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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high temperature fuel" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

Microchannel High-Temperature Recuperator for Fuel Cell Systems...  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

Microchannel High-Temperature Recuperator for Fuel Cell Systems - Fact Sheet, 2014 Microchannel High-Temperature Recuperator for Fuel Cell Systems - Fact Sheet, 2014 FuelCell...

2

Thermodynamics of high-temperature nuclear fuel  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A method for performing a thermodynamic analysis of the high-temperature nuclear fuel using the ASTA computer program is substantiated. Calculations of the chemical composition and pressure of the gas phase of...

I. A. Belov; A. S. Ivanov

3

Polyelectrolyte Materials for High Temperature Fuel Cells | Department...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Polyelectrolyte Materials for High Temperature Fuel Cells Polyelectrolyte Materials for High Temperature Fuel Cells This presentation, which focuses on polyelectrolyte materials...

4

High Temperature Fuel Cells in the European Union  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Presentation on High Temperature Fuel Cells in the European Union to the High Temperature Membrane Working Group, May 25, 2004 in Philadelphia, PA.

5

Development of Advanced High Temperature Fuel Cell Membranes  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Presentation on Development of Advanced High Temperature Fuel Cell Membranes to the High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting held in Arlington, Virginia, May 26,2005.

6

Polyelectrolyte Materials for High Temperature Fuel Cells  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Polyelectrolyte Materials for High Polyelectrolyte Materials for High 3M (3M) Temperature Fuel Cells John B. Kerr Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) Collaborators: Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). February 13, 2007 This presentation does not contain any proprietary or confidential information Team Members: Nitash Blasara, Rachel Segalman, Adam Weber (LBNL). Bryan Pivovar, James Boncella (LANL) Steve Hamrock Objectives * Investigate the use of solid polyelectrolyte proton conductors that do not require the presence of water. * Prepare solid electrolytes where only the proton moves. - Measure conductivity, mechanical/thermal properties of Nafion® and other polyelectrolytes doped with imidazoles. Compare with water doped materials. - Covalently attach imidazoles to side chains of ionomers with

7

High Temperature Fuel Cell (Phosphoric Acid) Manufacturing R...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Fuel Cell (Phosphoric Acid) Manufacturing R&D High Temperature Fuel Cell (Phosphoric Acid) Manufacturing R&D Presented at the NREL Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Manufacturing R&D Workshop...

8

Fuel Cell Technologies Office: 2009 High Temperature Membrane Working Group  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

9 High Temperature 9 High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting Archives to someone by E-mail Share Fuel Cell Technologies Office: 2009 High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting Archives on Facebook Tweet about Fuel Cell Technologies Office: 2009 High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting Archives on Twitter Bookmark Fuel Cell Technologies Office: 2009 High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting Archives on Google Bookmark Fuel Cell Technologies Office: 2009 High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting Archives on Delicious Rank Fuel Cell Technologies Office: 2009 High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting Archives on Digg Find More places to share Fuel Cell Technologies Office: 2009 High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting Archives on AddThis.com...

9

Fuel Cell Technologies Office: 2005 High Temperature Membrane Working Group  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

About About Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to Fuel Cell Technologies Office: 2005 High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting Archives to someone by E-mail Share Fuel Cell Technologies Office: 2005 High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting Archives on Facebook Tweet about Fuel Cell Technologies Office: 2005 High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting Archives on Twitter Bookmark Fuel Cell Technologies Office: 2005 High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting Archives on Google Bookmark Fuel Cell Technologies Office: 2005 High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting Archives on Delicious Rank Fuel Cell Technologies Office: 2005 High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting Archives on Digg Find More places to share Fuel Cell Technologies Office: 2005 High

10

Fuel Cell Technologies Office: 2004 High Temperature Membrane Working Group  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

About About Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to Fuel Cell Technologies Office: 2004 High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting Archives to someone by E-mail Share Fuel Cell Technologies Office: 2004 High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting Archives on Facebook Tweet about Fuel Cell Technologies Office: 2004 High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting Archives on Twitter Bookmark Fuel Cell Technologies Office: 2004 High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting Archives on Google Bookmark Fuel Cell Technologies Office: 2004 High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting Archives on Delicious Rank Fuel Cell Technologies Office: 2004 High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting Archives on Digg Find More places to share Fuel Cell Technologies Office: 2004 High

11

Fuel Cell Technologies Office: 2010 High Temperature Membrane Working Group  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

About About Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to Fuel Cell Technologies Office: 2010 High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting Archives to someone by E-mail Share Fuel Cell Technologies Office: 2010 High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting Archives on Facebook Tweet about Fuel Cell Technologies Office: 2010 High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting Archives on Twitter Bookmark Fuel Cell Technologies Office: 2010 High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting Archives on Google Bookmark Fuel Cell Technologies Office: 2010 High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting Archives on Delicious Rank Fuel Cell Technologies Office: 2010 High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting Archives on Digg Find More places to share Fuel Cell Technologies Office: 2010 High

12

Fuel Cell Technologies Office: 2007 High Temperature Membrane Working Group  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

About About Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to Fuel Cell Technologies Office: 2007 High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting Archives to someone by E-mail Share Fuel Cell Technologies Office: 2007 High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting Archives on Facebook Tweet about Fuel Cell Technologies Office: 2007 High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting Archives on Twitter Bookmark Fuel Cell Technologies Office: 2007 High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting Archives on Google Bookmark Fuel Cell Technologies Office: 2007 High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting Archives on Delicious Rank Fuel Cell Technologies Office: 2007 High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting Archives on Digg Find More places to share Fuel Cell Technologies Office: 2007 High

13

Fuel Processing for High-Temperature High-Efficiency Fuel Cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

With commonly available fuels such as natural gas, only the high-temperature fuel cells MCFC and SOFC have reached electrical efficiencies of ?50% lower heating value (LHV). ... A high electrical efficiency of 60% has recently been demonstrated in a stationary field test system by Ceramic Fuel Cells Ltd. with a 2 kW(electrical) unit fueled by natural gas using DIR as fuel processing option. ... Some catalyst manufacturers supply their catalysts in the reduced and stabilized state at a premium price. ...

Khaliq Ahmed; Karl Fger

2010-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

14

Fuel Cell Technologies Office: High Temperature Membrane Working Group  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

High Temperature Membrane Working Group High Temperature Membrane Working Group The High Temperature Membrane Working Group consists of government, industry, and university researchers interested in developing high temperature membranes for fuel cells. Description Technical Targets Meetings Contacts Description Polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells typically operate at temperatures no higher than 60°C-80°C due to structural limitations of the membrane. Operating PEM fuel cell stacks at higher temperatures (120°C for transportation and 150°C for stationary applications), however, would yield significant energy benefits. For example, heat rejection is easier at higher temperatures, which would allow use of smaller heat exchangers in fuel cell power systems. In addition, for reformate fuel cell systems, carbon monoxide (CO) tolerance of the stack is less problematic at higher temperatures, which would reduce the size requirements or possibly eliminate the need for some CO clean-up beds in the fuel processor.

15

High performance internal reforming unit for high temperature fuel cells  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A fuel reformer having an enclosure with first and second opposing surfaces, a sidewall connecting the first and second opposing surfaces and an inlet port and an outlet port in the sidewall. A plate assembly supporting a catalyst and baffles are also disposed in the enclosure. A main baffle extends into the enclosure from a point of the sidewall between the inlet and outlet ports. The main baffle cooperates with the enclosure and the plate assembly to establish a path for the flow of fuel gas through the reformer from the inlet port to the outlet port. At least a first directing baffle extends in the enclosure from one of the sidewall and the main baffle and cooperates with the plate assembly and the enclosure to alter the gas flow path. Desired graded catalyst loading pattern has been defined for optimized thermal management for the internal reforming high temperature fuel cells so as to achieve high cell performance.

Ma, Zhiwen (Sandy Hook, CT); Venkataraman, Ramakrishnan (New Milford, CT); Novacco, Lawrence J. (Brookfield, CT)

2008-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

16

High temperature solid electrolyte fuel cell configurations and interconnections  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

High temperature fuel cell configurations and interconnections are made including annular cells having a solid electrolyte sandwiched between thin film electrodes. The cells are electrically interconnected along an elongated axial outer surface.

Isenberg, Arnold O. (Forest Hills, PA)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

17

Next-generation nuclear fuel withstands high-temperature accident...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

teri.ehresman@inl.gov Bill Cabage (ORNL), 865-574-4399, cabagewh@ornl.gov Next-generation nuclear fuel withstands high-temperature accident conditions IDAHO FALLS - A safer...

18

High temperature chemistry of advanced heavy water reactor fuel  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The Department of Atomic Energy envisages the use of thoria based fuel in the third phase of nuclear power generation. The fuel will consist of solid solution of thorium-uranium and thorium-plutonium in the form of their oxides. The former will contain 2.5 mole % UO2 while the latter about 4 mole % PuO2. Since no other country in the world has used such fuel, no data is available on its behavior under long-term irradiation. The high temperature chemistry of fuel can however provide some insight into the behavior of such fuel during irradiation and could be of considerable help in the assessment of its long-term integrity. The high temperature chemistry of the fuel essentially involves the measurement of thermodynamic properties of the compounds formed in the multi-component systems comprising the fuel matrix, the fission products and the clad. The physical integrity of the fuel under long-term irradiation can be predicted with the help of basic thermodynamic data such as the Gibbs energy of formation of various compounds and their thermophysical properties such as thermal conductivity and coefficient of thermal expansion derived from experimental measurements. The paper highlights the measurements made on some typical systems relevant to the prediction of thoria based fuel behaviour during long-term irradiation. The experimental problems faced in such measurements are also discussed.

S.R. Dharwadkar

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

19

High Temperature BOP and Fuel Processing  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

D D e e p p a a r r t t m m e e n n t t o o f f E E n n e e r r g g y y F F u u e e l l l l l l n n g g C C e e M M a a n n u u f f a a c c t t u u r r i i R R & & D D W W o o r r k k s s h h o o p p H H i i g g h h T T e e m m p p e e r r a a t t u u r r e e B B O O P P a a n n d d F F u u e e l l i i n n g g P P r r o o c c e e s s s s A A u u g g u u s s t t 1 1 1 1 - - 1 1 2 2 , , 2 2 0 0 1 1 1 1 A A g g e e n n d d a a Acumentrics Overview & Approach Fuel Preparation Reforming Heat Recovery Gas Utilities Power Conversion & Controls Conclusion A A c c u u m m e e n n t t r r i i c c s s C C o o r r p p o o r r a a t t i i o o n n Strategic Partners * ~ 95 Employees * Manufacturing since 1994 *Based in Westwood, Mass. *~40,000 sq. ft facility * Critical disciplines in-house Electrical Engineering Mechanical Engineering Chemical Engineering Thermal Modeling Ceramics Processing Manufacturing Sales & Marketing Automation Finance A A c c u u m m e e n n t t r r i i c c s s B B a a t t t t e e r r y y - - b b a a s s e e d d U U P P S S Uninterruptible

20

Sulfonated Polybenzimidazoles for High Temperature PEM Fuel Cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Sulfonated Polybenzimidazoles for High Temperature PEM Fuel Cells ... An optimization series of polymerizations with final polymer concentrations from 2.5 to 6.0 wt % was conducted and the inherent viscosity of each polymer was measured. ... The membrane with an optimized compn. ...

Jordan A. Mader; Brian C. Benicewicz

2010-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high temperature fuel" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Adaptable Sensor Packaging for High Temperature Fossil Fuel Energy System  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Adaptable Sensor Packaging for High Adaptable Sensor Packaging for High Temperature Fossil Fuel Energy Systems Background The Advanced Research Sensors and Controls Program is leading the effort to develop sensing and control technologies and methods to achieve automated and optimized intelligent power systems. The program is led by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Fossil Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) and is implemented through research and development agreements with other

22

FUEL CELLS PROTON-EXCHANGE MEMBRANE FUEL CELLS | High-Temperature PEMFC  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract For various applications, higher temperature levels compared to the temperature level of classical polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) with low-temperature membrane are favorable. The motivation for the development of this new type of \\{PEMFCs\\} with high-temperature membrane are easy water management and smaller, more compact cooling systems. Additionally, the electrocatalyst shows a better CO tolerance at higher temperature. In fuel cell systems with a reformer, no fine purification reactor is needed anymore. Applications with a high added value due to these criteria can be found in portable, in mobile as well as in stationary applications.

A. Heinzel; G. Bandlamudi; W. Lehnert

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

23

Safeguards Guidance for Prismatic Fueled High Temperature Gas Reactors (HTGR)  

National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

5) 5) August 2012 Guidance for High Temperature Gas Reactors (HTGRs) with Prismatic Fuel INL/CON-12-26130 Revision 0 Safeguards-by-Design: Guidance for High Temperature Gas Reactors (HTGRs) With Prismatic Fuel Philip Casey Durst (INL Consultant) August 2012 DISCLAIMER This information was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the U.S. Government. Neither the U.S. Government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, expressed or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness, of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. References herein to any specific commercial product,

24

Performance and endurance of a high temperature PEM fuel cell operated on methanol reformate  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Performance and endurance of a high temperature PEM fuel cell operated on methanol reformate Samuel September 2014 Available online xxx Keywords: High temperature PEM Fuel cell Methanol Impedance spectroscopy]. The report forecasts even more success for fuel cells in the near future. Proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel

Kær, Søren Knudsen

25

An integrated performance model for high temperature gas cooled reactor coated particle fuel  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The performance of coated fuel particles is essential for the development and deployment of High Temperature Gas Reactor (HTGR) systems for future power generation. Fuel performance modeling is indispensable for understanding ...

Wang, Jing, 1976-

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

26

New Polymeric Proton Conductors for Water-free and High-temperature Fuel Cells  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Presentation on New Polymeric Proton Conductors for Water-free and High-temperature Fuel Cells to the High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting held in Arlington, Virginia, May 26,2005.

27

High Temperature BOP and Fuel Processing | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

DC, August 11-12, 2011. mfg2011iiblitka.pdf More Documents & Publications Biogas Impurities and Cleanup for Fuel Cells Fuel Quality Issues in Stationary Fuel Cell...

28

EA-0510: High-Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (Sofc) Generator  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

510: High-Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (Sofc) Generator 510: High-Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (Sofc) Generator Development Project (METC), Churchill, Pennsylvania EA-0510: High-Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (Sofc) Generator Development Project (METC), Churchill, Pennsylvania SUMMARY This EA evaluates the environmental impacts of a proposal to enter into a 5-year cooperative agreement with the Westinghouse Electric Corporation for the development of high-temperature solid oxide fuel cell generators near Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. PUBLIC COMMENT OPPORTUNITIES None available at this time. DOCUMENTS AVAILABLE FOR DOWNLOAD August 1, 1991 EA-0510: Final Environmental Assessment High-Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (Sofc) Generator Development Project (METC) August 1, 1991 EA-0510: Finding of No Significant Impact

29

The performance of High-Temperature Reactor fuel particles at extreme temperatures  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Coated particles embedded in graphitic elements are the fuel for the High-Temperature Reactor (HTR). Experimental investigations of the performance of particles at extremely high temperatures have been conducted to achieve an understanding of coating failure mechanisms and to establish the data base for safety and risk analyses of hypothetical accidents in large- and medium-sized HTRs. The primary mechanism for coating failure and fission product release in the 1900 to 2500/sup 0/C temperature range is thermal decomposition of silicon carbide (SiC). Heating tests have provided the activation energy of this process and the correlation of SiC decomposition with coating failure and subsequent fission product release.

Nabielek, H.; Schenk, W.; Heit, W.; Mehner, A.W.; Goodin, D.T.

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

Liquid Fuel Production from Biomass via High Temperature Steam Electrolysis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A process model of syngas production using high temperature electrolysis and biomass gasification is presented. Process heat from the biomass gasifier is used to heat steam for the hydrogen production via the high temperature steam electrolysis process. Hydrogen from electrolysis allows a high utilization of the biomass carbon for syngas production. Oxygen produced form the electrolysis process is used to control the oxidation rate in the oxygen-fed biomass gasifier. Based on the gasifier temperature, 94% to 95% of the carbon in the biomass becomes carbon monoxide in the syngas (carbon monoxide and hydrogen). Assuming the thermal efficiency of the power cycle for electricity generation is 50%, (as expected from GEN IV nuclear reactors), the syngas production efficiency ranges from 70% to 73% as the gasifier temperature decreases from 1900 K to 1500 K. Parametric studies of system pressure, biomass moisture content and low temperature alkaline electrolysis are also presented.

Grant L. Hawkes; Michael G. McKellar

2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

The passive safety characteristics of modular high temperature gas-cooled reactor fuel elements  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactors (HTGR) in both the US and West Germany use an all-ceramic, coated fuel particle to retain fission products. Data from irradiation, postirradiation examinations and postirradiation heating experiments are used to study the performance capabilities of the fuel particles. The experimental results from fission product release tests with HTGR fuel are discussed. These data are used for development of predictive fuel performance models for purposes of design, licensing, and risk analyses. During off normal events, where temperatures may reach up to 1600/degree/C, the data show that no significant radionuclide releases from the fuel will occur.

Goodin, D.T.; Kania, M.J.; Nabielek, H.; Schenk, W.; Verfondern, K.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

32

The Challenges Associated with High Burnup and High Temperature for UO2 TRISO-Coated Particle Fuel  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The fuel service conditions for the DOE Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) will be challenging. All major fuel related design parameters (burnup, temperature, fast neutron fluence, power density, particle packing fraction) exceed the values that were qualified in the successful German UO2 TRISO-coated particle fuel development program in the 1980s. While TRISO-coated particle fuel has been irradiated at NGNP relevant levels for two or three of the design parameters, no data exist for TRISO-coated particle fuel for all five parameters simultaneously. Of particular concern are the high burnup and high temperatures expected in the NGNP. In this paper, where possible, we evaluate the challenges associated with high burnup and high temperature quantitatively by examining the performance of the fuel in terms of different known failure mechanisms. Potential design solutions to ameliorate the negative effects of high burnup and high temperature are also discussed.

David Petti; John Maki

2005-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

High Temperature Fuel Cell Tri-Generation of Power, Heat & H2 from Biogas  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

National Fuel Cell Research Center, 2012 1/22 National Fuel Cell Research Center, 2012 1/22 High Temperature Fuel Cell Tri-Generation of Power, Heat & H 2 from Biogas Jack Brouwer, Ph.D. June 19, 2012 DOE/ NREL Biogas Workshop - Golden, CO © National Fuel Cell Research Center, 2012 2/22 Outline * Introduction and Background * Tri-Generation/Poly-Generation Analyses * OCSD Project Introduction © National Fuel Cell Research Center, 2012 3/22 Introduction and Background * Hydrogen fuel cell vehicle performance is outstanding * Energy density of H 2 is much greater than batteries * Rapid fueling, long range ZEV * H 2 must be produced * energy intensive, may have emissions, fossil fuels, economies of scale * Low volumetric energy density of H 2 compared to current infrastructure fuels (@ STP)

34

Porous nuclear fuel element with internal skeleton for high-temperature gas-cooled nuclear reactors  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Porous nuclear fuel elements for use in advanced high temperature gas-cooled nuclear reactors (HTGR's), and to processes for fabricating them. Advanced uranium bi-carbide, uranium tri-carbide and uranium carbonitride nuclear fuels can be used. These fuels have high melting temperatures, high thermal conductivity, and high resistance to erosion by hot hydrogen gas. Tri-carbide fuels, such as (U,Zr,Nb)C, can be fabricated using chemical vapor infiltration (CVI) to simultaneously deposit each of the three separate carbides, e.g., UC, ZrC, and NbC in a single CVI step. By using CVI, the nuclear fuel may be deposited inside of a highly porous skeletal structure made of, for example, reticulated vitreous carbon foam.

Youchison, Dennis L.; Williams, Brian E.; Benander, Robert E.

2013-09-03T23:59:59.000Z

35

Porous nuclear fuel element for high-temperature gas-cooled nuclear reactors  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Porous nuclear fuel elements for use in advanced high temperature gas-cooled nuclear reactors (HTGR's), and to processes for fabricating them. Advanced uranium bi-carbide, uranium tri-carbide and uranium carbonitride nuclear fuels can be used. These fuels have high melting temperatures, high thermal conductivity, and high resistance to erosion by hot hydrogen gas. Tri-carbide fuels, such as (U,Zr,Nb)C, can be fabricated using chemical vapor infiltration (CVI) to simultaneously deposit each of the three separate carbides, e.g., UC, ZrC, and NbC in a single CVI step. By using CVI, the nuclear fuel may be deposited inside of a highly porous skeletal structure made of, for example, reticulated vitreous carbon foam.

Youchison, Dennis L. (Albuquerque, NM); Williams, Brian E. (Pacoima, CA); Benander, Robert E. (Pacoima, CA)

2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

36

High Temperature Fuel Cell (Phosphoric Acid) Manufacturing R&D  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Presented at the NREL Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Manufacturing R&D Workshop in Washington, DC, August 11-12, 2011.

37

Preventing fuel failure for a beyond design basis accident in a fluoride salt cooled high temperature reactor  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The fluoride salt-cooled high-temperature reactor (FHR) combines high-temperature coated-particle fuel with a high-temperature salt coolant for a reactor with unique market and safety characteristics. This combination can ...

Minck, Matthew J. (Matthew Joseph)

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

38

Novel Gas Sensors for High-Temperature Fossil Fuel Applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

SRI International (SRI) is developing ceramic-based microsensors to detect exhaust gases such as NO, NO{sub 2}, and CO in advanced combustion and gasification systems under this DOE NETL-sponsored research project. The sensors detect the electrochemical activity of the exhaust gas species on catalytic electrodes attached to a solid state electrolyte and are designed to operate at the high temperatures, elevated pressures, and corrosive environments typical of large power generation exhausts. The sensors can be easily integrated into online monitoring systems for active emission control. The ultimate objective is to develop sensors for multiple gas detection in a single package, along with data acquisition and control software and hardware, so that the information can be used for closed-loop control in novel advanced power generation systems. This report details the Phase I Proof-of-Concept, research activities performed from October 2003 to March 2005. SRI's research work includes synthesis of catalytic materials, sensor design and fabrication, software development, and demonstration of pulse voltammetric analysis of NO, NO{sub 2}, and CO gases on catalytic electrodes.

Palitha Jayaweera; Francis Tanzella

2005-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

39

Full-length high-temperature severe fuel damage test No. 2. Final safety analysis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Hazardous conditions associated with performing the Full-Length High- Temperature (FLHT). Severe Fuel Damage Test No. 2 experiment have been analyzed. Major hazards that could cause harm or damage are (1) radioactive fission products, (2) radiation fields, (3) reactivity changes, (4) hydrogen generation, (5) materials at high temperature, (6) steam explosion, and (7) steam pressure pulse. As a result of this analysis, it is concluded that with proper precautions the FLHT- 2 test can be safely conducted.

Hesson, G.M.; Lombardo, N.J.; Pilger, J.P.; Rausch, W.N.; King, L.L.; Hurley, D.E.; Parchen, L.J.; Panisko, F.E.

1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

40

Fuel performance models for high-temperature gas-cooled reactor core design  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Mechanistic fuel performance models are used in high-temperature gas-cooled reactor core design and licensing to predict failure and fission product release. Fuel particles manufactured with defective or missing SiC, IPyC, or fuel dispersion in the buffer fail at a level of less than 5 x 10/sup -4/ fraction. These failed particles primarily release metallic fission products because the OPyC remains intact on 90% of the particles and retains gaseous isotopes. The predicted failure of particles using performance models appears to be conservative relative to operating reactor experience.

Stansfield, O.M.; Simon, W.A.; Baxter, A.M.

1983-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high temperature fuel" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Effects of geometry/dimensions of gas flow channels and operating conditions on high-temperature PEM fuel cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In order to accomplish the objective of studying and optimizing the flow channel geometries and dimensions for high-temperature proton-exchange-membrane (PEM) fuel cells (with operating temperatures above 120C)...

Hong Liu; Peiwen Li; Alexandra Hartz

2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

Mechanical properties of solid oxide fuel cell glass-ceramic seal at high temperatures  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Mechanical properties of solid oxide fuel cell glass-ceramic seal material, G18, are studied at high temperatures. Samples of G18 are aged for either 4h or 100h, resulting in samples with different crystallinity. Reduced modulus, hardness, and time-dependent behavior are measured by nanoindentation. The nanoindentation is performed at room temperature, 550, 650, and 750C, using loading rates of 5 mN/s and 25 mN/s. Results show a decrease in reduced modulus with increasing temperature, with significant decrease above the glass transition temperature (Tg). Hardness generally decreases with increasing temperature, with a slight increase before Tg for the 4h aged sample. Dwell tests show that creep increases with increasing temperature, but decrease with further aging.

Milhans, Jacqueline; Li, Dongsheng; Khaleel, Mohammad A.; Sun, Xin; Al-Haik, Marwan; Harris, Adrian; Garmestani, Hamid

2011-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

43

Modeling of fission product release from HTR (high temperature reactor) fuel for risk analyses  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The US and FRG have developed methodologies to determine the performance of and fission product release from TRISO-coated fuel particles under postulated accident conditions. The paper presents a qualitative and quantitative comparison of US and FRG models. The models are those used by General Atomics (GA) and by the German Nuclear Research Center at Juelich (KFA/ISF). A benchmark calculation was performed for fuel temperatures predicted for the US Department of Energy sponsored Modular High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor (MHTGR). Good agreement in the benchmark calculations supports the on-going efforts to verify and validate the independently developed codes of GA and KFA/ISF. This work was performed under the US/FRG Umbrella Agreement for Cooperation on Gas Cooled Reactor Development. 6 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

Bolin, J.; Verfondern, K.; Dunn, T.; Kania, M.

1989-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

44

SiC performance of coated fuel particles under high-temperature atmosphere of air  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract To better understand whether the SiC layer can withstand the corrosion given by the chemical reaction between SiC and O2, our experiments focused mainly on the effect of oxygen on SiC-coated fuel particles at high temperature. Tests were conducted on non-irradiated coated fuel particles in an atmosphere of air over a range of temperatures between 800 and 1600C. This paper summarizes the failure fractions, surface morphology and microstructure of the SiC coating, etc. The morphology of SiC-coated particles surfaces, optical and scanning electron micrographs and the oxygen distribution of polished SiC layers at 800, 1000 and 1200C for 200h under air atmosphere showed that the features of SiC layers did not change in these cases. In contrast with the aforementioned cases, the behavior of SiC layers was deteriorated when the oxidation temperature was beyond 1400C. More serious the deterioration, higher the oxidation temperature is. The thickness of SiO2 layer from outside to inside SiC layers reached 6 ?8?m, and a large number of SiC-coated particles were broken into fragment at 1600C. The experiment results show that the oxidation of the SiC layer proceeds slowly at temperatures around 1400C and more rapidly as the temperature approaches 1600C.

Chunhe Tang; Bing Liu; Ziqiang Li; Ying Quan; Hongsheng Zhao; Youlin Shao

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

High Temperature Fuel Cell (Phosphoric Acid) Manufacturing R&D  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

TEMPERATURE FUEL CELL TEMPERATURE FUEL CELL (PHOSPHORIC ACID) MANUFACTURING R&D Sridhar Kanuri Manager, Phosphoric acid fuel cells & fuel processing August 10 th , 2011 PAFC MANUFACTURING R&D Agenda PAFC cost challenge Manufacturing Cost reduction opportunities Summary PAFC SYSTEM OVERVIEW Overview Heaters Reactant manifolds Manifold adaptors Axial load system Pressure Plates Power take-off Coolant manifolds Insulation H frame Coolant hoses Cell stack Assembly Fuel Processing System Thermal Management System / Water Treatment System Power Supply System (CSA's) Electrical System Module Blower Skid Powerplant modules Cost reduction is being accomplished by incremental changes in technology and manufacturing Closing commercialization gap Continuous manufacturing

46

Blend Membranes of Highly Phosphonated Polysulfone and Polybenzimidazoles for High Temperature Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Energy, Office of Hydrogen, Fuel Cells and InfrastructureD. Kreuer, and J. Maier, Fuel Cells 5, 335 2. M. A. Hickner,Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells R. A. Potrekar , K. T.

Potrekar, Ravindra

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

47

Mechanism of oxygen reduction reaction on transition metal oxide catalysts for high temperature fuel cells  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) with its high energy conversion efficiency, low emissions, silent operation and its ability to utilize commercial fuels has the potential to create a large impact on the energy landscape. ...

La O', Gerardo Jose Cordova

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

48

Current status and future development of coated fuel particles for high temperature gas-cooled reactors  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The coated particles were first invented by Roy Huddle in Harwell 1957. Through five decades of development, the German UO2 coated particle and US LEU UCO coated particle represent the highly successful coated particle designs up to now. In this paper, current status as well as the failure mechanisms of coated particle so far is reviewed and discussed. The challenges associated with high temperatures for coated particles applied in future VHTR are evaluated. And future development prospects of advanced coated particle suited for higher temperatures are presented. According to the past coated fuel particle development experience, it is unwise to make multiple simultaneous changes in the coated particle design. Two advanced designs which are modifications of standard German UO2 coated particle (UO2? herein) and US UCO coated particle (TRIZO) are promising and feasible under the world-wide cooperations and efforts.

X.W. Zhou; C.H. Tang

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

Development of high temperature air combustion technology in pulverized fossil fuel fired boilers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

High temperature air combustion (HTAC) is a promising technology for energy saving, flame stability enhancement and NOx emission reduction. In a conventional HTAC system, the combustion air is highly preheated by using the recuperative or regenerative heat exchangers. However, such a preheating process is difficult to implement for pulverized fossil fuel fired boilers. In this paper, an alternative approach is proposed. In the proposed HTAC system, a special burner, named PRP burner is introduced to fulfill the preheating process. The PRP burner has a preheating chamber with one end connected with the primary air and the other end opened to the furnace. Inside the chamber, gas recirculation is effectively established such that hot flue gases in the furnace can be introduced. Combustible mixture instead of combustion air is highly preheated by the PRP burner. A series of experiments have been conducted in an industrial scale test facility, burning low volatile petroleum coke and an anthracite coal. Stable combustion was established for burning pure petroleum coke and anthracite coal, respectively. Inside the preheating chamber, the combustible mixture was rapidly heated up to a high temperature level close to that of the hot secondary air used in the conventional HTAC system. The rapid heating of the combustible mixture in the chamber facilitates pyrolysis, volatile matter release processes for the fuel particles, suppressing ignition delay and enhancing combustion stability. Moreover, compared with the results measured in the same facility but with a conventional low NOx burner, NOx concentration at the furnace exit was at the same level when petroleum coke was burnt and 50% less when anthracite was burnt. Practicability of the HTAC technology using the proposed approach was confirmed for efficiently and cleanly burning fossil fuels. 16 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

Hai Zhang; Guangxi Yue; Junfu Lu; Zhen Jia; Jiangxiong Mao; Toshiro Fujimori; Toshiyuki Suko; Takashi Kiga [Tsinghua University, Beijing (China). Department of Thermal Engineering

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

High-temperature reactor fuel fission product release and distribution at 1600 to 1800 degrees C  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The essential feature of small, modular high-temperature reactors (HTRs) is the inherent limitation in maximum accident temperature to below 1600{degrees} C combined with the ability of coated particle fuel to retain all safety-relevant fission products under these conditions. To demonstrate this ability, spherical fuel elements with modern TRISO particles are irradiated and subjected to heating tests. Even after extended heating times at 1600{degrees} C, fission product release does not exceed the already low values projected for normal operating conditions. In this paper details of fission product distribution within spherical fuel elements heated at constant temperatures of 1600, 1700, and 1800{degrees} C are presented. The measurements confirm the silicon carbide (SiC) coating layer as the most important fission product barrier up to 1800{degrees} C. If the SiC fails (or is defective), the following transport properties at 1600 to 1800{degrees} C can be observed; cesium shows the fastest release from the UO{sub 2} kernel but is highly sorbed in the buffer layer of the particle and in the matrix graphite of the sphere; strontium is retained strongly both in the UO{sub 2} kernels and in matrix graphite, but can penetrate SiC in some cases where cesium is still completely retained; only if all coating layers are breached can iodine and noble gases be released. For the first 100 h at 1600{degrees} C (enveloping all possible accident scenarios of small HTRs), these fission products are almost completely retained in the coated particles.

Schenk, W.; Nabielek, H. (Forschungszentrum Juelich, Postfach 1913, W-5170 Juelich (DE))

1991-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

51

High-temperature Chemical Compatibility of As-fabricated TRIGA Fuel and Type 304 Stainless Steel Cladding  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Chemical interaction between TRIGA fuel and Type-304 stainless steel cladding at relatively high temperatures is of interest from the point of view of understanding fuel behavior during different TRIGA reactor transient scenarios. Since TRIGA fuel comes into close contact with the cladding during irradiation, there is an opportunity for interdiffusion between the U in the fuel and the Fe in the cladding to form an interaction zone that contains U-Fe phases. Based on the equilibrium U-Fe phase diagram, a eutectic can develop at a composition between the U6Fe and UFe2 phases. This eutectic composition can become a liquid at around 725C. From the standpoint of safe operation of TRIGA fuel, it is of interest to develop better understanding of how a phase with this composition may develop in irradiated TRIGA fuel at relatively high temperatures. One technique for investigating the development of a eutectic phase at the fuel/cladding interface is to perform out-of-pile diffusion-couple experiments at relatively high temperatures. This information is most relevant for lightly irradiated fuel that just starts to touch the cladding due to fuel swelling. Similar testing using fuel irradiated to different fission densities should be tested in a similar fashion to generate data more relevant to more heavily irradiated fuel. This report describes the results for TRIGA fuel/Type-304 stainless steel diffusion couples that were annealed for one hour at 730 and 800C. Scanning electron microscopy with energy- and wavelength-dispersive spectroscopy was employed to characterize the fuel/cladding interface for each diffusion couple to look for evidence of any chemical interaction. Overall, negligible fuel/cladding interaction was observed for each diffusion couple.

Dennis D. Keiser, Jr.; Jan-Fong Jue; Eric Woolstenhulme; Kurt Terrani; Glenn A. Moore

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

52

Fuel Temperature Coefficient of Reactivity  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A method for measuring the fuel temperature coefficient of reactivity in a heterogeneous nuclear reactor is presented. The method, which is used during normal operation, requires that calibrated control rods be oscillated in a special way at a high reactor power level. The value of the fuel temperature coefficient of reactivity is found from the measured flux responses to these oscillations. Application of the method in a Savannah River reactor charged with natural uranium is discussed.

Loewe, W.E.

2001-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

53

High Temperature Membrane Working Group  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The High Temperature Membrane Working Group consists of government, industry, and university researchers interested in developing high temperature membranes for fuel cells.

54

Simplified Reference Electrode for Electrorefining of Spent Nuclear Fuel in High Temperature Molten Salt  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Pyrochemical processing plays an important role in development of proliferation- resistant nuclear fuel cycles. At the Idaho National Laboratory (INL), a pyrochemical process has been implemented for the treatment of spent fuel from the Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II) in the last decade. Electrorefining in a high temperature molten salt is considered a signature or central technology in pyroprocessing fuel cycles. Separation of actinides from fission products is being demonstrated by electrorefining the spent fuel in a molten UCl3-LiCl-KCl electrolyte in two engineering scale electrorefiners (ERs). The electrorefining process is current controlled. The reference electrode provides process information through monitoring of the voltage difference between the reference and the anode and cathode electrodes. This information is essential for monitoring the reactions occurring at the electrodes, investigating separation efficiency, controlling the process rate, and determining the process end-point. The original reference electrode has provided good life expectancy and signal stability, but is not easily replaceable. The reference electrode used a vycor-glass ion-permeable membrane containing a high purity silver wire with one end positioned in ~2 grams of LiCl/KCl salt electrolyte with a low concentration (~1%) AgCl. It was, however, a complex assembly requiring specialized skill and talent to fabricate. The construction involved multiple small pieces, glass joints, ceramic to glass joints, and ceramic to metal joints all assembled in a high purity inert gas environment. As original electrodes reached end-of-life it was uncertain if the skills and knowledge were readily available to successfully fabricate replacements. Experimental work has been conducted to identify a simpler electrode design while retaining the needed long life and signal stability. This improved design, based on an ion-permeable membrane of mullite has been completed. Use of the silver wire and electrolyte composition remains the same. The resulting design maximizes the use of commercial components and can be fabricated with commonly available skills. This has resulted in a significant reduction of effort and cost to fabricate replacements. The piece count requiring assembly in a high purity glove box atmosphere has been reduced by over half and all specialized joints have been eliminated. The new design has been tested in a lab scale electrorefiner and has also been successfully scaled up and installed in the engineering scale electrorefiners.

Kim Davies; Shelly X Li

2007-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

Deep Burn: Development of Transuranic Fuel for High-Temperature Helium-Cooled Reactors- Monthly Highlights September 2010  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The DB Program monthly highlights report for August 2010, ORNL/TM-2010/184, was distributed to program participants by email on September 17. This report discusses: (1) Core and Fuel Analysis - (a) Core Design Optimization in the HTR (high temperature helium-cooled reactor) Prismatic Design (Logos), (b) Core Design Optimization in the HTR Pebble Bed Design (INL), (c) Microfuel analysis for the DB HTR (INL, GA, Logos); (2) Spent Fuel Management - (a) TRISO (tri-structural isotropic) repository behavior (UNLV), (b) Repository performance of TRISO fuel (UCB); (3) Fuel Cycle Integration of the HTR (high temperature helium-cooled reactor) - Synergy with other reactor fuel cycles (GA, Logos); (4) TRU (transuranic elements) HTR Fuel Qualification - (a) Thermochemical Modeling, (b) Actinide and Fission Product Transport, (c) Radiation Damage and Properties; (5) HTR Spent Fuel Recycle - (a) TRU Kernel Development (ORNL), (b) Coating Development (ORNL), (c) Characterization Development and Support, (d) ZrC Properties and Handbook; and (6) HTR Fuel Recycle - (a) Graphite Recycle (ORNL), (b) Aqueous Reprocessing, (c) Pyrochemical Reprocessing METROX (metal recovery from oxide fuel) Process Development (ANL).

Snead, Lance Lewis [ORNL; Besmann, Theodore M [ORNL; Collins, Emory D [ORNL; Bell, Gary L [ORNL

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) Deep Burn Core and Fuel Analysis -- Complete Design Selection for the Pebble Bed Reactor  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Deep-Burn (DB) concept focuses on the destruction of transuranic nuclides from used light water reactor fuel. These transuranic nuclides are incorporated into TRISO coated fuel particles and used in gas-cooled reactors with the aim of a fractional fuel burnup of 60 to 70% in fissions per initial metal atom (FIMA). This high performance is expected through the use of multiple recirculation passes of the fuel in pebble form without any physical or chemical changes between passes. In particular, the concept does not call for reprocessing of the fuel between passes. In principle, the DB pebble bed concept employs the same reactor designs as the presently envisioned low-enriched uranium core designs, such as the 400 MWth Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (PBMR-400). Although it has been shown in the previous Fiscal Year (2009) that a PuO2 fueled pebble bed reactor concept is viable, achieving a high fuel burnup, while remaining within safety-imposed prescribed operational limits for fuel temperature, power peaking and temperature reactivity feedback coefficients for the entire temperature range, is challenging. The presence of the isotopes 239-Pu, 240-Pu and 241-Pu that have resonances in the thermal energy range significantly modifies the neutron thermal energy spectrum as compared to a standard, UO2-fueled core. Therefore, the DB pebble bed core exhibits a relatively hard neutron energy spectrum. However, regions within the pebble bed that are near the graphite reflectors experience a locally softer spectrum. This can lead to power and temperature peaking in these regions. Furthermore, a shift of the thermal energy spectrum with increasing temperature can lead to increased absorption in the resonances of the fissile Pu isotopes. This can lead to a positive temperature reactivity coefficient for the graphite moderator under certain operating conditions. The effort of this task in FY 2010 has focused on the optimization of the core to maximize the pebble discharge burnup level, while retaining its inherent safety characteristics. Using generic pebble bed reactor cores, this task will perform physics calculations to evaluate the capabilities of the pebble bed reactor to perform utilization and destruction of LWR used-fuel transuranics. The task will use established benchmarked models, and will introduce modeling advancements appropriate to the nature of the fuel considered (high TRU content and high burn-up).

B. Boer; A. M. Ougouag

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

57

Application of Self-Propagating High Temperature Synthesis to the Fabrication of Actinide Bearing Nitride and Other Ceramic Nuclear Fuels  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The project uses an exothermic combustion synthesis reaction, termed self-propagating high-temperature synthesis (SHS), to produce high quality, reproducible nitride fuels and other ceramic type nuclear fuels (cercers and cermets, etc.) in conjunction with the fabrication of transmutation fuels. The major research objective of the project is determining the fundamental SHS processing parameters by first using manganese as a surrogate for americium to produce dense Zr-Mn-N ceramic compounds. These fundamental principles will then be transferred to the production of dense Zr-Am-N ceramic materials. A further research objective in the research program is generating fundamental SHS processing data to the synthesis of (i) Pu-Am-Zr-N and (ii) U-Pu-Am-N ceramic fuels. In this case, Ce will be used as the surrogate for Pu, Mn as the surrogate for Am, and depleted uranium as the surrogate for U. Once sufficient fundamental data has been determined for these surrogate systems, the information will be transferred to Idaho National Laboratory (INL) for synthesis of Zr-Am-N, Pu-Am-Zr-N and U-Pu-Am-N ceramic fuels. The high vapor pressures of americium (Am) and americium nitride (AmN) are cause for concern in producing nitride ceramic nuclear fuel that contains Am. Along with the problem of Am retention during the sintering phases of current processing methods, are additional concerns of producing a consistent product of desirable homogeneity, density and porosity. Similar difficulties have been experienced during the laboratory scale process development stage of producing metal alloys containing Am wherein compact powder sintering methods had to be abandoned. Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop a low-temperature or lowheat fuel fabrication process for the synthesis of Am-containing ceramic fuels. Self-propagating high temperature synthesis (SHS), also called combustion synthesis, offers such an alternative process for the synthesis of Am nitride fuels. Although SHS takes thermodynamic advantage of the high combustion temperatures of these exothermic SHS reactions to synthesize the required compounds, the very fast heating, reaction and cooling rates can kinetically generate extremely fast reaction rates and facilitate the retention of volatile species within the rapidly propagating SHS reaction front. The initial objective of the research program is to use Mn as the surrogate for Am to synthesize a reproducible, dense, high quality Zr-Mn-N ceramic compound. Having determined the fundamental SHS reaction parameters and optimized SHS processing steps using Mn as the surrogate for Am, the technology will be transferred to Idaho National Laboratory to successfully synthesize a high quality Zr-Am-N ceramic fuel.

