Sample records for high temperature chemical

  1. Institute of Chemical Engineering and High Temperature Chemical...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Institute of Chemical Engineering and High Temperature Chemical Processes ICEHT Jump to: navigation, search Name: Institute of Chemical Engineering and High Temperature Chemical...

  2. Enhanced Oil Recovery in High Salinity High Temperature Reservoir by Chemical Flooding 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bataweel, Mohammed Abdullah

    2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Studying chemical enhanced oil recovery (EOR) in a high-temperature/high-salinity (HT/HS) reservoir will help expand the application of chemical EOR to more challenging environments. Until recently, chemical EOR was not recommended at reservoirs...

  3. Enhanced Oil Recovery in High Salinity High Temperature Reservoir by Chemical Flooding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bataweel, Mohammed Abdullah

    2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Studying chemical enhanced oil recovery (EOR) in a high-temperature/high-salinity (HT/HS) reservoir will help expand the application of chemical EOR to more challenging environments. Until recently, chemical EOR was not recommended at reservoirs...

  4. Development of High Temperature/High Sensitivity Novel Chemical Resistive Sensor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Chonglin; Nash, Patrick; Ma, Chunrui; Enriquez, Erik; Wang, Haibing; Xu, Xing; Bao, Shangyong; Collins, Gregory

    2013-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

    The research has been focused to design, fabricate, and develop high temperature/high sensitivity novel multifunctional chemical sensors for the selective detection of fossil energy gases used in power and fuel systems. By systematically studying the physical properties of the LnBaCo{sub 2}O{sub 5+d} (LBCO) [Ln=Pr or La] thin?films, a new concept chemical sensor based high temperature chemical resistant change has been developed for the application for the next generation highly efficient and near zero emission power generation technologies. We also discovered that the superfast chemical dynamic behavior and an ultrafast surface exchange kinetics in the highly epitaxial LBCO thin films. Furthermore, our research indicates that hydrogen can superfast diffuse in the ordered oxygen vacancy structures in the highly epitaxial LBCO thin films, which suggest that the LBCO thin film not only can be an excellent candidate for the fabrication of high temperature ultra sensitive chemical sensors and control systems for power and fuel monitoring systems, but also can be an excellent candidate for the low temperature solid oxide fuel cell anode and cathode materials.

  5. A VUV Photoionization Study of the Combustion-Relevant Reaction of the Phenyl Radical (C6H5) with Propylene (C3H6) in a High Temperature Chemical Reactor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Fangtong

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    a High Temperature Chemical Reactor Fangtong Zhang, Ralf I.a high temperature chemical reactor under combustion-likea high temperature chemical reactor under combustion-like

  6. Low-temperature germanium ultra-high vacuum chemical vapor deposition for back-end photonic integration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kimerling, Lionel C.

    Polycrystalline germanium (poly-Ge) grown on amorphous Si (a-Si) by ultra-high vacuum chemical vapor deposition (UHVCVD) over oxide barriers at low temperatures (Tles450degC) exhibits a larger grain size and lower defect ...

  7. High-temperature in situ magic-angle spinning NMR studies of chemical reactions on catalysts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oliver, F. Gregory

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    temperature jump to 623 K. Important differences observed in this study relative to previous investigations at lower temperatures include well-resolved signals for adsorbed versus exogenous (gas phase) methanol and dimethyl ether, and a higher yield... described in the text. 29 Expanded view of the first three spectra in Figure 7 showing the regions containing methanol and dimethyl ether. In the high- temperature spectra two peaks are present for both species; gas phase (48. 0 ppm) and adsorbed (53. 1...

  8. High-temperature Chemical Compatibility of As-fabricated TRIGA Fuel and Type 304 Stainless Steel Cladding

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dennis D. Keiser, Jr.; Jan-Fong Jue; Eric Woolstenhulme; Kurt Terrani; Glenn A. Moore

    2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Chemical interaction between TRIGA fuel and Type-304 stainless steel cladding at relatively high temperatures is of interest from the point of view of understanding fuel behavior during different TRIGA reactor transient scenarios. Since TRIGA fuel comes into close contact with the cladding during irradiation, there is an opportunity for interdiffusion between the U in the fuel and the Fe in the cladding to form an interaction zone that contains U-Fe phases. Based on the equilibrium U-Fe phase diagram, a eutectic can develop at a composition between the U6Fe and UFe2 phases. This eutectic composition can become a liquid at around 725°C. From the standpoint of safe operation of TRIGA fuel, it is of interest to develop better understanding of how a phase with this composition may develop in irradiated TRIGA fuel at relatively high temperatures. One technique for investigating the development of a eutectic phase at the fuel/cladding interface is to perform out-of-pile diffusion-couple experiments at relatively high temperatures. This information is most relevant for lightly irradiated fuel that just starts to touch the cladding due to fuel swelling. Similar testing using fuel irradiated to different fission densities should be tested in a similar fashion to generate data more relevant to more heavily irradiated fuel. This report describes the results for TRIGA fuel/Type-304 stainless steel diffusion couples that were annealed for one hour at 730 and 800°C. Scanning electron microscopy with energy- and wavelength-dispersive spectroscopy was employed to characterize the fuel/cladding interface for each diffusion couple to look for evidence of any chemical interaction. Overall, negligible fuel/cladding interaction was observed for each diffusion couple.

  9. High Temperatures & Electricity Demand

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    High Temperatures & Electricity Demand An Assessment of Supply Adequacy in California Trends.......................................................................................................1 HIGH TEMPERATURES AND ELECTRICITY DEMAND.....................................................................................................................7 SECTION I: HIGH TEMPERATURES AND ELECTRICITY DEMAND ..........................9 BACKGROUND

  10. Use of High Temperature Electrochemical Cells for Co-Generation of Chemicals and Electricity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scott Barnett

    2007-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    In this project, two key issues were addressed to show the feasibility of electrochemical partial oxidation (EPOx) in a SOFC. First, it was demonstrated that SOFCs can reliably operate directly with natural gas. These results are relevant to both direct-natural-gas SOFCs, where the aim is solely electrical power generation, and to EPOx. Second, it must be shown that SOFCs can work effectively as partial oxidation reactors, i.e, that they can provide high conversion efficiency of natural gas to syngas. The results of this study in both these areas look extremely promising. The main results are summarized briefly: (1) Stability and coke-free direct-methane SOFC operation is promoted by the addition of a thin porous inert barrier layer to the anode and the addition of small amounts of CO{sub 2} or air to the fuel stream; (2) Modeling results readily explained these improvements by a change in the gas composition at the Ni-YSZ anode to a non-coking condition; (3) The operation range for coke-free operation is greatly increased by using a cell geometry with a thin Ni-YSZ anode active layer on an inert porous ceramic support, i.e., (Sr,La)TiO{sub 3} or partially-stabilized zirconia (in segmented-in-series arrays); (4) Ethane and propane components in natural gas greatly increase coking both on the SOFC anode and on gas-feed tubes, but this can be mitigated by preferentially oxidizing these components prior to introduction into the fuel cell, the addition of a small amount of air to the fuel, and/or the use of ceramic-supported SOFC; (5) While a minimum SOFC current density was generally required to prevent coking, current interruptions of up to 8 minutes yielded only slight anode coking that caused no permanent damage and was completely reversible when the cell current was resumed; (6) Stable direct-methane SOFC operation was demonstrated under EPOx conditions in a 350 h test; (7) EPOx operation was demonstrated at 750 C that yielded 0.9 W/cm{sup 2} and a syngas production rate of 30 sccm/cm{sup 2}, and the reaction product composition was close to the equilibrium prediction during the early stages of cell testing; (8) The methane conversion to syngas continuously decreased during the first 100 h of cell testing, even though the cell electrical characteristics did not change, due to a steady decrease in the reforming activity of Ni-YSZ anodes; (9) The stability of methane conversion was substantially improved via the addition of a more stable reforming catalyst to the SOFC anode; (10) Modeling results indicated that a SOFC with anode barrier provides similar non-coking performance as an internal reforming SOFC, and provides a simpler approach with no need for a high-temperature exhaust-gas recycle pump; (11) Since there is little or no heat produced in the EPOx reaction, overall efficiency of the SOFC operated in this mode can, in theory, approach 100%; and (12) The combined value of the electricity and syngas produced allows the EPOx generator to be economically viable at a >2x higher cost/kW than a conventional SOFC.

  11. Volume 171,number I,2 CHEMICAL PHYSICS LETTERS 27 July 1990 High temperature optical dephasing mechanism

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fayer, Michael D.

    ,11,13,19,20,24-261. This is the time regime where tunnelling two-level systems (TLS) control the dynamics [27,28]. The TLS model the power law is observed. Dephasing data on a number of systems above z 5 K are fit well to a model times are identical and individual decays at the same temperature from the two systems

  12. A New Shock-Tube Facility for the Study of High-Temperature Chemical Kinetics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vivanco, Jose E

    2014-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    and pressures between 1 and 100 atm behind the reflected shock wave. The facility includes a high-vacuum system capable of achieving ultimate pressures on the order of 1x10^-6 torr, a new gas-delivery system, a shock velocity-measurement scheme, a computer...

  13. CH spectroscopy for carbon chemical erosion analysis in high density low temperature hydrogen plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Westerhout, J.; Rooij, G. J. van [FOM Institute for Plasma Physics Rijnhuizen, Association EURATOM-FOM, Trilateral Euregio Cluster, P. O. Box 1207, 3430 BE Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Lopes Cardozo, N. J. [FOM Institute for Plasma Physics Rijnhuizen, Association EURATOM-FOM, Trilateral Euregio Cluster, P. O. Box 1207, 3430 BE Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Eindhoven University of Technology, P. O. Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Rapp, J. [FOM Institute for Plasma Physics Rijnhuizen, Association EURATOM-FOM, Trilateral Euregio Cluster, P. O. Box 1207, 3430 BE Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Institut fuer Energieforschung--Plasmaphysik, Forschungszentrum Juelich, Association EURATOM-FZJ, Trilateral Euregio Cluster, D-52425 Juelich (Germany)

    2009-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

    The CH A-X molecular band is measured upon seeding the hydrogen plasma in the linear plasma generator Pilot-PSI [electron temperature T{sub e}=0.1-2.5 eV and electron density n{sub e}=(0.5-5)x10{sup 20} m{sup -3}] with methane. Calculated inverse photon efficiencies for these conditions range from 3 up to >10{sup 6} due to a steeply decreasing electron excitation cross section. The experiments contradict the calculations and show a constant effective inverse photon efficiency of {approx}100 for T{sub e}<1 eV. The discrepancy is explained as the CH A level is populated through dissociative recombination of the molecular ions formed by charge exchange. Collisional de-excitation is observed for n{sub e}>5x10{sup 20} m{sup -3} and 0.1 eV

  14. Sequential high temperature reduction, low temperature hydrolysis...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    high temperature reduction, low temperature hydrolysis for the regeneration of sulfated NOx trap catalysts. Sequential high temperature reduction, low temperature hydrolysis for...

  15. Growth of Large-Area Aligned Molybdenum Nanowires by High Temperature Chemical Vapor Deposition: Synthesis, Growth Mechanism, and Device Application

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Zhong L.

    , thermogravimetry, and differential scanning calorimetry analysis, as well as structure analysis by electron on the decomposition of MoO2 vapors through condensation of its vapor at high substrate temperatures. The aligned nanowires with H2 gas.6d-f However, the reduction process degrades the crystal- linity of the nanowires

  16. The Progress on Low-Cost, High-Quality, High-Temperature Superconducting Tapes Deposited by the Combustion Chemical Vapor Deposition Process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shoup, S.S.; White, M.K.; Krebs, S.L.; Darnell, N.; King, A.C.; Mattox, D.S.; Campbell, I.H.; Marken, K.R.; Hong, S.; Czabaj, B.; Paranthaman, M.; Christen, H.M.; Zhai, H.-Y. Specht, E.

    2008-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The innovative Combustion Chemical Vapor Deposition (CCVD) process is a non-vacuum technique that is being investigated to enable next generation products in several application areas including high-temperature superconductors (HTS). In combination with the Rolling Assisted Biaxially Textured Substrate (RABiTS) technology, the CCVD process has significant promise to provide low-cost, high-quality lengths of YBCO coated conductor. Over 100 meter lengths of both Ni and Ni-W (3 at. Wt.%) substrates with a surface roughness of 12-18 nm were produced. The CCVD technology has been used to deposit both buffer layer coatings as well as YBCO superconducting layers. Buffer layer architecture of strontium titanate (SrTiO{sub 3}) and ceria (CeO{sub 2}) have been deposited by CCVD on textured nickel substrates and optimized to appropriate thicknesses and microstructures to provide templates for growing PLD YBCO with a J{sub c} of 1.1 MA/cm{sup 2} at 77 K and self-field. The CCVD buffer layers have been scaled to meter plus lengths with good epitaxial uniformity along the length. A short sample cut from one of the lengths enabled high critical current density PLD YBCO. Films of CCVD YBCO superconductors have been grown on single crystal substrates with critical current densities over 1 MA/cm{sup 2}. In addition, superconducting YBCO films with an I{sub c} of 60 A/cm-width (J{sub c} = 1.5 MA/cm{sup 2}) were grown on ORNL RABiTS (CeO{sub 2}/YSZ/Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Ni/Ni-3W) using CCVD process.

  17. Conversion of Waste CO2 and Shale Gas to High-Value Chemicals

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Conversion of Waste CO 2 and Shale Gas to High-Value Chemicals Enabling high-yield, low-cost, low- temperature production of chemical intermediates Chemical intermediates,...

  18. High-Temperature Superconductivity

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Peter Johnson

    2010-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Like astronomers tweaking images to gain a more detailed glimpse of distant stars, physicists at Brookhaven National Laboratory have found ways to sharpen images of the energy spectra in high-temperature superconductors ? materials that carry electrical c

  19. High temperature pressure gauge

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Echtler, J. Paul (Pittsburgh, PA); Scandrol, Roy O. (Library, PA)

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A high temperature pressure gauge comprising a pressure gauge positioned in fluid communication with one end of a conduit which has a diaphragm mounted in its other end. The conduit is filled with a low melting metal alloy above the diaphragm for a portion of its length with a high temperature fluid being positioned in the remaining length of the conduit and in the pressure gauge.

  20. High Temperature Capacitor Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John Kosek

    2009-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The absence of high-temperature electronics is an obstacle to the development of untapped energy resources (deep oil, gas and geothermal). US natural gas consumption is projected to grow from 22 trillion cubic feet per year (tcf) in 1999 to 34 tcf in 2020. Cumulatively this is 607 tcf of consumption by 2020, while recoverable reserves using current technology are 177 tcf. A significant portion of this shortfall may be met by tapping deep gas reservoirs. Tapping these reservoirs represents a significant technical challenge. At these depths, temperatures and pressures are very high and may require penetrating very hard rock. Logistics of supporting 6.1 km (20,000 ft) drill strings and the drilling processes are complex and expensive. At these depths up to 50% of the total drilling cost may be in the last 10% of the well depth. Thus, as wells go deeper it is increasingly important that drillers are able to monitor conditions down-hole such as temperature, pressure, heading, etc. Commercial off-the-shelf electronics are not specified to meet these operating conditions. This is due to problems associated with all aspects of the electronics including the resistors and capacitors. With respect to capacitors, increasing temperature often significantly changes capacitance because of the strong temperature dependence of the dielectric constant. Higher temperatures also affect the equivalent series resistance (ESR). High-temperature capacitors usually have low capacitance values because of these dielectric effects and because packages are kept small to prevent mechanical breakage caused by thermal stresses. Electrolytic capacitors do not operate at temperatures above 150oC due to dielectric breakdown. The development of high-temperature capacitors to be used in a high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) drilling environment was investigated. These capacitors were based on a previously developed high-voltage hybridized capacitor developed at Giner, Inc. in conjunction with a unique high-temperature electrolyte developed during the course of the program. During this program the feasibility of operating a high voltage hybridized capacitor at 230oC was demonstrated. Capacitor specifications were established in conjunction with potential capacitor users. A method to allow for capacitor operation at both ambient and elevated temperatures was demonstrated. The program was terminated prior to moving into Phase II due to a lack of cost-sharing funds.

  1. High-temperature Pump Monitoring - High-temperature ESP Monitoring...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    7 4.4.4 High-temperature Pump Monitoring - High-temperature ESP Monitoring Presentation Number: 018 Investigator: Dhruva, Brindesh (Schlumberger Technology Corp.) Objectives: To...

  2. High temperature storage battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sammells, A.F.

    1988-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

    A high temperature electrochemical cell is described comprising: a solid-state divalent cation conducting electrolyte; a positive electrode in contact with the electrolyte; a solid-state negative electrode contacting a divalent cation conducting molten salt mediating agent providing ionic mediation between the solid-state negative electrode and the solid-state electrolyte.

  3. Enabling Low Temperature Combustion Through Thermo-Chemical Recuperati...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Low Temperature Combustion Through Thermo-Chemical Recuperation Enabling Low Temperature Combustion Through Thermo-Chemical Recuperation Poster presentation from the 2007 Diesel...

  4. Low Temperature Combustion with Thermo-chemical Recuperation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Low Temperature Combustion with Thermo-chemical Recuperation to Maximize In-use Engine Efficiency Low Temperature Combustion with Thermo-chemical Recuperation to Maximize In-use...

  5. High temperature thermometric phosphors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Allison, Stephen W. (Knoxville, TN); Cates, Michael R. (Oak Ridge, TN); Boatner, Lynn A. (Oak Ridge, TN); Gillies, George T. (Earlysville, VA)

    1999-03-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A high temperature phosphor consists essentially of a material having the general formula LuPO.sub.4 :Dy.sub.(x),Eu.sub.y) wherein: 0.1 wt %.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.20 wt % and 0.1 wt %.ltoreq.y.ltoreq.20 wt %. The high temperature phosphor is in contact with an article whose temperature is to be determined. The article having the phosphor in contact with it is placed in the environment for which the temperature of the article is to be determined. The phosphor is excited by a laser causing the phosphor to fluoresce. The emission from the phosphor is optically focused into a beam-splitting mirror which separates the emission into two separate emissions, the emission caused by the dysprosium dopant and the emission caused by the europium dopent. The separated emissions are optically filtered and the intensities of the emission are detected and measured. The ratio of the intensity of each emission is determined and the temperature of the article is calculated from the ratio of the intensities of the separate emissions.

  6. High temperature thermometric phosphors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Allison, S.W.; Cates, M.R.; Boatner, L.A.; Gillies, G.T.

