficult to scale above 1000 pixels and have very limited positioning accuracy. By co-locating the MEMS mirrors with CMOS electronics, we will increase the scalability and positioning accuracy. To do this we will have to make substantial advances in SLM actuator design, and fabrication.

  5. Fast switching, modular high-voltage DC/AC-power supplies for RF-Amplifiers and other applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alex, J.; Schminke, W. [Thomcast AG, Turgi (Switzerland)

    1995-12-31

    A new kind of high voltage high-power Pulse-Step Modulator (PSM) for broadcast transmitters, accelerator sources, for NBI (Neutral Beam Injection for Plasma Heating), gyrotrons and klystrons has been developed. Since its first introduction in 1984 for broadcast transmitters, more than 100 high-power sound broadcast transmitters had been equipped with the first generation of the PSM modulators, using Gate Turn-Off Thyristors (GTOs) as switching elements. Recently, due to faster switching elements and making use of the latest DSP technologies (Digital Signal Processing), the performance data and areas of application could be extended further. In 1994, a precision high voltage source for MW gyrotrons was installed at CRPP in Lausanne. Supplementary very low cost solutions for lower powers but high voltages had been developed. Hence, today, a large area of applications can be satisfied with the family of solutions. The paper describes the principle of operation, the related control systems and refers to some particular applications of the PSM amplifiers, especially the newest developments and corresponding field results.

  6. Connecting Renewables Directly to the Grid: Resilient Multi-Terminal HVDC Networks with High-Voltage High-Frequency Electronics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-01-23

    GENI Project: GE is developing electricity transmission hardware that could connect distributed renewable energy sources, like wind farms, directly to the grid—eliminating the need to feed the energy generated through intermediate power conversion stations before they enter the grid. GE is using the advanced semiconductor material silicon carbide (SiC) to conduct electricity through its transmission hardware because SiC can operate at higher voltage levels than semiconductors made out of other materials. This high-voltage capability is important because electricity must be converted to high-voltage levels before it can be sent along the grid’s network of transmission lines. Power companies do this because less electricity is lost along the lines when the voltage is high.

  7. High power impulse magnetron sputtering: Current-voltage-timecharacteristics indicate the onset of sustained self-sputtering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anders, Andre; Andersson, Joakim; Ehiasarian, Arutiun

    2007-08-03

    The commonly used current-voltage characteristics are foundinadequate for describing the pulsed nature of the high power impulsemagnetron sputtering (HIPIMS) discharge, rather, the description needs tobe expanded to current-voltage-time characteristics for each initial gaspressure. Using different target materials (Cu, Ti, Nb, C, W, Al, Cr) anda pulsed constant-voltage supply it is shown that the HIPIMS dischargestypically exhibit an initial pressure dependent current peak followed bya second phase that is power and material dependent. This suggests thatthe initial phase of a HIPIMS discharge pulse is dominated by gas ionswhereas the later phase has a strong contribution from self-sputtering.For some materials the discharge switches into a mode of sustainedself-sputtering. The very large differences between materials cannot beascribed to the different sputter yields but they indicate thatgeneration and trapping ofsecondary electrons plays a major role forcurrent-voltage-time characteristics. In particular, it is argued thatthe sustained self-sputtering phase is associated with thegeneration ofmultiply charged ions because only they can cause potential emission ofsecondary electrons whereas the yield caused by singly charged metal ionsis negligibly small.

  8. Dual Low Voltage IC Based High and Low Side Yan Yin, Regan Zane

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dual Low Voltage IC Based High and Low Side Gate Drive Yan Yin, Regan Zane Colorado Power Electronics Center University of Colorado at Boulder Boulder, CO 80309-0425 Abstract--high and low-side gate between the switches to avoid simultaneous conduction. A method is proposed that uses two low

  9. Integrated Results for Dual Low Voltage IC Based High and Low Side Gate Drive

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , electronicballast I. INTRODUCTION High and low side gate drivers are required in most switching power converters Zane Colorado Power Electronics Center (CoPEC) Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, UCB design for high and low side gate drive is presented based on use of two identical low voltage ICs

  10. Non-aqueous electrolyte for high voltage rechargeable magnesium batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Doe, Robert Ellis; Lane, George Hamilton; Jilek, Robert E; Hwang, Jaehee

    2015-02-10

    An electrolyte for use in electrochemical cells is provided. The properties of the electrolyte include high conductivity, high Coulombic efficiency, and an electrochemical window that can exceed 3.5 V vs. Mg/Mg.sup.+2. The use of the electrolyte promotes the electrochemical deposition and dissolution of Mg without the use of any Grignard reagents, other organometallic materials, tetraphenyl borate, or tetrachloroaluminate derived anions. Other Mg-containing electrolyte systems that are expected to be suitable for use in secondary batteries are also described.

  11. High-Voltage Insulators and Components - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would likeUniverse (JournalvivoHigh energy neutronHigh-Pressure MOFElectricity Transmission

  12. Hybrid Design Optimization of High Voltage Pulse Transformers for Klystron Modulators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sylvain, Candolfi; Davide, Aguglia; Jerome, Cros

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a hybrid optimization methodology for the design of high voltage pulse transformers used in klystron modulators. The optimization process is using simplified 2D FEA design models of the 3D transformer structure. Each intermediate optimal solution is evaluated by 3D FEA and correction coefficients of the 2D FEA models are derived. A new optimization process using 2D FEA models is then performed. The convergence of this hybrid optimal design methodology is obtained with a limited number of time consuming 3D FEA simulations. The method is applied to the optimal design of a monolithic high voltage pulse transformer for the CLIC klystron modulator.

  13. Static reactive power compensators for high-voltage power systems. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-04-01

    A study conducted to summarize the role of static reactive power compensators for high voltage power system applications is described. This information should be useful to the utility system planning engineer in applying static var systems (SVS) to high voltage as (HVAC) systems. The static var system is defined as a form of reactive power compensator. The general need for reactive power compensation in HVAC systems is discussed, and the static var system is compared to other devices utilized to provide reactive power compensation. Examples are presented of applying SVS for specific functions, such as the prevention of voltage collapse. The operating principles of commercially available SVS's are discussed in detail. The perormance and active power loss characteristics of SVS types are compared.

  14. Method of making high breakdown voltage semiconductor device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Arthur, Stephen D. (Scotia, NY); Temple, Victor A. K. (Jonesville, NY)

    1990-01-01

    A semiconductor device having at least one P-N junction and a multiple-zone junction termination extension (JTE) region which uniformly merges with the reverse blocking junction is disclosed. The blocking junction is graded into multiple zones of lower concentration dopant adjacent termination to facilitate merging of the JTE to the blocking junction and placing of the JTE at or near the high field point of the blocking junction. Preferably, the JTE region substantially overlaps the graded blocking junction region. A novel device fabrication method is also provided which eliminates the prior art step of separately diffusing the JTE region.

  15. High Voltage Electrolyte for Lithium Batteries | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum12,ExecutiveFinancing ProgramsDepartment of¡HighApproaches | 03.25.2015DOE2 DOE

  16. High Voltage Electrolyte for Lithium Batteries | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum12,ExecutiveFinancing ProgramsDepartment of¡HighApproaches | 03.25.2015DOE2 DOE1

  17. Highline Pacific Northwests High-Voltage Transmission System

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would likeUniverse (JournalvivoHigh energyHighland View school Highland ViewSeptember 2002

  18. Impacts of Large-Scale Wind Generators Penetration on the Voltage Stability of Power Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pota, Himanshu Roy

    on the operation of existing transmission network . The European Wind Energy Association (EWEA) projects 230 GW closer to their limits, using flexible AC transmission system devices (FACTS), and also due- rently interconnected into the existing transmission network of 220kV voltage level with higher installed

  19. On the Anomalous Weight Losses of High Voltage Symmetrical Capacitors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Elio B. Porcelli; Victo S. Filho

    2015-02-21

    In this work, we analyzed an anomalous effect verified from symmetrical capacitor devices, working in very high electric potentials. The mastery of that effect could mean in the future the possible substitution of propulsion technology based on fuels by single electrical propulsion systems. From experimental measurements, we detected small variations of the device inertia that cannot be associated with known interactions, so that the raised force apparently has not been completely elucidated by current theories. We measured such variations within an accurate range and we proposed that the experimental results can be explained by relations like Clausius-Mossotti one, in order to quantify the dipole forces that appear in the devices. The values of the weight losses in the capacitors were calculated by means of the theoretical proposal and indicated good agreement with our experimental measurements for 7kV and with many other experimental works.

  20. Milligram-Scale High-Voltage Power Electronics for Piezoelectric Microrobots

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wood, Robert

    of piezoelectric actuators in microrobotic applications, and demonstrating experimental realizations of sub-100mgMilligram-Scale High-Voltage Power Electronics for Piezoelectric Microrobots Michael Karpelson, Student Member, IEEE, Gu-Yeon Wei, Member, IEEE, Robert J. Wood, Member, IEEE Abstract-- Piezoelectric

  1. STRUCTURAL HEALTH MONITORING OF HIGH VOLTAGE ELECTRICAL SWITCH CERAMIC INSULATORS IN SEISMIC AREAS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    STRUCTURAL HEALTH MONITORING OF HIGH VOLTAGE ELECTRICAL SWITCH CERAMIC INSULATORS IN SEISMIC AREAS damage. 7th European Workshop on Structural Health Monitoring July 8-11, 2014. La Cité, Nantes, France European Workshop on Structural Health Monitoring (2014)" #12;(a) (b) Figure 1 : a) Elect

  2. High-current variable-voltage rectifiers: state of the art topologies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Noé, Reinhold

    , uninterruptible power supplies (UPS), inverters, wind power converters, DC power supplies and high-voltage DC Solanki1 , Norbert Fröhleke1, Joachim Böcker1, Andreas Averberg2, Peter Wallmeier2 1 Power Electronics and Electrical Drives, University of Paderborn, Paderborn, Germany 2 R&D, AEG Power Solutions GmbH, Warstein

  3. High-voltage pulse switching hardware for electro-optic studies of conducting aqueous solutions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Augustine, Mathew P.

    High-voltage pulse switching hardware for electro-optic studies of conducting aqueous solutions 22 April 2002 The hardware necessary for the electro-optic study of conducting polyelectrolyte is to present the design of hardware that is applicable, available, and practical for biological electro

  4. Extremum seeking-based optimization of high voltage converter modulator rise-time

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scheinker, Alexander; Bland, Michael; Krstic, Miroslav; Audia, Jeff

    2013-02-01

    We digitally implement an extremum seeking (ES) algorithm, which optimizes the rise time of the output voltage of a high voltage converter modulator (HVCM) at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) HVCM test stand by iteratively, simultaneously tuning the first 8 switching edges of each of the three phase drive waveforms (24 variables total). We achieve a 50 ?s rise time, which is reduction in half compared to the 100 ?s achieved at the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Considering that HVCMs typically operate with an output voltage of 100 kV, with a 60Hz repetition rate, the 50 ?s rise time reduction will result in very significant energy savings. The ES algorithm will prove successful, despite the noisy measurements and cost calculations, confirming the theoretical results that the algorithm is not affected by noise whose frequency components are independent of the perturbing frequencies.

  5. Extremum seeking-based optimization of high voltage converter modulator rise-time

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Scheinker, Alexander; Bland, Michael; Krstic, Miroslav; Audia, Jeff

    2013-02-01

    We digitally implement an extremum seeking (ES) algorithm, which optimizes the rise time of the output voltage of a high voltage converter modulator (HVCM) at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) HVCM test stand by iteratively, simultaneously tuning the first 8 switching edges of each of the three phase drive waveforms (24 variables total). We achieve a 50 ?s rise time, which is reduction in half compared to the 100 ?s achieved at the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Considering that HVCMs typically operate with an output voltage of 100 kV, with a 60Hz repetitionmore »rate, the 50 ?s rise time reduction will result in very significant energy savings. The ES algorithm will prove successful, despite the noisy measurements and cost calculations, confirming the theoretical results that the algorithm is not affected by noise whose frequency components are independent of the perturbing frequencies.« less

  6. Interconnected High-Voltage Pulsed-Power Converters System Design for H? Ion Sources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aguglia, D

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the design and experimental validations of a system of three new high-voltage (HV) pulsedpower converters for the H? sources. The system requires three pulsed voltages (50, 40, and 25 kV to ground) at 2-Hz repetition rate, for 700 ?s of usable flat-top. The solution presents ripplefree output voltages and minimal stored energy to protect the ion source from the consequences of arc events. Experimental results on the final full-scale prototype are presented. In case of short-circuit events, the maximal energy delivered to the source is in the Joule range. HV flat-top stability of 1% is experimentally achieved with a simple Proportional-Integral- Derivative regulation and preliminary tuned H? source (e.g., radio frequency control, gas injection, and so forth). The system is running since more than a year with no power converter failures and damage to the source.

  7. High-Voltage Terminal Test of Test Stand for 1-MV Electrostatic Accelerator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Park, Sae-Hoon

    2015-01-01

    The Korea Multipurpose Accelerator Complex (KOMAC) has been developing a 300-kV test stand for a 1-MV electrostatic accelerator ion source. The ion source and accelerating tube will be installed in a high-pressure vessel. The ion source in the high-pressure vessel is required to have a high reliability. The test stand has been proposed and developed to confirm the stable operating conditions of the ion source. The ion source will be tested at the test stand to verify the long-time operating conditions. The test stand comprises a 300-kV high-voltage terminal, a battery for the ion-source power, a 60-Hz inverter, 200-MHz RF power, a 5-kV extraction power supply, a 300-kV accelerating tube, and a vacuum system. The results of the 300-kV high-voltage terminal tests are presented in this paper.

  8. High Performance Electronic Structure Engineering: Large Scale...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    High Performance Electronic Structure Engineering: Large Scale GW Calculations Event Sponsor: Argonne Leadership Computing Facility Seminar Start Date: Aug 7 2015 - 10:00am...

  9. Large voltage modulation in magnetic field sensors from two-dimensional arrays of Y-Ba-Cu-O nano Josephson junctions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cybart, Shane A. Dynes, R. C.; Cho, E. Y.; Wong, T. J.; Glyantsev, V. N.; Huh, J. U.; Yung, C. S.; Moeckly, B. H.; Beeman, J. W.; Ulin-Avila, E.; Wu, S. M.

    2014-02-10

    We have fabricated and tested two-dimensional arrays of YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7??} superconducting quantum interference devices. The arrays contain over 36?000 nano Josephson junctions fabricated from ion irradiation of YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7??} through narrow slits in a resist-mask that was patterned with electron beam lithography and reactive ion etching. Measurements of current-biased arrays in magnetic field exhibit large voltage modulations as high as 30?mV.

  10. TiN coated aluminum electrodes for DC high voltage electron guns

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mamun, Md Abdullah A.; Elmustafa, Abdelmageed A.; Taus, Rhys; Forman, Eric; Poelker, Matthew

    2015-05-15

    Preparing electrodes made of metals like stainless steel, for use inside DC high voltage electron guns, is a labor-intensive and time-consuming process. In this paper, the authors report the exceptional high voltage performance of aluminum electrodes coated with hard titanium nitride (TiN). The aluminum electrodes were comparatively easy to manufacture and required only hours of mechanical polishing using silicon carbide paper, prior to coating with TiN by a commercial vendor. The high voltage performance of three TiN-coated aluminum electrodes, before and after gas conditioning with helium, was compared to that of bare aluminum electrodes, and electrodes manufactured from titanium alloy (Ti-6Al-4V). Following gas conditioning, each TiN-coated aluminum electrode reached ?225?kV bias voltage while generating less than 100?pA of field emission (<10?pA) using a 40?mm cathode/anode gap, corresponding to field strength of 13.7?MV/m. Smaller gaps were studied to evaluate electrode performance at higher field strength with the best performing TiN-coated aluminum electrode reaching ?22.5 MV/m with field emission less than 100?pA. These results were comparable to those obtained from our best-performing electrodes manufactured from stainless steel, titanium alloy and niobium, as reported in references cited below. The TiN coating provided a very smooth surface and with mechanical properties of the coating (hardness and modulus) superior to those of stainless steel, titanium-alloy, and niobium electrodes. These features likely contributed to the improved high voltage performance of the TiN-coated aluminum electrodes.

  11. TiN coated aluminum electrodes for DC high voltage electron guns

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mamun, Md Abdullah A.; Elmustafa, Abdelmageed A.; Taus, Rhys; Forman, Eric; Poelker, Matthew

    2015-05-01

    Preparing electrodes made of metals like stainless steel, for use inside DC high voltage electron guns, is a labor-intensive and time-consuming process. In this paper, the authors report the exceptional high voltage performance of aluminum electrodes coated with hard titanium nitride (TiN). The aluminum electrodes were comparatively easy to manufacture and required only hours of mechanical polishing using silicon carbide paper, prior to coating with TiN by a commercial vendor. The high voltage performance of three TiN-coated aluminum electrodes, before and after gas conditioning with helium, was compared to that of bare aluminum electrodes, and electrodes manufactured from titanium alloy (Ti-6AI-4V). Following gas conditioning, each TiN-coated aluminum electrode reached -225 kV bias voltage while generating less than 100 pA of field emission (<10 pA) using a 40 mm cathode/anode gap, corresponding to field strength of 13.7 MV/m. Smaller gaps were studied to evaluate electrode performance at higher field strength with the best performing TiN-coated aluminum electrode reaching ~22.5 MV/m with field emission less than 100 pA. These results were comparable to those obtained from our best-performing electrodes manufactured from stainless steel, titanium alloy and niobium, as reported in references cited below. The TiN coating provided a very smooth surface and with mechanical properties of the coating (hardness and modulus) superior to those of stainless steel, titanium-alloy, and niobium electrodes. These features likely contributed to the improved high voltage performance of the TiN-coated aluminum electrodes.

  12. Structure and charging kinetics of electrical double layers at large electrode voltage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cagle, Clint [Clemson University; Feng, Guang [Clemson University; Qiao, Rui [Clemson University; Huang, Jingsong [ORNL; Sumpter, Bobby G [ORNL; Meunier, Vincent [ORNL

    2009-01-01

    The structure and charging kinetics of electrical double layers (EDLs) at interfaces of NaCl solutions and planar electrodes are studied by molecular dynamics (MD) and Poisson Nernst Planck (PNP) simulations. Based on the MD results and prior experimental data, we show that counterion packing in planar EDLs does not reach the steric limit at electrode voltages below 1 V. In addition, we demonstrate that a PNP model, when complemented with a Stern model, can be effectively used to capture the overall charging kinetics. However, the PNP/Stern model can only give a qualitative description of the fine features of the EDL.

  13. Optical fiber imaging for high speed plasma motion diagnostics: Applied to low voltage circuit breakers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McBride, J. W.; Balestrero, A.; Tribulato, G.; Ghezzi, L.; Cross, K. J.

    2010-05-15

    An integrated portable measurement system is described for the study of high speed and high temperature unsteady plasma flows such as those found in the vicinity of high current switching arcs. An array of optical fibers allows the formation of low spatial resolution images, with a maximum capture rate of 1x10{sup 6} images per second (1 MHz), with 8 bit intensity resolution. Novel software techniques are reported to allow imaging of the arc; and to measure arc trajectories. Results are presented on high current (2 kA) discharge events in a model test fixture and on the application to a commercial low voltage circuit breaker.

  14. CRYOGENIC LIFETIME TESTS ON A COMMERCIAL EPOXY RESIN HIGH VOLTAGE BUSHING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schwenterly, S W [ORNL; Pleva, Ed [Waukesha Electric Systems, Waukesha, WI; Ha, Tam T [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    High-temperature superconducting (HTS) power devices operating in liquid nitrogen frequently require high-voltage bushings to carry the current leads from the superconducting windings to the room temperature grid connections. Oak Ridge National Laboratory is collaborating with Waukesha Electric Systems, SuperPower, and Southern California Edison to develop and demonstrate an HTS utility power transformer. Previous dielectric high voltage tests in support of this program have been carried out in test cryostats with commercial epoxy resin bushings from Electro Composites Inc. (ECI). Though the bushings performed well in these short-term tests, their long-term operation at high voltage in liquid nitrogen needs to be verified for use on the utility grid. Long-term tests are being carried out on a sample 28-kV-class ECI bushing. The bushing has a monolithic cast, cycloaliphatic resin body and is fire- and shatter-resistant. The test cryostat is located in an interlocked cage and is energized at 25 kVac around the clock. Liquid nitrogen (LN) is automatically refilled every 9.5 hours. Partial discharge, capacitance, and leakage resistance tests are periodically performed to check for deviations from factory values. At present, over 2400 hours have been accumulated with no changes in these parameters. The tests are scheduled to run for four to six months.

  15. A high voltage pulse power supply for metal plasma immersion ion implantation and deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Salvadori, M. C.; Teixeira, F. S.; Araujo, W. W. R.; Sgubin, L. G.; Sochugov, N. S.; Spirin, R. E.; Brown, I. G.

    2010-12-15

    We describe the design and implementation of a high voltage pulse power supply (pulser) that supports the operation of a repetitively pulsed filtered vacuum arc plasma deposition facility in plasma immersion ion implantation and deposition (Mepiiid) mode. Negative pulses (micropulses) of up to 20 kV in magnitude and 20 A peak current are provided in gated pulse packets (macropulses) over a broad range of possible pulse width and duty cycle. Application of the system consisting of filtered vacuum arc and high voltage pulser is demonstrated by forming diamond-like carbon (DLC) thin films with and without substrate bias provided by the pulser. Significantly enhanced film/substrate adhesion is observed when the pulser is used to induce interface mixing between the DLC film and the underlying Si substrate.

  16. High-Voltage LED Light Engine with Integrated Driver | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum12,ExecutiveFinancingR Walls - Building America Topa High BindingVoltage LED

  17. Marine High Voltage Power Conditioning and Transmission System with Integrated Storage DE-EE0003640 Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frank Hoffmann, PhD; Aspinall, Rik

    2012-12-10

    Design, Development, and test of the three-port power converter for marine hydrokinetic power transmission. Converter provides ports for AC/DC conversion of hydrokinetic power, battery storage, and a low voltage to high voltage DC port for HVDC transmission to shore. The report covers the design, development, implementation, and testing of a prototype built by PPS.

  18. Electric power high-voltage transmission lines: Design options, cost, and electric and magnetic field levels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stoffel, J.B.; Pentecost, E.D.; Roman, R.D.; Traczyk, P.A.

    1994-11-01

    This report provides background information about (1) the electric and magnetic fields (EMFs) of high-voltage transmission lines at typical voltages and line configurations and (2) typical transmission line costs to assist on alternatives in environmental documents. EMF strengths at 0 {+-} 200 ft from centerline were calculated for ac overhead lines, and for 345 and 230-kV ac underground line and for a {+-}450-kV dc overhead line. Compacting and height sensitivity factors were computed for the variation in EMFs when line conductors are moved closer or raised. Estimated costs for the lines are presented and discussed so that the impact of using alternative strategies for reducing EMF strengths and the implications of implementing the strategies can be better appreciated.

  19. Novel Nonflammable Electrolytes for Secondary Magnesium Batteries and High Voltage Electrolytes for Electrochemcial Supercapacitors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Brian Dixon

    2008-12-30

    Magnesium has been used successfully in primary batteries, but its use in rechargeable cells has been stymied by the lack of suitable non-aqueous electrolyte that can conduct Mg+2 species, combined with poor stripping and plating properties. The development of a suitable cathode material for rechargeable magnesium batteries has also been a roadblock, but a nonflammable electrolyte is key. Likewise, the development of safe high voltage electrochemical supercapaitors has been stymied by the use of flammable solvents in the liquid electrolyte; to wit, acetonitrile. The purpose of the research conducted in this effort was to identify useful compositions of magnesium salts and polyphosphate solvents that would enable magnesium ions to be cycled within a secondary battery design. The polyphosphate solvents would provide the solvent for the magnesium salts while preventing the electrolyte from being flammable. This would enable these novel electrolytes to be considered as an alternative to THF-based electrolytes. In addition, we explored several of these solvents together with lithium slats for use as high voltage electrolytes for carbon-based electrochemical supercapacitors. The research was successful in that: 1) Magnesium imide dissolved in a phosphate ester solvent that contains a halogented phosphate ester appears to be the preferred electrolyte for a rechargeable Mg cell. 2) A combination of B-doped CNTs and vanadium phosphate appear to be the cathode of choice for a rechargeable Mg cell by virtue of higher voltage and better reversibility. 3) Magnesium alloys appear to perform better than pure magnesium when used in combination with the novel polyphosphate electrolytes. Also, this effort has established that Phoenix Innovationâ??s family of phosphonate/phosphate electrolytes together with specific lithium slats can be used in supercapacitor systems at voltages of greater than 10V.

  20. The progress of funnelling gun high voltage condition and beam test

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, E.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Gassner, D. M.; Lambiase, R.; Meng, W.; Rahman, O.; Pikin, A.; Rao, T.; Sheehy, B.; Skaritka, J.; Pietz, J.; Ackeret, M.; Yeckel, C.; Miller, R.; Dobrin, E.; Thompson, K.

    2015-05-03

    A prototype of a high average current polarized electron funneling gun as an eRHIC injector has been built at BNL. The gun was assembled and tested at Stangenes Incorporated. Two beams were generated from two GaAs photocathodes and combined by a switched combiner field. We observed the combined beams on a YAG crystal and measured the photocurrent by a Faraday cup. The gun has been shipped to Stony Brook University and is being tested there. In this paper we will describe the major components of the gun and recent beam test results. High voltage conditioning is discussed as well.

  1. DC BUFFERING AND FLOATING CURRENT FOR A HIGH VOLTAGE IMB APPLICATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J.L. Morrison

    2014-08-01

    An interface technique for the latest generation of the Impedance Measurement Box (IMB) has been conceived to enable measurement of impedance spectra for battery modules up to 300V. A 300V capable or higher IMB is an enabling technology for in-situ diagnostics within electric vehicle charging stations or battery back-ups within power distribution sub-stations. It is possible that the existing IMB can be adapted via a 300V interface module to a test battery with voltage significantly greater than 50V. Recently a new concept was conceived for the calibration, algorithm and electronics of the IMB. That algorithm and calibration for that concept have been physically validated. The principal feature of the new electronics is the floating current source excitation of the battery under test. The single ended current excitation of the battery under test, used in the 50V IMB, requires that the negative terminal of the test battery must be the analog ground for the IMB. The new floating current technique allows the test battery to be fully high impedance isolated for a measurement. That isolation will improve IMB noise immunity and enable interrogation of cells internal to a battery module. All these techniques still use the same rapid concept for impedance measurement with the IMB. The purpose of this disclosure is to provide an overview of the analytical validation for three concepts to interface the floating current excitation to a high voltage battery. Recursive simulation models were used in different test scenarios to validate the various new concepts. The analysis will show that it is possible to interface the floating signal current to obtain an impedance measurement on a high voltage test battery. Additionally, the analysis will investigate stress seen by electronics while testing a 300V battery.

  2. A high voltage test stand for electron gun qualification for LINACs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wanmode, Yashwant D.; Mulchandani, J.; Acharya, M.; Bhisikar, A.; Singh, H.G.; Shrivastava, Purushottam

    2011-07-01

    An electron gun lest stand has been developed at RRCAT. The test stand consists of a high voltage pulsed power supply, electron gun filament supply, grid supply, UHV system and electron gun current measurement system. Several electron guns developed indigenously were evaluated on this test stand. The shielding is provided for the electron gun set up. Electron gun tests can be tested upto 55 kV with pulse width of 15 microsecs and pulse repetition rates up to 200 Hz. The technical details of the subsystems are furnished and results of performance of the test stand have been reported in this paper. (author)

  3. The commercial development of water repellent coatings for high voltage transmission lines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hunter, S. R.; Daniel, A.

    2013-10-31

    The purpose of the Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between UT-Battelle, LLC and Southwire Company was to jointly develop a low cost, commercially viable, water-repellant anti-icing coating system for high voltage transmission lines. Icing of power lines and other structures caused by freezing rain events occurs annually in the United States, and leads to severe and prolonged power outages. These outages cause untold economic and personal distress for many American families and businesses. Researchers at the Department of Energy?s Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee have previously developed a set of superhydrophobic coatings with remarkable anti-icing properties that could potentially be sprayed or painted onto high-tension power lines and pylons. These coatings drastically reduce ice accumulation on these structures during freezing rain events. The project involved obtaining technical input, supplies and test high voltage cables from Southwire, along with the joint development of anti-icing coating techniques, which would result in a commercial license agreement between Southwire and ORNL, and potentially other companies requiring water repellent anti-icing coatings.

  4. High-output microwave detector using voltage-induced ferromagnetic resonance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shiota, Yoichi Suzuki, Yoshishige; Miwa, Shinji; Tamaru, Shingo; Nozaki, Takayuki; Kubota, Hitoshi; Fukushima, Akio; Yuasa, Shinji

    2014-11-10

    We investigated the voltage-induced ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) with various DC bias voltage and input RF power in magnetic tunnel junctions. We found that the DC bias monotonically increases the homodyne detection voltage due to the nonlinear FMR originating in an asymmetric magnetization-potential in the free layer. In addition, the linear increase of an output voltage to the input RF power in the voltage-induced FMR is more robust than that in spin-torque FMR. These characteristics enable us to obtain an output voltage more than ten times than that of microwave detectors using spin-transfer torque.

  5. Development of high-voltage pulse-slicer unit with variable pulse duration for pulse radiolysis system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Upadhyay, J.; Sharma, M. L.; Navathe, C. P. [Laser Electronic Support Division, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore, Madhya Pradesh 452013 (India); Toley, M. A.; Shinde, S. J.; Nadkarni, S. A.; Sarkar, S. K. [Radiation and Photochemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400085 (India)

    2012-02-15

    A high-voltage pulse-slicer unit with variable pulse duration has been developed and integrated with a 7 MeV linear electron accelerator (LINAC) for pulse radiolysis investigation. The pulse-slicer unit provides switching voltage from 1 kV to 10 kV with rise time better than 5 ns. Two MOSFET based 10 kV switches were configured in differential mode to get variable duration pulses. The high-voltage pulse has been applied to the deflecting plates of the LINAC for slicing of electron beam of 2 {mu}s duration. The duration of the electron beam has been varied from 30 ns to 2 {mu}s with the optimized pulse amplitude of 7 kV to get corresponding radiation doses from 6 Gy to 167 Gy.

  6. Automatic System for the D.C. High Voltage Qualification of the Superconducting Electrical Circuits of the LHC Machine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bozzini, D; Russenschuck, Stephan; Bednarek, M; Jurkiewicz, P; Kotarba, A; Ludwin, J; Olek, S

    2008-01-01

    A d.c. high voltage test system has been developed to verify automatically the insulation resistance of the powering circuits of the LHC. In the most complex case, up to 72 circuits share the same volume inside cryogenic lines. Each circuit can have an insulation fault versus any other circuit or versus ground. The system is able to connect up to 80 circuits and apply a voltage up to 2 kV D.C. The leakage current flowing through each circuit is measured within a range of 1 nA to 1.6 mA. The matrix of measurements allows characterizing the paths taken by the currents and locating weak points of the insulation between circuits. The system is composed of a D.C. voltage source and a data acquisition card. The card is able to measure with precision currents and voltages and to drive up to 5 high voltage switching modules offering 16 channels each. A LabVIEW application controls the system for an automatic and safe operation. This paper describes the hardware and software design, the testing methodology and the res...

  7. An Ultra-Compact Marx-Type High-Voltage Generator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goerz, D; Ferriera, T; Nelson, D; Speer, R; Wilson, M

    2001-06-15

    This paper discusses the design of an ultra-compact, Marx-type, high-voltage generator. This system incorporates high-performance components that are closely coupled and integrated into an extremely compact assembly. Low profile, custom ceramic capacitors with coplanar extended electrodes provide primary energy storage. Low-inductance, spark-gap switches incorporate miniature gas cavities imbedded within the central region of the annular shaped capacitors, with very thin dielectric sections separating the energy storage capacitors. Carefully shaped electrodes and insulator surfaces are used throughout to minimize field enhancements, reduce fields at triple-point regions, and enable operation at stress levels closer to the intrinsic breakdown limits of the dielectric materials. Specially shaped resistors and inductors are used for charging and isolation during operation. Forward-coupling ceramic capacitors are connected across successive switch-capacitor-switch stages to assist in switching. Pressurized SF, gas is used for electrical insulation in the spark-gap switches and throughout the unit. The pressure housing is constructed entirely of dielectric materials, with segments that interlock with the low-profile switch bodies to provide an integrated support structure for all of the components. This ultra-compact Marx generator employs a modular design that can be sized as needed for a particular application. Units have been assembled with 4, 10, and 30 stages and operated at levels up to 100 kV per stage.

  8. Atmospheric pressure plasma jet with high-voltage power supply based on piezoelectric transformer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Babij, Micha?; Kowalski, Zbigniew W. Nitsch, Karol; Gotszalk, Teodor; Silberring, Jerzy

    2014-05-15

    The dielectric barrier discharge plasma jet, an example of the nonthermal atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ), generates low-temperature plasmas that are suitable for the atomization of volatile species and can also be served as an ionization source for ambient mass and ion mobility spectrometry. A new design of APPJ for mass spectrometry has been built in our group. In these plasma sources magnetic transformers (MTs) and inductors are typically used in power supplies but they present several drawbacks that are even more evident when dealing with high-voltage normally used in APPJs. To overcome these disadvantages, high frequency generators with the absence of MT are proposed in the literature. However, in the case of miniaturized APPJs these conventional power converters, built of ferromagnetic cores and inductors or by means of LC resonant tank circuits, are not so useful as piezoelectric transformer (PT) based power converters due to bulky components and small efficiency. We made and examined a novel atmospheric pressure plasma jet with PT supplier served as ionization source for ambient mass spectrometry, and especially mobile spectrometry where miniaturization, integration of components, and clean plasma are required. The objective of this paper is to describe the concept, design, and implementation of this miniaturized piezoelectric transformer-based atmospheric pressure plasma jet.

  9. 3430 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON VEHICULAR TECHNOLOGY, VOL. 61, NO. 8, OCTOBER 2012 Experimental Validation of High-Voltage-Ratio

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Simões, Marcelo Godoy

    for high-voltage input/output ratio of dc-dc boost converters to be connected between the FC to the motor drive dc-link. In addition, it is necessary to have low input ripple at the dc-dc boost converter in order to maximize the FC lifetime, and the traditional dc-dc boost converter topologies have poor

  10. A three-level buck converter to regulate a high-voltage DC-to-AC inverter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schrock, Kenneth C

    2008-01-01

    A three-level buck converter is designed and analyzed, and shown to be suitable as a high-voltage down converter as a pre-regulation stage for a 600 watt DC-to-AC power inverter. Topology selection for the inverter is ...

  11. Infrared detection with high-{Tc} bolometers and response of Nb tunnel junctions to picosecond voltage pulses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Verghese, S.

    1993-05-01

    Oxide superconductors with high critical temperature {Tc} make sensitive thermometers for several types of infrared bolometers. The authors built composite bolometers with YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7{minus}{delta}} thermometers on sapphire substrates which have higher sensitivity than competing thermal detectors which operate at temperatures above 77 K. A 1 x 1 mm bolometer with gold black serving as the radiation absorber has useful sensitivity for wavelengths 20--100 {mu}m. A 3 x 3 mm bolometer with a bismuth film as the absorber operates from 20--100 {mu}m. High-{Tc} bolometers which are fabricated with micromachining techniques on membranes of Si or Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} have potential application to large-format arrays which are used for infrared imaging. A nonisothermal high-{Tc} bolometer can be fabricated on a membrane of yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) which is in thermal contact with the heat sink along the perimeter of the membrane. A thermal analysis indicates that the YSZ membrane bolometer can have improved sensitivity compared to the sapphire bolometer for spectrometer applications. The quasiparticle tunneling current in a superconductor-insulator-superconductor (SIS) junction is highly nonlinear in the applied voltage. The authors have made the first measurement of the linear response of the quasiparticle current in a Nb/AlO{sub x}/Nb junction over a broad bandwidth from 75--200 GHz. Nonlinear measurements made with these pulses may provide information about the quasiparticle lifetime. Preliminary data from such measurements are presented.

  12. Effect of MOSFET threshold voltage variation on high-performance circuits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Narendra, Siva G. (Siva Gurusami), 1971-

    2002-01-01

    The driving force for the semiconductor industry growth has been the elegant scaling nature of CMOS technology. In future CMOS technology generations, supply and threshold voltages will have to continually scale to sustain ...

  13. Compact Low-Voltage, High-Power, Multi-beam Klystron for ILC: Initial Test Results

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Teryaev, V E; Kazakov, S Yu; Hirshfield, J L; Ives, R L; Marsden, D; Collins, G; Karimov, R; Jensen, R

    2015-01-01

    Initial test results of an L-band multi-beam klystron with parameters relevant for ILC are presented. The chief distinction of this tube from MBKs already developed for ILC is its low operating voltage of 60 kV, a virtue that implies considerable technological simplifications in the accelerator complex. To demonstrate the concept underlying the tubes design, a six-beamlet quadrant (a 54 inch high one-quarter portion of the full 1.3 GHz tube) was built and recently underwent initial tests, with main goals of demonstrating rated gun perveance, rated gain, and at least one-quarter of the full 10-MW rated power. Our initial three-day conditioning campaign without RF drive (140 microsec pulses @ 60 Hz) was stopped at 53% of full rated duty because of time-limits at the test-site; no signs appeared that would seem to prevent achieving full duty operation (i.e., 1.6 msec pulses @ 10 Hz). The subsequent tests with 10-15 microsec RF pulses confirmed the rated gain, produced output powers of up to 2.86 MW at 60 kV with...