John J. Moore, Marissa M. Reigel, Collin D. Donohoue

2009-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

58

Thermodynamic Characteristic Study of a High-temperature Flow-rate Control Valve for Fuel Supply of Scramjet Engines  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Thermodynamic characteristics are of great importance for the performance of a high-temperature flow-rate control valve, as high-temperature environment may bring problems, such as blocking of spool and increasing of leakage, to the valve. In this paper, a high-temperature flow-rate control valve, pilot-controlled by a pneumatic servo system is developed to control the fuel supply for scramjet engines. After introducing the construction and working principle, the thermodynamic mathematical models of the valve are built based on the heat transfer methods inside the valve. By using different boundary conditions, different methods of simulations are carried out and compared. The steady-state and transient temperature field distribution inside the valve body are predicted and temperatures at five interested points are measured. By comparing the simulation and experimental results, a reasonable 3D finite element analysis method is suggested to predict the thermodynamic characteristics of the high-temperature flow-rate control valve.

Wen ZENG; Zhizhong TONG; Songjing LI; Hongzhou LI; Liang ZHANG

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

New Membranes for High Temperature Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells Based on Heteropoly Acids  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

"Summary of Colorado School of Mines heteropolyacid research presented to the High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting, Orlando FL, October 17, 2003 "

60

High Temperature Reactor (HTR) Deep Burn Core and Fuel Analysis: Design Selection for the Prismatic Block Reactor  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Deep Burn (DB) Project is a U.S. Department of Energy sponsored feasibility study of Transuranic Management using high burnup fuel in the high temperature helium cooled reactor (HTR). The DB Project consists of seven tasks: project management, core and fuel analysis, spent fuel management, fuel cycle integration, TRU fuel modeling, TRU fuel qualification, and HTR fuel recycle. In the Phase II of the Project, we conducted nuclear analysis of TRU destruction/utilization in the HTR prismatic block design (Task 2.1), deep burn fuel/TRISO microanalysis (Task 2.3), and synergy with fast reactors (Task 4.2). The Task 2.1 covers the core physics design, thermo-hydraulic CFD analysis, and the thermofluid and safety analysis (low pressure conduction cooling, LPCC) of the HTR prismatic block design. The Task 2.3 covers the analysis of the structural behavior of TRISO fuel containing TRU at very high burnup level, i.e. exceeding 50% of FIMA. The Task 4.2 includes the self-cleaning HTR based on recycle of HTR-generated TRU in the same HTR. Chapter IV contains the design and analysis results of the 600MWth DB-HTR core physics with the cycle length, the average discharged burnup, heavy metal and plutonium consumptions, radial and axial power distributions, temperature reactivity coefficients. Also, it contains the analysis results of the 450MWth DB-HTR core physics and the analysis of the decay heat of a TRU loaded DB-HTR core. The evaluation of the hot spot fuel temperature of the fuel block in the DB-HTR (Deep-Burn High Temperature Reactor) core under full operating power conditions are described in Chapter V. The investigated designs are the 600MWth and 460MWth DB-HTRs. In Chapter VI, the thermo-fluid and safety of the 600MWth DB-HTRs has been analyzed to investigate a thermal-fluid design performance at the steady state and a passive safety performance during an LPCC event. Chapter VII describes the analysis results of the TRISO fuel microanalysis of the 600MWth and 450MWth DB-HTRs. The TRISO fuel microanalysis covers the gas pressure buildup in a coated fuel particle including helium production, the thermo-mechanical behavior of a CFP, the failure probabilities of CFPs, the temperature distribution in a CPF, and the fission product (FP) transport in a CFP and a graphite. In Chapter VIII, it contains the core design and analysis of sodium cooled fast reactor (SFR) with deep burn HTR reactor. It considers a synergistic combination of the DB-MHR and an SFR burner for a safe and efficient transmutation of the TRUs from LWRs. Chapter IX describes the design and analysis results of the self-cleaning (or self-recycling) HTR core. The analysis is considered zero and 5-year cooling time of the spent LWR fuels.

Francesco Venneri; Chang-Keun Jo; Jae-Man Noh; Yonghee Kim; Claudio Filippone; Jonghwa Chang; Chris Hamilton; Young-Min Kim; Ji-Su Jun; Moon-Sung Cho; Hong-Sik Lim; MIchael A. Pope; Abderrafi M. Ougouag; Vincent Descotes; Brian Boer

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high temperature fuel" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Safeguards-by-Design: Guidance for High Temperature Gas Reactors (HTGRs) With Pebble Fuel  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The following is a guidance document from a series prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), under the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI), to assist facility designers and operators in implementing international Safeguards-by-Design (SBD). SBD has two main objectives: (1) to avoid costly and time consuming redesign work or retrofits of new nuclear fuel cycle facilities and (2) to make the implementation of international safeguards more effective and efficient at such facilities. In the long term, the attainment of these goals would save industry and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) time, money, and resources and be mutually beneficial. This particular safeguards guidance document focuses on pebble fuel high temperature gas reactors (HTGR). The purpose of the IAEA safeguards system is to provide credible assurance to the international community that nuclear material and other specified items are not diverted from peaceful nuclear uses. The safeguards system consists of the IAEAs statutory authority to establish safeguards; safeguards rights and obligations in safeguards agreements and additional protocols; and technical measures implemented pursuant to those agreements. Of foremost importance is the international safeguards agreement between the country and the IAEA, concluded pursuant to the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT). According to a 1992 IAEA Board of Governors decision, countries must: notify the IAEA of a decision to construct a new nuclear facility as soon as such decision is taken; provide design information on such facilities as the designs develop; and provide detailed design information based on construction plans at least 180 days prior to the start of construction, and on "as-built" designs at least 180 days before the first receipt of nuclear material. Ultimately, the design information will be captured in an IAEA Design Information Questionnaire (DIQ), prepared by the facility operator, typically with the support of the facility designer. The IAEA will verify design information over the life of the project. This design information is an important IAEA safeguards tool. Since the main interlocutor with the IAEA in each country is the State Regulatory Authority/SSAC (or Regional Regulatory Authority, e.g. EURATOM), the responsibility for conveying this design information to the IAEA falls to the State Regulatory Authority/SSAC.

Philip Casey Durst; Mark Schanfein

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

62

Fast?switching, high?temperature propellant source for multistage pneumatic acceleration of hydrogen fuel pellets  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A fast arc?driven hydrogen gas source and its application as a module in a scheme for multiple downstream propellant supply to a light?gas gun is described. The potential of this scheme for high?speed acceleration of hydrogen fuel?pellets for fusion plasma fueling is considered. In experiments with a single module in which 200 J of electrical energy were dissipated with a power level approaching 5 MW within 30 ?s the velocity of a 23?mg plastic dummy pellet was increased from 1.7 to 2.4 km/s. Barrel pressure transients and arc characteristics are described.

S. A. Andersen; L. Baekmark

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

63

Safeguards-by-Design:Guidance for High Temperature Gas Reactors (HTGRs) With Prismatic Fuel  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Introduction and Purpose The following is a guidance document from a series prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), under the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI), to assist facility designers and operators in implementing international Safeguards-by-Design (SBD). SBD has two main objectives: (1) to avoid costly and time consuming redesign work or retrofits of new nuclear fuel cycle facilities and (2) to make the implementation of international safeguards more effective and efficient at such facilities. In the long term, the attainment of these goals would save industry and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) time, money, and resources and be mutually beneficial. This particular safeguards guidance document focuses on prismatic fuel high temperature gas reactors (HTGR). The purpose of the IAEA safeguards system is to provide credible assurance to the international community that nuclear material and other specified items are not diverted from peaceful nuclear uses. The safeguards system consists of the IAEAs statutory authority to establish safeguards; safeguards rights and obligations in safeguards agreements and additional protocols; and technical measures implemented pursuant to those agreements. Of foremost importance is the international safeguards agreement between the country and the IAEA, concluded pursuant to the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT). According to a 1992 IAEA Board of Governors decision, countries must: notify the IAEA of a decision to construct a new nuclear facility as soon as such decision is taken; provide design information on such facilities as the designs develop; and provide detailed design information based on construction plans at least 180 days prior to the start of construction, and on "as-built" designs at least 180 days before the first receipt of nuclear material. Ultimately, the design information will be captured in an IAEA Design Information Questionnaire (DIQ), prepared by the facility operator, typically with the support of the facility designer. The IAEA will verify design information over the life of the project. This design information is an important IAEA safeguards tool. Since the main interlocutor with the IAEA in each country is the State Regulatory Authority/SSAC (or Regional Regulatory Authority, e.g. EURATOM), the responsibility for conveying this design information to the IAEA falls to the State Regulatory Authority/SSAC. For the nuclear industry to reap the benefits of SBD (i.e. avoid cost overruns and construction schedule slippages), nuclear facility designers and operators should work closely with the State Regulatory Authority and IAEA as soon as a decision is taken to build a new nuclear facility. Ideally, this interaction should begin during the conceptual design phase and continue throughout construction and start-up of a nuclear facility. Such early coordination and planning could influence decisions on the design of the nuclear material processing flow-sheet, material storage and handling arrangements, and facility layout (including safeguards equipment), etc.

Mark Schanfein; Casey Durst

2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

64

LOW-TEMPERATURE, ANODE-SUPPORTED HIGH POWER DENSITY SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS WITH NANOSTRUCTURED ELECTRODES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report summarizes the work done during the entire project period, between October 1, 1999 and March 31, 2003, which includes a six-month no-cost extension. During the project, eight research papers have, either been, published, accepted for publication, or submitted for publication. In addition, several presentations have been made in technical meetings and workshops. The project also has provided support for four graduate students working towards advanced degrees. The principal technical objective of the project was to analyze the role of electrode microstructure on solid oxide fuel cell performance. Prior theoretical work conducted in our laboratory demonstrated that the particle size of composite electrodes has a profound effect on cell performance; the finer the particle size, the lower the activation polarization, the better the performance. The composite cathodes examined consisted of electronically conducting perovskites such as Sr-doped LaMnO{sub 3} (LSM) or Sr-doped LaCoO{sub 3} (LSC), which is also a mixed conductor, as the electrocatalyst, and yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) or rare earth oxide doped CeO{sub 2} as the ionic conductor. The composite anodes examined were mixtures of Ni and YSZ. A procedure was developed for the synthesis of nanosize YSZ by molecular decomposition, in which unwanted species were removed by leaching, leaving behind nanosize YSZ. Anode-supported cells were made using the as-synthesized powders, or using commercially acquired powders. The electrolyte was usually a thin ({approx}10 microns), dense layer of YSZ, supported on a thick ({approx}1 mm), porous Ni + YSZ anode. The cathode was a porous mixture of electrocatalyst and an ionic conductor. Most of the cell testing was done at 800 C with hydrogen as fuel and air as the oxidant. Maximum power densities as high as 1.8 W/cm{sup 2} were demonstrated. Polarization behavior of the cells was theoretically analyzed. A limited amount of cell testing was done using liquid hydrocarbon fuels where reforming was achieved internally. Significant polarization losses also occur at the anode, especially at high fuel utilizations. An analysis of polarization losses requires that various contributions are isolated, and their dependence on pertinent parameters is quantitatively described. An investigation of fuel composition on gas transport through porous anodes was investigated and the role of fuel diluents was explored. This work showed that the molecular weight of the diluent has a significant effect on anode concentration polarization. This further showed that the presence of some molecular hydrogen is necessary to minimize polarization losses. Theoretical analysis has shown that the electrode microstructure has a profound effect on cell performance. In a series of experiments, cathode microstructural parameters were varied, without altering other parameters. Cathode microstructural parameters, especially three phase boundary (TPB) length, were estimated using techniques in quantitative stereology. Cell performance was quantitatively correlated with the relevant microstructural parameters, and charge transfer resistivity was explicitly evaluated. This is the first time that a fundamental parameter, which governs the activation polarization, has been quantitatively determined. An important parameter, which governs the cathodic activation polarization, and thus cell performance, is the ionic conductivity of the composite cathode. The traditional composite cathode is a mixture of LSM and YSZ. It is well known that Sr and Mg-doped LaGaO{sub 3} (LSGM), exhibits higher oxygen ion conductivity compared to YSZ. Cells were fabricated with composite cathodes comprising a mixture of LSM and LSGM. Studies demonstrated that LSGM-based composite cathodes exhibit excellent behavior. Studies have shown that Ni + YSZ is an excellent anode. In fact, in most cells, the principal polarization losses, at least at low fuel utilizations, are associated with the cathode. Theoretical analysis conducted in our group has also shown that anode-supported cells exhibi

Professor Anil V. Virkar

2003-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

65

Configuration adjustment potential of the Very High Temperature Reactor prismatic cores with advanced actinide fuels  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

?.????????????????????............................. 102 APPENDIX C?.???????????????????????????. 104 VITA????????????????????????????????.111 viii LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE Page 1 Flow Chart of the CSAS6 Control Module????????????.? 12 2 Fuel Graphite Block... for the Annular Core Configuration with UO2 and MA fuel loadings???.??. 75 x LIST OF TABLES TABLE Page I Design Specifications for the HTTR????????..???????. 17 II Fuel Graphite Block Properties??????????????...??? 22 III...

Ames, David E, II

2006-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

66

Comparative evaluation of pebble-bed and prismatic fueled high-temperature gas-cooled reactors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A comparative evaluation has been performed of the HTGR and the Federal Republic of Germany's Pebble Bed Reactor (PBR) for potential commercial applications in the US. The evaluation considered two reactor sizes (1000 and 3000 MW(t)) and three process applications (steam cycle, direct cycle, and process heat, with outlet coolant temperatures of 750, 850, and 950/sup 0/C, respectively). The primary criterion for the comparison was the levelized (15-year) cost of producing electricity or process heat. Emphasis was placed on the cost impact of differences between the prismatic-type HTGR core, which requires periodic refuelings during reactor shutdowns, and the pebble bed PBR core, which is refueled continuously during reactor operations. Detailed studies of key technical issues using reference HTGR and PBR designs revealed that two cost components contributing to the levelized power costs are higher for the PBR: capital costs and operation and maintenance costs. A third cost component, associated with nonavailability penalties, tended to be higher for the PBR except for the process heat application, for which there is a large uncertainty in the HTGR nonavailability penalty at the 950/sup 0/C outlet coolant temperature. A fourth cost component, fuel cycle costs, is lower for the PBR, but not sufficiently lower to offset the capital cost component. Thus the HTGR appears to be slightly superior to the PBR in economic performance. Because of the advanced development of the HTGR concept, large HTGRs could also be commercialized in the US with lower R and D costs and shorter lead times than could large PBRs. It is recommended that the US gas-cooled thermal reactor program continue giving primary support to the HTGR, while also maintaining its cooperative PBR program with FRG.

Kasten, P.R.; Bartine, D.E.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

High Temperature Fuel Cell Tri-Generation of Power, Heat & H2 from Biogas  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Success story about using waste water treatment gas for hydrogen production at UC Irvine. Presented by Jack Brouwer, UC Irvine, at the NREL/DOE Biogas and Fuel Cells Workshop held June 11-13, 2012, in Golden, Colorado.

68

Aid for electrical contacting of high-temperature fuel cells and method for production thereof  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A double-sided adhesive metal-based tape for use as contacting aid for SOFC fuel cells is provided. The double-sided metal-based adhesive tape is suitable for simplifying the construction of cell bundles. The double-sided metal-based adhesive tape is used for electrical contacting of the cell connector with the anode and for electrical contacting of the interconnector of the fuel cells with the cell connector. A method for producing the double-sided adhesive metal-base tape is also provided.

Becker, Ines; Schillig, Cora

2014-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

69

Plasma Nanocrystalline Doped Ceramic Enabled Fiber Sensors for High Temperature In-Situ Monitoring of Fossil Fuel Gases  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

7 7 Advanced Research contacts Robert R. Romanosky Technology Manager Advanced Research National Energy Technology Laboratory 3610 Collins Ferry Road P.O. Box 880 Morgantown, WV 26507 304-285-4721 robert.romanosky@netl.doe.gov susan M. Maley Project Manager National Energy Technology Laboratory 3610 Collins Ferry Road P.O. Box 880 Morgantown, WV 26507 304-285-1321 susan.maley@netl.doe.gov Hai Xiao University of Missouri-Rolla Electrical and Computer Engineering Department Rolla, MO 65409 573-341-6887 xiaoha@umr.edu Novel seNsors for high temperature iN-situ moNitoriNg of fossil fuel gases Description Novel types of sensors are needed to withstand the harsh environments characteristic of advanced power generation systems, particularly gasification-based systems.

70

LOW-TEMPERATURE, ANODE-SUPPORTED HIGH POWER DENSITY SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS WITH NANOSTRUCTURED ELECTRODES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A simple, approximate analysis of the effect of differing cathode and anode areas on the measurement of cell performance on anode-supported solid oxide fuel cells, wherein the cathode area is smaller than the anode area, is presented. It is shown that the effect of cathode area on cathode polarization, on electrolyte contribution, and on anode resistance, as normalized on the basis of the cathode area, is negligible. There is a small but measurable effect on anode polarization, which results from concentration polarization. Effectively, it is the result of a greater amount of fuel transported to the anode/electrolyte interface in cases wherein the anode area is larger than the cathode area. Experiments were performed on cells made with differing cathode areas and geometries. Cathodic and anodic overpotentials measured using reference electrodes, and the measured ohmic area specific resistances by current interruption, were in good agreement with expectations based on the analysis presented. At 800 C, the maximum power density measured with a cathode area of {approx}1.1 cm{sup 2} was {approx}1.65 W/cm{sup 2} compared to {approx}1.45 W/cm{sup 2} for cathode area of {approx}2 cm{sup 2}, for anode thickness of {approx}1.3 mm, with hydrogen as the fuel and air as the oxidant. At 750 C, the measured maximum power densities were {approx}1.3 W/cm{sup 2} for the cell with cathode area {approx}1.1 cm{sup 2}, and {approx}1.25 W/cm{sup 2} for the cell with cathode area {approx}2 cm{sup 2}.

Anil V. Virkar

2001-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

71

Highly Dispersed and Nano-sized Pt-based Electrocatalysts for Low-Temperature Fuel Cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The present article reviews the development of highly dispersed and nano-sized Pt- ... the addition of metal oxide to Pt/C electrocatalyst as cathode material.

Dong-Ha Lim; Weon-Doo Lee; Ho-In Lee

2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

72

LOW-TEMPERATURE, ANODE-SUPPORTED HIGH POWER DENSITY SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS WITH NANOSTRUCTURED ELECTRODES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Anode-supported cells comprising Ni + yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) anode, thin ({approx}10 {micro}m) YSZ electrolyte, and composite cathodes containing a mixture of La{sub 0.8}Sr{sub 0.2}MnO{sub (3-{delta})} (LSM) and La{sub 0.9}Sr{sub 0.1}Ga{sub 0.8}Mg{sub 0.2}O{sub (3-{lambda})} (LSGM) were fabricated. The relative proportions of LSGM and LSM were varied between 30 wt.% LSGM + 70 wt.% LSM and 70 wt.% LSGM + 30 wt.% LSM, while the firing temperature was varied between 1000 and 1200 C. The cathode interlayer composition had a profound effect on cathode performance at 800 C with overpotentials ranging between 60 and 425 mV at 1.0 A/cm{sup 2} and exhibiting a minimum for 50 wt.% LSGM + 50 wt.% LSM. The cathodic overpotential decreased with increasing firing temperature of the composite interlayer in the range 1000 {le} T {le} 1150 C, and then increased dramatically for the interlayer fired at 1200 C. The cell with the optimized cathode interlayer of 50 wt.% LSM + 50 wt.% LSGM fired at 1150 C exhibited an area specific cell resistance of 0.18 {Omega}cm{sup 2} and a maximum power density of 1.4 W/cm{sup 2} at 800 C. Chemical analysis revealed that LSGM reacts with YSZ above 1000 C to form the pyrochlore phase, La{sub 2}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 7}. The formation of the pyrochlore phase at the interface between the LSGM/LSM composite cathode and the YSZ electrolyte limits the firing time and temperature of the cathode interlayer.

Anil V. Virkar

2002-03-26T23:59:59.000Z

73

STABLE HIGH CONDUCTIVITY BILAYERED ELECTROLYTES FOR LOW TEMPERATURE SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A bilayer electrolyte consisting of acceptor-doped ceria (on the fuel/reducing side) and cubic-stabilized bismuth oxide (on the oxidizing side) was developed. The bilayer electrolyte that was developed showed significant improvement in open-circuit potential versus a typical ceria based SOFC. Moreover, the OCP of the bilayer cells increased as the thickness of the bismuth oxide layer increased relative to the ceria layer. Thereby, verifying the bilayer concept. Although, because of the absence of a suitable cathode (a problem we are still working assiduously to solve), we were unable to obtain power density curves, our modeling work predicts a reduction in electrolyte area specific resistance of two orders of magnitude over cubic-stabilized zirconia and projects a maximum power density of 9 W/m{sup 2} at 800 C and 0.09 W/m{sup 2} at 500 C. Towards the development of the bilayer electrolyte other significant strides were made. Among these were, first, the development of a, bismuth oxide based, oxide ion conductor with the highest conductivity (0.56 S/cm at 800 C and 0.043 S/cm at 500 C) known to date. Second, a physical model of the defect transport mechanisms and the driving forces for the ordering phenomena in bismuth oxide and other fluorite systems was developed. Third, a model for point defect transport in oxide mixed ionic-electronic conductors was developed, without the typical assumption of a uniform distribution of ions and including the effect of variable loads on the transport properties of an SOFC (with either a single or bilayer electrolyte).

Eric D. Wachsman; Keith L. Duncan

2002-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

74

High Temperatures & Electricity Demand  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

High Temperatures & Electricity Demand An Assessment of Supply Adequacy in California Trends.......................................................................................................1 HIGH TEMPERATURES AND ELECTRICITY DEMAND.....................................................................................................................7 SECTION I: HIGH TEMPERATURES AND ELECTRICITY DEMAND ..........................9 BACKGROUND

75

Surface characterizatin of palladium-alumina sorbents for high-temperature capture of mercury and arsenic from fuel gas  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Coal gasification with subsequent cleanup of the resulting fuel gas is a way to reduce the impact of mercury and arsenic in the environment during power generation and on downstream catalytic processes in chemical production, The interactions of mercury and arsenic with PdlAl2D3 model thin film sorbents and PdlAh03 powders have been studied to determine the relative affinities of palladium for mercury and arsenic, and how they are affected by temperature and the presence of hydrogen sulfide in the fuel gas. The implications of the results on strategies for capturing the toxic metals using a sorbent bed are discussed.

Baltrus, J.P.; Granite, E.J.; Pennline, H.W.; Stanko, D.; Hamilton, H.; Rowsell, L.; Poulston, S.; Smith, A.; Chu, W.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

High temperature phase stabilities and electrochemical properties of InBaCo4-xZnxO7 cathodes for intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cells  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

InBaCo4-xZnxO7 oxides have been synthesized and characterized as cathode materials for intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cells (IT-SOFC). The effect of Zn substitution for Co on the structure, phase stability, thermal expansion, and electrochemical properties of the InBaCo4-xZnxO7 has been investigated. The increase in the Zn content from x = 1 to 1.5 improves the high temperature phase stability at 600 oC and 700 oC for 100 h, and chemical stability against a Gd0.2Ce0.8O1.9 (GDC) electrolyte. Thermal expansion coefficient (TEC) values of the InBaCo4-xZnxO7 (x = 1, 1.5, 2) specimens were determined to be 8.6 10-6 9.6 10-6 /oC in the range of 80 900 oC, which provides good thermal expansion compatibility with the standard SOFC electrolyte materials. The InBaCo4-xZnxO7 + GDC (50:50 wt. %) composite cathodes exhibit improved cathode performances compared to those obtained from the simple InBaCo4-xZnxO7 cathodes due to the extended triple-phase boundary (TPB) and enhanced oxide-ion conductivity through the GDC portion in the composites.

Kim, Jung-Hyun [ORNL; Young Nam, Kim [University of Texas, Austin; Bi, Zhonghe [ORNL; Manthiram, Arumugam [University of Texas, Austin; Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans [ORNL; Huq, Ashfia [ORNL

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

77

Intermediate Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Development  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are high efficiency energy conversion devices. Present materials set, using yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) electrolyte, limit the cell operating temperatures to 800 C or higher. It has become increasingly evident however that lowering the operating temperature would provide a more expeditious route to commercialization. The advantages of intermediate temperature (600 to 800 C) operation are related to both economic and materials issues. Lower operating temperature allows the use of low cost materials for the balance of plant and limits degradation arising from materials interactions. When the SOFC operating temperature is in the range of 600 to 700 C, it is also possible to partially reform hydrocarbon fuels within the stack providing additional system cost savings by reducing the air preheat heat-exchanger and blower size. The promise of Sr and Mg doped lanthanum gallate (LSGM) electrolyte materials, based on their high ionic conductivity and oxygen transference number at the intermediate temperature is well recognized. The focus of the present project was two-fold: (a) Identify a cell fabrication technique to achieve the benefits of lanthanum gallate material, and (b) Investigate alternative cathode materials that demonstrate low cathode polarization losses at the intermediate temperature. A porous matrix supported, thin film cell configuration was fabricated. The electrode material precursor was infiltrated into the porous matrix and the counter electrode was screen printed. Both anode and cathode infiltration produced high performance cells. Comparison of the two approaches showed that an infiltrated cathode cells may have advantages in high fuel utilization operations. Two new cathode materials were evaluated. Northwestern University investigated LSGM-ceria composite cathode while Caltech evaluated Ba-Sr-Co-Fe (BSCF) based pervoskite cathode. Both cathode materials showed lower polarization losses at temperatures as low as 600 C than conventional manganite or cobaltite cathodes.

S. Elangovan; Scott Barnett; Sossina Haile

2008-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

78

Low Temperature PEM Fuel Cell Manufacturing Needs  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Low Temperature PEM Fuel Cell Manufacturing Needs Presented by Duarte Sousa, PE Manufacturing Fuel Cell Manhattan Project #12; Cost drivers were identified for the following: · MEA · Plates · Balance of Plant (BOP) · Fuel Processing Manufacturing Fuel Cell Project ­ Phase 1 Note that this presentation

79

Thoriumbased fuel cycles : saving uranium in a 200 MWth pebble bed high temperature reactor / S.K. Gintner.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??The predominant nuclear fuel used globally at present is uranium which is a finite resource. Thorium has been identified as an alternative nuclear fuel source (more)

Gintner, Stephan Konrad

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

Low Temperature Catalyst for Fuel Injection System  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

A low temperature oxidation catalyst applied to a DOC and DPF combined with a unique fuel injection system remove soot from a diesel exhaust system.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high temperature fuel" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Enhanced High and Low Temperature Performance of NOx Reduction...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Enhanced High and Low Temperature Performance of NOx Reduction Materials Enhanced High and Low Temperature Performance of NOx Reduction Materials 2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells...

82

Benchmarking of the MIT High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor TRISO-coated particle fuel performance model  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

MIT has developed a Coated Particle Fuel Performance Model to study the behavior of TRISO nuclear fuels. The code, TIMCOAT, is designed to assess the mechanical and chemical condition of populations of coated particles and ...

Stawicki, Michael A

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

83

Effect of pre-oxidation and environmental aging on the seal strength of a novel high-temperature solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) sealing glass with metallic interconnect  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A novel high-temperature alkaline-earth silicate sealing glass was developed for solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) applications. The glass was used to join two ferritic stainless steel coupons for strength evaluation. The steel coupons were pre-oxidized at elevated temperatures to promote thick oxide layers to simulate long-term exposure conditions. In addition, seals to as-received metal coupons were also tested after aging in oxidizing or reducing environments to simulate the actual SOFC environment. Room temperature tensile testing showed strength degradation when using pre-oxidized coupons, and more extensive degradation after aging in air. Fracture surface and microstructural analysis confirmed that the cause of degradation was formation of SrCrO4 at the outer sealing edges exposed to air.

Chou, Y. S.; Stevenson, Jeffry W.; Singh, Prabhakar

2008-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

84

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) High  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

High Occupancy Vehicle (HOV) Lane Exemption to someone by High Occupancy Vehicle (HOV) Lane Exemption to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) High Occupancy Vehicle (HOV) Lane Exemption on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) High Occupancy Vehicle (HOV) Lane Exemption on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) High Occupancy Vehicle (HOV) Lane Exemption on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) High Occupancy Vehicle (HOV) Lane Exemption on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) High Occupancy Vehicle (HOV) Lane Exemption on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) High Occupancy Vehicle (HOV) Lane Exemption on

85

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) High  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

High Occupancy Vehicle (HOV) Lane Exemption to someone by High Occupancy Vehicle (HOV) Lane Exemption to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) High Occupancy Vehicle (HOV) Lane Exemption on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) High Occupancy Vehicle (HOV) Lane Exemption on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) High Occupancy Vehicle (HOV) Lane Exemption on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) High Occupancy Vehicle (HOV) Lane Exemption on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) High Occupancy Vehicle (HOV) Lane Exemption on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) High Occupancy Vehicle (HOV) Lane Exemption on

86

Fundamental Processes of Coupled Radiation Damage and Mechanical Behavior in Nuclear Fuel Materials for High Temperature Reactors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this work has been to elucidate the relationship among microstructure, radiation damage and mechanical properties for nuclear fuel materials. As representative nuclear materials, we have taken an hcp metal (Mg as a generic metal, and Ti alloys for fast reactors) and UO2 (representing fuel). The degradation of the thermo-mechanical behavior of nuclear fuels under irradiation, both the fissionable material itself and its cladding, is a longstanding issue of critical importance to the nuclear industry. There are experimental indications that nanocrystalline metals and ceramics may be more resistant to radiation damage than their coarse-grained counterparts. The objective of this project look at the effect of microstructure on radiation damage and mechanical behavior in these materials. The approach to be taken was state-of-the-art, large-scale atomic-level simulation. This systematic simulation program of the effects of irradiation on the structure and mechanical properties of polycrystalline Ti and UO2 identified radiation damage mechanisms. Moreover, it will provided important insights into behavior that can be expected in nanocrystalline microstructures and, by extension, nanocomposites. The fundamental insights from this work can be expected to help in the design microstructures that are less susceptible to radiation damage and thermomechanical degradation.

Simon Phillpot; James Tulenko

2011-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

87

Novel Low Temperature Solid State Fuel Cells  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have successfully fabricated (PrBa)Co{sub 2}O{sub 5+{delta}} and (LaBa)Co{sub 2}O{sub 5+{deleta}} epitaxial thin film on various single crystal substrates. Physical and electrochemical properties characterizations were carried out. Highly conductive oxygen-deficient double perovskite LnBaCo2O5+? thin films were grown on single crystal (001) SrTiO{sub 3} (STO), (001) MgO, (001) LaAlO{sub 3} and (110) NdGaO{sub 3} substrate by pulsed laser deposition. Microstructure studies from synchrotron X-ray diffraction and Transmission electron microscopy. High temperature transport properties was carried in different atmosphere (O{sub 2},Air, N{sub 2}) up to ~900K. Resistance response of (LaBa)Co{sub 2}O{sub 5+{delta}} epitaxial thin film was characterized in oxygen, nitrogen and 4% hydrogen over a wide range of temperature from 400?C up to 800?C. To determine the electrode performance and oxygen exchange kinetics of PrBaCo{sub 2}O{sub 5+{delta}}, multi-layered thin film based half cell was deposited on LaAlO{sub 3}(001) substrate. The temperature dependence of the resistance of this half ?cell structure was characterized by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) within different temperature and gas environments. Anode supported fuel cells, with GCO:YSZ multilayer thin film as electrolyte and PBCO thin film as electrode, are fabricated on tape casted NiO/YSZ substrate. Full cell performance is characterized up to 800?C.

Chen, Chonglin; Nash, Patrick; Liu, Jian; Collins, Gregory

2009-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

88

Development of a fuel-rod simulator and small-diameter thermocouples for high-temperature, high-heat-flux tests in the Gas-Cooled Fast Reactor Core Flow Test Loop  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Core Flow Test Loop was constructed to perform many of the safety, core design, and mechanical interaction tests in support of the Gas-Cooled Fast Reactor (GCFR) using electrically heated fuel rod simulators (FRSs). Operation includes many off-normal or postulated accident sequences including transient, high-power, and high-temperature operation. The FRS was developed to survive: (1) hundreds of hours of operation at 200 W/cm/sup 2/, 1000/sup 0/C cladding temperature, and (2) 40 h at 40 W/cm/sup 2/, 1200/sup 0/C cladding temperature. Six 0.5-mm type K sheathed thermocouples were placed inside the FRS cladding to measure steady-state and transient temperatures through clad melting at 1370/sup 0/C.

McCulloch, R.W.; MacPherson, R.E.

1983-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle Decal and High  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Decal and High Occupancy Vehicle (HOV) Lane Exemption to someone by Decal and High Occupancy Vehicle (HOV) Lane Exemption to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle Decal and High Occupancy Vehicle (HOV) Lane Exemption on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle Decal and High Occupancy Vehicle (HOV) Lane Exemption on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle Decal and High Occupancy Vehicle (HOV) Lane Exemption on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle Decal and High Occupancy Vehicle (HOV) Lane Exemption on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle Decal and High Occupancy Vehicle (HOV) Lane Exemption on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative

90

Influence of thermal post-curing on the degradation of a cross-linked polybenzimidazole-based membrane for high temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The lifetime stability of membranes is one of the main requirements regarding reliability of high temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells. The present work has improved durability under cycled operation by thermal post-curing of cross-linked polybenzimidazole (PBI)-based membranes. The membranes were dried over 1, 2 and 3 h at 250 C under air. Ex-situ experiments proved an increase in stability by post-curing. The liquid uptake and swelling in phosphoric acid increased with longer curing periods. The effect of thermal treatments on cycle stability, lifetime and begin-of-life performance of the membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs) was investigated. Longer post-curing periods of the membranes had no influence on the MEAs' begin-of-life performance and constant current behavior over 2300 h. However, the 3 h post-cured \\{MEAs\\} showed enhanced cycle stability. Post-mortem analysis was carried out to identify the occurring degradation mechanisms. While a significant loss of phosphoric acid and a reduction of electrochemical surface activity on the cathode were observed for both post-cured MEAs, the 3 h dried membrane sample had a significantly higher resistance against pinhole formation during the long term test. Altogether, this work presents thermal post-curing as a promising method for the reduction of degradation determining effects in fuel cell membranes.

T. Ossiander; M. Perchthaler; C. Heinzl; C. Scheu

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

91

Effect of aluminizing of Cr-containing ferritic alloys on the seal strength of a novel high-temperature solid oxide fuel cell sealing glass  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A novel high-temperature alkaline-earth silicate sealing glass was developed for solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) applications. The glass was used to join two metallic coupons of Cr-containing ferritic stainless steel for seal strength evaluation. In previous work, SrCrO4 was found to form along the glass/steel interface, which led to severe strength degradation. In the present study, aluminization of the steel surface was investigated as a remedy to minimize or prevent the strontium chromate formation. Three different processes for aluminization were evaluated with Crofer22APU stainless steel: pack cementation, vapor phase deposition, and aerosol spraying. It was found that pack cementation resulted in a rough surface with occasional cracks in the Al-diffused region. Vapor phase deposition yielded a smoother surface, but the resulting high Al content increased the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE), resulting in failure of joined coupons. Aerosol spraying of an Al-containing salt resulted in formation of a thin aluminum oxide layer without any surface damage. The room temperature seal strength was evaluated in the as-fired state and in environmentally aged conditions. In contrast to earlier results with uncoated Crofer22APU, the aluminized samples showed no strength degradation even for samples aged in air. Interfacial and chemical compatibility was also investigated. The results showed aluminization to be a viable candidate approach to minimize undesirable chromate formation between alkaline earth silicate sealing glass and Cr-containing interconnect alloys for SOFC applications.

Chou, Y. S.; Stevenson, Jeffry W.; Singh, Prabhakar

2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

92

High temperature pressure gauge  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A high temperature pressure gauge comprising a pressure gauge positioned in fluid communication with one end of a conduit which has a diaphragm mounted in its other end. The conduit is filled with a low melting metal alloy above the diaphragm for a portion of its length with a high temperature fluid being positioned in the remaining length of the conduit and in the pressure gauge.

Echtler, J. Paul (Pittsburgh, PA); Scandrol, Roy O. (Library, PA)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

93

Manufacturing Barriers to High Temperature PEM Commercialization  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

9/2011 9/2011 1 BASF Fuel Cell, Inc. Manufacturing Barriers to high temperature PEM commercialization 39 Veronica Ave Somerset , NJ 08873 Tel : (732) 545-5100 9/9/2011 2 Background on BASF Fuel Cell  BASF Fuel Cell was established in 2007, formerly PEMEAS Fuel Cells (including E-TEK)  Product line is high temperature MEAs (Celtec ® P made from PBI-phosphoric acid)  Dedicated a new advanced pilot manufacturing facility in Somerset NJ May 2009. Ribbon-cutting hosted by Dr. Kreimeyer (BASF BoD, right) and attended by various US pubic officials including former NJ Governor Jon Corzine (left) 9/9/2011 3 Multi-layer product of membrane (polybenzimidazole and phosphoric acid), gas diffusion material and catalysts Unique characteristics:  High operating temperature

94

(Y0.5In0.5)Ba(Co,Zn)4O7 cathodes with superior high-temperature phase stability for solid oxide fuel cells  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

(Y0.5In0.5)BaCo4-xZnxO7 (1.0 x 2.0) oxides crystallizing in a trigonal P31c structure have been synthesized and explored as cathode materials for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC). At a given Zn content, the (Y0.5In0.5)BaCo4-xZnxO7 sample with 50 % Y and 50 % In exhibits much improved phase stability at intermediate temperatures (600 - 800 oC) compared to the samples with 100 % Y or In. However, the substitution of Zn for Co in (Y0.5In0.5)Ba(Co4-xZnx)O7 (1.0 x 2.0) decreases the amount of oxygen loss on heating, total electrical conductivity, and cathode performance in SOFC while providing good long-term phase stability at high temperatures. Among the various chemical compositions investigated in the (Y0.5In0.5)Ba(Co4-xZnx)O7 system, the (Y0.5In0.5)BaCo3ZnO7 sample offers a combination of good electrochemical performance and low thermal expansion coefficient (TEC) while maintaining superior phase stability at 600 800 oC for 100 h. Fuel cell performances of the (Y0.5In0.5)Ba(Co3Zn)O7 + Ce0.8Gd0.2O1.9 (GDC) (50 : 50 wt. %) composite cathodes collected with anode-supported single cell reveal a maximum power density value of 521 mW cm-2 at 700 oC.

Young Nam, Kim [University of Texas, Austin; Kim, Jung-Hyun [ORNL; Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans [ORNL; Manthiram, Arumugam [University of Texas, Austin; Huq, Ashfia [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

95

High temperature probe  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A high temperature probe for sampling, for example, smokestack fumes, and is able to withstand temperatures of 3000.degree. F. The probe is constructed so as to prevent leakage via the seal by placing the seal inside the water jacket whereby the seal is not exposed to high temperature, which destroys the seal. The sample inlet of the probe is also provided with cooling fins about the area of the seal to provide additional cooling to prevent the seal from being destroyed. Also, a heated jacket is provided for maintaining the temperature of the gas being tested as it passes through the probe. The probe includes pressure sensing means for determining the flow velocity of an efficient being sampled. In addition, thermocouples are located in various places on the probe to monitor the temperature of the gas passing there through.

Swan, Raymond A. (Fremont, CA)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

96

Deformation behavior of laser welds in high temperature oxidation resistant FeCrAl alloys for fuel cladding applications  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Ferritic-structured FeCrAl alloys are being developed and show promise as oxidation resistant accident tolerant light water reactor fuel cladding. This study focuses on investigating the weldability and post-weld mechanical behavior of three model alloys in a range of Fe(1317.5)Cr(34.4)Al (wt.%) with a minor addition of yttrium using modern laser-welding techniques. A detailed study on the mechanical performance of bead-on-plate welds using sub-sized, flat dog-bone tensile specimens and digital image correlation (DIC) has been carried out to determine the performance of welds as a function of alloy composition. Results indicated a reduction in the yield strength within the fusion zone compared to the base metal. Yield strength reduction was found to be primarily constrained to the fusion zone due to grain coarsening with a less severe reduction in the heat affected zone. For all proposed alloys, laser welding resulted in a defect free weld devoid of cracking or inclusions.

Kevin G. Field; Maxim N. Gussev; Yukinori Yamamoto; Lance L. Snead

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

High Temperature Superconductors  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract A brief review of the phenomenology of superconductivity, the distinction between type I and type II superconductors, and the application of type II superconductors is followed by a history of the theory of conventional superconductivity. Unconventional high-temperature superconductivity in the copper oxides is reviewed as a phenomenon occurring in narrow two-dimensional bands where the time for an electron transfer between like atoms is comparable to the period of an optical-mode lattice vibration. A family of iron pnictides containing layers of iron atoms may not require an alternative explanation of its high-temperature superconductivity.

J.B. Goodenough

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

98

Solid oxide steam electrolysis for high temperature hydrogen production .  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??This study has focused on solid oxide electrolyser cells for high temperature steam electrolysis. Solid oxide electrolysis is the reverse operation of solid oxide fuel (more)

Eccleston, Kelcey L.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

Chemistry at High Temperatures  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...347 the condensed phase. Both cases are...show the opposite behavior. These predictions...vapors. Condensed phase B203 B + B203 02...complex silicates and hydrates in high-temperature...characterized by phase diagrams (derived...doubt that thou-sands of new chemical materials...

John L. Margrave

1962-02-02T23:59:59.000Z

100

High temperature thermometric phosphors  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A high temperature phosphor consists essentially of a material having the general formula LuPO.sub.4 :Dy.sub.(x),Eu.sub.y) wherein: 0.1 wt %.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.20 wt % and 0.1 wt %.ltoreq.y.ltoreq.20 wt %. The high temperature phosphor is in contact with an article whose temperature is to be determined. The article having the phosphor in contact with it is placed in the environment for which the temperature of the article is to be determined. The phosphor is excited by a laser causing the phosphor to fluoresce. The emission from the phosphor is optically focused into a beam-splitting mirror which separates the emission into two separate emissions, the emission caused by the dysprosium dopant and the emission caused by the europium dopent. The separated emissions are optically filtered and the intensities of the emission are detected and measured. The ratio of the intensity of each emission is determined and the temperature of the article is calculated from the ratio of the intensities of the separate emissions.