    1999-03-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A high temperature phosphor consists essentially of a material having the general formula LuPO{sub 4}:Dy{sub x},Eu{sub y} wherein: 0.1 wt % {<=} x {<=} 20 wt % and 0.1 wt % {<=} y {<=} 20 wt %. The high temperature phosphor is in contact with an article whose temperature is to be determined. The article having the phosphor in contact with it is placed in the environment for which the temperature of the article is to be determined. The phosphor is excited by a laser causing the phosphor to fluoresce. The emission from the phosphor is optically focused into a beam-splitting mirror which separates the emission into two separate emissions, the emission caused by the dysprosium dopant and the emission caused by the europium dopant. The separated emissions are optically filtered and the intensities of the emission are detected and measured. The ratio of the intensity of each emission is determined and the temperature of the article is calculated from the ratio of the intensities of the separate emissions. 2 figs.

  7. Highly Hazardous Chemicals and Chemical Spills EPA Compliance Fact Sheet

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wikswo, John

    Highly Hazardous Chemicals and Chemical Spills EPA Compliance Fact Sheet Vanderbilt Environmental.safety.vanderbilt.edu HIGHLY HAZARDOUS CHEMICAL WASTES Certain chemical wastes must be handled by special procedures due to their highly hazardous nature. These chemicals include expired isopropyl and ethyl ethers (these chemicals

  8. High temperature adsorption measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bertani, R.; Parisi, L.; Perini, R.; Tarquini, B.

    1996-01-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Adsorption phenomena are a rich and rather new field of study in geothermal research, in particular at very high temperature. ENEL is interested in the exploitation of geothermal regions with superheated steam, and it is important to understand the behavior of water-rock interaction. We have analyzed in the 170-200 °C temperature range four samples of Monteverdi cuttings; the next experimental effort will be at 220 °C and over in 1996. The first results of the 1995 runs are collected in this paper. We can highlight four main items: 1. At relative pressures over 0.6 the capillarity forces are very important. 2. There is no significant temperature effect. 3. Adsorbed water can be present, and it is able to multiply by a factor of 15 the estimated reserve of super-heated steam only. 4. Pores smaller than 15 Å do not contribute to the adsorbed mass.

  9. Optical Fiber Chemical Sensor with Sol-Gel Derived Refractive Material as Transducer for High Temperature Gas Sensing in Clean Coal Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shiquan Tao

    2006-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The chemistry of sol-gel derived silica and refractive metal oxide has been systematically studied. Sol-gel processes have been developed for preparing porous silica and semiconductor metal oxide materials. Micelle/reversed micelle techniques have been developed for preparing nanometer sized semiconductor metal oxides and noble metal particles. Techniques for doping metal ions, metal oxides and nanosized metal particles into porous sol-gel material have also been developed. Optical properties of sol-gel derived materials in ambient and high temperature gases have been studied by using fiber optic spectroscopic techniques, such as fiber optic ultraviolet/visible absorption spectrometry, fiber optic near infrared absorption spectrometry and fiber optic fluorescence spectrometry. Fiber optic spectrometric techniques have been developed for investigating the optical properties of these sol-gel derived materials prepared as porous optical fibers or as coatings on the surface of silica optical fibers. Optical and electron microscopic techniques have been used to observe the microstructure, such as pore size, pore shape, sensing agent distribution, of sol-gel derived material, as well as the size and morphology of nanometer metal particle doped in sol-gel derived porous silica, the nature of coating of sol-gel derived materials on silica optical fiber surface. In addition, the chemical reactions of metal ion, nanostructured semiconductor metal oxides and nanometer sized metal particles with gas components at room temperature and high temperatures have also been investigated with fiber optic spectrometric methods. Three classes of fiber optic sensors have been developed based on the thorough investigation of sol-gel chemistry and sol-gel derived materials. The first group of fiber optic sensors uses porous silica optical fibers doped with metal ions or metal oxide as transducers for sensing trace NH{sub 3} and H{sub 2}S in high temperature gas samples. The second group of fiber optic sensors uses sol-gel derived porous silica materials doped with nanometer particles of noble metals in the form of fiber or coating for sensing trace H{sub 2}, NH{sub 3} and HCl in gas samples at for applications ambient temperature. The third classes of fiber optic sensors use sol-gel derived semiconductor metal oxide coating on the surface of silica optical fiber as transducers for selectively sensing H{sub 2}, CH{sub 4} and CO at high temperature. In addition, optical fiber temperature sensors use the fluorescence signal of rare-earth metal ions doped porous silica optical fiber or the optical absorption signal of thermochromic metal oxide materials coated on the surface of silica optical fibers have also been developed for monitoring gas temperature of corrosive gas. Based on the results obtained from this project, the principle of fiber optic sensor techniques for monitoring matrix gas components as well as trace components of coal gasification derived syngas has been established. Prototype sensors for sensing trace ammonia and hydrogen sulfide in gasification derived syngas have been built up in our laboratory and have been tested using gas samples with matrix gas composition similar to that of gasification derived fuel gas. Test results illustrated the feasibility of these sensors for applications in IGCC processes.

  10. High Temperature Membrane Working Group

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This presentation provides an overview of the High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting in May 2007.

  11. RECHARGEABLE HIGH-TEMPERATURE BATTERIES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cairns, Elton J.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    F. Eshman, High-Performance Batteries for Electric-VehicleS. Sudar, High Performance Batteries for Electric-VehicleHIGH-TEMPERATURE BATTERIES Elton J. Cairns January 1981 TWO-

  12. High temperature interfacial superconductivity

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bozovic, Ivan (Mount Sinai, NY); Logvenov, Gennady (Port Jefferson Station, NY); Gozar, Adrian Mihai (Port Jefferson, NY)

    2012-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

    High-temperature superconductivity confined to nanometer-scale interfaces has been a long standing goal because of potential applications in electronic devices. The spontaneous formation of a superconducting interface in bilayers consisting of an insulator (La.sub.2CuO.sub.4) and a metal (La.sub.1-xSr.sub.xCuO.sub.4), neither of which is superconducting per se, is described. Depending upon the layering sequence of the bilayers, T.sub.c may be either .about.15 K or .about.30 K. This highly robust phenomenon is confined to within 2-3 nm around the interface. After exposing the bilayer to ozone, T.sub.c exceeds 50 K and this enhanced superconductivity is also shown to originate from a 1 to 2 unit cell thick interfacial layer. The results demonstrate that engineering artificial heterostructures provides a novel, unconventional way to fabricate stable, quasi two-dimensional high T.sub.c phases and to significantly enhance superconducting properties in other superconductors. The superconducting interface may be implemented, for example, in SIS tunnel junctions or a SuFET.

  13. Nuclear fuels for very high temperature applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lundberg, L.B.; Hobbins, R.R.

    1992-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The success of the development of nuclear thermal propulsion devices and thermionic space nuclear power generation systems depends on the successful utilization of nuclear fuel materials at temperatures in the range 2000 to 3500 K. Problems associated with the utilization of uranium bearing fuel materials at these very high temperatures while maintaining them in the solid state for the required operating times are addressed. The critical issues addressed include evaporation, melting, reactor neutron spectrum, high temperature chemical stability, fabrication, fission induced swelling, fission product release, high temperature creep, thermal shock resistance, and fuel density, both mass and fissile atom. Candidate fuel materials for this temperature range are based on UO{sub 2} or uranium carbides. Evaporation suppression, such as a sealed cladding, is required for either fuel base. Nuclear performance data needed for design are sparse for all candidate fuel forms in this temperature range, especially at the higher temperatures.

  14. Nuclear fuels for very high temperature applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lundberg, L.B.; Hobbins, R.R.

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The success of the development of nuclear thermal propulsion devices and thermionic space nuclear power generation systems depends on the successful utilization of nuclear fuel materials at temperatures in the range 2000 to 3500 K. Problems associated with the utilization of uranium bearing fuel materials at these very high temperatures while maintaining them in the solid state for the required operating times are addressed. The critical issues addressed include evaporation, melting, reactor neutron spectrum, high temperature chemical stability, fabrication, fission induced swelling, fission product release, high temperature creep, thermal shock resistance, and fuel density, both mass and fissile atom. Candidate fuel materials for this temperature range are based on UO{sub 2} or uranium carbides. Evaporation suppression, such as a sealed cladding, is required for either fuel base. Nuclear performance data needed for design are sparse for all candidate fuel forms in this temperature range, especially at the higher temperatures.

  15. High-Temperature-High-Volume Lifting for Enhanced Geothermal...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High-Temperature-High-Volume Lifting for Enhanced Geothermal Systems High-Temperature-High-Volume Lifting for Enhanced Geothermal Systems High-Temperature-High-Volume Lifting for...

  16. Philosophy 26 High Temperature Superconductivity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Callender, Craig

    Philosophy 26 High Temperature Superconductivity By Ohm's Law, resistance will dim. Low temperature superconductivity was discovered in 1911 by Heike was explained by BCS theory. BCS theory explains superconductivity microscopically

  17. High Temperature, High Pressure Devices for Zonal Isolation in...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High Temperature, High Pressure Devices for Zonal Isolation in Geothermal Wells High Temperature, High Pressure Devices for Zonal Isolation in Geothermal Wells High Temperature,...

  18. Hotline IV ?High Temperature ESP

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Hotline IV - High Temperature ESP Brindesh Dhruva (principal Inv.) Michael Dowling (presenter) Schlumberger Track Name May 18, 2010 This presentation does not contain any...

  19. High temperature synthetic cement retarder

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eoff, L.S.; Buster, D.

    1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A synthetic cement retarder which provides excellent retardation and compressive strength development has been synthesized. The response properties and temperature ranges of the synthetic retarder far exceed those of commonly used retarders such as lignosulfonates. The chemical nature of the new retarder is discussed and compared to another synthetic retarder.

  20. High-temperature ceramic receivers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jarvinen, P. O.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An advanced ceramic dome cavity receiver is discussed which heats pressurized gas to temperatures above 1800/sup 0/F (1000/sup 0/C) for use in solar Brayton power systems of the dispersed receiver/dish or central receiver type. Optical, heat transfer, structural, and ceramic material design aspects of the receiver are reported and the development and experimental demonstration of a high-temperature seal between the pressurized gas and the high-temperature silicon carbide dome material is described.

  1. High temperature structural insulating material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, W.Y.

    1984-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

    A high temperature structural insulating material useful as a liner for cylinders of high temperature engines through the favorable combination of high service temperature (above about 800/sup 0/C), low thermal conductivity (below about 0.2 W/m/sup 0/C), and high compressive strength (above about 250 psi). The insulating material is produced by selecting hollow ceramic beads with a softening temperature above about 800/sup 0/C, a diameter within the range of 20-200 ..mu..m, and a wall thickness in the range of about 2 to 4 ..mu..m; compacting the beads and a compatible silicate binder composition under pressure and sintering conditions to provide the desired structural form with the structure having a closed-cell, compact array of bonded beads.

  2. High temperature structural insulating material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, Wayne Y. (Munster, IN)

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A high temperature structural insulating material useful as a liner for cylinders of high temperature engines through the favorable combination of high service temperature (above about 800.degree. C.), low thermal conductivity (below about 0.2 W/m.degree. C.), and high compressive strength (above about 250 psi). The insulating material is produced by selecting hollow ceramic beads with a softening temperature above about 800.degree. C., a diameter within the range of 20-200 .mu.m, and a wall thickness in the range of about 2-4 .mu.m; compacting the beads and a compatible silicate binder composition under pressure and sintering conditions to provide the desired structural form with the structure having a closed-cell, compact array of bonded beads.

  3. Chemical and Isotopic Prediction of Aquifer Temperatures in the...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Prediction of Aquifer Temperatures in the Geothermal System at Long Valley, California Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal Article: Chemical...

  4. Application of Reversible Chemical Reactions for Temperature Amplification

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ally, M. R.; Rebello, W. J.; Suciu, D. F.

    temperature thermal energy, mechanical and absorption type heat pumps have been proposed and developed so far. This paper addresses itself to the concept of a heat reaction chemical heat pump (HRCHP). The HRCHP concept is aimed to upgrade low temperature...

  5. Temperature controlled high voltage regulator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chiaro, Jr., Peter J. (Clinton, TN); Schulze, Gerald K. (Knoxville, TN)

    2004-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A temperature controlled high voltage regulator for automatically adjusting the high voltage applied to a radiation detector is described. The regulator is a solid state device that is independent of the attached radiation detector, enabling the regulator to be used by various models of radiation detectors, such as gas flow proportional radiation detectors.

  6. High temperature lightweight foamed cements

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sugama, Toshifumi (Mastic Beach, NY)

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Cement slurries are disclosed which are suitable for use in geothermal wells since they can withstand high temperatures and high pressures. The formulation consists of cement, silica flour, water, a retarder, a foaming agent, a foam stabilizer, and a reinforcing agent. A process for producing these cements is also disclosed.

  7. High temperature lightweight foamed cements

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sugama, Toshifumi.

    1989-10-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Cement slurries are disclosed which are suitable for use in geothermal wells since they can withstand high temperatures and high pressures. The formulation consists of cement, silica flour, water, a retarder, a foaming agent, a foam stabilizer, and a reinforcing agent. A process for producing these cements is also disclosed. 3 figs.

  8. High temperature Seebeck coefficient metrology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martin, J. [Materials Science and Engineering Laboratory, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (United States); Tritt, T. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Clemson University, Clemson, South Carolina 29634 (United States); Uher, C. [Department of Physics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States)

    2010-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We present an overview of the challenges and practices of thermoelectric metrology on bulk materials at high temperature (300 to 1300 K). The Seebeck coefficient, when combined with thermal and electrical conductivity, is an essential property measurement for evaluating the potential performance of novel thermoelectric materials. However, there is some question as to which measurement technique(s) provides the most accurate determination of the Seebeck coefficient at high temperature. This has led to the implementation of nonideal practices that have further complicated the confirmation of reported high ZT materials. To ensure meaningful interlaboratory comparison of data, thermoelectric measurements must be reliable, accurate, and consistent. This article will summarize and compare the relevant measurement techniques and apparatus designs required to effectively manage uncertainty, while also providing a reference resource of previous advances in high temperature thermoelectric metrology.

  9. High temperature Seebeck coefficient metrology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martin, J.; Tritt, T.; Uher, Ctirad

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present an overview of the challenges and practices of thermoelectric metrology on bulk materials at high temperature (300 to 1300 K). The Seebeck coefficient, when combined with thermal and electrical conductivity, is an essential propertymeasurement for evaluating the potential performance of novel thermoelectricmaterials. However, there is some question as to which measurement technique(s) provides the most accurate determination of the Seebeck coefficient at high temperature. This has led to the implementation of nonideal practices that have further complicated the confirmation of reported high ZT materials. To ensure meaningful interlaboratory comparison of data, thermoelectricmeasurements must be reliable, accurate, and consistent. This article will summarize and compare the relevant measurement techniques and apparatus designs required to effectively manage uncertainty, while also providing a reference resource of previous advances in high temperature thermoelectric metrology.

  10. Low GWP Working Fluid for High Temperature Heat Pumps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Low GWP Working Fluid for High Temperature Heat Pumps: DR-2 Chemical Stability at High Temperatures Temp Heat Pumps: DR-2 Very Low GWP AND Non-Flammable HFC-245fa DR-2 Chemical Formula CF3CH2CHF2 HFO 171.3 Pcr [MPa] 3.65 2.9 Kontomaris-DuPont; European Heat Pump Summit, Nuremberg, October 15th, 2013

  11. High temperature superconductor current leads

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hull, John R. (Hinsdale, IL); Poeppel, Roger B. (Glen Ellyn, IL)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An electrical lead having one end for connection to an apparatus in a cryogenic environment and the other end for connection to an apparatus outside the cryogenic environment. The electrical lead includes a high temperature superconductor wire and an electrically conductive material distributed therein, where the conductive material is present at the one end of the lead at a concentration in the range of from 0 to about 3% by volume, and at the other end of the lead at a concentration of less than about 20% by volume. Various embodiments are shown for groups of high temperature superconductor wires and sheaths.

  12. High temperature superconductor current leads

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hull, J.R.; Poeppel, R.B.

    1995-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

    An electrical lead is disclosed having one end for connection to an apparatus in a cryogenic environment and the other end for connection to an apparatus outside the cryogenic environment. The electrical lead includes a high temperature superconductor wire and an electrically conductive material distributed therein, where the conductive material is present at the one end of the lead at a concentration in the range of from 0 to about 3% by volume, and at the other end of the lead at a concentration of less than about 20% by volume. Various embodiments are shown for groups of high temperature superconductor wires and sheaths. 9 figs.

  13. High-Temperature Falling-Particle Receiver

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    temperatures, nitrate salt fluids become chemically unstable. In contrast, direct absorption receivers using solid particles that fall through a beam of concentrated solar...

  14. HIGH TEMPERATURE GEOTHERMAL RESERVOIR ENGINEERING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schroeder, R.C.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    on the Cerro P r i e t o Geothermal F i e l d , Mexicali,e C e r r o P r i e t o Geothermal F i e l d , Baja C a l i1979 HIGH TEMPERATURE GEOTHERMAL RESERVOIR ENGINEERING R.

  15. Geothermal high temperature instrumentation applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Normann, R.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Livesay, B.J. [Livesay Consultants (United States)

    1998-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

    A quick look at the geothermal industry shows a small industry producing about $1 billion in electric sales annually. The industry is becoming older and in need of new innovative solutions to instrumentation problems. A quick look at problem areas is given along with basic instrumentation requirements. The focus of instrumentation is on high temperature electronics.

  16. Understanding temperature and chemical potential using computer simulations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gould, Harvey

    Understanding temperature and chemical potential using computer simulations Jan Tobochnika Carlo algorithms and applications that are useful for understanding the concepts of temperature sophisticated reasoning. For example, what is temperature and what is the best way to introduce it? One way

  17. Acid Doped Membranes for High Temperature PEMFC

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation on Acid Doped Membranes for High Temperature PEMFC to the High Temperature Membrane Working Group, May 25, 2004 in Philadelphia, PA.

  18. High-Temperature Thermoelectric Materials Characterization for...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    High-Temperature Thermoelectric Materials Characterization for Automotive Waste Heat Recovery: Success Stories from the High Temperature Materials Laboratory (HTML) User Program...

  19. High Temperature Thermoelectric Materials Characterization for...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    High Temperature Thermoelectric Materials Characterization for Automotive Waste Heat Recovery: Success Stories from the High Temperature Materials Laboratory (HTML) User Program...

  20. Nanostructured High Temperature Bulk Thermoelectric Energy Conversion...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High Temperature Bulk Thermoelectric Energy Conversion for Efficient Waste Heat Recovery Nanostructured High Temperature Bulk Thermoelectric Energy Conversion for Efficient Waste...

  1. Manufacturing Barriers to High Temperature PEM Commercialization...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Barriers to High Temperature PEM Commercialization Manufacturing Barriers to High Temperature PEM Commercialization Presented at the NREL Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Manufacturing R&D...