  14. Assessment of research directions for high-voltage direct-current power systems. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Long, W F

    1982-09-01

    High voltage direct current (HVDC) power transmission continues to be an emerging technology nearly thirty years after its introduction into modern power systems. To date its use has been restricted to either specialized applications having identifiable economic advantages (e.g., breakeven distance) or, rarely, applications where decoupling is needed. Only recently have the operational advantages (e.g., power modulation) of HVDC been realized on operating systems. A research project whose objective was to identify hardware developments and, where appropriate, system applications which can exemplify cost and operational advantages of integrated ac/dc power systems is discussed. The three principal tasks undertaken were: assessment of equipment developments; quantification of operational advantages; and interaction with system planners. Interest in HVDC power transmission has increased markedly over the past several years, and many new systems are now being investigated. The dissemination of information about HVDC, including specifically the symposium undertaken for Task 3, is a critical factor in fostering an understanding of this important adjunct to ac power transmission.

  15. FINE-GRAINED NANOCRYSTALLINE SILICON P-LAYER FOR HIGH OPEN CIRCUIT VOLTAGE A-SI:H SOLAR CELLS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deng, Xunming

    FINE-GRAINED NANOCRYSTALLINE SILICON P-LAYER FOR HIGH OPEN CIRCUIT VOLTAGE A-SI:H SOLAR CELLS). It is found that the p-layer that leads to high Voc a-Si:H solar cells is a mixed-phase material that contains fine-grained nc-Si:H embedded in a-Si:H matrix. INTRODUCTION A-Si:H single-junction solar cells

  16. Graphene-oxide-coated LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 as high voltage cathode for lithium ion batteries with high energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Chongwu

    Graphene-oxide-coated LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 as high voltage cathode for lithium ion batteries with high Since Sony rst commercialized lithium ion batteries in the early 1990s, the market for lithium ion of the great success of lithium ion battery technology developed for portable electronic devices, higher

  17. Calculation and measurement of a neutral air flow velocity impacting a high voltage capacitor with asymmetrical electrodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malík, M., E-mail: michal.malik@tul.cz; Primas, J.; Kopecký, V.; Svoboda, M. [Faculty of Mechatronics, Informatics and Interdisciplinary Studies, Technical University of Liberec, Liberec, 461 17 (Czech Republic)] [Faculty of Mechatronics, Informatics and Interdisciplinary Studies, Technical University of Liberec, Liberec, 461 17 (Czech Republic)

    2014-01-15

    This paper deals with the effects surrounding phenomenon of a mechanical force generated on a high voltage asymmetrical capacitor (the so called Biefeld-Brown effect). A method to measure this force is described and a formula to calculate its value is also given. Based on this the authors derive a formula characterising the neutral air flow velocity impacting an asymmetrical capacitor connected to high voltage. This air flow under normal circumstances lessens the generated force. In the following part this velocity is measured using Particle Image Velocimetry measuring technique and the results of the theoretically calculated velocity and the experimentally measured value are compared. The authors found a good agreement between the results of both approaches.

  18. Multiple current peaks in room-temperature atmospheric pressure homogenous dielectric barrier discharge plasma excited by high-voltage tunable nanosecond pulse in air

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, De-Zheng; Wang, Wen-Chun; Zhang, Shuai; Tang, Kai; Liu, Zhi-jie; Wang, Sen

    2013-05-13

    Room temperature homogenous dielectric barrier discharge plasma with high instantaneous energy efficiency is acquired by using nanosecond pulse voltage with 20-200 ns tunable pulse width. Increasing the voltage pulse width can lead to the generation of regular and stable multiple current peaks in each discharge sequence. When the voltage pulse width is 200 ns, more than 5 organized current peaks can be observed under 26 kV peak voltage. Investigation also shows that the organized multiple current peaks only appear in homogenous discharge mode. When the discharge is filament mode, organized multiple current peaks are replaced by chaotic filament current peaks.

  19. Optical voltage reference

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rankin, R.; Kotter, D.

    1994-04-26

    An optical voltage reference for providing an alternative to a battery source is described. The optical reference apparatus provides a temperature stable, high precision, isolated voltage reference through the use of optical isolation techniques to eliminate current and impedance coupling errors. Pulse rate frequency modulation is employed to eliminate errors in the optical transmission link while phase-lock feedback is employed to stabilize the frequency to voltage transfer function. 2 figures.

  20. Optical voltage reference

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rankin, Richard (Ammon, ID); Kotter, Dale (Bingham County, ID)

    1994-01-01

    An optical voltage reference for providing an alternative to a battery source. The optical reference apparatus provides a temperature stable, high precision, isolated voltage reference through the use of optical isolation techniques to eliminate current and impedance coupling errors. Pulse rate frequency modulation is employed to eliminate errors in the optical transmission link while phase-lock feedback is employed to stabilize the frequency to voltage transfer function.

  1. Aalborg Universitet Review on Multi-Level Voltage Source Converter Based HVDC Technologies for Grid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bak, Claus Leth

    Connection of Large Offshore Wind Farms Glasdam, Jakob ; Hjerrild, Jesper; Kocewiak, Lukasz Hubert; Bak-Level Voltage Source Converter Based HVDC Technologies for Grid Connection of Large Offshore Wind Farms. I IEEE of large offshore wind farms (OWFs) employing current state-of- the-art voltage source converter based high

  2. Feasibility of gate-turnoff thyristors in a high-voltage direct-current transmission system: Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McMurray, W.

    1987-08-01

    This study to identify potentially attractive applications for gate-turnoff thyristor (GTO) converters in utility systems includes both high-voltage direct-current (HVDC) valves and static volt-ampere reactive (VAR) controllers. The work includes a broad review of basic principles and the power circuit arrangements that are judged to be most attractive. The major differences between ordinary thyristors and GTO converters are discussed, including alternative HVDC transmission systems and static VAR controllers that are possible with GTOs. Whereas a current-source type of converter is the obvious choice with ordinary thyristors, the use of GTOs allows either current-source or voltage-source converters to be considered. A computer-aided analysis of the basic 6-pulse GTO current-source converter system is presented, including general equations for steady-state operation and plotting calculated waveforms. An analysis of a GTO voltage-source converter is given in less detail. Due to incomplete performance data, unresolved critical problems such as protection, and the disadvantages of higher cost, complexity and losses, it is difficult to recommend a specific GTO converter system at this time. The major advantage that GTO converters can offer is rapid and smoothly continuous control of reactive power. Further development of GTO converters should be aimed towards an application where reactive power control is very important and not readily achievable by conventional methods. 12 refs., 47 figs.

  3. Analysis of system wide distortion in an integrated power system utilizing a high voltage DC bus and silicon carbide power devices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fallier, William F. (William Frederick)

    2007-01-01

    This research investigates the distortion on the electrical distribution system for a high voltage DC Integrated Power System (IPS). The analysis was concentrated on the power supplied to a propulsion motor driven by an ...

  4. An accurate online calibration system based on combined clamp-shape coil for high voltage electronic current transformers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Zhen-hua; Li, Hong-bin; Zhang, Zhi [CEEE of Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China) [CEEE of Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); State Key Laboratory of Advanced Electromagnetic Engineering and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2013-07-15

    Electronic transformers are widely used in power systems because of their wide bandwidth and good transient performance. However, as an emerging technology, the failure rate of electronic transformers is higher than that of traditional transformers. As a result, the calibration period needs to be shortened. Traditional calibration methods require the power of transmission line be cut off, which results in complicated operation and power off loss. This paper proposes an online calibration system which can calibrate electronic current transformers without power off. In this work, the high accuracy standard current transformer and online operation method are the key techniques. Based on the clamp-shape iron-core coil and clamp-shape air-core coil, a combined clamp-shape coil is designed as the standard current transformer. By analyzing the output characteristics of the two coils, the combined clamp-shape coil can achieve verification of the accuracy. So the accuracy of the online calibration system can be guaranteed. Moreover, by employing the earth potential working method and using two insulating rods to connect the combined clamp-shape coil to the high voltage bus, the operation becomes simple and safe. Tests in China National Center for High Voltage Measurement and field experiments show that the proposed system has a high accuracy of up to 0.05 class.

  5. Study of static reactive power compensators for high-voltage power systems. Final report, May 12, 1981

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Byerly, R.T.; Bennon, R.J.; Taylor, E.R. Jr.; Poznaniak, D.T.

    1981-05-12

    A general study of the application of static VAR compensators (SVC's) to high-voltage transmission systems has been performed. Considerable emphasis has been placed on improvements to synchronous stability, and it is shown that SVC's can provide significant benefits in terms of damping for unstable modes of oscillation and increases in transient stability limits. This report includes descriptions of static VAR compensators, technical and economic comparisons of different compensators, compensator models for system studies, comprehensive study procedures, study results for two small-scale systems, and guidelines for SVC application.

  6. Improving the performance of stainless-steel DC high voltage photoelectron gun cathode electrodes via gas conditioning with helium or krypton

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bastaninejad, Mahzad; Elmustafa, Abdelmageed; Forman, Eric I.; Clark, James; Covert, Steven R.; Grames, Joseph M.; Hansknecht, John C.; Hernandez-Garcia, Carlos; Poelker, Bernard; Suleiman, Riad S.

    2014-10-01

    Gas conditioning was shown to eliminate field emission from cathode electrodes used inside DC high voltage photoelectron guns, thus providing a reliable means to operate photoguns at higher voltages and field strengths. Measurements and simulation results indicate that gas conditioning eliminates field emission from cathode electrodes via two mechanisms: sputtering and implantation, with the benefits of implantation reversed by heating the electrode. We have studied five stainless steel electrodes (304L and 316LN) that were polished to approximately 20 nm surface roughness using diamond grit, and evaluated inside a high voltage apparatus to determine the onset of field emission as a function of voltage and field strength. The field emission characteristics of each electrode varied significantly upon the initial application of voltage but improved to nearly the same level after gas conditioning using either helium or krypton, exhibiting less than 10 pA field emission at ?225 kV bias voltage with a 50 mm cathode/anode gap, corresponding to a field strength of ~13 MV/m. Field emission could be reduced with either gas, but there were conditions related to gas choice, voltage and field strength that were more favorable than others.

  7. Proposal to Negotiate, without Competitive Tendering, a Blanket Order for High-Voltage Thyratrons for the CERN Accelerators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2002-01-01

    This document concerns the supply of thyratrons to be used as high-voltage and high-current switches for the fast-pulsed magnet systems of the CERN accelerators and for the protection of the klystrons of RF systems. Following a market survey (MS-3136/SL/LHC) carried out among 18 firms in ten Member States, CERN entered into negotiations with one firm in one Member State. The Finance Committee is invited to agree to the negotiation, without competitive tendering, of a new blanket order with E2V TECHNOLOGIES (GB) for up to 800 000 pounds sterling to cover the supply of thyratrons for the years 2003, 2004 and 2005, subject to price revision for inflation for deliveries after 31 December 2003. At the present rate of exchange, this amount is equivalent to 1 855 000 Swiss francs. The firm has indicated the following distribution by country of the order value covered by this adjudication proposal: GB - 100%.

  8. Nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEFs) low cost generator design using power MOSFET and Cockcroft-Walton multiplier circuit as high voltage DC source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sulaeman, M. Y.; Widita, R.

    2014-09-30

    Purpose: Non-ionizing radiation therapy for cancer using pulsed electric field with high intensity field has become an interesting field new research topic. A new method using nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEFs) offers a novel means to treat cancer. Not like the conventional electroporation, nsPEFs able to create nanopores in all membranes of the cell, including membrane in cell organelles, like mitochondria and nucleus. NsPEFs will promote cell death in several cell types, including cancer cell by apoptosis mechanism. NsPEFs will use pulse with intensity of electric field higher than conventional electroporation, between 20–100 kV/cm and with shorter duration of pulse than conventional electroporation. NsPEFs requires a generator to produce high voltage pulse and to achieve high intensity electric field with proper pulse width. However, manufacturing cost for creating generator that generates a high voltage with short duration for nsPEFs purposes is highly expensive. Hence, the aim of this research is to obtain the low cost generator design that is able to produce a high voltage pulse with nanosecond width and will be used for nsPEFs purposes. Method: Cockcroft-Walton multiplier circuit will boost the input of 220 volt AC into high voltage DC around 1500 volt and it will be combined by a series of power MOSFET as a fast switch to obtain a high voltage with nanosecond pulse width. The motivation using Cockcroft-Walton multiplier is to acquire a low-cost high voltage DC generator; it will use capacitors and diodes arranged like a step. Power MOSFET connected in series is used as voltage divider to share the high voltage in order not to damage them. Results: This design is expected to acquire a low-cost generator that can achieve the high voltage pulse in amount of ?1.5 kV with falltime 3 ns and risetime 15 ns into a 50? load that will be used for nsPEFs purposes. Further detailed on the circuit design will be explained at presentation.

  9. 200 ns pulse high-voltage supply for terahertz field emission Gregor H. Welsh, David A. Turton, David R. Jones, Dino A. Jaroszynski,a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Strathclyde, University of

    ; published online 16 April 2007 We present a method of generating 200 ns high-voltage up to 40 kV pulses generator with high average power that can be synchronized at repetition rates of up to 100 kHz suitable. The output transformers T2/T3 are driven in parallel by the high current 1000 V metal-oxide semiconductor

  10. High-Frequency Resonant SEPIC Converter With Wide Input and Output Voltage Ranges

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hu, Jingying

    This paper presents a resonant single-ended-primary-inductor-converter (SEPIC) converter and control method suitable for high frequency (HF) and very high frequency (VHF) dc-dc power conversion. The proposed design provides ...

  11. Large Scale Computing and Storage Requirements for High Energy Physics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gerber, Richard A.

    2011-01-01

    Journal of Computational Physics, Large Scale Computing andRequirements for High Energy Physics [3] A. S. Almgren, J.Journal of Computational Physics, 87:171–200, 1990. [7] G.

  12. The current–voltage and capacitance–voltage characteristics at high temperatures of Au Schottky contact to n-type GaAs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Özerli, Halil; Karteri, ?brahim; Karata?, ?ükrü; Altindal, ?emsettin

    2014-05-01

    Highlights: • The electronic parameters of the diode under temperature were investigated. • The barrier heights have a Gaussian distribution. • Au/n-GaAs diode exhibits a rectification behavior. - Abstract: We have investigated the temperature-dependent current–voltage (I–V) and capacitance–voltage (C–V) characteristics of Au/n-GaAs Schottky barrier diodes (SBDs) in the temperature range of 280–415 K. The barrier height for the Au/n-type GaAs SBDs from the I–V and C–V characteristics have varied from 0.901 eV to 0.963 eV (I–V) and 1.234 eV to 0.967 eV (C–V), and the ideality factor (n) from 1.45 to 1.69 in the temperature range 280–415 K. The conventional Richardson plots are found to be linear in the temperature range measured. Both the ln(I{sub 0}/T{sup 2}) versus (kT){sup ?1} and ln(I{sub 0}/T{sup 2}) versus (nkT){sup ?1} plots gives a straight line corresponding to activation energies 0.773 eV and 0.870 eV, respectively. A ?{sub b0} versus 1/T plot was drawn to obtain evidence of a Gaussian distribution of the BHs, and values of ?{sup ¯}{sub b0} = 1.071 eV and ?{sub 0} = 0.094 V for the mean BH and zero-bias standard deviation have been obtained from this plot.

  13. Peak Power Bi-directional Transfer From High Speed Flywheel to Electrical Regulated Bus Voltage System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Szabados, Barna

    were performed to determine the energy transfer capabilities of a flywheel coupled high speed permanent magnet synchronous machine through the proposed system's energy storage tank. Results are presented have helped generate much interest for the development of practical and highly efficient electric

  14. Charge-pump voltage converter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brainard, John P. (Albuquerque, NM); Christenson, Todd R. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2009-11-03

    A charge-pump voltage converter for converting a low voltage provided by a low-voltage source to a higher voltage. Charge is inductively generated on a transfer rotor electrode during its transit past an inductor stator electrode and subsequently transferred by the rotating rotor to a collector stator electrode for storage or use. Repetition of the charge transfer process leads to a build-up of voltage on a charge-receiving device. Connection of multiple charge-pump voltage converters in series can generate higher voltages, and connection of multiple charge-pump voltage converters in parallel can generate higher currents. Microelectromechanical (MEMS) embodiments of this invention provide a small and compact high-voltage (several hundred V) voltage source starting with a few-V initial voltage source. The microscale size of many embodiments of this invention make it ideally suited for MEMS- and other micro-applications where integration of the voltage or charge source in a small package is highly desirable.

  15. A High-Frequency Resonant Inverter Topology With Low-Voltage Stress

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rivas, Juan M.

    This paper presents a new switched-mode resonant inverter, which we term the inverter, that is well suited to operation at very high frequencies and to rapid on/off control. Features of this inverter topology include low ...

  16. High-Voltage Solid Polymer Batteries for Electric Drive Vehicles (Technical

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would likeUniverse (JournalvivoHigh energy neutronHigh-Pressure MOFElectricity

  17. Proceedings of the seventh international conference on high voltage electron microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fisher, R.M.; Gronsky, R.; Westmacott, K.H. (eds.)

    1983-01-01

    Eight-four papers are arranged under the following headings: high resolution, techniques and instrumentation, radiation effects, in-situ and phase transformations, minerals and ceramics, and semiconductors and thin films. Twenty-three papers were abstracted separately for the data base; three of the remainder had previously been abstracted. (DLC)

  18. High Voltage Electrolytes for Li-ion Batteries | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum12,ExecutiveFinancing ProgramsDepartment of¡HighApproaches | 03.25.2015DOE2

  19. High Voltage Electrolytes for Li-ion Batteries | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum12,ExecutiveFinancing ProgramsDepartment of¡HighApproaches | 03.25.2015DOE21 DOE

  20. High Voltage Electrolytes for Li-ion Batteries | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum12,ExecutiveFinancing ProgramsDepartment of¡HighApproaches | 03.25.2015DOE21

  1. Measuring and tuning energy efficiency on large scale high performance computing platforms.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laros, James H., III

    2011-08-01

    Recognition of the importance of power in the field of High Performance Computing, whether it be as an obstacle, expense or design consideration, has never been greater and more pervasive. While research has been conducted on many related aspects, there is a stark absence of work focused on large scale High Performance Computing. Part of the reason is the lack of measurement capability currently available on small or large platforms. Typically, research is conducted using coarse methods of measurement such as inserting a power meter between the power source and the platform, or fine grained measurements using custom instrumented boards (with obvious limitations in scale). To collect the measurements necessary to analyze real scientific computing applications at large scale, an in-situ measurement capability must exist on a large scale capability class platform. In response to this challenge, we exploit the unique power measurement capabilities of the Cray XT architecture to gain an understanding of power use and the effects of tuning. We apply these capabilities at the operating system level by deterministically halting cores when idle. At the application level, we gain an understanding of the power requirements of a range of important DOE/NNSA production scientific computing applications running at large scale (thousands of nodes), while simultaneously collecting current and voltage measurements on the hosting nodes. We examine the effects of both CPU and network bandwidth tuning and demonstrate energy savings opportunities of up to 39% with little or no impact on run-time performance. Capturing scale effects in our experimental results was key. Our results provide strong evidence that next generation large-scale platforms should not only approach CPU frequency scaling differently, but could also benefit from the capability to tune other platform components, such as the network, to achieve energy efficient performance.

  2. Proposal to negotiate, without competitive tendering, a blanket order for high-voltage thyratrons for the CERN accelerators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1999-01-01

    This document concerns the supply of thyratrons to be used as high-voltage and high-current switches for the fast-pulsed magnet systems of the CERN accelerators and for the protection of the klystrons of RF systems. In June 1981 the Finance Committee approved the placing, without competitive tendering, of a blanket order with EEV Ltd (UK) for a total value of up to 2 000 000 Swiss francs to cover the supply of thyratrons for the years 1982, 1983 and 1984. New blanket orders were subsequently negotiated for three-year periods with the approval of the Finance Committee in 1984, 1987, 1990 and 1993. After a new market survey in 1995-1996 had confirmed that EEV Ltd is the sole manufacturer of such thyratrons in the CERN Member States, a new blanket order was negotiated in 1996 with the approval of the Finance Committee. The Finance Committee is invited to agree to the negotiation, without competitive tendering, of a new blanket order with EEV Ltd (UK) for up to 800 000 pounds sterling to cover the supply of thyra...

  3. Workshop on high-resolution, large-acceptance spectrometers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zeidman, B. (ed.)

    1981-01-01

    The purpose of the Workshop on High-Resolution, Large-Acceptance Spectrometers was to provide a means for exchange of information among those actively engaged in the design and construction of these new spectrometers. Thirty-seven papers were prepared for the data base.

  4. Voltage breakdown limits at a high material temperature for rapid pulse heating in a vacuum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pincosy, P A; Speer, R

    1999-06-07

    The proposed Advanced Hydro Facility (AHF) is required to produce multi-pulse radiographs. Electron beam pulse machines with sub-microsecond repetition are not yet available to test the problem of electron beam propagation through the hydro-dynamically expanding plasma from the nearby previously heated target material. A proposed test scenario includes an ohmically heated small volume of target material simulating the electron beam heating, along with an actual electron beam pulse impinging on nearby target material. A pulse power heating circuit was tested to evaluate the limits of pulse heating a small volume of material to tens of kilo-joules per gram. The main pulse heating time (50 to 100 ns) was to simulate the electron beam heating of a converter target material. To avoid skin heating non-uniformity a longer time scale pulse of a few microseconds first heats the target material to a few thousand degrees near the liquid to vapor transition. Under this state the maximum electric field that the current carrying conductor can support is the important parameter for insuring that the 100 ns heating pulse can deposit sufficient power. A small pulse power system was built for tests of this limit. Under cold conditions the vacuum electric field hold-off limit has been quoted as high as many tens of kilovolts per centimeter. The tests for these experiments found that the vacuum electric field hold-off was limited to a few kilovolts per centimeter when the material approached melting temperatures. Therefore the proposed test scenario for AHF was not achievable.*

  5. Voltage sensor and dielectric material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yakymyshyn, Christopher Paul; Yakymyshyn, Pamela Jane; Brubaker, Michael Allen

    2006-10-17

    A voltage sensor is described that consists of an arrangement of impedance elements. The sensor is optimized to provide an output ratio that is substantially immune to changes in voltage, temperature variations or aging. Also disclosed is a material with a large and stable dielectric constant. The dielectric constant can be tailored to vary with position or direction in the material.

  6. Low-voltage gyrotrons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glyavin, M. Yu.; Zavolskiy, N. A.; Sedov, A. S. [Institute of Applied Physics RAS, N. Novgorod 603600 (Russian Federation); Nusinovich, G. S. [IREAP, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742-3511 (United States)

    2013-03-15

    For a long time, the gyrotrons were primarily developed for electron cyclotron heating and current drive of plasmas in controlled fusion reactors where a multi-megawatt, quasi-continuous millimeter-wave power is required. In addition to this important application, there are other applications (and their number increases with time) which do not require a very high power level, but such issues as the ability to operate at low voltages and have compact devices are very important. For example, gyrotrons are of interest for a dynamic nuclear polarization, which improves the sensitivity of the nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. In this paper, some issues important for operation of gyrotrons driven by low-voltage electron beams are analyzed. An emphasis is made on the efficiency of low-voltage gyrotron operation at the fundamental and higher cyclotron harmonics. These efficiencies calculated with the account for ohmic losses were, first, determined in the framework of the generalized gyrotron theory based on the cold-cavity approximation. Then, more accurate, self-consistent calculations for the fundamental and second harmonic low-voltage sub-THz gyrotron designs were carried out. Results of these calculations are presented and discussed. It is shown that operation of the fundamental and second harmonic gyrotrons with noticeable efficiencies is possible even at voltages as low as 5-10 kV. Even the third harmonic gyrotrons can operate at voltages about 15 kV, albeit with rather low efficiency (1%-2% in the submillimeter wavelength region).

  7. Proc. International Symposium on Circuits and Systems (ISCAS), vol. 5, pp 653 -656, Geneva (Switzerland), May 2000 Low Power/Low Voltage High Speed CMOS Differential

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fayomi, Christian

    (Switzerland), May 2000 Low Power/Low Voltage High Speed CMOS Differential Track and Latch Comparator with Rail-to-Rail is presented. The circuit consists of a constant-gm rail-to-rail common-mode operational transconductance. A consequence of the lowered power supply is the need for rail-to- rail input stages in order to compensate

  8. Low Voltage High-SNR Pipeline Data Converters Charles Myers, Jipeng Li, Dong-Young Chang, and Un-Ku Moon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moon, Un-Ku

    Low Voltage High-SNR Pipeline Data Converters Charles Myers, Jipeng Li, Dong-Young Chang, and Un pipeline data converter. This is accomplished with the removal of the S/H input stage and the use of a rail limitations. In pipeline data converters, noise reduction options such as oversampling and noise shaping

  9. Total current collapse in High-Voltage GaN MIS-HEMTs induced by Zener trapping D. Jin, J. Joh*, S. Krishnan*, N. Tipirneni*, S. Pendharkar* and J. A. del Alamo

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    del Alamo, Jesús A.

    observed after OFF-state stress at high voltage. We attribute this to high-field tunneling-induced electron/detrapping dynamics have been extracted. All of our experimental results are consistent with electron trapping insideTotal current collapse in High-Voltage GaN MIS-HEMTs induced by Zener trapping D. Jin, J. Joh*, S

  10. Effect of the change in the load resistance on the high voltage pulse transformer of the intense electron-beam accelerators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheng Xinbing; Liu Jinliang; Qian Baoliang; Zhang Yu; Zhang Hongbo [College of Photoelectrical Science and Engineering, National University of Defense Technology, Hunan 410073 (China)

    2009-11-15

    A high voltage pulse transformer (HVPT) is usually used as a charging device for the pulse forming line (PFL) of intense electron-beam accelerators (IEBAs). Insulation of the HVPT is one of the important factors that restrict the development of the HVPT. Until now, considerable effort has been focused on minimizing high field regions to avoid insulation breakdown between windings. Characteristics of the HVPT have been widely discussed to achieve these goals, but the effects of the PFL and load resistance on HVPT are usually neglected. In this paper, a HVPT is used as a charging device for the PFL of an IEBA and the effect of the change in the load resistance on the HVPT of the IEBA is presented. When the load resistance does not match the wave impedance of the PFL, a high-frequency bipolar oscillating voltage will occur, and the amplitude of the oscillating voltage will increase with the decrease in the load resistance. The load resistance approximates to zero and the amplitude of the oscillating voltage is much higher. This makes it easier for surface flashover along the insulation materials to form and decrease the lifetime of the HVPT.

  11. A Static PatternIndependent Technique for Power Grid Voltage Integrity Verification #

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Najm, Farid N.

    A Static Pattern­Independent Technique for Power Grid Voltage Integrity Verification # Dionysios Design verification must include the power grid. Checking that the voltage on the power grid does) the obviously large size of the power grids for modern high­performance chips, and ii) the di#culty of setting

  12. Low-voltage, low-power circuits for data communication systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Mingdeng

    2005-02-17

    There are growing industrial demands for low-voltage supply and low-power consumption circuits and systems. This is especially true for very high integration level and very large scale integrated (VLSI) mixed-signal chips and system...

  13. A wide bandgap silicon carbide (SiC) gate driver for high-temperature and high-voltage applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lamichhane, Ranjan [University of Arkansas; Ericson, Milton Nance [ORNL; Frank, Steven Shane [ORNL; BRITTONJr., CHARLES L. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Marlino, Laura D [ORNL; Mantooth, Alan [University of Arkansas; Francis, Matt [APEI, Inc.; Shepherd, Dr. Paul [University of Arkansas; Glover, Dr. Michael [University of Arkansas; Podar, Mircea [ORNL; Perez, M [University of Arkansas; Mcnutt, Tyler [APEI, Inc.; Whitaker, Mr. Bret [APEI, Inc.; Cole, Mr. Zach [APEI, Inc.

    2014-01-01

    Limitations of silicon (Si) based power electronic devices can be overcome with Silicon Carbide (SiC) because of its remarkable material properties. SiC is a wide bandgap semiconductor material with larger bandgap, lower leakage currents, higher breakdown electric field, and higher thermal conductivity, which promotes higher switching frequencies for high power applications, higher temperature operation, and results in higher power density devices relative to Si [1]. The proposed work is focused on design of a SiC gate driver to drive a SiC power MOSFET, on a Cree SiC process, with rise/fall times (less than 100 ns) suitable for 500 kHz to 1 MHz switching frequency applications. A process optimized gate driver topology design which is significantly different from generic Si circuit design is proposed. The ultimate goal of the project is to integrate this gate driver into a Toyota Prius plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) charger module. The application of this high frequency charger will result in lighter, smaller, cheaper, and a more efficient power electronics system.

  14. Please cite this article in press as: M. Karpelson, et al., Driving high voltage piezoelectric actuators in microrobotic applications, Sens. Actuators A: Phys. (2012), doi:10.1016/j.sna.2011.11.035

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wood, Robert

    2012-01-01

    .elsevier.com/locate/sna Driving high voltage piezoelectric actuators in microrobotic applications Michael Karpelson , Gu-Yeon WeiPlease cite this article in press as: M. Karpelson, et al., Driving high voltage piezoelectric actuators in microrobotic applications, Sens. Actuators A: Phys. (2012), doi:10.1016/j.sna.2011

  15. Statistical analysis of the dynamics of secondary electrons in the flare of a high-voltage beam-type discharge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Demkin, V. P.; Mel'nichuk, S. V.

    2014-09-15

    In the present work, results of investigations into the dynamics of secondary electrons with helium atoms in the presence of the reverse electric field arising in the flare of a high-voltage pulsed beam-type discharge and leading to degradation of the primary electron beam are presented. The electric field in the discharge of this type at moderate pressures can reach several hundred V/cm and leads to considerable changes in the kinetics of secondary electrons created in the process of propagation of the electron beam generated in the accelerating gap with a grid anode. Moving in the accelerating electric field toward the anode, secondary electrons create the so-called compensating current to the anode. The character of electron motion and the compensating current itself are determined by the ratio of the field strength to the concentration of atoms (E/n). The energy and angular spectra of secondary electrons are calculated by the Monte Carlo method for different ratios E/n of the electric field strength to the helium atom concentration. The motion of secondary electrons with threshold energy is studied for inelastic collisions of helium atoms and differential analysis is carried out of the collisional processes causing energy losses of electrons in helium for different E/n values. The mechanism of creation and accumulation of slow electrons as a result of inelastic collisions of secondary electrons with helium atoms and selective population of metastable states of helium atoms is considered. It is demonstrated that in a wide range of E/n values the motion of secondary electrons in the beam-type discharge flare has the character of drift. At E/n values characteristic for the discharge of the given type, the drift velocity of these electrons is calculated and compared with the available experimental data.

  16. Large dynamic range diagnostics for high current electron LINACs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Evtushenko, Pavel [JLAB

    2013-11-01

    The Jefferson Lab FEL driver accelerator - Energy Recovery Linac has provided a beam with average current of up to 9 mA and beam energy of 135 MeV. The high power beam operations have allowed developing and testing methods and approaches required to set up and tune such a facility simultaneously for the high beam power and high beam quality required for high performance FEL operations. In this contribution we briefly review this experience and outline problems that are specific to high current - high power non-equilibrium linac beams. While the original strategy for beam diagnostics and tuning have proven to be quite successful, some shortcomings and unresolved issues were also observed. The most important issues are the non-equilibrium (non-Gaussian) nature of the linac beam and the presence of small intensity - large amplitude fraction of the beam a.k.a. beam halo. Thus we also present a list of the possible beam halo sources and discuss possible mitigations means. We argue that for proper understanding and management of the beam halo large dynamic range (>10{sup 6}) transverse and longitudinal beam diagnostics can be used. We also present results of transverse beam profile measurements with the dynamic range approaching 10{sup 5} and demonstrate the effect the increased dynamic range has on the beam characterization, i.e., emittance and Twiss parameters measurements. We also discuss near future work planned in this field and where the JLab FEL facility will be used for beam tests of the developed of new diagnostics.

  17. Large dynamic range diagnostics for high current electron LINACs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Evtushenko, P., E-mail: Pavel.Evtushenko@jlab.org [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility 12000 Jefferson Avenue, Newport News, VA 23606 (United States)

    2013-11-07

    The Jefferson Lab FEL driver accelerator - Energy Recovery Linac has provided a beam with average current of up to 9 mA and beam energy of 135 MeV. The high power beam operations have allowed developing and testing methods and approaches required to set up and tune such a facility simultaneously for the high beam power and high beam quality required for high performance FEL operations. In this contribution we briefly review this experience and outline problems that are specific to high current - high power non-equilibrium linac beams. While the original strategy for beam diagnostics and tuning have proven to be quite successful, some shortcomings and unresolved issues were also observed. The most important issues are the non-equilibrium (non-Gaussian) nature of the linac beam and the presence of small intensity - large amplitude fraction of the beam a.k.a. beam halo. Thus we also present a list of the possible beam halo sources and discuss possible mitigations means. We argue that for proper understanding and management of the beam halo large dynamic range (>10{sup 6}) transverse and longitudinal beam diagnostics can be used. We also present results of transverse beam profile measurements with the dynamic range approaching 10{sup 5} and demonstrate the effect the increased dynamic range has on the beam characterization, i.e., emittance and Twiss parameters measurements. We also discuss near future work planned in this field and where the JLab FEL facility will be used for beam tests of the developed of new diagnostics.

  18. Minimizing Simultaneous Switching Noise at Reduced Power with Constant-Voltage Power Transmission Lines for High-Speed Signaling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Swaminathan, Madhavan

    transmission line, while the low state of the output data draws much less current. Thus, the DC dropMinimizing Simultaneous Switching Noise at Reduced Power with Constant-Voltage Power Transmission plane structure with a power transmission line (PTL). In this paper, a new power delivery scheme called

  19. Proposal for the award of a contract, without competitive tendering, for the maintenance of high-voltage switchgear and protection equipment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2003-01-01

    This document concerns the award of a contract, without competitive tendering, for the maintenance of high-voltage switchgear and protection equipment. The Finance Committee is invited to agree to the negotiation of a contract, without competitive tendering, for the maintenance of high-voltage switchgear and protection equipment with SCHNEIDER (FR) for a total amount of 1 100 000 euros (1 742 000 Swiss francs), covering an initial period of five years, subject to revision for inflation after 1 January 2007. The contract will include options for two one-year extensions beyond the initial five-year period. The amount in Swiss francs has been calculated using the present rate of exchange. The firm has indicated the following distribution by country of the contract value covered by this adjudication proposal: FR - 100%.

  20. Voltage balanced multilevel voltage source converter system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Peng, F.Z.; Lai, J.S.

    1997-07-01

    Disclosed is a voltage balanced multilevel converter for high power AC applications such as adjustable speed motor drives and back-to-back DC intertie of adjacent power systems. This converter provides a multilevel rectifier, a multilevel inverter, and a DC link between the rectifier and the inverter allowing voltage balancing between each of the voltage levels within the multilevel converter. The rectifier is equipped with at least one phase leg and a source input node for each of the phases. The rectifier is further equipped with a plurality of rectifier DC output nodes. The inverter is equipped with at least one phase leg and a load output node for each of the phases. The inverter is further equipped with a plurality of inverter DC input nodes. The DC link is equipped with a plurality of rectifier charging means and a plurality of inverter discharging means. The plurality of rectifier charging means are connected in series with one of the rectifier charging means disposed between and connected in an operable relationship with each adjacent pair of rectifier DC output nodes. The plurality of inverter discharging means are connected in series with one of the inverter discharging means disposed between and connected in an operable relationship with each adjacent pair of inverter DC input nodes. Each of said rectifier DC output nodes are individually electrically connected to the respective inverter DC input nodes. By this means, each of the rectifier DC output nodes and each of the inverter DC input nodes are voltage balanced by the respective charging and discharging of the rectifier charging means and the inverter discharging means. 15 figs.

  1. A PC-PCL-based control system for the high-voltage pulsed-power operation of the Intense Diagnostic Neutral Beam (IDNB) Experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gribble, R.

    1993-06-01

    A stand-alone, semiautomated control system for the high-voltage pulsed-power energy sources on the Intense Diagnostic Neutral Beam Experiment at Los Alamos National Laboratory using personal computer (PC) and programmable logic controller (PLC) technology has been developed and implemented. The control system, consisting of a PC with the graphic operator interface, the network connecting the PC to the PLC, the PLC, the PLC I/O modules, fiber-optic interfaces and software, is described.