Allison, Stephen W. (Knoxville, TN); Cates, Michael R. (Oak Ridge, TN); Boatner, Lynn A. (Oak Ridge, TN); Gillies, George T. (Earlysville, VA)

1999-03-23T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high temperature fuel" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

High Temperature Inverter  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting

102

High Octane Fuels Can Make Better Use of Renewable Transportation...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

High Octane Fuels Can Make Better Use of Renewable Transportation Fuels High Octane Fuels Can Make Better Use of Renewable Transportation Fuels Breakout Session 1C-Fostering...

103

High Temperature Membrane Working Group  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This presentation provides an overview of the High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting in May 2007.

104

High Temperature | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Temperature Temperature Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Print PDF Sanyal Temperature Classification: High Temperature Dictionary.png High Temperature: No definition has been provided for this term. Add a Definition Sanyal Temp Classification This temperature scheme was developed by Sanyal in 2005 at the request of DOE and GEA, as reported in Classification of Geothermal Systems: A Possible Scheme. Extremely Low Temperature Very Low Temperature Low Temperature Moderate Temperature High Temperature Ultra High Temperature Steam Field Reservoir fluid between 230°C and 300°C is considered by Sanyal to be "high temperature." "Above a temperature level of 230°C, the reservoir would be expected to become two-phase at some point during exploitation. The next higher

105

CARISMA: A Networking Project for High Temperature PEMFC MEA Activities in Europe  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This presentation on high temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cells was given at the High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting in May 2007.

106

High temperature detonator  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A detonator assembly is provided which is usable at high temperatures about 300.degree. C. A detonator body is provided with an internal volume defining an anvil surface. A first acceptor explosive is disposed on the anvil surface. A donor assembly having an ignition element, an explosive material, and a flying plate, are placed in the body effective to accelerate the flying plate to impact the first acceptor explosive on the anvil for detonating the first acceptor explosive. A second acceptor explosive is eccentrically located in detonation relationship with the first acceptor explosive to thereafter effect detonation of a main charge.

Johnson, James O. (Los Alamos, NM); Dinegar, Robert H. (Los Alamos, NM)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

Fiber Optic Temperature Sensor for PEM Fuel Cells  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Fiber Optic Temperature Sensor for PEM Fuel Cells S.W. Allison, T.J. McIntyre, L.C. Maxey, M Objectives · Develop a low cost, robust temperature sensor for monitoring fuel cell condition and performance Hydrogren and Fuel Cells Merit Review Meeting May 19-22, 2003, Berkeley, California #12;Program Goals

108

High Performance Fuel Desing for Next Generation Pressurized Water Reactors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The use of internally and externally cooled annular fule rods for high power density Pressurized Water Reactors is assessed. The assessment included steady state and transient thermal conditions, neutronic and fuel management requirements, mechanical vibration issues, fuel performance issues, fuel fabrication methods and econmic assessment. The investigation was donducted by a team from MIT, Westinghouse, Gamma Engineering, Framatome ANP, and AECL. The analyses led to the conclusion that raising the power density by 50% may be possible with this advanced fuel. Even at the 150% power level, the fuel temperature would be a few hundred degrees lower than the current fuel temperatre. Significant economic and safety advantages can be obtained by using this fuel in new reactors. Switching to this type of fuel for existing reactors would yield safety advantages, but the economic return is dependent on the duration of plant shutdown to accommodate higher power production. The main feasiblity issue for the high power performance appears to be the potential for uneven splitting of heat flux between the inner and outer fuel surfaces due to premature closure of the outer fuel-cladding gap. This could be overcome by using a very narrow gap for the inner fuel surface and/or the spraying of a crushable zirconium oxide film at the fuel pellet outer surface. An alternative fuel manufacturing approach using vobropacking was also investigated but appears to yield lower than desirable fuel density.

Mujid S. Kazimi; Pavel Hejzlar

2006-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

109

Modular Pebble Bed Reactor High Temperature Gas Reactor  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Modular Pebble Bed Reactor High Temperature Gas Reactor Andrew C Kadak Massachusetts Institute For 1150 MW Combined Heat and Power Station Oil Refinery Hydrogen Production Desalinization Plant VHTR/Graphite Discrimination system Damaged Sphere ContainerGraphiteReturn FuelReturn Fresh Fuel Container Spent Fuel Tank #12

110

Computational and Experimental Development of Novel High-Temperature Alloys  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Development of Novel High-Temperature Alloys Background The need for fossil-fueled power plants to run cleaner and more efficiently leads toward ever-higher operating temperatures and pressures. Gas turbines, which can be fueled by natural gas, synthetic gas (syngas), or a high-hydrogen stream derived from coal, are critical components in this development. High-temperature operation of turbines is generally achieved by using nickel-chrome superalloys with coatings

111

Fuel Cell Operations at Sub-Freezing Temperatures Workshop  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The U.S. Department of Energy sponsored a Fuel Cell Operations at Sub-Freezing Temperatures Workshop in Phoenix, Arizona February 1-2, 2005. Attendees included representatives from fuel cell...

112

Fabrication and Characterization of Uranium-based High Temperature Reactor  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Fabrication and Characterization of Uranium-based High Temperature Reactor Fabrication and Characterization of Uranium-based High Temperature Reactor Fuel June 01, 2013 The Uranium Fuel Development Laboratory is a modern R&D scale lab for the fabrication and characterization of uranium-based high temperature reactor fuel. A laboratory-scale coater manufactures tri-isotropic (TRISO) coated fuel particles (CFPs), state-of-the-art materials property characterization is performed, and the CFPs are then pressed into fuel compacts for irradiation testing, all under a NQA-1 compliant Quality Assurance Program. After fuel kernel size and shape are measured by optical shadow imaging, the TRISO coatings are deposited via fluidized bed chemical vapor deposition in a 50-mm diameter conical chamber within the coating furnace. Computer control of temperature and gas composition ensures reproducibility

113

High temperature corrosion of boiler waterwalls induced by chlorides and bromides. Part 1: Occurrence of the corrosive ash forming elements in a fluidised bed boiler co-firing solid recovered fuel  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In waste fired boilers high temperature corrosion has often been attributed to zinc and lead chlorides. In addition, bromine induced high temperature corrosion has been earlier observed in a bubbling fluidised bed (BFB) boiler co-firing solid recovered fuel (SRF) with bark and wastewater sludge. In Part 1 of this work a measurement campaign was undertaken to determine the occurrence of Cl, Br, Zn and Pb in the fuel, in the combustion gases as well as in the deposits on the boiler waterwalls. It was observed that Cl, Br, Zn and Pb originate to a large extent from the SRF, they are vaporised in the furnace, and may form waterwall deposits. This, complemented by fluctuations between oxidising and reducing atmosphere resulted in rapid corrosion of the waterwall tubes. Concentrations of Cl, Br, Zn and Pb in the fuel, in the furnace vapours and in the deposits are reported in this work. As there is lack of published data on the bromine induced high temperature corrosion, laboratory scale corrosion tests were carried out to determine the relative corrosiveness of chlorine and bromine and these results will be reported in Part 2 of this work. Furthermore, the forms of Cl, Br, Zn and Pb in the combustion gases as well as in the waterwall deposits were estimated by means of thermodynamic equilibrium modelling and these results will also be discussed in Part 2.

P. Vainikka; D. Bankiewicz; A. Frantsi; J. Silvennoinen; J. Hannula; P. Yrjas; M. Hupa

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

114

High-Temperature Membrane with Humidification-Independent Cluster Structure - DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program FY 2012 Annual Progress Report  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

6 6 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program FY 2012 Annual Progress Report Ludwig Lipp (Primary Contact), Pinakin Patel, Ray Kopp FuelCell Energy (FCE), Inc. 3 Great Pasture Road Danbury, CT 06813 Phone: (203) 205-2492 Email: llipp@fce.com DOE Managers HQ: Donna Ho Phone: (202) 586-8000 Email: Donna.Ho@ee.doe.gov GO: Greg Kleen Phone: (720) 356-1672 Email: Gregory.Kleen@go.doe.gov Technical Advisor Thomas Benjamin Phone: (630) 252-1632 Email: benjamin@anl.gov Contract Number: 36-06GO16033 Start Date: June 1, 2006 Projected End Date: August 31, 2012 Fiscal Year (FY) 2012 Objectives Develop humidity-independent, thermally stable, low * equivalent weight composite membranes with controlled ion-cluster morphology, to provide high proton- conductivity at up to 120 o C (overall goal: meet DOE

115

Time-temperature-concentration matrix for induced sediment formation in shale diesel fuel  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Deterioration in fuel quality during storage has been a major problem with utilization of middle distillate fuels. In this work, the relationships between time, temperature, and concentration of dimethylpyrrole (DMP) to the formation of insoluble sediments are investigated. A common reaction pathway appears to exist for DMP-promoted sedimentation in diesel fuel. A high-precision gravimetric method of fuel storage stability determination has been developed.

Cooney, J.V.; Beal, E.J.; Hazlett, R.N.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

BREAKOUT GROUP 4: LOW TEMPERATURE FUEL CELL SYSTEM BOP & FUEL PROCESSORS FOR STATIONARY AND AUTOMOTIVE PARTICIPANTS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

cost and durability · PEM fuel reformers have too many components, driving complexity and cost ­ needBREAKOUT GROUP 4: LOW TEMPERATURE FUEL CELL SYSTEM BOP & FUEL PROCESSORS FOR STATIONARY Technology Corporation Pinakin Patel FuelCell Energy Inc. Dennis Rapodios Argonne National Laboratory Eric

117

High-Temperature Water Splitting  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

High-temperature water splitting (a "thermochemical" process) is a long-term technology in the early stages of development.

118

Fluorescence methods for determination of temperature in fuel sprays  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Fluorescent additives which allow the determination of droplet temperatures in hydrocarbon fuel sprays have been developed. These systems, which exploit the chemistry of organic...

Murray, A M; Melton, L A

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

119

NSTX High Field Side Gas Fueling System  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Fueling National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) plasmas with gas injected from the high field side (HFS) has produced earlier, more reliable transitions to the H-mode, longer H-mode durations, higher toroidal rotation, and higher edge electron temperature compared with similar discharges using the low field side (LFS) gas fueling injectors. The HFS gas fueling system consists of a Center Stack midplane injector, and an injector at the inner, upper corner of the Center Stack. The challenging design and installation constraints for the HFS gas system involved placing the control components as close as possible to the machine-vacuum interface, devising a special feed-through flange, traversing through vessel regions whose temperatures during bake-out range from 150 to 350 degrees Centigrade, adapting the gas transport tubing size and route to the small instrumentation wire channels behind the existing graphite plasma facing component tiles on the Center Stack, and providing output orifices shielded from excessive plasma power depositions while concentrating the output flow to facilitate fast camera viewing and analysis. Design, recent performance, and future upgrades will be presented.

H.W. Kugel; M. Anderson; G. Barnes; M. Bell; W. Blanchard; L. Dudek; D. Gates; R. Gernhardt; R. Maingi; D. Mueller; T. Provost; R. Raman; V. Soukhanovskii; J. Winston

2003-10-09T23:59:59.000Z

120

High temperature elemental losses and mineralogical  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

future energy crops. Combustion in biomass fueled boilers,in ash during combustion of biomass fuels is important forC. Combustion characteristics of high alkali biomass. Final

Thy, P.; Jenkins, B. M.; Grundvig, S.; Shiraki, R.; Lesher, C. E.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high temperature fuel" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

High-temperature Pump Monitoring - High-temperature ESP Monitoring...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Report Detecting Fractures Using Technology at High Temperatures and Depths - Geothermal Ultrasonic Fracture Imager (GUFI); 2010 Geothermal Technology Program Peer Review Report...

122

Alternative Fuels Data Center: High Occupancy Vehicle (HOV) and High  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

High Occupancy Vehicle High Occupancy Vehicle (HOV) and High Occupancy Toll (HOT) Lane Exemption to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: High Occupancy Vehicle (HOV) and High Occupancy Toll (HOT) Lane Exemption on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: High Occupancy Vehicle (HOV) and High Occupancy Toll (HOT) Lane Exemption on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: High Occupancy Vehicle (HOV) and High Occupancy Toll (HOT) Lane Exemption on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: High Occupancy Vehicle (HOV) and High Occupancy Toll (HOT) Lane Exemption on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: High Occupancy Vehicle (HOV) and High Occupancy Toll (HOT) Lane Exemption on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: High

123

Electrocatalytic activities of supported Pt nanoparticles for low-temperature fuel cell applications  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Low-temperature fuel cells (FCs) are highly efficient and environmentally friendly energy conversion devices that have been in the spotlight of many energy research efforts in the past few decades. However, FC commercialization ...

Sheng, Wenchao, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

124

High Temperature Structural Foam  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The Aerospace Industry is experiencing growing demand for high performance polymer foam. The X-33 program needs structural foam insulation capable of retaining its strength over a wide range of environmental conditions. The High Speed Research Program ...

Weiser Erik S.; Baillif Faye F.; Grimsley Brian W.; Marchello Joseph M.

1998-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

High Temperature Processing Symposium 2014  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

} High temperature recycling operations } Materials sustainability } New furnace technology (including solar) We look forward to seeing you in February 2014. Dr M Akbar Rhamdhani (Chairman HTPS 2014) Prof

Liley, David

126

The effect of water vapor on the release of fission gas from the fuel elements of high temperature, gas-cooled reactors: A preliminary assessment of experiments HRB-17, HFR-B1, HFR-K6 and KORA  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The effect of water vapor on the release of fission gas from the fuel elements of high temperature, gas-cooled reactors has been measured in different laboratories under both irradiation and post irradiation conditions. The data from experiments HRB-17, HFR-B1, HFR-K6, and in the KORA facility are compared to assess their consistency and complimentarily. The experiments are consistent under comparable experimental conditions and reveal two general mechanisms involving exposed fuel kernels embedded in carbonaceous materials. One is manifest as a strong dependence of fission gas release on the partial pressure of water vapor below 1 kPa and the other, as a weak dependence above 1 kPa.

Myers, B.F.

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

127

Low Temperature PEM Fuel Cell Manufacturing Needs  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

PEM Fuel Cell PEM Fuel Cell Manufacturing Needs Presented by Duarte Sousa, PE Manufacturing Fuel Cell Manhattan Project  Cost drivers were identified for the following: * MEA * Plates * Balance of Plant (BOP) * Fuel Processing Manufacturing Fuel Cell Project - Phase 1 Note that this presentation will be MEA centric as this is the working group I represent...  MEA Cost Drivers Identified: Identifying MEA Cost Drivers * The MEA was readily identified as the major cost driver in a 10 kW stationary stack. * The precious metal catalyst electrode is the major cost driver for the MEA. Thus, focus cost reduction efforts on MEA manufacturing methods. Identify gaps in MEA manufacturing technology: How much better can we do? Note: Cost reductions realized from both material price reduction

128

Performance testing and Bayesian Reliability Analysis of small diameter, high power electric heaters for the simulation of nuclear fuel rod temperatures.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??The conversion of plutonium from a nuclear weapon to nuclear reactor fuel requires an evaluation of the residual gallium as a potential corrosive material within (more)

O'Kelly, David Sean

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

129

HIGH TEMPERATURE ELECTROLYZER MATERIALS PROJECT GOAL  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

with compatible electrodes to develop reversible solid oxide fuel cells for low-cost, high efficient power and solid oxide fuel cells. Notable reversible fuel cell achievements have been demonstrated by Proton of traditional oxide ion conductor-based solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) materials. [2 ,3 ,4 ] Significantly

Mease, Kenneth D.

130

BaZn{sub 2}Si{sub 2}O{sub 7} and the solid solution series BaZn{sub 2?x}Co{sub x}Si{sub 2}O{sub 7} (0high temperature seals for solid oxide fuel cells studied by high-temperature X-ray diffraction and dilatometry  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

For sealing of solid oxide fuel cells, glasses from which crystalline phases with high coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) can be crystallized are required. In this paper, a new solid solution series BaZn{sub 2?x}Co{sub x}Si{sub 2}O{sub 7} (0high CTE. The prepared powders were characterized by X-ray diffraction and high-temperature X-ray diffraction (BaZn{sub 2}Si{sub 2}O{sub 7}). Sintered specimens were characterized by dilatometry. The introduction of Co{sup 2+} does not lead to a change in the space group. All compounds show a transition of a low to a high temperature modification. The attributed temperature increases from 300 C for BaZn{sub 2}Si{sub 2}O{sub 7} to 850 C for BaCo{sub 2}Si{sub 2}O{sub 7}. The volume expansion which runs parallel to the phase transition decreases with increasing cobalt concentration. The phase BaZn{sub 2}Si{sub 2}O{sub 7} shows the largest CTE and a steep volume effect during phase transition. For the compound BaZn{sub 0.25}Co{sub 1.75}Si{sub 2}O{sub 7} the CTE is minimum (8.610{sup ?6} K{sup ?1} (50900 C)) and increases again until for the compound BaCo{sub 2}Si{sub 2}O{sub 7} a CTE of 16.610{sup ?6} K{sup ?1} (50900 C) is reached. In the cobalt rich composition range, the CTEs are in the right range for high temperature fuel cells and can be adjusted by the composition. - Graphical abstract: The composition of the solid solution BaZn{sub 2?x}Co{sub x}Si{sub 2}O{sub 7} strongly affects the thermal expansion. Display Omitted - Highlights: We examined the thermal expansion of solid solutions BaZn{sub 2?x}Co{sub x}Si{sub 2}O{sub 7} (0fuel cells.

Kerstan, Marita; Thieme, Christian; Grosch, Matthias; Mller, Matthias; Rssel, Christian, E-mail: ccr@rz.uni-jena.de

2013-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

131

Fuel-Cell Fundamentals at Low and Subzero Temperatures  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Task 6. Component characterization Membrane Catalyst layer Diffusion media Fuel-Cell Fundamentals at Low and Subzero Temperatures LBNL PSU UTC LANL, 3M LBNL PSU LANL, LBNL PSU...

132

Temperature limits for LMFBR fuel cladding under upset and emergency operating conditions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

LMFBR fuel pin cladding tube is subjected to high transient temperatures during incidents such as pump trip, pump to grid plate pipe rupture etc. It is required to know temperature limits under such transient operating conditions for components involved while analyzing such incidents. A methodology for deriving such limits for fuel clad tube is worked out in this paper by making use of the transient damage correlation proposed by W.F. Brizes et. al.

Govindarajan, S.; Chetal, S.C. [Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam Tamilnadu (India). Nuclear Systems Division

1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

133

Fuel Flexible Combustion Systems for High-Efficiency Utilization of Opportunity Fuels in Gas Turbines  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this program was to develop low-emissions, efficient fuel-flexible combustion technology which enables operation of a given gas turbine on a wider range of opportunity fuels that lie outside of current natural gas-centered fuel specifications. The program encompasses a selection of important, representative fuels of opportunity for gas turbines with widely varying fundamental properties of combustion. The research program covers conceptual and detailed combustor design, fabrication, and testing of retrofitable and/or novel fuel-flexible gas turbine combustor hardware, specifically advanced fuel nozzle technology, at full-scale gas turbine combustor conditions. This project was performed over the period of October 2008 through September 2011 under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-08NT05868 for the U.S. Department of Energy/National Energy Technology Laboratory (USDOE/NETL) entitled "Fuel Flexible Combustion Systems for High-Efficiency Utilization of Opportunity Fuels in Gas Turbines". The overall objective of this program was met with great success. GE was able to successfully demonstrate the operability of two fuel-flexible combustion nozzles over a wide range of opportunity fuels at heavy-duty gas turbine conditions while meeting emissions goals. The GE MS6000B ("6B") gas turbine engine was chosen as the target platform for new fuel-flexible premixer development. Comprehensive conceptual design and analysis of new fuel-flexible premixing nozzles were undertaken. Gas turbine cycle models and detailed flow network models of the combustor provide the premixer conditions (temperature, pressure, pressure drops, velocities, and air flow splits) and illustrate the impact of widely varying fuel flow rates on the combustor. Detailed chemical kinetic mechanisms were employed to compare some fundamental combustion characteristics of the target fuels, including flame speeds and lean blow-out behavior. Perfectly premixed combustion experiments were conducted to provide experimental combustion data of our target fuels at gas turbine conditions. Based on an initial assessment of premixer design requirements and challenges, the most promising sub-scale premixer concepts were evaluated both experimentally and computationally. After comprehensive screening tests, two best performing concepts were scaled up for further development. High pressure single nozzle tests were performed with the scaled premixer concepts at target gas turbine conditions with opportunity fuels. Single-digit NOx emissions were demonstrated for syngas fuels. Plasma-assisted pilot technology was demonstrated to enhance ignition capability and provide additional flame stability margin to a standard premixing fuel nozzle. However, the impact of plasma on NOx emissions was observed to be unacceptable given the goals of this program and difficult to avoid.

Venkatesan, Krishna

2011-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

134

Performance testing and Bayesian Reliability Analysis of small diameter, high power electric heaters for the simulation of nuclear fuel rod temperatures  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

proposed full test using prototypic mixed-oxide fuel (MOX) containing plutonium from converted nuclear weapons. Bayesian reliability analysis methods were used to determine the expected heater failure rate because of the expected short test duration...

O'Kelly, David Sean

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

135

Philosophy 26 High Temperature Superconductivity  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

is the ratio of voltage to current. The resistance of a material tells us how a low resistance, and they are therefore good conductors; other materials, likePhilosophy 26 High Temperature Superconductivity By Ohm's Law, resistance

Callender, Craig

136

Experiment Hazard Class 3 - High Temperatures  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Operation * APS Base Low Temperatures * Cryogenic Systems High Temperatures * Electric Furnace * Optical Furnace * Other High Temperature Lasers * Laser, Class 2 * Laser,...

137

Fireside slagging, fouling, and high-temperature corrosion of heat-transfer surface due to impurities in steam-raising fuels  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The process of steam raising as a source of heat or means of generating electricity using combustible fuels began with the turn of the century. From the very beginning, impurities in the fuels were responsible for added maintenance, a reduction in rate of heat transfer and corrosion due to fireside deposits of sintered or molten ash. The nature and severity of deposit formation, i.e. slagging and fouling, changed as the fuels and their impurities changed, the steam raising process evolved and the steam generators increased in size and efficiency. With the introduction of computer science, the empirical art of ash deposition from impurities in combustion gases is rapidly being transformed into the science of mineral transformation and ash deposition. This manuscript presents in chronological order an overview of the art of ash deposition while firing coal, the mechanistic approach to the problem, the recent introduction of sophisticated analytical procedures, and modeling of mineral transformations, and ash deposition underway. Adaptation of fuels such as ash oil, petroleum coke, municipal waste, wood and biomass to the steam raising process are presented individually in the order in which they were introduced. Empirical indices presently used to characterize the slagging or fouling potentials of impurities in fuels are present. Fundamental data are provided where necessary to illustrate mechanisms for ash deposition. An extensive list of key references is offered for those wishing to investigate details of any particular aspect of fireside slagging, fouling or corrosion.

Richard W. Bryers

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

High temperature storage loop : final design report.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A three year plan for thermal energy storage (TES) research was created at Sandia National Laboratories in the spring of 2012. This plan included a strategic goal of providing test capability for Sandia and for the nation in which to evaluate high temperature storage (>650%C2%B0C) technology. The plan was to scope, design, and build a flow loop that would be compatible with a multitude of high temperature heat transfer/storage fluids. The High Temperature Storage Loop (HTSL) would be reconfigurable so that it was useful for not only storage testing, but also for high temperature receiver testing and high efficiency power cycle testing as well. In that way, HTSL was part of a much larger strategy for Sandia to provide a research and testing platform that would be integral for the evaluation of individual technologies funded under the SunShot program. DOE's SunShot program seeks to reduce the price of solar technologies to 6/kWhr to be cost competitive with carbon-based fuels. The HTSL project sought to provide evaluation capability for these SunShot supported technologies. This report includes the scoping, design, and budgetary costing aspects of this effort

Gill, David Dennis; Kolb, William J.

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

High-temperature sorbent method for removal of sulfur containing gases from gaseous mixtures  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A copper oxide-zinc oxide mixture is used as a sorbent for removing hydrogen sulfide and other sulfur containing gases at high temperatures from a gaseous fuel mixture. This high-temperature sorbent is especially useful for preparing fuel gases for high temperature fuel cells. The copper oxide is initially reduced in a preconditioning step to elemental copper and is present in a highly dispersed state throughout the zinc oxide which serves as a support as well as adding to the sulfur sorption capacity. The spent sorbent is regenerated by high-temperature treatment with an air fuel, air steam mixture followed by hydrogen reduction to remove and recover the sulfur.

Young, John E. (Woodridge, IL); Jalan, Vinod M. (Concord, MA)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

High-temperature sorbent method for removal of sulfur-containing gases from gaseous mixtures  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A copper oxide-zinc oxide mixture is used as a sorbent for removing hydrogen sulfide and other sulfur containing gases at high temperatures from a gaseous fuel mixture. This high-temperature sorbent is especially useful for preparing fuel gases for high temperature fuel cells. The copper oxide is initially reduced in a preconditioning step to elemental copper and is present in a highly dispersed state throughout the zinc oxide which serves as a support as well as adding to the sulfur sorbtion capacity. The spent sorbent is regenerated by high-temperature treatment with an air fuel, air steam mixture followed by hydrogen reduction to remove and recover the sulfur.

Young, J.E.; Jalan, V.M.

1982-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high temperature fuel" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

High-temperature sorbent method for removal of sulfur containing gases from gaseous mixtures  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A copper oxide-zinc oxide mixture is used as a sorbent for removing hydrogen sulfide and other sulfur containing gases at high temperatures from a gaseous fuel mixture. This high-temperature sorbent is especially useful for preparing fuel gases for high temperature fuel cells. The copper oxide is initially reduced in a preconditioning step to elemental copper and is present in a highly dispersed state throughout the zinc oxide which serves as a support as well as adding to the sulfur sorption capacity. The spent sorbent is regenerated by high-temperature treatment with an air fuel, air steam mixture followed by hydrogen reduction to remove and recover the sulfur.

Young, J.E.; Jalan, V.M.

1984-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

142

Temperature controlled high voltage regulator  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A temperature controlled high voltage regulator for automatically adjusting the high voltage applied to a radiation detector is described. The regulator is a solid state device that is independent of the attached radiation detector, enabling the regulator to be used by various models of radiation detectors, such as gas flow proportional radiation detectors.

Chiaro, Jr., Peter J. (Clinton, TN); Schulze, Gerald K. (Knoxville, TN)

2004-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

143

High temperature lightweight foamed cements  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Cement slurries are disclosed which are suitable for use in geothermal wells since they can withstand high temperatures and high pressures. The formulation consists of cement, silica flour, water, a retarder, a foaming agent, a foam stabilizer, and a reinforcing agent. A process for producing these cements is also disclosed. 3 figs.

Sugama, Toshifumi.

1989-10-03T23:59:59.000Z

144

A method for carbon oxide concentration evaluation in high-temperature combustion processes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A method for evaluating carbon oxide concentration in high-temperature combustion processes is presented. The paper offers an optimizing control problem for fuel combustion process using a stabilizing regulatory controller, which affects the fuel/air ...

K. E. Arystanbaev, A. T. Apsemetov

2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

145

Steam reforming of methane using double-walled reformer tubes containing high-temperature thermal storage Na2CO3/MgO composites for solar fuel production  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Double-walled reactor tubes containing thermal storage materials based on the molten carbonate salts100wt% Na2CO3 molten salt, 90wt% Na2CO3/10wt% MgO and 80wt% Na2CO3/20wt% MgO composite materialswere studied for the performances of the reactor during the heat charging mode, while those of methane reforming with steam during heat discharging mode for solar steam reforming. The variations in the temperatures of the catalyst and storage material, methane conversion, duration of reforming for obtaining high levels of methane conversion (>90%), higher heating value (HHV) power of reformed gas and efficiency of the reactor tubes were evaluated for the double-walled reactor tubes and a single-wall reactor tube without the thermal storage. The results for the heat charging mode indicated that the composite thermal storage could successfully store the heat transferred from the exterior wall of the reactor in comparison to the pure molten-salt. The double-walled reactor tubes with the 90wt% Na2CO3/10wt% MgO composite material was the most desirable for steam reforming of methane to realize large HHV amounts of reformed gas and higher efficiencies during heat-discharging mode.

Nobuyuki Gokon; Shohei Nakamura; Tsuyoshi Hatamachi; Tatsuya Kodama

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

Promises and problems with metallic interconnects for reduced temperature solid oxide fuel cells  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Symposium on Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC-VI) ed. S. C.FOR REDUCED TEMPERATURE SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS Peggy Y. Hou,for low temperature solid oxide fuel cell is discussed in

Hou, Peggy Y.; Huang, Keqin; Bakker, Wate T.

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

Fuel Effects on Mixing-Controlled Combustion Strategies for High...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Fuel Effects on Mixing-Controlled Combustion Strategies for High-Efficiency Clean-Combustion Engines Fuel Effects on Mixing-Controlled Combustion Strategies for High-Efficiency...

148

High Temperature Optical Gas Sensing  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Optical Gas Sensing Optical Gas Sensing Opportunity Research is active on optical sensors integrated with advanced sensing materials for high temperature embedded gas sensing applications. Patent applications have been filed for two inventions in this area and several other methods are currently under development. These technologies are available for licensing and/or further collaborative research from the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). Organizations or individuals with capabilities in optical sensor packaging for harsh environment and high temperature applications are encouraged to contact NETL to explore potential collaborative opportunities. Overview Contact NETL Technology Transfer Group techtransfer@netl.doe.gov

149

High temperature superconductor current leads  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An electrical lead is disclosed having one end for connection to an apparatus in a cryogenic environment and the other end for connection to an apparatus outside the cryogenic environment. The electrical lead includes a high temperature superconductor wire and an electrically conductive material distributed therein, where the conductive material is present at the one end of the lead at a concentration in the range of from 0 to about 3% by volume, and at the other end of the lead at a concentration of less than about 20% by volume. Various embodiments are shown for groups of high temperature superconductor wires and sheaths. 9 figs.

Hull, J.R.; Poeppel, R.B.

1995-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

150

E-Print Network 3.0 - aqueous high-temperature chemistry Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

tolerant PEM Fuel Cell System utilizing advanced components, high temperature membrane Praxair Process... Technology Administration U.S. Department of Commerce...

151

DOE Hydrogen Analysis Repository: High Temperature Electrolysis (HTE)  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

High Temperature Electrolysis (HTE) High Temperature Electrolysis (HTE) Project Summary Full Title: High Temperature Electrolysis (HTE) Project ID: 159 Principal Investigator: Steve Herring Brief Description: A three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model was created to model high-temperature steam electrolysis in a planar solid oxide electrolysis cell (SOEC). A solid-oxide fuel cell model adds the electrochemical reactions and loss mechanisms and computation of the electric field throughout the cell. Keywords: Solid oxide fuel cell; solid oxide elctrolysis cell; nuclear; model Purpose Assess the performance of solid-oxide cells operating in the steam electrolysis mode for hydrogen production over a temperature range of 800 to 900ºC. Performer Principal Investigator: Steve Herring

152

High efficiency carbonate fuel cell/turbine hybrid power cycle  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The hybrid power cycle studies were conducted to identify a high efficiency, economically competitive system. A hybrid power cycle which generates power at an LHV efficiency > 70% was identified that includes an atmospheric pressure direct carbonate fuel cell, a gas turbine, and a steam cycle. In this cycle, natural gas fuel is mixed with recycled fuel cell anode exhaust, providing water for reforming fuel. The mixed gas then flows to a direct carbonate fuel cell which generates about 70% of the power. The portion of the anode exhaust which is not recycled is burned and heat transferred through a heat exchanger (HX) to the compressed air from a gas turbine. The heated compressed air is then heated further in the gas turbine burner and expands through the turbine generating 15% of the power. Half the exhaust from the turbine provides air for the anode exhaust burner. All of the turbine exhaust eventually flows through the fuel cell cathodes providing the O2 and CO2 needed in the electrochemical reaction. Exhaust from the cathodes flows to a steam system (heat recovery steam generator, staged steam turbine generating 15% of the cycle power). Simulation of a 200 MW plant with a hybrid power cycle had an LHV efficiency of 72.6%. Power output and efficiency are insensitive to ambient temperature, compared to a gas turbine combined cycle; NOx emissions are 75% lower. Estimated cost of electricity for 200 MW is 46 mills/kWh, which is competitive with combined cycle where fuel cost is > $5.8/MMBTU. Key requirement is HX; in the 200 MW plant studies, a HX operating at 1094 C using high temperature HX technology currently under development by METC for coal gassifiers was assumed. A study of a near term (20 MW) high efficiency direct carbonate fuel cell/turbine hybrid power cycle has also been completed.

Steinfeld, G.; Maru, H.C. [Energy Research Corp., Danbury, CT (United States); Sanderson, R.A. [Sanderson (Robert) and Associates, Wethersfield, CT (United States)

1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

153

Method for high temperature mercury capture from gas streams  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process to facilitate mercury extraction from high temperature flue/fuel gas via the use of metal sorbents which capture mercury at ambient and high temperatures. The spent sorbents can be regenerated after exposure to mercury. The metal sorbents can be used as pure metals (or combinations of metals) or dispersed on an inert support to increase surface area per gram of metal sorbent. Iridium and ruthenium are effective for mercury removal from flue and smelter gases. Palladium and platinum are effective for mercury removal from fuel gas (syngas). An iridium-platinum alloy is suitable for metal capture in many industrial effluent gas streams including highly corrosive gas streams.

Granite, E.J.; Pennline, H.W.

2006-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

154

High temperature turbine engine structure  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A high temperature turbine engine includes a rotor portion having axially stacked adjacent ceramic rotor parts. A ceramic/ceramic joint structure transmits torque between the rotor parts while maintaining coaxial alignment and axially spaced mutually parallel relation thereof despite thermal and centrifugal cycling.

Boyd, Gary L. (Tempe, AZ)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

High Efficiency Direct Carbon and Hydrogen Fuel Cells for Fossil Fuel Power Generation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Hydrogen he1 cells have been under development for a number of years and are now nearing commercial applications. Direct carbon fuel cells, heretofore, have not reached practical stages of development because of problems in fuel reactivity and cell configuration. The carbon/air fuel cell reaction (C + O{sub 2} = CO{sub 2}) has the advantage of having a nearly zero entropy change. This allows a theoretical efficiency of 100 % at 700-800 C. The activities of the C fuel and CO{sub 2} product do not change during consumption of the fuel. Consequently, the EMF is invariant; this raises the possibility of 100% fuel utilization in a single pass. (In contrast, the high-temperature hydrogen fuel cell has a theoretical efficiency of and changes in fuel activity limit practical utilizations to 75-85%.) A direct carbon fuel cell is currently being developed that utilizes reactive carbon particulates wetted by a molten carbonate electrolyte. Pure COZ is evolved at the anode and oxygen from air is consumed at the cathode. Electrochemical data is reported here for the carbon/air cell utilizing carbons derived from he1 oil pyrolysis, purified coal, purified bio-char and petroleum coke. At 800 O C, a voltage efficiency of 80% was measured at power densities of 0.5-1 kW/m2. Carbon and hydrogen fuels may be produced simultaneously at lugh efficiency from: (1) natural gas, by thermal decomposition, (2) petroleum, by coking or pyrolysis of distillates, (3) coal, by sequential hydrogasification to methane and thermal pyrolysis of the methane, with recycle of the hydrogen, and (4) biomass, similarly by sequential hydrogenation and thermal pyrolysis. Fuel production data may be combined with direct C and H2 fuel cell operating data for power cycle estimates. Thermal to electric efficiencies indicate 80% HHV [85% LHV] for petroleum, 75.5% HHV [83.4% LHV] for natural gas and 68.3% HHV [70.8% LHV] for lignite coal. Possible benefits of integrated carbon and hydrogen fuel cell power generation cycles are: (1) increased efficiency by a factor of up to 2 over many conventional fossil fuel steam plants, (2) reduced power generation cost, especially for increasing fossil fuel cost, (3) reduced CO2 emission per kWh, and (4) direct sequestration or reuse (e.g., in enhanced oil or NG recovery) of the CO{sub 2} product.

Steinberg, M; Cooper, J F; Cherepy, N

2002-01-02T23:59:59.000Z

156

A Temperature Stabilized Tachometer for the Fuel Efficient Automobile  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this day of energy conversion and high petroleum costs the optimum consumption of fuel is the goal of all owners of gas and diesel vehicles. The tachometer used with internal combustion engines permits engine revolution monitoring and with proper ...

G. Wilcox; J. L. Mason

1980-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

157

THETRIS: A MICRO-SCALE TEMPERATURE AND GAS RELEASE MODEL FOR TRISO FUEL  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The dominating mechanism in the passive safety of gas-cooled, graphite-moderated, high-temperature reactors (HTRs) is the Doppler feedback effect. These reactor designs are fueled with sub-millimeter sized kernels formed into TRISO particles that are imbedded in a graphite matrix. The best spatial and temporal representation of the feedback effect is obtained from an accurate approximation of the fuel temperature. Most accident scenarios in HTRs are characterized by large time constants and slow changes in the fuel and moderator temperature fields. In these situations a meso-scale, pebble and compact scale, solution provides a good approximation of the fuel temperature. Micro-scale models are necessary in order to obtain accurate predictions in faster transients or when parameters internal to the TRISO are needed. Since these coated particles constitute one of the fundamental design barriers for the release of fission products, it becomes important to understand the transient behavior inside this containment system. An explicit TRISO fuel temperature model named THETRIS has been developed and incorporated into the CYNOD-THERMIX-KONVEK suite of coupled codes. The code includes gas release models that provide a simple predictive capability of the internal pressure during transients. The new model yields similar results to those obtained with other micro-scale fuel models, but with the added capability to analyze gas release, internal pressure buildup, and effects of a gap in the TRISO. The analyses show the instances when the micro-scale models improve the predictions of the fuel temperature and Doppler feedback. In addition, a sensitivity study of the potential effects on the transient behavior of high-temperature reactors due to the presence of a gap is included. Although the formation of a gap occurs under special conditions, its consequences on the dynamic behavior of the reactor can cause unexpected responses during fast transients. Nevertheless, the strong Doppler feedback forces the reactor to quickly stabilize.

J. Ortensi; A.M. Ougouag

2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

High-Temperature Aluminum Alloys  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting

159

Solar High-Temperature Water Splitting Cycle with Quantum Boost - DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program FY 2012 Annual Progress Report  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

9 9 FY 2012 Annual Progress Report DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Robin Taylor (Primary Contact), Roger Davenport, David Genders 1 , Peter Symons 1 , Lloyd Brown 2 , Jan Talbot 3 , Richard Herz 3 Science Applications International, Corp. (SAIC) 10210 Campus Point Drive San Diego, CA 92121 Phone: (858) 826-9124 Email: taylorro@saic.com 1 Electrosynthesis Co., Inc. (ESC) 2 Thermochemical Engineering Solutions (TCHEME) 3 University of California, San Diego (UCSD) DOE Managers HQ: Sara Dillich Phone: (202) 586-7925 Email: Sara.Dillich@ee.doe.gov GO: Katie Randolph Phone: (720) 356-1759 Email: Katie.Randolph@go.doe.gov Contract Number: DE-FG36-07GO17002 Subcontractors: * Electrosynthesis Co., Inc., Lancaster, NY * Thermochemical Engineering Solutions, San Diego, CA

160

High Temperature Chemical Kinetic Combustion Modeling of Lightly Methylated Alkanes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Conventional petroleum jet and diesel fuels, as well as alternative Fischer-Tropsch (FT) fuels and hydrotreated renewable jet (HRJ) fuels, contain high molecular weight lightly branched alkanes (i.e., methylalkanes) and straight chain alkanes (n-alkanes). Improving the combustion of these fuels in practical applications requires a fundamental understanding of large hydrocarbon combustion chemistry. This research project presents a detailed high temperature chemical kinetic mechanism for n-octane and three lightly branched isomers octane (i.e., 2-methylheptane, 3-methylheptane, and 2,5-dimethylhexane). The model is validated against experimental data from a variety of fundamental combustion devices. This new model is used to show how the location and number of methyl branches affects fuel reactivity including laminar flame speed and species formation.

Sarathy, S M; Westbrook, C K; Pitz, W J; Mehl, M

2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high temperature fuel" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Acid Doped Membranes for High Temperature PEMFC  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Presentation on Acid Doped Membranes for High Temperature PEMFC to the High Temperature Membrane Working Group, May 25, 2004 in Philadelphia, PA.

162

Joint Institute for High Temperatures  

National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

Joint Institute for High Temperatures of Russian Academy of Sciences Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology Extended title Extended title Excited state of warm dense matter or Exotic state of warm dense matter or Novel form of warm dense matter or New form of plasma Three sources of generation similarity: solid state density, two temperatures: electron temperature about tens eV, cold ions keep original crystallographic positions, but electron band structure and phonon dispersion are changed, transient but steady (quasi-stationary for a short time) state of non-equilibrium, uniform plasmas (no reference to non-ideality, both strongly and weakly coupled plasmas can be formed) spectral line spectra are emitted by ion cores embedded in plasma environment which influences the spectra strongly,

163

High Specific Power, Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Stack  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

High Specific Power, Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Stack High Specific Power, Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Stack High Specific Power, Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Stack The present invention is a fuel cell stack including at least one direct methanol fuel cell. Available for thumbnail of Feynman Center (505) 665-9090 Email High Specific Power, Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Stack The present invention is a fuel cell stack including at least one direct methanol fuel cell. A cathode manifold is used to convey ambient air to each fuel cell, and an anode manifold is used to convey liquid methanol fuel to each fuel cell. Tie-bolt penetrations and tie-bolts are spaced evenly around the perimeter to hold the fuel cell stack together. Each fuel cell uses two graphite-based plates. One plate includes a cathode active area that is defined by serpentine channels connecting the inlet manifold

164

High Reliability, High TemperatureThermoelectric Power Generation...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Reliability, High TemperatureThermoelectric Power Generation Materials and Technologies High Reliability, High TemperatureThermoelectric Power Generation Materials and Technologies...