  2. NSTX High Temperature Sensor Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    B.McCormack; H.W. Kugel; P. Goranson; R. Kaita; et al

    1999-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The design of the more than 300 in-vessel sensor systems for the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) has encountered several challenging fusion reactor diagnostic issues involving high temperatures and space constraints. This has resulted in unique miniature, high temperature in-vessel sensor systems mounted in small spaces behind plasma facing armor tiles, and they are prototypical of possible high power reactor first-wall applications. In the Center Stack, Divertor, Passive Plate, and vessel wall regions, the small magnetic sensors, large magnetic sensors, flux loops, Rogowski Coils, thermocouples, and Langmuir Probes are qualified for 600 degrees C operation. This rating will accommodate both peak rear-face graphite tile temperatures during operations and the 350 degrees C bake-out conditions. Similar sensor systems including flux loops, on other vacuum vessel regions are qualified for 350 degrees C operation. Cabling from the sensors embedded in the graphite tiles follows narrow routes to exit the vessel. The detailed sensor design and installation methods of these diagnostic systems developed for high-powered ST operation are discussed.

  3. High Temperature Heat Exchanger Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anthony E. Hechanova, Ph.D.

    2008-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The UNLV Research Foundation assembled a research consortium for high temperature heat exchanger design and materials compatibility and performance comprised of university and private industry partners under the auspices of the US DOE-NE Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative in October 2003. The objectives of the consortium were to conduct investigations of candidate materials for high temperature heat exchanger componets in hydrogen production processes and design and perform prototypical testing of heat exchangers. The initial research of the consortium focused on the intermediate heat exchanger (located between the nuclear reactor and hydrogen production plan) and the components for the hydrogen iodine decomposition process and sulfuric acid decomposition process. These heat exchanger components were deemed the most challenging from a materials performance and compatibility perspective

  4. High temperature turbine engine structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carruthers, William D. (Mesa, AZ); Boyd, Gary L. (Tempe, AZ)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A high temperature ceramic/metallic turbine engine includes a metallic housing which journals a rotor member of the turbine engine. A ceramic disk-like shroud portion of the engine is supported on the metallic housing portion and maintains a close running clearance with the rotor member. A ceramic spacer assembly maintains the close running clearance of the shroud portion and rotor member despite differential thermal movements between the shroud portion and metallic housing portion.

  5. High temperature turbine engine structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carruthers, William D. (Mesa, AZ); Boyd, Gary L. (Tempe, AZ)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A high temperature ceramic/metallic turbine engine includes a metallic housing which journals a rotor member of the turbine engine. A ceramic disk-like shroud portion of the engine is supported on the metallic housing portion and maintains a close running clearance with the rotor member. A ceramic spacer assembly maintains the close running clearance of the shroud portion and rotor member despite differential thermal movements between the shroud portion and metallic housing portion.

  6. High temperature turbine engine structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carruthers, William D. (Mesa, AZ); Boyd, Gary L. (Tempe, AZ)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A high temperature ceramic/metallic turbine engine includes a metallic housing which journals a rotor member of the turbine engine. A ceramic disk-like shroud portion of the engine is supported on the metallic housing portion and maintains a close running clearance with the rotor member. A ceramic spacer assembly maintains the close running clearance of the shroud portion and rotor member despite differential thermal movements between the shroud portion and metallic housing portion.

  7. Tracking thermal fronts with temperature-sensitive, chemically reactive tracers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robinson, B.A.; Birdsell, S.A.

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Los Alamos is developing tracer techniques using reactive chemicals to track thermal fronts in fractured geothermal reservoirs. If a nonadsorbing tracer flowing from the injection to production well chemically reacts, its reaction rate will be a strong function of temperature. Thus the extent of chemical reaction will be greatest early in the lifetime of the system, and less as the thermal front progresses from the injection to production well. Early laboratory experiments identified tracers with chemical kinetics suitable for reservoirs in the temperature range of 75 to 100/sup 0/C. Recent kinetics studies have focused on the kinetics of hydrolysis of derivatives of bromobenzene. This class of reactions can be used in reservoirs ranging in temperature from 150 to 275/sup 0/C, which is of greater interest to the geothermal industry. Future studies will include laboratory adsorption experiments to identify possibly unwanted adsorption on granite, development of sensitive analytical techniques, and a field demonstration of the reactive tracer concept.

  8. Chemical Enrichment at High Redshifts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Snigdha Das; Pushpa Khare

    1998-08-09T23:59:59.000Z

    We have tried to understand the recent observations related to metallicity in Ly $\\alpha$ forest clouds in the framework of the two component model suggested by Chiba & Nath (1997). We find that even if the mini-halos were chemically enriched by an earlier generation of stars, to have [C/H] $\\simeq$ -2.5, the number of C IV lines with column density $>10^{12} cm^{-2}$, contributed by the mini-halos, at the redshift of 3, would be only about 10% of the total number of lines, for a chemical enrichment rate of $(1+z)^{-3}$ in the galaxies. Recently reported absence of heavy element lines associated with most of the Ly $\\alpha$ lines with H I column density between $10^{13.5} cm^{-2}$ and $10^{14} cm^{-2}$ by Lu et al (1998), if correct, gives an upper limit on [C/H]=-3.7, not only in the mini-halos, but also in the outer parts of galactic halos. This is consistent with the results of numerical simulations, according to which, the chemical elements associated with the Ly $\\alpha$ clouds are formed in situ in clouds, rather than in an earlier generation of stars. However, the mean value of $7 \\times 10^{-3}$ for the column density ratio of C IV and H I, determined by Cowie and Songaila (1998) for low Lyman alpha optical depths, implies an abundance of [C/H] =-2.5 in mini-halos as well as in most of the region in galactic halos, presumably enriched by an earlier generation of stars. The redshift and column density distribution of C IV has been shown to be in reasonable agreement with the observations.

  9. Thermal disconnect for high-temperature batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jungst, Rudolph George (Albuquerque, NM); Armijo, James Rudolph (Albuquerque, NM); Frear, Darrel Richard (Austin, TX)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A new type of high temperature thermal disconnect has been developed to protect electrical and mechanical equipment from damage caused by operation at extreme temperatures. These thermal disconnects allow continuous operation at temperatures ranging from 250.degree. C. to 450.degree. C., while rapidly terminating operation at temperatures 50.degree. C. to 150.degree. C. higher than the continuous operating temperature.

  10. Faraday imaging at high temperatures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hackel, L.A.; Reichert, P.

    1997-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

    A Faraday filter rejects background light from self-luminous thermal objects, but transmits laser light at the passband wavelength, thus providing an ultra-narrow optical bandpass filter. The filter preserves images so a camera looking through a Faraday filter at a hot target illuminated by a laser will not see the thermal radiation but will see the laser radiation. Faraday filters are useful for monitoring or inspecting the uranium separator chamber in an atomic vapor laser isotope separation process. Other uses include viewing welds, furnaces, plasma jets, combustion chambers, and other high temperature objects. These filters are can be produced at many discrete wavelengths. A Faraday filter consists of a pair of crossed polarizers on either side of a heated vapor cell mounted inside a solenoid. 3 figs.

  11. Faraday imaging at high temperatures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hackel, Lloyd A. (Livermore, CA); Reichert, Patrick (Hayward, CA)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A Faraday filter rejects background light from self-luminous thermal objects, but transmits laser light at the passband wavelength, thus providing an ultra-narrow optical bandpass filter. The filter preserves images so a camera looking through a Faraday filter at a hot target illuminated by a laser will not see the thermal radiation but will see the laser radiation. Faraday filters are useful for monitoring or inspecting the uranium separator chamber in an atomic vapor laser isotope separation process. Other uses include viewing welds, furnaces, plasma jets, combustion chambers, and other high temperature objects. These filters are can be produced at many discrete wavelengths. A Faraday filter consists of a pair of crossed polarizers on either side of a heated vapor cell mounted inside a solenoid.

  12. Process safety management for highly hazardous chemicals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose of this document is to assist US DOE contractors who work with threshold quantities of highly hazardous chemicals (HHCs), flammable liquids or gases, or explosives in successfully implementing the requirements of OSHA Rule for Process Safety Management of Highly Hazardous Chemicals (29 CFR 1910.119). Purpose of this rule is to prevent releases of HHCs that have the potential to cause catastrophic fires, explosions, or toxic exposures.

  13. High-temperature thermocouples and related methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rempe, Joy L. (Idaho Falls, ID); Knudson, Darrell L. (Firth, ID); Condie, Keith G. (Idaho Falls, ID); Wilkins, S. Curt (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2011-01-18T23:59:59.000Z

    A high-temperature thermocouple and methods for fabricating a thermocouple capable of long-term operation in high-temperature, hostile environments without significant signal degradation or shortened thermocouple lifetime due to heat induced brittleness.

  14. Materials Characterization Capabilities at the High Temperature...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Lightweighting Materials Materials Characterization Capabilities at the High Temperature Materials Laboratory: Focus Lightweighting Materials 2011 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells...

  15. Agenda: High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Agenda for the High Temperature Membrane Working Group (HTMWG) meeting on May 18, 2009, in Arlington, Virginia

  16. NOvel Refractory Materials for High Alkali, High Temperature Environments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hemrick, J.G.; Griffin, R. (MINTEQ International, Inc.)

    2011-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Refractory materials can be limited in their application by many factors including chemical reactions between the service environment and the refractory material, mechanical degradation of the refractory material by the service environment, temperature limitations on the use of a particular refractory material, and the inability to install or repair the refractory material in a cost effective manner or while the vessel was in service. The objective of this project was to address the need for new innovative refractory compositions by developing a family of novel MgO-Al2O3 spinel or other similar magnesia/alumina containing unshaped refractory composition (castables, gunnables, shotcretes, etc) utilizing new aggregate materials, bond systems, protective coatings, and phase formation techniques (in-situ phase formation, altered conversion temperatures, accelerated reactions, etc). This family of refractory compositions would then be tailored for use in high-temperature, highalkaline industrial environments like those found in the aluminum, chemical, forest products, glass, and steel industries. A research team was formed to carry out the proposed work led by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and was comprised of the academic institution Missouri University of Science and Technology (MS&T), and the industrial company MINTEQ International, Inc. (MINTEQ), along with representatives from the aluminum, chemical, glass, and forest products industries. The two goals of this project were to produce novel refractory compositions which will allow for improved energy efficiency and to develop new refractory application techniques which would improve the speed of installation. Also methods of hot installation were sought which would allow for hot repairs and on-line maintenance leading to reduced process downtimes and eliminating the need to cool and reheat process vessels.

  17. High Temperature Superconducting Underground Cable

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farrell, Roger, A.

    2010-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this Project was to design, build, install and demonstrate the technical feasibility of an underground high temperature superconducting (HTS) power cable installed between two utility substations. In the first phase two HTS cables, 320 m and 30 m in length, were constructed using 1st generation BSCCO wire. The two 34.5 kV, 800 Arms, 48 MVA sections were connected together using a superconducting joint in an underground vault. In the second phase the 30 m BSCCO cable was replaced by one constructed with 2nd generation YBCO wire. 2nd generation wire is needed for commercialization because of inherent cost and performance benefits. Primary objectives of the Project were to build and operate an HTS cable system which demonstrates significant progress towards commercial progress and addresses real world utility concerns such as installation, maintenance, reliability and compatibility with the existing grid. Four key technical areas addressed were the HTS cable and terminations (where the cable connects to the grid), cryogenic refrigeration system, underground cable-to-cable joint (needed for replacement of cable sections) and cost-effective 2nd generation HTS wire. This was the world’s first installation and operation of an HTS cable underground, between two utility substations as well as the first to demonstrate a cable-to-cable joint, remote monitoring system and 2nd generation HTS.

  18. High temperature superconducting fault current limiter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hull, J.R.

    1997-02-04T23:59:59.000Z

    A fault current limiter for an electrical circuit is disclosed. The fault current limiter includes a high temperature superconductor in the electrical circuit. The high temperature superconductor is cooled below its critical temperature to maintain the superconducting electrical properties during operation as the fault current limiter. 15 figs.

  19. High temperature superconducting fault current limiter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hull, John R. (Hinsdale, IL)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A fault current limiter (10) for an electrical circuit (14). The fault current limiter (10) includes a high temperature superconductor (12) in the electrical circuit (14). The high temperature superconductor (12) is cooled below its critical temperature to maintain the superconducting electrical properties during operation as the fault current limiter (10).

  20. Measurement of thermodynamic temperature of high temperature fixed points

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gavrilov, V. R.; Khlevnoy, B. B.; Otryaskin, D. A.; Grigorieva, I. A.; Samoylov, M. L.; Sapritsky, V. I. [All-Russian Research Institute for Optical and Physical Measurements (VNIIOFI), 46 Ozernaya St., Moscow 119361 (Russian Federation)] [All-Russian Research Institute for Optical and Physical Measurements (VNIIOFI), 46 Ozernaya St., Moscow 119361 (Russian Federation)

    2013-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

    The paper is devoted to VNIIOFI's measurements of thermodynamic temperature of the high temperature fixed points Co-C, Pt-C and Re-C within the scope of the international project coordinated by the Consultative Committee for Thermometry working group 5 'Radiation Thermometry'. The melting temperatures of the fixed points were measured by a radiance mode radiation thermometer calibrated against a filter radiometer with known irradiance spectral responsivity via a high temperature black body. This paper describes the facility used for the measurements, the results and estimated uncertainties.

  1. Deep Trek High Temperature Electronics Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bruce Ohme

    2007-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes technical progress achieved during the cooperative research agreement between Honeywell and U.S. Department of Energy to develop high-temperature electronics. Objects of this development included Silicon-on-Insulator (SOI) wafer process development for high temperature, supporting design tools and libraries, and high temperature integrated circuit component development including FPGA, EEPROM, high-resolution A-to-D converter, and a precision amplifier.

  2. Electronically conductive ceramics for high temperature oxidizing environments

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kucera, G.H.; Smith, J.L.; Sim, J.W.

    1983-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention pertains to a high temperature, ceramic composition having electronic conductivity as measured by resistivity below about 500 ohm-cm, chemical stability particularly with respect to cathode conditions in a molten carbonate fuel cell, and composed of an alkali metal, transition metal oxide containing a dopant metal in the crystalline structure to replace a portion of the alkali metal or transition metal.

  3. Assessment of microelectronics packaging for high temperature, high reliability applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Uribe, F.

    1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report details characterization and development activities in electronic packaging for high temperature applications. This project was conducted through a Department of Energy sponsored Cooperative Research and Development Agreement between Sandia National Laboratories and General Motors. Even though the target application of this collaborative effort is an automotive electronic throttle control system which would be located in the engine compartment, results of this work are directly applicable to Sandia`s national security mission. The component count associated with the throttle control dictates the use of high density packaging not offered by conventional surface mount. An enabling packaging technology was selected and thermal models defined which characterized the thermal and mechanical response of the throttle control module. These models were used to optimize thick film multichip module design, characterize the thermal signatures of the electronic components inside the module, and to determine the temperature field and resulting thermal stresses under conditions that may be encountered during the operational life of the throttle control module. Because the need to use unpackaged devices limits the level of testing that can be performed either at the wafer level or as individual dice, an approach to assure a high level of reliability of the unpackaged components was formulated. Component assembly and interconnect technologies were also evaluated and characterized for high temperature applications. Electrical, mechanical and chemical characterizations of enabling die and component attach technologies were performed. Additionally, studies were conducted to assess the performance and reliability of gold and aluminum wire bonding to thick film conductor inks. Kinetic models were developed and validated to estimate wire bond reliability.

  4. Materials Characterization Capabilities at the High Temperature...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    2010 -- Washington D.C. lm028laracurzio2010o.pdf More Documents & Publications Materials Characterization Capabilities at the High Temperature Materials Laboratory and HTML...

  5. Materials Characterization Capabilities at the High Temperature...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Review and Peer Evaluation lm028laracurzio2011o.pdf More Documents & Publications Materials Characterization Capabilities at the High Temperature Materials Laboratory and HTML...

  6. Materials Characterization Capabilities at the High Temperature...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    and Peer Evaluation Meeting lm028laracurzio2012o.pdf More Documents & Publications Materials Characterization Capabilities at the High Temperature Materials Laboratory and HTML...

  7. Materials Characterization Capabilities at the High Temperature...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    May 18-22, 2009 -- Washington D.C. lm01laracurzio.pdf More Documents & Publications Materials Characterization Capabilities at the High Temperature Materials Laboratory and HTML...

  8. Materials Characterization Capabilities at the High Temperature...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Laboratory: Focus on Carbon Fiber and Composites Materials Characterization Capabilities at the High Temperature Materials Laboratory: Focus on Carbon Fiber and Composites 2011 DOE...

  9. Materials Characterization Capabilities at the High Temperature...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Characterization Capabilities at the High Temperature Materials Laboratory: Focus on Carbon Fiber and Composites Project ID: LM027 DOE 2011 Vehicle Technologies Annual Merit...

  10. Intertwined Orders in High Temperature Superconductors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ostoja-Starzewski, Martin

    Intertwined Orders in High Temperature Superconductors ! Eduardo Fradkin University of Illinois · Electronic liquid crystal phases have also been seen heavy fermions and iron superconductors 7 #12

  11. Polyelectrolyte Materials for High Temperature Fuel Cells

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    High 3M (3M) Temperature Fuel Cells John B. Kerr Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) Collaborators: Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). February 13, 2007 This...

  12. Quantitative Modeling of High Temperature Magnetization Dynamics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Shufeng

    2009-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Final Technical Report Project title: Quantitative Modeling of High Temperature Magnetization Dynamics DOE/Office of Science Program Manager Contact: Dr. James Davenport

  13. Photonic crystals for high temperature applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yeng, Yi Xiang

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis focuses on the design, optimization, fabrication, and experimental realization of metallic photonic crystals (MPhCs) for high temperature applications, for instance thermophotovoltaic (TPV) energy conversion ...

  14. Spatial resolution of temperature and chemical species in a flame

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Albahadily, Fakhrildeen Niema

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    by Winefordner et al. (51). AE . /k A. g. I. B. ln ~ + ln ? + 1n? 1 A. g. i B. (36) where: subscript i = the level excited by the source subscript j = the thermally assisted level flame temperature AE . . ij the difference in energy between i and j.... Schweikert (Member) Abdel-Kad Ayou (Memb ) Vaneica . Y ng (Member) May 1984 ABSTRACT Spatial Resolution of Temperature and Chemical Species in a Flame. (May 1984) Fakhrildeen Niema Albahadily, B. S. , University of Basrah/Iraq Chairman of Advisory...

  15. High Temperature Interactions of Antimony with Nickel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marina, Olga A.; Pederson, Larry R.