  2. Holographic Calculation for Large Interval Rényi Entropy at High Temperature

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bin Chen; Jie-qiang Wu

    2015-06-10

    In this paper, we study the holographic R\\'enyi entropy of a large interval on a circle at high temperature for the two-dimensional CFT dual to pure AdS$_3$ gravity. In the field theory, the R\\'enyi entropy is encoded in the CFT partition function on $n$-sheeted torus connected with each other by a large branch cut. As proposed in 1412.0763, the effective way to read the entropy in the large interval limit is to insert a complete set of state bases of the twist sector at the branch cut. Then the calculation transforms into an expansion of four-point functions in the twist sector with respect to $e^{-\\frac{2\\pi TR}{n}}$. By using the operator product expansion of the twist operators at the branch points, we read the first few terms of the R\\'enyi entropy, including the leading and next-leading contributions in the large central charge limit. Moreover, we show that the leading contribution is actually captured by the twist vacuum module. In this case by the Ward identity the four-point functions can be derived from the correlation function of four twist operators, which is related to double interval entanglement entropy. Holographically, we apply the recipe in 1303.7221 and 1306.4682 to compute the classical R\\'enyi entropy and its 1-loop quantum correction, after imposing a new set of monodromy conditions. The holographic classical result matches exactly with the leading contribution in the field theory up to $e^{-4\\pi TR}$ and $l^6$, while the holographical 1-loop contribution is in exact agreement with next-leading results in field theory up to $e^{-\\frac{6\\pi TR}{n}}$ and $l^4$ as well.

  3. In high-tech industries, large amounts of reliable, high-quality

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    In high-tech industries, large amounts of reliable, high-quality power are critical to information processing networks--industry giant Verizon Telecommunications uses over 5.1 billion kWh annually. Because with the grid, three reciprocating engines, two absorption chillers, and a heat recovery steam generator (HRSG

  4. For economic energy, we need: tritium, large size to obtain hot fusing plasma; high fields and large currents

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    11 For economic energy, we need: tritium, large size to obtain hot fusing plasma; high fields: a Component Test Facility is much needed; ST appears simplest and most economic in tritium: BUT the high cost

  5. Large Scale Computing and Storage Requirements for High Energy Physics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gerber, Richard A.; Wasserman, Harvey

    2010-11-24

    The National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC) is the leading scientific computing facility for the Department of Energy's Office of Science, providing high-performance computing (HPC) resources to more than 3,000 researchers working on about 400 projects. NERSC provides large-scale computing resources and, crucially, the support and expertise needed for scientists to make effective use of them. In November 2009, NERSC, DOE's Office of Advanced Scientific Computing Research (ASCR), and DOE's Office of High Energy Physics (HEP) held a workshop to characterize the HPC resources needed at NERSC to support HEP research through the next three to five years. The effort is part of NERSC's legacy of anticipating users needs and deploying resources to meet those demands. The workshop revealed several key points, in addition to achieving its goal of collecting and characterizing computing requirements. The chief findings: (1) Science teams need access to a significant increase in computational resources to meet their research goals; (2) Research teams need to be able to read, write, transfer, store online, archive, analyze, and share huge volumes of data; (3) Science teams need guidance and support to implement their codes on future architectures; and (4) Projects need predictable, rapid turnaround of their computational jobs to meet mission-critical time constraints. This report expands upon these key points and includes others. It also presents a number of case studies as representative of the research conducted within HEP. Workshop participants were asked to codify their requirements in this case study format, summarizing their science goals, methods of solution, current and three-to-five year computing requirements, and software and support needs. Participants were also asked to describe their strategy for computing in the highly parallel, multi-core environment that is expected to dominate HPC architectures over the next few years. The report includes a section that describes efforts already underway or planned at NERSC that address requirements collected at the workshop. NERSC has many initiatives in progress that address key workshop findings and are aligned with NERSC's strategic plans.

  6. Progress in Large Period Multilayer Coatings for High Harmonic and Solar Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aquila, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    large period multilayer coatings for high harmonic and solarBerkeley, CA 94720 Multilayer coatings for normal incidence

  7. Proposal for the award of a blanket order contract for the supply and installation of high-voltage metal-clad compartmented switchgear

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2001-01-01

    This document concerns the award of a blanket order contract for the supply and installation of high-voltage metal-clad compartmented switchgear. Following a market survey (MS-2761/ST) carried out among 59 firms in fifteen Member States, a call for tenders (IT-2827/ST) was sent on 23 January 2001 to 14 firms in ten Member States. By the closing date, CERN had received eight tenders from eight firms in seven Member States. The Finance Committee is invited to agree to the negotiation of a blanket order contract with SCHNEIDER ELECTRIC (IT), the lowest bidder, for the supply and installation of high-voltage metal-clad compartmented switchgear for a total amount of 4 300 000 euros (6 611 000 Swiss francs), not subject to revision until 31 July 2003. The rate of exchange which has been used is that stipulated in the tender. The firm has indicated the following distribution by country of the contract value covered by this adjudication proposal: IT - 70%; FR - 30%.

  8. Specific expression of the human voltage-gated proton channel Hv1 in highly metastatic breast cancer cells, promotes tumor progression and metastasis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Yifan [The Key Laboratory of Bioactive Materials, Ministry of Education, School of Physics Science, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China)] [The Key Laboratory of Bioactive Materials, Ministry of Education, School of Physics Science, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Li, Shu Jie, E-mail: shujieli@nankai.edu.cn [The Key Laboratory of Bioactive Materials, Ministry of Education, School of Physics Science, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Pan, Juncheng [The Key Laboratory of Bioactive Materials, Ministry of Education, School of Physics Science, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China)] [The Key Laboratory of Bioactive Materials, Ministry of Education, School of Physics Science, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Che, Yongzhe, E-mail: cheli@nankai.edu.cn [The Key Laboratory of Bioactive Materials, Ministry of Education, School of Medicine, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China)] [The Key Laboratory of Bioactive Materials, Ministry of Education, School of Medicine, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Yin, Jian [Cancer Institute and Hospital, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin 300060 (China)] [Cancer Institute and Hospital, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin 300060 (China); Zhao, Qing [The Key Laboratory of Bioactive Materials, Ministry of Education, School of Physics Science, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China)] [The Key Laboratory of Bioactive Materials, Ministry of Education, School of Physics Science, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China)

    2011-08-26

    Highlights: {yields} Hv1 is specifically expressed in highly metastatic human breast tumor tissues. {yields} Hv1 regulates breast cancer cytosolic pH. {yields} Hv1 acidifies extracellular milieu. {yields} Hv1 exacerbates the migratory ability of metastatic cells. -- Abstract: The newly discovered human voltage-gated proton channel Hv1 is essential for proton transfer, which contains a voltage sensor domain (VSD) without a pore domain. We report here for the first time that Hv1 is specifically expressed in the highly metastatic human breast tumor tissues, but not in poorly metastatic breast cancer tissues, detected by immunohistochemistry. Meanwhile, real-time RT-PCR and immunocytochemistry showed that the expression levels of Hv1 have significant differences among breast cancer cell lines, MCF-7, MDA-MB-231, MDA-MB-468, MDA-MB-453, T-47D and SK-BR-3, in which Hv1 is expressed at a high level in highly metastatic human breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231, but at a very low level in poorly metastatic human breast cancer cell line MCF-7. Inhibition of Hv1 expression in the highly metastatic MDA-MB-231 cells by small interfering RNA (siRNA) significantly decreases the invasion and migration of the cells. The intracellular pH of MDA-MB-231 cells down-regulated Hv1 expression by siRNA is obviously decreased compared with MDA-MB-231 with the scrambled siRNA. The expression of matrix metalloproteinase-2 and gelatinase activity in MDA-MB-231 cells suppressed Hv1 by siRNA were reduced. Our results strongly suggest that Hv1 regulates breast cancer intracellular pH and exacerbates the migratory ability of metastatic cells.

  9. Large Scale Computing and Storage Requirements for High Energy Physics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gerber, Richard A.

    2011-01-01

    LHC upgrade, Project X, Compact Linear Collider (CLIC), highNuclear Research Compact Linear Collider Community Petascale

  10. Large scale steam valve test: Performance testing of large butterfly valves and full scale high flowrate steam testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meadows, J.B.; Robbins, G.E.; Roselius, D.G. [and others

    1995-05-01

    This report presents the results of the design testing of large (36-inch diameter) butterfly valves under high flow conditions. The two butterfly valves were pneumatically operated air-open, air-shut valves (termed valves 1 and 2). These butterfly valves were redesigned to improve their ability to function under high flow conditions. Concern was raised regarding the ability of the butterfly valves to function as required with high flow-induced torque imposed on the valve discs during high steam flow conditions. High flow testing was required to address the flow-induced torque concerns. The valve testing was done using a heavily instrumented piping system. This test program was called the Large Scale Steam Valve Test (LSSVT). The LSSVT program demonstrated that the redesigned valves operated satisfactorily under high flow conditions.

  11. Determination of threshold and maximum operating electric stresses for selected high voltage insulations: Investigation of aged polymeric dielectric cable. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eager, G.S. Jr.; Seman, G.W.; Fryszczyn, B.

    1995-11-01

    Based on the successful completion of the extensive research project DOE/ET/29303-1 February 1982 to develop a new method for the determination of threshold voltage in XLPE and EPR insulated cables, tests were initiated to establish the maximum safe operating voltage stresses of crosslinked polyethylene insulated cables that become wet when they operate in a moist environment. The present report covers the measurement of the threshold voltage, the a.c. breakdown voltage and the impulse breakdown voltage of XLPE cable after undergoing accelerated laboratory aging in water. Model and 15 kV XLPE cables were manufactured in commercial equipment using state-of-the-art semiconducting shields and XLPE insulation. The threshold voltage, a.c. voltage breakdown and impulse voltage breakdown of the model cables were determined before aging, after aging one week and after aging 26 weeks. The model cable, following 26 weeks aging, was dried by passing dry gas through the conductor interstices which removed moisture from the cable. The threshold voltage, the a.c. voltage breakdown and the impulse voltage breakdown of the XLPE model cable after drying was measured.

  12. Charging a Battery-Powered Device with a Fiber-Optically Connected Photonic Power System for Achieving High-Voltage Isolation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lizon, David C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Gioria, Jack G [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dale, Gregory E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Snyder, Hans R [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the development and testing of a system to provide isolated power to the cathode-subsystem electronics of an x-ray tube. These components are located at the cathode potential of several hundred kilovolts, requiring a supply of power isolated from this high voltage. In this design a fiber-optically connected photonic power system (PPS) is used to recharge a lithium-ion battery pack, which will subsequently supply power to the cathode-subsystem electronics. The suitability of the commercially available JDSU PPS for this application is evaluated. The output of the ppe converter is characterized. The technical aspects of its use for charging a variety of Li-Ion batteries are discussed. Battery charge protection requirements and safety concerns are also addressed.

  13. Section IV.D.3 for DOE 2013 Annual Report: Novel Phosphazene-based Compounds to Enhance Safety and Stability of Cell Chemistries for High Voltage Applications (INL)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kevin L. Gering; Mason K. Harrup; Eric J. Dufek; Sergiy V. Sazhin; Harry W. Rollins; David K. Jamison; Fred F. Stewart; John Burba

    2013-09-01

    Electrolytes play a central role in performance and aging in most electrochemical systems. As automotive and grid applications place a higher reliance on electrochemical stored energy, it becomes more urgent to have electrolyte components that enable optimal battery performance while promoting battery safety and longevity. Safety remains a foremost concern for widespread utilization of Li-ion technology in electric-drive vehicles, especially as the focus turns to higher voltage systems (5V). This work capitalizes on the long established INL expertise regarding phosphazene chemistry, aimed at battery-viable compounds for electrolytes and electrodes that are highly tolerant to abusive conditions. This report showcases our 2013 work for the DOE applied battery research (ABR) program, wherein testing results are summarized for INL electrolytes and alternative anode materials.

  14. Automatic voltage imbalance detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bobbett, Ronald E. (Los Alamos, NM); McCormick, J. Byron (Los Alamos, NM); Kerwin, William J. (Tucson, AZ)

    1984-01-01

    A device for indicating and preventing damage to voltage cells such as galvanic cells and fuel cells connected in series by detecting sequential voltages and comparing these voltages to adjacent voltage cells. The device is implemented by using operational amplifiers and switching circuitry is provided by transistors. The device can be utilized in battery powered electric vehicles to prevent galvanic cell damage and also in series connected fuel cells to prevent fuel cell damage.

  15. Measurement of the internal stress and electric field in a resonating piezoelectric transformer for high-voltage applications using the electro-optic and photoelastic effects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    VanGordon, James A.; Kovaleski, Scott D., E-mail: kovaleskis@missouri.edu; Norgard, Peter; Gall, Brady B. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Missouri, Columbia, Missouri 65211 (United States)] [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Missouri, Columbia, Missouri 65211 (United States); Dale, Gregory E. [High Power Electrodynamics Group, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)] [High Power Electrodynamics Group, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)

    2014-02-15

    The high output voltages from piezoelectric transformers are currently being used to accelerate charged particle beams for x-ray and neutron production. Traditional methods of characterizing piezoelectric transformers (PTs) using electrical probes can decrease the voltage transformation ratio of the device due to the introduction of load impedances on the order of hundreds of kiloohms to hundreds of megaohms. Consequently, an optical diagnostic was developed that used the photoelastic and electro-optic effects present in piezoelectric materials that are transparent to a given optical wavelength to determine the internal stress and electric field. The combined effects of the piezoelectric, photoelastic, and electro-optic effects result in a time-dependent change the refractive indices of the material and produce an artificially induced, time-dependent birefringence in the piezoelectric material. This induced time-dependent birefringence results in a change in the relative phase difference between the ordinary and extraordinary wave components of a helium-neon laser beam. The change in phase difference between the wave components was measured using a set of linear polarizers. The measured change in phase difference was used to calculate the stress and electric field based on the nonlinear optical properties, the piezoelectric constitutive equations, and the boundary conditions of the PT. Maximum stresses of approximately 10 MPa and electric fields of as high as 6 kV/cm were measured with the optical diagnostic. Measured results were compared to results from both a simple one-dimensional (1D) model of the piezoelectric transformer and a three-dimensional (3D) finite element model. Measured stresses and electric fields along the length of an operating length-extensional PT for two different electrical loads were within at least 50 % of 3D finite element simulated results. Additionally, the 3D finite element results were more accurate than the results from the 1D model for a wider range of electrical load impedances under test.

  16. Infrared detection with high-[Tc] bolometers and response of Nb tunnel junctions to picosecond voltage pulses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Verghese, S.

    1993-05-01

    Oxide superconductors with high critical temperature [Tc] make sensitive thermometers for several types of infrared bolometers. The authors built composite bolometers with YBa[sub 2]Cu[sub 3]O[sub 7[minus][delta

  17. Large

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would likeUniverseIMPACTThousand CubicResourcelogo and mastheadLakeLanguage of a fly provesLarge

  18. Large-Scale Molecular Dynamics Simulations for Highly Parallel Infrastructures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pazúriková, Jana

    2014-01-01

    Computational chemistry allows researchers to experiment in sillico: by running a computer simulations of a biological or chemical processes of interest. Molecular dynamics with molecular mechanics model of interactions simulates N-body problem of atoms$-$it computes movements of atoms according to Newtonian physics and empirical descriptions of atomic electrostatic interactions. These simulations require high performance computing resources, as evaluations within each step are computationally demanding and billions of steps are needed to reach interesting timescales. Current methods decompose the spatial domain of the problem and calculate on parallel/distributed infrastructures. Even the methods with the highest strong scaling hit the limit at half a million cores: they are not able to cut the time to result if provided with more processors. At the dawn of exascale computing with massively parallel computational resources, we want to increase the level of parallelism by incorporating parallel-in-time comput...

  19. New strategies for an extremely large telescope dedicated to extremely high contrast: The Colossus Project**

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berdyugina, Svetlana

    New strategies for an extremely large telescope dedicated to extremely high contrast: The Colossus and adaptive optics and cophasing for the designing and for building such dedicated to extremely high contrast

  20. Dielectric-wall linear accelerator with a high voltage fast rise time switch that includes a pair of electrodes between which are laminated alternating layers of isolated conductors and insulators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Caporaso, G.J.; Sampayan, S.E.; Kirbie, H.C.

    1998-10-13

    A dielectric-wall linear accelerator is improved by a high-voltage, fast rise-time switch that includes a pair of electrodes between which are laminated alternating layers of isolated conductors and insulators. A high voltage is placed between the electrodes sufficient to stress the voltage breakdown of the insulator on command. A light trigger, such as a laser, is focused along at least one line along the edge surface of the laminated alternating layers of isolated conductors and insulators extending between the electrodes. The laser is energized to initiate a surface breakdown by a fluence of photons, thus causing the electrical switch to close very promptly. Such insulators and lasers are incorporated in a dielectric wall linear accelerator with Blumlein modules, and phasing is controlled by adjusting the length of fiber optic cables that carry the laser light to the insulator surface. 12 figs.

  1. Dielectric-wall linear accelerator with a high voltage fast rise time switch that includes a pair of electrodes between which are laminated alternating layers of isolated conductors and insulators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Caporaso, George J. (Livermore, CA); Sampayan, Stephen E. (Manteca, CA); Kirbie, Hugh C. (Dublin, CA)

    1998-01-01

    A dielectric-wall linear accelerator is improved by a high-voltage, fast rise-time switch that includes a pair of electrodes between which are laminated alternating layers of isolated conductors and insulators. A high voltage is placed between the electrodes sufficient to stress the voltage breakdown of the insulator on command. A light trigger, such as a laser, is focused along at least one line along the edge surface of the laminated alternating layers of isolated conductors and insulators extending between the electrodes. The laser is energized to initiate a surface breakdown by a fluence of photons, thus causing the electrical switch to close very promptly. Such insulators and lasers are incorporated in a dielectric wall linear accelerator with Blumlein modules, and phasing is controlled by adjusting the length of fiber optic cables that carry the laser light to the insulator surface.

  2. Free Boundary, High Beta Equilibrium in a Large Aspect Ratio Tokamak with Nearly

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Free Boundary, High Beta Equilibrium in a Large Aspect Ratio Tokamak with Nearly Circular Plasma­boundary, high­beta equi­ libria in large aspect ratio tokamaks with a nearly circular plasma boundary in tokamaks for the purpose of developing an economic fusion reactor. It has long been recognized

  3. Long term voltage stability analysis for small disturbances 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Men, Kun

    2009-05-15

    design and optimize the system. ?? Challenge 2, accurately estimating voltage stability margin online remains as a dream for industry. So far, due to heavy computation burden, the major thrust in voltage stability analysis, especially for large... of load dynamics to restore power consumption beyond the capability of the combined transmission and generation system. ? This definition try to emphasize that load is the main driving force of a voltage collapse, and voltage stability is a stuctural...

  4. Voltage Converter TYPICAL APPLICATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berns, Hans-Gerd

    1 LTC660 100mA CMOS Voltage Converter TYPICAL APPLICATION U s Simple Conversion of 5V to ­5V Supply s Output Drive: 100mA s ROUT: 6.5 (0.65V Loss at 100mA) s BOOST Pin (Pin 1) for Higher Switching Frequency-capacitor voltage converter. It performs supply voltage conversion from positive to negative from an input range

  5. Eliminate Voltage Unbalance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2000-01-01

    This two-page abstract provides tips for plant managers on checking and monitoring motor voltage unbalance to improve performance and life-span of industrial motors.

  6. Eliminate Voltage Unbalance

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    to the voltage unbalance. Unbalanced currents lead to torque pulsations, increased vibrations and mechanical stresses, increased losses resulting in lower efficiency, and...

  7. Voltage Control Technical Conference

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1-08-Voltage-Control-Technical-Conference Sign In About | Careers | Contact | Investors | bpa.gov Search News & Us Expand News & Us Projects & Initiatives Expand Projects &...

  8. Investigation of the spatiotemporal characteristics of the electric field in the Ne-H{sub 2} plasma of a beam-type high-voltage pulsed discharge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Demkin, V. P.; Mel'nichuk, S. V.; Borisov, A. V.; Bardin, S. S. [National Research Tomsk State University, 36, Lenin Ave., 634050 Tomsk (Russian Federation)] [National Research Tomsk State University, 36, Lenin Ave., 634050 Tomsk (Russian Federation)

    2013-12-15

    In the present work, the spatiotemporal dynamics of the electric field E(x, t) of plasma produced by a beam-type high-voltage pulsed discharge is investigated. The electric field strength E(x, t) in an accelerating gap and in a plasma flare was determined from the measured Stark splitting of the H{sub ?} hydrogen line. The obtained dependence E(x, t) was used to calculate the electron distribution function and the spectral line intensities in the accelerating gap and in the plasma flare by the method of statistical modeling. The calculated population of He atomic states excited by electron impact and their comparison with the measured spectral line intensities I(?, x, t) demonstrate that a reverse electric field retarding the electron motion and leading to electron beam degradation must be present in the plasma flare near the grid. Measurement of the field strength from the Stark splitting of the H{sub ?} line demonstrates that it can reach considerable values.

  9. ABBGroup-1-High voltage lab

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Basse, Nils Plesner

    to interrupt the current... Fault arc at a disconnector Fault arc in a substation #12;©ABBGroup-5- 3-Sep-07 of the physical processes · Optimisation of design through simulation · Reduction of development tests/costs

  10. ABBGroup-1-High voltage lab

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Basse, Nils Plesner

    to interrupt the current... Fault arc at a disconnector Fault arc in a substation #12;©ABBGroup-5- 3-Sep-07 tests/costs A detailed understanding of arc physics and fluid dynamics is necessary for the development

  11. Voltage verification unit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Martin, Edward J. (Virginia Beach, VA)

    2008-01-15

    A voltage verification unit and method for determining the absence of potentially dangerous potentials within a power supply enclosure without Mode 2 work is disclosed. With this device and method, a qualified worker, following a relatively simple protocol that involves a function test (hot, cold, hot) of the voltage verification unit before Lock Out/Tag Out and, and once the Lock Out/Tag Out is completed, testing or "trying" by simply reading a display on the voltage verification unit can be accomplished without exposure of the operator to the interior of the voltage supply enclosure. According to a preferred embodiment, the voltage verification unit includes test leads to allow diagnostics with other meters, without the necessity of accessing potentially dangerous bus bars or the like.

  12. Large Plastic Deformation in High-Capacity Lithium-Ion Batteries Caused by Charge and Discharge

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Suo, Zhigang

    Large Plastic Deformation in High-Capacity Lithium-Ion Batteries Caused by Charge and Discharge, Massachusetts 02138 Evidence has accumulated recently that a high-capacity elec- trode of a lithium-ion battery in the particle is high, possibly leading to fracture and cavitation. I. Introduction LITHIUM-ION batteries

  13. Large Volatility Matrix Inference via Combining Low-Frequency and High-Frequency Approaches

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Yazhen

    Large Volatility Matrix Inference via Combining Low-Frequency and High-Frequency Approaches Minjing adequate estimates and forecasts. Furthermore, since high-frequency financial data for different assets applicable. To overcome those difficulties we explore a novel approach that combines high-frequency

  14. Space for Two to Think: Large, High-Resolution Displays for Co-located Collaborative Sensemaking

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Space for Two to Think: Large, High-Resolution Displays for Co-located Collaborative Sensemaking Lauren Bradel 1 Virginia Tech Christopher Andrews 2 Virginia Tech Alex Endert 3 Virginia Tech Katherine Vogt 4 Elon University Duke Hutchings 5 Elon University Chris North 6 Virginia Tech ABSTRACT Large

  15. Development of Large Scale High Performance Applications with a Parallelizing Compiler

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vlad, Gregorio

    Development of Large Scale High Performance Applications with a Parallelizing Compiler B. DI parallel computations, and lack of robustness of parallelizing HPF compilers in handling large sized codes directives, into explicitly parallel code, by means of parallelizing compilers. This method is not only

  16. Large area high density quantized magnetic disks fabricated using nanoimprint lithography

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    for fabricating large area quantized magnetic disks QMDs using nanoimprint lithography NIL , electroplating or a via array. The other is that for high resolution an antireflection coating ARC layer is needed, which

  17. Stability of highly shifted equilibria in a large-aspect-ratio tokamak

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gourdain, P A

    2006-01-01

    in a large aspect ratio tokamak P. -A. Gourdain, S. C.High beta poloidal tokamaks can confine plasma pressures ansymmetric configuration called tokamak, where a plasma (i.e.

  18. Design and control of high-speed and large-range atomic force microscope

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Soltani Bozchalooi, Iman, 1981-

    2015-01-01

    This thesis presents the design, control and instrumentation of a novel atomic force microscope (AFM). This AFM is capable of high-speed imaging while maintaining large out-of-plane and lateral scan ranges. The primary ...

  19. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: High Energy Density Li-ion Cells for EV’s Based on Novel, High Voltage Cathode Material Systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Farasis Energy, Inc. at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about high energy density Li...

  20. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: High Energy Density Li-ion Cells for EV’s Based on Novel, High Voltage Cathode Material Systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Farasis at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about high energy density Li-ion cells for...

  1. High-voltage switchgear and controlgear part 200 : AC metal-enclosed switchgear and controlgear for rated voltages above 1 kV and up to and including 52 kV

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    International Electrotechnical Commission. Geneva

    2011-01-01

    Specifies requirements for factory-assembled metal-enclosed switchgear and controlgear for alternating current of rated voltages above 1 kV and up to and including 52 kV for indoor and outdoor installation, and for service frequencies up to and including 60 Hz. Enclosures may include fixed and removable components and may be filled with fluid (liquid or gas) to provide insulation. This standard defines several types of metal enclosed switchgear and controlgear which differ due to - the consequences on network service continuity in case of maintenance on the switchgear and controlgear; - the need and convenience of maintenance of the equipment. For metal-enclosed switchgear and controlgear containing gas-filled compartments, the design pressure is limited to a maximum of 300 kPa (relative pressure). Metal-enclosed switchgear and controlgear for special use, for example, in flammable atmospheres, in mines or on board ships, may be subject to additional requirements. Components contained in metal-enclosed switch...

  2. High open-circuit voltage small-molecule p-DTS(FBTTh 2 )2.ICBA bulk heterojunction solar cells – morphology, excited-state dynamics, and photovoltaic performance

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ko Kyaw, Aung Ko; Gehrig, Dominik; Zhang, Jie; Huang, Ye; Bazan, Guillermo C.; Laquai, Frédéric; Nguyen, Thuc -Quyen

    2014-11-27

    The photovoltaic performance of bulk heterojunction solar cells using the solution-processable small molecule donor 7,7'-(4,4-bis(2-ethylhexyl)-4H-silolo[3,2-b:4,5-b']dithiophene-2,6-diyl)bis(6-fluoro-4-(5'-hexyl-[2,2'-bithiophene]-5-yl)benzo[c][1,2,5]thiadiazole) (p-DTS(FBTTh2)2 in combination with indene-C60 bis-adduct (ICBA) as an acceptor is systematically optimized by altering the processing conditions. A high open-circuit voltage of 1 V, more than 0.2 V higher than that of a p-DTS(FBTTh2)2:PC70BM blend, is achieved. However, the power conversion efficiency remains around 5% and thus is lower than ~8% previously reported for p-DTS(FBTTh2)2:PC70BM. Transient absorption (TA) pump–probe spectroscopy over a wide spectral (Vis-NIR) and dynamic (fs to ?s) range in combination with multivariate curve resolution analysis of the TA data reveals thatmore »generation of free charges is more efficient in the blend with PC70BM as an acceptor. In contrast, blends with ICBA create more coulombically bound interfacial charge transfer (CT) states, which recombine on the sub-nanosecond timescale by geminate recombination. Furthermore, the ns to ?s charge carrier dynamics in p-DTS(FBTTh2)2:ICBA blends are only weakly intensity dependent implying a significant contribution of recombination from long-lived CT states and trapped charges, while those in p-DTS(FBTTh2)2:PC70BM decay via an intensity-dependent recombination mechanism indicating that spatially separated (free) charge carriers are observed, which can be extracted as photocurrent from the device.« less

  3. Towards Large-Scale Collaborative Planning: Answering High-Level Search Queries Using Human Computation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Yiling

    Towards Large-Scale Collaborative Planning: Answering High-Level Search Queries Using Human of Engineering and Applied Sciences Harvard University hq@eecs.harvard.edu Abstract Behind every search query is a high-level mission that the user wants to accomplish. While current search en- gines can often provide

  4. 36 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRY APPLICATIONS, VOL. 35, NO. 1, JANUARY/FEBRUARY 1999 Multilevel Converters for Large Electric Drives

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tolbert, Leon M.

    . Multilevel converters: 1) can generate near- sinusoidal voltages with only fundamental frequency switching; 2 Converters for Large Electric Drives Leon M. Tolbert, Senior Member, IEEE, Fang Zheng Peng, Senior Member multilevel con- verters as an application for high-power and/or high-voltage electric motor drives

  5. Device for monitoring cell voltage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doepke, Matthias; Eisermann, Henning

    2012-08-21

    A device for monitoring a rechargeable battery having a number of electrically connected cells includes at least one current interruption switch for interrupting current flowing through at least one associated cell and a plurality of monitoring units for detecting cell voltage. Each monitoring unit is associated with a single cell and includes a reference voltage unit for producing a defined reference threshold voltage and a voltage comparison unit for comparing the reference threshold voltage with a partial cell voltage of the associated cell. The reference voltage unit is electrically supplied from the cell voltage of the associated cell. The voltage comparison unit is coupled to the at least one current interruption switch for interrupting the current of at least the current flowing through the associated cell, with a defined minimum difference between the reference threshold voltage and the partial cell voltage.

  6. Large motion high cycle high speed optical fibers for space based applications.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stromberg, Peter G.; Tandon, Rajan; Gibson, Cory S; Reedlunn, Benjamin; Rasberry, Roger David; Rohr, Garth David

    2014-10-01

    Future remote sensing applications will require higher resolution and therefore higher data rates (up to perhaps 100 gigabits per second) while achieving lower mass and cost. A current limitation to the design space is high speed high bandwidth data does not cross movable gimbals because of cabling issues. This requires the detectors to be off gimbal. The ability to get data across the gimbal would open up efficiencies in designs where the detectors and the electronics can be placed anywhere on the system. Fiber optic cables provide light weight high speed high bandwidth connections. Current options are limited to 20,000 cycles as opposed to the 1,000,000 cycles needed for future space based applications. To extend this to the million+ regime, requires a thorough understanding of the failure mechanisms and the materials, proper selection of materials (e.g., glass and jacket material) allowable geometry changes to the cable, radiation hardness, etc.

  7. Insight into the Atomic Structure of High-Voltage Spinel LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 Cathode Material in the First Cycle

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Huang, Xuejie [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China); Yu, Xiqian [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Lin, Mingxiang [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China); Ben, Liubin [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China); Sun, Yang [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China); Wang, Hao [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China); Yang, Zhenzhong [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China); Gu, Lin [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China); Yang, Xiao -Qing [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Zhao, Haofei [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China); Yu, Richeng [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China); Armand, Michel [CIC Energigune, Alava (Spain)

    2015-01-13

    Application of high-voltage spinel LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 cathode material is the closest and the most realistic approach to meeting the midterm goal of lithium-ion batteries for electric vehicles (EVs) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). However, this application has been hampered by long-standing issues, such as capacity degradation and poor first-cycle Coulombic efficiency of LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 cathode material. Although it is well-known that the structure of LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 into which Li ions are reversibly intercalated plays a critical role in the above issues, performance degradation related to structural changes, particularly in the first cycle, are not fully understood. Here, we report detailed investigations of local atomic-level and average structure of LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 during first cycle (3.5–4.9 V) at room temperature. We observed two types of local atomic-level migration of transition metals (TM) ions in the cathode of a well-prepared LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4//Li half-cell during first charge via an aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM). Surface regions (~2 nm) of the cycled LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 particles show migration of TM ions into tetrahedral Li sites to form a Mn3O4-like structure. However, subsurface regions of the cycled particles exhibit migration of TM ions into empty octahedral sites to form a rocksalt-like structure. The migration of these TM ions are closely related to dissolution of Ni/Mn ions and building-up of charge transfer impedance, which contribute significantly to the capacity degradation and the poor first-cycle Coulombic efficiency of spinel LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 cathode material. Accordingly, we provide suggestions of effective stabilization of LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 structure to obtain better electrochemical performance.

  8. Insight into the Atomic Structure of High-Voltage Spinel LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 Cathode Material in the First Cycle

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Huang, Xuejie; Yu, Xiqian; Lin, Mingxiang; Ben, Liubin; Sun, Yang; Wang, Hao; Yang, Zhenzhong; Gu, Lin; Yang, Xiao -Qing; Zhao, Haofei; et al

    2014-12-22

    Application of high-voltage spinel LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 cathode material is the closest and the most realistic approach to meeting the midterm goal of lithium-ion batteries for electric vehicles (EVs) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). However, this application has been hampered by long-standing issues, such as capacity degradation and poor first-cycle Coulombic efficiency of LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 cathode material. Although it is well-known that the structure of LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 into which Li ions are reversibly intercalated plays a critical role in the above issues, performance degradation related to structural changes, particularly in the first cycle, are not fully understood. Here, we report detailed investigations ofmore »local atomic-level and average structure of LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 during first cycle (3.5–4.9 V) at room temperature. We observed two types of local atomic-level migration of transition metals (TM) ions in the cathode of a well-prepared LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4//Li half-cell during first charge via an aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM). Surface regions (~2 nm) of the cycled LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 particles show migration of TM ions into tetrahedral Li sites to form a Mn3O4-like structure. However, subsurface regions of the cycled particles exhibit migration of TM ions into empty octahedral sites to form a rocksalt-like structure. The migration of these TM ions are closely related to dissolution of Ni/Mn ions and building-up of charge transfer impedance, which contribute significantly to the capacity degradation and the poor first-cycle Coulombic efficiency of spinel LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 cathode material. Accordingly, we provide suggestions of effective stabilization of LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 structure to obtain better electrochemical performance.« less

  9. Electro-optical voltage sensor head

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Woods, Gregory K. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1998-01-01

    A miniature electro-optic voltage sensor system capable of accurate operation at high voltages. The system employs a transmitter, a sensor disposed adjacent to but out of direct electrical contact with a conductor on which the voltage is to be measured, a detector, and a signal processor. The transmitter produces a beam of electromagnetic radiation which is routed into the sensor where the beam undergoes the Pockels electro-optic effect. The electro-optic effect causes phase shifting in the beam, which is in turn converted to a pair of independent beams, from which the voltage of a system based on its E-field is determined when the two beams are normalized by the signal processor. The sensor converts the beam by splitting the beam in accordance with the axes of the beam's polarization state (an ellipse whose ellipticity varies between -1 and +1 in proportion to voltage) into at least two AM signals. These AM signals are fed into a signal processor and processed to determine the voltage between a ground conductor and the conductor on which voltage is being measured.

  10. Electro-optical voltage sensor head

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Woods, G.K.

    1998-03-24

    A miniature electro-optic voltage sensor system capable of accurate operation at high voltages is disclosed. The system employs a transmitter, a sensor disposed adjacent to but out of direct electrical contact with a conductor on which the voltage is to be measured, a detector, and a signal processor. The transmitter produces a beam of electromagnetic radiation which is routed into the sensor where the beam undergoes the Pockels electro-optic effect. The electro-optic effect causes phase shifting in the beam, which is in turn converted to a pair of independent beams, from which the voltage of a system based on its E-field is determined when the two beams are normalized by the signal processor. The sensor converts the beam by splitting the beam in accordance with the axes of the beam`s polarization state (an ellipse whose ellipticity varies between -1 and +1 in proportion to voltage) into at least two AM signals. These AM signals are fed into a signal processor and processed to determine the voltage between a ground conductor and the conductor on which voltage is being measured. 6 figs.

  11. Large-dimension, high-ZT Thermoelectric Nanocomposites for High-Power High-efficiency Waste Heat Recovery for Electricity Generation

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Large-dimension, high-ZT BiTe and Pb-based nanocomposites produced with a low-cost scalable process were used for development and testing of TE module prototypes, and demonstration of a waste heat recovery system

  12. Low voltage arc formation in railguns

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hawke, Ronald S. (Livermore, CA)

    1987-01-01

    A low voltage plasma arc is first established across the rails behind the projectile by switching a low voltage high current source across the rails to establish a plasma arc by vaporizing a fuse mounted on the back of the projectile, maintaining the voltage across the rails below the railgun breakdown voltage to prevent arc formation ahead of the projectile. After the plasma arc has been formed behind the projectile a discriminator switches the full energy bank across the rails to accelerate the projectile. A gas gun injector may be utilized to inject a projectile into the breech of a railgun. The invention permits the use of a gas gun or gun powder injector and an evacuated barrel without the risk of spurious arc formation in front of the projectile.

  13. Low voltage arc formation in railguns

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hawke, R.S.

    1985-08-05

    A low voltage plasma arc is first established across the rails behind the projectile by switching a low voltage high current source across the rails to establish a plasma arc by vaporizing a fuse mounted on the back of the projectile, maintaining the voltage across the rails below the railgun breakdown voltage to prevent arc formation ahead of the projectile. After the plasma arc has been formed behind the projectile a discriminator switches the full energy bank across the rails to accelerate the projectile. A gas gun injector may be utilized to inject a projectile into the breech of a railgun. The invention permits the use of a gas gun or gun powder injector and an evacuated barrel without the risk of spurious arc formation in front of the projectile.

  14. Low voltage arc formation in railguns

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hawke, R.S.

    1987-11-17

    A low voltage plasma arc is first established across the rails behind the projectile by switching a low voltage high current source across the rails to establish a plasma arc by vaporizing a fuse mounted on the back of the projectile, maintaining the voltage across the rails below the railgun breakdown voltage to prevent arc formation ahead of the projectile. After the plasma arc has been formed behind the projectile a discriminator switches the full energy bank across the rails to accelerate the projectile. A gas gun injector may be utilized to inject a projectile into the breech of a railgun. The invention permits the use of a gas gun or gun powder injector and an evacuated barrel without the risk of spurious arc formation in front of the projectile. 2 figs.