165

High temperature turbine engine structure  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A high temperature ceramic/metallic turbine engine includes a metallic housing which journals a rotor member of the turbine engine. A ceramic disk-like shroud portion of the engine is supported on the metallic housing portion and maintains a close running clearance with the rotor member. A ceramic spacer assembly maintains the close running clearance of the shroud portion and rotor member despite differential thermal movements between the shroud portion and metallic housing portion.

Carruthers, William D. (Mesa, AZ); Boyd, Gary L. (Tempe, AZ)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

166

High temperature turbine engine structure  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A high temperature ceramic/metallic turbine engine includes a metallic housing which journals a rotor member of the turbine engine. A ceramic disk-like shroud portion of the engine is supported on the metallic housing portion and maintains a close running clearance with the rotor member. A ceramic spacer assembly maintains the close running clearance of the shroud portion and rotor member despite differential thermal movements between the shroud portion and metallic housing portion.

Carruthers, William D. (Mesa, AZ); Boyd, Gary L. (Tempe, AZ)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

167

High temperature turbine engine structure  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A high temperature ceramic/metallic turbine engine includes a metallic housing which journals a rotor member of the turbine engine. A ceramic disk-like shroud portion of the engine is supported on the metallic housing portion and maintains a close running clearance with the rotor member. A ceramic spacer assembly maintains the close running clearance of the shroud portion and rotor member despite differential thermal movements between the shroud portion and metallic housing portion.

Carruthers, William D. (Mesa, AZ); Boyd, Gary L. (Tempe, AZ)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

Fuel-Cell Fundamentals at Low and Subzero Temperatures  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Fuel-Cell Fundamentals at Low and Subzero Temperatures Adam Z. Weber (PI), John Newman, Clayton bottlenecks Operational Material Elucidate the associated degradation mechanisms due to subzero operation and freeze cycles; degradation-mechanism identification and mitigation C. Performance Efficiency and power

169

Nonprecious Metal Catalysts for Low Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Nonprecious Metal Catalysts for Low Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cells ... Initial and final state geometries are found with standard geometry optimization, then a number of intermediate states are generated by interpolation of atomic positions. ... A special "metric" and a special "preconditioning" optimized for a plane-wave basis set will be introduced. ...

Timothy P. Holme; Fritz B. Prinz

2011-05-24T23:59:59.000Z

170

Novel Materials for High Efficiency Direct Methanol Fuel Cells  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

or otherwise restricted information Novel Materials for High Efficiency Direct Methanol Fuel Cells Chris Roger and David Mountz October 1, 2009 2009 Fuel Cell Projects Kickoff...

171

2008 DOE Spent Nuclear Fuel and High Level Waste Inventory  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Management >> National Spent Nuclear Fuel INL Logo Search 2008 DOE Spent Nuclear Fuel and High Level Waste Inventory Content Goes Here Skip Navigation Links Home Newsroom About INL...

172

High-pressure coal fuel processor development  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Caterpillar shares DOE/METC interest in demonstrating the technology required to displace petroleum-based engine fuels with various forms of low cost coal. Current DOE/METC programs on mild gasification and coal-water-slurries are addressing two approaches to this end. Engine and fuel processor system concept studies by Caterpillar have identified a third, potentially promising, option. This option includes high-pressure fuel processing of run-of-the-mine coal and direct injection of the resulting low-Btu gas stream into an ignition assisted, high compression ratio diesel engine. The compactness and predicted efficiency of the system make it suitable for application to line-haul railroad locomotives. Two overall conclusions resulted from Task 1. First direct injected, ignition assisted Diesel cycle engine combustion systems can be suitably modified to efficiently utilize low-Btu gas fuels. Second, high pressure gasification of selected run-of-the-mine coals in batch-loaded fuel processors is feasible. These two findings, taken together, significantly reduce the perceived technical risk associated with the further development of the proposed coal gas fueled Diesel cycle power plant concept. The significant conclusions from Task 2 were: An engine concept, derived from a Caterpillar 3600 series engine, and a fuel processor concept, based on scaling up a removable-canister configuration from the test rig, appear feasible; and although the results of this concept study are encouraging, further, full-scale component research and development are required before attempting a full-scale integrated system demonstration effort.

Greenhalgh, M.L. (Caterpillar, Inc., Peoria, IL (United States))

1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

173

Ultra High Temperature | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Ultra High Temperature Ultra High Temperature Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Print PDF Sanyal Temperature Classification: Ultra High Temperature Dictionary.png Ultra High Temperature: No definition has been provided for this term. Add a Definition Sanyal Temp Classification This temperature scheme was developed by Sanyal in 2005 at the request of DOE and GEA, as reported in Classification of Geothermal Systems: A Possible Scheme. Extremely Low Temperature Very Low Temperature Low Temperature Moderate Temperature High Temperature Ultra High Temperature Steam Field Reservoir fluid greater than 300°C is considered by Sanyal to be "ultra high temperature". "Such reservoirs are characterized by rapid development of steam saturation in the reservoir and steam fraction in the mobile fluid phase upon

174

Thin film battery/fuel cell power generation system. Topical report covering Task 5: the design, cost and benefit of an industrial cogeneration system, using a high-temperature solid-oxide-electrolyte (HTSOE) fuel-cell generator  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A literature search and review of the studies analyzing the relationship between thermal and electrical energy demand for various industries and applications resulted in several applications affording reasonable correlation to the thermal and electrical output of the HTSOE fuel cell. One of the best matches was in the aluminum industry, specifically, the Reynolds Aluminum Production Complex near Corpus Christi, Texas. Therefore, a preliminary design of three variations of a cogeneration system for this plant was effected. The designs were not optimized, nor were alternate methods of providing energy compared with the HTSOE cogeneration systems. The designs were developed to the extent necessary to determine technical practicality and economic viability, when compared with alternate conventional fuel (gas and electric) prices in the year 1990.

Not Available

1981-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

175

Materials Characterization Capabilities at the High Temperature...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Characterization Capabilities at the High Temperature Materials Laboratory: Focus on Carbon Fiber and Composites Materials Characterization Capabilities at the High...

176

High-pressure coal fuel processor development  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of Subtask 1.1 Engine Feasibility was to conduct research needed to establish the technical feasibility of ignition and stable combustion of directly injected, 3,000 psi, low-Btu gas with glow plug ignition assist at diesel engine compression ratios. This objective was accomplished by designing, fabricating, testing and analyzing the combustion performance of synthesized low-Btu coal gas in a single-cylinder test engine combustion rig located at the Caterpillar Technical Center engine lab in Mossville, Illinois. The objective of Subtask 1.2 Fuel Processor Feasibility was to conduct research needed to establish the technical feasibility of air-blown, fixed-bed, high-pressure coal fuel processing at up to 3,000 psi operating pressure, incorporating in-bed sulfur and particulate capture. This objective was accomplished by designing, fabricating, testing and analyzing the performance of bench-scale processors located at Coal Technology Corporation (subcontractor) facilities in Bristol, Virginia. These two subtasks were carried out at widely separated locations and will be discussed in separate sections of this report. They were, however, independent in that the composition of the synthetic coal gas used to fuel the combustion rig was adjusted to reflect the range of exit gas compositions being produced on the fuel processor rig. Two major conclusions resulted from this task. First, direct injected, ignition assisted Diesel cycle engine combustion systems can be suitably modified to efficiently utilize these low-Btu gas fuels. Second, high pressure gasification of selected run-of-the-mine coals in batch-loaded fuel processors is feasible. These two findings, taken together, significantly reduce the perceived technical risks associated with the further development of the proposed coal gas fueled Diesel cycle power plant concept.

Greenhalgh, M.L.

1992-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

177

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Authorization for High Occupancy Vehicle  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Authorization for High Authorization for High Occupancy Vehicle (HOV) Lane Exemption to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Authorization for High Occupancy Vehicle (HOV) Lane Exemption on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Authorization for High Occupancy Vehicle (HOV) Lane Exemption on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Authorization for High Occupancy Vehicle (HOV) Lane Exemption on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Authorization for High Occupancy Vehicle (HOV) Lane Exemption on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Authorization for High Occupancy Vehicle (HOV) Lane Exemption on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Authorization for High Occupancy Vehicle (HOV) Lane Exemption on

178

MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF Sc???Ce????Zr????O? ELECTROLYTE MATERIAL FOR INTERMEDIATE TEMPERATURE SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Scandia doped zirconia has been considered a candidate for electrolyte material in intermediate temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFCs) due to its high ionic conductivity, chemical stability and good electrochemical performance. The aim...

Lim, Wendy

2011-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

179

Thermodynamics and Transport Phenomena in High Temperature Steam Electrolysis Cells  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Hydrogen can be produced from water splitting with relatively high efficiency using high temperature electrolysis. This technology makes use of solid-oxide cells, running in the electrolysis mode to produce hydrogen from steam, while consuming electricity and high temperature process heat. The overall thermal-to-hydrogen efficiency for high temperature electrolysis can be as high as 50%, which is about double the overall efficiency of conventional low-temperature electrolysis. Current large-scale hydrogen production is based almost exclusively on steam reforming of methane, a method that consumes a precious fossil fuel while emitting carbon dioxide to the atmosphere. An overview of high temperature electrolysis technology will be presented, including basic thermodynamics, experimental methods, heat and mass transfer phenomena, and computational fluid dynamics modeling.

James E. O'Brien

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

180

Superfast oxygen exchange kinetics on highly epitaxial LaBaCo2O5+? thin films for intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Superfast chemical dynamics on highly epitaxial LaBaCo2O5+? (LBCO) heterostructures were systematically studied with symmetric half-cell LBCO/Gd0.2Ce0.8O2 (GCO):Y0.08Zr0.92O2 (YSZ)/LBCO heterostructures on (001) LaAlO3. The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements reveal that the LBCO film electrodes have an ultralow polarization resistance as low as 0.11 ??cm2 at 600 C in air a superfast surface exchange coefficient of 0.017 cm/s at 600 and an extremely low activation energy value of 0.49 eV. These excellent physical chemistry properties and superfast chemical dynamics on the highly epitaxial LBCO thin films are considered to be somewhat related to the structure entropy of the nano ordered oxygen vacancy structure.

Jian Liu; Gregory Collins; Ming Liu; Chonglin Chen

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high temperature fuel" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Low Temperature Constrained Sintering of Cerium Gadolinium Oxide Films for Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Applications  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cells, In: S.C. Singhal and M.solidoxide.html, Tubular Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Technology,Oxide Films for Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Applications by Jason

Nicholas, Jason.D.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

Accelerator-Based Irradiation Creep of Pyrolytic Carbon Used in TRISO Fuel Particles for the (VHTR) Very Hight Temperature Reactors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Pyrolytic carbon (PyC) is one of the important structural materials in the TRISO fuel particles which will be used in the next generation of gas-cooled very-high-temperature reactors (VHTR). When the TRISO particles are under irradiation at high temperatures, creep of the PyC layers may cause radial cracking leading to catastrophic particle failure. Therefore, a fundamental understanding of the creep behavior of PyC during irradiation is required to predict the overall fuel performance.

Lumin Wang; Gary Was

2010-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

183

High Temperature Mechanical Properties as Design Parameters  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...corrosion resistance or high proof strength...development of more efficient power plant, process...Figure 2 shows a high temperature bolt...S.O.) of a Boiler Code (I968...power plant for high temperature pipework, boiler headers, valve...

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

Embrittlement and DBTT of High-Burnup PWR Fuel Cladding Alloys | Department  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Embrittlement and DBTT of High-Burnup PWR Fuel Cladding Alloys Embrittlement and DBTT of High-Burnup PWR Fuel Cladding Alloys Embrittlement and DBTT of High-Burnup PWR Fuel Cladding Alloys Structural analyses of high-burnup (HBU) fuel require cladding mechanical properties and failure limits to assess fuel behavior during long-term dry-cask storage and transportation. Pre-storage drying-transfer operations and early stage storage subject cladding to higher temperatures and pressure-induced tensile hoop stresses relative to in-reactor operation and pool storage. Under these conditions, radial hydrides may precipitate during slow cooling and provide an additional embrittlement mechanism as the cladding temperature decreases below the ductile-to-brittle transition temperature (DBTT). Graphic and photographic details of the testing are

185

A time-temperature-concentration matrix for induced sediment formation in shale diesel fuel  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Deterioration in fuel quality with time has been a continuing problem in the utilization of middle distillate fuels. These stability problems will intensify as we develop alternative sources of fuel, such as shale oil and coal. Present knowledge has suggested that for some fuels, nitrogen heterocycles may play a causative role in the formation of insoluble sediments and gums under conditions of ambient and accelerated storage. In light of the high costs of fuel processing, substantial savings could be realized if it were possible to identify those nitrogen heterocycles which are most actively involved in the formation of insoluble material. Currently, it appears that relatively non-basic nitrogen heterocycles, particularly those which contain alkyl groups in certain positions, may be the most troublesome. However, in other fuels and under different test conditions, basic nitrogen compounds may play a significant role. In addressing this subject, we are defining the stability of shale-derived diesel fuel marine (DFM), stressing the sample under accelerated storage conditions, and determining the amount of total insoluble material produced. This report describes results obtained when 2,5-dimethylpyrrole (DMP) was used as a dopant in a time-temperature-concentration matrix. Results of a survey of other nitrogen compounds as fuel additives are also presented.

Cooney, J.V.; Beal, E.J.; Hazlett, R.N.

1983-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

186

Amorphous Alloy Membranes for High Temperature Hydrogen Separations  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

for High for High Temperature Hydrogen Separations Background Coal and biomass are readily available in the United States and can be mixed for thermal processing to produce hydrogen and power. The produced hydrogen can be sent directly to a fuel cell for highly efficient and environmentally clean power generation. For coal and biomass to become economically viable sources of hydrogen, more efficient production processes need to be developed. To meet this

187

High temperature electrochemical corrosion rate probes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Corrosion occurs in the high temperature sections of energy production plants due to a number of factors: ash deposition, coal composition, thermal gradients, and low NOx conditions, among others. Electrochemical corrosion rate (ECR) probes have been shown to operate in high temperature gaseous environments that are similar to those found in fossil fuel combustors. ECR probes are rarely used in energy production plants at the present time, but if they were more fully understood, corrosion could become a process variable at the control of plant operators. Research is being conducted to understand the nature of these probes. Factors being considered are values selected for the Stern-Geary constant, the effect of internal corrosion, and the presence of conductive corrosion scales and ash deposits. The nature of ECR probes will be explored in a number of different atmospheres and with different electrolytes (ash and corrosion product). Corrosion rates measured using an electrochemical multi-technique capabilities instrument will be compared to those measured using the linear polarization resistance (LPR) technique. In future experiments, electrochemical corrosion rates will be compared to penetration corrosion rates determined using optical profilometry measurements.

Bullard, Sophie J.; Covino, Bernard S., Jr.; Holcomb, Gordon R.; Ziomek-Moroz, M.

2005-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

Regulatory Perspective on Potential Fuel Reconfiguration and Its Implication to High Burnup Spent Fuel Storage and Transportation - 13042  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The recent experiments conducted by Argonne National Laboratory on high burnup fuel cladding material property show that the ductile to brittle transition temperature of high burnup fuel cladding is dependent on: (1) cladding material, (2) irradiation conditions, and (3) drying-storage histories (stress at maximum temperature) [1]. The experiment results also show that the ductile to brittle temperature increases as the fuel burnup increases. These results indicate that the current knowledge in cladding material property is insufficient to determine the structural performance of the cladding of high burnup fuel after it has been stored in a dry cask storage system for some time. The uncertainties in material property and the elevated ductile to brittle transition temperature impose a challenge to the storage cask and transportation packaging designs because the cask designs may not be able to rely on the structural integrity of the fuel assembly for control of fissile material, radiation source, and decay heat source distributions. The fuel may reconfigure during further storage and/or the subsequent transportation conditions. In addition, the fraction of radioactive materials available for release from spent fuel under normal condition of storage and transport may also change. The spent fuel storage and/or transportation packaging vendors, spent fuel shippers, and the regulator may need to consider this possible fuel reconfiguration and its impact on the packages' ability to meet the safety requirements of Part 72 and Part 71 of Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations. The United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is working with the scientists at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to assess the impact of fuel reconfiguration on the safety of the dry storage systems and transportation packages. The NRC Division of Spent Fuel Storage and Transportation has formed a task force to work on the safety and regulatory concerns in relevance to high burnup fuel storage and transportation. This paper discusses the staff's preliminary considerations on the safety implication of fuel reconfiguration with respect to nuclear safety (subcriticality control), radiation shielding, containment, the performance of the thermal functions of the packages, and the retrievability of the contents from regulatory perspective. (authors)

Li, Zhian; Rahimi, Meraj; Tang, David; Aissa, Mourad; Flaganan, Michelle [U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission - NRC, Washington, DC 20555-0001 (United States)] [U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission - NRC, Washington, DC 20555-0001 (United States); Wagner, John C. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (United States)] [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (United States)

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

189

Sandia National Laboratories: High-Pressure and High-Temperature...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

ClimateECClimateCarbon CaptureHigh-Pressure and High-Temperature Neutron Reflectometry Cell for Solid-Fluid Interface Studies High-Pressure and High-Temperature Neutron...

190

Refueling Liquid-Salt-Cooled Very High-Temperature Reactors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The liquid-salt-cooled very high-temperature reactor (LS-VHTR), also called the Advanced High-Temperature Reactor (AHTR), is a new reactor concept that combines in a novel way four established technologies: (1) coated-particle graphite-matrix nuclear fuels, (2) Brayton power cycles, (3) passive safety systems and plant designs previously developed for liquid-metal-cooled fast reactors, and (4) low-pressure liquid-salt coolants. Depending upon goals, the peak coolant operating temperatures are between 700 and 1000 deg. C, with reactor outputs between 2400 and 4000 MW(t). Several fluoride salt coolants that are being evaluated have melting points between 350 and 500 deg. C, values that imply minimum refueling temperatures between 400 and 550 deg. C. At operating conditions, the liquid salts are transparent and have physical properties similar to those of water. A series of refueling studies have been initiated to (1) confirm the viability of refueling, (2) define methods for safe rapid refueling, and (3) aid the selection of the preferred AHTR design. Three reactor cores with different fuel element designs (prismatic, pebble bed, and pin-type fuel assembly) are being evaluated. Each is a liquid-salt-cooled variant of a graphite-moderated high-temperature reactor. The refueling studies examined applicable refueling experience from high-temperature reactors (similar fuel element designs) and sodium-cooled fast reactors (similar plant design with liquid coolant, high temperatures, and low pressures). The findings indicate that refueling is viable, and several approaches have been identified. The study results are described in this paper. (authors)

Forsberg, Charles W. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P.O. Box 2008 Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Peterson, Per F. [Nuclear Engineering Department, University of California at Berkeley, 6124a Etcheverry Hall, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Cahalan, James E. [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Enneking, Jeffrey A. [Areva NP (United States); Phil MacDonald [Consultant, Cedar Hill, TX (United States)

2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

Polyelectrolyte Materials for High Temperature Fuel Cells  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

* Prepare solid electrolytes where only the proton moves. - Measure conductivity, mechanicalthermal properties of Nafion and other polyelectrolytes doped with imidazoles....

192

High temperature methods for forming oxidizer fuel  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of treating a formation fluid includes providing formation fluid from a subsurface in situ heat treatment process. The formation fluid is separated to produce a liquid stream and a first gas stream. The first gas stream includes carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulfide, hydrocarbons, hydrogen or mixtures thereof. Molecular oxygen is separated from air to form a molecular oxygen stream comprising molecular oxygen. The first gas stream is combined with the molecular oxygen stream to form a combined stream comprising molecular oxygen and the first gas stream. The combined stream is provided to one or more downhole burners.

Bravo, Jose Luis (Houston, TX)

2011-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

193

Low Temperature Fuel Cell and Electrolyzer Balance-of-Plant Manufacturing Needs  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Workshop: Manufacturing Progress and Barriers Low Temperature Fuel Cell and Electrolyser Balance-of-Plant Manufacturing Needs Agenda 2 1. Market and development overview 2. DOE manufacturing overview 3. Current mfg status (automation, volume, etc.) 4. Barriers to achieving high volume production 5. Manufacturing R&D needs Near Term Market Trends  I will focus on the green highlighted areas below as they are the near term applications:  Electrolyser  Industrial Applications  Fuel Cell Refuelling Applications  Energy Storage Applications  Fuel Cells  Automotive  Stationary Long Life  Stationary Intermittent / Short Life / Back-Up Power  Material Handling  APUs (cars/trucks/planes/boats/etc.)  Portable Applications Summary of Hydrogenics' Fuel Cell

194

Mixed Fuel Strategy for Carbon Deposition Mitigation in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells at Intermediate Temperatures  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Mixed Fuel Strategy for Carbon Deposition Mitigation in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells at Intermediate Temperatures ... (1-4) Although the concept of SOFCs was first reported more than one century ago,(5) major technological advances in cell materials, reactor configuration, operation mode, and balance of plant system integration and optimization were realized in the last 2030 years only. ... The hybrid start-up process is optimized with respect to a specific setup as an example, but is of general nature and utility to similar systems. ...

Chao Su; Yubo Chen; Wei Wang; Ran Ran; Zongping Shao; Joo C. Diniz da Costa; Shaomin Liu

2014-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

195

Ultrahlgh?Temperature Hydrogen Exposure Testing of Nuclear Fuel in Russia  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The world's most complete facility for ex?reactor ultrahigh?temperature hydrogen exposure testing is located at the Research Institute of SLA Lutch in Podolsk Moscow Region Russia. This facility has been utilized for a number of years for testing high?temperature nuclear fuels for the now?defunct Soviet space program and recent work was performed there under contract for Babcock & Wilcox. Capabilities of the facility are presented. The work performed for B&W is summarized as one example. (U Zr Nb)C fuel spheres with and without ZrC coatings were exposed to flowing hydrogen at 5 atm for 30 minutes at 3150 K followed by thermal survivability testing at 3500 K in static helium. Both the test facility and the fuel performed superbly.

Robert Evans; Russell Jensen; Marat Tishchenko; Victor Daragan

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

196

High-temperature thermocouples and related methods  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A high-temperature thermocouple and methods for fabricating a thermocouple capable of long-term operation in high-temperature, hostile environments without significant signal degradation or shortened thermocouple lifetime due to heat induced brittleness.

Rempe, Joy L. (Idaho Falls, ID); Knudson, Darrell L. (Firth, ID); Condie, Keith G. (Idaho Falls, ID); Wilkins, S. Curt (Idaho Falls, ID)

2011-01-18T23:59:59.000Z

197

High-temperature Pump Monitoring - High-temperature ESP Monitoring...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

at least at the outset, exclude new ideas. The drift issue appears to have brought a new search for materials into this research. * Objectives: Develop temperature and pressure...

198

Reciprocity theorem in high-temperature superconductors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This article is devoted to the problem of the validity of the reciprocity theorem in high-temperature

Ivan Jane?ek

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

Scaling in high-temperature superconductors by  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A Hartree approximation is used to study the interplay of two kinds of scaling which arise in high-temperature

Ian D Lawrie

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

200

Agenda: High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Agenda for the High Temperature Membrane Working Group (HTMWG) meeting on May 18, 2009, in Arlington, Virginia

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high temperature fuel" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

High-Temperature Structural Ceramics  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...been made in the diesel engine area as well. Perhaps...advanced concept in diesel tech-nology is the...adiabatic turbo-compounded diesel. This engine would eliminate the...an engine can reduce fuel consumption by as much as 25 percent...

R. Nathan Katz

1980-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

202

High Temperature Superconducting Underground Cable  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this Project was to design, build, install and demonstrate the technical feasibility of an underground high temperature superconducting (HTS) power cable installed between two utility substations. In the first phase two HTS cables, 320 m and 30 m in length, were constructed using 1st generation BSCCO wire. The two 34.5 kV, 800 Arms, 48 MVA sections were connected together using a superconducting joint in an underground vault. In the second phase the 30 m BSCCO cable was replaced by one constructed with 2nd generation YBCO wire. 2nd generation wire is needed for commercialization because of inherent cost and performance benefits. Primary objectives of the Project were to build and operate an HTS cable system which demonstrates significant progress towards commercial progress and addresses real world utility concerns such as installation, maintenance, reliability and compatibility with the existing grid. Four key technical areas addressed were the HTS cable and terminations (where the cable connects to the grid), cryogenic refrigeration system, underground cable-to-cable joint (needed for replacement of cable sections) and cost-effective 2nd generation HTS wire. This was the worlds first installation and operation of an HTS cable underground, between two utility substations as well as the first to demonstrate a cable-to-cable joint, remote monitoring system and 2nd generation HTS.

Farrell, Roger, A.

2010-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

203

Improved Prediction of the Temperature Feedback in TRISO-Fueled Reactors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Doppler feedback mechanism is a major contributor to the passive safety of gas-cooled, graphite-moderated high temperature reactors that use fuel based on Tristructural-Isotropic coated particles. It follows that the correct prediction of the magnitude and time-dependence of this feedback effect is essential to the conduct of safety analyses for these reactors. We present a fuel conduction model for obtaining better estimates of the temperature feedback during moderate and fast transients. The fuel model has been incorporated in the CYNOD-THERMIX-KONVEK suite of coupled codes as a single TRISO particle within each calculation cell. The heat generation rate is scaled down from the neutronic solution and a Dirichlet boundary condition is imposed as the bulk graphite temperature from the thermal-hydraulic solution. This simplified approach yields similar results to those obtained with more complex methods, requiring multi-TRISO calculations within one control volume, but with much less computational effort. An analysis of the hypothetical total control ejection in the PBMR-400 design verifies the performance of the code during fast transients. In addition, the analysis of the earthquake-initiated event in the PBMR-400 design verifies the performance of the code during slow transients. These events clearly depict the improvement in the predictions of the fuel temperature, and consequently, of the power escalations. In addition, a brief study of the potential effects of particle layer de-bonding on the transient behavior of high temperature reactors is included. Although the formation of a gap occurs under special conditions its consequences on the dynamic behavior of the reactor should be analyzed. The presence of a gap in the fuel can cause some unusual reactor behavior during fast transients, but still the reactor shuts down due to the strong feedback effects.

Javier Ortensi; Abderrafi M. Ougouag

2009-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

High Octane Fuels Can Make Better Use of Renewable Transportation Fuels  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Breakout Session 1CFostering Technology Adoption I: Building the Market for Renewables with High Octane Fuels High Octane Fuels Can Make Better Use of Renewable Transportation Fuels Brian West, Deputy Director, Engines and Emissions Research Center; Oak Ridge National Laboratory

205

Electrochemical investigations of various high-temperature superconductor phases  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Electrochemical investigations of various high-temperature superconductor phases ... Electrochemistry of High-Temperature Superconductors ...

David R. Riley; A. Manthiram; John T. McDevitt

1992-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

Advanced High-Temperature, High-Pressure Transport Reactor Gasification  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory Office of Coal and Environmental Systems has as its mission to develop advanced gasification-based technologies for affordable, efficient, zero-emission power generation. These advanced power systems, which are expected to produce near-zero pollutants, are an integral part of DOE's Vision 21 Program. DOE has also been developing advanced gasification systems that lower the capital and operating costs of producing syngas for chemical production. A transport reactor has shown potential to be a low-cost syngas producer compared to other gasification systems since its high-throughput-per-unit cross-sectional area reduces capital costs. This work directly supports the Power Systems Development Facility utilizing the KBR transport reactor located at the Southern Company Services Wilsonville, Alabama, site. Over 2800 hours of operation on 11 different coals ranging from bituminous to lignite along with a petroleum coke has been completed to date in the pilot-scale transport reactor development unit (TRDU) at the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC). The EERC has established an extensive database on the operation of these various fuels in both air-blown and oxygen-blown modes utilizing a pilot-scale transport reactor gasifier. This database has been useful in determining the effectiveness of design changes on an advanced transport reactor gasifier and for determining the performance of various feedstocks in a transport reactor. The effects of different fuel types on both gasifier performance and the operation of the hot-gas filter system have been determined. It has been demonstrated that corrected fuel gas heating values ranging from 90 to 130 Btu/scf have been achieved in air-blown mode, while heating values up to 230 Btu/scf on a dry basis have been achieved in oxygen-blown mode. Carbon conversions up to 95% have also been obtained and are highly dependent on the oxygen-coal ratio. Higher-reactivity (low-rank) coals appear to perform better in a transport reactor than the less reactive bituminous coals. Factors that affect TRDU product gas quality appear to be coal type, temperature, and air/coal ratios. Testing with a higher-ash, high-moisture, low-rank coal from the Red Hills Mine of the Mississippi Lignite Mining Company has recently been completed. Testing with the lignite coal generated a fuel gas with acceptable heating value and a high carbon conversion, although some drying of the high-moisture lignite was required before coal-feeding problems were resolved. No ash deposition or bed material agglomeration issues were encountered with this fuel. In order to better understand the coal devolatilization and cracking chemistry occurring in the riser of the transport reactor, gas and solid sampling directly from the riser and the filter outlet has been accomplished. This was done using a baseline Powder River Basin subbituminous coal from the Peabody Energy North Antelope Rochelle Mine near Gillette, Wyoming.

Michael Swanson; Daniel Laudal

2008-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

207

Thermal modeling and temperature control of a PEM fuel cell system for forklift applications  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Thermal modeling and temperature control of a PEM fuel cell system for forklift applications simulation System modeling and control PEMFC a b s t r a c t Temperature changes in PEM fuel cell stacks. Stack thermal management and control are, thus, crucial issues in PEM fuel cell systems especially

Berning, Torsten

208

Experimental evaluation of cell temperature effects on miniature, air-breathing PEM fuel cells  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Experimental evaluation of cell temperature effects on miniature, air-breathing PEM fuel cells Z June 2011 Available online 14 June 2011 Keywords: Air-breathing PEM fuel cell Temperature effects Air) fuel cells is investi- gated using polarization and impedance spectroscopy. Three active area sizes

Lee, Tonghun

209

Developing a High Thermal Conductivity Fuel with Silicon Carbide Additives  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this research is to increase the thermal conductivity of uranium oxide (UO{sub 2}) without significantly impacting its neutronic properties. The concept is to incorporate another high thermal conductivity material, silicon carbide (SiC), in the form of whiskers or from nanoparticles of SiC and a SiC polymeric precursor into UO{sub 2}. This is expected to form a percolation pathway lattice for conductive heat transfer out of the fuel pellet. The thermal conductivity of SiC would control the overall fuel pellet thermal conductivity. The challenge is to show the effectiveness of a low temperature sintering process, because of a UO{sub 2}-SiC reaction at 1,377C, a temperature far below the normal sintering temperature. Researchers will study three strategies to overcome the processing difficulties associated with pore clogging and the chemical reaction of SiC and UO{sub 2} at temperatures above 1,300C:

Ronald baney; James Tulenko

2012-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

210

Long, Highly-Ordered High-Temperature Superconductor Nanowire Arrays  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Long, Highly-Ordered High-Temperature Superconductor Nanowire Arrays ... For bulk superconductors, the electrical resistance drops precipitously to zero below the superconducting transition temperature (Tc). ... Even these temperatures are considerably higher than those found in conventional superconductor NWs of similar widths, which are typically below liquid helium temperature (4.2 K). ...

Ke Xu; James R. Heath

2008-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

211

An internal winding high temperature heater  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

An internal winding high temperature heater ... General principles are outlined for the construction of compact heaters that are suitable for heating small containers or reaction vessels at constant temperature and up to about 1000 C. ...

A. J. Delbouille; E. G. Derouane

1973-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

Alternative Fuels Data Center: High Occupancy Vehicle (HOV) Lane Exemption  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

High Occupancy Vehicle High Occupancy Vehicle (HOV) Lane Exemption to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: High Occupancy Vehicle (HOV) Lane Exemption on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: High Occupancy Vehicle (HOV) Lane Exemption on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: High Occupancy Vehicle (HOV) Lane Exemption on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: High Occupancy Vehicle (HOV) Lane Exemption on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: High Occupancy Vehicle (HOV) Lane Exemption on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: High Occupancy Vehicle (HOV) Lane Exemption on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type High Occupancy Vehicle (HOV) Lane Exemption

213

Alternative Fuels Data Center: High Occupancy Vehicle (HOV) Lane Exemption  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

High Occupancy Vehicle High Occupancy Vehicle (HOV) Lane Exemption to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: High Occupancy Vehicle (HOV) Lane Exemption on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: High Occupancy Vehicle (HOV) Lane Exemption on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: High Occupancy Vehicle (HOV) Lane Exemption on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: High Occupancy Vehicle (HOV) Lane Exemption on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: High Occupancy Vehicle (HOV) Lane Exemption on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: High Occupancy Vehicle (HOV) Lane Exemption on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type High Occupancy Vehicle (HOV) Lane Exemption

214

Alternative Fuels Data Center: High Occupancy Vehicle (HOV) Lane Exemption  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

High Occupancy Vehicle High Occupancy Vehicle (HOV) Lane Exemption to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: High Occupancy Vehicle (HOV) Lane Exemption on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: High Occupancy Vehicle (HOV) Lane Exemption on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: High Occupancy Vehicle (HOV) Lane Exemption on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: High Occupancy Vehicle (HOV) Lane Exemption on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: High Occupancy Vehicle (HOV) Lane Exemption on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: High Occupancy Vehicle (HOV) Lane Exemption on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type High Occupancy Vehicle (HOV) Lane Exemption

215

Alternative Fuels Data Center: High Occupancy Vehicle (HOV) Lane Exemption  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

High Occupancy Vehicle High Occupancy Vehicle (HOV) Lane Exemption to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: High Occupancy Vehicle (HOV) Lane Exemption on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: High Occupancy Vehicle (HOV) Lane Exemption on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: High Occupancy Vehicle (HOV) Lane Exemption on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: High Occupancy Vehicle (HOV) Lane Exemption on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: High Occupancy Vehicle (HOV) Lane Exemption on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: High Occupancy Vehicle (HOV) Lane Exemption on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type High Occupancy Vehicle (HOV) Lane Exemption

216

Alternative Fuels Data Center: High Occupancy Vehicle (HOV) Lane Exemption  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

High Occupancy Vehicle High Occupancy Vehicle (HOV) Lane Exemption to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: High Occupancy Vehicle (HOV) Lane Exemption on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: High Occupancy Vehicle (HOV) Lane Exemption on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: High Occupancy Vehicle (HOV) Lane Exemption on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: High Occupancy Vehicle (HOV) Lane Exemption on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: High Occupancy Vehicle (HOV) Lane Exemption on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: High Occupancy Vehicle (HOV) Lane Exemption on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type High Occupancy Vehicle (HOV) Lane Exemption

217

Alternative Fuels Data Center: High Occupancy Vehicle (HOV) Lane Exemption  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

High Occupancy Vehicle High Occupancy Vehicle (HOV) Lane Exemption to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: High Occupancy Vehicle (HOV) Lane Exemption on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: High Occupancy Vehicle (HOV) Lane Exemption on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: High Occupancy Vehicle (HOV) Lane Exemption on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: High Occupancy Vehicle (HOV) Lane Exemption on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: High Occupancy Vehicle (HOV) Lane Exemption on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: High Occupancy Vehicle (HOV) Lane Exemption on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type High Occupancy Vehicle (HOV) Lane Exemption

218

Alternative Fuels Data Center: High Occupancy Vehicle (HOV) Lane Exemption  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

High Occupancy Vehicle High Occupancy Vehicle (HOV) Lane Exemption to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: High Occupancy Vehicle (HOV) Lane Exemption on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: High Occupancy Vehicle (HOV) Lane Exemption on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: High Occupancy Vehicle (HOV) Lane Exemption on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: High Occupancy Vehicle (HOV) Lane Exemption on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: High Occupancy Vehicle (HOV) Lane Exemption on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: High Occupancy Vehicle (HOV) Lane Exemption on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type High Occupancy Vehicle (HOV) Lane Exemption

219

High-Temperature-High-Volume Lifting for Enhanced Geothermal Systems  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

High-Temperature-High-Volume Lifting for Enhanced Geothermal Systems presentation at the April 2013 peer review meeting held in Denver, Colorado.

220

Fuel Effects on Low Temperature Combustion in a Light-Duty Diesel Engine  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Six different fuels were investigated to study the influence of fuel properties on engine out emissions and performance of low temperature premixed compression ignition combustion light-duty HSDI engines

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high temperature fuel" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

High Temperature Solar Splitting of Methane  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-term commercialization opportunities #12;Why Use Solar Energy?Why Use Solar Energy? · High concentrations possible (>1000High Temperature Solar Splitting of Methane to Hydrogen and Carbon High Temperature Solar Splitting and worldwide) ­ Sufficient to power the world (if we choose to) · Advantages tradeoff against collection area

222

QED3 Theory of High Temperature Superconductors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

QED3 Theory of High Temperature Superconductors Zlatko Tesanovi´c The Johns Hopkins University is The Problem in high Tc superconductors? · Superconducting state appears dx2-y2 "BCS-like". Low energy: · Today, everything seems to be a high temperature superconduc- tor (cuprates, C60's, MgB2

Tesanovic, Zlatko

223

Steady- and transient-state analyses of fully ceramic microencapsulated fuel loaded reactor core via two-temperature homogenized thermal-conductivity model  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Fully ceramic microencapsulated (FCM) fuel, a type of accident-tolerant fuel (ATF), consists of TRISO particles randomly dispersed in a SiC matrix. In this study, for a thermal analysis of the FCM fuel with such a high heterogeneity, a two-temperature homogenized thermal-conductivity model was applied by the authors. This model provides separate temperatures for the fuel-kernels and the SiC matrix. It also provides more realistic temperature profiles than those of harmonic- and volumetric-average thermal conductivity models, which are used for thermal analysis of a fuel element in \\{VHTRs\\} having a composition similar to the FCM fuel, because such models are unable to provide the fuel-kernel and graphite matrix temperatures separately. In this study, coupled with a neutron diffusion model, a FCM fuel-loaded reactor core is analyzed via a two-temperature homogenized thermal-conductivity model at steady- and transient-states. The results are compared to those from harmonic- and volumetric-average thermal conductivity models, i.e., we compare keff eigenvalues, power distributions, and temperature profiles in the hottest single-channel at steady-state. At transient-state, we compare total powers, reactivity, and maximum temperatures in the hottest single-channel obtained by the different thermal analysis models. The different thermal analysis models and the availability of fuel-kernel temperatures in the two-temperature homogenized thermal-conductivity model for Doppler temperature feedback cause significant differences as revealed by comparisons.

Yoonhee Lee; Nam Zin Cho

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

224

Toward high-energy-density, high-efficiency, and moderate-temperature chip-scale thermophotovoltaics  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...temperature with less fuel consumption owing to lower heat loss...because carrying both the fuel and oxidizer goes against...charge compression ignition engine-compressor conceptpart...Kundu A ( 2007 ) Micro-fuel cells current development...

Walker R. Chan; Peter Bermel; Robert C. N. Pilawa-Podgurski; Christopher H. Marton; Klavs F. Jensen; Jay J. Senkevich; John D. Joannopoulos; Marin Solja?i?; Ivan Celanovic

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

High Temperature Syngas Cleanup Technology Scale-up  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

RECOVERY ACT: Scale-Up of RECOVERY ACT: Scale-Up of High-Temperature Syngas Cleanup Technology Background Coal gasification generates a synthesis gas (syngas)-predominantly a mixture of carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrogen (H 2 )-that can be used for chemical production of hydrogen, methanol, substitute natural gas (SNG), and many other industrial chemicals, or for electric power generation. Conventional integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants use this syngas as a fuel for a combustion

226

Nanostructured High Temperature Bulk Thermoelectric Energy Conversion...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Efficient Automotive Waste Heat Recovery Multi-physics modeling of thermoelectric generators for waste heat recovery applications Nanostructured High-Temperature Bulk...

227

High Temperature Thermoelectric Materials Characterization for...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

2009 -- Washington D.C. lmp06wang.pdf More Documents & Publications High-Temperature Thermoelectric Materials Characterization for Automotive Waste Heat Recovery: Success...

228

Materials Characterization Capabilities at the High Temperature...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Laboratory and HTML User Program Success Stories Materials Characterization Capabilities at the High Temperature Materials Laboratory: Focus on Carbon Fiber and Composites...

229

High Temperature Materials Laboratory (HTML) - PSD Directorate  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

filler A National Resource for Collaborative Materials Research The High Temperature Materials Laboratory (HTML) User Program is on hiatus due to federal budget reductions....

230

A method for carbon oxide concentration evaluation in high-temperature combustion processes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A method for evaluating carbon oxide concentration in high-temperature combustion processes is presented. The paper offers an optimizing control problem for fuel combustion process using a stabilizing regulatory ...

K. E. Arystanbaev; A. T. Apsemetov

2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

Materials for High Pressure Fuel Injection Systems  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

2011 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation

232

Temperature Stratification in a Cryogenic Fuel Tank Matthew J. Daigle1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Temperature Stratification in a Cryogenic Fuel Tank Matthew J. Daigle1 and Vadim N. Smelyanskiy2 temperature stratification effects driven by natural convec- tion in a liquid hydrogen cryogenic fuel tank has liquid and ullage spaces. Temperature and ve- locity boundary layers at the tank walls are taken

Daigle, Matthew

233

NEW OPTICAL SENSOR SUITE FOR ULTRAHIGH TEMPERATURE FOSSIL FUEL APPLICATIONS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Accomplishments during the Phase I of a program to develop and demonstrate technology for the instrumentation of advanced powerplants are described. Engineers from Prime Research, LC and Babcock and Wilcox Research Center collaborated to generate a list of potential applications for robust photonic sensors in existing and future boiler plants. From that list, three applications were identified as primary candidates for initial development and demonstration of high-temperature sensors in an ultrasupercritical power plant. A matrix of potential fiber optic sensor approaches was derived, and a data set of specifications for high-temperature optical fiber was produced. Several fiber optic sensor configurations, including interferometric (extrinsic and intrinsic Fabry-Perot interferometer), gratings (fiber Bragg gratings and long period gratings), and microbend sensors, were evaluated in the laboratory. In addition, progress was made in the development of materials and methods to apply high-temperature optical claddings to sapphire fibers, in order to improve their optical waveguiding properties so that they can be used in the design and fabrication of high-temperature sensors. Through refinements in the processing steps, the quality of the interface between core and cladding of the fibers was improved, which is expected to reduce scattering and attenuation in the fibers. Numerical aperture measurements of both clad and unclad sapphire fibers were obtained and used to estimate the reduction in mode volume afforded by the cladding. High-temperature sensors based on sapphire fibers were also investigated. The fabrication of an intrinsic Fabry-Perot cavity within sapphire fibers was attempted by the bulk diffusion of magnesium oxide into short localized segments of longer sapphire fibers. Fourier analysis of the fringes that resulted when the treated fiber was interrogated by a swept laser spectrometer suggested that an intrinsic cavity had been formed in the fiber. Also, an unclad sapphire fiber was tested as a temperature sensor at moderate temperatures (up to 775 C).