    2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this chapter, the surface and bulk interactions of antimony with the Ni-based anodes in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) will be discussed. High fuel flexibility is a significant advantage of SOFCs, allowing the direct use of fossil and bio fuels without a hydrogen separation unit. Synthesis gas derived from coal and biomass consists of a mixture of hydrogen, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and steam, but finite amounts of tars and trace impurities such as S, Se, P, As, Sb, Cd, Pb, Cl, etc, are also always present. While synthesis gas is commonly treated with a series of chemical processes and scrubbers to remove the impurities, complete purification is not economical. Antimony is widely distributed in coals. During coal gasification antimony is volatilized, such that contact with the SOFC anodes and other SOFC parts, e.g., interconnect, current collecting wires, fuel gas supplying tubing, is most likely. This chapter addresses the following topics: high temperature Ni - Sb interactions; alteration phase, Ni3Sb, Ni5Sb2, NiSb, formation; thermochemical modeling; impact of Sb on the electrocatalytic activity of Ni toward the fuel oxidation and the presence of other impurities (sulfur, in particular); converted anode structural instability during long-term SOFC operation; comparison with nickel heterogeneous catalysts.

  16. Investigations into High Temperature Components and Packaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marlino, L.D.; Seiber, L.E.; Scudiere, M.B.; M.S. Chinthavali, M.S.; McCluskey, F.P.

    2007-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this report is to document the work that was performed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in support of the development of high temperature power electronics and components with monies remaining from the Semikron High Temperature Inverter Project managed by the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). High temperature electronic components are needed to allow inverters to operate in more extreme operating conditions as required in advanced traction drive applications. The trend to try to eliminate secondary cooling loops and utilize the internal combustion (IC) cooling system, which operates with approximately 105 C water/ethylene glycol coolant at the output of the radiator, is necessary to further reduce vehicle costs and weight. The activity documented in this report includes development and testing of high temperature components, activities in support of high temperature testing, an assessment of several component packaging methods, and how elevated operating temperatures would impact their reliability. This report is organized with testing of new high temperature capacitors in Section 2 and testing of new 150 C junction temperature trench insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBTs) in Section 3. Section 4 addresses some operational OPAL-GT information, which was necessary for developing module level tests. Section 5 summarizes calibration of equipment needed for the high temperature testing. Section 6 details some additional work that was funded on silicon carbide (SiC) device testing for high temperature use, and Section 7 is the complete text of a report funded from this effort summarizing packaging methods and their reliability issues for use in high temperature power electronics. Components were tested to evaluate the performance characteristics of the component at different operating temperatures. The temperature of the component is determined by the ambient temperature (i.e., temperature surrounding the device) plus the temperature increase inside the device due the internal heat that is generated due to conduction and switching losses. Capacitors and high current switches that are reliable and meet performance specifications over an increased temperature range are necessary to realize electronics needed for hybrid-electric vehicles (HEVs), fuel cell (FC) and plug-in HEVs (PHEVs). In addition to individual component level testing, it is necessary to evaluate and perform long term module level testing to ascertain the effects of high temperature operation on power electronics.

  17. Corrosion Resistant Coatings for High Temperature Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Besman, T.M.; Cooley, K.M.; Haynes, J.A.; Lee, W.Y.; Vaubert, V.M.

    1998-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Efforts to increase efficiency of energy conversion devices have required their operation at ever higher temperatures. This will force the substitution of higher-temperature structural ceramics for lower temperature materials, largely metals. Yet, many of these ceramics will require protection from high temperature corrosion caused by combustion gases, atmospheric contaminants, or the operating medium. This paper discusses examples of the initial development of such coatings and materials for potential application in combustion, aluminum smelting, and other harsh environments.

  18. High Temperature Gas Reactors The Next Generation ?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -Proof Advanced Reactor and Gas Turbine #12;Flow through Power Conversion Vessel 8 #12;9 TRISO Fuel Particle1 High Temperature Gas Reactors The Next Generation ? Professor Andrew C Kadak Massachusetts of Brayton vs. Rankine Cycle · High Temperature Helium Gas (900 C) · Direct or Indirect Cycle · Originally

  19. Recrystallization of high temperature superconductors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kouzoudis, D.

    1996-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Currently one of the most widely used high {Tc} superconductors is the Bi-based compounds Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub z} and Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}Ca{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub z} (known as BSCCO 2212 and 2223 compounds) with {Tc} values of about 85 K and 110 K respectively. Lengths of high performance conductors ranging from 100 to 1000 m long are routinely fabricated and some test magnets have been wound. An additional difficulty here is that although Bi-2212 and Bi-2223 phases exist over a wide range of stoichiometries, neither has been prepared in phase-pure form. So far the most successful method of constructing reliable and robust wires or tapes is the so called powder-in-tube (PIT) technique [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7] in which oxide powder of the appropriate stoichiometry and phase content is placed inside a metal tube, deformed into the desired geometry (round wire or flat tape), and annealed to produce the desired superconducting properties. Intermediate anneals are often incorporated between successive deformation steps. Silver is the metal used in this process because it is the most compatible with the reacting phase. In all of the commercial processes for BSCCO, Ag seems to play a special catalytic role promoting the growth of high performance aligned grains that grow in the first few micrometers near the Ag/BSCCO interface. Adjacent to the Ag, the grain alignment is more perfect and the current density is higher than in the center of the tape. It is known that Ag lowers the melting point of several of the phases but the detailed mechanism for growth of these high performance grains is not clearly understood. The purpose of this work is to study the nucleation and growth of the high performance material at this interface.

  20. Institute of Chemical Engineering and High Temperature Chemical Processes

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are8COaBulkTransmissionSitingProcess.pdfGetecGtel JumpCounty,Jump7OpenInnovative SolutionsInsource EnergyInstitute

  1. High-Temperature-High-Volume Lifting for Enhanced Geothermal...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Turnquist GE Global Research High Temperature Tools and Sensors, Down-hole Pumps and Drilling May 19, 2010 This presentation does not contain any proprietary confidential, or...

  2. High-Temperature-High-Volume Lifting For Enhanced Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    include high-temperature drive system materials, journal and thrust bearings, and corrosion and erosion-resistant lifting pump components. Finally, in Phase 3, the overall...

  3. High temperature solar selective coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kennedy, Cheryl E

    2014-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Improved solar collectors (40) comprising glass tubing (42) attached to bellows (44) by airtight seals (56) enclose solar absorber tubes (50) inside an annular evacuated space (54. The exterior surfaces of the solar absorber tubes (50) are coated with improved solar selective coatings {48} which provide higher absorbance, lower emittance and resistance to atmospheric oxidation at elevated temperatures. The coatings are multilayered structures comprising solar absorbent layers (26) applied to the meta surface of the absorber tubes (50), typically stainless steel, topped with antireflective Savers (28) comprising at least two layers 30, 32) of refractory metal or metalloid oxides (such as titania and silica) with substantially differing indices of refraction in adjacent layers. Optionally, at least one layer of a noble metal such as platinum can be included between some of the layers. The absorbent layers cars include cermet materials comprising particles of metal compounds is a matrix, which can contain oxides of refractory metals or metalloids such as silicon. Reflective layers within the coating layers can comprise refractory metal silicides and related compounds characterized by the formulas TiSi. Ti.sub.3SiC.sub.2, TiAlSi, TiAN and similar compounds for Zr and Hf. The titania can be characterized by the formulas TiO.sub.2, Ti.sub.3O.sub.5. TiOx or TiO.sub.xN.sub.1-x with x 0 to 1. The silica can be at least one of SiO.sub.2, SiO.sub.2x or SiO.sub.2xN.sub.1-x with x=0 to 1.

  4. Low Temperature Chemical Vapor Deposition Of Thin Film Magnets

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, Joel S. (Salt Lake City, UT); Pokhodnya, Kostyantyn I. (Salt Lake City, UT)

    2003-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A thin-film magnet formed from a gas-phase reaction of tetracyanoetheylene (TCNE) OR (TCNQ), 7,7,8,8-tetracyano-P-quinodimethane, and a vanadium-containing compound such as vanadium hexcarbonyl (V(CO).sub.6) and bis(benzene)vanalium (V(C.sub.6 H.sub.6).sub.2) and a process of forming a magnetic thin film upon at least one substrate by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) at a process temperature not exceeding approximately 90.degree. C. and in the absence of a solvent. The magnetic thin film is particularly suitable for being disposed upon rigid or flexible substrates at temperatures in the range of 40.degree. C. and 70.degree. C. The present invention exhibits air-stable characteristics and qualities and is particularly suitable for providing being disposed upon a wide variety of substrates.

  5. High temperature hot water systems: A primer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Govan, F.A. [NMD and Associates, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The fundamental principles of high temperature water (HTW) system technology and its advantages for thermal energy distribution are presented. Misconceptions of this technology are also addressed. The paper describes design principles, applications, HTW properties, HTW system advantages, selecting the engineer, load diversification, design temperatures, system pressurization, pump considerations, constant vs. VS pumps, HTW generator types, and burners and controls.

  6. High-Temperature Water Splitting | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Temperature Water Splitting High-Temperature Water Splitting High-temperature water splitting (a "thermochemical" process) is a long-term technology in the early stages of...

  7. SUSY and symmetry nonrestoration at high temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bajc, Borut [J. Stefan Institute, 1001 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    1999-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The status of internal symmetry breaking at high temperature in super-symmetric models is shortly reviewed. This possibility could solve some well known cosmological problems, such as the domain wall, monopole and false vacuum problems.

  8. Design of high temperature high speed electromagnetic axial thrust bearing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohiuddin, Mohammad Waqar

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    DESIGN OF HIGH TEMPERATURE HIGH SPEED ELECTROMAGNETIC AXIAL THRUST BEARING A Thesis by MOHAMMAD WAQAR MOHIUDDIN Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 2002 Major Subject: Mechanical Engineering DESIGN OF HIGH TEMPERATURE HIGH SPEED ELECTROMAGNETIC AXIAL THRUST BEARING A Thesis by MOHAMMAD WAQAR MOHIUDDIN Submitted to Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment...

  9. High temperature thermometric phosphors for use in a temperature sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Allison, Stephen W. (Knoxville, TN); Cates, Michael R. (Oak Ridge, TN); Boatner, Lynn A. (Oak Ridge, TN); Gillies, George T. (Earlysville, VA)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A high temperature phosphor consists essentially of a material having the general formula LuPO.sub.4 :Dy.sub.(x),Eu.sub.(y), wherein: 0.1 wt %.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.20 wt % and 0.1 wt %.ltoreq.y.ltoreq.20 wt %. The high temperature phosphor is in contact with an article whose temperature is to be determined. The article having the phosphor in contact with it is placed in the environment for which the temperature of the article is to be determined. The phosphor is excited by a laser causing the phosphor to fluoresce. The emission from the phosphor is optically focused into a beam-splitting mirror which separates the emission into two separate emissions, the emission caused by the dysprosium dopant and the emission caused by the europium dopent. The separated emissions are optically filtered and the intensities of the emission are detected and measured. The ratio of the intensity of each emission is determined and the temperature of the article is calculated from the ratio of the intensities of the separate emissions.

  10. High temperature thermometric phosphors for use in a temperature sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Allison, S.W.; Cates, M.R.; Boatner, L.A.; Gillies, G.T.

    1998-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A high temperature phosphor consists essentially of a material having the general formula LuPO{sub 4}:Dy{sub (x)},Eu{sub (y)}, wherein: 0.1 wt %{<=}x{<=}20 wt % and 0.1 wt %{<=}y{<=}20 wt %. The high temperature phosphor is in contact with an article whose temperature is to be determined. The article having the phosphor in contact with it is placed in the environment for which the temperature of the article is to be determined. The phosphor is excited by a laser causing the phosphor to fluoresce. The emission from the phosphor is optically focused into a beam-splitting mirror which separates the emission into two separate emissions, the emission caused by the dysprosium dopant and the emission caused by the europium dopant. The separated emissions are optically filtered and the intensities of the emission are detected and measured. The ratio of the intensity of each emission is determined and the temperature of the article is calculated from the ratio of the intensities of the separate emissions. 2 figs.

  11. Protective interlayer for high temperature solid electrolyte electrochemical cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Isenberg, Arnold O. (Forest Hills Boro, PA); Ruka, Roswell J. (Churchill Boro, PA)

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A high temperature, solid electrolyte electrochemical cell is made, having a first and second electrode with solid electrolyte between them, where the electrolyte is formed by hot chemical vapor deposition, where a solid, interlayer material, which is electrically conductive, oxygen permeable, and protective of electrode material from hot metal halide vapor attack, is placed between the first electrode and the electrolyte, to protect the first electrode from the hot metal halide vapors during vapor deposition.

  12. Protective interlayer for high temperature solid electrolyte electrochemical cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Isenberg, Arnold O. (Forest Hills Boro, PA); Ruka, Roswell J. (Churchill Boro, PA); Zymboly, Gregory E. (Penn Hills Township, Allegheny County, PA)

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A high temperature, solid electrolyte electrochemical cell is made, having a first and second electrode with solid electrolyte between them, where the electrolyte is formed by hot chemical vapor deposition, where a solid, interlayer material, which is electrically conductive, oxygen permeable, and protective of electrode material from hot metal halide vapor attack, is placed between the first electrode and the electrolyte, to protect the first electrode from the hot metal halide vapors during vapor deposition.

  13. Protective interlayer for high temperature solid electrolyte electrochemical cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Isenberg, Arnold O. (Forest Hills Boro, PA); Ruka, Roswell J. (Churchill Boro, PA)

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A high temperature, solid electrolyte electrochemical cell is made, having a first and second electrode with solid electrolyte between them, where the electrolyte is formed by hot chemical vapor deposition, where a solid, interlayer material, which is electrically conductive, oxygen permeable, and protective of electrode material from hot metal halide vapor attack, is placed between the first electrode and the electrolyte, to protect the first electrode from the hot metal halide vapors during vapor deposition.

  14. High temperature crystalline superconductors from crystallized glasses

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shi, Donglu (Downers Grove, IL)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of preparing a high temperature superconductor from an amorphous phase. The method involves preparing a starting material of a composition of Bi.sub.2 Sr.sub.2 Ca.sub.3 Cu.sub.4 Ox or Bi.sub.2 Sr.sub.2 Ca.sub.4 Cu.sub.5 Ox, forming an amorphous phase of the composition and heat treating the amorphous phase for particular time and temperature ranges to achieve a single phase high temperature superconductor.

  15. Apparatus and method for high temperature viscosity and temperature measurements

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Balasubramaniam, Krishnan (Mississippi State, MS); Shah, Vimal (Houston, TX); Costley, R. Daniel (Mississippi State, MS); Singh, Jagdish P. (Mississippi State, MS)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A probe for measuring the viscosity and/or temperature of high temperature liquids, such as molten metals, glass and similar materials comprises a rod which is an acoustical waveguide through which a transducer emits an ultrasonic signal through one end of the probe, and which is reflected from (a) a notch or slit or an interface between two materials of the probe and (b) from the other end of the probe which is in contact with the hot liquid or hot melt, and is detected by the same transducer at the signal emission end. To avoid the harmful effects of introducing a thermally conductive heat sink into the melt, the probe is made of relatively thermally insulative (non-heat-conductive) refractory material. The time between signal emission and reflection, and the amplitude of reflections, are compared against calibration curves to obtain temperature and viscosity values.

  16. HIGH TEMPERATURE HIGH PRESSURE THERMODYNAMIC MEASUREMENTS FOR COAL MODEL COMPOUNDS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vinayak N. Kabadi

    1999-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

    It is well known that the fluid phase equilibria can be represented by a number of {gamma}-models , but unfortunately most of them do not function well under high temperature. In this calculation, we mainly investigate the performance of UNIQUAC and NRTL models under high temperature, using temperature dependent parameters rather than using the original formulas. the other feature of this calculation is that we try to relate the excess Gibbs energy G{sup E}and enthalpy of mixing H{sup E}simultaneously. In other words, we will use the high temperature and pressure G{sup E} and H{sup E}data to regress the temperature dependant parameters to find out which model and what kind of temperature dependant parameters should be used.

  17. QED3 Theory of High Temperature Superconductors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tesanovic, Zlatko

    QED3 Theory of High Temperature Superconductors Zlatko Tesanovi´c The Johns Hopkins University-wave Superconductor to Antiferromagnet via Strange Metal #12;This talk is based on: M. Franz and ZT, Phys. Rev. Lett is The Problem in high Tc superconductors? · Superconducting state appears dx2-y2 "BCS-like". Low energy

  18. Development of a 500 Watt High Temperature Thermoelectric Generator

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    * TEG thermal and electrical interfaces modified to withstand high temperature environment 8 5 August, 2009 Deer 2009 9 100 Watt High Temperature TEG 100 Watt High...

  19. NGNP/HTE full-power operation at reduced high-temperature heat exchanger temperatures.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    VIlim, R.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2009-03-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Operation of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) with reduced reactor outlet temperature at full power was investigated for the High Temperature Electrolysis (HTE) hydrogen-production application. The foremost challenge for operation at design temperature is achieving an acceptably long service life for heat exchangers. In both the Intermediate Heat Exchanger (IHX) and the Process Heat Exchanger (PHX) (referred to collectively as high temperature heat exchangers) a pressure differential of several MPa exists with temperatures at or above 850 C. Thermal creep of the heat exchanger channel wall may severely limit heat exchanger life depending on the alloy selected. This report investigates plant performance with IHX temperatures reduced by lowering reactor outlet temperature. The objective is to lower the temperature in heat transfer channels to the point where existing materials can meet the 40 year lifetime needed for this component. A conservative estimate for this temperature is believed to be about 700 C. The reactor outlet temperature was reduced from 850 C to 700 C while maintaining reactor power at 600 MWt and high pressure compressor outlet at 7 MPa. We included a previously reported design option for reducing temperature at the PHX. Heat exchanger lengths were adjusted to reflect the change in performance resulting from coolant property changes and from resizing related to operating-point change. Turbomachine parameters were also optimized for the new operating condition. An integrated optimization of the complete system including heat transfer equipment was not performed. It is estimated, however, that by performing a pinch analysis the combined plant efficiency can be increased from 35.5 percent obtained in this report to a value between 38.5 and 40.1 percent. Then after normalizing for a more than three percent decrease in commodities inventory compared to the reference plant, the commodities-normalized efficiency lies between 40.0 and 41.3. This compares with a value of 43.9 for the reference plant. This latter plant has a reactor outlet temperature of 850 C and the two high temperature heat exchangers. The reduction in reactor outlet temperature from 850 C to 700 C reduces the tritium permeability rate in the IHX metal by a factor of three and thermal creep by five orders of magnitude. The design option for reducing PHX temperature from 800 C to 200 C reduces the permeability there by three orders of magnitude. In that design option this heat exchanger is the single 'choke-point' for tritium migration from the nuclear to the chemical plant.

  20. High temperature storage loop : final design report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gill, David Dennis; Kolb, William J.