  15. LARGE-SCALE HYDROGEN PRODUCTION FROM NUCLEAR ENERGY USING HIGH TEMPERATURE ELECTROLYSIS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James E. O'Brien

    2010-08-01

    Hydrogen can be produced from water splitting with relatively high efficiency using high-temperature electrolysis. This technology makes use of solid-oxide cells, running in the electrolysis mode to produce hydrogen from steam, while consuming electricity and high-temperature process heat. When coupled to an advanced high temperature nuclear reactor, the overall thermal-to-hydrogen efficiency for high-temperature electrolysis can be as high as 50%, which is about double the overall efficiency of conventional low-temperature electrolysis. Current large-scale hydrogen production is based almost exclusively on steam reforming of methane, a method that consumes a precious fossil fuel while emitting carbon dioxide to the atmosphere. Demand for hydrogen is increasing rapidly for refining of increasingly low-grade petroleum resources, such as the Athabasca oil sands and for ammonia-based fertilizer production. Large quantities of hydrogen are also required for carbon-efficient conversion of biomass to liquid fuels. With supplemental nuclear hydrogen, almost all of the carbon in the biomass can be converted to liquid fuels in a nearly carbon-neutral fashion. Ultimately, hydrogen may be employed as a direct transportation fuel in a “hydrogen economy.” The large quantity of hydrogen that would be required for this concept should be produced without consuming fossil fuels or emitting greenhouse gases. An overview of the high-temperature electrolysis technology will be presented, including basic theory, modeling, and experimental activities. Modeling activities include both computational fluid dynamics and large-scale systems analysis. We have also demonstrated high-temperature electrolysis in our laboratory at the 15 kW scale, achieving a hydrogen production rate in excess of 5500 L/hr.

  16. Imprinted large-scale high density polymer nanopillars for organic solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gao, Jinming

    Imprinted large-scale high density polymer nanopillars for organic solar cells Mukti Aryal used to make bulk heterojunction solar cells by depositing PCBM on top of the pillars. Imprinting provides a way to precisely control the interdigitized heterojunction morphology, leading to improved solar

  17. High temperature furnaces for small and large angle neutron scattering of disordered materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    725 High temperature furnaces for small and large angle neutron scattering of disordered materials and small angle neutron scattering (SANS) experiments respectively. They are vacuum furnaces with a thin maintained in a tantalum box. In a neutron beam, the furnaces produce a very low scattering level (without

  18. Large-x connections of nuclear and high-energy physics

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Accardi, Alberto [Hampton U., JLAB

    2013-11-01

    I discuss how global QCD fits of parton distribution functions can make the somewhat separated fields of high-energy particle physics and lower energy hadronic and nuclear physics interact to the benefit of both. I review specific examples of this interplay from recent works of the CTEQ-Jefferson Lab collaboration, including hadron structure at large parton momentum and gauge boson production at colliders. I devote particular attention to quantifying theoretical uncertainties arising in the treatment of large partonic momentum contributions to deep inelastic scattering observables, and to discussing the experimental progress needed to reduce these.

  19. Large-x connections of nuclear and high-energy physics

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Accardi, Alberto

    2013-11-20

    I discuss how global QCD fits of parton distribution functions can make the somewhat separated fields of high-energy particle physics and lower energy hadronic and nuclear physics interact to the benefit of both. I review specific examples of this interplay from recent works of the CTEQ-Jefferson Lab collaboration, including hadron structure at large parton momentum and gauge boson production at colliders. Particular attention is devoted to quantifying theoretical uncertainties arising in the treatment of large partonic momentum contributions to deep inelastic scattering observables, and to discussing the experimental progress needed to reduce these.

  20. Recent progress in large grain/single crystal high RRR niobium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ganapati Rao Myneni; Peter Kneisel; Tadeu Carneiro; S.R. Agnew; F. Stevie

    2005-11-07

    High RRR bulk niobium Superconducting Radio Frequency (SRF) cavity technology is chosen for the International Linear Collider (ILC). The SRF community was convinced until now that fine grain polycrystalline RRR niobium sheets obtained via forging and cross rolling are essential for forming the SRF Cavities. However, it was recently discovered under a joint Reference Metals Company, Inc., - JLAB CRADA that large grain/single crystal RRR niobium sliced directly from ingots is highly ductile reaching 100 percent elongation. This discovery led to the successful fabrication of several SRF single and/or multi cell structures, formed with sliced RRR discs from the ingots, operating at 2.3, 1.5 and 1.3 GHz. This new exciting development is expected to offer high performance accelerator structures not only at reduced costs but also with simpler fabrication and processing conditions. As a result there is a renewed interest in the evaluation and understanding of the large grain and single crystal niobium with respect to their mechanical & physical properties as well as the oxidation behavior and the influence of impurities such as hydrogen and Ta. In this paper the results of many collaborative studies on large grain and single crystal high RRR niobium between JLAB, Universities and Industry are presented.

  1. Preventing Delayed Voltage Recovery with Voltage-Regulating Distributed Energy Resources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adhikari, Sarina; Li, Fangxing; Li, Huijuan; Xu, Yan; Kueck, John D; Rizy, D Tom

    2009-01-01

    With the large use of residential air conditioner (A/C) motors during the summer peaks, the potential of motor stalling events have increased in the recent years. The stalled motor loads have been found to be the most important cause of delayed voltage recovery following severe system disturbances, such as a subtransmission fault. The proper modeling of the stalled motors is a very important factor in identifying the effect of these motors in voltage recovery after the fault. This paper presents a methodology for modeling the stalled low inertia induction motors based on a sample utility system and a small primary distribution circuit. The prevention of the stalling of motors plays an important role in maintaining the voltage profile of the system after system disturbances. Distributed Energy Resource (DER) is used to prevent the motor stalling events so that the delayed voltage recovery of the system may be avoided.

  2. High-throughput film-densitometry: An efficient approach to generate large data sets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Typke, Dieter; Nordmeyer, Robert A.; Jones, Arthur; Lee, Juyoung; Avila-Sakar, Agustin; Downing, Kenneth H.; Glaeser, Robert M.

    2004-07-14

    A film-handling machine (robot) has been built which can, in conjunction with a commercially available film densitometer, exchange and digitize over 300 electron micrographs per day. Implementation of robotic film handling effectively eliminates the delay and tedium associated with digitizing images when data are initially recorded on photographic film. The modulation transfer function (MTF) of the commercially available densitometer is significantly worse than that of a high-end, scientific microdensitometer. Nevertheless, its signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) is quite excellent, allowing substantial restoration of the output to ''near-to-perfect'' performance. Due to the large area of the standard electron microscope film that can be digitized by the commercial densitometer (up to 10,000 x 13,680 pixels with an appropriately coded holder), automated film digitization offers a fast and inexpensive alternative to high-end CCD cameras as a means of acquiring large amounts of image data in electron microscopy.

  3. High-Energy Physics Strategies and Future Large-Scale Projects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zimmermann, F

    2014-01-01

    We sketch the actual European and international strategies and possible future facilities. In the near term the High Energy Physics (HEP) community will fully exploit the physics potential of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) through its high-luminosity upgrade (HL-LHC). Post-LHC options include a linear e+e- collider in Japan (ILC) or at CERN (CLIC), as well as circular lepton or hadron colliders in China (CepC/SppC) and Europe (FCC). We conclude with linear and circular acceleration approaches based on crystals, and some perspectives for the far future of accelerator-based particle physics.

  4. Electro-optic voltage sensor for sensing voltage in an E-field

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Woods, G.K.; Renak, T.W.

    1999-04-06

    A miniature electro-optic voltage sensor system capable of accurate operation at high voltages is disclosed. The system employs a transmitter, a sensor disposed adjacent to but out of direct electrical contact with a conductor on which the voltage is to be measured, a detector, and a signal processor. The transmitter produces a beam of electromagnetic radiation which is routed into the sensor where the beam undergoes the Pockels electro-optic effect. The electro-optic effect causes phase shifting in the beam, which is in turn converted to a pair of independent beams, from which the voltage of a system based on its E-field is determined when the two beams are normalized by the signal processor. The sensor converts the beam by splitting the beam in accordance with the axes of the beam`s polarization state (an ellipse whose ellipticity varies between -1 and +1 in proportion to voltage) into at least two AM signals. These AM signals are fed into a signal processor and processed to determine the voltage between a ground conductor and the conductor on which voltage is being measured. 18 figs.

  5. Electro-optic voltage sensor for sensing voltage in an E-field

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Woods, Gregory K. (Idaho Falls, ID); Renak, Todd W. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1999-01-01

    A miniature electro-optic voltage sensor system capable of accurate operation at high voltages. The system employs a transmitter, a sensor disposed adjacent to but out of direct electrical contact with a conductor on which the voltage is to be measured, a detector, and a signal processor. The transmitter produces a beam of electromagnetic radiation which is routed into the sensor where the beam undergoes the Pockels electro-optic effect. The electro-optic effect causes phase shifting in the beam, which is in turn converted to a pair of independent beams, from which the voltage of a system based on its E-field is determined when the two beams are normalized by the signal processor. The sensor converts the beam by splitting the beam in accordance with the axes of the beam's polarization state (an ellipse whose ellipticity varies between -1 and +1 in proportion to voltage) into at least two AM signals. These AM signals are fed into a signal processor and processed to determine the voltage between a ground conductor and the conductor on which voltage is being measured.

  6. Sequential circuit design for radiation hardened multiple voltage integrated circuits

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Clark, Lawrence T. (Phoenix, AZ); McIver, III, John K. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2009-11-24

    The present invention includes a radiation hardened sequential circuit, such as a bistable circuit, flip-flop or other suitable design that presents substantial immunity to ionizing radiation while simultaneously maintaining a low operating voltage. In one embodiment, the circuit includes a plurality of logic elements that operate on relatively low voltage, and a master and slave latches each having storage elements that operate on a relatively high voltage.

  7. Ikarus: Large-Scale Participatory Sensing at High Altitudes Michael von Kaenel, Philipp Sommer, and Roger Wattenhofer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ikarus: Large-Scale Participatory Sensing at High Altitudes Michael von Kaenel, Philipp Sommer, and Roger Wattenhofer Computer Engineering and Networks Laboratory ETH Zurich, Switzerland {vkaenemi,sommer

  8. Voltage measurements at the vacuum post-hole convolute of the Z pulsed-power accelerator

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Waisman, E. M.; McBride, R. D.; Cuneo, M. E.; Wenger, D. F.; Fowler, W. E.; Johnson, W. A.; Basilio, L. I.; Coats, R. S.; Jennings, C. A.; Sinars, D. B.; et al

    2014-12-08

    Presented are voltage measurements taken near the load region on the Z pulsed-power accelerator using an inductive voltage monitor (IVM). Specifically, the IVM was connected to, and thus monitored the voltage at, the bottom level of the accelerator’s vacuum double post-hole convolute. Additional voltage and current measurements were taken at the accelerator’s vacuum-insulator stack (at a radius of 1.6 m) by using standard D-dot and B-dot probes, respectively. During postprocessing, the measurements taken at the stack were translated to the location of the IVM measurements by using a lossless propagation model of the Z accelerator’s magnetically insulated transmission lines (MITLs)more »and a lumped inductor model of the vacuum post-hole convolute. Across a wide variety of experiments conducted on the Z accelerator, the voltage histories obtained from the IVM and the lossless propagation technique agree well in overall shape and magnitude. However, large-amplitude, high-frequency oscillations are more pronounced in the IVM records. It is unclear whether these larger oscillations represent true voltage oscillations at the convolute or if they are due to noise pickup and/or transit-time effects and other resonant modes in the IVM. Results using a transit-time-correction technique and Fourier analysis support the latter. Regardless of which interpretation is correct, both true voltage oscillations and the excitement of resonant modes could be the result of transient electrical breakdowns in the post-hole convolute, though more information is required to determine definitively if such breakdowns occurred. Despite the larger oscillations in the IVM records, the general agreement found between the lossless propagation results and the results of the IVM shows that large voltages are transmitted efficiently through the MITLs on Z. These results are complementary to previous studies [R. D. McBride et al., Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 13, 120401 (2010)] that showed efficient transmission of large currents through the MITLs on Z. Altogether, the two studies demonstrate the overall efficient delivery of very large electrical powers through the MITLs on Z.« less

  9. Voltage measurements at the vacuum post-hole convolute of the ? pulsed-power accelerator

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Waisman, E.? M.; McBride, R. D.; Cuneo, M.? E.; Wenger, D.? F.; Fowler, W.? E.; Johnson, W.? A.; Basilio, L.? I.; Coats, R.? S.; Jennings, C.? A.; Sinars, D.? B.; et al

    2014-11-08

    Presented are voltage measurements taken near the load region on the Z pulsed-power accelerator using an inductive voltage monitor (IVM). Specifically, the IVM was connected to, and thus monitored the voltage at, the bottom level of the accelerator’s vacuum double post-hole convolute. Additional voltage and current measurements were taken at the accelerator’s vacuum-insulator stack (at a radius of 1.6 m) by using standard D-dot and B-dot probes, respectively. During postprocessing, the measurements taken at the stack were translated to the location of the IVM measurements by using a lossless propagation model of the Z accelerator’s magnetically insulated transmission lines (MITLs)more »and a lumped inductor model of the vacuum post-hole convolute. Across a wide variety of experiments conducted on the Z accelerator, the voltage histories obtained from the IVM and the lossless propagation technique agree well in overall shape and magnitude. However, large-amplitude, high-frequency oscillations are more pronounced in the IVM records. It is unclear whether these larger oscillations represent true voltage oscillations at the convolute or if they are due to noise pickup and/or transit-time effects and other resonant modes in the IVM. Results using a transit-time-correction technique and Fourier analysis support the latter. Regardless of which interpretation is correct, both true voltage oscillations and the excitement of resonant modes could be the result of transient electrical breakdowns in the post-hole convolute, though more information is required to determine definitively if such breakdowns occurred. Despite the larger oscillations in the IVM records, the general agreement found between the lossless propagation results and the results of the IVM shows that large voltages are transmitted efficiently through the MITLs on Z. These results are complementary to previous studies [R.D. McBride et al., Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 13, 120401 (2010)] that showed efficient transmission of large currents through the MITLs on Z. Taken together, the two studies demonstrate the overall efficient delivery of very large electrical powers through the MITLs on Z.« less

  10. Voltage measurements at the vacuum post-hole convolute of the Z pulsed-power accelerator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Waisman, E. M.; McBride, R. D.; Cuneo, M. E.; Wenger, D. F.; Fowler, W. E.; Johnson, W. A.; Basilio, L. I.; Coats, R. S.; Jennings, C. A.; Sinars, D. B.; Vesey, R. A.; Jones, B.; Ampleford, D. J.; Lemke, R. W.; Martin, M. R.; Schrafel, P. C.; Lewis, S. A.; Moore, J. K.; Savage, M. E.; Stygar, W. A.

    2014-12-08

    Presented are voltage measurements taken near the load region on the Z pulsed-power accelerator using an inductive voltage monitor (IVM). Specifically, the IVM was connected to, and thus monitored the voltage at, the bottom level of the accelerator’s vacuum double post-hole convolute. Additional voltage and current measurements were taken at the accelerator’s vacuum-insulator stack (at a radius of 1.6 m) by using standard D-dot and B-dot probes, respectively. During postprocessing, the measurements taken at the stack were translated to the location of the IVM measurements by using a lossless propagation model of the Z accelerator’s magnetically insulated transmission lines (MITLs) and a lumped inductor model of the vacuum post-hole convolute. Across a wide variety of experiments conducted on the Z accelerator, the voltage histories obtained from the IVM and the lossless propagation technique agree well in overall shape and magnitude. However, large-amplitude, high-frequency oscillations are more pronounced in the IVM records. It is unclear whether these larger oscillations represent true voltage oscillations at the convolute or if they are due to noise pickup and/or transit-time effects and other resonant modes in the IVM. Results using a transit-time-correction technique and Fourier analysis support the latter. Regardless of which interpretation is correct, both true voltage oscillations and the excitement of resonant modes could be the result of transient electrical breakdowns in the post-hole convolute, though more information is required to determine definitively if such breakdowns occurred. Despite the larger oscillations in the IVM records, the general agreement found between the lossless propagation results and the results of the IVM shows that large voltages are transmitted efficiently through the MITLs on Z. These results are complementary to previous studies [R. D. McBride et al., Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 13, 120401 (2010)] that showed efficient transmission of large currents through the MITLs on Z. Altogether, the two studies demonstrate the overall efficient delivery of very large electrical powers through the MITLs on Z.

  11. Physical and mechanical properties of single and large crystal high-RRR niobium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ganapati Myneni

    2005-07-10

    High RRR bulk niobium SRF cavities are the building blocks of the latest and future particle accelerators, free electron lasers (FEL's) and energy recovery linacs (ERL's.). These cavities are fabricated from high purity (RRR) poly crystalline niobium sheets via deep drawing, e-beam welding and surface treatment to obtain high accelerating gradients and quality factors. However, the starting bulk RRR niobium properties are not yet optimized with respect to both cost reduction and achievement of ultimate performance. A major limitation in achieving the highest performance can possibly be attributed to imperfections at or near the grain boundaries. Recently, at Jefferson Lab single/large grain RRR niobium cavities are developed using customized RRR ingots with optimized amounts of impurities such as Tantalum and minimizing the interstitial contents (O, C, N and H).

  12. Moving Large Data Sets Over High-Performance Long Distance Networks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hodson, Stephen W [ORNL; Poole, Stephen W [ORNL; Ruwart, Thomas [ORNL; Settlemyer, Bradley W [ORNL

    2011-04-01

    In this project we look at the performance characteristics of three tools used to move large data sets over dedicated long distance networking infrastructure. Although performance studies of wide area networks have been a frequent topic of interest, performance analyses have tended to focus on network latency characteristics and peak throughput using network traffic generators. In this study we instead perform an end-to-end long distance networking analysis that includes reading large data sets from a source file system and committing large data sets to a destination file system. An evaluation of end-to-end data movement is also an evaluation of the system configurations employed and the tools used to move the data. For this paper, we have built several storage platforms and connected them with a high performance long distance network configuration. We use these systems to analyze the capabilities of three data movement tools: BBcp, GridFTP, and XDD. Our studies demonstrate that existing data movement tools do not provide efficient performance levels or exercise the storage devices in their highest performance modes. We describe the device information required to achieve high levels of I/O performance and discuss how this data is applicable in use cases beyond data movement performance.

  13. Achieving large linear elasticity and high strength in bulk nanocompsite via synergistic effect

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Hao, Shijie; Cui, Lishan; Guo, Fangmin; Liu, Yinong; Shi, Xiaobin; Jiang, Daqiang; Brown, Dennis E.; Ren, Yang

    2015-03-09

    Elastic strain in bulk metallic materials is usually limited to only a fraction of 1%. Developing bulk metallic materials showing large linear elasticity and high strength has proven to be difficult. Here, based on the synergistic effect between nanowires and orientated martensite NiTi shape memory alloy, we developed an in-situ Nb nanowires -orientated martensitic NiTi matrix composite showing an ultra-large linear elastic strain of 4% and an ultrahigh yield strength of 1.8 GPa. This material also has a high mechanical energy storage efficiency of 96% and a high energy storage density of 36 J/cm³ that is almost one order ofmore »larger than that of spring steel. It is demonstrated that the synergistic effect allows the exceptional mechanical properties of nanowires to be harvested at macro scale and the mechanical properties of matrix to be greatly improved, resulting in these superior properties. This study provides new avenues for developing advanced composites with superior properties by using effective synergistic effect between components.« less

  14. Achieving large linear elasticity and high strength in bulk nanocompsite via synergistic effect

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hao, Shijie; Cui, Lishan; Guo, Fangmin; Liu, Yinong; Shi, Xiaobin; Jiang, Daqiang; Brown, Dennis E.; Ren, Yang

    2015-03-09

    Elastic strain in bulk metallic materials is usually limited to only a fraction of 1%. Developing bulk metallic materials showing large linear elasticity and high strength has proven to be difficult. Here, based on the synergistic effect between nanowires and orientated martensite NiTi shape memory alloy, we developed an in-situ Nb nanowires -orientated martensitic NiTi matrix composite showing an ultra-large linear elastic strain of 4% and an ultrahigh yield strength of 1.8 GPa. This material also has a high mechanical energy storage efficiency of 96% and a high energy storage density of 36 J/cm³ that is almost one order of larger than that of spring steel. It is demonstrated that the synergistic effect allows the exceptional mechanical properties of nanowires to be harvested at macro scale and the mechanical properties of matrix to be greatly improved, resulting in these superior properties. This study provides new avenues for developing advanced composites with superior properties by using effective synergistic effect between components.

  15. Improved Structure and Fabrication of Large, High-Power KHPS Rotors - Final Scientific/Technical Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Corren, Dean; Colby, Jonathan; Adonizio, Mary Ann

    2013-01-29

    Verdant Power, Inc, working in partnership with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), and the University of Minnesota St. Anthony Falls Laboratory (SAFL), among other partners, used evolving Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and Finite Element Analysis (FEA) models and techniques to improve the structure and fabrication of large, high-power composite Kinetic Hydropower System (KHPS) rotor blades. The objectives of the project were to: design; analyze; develop for manufacture and fabricate; and thoroughly test, in the lab and at full scale in the water, the improved KHPS rotor blade.

  16. Generalized Lyapunov exponents in high-dimensional chaotic dynamics and products of large random matrices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crisanti, A.; Paladin, G.; Vulpiani, A.

    1988-11-01

    We study the behavior of the generalized Lyapunov exponents for chaotic symplectic dynamical systems and products of random matrices in the limit of large dimensions D. For products of random matrices without any particular structure the generalized Lyapunov exponents become equal in this limit and the value of one of the generalized Lyapunov exponents is obtained by simple arguments. On the contrary, for random symplectic matrices with peculiar structures and for chaotic symplectic maps the generalized Lyapunov exponents remains different for D ..-->.. infinity, indicating that high dimensionality cannot always destroy intermittency.

  17. Triple voltage dc-to-dc converter and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Su, Gui-Jia (Knoxville, TN)

    2008-08-05

    A circuit and method of providing three dc voltage buses and transforming power between a low voltage dc converter and a high voltage dc converter, by coupling a primary dc power circuit and a secondary dc power circuit through an isolation transformer; providing the gating signals to power semiconductor switches in the primary and secondary circuits to control power flow between the primary and secondary circuits and by controlling a phase shift between the primary voltage and the secondary voltage. The primary dc power circuit and the secondary dc power circuit each further comprising at least two tank capacitances arranged in series as a tank leg, at least two resonant switching devices arranged in series with each other and arranged in parallel with the tank leg, and at least one voltage source arranged in parallel with the tank leg and the resonant switching devices, said resonant switching devices including power semiconductor switches that are operated by gating signals. Additional embodiments having a center-tapped battery on the low voltage side and a plurality of modules on both the low voltage side and the high voltage side are also disclosed for the purpose of reducing ripple current and for reducing the size of the components.

  18. Statistical Estimation of Leakage-Induced Power Grid Voltage Drop Considering Within-Die Process Variations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Najm, Farid N.

    Statistical Estimation of Leakage-Induced Power Grid Voltage Drop Considering Within-Die Process the power grid, the grid develops large voltage drops, which is an unavoidable background level of noise on the grid. We develop techniques for estimation of the statistics of the leakage-induced power grid voltage

  19. Statistical Estimation of LeakageInduced Power Grid Voltage Drop Considering WithinDie Process Variations #

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Najm, Farid N.

    Statistical Estimation of Leakage­Induced Power Grid Voltage Drop Considering Within­Die Process the power grid, the grid develops large voltage drops, which is an unavoidable background level of noise on the grid. We develop techniques for estimation of the statistics of the leakage­induced power grid voltage

  20. Large bearings with incorporated gears, high stiffness and precision for the Swedish Solar Telescope (SST) on La Palma

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rutten, Rob

    1 Large bearings with incorporated gears, high stiffness and precision for the Swedish Solar the meshing teeth of the large gear wheel and the pinion. High preload forces to achieve line contact of the combination of bearing and gear teeth. An additional problem was the relatively thin section of the bearings

  1. Home 2013 10 10 MU researchers can now move large data sets with new high-speed internet

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Calyam, Prasad

    Home » 2013 » 10 » 10 » MU researchers can now move large data sets with new high-speed internet to move large data sets in a shorter amount of time using the high-speed Internet connection Internet2, in an announcement Thursday morning. The university has used Internet2 in the past, but it will now operate at a 100

  2. Design and analysis of a high-performance shipping container for large payloads

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    York, A.R. II; Slavin, A.M.

    1995-05-01

    The packaging, designated the H1636A is a high-performing packageing for large payloads. The H1636A is 50 in. in diameter and 113 in. in length and weighs approximately 4600 lb when empty. The design objective was to meet 1996 proposed IAEA Type C criteria for air transport of large quantities of radioactive material (RAM). That is, the package should survive the standard Type B tests and more severe tests such as an impact onto an unyielding target at 280 ft/s and a one-hour jet fuel fire. The packaging consists of a large double-walled stainless steel outer drum filled with uniform density polyurethane foam. A stainless steel containment vessel (CV) with an inside diameter of 23 in. and a length of 78 in. carries the RAM. The CV has a nominal thickness of 0.375 in. and seals with two elastomeric 0-rings. The lid of the CV is joined to the body with a unique closure called a tape joint. The tape joint utilizes interlocking features preloaded with wedges and can withstand significant deformation.

  3. Switched-capacitor step-down rectifier for low-voltage power conversion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Wei

    This paper presents a switched-capacitor rectifier that provides step down voltage conversion from an ac input voltage to a dc output. Coupled with current-drive source, low-loss and high step-down rectification is realized. ...

  4. DOI: 10.1002/ente.201((will be filled in by the editorial staff)) Ultrathin surface modification by atomic layer deposition on high voltage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Chongwu

    , lithium ion batteries have been widely recognized as highly efficient power source and energy storage of developing high energy and long life lithium ion batteries with highly scalable LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 preparation and broadly applicable ALD process. Introduction Since first commercialized by Sony in the early 1990s

  5. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Enabling High-Energy/Voltage Lithium-Ion Cells for Transportation Applications: Part 3 Electrochemistry

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Argonne National Laboratory at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about enabling high...

  6. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Enabling High-Energy/Voltage Lithium-Ion Cells for Transportation Applications: Part 2 Materials

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Argonne National Laboratory at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about enabling high...

  7. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Enabling High-Energy/Voltage Lithium-Ion Cells for Transportation Applications: Part 1 Baseline Protocols and Analysis

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Argonne National Laboratory at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about enabling high...

  8. Demonstration of High Efficiency Elastocaloric Cooling with Large Delta- T Using NiTi Wires

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cui, Jun; Wu, Yiming; Muehlbauer, Jan; Hwang, Yunho; Radermacher, Reinhard; Fackler, Sean; Wuttig, Manfred; Takeuchi, Ichiro

    2012-08-01

    Vapor compression (VC) is by far the most dominant technology for meeting all cooling and refrigeration needs around the world. It is a mature technology with the efficiency of modern compressors approaching the theoretical limit, but its envi-ronmental footprint remains a global problem. VC refrigerants such as hydrochlo-roflurocarbons (HCFCs) and hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) are a significant source of green house gas (GHG) emissions, and their global warming potential (GWP) is as high as 1000 times that of CO2. It is expected that building space cooling and re-frigeration alone will amount to {approx} 5% of primary energy consumption and {approx}5% of all CO2 emission in U.S. in 2030 . As such, there is an urgent need to develop an al-ternative high-efficiency cooling technology that is affordable and environmentally friendly. Among the proposed candidates, magnetocaloric cooling (MC) is currently received a lot of attention because of its high efficiency. However, MC is inherently expensive because of the requirement of large magnetic field and rare earth materi-als. Here, we demonstrate an entirely new type of solid-state cooling mechanism based on the latent heat of reversible martensitic transformation. We call it elasto-caloric cooling (EC) after the superelastic transformation of austenite it utilizes. The solid-state refrigerant of EC is cost-effective, and it completely eliminates the use of any refrigerants including HCFCs/HFCs. We show that the COP (coefficient of per-formance) of a jugular EC with optimized materials can be as high as > 10 with measured {Delta}T of 17 C.

  9. 96 IEEE POWER ELECTRONICS LETTERS, VOL. 2, NO. 3, SEPTEMBER 2004 Low-Input-Voltage, Low-Power Boost

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chapman, Patrick

    to connect varying voltage to the fixed voltage load with high efficiency. Individual fuel cells naturally are investigated when a low input voltage is used. Low- input-voltage sources include single fuel cells, single solar cells, and thermoelectric devices. The primary context is interfacing single micro fuel cells

  10. Utility-Scale Solar Power Converter: Agile Direct Grid Connect Medium Voltage 4.7-13.8 kV Power Converter for PV Applications Utilizing Wide Band Gap Devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-01-25

    Solar ADEPT Project: Satcon is developing a compact, lightweight power conversion device that is capable of taking utility-scale solar power and outputting it directly into the electric utility grid at distribution voltage levels—eliminating the need for large transformers. Transformers “step up” the voltage of the power that is generated by a solar power system so it can be efficiently transported through transmission lines and eventually “stepped down” to usable voltages before it enters homes and businesses. Power companies step up the voltage because less electricity is lost along transmission lines when the voltage is high and current is low. Satcon’s new power conversion devices will eliminate these heavy transformers and connect a utility-scale solar power system directly to the grid. Satcon’s modular devices are designed to ensure reliability—if one device fails it can be bypassed and the system can continue to run.

  11. Production of Medical Radioisotopes with High Specific Activity in Photonuclear Reactions with $?$ Beams of High Intensity and Large Brilliance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. Habs; U. Köster

    2010-09-08

    We study the production of radioisotopes for nuclear medicine in $(\\gamma,x{\\rm n}+y{\\rm p})$ photonuclear reactions or ($\\gamma,\\gamma'$) photoexcitation reactions with high flux [($10^{13}-10^{15}$)$\\gamma$/s], small diameter $\\sim (100 \\, \\mu$m$)^2$ and small band width ($\\Delta E/E \\approx 10^{-3}-10^{-4}$) $\\gamma$ beams produced by Compton back-scattering of laser light from relativistic brilliant electron beams. We compare them to (ion,$x$n$ + y$p) reactions with (ion=p,d,$\\alpha$) from particle accelerators like cyclotrons and (n,$\\gamma$) or (n,f) reactions from nuclear reactors. For photonuclear reactions with a narrow $\\gamma$ beam the energy deposition in the target can be managed by using a stack of thin target foils or wires, hence avoiding direct stopping of the Compton and pair electrons (positrons). $(\\gamma,\\gamma')$ isomer production via specially selected $\\gamma$ cascades allows to produce high specific activity in multiple excitations, where no back-pumping of the isomer to the ground state occurs. We discuss in detail many specific radioisotopes for diagnostics and therapy applications. Photonuclear reactions with $\\gamma$ beams allow to produce certain radioisotopes, e.g. $^{47}$Sc, $^{44}$Ti, $^{67}$Cu, $^{103}$Pd, $^{117m}$Sn, $^{169}$Er, $^{195m}$Pt or $^{225}$Ac, with higher specific activity and/or more economically than with classical methods. This will open the way for completely new clinical applications of radioisotopes. For example $^{195m}$Pt could be used to verify the patient's response to chemotherapy with platinum compounds before a complete treatment is performed. Also innovative isotopes like $^{47}$Sc, $^{67}$Cu and $^{225}$Ac could be produced for the first time in sufficient quantities for large-scale application in targeted radionuclide therapy.

  12. Researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) develop a high-fidelity large-eddy simulation model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) develop a high-fidelity large-eddy simulation model designed to predict the performance of large wind plants with a higher degree of accuracy than current models. As the market for wind energy grows, wind turbines and wind plants are becoming

  13. Designing Large High-Resolution Display Workspaces Alex Endert, Lauren Bradel, Jessica Zeitz, Christopher Andrews, Chris North

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    powerwalls capable of presenting large amounts of information at a high level of detail (Figure 2). Their form factors vary from tabletop displays, to immersive caves, to powerwalls. The computers driving

  14. High degree graphs contain large-star factors Dedicated to Laszlo Lovasz, for his 60th birthday

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wormald, Nick

    High degree graphs contain large-star factors Dedicated to L´aszl´o Lov´asz, for his 60th birthday/3). This settles a problem of Havet, Klazar, Kratochvil, Kratsch and Liedloff. Dedication This paper is dedicated

  15. Microstructural characterization of in situ MXCT images of high density foams under large strains

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Patterson, Brian M; Gleiman, Seth; Marks, Trevor G; Milstein, Fredrick

    2009-01-01

    Foams are used in numerous applications, such as vibration damping and energy mitigation (e.g., packaging and helmets), wherein their mechanical properties are of critical importance. A typical compressive response of a high density elastomeric foam, shown in Fig 1, generally contains three regions of interest: (I) a linear-elastic region, governed by strut bending; (II) a relatively flat, or slowly increasing stress-strain response, accompanied by strut buckling and the localized collapse of pores; and (III) an exponentially increasing stress-strain curve wherein the collapse of the pore matrix leads to densification. Two material properties of interest, upon which considerable research has focused are the foam's Young's modulus, E{sub f}, defined as the slope of the stress-strain response in region I, and the collapse stress, {sigma}{sub f}, defined as the stress at which the response begins to deviate from linearity. It has been observed [1, 2, 3] that Young's modulus and the collapse stress are dependent on the material properties of the strut material and the non-dimensional relative-density of the foam, {rho}* = {rho}{sub f}/{rho}{sub m}, where {rho}{sub r} is the gross density of the foam and {rho}{sub m} is the density of the strut, or matrix, material. For foam of low relative-density, i.e, {rho}* < 0.1, the collapse stress and Young's modulus obey the relations {sigma}{sub c}/E{sub m} {proportional_to} ({rho}*){sup m} and E{sub f}/E{sub m} {proportional_to} ({rho}*){sup n} where E{sub m} is Young's modulus of the strut material and the bounds on the parameters m and n are 0.05 {le} m {le} 0.2 and 1 {le} n {le} 4 [4]. For open-celled foams, n = 2, whereas for closed-celled foams, n = 3. Theoretically, n = 1 for foams with an ''ideal strut'' configuration [6]. Foams of high relative-density ({rho}* > 0.1) require correcting terms to account for the axial contributions of the ''thick'' struts [5]. The above equations relate important foam properties to the relative-density of the foam; however, there exists a gap in the understanding of how the foam microstructure affects the mechanical response of the foam. This is due in large part to the difficulty of characterizing foam structures in 3D, especially foams of high relative-density. Most elastomeric foams are manufactured by the introduction of a gas into a cross-linking polymer. The developing foam microstructure has a complex dependence on the polymer viscosity and rate of polymerization, resulting in a randomly arranged pore structure with a large distribution of pore sizes. One approach is to characterize foam microstructures solely in terms of the cross-sectional shape and vector arrangement of the strut matrix, since it is this matrix that supports the stresses upon loading of the foam; yet as the density of a foam is increased, the very definition of what constitutes a strut brakes down. Another, perhaps easier to visualize, characterization of foam microstructure can come from a description of the pore shape and arrangement. Given the random nature of the microstructures of blown foam, both approaches are useful and valid. This paper describes our work aimed at linking the mechanical response and microstructural evolution of high relative-density foam as it undergoes large deformation. This work consists of several inter-related parts, including (i) measuring the compressive stress-strain response, as illustrated in Fig. 1, (ii) obtaining in situ micro X-ray computed tomography (MXCT) images of high relative-density foams undergoing large strains, and (iii) developing mathematical, computer aided, methodologies to perform image analysis and calculations of parameters that characterize the pores and struts. By using MXCT, a non-invasive technique for imaging the internal structure of materials, we are able to observe, internally, individual struts and pores as they undergo large deformation. Here we describe our computer aided image analysis methodologies and present examples of their application to the MXCT images of foams. Operations of the compute

  16. Performance Characteristics Of The Reduced Common Mode Voltage Near State PWM Method

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hava, Ahmet

    induction and permanent magnet machines are driven through three-phase Voltage Source Inverters (VSI) which to generate the required output voltages. Conventional Continuous PWM (CPWM) methods such as Space Vector PWM with rather smaller IGBT gate resistances), and high DC bus voltage levels, the CMVs generated result

  17. Tailoring the surface properties of LiNi0.4Mn0.4Co0.2O? by titanium substitution for improved high voltage cycling performance

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wolff-Goodrich, Silas; Xin, Huolin L.; Lin, Feng; Markus, Isaac M.; Nordlund, Dennis; Asta, Mark; Doeff, Marca M.

    2015-07-30

    The present research aims to provide insights into the behavior of LiNi0.4Mn0.4Co0.2O2 (NMC442) and LiNi0.4Mn0.4Co0.2O? (NMC442-Ti02) cathode materials under galvanostatic cycling to high potentials, in the context of previous work which predicted that Ti-substituted variants should deliver higher capacities and exhibit better cycling stability than the unsubstituted compounds. It is found that NMC cathodes containing Ti show equivalent capacity fading but greater specific capacity than those without Ti in the same potential range. When repeatedly charged to the same degree of delithiation, NMC cathodes containing Ti showed better capacity retention. Soft x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) spectra for Mn and Comore »indicated increased reduction in these elements for NMC cathodes without Ti, indicating that the substitution of Ti for Co acts to suppress the formation of a high impedance rock salt phase at the surface of NMC cathode particles. The results of this study validate the adoption of a facile change to existing NMC chemistries to improve cathode capacity retention under high voltage cycling conditions.« less

  18. Highly-basic large-pore zeolite catalysts for NOx reduction at low temperatures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Penetrante, Bernardino M.; Brusasco, Raymond M.; Merritt, Bernard T.; Vogtlin, George E.