Russell G. May; Tony Peng; Tom Flynn

2004-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

234

Composite cathode based on yttria stabilized bismuth oxide for low-temperature solid oxide fuel cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Composites consisting of silver and yttria stabilized bismuth oxide (YSB) have been investigated as cathodes for low-temperature honeycomb solid oxide fuel cells with stabilized zirconia as electrolytes. At 600? C the interfacial polarization resistances of a porous YSBAg cathode is about 0.3??? cm 2 more than one order of magnitude smaller than those of other reported cathodes on stabilized zirconia. For example the interfacial resistances of a traditional YSZlanthanum maganites composite cathode is about 11.4??? cm 2 at 600? C . Impedance analysis indicated that the performance of an YSBAg composite cathode fired at 850? C for 2 h is severely limited by gas transport due to insufficient porosity. The high performance of the YSBAg cathodes is very encouraging for developing honeycomb fuel cells to be operated at temperatures below 600? C .

Changrong Xia; Yuelan Zhang; Meilin Liu

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

235

Chemical Kinetic Research on HCCI & Diesel Fuels  

Energy Savers [EERE]

fuel * a primary reference fuel for diesel * Include both high and low temperature chemistry important to model low temperature combustion modes Improve component models for...

236

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) High Occupancy  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Hybrid Electric Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) High Occupancy Vehicle (HOV) Lane Exemption to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) High Occupancy Vehicle (HOV) Lane Exemption on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) High Occupancy Vehicle (HOV) Lane Exemption on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) High Occupancy Vehicle (HOV) Lane Exemption on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) High Occupancy Vehicle (HOV) Lane Exemption on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) High Occupancy Vehicle (HOV) Lane Exemption on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hybrid

237

Fuel-Cell Fundamentals at Low and Subzero Temperatures  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Presented at the Department of Energy Fuel Cell Projects Kickoff Meeting, September 1 October 1, 2009

238

Mechanochemically synthesized nanomaterials for intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cell membranes.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??[Truncated abstract] In this dissertation an investigation into the utility of mechanochemically synthesized nanopowders for intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cell components is reported. The (more)

Hos, James Pieter

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

239

Humidity, Pressure, and Temperature Measurements in an Interdigitated-Flow PEM Hydrogen Fuel Cell  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In situ measurements of humidity, temperature, and pressure are demonstrated for a polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell of interdigitated gas flow channel layout. Sensors are embedded at ...

S. Bell; G. Hinds; M. de Podesta; M. Stevens

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

Processes yielding high superconducting temperatures  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

It is pointed out that any microscopic description of the new high-T/sub c/ superconductors should take into account a number of important points concerning strong couplings, whatever their nature: absence of the MacMillan limit, absence of a Migdal theorem, and importance of the Brovman-Kagan type of vertices with different singularities depending on the dimensionality. As a consequence, the applicability of standard techniques such as the Eliashberg theory in particular, may be questioned in high-T/sub c/ superconductors.

Beal-Monod, M.T.

1987-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high temperature fuel" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Hole doping in high temperature superconductors using the XANES technique  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Hole doping in high temperature superconductors using the1994 Thallium-Based High Temperature Superconductors ed A M1994 Thallium-Based High Temperature Superconductors ed A M

Hamdan, Nasser

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

242

High Fuel Economy Heavy-Duty Truck Engine  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

contain any proprietary, confidential, or otherwise restricted information ACE060 High Fuel Economy Heavy Duty Truck Engine Overview Timeline October 2007 - October 2011 Barriers...

243

THETRIS: A micro-scale temperature and gas release model for TRISO fuel  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The dominating mechanism in the passive safety of gas-cooled, graphite-moderated, high-temperature reactors (HTRs) is the Doppler feedback effect. These reactor designs are fueled with submillimeter-sized kernels formed into tristructural-isotropic (TRISO) particles that are imbedded in a graphite matrix. The best spatial and temporal representation of the feedback effect is obtained from an accurate approximation of the fuel temperature. Micro-scale models of TRISO particles are necessary in order to obtain accurate predictions during fast transients or when parameters internal to the TRISO are needed. Most accident scenarios in \\{HTRs\\} are characterized by large time constants and slow changes in the fuel and moderator temperature fields. In these situations, a meso-scale, or pebble- and compact-scale, solution provides a good approximation of the fuel temperature as the fission thermal energy transports out of the kernel and into the surrounding matrix with a much shorter time constant. Therefore, in most cases, the matrix can be assumed to be in quasi-static equilibrium with the kernels. These models, however, fail to provide accurate information on the state of the various components of the TRISO during the early stages of transients. Since the coated particles constitute one of the fundamental design barriers for the release of fission products, it becomes important to understand the transient behavior inside this containment system. An explicit TRISO fuel temperature model named THETRIS has been developed and incorporated into the CYNODTHERMIX-KONVEK suite of coupled codes. The code includes gas-release models that provide a simple predictive capability of the internal pressure during transients. The new model yields similar results to those obtained with other micro-scale fuel models of TRISO particles, but with the added capability to analyze gas release, internal pressure buildup, and effects of a gap in the TRISO. Analysis of bounding benchmark transients yield good agreement with other codes in which the TRISO particles are modeled explicitly. In addition, a sensitivity study of the potential effects on the transient behavior of high-temperature reactors due to the presence of an inter-layer gap is included. Although the formation of a gap occurs under special conditions, its consequences on the dynamic behavior of the reactor can yield responses during fast transients that depart significantly from those in which no gap is present in the model. The new model was applied to an extreme (beyond design basis) scenario in order to observe the behavior of the fuel during a large prompt critical reactivity insertion. Although a large amount of fission energy was deposited rapidly into the fuel, the kernel temperature is shown to stay well below the melting point and the silicon carbide layer remained well below the temperature above which failure is expected to occur. The explicit treatment of the TRISO particle geometry leads to much lower estimations of power peaking during the transient and a greater degree of negative Doppler feedback.

Javier Ortensi; Brian Boer; Abderrafi M. Ougouag

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

244

High temperature solar selective coatings  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Improved solar collectors (40) comprising glass tubing (42) attached to bellows (44) by airtight seals (56) enclose solar absorber tubes (50) inside an annular evacuated space (54. The exterior surfaces of the solar absorber tubes (50) are coated with improved solar selective coatings {48} which provide higher absorbance, lower emittance and resistance to atmospheric oxidation at elevated temperatures. The coatings are multilayered structures comprising solar absorbent layers (26) applied to the meta surface of the absorber tubes (50), typically stainless steel, topped with antireflective Savers (28) comprising at least two layers 30, 32) of refractory metal or metalloid oxides (such as titania and silica) with substantially differing indices of refraction in adjacent layers. Optionally, at least one layer of a noble metal such as platinum can be included between some of the layers. The absorbent layers cars include cermet materials comprising particles of metal compounds is a matrix, which can contain oxides of refractory metals or metalloids such as silicon. Reflective layers within the coating layers can comprise refractory metal silicides and related compounds characterized by the formulas TiSi. Ti.sub.3SiC.sub.2, TiAlSi, TiAN and similar compounds for Zr and Hf. The titania can be characterized by the formulas TiO.sub.2, Ti.sub.3O.sub.5. TiOx or TiO.sub.xN.sub.1-x with x 0 to 1. The silica can be at least one of SiO.sub.2, SiO.sub.2x or SiO.sub.2xN.sub.1-x with x=0 to 1.

Kennedy, Cheryl E

2014-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

245

Modeling the Effects of Steam-Fuel Reforming Products on Low Temperature Combustion of n-Heptane  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The effects of blends of base fuel (n-heptane) and fuel-reformed products on the low-temperature combustion process were investigated.

246

Fuel-Induced System Responses The Role Unconventional Fuels May Play in Altering Exhaust Conditions from Conventional and Low Temperature Modes of Combustion  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Fuel properties and low temperature combustion e alters conditions thereby affecting exhaust-based thermoelectric device performance

247

High Temperature, High Pressure Devices for Zonal Isolation in...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

remotely and autonomous deployable structures for space and our high temperature composite technology developed for downhole applications. These devices offer several...

248

High-Temperature-High-Volume Lifting for Enhanced Geothermal...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Norman Turnquist GE Global Research High Temperature Tools and Sensors, Down-hole Pumps and Drilling May 19, 2010 This presentation does not contain any proprietary...

249

Symposium on high temperature and materials chemistry  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This volume contains the written proceedings of the Symposium on High Temperature and Materials Chemistry held in Berkeley, California on October 24--25, 1989. The Symposium was sponsored by the Materials and Chemical Sciences Division of Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory and by the College of Chemistry of the University of California at Berkeley to discuss directions, trends, and accomplishments in the field of high temperature and materials chemistry. Its purpose was to provide a snapshot of high temperature and materials chemistry and, in so doing, to define status and directions.

Not Available

1989-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

250

Temperature dependence of vortex charges in high-temperature superconductors  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Using a model Hamiltonian with d-wave superconductivity and competing antiferromagnetic (AF) interactions, the temperature (T) dependence of the vortex charge in high-Tc superconductors is investigated by numerically solving the Bogoliubovde Gennes equations. The strength of the induced AF order inside the vortex core is T dependent. The vortex charge could be negative when the AF order with sufficient strength is present at low temperatures. At higher temperatures, the AF order may be completely suppressed and the vortex charge becomes positive. A first-order-like transition in the T-dependent vortex charge is seen near the critical temperature TAF. For an underdoped sample, the spatial profiles of the induced spin-density wave and the charge-density wave orders could have stripelike structures at TTs. As a result, a vortex charge discontinuity occurs at Ts.

Yan Chen; Z. D. Wang; C. S. Ting

2003-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

251

Metallic Hydrogen: A High-Temperature Superconductor?  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Application of the BCS theory to the proposed metallic modification of hydrogen suggests that it will be a high-temperature superconductor. This prediction has interesting astrophysical consequences, as well as implications for the possible development of a superconductor for use at elevated temperatures.

N. W. Ashcroft

1968-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

252

Baseline Concept Description of a Small Modular High Temperature Reactor  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this report is to provide a description of generic small modular high temperature reactors (herein denoted as an smHTR), summarize their distinguishing attributes, and lay out the research and development (R&D) required for commercialization. The generic concepts rely heavily on the modular high temperature gas-cooled reactor designs developed in the 1980s which were never built but for which pre-licensing or certification activities were conducted. The concept matured more recently under the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) project, specifically in the areas of fuel and material qualification, methods development, and licensing. As all vendor-specific designs proposed under NGNP were all both small or medium-sized and modular by International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and Department of Energy (DOE) standards, the technical attributes, challenges, and R&D needs identified, addressed, and documented under NGNP are valid and appropriate in the context of Small Modular Reactor (SMR) applications. Although the term High Temperature Reactor (HTR) is commonly used to denote graphite-moderated, thermal spectrum reactors with coolant temperatures in excess of 650oC at the core outlet, in this report the historical term High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTGR) will be used to distinguish the gas-cooled technology described herein from its liquid salt-cooled cousin. Moreover, in this report it is to be understood that the outlet temperature of the helium in an HTGR has an upper limit of 950 degrees C which corresponds to the temperature to which certain alloys are currently being qualified under DOEs ARC program. Although similar to the HTGR in just about every respect, the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) may have an outlet temperature in excess of 950 degrees C and is therefore farther from commercialization because of the challenges posed to materials exposed to these temperatures. The VHTR is the focus of R&D under the Generation IV program and its specific R&D needs will be included in this report when appropriate for comparison. The distinguishing features of the HTGR are the refractory (TRISO) coated particle fuel, the low-power density, graphite-moderated core, and the high outlet temperature of the inert helium coolant. The low power density and fuel form effectively eliminate the possibility of core melt, even upon a complete loss of coolant pressure and flow. The graphite, which constitutes the bulk of the core volume and mass, provides a large thermal buffer that absorbs fission heat such that thermal transients occur over a timespan of hours or even days. As chemically-inert helium is already a gas, there is no coolant temperature or void feedback on the neutronics and no phase change or corrosion product that could degrade heat transfer. Furthermore, the particle coatings and interstitial graphite retain fission products such that the source terms at the plant boundary remain well below actionable levels under all anticipated nominal and off-normal operating conditions. These attributes enable the reactor to supply process heat to a collocated industrial plant with negligible risk of contamination and minimal dynamic coupling of the facilities (Figure 1). The exceptional retentive properties of coated particle fuel in a graphite matrix were first demonstrated in the DRAGON reactor, a European research facility that began operation in 1964.

Hans Gougar

2014-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

253

Noise Absorbing High-Temperature Insulation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Until recently simple heat shields on the engine, in the engine space or on the subframe of a vehicle had given protection against radiant heat from hot components. Today, complex high-temperature insulation syst...

Peter Cappellucci

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

254

High Performance Catalytic Heat Exchanger for SOFC Systems - FuelCell Energy  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Catalytic Heat Catalytic Heat Exchanger for SOFC Systems-FuelCell Energy Background In a typical solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) power generation system, hot (~900 °C) effluent gas from a catalytic combustor serves as the heat source within a high-temperature heat exchanger, preheating incoming fresh air for the SOFC's cathode. The catalytic combustor and the cathode air heat exchanger together represent the largest opportunity for cost

255

High Temperature Corrosion Test Facilities and High Pressure Test  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

High Temperature High Temperature Corrosion Test Facilities and High Pressure Test Facilities for Metal Dusting Test Facilities for Metal Dusting Overview Other Facilities Work with Argonne Contact us For Employees Site Map Help Join us on Facebook Follow us on Twitter NE on Flickr High Temperature Corrosion Test Facilities and High Pressure Test Facilities for Metal Dusting Six corrosion test facilities and two thermogravimetric systems for conducting corrosion tests in complex mixed gas environments, in steam and in the presence of deposits, and five facilities for metal dusting degradation Bookmark and Share The High Temperature Corrosion Test Facilities and High Pressure Test Facilities for Metal Dusting include: High Pressure Test Facility for Metal Dusting Resistance:

256

High temperature thermometric phosphors for use in a temperature sensor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A high temperature phosphor consists essentially of a material having the general formula LuPO.sub.4 :Dy.sub.(x),Eu.sub.(y), wherein: 0.1 wt %.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.20 wt % and 0.1 wt %.ltoreq.y.ltoreq.20 wt %. The high temperature phosphor is in contact with an article whose temperature is to be determined. The article having the phosphor in contact with it is placed in the environment for which the temperature of the article is to be determined. The phosphor is excited by a laser causing the phosphor to fluoresce. The emission from the phosphor is optically focused into a beam-splitting mirror which separates the emission into two separate emissions, the emission caused by the dysprosium dopant and the emission caused by the europium dopent. The separated emissions are optically filtered and the intensities of the emission are detected and measured. The ratio of the intensity of each emission is determined and the temperature of the article is calculated from the ratio of the intensities of the separate emissions.

Allison, Stephen W. (Knoxville, TN); Cates, Michael R. (Oak Ridge, TN); Boatner, Lynn A. (Oak Ridge, TN); Gillies, George T. (Earlysville, VA)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

257

Premixed direct injection nozzle for highly reactive fuels  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A fuel/air mixing tube for use in a fuel/air mixing tube bundle is provided. The fuel/air mixing tube includes an outer tube wall extending axially along a tube axis between an inlet end and an exit end, the outer tube wall having a thickness extending between an inner tube surface having a inner diameter and an outer tube surface having an outer tube diameter. The tube further includes at least one fuel injection hole having a fuel injection hole diameter extending through the outer tube wall, the fuel injection hole having an injection angle relative to the tube axis. The invention provides good fuel air mixing with low combustion generated NOx and low flow pressure loss translating to a high gas turbine efficiency, that is durable, and resistant to flame holding and flash back.

Ziminsky, Willy Steve; Johnson, Thomas Edward; Lacy, Benjamin Paul; York, William David; Uhm, Jong Ho; Zuo, Baifang

2013-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

258

Hydrothermal processing of high-lipid biomass to fuels  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

High-lipid algae are potential sources of biofuels. Lipids in this biomass provide a straightforward chemical route to hydrocarbon-based high energy-density fuels needed for diesel and jet engines. However, current schemes ...

Johnson, Michael C., Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

259

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Missouri High School Students...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Missouri High School Students Get Hands-On Training With Biodiesel to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Missouri High School Students Get Hands-On Training...

260

High-Temperature Gas-Stream Cleanup Test Facility  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In support of METC`s hot-gas filter development program, the high- temperature, gas-stream cleanup test facility was designed to: investigate conventional and novel approaches to high-temperature filtration; conduct detailed parametric studies that characterize particulate control devices under well-controlled conditions; and screen new materials for other high-temperature applications, such as heat exchanger tubes. This new facility utilizes a natural gas-fueled combustor to produce high-temperature process gas, and a screw feeder to inject ash, or other fine media, into the gas stream. The vessel that surrounds the particulate control devices has an inside diameter of roughly 0.20 meters (8 inches) and is about 3 meters (10 feet) long. Three commercial-size filter elements can be tested simultaneously, and the facility is capable of operating over a wide range of conditions. Operating temperatures can vary from 540 to 870{degrees}C (1,000 to 1,600 {degrees}F), and the operating pressure can vary from 0 to 400 kPa (0 to 60 psig).

Straub, D.; Chiang, Ta-Kuan, Schultz, J.

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high temperature fuel" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

High temperature crystalline superconductors from crystallized glasses  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of preparing a high temperature superconductor from an amorphous phase. The method involves preparing a starting material of a composition of Bi.sub.2 Sr.sub.2 Ca.sub.3 Cu.sub.4 Ox or Bi.sub.2 Sr.sub.2 Ca.sub.4 Cu.sub.5 Ox, forming an amorphous phase of the composition and heat treating the amorphous phase for particular time and temperature ranges to achieve a single phase high temperature superconductor.

Shi, Donglu (Downers Grove, IL)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

Molten salt fuels with high plutonium solubility  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention includes a composition of LiF--ThF.sub.4--UF.sub.4--PuF.sub.3 for use as a fuel in a nuclear engine.

Moir, Ralph W; Turchi, Patrice E.A.; Shaw, Henry F; Kaufman, Larry

2013-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

263

Apparatus and method for high temperature viscosity and temperature measurements  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A probe for measuring the viscosity and/or temperature of high temperature liquids, such as molten metals, glass and similar materials comprises a rod which is an acoustical waveguide through which a transducer emits an ultrasonic signal through one end of the probe, and which is reflected from (a) a notch or slit or an interface between two materials of the probe and (b) from the other end of the probe which is in contact with the hot liquid or hot melt, and is detected by the same transducer at the signal emission end. To avoid the harmful effects of introducing a thermally conductive heat sink into the melt, the probe is made of relatively thermally insulative (non-heat-conductive) refractory material. The time between signal emission and reflection, and the amplitude of reflections, are compared against calibration curves to obtain temperature and viscosity values.

Balasubramaniam, Krishnan (Mississippi State, MS); Shah, Vimal (Houston, TX); Costley, R. Daniel (Mississippi State, MS); Singh, Jagdish P. (Mississippi State, MS)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

264

Cold Temperature and Biodiesel Fuel Effects on Speciated Emissions of Volatile Organic Compounds from Diesel Trucks  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Emissions testing was conducted on a chassis dynamometer at two ambient temperatures (?7 and 22 C) operating on two fuels (ultra low sulfur diesel and 20% soy biodiesel blend) over three driving cycles: cold start, warm start and heavy-duty urban dynamometer driving cycle. ... Different 2007+ aftertreatment technologies involving catalyst regeneration led to significant modifications of VOC emissions that were compound-specific and highly dependent on test conditions. ... However, emissions of other toxic partial combustion products such as carbonyls were not reduced in the modern diesel vehicles tested. ...

Ingrid J. George; Michael D. Hays; Richard Snow; James Faircloth; Barbara J. George; Thomas Long; Richard W. Baldauf

2014-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

265

SAMARIUM-BASED INTERMEDIATE TEMPERATURE SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??The development of electrochemical converters (i.e. fuel cells) has attracted research interest during the last decades due to an increasing concern on the depletion of (more)

Guzman Montanez, Felipe

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

266

Fuels  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Goals > Fuels Goals > Fuels XMAT for nuclear fuels XMAT is ideally suited to explore all of the radiation processes experienced by nuclear fuels.The high energy, heavy ion accleration capability (e.g., 250 MeV U) can produce bulk damage deep in the sample, achieving neutron type depths (~10 microns), beyond the range of surface sputtering effects. The APS X-rays are well matched to the ion beams, and are able to probe individual grains at similar penetrations depths. Damage rates to 25 displacements per atom per hour (DPA/hr), and doses >2500 DPA can be achieved. MORE» Fuels in LWRs are subjected to ~1 DPA per day High burn-up fuel can experience >2000 DPA. Traditional reactor tests by neutron irradiation require 3 years in a reactor and 1 year cool down. Conventional accelerators (>1 MeV/ion) are limited to <200-400 DPAs, and

267

Effects of outside storage on the energy potential of hardwood particulate fuels: part 1. Moisture content and temperature  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Widespread use of woody materials for industrial fuels has generated interest and concern about the energy value of fuels stored outdoors. This paper reports on the effect of storage for periods up to 1 year on the temperature and moisture content (MC) of wood particulate fuels in cone-shaped piles according to the type of fuel and height of pile. Three fuels - hardwood whole-tree chips, bark, and sawdust - were stored in piles 10, 15, and 20 feet high. The experimental piles were built during the late summer of 1978 at the Union Camp woodyard in Ford, Virginia. Internal pile temperatures rose rapidly during the first weeks to highs of 45 degrees C for whole-tree chips and 73 degrees C for bark and sawdust. In the bark and chip piles these temperatures fluctuated seasonally. The interior temperature of the sawdust pile was insensitive to ambient temperature changes and declined slowly throughout the remainder of the study. Within the first 60 to 120 days of storage, the surfaces of all piles became saturated with moisture. The interior zones of the bark and sawdust piles remained at or slightly above the original MC while the corresponding regions of the chip pile exhibited some drying. After 1 year's time, the weighted average MCs of chips, bark, and sawdust increased by 84, 108, and 191 percent, respectively, over the original MCs. To minimize increases of MC in stored woody fuels, storage time should be kept to less than 60 days, chips should be preferred to bark and sawdust, and piles should be built as high as possible consistent with available space and storage procedures which limit the potential for spontaneous combustion.

White, M.S.; Curtis, M.L.; Sarles, R.L.; Green, D.W.

1983-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

268

Experimental and Modeling Study of the Flammability of Fuel Tank Headspace Vapors from High Ethanol Content Fuels  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Study determined the flammability of fuel tank headspace vapors as a function of ambient temperature for seven E85 fuel blends, two types of gasoline, and denatured ethanol at a low tank fill level.

Gardiner, D.; Bardon, M.; Pucher, G.

2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

269

High Temperature, Permanent Magnet Biased Magnetic Bearings  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

performance, high speed and high temperature applications like space vehicles, jet engines and deep sea equipment. The bearing system had a target design to carry a load equal to 500 lb-f (2225N). Another objective was to design and build a test rig fixture...

Gandhi, Varun R.

2010-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

270

DOE Fuel Cell Pre-Solicitation Workshop - Breakout Group 4: Low Temperature Fuel Cell System BOP & FUEL Processors For Stationary and Automotive  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

BREAKOUT GROUP 4: LOW TEMPERATURE FUEL CELL SYSTEM BOP & FUEL PROCESSORS FOR STATIONARY AND AUTOMOTIVE BREAKOUT GROUP 4: LOW TEMPERATURE FUEL CELL SYSTEM BOP & FUEL PROCESSORS FOR STATIONARY AND AUTOMOTIVE PARTICIPANTS O NAME RGANIZATION Shabbir Ahmed Argonne National Laboratory Chris Ainscough NUVERA Rod Borup Los Alamos National Laboratory Vince Contini Battelle Rick Cutright PlugPower LLC David Frank Hydrogenics Jamie Holladay Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Terry Johnson Sandia National Laboratory Sridhas Kanuri UTC Power Ted Krause Argonne National Laboratory Michael McCarthy Protonex Technology Corporation Pinakin Patel FuelCell Energy Inc. Dennis Rapodios Argonne National Laboratory Eric Simpkins IdaTech LLC Anna Stefanopoulou University of Michigan Ken Stroh Los Alamos National Laboratory Olivier Verdu HELION Doug Wheeler National Renewable Energy Laboratory

271

Materials System for Intermediate Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cell  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this work was to obtain a stable materials system for intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) capable of operating between 600-800 C with a power density greater than 0.2 W/cm{sup 2}. The solid electrolyte chosen for this system was La{sub 0.9}Sr{sub 0.1}Ga{sub 0.8}Mg{sub 0.2}O{sub 3}, (LSGM). To select the right electrode materials from a group of possible candidate materials, AC complex impedance spectroscopy studies were conducted between 600-800 C on symmetrical cells that employed the LSGM electrolyte. Based on the results of the investigation, LSGM electrolyte supported SOFCs were fabricated with La{sub 0.6}Sr{sub 0.4}Co{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 0.2}O{sub 3}-La{sub 0.9}Sr{sub 0.1}Ga{sub 0.8}Mg{sub 0.2}O{sub 3} (LSCF-LSGM) composite cathode and Nickel-Ce{sub 0.6}La{sub 0.4}O{sub 3} (Ni-LDC) composite anode having a barrier layer of Ce{sub 0.6}La{sub 0.4}O{sub 3} (LDC) between the LSGM electrolyte and the Ni-LDC anode. Electrical performance and stability of these cells were determined and the electrode polarization behavior as a function of cell current was modeled between 600-800 C. The electrical performance of the anode-supported SOFC was simulated assuming an electrode polarization behavior identical to the LSGM-electrolyte-supported SOFC. The simulated electrical performance indicated that the selected material system would provide a stable cell capable of operating between 600-800 C with a power density between 0.2 to 1 W/cm{sup 2}.

Uday B. Pal; Srikanth Gopalan

2006-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

272

High Temperature Materials for Aerospace Applications  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

below 430 ?C for exposure times up to 20 minutes. Transition-metal carbides were initially synthesized by carbothermal reduction of transition-metal halides and polymer precursor mixtures, at temperatures that range from 900 to 1500 ?C in an argon... ........................................ 20 2.3 Present/Future Aerospace Applications ......................................... 24 2.4 Ultra-High Temperature Materials ................................................. 27 2.4.1 Transition-Metal Carbides...

Adamczak, Andrea Diane

2011-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

273

High Temperature Cements | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

High Temperature Cements High Temperature Cements Jump to: navigation, search Geothermal ARRA Funded Projects for High Temperature Cements Loading map... {"format":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"limit":200,"offset":0,"link":"all","sort":[""],"order":[],"headers":"show","mainlabel":"","intro":"","outro":"","searchlabel":"\u2026 further results","default":"","geoservice":"google","zoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","forceshow":true,"showtitle":true,"hidenamespace":false,"template":false,"title":"","label":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"locations":[{"text":"

274

High Temperature Membrane & Advanced Cathode Catalyst Development  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Current project consisted of three main phases and eighteen milestones. Short description of each phase is given below. Table 1 lists program milestones. Phase 1--High Temperature Membrane and Advanced Catalyst Development. New polymers and advanced cathode catalysts were synthesized. The membranes and the catalysts were characterized and compared against specifications that are based on DOE program requirements. The best-in-class membranes and catalysts were downselected for phase 2. Phase 2--Catalyst Coated Membrane (CCM) Fabrication and Testing. Laboratory scale catalyst coated membranes (CCMs) were fabricated and tested using the down-selected membranes and catalysts. The catalysts and high temperature membrane CCMs were tested and optimized. Phase 3--Multi-cell stack fabrication. Full-size CCMs with the down-selected and optimized high temperature membrane and catalyst were fabricated. The catalyst membrane assemblies were tested in full size cells and multi-cell stack.

Protsailo, Lesia

2006-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

275

Frustrated phase separation and high temperature superconductivity  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A dilute system of neutral holes in an antiferromagnet separates into a hole-rich and a hole-poor phase. The phase separation is frustrated by long-range Coulomb interactions but, provided the dielectric constant is sufficiently large, there remain large-amplitude low-energy fluctuations in the hole density at intermediate length scales. The extensive experimental evidence showing that this behavior giver, a reasonable picture of high temperature superconductors is surveyed. Further, it is shown that the scattering of mobile holes from the local density fluctuations may account for the anomalous normal-state properties of high temperature superconductors and also provide the mechanism of pairing.

Emery, V.J. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Kivelson, S.A. [California Univ., Los Angeles, CA (United States). Dept. of Physics

1992-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

276

Frustrated phase separation and high temperature superconductivity  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A dilute system of neutral holes in an antiferromagnet separates into a hole-rich and a hole-poor phase. The phase separation is frustrated by long-range Coulomb interactions but, provided the dielectric constant is sufficiently large, there remain large-amplitude low-energy fluctuations in the hole density at intermediate length scales. The extensive experimental evidence showing that this behavior giver, a reasonable picture of high temperature superconductors is surveyed. Further, it is shown that the scattering of mobile holes from the local density fluctuations may account for the anomalous normal-state properties of high temperature superconductors and also provide the mechanism of pairing.

Emery, V.J. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)); Kivelson, S.A. (California Univ., Los Angeles, CA (United States). Dept. of Physics)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

277

The effect of low-temperature oxidation on the fuel and produced oil during in situ combustion  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Combustion tube experiments using 10.2{degrees} API crude oil were performed, in which a different sample matrix was used in each run. Three matrix types were tested: sand, sand and clay, and sand and sand fines. As a result of the low fuel concentration, low-temperature oxidation (LTO) was observed in the run where the matrix consisted of sand only. High-temperature oxidation (HTO) was observed in runs where either clay or sand fines were part of the matrix. Ignition was not obtained in the LTO run, which had a reaction front temperature of only 350{degrees}C (662{degrees}F), compared to a combustion front temperature of 500{degrees}C (932{degrees}F) for the HTO runs. From elemental analysis, the fuel during the LTO run was determined to be an oxygenated hydrocarbon with an atomic oxygen-carbon ratio of 0.3.

Mamora, D.D. [Texas A& M Univ., College Station, TX (United States); Brigham, W.E. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

1995-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

278

High-Velocity Oxygen Fuel Thermal Spray of Fe-Based Amorphous Alloy: a Numerical and Experimental Study  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

High-Velocity Oxygen Fuel Thermal Spray of Fe-Basedusing a high velocity oxygen fuel (HVOF) spray processstructure. [12] High velocity oxygen fuel (HVOF) thermal

Ajdelsztajn, L.; Dannenberg, J.; Lopez, J.; Yang, N.; Farmer, J.; Lavernia, E. J.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

279

Optimum Reactor Outlet Temperatures for High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactors Integrated with Industrial Processes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report summarizes the results of a temperature sensitivity study conducted to identify the optimum reactor operating temperatures for producing the heat and hydrogen required for industrial processes associated with the proposed new high temperature gas-cooled reactor. This study assumed that primary steam outputs of the reactor were delivered at 17 MPa and 540C and the helium coolant was delivered at 7 MPa at 625925C. The secondary outputs of were electricity and hydrogen. For the power generation analysis, it was assumed that the power cycle efficiency was 66% of the maximum theoretical efficiency of the Carnot thermodynamic cycle. Hydrogen was generated via the hightemperature steam electrolysis or the steam methane reforming process. The study indicates that optimum or a range of reactor outlet temperatures could be identified to further refine the process evaluations that were developed for high temperature gas-cooled reactor-integrated production of synthetic transportation fuels, ammonia, and ammonia derivatives, oil from unconventional sources, and substitute natural gas from coal.

Lee O. Nelson

2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

280

Fuel Cells - The Reality of a High Technology  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A fuel cell power plant is an energy conversion device which can continuously transform the chemical energy of natural gas into utility grade electricity and usable heat. The characteristics of high electrical conversion efficiencies (40 to 55...

Cuttica, J. J.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high temperature fuel" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

High-Temperature-High-Volume Lifting | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

source source History View New Pages Recent Changes All Special Pages Semantic Search/Querying Get Involved Help Apps Datasets Community Login | Sign Up Search Page Edit History Facebook icon Twitter icon » High-Temperature-High-Volume Lifting Jump to: navigation, search Geothermal ARRA Funded Projects for High-Temperature-High-Volume Lifting Loading map... {"format":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"limit":200,"offset":0,"link":"all","sort":[""],"order":[],"headers":"show","mainlabel":"","intro":"","outro":"","searchlabel":"\u2026

282

New Optical Sensor Suite for Ultrahigh Temperature Fossil Fuel Application  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Accomplishments of a program to develop and demonstrate photonic sensor technology for the instrumentation of advanced powerplants and solid oxide fuel cells are described. The goal of this project is the research and development of advanced, robust photonic sensors based on improved sapphire optical waveguides, and the identification and demonstration of applications of the new sensors in advanced fossil fuel power plants, where the new technology will contribute to improvements in process control and monitoring.

John Coggin; Tom Flynn; Jonas Ivasauskas; Daniel Kominsky; Carrie Kozikowski; Russell May; Michael Miller; Tony Peng; Gary Pickrell; Raymond Rumpf; Kelly Stinson-Bagby; Dan Thorsen; Rena Wilson

2007-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

283

Assessment of reactivity transient experiments with high burnup fuel  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A few recent experiments aimed at determining the response of high-burnup LWR fuel during a reactivity initiated accident (RIA) have raised concerns that existing failure criteria may be inappropriate for such fuel. In particular, three experiments (SPERT CDC-859, NSRR HBO-1 and CABRI REP Na-1) appear to have resulted in fuel failures at only a fraction of the anticipated enthalpy levels. In evaluating the results of such RIA simulation experiments, however, it is necessary that the following two key considerations be taken into account: (1) Are the experiments representative of conditions that LWR fuel would experience during an in-reactor RIA event? (2) Is the fuel that is being utilized in the tests representative of the present (or anticipated) population of LWR fuel? Conducting experiments under conditions that can not occur in-reactor can trigger response modes that could not take place during in-reactor operation. Similarly, using unrepresentative fuel samples for the tests will produce failure information that is of limited relevance to commercial LWR fuel. This is particularly important for high-burnup fuel since the manner under which the test samples are base-irradiated prior to the test will impact the mechanical properties of the cladding and will therefore affect the RIA response. A good example of this effect can be seen in the results of the SPERT CDC-859 test and in the NSRR JM-4 and JM-5 tests. The conditions under which the fuel used for these tests was fabricated and/or base-irradiated prior to the RIA pulse resulted in the formation of multiple cladding defects in the form of hydride blisters. When this fuel was subjected to the RIA power pulse, it failed by developing multiple cracks that were closely correlated with the locations of the pre-existing hydride blisters. In the case of the JM tests, many of the cracks formed within the blisters themselves and did not propagate beyond the heavily hydrided regions.

Ozer, O.; Yang, R.L.; Rashid, Y.R.; Montgomery, R.O.

1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

284

Recent advances in high-performance direct methanol fuel cells  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Direct methanol fuel cells for portable power applications have been advanced significantly under DARPA- and ARO-sponsored programs over the last five years. A liquid-feed direct methanol fuel cell developed under these programs, employs a proton exchange membrane as electrolyte and operates on aqueous solutions of methanol with air or oxygen as the oxidant. Power densities as high as 320 mW/cm{sup 2} have been demonstrated. Demonstration of five-cell stack based on the liquid-feed concept have been successfully performed by Giner Inc. and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Over 2000 hours of life-testing have been completed on these stacks. These fuel cells have been also been demonstrated by USC to operate on alternate fuels such as trimethoxymethane, dimethoxymethane and trioxane. Reduction in the parasitic loss of fuel across the fuel cell, a phenomenon termed as {open_quotes}fuel crossover{close_quotes} has been achieved using polymer membranes developed at USC. As a result efficiencies as high as 40% is considered attainable with this type of fuel cell. The state-of-development has reached a point where it is now been actively considered for stationary, portable and transportation applications. The research and development issues have been the subject of several previous articles and the present article is an attempt to summarize the key advances in this technology.

Narayanan, S.R.; Chun, W.; Valdez, T.I. [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States)] [and others

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

285

Improved Martensitic Steel for High Temperature Applications  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Improved Martensitic Steel Improved Martensitic Steel for High Temperature Applications Opportunity Research is active on the patented technology, titled "Heat-Treated 9 Cr-1 Mo Steel for High Temperature Application." This technology is available for licensing and/or further collaborative research from the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). Overview The operating efficiency of coal-fired power plants is directly related to combustion system temperature and pressure. Incorporation of ultra- supercritical (USC) steam conditions into new or existing power plants can achieve increased efficiency and reduce coal consumption, while reducing carbon dioxide emissions as well as other pollutants. Traditionally used materials do not possess the optimal characteristics for operation

286

Magnetism in Iron at High Temperatures  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Magnetism in iron at high temperature is investigated by calculating the total electronic band-structure energy for four types of spin arrangements. A slow smooth spatial variation of spin direction costs relatively little energy and the atomic moment m is reduced only ? 10%. More rapid variations have considerably higher energy, which may explain the high degree of short-range order and small ?m observed at T?TC. Other aspects are also discussed.

M. V. You; V. Heine; A. J. Holden; P. J. Lin-Chung

1980-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

287

High Temperature, High Pressure Devices for Zonal Isolation in Geothermal  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Temperature, High Pressure Devices for Zonal Isolation in Geothermal Temperature, High Pressure Devices for Zonal Isolation in Geothermal Wells Geothermal Project Jump to: navigation, search Last modified on July 22, 2011. Project Title High Temperature, High Pressure Devices for Zonal Isolation in Geothermal Wells Project Type / Topic 1 Recovery Act: Enhanced Geothermal Systems Component Research and Development/Analysis Project Type / Topic 2 Zonal Isolation Project Description For Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS), high-temperature high-pressure zonal isolation tools capable of withstanding the downhole environment are needed. In these wells the packers must withstand differential pressures of 5,000 psi at more than 300°C, as well as pressures up to 20,000 psi at 200°C to 250°C. Furthermore, when deployed these packers and zonal isolation tools must form a reliable seal that eliminates fluid loss and mitigates short circuiting of flow from injectors to producers. At this time, general purpose open-hole packers do not exist for use in geothermal environments, with the primary technical limitation being the poor stability of existing elastomeric seals at high temperatures.

288

High-Temperature-High-Volume Lifting For Enhanced Geothermal Systems  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Temperature-High-Volume Lifting For Enhanced Geothermal Systems Temperature-High-Volume Lifting For Enhanced Geothermal Systems Geothermal Project Jump to: navigation, search Last modified on July 22, 2011. Project Title High-Temperature-High-Volume Lifting For Enhanced Geothermal Systems Project Type / Topic 1 Recovery Act: Enhanced Geothermal Systems Component Research and Development/Analysis Project Type / Topic 2 High-Temperature-High-Volume Lifting Project Description The proposed scope of work is divided into three Phases. Overall system requirements will be established in Phase 1, along with an evaluation of existing lifting system capability, identification of technology limitations, and a conceptual design of an overall lifting system. In developing the system components in Phase 2, component-level tests will be conducted using GE facilities. Areas of development will include high-temperature drive system materials, journal and thrust bearings, and corrosion and erosion-resistant lifting pump components. Finally, in Phase 3, the overall lab-scale lifting system will be demonstrated in a flow loop that will be constructed at GE Global Research.

289

Potential applications of high temperature helium  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper discusses the DOE MHTGR-SC program`s recent activity to improve the economics of the MHTGR without sacrificing safety performance and two potential applications of high temperature helium, the MHTGR gas turbine plant and a process heat application for methanol production from coal.

Schleicher, R.W. Jr.; Kennedy, A.J.

1992-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

Potential applications of high temperature helium  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper discusses the DOE MHTGR-SC program's recent activity to improve the economics of the MHTGR without sacrificing safety performance and two potential applications of high temperature helium, the MHTGR gas turbine plant and a process heat application for methanol production from coal.

Schleicher, R.W. Jr.; Kennedy, A.J.

1992-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

The High-Temperature Oxidation of Propane  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...research-article The High-Temperature Oxidation of Propane J. W. Falconer J. H. Knox Above 400 degrees C propane is oxidized by a two-stage degenerately...of propylene becomes important. While propane still in the main reacts to form propylene...

1959-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

292

Flux noise in high-temperature superconductors  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Spontaneously created vortex-antivortex pairs are the predominant source of flux noise in high-temperature superconductors. In principle, flux noise measurements allow to check theoretical predictions for both the distribution of vortex-pair sizes and for the vortex diffusivity. In this paper the flux-noise power spectrum is calculated for the highly anisotropic high-temperature superconductor Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+?, both for bulk crystals and for ultrathin films. The spectrum is basically given by the Fourier transform of the temporal magnetic-field correlation function. We start from a Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless-type theory and incorporate vortex diffusion, intrapair vortex interaction, and annihilation of pairs by means of a Fokker-Planck equation to determine the noise spectrum below and above the superconducting transition temperature. We find white noise at low frequencies ? and a spectrum proportional to 1/?3/2 at high frequencies. The crossover frequency between these regimes strongly depends on temperature. The results are compared with earlier results of computer simulations.

Carsten Timm

1997-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

293

High temperature intermetallic binders for HVOF carbides  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Gas turbines technology has a long history of employing the desirable high temperature physical attributes of ceramic-metallic (cermet) materials. The most commonly used coatings incorporate combinations of WC-Co and Cr{sub 3}C{sub 2}-NiCr, which have also been successfully utilized in other non-turbine coating applications. Increased turbine operating temperatures and other high temperature service conditions have made apparent the attractive notion of increasing the temperature capability and corrosion resistance of these coatings. In this study the intermetallic binder NiAl has been used to replace the cobalt and NiCr constituents of conventional WC and Cr{sub 3}C{sub 2} cermet powders. The composite carbide thermal spray powders were fabricated for use in the HVOF coating process. The structure of HVOF deposited NiAl-carbide coatings are compared directly to the more familiar WC-Co and Cr{sub 3}C{sub 2}-NiCr coatings using X-ray diffraction, back-scattered electron imaging (BEI) and electron dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). Hardness variations with temperature are reported and compared between the NiAl and Co/NiCr binders.