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A three year plan for thermal energy storage (TES) research was created at Sandia National Laboratories in the spring of 2012. This plan included a strategic goal of providing test capability for Sandia and for the nation in which to evaluate high temperature storage (>650%C2%B0C) technology. The plan was to scope, design, and build a flow loop that would be compatible with a multitude of high temperature heat transfer/storage fluids. The High Temperature Storage Loop (HTSL) would be reconfigurable so that it was useful for not only storage testing, but also for high temperature receiver testing and high efficiency power cycle testing as well. In that way, HTSL was part of a much larger strategy for Sandia to provide a research and testing platform that would be integral for the evaluation of individual technologies funded under the SunShot program. DOE's SunShot program seeks to reduce the price of solar technologies to 6/kWhr to be cost competitive with carbon-based fuels. The HTSL project sought to provide evaluation capability for these SunShot supported technologies. This report includes the scoping, design, and budgetary costing aspects of this effort

  1. Shock-induced synthesis of high temperature superconducting materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ginley, D.S.; Graham, R.A.; Morosin, B.; Venturini, E.L.

    1987-06-18T23:59:59.000Z

    It has now been determined that the unique features of the high pressure shock method, especially the shock-induced chemical synthesis technique, are fully applicable to high temperature superconducting materials. Extraordinarily high yields are achievable in accordance with this invention, e.g., generally in the range from about 20% to about 99%, often in the range from about 50% to about 90%, lower and higher yields, of course, also being possible. The method of this invention involves the application of a controlled high pressure shock compression pulse which can be produced in any conventional manner, e.g., by detonation of a high explosive material, the impact of a high speed projectile or the effect of intense pulsed radiation sources such as lasers or electron beams. Examples and a discussion are presented.

  2. High Temperature Materials Interim Data Qualification Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nancy Lybeck

    2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ABSTRACT Projects for the very high temperature reactor (VHTR) Technology Development Office provide data in support of Nuclear Regulatory Commission licensing of the VHTR. Fuel and materials to be used in the reactor are tested and characterized to quantify performance in high temperature and high fluence environments. The VHTR program has established the NGNP Data Management and Analysis System (NDMAS) to ensure that VHTR data are qualified for use, stored in a readily accessible electronic form, and analyzed to extract useful results. This document focuses on the first NDMAS objective. It describes the High Temperature Materials characterization data stream, the processing of these data within NDMAS, and reports the interim FY2010 qualification status of the data. Data qualification activities within NDMAS for specific types of data are determined by the data qualification category assigned by the data generator. The High Temperature Materials data are being collected under NQA-1 guidelines, and will be qualified data. For NQA-1 qualified data, the qualification activities include: (1) capture testing, to confirm that the data stored within NDMAS are identical to the raw data supplied, (2) accuracy testing to confirm that the data are an accurate representation of the system or object being measured, and (3) documenting that the data were collected under an NQA-1 or equivalent Quality Assurance program. Currently, data from two test series within the High Temperature Materials data stream have been entered into the NDMAS vault: 1. Tensile Tests for Sm (i.e., Allowable Stress) Confirmatory Testing – 1,403,994 records have been inserted into the NDMAS database. Capture testing is in process. 2. Creep-Fatigue Testing to Support Determination of Creep-Fatigue Interaction Diagram – 918,854 records have been processed and inserted into the NDMAS database. Capture testing is in process.

  3. HYDROGEN SULFIDE -HIGH TEMPERATURE DRILLING CONTINGENCY PLAN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    HYDROGEN SULFIDE - HIGH TEMPERATURE DRILLING CONTINGENCY PLAN OCEAN DRILLING PROGRAM TEXAS A&M UNIVERSITY Technical Note 16 Steven P. Howard Ocean Drilling Program Texas A&M University 1000 Discovery Drive College Station, TX 77845-9547 Daniel H. Reudelhuber Ocean Drilling Program Texas A&M University

  4. High Temperature Gas Reactors Briefing to

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meltdown-Proof Advanced Reactor and Gas Turbine #12;TRISO Fuel Particle -- "Microsphere" · 0.9mm diameter · Utilizes gas turbine technology · Lower Power Density · Less Complicated Design (No ECCS) #12;AdvantagesHigh Temperature Gas Reactors Briefing to by Andrew C. Kadak, Ph.D. Professor of the Practice

  5. Advanced Converter Systems for High Temperature Environments

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    500 1000 1500 2000 2500 Voltage (Volts) Current (nA) . 4.0 Resistance (mOhms) 3.5 3.0 2.5 2.0 1.5 0 20 40 60 80 100 Current (Amps) High temperature package voltage breakdown and...

  6. Chemical Elements at High and Low Redshifts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Max Pettini

    2006-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

    The past few years have seen a steady progress in the determination of element abundances at high redshifts, with new and more accurate measures of metallicities in star-forming galaxies, in QSO absorbers, and in the intergalactic medium. We have also become more aware of the limitations of the tools at our disposal in such endeavours. I summarise these recent developments and--in tune with the theme of this meeting--consider the clues which chemical abundance studies offer to the links between the high redshift galaxy populations and today's galaxies. The new data are `fleshing out' the overall picture of element abundances at redshifts z = 2 - 3 which has been gradually coming into focus over the last decade. In particular, we can now account for at least 40% of the metals produced by the global star formation activity in the universe from the Big Bang to z = 2.5, and we have strong indications of where the remainder are likely to be found.

  7. High temperature intermetallic binders for HVOF carbides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shaw, K.G. [Xform, Inc., Cohoes, NY (United States); Gruninger, M.F.; Jarosinski, W.J. [Praxair Specialty Powders, Indianapolis, IN (United States)

    1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Gas turbines technology has a long history of employing the desirable high temperature physical attributes of ceramic-metallic (cermet) materials. The most commonly used coatings incorporate combinations of WC-Co and Cr{sub 3}C{sub 2}-NiCr, which have also been successfully utilized in other non-turbine coating applications. Increased turbine operating temperatures and other high temperature service conditions have made apparent the attractive notion of increasing the temperature capability and corrosion resistance of these coatings. In this study the intermetallic binder NiAl has been used to replace the cobalt and NiCr constituents of conventional WC and Cr{sub 3}C{sub 2} cermet powders. The composite carbide thermal spray powders were fabricated for use in the HVOF coating process. The structure of HVOF deposited NiAl-carbide coatings are compared directly to the more familiar WC-Co and Cr{sub 3}C{sub 2}-NiCr coatings using X-ray diffraction, back-scattered electron imaging (BEI) and electron dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). Hardness variations with temperature are reported and compared between the NiAl and Co/NiCr binders.

  8. A Detailed Chemical Kinetic Analysis of Low Temperature Non-Sooting Diesel Combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aceves, S M; Flowers, D L

    2004-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We have developed a model of the diesel fuel injection process for application to analysis of low temperature non-sooting combustion. The model uses a simplified mixing correlation and detailed chemical kinetics, and analyzes a parcel of fuel as it moves along the fuel jet, from injection into evaporation and ignition. The model predicts chemical composition and soot precursors, and is applied at conditions that result in low temperature non-sooting combustion. Production of soot precursors is the first step toward production of soot, and modeling precursor production is expected to give insight into the overall evolution of soot inside the engine. The results of the analysis show that the model has been successful in describing many of the observed characteristics of low temperature combustion. The model predicts results that are qualitatively similar to those obtained for soot formation experiments at conditions in which the EGR rate is increased from zero to very high values as the fueling rate is kept constant. The model also describes the two paths to achieve non-sooting combustion. The first is smokeless rich combustion and the second is modulated kinetics (MK). The importance of the temperature after ignition and the equivalence ratio at the time of ignition is demonstrated, as these parameters can be used to collapse onto a single line all the results for soot precursors for multiple fueling rates. A parametric analysis indicates that precursor formation increases considerably as the gas temperature in the combustion chamber and the characteristic mixing time are increased. The model provides a chemical kinetic description of low temperature diesel combustion that improves the understanding of this clean and efficient regime of operation.

  9. High Temperature Fuel Cells in the European Union

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation on High Temperature Fuel Cells in the European Union to the High Temperature Membrane Working Group, May 25, 2004 in Philadelphia, PA.

  10. Low Temperature Combustion Demonstrator for High Efficiency Clean...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Low Temperature Combustion Demonstrator for High Efficiency Clean Combustion Low Temperature Combustion Demonstrator for High Efficiency Clean Combustion Presentation from the U.S....

  11. Low Temperature Combustion Demonstrator for High Efficiency Clean...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Demonstrator for High Efficiency Clean Combustion Low Temperature Combustion Demonstrator for High Efficiency Clean Combustion Applied low temperature combustion to the Navistar...

  12. Low-Temperature Combustion Demonstrator for High-Efficiency Clean...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Low-Temperature Combustion Demonstrator for High-Efficiency Clean Combustion Low-Temperature Combustion Demonstrator for High-Efficiency Clean Combustion 2010 DOE Vehicle...

  13. Low Temperature Combustion Demonstrator for High Efficiency Clean...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Low Temperature Combustion Demonstrator for High Efficiency Clean Combustion Low Temperature Combustion Demonstrator for High Efficiency Clean Combustion 2009 DOE Hydrogen Program...

  14. Cedarville Elementary & High School Space Heating Low Temperature...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Elementary & High School Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Cedarville Elementary & High School Space Heating Low Temperature...

  15. Possible Origin of Improved High Temperature Performance of Hydrotherm...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Origin of Improved High Temperature Performance of Hydrothermally Aged CuBeta Zeolite Catalysts. Possible Origin of Improved High Temperature Performance of Hydrothermally Aged...

  16. A High Temperature Direct Vehicle Exhaust Flowmeter for Heavy...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    A High Temperature Direct Vehicle Exhaust Flowmeter for Heavy Duty Diesel Emission Measurements. A High Temperature Direct Vehicle Exhaust Flowmeter for Heavy Duty Diesel Emission...

  17. High-Temperature, Air-Cooled Traction Drive Inverter Packaging...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    High-Temperature, Air-Cooled Traction Drive Inverter Packaging High-Temperature, Air-Cooled Traction Drive Inverter Packaging 2010 DOE Vehicle Technologies and Hydrogen Programs...

  18. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: High-Temperature...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    High-Temperature Air-Cooled Power Electronics Thermal Design Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: High-Temperature Air-Cooled Power Electronics Thermal Design...

  19. High Resolution and Low-Temperature Photoelectron Spectroscopy...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    High Resolution and Low-Temperature Photoelectron Spectroscopy of an Oxygen-Linked Fullerene Dimer Dianion: C120O2-. High Resolution and Low-Temperature Photoelectron Spectroscopy...

  20. Development of a 100-Watt High Temperature Thermoelectric Generator

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    performance TEG thermal and electrical interfaces modified to withstand high temperature environment Development of a 100 watt High Temperature TE Generator DEER 2008 11 Prototype...

  1. Nanostructured High-Temperature Bulk Thermoelectric Energy Conversion...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High-Temperature Bulk Thermoelectric Energy Conversion for Efficient Automotive Waste Heat Recovery Nanostructured High-Temperature Bulk Thermoelectric Energy Conversion for...

  2. Low and high Temperature Dual Thermoelectric Generation Waste...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and high Temperature Dual Thermoelectric Generation Waste Heat Recovery System for Light-Duty Vehicles Low and high Temperature Dual Thermoelectric Generation Waste Heat Recovery...

  3. Rotational Rehybridization and the High Temperature Phase of...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Rotational Rehybridization and the High Temperature Phase of UC2. Rotational Rehybridization and the High Temperature Phase of UC2. Abstract: The screened hybrid approximation...

  4. High Temperature Thin Film Polymer Dielectric Based Capacitors...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High Temperature Thin Film Polymer Dielectric Based Capacitors for HEV Power Electronic Systems High Temperature Thin Film Polymer Dielectric Based Capacitors for HEV Power...

  5. Development of Advanced High Temperature Fuel Cell Membranes

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation on Development of Advanced High Temperature Fuel Cell Membranes to the High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting held in Arlington, Virginia, May 26,2005.

  6. Syngas Enhanced High Efficiency Low Temperature Combustion for...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Enhanced High Efficiency Low Temperature Combustion for Clean Diesel Engines Syngas Enhanced High Efficiency Low Temperature Combustion for Clean Diesel Engines A significant...

  7. High Temperature Polymer Membrane Development at Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Summary of ANL’s high temperature polymer membrane work presented to the High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting, Orlando FL, October 17, 2003

  8. High Temperature Thermal Array for Next Generation Solar Thermal...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High Temperature Thermal Array for Next Generation Solar Thermal Power Production High Temperature Thermal Array for Next Generation Solar Thermal Power Production This...

  9. High-temperature directional drilling turbodrill

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neudecker, J.W.; Rowley, J.C.

    1982-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The development of a high-temperature turbodrill for directional drilling of geothermal wells in hard formations is summarized. The turbodrill may be used for straight-hole drilling but was especially designed for directional drilling. The turbodrill was tested on a dynamometer stand, evaluated in laboratory drilling into ambient temperature granite blocks, and used in the field to directionally drill a 12-1/4-in.-diam geothermal well in hot 200/sup 0/C (400/sup 0/F) granite at depths to 10,5000 ft.

  10. Chemical beam epitaxy for high efficiency photovoltaic devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bensaoula, A.; Freundlich, A.; Vilela, M. F.; Medelci, N.; Renaud, P.

    1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    InP-based multijunction tandem solar cells show great promise for the conversion efficiency (eta) and high radiation resistance. InP and its related ternary and quanternary compound semiconductors such as InGaAs and InGaAsP offer desirable combinations for energy bandgap values which are very suitable for multijunction tandem solar cell applications. The monolithically integrated InP/In(0.53)Ga(0.47)As tandem solar cells are expected to reach efficiencies above 30 percent. Wanlass, et.al., have reported AMO efficiencies as high as 20.1% for two terminal cells fabricated using atmospheric-pressure metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy (APMOVPE). The main limitations in their technique are first related to the degradation of the intercell ohmic contact (IOC), in this case the In(0.53)Ga(0.47)As tunnel junction during the growth of the top InP subcell structure, and second to the current matching, often limited by the In(0.53)Ga(0.47)As bottom subcell. Chemical beam epitaxy (CBE) has been shown to allow the growth of high quality materials with reproducible complex compositional and doping profiles. The main advantage of CBE compared to metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD), the most popular technique for InP-based photovoltaic device fabrication, is the ability to grow high purity epilayers at much lower temperatures (450 C - 530 C). In a recent report it was shown that cost-wise CBE is a breakthrough technology for photovoltaic (PV) solar energy progress in the energy conversion efficiency of InP-based solar cells fabricated using chemical beam epitaxy. This communication summarizes recent results on PV devices and demonstrates the strength of this new technology.

  11. Thermochemistry of high-temperature corrosion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Natesan, K.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Multicomponent gas environments are prevalent in a number of energy systems, especially in those that utilize fossil fuels. The gas environments in these processes contain sulfur-bearing components in addition to oxidants. These complex environments, coupled with the elevated temperatures present in these systems, generally cause significant corrosion of engineering materials. Thermodynamic aspects of high-temperature corrosion processes occuring in complex gas mixtures are discussed, with emphasis on the role of thermochemical diagrams. The interrelationships between the corrosion behavior of materials and gas composition, alloy chemistry, and temperatures are examined. A number of examples from studies on materials behavior in coal-gasification environments are used to elucidate the role of thermochemistry in the understanding of corrosion processes that occur in complex gas mixtures. 11 figures.

  12. Advanced High-Temperature, High-Pressure Transport Reactor Gasification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael Swanson; Daniel Laudal

    2008-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory Office of Coal and Environmental Systems has as its mission to develop advanced gasification-based technologies for affordable, efficient, zero-emission power generation. These advanced power systems, which are expected to produce near-zero pollutants, are an integral part of DOE's Vision 21 Program. DOE has also been developing advanced gasification systems that lower the capital and operating costs of producing syngas for chemical production. A transport reactor has shown potential to be a low-cost syngas producer compared to other gasification systems since its high-throughput-per-unit cross-sectional area reduces capital costs. This work directly supports the Power Systems Development Facility utilizing the KBR transport reactor located at the Southern Company Services Wilsonville, Alabama, site. Over 2800 hours of operation on 11 different coals ranging from bituminous to lignite along with a petroleum coke has been completed to date in the pilot-scale transport reactor development unit (TRDU) at the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC). The EERC has established an extensive database on the operation of these various fuels in both air-blown and oxygen-blown modes utilizing a pilot-scale transport reactor gasifier. This database has been useful in determining the effectiveness of design changes on an advanced transport reactor gasifier and for determining the performance of various feedstocks in a transport reactor. The effects of different fuel types on both gasifier performance and the operation of the hot-gas filter system have been determined. It has been demonstrated that corrected fuel gas heating values ranging from 90 to 130 Btu/scf have been achieved in air-blown mode, while heating values up to 230 Btu/scf on a dry basis have been achieved in oxygen-blown mode. Carbon conversions up to 95% have also been obtained and are highly dependent on the oxygen-coal ratio. Higher-reactivity (low-rank) coals appear to perform better in a transport reactor than the less reactive bituminous coals. Factors that affect TRDU product gas quality appear to be coal type, temperature, and air/coal ratios. Testing with a higher-ash, high-moisture, low-rank coal from the Red Hills Mine of the Mississippi Lignite Mining Company has recently been completed. Testing with the lignite coal generated a fuel gas with acceptable heating value and a high carbon conversion, although some drying of the high-moisture lignite was required before coal-feeding problems were resolved. No ash deposition or bed material agglomeration issues were encountered with this fuel. In order to better understand the coal devolatilization and cracking chemistry occurring in the riser of the transport reactor, gas and solid sampling directly from the riser and the filter outlet has been accomplished. This was done using a baseline Powder River Basin subbituminous coal from the Peabody Energy North Antelope Rochelle Mine near Gillette, Wyoming.

  13. Nanoscale Morphological and Chemical Changes of High Voltage...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nanoscale Morphological and Chemical Changes of High Voltage Lithium-Manganese Rich NMC Composite Cathodes with Cycling Friday, August 29, 2014 Renewable energy is critical for the...

  14. Thermal fuse for high-temperature batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jungst, Rudolph G. (Albuquerque, NM); Armijo, James R. (Albuquerque, NM); Frear, Darrel R. (Austin, TX)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A thermal fuse, preferably for a high-temperature battery, comprising leads and a body therebetween having a melting point between approximately 400.degree. C. and 500.degree. C. The body is preferably an alloy of Ag--Mg, Ag--Sb, Al--Ge, Au--In, Bi--Te, Cd--Sb, Cu--Mg, In--Sb, Mg--Pb, Pb--Pd, Sb--Zn, Sn--Te, or Mg--Al.