    2004-02-03

    A high-surface-area (greater than 600 m2/g), large-pore (pore size diameter greater than 6.5 angstroms), basic zeolite having a structure such as an alkali metal cation-exchanged Y-zeolite is employed to convert NO.sub.x contained in an oxygen-rich engine exhaust to N.sub.2 and O.sub.2. Preferably, the invention relates to a two-stage method and apparatus for NO.sub.x reduction in an oxygen-rich engine exhaust such as diesel engine exhaust that includes a plasma oxidative stage and a selective reduction stage. The first stage employs a non-thermal plasma treatment of NO.sub.x gases in an oxygen-rich exhaust and is intended to convert NO to NO.sub.2 in the presence of O.sub.2 and added hydrocarbons. The second stage employs a lean-NO.sub.x catalyst including the basic zeolite at relatively low temperatures to convert such NO.sub.2 to environmentally benign gases that include N.sub.2, CO.sub.2, and H.sub.2 O.

  19. A BIOMECHANICAL PERSPECTIVE ON THE ROLE OF LARGE STEM VOLUME AND HIGH WATER CONTENT IN BAOBAB TREES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Holbrook, N. Michele

    A BIOMECHANICAL PERSPECTIVE ON THE ROLE OF LARGE STEM VOLUME AND HIGH WATER CONTENT IN BAOBAB TREES storage capacity in the six Madagascar baobab species. Baobab wood has a high water content (up to 79 to that in temperate deciduous trees. Furthermore, the elastic modulus of the wood decreases with water content

  20. Ultra-High Performance Concrete with Tailored Properties Cementitious materials comprise a large portion of domestic structures and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nair, Sankar

    Ultra-High Performance Concrete with Tailored Properties Cementitious materials comprise a large portion of domestic structures and infrastructure. The development of ultra-high performance concrete control the performance of these materials. A nano- micro-meso scale cohesive finite element method (CFEM

  1. Voltage Regulation PHYS 309 Name

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Herman, Rhett

    an regulated output of 5. It will also put out up to 1.5 yielding a power of 7.5. Obviously there are some LED circuits is to be used as a switch. Use 6 identical LEDs in this circuit. Use a multimeter to check that the LEDs all activate at the same voltage. Record the value of the LED voltage and your Zener

  2. Langmuir probe measurements in a time-fluctuating-highly ionized non-equilibrium cutting arc: Analysis of the electron retarding part of the time-averaged current-voltage characteristic of the probe

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prevosto, L.; Mancinelli, B.; Kelly, H.; Instituto de Física del Plasma , Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales Ciudad Universitaria Pab. I, 1428 Buenos Aires

    2013-12-15

    This work describes the application of Langmuir probe diagnostics to the measurement of the electron temperature in a time-fluctuating-highly ionized, non-equilibrium cutting arc. The electron retarding part of the time-averaged current-voltage characteristic of the probe was analysed, assuming that the standard exponential expression describing the electron current to the probe in collision-free plasmas can be applied under the investigated conditions. A procedure is described which allows the determination of the errors introduced in time-averaged probe data due to small-amplitude plasma fluctuations. It was found that the experimental points can be gathered into two well defined groups allowing defining two quite different averaged electron temperature values. In the low-current region the averaged characteristic was not significantly disturbed by the fluctuations and can reliably be used to obtain the actual value of the averaged electron temperature. In particular, an averaged electron temperature of 0.98 ± 0.07 eV (= 11400 ± 800 K) was found for the central core of the arc (30 A) at 3.5 mm downstream from the nozzle exit. This average included not only a time-average over the time fluctuations but also a spatial-average along the probe collecting length. The fitting of the high-current region of the characteristic using such electron temperature value together with the corrections given by the fluctuation analysis showed a relevant departure of local thermal equilibrium in the arc core.

  3. Solar energy is abundant and is a largely untapped resource in today's world due to the high cost of materials and high processing costs. While

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Solar energy is abundant and is a largely untapped resource in today's world due to the high cost of materials and high processing costs. While mesoporous perovskite solar cells (PSCs), have rapidly emerged Optimization of Planar Solar Cells Christopher McDonald1, Eric Talbert2, Rizia Bardhan2 1Department of Physics

  4. A Surprising Clarification of the Mechanism of Ion-channel Voltage-Gating

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ashok Palaniappan

    2011-04-20

    An intense controversy has surrounded the mechanism of voltage-gating in ion channels. We interpreted the two leading models of voltage-gating with respect to the thermodynamic energetics of membrane insertion of the voltage-sensing 'module' from a comprehensive set of potassium channels. KvAP is an archaeal voltage-gated potassium channel whose x-ray structure was the basis for determining the general mechanism of voltage-gating. The free energy of membrane insertion of the KvAP voltage sensor was revealed to be a single outlier. This was due to its unusual sequence that facilitated large gating movements in its native lipid membrane. This degree of free energy was the least typical of the other voltage sensors, including the Shaker potassium channel. We inferred that the two leading models of voltage-gating referred to alternative mechanisms of voltage-gating: each is applicable to an independent set of ion channels. The large motion of the voltage-sensor during gating proposed by the KvAP-paddle model of gating is unlikely to be mirrored by the majority of ion channels whose voltage sensors are not located at the membrane-cytoplasm interface in the channel closed state.

  5. Novel Large Area High Resolution Neutron Detector for the Spallation Neutron Source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lacy, Jeffrey L

    2009-05-22

    Neutron scattering is a powerful technique that is critically important for materials science and structural biology applications. The knowledge gained from past developments has resulted in far-reaching advances in engineering, pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries, to name a few. New facilities for neutron generation at much higher flux, such as the SNS at Oak Ridge, TN, will greatly enhance the capabilities of neutron scattering, with benefits that extend to many fields and include, for example, development of improved drug therapies and materials that are stronger, longer-lasting, and more impact-resistant. In order to fully realize this enhanced potential, however, higher neutron rates must be met with improved detection capabilities, particularly higher count rate capability in large size detectors, while maintaining practicality. We have developed a neutron detector with the technical and economic advantages to accomplish this goal. This new detector has a large sensitive area, offers 3D spatial resolution, high sensitivity and high count rate capability, and it is economical and practical to produce. The proposed detector technology is based on B-10 thin film conversion of neutrons in long straw-like gas detectors. A stack of many such detectors, each 1 meter in length, and 4 mm in diameter, has a stopping power that exceeds that of He-3 gas, contained at practical pressures within an area detector. With simple electronic readout methods, straw detector arrays can provide spatial resolution of 4 mm FWHM or better, and since an array detector of such form consists of several thousand individual elements per square meter, count rates in a 1 m^2 detector can reach 2?10^7 cps. Moreover, each individual event can be timetagged with a time resolution of less than 0.1 ?sec, allowing accurate identification of neutron energy by time of flight. Considering basic elemental cost, this novel neutron imaging detector can be commercially produced economically, probably at a small fraction of the cost of He-3 detectors. In addition to neutron scattering science, the fully developed base technology can be used as a rugged, low-cost neutron detector in area monitoring and surveying. Radiation monitors are used in a number of other settings for occupational and environmental radiation safety. Such a detector can also be used in environmental monitoring and remote nuclear power plant monitoring. For example, the Department of Energy could use it to characterize nuclear waste dumps, coordinate clean-up efforts, and assess the radioactive contaminants in the air and water. Radiation monitors can be used to monitor the age and component breakdown of nuclear warheads and to distinguish between weapons and reactor grade plutonium. The UN's International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) uses radiation monitors for treaty verification, remote monitoring, and enforcing the non-proliferation of nuclear weapons. As part of treaty verification, monitors can be used to certify the contents of containers during inspections. They could be used for portal monitoring to secure border checkpoints, sea ports, air cargo centers, public parks, sporting venues, and key government buildings. Currently, only 2% of all sea cargo shipped is inspected for radiation sources. In addition, merely the presence of radiation is detected and nothing is known about the radioactive source until further testing. The utilization of radiation monitors with neutron sensitivity and capability of operation in hostile port environments would increase the capacity and effectiveness of the radioactive scanning processes.

  6. High performance graphics processor based computed tomography reconstruction algorithms for nuclear and other large scale applications.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jimenez, Edward Steven,

    2013-09-01

    The goal of this work is to develop a fast computed tomography (CT) reconstruction algorithm based on graphics processing units (GPU) that achieves significant improvement over traditional central processing unit (CPU) based implementations. The main challenge in developing a CT algorithm that is capable of handling very large datasets is parallelizing the algorithm in such a way that data transfer does not hinder performance of the reconstruction algorithm. General Purpose Graphics Processing (GPGPU) is a new technology that the Science and Technology (S&T) community is starting to adopt in many fields where CPU-based computing is the norm. GPGPU programming requires a new approach to algorithm development that utilizes massively multi-threaded environments. Multi-threaded algorithms in general are difficult to optimize since performance bottlenecks occur that are non-existent in single-threaded algorithms such as memory latencies. If an efficient GPU-based CT reconstruction algorithm can be developed; computational times could be improved by a factor of 20. Additionally, cost benefits will be realized as commodity graphics hardware could potentially replace expensive supercomputers and high-end workstations. This project will take advantage of the CUDA programming environment and attempt to parallelize the task in such a way that multiple slices of the reconstruction volume are computed simultaneously. This work will also take advantage of the GPU memory by utilizing asynchronous memory transfers, GPU texture memory, and (when possible) pinned host memory so that the memory transfer bottleneck inherent to GPGPU is amortized. Additionally, this work will take advantage of GPU-specific hardware (i.e. fast texture memory, pixel-pipelines, hardware interpolators, and varying memory hierarchy) that will allow for additional performance improvements.

  7. Large Scale Production Computing and Storage Requirements for High Energy Physics: Target 2017

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gerber, Richard

    2014-01-01

    in the use of High Performance Computing (HPC) and in factNERSC is the primary high-performance computing facility forthree major High Performance Computing Centers: NERSC and

  8. Multilevel cascade voltage source inverter with separate DC sources

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Peng, F.Z.; Lai, J.S.

    1997-06-24

    A multilevel cascade voltage source inverter having separate DC sources is described herein. This inverter is applicable to high voltage, high power applications such as flexible AC transmission systems (FACTS) including static VAR generation (SVG), power line conditioning, series compensation, phase shifting and voltage balancing and fuel cell and photovoltaic utility interface systems. The M-level inverter consists of at least one phase wherein each phase has a plurality of full bridge inverters equipped with an independent DC source. This inverter develops a near sinusoidal approximation voltage waveform with only one switching per cycle as the number of levels, M, is increased. The inverter may have either single-phase or multi-phase embodiments connected in either wye or delta configurations. 15 figs.

  9. Multilevel cascade voltage source inverter with seperate DC sources

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Peng, Fang Zheng (Oak Ridge, TN); Lai, Jih-Sheng (Knoxville, TN)

    1997-01-01

    A multilevel cascade voltage source inverter having separate DC sources is described herein. This inverter is applicable to high voltage, high power applications such as flexible AC transmission systems (FACTS) including static VAR generation (SVG), power line conditioning, series compensation, phase shifting and voltage balancing and fuel cell and photovoltaic utility interface systems. The M-level inverter consists of at least one phase wherein each phase has a plurality of full bridge inverters equipped with an independent DC source. This inverter develops a near sinusoidal approximation voltage waveform with only one switching per cycle as the number of levels, M, is increased. The inverter may have either single-phase or multi-phase embodiments connected in either wye or delta configurations.

  10. Multilevel cascade voltage source inverter with seperate DC sources

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Peng, Fang Zheng; Lai, Jih-Sheng

    2001-04-03

    A multilevel cascade voltage source inverter having separate DC sources is described herein. This inverter is applicable to high voltage, high power applications such as flexible AC transmission systems (FACTS) including static VAR generation (SVG), power line conditioning, series compensation, phase shifting and voltage balancing and fuel cell and photovoltaic utility interface systems. The M-level inverter consists of at least one phase wherein each phase has a plurality of full bridge inverters equipped with an independent DC source. This inverter develops a near sinusoidal approximation voltage waveform with only one switching per cycle as the number of levels, M, is increased. The inverter may have either single-phase or multi-phase embodiments connected in either wye or delta configurations.

  11. Multilevel cascade voltage source inverter with seperate DC sources

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Peng, Fang Zheng (Knoxville, TN); Lai, Jih-Sheng (Blacksburg, VA)

    2002-01-01

    A multilevel cascade voltage source inverter having separate DC sources is described herein. This inverter is applicable to high voltage, high power applications such as flexible AC transmission systems (FACTS) including static VAR generation (SVG), power line conditioning, series compensation, phase shifting and voltage balancing and fuel cell and photovoltaic utility interface systems. The M-level inverter consists of at least one phase wherein each phase has a plurality of full bridge inverters equipped with an independent DC source. This inverter develops a near sinusoidal approximation voltage waveform with only one switching per cycle as the number of levels, M, is increased. The inverter may have either single-phase or multi-phase embodiments connected in either wye or delta configurations.

  12. Micro helical polymeric structures produced by variable voltage direct electrospinning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. P. Shariatpanahi; A. Iraji zad; I. Abdollahzadeh; R. Shirsavar; D. Bonn; R. Ejtehadi

    2011-09-12

    Direct near field electrospinning is used to produce very long helical polystyrene microfibers in water. The pitch length of helices can be controlled by changing the applied voltage, allowing to produce both micro springs and microchannels. Using a novel high frequency variable voltage electrospinning method we found the helix formation speed and compared the experimental buckling frequency to theoretical expressions for viscous and elastic buckling. Finally we showed that the newmethod can be used to produce new periodic micro and nano structures.

  13. Electro-optic voltage sensor with beam splitting

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Woods, Gregory K. (Cornelius, OR); Renak, Todd W. (Idaho Falls, ID); Davidson, James R. (Idaho Falls, ID); Crawford, Thomas M. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2002-01-01

    The invention is a miniature electro-optic voltage sensor system capable of accurate operation at high voltages without use of the dedicated voltage dividing hardware typically found in the prior art. The invention achieves voltage measurement without significant error contributions from neighboring conductors or environmental perturbations. The invention employs a transmitter, a sensor, a detector, and a signal processor. The transmitter produces a beam of electromagnetic radiation which is routed into the sensor. Within the sensor the beam undergoes the Pockels electro-optic effect. The electro-optic effect produces a modulation of the beam's polarization, which is in turn converted to a pair of independent conversely-amplitude-modulated signals, from which the voltage of the E-field is determined by the signal processor. The use of converse AM signals enables the signal processor to better distinguish signal from noise. The sensor converts the beam by splitting the beam in accordance with the axes of the beam's polarization state (an ellipse) into at least two AM signals. These AM signals are fed into a signal processor and processed to determine the voltage between a ground conductor and the conductor on which voltage is being measured.

  14. Electro-optic voltage sensor with Multiple Beam Splitting

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Woods, Gregory K. (Cornelius, OR); Renak, Todd W. (Idaho Falls, ID); Crawford, Thomas M. (Idaho Falls, ID); Davidson, James R. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2000-01-01

    A miniature electro-optic voltage sensor system capable of accurate operation at high voltages without use of the dedicated voltage dividing hardware. The invention achieves voltage measurement without significant error contributions from neighboring conductors or environmental perturbations. The invention employs a transmitter, a sensor, a detector, and a signal processor. The transmitter produces a beam of electromagnetic radiation which is routed into the sensor. Within the sensor the beam undergoes the Pockels electro-optic effect. The electro-optic effect produces a modulation of the beam's polarization, which is in turn converted to a pair of independent conversely-amplitude-modulated signals, from which the voltage of the E-field is determined by the signal processor. The use of converse AM signals enables the signal processor to better distinguish signal from noise. The sensor converts the beam by splitting the beam in accordance with the axes of the beam's polarization state (an ellipse) into at least two AM signals. These AM signals are fed into a signal processor and processed to determine the voltage between a ground conductor and the conductor on which voltage is being measured.

  15. Study of the Variation of Transverse Voltage in the 4 Rod Crab Cavity for LHC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    B. Hall, G. Burt, C. Lingwood, R. Rimmer, H. Wang

    2011-04-01

    The planned high luminosity upgrade to LHC will utilise crab cavities to rotate the beam in order to increase the luminosity in the presence of a finite crossing angle. A compact design is required in order for the cavities to fit between opposing beam-lines. In this paper we discuss we discuss one option for the LHC crab cavity based on a 4 rod TEM deflecting cavity. Due to the large transverse size of the LHC beam the cavity is required to have a large aperture while maintaining a constant transverse voltage across the aperture. The cavity has been optimised to minimise the variation of the transverse voltage while keeping the peak surface electric and magnetic fields low for a given kick. This is achieved while fitting within the strict design space of the LHC. The variation of deflecting voltage across the aperture has been studied numerically and compared with numerical and analytical estimates of other deflecting cavity types. Performance measurements an aluminium prototype of this cavity are presented and compared to the simulated design.

  16. PREDICTING VOLTAGE DROOPS USING RECURRING PROGRAM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brooks, David

    ($200 mV for a nominal volt- age of 1.1 V).1 Such conservative operating voltage margins guarantee VOLTAGE DROOPS USING RECURRING PROGRAM AND MICROARCHITECTURAL EVENT ACTIVITY .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................... SHRINKING FEATURE SIZE AND DIMINISHING SUPPLY VOLTAGE ARE MAKING CIRCUITS MORE SENSITIVE TO SUPPLY VOLTAGE

  17. Voltage, energy and power in electric circuits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haase, Markus

    Voltage, energy and power in electric circuits Science teaching unit #12;Disclaimer The Department-2008DVD-EN Voltage, energy and power in electric circuits #12;#12;© Crown copyright 2008 1The National Strategies | Secondary Voltage, energy and power in electric circuits 00094-2008DVD-EN Contents Voltage

  18. Depth-resolved ultra-violet spectroscopic photo current-voltage measurements for the analysis of AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistor epilayer deposited on Si

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ozden, Burcu; Yang, Chungman; Tong, Fei; Khanal, Min P.; Mirkhani, Vahid; Sk, Mobbassar Hassan; Ahyi, Ayayi Claude; Park, Minseo

    2014-10-27

    We have demonstrated that the depth-dependent defect distribution of the deep level traps in the AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) epi-structures can be analyzed by using the depth-resolved ultra-violet (UV) spectroscopic photo current-voltage (IV) (DR-UV-SPIV). It is of great importance to analyze deep level defects in the AlGaN/GaN HEMT structure, since it is recognized that deep level defects are the main source for causing current collapse phenomena leading to reduced device reliability. The AlGaN/GaN HEMT epi-layers were grown on a 6 in. Si wafer by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition. The DR-UV-SPIV measurement was performed using a monochromatized UV light illumination from a Xe lamp. The key strength of the DR-UV-SPIV is its ability to provide information on the depth-dependent electrically active defect distribution along the epi-layer growth direction. The DR-UV-SPIV data showed variations in the depth-dependent defect distribution across the wafer. As a result, rapid feedback on the depth-dependent electrical homogeneity of the electrically active defect distribution in the AlGaN/GaN HEMT epi-structure grown on a Si wafer with minimal sample preparation can be elucidated from the DR-UV-SPIV in combination with our previously demonstrated spectroscopic photo-IV measurement with the sub-bandgap excitation.

  19. Electro-optic voltage sensor head

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Crawford, T.M.; Davidson, J.R.; Woods, G.K.

    1999-08-17

    The invention is an electro-optic voltage sensor head designed for integration with existing types of high voltage transmission and distribution apparatus. The sensor head contains a transducer, which comprises a transducing material in which the Pockels electro-optic effect is observed. In the practice of the invention at least one beam of electromagnetic radiation is routed into the transducing material of the transducer in the sensor head. The beam undergoes an electro-optic effect in the sensor head when the transducing material is subjected to an E-field. The electro-optic effect is observed as a differential phase a shift, also called differential phase modulation, of the beam components in orthogonal planes of the electromagnetic radiation. In the preferred embodiment the beam is routed through the transducer along an initial axis and then reflected by a retro-reflector back substantially parallel to the initial axis, making a double pass through the transducer for increased measurement sensitivity. The preferred embodiment of the sensor head also includes a polarization state rotator and at least one beam splitter for orienting the beam along major and minor axes and for splitting the beam components into two signals which are independent converse amplitude-modulated signals carrying E-field magnitude and hence voltage information from the sensor head by way of optic fibers. 6 figs.

  20. Enhanced open voltage of BiFeO{sub 3} polycrystalline film by surface modification of organolead halide perovskite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhao, Pengjun; Bian, Liang; Xu, Jinbao Chang, Aimin; Wang, Lei

    2014-07-07

    Inorganic-organolead halide perovskite CH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}PbI{sub 3} modified BiFeO{sub 3} polycrystalline film has been established. The composite photoelectrode presents much larger open voltage and several magnitudes superior photoelectric conversion performance in comparison to the ordinary BiFeO{sub 3} polycrystalline film. The I-V curve shows that the short-circuit current (J{sub sc}) is 1.74?mA·cm{sup ?2} and open-circuit voltage (V{sub oc}) is 1.62?V, the device's photon to current efficiency is over 1%. The large open voltage and high photovoltaic efficiency is believed to attributed to the spontaneous polarization of composite perovskite induced by BiFeO{sub 3} lattice and modified reduced work function of the modified BiFeO{sub 3} surface. Our results clearly show that the present BiFeO{sub 3}-CH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}PbI{sub 3} planar device is capable to generate a large voltage in macro scale under visible light, leading an approach to further applications on photodetectors and optoelectronic switch.

  1. Lockout device for high voltage circuit breaker

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kozlowski, L.J.; Shirey, L.A.

    1993-01-26

    An improved lockout assembly is provided for a circuit breaker to lock the switch handle into a selected switch position. The lockout assembly includes two main elements, each having a respective foot for engaging a portion of the upper housing wall of the circuit breaker. The first foot is inserted into a groove in the upper housing wall, and the second foot is inserted into an adjacent aperture (e.g., a slot) in the upper housing wall. The first foot is slid under and into engagement with a first portion, and the second foot is slid under and into engagement with a second portion of the upper housing wall. At the same time the respective two feet are placed in engagement with the respective portions of the upper housing wall, two holes, one on each of the respective two main elements of the assembly, are placed in registration; and a locking device, such as a special scissors equipped with a padlock, is installed through the registered holes to secure the lockout assembly on the circuit breaker. When the lockout assembly of the invention is secured on the circuit breaker, the switch handle of the circuit breaker is locked into the selected switch position and prevented from being switched to another switch position.

  2. High voltage photo switch package module

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sullivan, James S; Sanders, David M; Hawkins, Steven A; Sampayan, Stephen E

    2014-02-18

    A photo-conductive switch package module having a photo-conductive substrate or wafer with opposing electrode-interface surfaces, and at least one light-input surface. First metallic layers are formed on the electrode-interface surfaces, and one or more optical waveguides having input and output ends are bonded to the substrate so that the output end of each waveguide is bonded to a corresponding one of the light-input surfaces of the photo-conductive substrate. This forms a waveguide-substrate interface for coupling light into the photo-conductive wafer. A dielectric material such as epoxy is then used to encapsulate the photo-conductive substrate and optical waveguide so that only the metallic layers and the input end of the optical waveguide are exposed. Second metallic layers are then formed on the first metallic layers so that the waveguide-substrate interface is positioned under the second metallic layers.

  3. Lookout device for high voltage circuit breaker

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kozlowski, L.J.; Shirey, L.A.

    1991-12-31

    An improved lockout assembly is provided for a circuit breaker to lock the switch handle into a selected switch position. The lockout assembly includes two main elements, each having a respective foot for engaging a portion of the upper housing wall of the circuit breaker. The first foot is inserted into a groove in the upper housing wall, and the second foot is inserted into an adjacent aperture (e.g., a slot) in the upper housing wall. The first foot is slid under and into engagement with a first portion, and the second foot is slid under and into engagement with a second portion of the upper housing wall. At the same time the respective two feet are placed in engagement with the respective portions of the upper housing wall, two holes, one on each of the respective two main elements of the assembly, are placed in registration; and a locking device, such as a special scissors equipped with a padlock, is installed through the registered holes to secure the lockout assembly on the circuit breaker. When the lockout assembly of the invention is secured on the circuit breaker, the switch handle of the circuit breaker is locked into the selected switch position and prevented from being switched to another switch position.

  4. Lockout device for high voltage circuit breaker

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kozlowski, Lawrence J. (New Kensington, PA); Shirey, Lawrence A. (North Huntingdon, PA)

    1993-01-01

    An improved lockout assembly is provided for a circuit breaker to lock the switch handle into a selected switch position. The lockout assembly includes two main elements, each having a respective foot for engaging a portion of the upper housing wall of the circuit breaker. The first foot is inserted into a groove in the upper housing wall, and the second foot is inserted into an adjacent aperture (e.g., a slot) in the upper housing wall. The first foot is slid under and into engagement with a first portion, and the second foot is slid under and into engagement with a second portion of the upper housing wall. At the same time the repsective two feet are placed in engagement with the respective portions of the upper housing wall, two holes, one on each of the respective two main elements of the assembly, are placed in registration; and a locking device, such as a special scissors equipped with a padlock, is installed through the registered holes to secure the lockout assembly on the circuit breaker. When the lockout assembly of the invention is secured on the circuit breaker, the switch handle of the circuit breaker is locked into the selected switch position and prevented from being switched to another switch position.

  5. High frequency resolvent estimates for perturbations by large long-range magnetic potentials and applications to dispersive estimates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fernando Cardoso; Claudio Cuevas; Georgi Vodev

    2011-11-28

    We prove optimal high-frequency resolvent estimates for perturbations of the Laplacian by large long-range magnetic and electric potentials in all dimensions $n\\ge 3$. As an application, we prove dispersive estimates for the corresponding wave group in the case $n=3$.

  6. A High Aspect Ratio Parylene Micro-Stencil for Large Scale Micro-Patterning for MEMS Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dokmeci, Mehmet

    A High Aspect Ratio Parylene Micro-Stencil for Large Scale Micro- Patterning for MEMS Applications and selective metal deposition onto fragile MEMS devices. This paper will discuss the details of the parylene substrates (lacking chemical and thermal stability) and on released MEMS (fragile) devices. Hence, Shadow

  7. Fusion of Metrology Data for Large-Scale High-Volume Manufacturing of Polymer-based Microfluidic Devices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fusion of Metrology Data for Large-Scale High-Volume Manufacturing of Polymer-based Microfluidic@mit.edu, youcef@mit.edu 2 Singapore Inst. of Manufacturing Technology; email: sgli@ntu.edu.sg, ivanr@SIMTech.a-star multiple data sets from disparate instru- ments. For example, fusion of data from different metrol- ogy

  8. IEEE 342 Node Low Voltage Networked Test System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schneider, Kevin P.; Phanivong, Phillippe K.; Lacroix, Jean-Sebastian

    2014-07-31

    The IEEE Distribution Test Feeders provide a benchmark for new algorithms to the distribution analyses community. The low voltage network test feeder represents a moderate size urban system that is unbalanced and highly networked. This is the first distribution test feeder developed by the IEEE that contains unbalanced networked components. The 342 node Low Voltage Networked Test System includes many elements that may be found in a networked system: multiple 13.2kV primary feeders, network protectors, a 120/208V grid network, and multiple 277/480V spot networks. This paper presents a brief review of the history of low voltage networks and how they evolved into the modern systems. This paper will then present a description of the 342 Node IEEE Low Voltage Network Test System and power flow results.

  9. High resolution mass spectrometry method and system for analysis of whole proteins and other large molecules

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reilly, Peter T. A. (Knoxville, TN) [Knoxville, TN; Harris, William A. (Naperville, IL) [Naperville, IL

    2010-03-02

    A matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) method and related system for analyzing high molecular weight analytes includes the steps of providing at least one matrix-containing particle inside an ion trap, wherein at least one high molecular weight analyte molecule is provided within the matrix-containing particle, and MALDI on the high molecular weight particle while within the ion trap. A laser power used for ionization is sufficient to completely vaporize the particle and form at least one high molecular weight analyte ion, but is low enough to avoid fragmenting the high molecular weight analyte ion. The high molecular weight analyte ion is extracted out from the ion trap, and is then analyzed using a detector. The detector is preferably a pyrolyzing and ionizing detector.

  10. A LARGE HIGH CURRENT DENSITY SUPERCONDUCTING SOLENOID FOR THE TIME PROJECTION CHAMBER EXPERIMENT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Green, M.A.

    2011-01-01

    TPC magnet integrates the superconduct- ing coil, the quenchto 1978 Applied Superconductivity Conference in Pittsburgh,HIGH CURRENT DENSITY SUPERCONDUCTING SOLENOID FOR THE TIME

  11. High Throughput Pretreatment and Enzyme Hydrolysis of Biomass: Screening Recalcitrance in Large Sample Populations (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Decker, S. R.

    2010-10-01

    Presentation on the execution of the first high-throughput thermochemical pretreatment/enzyme digestion pipeline for screening biomass for recalcitrance.

  12. Design and Implementation of Switching Voltage Integrated Circuits Based on Sliding Mode Control 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rojas Gonzalez, Miguel Angel

    2010-10-12

    .S. (Honors), ITESM Campus Toluca, Mexico Chair of Advisory Committee: Dr. Edgar S?anchez-Sinencio The need for high performance circuits in systems with low-voltage and low-power requirements has exponentially increased during the few last years due... measurements of the dual-output buck voltage regulator for (a) Medium load condition and (b) High load condition : : : 207 132 (a) Power efficiency measurements of the dual-output buck voltage versus both output currents and (b) Top view...

  13. Saving Megawatts with Voltage Optimization 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wilson, T.; Bell, D.

    2010-01-01

    In September 2008, PCS UtiliData commissioned an Industrial Voltage Optimization system at the Plum Creek Timber Medium Density Fiberboard facility in Columbia Falls, Montana. The system was based upon the AdaptiVolt(TM) Volt/VAR Optimization system...

  14. Current vs. Voltage Feedback Amplifiers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Papavassiliou, Christos

    ?' In most applications, the differences between current feedback (CFB) and voltage feedback (VFB) are not apparent. Today's CFB and VFB amplifiers have comparable performance, but there are cer- tain unique Performance · Feedback Freedom Aside from the well-known attribute of CFB amplifiers, gain

  15. Time's Ontic Voltage Craig Callender

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Callender, Craig

    Time's Ontic Voltage Craig Callender Philosophy of time, as practiced throughout the last hundred venue for attacking questions about the nature of time--in sharp contrast to the primary venue slowly in philosophy of time.1 Since twentieth-century analytic philosophy as a whole often drew

  16. Dropouts and a Dropout Recovery Program at a Suburban High-poverty High School Near a Large Urban Area 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Butler, Pamela W

    2013-12-11

    The decision to drop out of high school is a serious problem for the individual making the decision to drop out, but it also has dramatic implications for their families, their communities, and the economic health of the greater community. As a...

  17. High PRF high current switch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moran, Stuart L. (Fredericksburg, VA); Hutcherson, R. Kenneth (College Park, MD)

    1990-03-27

    A triggerable, high voltage, high current, spark gap switch for use in pu power systems. The device comprises a pair of electrodes in a high pressure hydrogen environment that is triggered by introducing an arc between one electrode and a trigger pin. Unusually high repetition rates may be obtained by undervolting the switch, i.e., operating the trigger at voltages much below the self-breakdown voltage of the device.

  18. Demonstration of high efficiency elastocaloric cooling with large DT using Jun Cui,1,2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rubloff, Gary W.

    ) are a significant source of green house gas emissions, and their global warming potential (GWP) is as high as 1000 times that of CO2 [Buildings Energy Data Book (Building Technologies Program, Department of Energy, 2009

  19. Software for supporting large scale data processing for High Throughput Screening

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tai, David

    2011-12-31

    High Throughput Screening for is a valuable data generation technique for data driven knowledge discovery. Because the rate of data generation is so great, it is a challenge to cope with the demands of post experiment data analysis. This thesis...

  20. NEAR-WALL INFLUENCE OF LARGE-SCALE MOTIONS IN HIGH REYNOLDS NUMBER TURBULENT BOUNDARY LAYERS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marusic, Ivan

    . Monty, H. Ng, & I. Marusic Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, University averages computed based on low and high skin-friction events indicate the presence of a forward-leaning low

  1. Large Field Erected and Packaged High Temperature Water (HTW) Generators for Coal Firing 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boushell, C. C.

    1980-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is to disseminate information on the energy savings possible with High Temperature Water (HTW) for heating and industrial process application and to provide information on coal fired HTW generator ...

  2. High Energy Large Area Surveys: optically obscured AGN and the history of accretion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    F. Fiore; the HELLAS2XMM collaboration

    2004-06-01

    Hard X-ray, large area surveys are a fundamental complement of ultra-deep, pencil beam surveys in obtaining a more complete coverage of the L-z plane, allowing to find luminous QSO in wide z ranges. Furthermore, results from these surveys can be used to make reliable predictions about the luminosity (and hence the redshift) of the sources in the deep surveys which have optical counterparts too faint to be observed with the present generation of optical telescopes. This allows us to obtain accurate luminosity functions on wide luminosity and redshift intervals.

  3. Enabling a High Throughput Real Time Data Pipeline for a Large Radio Telescope Array with GPUs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Edgar, R G; Dale, K; Mitchell, D A; Ord, S M; Wayth, R B; Pfister, H; Greenhill, L J

    2010-01-01

    The Murchison Widefield Array (MWA) is a next-generation radio telescope currently under construction in the remote Western Australia Outback. Raw data will be generated continuously at 5GiB/sec. This high throughput motivates the development of on-site, real time processing and reduction in preference to archiving, transport and off-line processing. Maintaining real time operation will require a sustained performance of around 2.5TFLOP/sec (including convolutions, FFTs, interpolations and matrix multiplications). We describe a scalable heterogeneous computing pipeline implementation, exploiting both the high computing density and FLOP-per-Watt ratio of modern GPUs. The architecture is highly parallel within and across nodes, with all major processing elements performed by GPUs. Necessary scatter-gather operations along the pipeline are loosely synchronized and implemented in MPI. The MWA will be a frontier scientific instrument and a pathfinder for planned peta- and exascale facilities.

  4. High-Efficiency Solar Cells for Large-Scale Electricity Generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kurtz, S.; Olson, J.; Geisz, J.; Friedman, D.; McMahon, W.; Ptak, A.; Wanlass, M.; Kibbler, A.; Kramer, C.; Bertness, K.; Ward, S.; Duda, A.; Young, M.; Carapella, J.; Steiner, M.

    2008-09-26

    One strategy for helping the solar industry to grow faster is to use very high efficiency cells under concentrating optics. By using lenses or mirrors to concentrate the light, very small solar cells can be used, reducing the amount of semiconductor material and allowing use of higher efficiency cells, which are now >40% efficient.

  5. Voltage Impacts of Utility-Scale Distributed Wind

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allen, A.

    2014-09-01

    Although most utility-scale wind turbines in the United States are added at the transmission level in large wind power plants, distributed wind power offers an alternative that could increase the overall wind power penetration without the need for additional transmission. This report examines the distribution feeder-level voltage issues that can arise when adding utility-scale wind turbines to the distribution system. Four of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory taxonomy feeders were examined in detail to study the voltage issues associated with adding wind turbines at different distances from the sub-station. General rules relating feeder resistance up to the point of turbine interconnection to the expected maximum voltage change levels were developed. Additional analysis examined line and transformer overvoltage conditions.

  6. Comparison of Deformation in High-Purity Single/Large Grain and Polycrystalline Niobium Superconducting Cavities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ganapati Rao Myneni; Peter Kneisel

    2005-07-10

    The current approach for the fabrication of superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities is to roll and deep draw sheets of polycrystalline high-purity niobium. Recently, a new technique was developed at Jefferson Laboratory that enables the fabrication of single-crystal high-purity Nb SRF cavities. To better understand the differences between SRF cavities fabricated out of fine-grained polycrystalline sheet in the standard manner and single crystal cavities fabricated by the new technique, two half-cells were produced according to the two different procedures and compared using a variety of analytical techniques including optical microscopy, scanning laser confocal microscopy, profilometry, and X-ray diffraction. Crystallographic orientations, texture, and residual stresses were determined in the samples before and after forming and this poster presents the results of this ongoing study.

  7. Simulating the High Energy Gamma-ray sky seen by the GLAST Large Area Telescope

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    F. Longo; P. Azzi; D. Bastieri; G. Busetto; Y. Lei; R. Rando; O. Tibolla; L. Baldini; M. Kuss; L. Latronico; N. Omodei; M. Razzano; G. Spandre; P. Boinee; A. De Angelis; M. Frailis; M. Brigida; F. Gargano; N. Giglietto; F. Loparco; M. N. Mazziotta; C. Cecchi; P. Lubrano; F. Marcucci; M. Pepe; G. Tosti; A. Lionetto; A. Morselli; C. Pittori

    2005-03-24

    This paper presents the simulation of the GLAST high energy gamma-ray telescope. The simulation package, written in C++, is based on the Geant4 toolkit, and it is integrated into a general framework used to process events. A detailed simulation of the electronic signals inside Silicon detectors has been provided and it is used for the particle tracking, which is handled by a dedicated software. A unique repository for the geometrical description of the detector has been realized using the XML language and a C++ library to access this information has been designed and implemented. A new event display based on the HepRep protocol was implemented. The full simulation was used to simulate a full week of GLAST high energy gamma-ray observations. This paper outlines the contribution developed by the Italian GLAST software group.