Shaw, K.G. [Xform, Inc., Cohoes, NY (United States); Gruninger, M.F.; Jarosinski, W.J. [Praxair Specialty Powders, Indianapolis, IN (United States)

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

294

Calculated fuel temperatures for a proposed space based reactor using the lumped parameter method  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

CALCULATED FUEL TEMPERATURES FOR A PROPOSED SPACE BASED REACTOR USING THE LUMPED PARAMETER METHOD A Thesis by CELESTE MARIE STEEN Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas AgcM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements... f' or the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1990 Major Subject: Nuclear Engineering CALCULATED FUEL TEMPERATURES FOR A PROPOSED SPACE BASED REACTOR USING THE LUMPED PARAMETER METHOD A Thesis by CELESTE MARIE STEEiV Approved as to style...

Steen, Celeste Marie

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

295

Operating temperature effects on nozzle coking in a cottonseed oil fueled diesel engine  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

OPERATING TEMPERATURE EFFECTS ON NOZZLE COKING IN A COTTONSEED OIL FUELED DIESEL ENGINE A Thesis CHARLES MICHAEL YARBROUGH Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree cf... MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1984 Major Subject: Agricultural Engineering OPERATING TEMPERATURE EFFECTS ON NOZZLE CORING IN A COTTONSEED OIL FUELED DIESEL ENGINE A Thesis by CHARLES MICHAEL YARBROUGH Approved as to style and content by: ayne A. Le...

Yarbrough, Charles Michael

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

296

Lead Research and Development Activity for High Temperature,...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

cross-over with conductivity maintained * Low cost * High longevity and endurance in fuel cell environment * Mechanical integrity and good chemical properties 9 Summary *...

297

Test plan for high-burnup fuel cladding behavior under loss-of- coolant accident conditions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Excessive oxidation, hydriding, and extensive irradiation damage occur in high-burnup fuel cladding, and as result, mechanical properties of high-burnup fuels are degraded significantly. This may influence the current fuel cladding failure limits for loss-of- coolant-accident (LOCA) situations, which are based on fuel cladding behavior for zero burnup. To avoid cladding fragmentation and fuel dispersal during a LOCA, 10 CFR 50.46 requires that peak cladding temperature shall not exceed 1204 degrees C (2200 degrees F) and that total oxidation of the fuel cladding nowhere exceeds 0.17 times total cladding thickness before oxidation. Because of the concern, a new experimental program to investigate high-burnup fuel cladding behavior under LOCA situations has been initiated under the sponsorship of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. A hot-cell test plan to investigate single-rod behavior under simulated LOCA conditions is described in this paper. In the meantime, industry fuel design and operating conditions are expected to undergo further changes as more advanced cladding materials are developed. Under these circumstances, mechanical properties of high-burnup fuel cladding require further investigation so that results from studies on LOCA, reactivity- initiated-accident (RIA), operational transient, and power-ramping situations, can be extrapolated to modified or advanced cladding materials and altered irradiation conditions without repeating major integral experiments in test reactors. To provide the applicable data base and mechanistic understanding, tests will be conducted to determine dynamic and static fracture toughness and tensile properties. Background and rationale for selecting the specific mechanical properties tests are also described.

Chung, H.M.; Neimark, L.A.; Kassner, T.F.

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

298

Reducing PM Concentrations in Simulated High Temperature Gas Streams  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The goal of this research is to use the energy in cotton gin trash (CGT) to fuel an internal combustion engine (ICE) driving a generator to produce electricity for a cotton gin. CGT is a fuel that has char that melts at low temperatures...

Luehrs, Daniel R

2014-08-07T23:59:59.000Z

299

High Temperature Polymer Capacitor Dielectric Films  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting

300

Application of high temperature superconductors for fusion  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The use of High Temperature Superconductor (HTS) materials in future fusion machines can increase the efficiency drastically. For ITER, W7-X and JT-60SA the economic benefit of HTS current leads was recognized after a 70kA HTS current lead demonstrator was designed, fabricated and successfully tested by Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT, which is a merge of former Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe and University of Karlsruhe). For ITER, the Chinese Domestic Agency will provide the current leads as a part of the superconducting feeder system. KIT is in charge of design, construction and test of HTS current leads for W7-X and JT-60SA. For W7-X 14 current leads with a maximum current of 18.2kA are required that are oriented with the room temperature end at the bottom. JT60-SA will need 26 current leads (20 leads @ 20kA and 6 leads @ 25.7kA) which are mounted in vertical, normal position. These current leads are based on BiSCCO HTS superconductors, demonstrating that HTS material is now state of the art for highly efficient current leads. With respect to future fusion reactors, it would be very promising to use HTS material not only in current leads but also in coils. This would allow a large increase of efficiency if the coils could be operated at temperatures ?65K. With such a high temperature it would be possible to omit the radiation shield of the coils, resulting in a less complex cryostat and a size reduction of the machine. In addition less refrigeration power is needed saving investment and operating costs. However, to come to an HTS fusion coil it is necessary to develop low ac loss HTS cables for currents well above 20kA at high fields well above 10T. The high field rules BiSCCO superconductors out at temperatures above 50K, but RE-123 superconductors are promising. The development of a high current, high field RE-123 HTS fusion cable will not be targeted outside fusion community and has to be in the frame of a long term development programme for DEMO. KIT has already demonstrated a scalable concept using RE-123 HTS tapes that are assembled to Roebel type conductors. This concept can be expanded to form Rutherford cables as starting point for a development of a high current fusion cable. The status and prospect of using HTS conductors for fusion is discussed.

W.H. Fietz; R. Heller; S.I. Schlachter; W. Goldacker

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high temperature fuel" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Vehicle Technologies Office: ORNL's High Temperature Materials Laboratory  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

ORNL's High Temperature ORNL's High Temperature Materials Laboratory Assists NASCAR Teams to someone by E-mail Share Vehicle Technologies Office: ORNL's High Temperature Materials Laboratory Assists NASCAR Teams on Facebook Tweet about Vehicle Technologies Office: ORNL's High Temperature Materials Laboratory Assists NASCAR Teams on Twitter Bookmark Vehicle Technologies Office: ORNL's High Temperature Materials Laboratory Assists NASCAR Teams on Google Bookmark Vehicle Technologies Office: ORNL's High Temperature Materials Laboratory Assists NASCAR Teams on Delicious Rank Vehicle Technologies Office: ORNL's High Temperature Materials Laboratory Assists NASCAR Teams on Digg Find More places to share Vehicle Technologies Office: ORNL's High Temperature Materials Laboratory Assists NASCAR Teams on AddThis.com...

302

Syngas Enhanced High Efficiency Low Temperature Combustion for...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Enhanced High Efficiency Low Temperature Combustion for Clean Diesel Engines Syngas Enhanced High Efficiency Low Temperature Combustion for Clean Diesel Engines A significant...

303

Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: High-Temperature...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

High-Temperature Air-Cooled Power Electronics Thermal Design Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: High-Temperature Air-Cooled Power Electronics Thermal Design...

304

High Temperature Polymer Membrane Development at Argonne National...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Polymer Membrane Development at Argonne National Laboratory High Temperature Polymer Membrane Development at Argonne National Laboratory Summary of ANL's high temperature polymer...

305

Low and high Temperature Dual Thermoelectric Generation Waste...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Low and high Temperature Dual Thermoelectric Generation Waste Heat Recovery System for Light-Duty Vehicles Low and high Temperature Dual Thermoelectric Generation Waste Heat...

306

High temperature membranes for DMFC (and PEFC) applications  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Presentation on High temperature membranes for DMFCs (and PEFCs) to the High Temperature Membrane Working Group, May 25, 2004 in Philadelphia, PA.

307

Development of a 100-Watt High Temperature Thermoelectric Generator...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Generator Development of a 100-Watt High Temperature Thermoelectric Generator Test results for low and high temperature thermoelectric generators (TEG) those for a...

308

A Discussion of Conductivity Testing in High Temperature Membranes...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

A Discussion of Conductivity Testing in High Temperature Membranes (lessons learned in assessing transport) A Discussion of Conductivity Testing in High Temperature Membranes...

309

High Temperature Polymer Membrane Development at Argonne National Laboratory  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Summary of ANLs high temperature polymer membrane work presented to the High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting, Orlando FL, October 17, 2003

310

Nanostructured High-Temperature Bulk Thermoelectric Energy Conversion...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Nanostructured High-Temperature Bulk Thermoelectric Energy Conversion for Efficient Automotive Waste Heat Recovery Nanostructured High-Temperature Bulk Thermoelectric Energy...

311

High Resolution and Low-Temperature Photoelectron Spectroscopy...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

High Resolution and Low-Temperature Photoelectron Spectroscopy of an Oxygen-Linked Fullerene Dimer Dianion: C120O2-. High Resolution and Low-Temperature Photoelectron Spectroscopy...

312

Compliant high temperature seals for dissimilar materials  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A high temperature, gas-tight seal is formed by utilizing one or more compliant metallic toroidal ring sealing elements, where the applied pressure serves to activate the seal, thus improving the quality of the seal. The compliant nature of the sealing element compensates for differences in thermal expansion between the materials to be sealed, and is particularly useful in sealing a metallic member and a ceramic tube art elevated temperatures. The performance of the seal may be improved by coating the sealing element with a soft or flowable coating such as silver or gold and/or by backing the sealing element with a bed of fine powder. The material of the sealing element is chosen such that the element responds to stress elastically, even at elevated temperatures, permitting the seal to operate through multiple thermal cycles.

Rynders, Steven Walton (Fogelsville, PA); Minford, Eric (Laurys Station, PA); Tressler, Richard Ernest (Boalsburg, PA); Taylor, Dale M. (Salt Lake City, UT)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

Coal-fueled high-speed diesel engine development  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objectives of this program are to study combustion feasibility by running Series 149 engine tests at high speeds with a fuel injection and combustion system designed for coal-water-slurry (CWS). The following criteria will be used to judge feasibility: (1) engine operation for sustained periods over the load range at speeds from 600 to 1900 rpm. The 149 engine for mine-haul trucks has a rated speed of 1900 rpm; (2) reasonable fuel economy and coal burnout rate; (3) reasonable cost of the engine design concept and CWS fuel compared to future oil prices.

Not Available

1991-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

314

Advanced High-Temperature, High-Pressure Transport Reactor Gasification  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The transport reactor development unit (TRDU) was modified to accommodate oxygen-blown operation in support of a Vision 21-type energy plex that could produce power, chemicals, and fuel. These modifications consisted of changing the loop seal design from a J-leg to an L-valve configuration, thereby increasing the mixing zone length and residence time. In addition, the standpipe, dipleg, and L-valve diameters were increased to reduce slugging caused by bubble formation in the lightly fluidized sections of the solid return legs. A seal pot was added to the bottom of the dipleg so that the level of solids in the standpipe could be operated independently of the dipleg return leg. A separate coal feed nozzle was added that could inject the coal upward into the outlet of the mixing zone, thereby precluding any chance of the fresh coal feed back-mixing into the oxidizing zone of the mixing zone; however, difficulties with this coal feed configuration led to a switch back to the original downward configuration. Instrumentation to measure and control the flow of oxygen and steam to the burner and mix zone ports was added to allow the TRDU to be operated under full oxygen-blown conditions. In total, ten test campaigns have been conducted under enriched-air or full oxygen-blown conditions. During these tests, 1515 hours of coal feed with 660 hours of air-blown gasification and 720 hours of enriched-air or oxygen-blown coal gasification were completed under this particular contract. During these tests, approximately 366 hours of operation with Wyodak, 123 hours with Navajo sub-bituminous coal, 143 hours with Illinois No. 6, 106 hours with SUFCo, 110 hours with Prater Creek, 48 hours with Calumet, and 134 hours with a Pittsburgh No. 8 bituminous coal were completed. In addition, 331 hours of operation on low-rank coals such as North Dakota lignite, Australian brown coal, and a 90:10 wt% mixture of lignite and wood waste were completed. Also included in these test campaigns was 50 hours of gasification on a petroleum coke from the Hunt Oil Refinery and an additional 73 hours of operation on a high-ash coal from India. Data from these tests indicate that while acceptable fuel gas heating value was achieved with these fuels, the transport gasifier performs better on the lower-rank feedstocks because of their higher char reactivity. Comparable carbon conversions have been achieved at similar oxygen/coal ratios for both air-blown and oxygen-blown operation for each fuel; however, carbon conversion was lower for the less reactive feedstocks. While separation of fines from the feed coals is not needed with this technology, some testing has suggested that feedstocks with higher levels of fines have resulted in reduced carbon conversion, presumably due to the inability of the finer carbon particles to be captured by the cyclones. These data show that these low-rank feedstocks provided similar fuel gas heating values; however, even among the high-reactivity low-rank coals, the carbon conversion did appear to be lower for the fuels (brown coal in particular) that contained a significant amount of fines. The fuel gas under oxygen-blown operation has been higher in hydrogen and carbon dioxide concentration since the higher steam injection rate promotes the water-gas shift reaction to produce more CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2} at the expense of the CO and water vapor. However, the high water and CO{sub 2} partial pressures have also significantly reduced the reaction of (Abstract truncated)

Michael L. Swanson

2005-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

315

Performance assessment modeling of high level nuclear wasteforms from the pyroprocess fuel cycle  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Several performance assessment (PA) analyses have been completed to estimate the release to the accessible environment of radionuclides from spent light water reactor (LWR) fuel emplaced in the proposed Yucca Mountain repository. Probabilistic methods were utilized based on the complexity of the repository system. Recent investigations have been conducted to identify the merits of a pyroprocess fuel cycle. This cycle utilizes high temperature molten salts and metals to partially separate actinides and fission products. In a closed liquid metal reactor (LMR) fuel cycle, this allows recycling of nearly all of the actinides. In a once-through cycle, this isolates the actinides for storage into a wasteform which can be specifically tailored for their retention. With appropriate front-end treatment, this Process can also be used to treat LWR spent fuel.

Nutt, W.M.; Hill, R.N. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Bullen, D.B. [Ames Lab., IA (United States)

1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

316

Thermal fuse for high-temperature batteries  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A thermal fuse, preferably for a high-temperature battery, comprising leads and a body therebetween having a melting point between approximately 400.degree. C. and 500.degree. C. The body is preferably an alloy of Ag--Mg, Ag--Sb, Al--Ge, Au--In, Bi--Te, Cd--Sb, Cu--Mg, In--Sb, Mg--Pb, Pb--Pd, Sb--Zn, Sn--Te, or Mg--Al.

Jungst, Rudolph G. (Albuquerque, NM); Armijo, James R. (Albuquerque, NM); Frear, Darrel R. (Austin, TX)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

317

Establishment of Harrop, High-Temperature Viscometer  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report explains how the Harrop, High-Temperature Viscometer was installed, calibrated, and operated. This report includes assembly and alignment of the furnace, viscometer, and spindle, and explains the operation of the Brookfield Viscometer, the Harrop furnace, and the UDC furnace controller. Calibration data and the development of the spindle constant from NIST standard reference glasses is presented. A simple operational procedure is included.

Schumacher, R.F.

1999-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

318

Charged Vortices in High Temperature Superconductors  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

It is argued that in the mixed state of a type II superconductor, because of the difference of the chemical potential in a superconducting versus normal state, the vortex cores may become charged. The extra electron density is estimated. The extra charge contributes to the dynamics of the vortices; in particular, it can explain in certain cases the change of the sign of the Hall coefficient below Tc frequently observed in the high temperature superconductors.

D. I. Khomskii and A. Freimuth

1995-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

319

Low Temperature Constrained Sintering of Cerium Gadolinium OxideFilms for Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Cerium gadolinium oxide (CGO) has been identified as an acceptable solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) electrolyte at temperatures (500-700 C) where cheap, rigid, stainless steel interconnect substrates can be used. Unfortunately, both the high sintering temperature of pure CGO, >1200 C, and the fact that constraint during sintering often results in cracked, low density ceramic films, have complicated development of metal supported CGO SOFCs. The aim of this work was to find new sintering aids for Ce{sub 0.9}Gd{sub 0.1}O{sub 1.95}, and to evaluate whether they could be used to produce dense, constrained Ce{sub 0.9}Gd{sub 0.1}O{sub 1.95} films at temperatures below 1000 C. To find the optimal sintering aid, Ce{sub 0.9}Gd{sub 0.1}O{sub 1.95} was doped with a variety of elements, of which lithium was found to be the most effective. Dilatometric studies indicated that by doping CGO with 3mol% lithium nitrate, it was possible to sinter pellets to a relative density of 98.5% at 800 C--a full one hundred degrees below the previous low temperature sintering record for CGO. Further, it was also found that a sintering aid's effectiveness could be explained in terms of its size, charge and high temperature mobility. A closer examination of lithium doped Ce0.9Gd0.1O1.95 indicated that lithium affects sintering by producing a Li{sub 2}O-Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3}-CeO{sub 2} liquid at the CGO grain boundaries. Due to this liquid phase sintering, it was possible to produce dense, crack-free constrained films of CGO at the record low temperature of 950 C using cheap, colloidal spray deposition processes. This is the first time dense constrained CGO films have been produced below 1000 C and could help commercialize metal supported ceria based solid oxide fuel cells.

Nicholas, Jason.D.

2007-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

320

3 - High temperature superconductor (HTS) cables  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract: Many superconductor applications such as rotating machinery, transformers and magnets with low inductance require high current cables with low AC losses. This chapter gives an overview on cabling techniques for the high temperature superconductors (HTS) BSCCO (2212), BSCCO (2223) and (RE)BCO. A short review is given of the basic properties of HTS wires and tapes and the basic requirements of HTS cables for different applications. Cabling concepts for the different HTS materials are presented, and current performance and AC loss behaviour are discussed. After a short description of remaining challenges and future trends, cabling techniques are summarized.

S.I. Schlachter; W. Goldacker

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high temperature fuel" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Overview of High-Temperature Electrolysis for Hydrogen Production  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Over the last five years there has been a growing interest in the use of hydrogen as an energy carrier, particularly to augment transportation fuels and thus reduce our dependence on imported petroleum. Hydrogen is now produced primarily via steam reforming of methane. However, in the long term, methane reforming is not a viable process for the large-scale hydrogen production since such fossil fuel conversion processes consume non-renewable resources and emit greenhouse gases. Nuclear energy can be used to produce hydrogen without consuming fossil fuels and without emitting greenhouse gases through the splitting of water into hydrogen and oxygen. The Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative of the DOE Office of Nuclear Energy is developing three general categories of high temperature processes for hydrogen production: thermochemical, electrolytic and hybrid thermo-electrolytic. This paper introduces the work being done in the development of high temperature electrolysis of steam. High Temperature Electrolysis (HTE) is built on the technology of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), which were invented over a century ago, but which have been most vigorously developed during the last twenty years. SOFCs consume hydrogen and oxygen and produce steam and electricity. Solid Oxide Electrolytic Cells (SOECs) consume electricity and steam and produce hydrogen and oxygen. The purpose of the HTE research is to solve those problems unique to the electrolytic mode of operation, while building further on continuing fuel cell development. ORGANIZATION Experiments have been conducted for the last three years at the Idaho National Laboratory and at Ceramatec, Inc. on the operation of button cells and of progressively larger stacks of planar cells. In addition, the INL has been performing analyses of the cell-scale fluid dynamics and plant-scale flowsheets in order to determine optimum operating conditions and plant configurations. Argonne National Laboratory has been performing experiments for the development of new electrode materials, as well as modeling of the fluid dynamics and flowsheets for comparison with the work being done at the INL. ANL has also been performing diagnostic measures on components form long-duration tests at the INL and Ceramatec to determine the causes for the slow degradation in cell performance. Oak Ridge National Laboratory has been developing high temperature porous membranes for the separation of hydrogen from the residual steam, thus avoiding the need to condense and reheat the steam. The University of Nevada at Las Vegas has been collaborating with ANL on the development of electrode and electrolyte materials and will soon begin to investigate the causes of cell degradation. HTE research also includes NERI projects at the Virginia Polytechnic Institute on the development of toughened SOEC composite seals and at the Georgia Institute of Technology on the microstructural design of SOEC materials. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS The most recent large-scale test of HTE was performed from June 28 through Sept 22, 2006 at the Ceramatec plant in Salt Lake City. The test apparatus consists of two stacks of 60 cells each in a configuration that will be used in the Integrated Laboratory Scale (ILS) experiment during FY-07. The ILS will contain three modules of four stacks each. The Half-Module initially produced 1.2 normal m3of H2/hour and 0.65 Nm3/hr at the end of the 2040-hour continuous test.

Herring, J. S.; O'Brien, J. E.; Stoots, C. M.; Hartvigsen, J. J.; Petri, M. C.; Carter, J. D.; Bischoff, B. L.

2007-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

322

NOVEL REFRACTORY MATERIALS FOR HIGH ALKALI, HIGH TEMPERATURE ENVIRONMENTS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Refractory materials can be limited in their application by many factors including chemical reactions between the service environment and the refractory material, mechanical degradation of the refractory material by the service environment, temperature limitations on the use of a particular refractory material, and the inability to install or repair the refractory material in a cost effective manner or while the vessel was in service. The objective of this project was to address the need for new innovative refractory compositions by developing a family of novel MgO-Al 2O3 spinel or other similar magnesia/alumina containing unshaped refractory composition (castables, gunnables, shotcretes, etc) utilizing new aggregate materials, bond systems, protective coatings, and phase formation techniques (in-situ phase formation, altered conversion temperatures, accelerated reactions, etc). This family of refractory compositions would then be tailored for use in high-temperature, high-alkaline industrial environments like those found in the aluminum, chemical, forest products, glass, and steel industries.

Hemrick, James Gordon [ORNL

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

323

Manufacturing Barriers to High Temperature PEM Commercialization  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Presented at the NREL Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Manufacturing R&D Workshop in Washington, DC, August 11-12, 2011.

324

Structure of high-burnup-fuel Zircaloy cladding. [PWR; BWR  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Zircaloy cladding from high-burnup (> 20 MWd/kg U) fuel rods in light-water reactors is characterized by a high density of irradiation-induced defects (RID), compositional changes (e.g., oxygen and hydrogen uptake) associated with in-service corrosion, and geometrical changes produced by creepdown, bowing, and irradiation-induced growth. During a reactor power transient, the cladding is subject to localized stress imposed by thermal expansion of the cracked fuel pellets and to mechanical constraints imposed by pellet-cladding friction. As part of a program to provide a better understanding of brittle-type failure of Zircaloy fuel cladding by pellet-cladding interaction (PCI) phenomenon, the stress-rupture properties and microstructural characteristics of high-burnup spent fuel cladding have been under investigation. This paper reports the results of the microstructural examinations by optical microscopy, scanning (SEM), 100-keV transmission (TEM), and 1 MeV high-voltage (HVEM) electron microscopies of the fractured spent fuel cladding with a specific empahsis on a correlation of the structural characteristics with the fracture behavior.

Chung, H.M.

1983-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

325

HTGR Fuel performance basis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The safety characteristics of the high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) during normal and accident conditions are determined in part by HTGR fuel performance. During normal operation, less than 0.1% fuel failure occurs, primarily from defective particles. This low fuel failure fraction limits circulating activity to acceptable levels. During severe accidents, the radiological consequence is influenced by high-temperature fuel particle behavior. An empirical fuel failure model, supported by recent experimental data, is presented. The onset of significant fuel particle failure occurs at temperatures in excess of 1600/sup 0/C, and complete fuel failure occurs at 2660/sup 0/C. This indicates that the fuel is more retentive at higher temperatures than previously assumed. The more retentive nature of the fuel coupled with the high thermal capacitance of the core results in slow release of fission products from the core during severe accidents.

Shamasundar, B.I.; Stansfield, O.M.; Jensen, D.D.

1982-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

326

Diamond switches for high temperature electronics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Diamond switches are well suited for use in high temperature electronics. Laboratory feasibility of diamond switching at 1 kV and 18 A was demonstrated. DC blocking voltages up to 1 kV were demonstrated. A 50 {Omega} load line was switched using a diamond switch, with switch on-state resistivity {approx}7 {Omega}-cm. An electron beam, {approx}150 keV energy, {approx}2 {mu}s full width at half maximum was used to control the 5 mm x 5 mm x 100 {mu}m thick diamond switch. The conduction current temporal history mimics that of the electron beam. These data were taken at room temperature.

Prasad, R.R.; Rondeau, G.; Qi, Niansheng [Alameda Applied Sciences Corp., San Leandro, CA (United States)] [and others

1996-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

327

From Hydrogen Fuel Cells to High-Altitude-Pilot Protection Suits...  

Energy Savers [EERE]

From Hydrogen Fuel Cells to High-Altitude-Pilot Protection Suits- Mound Science and Energy Museum Programs Cover a Wide Range of Topics From Hydrogen Fuel Cells to...

328

Low-temperature rupture behavior of Zircaloy-clad pressurized water reactor spent fuel rods under dry storage conditions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Creep rupture studies on five well-characterized Zircaloy-clad pressurized water reactor spent fuel rods, which were pressurized to a hoop stress of about145 MPa, were conducted for up to 2101 h at 323/sup 0/C. The conditions were chosen for limited annealing of in-reactor irradiation hardening. No cladding breaches occurred, although significant hydride agglomeration and reorientation took place in rods that cooled under stress. Observations are interpreted in terms of a conservatively modified Larson-Miller curve to provide a lower bound on permissible maximum dry-storage temperatures, assuming creep rupture as the life-limiting mechanism. If hydride reorientation can be ruled out during dry storage, 305/sup 0/C is a conservative lower bound, based on the creep-rupture mechanism, for the maximum storage temperature of rods with irradiation-hardened cladding to ensure a 100-yr cladding lifetime in an inert atmosphere. An oxidizing atmosphere reduced the lower bound on the maximum permissible storage temperature by about5/sup 0/C. While this lower bound is based on whole-rod data, other types of data on spent fuel behavior in dry storage might support a higher limit. This isothermal temperature limit does not take credit for the decreasing rod temperature during dry storage. High-temperature tests based on creep rupture as the limiting mechanism indicate that storage at temperatures between 400 and 440/sup 0/C may be feasible for rods that are annealed.

Einsiger, R.E.; Kohli, R.

1984-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

329

High-pressure coal fuel processor development. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Caterpillar shares DOE/METC interest in demonstrating the technology required to displace petroleum-based engine fuels with various forms of low cost coal. Current DOE/METC programs on mild gasification and coal-water-slurries are addressing two approaches to this end. Engine and fuel processor system concept studies by Caterpillar have identified a third, potentially promising, option. This option includes high-pressure fuel processing of run-of-the-mine coal and direct injection of the resulting low-Btu gas stream into an ignition assisted, high compression ratio diesel engine. The compactness and predicted efficiency of the system make it suitable for application to line-haul railroad locomotives. Two overall conclusions resulted from Task 1. First direct injected, ignition assisted Diesel cycle engine combustion systems can be suitably modified to efficiently utilize low-Btu gas fuels. Second, high pressure gasification of selected run-of-the-mine coals in batch-loaded fuel processors is feasible. These two findings, taken together, significantly reduce the perceived technical risk associated with the further development of the proposed coal gas fueled Diesel cycle power plant concept. The significant conclusions from Task 2 were: An engine concept, derived from a Caterpillar 3600 series engine, and a fuel processor concept, based on scaling up a removable-canister configuration from the test rig, appear feasible; and although the results of this concept study are encouraging, further, full-scale component research and development are required before attempting a full-scale integrated system demonstration effort.

Greenhalgh, M.L. [Caterpillar, Inc., Peoria, IL (United States)

1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

330

Fermi liquid theory for high temperature superconductors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this article the Fermi liquid theory of metals is discussed starting from Luttinger's theorem. The content of Luttinger's Theorem and its implications for microscopic theories of high temperature superconductors are discussed. A simple quasi-2d Fermi liquid theory is introduced and some of its properties are calculated. It is argued that a number of experiments on YBa/sub 2/Cu/sub 3/O/sub 6+x/, x > 0.5, strongly suggest the existence of a Fermi surface and thereby a Fermi liquid normal state. 25 refs., 1 fig.

Bedell, K.S.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

331

5 - High temperature superconductor (HTS) magnets  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract: At the time of writing, high temperature superconducting magnets have not fulfilled their early promise, mainly because of the difficulties in getting these reactive and brittle ceramics into wire form and, consequently, their expense. However, for some niche applications, HTS magnets have been developed. In this chapter, the author outlines his experience of building four such systems after introductory discussions about superconducting magnets in general and design considerations. The recent commercial availability of so-called second-generation (2G) coated conductors opens up a more promising scenario, provided the cost can come down. This scenario is discussed and some conclusions are drawn.

H. Jones

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

332

Boson linewidth in high-temperature superconductors  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We have considered boson exchange models of high-temperature superconductors which use Eliashberg theory and in which the bare bosons have sharp spectral features. In particular, we have calculated the boson linewidth due to the interaction with the charge carriers. We find for a recent model of Arnold, Mueller, and Swihart that the width of the 10-meV peak in their ?2F is consistent with a broadened boson peak. However, for a weak-coupling model with the boson peak in the eV range, the interaction causes a broadening in the boson peak that is comparable to or larger than the energy of the peak.

James C. Swihart; William H. Butler; Fred M. Mueller; Gerald B. Arnold

1992-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

333

Applications of bulk high-temperature superconductors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The development of high-temperature superconductors (HTSs) can be broadly generalized into thin-film electronics, wire applications, and bulk applications. We consider bulk HTSs to include sintered or crystallized forms that do not take the geometry of filaments or tapes, and we discuss major applications for these materials. For the most part applications may be realized with the HTSs cooled to 77 K, and the properties of the bulk HTSs are often already sufficient for commercial use. A non-exhaustive list of applications for bulk HTSs includes trapped field magnets, hysteresis motors, magnetic shielding, current leads, and magnetic bearings. These applications are briefly discussed in this paper.

Hull, J.R.

1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

334

High Temperature Materials Laboratory third annual report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The High Temperature Materials Laboratory has completed its third year of operation as a designated DOE User Facility at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Growth of the user program is evidenced by the number of outside institutions who have executed user agreements since the facility began operation in 1987. A total of 88 nonproprietary agreements (40 university and 48 industry) and 20 proprietary agreements (1 university, 19 industry) are now in effect. Sixty-eight nonproprietary research proposals (39 from university, 28 from industry, and 1 other government facility) and 8 proprietary proposals were considered during this reporting period. Research projects active in FY 1990 are summarized.

Tennery, V.J.; Foust, F.M.

1990-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

Fluoride Salt-Cooled High-Temperature Reactor Development Roadmap  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Fluoride salt-cooled high-temperature reactors (FHRs) are an emerging reactor class with potentially advantageous performance characteristics and fully passive safety. This paper provides an overview of a technology development pathway for expeditious commercial deployment of first-generation FHRs. The paper describes the principal remaining FHR technology challenges and the development path needed to address the challenges. First-generation FHRs do not appear to require any technology breakthroughs, but will require significant technology development and demonstration. FHRs are currently entering early phase engineering development. As such, the development roadmap is not as technically detailed or specific as would be the case for a more mature reactor class. The higher cost of fuel and coolant; the lack of an approved licensing framework; the lack of qualified, salt-compatible structural materials; and the potential for tritium release into the environment are the most obvious issues that remain to be resolved.

Holcomb, David Eugene [ORNL] [ORNL; Flanagan, George F [ORNL] [ORNL; Mays, Gary T [ORNL] [ORNL; Pointer, William David [ORNL] [ORNL; Robb, Kevin R [ORNL] [ORNL; Yoder Jr, Graydon L [ORNL] [ORNL

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

336

3D CFD Model of High Temperature H2O/CO2 Co-electrolysis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

3D CFD Model of High Temperature H2O/CO2 Co-Electrolysis Grant Hawkes1, James OBrien1, Carl Stoots1, Stephen Herring1 Joe Hartvigsen2 1 Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, Idaho, grant.hawkes@inl.gov 2 Ceramatec Inc, Salt Lake City, Utah INTRODUCTION A three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model has been created to model high temperature co-electrolysis of steam and carbon dioxide in a planar solid oxide electrolyzer (SOE) using solid oxide fuel cell technology. A research program is under way at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to simultaneously address the research and scale-up issues associated with the implementation of planar solid-oxide electrolysis cell technology for syn-gas production from CO2 and steam. Various runs have been performed under different run conditions to help assess the performance of the SOE. This paper presents CFD results of this model compared with experimental results. The Idaho National Laboratory (INL), in conjunction with Ceramatec Inc. (Salt Lake City, USA) has been researching for several years the use of solid-oxide fuel cell technology to electrolyze steam for large-scale nuclear-powered hydrogen production. Now, an experimental research project is underway at the INL to produce syngas by simultaneously electrolyzing at high-temperature steam and carbon dioxide (CO2) using solid oxide fuel cell technology. A strong interest exists in the large-scale production of syn-gas from CO2 and steam to be reformed into a usable transportation fuel. If biomass is used as the carbon source, the overall process is climate neutral. Consequently, there is a high level of interest in production of syn-gas from CO2 and steam electrolysis. With the price of oil currently around $60 / barrel, synthetically-derived hydrocarbon fuels (synfuels) have become economical. Synfuels are typically produced from syngas hydrogen (H2) and carbon monoxide (CO) -- using the Fischer-Tropsch process, discovered by Germany before World War II. High-temperature nuclear reactors have the potential for substantially increasing the efficiency of syn-gas production from CO2 and water, with no consumption of fossil fuels, and no production of greenhouse gases. Thermal CO2-splitting and water splitting for syn-gas production can be accomplished via high-temperature electrolysis, using high-temperature nuclear process heat and electricity. A high-temperature advanced nuclear reactor coupled with a high-efficiency high-temperature electrolyzer could achieve a competitive thermal-to-syn-gas conversion efficiency of 45 to 55%.

Grant Hawkes; James O'Brien; Carl Stoots; Stephen Herring; Joe Hartvigsen

2007-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

337

Long-term management of high-level radioactive waste (HLW) and spent nuclear fuel (SNF)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

GC-52 provides legal advice to DOE regarding the long-term management of high-level radioactive waste (HLW) and spent nuclear fuel (SNF). SNF is nuclear fuel that has been used as fuel in a reactor...

338

High-temperature stability, structure and thermoelectric properties of CaMn1xNbxO3 phases  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

technologies such as solid oxide fuel cells, thermoelectric (TE) modules and high-temperature superconductorsHigh-temperature stability, structure and thermoelectric properties of CaMn1?xNbxO3 phases Laura diffraction and electron diffraction data. Thermogravi- metric heating/cooling studies showed a reversible

339

Superconductivity Program Overview High-Temperature Superconductivity  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

SuperconducTiviTy program haS Three FocuS areaS: SuperconducTiviTy program haS Three FocuS areaS: SuperconducTiviTy applicaTionS Developing HTS-based electric power equipment such as transmission and distribution cables and fault current limiters Second-generaTion Wire developmenT Developing high-performance, low-cost, second- generation HTS wire at long lengths STraTegic reSearch Supporting fundamental research activities to better understand relationships between the microstructure of HTS materials and their ability to carry large electric currents over long lengths Superconductivity Program Overview High-Temperature Superconductivity for Electric Systems Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability www.oe.energy.gov Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, OE-1 U.S. Department of Energy - 1000 Independence Avenue, SW - Washington, DC 20585

340

Thermal stability of high temperature structural alloys  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

High temperature structural alloys were evaluated for suitability for long term operation at elevated temperatures. The effect of elevated temperature exposure on the microstructure and mechanical properties of a number of alloys was characterized. Fe-based alloys (330 stainless steel, 800H, and mechanically alloyed MA 956), and Ni-based alloys (Hastelloy X, Haynes 230, Alloy 718, and mechanically alloyed MA 758) were evaluated for room temperature tensile and impact toughness properties after exposure at 750 C for 10,000 hours. Of the Fe-based alloys evaluated, 330 stainless steel and 800H showed secondary carbide (M{sub 23}C{sub 6}) precipitation and a corresponding reduction in ductility and toughness as compared to the as-received condition. Within the group of Ni-based alloys tested, Alloy 718 showed the most dramatic structure change as it formed delta phase during 10,000 hours of exposure at 750 C with significant reductions in strength, ductility, and toughness. Haynes 230 and Hastelloy X showed significant M{sub 23}C{sub 6} carbide precipitation and a resulting reduction in ductility and toughness. Haynes 230 was also evaluated after 10,000 hours of exposure at 850, 950, and 1050 C. For the 750--950 C exposures the M{sub 23}C{sub 6} carbides in Haynes 230 coarsened. This resulted in large reductions in impact strength and ductility for the 750, 850 and 950 C specimens. The 1050 C exposure specimens showed the resolution of M{sub 23}C{sub 6} secondary carbides, and mechanical properties similar to the as-received solution annealed condition.

Jordan, C.E.; Rasefske, R.K.; Castagna, A. [Lockheed Martin Corp., Schenectady, NY (United States)

1999-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high temperature fuel" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Correlated electrons in high-temperature superconductors Elbio Dagotto  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Correlated electrons in high-temperature superconductors Elbio Dagotto Department of Physics Theoretical ideas and experimental results concerning high-temperature superconductors are reviewed. Special, National High Magnetic Field Laboratory, and MAR TECH, Florida State University, Tallahassee, Florida 32308

Wu, Zhigang

342

Phenotyping of High Temperature Susceptibility in Garden Roses (Rosa xhybrida)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

cultivars. Adaptation to high temperature stress is viewed as high priority in breeding programs of all major crops. High temperature stress negatively affects garden rose performance and the quality of flowers produced. The work described...

Greyvenstein, Ockert Frederick

2013-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

343

High temperature lined conduits, elbows and tees  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A high temperature lined conduit comprising, a liner, a flexible insulating refractory blanket around and in contact with the liner, a pipe member around the blanket and spaced therefrom, and castable rigid refractory material between the pipe member and the blanket. Anchors are connected to the inside diameter of the pipe and extend into the castable material. The liner includes male and female slip joint ends for permitting thermal expansion of the liner with respect to the castable material and the pipe member. Elbows and tees of the lined conduit comprise an elbow liner wrapped with insulating refractory blanket material around which is disposed a spaced elbow pipe member with castable refractory material between the blanket material and the elbow pipe member. A reinforcing band is connected to the elbow liner at an intermediate location thereon from which extend a plurality of hollow tubes or pins which extend into the castable material to anchor the lined elbow and permit thermal expansion. A method of fabricating the high temperature lined conduit, elbows and tees is also disclosed which utilizes a polyethylene layer over the refractory blanket after it has been compressed to maintain the refractory blanket in a compressed condition until the castable material is in place. Hot gases are then directed through the interior of the liner for evaporating the polyethylene and setting the castable material which permits the compressed blanket to come into close contact with the castable material.

De Feo, Angelo (Passaic, NJ); Drewniany, Edward (Bergen, NJ)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

344

High-Temperature, Air-Cooled Traction Drive Inverter Packaging...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Temperature, Air-Cooled Traction Drive Inverter Packaging High-Temperature, Air-Cooled Traction Drive Inverter Packaging 2010 DOE Vehicle Technologies and Hydrogen Programs Annual...

345

Hydrogen production by high-temperature steam gasification of biomass and coal  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

High-temperature steam gasification of paper, yellow pine woodchips, and Pittsburgh bituminous coal was investigated in a batch-type flow reactor at temperatures in the range of 700 to 1,200{sup o}C at two different ratios of steam to feedstock molar ratios. Hydrogen yield of 54.7% for paper, 60.2% for woodchips, and 57.8% for coal was achieved on a dry basis, with a steam flow rate of 6.3 g/min at steam temperature of 1,200{sup o}C. Yield of both the hydrogen and carbon monoxide increased while carbon dioxide and methane decreased with the increase in gasification temperature. A 10-fold reduction in tar residue was obtained at high-temperature steam gasification, compared to low temperatures. Steam and gasification temperature affects the composition of the syngas produced. Higher steam-to-feedstock molar ratio had negligible effect on the amount of hydrogen produced in the syngas in the fixed-batch type of reactor. Gasification temperature can be used to control the amounts of hydrogen or methane produced from the gasification process. This also provides mean to control the ratio of hydrogen to CO in the syngas, which can then be processed to produce liquid hydrocarbon fuel since the liquid fuel production requires an optimum ratio between hydrogen and CO. The syngas produced can be further processed to produce pure hydrogen. Biomass fuels are good source of renewable fuels to produce hydrogen or liquid fuels using controlled steam gasification.

Kriengsak, S.N.; Buczynski, R.; Gmurczyk, J.; Gupta, A.K. [University of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

2009-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

346

Levitation Performance of Bulk High Temperature Superconductor Above the Permanent Magnet Guideway atDifferent Temperatures  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The levitation performance of a high temperature superconducting (HTS) Maglev system was investigated at different temperatures for HTS Maglev vehicle application. Using a cryogenic measurement system, we stud...

Hua Jing; Suyu Wang; Ming Jiang; Jiasu Wang

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

347

High resolution neutron imaging of water in the polymer electrolyte fuel cell membrane  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Water transport in the ionomeric membrane, typically Nafion{reg_sign}, has profound influence on the performance of the polymer electrolyte fuel cell, in terms of internal resistance and overall water balance. In this work, high resolution neutron imaging of the Nafion{reg_sign} membrane is presented in order to measure water content and through-plane gradients in situ under disparate temperature and humidification conditions.

Mukherjee, Partha P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Makundan, Rangachary [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Spendelow, Jacob S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Borup, Rodney L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hussey, D S [NIST; Jacobson, D L [NIST; Arif, M [NIST

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

348

2500-Hour High Temperature Solid-Oxide Electrolyzer Long Duration Test  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has been developing the concept of using solid oxide fuel cells as electrolyzers for large-scale, high-temperature (efficient), hydrogen production. This program is sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy under the Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative. Utilizing a fuel cell as an electrolyzer introduces some inherent differences in cell operating conditions. In particular, the performance of fuel cells operated as electrolyzers degrades with time faster. This issue of electrolyzer cell and stack performance degradation over time has been identified as a major barrier to technology development. Consequently, the INL has been working together with Ceramatec, Inc. (Salt Lake City, Utah) to improve the long-term performance of high temperature electrolyzers. As part of this research partnership, the INL conducted a 2500 hour test of a Ceramatec designed and produced stack operated in the electrolysis mode. This report will provide a summary of experimental results for this long duration test.