  15. High temperature hot water distribution system study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The existing High Temperature Hot Water (HTHW) Distribution System has been plagued with design and construction deficiencies since startup of the HTHW system, in October 1988. In October 1989, after one year of service, these deficiencies were outlined in a technical evaluation. The deficiencies included flooded manholes, sump pumps not hooked up, leaking valves, contaminated HTHW water, and no cathodic protection system. This feasibility study of the High Temperature Hot Water (HTHW) Distribution System was performed under Contract No. DACA0l-94-D-0033, Delivery Order 0013, Modification 1, issued to EMC Engineers, Inc. (EMC), by the Norfolk District Corps of Engineers, on 25 April 1996. The purpose of this study was to determine the existing conditions of the High Temperature Hot Water Distribution System, manholes, and areas of containment system degradation. The study focused on two areas of concern, as follows: * Determine existing conditions and areas of containment system degradation (leaks) in the underground carrier pipes and protective conduit. * Document the condition of underground steel and concrete manholes. To document the leaks, a site survey was performed, using state-of-the-art infrared leak detection equipment and tracer gas leak detection equipment. To document the condition of the manholes, color photographs were taken of the insides of 125 manholes, and notes were made on the condition of these manholes.

  16. Low Temperature Combustion with Thermo-Chemical Recuperation to Maximize In-Use Engine Efficiency

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nigel N. Clark; Francisco Posada; Clinton Bedick; John Pratapas; Aleksandr Kozlov; Martin Linck; Dmitri Boulanov

    2009-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The key to overcome Low Temperature Combustion (LTC) load range limitations in reciprocating engines is based on proper control over the thermo-chemical properties of the in-cylinder charge. The studied alternative to achieve the required control of LTC is the use of two separate fuel streams to regulate timing and heat release at specific operational points, where the secondary fuel is a reformed product of the primary fuel in the tank. It is proposed in this report that the secondary fuel can be produced using exhaust heat and Thermo-Chemical Recuperation (TCR). TCR for reciprocating engines is a system that employs high efficiency recovery of sensible heat from engine exhaust gas and uses this energy to transform fuel composition. The recuperated sensible heat is returned to the engine as chemical energy. Chemical conversions are accomplished through catalytic and endothermic reactions in a specially designed reforming reactor. An equilibrium model developed by Gas Technology Institute (GTI) for heptane steam reforming was applied to estimate reformed fuel composition at different reforming temperatures. Laboratory results, at a steam/heptane mole ratio less than 2:1, confirm that low temperature reforming reactions, in the range of 550 K to 650 K, can produce 10-30% hydrogen (by volume, wet) in the product stream. Also, the effect of trading low mean effective pressure for displacement to achieve power output and energy efficiency has been explored by WVU. A zerodimensional model of LTC using heptane as fuel and a diesel Compression Ignition (CI) combustion model were employed to estimate pressure, temperature and total heat release as inputs for a mechanical and thermal loss model. The model results show that the total cooling burden on an LTC engine with lower power density and higher displacement was 14.3% lower than the diesel engine for the same amount of energy addition in the case of high load (43.57mg fuel/cycle). These preliminary modeling and experimental results suggest that the LTC-TCR combination may offer a high efficiency solution to engine operation. A single zone model using a detailed chemical kinetic mechanism was implemented in CHEMKIN and to study the effects of base fuel and steam-fuel reforming products on the ignition timing and heat release characteristics. The study was performed considering the reformed fuel species composition for total n-heptane conversion (ideal case) and also at the composition corresponding to a specific set of operational reforming temperatures (real case). The computational model confirmed that the reformed products have a strong influence on the low temperature heat release (LTHR) region, affecting the onset of the high temperature heat release (HTHR). The ignition timing was proportionally delayed with respect to the baseline fuel case when higher concentrations of reformed gas were used. For stoichiometric concentration of RG, it was found that by increasing the proportion of reformed fuel to total fuel (RG), from 0% to 30%, the amount of energy released during the LTHR regime, or HR{sub L}, was reduced by 48% and the ignition timing was delayed 10.4 CA degrees with respect to the baseline fuel case. For RG composition corresponding to certain operational reforming temperatures, it was found that the most significant effects on the HCCI combustion, regarding HR{sub L} reduction and CA50 delay, was obtained by RG produced at a reforming temperature range of 675 K-725 K.

  17. A HIGH TEMPERATURE GAS RECEIVER UTILIZING SMALL PARTICLES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hunt, Arlon

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    field of high temperature solar process heat. The ultimateof solar applications including industrial process heat and

  18. High Temperature Battery for Drilling Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Josip Caja

    2009-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    In this project rechargeable cells based on the high temperature electrochemical system Na/beta''-alumina/S(IV) in AlCl3/NaCl were developed for application as an autonomous power source in oil/gas deep drilling wells. The cells operate in the temperature range from 150 C to 250 C. A prototype DD size cell was designed and built based on the results of finite element analysis and vibration testing. The cell consisted of stainless steel case serving as anode compartment with cathode compartment installed in it and a seal closing the cell. Critical element in cell design and fabrication was hermetically sealing the cell. The seal had to be leak tight, thermally and vibration stable and compatible with electrode materials. Cathode compartment was built of beta''-alumina tube which served as an electrolyte, separator and cathode compartment.

  19. Screening study on high temperature energy transport systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Graves, R.L.

    1980-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of the study described in this document is to identify the options for transporting thermal energy over long distances. The study deals specifically and exclusively with high temperature (> 400/sup 0/C(752/sup 0/F)) energy for industrial use. Energy transport is seen as a potential solution to: high unit cost of small coal and nuclear steam generators, and opposition to siting of coal or nuclear plants near populated areas. The study is of a preliminary nature but covers many options including steam, molten salts, organics, and chemical heat pipes. The development status and potential problems of these and other energy transport methods are discussed. Energy transport concepts are compared on a fundamental level based on physical properties and also are subjected to an economic study. The economic study indicated that the chemical heat pipe, under a specific set of circumstances, appeared to be the least expensive for distances greater than about 32 km (20 miles). However, if the temperature of the energy was lowered, the heat transfer salt (sodium nitrate/nitrite) system would apparently be a better economic choice for less than about 80 km (50 miles). None of the options studied appear to be more attractive than small coal-fired boilers when the transport distance is over about 64 km (40 miles). Several recommendations are made for refining the analysis.

  20. High temperature regenerable hydrogen sulfide removal agents

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Copeland, Robert J. (Wheat Ridge, CO)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A system for high temperature desulfurization of coal-derived gases using regenerable sorbents. One sorbent is stannic oxide (tin oxide, SnO.sub.2), the other sorbent is a metal oxide or mixed metal oxide such as zinc ferrite (ZnFe.sub.2 O.sub.4). Certain otherwise undesirable by-products, including hydrogen sulfide (H.sub.2 S) and sulfur dioxide (SO.sub.2) are reused by the system, and elemental sulfur is produced in the regeneration reaction. A system for refabricating the sorbent pellets is also described.

  1. High Temperature Materials Laboratory third annual report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tennery, V.J.; Foust, F.M.

    1990-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The High Temperature Materials Laboratory has completed its third year of operation as a designated DOE User Facility at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Growth of the user program is evidenced by the number of outside institutions who have executed user agreements since the facility began operation in 1987. A total of 88 nonproprietary agreements (40 university and 48 industry) and 20 proprietary agreements (1 university, 19 industry) are now in effect. Sixty-eight nonproprietary research proposals (39 from university, 28 from industry, and 1 other government facility) and 8 proprietary proposals were considered during this reporting period. Research projects active in FY 1990 are summarized.

  2. Modeling forces in high-temperature superconductors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turner, L. R.; Foster, M. W.

    1997-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

    We have developed a simple model that uses computed shielding currents to determine the forces acting on a high-temperature superconductor (HTS). The model has been applied to measurements of the force between HTS and permanent magnets (PM). Results show the expected hysteretic variation of force as the HTS moves first toward and then away from a permanent magnet, including the reversal of the sign of the force. Optimization of the shielding currents is carried out through a simulated annealing algorithm in a C++ program that repeatedly calls a commercial electromagnetic software code. Agreement with measured forces is encouraging.

  3. Enabling High Efficiency Low Temperature Combustion by Adaptive...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Low Temperature Combustion by Adaptive In-Situ Jet Cooling Enabling High Efficiency Low Temperature Combustion by Adaptive In-Situ Jet Cooling A new approach, called...

  4. High and Low Temperature Series Estimates for the Critical Temperature of the 3D Ising Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Adler, Joan

    High and Low Temperature Series Estimates for the Critical Temperature of the 3D Ising Model Zaher Abstract We have analysed low and high temperature series expansions for the three­dimensional Ising model on the simple cubic lattice. Our analysis of Butera and Comi's new 32 term high temperature series yields K c

  5. High and Low Temperature Series Estimates for the Critical Temperature of the 3D Ising Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Adler, Joan

    High and Low Temperature Series Estimates for the Critical Temperature Abstract We have analysed low and high temperature series expansions for the three high temperature series yields Kc = 0.221659 +0.000002-0.000005and from the 32 term low

  6. Chemical reactions studied at ultra-low temperature in liquid helium clusters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huisken, Friedrich; Krasnokutski, Serge A. [Laboratory Astrophysics Group of the Max Planck Institute for Astronomy at the University of Jena, Institute of Solid State Physics, Helmholtzweg 3, D-07743 Jena (Germany)

    2012-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Low-temperature reaction rates are important ingredients for astrophysical reaction networks modeling the formation of interstellar matter in molecular clouds. Unfortunately, such data is difficult to obtain by experimental means. In an attempt to study low-temperature reactions of astrophysical interest, we have investigated relevant reactions at ultralow temperature in liquid helium droplets. Being prepared by supersonic expansion of helium gas at high pressure through a nozzle into a vacuum, large helium clusters in the form of liquid droplets constitute nano-sized reaction vessels for the study of chemical reactions at ultra-low temperature. If the normal isotope {sup 4}He is used, the helium droplets are superfluid and characterized by a constant temperature of 0.37 K. Here we present results obtained for Mg, Al, and Si reacting with O{sub 2}. Mass spectrometry was employed to characterize the reaction products. As it may be difficult to distinguish between reactions occurring in the helium droplets before they are ionized and ion-molecule reactions taking place after the ionization, additional techniques were applied to ensure that the reactions actually occurred in the helium droplets. This information was provided by measuring the chemiluminescence light emitted by the products, the evaporation of helium atoms by the release of the reaction heat, or by laser-spectroscopic identification of the reactants and products.

  7. High temperature insulation for ceramic matrix composites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Merrill, Gary B. (Monroeville, PA); Morrison, Jay Alan (Orlando, FL)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A ceramic composition is provided to insulate ceramic matrix composites under high temperature, high heat flux environments. The composite comprises a plurality of hollow oxide-based spheres of varios dimentions, a phosphate binder, and at least one oxide filler powder, whereby the phosphate binder partially fills gaps between the spheres and the filler powders. The spheres are situated in the phosphate binder and the filler powders such that each sphere is in contact with at least one other sphere. The spheres may be any combination of Mullite spheres, Alumina spheres, or stabilized Zirconia spheres. The filler powder may be any combination of Alumina, Mullite, Ceria, or Hafnia. Preferably, the phosphate binder is Aluminum Ortho-Phosphate. A method of manufacturing the ceramic insulating composition and its application to CMC substates are also provided.

  8. High temperature insulation for ceramic matrix composites

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Merrill, Gary B.; Morrison, Jay Alan

    2004-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

    A ceramic composition is provided to insulate ceramic matrix composites under high temperature, high heat flux environments. The composition comprises a plurality of hollow oxide-based spheres of various dimensions, a phosphate binder, and at least one oxide filler powder, whereby the phosphate binder partially fills gaps between the spheres and the filler powders. The spheres are situated in the phosphate binder and the filler powders such that each sphere is in contact with at least one other sphere. The spheres may be any combination of Mullite spheres, Alumina spheres, or stabilized Zirconia spheres. The filler powder may be any combination of Alumina, Mullite, Ceria, or Hafnia. Preferably, the phosphate binder is Aluminum Ortho-Phosphate. A method of manufacturing the ceramic insulating composition and its application to CMC substrates are also provided.

  9. High temperature insulation for ceramic matrix composites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Merrill, Gary B. (Monroeville, PA); Morrison, Jay Alan (Orlando, FL)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A ceramic composition is provided to insulate ceramic matrix composites under high temperature, high heat flux environments. The composition comprises a plurality of hollow oxide-based spheres of various dimensions, a phosphate binder, and at least one oxide filler powder, whereby the phosphate binder partially fills gaps between the spheres and the filler powders. The spheres are situated in the phosphate binder and the filler powders such that each sphere is in contact with at least one other sphere. The spheres may be any combination of Mullite spheres, Alumina spheres, or stabilized Zirconia spheres. The filler powder may be any combination of Alumina, Mullite, Ceria, or Hafnia. Preferably, the phosphate binder is Aluminum Ortho-Phosphate. A method of manufacturing the ceramic insulating composition and its application to CMC substrates are also provided.

  10. Baseline Concept Description of a Small Modular High Temperature Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hans Gougar

    2014-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this report is to provide a description of generic small modular high temperature reactors (herein denoted as an smHTR), summarize their distinguishing attributes, and lay out the research and development (R&D) required for commercialization. The generic concepts rely heavily on the modular high temperature gas-cooled reactor designs developed in the 1980s which were never built but for which pre-licensing or certification activities were conducted. The concept matured more recently under the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) project, specifically in the areas of fuel and material qualification, methods development, and licensing. As all vendor-specific designs proposed under NGNP were all both ‘small’ or medium-sized and ‘modular’ by International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and Department of Energy (DOE) standards, the technical attributes, challenges, and R&D needs identified, addressed, and documented under NGNP are valid and appropriate in the context of Small Modular Reactor (SMR) applications. Although the term High Temperature Reactor (HTR) is commonly used to denote graphite-moderated, thermal spectrum reactors with coolant temperatures in excess of 650oC at the core outlet, in this report the historical term High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTGR) will be used to distinguish the gas-cooled technology described herein from its liquid salt-cooled cousin. Moreover, in this report it is to be understood that the outlet temperature of the helium in an HTGR has an upper limit of 950 degrees C which corresponds to the temperature to which certain alloys are currently being qualified under DOE’s ARC program. Although similar to the HTGR in just about every respect, the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) may have an outlet temperature in excess of 950 degrees C and is therefore farther from commercialization because of the challenges posed to materials exposed to these temperatures. The VHTR is the focus of R&D under the Generation IV program and its specific R&D needs will be included in this report when appropriate for comparison. The distinguishing features of the HTGR are the refractory (TRISO) coated particle fuel, the low-power density, graphite-moderated core, and the high outlet temperature of the inert helium coolant. The low power density and fuel form effectively eliminate the possibility of core melt, even upon a complete loss of coolant pressure and flow. The graphite, which constitutes the bulk of the core volume and mass, provides a large thermal buffer that absorbs fission heat such that thermal transients occur over a timespan of hours or even days. As chemically-inert helium is already a gas, there is no coolant temperature or void feedback on the neutronics and no phase change or corrosion product that could degrade heat transfer. Furthermore, the particle coatings and interstitial graphite retain fission products such that the source terms at the plant boundary remain well below actionable levels under all anticipated nominal and off-normal operating conditions. These attributes enable the reactor to supply process heat to a collocated industrial plant with negligible risk of contamination and minimal dynamic coupling of the facilities (Figure 1). The exceptional retentive properties of coated particle fuel in a graphite matrix were first demonstrated in the DRAGON reactor, a European research facility that began operation in 1964.

  11. Temperature effects on chemical structure and motion in coal. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maciel, G.E.

    1996-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project was to apply recently developed, state-of-the-art nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques to examine in situ changes in the chemical structure and molecular/macromolecular motion in coal as the temperature is increased above room temperature. Although alterations in the chemical structure of coal have been studied previously by {sup 13}C NMR, using quenched samples, the goal of this project was to examine these chemical structural changes, and changes in molecular/macromolecular mobility that may precede or accompany the chemical changes, at elevated temperatures, using modern {sup 13}C and {sup 1}H NMR techniques, especially {sup 1}H dipolar-dephasing techniques and related experiments pioneered in the laboratory for examining pyridine-saturated coals. This project consisted of the following four primary segments and related efforts on matters relevant to the first four tasks. (1) {sup 1}H NMR characterization of coal structure and mobility as a function of temperature variation over a temperature range (30--240 C) for which substantial chemical transformations were not anticipated. (2) {sup 1}H NMR characterization of coal structure, mobility and conversion as a function of temperature variation over a temperature range (240--500 C) for which chemical transformations of coal are known to occur. (3) {sup 13}C NMR investigation of coal structure/mobility as a function of temperature over a temperature range (30--240 C) for which substantial chemical transformations were not anticipated. (4) {sup 13}C NMR investigation of coal structure, dynamics and conversion as a function of temperature variation over a range (240--500 C) for which chemical transformations of coal are known to occur. (5) Related matters relevant to the first four tasks: (a) {sup 1}H CRAMPS NMR characterization of oil shales and their kerogen concentrates; and (b) improved quantitation in {sup 13}C MAS characterization of coals.

  12. Deposition of silicon carbide films using a high vacuum metalorganic chemical vapor deposition method with a single source precursor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boo, Jin-Hyo

    , high temperature, and high radiation environments. Conventional silicon carbide chemical vapor deposition CVD processes generally utilized multiple precursors such as silane and hydrocarbons, and required temperature alternatives to the conventional SiC CVD methods must be considered. To do this, a relatively

  13. High temperature coatings for gas turbines

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zheng, Xiaoci Maggie

    2003-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Coating for high temperature gas turbine components that include a MCrAlX phase, and an aluminum-rich phase, significantly increase oxidation and cracking resistance of the components, thereby increasing their useful life and reducing operating costs. The aluminum-rich phase includes aluminum at a higher concentration than aluminum concentration in the MCrAlX alloy, and an aluminum diffusion-retarding composition, which may include cobalt, nickel, yttrium, zirconium, niobium, molybdenum, rhodium, cadmium, indium, cerium, iron, chromium, tantalum, silicon, boron, carbon, titanium, tungsten, rhenium, platinum, and combinations thereof, and particularly nickel and/or rhenium. The aluminum-rich phase may be derived from a particulate aluminum composite that has a core comprising aluminum and a shell comprising the aluminum diffusion-retarding composition.

  14. Turbine vane with high temperature capable skins

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morrison, Jay A. (Oviedo, FL)

    2012-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A turbine vane assembly includes an airfoil extending between an inner shroud and an outer shroud. The airfoil can include a substructure having an outer peripheral surface. At least a portion of the outer peripheral surface is covered by an external skin. The external skin can be made of a high temperature capable material, such as oxide dispersion strengthened alloys, intermetallic alloys, ceramic matrix composites or refractory alloys. The external skin can be formed, and the airfoil can be subsequently bi-cast around or onto the skin. The skin and the substructure can be attached by a plurality of attachment members extending between the skin and the substructure. The skin can be spaced from the outer peripheral surface of the substructure such that a cavity is formed therebetween. Coolant can be supplied to the cavity. Skins can also be applied to the gas path faces of the inner and outer shrouds.