  8. Demonstration of high efficiency elastocaloric cooling with large Delta T using NiTi wires

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cui, J; Wu, YM; Muehlbauer, J; Hwang, YH; Radermacher, R; Fackler, S; Wuttig, M; Takeuchi, I

    2012-08-13

    Vapor compression (VC) is by far the most dominant technology for meeting all cooling and refrigeration needs around the world. It is a mature technology with the efficiency of modern compressors approaching the theoretical limit, but its environmental footprint remains a global problem. VC refrigerants such as hydrochloroflurocarbons (HCFCs) and hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) are a significant source of green house gas emissions, and their global warming potential (GWP) is as high as 1000 times that of CO2 [Buildings Energy Data Book (Building Technologies Program, Department of Energy, 2009)]. There is an urgent need to develop an alternative high-efficiency cooling technology that is affordable and environmentally friendly [A. D. Little, Report For Office of Building Technology State and Community Programs, Department of Energy, 2001]. Here, we demonstrate that elastocaloric cooling (EC), a type of solid-state cooling mechanism based on the latent heat of reversible martensitic transformation, can have the coefficient of performance as high as 1 1, with a directly measured Delta T of 17 degrees C. The solid-state refrigerant of EC completely eliminates the use of any GWP refrigerants including HCFCs/HFCs. (C) 2012 American Institute. of Physics. [http://dx.doiorg/10.1063/1.4746257

  9. Crystal growth and detector performance of large size high-purity Ge crystals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Guojian; Mei, Hao; Mei, Dongming; Irmscher, Klaus; Guan, Yutong; Yang, Gang

    2015-01-01

    High-purity germanium crystals approximately 12 cm in diameter were grown in a hydrogen atmosphere using the Czochralski method. The dislocation density of the crystals was determined to be in the range of 2000 - 4200 cm-2, which meets a requirement for use as a radiation detector. The axial and radial distributions of impurities in the crystals were measured and are discussed. A planar detector was also fabricated from one of the crystals and then evaluated for electrical and spectral performance. Measurements of gamma-ray spectra from Cs-137 and Am-241 sources demonstrate that the detector has excellent energy resolution.

  10. Crystal growth and detector performance of large size high-purity Ge crystals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guojian Wang; Mark Amman; Hao Mei; Dongming Mei; Klaus Irmscher; Yutong Guan; Gang Yang

    2015-05-07

    High-purity germanium crystals approximately 12 cm in diameter were grown in a hydrogen atmosphere using the Czochralski method. The dislocation density of the crystals was determined to be in the range of 2000 - 4200 cm-2, which meets a requirement for use as a radiation detector. The axial and radial distributions of impurities in the crystals were measured and are discussed. A planar detector was also fabricated from one of the crystals and then evaluated for electrical and spectral performance. Measurements of gamma-ray spectra from Cs-137 and Am-241 sources demonstrate that the detector has excellent energy resolution.

  11. Insight into the Atomic Structure of High-Voltage Spinel LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 Cathode Material in the First Cycle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Xuejie; Yu, Xiqian; Lin, Mingxiang; Ben, Liubin; Sun, Yang; Wang, Hao; Yang, Zhenzhong; Gu, Lin; Yang, Xiao -Qing; Zhao, Haofei; Yu, Richeng; Armand, Michel

    2014-12-22

    Application of high-voltage spinel LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 cathode material is the closest and the most realistic approach to meeting the midterm goal of lithium-ion batteries for electric vehicles (EVs) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). However, this application has been hampered by long-standing issues, such as capacity degradation and poor first-cycle Coulombic efficiency of LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 cathode material. Although it is well-known that the structure of LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 into which Li ions are reversibly intercalated plays a critical role in the above issues, performance degradation related to structural changes, particularly in the first cycle, are not fully understood. Here, we report detailed investigations of local atomic-level and average structure of LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 during first cycle (3.5–4.9 V) at room temperature. We observed two types of local atomic-level migration of transition metals (TM) ions in the cathode of a well-prepared LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4//Li half-cell during first charge via an aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM). Surface regions (~2 nm) of the cycled LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 particles show migration of TM ions into tetrahedral Li sites to form a Mn3O4-like structure. However, subsurface regions of the cycled particles exhibit migration of TM ions into empty octahedral sites to form a rocksalt-like structure. The migration of these TM ions are closely related to dissolution of Ni/Mn ions and building-up of charge transfer impedance, which contribute significantly to the capacity degradation and the poor first-cycle Coulombic efficiency of spinel LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 cathode material. Accordingly, we provide suggestions of effective stabilization of LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 structure to obtain better electrochemical performance.

  12. High open-circuit voltage small-molecule p-DTS(FBTTh 2 )2:ICBA bulk heterojunction solar cells – morphology, excited-state dynamics, and photovoltaic performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ko Kyaw, Aung Ko; Gehrig, Dominik; Zhang, Jie; Huang, Ye; Bazan, Guillermo C.; Laquai, Frédéric; Nguyen, Thuc -Quyen

    2014-11-27

    The photovoltaic performance of bulk heterojunction solar cells using the solution-processable small molecule donor 7,7'-(4,4-bis(2-ethylhexyl)-4H-silolo[3,2-b:4,5-b']dithiophene-2,6-diyl)bis(6-fluoro-4-(5'-hexyl-[2,2'-bithiophene]-5-yl)benzo[c][1,2,5]thiadiazole) (p-DTS(FBTTh2)2 in combination with indene-C60 bis-adduct (ICBA) as an acceptor is systematically optimized by altering the processing conditions. A high open-circuit voltage of 1 V, more than 0.2 V higher than that of a p-DTS(FBTTh2)2:PC70BM blend, is achieved. However, the power conversion efficiency remains around 5% and thus is lower than ~8% previously reported for p-DTS(FBTTh2)2:PC70BM. Transient absorption (TA) pump–probe spectroscopy over a wide spectral (Vis-NIR) and dynamic (fs to ?s) range in combination with multivariate curve resolution analysis of the TA data reveals that generation of free charges is more efficient in the blend with PC70BM as an acceptor. In contrast, blends with ICBA create more coulombically bound interfacial charge transfer (CT) states, which recombine on the sub-nanosecond timescale by geminate recombination. Furthermore, the ns to ?s charge carrier dynamics in p-DTS(FBTTh2)2:ICBA blends are only weakly intensity dependent implying a significant contribution of recombination from long-lived CT states and trapped charges, while those in p-DTS(FBTTh2)2:PC70BM decay via an intensity-dependent recombination mechanism indicating that spatially separated (free) charge carriers are observed, which can be extracted as photocurrent from the device.

  13. Research on stable, high-efficiency, large-area, amorphous-silicon-based submodules

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Delahoy, A.E.; Tonon, T.; Macneil, J. (Chronar Corp., Princeton, NJ (USA))

    1991-06-01

    The primary objective of this subcontract is to develop the technology for same bandgap, amorphous silicon tandem junction photovoltaic modules having an area of at least 900 cm{sup 2} with the goal of achieving an aperture area efficiency of 9%. A further objective is to demonstrate modules that retain 95% of their under standard light soaking conditions. Our approach to the attainment of these objective is based on the following distinctive technologies: (a) in-house deposition of SiO{sub 2}/SnO{sub 2}:F onto soda lime glass by APCVD to provide a textured, transparent electrode, (b) single chamber r.f. flow discharge deposition of the a-Si:H layers onto vertical substrates contained with high package density in a box carrier'' to which the discharge is confined (c) sputter deposition of highly reflecting, ZnO-based back contacts, and (d) laser scribing of the a-Si:H and electrodes with real-time scribe tracking to minimize area loss. Continued development of single junction amorphous silicon was aggressively pursued as proving ground for various optical enhancement schemes, new p-layers, and i-layers quality. We have rigorously demonstrated that the introduction of a transitional i-layer does not impair stability and that the initial gain in performance is retained. We have demonstrated a small improvement in cell stability through a post-fabrication treatment consisting of multiple, intense light flashes followed by sufficient annealing. Finally, several experiments have indicated that long term stability can be improved by overcoating the SnO{sub 2} with ZnO. 25 refs., 17 figs.

  14. Ultrahigh Bandwidth Spin Noise Spectroscopy: Detection of Large g-Factor Fluctuations in Highly n-Doped GaAs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fabian Berski; Hendrik Kuhn; Jan G. Lonnemann; Jens Hübner; Michael Oestreich

    2012-06-30

    We advance all optical spin noise spectroscopy (SNS) in semiconductors to detection bandwidths of several hundred gigahertz by employing an ingenious scheme of pulse trains from ultrafast laser oscillators as an optical probe. The ultrafast SNS technique avoids the need for optical pumping and enables nearly perturbation free measurements of extremely short spin dephasing times. We employ the technique to highly n-doped bulk GaAs where magnetic field dependent measurements show unexpected large g-factor fluctuations. Calculations suggest that such large g-factor fluctuations do not necessarily result from extrinsic sample variations but are intrinsically present in every doped semiconductor due to the stochastic nature of the dopant distribution.

  15. Experimental Investigation on Effect of Smoke Management System in a High-large Atrium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, B.; Lu, S. X.; Li, C. H.; Hu, J. [State Key Laboratory of Fire Science, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, 230026, Anhui (China); Huang, Y. [State Key Laboratory of Fire Science, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, 230026, Anhui (China); Yunnan General Fire Brigade, Kunming, 650228, Yunnan (China); Zheng, Y. Q.; Chen, S. [Yunnan General Fire Brigade, Kunming, 650228, Yunnan (China)

    2010-05-21

    In an atrium measured 120 m by 180 m by 36.5 m high, fire tests were conducted under 'natural filling' and 'mechanical exhaust' conditions by hot smoke test method. The fire size was 8 MW released by an ethanol pool of 3.6 m in diameter. The distribution of vertical temperature profiles above the fire source and the gas layer temperatures were measured. From these measurements, it was shown that the fans successfully exhausted hot smoke to control descending of hot smoke layer and temperature rising rate. The hot smoke layer can be maintained at about 30 m which was almost 2 times of hot layer height in 'natural filling' condition. The temperature risings in both conditions were too low to cause thermal damage to the structure, only 18.6 K and 12 K. The centerline temperature above the fire source and the height of hot smoke layer were calculated using the plume models. The calculated results agreed well with the conclusions obtained from the experiment results.

  16. Voltage Vehicles | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page| Open Energy Information Serbia-EnhancingEt Al.,Turin,Village of Wellington,FL LLC Jump to:EnergyVogt SolarVoltage

  17. Observation of strongly enhanced inverse spin Hall voltage in Fe{sub 3}Si/GaAs structures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hung, H. Y.; Kwo, J., E-mail: raynien@phys.nthu.edu.tw, E-mail: mhong@phys.ntu.edu.tw, E-mail: leesf@phys.sinica.edu.tw [Department of Physics, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Chiang, T. H. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Syu, B. Z.; Fanchiang, Y. T.; Hong, M., E-mail: raynien@phys.nthu.edu.tw, E-mail: mhong@phys.ntu.edu.tw, E-mail: leesf@phys.sinica.edu.tw [Graduate Institute of Applied Physics and Department of Physics, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Lin, J. G. [Center for Condensed Matter Sciences, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Lee, S. F., E-mail: raynien@phys.nthu.edu.tw, E-mail: mhong@phys.ntu.edu.tw, E-mail: leesf@phys.sinica.edu.tw [Institute of Physics, Academia Sinica, Taipei 115, Taiwan (China)

    2014-10-13

    We performed spin pumping experiment on high quality, epitaxial Fe{sub 3}Si/GaAs structures grown by molecular beam epitaxy. By tailoring the thickness and doping (n, p) level of the conducting GaAs epi-layer, thermal heating common of ferromagnetic metal/semiconductor heterostructure was removed effectively. A large inverse spin Hall Effect (ISHE) voltage up to 49.2??V was observed for Fe{sub 3}Si/p-GaAs. Smaller ISHE voltage (V{sub ISHE}) by a factor of ?0.4 was obtained for Fe{sub 3}Si/n-GaAs, as scaled with its resistivity. By taking into account of the “self-induced” ISHE apparently observed in our samples, the minimum value of spin Hall angle ?{sub ISHE} for n-GaAs and p-GaAs was estimated to be 1.9 × 10{sup ?4} and 2.8 × 10{sup ?5}, respectively.

  18. Large-sensitive-area superconducting nanowire single-photon detector at 850 nm with high detection efficiency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Hao; You, Lixing; Yang, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Weijun; Liu, Xiaoyu; Chen, Sijing; Wang, Zhen; Xie, Xiaoming

    2015-01-01

    Satellite-ground quantum communication requires single-photon detectors of 850-nm wavelength with both high detection efficiency and large sensitive area. We developed superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors (SNSPDs) on one-dimensional photonic crystals, which acted as optical cavities to enhance the optical absorption, with a sensitive-area diameter of 50 um. The fabricated multimode fiber coupled NbN SNSPDs exhibited a maximum system detection efficiency (DE) of up to 82% and a DE of 78% at a dark count rate of 100 Hz at 850-nm wavelength as well as a system jitter of 105 ps.

  19. Local Voltage Support from Distributed Energy Resources to Prevent Air Conditioner Motor Stalling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baone, Chaitanya A; Xu, Yan; Kueck, John D

    2010-01-01

    Microgrid voltage collapse often happens when there is a high percentage of low inertia air-conditioning (AC) motors in the power systems. The stalling of the AC motors results in Fault Induced Delayed Voltage Recovery (FIDVR). A hybrid load model including typical building loads, AC motor loads, and other induction motor loads is built to simulate the motoring stalling phenomena. Furthermore, distributed energy resources (DE) with local voltage support capability are utilized to boost the local bus voltage during a fault, and prevent the motor stalling. The simulation results are presented. The analysis of the simulation results show that local voltage support from multiple DEs can effectively and economically solve the microgrid voltage collapse problem.

  20. Towards predicting voltage dependences of electrode/electrolyte...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    voltage dependences of electrodeelectrolyte interfacial processesnin lithium ion batteries. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Towards predicting voltage dependences...

  1. Voltage Collapse and ODE Approach to Power Flows: Analysis of a Feeder Line with Static Disorder in Consumption/Production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chertkov, M; Turtisyn, K; Chernyak, V; Lebedev, V

    2011-01-01

    We consider a model of a distribution feeder connecting multiple loads to the sub-station. Voltage is controlled directly at the head of the line (sub-station), however, voltage anywhere further down the line is subject to fluctuations, caused by irregularities of real and reactive distributed power consumption/generation. The lack of a direct control of voltage along the line may result in the voltage instability, also called voltage collapse - phenomenon well known and documented in the power engineering literature. Motivated by emerging photo-voltaic technology, which brings a new source of renewable generation but also contributes significant increase in power flow fluctuations, we reexamine the phenomenon of voltage stability and collapse. In the limit where the number of consumers is large and spatial variations in power flows are smooth functions of position along the feeder, we derive a set of the power flow Ordinary Differential Equations (ODE), verify phenomenon of voltage collapse, and study the ef...

  2. Large and small-scale structure of the Intermediate and High Velocity Clouds towards the LMC and SMC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smoker, J V; Keenan, F P

    2015-01-01

    We employ CaII K and NaI D interstellar absorption-line spectroscopy of early-type stars in the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds to investigate the large- and small-scale structure in foreground Intermediate and High Velocity Clouds (I/HVCs). These data include FLAMES-GIRAFFE CaII K observations of 403 stars in four open clusters, plus FEROS or UVES spectra of 156 stars in the LMC and SMC. The FLAMES observations are amongst the most extensive probes to date of CaII structures on 20 arcsec scales From the FLAMES data within a 0.5 degree field-of-view, the CaII K equivalent width in the I/HVC components towards three clusters varies by factors of >10. There are no detections of molecular gas in absorption at intermediate or high velocities, although molecular absorption is present at LMC and Galactic velocities towards some sightlines. The sightlines show variations in EW exceeding a factor 7 in CH+ towards NGC 1761 over scales of less than 10 arcminutes. The FEROS/UVES data show CaII K I/HVC absorption in $\\...

  3. Study of cosmic ray events with high muon multiplicity using the ALICE detector at the CERN Large Hadron Collider

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ALICE Collaboration

    2015-07-27

    ALICE is one of four large experiments at the CERN Large Hadron Collider near Geneva, specially designed to study particle production in ultra-relativistic heavy-ion collisions. Located 52 meters underground with 28 meters of overburden rock, it has also been used to detect muons produced by cosmic ray interactions in the upper atmosphere. In this paper, we present the multiplicity distribution of these atmospheric muons and its comparison with Monte Carlo simulations. This analysis exploits the large size and excellent tracking capability of the ALICE Time Projection Chamber. A special emphasis is given to the study of high multiplicity events containing more than 100 reconstructed muons and corresponding to a muon areal density $\\rho_{\\mu} > 5.9~$m$^{-2}$. Similar events have been studied in previous underground experiments such as ALEPH and DELPHI at LEP. While these experiments were able to reproduce the measured muon multiplicity distribution with Monte Carlo simulations at low and intermediate multiplicities, their simulations failed to describe the frequency of the highest multiplicity events. In this work we show that the high multiplicity events observed in ALICE stem from primary cosmic rays with energies above $10^{16}$ eV and that the frequency of these events can be successfully described by assuming a heavy mass composition of primary cosmic rays in this energy range. The development of the resulting air showers was simulated using the latest version of QGSJET to model hadronic interactions. This observation places significant constraints on alternative, more exotic, production mechanisms for these events.

  4. HIGH-TEMPERATURE ELECTROLYSIS FOR LARGE-SCALE HYDROGEN AND SYNGAS PRODUCTION FROM NUCLEAR ENERGY – SYSTEM SIMULATION AND ECONOMICS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. E. O'Brien; M. G. McKellar; E. A. Harvego; C. M. Stoots

    2009-05-01

    A research and development program is under way at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to assess the technological and scale-up issues associated with the implementation of solid-oxide electrolysis cell technology for efficient high-temperature hydrogen production from steam. This work is supported by the US Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Energy, under the Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative. This paper will provide an overview of large-scale system modeling results and economic analyses that have been completed to date. System analysis results have been obtained using the commercial code UniSim, augmented with a custom high-temperature electrolyzer module. Economic analysis results were based on the DOE H2A analysis methodology. The process flow diagrams for the system simulations include an advanced nuclear reactor as a source of high-temperature process heat, a power cycle and a coupled steam electrolysis loop. Several reactor types and power cycles have been considered, over a range of reactor outlet temperatures. Pure steam electrolysis for hydrogen production as well as coelectrolysis for syngas production from steam/carbon dioxide mixtures have both been considered. In addition, the feasibility of coupling the high-temperature electrolysis process to biomass and coal-based synthetic fuels production has been considered. These simulations demonstrate that the addition of supplementary nuclear hydrogen to synthetic fuels production from any carbon source minimizes emissions of carbon dioxide during the production process.

  5. Wind Power Plant Voltage Stability Evaluation: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Muljadi, E.; Zhang, Y. C.

    2014-09-01

    Voltage stability refers to the ability of a power system to maintain steady voltages at all buses in the system after being subjected to a disturbance from a given initial operating condition. Voltage stability depends on a power system's ability to maintain and/or restore equilibrium between load demand and supply. Instability that may result occurs in the form of a progressive fall or rise of voltages of some buses. Possible outcomes of voltage instability are the loss of load in an area or tripped transmission lines and other elements by their protective systems, which may lead to cascading outages. The loss of synchronism of some generators may result from these outages or from operating conditions that violate a synchronous generator's field current limit, or in the case of variable speed wind turbine generator, the current limits of power switches. This paper investigates the impact of wind power plants on power system voltage stability by using synchrophasor measurements.

  6. QSO ABSORPTION SYSTEMS DETECTED IN Ne VIII: HIGH-METALLICITY CLOUDS WITH A LARGE EFFECTIVE CROSS SECTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meiring, J. D.; Tripp, T. M. [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States)] [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Werk, J. K.; Prochaska, J. X. [University of California Observatories-Lick Observatory, UC Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States)] [University of California Observatories-Lick Observatory, UC Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Howk, J. C. [Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, 225 Nieuwland Science Hall, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States)] [Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, 225 Nieuwland Science Hall, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Jenkins, E. B. [Princeton University Observatory, Peyton Hall, Ivy Lane, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States)] [Princeton University Observatory, Peyton Hall, Ivy Lane, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Lehner, N.; Sembach, K. R. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)] [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)

    2013-04-10

    Using high-resolution, high signal-to-noise ultraviolet spectra of the z{sub em} = 0.9754 quasar PG1148+549 obtained with the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS) on the Hubble Space Telescope, we study the physical conditions and abundances of Ne VIII+O VI absorption line systems at z{sub abs} = 0.68381, 0.70152, 0.72478. In addition to Ne VIII and O VI, absorption lines from multiple ionization stages of oxygen (O II, O III, O IV) are detected and are well aligned with the more highly ionized species. We show that these absorbers are multiphase systems including hot gas (T Almost-Equal-To 10{sup 5.7} K) that produces Ne VIII and O VI, and the gas metallicity of the cool phase ranges from Z = 0.3 Z{sub Sun} to supersolar. The cool ( Almost-Equal-To 10{sup 4} K) phases have densities n{sub H} Almost-Equal-To 10{sup -4} cm{sup -3} and small sizes (<4 kpc); these cool clouds are likely to expand and dissipate, and the Ne VIII may be within a transition layer between the cool gas and a surrounding, much hotter medium. The Ne VIII redshift density, dN/dz{approx}7{sup +7}{sub -3}, requires a large number of these clouds for every L > 0.1 L* galaxy and a large effective absorption cross section ({approx}> 100 kpc), and indeed, we find a star-forming {approx}L {sup *} galaxy at the redshift of the z{sub abs} = 0.72478 system, at an impact parameter of 217 kpc. Multiphase absorbers like these Ne VIII systems are likely to be an important reservoir of baryons and metals in the circumgalactic media of galaxies.

  7. Group 3: Humidity, Temperature, and Voltage (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wohlgemuth, J.

    2013-05-01

    Group 3 is chartered to develop accelerated stress tests that can be used as comparative predictors of module lifetime versus stresses associated with humidity, temperature and voltage.

  8. Low Beam Voltage, 10 MW, L-Band Cluster Klystron

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Teryaev, V.; /Novosibirsk, IYF; Yakovlev, V.P.; /Fermilab; Kazakov, S.; /KEK, Tsukuba; Hirshfield, J.L.; /Yale U. /Omega-P, New Haven

    2009-05-01

    Conceptual design of a multi-beam klystron (MBK) for possible ILC and Project X applications is presented. The chief distinction between this MBK design and existing 10-MW MBK's is the low operating voltage of 60 kV. There are at least four compelling reasons that justify development at this time of a low-voltage MBK, namely (1) no pulse transformer; (2) no oil tank for high-voltage components and for the tube socket; (3) no high-voltage cables; and (4) modulator would be a compact 60-kV IGBT switching circuit. The proposed klystron consists of four clusters containing six beams each. The tube has common input and output cavities for all 24 beams, and individual gain cavities for each cluster. A closely related optional configuration, also for a 10 MW tube, would involve four totally independent cavity clusters with four independent input cavities and four 2.5 MW output ports, all within a common magnetic circuit. This option has appeal because the output waveguides would not require a controlled atmosphere, and because it would be easier to achieve phase and amplitude stability as required in individual SC accelerator cavities.

  9. The Constant Voltage Transformer (CVT) for Mitigating Effects of Voltage Sags on Industrial Equipment 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ferraro, R. J.; Osborne, R.; Stephens, R.

    2000-01-01

    , Sizing Constant Voltage Transformers to Maximize Voltage Regulationfor Process Control Devices. 4. EPRl PEAC, 1997, PQTN Application Brochure #Io-Tutorial; Inrush Current Measurement 5. Basic Measuring Instruments, Inc., Alex McEachern, power...

  10. Technique for high axial shielding factor performance of large-scale, thin, open-ended, cylindrical Metglas magnetic shields

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Malkowski, S; Hona, B; Mattie, C; Woods, D; Yan, H; Plaster, B; 10.1063/1.3605665

    2011-01-01

    Metglas 2705M is a low-cost commercially-available, high-permeability Cobalt-based magnetic alloy, provided as a 5.08-cm wide and 20.3-$\\mu$m thick ribbon foil. We present an optimized construction technique for single-shell, large-scale (human-size), thin, open-ended cylindrical Metglas magnetic shields. The measured DC axial and transverse magnetic shielding factors of our 0.61-m diameter and 1.83-m long shields in the Earth's magnetic field were 267 and 1500, for material thicknesses of only 122 $\\mu$m (i.e., 6 foil layers). The axial shielding performance of our single-shell Metglas magnetic shields, obtained without the use of magnetic shaking techniques, is comparable to the performance of significantly thicker, multiple-shell, open-ended Metglas magnetic shields in comparable-magnitude, low-frequency applied external fields reported previously in the literature.

  11. Nuclear Jacobi and Poincaré Transitions at High Spins and Temperatures: Account~of~Dynamic~Effects~and~Large-Amplitude Motion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    K. Mazurek; J. Dudek; A. Maj; D. Rouvel

    2013-08-14

    We present a theoretical analysis of the competition between so-called nuclear Jacobi and Poincar\\'e shape transitions in function of spin - at high temperatures. The latter condition implies the method of choice - a realistic version of the nuclear Liquid Drop Model (LDM), here: the Lublin-Strasbourg Drop (LSD) model. We address specifically the fact that the Jacobi and Poincar\\'e shape transitions are accompanied by the flattening of total nuclear energy landscape as function of the relevant deformation parameters what enforces large amplitude oscillation modes that need to be taken into account. For that purpose we introduce an approximate form of the collective Schr\\"odinger equation whose solutions are used to calculate the most probable deformations associated with both types of transitions and discuss the physical consequences in terms of the associated critical-spin values and transitions themselves.

  12. Voltage Collapse SimulationVoltage Collapse Simulation (Eastern Interconnection(Eastern Interconnection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    .) · Pie chart: gives percent power flow is of the line's rating 3 #12;Base Case Voltage Contours Area

  13. High Bandwidth Differential Amplifier for Shock Experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ross, P. W., Tran, V., Chau, R.

    2012-04-30

    We developed a high bandwidth differential amplifier for gas gun shock experiments/applications. The circuit has a bandwidth > 1 GHz, and is capable of measuring signals of ?1.5 V with a common mode rejection of 250 V. Conductivity measurements of gas gun targets are measured by flowing high currents through the targets. The voltage is measured across the target using a technique similar to a four-point probe. Because of the design of the current source and load, the target voltage is approximately 250 V relative to ground. Since the expected voltage change in the target is < 1 V, the differential amplifier must have a large common mode rejection. High pass filters suppress internal ringing of operational amplifiers. Results of bench tests are shown.

  14. Easily disassembled electrical connector for high voltage, high frequency connections

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Milner, J.R.

    1994-05-10

    An easily accessible electrical connector capable of rapid assembly and disassembly is described wherein a wide metal conductor sheet may be evenly contacted over the entire width of the conductor sheet by opposing surfaces on the connector which provide an even clamping pressure against opposite surfaces of the metal conductor sheet using a single threaded actuating screw. 13 figures.

  15. Voltage regulation in linear induction accelerators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Parsons, W.M.

    1992-12-29

    Improvement in voltage regulation in a linear induction accelerator wherein a varistor, such as a metal oxide varistor, is placed in parallel with the beam accelerating cavity and the magnetic core is disclosed. The non-linear properties of the varistor result in a more stable voltage across the beam accelerating cavity than with a conventional compensating resistance. 4 figs.

  16. Voltage regulation in linear induction accelerators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Parsons, William M. (Santa Fe, NM)

    1992-01-01

    Improvement in voltage regulation in a Linear Induction Accelerator wherein a varistor, such as a metal oxide varistor, is placed in parallel with the beam accelerating cavity and the magnetic core. The non-linear properties of the varistor result in a more stable voltage across the beam accelerating cavity than with a conventional compensating resistance.

  17. Voltage controlled spintronic devices for logic applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    You, Chun-Yeol (Naperville, IL); Bader, Samuel D. (Oak Park, IL)

    2001-01-01

    A reprogrammable logic gate comprising first and second voltage-controlled rotation transistors. Each transistor comprises three ferromagnetic layers with a spacer and insulating layer between the first and second ferromagnetic layers and an additional insulating layer between the second and third ferromagnetic layers. The third ferromagnetic layer of each transistor is connected to each other, and a constant external voltage source is applied to the second ferromagnetic layer of the first transistor. As input voltages are applied to the first ferromagnetic layer of each transistor, the relative directions of magnetization of the ferromagnetic layers and the magnitude of the external voltage determines the output voltage of the gate. By altering these parameters, the logic gate is capable of behaving as AND, OR, NAND, or NOR gates.

  18. Non-contact current and voltage sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carpenter, Gary D; El-Essawy, Wael; Ferreira, Alexandre Peixoto; Keller, Thomas Walter; Rubio, Juan C; Schappert, Michael A

    2014-03-25

    A detachable current and voltage sensor provides an isolated and convenient device to measure current passing through a conductor such as an AC branch circuit wire, as well as providing an indication of an electrostatic potential on the wire, which can be used to indicate the phase of the voltage on the wire, and optionally a magnitude of the voltage. The device includes a housing that contains the current and voltage sensors, which may be a ferrite cylinder with a hall effect sensor disposed in a gap along the circumference to measure current, or alternative a winding provided through the cylinder along its axis and a capacitive plate or wire disposed adjacent to, or within, the ferrite cylinder to provide the indication of the voltage.

  19. Flexible method for monitoring fuel cell voltage

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mowery, Kenneth D. (Noblesville, IN); Ripley, Eugene V. (Russiaville, IN)

    2002-01-01

    A method for equalizing the measured voltage of each cluster in a fuel cell stack wherein at least one of the clusters has a different number of cells than the identical number of cells in the remaining clusters by creating a pseudo voltage for the different cell numbered cluster. The average cell voltage of the all of the cells in the fuel cell stack is calculated and multiplied by a constant equal to the difference in the number of cells in the identical cell clusters and the number of cells in the different numbered cell cluster. The resultant product is added to the actual voltage measured across the different numbered cell cluster to create a pseudo voltage which is equivalent in cell number to the number of cells in the other identical numbered cell clusters.

  20. Low-Voltage Switched-Capacitor Circuits Emad Bidari

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moon, Un-Ku

    Low-Voltage Switched-Capacitor Circuits by Emad Bidari A THESIS submitted to Oregon State . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 2. THE OPERATION AND IMPLEMENTATION OF THE LOW-VOLTAGE INTEGRA- TOR. LOW-VOLTAGE SC FILTER STAGES

  1. Voltage Management of Networks with Distributed Generation. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Donnell, James

    2008-01-01

    At present there is much debate about the impacts and benefits of increasing the amount of generation connected to the low voltage areas of the electricity distribution network. The UK government is under political ...

  2. Bonfire-safe low-voltage detonator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lieberman, Morton L. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1990-01-01

    A column of explosive in a low-voltage detonator which makes it bonfire-safe includes a first layer of an explosive charge of CP, or a primary explosive, and a second layer of a secondary organic explosive charge, such as PETN, which has a degradation temperature lower than the autoignition temperature of the CP or primary explosives. The first layer is composed of a pair of increments disposed in a bore of a housing of the detonator in an ignition region of the explosive column and adjacent to and in contact with an electrical ignition device at one end of the bore. The second layer is composed of a plurality of increments disposed in the housing bore in a transition region of the explosive column next to and in contact with the first layer on a side opposite from the ignition device. The first layer is loaded under a sufficient high pressure, 25 to 40 kpsi, to achieve ignition, whereas the second layer is loaded under a sufficient low pressure, about 10 kpsi, to allow occurrence of DDT. Each increment of the first and second layers has an axial length-to-diameter ratio of one-half.

  3. Bonfire-safe low-voltage detonator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lieberman, M.L.

    1988-07-01

    A column of explosive in a low-voltage detonator which makes it bonfire-safe includes a first layer of an explosive charge of CP, or a primary explosive, and a second layer of a secondary organic explosive charge, such as PETN, which has a degradation temperature lower than the autoignition temperature of the CP or primary explosives. The first layer is composed of a pair of increments disposed in a bore of a housing of the detonator in an ignition region of the explosive column and adjacent to and in contact with an electrical ignition device at one end of the bore. The second layer is composed of a plurality of increments disposed in the housing bore in a transition region of the explosive column next to and in contact with the first layer on a side opposite from the ignition device. The first layer is loaded under a sufficient high pressure, 25 to 40 kpsi, to achieve ignition, whereas the second layer is loaded under a sufficient low pressure, about 10 kpsi, to allow occurrence of DDT. Each increment of the first and second layers has an axial length-to-diameter ratio of one-half. 2 figs.

  4. Measurement of the high-field Q-drop in a high-purity large-grain niobium cavity for different oxidation processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gianluigi Ciovati; Peter Kneisel; alex gurevich

    2007-06-01

    The most challenging issue for understanding the performance of superconducting radio-frequency (rf) cavities made of high-purity (residual resistivity ratio > 200) niobium is due to a sharp degradation (“Q-drop”) of the cavity quality factor Q0(Bp) as the peak surface magnetic field (Bp) exceeds about 90 mT, in the absence of field emission. In addition, a low-temperature (100 – 140 ?C) “in-situ” baking of the cavity was found to be beneficial in reducing the Q-drop. In this contribution, we present the results from a series of rf tests at 1.7 K and 2.0 K on a single-cell cavity made of high-purity large (with area of the order of few cm2) grain niobium which underwent various oxidation processes, after initial buffered chemical polishing, such as anodization, baking in pure oxygen atmosphere and baking in air up to 180 °C, with the objective of clearly identifying the role of oxygen and the oxide layer on the Q-drop. During each rf test a temperature mapping system allows measuring the local temperature rise of the cavity outer surface due to rf losses, which gives information about the losses location, their field dependence and space distribution. The results confirmed that the depth affected by baking is about 20 – 30 nm from the surface and showed that the Q-drop did not re-appear in a previously baked cavity by further baking at 120 °C in pure oxygen atmosphere or in air up to 180 °C. These treatments increased the oxide thickness and oxygen concentration, measured on niobium samples which were processed with the cavity and were analyzed with Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) and Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy (SIMS). Nevertheless, the performance of the cavity after air baking at 180 °C degraded significantly and the temperature maps showed high losses, uniformly distributed on the surface, which could be completely recovered only by a post-purification treatment at 1250 °C. A statistic of the position of the “hot-spots” on the cavity surface showed that grain-boundaries are not the preferred location. An interesting correlation was found between the Q-drop onset, the quench field and the low-field energy gap, which supports the hypothesis of thermo-magnetic instability governing the Q-drop and the baking effect.

  5. Electrochemical Characterization of Voltage Fade in LMR-NMC cells...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Characterization of Voltage Fade in LMR-NMC cells Electrochemical Characterization of Voltage Fade in LMR-NMC cells 2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle...

  6. Addressing the Voltage Fade Issue with Lithium-Manganese-Rich...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Voltage Fade Issue with Lithium-Manganese-Rich Oxide Cathode Materials Addressing the Voltage Fade Issue with Lithium-Manganese-Rich Oxide Cathode Materials 2012 DOE Hydrogen and...

  7. Eliminate Excessive In-Plant Distribution System Voltage Drops

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Undervoltage operation can result in increased currents, reduced starting torque, and lower efficiency. Suggested Actions Conduct a voltage drop survey. Voltage drop...

  8. Constant voltage electro-slag remelting control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schlienger, M.E.

    1996-10-22

    A system for controlling electrode gap in an electro-slag remelt furnace has a constant regulated voltage and an electrode which is fed into the slag pool at a constant rate. The impedance of the circuit through the slag pool is directly proportional to the gap distance. Because of the constant voltage, the system current changes are inversely proportional to changes in gap. This negative feedback causes the gap to remain stable. 1 fig.

  9. Constant voltage electro-slag remelting control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schlienger, Max E. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1996-01-01

    A system for controlling electrode gap in an electro-slag remelt furnace has a constant regulated voltage and an eletrode which is fed into the slag pool at a constant rate. The impedance of the circuit through the slag pool is directly proportional to the gap distance. Because of the constant voltage, the system current changes are inversely proportional to changes in gap. This negative feedback causes the gap to remain stable.

  10. Group 3: Humidity, Temperature, and Voltage

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This PowerPoint presentation, focused on humidity, temperature and voltage testing, was originally presented by John Wohlgemuth at the NREL 2013 PV Module Reliability Workshop on Feb. 26-27, 2013 in Denver, CO. It summarizes the activities of a working group chartered to develop accelerated stress tests that can be used as comparative predictors of module life versus stresses associated with humidity, temperature and voltage.

  11. Adaptive RF Transient Reduction for HIGH Intensity Beams with Gaps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tückmantel, Joachim

    2006-01-01

    When a high-intensity beam with bunch-trains and gaps passes a cavity with a high-gain vector feedback enforcing a constant voltage, large transients appear, stressing the RF high power hardware and increasing the trip rate. By modulating the cavity voltage with a varying periodic waveform (set-function), the RF power can be made constant while still preserving the high feedback gain. The average cavity voltage is conserved but bunches have to settle at slightly shifted positions. A method is derived to obtain this set-function in practice while making no assumptions or measurements of the beam or RF parameters. Adiabatic iterations are made including the whole machine as an analog computing device, using all parameters as they are. A computer simulation shows the success of the method.