C. M. Stoots; J. E. O'Brien; K. G. Condie; L. Moore-McAteer; J. J. Hartvigsen; D. Larsen

2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

349

High Temperature Solid-Oxide Electrolyzer 2500 Hour Test Results At The Idaho National Laboratory  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has been developing the concept of using solid oxide fuel cells as electrolyzers for large-scale, high-temperature (efficient), hydrogen production. This program is sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy under the Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative. Utilizing a fuel cell as an electrolyzer introduces some inherent differences in cell operating conditions. In particular, the performance of fuel cells operated as electrolyzers degrades with time faster. This issue of electrolyzer cell and stack performance degradation over time has been identified as a major barrier to technology development. Consequently, the INL has been working together with Ceramatec, Inc. (Salt Lake City, Utah) to improve the long-term performance of high temperature electrolyzers. As part of this research partnership, the INL conducted a 2500 hour test of a Ceramatec designed and produced stack operated in the electrolysis mode. This paper will provide a summary of experimental results to date for this ongoing test.

Carl Stoots; James O'Brien; Stephen Herring; Keith Condie; Lisa Moore-McAteer; Joseph J. Hartvigsen; Dennis Larsen

2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

350

Microcomposite Fuel Cell Membranes  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Summary of microcomposite fuel cell membrane work presented to the High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting, Orlando FL, October 17, 2003

351

New materials for intermediate-temperature solid oxide fuel cells to be powered by carbon- and sulfur-containing fuels.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Unlike polymer electrolyte fuel cells, solid-oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) have the potential to use a wide variety of fuels, including hydrocarbons and gasified coal or (more)

Yang, Lei

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

352

Catalysts and materials development for fuel cell power generation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Catalytic processing of fuels was explored in this thesis for both low-temperature polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell as well as high-temperature solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) applications. Novel catalysts were ...

Weiss, Steven E

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

353

Progress in the Research Programs to Elucidate Axial Cracking Fuel Failure at High Burnup  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A fuel failure with an axial crack starting outside the cladding and penetrating inwards was experienced by high burnup BWR fuel rods in power ramp test. On the other hand, no fuel failure caused by power ramp test has been currently reported on PWR fuel rods at burnups higher than 50 GWd/t. Extensive research programs regarding hydrogen behaviors and mechanical performances on irradiated BWR and PWR fuel claddings have been carried out to clarify the mechanism of the axial cracking and to quantify the conditions to cause fuel failure. Hydrogen solid solubility measurement on irradiated Zircaloy-2 materials showed almost comparable results to those on unirradiated ones. Hydride re-distribution and re-orientation behaviors were tested by heating irradiated BWR claddings with Zr-liner under the conditions of applied radial heat flux (temperature gradient) and circumferential stress. Mechanical performances of BWR claddings were evaluated mainly by the internal pressurizing tests. Internal pressurization tests applying various pressurizing sequences, e.g. stepwise increase in pressure with holding intervals, were also conducted to simulate crack propagation behaviors. Some specimens demonstrated characteristic fracture surfaces similar to those observed on the failed fuel rods after the power ramp. Mechanical performances of irradiated PWR claddings were tested at temperatures of 573 to 723 K. Metallographic examination after tensile tests revealed a large number of incipient cracks within the region of cladding outer rim where a concentrated hydride layer (hydride rim) has been formed during irradiation. Crack propagation test using an expanding mandrel device demonstrated the crack propagation at 573 K but no propagation at 658 K. (authors)

Ogata, Keizo; Aomi, Masaki; Baba, Toshikazu; Kamimura, Katsuichiro [Japan Nuclear Energy Safety Organization, 3-17-1 Toranomon, Minato-ku, Tokyo 105-0001 (Japan); Etoh, Yoshinori [Nippon Nuclear Fuel Development Co., Ltd., 2163 Narita-cho, Oarai-machi, Ibaraki 311-1313 (Japan); Ito, Kunio [Grobal Nuclear Fuel - Japan Co., Ltd., 3-1 Uchikawa 2-chone, Yokosuka 239-0836 (Japan); Kido, Toshiya [Nuclear Development Corporation, 622-12 Funaishikawa, Tokai-mura, Ibaraki 319-1111 (Japan); Teshima, Hideyuki [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd. 1-1, Wadasaki-cho 1-chome, Hyogo-ku, Kobe 652-8585 (Japan)

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

354

Design of high-ionic conductivity electrodes for direct methanol fuel cells  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Carbon-supported porous electrodes are used in low-temperature fuel cells to provide maximum catalyst surface area, while taking up little volume and using minimum catalyst material. In Direct Methanol Fuel Cells (DMFCs), ...

Schrauth, Anthony J

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

355

Scaling in high-temperature superconductors  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A Hartree approximation is used to study the interplay of two kinds of scaling which arise in high-temperature superconductors, namely critical-point scaling and that due to the confinement of electron pairs to their lowest Landau level in the presence of an applied magnetic field. In the neighborhood of the zero-field critical point, thermodynamic functions scale with the scaling variable [T-Tc2(B)]/B1/2?, which differs from the variable [T-Tc(0)]/B1/2? suggested by the Gaussian approximation. Lowest-Landau-level (LLL) scaling occurs in a region of high field surrounding the upper critical-field line but not in the vicinity of the zero-field transition. For YBa2Cu3O7-? in particular, a field of at least 10 T is needed to observe LLL scaling. These results are consistent with a range of recent experimental measurements of the magnetization, transport properties, and, especially, the specific heat of high-Tc materials.

Ian D. Lawrie

1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

356

The New England High-Resolution Temperature Program  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The New England High-Resolution Temperature Program seeks to improve the accuracy of summertime 2-m temperature and dewpoint temperature forecasts in the New England region through a collaborative effort between the research and operational ...

David J. Stensrud; Nusrat Yussouf; Michael E. Baldwin; Jeffery T. McQueen; Jun Du; Binbin Zhou; Brad Ferrier; Geoffrey Manikin; F. Martin Ralph; James M. Wilczak; Allen B. White; Irina Djlalova; Jian-Wen Bao; Robert J. Zamora; Stanley G. Benjamin; Patricia A. Miller; Tracy Lorraine Smith; Tanya Smirnova; Michael F. Barth

2006-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

357

Engine performance and emissions from the combustion of low-temperature Fischer??Tropsch synthetic diesel fuel and biodiesel rapeseed methyl ester blends  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The combustion of oxygenated biodiesel (rapeseed methyl ester (RME)) improves the engine-out particulate matter, hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions, while the low-temperature Fischer??Tropsch synthetic paraffinic diesel fuel improves engine-out NOx, CO, hydrocarbon and particulate matter emissions. Blending synthetic diesel (SD) fuel with oxygenated biodiesel could unlock potential performance synergies in the fuel properties (e.g. O2 content in RME and high cetane number of the synthetic fuels) of such blends and benefit engine performance and emissions. The combustion of synthetic diesel fuel/RME blend, named synthetic diesel B50, has shown similar combustion characteristics to diesel fuel, while simultaneous improvements in engine efficiency and smoke-NOx trade-off were achieved by taking advantage of the fuel's properties. The engine thermal efficiency was dependent on the fuel type, and followed the general trend: synthetic diesel > SDB50 > diesel > RME. Therefore, it has been shown that the design of a synthetic fuel with properties similar to the fuel blends presented in this work could improve engine-out NOx, smoke and hydrocarbon emissions and maintain or improve engine performance.

Kampanart Theinnoi; Athanasios Tsolakis; Sathaporn Chuepeng; Andrew P.E. York; Roger F. Cracknell; Richard H. Clark

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

358

High Temperature Materials Laboratory (HTML) - PSD Directorate  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

filler A National Resource for Collaborative Materials Research The High Temperature Materials Laboratory (HTML) User Program is on hiatus due to federal budget reductions. However, research projects at the HTML still may be conducted on a cost-recovery basis through the Work for Others (WFO) Program or under a Cooperative R&D Agreement (CRADA). Dr. Edgar Lara-Curzio, HTML Director Tel: 865.574.1749 Fax: 865.574.4913 laracurzioe@ornl.gov Christine Goudy, Administrative Specialist Tel: 865.574.8295 Fax: 865.574.4913 goudyc@ornl.gov Oak Ridge National Laboratory [MST Home] [ORNL Home] [Site Index] [Search][Disclaimer] [Webmaster] Oak Ridge National Laboratory is a national multi-program research and development facility managed by UT-Battelle, LLC for the U.S. Department of Energy

359

Multilayer ultra-high-temperature ceramic coatings  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A coated carbon-carbon composite material with multiple ceramic layers to provide oxidation protection from ultra-high-temperatures, where if the carbon-carbon composite material is uninhibited with B.sub.4C particles, then the first layer on the composite material is selected from ZrB.sub.2 and HfB.sub.2, onto which is coated a layer of SiC coated and if the carbon-carbon composite material is inhibited with B.sub.4C particles, then protection can be achieved with a layer of SiC and a layer of either ZrB.sub.2 and HfB.sub.2 in any order.

Loehman, Ronald E. (Albuquerque, NM); Corral, Erica L. (Tucson, AZ)

2012-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

360

Turbine vane with high temperature capable skins  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A turbine vane assembly includes an airfoil extending between an inner shroud and an outer shroud. The airfoil can include a substructure having an outer peripheral surface. At least a portion of the outer peripheral surface is covered by an external skin. The external skin can be made of a high temperature capable material, such as oxide dispersion strengthened alloys, intermetallic alloys, ceramic matrix composites or refractory alloys. The external skin can be formed, and the airfoil can be subsequently bi-cast around or onto the skin. The skin and the substructure can be attached by a plurality of attachment members extending between the skin and the substructure. The skin can be spaced from the outer peripheral surface of the substructure such that a cavity is formed therebetween. Coolant can be supplied to the cavity. Skins can also be applied to the gas path faces of the inner and outer shrouds.

Morrison, Jay A. (Oviedo, FL)

2012-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high temperature fuel" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

High temperature low friction surface coating  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A high temperature, low friction, flexible coating for metal surfaces which are subject to rubbing contact includes a mixture of three parts graphite and one part cadmium oxide, ball milled in water for four hours, then mixed with thirty percent by weight of sodium silicate in water solution and a few drops of wetting agent. The mixture is sprayed 12-15 microns thick onto an electro-etched metal surface and air dried for thirty minutes, then baked for two hours at 65.degree. C. to remove the water and wetting agent, and baked for an additional eight hours at about 150.degree. C. to produce the optimum bond with the metal surface. The coating is afterwards burnished to a thickness of about 7-10 microns.

Bhushan, Bharat (Watervliet, NY)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

362

Apparatus and method for removing particulate deposits from high temperature filters  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A combustion of a fuel-air mixture is used to provide a high-temperature and high-pressure pulse of gaseous combustion products for the back-flush cleaning of ceramic filter elements contained in a barrier filter system and utilized to separate particulates from particulate-laden process gases at high temperature and high pressure. The volume of gaseous combustion products provided by the combustion of the fuel-air mixture is preferably divided into a plurality of streams each passing through a sonic orifice and conveyed to the open end of each filter element as a high pressure pulse which passes through the filter elements and dislodges dust cake supported on a surface of the filter element.

Nakaishi, Curtis V. (Morgantown, WV); Holcombe, Norman T. (McMurray, PA); Micheli, Paul L. (Morgantown, WV)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

363

Single crystal oxide and oxide/oxide eutectic fibres for high temperature composites  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The utilisation of fibre-reinforced metal, intermetallic and ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) in gas turbine engines offers the potential of improved fuel efficiency, higher operating temperature and greater thrust to weight ratio. The development of ceramic fibres with high strength, excellent strength retention at elevated temperatures and good creep resistance is essential to the successful implementation of composites in various high temperature components. Several single crystal oxide and oxide/oxide eutectic fibres have been developed to meet the demanding performance requirements. Recent progress made on developing these fibers will be discussed.

J.-M. Yang

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

364

Candidate alloys for cost-effective, high-efficiency, high-temperature compact/foil heat-exchangers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) and molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) systems operate at high temperatures (up to 1000 C and 650 C, respectively), which makes them especially attractive sources for combined heat and power (CHP) cogeneration. However, improvements in the efficiency of heat exchange in these fuel cells require both development and careful processing of advanced cost-effective alloys for use in such high-temperature service conditions. The high-temperature properties of both sheet and foil forms of several alloys being considered for use in compact heat-exchangers (recuperators) have been characterized. Mechanical and creep-rupture testing, oxidation studies, and microstructural studies have been performed on commercially available sheet and foil forms of alloy 347, alloys 625, HR230, HR120, and the new AL20-25+Nb. These studies have led to a mechanistic understanding of the responses of these alloys to anticipated service conditions, and suggest that these alloys developed for gas- and micro-turbine recuperator applications are also suitable for use in fuel cell heat-exchangers. Additional work is still required to achieve foil forms with creep life comparable to thicker-section wrought product forms of the same alloys.

Evans, Neal D [ORNL; Maziasz, Philip J [ORNL; Shingledecker, John P [ORNL; Pint, Bruce A [ORNL; Yamamoto, Yukinori [ORNL

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

365

Assessment of microelectronics packaging for high temperature, high reliability applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report details characterization and development activities in electronic packaging for high temperature applications. This project was conducted through a Department of Energy sponsored Cooperative Research and Development Agreement between Sandia National Laboratories and General Motors. Even though the target application of this collaborative effort is an automotive electronic throttle control system which would be located in the engine compartment, results of this work are directly applicable to Sandia`s national security mission. The component count associated with the throttle control dictates the use of high density packaging not offered by conventional surface mount. An enabling packaging technology was selected and thermal models defined which characterized the thermal and mechanical response of the throttle control module. These models were used to optimize thick film multichip module design, characterize the thermal signatures of the electronic components inside the module, and to determine the temperature field and resulting thermal stresses under conditions that may be encountered during the operational life of the throttle control module. Because the need to use unpackaged devices limits the level of testing that can be performed either at the wafer level or as individual dice, an approach to assure a high level of reliability of the unpackaged components was formulated. Component assembly and interconnect technologies were also evaluated and characterized for high temperature applications. Electrical, mechanical and chemical characterizations of enabling die and component attach technologies were performed. Additionally, studies were conducted to assess the performance and reliability of gold and aluminum wire bonding to thick film conductor inks. Kinetic models were developed and validated to estimate wire bond reliability.

Uribe, F.

1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

366

Enhanced High Temperature Performance of NOx Storage/Reduction...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

1 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation ace026peden2011o.pdf More Documents & Publications Enhanced High...

367

High Temperature Integrated Thermoelectric Ststem and Materials  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The final goal of this project is to produce, by the end of Phase II, an all ceramic high temperature thermoelectric module. Such a module design integrates oxide ceramic n-type, oxide ceramic p-type materials as thermoelectric legs and oxide ceramic conductive material as metalizing connection between n-type and p-type legs. The benefits of this all ceramic module are that it can function at higher temperatures (> 700 C), it is mechanically and functionally more reliable and it can be scaled up to production at lower cost. With this all ceramic module, millions of dollars in savings or in new opportunities recovering waste heat from high temperature processes could be made available. A very attractive application will be to convert exhaust heat from a vehicle to reusable electric energy by a thermoelectric generator (TEG). Phase I activities were focused on evaluating potential n-type and p-type oxide compositions as the thermoelectric legs. More than 40 oxide ceramic powder compositions were made and studied in the laboratory. The compositions were divided into 6 groups representing different material systems. Basic ceramic properties and thermoelectric properties of discs sintered from these powders were measured. Powders with different particles sizes were made to evaluate the effects of particle size reduction on thermoelectric properties. Several powders were submitted to a leading thermoelectric company for complete thermoelectric evaluation. Initial evaluation showed that when samples were sintered by conventional method, they had reasonable values of Seebeck coefficient but very low values of electrical conductivity. Therefore, their power factors (PF) and figure of merits (ZT) were too low to be useful for high temperature thermoelectric applications. An unconventional sintering method, Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS) was determined to produce better thermoelectric properties. Particle size reduction of powders also was found to have some positive benefits. Two composition systems, specifically 1.0 SrO - 0.8 x 1.03 TiO2 - 0.2 x 1.03 NbO2.5 and 0.97 TiO2 - 0.03 NbO2.5, have been identified as good base line compositions for n-type thermoelectric compositions in future module design. Tests of these materials at an outside company were promising using that company's processing and material expertise. There was no unique p-type thermoelectric compositions identified in phase I work other than several current cobaltite materials. Ca3Co4O9 will be the primary p-type material for the future module design until alternative materials are developed. BaTiO3 and rare earth titanate based dielectric compositions show both p-type and n-type behavior even though their electrical conductivities were very low. Further research and development of these materials for thermoelectric applications is planned in the future. A preliminary modeling and optimization of a thermoelectric generator (TEG) that uses the n-type 1.0 SrO - 1.03 x 0.8 TiO2 - 1.03 x 0.2 NbO2.5 was performed. Future work will combine development of ceramic powders and manufacturing expertise at TAM, development of SPS at TAM or a partner organization, and thermoelectric material/module testing, modeling, optimization, production at several partner organizations.

Mike S. H. Chu

2011-06-06T23:59:59.000Z

368

High Specific Power, Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Stack  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

fuel cell. A cathode manifold is used to convey ambient air to each fuel cell, and an anode manifold is used to convey liquid methanol fuel to each fuel cell. Tie-bolt...

369

High Temperature Oxidation Performance of Aluminide Coatings  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Aluminide coatings are of interest for many high temperature applications because of the possibility of improving the oxidation resistance of structural alloys by forming a protective external alumina scale. Steam and exhaust gas environments are of particular interest because alumina is less susceptible to the accelerated attack due to hydroxide formation observed for chromia- and silica-forming alloys and ceramics. For water vapor testing, one ferritic (Fe-9Cr-1Mo) and one austenitic alloy (304L) have been selected as substrate materials and CVD coatings have been used in order to have a well-controlled, high purity coating. It is anticipated that similar aluminide coatings could be made by a higher-volume, commercial process such as pack cementation. Previous work on this program has examined as-deposited coatings made by high and low Al activity CVD processes and the short-term performance of these coatings. The current work is focusing on the long term behavior in both diffusion tests16 and oxidation tests of the thicker, high Al activity coatings. For long-term coating durability, one area of concern has been the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) mismatch between coating and substrate. This difference could cause cracking or deformation that could reduce coating life. Corrosion testing using thermal cycling is of particular interest because of this potential problem and results are presented where a short exposure cycle (1h) severely degraded aluminide coatings on both types of substrates. To further study the potential role of aluminide coatings in fossil energy applications, several high creep strength Ni-base alloys were coated by CVD for testing in a high pressure (20atm) steam-CO{sub 2} environment for the ZEST (zero-emission steam turbine) program. Such alloys would be needed as structural and turbine materials in this concept. For Ni-base alloys, CVD produces a {approx}50{mu}m {beta}-NiAl outer layer with an underlying interdiffusion zone. Specimens of HR160, alloy 601 and alloy 230 were tested with and without coatings at 900 C and preliminary post-test characterization is reported.

Pint, Bruce A [ORNL; Zhang, Ying [Tennessee Technological University; Haynes, James A [ORNL; Wright, Ian G [ORNL

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

370

High-Temperature Solar Selective Coating Development for Power...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

High-Temperature Solar Selective Coating Development for Power Tower Receivers - FY13 Q2 High-Temperature Solar Selective Coating Development for Power Tower Receivers - FY13 Q2...

371

Development of a 100-Watt High Temperature Thermoelectric Generator  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Test results for low and high temperature thermoelectric generators (TEG) those for a 530-watt BiTe TEG; design and construction of a 100-watt high temperature TEG currently in fabrication.

372

Mold, flow, and economic considerations in high temperature precision casting  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Casting high temperature alloys that solidify through a noticeable two phase region, specifically platinum-ruthenium alloys, is a particularly challenging task due to their high melting temperature and this necessitates ...

Humbert, Matthew S

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

373

Corrosion Studies in High-Temperature Molten Salt Systems for...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Corrosion Studies in High-Temperature Molten Salt Systems for CSP Applications - FY13 Q1 Corrosion Studies in High-Temperature Molten Salt Systems for CSP Applications - FY13 Q1...

374

Motor Using High Temperature Superconductor as a Rotor  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

It is found that a high temperature superconductor rotates in the rotating magnetic field at ... authors and a small motor is made using high temperature superconductor as a rotor. This motor rotates at...

Makoto Takenaka; Masaharu Minami; Kazuo Morimoto

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

375

High and Low Temperature Series Estimates for the Critical Temperature of the 3D Ising Model  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

High and Low Temperature Series Estimates for the Critical Temperature of the 3D Ising Model Zaher Abstract We have analysed low and high temperature series expansions for the three­dimensional Ising model temperature of the three­dimensional (3d) Ising model on the simple cubic lattice has been exhaustively

Adler, Joan

376

Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: High Temperature Materials for High Efficiency Engines  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Presentation given by Oak Ridge National Laboratory at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about high...

377

MATERIALS SYSTEM FOR INTERMEDIATE TEMPERATURE SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

AC complex impedance spectroscopy studies were conducted on symmetrical cells of the type [gas, electrode/LSGM electrolyte/electrode, gas]. The electrode materials were slurry-coated on both sides of the LSGM electrolyte support. The electrodes selected for this investigation are candidate materials for SOFC electrodes. Cathode materials include La{sub 1-x}Sr{sub x}MnO{sub 3} (LSM), LSCF (La{sub 1-x}Sr{sub x}Co{sub y}Fe{sub 1-y}O{sub 3}), a two-phase particulate composite consisting of LSM + doped-lanthanum gallate (LSGM), and LSCF + LSGM. Pt metal electrodes were also used for the purpose of comparison. Anode material investigated was the Ni + GDC composite. The study revealed important details pertaining to the charge-transfer reactions that occur in such electrodes. The information obtained can be used to design electrodes for intermediate temperature SOFCs based on LSGM electrolyte.

Uday B. Pal; Srikanth Gopalan

2004-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

378

Brazing Refractory Metals Used In High-Temperature Nuclear Instrumentation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

As part of the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored Next Generation Nuclear Project (NGNP) currently ongoing at Idaho National Laboratory (INL), the irradiation performance of candidate high-temperature gas reactor fuels and materials is being evaluated at INLs Advanced Test Reactor (ATR). The design of the first Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR 1) experiment, currently being irradiated in the ATR, required development of special techniques for brazing niobium and molybdenum. Brazing is one technique used to join refractory metals to each other and to stainless steel alloys. Although brazing processes are well established, it is difficult to braze niobium, molybdenum, and most other refractory metals because they quickly develop adherent oxides when exposed to room-temperature air. Specialized techniques and methods were developed by INL to overcome these obstacles. This paper describes the techniques developed for removing these oxides, as well as the ASME Section IX-qualified braze procedures that were developed as part of the AGR-1 project. All brazes were made using an induction coil with an inert or reducing atmosphere at low pressure. Other parameters, such as filler metals, fluxes used, and general setup procedures, are also discussed.

A. J. Palmer; C. J. Woolstenhulme

2009-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

379

Hydrogen Production from Nuclear Energy via High Temperature Electrolysis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper presents the technical case for high-temperature nuclear hydrogen production. A general thermodynamic analysis of hydrogen production based on high-temperature thermal water splitting processes is presented. Specific details of hydrogen production based on high-temperature electrolysis are also provided, including results of recent experiments performed at the Idaho National Laboratory. Based on these results, high-temperature electrolysis appears to be a promising technology for efficient large-scale hydrogen production.

James E. O'Brien; Carl M. Stoots; J. Stephen Herring; Grant L. Hawkes

2006-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

380

Agenda for the High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This agenda provides information about the Agenda for the High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting on September 14, 2006.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high temperature fuel" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting, May 14, 2007  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This agenda provides information about the High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting on May 14, 2007 in Arlington, Va.

382

Nanostructured High-Temperature Bulk Thermoelectric Energy Conversion...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

More Documents & Publications Nanostructured High-Temperature Bulk Thermoelectric Energy Conversion for Efficient Automotive Waste Heat Recovery Vehicle Technologies Office...

383

Fate of Sulfur, Chlorine, Alkali Metal, and Vanadium Species during High-Temperature Gasification of Canadian Tar Sand Products  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Co-feed of alternative fuels, e.g., petcoke, gains increasing importance for energy conversion in not only Germany but also worldwide. ... The aim of this work was to obtain detailed information on the influence of fuel composition of the refinery product line tar sand, bitumen, and petcoke in comparison to the standard fuel hard coal on the release of sodium, potassium, chlorine, sulfur, and vanadium species during high-temperature gasification. ... In addition to the pure fuels, blends of hard coal and petcoke were gasified in lab-scale experiments in a helium/oxygen atmosphere at 1500 C. ...

Marc Blsing; Kaveh Nazeri; Michael Mller

2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

384

ANALYSIS OF FUTURE PRICES AND MARKETS FOR HIGH TEMPERATURE SUPERCONDUCTORS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 ANALYSIS OF FUTURE PRICES AND MARKETS FOR HIGH TEMPERATURE SUPERCONDUCTORS BY JOSEPH MULHOLLAND of Future Prices and Markets for High Temperature Superconductors 2 I . PURPOSE, SCOPE AND APPROACH analysts to make estimates about the future of high temperature superconductor (HTS) technology

385

Vibrational Raman Spectroscopy of High-temperature Superconductors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Vibrational Raman Spectroscopy of High-temperature Superconductors C. Thomsen and G. Kaczmarczyk after the discovery of high- critical-temperature Tc superconductors:2 while reports on Raman scattering Wiley & Sons Ltd, Chichester, 2002 #12;Vibrational Raman Spectroscopy of High-temperature

Nabben, Reinhard

386

Project Profile: High-Temperature Solar Selective Coating Development...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

water droplets falling on a flat, dust-covered surface. The research team is exploring materials with high melting temperatures, intrinsic oxidation resistance, high thermal...

387

Smart Onboard Inspection of High Pressure Gas Fuel Cylinders  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The use of natural gas as an alternative fuel in automotive applications is not widespread primarily because of the high cost and durability of the composite storage tanks. Tanks manufactured using carbon fiber are desirable in weight critical passenger vehicles because of the low density of carbon fiber. The high strength of carbon fiber also translates to a weight reduction because thinner wall designs are possible to withstand the internal pressure loads. However, carbon fiber composites are prone to impact damage that over the life of the storage tank may lead to an unsafe condition for the vehicle operator. A technique that potentially may be a reliable indication of developing hazardous conditions in composite fuel tanks is imbedded fiber optics. The applicability of this technique to onboard inspection is discussed and results from preliminary lab testing indicate that fiber optic sensors can reliably detect impact damage.

Beshears, D.L.; Starbuck, J.M.

1999-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

388

Free energy of QCD at high temperature  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Effective-field-theory methods are used to separate the free energy for a non-Abelian gauge theory at high temperature T into the contributions from the momentum scales T, gT, and g2T, where g is the coupling constant at the scale 2?T. The effects of the scale T enter through the coefficients in the effective Lagrangian for the three-dimensional effective theory obtained by dimensional reduction. These coefficients can be calculated as power series in g2. The contribution to the free energy from the scale gT can be calculated using perturbative methods in the effective theory. It can be expressed as an expansion in g starting at order g3. The contribution from the scale g2T must be calculated using nonperturbative methods, but nevertheless it can be expanded in powers of g beginning at order g6. We calculate the free energy explicitly to order g5. We also outline the calculations necessary to obtain the free energy to order g6.

Eric Braaten and Agustin Nieto

1996-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

389

Development of Strengthened Bundle High Temperature Superconductors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In the process of developing high temperature superconducting (HTS) transmission cables, it was found that mechanical strength of the superconducting tape is the most crucial property that needs to be improved. It is also desirable to increase the current carrying capacity of the conductor so that fewer layers are needed to make the kilo-amp class cables required for electric utility usage. A process has been developed by encapsulating a stack of Bi-2223/Ag tapes with a silver or non-silver sheath to form a strengthened bundle superconductor. This process was applied to HTS tapes made by the Continuous Tube Forming and Filling (CTFF) technique pursued by Plastronic Inc. and HTS tapes obtained from other manufacturers. Conductors with a bundle of 2 to 6 HTS tapes have been made. The bundled conductor is greatly strengthened by the non-silver sheath. No superconductor degradation as compared to the sum of the original critical currents of the individual tapes was seen on the finished conductors.

Lue, J.W.; Lubell, M.S. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Demko, J.A. [Oak Ridge Inst. for Science and Education, TN (United States); Tomsic, M. [Plastronic, Inc., Troy, OH (United States); Sinha, U. [Southwire Company, Carollton, GA (United States)

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

390

Modular, High-Volume Fuel Cell Leak-Test Suite and Process  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Fuel cell stacks are typically hand-assembled and tested. As a result the manufacturing process is labor-intensive and time-consuming. The fluid leakage in fuel cell stacks may reduce fuel cell performance, damage fuel cell stack, or even cause fire and become a safety hazard. Leak check is a critical step in the fuel cell stack manufacturing. The fuel cell industry is in need of fuel cell leak-test processes and equipment that is automatic, robust, and high throughput. The equipment should reduce fuel cell manufacturing cost.

Ru Chen; Ian Kaye

2012-03-12T23:59:59.000Z

391

Locations of Spent Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Locations of Spent Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste Locations of Spent Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste Map of the United States of America showing the...

392

DOE Fuel Cell Pre-Solicitation Workshop - Breakout Group 3: HIGH...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

DOE Fuel Cell Pre-Solicitation Workshop - Breakout Group 3: HIGH TEMP (SOFC) SYSTEM AND BOP DOE Fuel Cell Pre-Solicitation Workshop - Breakout Group 3: HIGH TEMP (SOFC) SYSTEM AND...

393

R and D of Oxide Dispersion Strengthening Steels for High Burn-up Fuel Claddings  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Research and development of fuel clad materials for high burn-up operation of light water reactor and super critical water reactor (SCPWR) will be shown with focusing on the effort to overcome the requirements of material performance as the fuel clad. Oxide dispersion strengthening (ODS) steels are well known as a high temperature structural material. Recent irradiation experiments indicated that the steels were quite highly resistant to neutron irradiation embrittlement, showing hardening without accompanying loss of ductility. High Cr ODS steels whose chromium concentration was in the range from 15 to 19 wt% showed high resistance to corrosion in supercritical pressurized water (SCPW). As for the susceptibility to hydrogen embrittlement of ODS steels, the critical hydrogen concentration required to hydrogen embrittlement is ranging 10{approx}12 wppm that is approximately one order of magnitude higher value than that of 9Cr reduced activation ferritic (RAF) steel. In the ODS steels, the fraction of helium desorption by bubble migration mechanism was smaller than that in the RAF steel, indicating that the ODS steels are also resistant to helium He bubble-induced embrittlement. Finally, it is demonstrated that the ODS steels are very promising for the fuel clad material for high burn-up operation of water-cooling reactors. (authors)

Kimura, A.; Cho, H.S.; Lee, J.S.; Kasada, R. [Institute of Advanced Energy, Kyoto University, Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Ukai, S. [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute, Tokai (Japan); Fujiwara, M. [Kobelco, Ltd, Takatsukadai, Nishi-ku, Kobe (Japan)

2004-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

394

High Temperature 300C Directional Drilling System  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Project objective: provide a directional drilling system that can be used at environmental temperatures of up to 300C; and at depths of 10; 000 meters.

395

High temperature, optically transparent plastics from biomass  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

temperature, optically transparent plastics from biomass At a Glance Rapid, selective catalytic system to produce vinyl plastics from renewable biomass Stereoregular...

396

Novel Electrode Materials for Low-Temperature Solid-Oxide Fuel Cells  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Composites electrodes consisting of silver and bismuth vanadates exhibit remarkable catalytic activity for oxygen reduction at 500-550 C and greatly reduce the cathode-electrolyte (doped ceria) resistances of low temperature SOFCs, down to about 0.53 {omega}cm{sup 2} at 500 C and 0.21 {omega}cm{sup 2} at 550 C. The observed power densities of 231, 332, and 443 mWcm-2 at 500, 525 and 550 C, respectively, make it possible to operate SOFCs at temperatures about 500 C. Fuel cell performance depends strongly on the anode microstructure, which is determined by the anode compositions and fabrication conditions. Four types of anodes with two kinds of NiO and GDC powders were investigated. By carefully adjusting the anode microstructure, the GDC electrolyte/anode interfacial polarization resistances reduced dramatically. The interfacial resistance at 600 C decreased from 1.61 {omega} cm{sup 2} for the anodes prepared using commercially available powders to 0.06 {omega} cm{sup 2} for those prepared using powders derived from a glycine-nitrate process. Although steam reforming or partial oxidation is effective in avoiding carbon deposition of hydrocarbon fuels, it increases the operating cost and reduces the energy efficiency. Anode-supported SOFCs with an electrolyte of 20 {micro}m-thick Gd-doped ceria (GDC) were fabricated by co-pressing. A catalyst (1 %wt Pt dispersed on porous Gd-doped ceria) for pre-reforming of propane was developed with relatively low steam to carbon (S/C) ratio ({approx}0.5), coupled with direct utilization of the reformate in low-temperature SOFCs. Propane was converted to smaller molecules during pre-reforming, including H{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, CO, and CO{sub 2}. A peak power density of 247 mW/cm{sup 2} was observed when pre-reformed propane was directly fed to an SOFC operated at 600 C. No carbon deposition was observed in the fuel cell for a continuous operation of 10 hours at 600 C. The ability of producing vastly different microstructures and morphologies of the very same material is critical to the fabrication of functionally graded electrodes for solid-state electrochemical devices such as SOFCs and lithium batteries. By carefully adjusting deposition parameters, we have successfully produced oxide nano-powders with the size of 30 {approx} 200 nm. Porous films with various microstructures and morphologies are also deposited on several substrates by systematic adjustment of the deposition parameters. Highly porous, excellently bonded and nano-structured electrodes fabricated by combustion CVD exhibit extremely high surface area and remarkable catalytic activities. Using in situ potential dependent FTIR emission spectroscopy, we have found evidence for two, possibly three distinct di-oxygen species present on the electrode surface. We have successfully identified which surface oxygen species is present under a particular electrical or chemical condition and have been able to deduce the reaction mechanisms. This technique will be used to probe the gas-solid interactions at or near the TPB and on the surfaces of mixed-conducting electrodes in an effort to understand the molecular processes relevant to the intrinsic catalytic activity. Broad spectral features are assigned to the electrochemical-polarization-induced changes in the optical properties of the electrode surface layer.

Shaowu Zha; Meilin Liu

2005-03-23T23:59:59.000Z

397

NOvel Refractory Materials for High Alkali, High Temperature Environments  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Refractory materials can be limited in their application by many factors including chemical reactions between the service environment and the refractory material, mechanical degradation of the refractory material by the service environment, temperature limitations on the use of a particular refractory material, and the inability to install or repair the refractory material in a cost effective manner or while the vessel was in service. The objective of this project was to address the need for new innovative refractory compositions by developing a family of novel MgO-Al2O3 spinel or other similar magnesia/alumina containing unshaped refractory composition (castables, gunnables, shotcretes, etc) utilizing new aggregate materials, bond systems, protective coatings, and phase formation techniques (in-situ phase formation, altered conversion temperatures, accelerated reactions, etc). This family of refractory compositions would then be tailored for use in high-temperature, highalkaline industrial environments like those found in the aluminum, chemical, forest products, glass, and steel industries. A research team was formed to carry out the proposed work led by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and was comprised of the academic institution Missouri University of Science and Technology (MS&T), and the industrial company MINTEQ International, Inc. (MINTEQ), along with representatives from the aluminum, chemical, glass, and forest products industries. The two goals of this project were to produce novel refractory compositions which will allow for improved energy efficiency and to develop new refractory application techniques which would improve the speed of installation. Also methods of hot installation were sought which would allow for hot repairs and on-line maintenance leading to reduced process downtimes and eliminating the need to cool and reheat process vessels.

Hemrick, J.G.; Griffin, R. (MINTEQ International, Inc.)

2011-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

398

Experimental Investigation of the Effects of Fuel Characteristics on High Efficiency Clean Combustion (HECC) in a Light-Duty Diesel Engine  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An experimental study was performed to understand fuel property effects on low temperature combustion (LTC) processes in a light-duty diesel engine. These types of combustion modes are often collectively referred to as high efficiency clean combustion (HECC). A statistically designed set of research fuels, the Fuels for Advanced Combustion Engines (FACE), were used for this study. Engine conditions consistent with low speed cruise (1500 rpm, 2.6 bar BMEP) were chosen for investigating fuel property effects on HECC operation in a GM 1.9-L common rail diesel engine. The FACE fuel matrix includes nine combinations of fuel properties including cetane number (30 to 55), aromatic contents (20 to 45 %), and 90 % distillation temperature (270 to 340 C). HECC operation was achieved with high levels of EGR and adjusting injection parameters, e.g. higher fuel rail pressure and single injection event, which is also known as Premixed Charge Compression Ignition (PCCI) combustion. Engine performance, pollutant emissions, and details of the combustion process are discussed in this paper. Cetane number was found to significantly affect the combustion process with variations in the start of injection (SOI) timing, which revealed that the ranges of SOI timing for HECC operation and the PM emission levels were distinctively different between high cetane number (55) and low cetane number fuels (30). Low cetane number fuels showed comparable levels of regulated gas emissions with high cetane number fuels and had an advantage in PM emissions.

Cho, Kukwon [ORNL; Han, Manbae [ORNL; Wagner, Robert M [ORNL; Sluder, Scott [ORNL

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

399

Ultra-High Temperature Distributed Wireless Sensors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Research was conducted towards the development of a passive wireless sensor for measurement of temperature in coal gasifiers and coal-fired boiler plants. Approaches investigated included metamaterial sensors based on guided mode resonance filters, and temperature-sensitive antennas that modulate the frequency of incident radio waves as they are re-radiated by the antenna. In the guided mode resonant filter metamaterial approach, temperature is encoded as changes in the sharpness of the filter response, which changes with temperature because the dielectric loss of the guided mode resonance filter is temperature-dependent. In the mechanically modulated antenna approach, the resonant frequency of a vibrating cantilever beam attached to the antenna changes with temperature. The vibration of the beam perturbs the electrical impedance of the antenna, so that incident radio waves are phase modulated at a frequency equal to the resonant frequency of the vibrating beam. Since the beam resonant frequency depends on temperature, a Doppler radar can be used to remotely measure the temperature of the antenna. Laboratory testing of the guided mode resonance filter failed to produce the spectral response predicted by simulations. It was concluded that the spectral response was dominated by spectral reflections of radio waves incident on the filter. Laboratory testing of the mechanically modulated antenna demonstrated that the device frequency shifted incident radio waves, and that the frequency of the re-radiated waves varied linearly with temperature. Radio wave propagation tests in the convection pass of a small research boiler plant identified a spectral window between 10 and 13 GHz for low loss propagation of radio waves in the interior of the boiler.

May, Russell; Rumpf, Raymond; Coggin, John; Davis, Williams; Yang, Taeyoung; O'Donnell, Alan; Bresnahan, Peter

2013-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

400

TPV Power Generation System Using a High Temperature Metal Radiant Burner  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Interest has grown in micro?combined heat and power (micro?CHP). Thermophotovoltaic (TPV) generation of electricity in fuel?fired furnaces is one of the micro?CHP technologies that are attracting technical attention. Previous investigations have shown that a radiant burner that can efficiently convert fuel chemical energy into radiation energy is crucial to realize a practical TPV power system. In this work we developed a TPV power generation system using a gas?fired metal radiant burner. The burner consists of a high temperature alloy emitter which could have an increased emissivity at short wavelengths and low emissivity at long wavelengths. The metal emitter is capable of bearing high temperatures of interest to fuel?fired TPV power conversion. GaSb TPV cells were tested in the combustion?driven radiant source. Electric output characteristics of the TPV cells were investigated at various operating conditions. The electric power output of the TPV cells was demonstrated to be promising. At an emitter temperature of 1185C an electric power density of 0.476 W/cm2 was generated by the GaSb cells. It is shown that the metal emitter is attractive and could be applied to practical fuel?fired TPV power systems.

K. Qiu; A. C. S. Hayden; E. Entchev

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high temperature fuel" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Vibration Combined High Temperature Cycle Tests for Capacitive MEMS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Vibration Combined High Temperature Cycle Tests for Capacitive MEMS Accelerometers Z. Szcs, G. Nagy|nagyg|hodossy|rencz|poppe>@eet.bme.hu Abstract - In this paper vibration combined high temperature cycle tests for packaged capacitive SOI- MEMS designed and realized at BME ­ DED. Twenty thermal cycles of combined Temperature Cycle Test and Fatigue

Boyer, Edmond

402

High temperature, minimally invasive optical sensing modules  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A remote temperature sensing system includes a light source selectively producing light at two different wavelengths and a sensor device having an optical path length that varies as a function of temperature. The sensor receives light emitted by the light source and redirects the light along the optical path length. The system also includes a detector receiving redirected light from the sensor device and generating respective signals indicative of respective intensities of received redirected light corresponding to respective wavelengths of light emitted by the light source. The system also includes a processor processing the signals generated by the detector to calculate a temperature of the device.

Riza, Nabeel Agha (Oviedo, FL); Perez, Frank (Tujunga, CA)

2008-02-05T23:59:59.000Z

403

Highly temperature insensitive quantum cascade lasers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An InP based quantum cascade laser (QCL) heterostructure emitting around 5 {mu}m is grown with gas-source molecular beam epitaxy. The QCL core design takes a shallow-well approach to maximize the characteristic temperatures, T{sub 0} and T{sub 1}, for operations above room temperature. A T{sub 0} value of 383 K and a T{sub 1} value of 645 K are obtained within a temperature range of 298-373 K. In room temperature continuous wave operation, this design gives a single facet output power of 3 W and a wall plug efficiency of 16% from a device with a cavity length of 5 mm and a ridge width of 8 {mu}m.

Bai, Y.; Bandyopadhyay, N.; Tsao, S.; Selcuk, E.; Slivken, S.; Razeghi, M. [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Center for Quantum Devices, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208 (United States)

2010-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

404

High-temperature neutron diffraction study of deuterated brucite  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

To study the structural behavior of brucite at high temperature, we conducted in situ neutron diffraction experiments of a deuterated brucite powder sample, Mg(OD)2, in the temperature range 313583K. The sample...