  15. High temperature low friction surface coating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bhushan, Bharat (Watervliet, NY)

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A high temperature, low friction, flexible coating for metal surfaces which are subject to rubbing contact includes a mixture of three parts graphite and one part cadmium oxide, ball milled in water for four hours, then mixed with thirty percent by weight of sodium silicate in water solution and a few drops of wetting agent. The mixture is sprayed 12-15 microns thick onto an electro-etched metal surface and air dried for thirty minutes, then baked for two hours at 65.degree. C. to remove the water and wetting agent, and baked for an additional eight hours at about 150.degree. C. to produce the optimum bond with the metal surface. The coating is afterwards burnished to a thickness of about 7-10 microns.

  16. Multilayer ultra-high-temperature ceramic coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Loehman, Ronald E. (Albuquerque, NM); Corral, Erica L. (Tucson, AZ)

    2012-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A coated carbon-carbon composite material with multiple ceramic layers to provide oxidation protection from ultra-high-temperatures, where if the carbon-carbon composite material is uninhibited with B.sub.4C particles, then the first layer on the composite material is selected from ZrB.sub.2 and HfB.sub.2, onto which is coated a layer of SiC coated and if the carbon-carbon composite material is inhibited with B.sub.4C particles, then protection can be achieved with a layer of SiC and a layer of either ZrB.sub.2 and HfB.sub.2 in any order.

  17. High-Temperature Solar Selective Coating Development for Power...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    High-Temperature Solar Selective Coating Development for Power Tower Receivers - FY13 Q1 High-Temperature Solar Selective Coating Development for Power Tower Receivers - FY13 Q1...

  18. High-Temperature Solar Selective Coating Development for Power...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    High-Temperature Solar Selective Coating Development for Power Tower Receivers - FY13 Q2 High-Temperature Solar Selective Coating Development for Power Tower Receivers - FY13 Q2...

  19. Development of a High-Temperature Diagnostics-While-Drilling...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Development of a High-Temperature Diagnostics-While-Drilling Tool Development of a High-Temperature Diagnostics-While-Drilling Tool This report documents work performed in the...

  20. Corrosion Studies in High-Temperature Molten Salt Systems for...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Corrosion Studies in High-Temperature Molten Salt Systems for CSP Applications - FY13 Q1 Corrosion Studies in High-Temperature Molten Salt Systems for CSP Applications - FY13 Q1...

  1. Fundamental Corrosion Studies in High-Temperature Molten Salt...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Fundamental Corrosion Studies in High-Temperature Molten Salt Systems for Next-Generation CSP Systems - FY13 Q2 Fundamental Corrosion Studies in High-Temperature Molten Salt...

  2. High Temperature High Pressure Thermodynamic Measurements for Coal Model Compounds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John C. Chen; Vinayak N. Kabadi

    1998-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

    The overall objective of this project is to develop a better thermodynamic model for predicting properties of high-boiling coal derived liquids, especially the phase equilibria of different fractions at elevated temperatures and pressures. The development of such a model requires data on vapor-liquid equilibria (VLE), enthalpy, and heat capacity which would be experimentally determined for binary systems of coal model compounds and compiled into a database. The data will be used to refine existing models such as UNIQUAC and UNIFAC. The flow VLE apparatus designed and built for a previous project was upgraded and recalibrated for data measurements for thk project. The modifications include better and more accurate sampling technique and addition of a digital recorder to monitor temperature, pressure and liquid level inside the VLE cell. VLE data measurements for system benzene-ethylbenzene have been completed. The vapor and liquid samples were analysed using the Perkin-Elmer Autosystem gas chromatography.

  3. High Temperature Integrated Thermoelectric Ststem and Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mike S. H. Chu

    2011-06-06T23:59:59.000Z

    The final goal of this project is to produce, by the end of Phase II, an all ceramic high temperature thermoelectric module. Such a module design integrates oxide ceramic n-type, oxide ceramic p-type materials as thermoelectric legs and oxide ceramic conductive material as metalizing connection between n-type and p-type legs. The benefits of this all ceramic module are that it can function at higher temperatures (> 700 C), it is mechanically and functionally more reliable and it can be scaled up to production at lower cost. With this all ceramic module, millions of dollars in savings or in new opportunities recovering waste heat from high temperature processes could be made available. A very attractive application will be to convert exhaust heat from a vehicle to reusable electric energy by a thermoelectric generator (TEG). Phase I activities were focused on evaluating potential n-type and p-type oxide compositions as the thermoelectric legs. More than 40 oxide ceramic powder compositions were made and studied in the laboratory. The compositions were divided into 6 groups representing different material systems. Basic ceramic properties and thermoelectric properties of discs sintered from these powders were measured. Powders with different particles sizes were made to evaluate the effects of particle size reduction on thermoelectric properties. Several powders were submitted to a leading thermoelectric company for complete thermoelectric evaluation. Initial evaluation showed that when samples were sintered by conventional method, they had reasonable values of Seebeck coefficient but very low values of electrical conductivity. Therefore, their power factors (PF) and figure of merits (ZT) were too low to be useful for high temperature thermoelectric applications. An unconventional sintering method, Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS) was determined to produce better thermoelectric properties. Particle size reduction of powders also was found to have some positive benefits. Two composition systems, specifically 1.0 SrO - 0.8 x 1.03 TiO2 - 0.2 x 1.03 NbO2.5 and 0.97 TiO2 - 0.03 NbO2.5, have been identified as good base line compositions for n-type thermoelectric compositions in future module design. Tests of these materials at an outside company were promising using that company's processing and material expertise. There was no unique p-type thermoelectric compositions identified in phase I work other than several current cobaltite materials. Ca3Co4O9 will be the primary p-type material for the future module design until alternative materials are developed. BaTiO3 and rare earth titanate based dielectric compositions show both p-type and n-type behavior even though their electrical conductivities were very low. Further research and development of these materials for thermoelectric applications is planned in the future. A preliminary modeling and optimization of a thermoelectric generator (TEG) that uses the n-type 1.0 SrO - 1.03 x 0.8 TiO2 - 1.03 x 0.2 NbO2.5 was performed. Future work will combine development of ceramic powders and manufacturing expertise at TAM, development of SPS at TAM or a partner organization, and thermoelectric material/module testing, modeling, optimization, production at several partner organizations.

  4. Application of Reversible Chemical Reactions for Temperature Amplification 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ally, M. R.; Rebello, W. J.; Suciu, D. F.

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In a recent survey of 108 industries in the U.S., it was found that large amounts of thermal energy at relatively low temperatures was discharged to the atmosphere through industrial effluents. For the purpose of thermally ...

  5. High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting, May 14, 2007

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This agenda provides information about the High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting on May 14, 2007 in Arlington, Va.

  6. Agenda for the High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This agenda provides information about the Agenda for the High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting on September 14, 2006.

  7. High-lift chemical heat pump technologies for industrial processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olszewski, M.; Zaltash, A.

    1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Traditionally industrial heat pumps (IHPs) have found applications on a process specific basis with reject heat from a process being upgraded and returned to the process. The IHP must be carefully integrated into a process since improper placement may result in an uneconomic application. Industry has emphasized a process integration approach to the design and operation of their plants. Heat pump applications have adopted this approach and the area of applicability was extended by utilizing a process integrated approach where reject heat from one process is upgraded and then used as input for another process. The DOE IHP Program has extended the process integration approach of heat pump application with a plant utility emphasis. In this design philosophy, reject heat from a process is upgraded to plant utility conditions and fed into the plant distribution system. This approach has the advantage that reject heat from any pr@s can be used as input and the output can be used at any location within the plant. Thus the approach can be easily integrated into existing industrial applications and all reject heat streams are potential targets of opportunity. The plant utility approach can not be implemented without having heat pumps with high-lift capabilities (on the order of 65{degree}C). Current heat pumps have only about half the lift capability required. Thus the current emphasis for the DOE IHP Program is the development of high lift chemical heat pumps that can deliver heat more economically to higher heat delivery temperatures. This is achieved with innovative cooling (refrigeration) and heating technologies which are based on advanced cycles and advanced working fluids or a combination of both. This paper details the plan to develop economically competitive, environmentally acceptable heat pump technologies that are capable of providing the delivery temperature and lift required to supply industrial plant utility-grade process heating and/or cooling.

  8. Low temperature chemical vapor deposition of Co thin films from Co2(CO)8

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Gwo-Ching

    Low temperature chemical vapor deposition of Co thin films from Co2(CO)8 D.-X. Yea,*, S. Pimanpanga chemical vapor deposition with a metallorganic Co2(CO)8 precursor. After Ar sputtering of the surface, Co2(CO)8, has been extensively used in cobalt CVD and is attractive, since Co is in its elemental

  9. Enhanced High Temperature Performance of NOx Storage/Reduction...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Meeting ace026peden2012o.pdf More Documents & Publications Enhanced High Temperature Performance of NOx StorageReduction (NSR) Materials Enhanced High and Low...

  10. Cryogenic System for a High Temperature Superconducting Power Transmission Cable

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Demko, J.A.; Gouge, M.J.; Hughey, R.L.; Lue, J.W.; Martin, R.; Sinha, U.; Stovall, J.P.

    1999-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

    High-temperature superconducting (HTS) cable systems for power transmission are under development that will use pressurized liquid nitrogen to provide cooling of the cable and termination hardware. Southwire Company and Oak Ridge National Laboratory have been operating a prototype HTS cable system that contains many of the typical components needed for a commercial power transmission application. It is being used to conduct research in the development of components and systems for eventual commercial deployment. The cryogenic system was built by Air Products and Chemicals, Allentown, Pennsylvania, and can circulate up to 0.35 kg/s of liquid nitrogen at temperatures as low as 67 K at pressures of 1 to 10 bars. Sufficient cooling is provided for testing a 5-m-long HTS transmission cable system that includes the terminations required for room temperature electrical connections. Testing of the 5-m HTS transmission cable has been conducted at the design ac conditions of 1250 A and 7.5 kV line to ground. This paper contains a description of the essential features of the HTS cable cryogenic system and performance results obtained during operation of the system. The salient features of the operation that are important in large commercial HTS cable applications will be discussed.

  11. Reproducibility of High-Q SRF Cavities by High Temperature Heat Treatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dhakal, Pashupati [JLAB; Ciovati, Gianluigi [JLAB; Kneisel, Peter [JLAB; Myneni, Ganapati Rao [JLAB

    2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent work on high-temperature (> 600 °C) heat treatment of ingot Nb cavities in a customized vacuum furnace for several hours showed the possibility of achieving Q0-values of up to ~5×1010 at 2.0 K, 1.5 GHz and accelerating gradients of ~20 MV/m. This contribution presents results on further studies of the heat treatment process to produce cavities with high Q0 values for continuous-wave accelerator application. Single-cell cavities of different Nb purity have been processed through few cycles of heat-treatments and chemical etching. Measurements of Q0 as a function of temperature at low RF field and of Q0 as a function of the RF field at or below 2.0 K have been made after each treatment. Measurements by TOF-SIMS of the impurities? depth profiles were made on samples heat treated with the cavities.

  12. Geochemistry of Aluminum in High Temperature Brines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benezeth, P.; Palmer, D.A.; Wesolowski, D.J.

    1999-05-18T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective ofthis research is to provide quantitative data on the equilibrium and thermodynamic properties of aluminum minerals required to model changes in permeability and brine chemistry associated with fluid/rock interactions in the recharge, reservoir, and discharge zones of active geothermal systems. This requires a precise knowledge of the thermodynamics and speciation of aluminum in aqueous brines, spanning the temperature and fluid composition rangesencountered in active systems. The empirical and semi-empirical treatments of the solubility/hydrolysis experimental results on single aluminum mineral phases form the basis for the ultimate investigation of the behavior of complex aluminosilicate minerals. The principal objective in FY 1998 was to complete the solubility measurements on boehmite (AIOOH) inNaC1 media( 1 .O and 5.0 molal ionic strength, IOO-250°C). However, additional measurements were also made on boehmite solubility in pure NaOH solutions in order to bolster the database for fitting in-house isopiestic data on this system. Preliminary kinetic Measurements of the dissolution/precipitation of boehmite was also carried out, although these were also not planned in the earlier objective. The 1999 objectives are to incorporate these treatments into existing codes used by the geothermal industry to predict the chemistry ofthe reservoirs; these calculations will be tested for reliability against our laboratory results and field observations. Moreover, based on the success of the experimental methods developed in this program, we intend to use our unique high temperature pH easurement capabilities to make kinetic and equilibrium studies of pH-dependent aluminosilicate transformation reactions and other pH-dependent heterogeneous reactions.

  13. High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor Projected Markets and Scoping Economics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Larry Demick

    2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The NGNP Project has the objective of developing the high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) technology to supply high temperature process heat to industrial processes as a substitute for burning of fossil fuels, such as natural gas. Applications of the HTGR technology that have been evaluated by the NGNP Project for supply of process heat include supply of electricity, steam and high-temperature gas to a wide range of industrial processes, and production of hydrogen and oxygen for use in petrochemical, refining, coal to liquid fuels, chemical, and fertilizer plants.

  14. A temperature compensated pressure transducer for high temperature, high pressure applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lippka, Sandra Margaret

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and content by: 2/J David G. ansson (Chair ol' Committee) c. Y~ Christian P Burger (i&Iember) Randall Getger ( Member) 5wc Fr~. Walter F. Bradley (Head of Department) May 1991 ABSTRACT A Temperature Compensated Pressure Transducer for High... of the light beam. A compensation schenle is provided through the use of thermally arljusting reflecting surfaces These surfaces can adjust for temperatures up to 1000'F with less than a. I, c error. The final light beam movenlent across the photodiode face...

  15. High performance internal reforming unit for high temperature fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ma, Zhiwen (Sandy Hook, CT); Venkataraman, Ramakrishnan (New Milford, CT); Novacco, Lawrence J. (Brookfield, CT)

    2008-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

    A fuel reformer having an enclosure with first and second opposing surfaces, a sidewall connecting the first and second opposing surfaces and an inlet port and an outlet port in the sidewall. A plate assembly supporting a catalyst and baffles are also disposed in the enclosure. A main baffle extends into the enclosure from a point of the sidewall between the inlet and outlet ports. The main baffle cooperates with the enclosure and the plate assembly to establish a path for the flow of fuel gas through the reformer from the inlet port to the outlet port. At least a first directing baffle extends in the enclosure from one of the sidewall and the main baffle and cooperates with the plate assembly and the enclosure to alter the gas flow path. Desired graded catalyst loading pattern has been defined for optimized thermal management for the internal reforming high temperature fuel cells so as to achieve high cell performance.

  16. Recent advances in the measurement of high temperature bimolecular rate constants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael, J.V.

    1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent advances in the measurement of high temperature reaction rate constants are discussed. The studies carried out by shock tube methods are particularly considered because these results are important not only in theoretical chemical kinetics but also in practical applications. The work on 5 chemical reactions are reviewed in detail. These are: D + H{sub 2}, Cl + H{sub 2}, H + O{sub 2}, CH{sub 3} + CH{sub 3}, and H + NO{sub 2}.

  17. Split stream boilers for high-temperature/high-pressure topping steam turbine combined cycles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rice, I.G. [Rice (I.G.), Spring, TX (United States)

    1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Research and development work on high-temperature and high-pressure (up to 1,500 F TIT and 4,500 psia) topping steam turbines and associated steam generators for steam power plants as well as combined cycle plants is being carried forward by DOE, EPRI, and independent companies. Aeroderivative gas turbines and heavy-duty gas turbines both will require exhaust gas supplementary firing to achieve high throttle temperatures. This paper presents an analysis and examples of a split stream boiler arrangement for high-temperature and high-pressure topping steam turbine combined cycles. A portion of the gas turbine exhaust flow is run in parallel with a conventional heat recovery steam generator (HRSG). This side stream is supplementary fired opposed to the current practice of full exhaust flow firing. Chemical fuel gas recuperation can be incorporated in the side stream as an option. A significant combined cycle efficiency gain of 2 to 4 percentage points can be realized using this split stream approach. Calculations and graphs show how the DOE goal of 60 percent combined cycle efficiency burning natural gas fuel can be exceeded. The boiler concept is equally applicable to the integrated coal gas fuel combined cycle (IGCC).

  18. Crevice corrosion repassivation temperatures of highly alloyed stainless steels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Valen, S.; Gartland, P.O. [SINTEF Corrosion Center, Trondheim (Norway)

    1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An investigation was conducted to study the repassivation temperature of a highly alloyed austenitic (UNS S31254) and of a highly alloyed duplex (UNS S32750) stainless steel (SS). When initiated at a high temperature, repassivation occurred at a temperature level significantly lower than normally associated with initiation of crevice corrosion. Experimental results combined with computer modeling of crevice corrosion explored the mechanistic aspects. In this respect, the similarity between the hysteresis observed by cyclic polarization and cyclic temperature tests was emphasized.

  19. Secondary calcium solid electrolyte high temperature battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sammells, A.F.; Schumacher, B.

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The authors report on recent work directed towards determining the viability of polycrystalline Ca/sup 2 +/ conducting ..beta..''-alumina solid electrolytes as the basis for a new type of high temperature battery. In this battery system the negative electrode consisted of a calcium-silicon alloy whose redox electro-chemistry was mediated to the calcium conducting solid electrolyte via the use of the molten salt eutectic CaCl/sub 2/ (51.4/sup M//0), CaI/sub 2/ (mp 550/sup 0/C). Both the molten salt and the calcium-alloy negative active material were separated from the positive active material via the Ca/sup 2 +/ conducting polycrystalline solid electrolyte. The positive electrode consisted of a solid-state matrix having a somewhat related crystallographic structure to Ca/sup 2 +/ ..beta..''-alumina, but where a significant fraction of the A1/sup 3 +/ sites located within this solid electrolyte's spinel block were replaced by immobile transition metal species. These species were available for participating in solid-state redox electrochemistry upon electrochemical cell cycling.

  20. Development of Strengthened Bundle High Temperature Superconductors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lue, J.W.; Lubell, M.S. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Demko, J.A. [Oak Ridge Inst. for Science and Education, TN (United States); Tomsic, M. [Plastronic, Inc., Troy, OH (United States); Sinha, U. [Southwire Company, Carollton, GA (United States)

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    In the process of developing high temperature superconducting (HTS) transmission cables, it was found that mechanical strength of the superconducting tape is the most crucial property that needs to be improved. It is also desirable to increase the current carrying capacity of the conductor so that fewer layers are needed to make the kilo-amp class cables required for electric utility usage. A process has been developed by encapsulating a stack of Bi-2223/Ag tapes with a silver or non-silver sheath to form a strengthened bundle superconductor. This process was applied to HTS tapes made by the Continuous Tube Forming and Filling (CTFF) technique pursued by Plastronic Inc. and HTS tapes obtained from other manufacturers. Conductors with a bundle of 2 to 6 HTS tapes have been made. The bundled conductor is greatly strengthened by the non-silver sheath. No superconductor degradation as compared to the sum of the original critical currents of the individual tapes was seen on the finished conductors.