  12. Intermodulation electrostatic force microscopy for imaging surface photo-voltage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Borgani, Riccardo Forchheimer, Daniel; Thorén, Per-Anders; Haviland, David B.; Bergqvist, Jonas; Inganäs, Olle

    2014-10-06

    We demonstrate an alternative to Kelvin Probe Force Microscopy for imaging surface potential. The open-loop, single-pass technique applies a low-frequency AC voltage to the atomic force microscopy tip while driving the cantilever near its resonance frequency. Frequency mixing due to the nonlinear capacitance gives intermodulation products of the two drive frequencies near the cantilever resonance, where they are measured with high signal to noise ratio. Analysis of this intermodulation response allows for quantitative reconstruction of the contact potential difference. We derive the theory of the method, validate it with numerical simulation and a control experiment, and we demonstrate its utility for fast imaging of the surface photo-voltage on an organic photo-voltaic material.

  13. A Capacitor-Less Wide-Band Power Supply Rejection Low Drop-Out Voltage Regulator with Capacitance Multiplier 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Mengde

    2014-05-22

    A Low Drop-Out (LDO) voltage regulator with both capacitor-less and high power supply rejection (PSR) bandwidth attributes is highly admired for an integrated power management system of mobile electronics. The capacitor-less feature is demanded...

  14. Buffer Pellets for High-Yield, Top-Seeded Melt Growth of Large Grain Y?Ba?Cu?O Superconductors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kumar, Namburi Devendra; Shi, Yunhua; Zhai, Wei; Dennis, Anthony R.; Durrell, John H.; Cardwell, David A.

    2015-01-19

    , which was determined by optimizing targeted critical parameters of the buffer pellet, including the choice of the buffer pellet composition and its aspect ratio, for the reliable fabrication of large, single grains of (RE)BCO. Potential candidates...

  15. High-precision U/Pb geochronology of large igneous provinces and mass extinctions : testing coincidence and causation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burgess, Seth Douglas

    2014-01-01

    The history of life on Earth is punctuated by mass extinction, the cause of which has often been attributed to rapid changes in global climate and/or ocean chemistry that are inferred to accompany the eruption of large ...

  16. High-Rate Fabrication of a-Si-Based Thin-Film Solar Cells Using Large-Area VHF PECVD Processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deng, Xunming; Fan, Qi Hua

    2011-12-31

    The University of Toledo (UT), working in concert with it’s a-Si-based PV industry partner Xunlight Corporation (Xunlight), has conducted a comprehensive study to develop a large-area (3ft x 3ft) VHF PECVD system for high rate uniform fabrication of silicon absorber layers, and the large-area VHF PECVD processes to achieve high performance a-Si/a-SiGe or a-Si/nc-Si tandem junction solar cells during the period of July 1, 2008 to Dec. 31, 2011, under DOE Award No. DE-FG36-08GO18073. The project had two primary goals: (i) to develop and improve a large area (3 ft × 3 ft) VHF PECVD system for high rate fabrication of > = 8 Å/s a-Si and >= 20 Å/s nc-Si or 4 Å/s a-SiGe absorber layers with high uniformity in film thicknesses and in material structures. (ii) to develop and optimize the large-area VHF PECVD processes to achieve high-performance a-Si/nc-Si or a-Si/a-SiGe tandem-junction solar cells with >= 10% stable efficiency. Our work has met the goals and is summarized in “Accomplishments versus goals and objectives”.

  17. The effect of voltage waveform and tube diameter on transporting cold plasma strings through a flexible dielectric tube

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sohbatzadeh, Farshad; Omran, Azadeh Valinataj

    2014-11-15

    In this work, we developed transporting atmospheric pressure cold plasma using single electrode configuration through a sub-millimetre flexible dielectric tube beyond 100?cm. It was shown that the waveform of the applied high voltage is essential for controlling upstream and downstream plasma inside the tube. In this regard, sawtooth waveform enabled the transport of plasma with less applied high voltage compared to sinusoidal and pulsed form voltages. A cold plasma string as long as 130?cm was obtained by only 4?kV peak-to-peak sawtooth high voltage waveform. Optical emission spectroscopy revealed that reactive chemical species, such as atomic oxygen and hydroxyl, are generated at the tube exit. The effect of tube diameter on the transported plasma was also examined: the smaller the diameter, the higher the applied voltage. The device is likely to be used for sterilization, decontamination, and therapeutic endoscopy as already suggested by other groups in recent past years.

  18. Non-iterative Voltage Stability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Makarov, Yuri V.; Vyakaranam, Bharat; Hou, Zhangshuan; Wu, Di; Meng, Da; Wang, Shaobu; Elbert, Stephen T.; Miller, Laurie E.; Huang, Zhenyu

    2014-09-30

    This report demonstrates promising capabilities and performance characteristics of the proposed method using several power systems models. The new method will help to develop a new generation of highly efficient tools suitable for real-time parallel implementation. The ultimate benefit obtained will be early detection of system instability and prevention of system blackouts in real time.

  19. Performance Characteristics of the Reduced Common Mode Voltage Near State PWM Method EPE Journal Vol. 19 no

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hava, Ahmet

    Vol. 19 no 3 September 2009 41 Introduction Most AC induction and permanent magnet machines approach to operate the inverter switches in order to generate the required output voltages [1 be obtained with rather smaller IGBT gate resistances), and high DC bus voltage levels, the CMVs generated

  20. 96 IEEE POWER ELECTRONICS LETTERS, VOL. 2, NO. 3, SEPTEMBER 2004 Low-Input-Voltage, Low-Power Boost

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kimball, Jonathan W.

    , and Patrick L. Chapman, Member, IEEE Abstract--Issues associated with boost converter design and per- formance issues for a low-cost design. It is shown in theory and experiment that the boost converter has a voltage for low-input-voltage, low-power boost converters is mainly driven by two issues. First, high demand

  1. Low Voltage Operational Amplifier Design for Energy Harvesting Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collins, Gary S.

    Low Voltage Operational Amplifier Design for Energy Harvesting Applications Brisa Calderon, Dr provide low voltages, all the components in a PMS must be able to operate at low voltages. Optimizing these components to operate at low voltages in turn contributes to the optimization of the PMS as a whole. Theory

  2. Electronic circuit for measuring series connected electrochemical cell voltages

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ashtiani, Cyrus N. (West Bloomfield, MI); Stuart, Thomas A. (Toledo, OH)

    2000-01-01

    An electronic circuit for measuring voltage signals in an energy storage device is disclosed. The electronic circuit includes a plurality of energy storage cells forming the energy storage device. A voltage divider circuit is connected to at least one of the energy storage cells. A current regulating circuit is provided for regulating the current through the voltage divider circuit. A voltage measurement node is associated with the voltage divider circuit for producing a voltage signal which is proportional to the voltage across the energy storage cell.

  3. Large scale two-dimensional arrays of magnesium diboride superconducting quantum interference devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cybart, Shane A. Dynes, R. C.; Wong, T. J.; Cho, E. Y.; Beeman, J. W.; Yung, C. S.; Moeckly, B. H.

    2014-05-05

    Magnetic field sensors based on two-dimensional arrays of superconducting quantum interference devices were constructed from magnesium diboride thin films. Each array contained over 30?000 Josephson junctions fabricated by ion damage of 30?nm weak links through an implant mask defined by nano-lithography. Current-biased devices exhibited very large voltage modulation as a function of magnetic field, with amplitudes as high as 8?mV.

  4. Generating highly squeezed Hybrid Laguerre-Gauss modes in large-Fresnel-number Degenerate Optical Parametric Oscillators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carlos Navarrete-Benlloch; Germán J. de Valcárcel; Eugenio Roldán

    2009-10-13

    We theoretically describe the quantum properties of a large Fresnel number degenerate optical parametric oscillator with spherical mirrors that is pumped by a Gaussian beam. The resonator is tuned so that the resonance frequency of a given transverse mode family coincides with the down-converted frequency. After demonstrating that only the lower orbital angular momentum (OAM) Laguerre-Gauss modes are amplified above threshold, we focus on the quantum properties of the rest of (classically empty) modes. We find that combinations of opposite OAM (Hybrid Laguerre-Gauss modes) can exhibit arbitrary large quadrature squeezing for the lower OAM non amplified modes.

  5. High Areal Capacity Hybrid Magnesium-Lithium-Ion Battery with 99.9% Coulombic Efficiency for Large-Scale Energy Storage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    High Areal Capacity Hybrid Magnesium-Lithium-Ion Battery with 99.9% Coulombic Efficiency for Large, United States *S Supporting Information ABSTRACT: Hybrid magnesium-lithium-ion batteries (MLIBs magnesium-lithium-ion batteries (MLIBs), energy storage, Coulombic efficiency, dendrite-free magnesium

  6. Large volume high-pressure cell for inelastic neutron scattering W. Wang, D. A. Sokolov, A. D. Huxley, and K. V. Kamenev

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hall, Christopher

    Large volume high-pressure cell for inelastic neutron scattering W. Wang, D. A. Sokolov, A. D for inelastic neutron scattering measurements of quantum fluids and solids Rev. Sci. Instrum. 84, 015101 (2013) TOF-SEMSANS--Time-of-flight spin-echo modulated small-angle neutron scattering J. Appl. Phys. 112

  7. Recent glaciation at high elevations on Arsia Mons, Mars: Implications for the formation and evolution of large tropical

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marchant, David R.

    and evolution of large tropical mountain glaciers David E. Shean,1,2 James W. Head III,1 James L. Fastook,3 and David R. Marchant4 Received 31 May 2006; revised 24 August 2006; accepted 26 October 2006; published 21 et al., 2003a; Chuang and Crown, 2005], concentric crater fill [Squyres and Carr, 1986; Carr, 1996

  8. Probabilistic Vulnerability Assessment Based on Power Flow and Voltage Distribution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ma, Jian; Huang, Zhenyu; Wong, Pak C.; Ferryman, Thomas A.

    2010-04-30

    Risk assessment of large scale power systems has been an important problem in power system reliability study. Probabilistic technique provides a powerful tool to solve the task. In this paper, we present the results of a study on probabilistic vulnerability assessment on WECC system. Cumulant based expansion method is applied to obtain the probabilistic distribution function (PDF) and cumulative distribution function (CDF) of power flows on transmission lines and voltage. Overall risk index based on the system vulnerability analysis is calculated using the WECC system. The simulation results based on WECC system is used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the method. The methodology can be applied to the risk analysis on large scale power systems.

  9. System Voltage Potential-Induced Degradation Mechanisms in PV Modules and Methods for Test: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hacke, P.; Terwilliger, K.; Smith, R.; Glick, S.; Pankow, J.; Kempe, M.; Kurtz, S.; Bennett, I.; Kloos, M.

    2011-07-01

    Over the past decade, degradation and power loss have been observed in PV modules resulting from the stress exerted by system voltage bias. This is due in part to qualification tests and standards that do not adequately evaluate for the durability of modules to the long-term effects of high voltage bias experienced in fielded arrays. High voltage can lead to module degradation by multiple mechanisms. The extent of the voltage bias degradation is linked to the leakage current or coulombs passed from the silicon active layer through the encapsulant and glass to the grounded module frame, which can be experimentally determined; however, competing processes make the effect non-linear and history-dependent. Appropriate testing methods and stress levels are described that demonstrate module durability to system voltage potential-induced degradation (PID) mechanisms. This information, along with outdoor testing that is in progress, is used to estimate the acceleration factors needed to evaluate the durability of modules to system voltage stress. Na-rich precipitates are observed on the cell surface after stressing the module to induce PID in damp heat with negative bias applied to the active layer.

  10. System Voltage Potential-Induced Degradation Mechanisms in PV Modules and Methods for Test

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hacke, P.; Terwilliger, K.; Smith, R.; Glick, S.; Pankow, J.; Kempe, M.; Kurtz, S.; Bennett, I.; Kloos, M.

    2011-01-01

    Over the past decade, degradation and power loss have been observed in PV modules resulting from the stress exerted by system voltage bias. This is due in part to qualification tests and standards that do not adequately evaluate for the durability of modules to the long-term effects of high voltage bias experienced in fielded arrays. High voltage can lead to module degradation by multiple mechanisms. The extent of the voltage bias degradation is linked to the leakage current or culombs passed from the silicon active layer through the encapsulant and glass to the grounded module frame, which can be experimentally determined; however, competing processes make the effect non-linear and history-dependent. Appropriate testing methods and stress levels are described that demonstrate module durability to system voltage potential-induced degradation (PID) mechanisms. This information, along with outdoor testing that is in progress, is used to estimate the acceleration factors needed to evaluate the durability of modules to system voltage stress. Na-rich precipitates are observed on the cell surface after stressing the module to induce PID in damp heat with negative bias applied to the active layer.

  11. Steam-water two-phase flow in large diameter vertical piping at high pressures and temperatures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hasanein, H.A.; Kawaji, Masahiro [Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Chan, A.M.C. [Ontario Hydro Technologies, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Yoshioka, Yuzuru [Japan Atomic Power Co., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-08-01

    No information on steam/water two-phase flow behavior in large diameter pipes (10 inch or larger) at elevated pressures is available in the open literature. However, there are many applications, in the nuclear, chemical and petroleum industries among others where two-phase flows in large diameter pipes at elevated pressures and temperatures are encountered routinely or under accident scenarios. Experimental data on steam-water two-phase flow in a large diameter (20 inch, 50.08 cm I.D.) vertical pipe at elevated pressures and temperatures (2.8 MPa/230 C--6.4 MPa/280 C) have been obtained. Void fraction, two-phase mass flux, phase and velocity distributions as well as pressure drop along the test pipe have been measured using the Ontario Hydro Technologies (OHT) Pump Test Loop. The void fraction distributions were found to be axially symmetric and nearly flat over a wide range of two-phase flow conditions. The two-phase flow regime could be inferred from the dynamic void fluctuations data. For the 280 C tests, the flow was found to be relatively stable with bubbly flow at low average void fractions and churn turbulent or wispy-annular flow at higher void fractions. At 230 C, the flow became rather oscillatory and slugging was suspected at relatively low voids. It has also been found that the average void fractions in the test section can be determined reasonably accurately using the axial pressure drop data.

  12. High-speed horizontal-path atmospheric turbulence correction using a large actuator-number MEMS spatial light modulator in an interferometric phase conjugation engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baker, K; Stappaerts, E; Gavel, D; Wilks, S; Tucker, J; Silva, D; Olsen, J; Olivier, S; Young, P; Kartz, M; Flath, L; Kruelivitch, P; Crawford, J; Azucena, O

    2004-03-04

    Atmospheric propagation results for a high-speed, large-actuator-number, adaptive optics system are presented. The system uses a MEMS-based spatial light modulator correction device with 1024 actuators. Tests over a 1.35 km path achieved correction speeds in excess of 800 Hz and Strehl ratios close to 0.5. The wave-front sensor was based on a quadrature interferometer that directly measures phase. This technique does not require global wave-front reconstruction, making it relatively insensitive to scintillation and phase residues. The results demonstrate the potential of large actuator number MEMS-based spatial light modulators to replace conventional deformable mirrors.

  13. Distributed Voltage and Current Control of Multi-Terminal High-Voltage Direct

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dimarogonas, Dimos

    to AC transmission systems. Off-shore wind farms also typically require HVDC power transmission. With increased HVDC line constructions, future HVDC transmission systems are likely to consist of multiple

  14. Containment at the Source during Waste Volume Reduction of Large Radioactive Components Using Oxylance High-Temperature Cutting Equipment - 13595

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keeney, G. Neil

    2013-07-01

    As a waste-volume reduction and management technique, highly contaminated Control Element Drive Mechanism (CEDM) housings were severed from the Reactor Pressure Vessel Head (RPVH) inside the San Onofre Unit 2 primary containment utilizing Oxylance high-temperature cutting equipment and techniques. Presented are relevant data concerning: - Radiological profiles of the RPVH and individual CEDMs; - Design overviews of the engineering controls and the specialized confinement housings; - Utilization of specialized shielding; - Observations of apparent metallurgical-contamination coalescence phenomena at high temperatures resulting in positive control over loose-surface contamination conditions; - General results of radiological and industrial hygiene air sampling and monitoring; - Collective dose and personnel contamination event statistics; - Lessons learned. (author)

  15. Group 3: Humidity, Temperature and Voltage (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wohlgemuth, J.

    2013-09-01

    This is a summary of the work of Group 3 of the International PV QA Task Force. Group 3 is chartered to develop accelerated stress tests that can be used as comparative predictors of module lifetime versus stresses associated with humidity, temperature and voltage.

  16. Voltage control on a train system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gordon, Susanna P.; Evans, John A.

    2004-01-20

    The present invention provides methods for preventing low train voltages and managing interference, thereby improving the efficiency, reliability, and passenger comfort associated with commuter trains. An algorithm implementing neural network technology is used to predict low voltages before they occur. Once voltages are predicted, then multiple trains can be controlled to prevent low voltage events. Further, algorithms for managing inference are presented in the present invention. Different types of interference problems are addressed in the present invention such as "Interference During Acceleration", "Interference Near Station Stops", and "Interference During Delay Recovery." Managing such interference avoids unnecessary brake/acceleration cycles during acceleration, immediately before station stops, and after substantial delays. Algorithms are demonstrated to avoid oscillatory brake/acceleration cycles due to interference and to smooth the trajectories of closely following trains. This is achieved by maintaining sufficient following distances to avoid unnecessary braking/accelerating. These methods generate smooth train trajectories, making for a more comfortable ride, and improve train motor reliability by avoiding unnecessary mode-changes between propulsion and braking. These algorithms can also have a favorable impact on traction power system requirements and energy consumption.

  17. Enhanced performance of sulfone-based electrolytes at lithium ion battery electrodes, including the LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 high voltage cathode

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Angell, C. Austen

    Enhanced performance of sulfone-based electrolytes at lithium ion battery electrodes, including 2014 Available online 27 March 2014 Keywords: Lithium ion battery Sulfone-based electrolytes High in the performance (safety, energy density, and power) of the standard lithium ion batteries e which approach

  18. HIGH VOLTAGE TERMINAL IN COSY ELECTRON COOLER V.A. Chekavinskiy, E.A. Bekhtenev, I.A. Gusev, M.N. Kondaurov, V.R. Kozak, E.A. Kuper, V.R.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kozak, Victor R.

    dedicated optically transparent window, also served for modulated laser beam, used in electron beam diagnostic. By construction, electronics is divided on two standalone units: collector power supply and gun included in SGF are 2 auxiliary systems, used for beam guiding and beam diagnostics. INTRODUCTION High

  19. Mechanisms limiting open circuit voltage in silicon solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spitzer, M.B.; Keavney, C.J.; Lindholm, F.A.; Nevgroschel, A.; Tobin, S.P.

    1984-05-01

    This paper reports the results of research on mechanisms limiting open circuit voltage in conventional p/n junction silicon solar cells, with a view toward both the understanding of various heavy-doping effects and the achievement of high conversion efficiency. Experimental and theoretical studies have been conducted in order to correlate heavy-doping effects to actual solar cell performance. The experiments have utilized a variety of emitter configurations with various doping concentrations in order to emphasize a number of concentration-dependent mechanisms. The theoretical modeling addresses the determination of both recombination velocity at the passivated front surface and effects of recombination at the front ohmic contact.

  20. High resolution seismic reflection to characterize small scale mechanisms of large scale natural dissolution in the Hutchinson Salt Member

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Judy, Brett

    2015-05-31

    High resolution seismic reflection imaging of the local scale processes along the eastern natural dissolution front of the Hutchinson Salt Member were correlated with its regional scale progression to define a more complete dissolution model...

  1. A High Efficiency DC-DC Converter Topology Suitable for Distributed Large Commercial and Utility Scale PV Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mohammed S. Agamy; Maja Harfman-Todorovic; Ahmed Elasser; Robert L. Steigerwald; Juan A. Sabate; Song Chi; Adam J. McCann; Li Zhang; Frank Mueller

    2012-09-01

    In this paper a DC-DC power converter for distributed photovoltaic plant architectures is presented. The proposed converter has the advantages of simplicity, high efficiency, and low cost. High efficiency is achieved by having a portion of the input PV power directly fed forward to the output without being processed by the converter. The operation of this converter also allows for a simplified maximum power point tracker design using fewer measurements

  2. Nuclear structure effects of the nuclei {sup 152,154,156}Dy at high excitation energy and large angular momentum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martin, V.; Egido, J.L.

    1995-06-01

    Using the finite-temperature Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov formalism we analyze the properties of the nuclei {sup 152,154,156}Dy at the quasicontinuum region from {ital I}=0{h_bar} to 70{h_bar} and excitation energy up to approximately 16 MeV. We discuss energy gaps, shapes, moments of inertia, and entropy among others. The role of shape fluctuations is studied in the frame of classical statistics and we find large effects on several observables. A very rich structure is found in terms of excitation energy and angular momentum.

  3. A Stable Vanadium Redox-Flow Battery with High Energy Density for Large-scale Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Liyu; Kim, Soowhan; Wang, Wei; Vijayakumar, M.; Nie, Zimin; Chen, Baowei; Zhang, Jianlu; Xia, Guanguang; Hu, Jian Z.; Graff, Gordon L.; Liu, Jun; Yang, Zhenguo

    2011-05-01

    Low cost, high performance redox flow batteries are highly demanded for up to multi-megawatt levels of renewable and grid energy storage. Here, we report a new vanadium redox flow battery with a significant improvement over the current technologies. This new battery utilizes a sulfate-chloride mixed solution, which is capable of dissolving more than 2.5 M vanadium or about a 70% increase in the energy storage capacity over the current vanadium sulfate system. More importantly, the new electrolyte remains stable over a wide temperature range of -5 to 60oC, potentially eliminating the need of active heat management. Its high energy density, broad operational temperature window, and excellent electrochemical performance would lead to a significant reduction in the cost of energy storage, thus accelerating its market penetration.

  4. Realizing Low Power FPGAs: A Design Partitioning Algorithm for Voltage Scaling and A Comparative Evaluation of Voltage Scaling Techniques for FPGAs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kuzmanovic, Aleksandar

    switchboxes, FPGAs are less energy efficient than ASICs [1]. An experimental study comparing the energy reliability due to excessive heat generation (due to high power) is a concern, power improvement in FPGAs that dual-Vdd achieves more power reduction than by Vdd scaling (i.e. adjusting the supply voltage level

  5. Low-Power Technology Mapping for FPGA Architectures with Dual Supply Voltages

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    He, Lei

    in supply voltage is applied only to non-critical paths can save power without sacrificing performance. It showed that the low Vdd could always be set at a 0.6-0.7 range of the high Vdd to minimize power was to hide the nodes of high-switching activity into LUTs so the overall dynamic power was reduced. In our

  6. Strategies for Voltage Control and Transient Stability Assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hiskens, Ian A.

    2013-09-25

    As wind generation grows, its influence on power system performance will becoming increasingly noticeable. Wind generation di#11;ffers from traditional forms of generation in numerous ways though, motivating the need to reconsider the usual approaches to power system assessment and performance enhancement. The project has investigated the impact of wind generation on transient stability and voltage control, identifying and addressing issues at three distinct levels of the power system: 1) at the device level, the physical characteristics of wind turbine generators (WTGs) are quite unlike those of synchronous machines, 2) at the wind-farm level, the provision of reactive support is achieved through coordination of numerous dissimilar devices, rather than straightforward generator control, and 3) from a systems perspective, the location of wind-farms on the sub-transmission network, coupled with the variability inherent in their power output, can cause complex voltage control issues. The project has sought to develop a thorough understanding of the dynamic behaviour of type-3 WTGs, and in particular the WECC generic model. The behaviour of such models is governed by interactions between the continuous dynamics of state variables and discrete events associated with limits. It was shown that these interactions can be quite complex, and may lead to switching deadlock that prevents continuation of the trajectory. Switching hysteresis was proposed for eliminating deadlock situations. Various type-3 WTG models include control blocks that duplicate integrators. It was shown that this leads to non-uniqueness in the conditions governing steady-state, and may result in pre- and post-disturbance equilibria not coinciding. It also gives rise to a zero eigenvalue in the linearized WTG model. In order to eliminate the anomalous behaviour revealed through this investigation, WECC has now released a new generic model for type-3 WTGs. Wind-farms typically incorporate a variety of voltage control equipment including tapchanging transformers, switched capacitors, SVCs, STATCOMs and the WTGs themselves. The project has considered the coordinated control of this equipment, and has addressed a range of issues that arise in wind-farm operation. The #12;first concerns the ability of WTGs to meet reactive power requirements when voltage saturation in the collector network restricts the reactive power availability of individual generators. Secondly, dynamic interactions between voltage regulating devices have been investigated. It was found that under certain realistic conditions, tap-changing transformers may exhibit instability. In order to meet cost, maintenance, fault tolerance and other requirements, it is desirable for voltage control equipment to be treated as an integrated system rather than as independent devices. The resulting high-level scheduling of wind-farm reactive support has been investigated. In addressing this control problem, several forms of future information were considered, including exact future knowledge and stochastic predictions. Deterministic and Stochastic Dynamic Programming techniques were used in the development of control algorithms. The results demonstrated that while exact future knowledge is very useful, simple prediction methods yield little bene#12;fit. The integration of inherently variable wind generation into weak grids, particularly subtransmission networks that are characterized by low X=R ratios, aff#11;ects bus voltages, regulating devices and line flows. The meshed structure of these networks adds to the complexity, especially when wind generation is distributed across multiple nodes. A range of techniques have been considered for analyzing the impact of wind variability on weak grids. Sensitivity analysis, based on the power-flow Jacobian, was used to highlight sections of a system that are most severely a#11;ffected by wind-power variations. A continuation power flow was used to determine parameter changes that reduce the impact of wind-power variability. It was also used to explore interactions betw

  7. A Voltage Controlled Oscillator for a Phase-Locked Loop Frequency Synthesizer in a Silicon-on-Sapphire Process

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garrison, Sean Michael

    2009-05-22

    and is fabricated by Peregrine Semiconductor corporation. This thesis work details the design of the Voltage Controlled Oscillator (VCO) portion of the PLL frequency synthesizer and constitutes an fully integrated VCO core circuit and a high-isolation buffer...

  8. Nanocrystals Embedded Zirconium-doped Hafnium Oxide High-k Gate Dielectric Films 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, Chen-Han

    2012-10-19

    nanoparticles. These results can be important to the novel metal gate/high-k/Si MOS structure. The Ru-modified ZrHfO gate dielectric film showed a large breakdown voltage and a long lifetime. The conventional polycrystalline Si (poly-Si) charge trapping layer...

  9. Electrostatically-driven elastomer components for user-reconfigurable high density microfluidics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maharbiz, Michel

    Electrostatically-driven elastomer components for user-reconfigurable high density microfluidics microfluidic system intended for very large scale integration (VLSI) microfluidics. By adding thin film metal with standard PDMS microfluidics, has actuation voltages low enough to be driven by commercial CMOS IC's and can

  10. Highly-enhanced reflow characteristics of sputter deposited Cu alloy thin films for large scale integrated interconnections

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Onishi, Takashi; Mizuno, Masao; Yoshikawa, Tetsuya; Munemasa, Jun; Mizuno, Masataka; Kihara, Teruo; Araki, Hideki; Shirai, Yasuharu

    2011-08-01

    An attempt to improve the reflow characteristics of sputtered Cu films was made by alloying the Cu with various elements. We selected Y, Sb, Nd, Sm, Gd, Dy, In, Sn, Mg, and P for the alloys, and ''the elasto-plastic deformation behavior at high temperature'' and ''the filling level of Cu into via holes'' were estimated for Cu films containing each of these elements. From the results, it was found that adding a small amount of Sb or Dy to the sputtered Cu was remarkably effective in improve the reflow characteristics. The microstructure and imperfections in the Cu films before and after high-temperature high-pressure annealing were investigated by secondary ion micrographs and positron annihilation spectroscopy. The results imply that the embedding or deformation mechanism is different for the Cu-Sb alloy films compared to the Cu-Dy alloy films. We consider that the former is embedded by softening or deformation of the Cu matrix, which has a polycrystalline structure, and the latter is embedded by grain boundary sliding.

  11. Low Voltage White Phosphorescent OLED Achievements

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Universal Display Corporation (UDC) and its research partners at Princeton University and the University of Southern California have succeeded in developing a white phosphorescent OLED (PHOLED™) that achieved a record efficiency of 20 lumens per watt. This achievement is the result of the team's collaborative efforts to increase the efficiency of PHOLED lighting by focusing on two critical factors: lowering the drive voltages and increasing the amount of light extracted.

  12. Electrostatically screened, voltage-controlled electrostatic chuck

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Klebanoff, Leonard Elliott (San Ramon, CA)

    2001-01-01

    Employing an electrostatically screened, voltage-controlled electrostatic chuck particularly suited for holding wafers and masks in sub-atmospheric operations will significantly reduce the likelihood of contaminant deposition on the substrates. The electrostatic chuck includes (1) an insulator block having a outer perimeter and a planar surface adapted to support the substrate and comprising at least one electrode (typically a pair of electrodes that are embedded in the insulator block), (2) a source of voltage that is connected to the at least one electrode, (3) a support base to which the insulator block is attached, and (4) a primary electrostatic shield ring member that is positioned around the outer perimeter of the insulator block. The electrostatic chuck permits control of the voltage of the lithographic substrate; in addition, it provides electrostatic shielding of the stray electric fields issuing from the sides of the electrostatic chuck. The shielding effectively prevents electric fields from wrapping around to the upper or front surface of the substrate, thereby eliminating electrostatic particle deposition.

  13. Chemical Abundances in Twelve Red Giants of the Large Magellanic Cloud from High-Resolution Infrared Spectroscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    V. V. Smith; K. H. Hinkle; K. Cunha; B. Plez; D. L. Lambert; C. A. Pilachowski; B. Barbuy; J. Melendez; S. Balachandran; M. S. Bessell; D. P. Geisler; J. E. Hesser; C. Winge

    2002-08-22

    High-resolution infrared spectra (R=50,000) have been obtained for twelve red-giant members of the LMC with the Gemini South 8.3-meter telescope plus Phoenix spectrometer. Quantitative chemical abundances of carbon-12, carbon-13, nitrogen-14, and oxygen-16 were derived from molecular lines of CO, CN, and OH, while sodium, scandium, titanium, and iron abundances were derived from neutral atomic lines. The LMC giants have masses from about 1 to 4 solar masses and span a metallicity range from [Fe/H]= -1.1 to -0.3. The program red giants all show evidence of first dredge-up mixing, with low 12C/13C ratios, and low 12C correlated with high 14N abundances. Comparisons of the oxygen-to-iron ratios in the LMC and the Galaxy indicate that the trend of [O/Fe] versus [Fe/H] in the LMC falls about 0.2 dex below the Galactic trend. Such an offset can be modeled as due to an overall lower rate of supernovae per unit mass in the LMC relative to the Galaxy, as well as a slightly lower ratio of supernovae of type II to supernovae of type Ia.

  14. High performance AlScN thin film based surface acoustic wave devices with large electromechanical coupling coefficient

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Wenbo; He, Xingli; Ye, Zhi E-mail: jl2@bolton.ac.uk; Wang, Xiaozhi; Mayrhofer, Patrick M.; Gillinger, Manuel; Bittner, Achim; Schmid, Ulrich

    2014-09-29

    AlN and AlScN thin films with 27% scandium (Sc) were synthesized by DC magnetron sputtering deposition and used to fabricate surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices. Compared with AlN-based devices, the AlScN SAW devices exhibit much better transmission properties. Scandium doping results in electromechanical coupling coefficient, K{sup 2}, in the range of 2.0%???2.2% for a wide normalized thickness range, more than a 300% increase compared to that of AlN-based SAW devices, thus demonstrating the potential applications of AlScN in high frequency resonators, sensors, and high efficiency energy harvesting devices. The coupling coefficients of the present AlScN based SAW devices are much higher than that of the theoretical calculation based on some assumptions for AlScN piezoelectric material properties, implying there is a need for in-depth investigations on the material properties of AlScN.

  15. Aalborg Universitet Current-voltage model of LED light sources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Munk-Nielsen, Stig

    Aalborg Universitet Current-voltage model of LED light sources Beczkowski, Szymon; Munk version (APA): Beczkowski, S., & Munk-Nielsen, S. (2012). Current-voltage model of LED light sources from vbn.aau.dk on: juli 06, 2015 #12;Current-voltage model of LED light sources Szymon Bczkowski, Stig

  16. LOW VOLTAGE ANALOG CIRCUITS USING STANDARD CMOS TECHNOLOGY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rincon-Mora, Gabriel A.

    LOW VOLTAGE ANALOG CIRCUITS USING STANDARD CMOS TECHNOLOGY Phillip E. Allen, Benjamin J. Blalock implies battery operation which favors low voltage and low power circuits. These factors and others have of the magnitudes of the n-channel and p-channel thresholds [4]. This implies that low voltage analog circuits

  17. System for increasing corona inception voltage of insulating oils

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rohwein, G.J.

    1998-05-19

    The Corona Inception Voltage of insulating oils is increased by repetitive cycles of prestressing the oil with a voltage greater than the corona inception voltage, and either simultaneously or serially removing byproducts of corona by evacuation and heating the oil. 5 figs.

  18. Electrical Circuit Flashover Model of Polluted Insulators under AC Voltage Based on the Arc Root Voltage Gradient Criterion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Qing

    In order to study the flashover mechanism of polluted insulators under AC voltage, a new arc propagation criterion which is based on an arc root voltage gradient is proposed. This criterion can explain the variation of the ...

  19. A combined compensation method for the output voltage of an insulated core transformer power supply

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, L.; Yang, J., E-mail: jyang@mail.hust.edu.cn; Liu, K. F.; Qin, B.; Chen, D. Z. [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Electromagnetic Engineering and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2014-06-15

    An insulated core transformer (ICT) power supply is an ideal high-voltage generator for irradiation accelerators with energy lower than 3 MeV. However, there is a significant problem that the structure of the segmented cores leads to an increase in the leakage flux and voltage differences between rectifier disks. A high level of consistency in the output of the disks helps to achieve a compact structure by improving the utilization of both the rectifier components and the insulation distances, and consequently increase the output voltage of the power supply. The output voltages of the disks which are far away from the primary coils need to be improved to reduce their inhomogeneity. In this study, by investigating and comparing the existing compensation methods, a new combined compensation method is proposed, which increases the turns on the secondary coils and employs parallel capacitors to improve the consistency of the disks, while covering the entire operating range of the power supply. This method turns out to be both feasible and effective during the development of an ICT power supply. The non-uniformity of the output voltages of the disks is less than 3.5% from no-load to full-load, and the power supply reaches an output specification of 350 kV/60 mA.

  20. A Silicon Strip Detector for the Phase II High Luminosity Upgrade of the ATLAS Detector at the Large Hadron Collider

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carlos García-Argos

    2015-01-13

    This thesis presents the work carried out in the testing of the ATLAS Phase-II Upgrade electronic systems in the future strips tracker after 2023, to be installed for operations in the HL-LHC period. The high luminosity and number of interactions per crossing that will happen after the HL-LHC starts require a complete replacement of the ATLAS tracker. The systems that have been defined for the Phase-II Upgrade will be designed to cope with that increased radiation and have the right granularity to maintain the performance with higher pile-up. In this thesis I present results on single modules and larger structures comprising multiple modules. In the context of the current ATLAS Semiconductor Tracker studies, I present an analysis of the data taken by the detector from the beginning of operation in 2010 until the first Long Shut-down in 2013. The analysis consists of an energy loss study in the Semiconductor Tracker, a task the detector was not designed to perform. However, the availability of the Time-over-Threshold of the signals generated by particles traversing the detector elements allows an estimation of the charge deposited by the particles. This calculation of the energy loss is typically used to perform particle identification, a feature that is usually not required from the tracker. In addition, I present a study that proposes the use of this energy loss calculation as a means of tracking radiation damage in the silicon.

  1. Commercialization of Medium Voltage HTS Triax TM Cable Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Knoll, David

    2012-12-31

    The original project scope that was established in 2007 aimed to install a 1,700 meter (1.1 mile) medium voltage HTS Triax{TM} cable system into the utility grid in New Orleans, LA. In 2010, however, the utility partner withdrew from the project, so the 1,700 meter cable installation was cancelled and the scope of work was reduced. The work then concentrated on the specific barriers to commercialization of HTS cable technology. The modified scope included long-length HTS cable design and testing, high voltage factory test development, optimized cooling system development, and HTS cable life-cycle analysis. In 2012, Southwire again analyzed the market for HTS cables and deemed the near term market acceptance to be low. The scope of work was further reduced to the completion of tasks already started and to testing of the existing HTS cable system in Columbus, OH. The work completed under the project included: • Long-length cable modeling and analysis • HTS wire evaluation and testing • Cable testing for AC losses • Optimized cooling system design • Life cycle testing of the HTS cable in Columbus, OH • Project management. The 200 meter long HTS Triax{TM} cable in Columbus, OH was incorporated into the project under the initial scope changes as a test bed for life cycle testing as well as the site for an optimized HTS cable cooling system. The Columbus cable utilizes the HTS TriaxTM design, so it provided an economical tool for these of the project tasks.