Hongwu Xu; Yusheng Zhao; Donald D. Hickmott

2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

405

Cryogenic deformation of high temperature superconductive composite structures  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An improvement in a process of preparing a composite high temperature oxide superconductive wire is provided and involves conducting at least one cross-sectional reduction step in the processing preparation of the wire at sub-ambient temperatures.

Roberts, Peter R. (Groton, MA); Michels, William (Brookline, MA); Bingert, John F. (Jemez Springs, NM)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

406

Vortices in high-temperature superconductors  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

With the high-temperature superconductors a qualitatively new regime in the phenomenology of type-II superconductivity can be accessed. The key elements governing the statistical mechanics and the dynamics of the vortex system are (dynamic) thermal and quantum fluctuations and (static) quenched disorder. The importance of these three sources of disorder can be quantified by the Ginzburg number Gi=(TcHc2??3)22, the quantum resistance Qu=(e2?)(?n??), and the critical current-density ratio jcjo, with jc and jo denoting the depinning and depairing current densities, respectively (?n is the normal-state resistivity and ?2=mMsuperconductors, leading to interesting effects such as the melting of the vortex lattice, the creation of new vortex-liquid phases, and the appearance of macroscopic quantum phenomena. Introducing quenched disorder into the system turns the Abrikosov lattice into a vortex glass, whereas the vortex liquid remains a liquid. The terms "glass" and "liquid" are defined in a dynamic sense, with a sublinear response ?=?E?j|j?0 characterizing the truly superconducting vortex glass and a finite resistivity ?(j?0)>0 being the signature of the liquid phase. The smallness of jcjo allows one to discuss the influence of quenched disorder in terms of the weak collective pinning theory. Supplementing the traditional theory of weak collective pinning to take into account thermal and quantum fluctuations, as well as the new scaling concepts for elastic media subject to a random potential, this modern version of the weak collective pinning theory consistently accounts for a large number of novel phenomena, such as the broad resistive transition, thermally assisted flux flow, giant and quantum creep, and the glassiness of the solid state. The strong layering of the oxides introduces additional new features into the thermodynamic phase diagram, such as a layer decoupling transition, and modifies the mechanism of pinning and creep in various ways. The presence of strong (correlated) disorder in the form of twin boundaries or columnar defects not only is technologically relevant but also provides the framework for the physical realization of novel thermodynamic phases such as the Bose glass. On a macroscopic scale the vortex system exhibits self-organized criticality, with both the spatial and the temporal scale accessible to experimental investigations.

G. Blatter; M. V. Feigel'man; V. B. Geshkenbein; A. I. Larkin; V. M. Vinokur

1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

407

Fuel Grading Study on a Low-Enriched Uranium Fuel Design for the High Flux Isotope Reactor  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An engineering design study that would enable the conversion of the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) from high-enriched uranium to low-enriched uranium fuel is ongoing at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The computational models used to search for a low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel design that would meet the requirements for the conversion study, and the recent results obtained with these models during FY 2009, are documented and discussed in this report. Estimates of relevant reactor performance parameters for the LEU fuel core are presented and compared with the corresponding data for the currently operating high-enriched uranium fuel core. These studies indicate that the LEU fuel design would maintain the current performance of the HFIR with respect to the neutron flux to the central target region, reflector, and beam tube locations.

Ilas, Germina [ORNL; Primm, Trent [ORNL

2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

408

High-Temperature Nuclear Reactors for In-Situ Recovery of Oil from Oil Shale  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The world is exhausting its supply of crude oil for the production of liquid fuels (gasoline, jet fuel, and diesel). However, the United States has sufficient oil shale deposits to meet our current oil demands for {approx}100 years. Shell Oil Corporation is developing a new potentially cost-effective in-situ process for oil recovery that involves drilling wells into oil shale, using electric heaters to raise the bulk temperature of the oil shale deposit to {approx}370 deg C to initiate chemical reactions that produce light crude oil, and then pumping the oil to the surface. The primary production cost is the cost of high-temperature electrical heating. Because of the low thermal conductivity of oil shale, high-temperature heat is required at the heater wells to obtain the required medium temperatures in the bulk oil shale within an economically practical two to three years. It is proposed to use high-temperature nuclear reactors to provide high-temperature heat to replace the electricity and avoid the factor-of-2 loss in converting high-temperature heat to electricity that is then used to heat oil shale. Nuclear heat is potentially viable because many oil shale deposits are thick (200 to 700 m) and can yield up to 2.5 million barrels of oil per acre, or about 125 million dollars/acre of oil at $50/barrel. The concentrated characteristics of oil-shale deposits make it practical to transfer high-temperature heat over limited distances from a reactor to the oil shale deposits. (author)

Forsberg, Charles W. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P.O. Box 2008, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6165 (United States)

2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

409

Performance analysis results of a battery fuel gauge algorithm at multiple temperatures  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Evaluating a battery fuel gauge (BFG) algorithm is a challenging problem due to the fact that there are no reliable mathematical models to represent the complex features of a Li-ion battery, such as hysteresis and relaxation effects, temperature effects on parameters, aging, power fade (PF), and capacity fade (CF) with respect to the chemical composition of the battery. The existing literature is largely focused on developing different BFG strategies and BFG validation has received little attention. In this paper, using hardware in the loop (HIL) data collected form three Li-ion batteries at nine different temperatures ranging from?20C to 40C, we demonstrate detailed validation results of a battery fuel gauge (BFG) algorithm. The BFG validation is based on three different BFG validation metrics; we provide implementation details of these three BFG evaluation metrics by proposing three different BFG validation load profiles that satisfy varying levels of user requirements.

B. Balasingam; G.V. Avvari; K.R. Pattipati; Y. Bar-Shalom

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

410

High-Temperature High-Power Packaging Techniques for HEV Traction Applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A key issue associated with the wider adoption of hybrid-electric vehicles (HEV) and plug in hybrid-electric vehicles (PHEV) is the implementation of the power electronic systems that are required in these products [1]. To date, many consumers find the adoption of these technologies problematic based on a financial analysis of the initial cost versus the savings available from reduced fuel consumption. Therefore, one of the primary industry goals is the reduction in the price of these vehicles relative to the cost of traditional gasoline powered vehicles. Part of this cost reduction must come through optimization of the power electronics required by these vehicles. In addition, the efficiency of the systems must be optimized in order to provide the greatest range possible. For some drivers, any reduction in the range associated with a potential HEV or PHEV solution in comparison to a gasoline powered vehicle represents a significant barrier to adoption and the efficiency of the power electronics plays an important role in this range. Likewise, high efficiencies are also important since lost power further complicates the thermal management of these systems. Reliability is also an important concern since most drivers have a high level of comfort with gasoline powered vehicles and are somewhat reluctant to switch to a less proven technology. Reliability problems in the power electronics or associated components could not only cause a high warranty cost to the manufacturer, but may also taint these technologies in the consumer's eyes. A larger vehicle offering in HEVs is another important consideration from a power electronics point of view. A larger vehicle will need more horsepower, or a larger rated drive. In some ways this will be more difficult to implement from a cost and size point of view. Both the packaging of these modules and the thermal management of these systems at competitive price points create significant challenges. One way in which significant cost reduction of these systems could be achieved is through the use of a single coolant loop for both the power electronics as well as the internal combustion engine (ICE) [2]. This change would reduce the complexity of the cooling system which currently relies on two loops to a single loop [3]. However, the current nominal coolant temperature entering these inverters is 65 C [3], whereas a normal ICE coolant temperature would be much higher at approximately 100 C. This change in coolant temperature significantly increases the junction temperatures of the devices and creates a number of challenges for both device fabrication and the assembly of these devices into inverters and converters for HEV and PHEV applications. With this change in mind, significant progress has been made on the use of SiC devices for inverters that can withstand much higher junction temperatures than traditional Si based inverters [4,5,6]. However, a key problem which the single coolant loop and high temperature devices is the effective packaging of these devices and related components into a high temperature inverter. The elevated junction temperatures that exist in these modules are not compatible with reliable inverters based on existing packaging technology. This report seeks to provide a literature survey of high temperature packaging and to highlight the issues related to the implementation of high temperature power electronic modules for HEV and PHEV applications. For purposes of discussion, it will be assumed in this report that 200 C is the targeted maximum junction temperature.

Barlow, F.D.; Elshabini, A.

2006-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

411

Viscosity of high-temperature iodine  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The viscosity coefficient of iodine in the temperature range 500?T?3000 K is calculated. Because of the low dissociation energy of the I2 molecules, the dissociation degree of the gas increases quickly with temperature, and I+I2 and I+I collisions must be taken into account in calculations of viscosity at temperatures greater than 1000. Several possible channels for atom-atom interaction are considered, and the resulting collision integrals are averaged over all the important channels. It is also shown that the rigid-sphere model is inaccurate in predictions of the viscosity. The approach of the present work is general and can be used for other diatomic gases with arbitrary dissociation degree.

Steve H. Kang and Joseph A. Kunc

1991-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

412

Low-temperature rupture behavior of Zircaloy clad pressurized water reactor spent fuel rods under dry storage conditions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Creep rupture studies on five well-characterized Zircaloy clad pressurized water reactor spent fuel rods, which were pressurized to a hoop stress of approximately 145 MPa, were conducted for up to 2101 h at 323/sup 0/C. The conditions were chosen for limited annealing of in-reactor irradiation-hardening. No cladding breaches occurred, although significant hydride agglomeration and reorientation took place in rods that cooled under stress. Observations are interpreted in terms of a conservatively modified Larson-Miller curve to provide a lower bound on permissible maximum dry-storage temperatures, assuming creep rupture as the life-limiting mechanism. If hydride reorientation can be ruled out during dry storage, 305/sup 0/C is a conservative lower bound, based on the creep rupture mechanism, for the maximum storage temperature of rods with irradiation hardened cladding to ensure a 100-year cladding lifetime in an inert atmosphere. An oxidizing atmosphere reduces the lower bound on the maximum permissible storage temperature by approx. 5/sup 0/C. While high-temperature tests based on creep rupture as the limiting mechanism indicate that storage at temperatures between 400/sup 0/C and 440/sup 0/C may be feasible for rods which are annealed, tests to study rod performance in the 305/sup 0/ to 400/sup 0/C temperature range have not been conducted. 37 references, 10 figures, 7 tables.

Einziger, R.E.; Kohli, R.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

413

Impurity effects on electronmode coupling in high-temperature superconductors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

LETTERS Impurity effects on electron­mode coupling in high-temperature superconductors K. TERASHIMA espite years of intensive research on copper oxide superconductors with high transition temperatures (Tc in the high-Tc superconductors. The interaction of electrons with bosonic excitations (phonons or spin

Loss, Daniel

414

High-temperature for improved ES  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

standard requires tests both for u powered systems. For the latter testin temperature has to be taken a perfect electric insulation active device. Regarding ESD r proposed protection should provide current: We propose a new MOS-IGB robustness ESD protection with low temp diffusions in the drain with various

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

415

High Temperature, High Pressure Devices for Zonal Isolation in Geothermal Wells  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

DOE Geothermal Peer Review 2010 - Presentation. Project objectives: Design, demonstrate, and qualify high-temperature high pressure zonal isolation devices compatible with the high temperature downhole Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) environment.

416

INTEGRATION OF HIGH TEMPERATURE GAS REACTORS WITH IN SITU OIL SHALE RETORTING  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper evaluates the integration of a high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) to an in situ oil shale retort operation producing 7950 m3/D (50,000 bbl/day). The large amount of heat required to pyrolyze the oil shale and produce oil would typically be provided by combustion of fossil fuels, but can also be delivered by an HTGR. Two cases were considered: a base case which includes no nuclear integration, and an HTGR-integrated case.

Eric P. Robertson; Michael G. McKellar; Lee O. Nelson

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

417

High Energy Absorption Top Nozzle For A Nuclaer Fuel Assembly  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A high energy absorption top nozzle for a nuclear fuel assembly that employs an elongated upper tubular housing and an elongated lower tubular housing slidable within the upper tubular housing. The upper and lower housings are biased away from each other by a plurality of longitudinally extending springs that are restrained by a longitudinally moveable piston whose upward travel is limited within the upper housing. The energy imparted to the nozzle by a control rod scram is mostly absorbed by the springs and the hydraulic affect of the piston within the nozzle.

Sparrow, James A. (Irmo, SC); Aleshin, Yuriy (Columbia, SC); Slyeptsov, Aleksey (Columbia, SC)

2004-05-18T23:59:59.000Z

418

First high-temperature electronics products survey 2005.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

On April 4-5, 2005, a High-Temperature Electronics Products Workshop was held. This workshop engaged a number of governmental and private industry organizations sharing a common interest in the development of commercially available, high-temperature electronics. One of the outcomes of this meeting was an agreement to conduct an industry survey of high-temperature applications. This report covers the basic results of this survey.

Normann, Randy Allen

2006-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

419

Rotational viscometer for high-pressure, high-temperature fluids  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The invention is a novel rotational viscometer which is well adapted for use with fluids at high temperatures and/or pressures. In one embodiment, the viscometer include a substantially non-magnetic tube having a closed end and having an open end in communication with a fluid whose viscosity is to be determined. An annular drive magnet is mounted for rotation about the tube. The tube encompasses and supports a rotatable shaft assembly which carries a rotor, or bob, for insertion in the fluid. Affixed to the shaft are (a) a second magnet which is magnetically coupled to the drive magnet and (b) a third magnet. In a typical operation, the drive magnet is rotated to turn the shaft assembly while the shaft rotor is immersed in the fluid. The viscous drag on the rotor causes the shaft assembly to lag the rotation of the drive magnet by an amount which is a function of the amount of viscous drag. A first magnetic pickup generates a waveform whose phase is a function of the angular position of the drive magnet. A second magnetic pickup generates a waveform whose phase is a function of the angular position of the third magnet. Means are provided to generate an output indicative of the phase difference between the two waveforms. The viscometer is comparatively simple, inexpensive, rugged, and does not require shaft seals.

Carr, K.R.

1983-06-06T23:59:59.000Z

420

High pressure--high temperature research using high energy synchrotron radiation at the TRISTAN accumulation ring  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

High energy synchrotron radiation emitted from the bending magnet of the TRISTAN accumulation ring (6.5 GeV) at the National Laboratory for High Energy Physics has been used for the high pressure--high temperature diffraction experiments using a multianvil press system, MAX80. Owing to the specific features of high energy synchroton radiation, significant improvements have been brought to the high pressure research. The wide energy range of diffraction spectrum leads to an increase in the number of observable diffraction peaks in an energy-dispersive method, resulting in an increase in the accuracy of the measurements of the lattice and thermal parameters. Due to the high penetrating power of radiation, diffraction patterns can be taken in a short time from materials containing heavy elements or materials surrounded by a metal foil. Typical examples of high pressure--high temperature experiments with high energy synchrotron radiation are also described.

Kikegawa, T.; Shimomura, O.; Iwasaki, H.; Sato, S.; Mikuni, A.; Iida, A.; Kamiya, N.

1989-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high temperature fuel" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Novel Materials for High Efficiency Direct Methanol Fuel Cells  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Presented at the Department of Energy Fuel Cell Projects Kickoff Meeting, September 1 October 1, 2009

422

ANALYSIS OF A HIGH TEMPERATURE GAS-COOLED REACTOR POWERED HIGH TEMPERATURE ELECTROLYSIS HYDROGEN PLANT  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An updated reference design for a commercial-scale high-temperature electrolysis (HTE) plant for hydrogen production has been developed. The HTE plant is powered by a high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) whose configuration and operating conditions are based on the latest design parameters planned for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP). The current HTGR reference design specifies a reactor power of 600 MWt, with a primary system pressure of 7.0 MPa, and reactor inlet and outlet fluid temperatures of 322C and 750C, respectively. The reactor heat is used to produce heat and electric power to the HTE plant. A Rankine steam cycle with a power conversion efficiency of 44.4% was used to provide the electric power. The electrolysis unit used to produce hydrogen includes 1.1 million cells with a per-cell active area of 225 cm2. The reference hydrogen production plant operates at a system pressure of 5.0 MPa, and utilizes a steam-sweep system to remove the excess oxygen that is evolved on the anode (oxygen) side of the electrolyzer. The overall system thermal-to-hydrogen production efficiency (based on the higher heating value of the produced hydrogen) is 42.8% at a hydrogen production rate of 1.85 kg/s (66 million SCFD) and an oxygen production rate of 14.6 kg/s (33 million SCFD). An economic analysis of this plant was performed with realistic financial and cost estimating The results of the economic analysis demonstrated that the HTE hydrogen production plant driven by a high-temperature helium-cooled nuclear power plant can deliver hydrogen at a competitive cost. A cost of $3.03/kg of hydrogen was calculated assuming an internal rate of return of 10% and a debt to equity ratio of 80%/20% for a reactor cost of $2000/kWt and $2.41/kg of hydrogen for a reactor cost of $1400/kWt.

M. G. McKellar; E. A. Harvego; A. M. Gandrik

2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

423

Update on US High Density Fuel Fabrication Development  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Second generation uranium molybdenum fuel has shown excellent in-reactor irradiation performance. This metallic fuel type is capable of being fabricated at much higher loadings than any presently used research reactor fuel. Due to the broad range of fuel types this alloy system encompassesfuel powder to monolithic foil and binary fuel systems to multiple element additionssignificant amounts of research and development have been conducted on the fabrication of these fuels. This paper presents an update of the US RERTR effort to develop fabrication techniques and the fabrication methods used for the RERTR-9A miniplate test.

C.R. Clark; G.A. Moore; J.F. Jue; B.H. Park; N.P. Hallinan; D.M. Wachs; D.E. Burkes

2007-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

424

High Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Generator Development  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Work performed during the period February 21, 2006 through August 21, 2006 is summarized herein. During this period, efforts were focused on 5 kWe bundle testing, development of on-cell reformation, the conceptual design of an advanced module, and the development of a manufacturing roadmap for cells and bundles. A 5 kWe SOFC system was built and delivered to the Pennsylvania State University; fabrication of a second 5 kWe SOFC for delivery to Montana State University was initiated. Cell testing and microstructural analysis in support of these efforts was also conducted.

Joseph F. Pierre

2006-08-21T23:59:59.000Z

425

High Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Generator Development  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report describes the results of the tubular SOFC development program from August 22, 1997 to September 30, 2007 under the Siemens/U.S. Department of Energy Cooperative Agreement. The technical areas discussed include cell manufacturing development, cell power enhancement, SOFC module and system cost reduction and technology advancement, and our field unit test program. Whereas significant progress has been made toward commercialization, significant effort remains to achieve our cost, performance and reliability targets for successful commercialization.

Joseph Pierre

2007-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

426

High-Temperature Melting Behavior of Urban Wood Fuel Ash  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The glass and coexisting mineral phases were analyzed using a CAMECA SX50 electron microprobe operated at 15 kV voltage, a beam current of 10 nA, and counting times between 10 and 30 s. Natural minerals and synthetic oxides were used as standards. ... The calculation scheme of Boni and Derge49 is based on alkali metal and phosphorus-free systems. ...

P. Thy; B. M. Jenkins; C. E. Lesher

1999-05-13T23:59:59.000Z

427

Fact #650: November 22, 2010 Diesel Fuel Prices hit a Two-Year High  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

According to the Energy Information Administration's weekly fuel price data, the price of highway diesel fuel on the week of November 17, 2010, reached a 2-year high of $3.18 per gallon. Back in...

428

High Fuel Economy Heavy-Duty Truck Engine | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Heavy-Duty Truck Engine High Fuel Economy Heavy-Duty Truck Engine 2011 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation...

429

Overview of Fraunhofer IPM Activities in High Temperature Bulk...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Workshop including an overview about Fraunhofer IPM, new funding situation in Germany, high temperature material and modules, energy-autarkic sensors, and thermoelectric...

430

Development of a 500 Watt High Temperature Thermoelectric Generator...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

More Documents & Publications Development of a 100-Watt High Temperature Thermoelectric Generator Automotive Waste Heat Conversion to Power Program Automotive Waste Heat...

431

Institute of Chemical Engineering and High Temperature Chemical...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Chemical Processes ICEHT Jump to: navigation, search Name: Institute of Chemical Engineering and High Temperature Chemical Processes (ICEHT) Place: Hellas, Greece Zip:...

432

Evaluation of High-Temperature Alloys for Helium Gas Turbines  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

C. 1. Mechanical Property / Status of Metallic Materials Development for Application in Advanced High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor / Material

Wolfgang Jakobeit; Jrn-Peter Pfeifer; Georg Ullrich

433

Variable Temperature Ultra-High Vacuum Scanning Tunneling Microscope...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Vacuum Scanning Tunneling Microscope The Omicron variable temperature ultra-high vacuum (UHV) scanning tunneling microscope (VTSTM) is designed to study the structure of both clean...

434

High Temperature Superconducting Fault Current Limiter for Utility Applications  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

One of the most near term High Temperature Superconductor (HTS) applications is the Fault Current Limiter (FCL). It is a device that...

E. M. W. Leung; G. W. Albert; M. Dew

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

435

Fundamental Corrosion Studies in High-Temperature Molten Salt...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Studies in High-Temperature Molten Salt Systems for CSP Applications Savannah River National Laboratory April 15, 2013 | Garcia-Diaz * The overall project approach will combine...

436

Corrosion Studies in High-Temperature Molten Salt Systems for...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Studies in High-Temperature Molten Salt Systems for CSP Applications Savannah River National Laboratory Garcia-Diaz A 1152013:Garcia-Diaz * The overall project approach will...

437

High Temperature Superconductor Cable Concepts for Fusion Magnets.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Three concepts of high temperature superconductor cables carrying kA currents (RACC, CORC and TSTC) are investigated, optimized and evaluated in the scope of their applicability (more)

Barth, Christian

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

438

Detecting Fractures Using Technology at High Temperatures and...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Fractures Using Technology at High Temperatures and Depths - Geothermal Ultrasonic Fracture Imager (GUFI); 2010 Geothermal Technology Program Peer Review Report Detecting...

439

Detecting Fractures Using Technology at High Temperatures and...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Fractures Using Technology at High Temperatures and Depths - Geothermal Ultrasonic Fracture Imager (GUFI) Presentation Number: 015 Investigator: Patterson, Doug (Baker Hughes...

440

Nanostructured High-Temperature Bulk Thermoelectric Energy Conversion...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

High Temperature Bulk Thermoelectric Energy Conversion for Efficient Waste Heat Recovery Project Overview 2 * Start: October 2011 * End: September 2015 * Percent complete -...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high temperature fuel" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Feasibility and Design Studies for a High Temperature Downhole Tool  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Project objective: Perform feasibility and design studies for a high temperature downhole tool; which uses nuclear techniques for characterization purposes; using measurements and modeling/simulation.

442

High-Temperature Aluminum Alloys | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting pm044smith2012o.pdf More Documents & Publications High-Temperature Aluminum Alloys Vehicle...

443

High Temperature, High Voltage Fully Integrated Gate Driver Circuit  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

driver circuit, 5-V on- chip voltage regulator, short-circuit protection, undervoltage lockout, bootstrap capacitor, dead time controller and temperature sensor * 0.8-micron,...

444

\\{NOx\\} emission characteristics of fluidized bed combustion in atmospheres rich in oxygen and water vapor for high-nitrogen fuel  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The present study examines the influence of water vapor in combustion atmosphere on \\{NOx\\} emission from oxygen-enriched combustion of air-dried distilled spirit lees and its char in a laboratory fluidized bed of 760mm high and 68mm in inner diameter. Steam was added into the fluidizing gas to vary the vapor content in the combustion atmosphere. At a combustion temperature of 950C and a steam-to-fuel mass ratio (S/F) of 0.5, the presence of water vapor reduced the \\{NOx\\} concentration in the flue gas for low O2 contents (?30vol.%) in the combustion agent but increased the \\{NOx\\} emission for high O2 contents (?40vol.%). The possible causes were clarified for this shift from suppression to promotion of fuel-N conversion into \\{NOx\\} with raising O2 concentration in the combustion agent. Varying temperature from 850C to 1150C resulted in a peak conversion of fuel-N to \\{NOx\\} in the temperature range of 9501050C for all the tested O2 concentrations. Increasing the O2 concentration tended to lower the critical temperature corresponding to such a peak fuel-N conversion. Testing results also suggested that the presence of excessive water vapor in the combustion atmosphere would inhibit the release of fuel-N in the devolatilization stage and promote the formation of some reducing gases. In addition to the anticipated diluting effect, the steam addition also shortened the reaction time for homogeneous and heterogeneous \\{NOx\\} reduction by the reducing gases and char. It is postulated that the formation of OH radicals at high O2 content and high temperature could cause the observed increase in the \\{NOx\\} emission.

Chuanqiang Zhu; Shuyuan Liu; Huan Liu; Juan Yang; Xiaoxing Liu; Guangwen Xu

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

445

High-Temperature Superconductivity Cable Demonstration Projects  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Temperature Temperature Superconductivity Cable Demonstration Projects Superconductivity Power Equipment www.oe.energy.gov Phone: 202-586-1411 Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, OE-1 U.S. Department of Energy - 1000 Independence Avenue, SW - Washington, DC 20585. Plugging America Into the Future of Power "A National Effort to Introduce New Technology into the Power Delivery Infrastructure" "In order to meet President Obama's ambitious energy goals, we must modernize the nation's electrical grid to improve the transmission, storage and reliability of clean energy across the country and help to move renewable energy from the places it can be produced to the places it can be used. The Department of Energy is working with industry partners to develop the

446

Fuel cell generator  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

High temperature solid oxide electrolyte fuel cell generators which allow controlled leakage among plural chambers in a sealed housing. Depleted oxidant and fuel are directly reacted in one chamber to combust remaining fuel and preheat incoming reactants. The cells are preferably electrically arranged in a series-parallel configuration.

Isenberg, Arnold O. (Forest Hills, PA)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

447

Autoignition of gasoline surrogates mixtures at intermediate temperatures and high pressures  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ignition times were determined in high-pressure shock-tube experiments for various stoichiometric mixtures of two multicomponent model fuels in air for the validation of ignition delay simulations based on chemical kinetic models. The fuel blends were n-heptane (18%)/isooctane (62%)/ethanol (20%) by liquid volume (14.5%/44.5%/41% by mole fraction) and n-heptane (20%)/toluene (45%)/isooctane (25%)/diisobutylene (10%) by liquid volume (17.5%/55%/19.5%/8.0% by mole fraction). These fuels have octane numbers comparable to a standard European gasoline of 95 RON and 85 MON. The experimental conditions cover temperatures from 690 to 1200 K and pressures at 10, 30, and 50 bar. The obtained ignition time data are scaled with respect to pressure and compared to previous results reported in the literature. (author)

Fikri, M.; Herzler, J.; Starke, R.; Schulz, C.; Roth, P. [IVG, Universitaet Duisburg-Essen, D-47048 Duisburg (Germany); Kalghatgi, G.T. [Shell Global Solutions U.K., P.O. Box 1, Chester CH1 3SH (United Kingdom)

2008-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

448

High Temperature Oxidation Resistance and Surface Electrical...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

plates with oxidation resistant coatings. Candidate coatings must exhibit chemical and thermal-mechanical stability and high electrical conductivity during long-term...

449

High Temperature Calcination - MACT Upgrade Equipment Pilot Plant Test  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

About one million gallons of acidic, hazardous, and radioactive sodium-bearing waste are stored in stainless steel tanks at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC), which is a major operating facility of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. Calcination at high-temperature conditions (600 C, with alumina nitrate and calcium nitrate chemical addition to the feed) is one of four options currently being considered by the Department of Energy for treatment of the remaining tank wastes. If calcination is selected for future processing of the sodium-bearing waste, it will be necessary to install new off-gas control equipment in the New Waste Calcining Facility (NWCF) to comply with the Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) standards for hazardous waste combustors and incinerators. This will require, as a minimum, installing a carbon bed to reduce mercury emissions from their current level of up to 7,500 to <45 {micro}g/dscm, and a staged combustor to reduce unburned kerosene fuel in the off-gas discharge to <100 ppm CO and <10 ppm hydrocarbons. The staged combustor will also reduce NOx concentrations of about 35,000 ppm by 90-95%. A pilot-plant calcination test was completed in a newly constructed 15-cm diameter calciner vessel. The pilot-plant facility was equipped with a prototype MACT off-gas control system, including a highly efficient cyclone separator and off-gas quench/venturi scrubber for particulate removal, a staged combustor for unburned hydrocarbon and NOx destruction, and a packed activated carbon bed for mercury removal and residual chloride capture. Pilot-plant testing was performed during a 50-hour system operability test January 14-16, followed by a 100-hour high-temperature calcination pilot-plant calcination run January 19-23. Two flowsheet blends were tested: a 50-hour test with an aluminum-to-alkali metal molar ratio (AAR) of 2.25, and a 50-hour test with an AAR of 1.75. Results of the testing indicate that sodium-bearing waste can be successfully calcined at 600 C with an AAR of 1.75. Unburned hydrocarbons are reduced to less than 10 ppm (7% O2, dry basis), with >90% reduction of NOx emissions. Mercury removal by the carbon bed reached 99.99%, surpassing the control efficiency needed to meet MACT emissions standards. No deleterious impacts on the carbon bed were observed during the tests. The test results imply that upgrading the NWCF calciner with a more efficient cyclone separator and the proposed MACT equipment can process the remaining tanks wastes in 3 years or less, and comply with the MACT standards.

Richard D. Boardman; B. H. O'Brien; N. R. Soelberg; S. O. Bates; R. A. Wood; C. St. Michel

2004-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

450

DEGRADATION ISSUES IN SOLID OXIDE CELLS DURING HIGH TEMPERATURE ELECTROLYSIS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is performing high-temperature electrolysis research to generate hydrogen using solid oxide electrolysis cells (SOECs). The project goals are to address the technical and degradation issues associated with the SOECs. This paper provides a summary of various ongoing INL and INL sponsored activities aimed at addressing SOEC degradation. These activities include stack testing, post-test examination, degradation modeling, and a list of issues that need to be addressed in future. Major degradation issues relating to solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) are relatively better understood than those for SOECs. Some of the degradation mechanisms in SOFCs include contact problems between adjacent cell components, microstructural deterioration (coarsening) of the porous electrodes, and blocking of the reaction sites within the electrodes. Contact problems include delamination of an electrode from the electrolyte, growth of a poorly (electronically) conducting oxide layer between the metallic interconnect plates and the electrodes, and lack of contact between the interconnect and the electrode. INLs test results on high temperature electrolysis (HTE) using solid oxide cells do not provide a clear evidence whether different events lead to similar or drastically different electrochemical degradation mechanisms. Post-test examination of the solid oxide electrolysis cells showed that the hydrogen electrode and interconnect get partially oxidized and become non-conductive. This is most likely caused by the hydrogen stream composition and flow rate during cool down. The oxygen electrode side of the stacks seemed to be responsible for the observed degradation due to large areas of electrode delamination. Based on the oxygen electrode appearance, the degradation of these stacks was largely controlled by the oxygen electrode delamination rate. University of Utah (Virkar) has developed a SOEC model based on concepts in local thermodynamic equilibrium in systems otherwise in global thermodynamic non-equilibrium. This model is under continued development. It shows that electronic conduction through the electrolyte, however small, must be taken into account for determining local oxygen chemical potential, within the electrolyte. The chemical potential within the electrolyte may lie out of bounds in relation to values at the electrodes in the electrolyzer mode. Under certain conditions, high pressures can develop in the electrolyte just under the oxygen electrode (anode)/electrolyte interface, leading to electrode delamination. This theory is being further refined and tested by introducing some electronic conduction in the electrolyte.

J. E. O'Brien; C. M. Stoots; V. I. Sharma; B. Yildiz; A. V. Virkar

2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

451

DEGRADATION ISSUES IN SOLID OXIDE CELLS DURING HIGH TEMPERATURE ELECTROLYSIS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is performing high-temperature electrolysis research to generate hydrogen using solid oxide electrolysis cells (SOECs). The project goals are to address the technical and degradation issues associated with the SOECs. This paper provides a summary of various ongoing INL and INL sponsored activities aimed at addressing SOEC degradation. These activities include stack testing, post-test examination, degradation modeling, and a list of issues that need to be addressed in future. Major degradation issues relating to solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) are relatively better understood than those for SOECs. Some of the degradation mechanisms in SOFCs include contact problems between adjacent cell components, microstructural deterioration (coarsening) of the porous electrodes, and blocking of the reaction sites within the electrodes. Contact problems include delamination of an electrode from the electrolyte, growth of a poorly (electronically) conducting oxide layer between the metallic interconnect plates and the electrodes, and lack of contact between the interconnect and the electrode. INL's test results on high temperature electrolysis (HTE) using solid oxide cells do not provide a clear evidence whether different events lead to similar or drastically different electrochemical degradation mechanisms. Post-test examination of the solid oxide electrolysis cells showed that the hydrogen electrode and interconnect get partially oxidized and become non-conductive. This is most likely caused by the hydrogen stream composition and flow rate during cool down. The oxygen electrode side of the stacks seemed to be responsible for the observed degradation due to large areas of electrode delamination. Based on the oxygen electrode appearance, the degradation of these stacks was largely controlled by the oxygen electrode delamination rate. University of Utah (Virkar) has developed a SOEC model based on concepts in local thermodynamic equilibrium in systems otherwise in global thermodynamic non-equilibrium. This model is under continued development. It shows that electronic conduction through the electrolyte, however small, must be taken into account for determining local oxygen chemical potential, within the electrolyte. The chemical potential within the electrolyte may lie out of bounds in relation to values at the electrodes in the electrolyzer mode. Under certain conditions, high pressures can develop in the electrolyte just under the oxygen electrode (anode)/electrolyte interface, leading to electrode delamination. This theory is being further refined and tested by introducing some electronic conduction in the electrolyte.

M. S. Sohal; J. E. O'Brien; C. M. Stoots; V. I. Sharma; B. Yildiz; A. Virkar

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

452

A simple, inexpensive device for measuring the critical temperature of a high-temperature superconductor  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A simple, inexpensive device for measuring the critical temperature of a high-temperature superconductor ... This note describes a simple, inexpensive method of measuring the temperature at which the Meissner effect exists in a disk of YBa2Cu3O7-x. ...

David B. Green; Dijon Douphner; Bennett Hutchinson

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

453

Temperature dependence of the lower critical field and strong pinning in high-temperature superconductors  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We show, within the framework of the Ginzburg-Landau theory, that both the conventional and the anomalous temperature dependence of the lower critical field observed in high-temperature superconductors may result from the flux penetration through a set of separated microdefects. Microdefects modeled by normal layers with proximity-induced superconductivity can produce drastic enhancement of the lower critical field at low temperatures and can provide strong-pinning centers. The pinning interaction between an isolated vortex and the normal layer is primarily magnetic at high temperatures. At low temperatures, magnetic interaction is reduced, due to the increase of the normal-layer coherence length.

Dragomir Davidovi? and Ljiljana Dobrosavljevi?-Gruji?

1991-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

454

R&D Plan for the High Temperature Membrane Working Group  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Plan for the Plan for the High Temperature Membrane Working Group Introduction/Background The High Temperature Membrane Working Group was established to provide a forum for greater interaction in the effort to develop high temperature membranes for PEM fuel cells. The goal of this effort is particularly challenging and requires significant fundamental research and development. The Working Group meets twice a year (immediately before or after the Electrochemical Society meeting) and includes universities, national labs, small business and industry and is open to any interested individual/organization. The first meeting was in October, 2000. Working Group members are listed in Appendix A. This plan was developed to guide the R&D activities of the Working Group. The

455

Advancing the technology base for high-temperature membranes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This is the final report of a two-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). This project addresses the major issues confronting the implementation of high-temperature membranes for separations and catalysis. We are pursuing high-temperature membrane systems that can have a large impact for DOE and be industrially relevant. A major obstacle for increased use of membranes is that most applications require the membrane material to withstand temperatures above those acceptable for polymer-based systems. Advances made by this project have helped industry and DOE move toward high-temperature membrane applications to improve overall energy efficiency.

Dye, R.C.; Birdsell, S.A.; Snow, R.C. [and others

1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

456

Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Low Temperature Emission Control to Enable Fuel-Efficient Engine Commercialization  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Presentation given by Oak Ridge National Laboratory at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about low temperature...

457

POWER-TO-GAS PROCESS WITH HIGH TEMPERATURE ELECTROLYSIS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

POWER-TO-GAS PROCESS WITH HIGH TEMPERATURE ELECTROLYSIS AND CO2 METHANATION NOVEMBER 19th 2013 IRES. Energy background 2. Power-to-Substitute Natural Gas process with high temperature steam electrolysis Gas-to-heat Gas-to-mobility Gas-to-power Excess Production = Consumption Distribution and storing

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

458

High Temperature Evaluation of Tantalum Capacitors - Test 1  

DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

Tantalum capacitors can provide much higher capacitance at high-temperatures than the ceramic capacitors. This study evaluates selected tantalum capacitors at high temperatures to determine their suitability for you in geothermal field. This data set contains results of the first test where three different types of capacitors were evaluated at 260C.

Grzegorz Cieslewski

459

High Temperature Evaluation of Tantalum Capacitors - Test 1  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Tantalum capacitors can provide much higher capacitance at high-temperatures than the ceramic capacitors. This study evaluates selected tantalum capacitors at high temperatures to determine their suitability for you in geothermal field. This data set contains results of the first test where three different types of capacitors were evaluated at 260C.

Cieslewski, Grzegorz

2014-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

460

Gas Viscosity at High Pressure and High Temperature  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Although viscosity of some pure components such as methane, ethane, propane, butane, nitrogen, carbon dioxide and binary mixtures of these components at low-intermediate pressure and temperature had been studied intensively and been understood thoroughly...

Ling, Kegang

2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high temperature fuel" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Rotating disk electrode apparatus for the study of fuel cell reactions at elevated temperatures and pressures  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A rotating disk electrode apparatus for studying fuel cell reactions at elevated temperatures and pressures was described. Preliminary data for oxygen reduction in 89.5 percent H3PO4 at temperatures up to 205 C and pressures up to 7.6 A were provided. The Tafel slope was approximately 120 mV/decade and invariant with temperature up to 175 C and pressures near atmospheric. Increasing the pressure to 3 A at 175 C caused the Tafel slope to decrease to a value of approximately RT/F. Above 3 A, the current was proportional to the oxygen pressure. A first order dependence with respect to oxygen pressure was suggested, as well as a mechanism change with increasing oxygen coverage of the platinum. 10 references.

Mcbreen, J.; Ogrady, W.E.; Richter, R.

1984-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

462

An unusual isotope effect in a high-transition-temperature superconductor  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

coupling in high-temperature superconductors. Nature 412,Properties of High Temperature Superconductors IV (ed.in a high-transition-temperature superconductor G. -H. Gweon

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

463

To Crack or Not to Crack: Strain in High Temperature Superconductors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Strain in High Temperature Superconductors Arno GodekeCrack: Strain in High Temperature Superconductors MotivationCrack: Strain in High Temperature Superconductors How do Nb

Godeke, Arno

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

464

X-ray diffuse scattering studies of the local structural inhomogeneities in high temperature superconductors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in high temperature superconductors A dissertation submittedChemistry of High-Temperature Superconductors. Word Scienti?work on the high temperature superconductors, one of the

Liu, Xuerong

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

465

Temperature dependence of the gaps of high-temperature superconductors in the Fermi-arc region  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

It is shown how in a high-temperature superconductor, the length of the Fermi arc can be obtained from the doping dependence of the pseudogap and the superconducting gap. In the momentum region spanned by the Fermi arc, the pseudogap temperature dependence follows that of the superconducting gap. The close interconnection of the two gaps suggests that they are both an essential part of the high-temperature superconductivity.

S. Hfner and F. Mller

2008-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

466

Investigating Methods of Heat Recovery from Low-Temperature PEM Fuel Cells in CHP Applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Heat recovery from low-temperature proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells poses a number of challenges. In response to these challenges, thermodynamic assessments of proposed heat recovery methods are studied in the context of combined heat and power (CHP) for building applications. Preheating combustion air in conjunction with desiccant dehumidification and absorption cooling technologies is one of the two strategies examined in this study. The other approach integrates the PEM fuel cell with a water-loop heat pump (WLHP) for direct heat recovery. As the primary objective, energy-saving potentials of the adopted heat recovery strategies are estimated with respect to various benchmarks. The quantified energy-saving potentials are translated into effective CHP performance indices and compared with those typically specified by the manufacturers for service hot water applications. The need for developing CHP performance protocols is also discussed in light of the proposed energy recovery techniques - thereby, accomplishing the secondary objective.

Jalalzadeh-Azar, A. A.

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

467

High specific power, direct methanol fuel cell stack  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention is a fuel cell stack including at least one direct methanol fuel cell. A cathode manifold is used to convey ambient air to each fuel cell, and an anode manifold is used to convey liquid methanol fuel to each fuel cell. Tie-bolt penetrations and tie-bolts are spaced evenly around the perimeter to hold the fuel cell stack together. Each fuel cell uses two graphite-based plates. One plate includes a cathode active area that is defined by serpentine channels connecting the inlet manifold with an integral flow restrictor to the outlet manifold. The other plate includes an anode active area defined by serpentine channels connecting the inlet and outlet of the anode manifold. Located between the two plates is the fuel cell active region.

Ramsey, John C. (Los Alamos, NM); Wilson, Mahlon S. (Los Alamos, NM)

2007-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

468

Fracture behavior of high-burnup spent-fuel cladding  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

PCI-like, brittle-type failures, characterized by pseudocleavage-plus-fluting features in the fracture surface, branching cracks, and small diametral strain, were observed to occur at 292 to 325/sup 0/C in some batches of spent power-reactor fuel-cladding tubes under internal gas-pressurization and expanding-mandrel loading conditions in which the tests were not influenced by fission product simulants. Fractographic characteristics per se do not provide evidence for a PCI failure mechanism but should be deemed only as cooroborative in nature. Evaluation of TEM thin-foil specimens, obtained from regions adjacent to the brittle-type fracture sites, characteristically revealed extensive amounts of Zr/sub 3/O precipitates and a lack of slip dislocations. The precipitation of the Zr/sub 3/O phase appears to be enhanced by a high density of irradiation-induced defects. The brittle-type failure produced in the spent-fuel cladding tubes appears to be associated with segregation of oxygen to dislocation substructures and irradiation-induced defects, which leads to the formation of an ordered zirconium-oxygen phase of Zr/sub 3/O, an immobilization of dislocations, and minimal plastic deformation in the cladding material.

Chung, H.M.; Yaggee, F.L.; Kassner, T.F.

1983-10-01T23:59:59.000Z