  2. Method of Controlling Corona Effects and Breakdown Voltage of Small Air Gaps Stressed by Impulse Voltages

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Athanasios Maglaras; Trifon Kousiouris; Frangiskos Topalis; Dimitrios Katsaros; Leandros A. Maglaras; Konstantina Giannakopoulou

    2014-10-15

    This paper investigates the influence of a resistor on the dielectric behavior of an air gap. The resistor is connected in series with the air gap and the latter is stressed by impulse voltage. Air gap arrangements of different geometry with either the rod or the plate grounded are stressed with impulse voltages of both positive and negative polarity. The resistor is connected in series with the air gap in the return circuit connecting the gap with the impulse generator. The method followed involves the investigation of the graphs of the charging time concerning the air gaps capacitances, in connection to the value of the resistor, the geometry of the gap, the effect of grounding and the polarity effect. It is determined that the charging time of the air gap increases, as the value of the resistor increases. It is also determined that the peak voltage value of the fully charged air gap decreases as the value of the resistor increases. The results of the mathematical and simulation analysis are compared with the results of the oscillograms taken from experimental work. In addition and consequently to the above results it is concluded from the experimental work that the in series connection of the resistor in the circuit has significant influence on corona pulses (partial discharges) occurring in the gap and on the breakdown voltage of the gap. A new method of controlling the corona effects and consequently the breakdown voltage of small air gaps stressed by impulse voltage of short duration in connection to the ground effect and the polarity effect has arisen. Furthermore through mathematical analysis of the charging graphs obtained from simulation and experimental oscillograms there was a calculation of the values of the capacitance of the air gaps in relation to their geometry and the results were compared to the values calculated with mathematical analysis.

  3. Thickness independent reduced forming voltage in oxygen engineered HfO{sub 2} based resistive switching memories

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sharath, S. U. Kurian, J.; Komissinskiy, P.; Hildebrandt, E.; Alff, L.; Bertaud, T.; Walczyk, C.; Calka, P.; Schroeder, T.

    2014-08-18

    The conducting filament forming voltage of stoichiometric hafnium oxide based resistive switching layers increases linearly with layer thickness. Using strongly reduced oxygen deficient hafnium oxide thin films grown on polycrystalline TiN/Si(001) substrates, the thickness dependence of the forming voltage is strongly suppressed. Instead, an almost constant forming voltage of about 3?V is observed up to 200?nm layer thickness. This effect suggests that filament formation and switching occurs for all samples in an oxidized HfO{sub 2} surface layer of a few nanometer thickness while the highly oxygen deficient thin film itself merely serves as a oxygen vacancy reservoir.

  4. High voltage fault current limiter having immersed phase coils

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Darmann, Francis Anthony

    2014-04-22

    A fault current limiter including: a ferromagnetic circuit formed from a ferromagnetic material and including at least a first limb, and a second limb; a saturation mechanism surrounding a limb for magnetically saturating the ferromagnetic material; a phase coil wound around a second limb; a dielectric fluid surrounding the phase coil; a gaseous atmosphere surrounding the saturation mechanism.

  5. The Appraisal Journal, Price Effects of High Voltage Transmission...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    data was sufficient to derive precise market price equations via multiple linear regression analysis for both Portland and Seattle. In addition, due to where the rights of way...

  6. A highly digital, reconfigurable and voltage scalable SAR ADC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yip, Marcus

    2009-01-01

    Micropower sensor networks have a broad range of applications which include military surveillance, environmental monitoring, chemical detection and more recently, medical monitoring systems. Each node of the sensor network ...

  7. Measurement of low radioactivity background in a high voltage...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    material were separated. Based on the mass fraction of the cable, the whole contamination was calculated. The HR ICP MS results were cross-checked by gamma ray spectroscopy...

  8. Control Techniques to Eliminate Voltage Emergencies in High Performance Processors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Singh, Jaswinder Pal

    of proposals for clock gat- ing and other power-saving techniques. While generally ef- fective at reducing average power, many of these techniques have the undesired side-effect of increasing both the variabil packaging techniques are needed to mitigate them. This paper proposes and evaluates a methodology for aug

  9. Control Techniques to Eliminate Voltage Emergencies in High Performance Processors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Singh, Jaswinder Pal

    of proposals for clock gat­ ing and other power­saving techniques. While generally ef­ fective at reducing average power, many of these techniques have the undesired side­effect of increasing both the variabil packaging techniques are needed to mitigate them. This paper proposes and evaluates a methodology for aug

  10. Highline Pacific Northwests High-Voltage Transmission System

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nancy Mitman Cathy Ehli Administrators of BPA Mary Jensen Mission Vision Values History Film Vault Film Collection Volume One Film Collection Volume Two 75th Anniversary Hydropower...

  11. High voltage MOSFET devices and methods of making the devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Banerjee, Sujit; Matocha, Kevin; Chatty, Kiran

    2015-12-15

    A SiC MOSFET device having low specific on resistance is described. The device has N+, P-well and JFET regions extended in one direction (Y-direction) and P+ and source contacts extended in an orthogonal direction (X-direction). The polysilicon gate of the device covers the JFET region and is terminated over the P-well region to minimize electric field at the polysilicon gate edge. In use, current flows vertically from the drain contact at the bottom of the structure into the JFET region and then laterally in the X direction through the accumulation region and through the MOSFET channels into the adjacent N+ region. The current flowing out of the channel then flows along the N+ region in the Y-direction and is collected by the source contacts and the final metal. Methods of making the device are also described.

  12. Electrolytes and Separators for High Voltage Li Ion Cells

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting

  13. High-Voltage Solid Polymer Batteries for Electric Drive Vehicles

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting

  14. High Voltage Electrolytes for Li-ion Batteries

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting

  15. Influence of Barrier Design on Current Collapse in High Voltage...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ; Kaplar, Robert James ; Marinella, Matthew ; Zavadil, Kevin Robert ; Atcitty, Stanley ; Sun, Min ; Palacios, Tomas Publication Date: 2012-10-01 OSTI Identifier: 1111316 Report...

  16. Influence of Barrier Design on Current Collapse in High Voltage...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ; Kaplar, Robert ; Marinella, Matthew ; Zavadil, Kevin Robert ; Atcitty, Stanley ; Sun, Min ; Palacios, Tomas Publication Date: 2013-02-01 OSTI Identifier: 1145383 Report...

  17. High-Voltage Solid Polymer Batteries for Electric Drive Vehicles...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Bibtex Format Close 0 pages in this document matching the terms "" Search For Terms: Enter terms in the toolbar above to search the full text of this document for pages...

  18. Nanoscale Morphological and Chemical Changes of High Voltage

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass map shines lightGeospatialDevelopmentEnergyApplications -Nanoscale Chemical

  19. The commercial development of water repellent coatings for high voltage

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfateSciTechtail. (Conference)FeedbackProperties ofTheatmosphere (Journal

  20. The commercial development of water repellent coatings for high voltage

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfateSciTechtail. (Conference)FeedbackProperties ofTheatmosphere (Journaltransmission lines (Technical

  1. HIGH-VOLTAGE SPINEL AND POLYANION CATHODES | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum12,ExecutiveFinancing Programs |Reference StationFranklinHammer

  2. Apparatus for producing voltage and current pulses

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kirbie, Hugh (Los Alamos, NM); Dale, Gregory E. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2010-12-21

    An apparatus having one or more modular stages for producing voltage and current pulses. Each module includes a diode charging means to charge a capacitive means that stores energy. One or more charging impedance means are connected to the diode charging means to provide a return current pathway. A solid-state switch discharge means, with current interruption capability, is connected to the capacitive means to discharge stored energy. Finally, a control means is provided to command the switching action of the solid-state switch discharge means.

  3. Eliminate Voltage Unbalance | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergyTher i n cEnergy (AZ,Local GovernmentofVoltage unbalance degrades the performance

  4. Graphene nanoribbon based negative resistance device for ultra-low voltage digital logic applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Graphene nanoribbon based negative resistance device for ultra-low voltage digital logic). In this paper, a design for a 2-port negative resistance device based on arm-chair graphene nanoribbon of the semiconductor, which leads to high excess current.2 In this paper, we propose a negative resistance device based

  5. Induction and Persistence of Large ?H2AX Foci by High Linear Energy Transfer Radiation in DNA-Dependent protein kinase–Deficient Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bracalente, Candelaria; Ibañez, Irene L.; Molinari, Beatriz; Palmieri, Mónica; Kreiner, Andrés; Valda, Alejandro; and others

    2013-11-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the cell response to DNA double-strand breaks induced by low and high linear energy transfer (LET) radiations when the catalytic subunit of DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PKcs), an essential protein of the nonhomologous end-joining repair pathway, lacks kinase activity. Methods and Materials: CHO10B2, a Chinese hamster ovary cell line, and its derived radiosensitive mutant cell line, irs-20, lacking DNA-PKcs activity, were evaluated after 0 to 3 Gy of ?-rays, plateau and Bragg peak protons, and lithium beams by clonogenic assay, and as a measurement of double-strand breaks, phosphorylated H2AX (?H2AX) foci number and size were quantified by immunocytofluorescence. Results: Irs-20 exhibited greater radiosensitivity and a higher amount of ?H2AX foci than CHO10B2 at 6 hours after irradiation for all types of radiations. Remarkably, CHO10B2 and irs-20 maintained their difference in radiosensitivity after high-LET radiation. Six hours after low-LET radiations, irs-20 did not reach basal levels of ?H2AX at high doses, whereas CHO10B2 recovered basal levels for all doses. After high-LET radiation, only CHO10B2 exhibited a reduction in ?H2AX foci, but it never reached basal levels. Persistent foci in irs-20 confirmed a repair deficiency. Interestingly, after 30 minutes of high-LET radiation both cell lines exhibited large foci (size >0.9 ?m{sup 2}) related to the damage nature, whereas at 6 hours irs-20 showed a higher amount of large foci than CHO10B2, with a 7-fold increase at 3 Gy, that could also be associated to radiosensitivity. Conclusions: We demonstrated, for the first time, an association between deficient DNA-PKcs activity and not only high levels of H2AX phosphorylation but also persistence and size increase of ?H2AX foci after high-LET irradiation.

  6. Current-voltage characteristics of seven-helix proteins from a cubic array of amino acids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alfinito, Eleonora

    2015-01-01

    The electrical properties of a set of seven-helix transmembrane proteins, whose space arrangement (3D structure) is known, are investigated by using regular arrays of the amino acids. These structures, specifically cubes, have topological features similar to those shown by the chosen proteins. The theoretical results show a good agreement between the predicted current-voltage characteristics obtained from a cubic array and those obtained from a detailed 3D structure. The agreement is confirmed by available experiments on bacteriorhodopsin. Furthermore, all the analyzed proteins are found to share the same critical behaviour of the voltage-dependent conductance and of its variance. In particular, the cubic arrangement evidences a short plateau of the excess conductance and its variance at high voltages. The results of the present investigation show the possibility to predict the I-V characteristics of multiple-protein sample even in the absence of a detailed knowledge of their 3D structure.

  7. A 0.042 mm^2 programmable biphasic stimulator for cochlear implants suitable for a large number of channels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ngamkham, W; Serdijn, W A; Bes, C J; Briaire, J J; Frijns, J H M

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a compact programmable biphasic stimulator for cochlear implants. By employing double-loop negative feedback, the output impedance of the current generator is increased, while maximizing the voltage compliance of the output transistor. To make the stimulator circuit compact, the stimulation current is set by scaling a reference current using a two stage binary-weighted transistor DAC (comprising a 3 bit high-voltage transistor DAC and a 4 bit low-voltage transistor DAC). With this structure the power consumption and the area of the circuit can be minimized. The proposed circuit has been implemented in AMS 0.18um high-voltage CMOS IC technology, using an active chip area of about 0.042mm^2. Measurement results show that proper charge balance of the anodic and cathodic stimulation phases is achieved and a dc blocking capacitor can be omitted. The resulting reduction in the required area makes the proposed system suitable for a large number of channels.

  8. High carrier mobility in orientation-controlled large-grain (?50??m) Ge directly formed on flexible plastic by nucleation-controlled gold-induced-crystallization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Park, Jong-Hyeok, E-mail: j-park@nano.ed.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Department of Electronics, Kyushu University, 744 Motooka, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); JSPS Research Fellow, 5-3-1 Kojimachi, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 102-0083 (Japan); Kasahara, Kenji; Hamaya, Kohei; Miyao, Masanobu; Sadoh, Taizoh, E-mail: sadoh@ed.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Department of Electronics, Kyushu University, 744 Motooka, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan)

    2014-06-23

    High-carrier-mobility semiconductors on flexible-plastic are essential to realize flexible electronics. For this purpose, electrical properties of orientation-controlled large-grain Ge crystals on flexible-plastic directly formed by nucleation-controlled gold-induced-crystallization (GIC) are examined, and compared with those obtained by aluminum-induced-crystallization (AIC). The Ge crystals show p-type conductions. Here, hole concentrations are 2.2?×?10{sup 17} and 5.8?×?10{sup 20}?cm{sup ?3} for GIC-Ge and AIC-Ge, respectively, which are explained on the basis of the solubility of Au and Al in Ge. Thanks to the low hole concentration, GIC-Ge shows high hole mobility (160?cm{sup 2}?V{sup ?1}?s{sup ?1}) compared with AIC-Ge (37?cm{sup 2}?V{sup ?1}?s{sup ?1}). These demonstrate significant advantage of GIC to realize high-performance flexible-electronics.

  9. 236tI1 1 NS II"HrNS (ON IND)t Si ,Y \\S.V(O \\1INS. \\ l. I,\\-\\17, NO. 2. M AR(H/APRI L1981 A New Current-Voltage Relation for Duct Precipitators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cooperman, Gene

    Current-Voltage Relation for Duct Precipitators Valid for Low and High Current Densities GENE COOPERMAN Abstract-A closed-form analytic current-voltage formula for duct electrostatic precipitators is presented

  10. Method for voltage-gated protein fractionation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hatch, Anson (Tracy, CA); Singh, Anup K. (Danville, CA)

    2012-04-24

    We report unique findings on the voltage dependence of protein exclusion from the pores of nanoporous polymer exclusion membranes. The pores are small enough that proteins are excluded from passage with low applied electric fields, but increasing the field enables proteins to pass through. The requisite field necessary for a change in exclusion is protein-specific with a correlation to protein size. The field-dependence of exclusion is important to consider for preconcentration applications. The ability to selectively gate proteins at exclusion membranes is also a promising means for manipulating and characterizing proteins. We show that field-gated exclusion can be used to selectively remove proteins from a mixture, or to selectively trap protein at one exclusion membrane in a series.

  11. Voltage-controlled entanglement and quantum-information transfer...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    external gate voltage in our schemes. Moreover, proposed schemes are robust against the noise of system parameters. Authors: Lue Xinyou ; Zheng Lili 1 ; Wu, Jing 2 ; Zhan...

  12. Fault-induced delayed voltage recovery in a long inhomogeneous...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Article: Fault-induced delayed voltage recovery in a long inhomogeneous power-distribution feeder Citation Details In-Document Search This content will become publicly...

  13. A multilevel voltage-source inverter with separate dc sources...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    conditioning, series compensation, phase shifting, voltage balancing, fuel cell and photovoltaic utility systems interfacing, etc. The new M-level inverter consists of (M-1)2...

  14. Addressing the Voltage Fade Issue with Lithium-Manganese-Rich...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    the Voltage Fade Issue with Lithium-Manganese-Rich Oxide Cathode Materials 2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer...

  15. Towards First Principles prediction of Voltage Dependences of...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Voltage Dependences of ElectrolyteElectrolyte Interfacial Processes in Lithium Ion Batteries. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Towards First Principles prediction of...

  16. Sharp interface and voltage conservation in the phase field method

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2007-07-14

    of rabbit ventricles, with a corresponding reduction in simulation time. ... applied to cardiac tissue modeling and examine voltage conservation when using this.

  17. Very compact, high-stability electrostatic actuator featuring contact-free self-limiting displacement

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rodgers, M. Steven (Albuquerque, NM); Miller, Samuel L. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2003-01-01

    A compact electrostatic actuator is disclosed for microelectromechanical (MEM) applications. The actuator utilizes stationary and moveable electrodes, with the stationary electrodes being formed on a substrate and the moveable electrodes being supported above the substrate on a frame. The frame provides a rigid structure which allows the electrostatic actuator to be operated at high voltages (up to 190 Volts) to provide a relatively large actuation force compared to conventional electrostatic comb actuators which are much larger in size. For operation at its maximum displacement, the electrostatic actuator is relatively insensitive to the exact value of the applied voltage and provides a self-limiting displacement.

  18. Low Voltage, Low Power Organic Light Emitting Transistors for AMOLED Displays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCarthy, M. A. [University of Florida, Gainesville; Liu, B. [University of Florida, Gainesville; Donoghue, E. P. [University of Florida, Gainesville; Kravchenko, Ivan I [ORNL; Kim, D. Y. [University of Florida, Gainesville; Reynolds, J. R. [University of Florida, Gainesville; So, Franky [University of Florida, Gainesville; Rinzler, A. G. [University of Florida, Gainesville

    2011-01-01

    Low voltage, low power dissipation, high aperture ratio organic light emitting transistors are demonstrated. The high level of performance is enabled by a carbon nanotube source electrode that permits integration of the drive transistor and the organic light emitting diode into an efficient single stacked device. Given the demonstrated performance, this technology could break the technical logjam holding back widespread deployment of active matrix organic light emitting displays at flat panel screen sizes.

  19. Calmodulin and calcium differentially regulate the neuronal Nav1.1 voltage-dependent sodium channel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gaudioso, Christelle; Carlier, Edmond; Youssouf, Fahamoe; Universite de la Mediterranee, Faculte de Medecine Secteur Nord, IFR 11, Marseille F-13344 ; Clare, Jeffrey J.; Debanne, Dominique; Universite de la Mediterranee, Faculte de Medecine Secteur Nord, IFR 11, Marseille F-13344 ; Alcaraz, Gisele; Universite de la Mediterranee, Faculte de Medecine Secteur Nord, IFR 11, Marseille F-13344

    2011-07-29

    Highlights: {yields} Both Ca{sup ++}-Calmodulin (CaM) and Ca{sup ++}-free CaM bind to the C-terminal region of Nav1.1. {yields} Ca{sup ++} and CaM have both opposite and convergent effects on I{sub Nav1.1}. {yields} Ca{sup ++}-CaM modulates I{sub Nav1.1} amplitude. {yields} CaM hyperpolarizes the voltage-dependence of activation, and increases the inactivation rate. {yields} Ca{sup ++} alone antagonizes CaM for both effects, and depolarizes the voltage-dependence of inactivation. -- Abstract: Mutations in the neuronal Nav1.1 voltage-gated sodium channel are responsible for mild to severe epileptic syndromes. The ubiquitous calcium sensor calmodulin (CaM) bound to rat brain Nav1.1 and to the human Nav1.1 channel expressed by a stably transfected HEK-293 cell line. The C-terminal region of the channel, as a fusion protein or in the yeast two-hybrid system, interacted with CaM via a consensus C-terminal motif, the IQ domain. Patch clamp experiments on HEK1.1 cells showed that CaM overexpression increased peak current in a calcium-dependent way. CaM had no effect on the voltage-dependence of fast inactivation, and accelerated the inactivation kinetics. Elevating Ca{sup ++} depolarized the voltage-dependence of fast inactivation and slowed down the fast inactivation kinetics, and for high concentrations this effect competed with the acceleration induced by CaM alone. Similarly, the depolarizing action of calcium antagonized the hyperpolarizing shift of the voltage-dependence of activation due to CaM overexpression. Fluorescence spectroscopy measurements suggested that Ca{sup ++} could bind the Nav1.1 C-terminal region with micromolar affinity.

  20. Abstract--The transfer capability on a transmission path is limited by constraints on acceptability, voltage security, small-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Venkatasubramanian, Mani V.

    State University, Pullman, WA 99163 USA (Email: mani@eecs.wsu.edu). utilization of the grid and security on acceptability, voltage security, small- signal stability and transient stability. For a large interconnected power grid, these constraints are influenced significantly by the interactions among path flows

  1. Stability issues in IC Low Drop Out voltage regulators 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chava, Krishna Chaitanya

    2002-01-01

    . The problem of instability of the LDO voltage regulator at low Electo Static Resistance (ESR) of the load capacitors and the consequences of this problem are highlighted. As a solution to some of the discussed problems, an alternate LDO voltage regulator...

  2. Aalborg Universitet Secondary Control for Voltage Quality Enhancement in Microgrids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vasquez, Juan Carlos

    Aalborg Universitet Secondary Control for Voltage Quality Enhancement in Microgrids Savaghebi). Secondary Control for Voltage Quality Enhancement in Microgrids. I E E E Transactions on Smart Grid, 3 in Microgrids," Smart Grid, IEEE Transactions on , vol.3, no.4, pp.1893-1902, Dec. 2012. doi: 10.1109/TSG.2012

  3. Collaborating CPU and GPU for large-scale high-order CFD simulations with complex grids on the TianHe-1A supercomputer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, Chuanfu, E-mail: xuchuanfu@nudt.edu.cn [College of Computer Science, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073 (China); Deng, Xiaogang; Zhang, Lilun [College of Computer Science, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073 (China); Fang, Jianbin [Parallel and Distributed Systems Group, Delft University of Technology, Delft 2628CD (Netherlands); Wang, Guangxue; Jiang, Yi [State Key Laboratory of Aerodynamics, P.O. Box 211, Mianyang 621000 (China); Cao, Wei; Che, Yonggang; Wang, Yongxian; Wang, Zhenghua; Liu, Wei; Cheng, Xinghua [College of Computer Science, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073 (China)

    2014-12-01

    Programming and optimizing complex, real-world CFD codes on current many-core accelerated HPC systems is very challenging, especially when collaborating CPUs and accelerators to fully tap the potential of heterogeneous systems. In this paper, with a tri-level hybrid and heterogeneous programming model using MPI + OpenMP + CUDA, we port and optimize our high-order multi-block structured CFD software HOSTA on the GPU-accelerated TianHe-1A supercomputer. HOSTA adopts two self-developed high-order compact definite difference schemes WCNS and HDCS that can simulate flows with complex geometries. We present a dual-level parallelization scheme for efficient multi-block computation on GPUs and perform particular kernel optimizations for high-order CFD schemes. The GPU-only approach achieves a speedup of about 1.3 when comparing one Tesla M2050 GPU with two Xeon X5670 CPUs. To achieve a greater speedup, we collaborate CPU and GPU for HOSTA instead of using a naive GPU-only approach. We present a novel scheme to balance the loads between the store-poor GPU and the store-rich CPU. Taking CPU and GPU load balance into account, we improve the maximum simulation problem size per TianHe-1A node for HOSTA by 2.3×, meanwhile the collaborative approach can improve the performance by around 45% compared to the GPU-only approach. Further, to scale HOSTA on TianHe-1A, we propose a gather/scatter optimization to minimize PCI-e data transfer times for ghost and singularity data of 3D grid blocks, and overlap the collaborative computation and communication as far as possible using some advanced CUDA and MPI features. Scalability tests show that HOSTA can achieve a parallel efficiency of above 60% on 1024 TianHe-1A nodes. With our method, we have successfully simulated an EET high-lift airfoil configuration containing 800M cells and China's large civil airplane configuration containing 150M cells. To our best knowledge, those are the largest-scale CPU–GPU collaborative simulations that solve realistic CFD problems with both complex configurations and high-order schemes.

  4. Spark-safe low-voltage detonator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lieberman, Morton L. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1989-01-01

    A column of explosive in a low-voltage detonator which makes it spark-safe ncludes an organic secondary explosive charge of HMX in the form of a thin pad disposed in a bore of a housing of the detonator in an ignition region of the explosive column and adjacent to an electrical ignition device at one end of the bore. The pad of secondary charge has an axial thickness within the range of twenty to thirty percent of its diameter. The explosive column also includes a first explosive charge of CP disposed in the housing bore in the ignition region of the explosive column next to the secondary charge pad on a side opposite from the ignition device. The first CP charge is loaded under sufficient pressure, 25 to 40 kpsi, to provide mechanical confinement of the pad of secondary charge and physical coupling thereof with the ignition device. The explosive column further includes a second explosive charge of CP disposed in the housing bore in a transition region of the explosive column next to the first CP charge on a side opposite from the pad of secondary charge. The second CP charge is loaded under sufficient pressure, about 10 kpsi, to allow occurrence of DDT. The first explosive CP charge has an axial thickness within the range of twenty to thirty percent of its diameter, whereas the second explosive CP charge contains a series of increments (nominally 4) each of which has an axial thickness-to-diameter ratio of one to two.

  5. Space-resolved extreme ultraviolet spectroscopy free of high-energy neutral particle noise in wavelength range of 10–130 Å on the large helical device

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Xianli; Morita, Shigeru; Oishi, Tetsutarou; Goto, Motoshi; National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki 509-5292 Gifu ; Dong, Chunfeng

    2014-04-15

    A flat-field space-resolved extreme ultraviolet (EUV) spectrometer system working in wavelength range of 10–130 Å has been constructed in the Large Helical Device (LHD) for profile measurements of bremsstrahlung continuum and line emissions of heavy impurities in the central column of plasmas, which are aimed at studies on Z{sub eff} and impurity transport, respectively. Until now, a large amount of spike noise caused by neutral particles with high energies (?180 keV) originating in neutral beam injection has been observed in EUV spectroscopy on LHD. The new system has been developed with an aim to delete such a spike noise from the signal by installing a thin filter which can block the high-energy neutral particles entering the EUV spectrometer. Three filters of 11 ?m thick beryllium (Be), 3.3 ?m thick polypropylene (PP), and 0.5 ?m thick polyethylene terephthalate (PET: polyester) have been examined to eliminate the spike noise. Although the 11 ?m Be and 3.3 ?m PP filters can fully delete the spike noise in wavelength range of ? ? 20 Å, the signal intensity is also reduced. The 0.5 ?m PET filter, on the other hand, can maintain sufficient signal intensity for the measurement and the spike noise remained in the signal is acceptable. As a result, the bremsstrahlung profile is successfully measured without noise at 20 Å even in low-density discharges, e.g., 2.9 × 10{sup 13} cm{sup ?3}, when the 0.5 ?m PET filter is used. The iron n = 3–2 L? transition array consisting of FeXVII to FeXXIV is also excellently observed with their radial profiles in wavelength range of 10–18 Å. Each transition in the L? array can be accurately identified with its radial profile. As a typical example of the method a spectral line at 17.62 Å is identified as FeXVIII transition. Results on absolute intensity calibration of the spectrometer system, pulse height and noise count analyses of the spike noise between holographic and ruled gratings and wavelength response of the used filters are also presented with performance of the present spectrometer system.

  6. A High-Resolution Very Large Array Observation of a Protostar in OMC-3: Shock-induced X-ray Emission by a Protostellar Jet

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Tsujimoto; K. Koyama; N. Kobayashi; M. Saito; Y. Tsuboi; C. J. Chandler

    2004-01-07

    Using the Very Large Array (VLA) in the A-configuration, we have obtained a high-resolution 3.6 cm map of a hard X-ray source detected by the Chandra X-ray Observatory in a protostellar clump in Orion molecular cloud 3. Two radio continuum sources were detected in the vicinity of the X-ray source, both of which have NIR counterparts. We conclude that these VLA sources are free-free emission produced by shocks in protostellar jets from the NIR class I protostars. Using the centimeter data, we determined the power and orientation of the protostellar jets. The center position of the X-ray emission was found to be ~1--2" offset from the exciting sources of the jets, and the displacement is in the direction of the jets and molecular outflows. We discuss the nature of the X-ray emission as the shock-excited plasma at the shock front where the jet propagates through interstellar medium at a speed of ~1000 km/s.

  7. Proton conducting sodium alginate electrolyte laterally coupled low-voltage oxide-based transistors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Yang Hui; Wan, Qing; Qiang Zhu, Li; Shi, Yi

    2014-03-31

    Solution-processed sodium alginate electrolyte film shows a high proton conductivity of ?5.5?×?10{sup ?3} S/cm and a high lateral electric-double-layer (EDL) capacitance of ?2.0??F/cm{sup 2} at room temperature with a relative humidity of 57%. Low-voltage in-plane-gate indium-zinc-oxide-based EDL transistors laterally gated by sodium alginate electrolytes are fabricated on glass substrates. The field-effect mobility, current ON/OFF ratio, and subthreshold swing of such EDL transistors are estimated to be 4.2 cm{sup 2} V{sup ?1} s{sup ?1}, 2.8?×?10{sup 6}, and 130?mV/decade, respectively. At last, a low-voltage driven resistor-load inverter is also demonstrated. Such in-plane-gate EDL transistors have potential applications in portable electronics and low-cost biosensors.

  8. Spark-safe low-voltage detonator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lieberman, M.L.

    1988-07-01

    A column of explosive in a low-voltage detonator which makes it spark-safe includes an organic secondary explosive charge of HMX in the form of a thin pad disposed in a bore of a housing of the detonator in an ignition region of the explosive column and adjacent to an electrical ignition device at one end of the bore. The pad of secondary charge has an axial thickness within the range of twenty to thirty percent of its diameter. The explosive column also includes a first explosive charge of CP disposed in the housing bore in the ignition region of the explosive column next to the secondary charge pad on a side opposite from the ignition device. The first CP charge is loaded under sufficient pressure, 25 to 40 kpsi, to provide mechanical confinement of the pad of secondary charge and physical coupling thereof with the ignition device. The explosive column further includes a second explosive charge of CP disposed in the housing bore in a transition region of the explosive column next to the first CP charge on a side opposite from the pad of secondary charge. The second CP charge is loaded under sufficient pressure, about 10 kpsi, to allow occurrence of DDT. The first explosive CP charge has an axial thickness within the range of twenty to thirty percent of its diameter, whereas the second explosive CP charge contains a series of increments (nominally 4), each of which has an axial thickness-to-diameter ratio of one to two. 2 figs.

  9. IMPACT OF DYNAMIC VOLTAGE SCALING (DVS) ON CIRCUIT OPTIMIZATION 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Esquit Hernandez, Carlos A.

    2010-01-16

    Circuit designers perform optimization procedures targeting speed and power during the design of a circuit. Gate sizing can be applied to optimize for speed, while Dual-VT and Dynamic Voltage Scaling (DVS) can be applied to optimize for leakage...

  10. Time varying voltage combustion control and diagnostics sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chorpening, Benjamin T. (Morgantown, WV); Thornton, Jimmy D. (Morgantown, WV); Huckaby, E. David (Morgantown, WV); Fincham, William (Fairmont, WV)

    2011-04-19

    A time-varying voltage is applied to an electrode, or a pair of electrodes, of a sensor installed in a fuel nozzle disposed adjacent the combustion zone of a continuous combustion system, such as of the gas turbine engine type. The time-varying voltage induces a time-varying current in the flame which is measured and used to determine flame capacitance using AC electrical circuit analysis. Flame capacitance is used to accurately determine the position of the flame from the sensor and the fuel/air ratio. The fuel and/or air flow rate (s) is/are then adjusted to provide reduced flame instability problems such as flashback, combustion dynamics and lean blowout, as well as reduced emissions. The time-varying voltage may be an alternating voltage and the time-varying current may be an alternating current.

  11. Modeling the operating voltage of liquid metal battery cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Newhouse, Jocelyn Marie

    2014-01-01

    A one-dimensional, integrative model of the voltage during liquid metal battery operation has been developed to enhance the understanding of performance at the cell level. Two liquid metal batteries were studied: Mg-Sb for ...

  12. Voltage-matched configurations for multijunction solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gee, J.M.

    1987-01-01

    Novel methods for interconnecting the subcells of a multijunction solar cell are investigated. The subcells are connected in parallel in these new methods. The bandgaps of the subcells must be selected for matched voltages when operated in parallel. We refer to multijunction solar cells with the subcells connected in parallel as having a voltage-matched configuration. Computer analyses of multijunction solar cells with a voltage-matched configuration and with series-connected subcells were performed. Roughly, the same performance with either approach for a multijunction cell with optimized bandgaps was found. Several advantages for the voltage-matched configuration relative to multijunction solar cells with series-connected subcells were identified, including wider selection of bandgaps for optimal performance, less sensitivity to radiation damage, and less sensitivity to spectral variations.

  13. Fusing strategies for the dual-voltage fault

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shrivastava, Rupam, 1981-

    2005-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the 42V - 14V fault in a dual voltage system and discusses the possibility of effective fusing. A simple model for the system had been created from technical documentation. Based on the model and the ...

  14. Voltage Dependent Charge Storage Modes and Capacity in Subnanometer Pores

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qiao, Rui; Meunier, V.; Huang, Jingsong; Wu, Peng; Sumpter, Bobby G

    2012-01-01

    Using molecular dynamics simulations, we show that charge storage in subnanometer pores follows a distinct voltage-dependent behavior. Specifically, at lower voltages, charge storage is achieved by swapping co-ions in the pore with counterions in the bulk electrolyte. As voltage increases, further charge storage is due mainly to the removal of co-ions from the pore, leading to a capacitance increase. The capacitance eventually reaches a maximum when all co-ions are expelled from the pore. At even higher electrode voltages, additional charge storage is realized by counterion insertion into the pore, accompanied by a reduction of capacitance. The molecular mechanisms of these observations are elucidated and provide useful insight for optimizing energy storage based on supercapacitors.

  15. Eminent Domain and High-Speed Rail in California: Sustaining Popular Support for Large-scale Transportation Infrastructure in the Aftermath of Kelo v. City of New London

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abosch, Yishaiya

    2013-01-01

    Station? California High-speed Rail takes a New Hit,”February 27, 2012). California High-Speed Rail Authority (2011) California High Speed Rail Program Draft 2012 Business

  16. Measuring Helical FCG Voltage with an Electric Field Antenna

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    White, A D; Anderson, R A; Javedani, J B; Reisman, D B; Goerz, D A; Ferriera, A J; Speer, R D

    2011-08-01

    A method of measuring the voltage produced by a helical explosive flux compression generator using a remote electric field antenna is described in detail. The diagnostic has been successfully implemented on several experiments. Measured data from the diagnostic compare favorably with voltages predicted using the code CAGEN, validating our predictive modeling tools. The measured data is important to understanding generator performance, and is measured with a low-risk, minimally intrusive approach.

  17. Voltage multi-stability in distribution grids with power flow reversal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hung D. Nguyen; Konstantin Turitsyn

    2014-07-08

    High levels of penetration of distributed generation and aggressive reactive power compensation with modern power electronics may result in the reversal of active and reactive power flows in future distribution grids. The voltage stability of these operating conditions may be very different from the more traditional power consumption regime. We study the stability characteristics of distribution networks with reversed power flow. After introducing a universal algebraic approach to characterize all the solutions of the power flow equations, we show that new solutions appear in the reversed power flow regime even in the simplest three bus systems. We show that the some of these solutions are stable and the system may exhibit a phenomenon of multistability, where multiple stable equilibria co-exist at the given set of parameters, and the system may converge to an undesirable equilibrium after a disturbance. These predictions are validated with dynamic simulations of two different systems. Under certain conditions the new states are viable and may be characterized by relatively high voltages. Possible approaches towards reactive power/voltage regulation as well as permissible distributed generation capacity in future power systems are proposed and discussed in the end of the paper.

  18. A Multiphase, Modular, Bidirectional, Triple-Voltage DC-DC Converter Power Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Su, Gui-Jia [ORNL; Tang, Lixin [ORNL

    2008-01-01

    Electrical power systems in future hybrid and fuel cell vehicles may employ three voltage [14 V, 42 V, and high voltage (HV)] nets. These will be necessary to accommodate existing 14-V loads as well as efficiently handle new heavy loads at the 42-V net and a traction drive on the HV bus. A low-cost DC-DC converter was proposed for connecting the three voltage nets. It minimizes the number of switches and their associated gate driver components by using two half-bridges and a high-frequency transformer. Another salient feature is that the half bridge on the 42-V bus is also utilized to provide the 14-V bus by operating at duty ratios around an atypical value of 1/3. Moreover, it makes use of the parasitic capacitance of the switches and the transformer leakage inductance for soft switching. The use of half bridges makes the topology well suited for interleaved multiphase modular configurations as a means to increase the power level because the capacitor legs can be shared. This paper presents simulation and experimental results on an interleaved two-phase arrangement rated at 4.5 kW. Also discussed are the benefits of operating with an atypical duty ratio on the transformer and a preferred multiphase configuration to minimize capacitor ripple currents.

  19. A near infrared organic photodiode with gain at low bias voltage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Campbell, Ian H [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Crone, Brian K [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    We demonstrate an organic photodiode with near infrared optical response out to about 1100 run with a gain of {approx}10 at 1000 run under 5V reverse bias. The diodes employ a soluble naphthalocyanine with a peak absorption coefficient of {approx}10{sup 5} cm{sup -1} at 1000 nm. In contrast to most organic photodiodes, no exciton dissociating material is used. At zero bias, the diodes are inefficient with an external quantum efficiency of {approx} 10{sup -2}. In reverse bias, large gain occurs and is linear with bias voltage above 4V. The observed gain is consistent with a photoconductive gain mechanism.

  20. Particle Emissions From Vehicles (SI-PFI and SI-DI) at High Speed and From Large Ocean-Going Vessels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Espinoza, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Engine on an Ocean-Going Vessel. Rep. N.p. : n.p. , 2009.from an Ocean-Going Vessel Equipped with a Scrubber 1.world by large ocean-going vessels (LOGVs). LOGVs represent