  1. Electronic high voltage generator with a high temperature superconducting coil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jin, J.X.; Liu, H.K.; Dou, S.X. [Univ. of Wollongong (Australia)] [and others

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A novel method for generating high voltages from a low voltage DC source, by using a capacitor and inductor in a R, L, C resonant circuit has been developed with the consideration of using a high temperature superconducting (HTS) coil. To generate high voltages the polarity of a low voltage battery source is reversed each half resonant cycle, the control being achieved by an electronic switch. Resistance in the circuit limits the voltages that can be built up. By replacing a copper winding inductor with another inductor which has a HTS winding, the magnitude of achievable voltages is substantially increased. A (Bi,Pb){sub 2}Sr{sub 2}Ca{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 10+x} multifilament HTS wire is considered in this work to make the superconducting inductor. The high voltages generated are not capable of supplying low impedance loads, however, possible applications of the generator include electrical partial discharge testing and insulation resistance testing. It could also be used as a testing method for the HTS itself with respect to the critical current and AC loss measurement.

  2. High-flux magnetorheology at elevated temperatures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ocalan, Murat

    Commercial applications of magnetorheological (MR) fluids often require operation at elevated temperatures as a result of surrounding environmental conditions or intense localized viscous heating. Previous experimental ...

  3. High Temperature 300°C Directional Drilling System

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Project objective: provide a directional drilling system that can be used at environmental temperatures of up to 300°C; and at depths of 10; 000 meters.

  4. SU(2) Lattice Gauge Theory at Nonzero Chemical Potential and Temperature

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    John B. Kogut

    2002-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

    SU(2) lattice gauge theory with four flavors of quarks is simulated at nonzero chemical potential mu and temperature T and the results are compared to the predictions of Effective Lagrangians. Simulations on 16^4 lattices indicate that at zero T the theory experiences a second order phase transition to a diquark condensate state which is well described by mean field theory. Nonzero T and mu are studied on 12^3 times 6 lattices. For low T, increasing mu takes the system through a line of second order phase transitions to a diquark condensed phase. Increasing T at high mu, the system passes through a line of first order transitions from the diquark phase to the quark-gluon plasma phase.

  5. Calcite Mineral Scaling Potentials of High-Temperature Geothermal Wells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Karlsson, Brynjar

    #12;i Calcite Mineral Scaling Potentials of High-Temperature Geothermal Wells Alvin I. Remoroza-Temperature Geothermal Wells Alvin I. Remoroza 60 ECTS thesis submitted in partial fulfillment of a Magister Scientiarum #12;iv Calcite Mineral Scaling Potentials of High-Temperature Geothermal Wells 60 ECTS thesis

  6. Vibrational Raman Spectroscopy of High-temperature Superconductors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nabben, Reinhard

    Vibrational Raman Spectroscopy of High-temperature Superconductors C. Thomsen and G. Kaczmarczyk-temperature Superconductors C. Thomsen and G. Kaczmarczyk Technical University of Berlin, Berlin, Germany 1 INTRODUCTION Raman after the discovery of high- critical-temperature Tc superconductors:2 while reports on Raman scattering

  7. High-temperature piezoresponse force microscopy B. Bhatia,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    King, William P.

    High-temperature piezoresponse force microscopy B. Bhatia,1 J. Karthik,2 D. G. Cahill,1,2 L. W September 2011; published online 24 October 2011) We report high temperature piezoresponse force microscopy resistive heater allows local temperature control up to 1000 C with minimal electrostatic interactions

  8. Quark number susceptibility of high temperature and finite density QCD

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ari Hietanen; Kari Rummukainen

    2007-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

    We utilize lattice simulations of the dimensionally reduced effective field theory (EQCD) to determine the quark number susceptibility of QCD at high temperature ($T>2T_c$). We also use analytic continuation to obtain results at finite density. The results extrapolate well from known perturbative expansion (accurate in extremely high temperatures) to 4d lower temperature lattice data

  9. High throughput chemical munitions treatment system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Haroldsen, Brent L. (Manteca, CA); Stofleth, Jerome H. (Albuquerque, NM); Didlake, Jr., John E. (Livermore, CA); Wu, Benjamin C-P (San Ramon, CA)

    2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A new High-Throughput Explosive Destruction System is disclosed. The new system is comprised of two side-by-side detonation containment vessels each comprising first and second halves that feed into a single agent treatment vessel. Both detonation containment vessels further comprise a surrounding ventilation facility. Moreover, the detonation containment vessels are designed to separate into two half-shells, wherein one shell can be moved axially away from the fixed, second half for ease of access and loading. The vessels are closed by means of a surrounding, clam-shell type locking seal mechanisms.

  10. Crops sought as high chemical energy source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rawls, R.

    1983-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Dept of Agriculture's Agricultural Research Service is searching for native plants that are not now being grown as commercial crops but that could be grown profitably to produce easily extractable, high-energy organic products. Usually these products are hydrocarbons or whole plant oils; protein content and plant fiber content are also considered. One such plant being investigated is smooth sumac, a woody perennial that is native to North America and is a particularly good source of polyphenols, resins and oils.

  11. High Efficiency Modular Chemical Processes (HEMCP)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(Fact Sheet), GeothermalGridHYDROGEN TOTechnologyHigh Efficiency Low - ADVANCED

  12. High temperature pressurized high frequency testing rig and test method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    De La Cruz, Jose; Lacey, Paul

    2003-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus is described which permits the lubricity of fuel compositions at or near temperatures and pressures experienced by compression ignition fuel injector components during operation in a running engine. The apparatus consists of means to apply a measured force between two surfaces and oscillate them at high frequency while wetted with a sample of the fuel composition heated to an operator selected temperature. Provision is made to permit operation at or near the flash point of the fuel compositions. Additionally a method of using the subject apparatus to simulate ASTM Testing Method D6079 is disclosed, said method involving using the disclosed apparatus to contact the faces of prepared workpieces under a measured load, sealing the workface contact point into the disclosed apparatus while immersing said contact point between said workfaces in a lubricating media to be tested, pressurizing and heating the chamber and thereby the fluid and workfaces therewithin, using the disclosed apparatus to impart a differential linear motion between the workpieces at their contact point until a measurable scar is imparted to at least one workpiece workface, and then evaluating the workface scar.

  13. Design of High Field Solenoids made of High Temperature Superconductors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bartalesi, Antonio; /Pisa U.

    2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis starts from the analytical mechanical analysis of a superconducting solenoid, loaded by self generated Lorentz forces. Also, a finite element model is proposed and verified with the analytical results. To study the anisotropic behavior of a coil made by layers of superconductor and insulation, a finite element meso-mechanic model is proposed and designed. The resulting material properties are then used in the main solenoid analysis. In parallel, design work is performed as well: an existing Insert Test Facility (ITF) is adapted and structurally verified to support a coil made of YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7}, a High Temperature Superconductor (HTS). Finally, a technological winding process was proposed and the required tooling is designed.

  14. Expansion Joint Concepts for High Temperature Insulation Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harrison, M. R.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As high temperature steam and process piping expands with heat, joints begin to open between the insulation sections, resulting in increased energy loss and possible unsafe surface temperatures. Many different expansion joint designs are presently...

  15. Ultra-High Temperature Distributed Wireless Sensors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    May, Russell; Rumpf, Raymond; Coggin, John; Davis, Williams; Yang, Taeyoung; O'Donnell, Alan; Bresnahan, Peter

    2013-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Research was conducted towards the development of a passive wireless sensor for measurement of temperature in coal gasifiers and coal-fired boiler plants. Approaches investigated included metamaterial sensors based on guided mode resonance filters, and temperature-sensitive antennas that modulate the frequency of incident radio waves as they are re-radiated by the antenna. In the guided mode resonant filter metamaterial approach, temperature is encoded as changes in the sharpness of the filter response, which changes with temperature because the dielectric loss of the guided mode resonance filter is temperature-dependent. In the mechanically modulated antenna approach, the resonant frequency of a vibrating cantilever beam attached to the antenna changes with temperature. The vibration of the beam perturbs the electrical impedance of the antenna, so that incident radio waves are phase modulated at a frequency equal to the resonant frequency of the vibrating beam. Since the beam resonant frequency depends on temperature, a Doppler radar can be used to remotely measure the temperature of the antenna. Laboratory testing of the guided mode resonance filter failed to produce the spectral response predicted by simulations. It was concluded that the spectral response was dominated by spectral reflections of radio waves incident on the filter. Laboratory testing of the mechanically modulated antenna demonstrated that the device frequency shifted incident radio waves, and that the frequency of the re-radiated waves varied linearly with temperature. Radio wave propagation tests in the convection pass of a small research boiler plant identified a spectral window between 10 and 13 GHz for low loss propagation of radio waves in the interior of the boiler.

  16. High temperature, minimally invasive optical sensing modules

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Riza, Nabeel Agha (Oviedo, FL); Perez, Frank (Tujunga, CA)

    2008-02-05T23:59:59.000Z

    A remote temperature sensing system includes a light source selectively producing light at two different wavelengths and a sensor device having an optical path length that varies as a function of temperature. The sensor receives light emitted by the light source and redirects the light along the optical path length. The system also includes a detector receiving redirected light from the sensor device and generating respective signals indicative of respective intensities of received redirected light corresponding to respective wavelengths of light emitted by the light source. The system also includes a processor processing the signals generated by the detector to calculate a temperature of the device.

  17. Three-loop free energy for high-temperature QED and QCD with fermions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arnold, P. (Department of Physics, FM-15, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States)); Zhai, C. (Department of Physics, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States))

    1995-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We compute the free energy density for gauge theories, with fermions, at high temperature and zero chemical potential. Specifically, we analytically compute the free energy through [ital O]([ital g][sup 4]), which requires the evaluation of three-loop diagrams. This computation extends our previous result for pure gauge QCD.

  18. Safety Issues for High Temperature Gas Reactors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Risk Informed Safety Profile #12;LEVELS OF DEFENCE IN DEPTH (From INSAG-10) Control, limiting (reactivity insertion) ­ Loss of Load ­ Rod Ejection (more significant in block reactors) ­ Failure of reactor effects and chemical attack on graphite · Blow down loads and timing of accident event sequences

  19. High Temperature Tolerant Ceramic Composites Having Porous Interphases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kriven, Waltraud M. (Champaign, IL); Lee, Sang-Jin (Chonnam, KR)

    2005-05-03T23:59:59.000Z

    In general, this invention relates to a ceramic composite exhibiting enhanced toughness and decreased brittleness, and to a process of preparing the ceramic composite. The ceramic composite comprises a first matrix that includes a first ceramic material, preferably selected from the group including alumina (Al2O3), mullite (3Al2O3.2SiO2), yttrium aluminate garnet (YAG), yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ), celsian (BaAl2Si2O8) and nickel aluminate (NiAl2O4). The ceramic composite also includes a porous interphase region that includes a substantially non-sinterable material. The non-sinterable material can be selected to include, for example, alumina platelets. The platelets lie in random 3-D orientation and provide a debonding mechanism, which is independent of temperature in chemically compatible matrices. The non-sinterable material induces constrained sintering of a ceramic powder resulting in permanent porosity in the interphase region. For high temperature properties, addition of a sinterable ceramic powder to the non-sinterable material provides sufficiently weak debonding interphases. The ceramic composite can be provided in a variety of forms including a laminate, a fibrous monolith, and a fiber-reinforced ceramic matrix. In the laminated systems, intimate mixing of strong versus tough microstructures were tailored by alternating various matrix-to-interphase thickness ratios to provide the bimodal laminate.

  20. A summary of high-temperature electronics research and development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thome, F.V.; King, D.B.

    1991-10-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Current and future needs in automative, aircraft, space, military, and well logging industries require operation of electronics at higher temperatures than today's accepted limit of 395 K. Without the availability of high-temperature electronics, many systems must operate under derated conditions or must accept severe mass penalties required by coolant systems to maintain electronic temperatures below critical levels. This paper presents ongoing research and development in the electronics community to bring high-temperature electronics to commercial realization. Much of this work was recently reviewed at the First International High-Temperature Electronics Conference held 16--20 June 1991 in Albuquerque, New Mexico. 4 refs., 1 tab.

  1. High Temperature, High Pressure Devices for Zonal Isolation in Geothermal Wells

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE Geothermal Peer Review 2010 - Presentation. Project objectives: Design, demonstrate, and qualify high-temperature high pressure zonal isolation devices compatible with the high temperature downhole Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) environment.

  2. Heavy quark scattering and quenching in a QCD medium at finite temperature and chemical potential

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berrehrah, H; Cassing, W; Gossiaux, P B; Aichelin, J

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The heavy quark collisional scattering on partons of the quark gluon plasma (QGP) is studied in a QCD medium at finite temperature and chemical potential. We evaluate the effects of finite parton masses and widths, finite temperature $T$ and quark chemical potential $\\mu_q$ on the different elastic cross sections for dynamical quasi-particles (on- and off-shell particles in the QGP medium as described by the dynamical quasi-particles model "DQPM") using the leading order Born diagrams. Our results show clearly the decrease of the $qQ$ and $gQ$ total elastic cross sections when the temperature and the quark chemical potential increase. These effects are amplified for finite $\\mu_q$ at temperatures lower than the corresponding critical temperature $T_c (\\mu_q)$. Using these cross sections we, furthermore, estimate the energy loss and longitudinal and transverse momentum transfers of a heavy quark propagating in a finite temperature and chemical potential medium. Accordingly, we have shown that the transport pro...

  3. High temperature cooling system and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Loewen, Eric P.

    2006-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for cooling a heat source, a method for preventing chemical interaction between a vessel and a cooling composition therein, and a cooling system. The method for cooling employs a containment vessel with an oxidizable interior wall. The interior wall is oxidized to form an oxide barrier layer thereon, the cooling composition is monitored for excess oxidizing agent, and a reducing agent is provided to eliminate excess oxidation. The method for preventing chemical interaction between a vessel and a cooling composition involves introducing a sufficient quantity of a reactant which is reactive with the vessel in order to produce a barrier layer therein that is non-reactive with the cooling composition. The cooling system includes a containment vessel with oxidizing agent and reducing agent delivery conveyances and a monitor of oxidation and reduction states so that proper maintenance of a vessel wall oxidation layer occurs.

  4. DEGRADATION ISSUES IN SOLID OXIDE CELLS DURING HIGH TEMPERATURE ELECTROLYSIS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. E. O'Brien; C. M. Stoots; V. I. Sharma; B. Yildiz; A. V. Virkar

    2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is performing high-temperature electrolysis research to generate hydrogen using solid oxide electrolysis cells (SOECs). The project goals are to address the technical and degradation issues associated with the SOECs. This paper provides a summary of various ongoing INL and INL sponsored activities aimed at addressing SOEC degradation. These activities include stack testing, post-test examination, degradation modeling, and a list of issues that need to be addressed in future. Major degradation issues relating to solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) are relatively better understood than those for SOECs. Some of the degradation mechanisms in SOFCs include contact problems between adjacent cell components, microstructural deterioration (coarsening) of the porous electrodes, and blocking of the reaction sites within the electrodes. Contact problems include delamination of an electrode from the electrolyte, growth of a poorly (electronically) conducting oxide layer between the metallic interconnect plates and the electrodes, and lack of contact between the interconnect and the electrode. INL’s test results on high temperature electrolysis (HTE) using solid oxide cells do not provide a clear evidence whether different events lead to similar or drastically different electrochemical degradation mechanisms. Post-test examination of the solid oxide electrolysis cells showed that the hydrogen electrode and interconnect get partially oxidized and become non-conductive. This is most likely caused by the hydrogen stream composition and flow rate during cool down. The oxygen electrode side of the stacks seemed to be responsible for the observed degradation due to large areas of electrode delamination. Based on the oxygen electrode appearance, the degradation of these stacks was largely controlled by the oxygen electrode delamination rate. University of Utah (Virkar) has developed a SOEC model based on concepts in local thermodynamic equilibrium in systems otherwise in global thermodynamic non-equilibrium. This model is under continued development. It shows that electronic conduction through the electrolyte, however small, must be taken into account for determining local oxygen chemical potential, within the electrolyte. The chemical potential within the electrolyte may lie out of bounds in relation to values at the electrodes in the electrolyzer mode. Under certain conditions, high pressures can develop in the electrolyte just under the oxygen electrode (anode)/electrolyte interface, leading to electrode delamination. This theory is being further refined and tested by introducing some electronic conduction in the electrolyte.

  5. First high-temperature electronics products survey 2005.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Normann, Randy Allen

    2006-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    On April 4-5, 2005, a High-Temperature Electronics Products Workshop was held. This workshop engaged a number of governmental and private industry organizations sharing a common interest in the development of commercially available, high-temperature electronics. One of the outcomes of this meeting was an agreement to conduct an industry survey of high-temperature applications. This report covers the basic results of this survey.

  6. Overview of Fraunhofer IPM Activities in High Temperature Bulk...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Workshop including an overview about Fraunhofer IPM, new funding situation in Germany, high temperature material and modules, energy-autarkic sensors, and thermoelectric...

  7. Detecting Fractures Using Technology at High Temperatures and...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Detecting Fractures Using Technology at High Temperatures and Depths - Geothermal Ultrasonic Fracture Imager (GUFI); 2010 Geothermal Technology Program Peer Review Report Detecting...

  8. Microchannel High-Temperature Recuperator for Fuel Cell Systems...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    developed an efficient, microchannel-based waste heat recuperator for a high-temperature fuel cell system. This technology increases the efficiency of fuel cells and improves...

  9. Detecting Fractures Using Technology at High Temperatures and...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    7 4.4.1 Detecting Fractures Using Technology at High Temperatures and Depths - Geothermal Ultrasonic Fracture Imager (GUFI) Presentation Number: 015 Investigator: Patterson, Doug...

  10. advanced high temperature: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    John 3 Lake surface water temperature retrieval using advanced very high resolution radiometer and Geosciences Websites Summary: and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer...

  11. Project Profile: Fundamental Corrosion Studies in High-Temperature...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Studies in High-Temperature Molten Salt Systems for Next-Generation CSP Systems Savannah River National Laboratory logo The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), under the...

  12. Enhanced High and Low Temperature Performance of NOx Reduction...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    High and Low Temperature Performance of NOx Reduction Materials 2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer...

  13. Nanostructured High-Temperature Bulk Thermoelectric Energy Conversion...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Nanostructured High-Temperature Bulk Thermoelectric Energy Conversion for Efficient Automotive Waste Heat Recovery Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Nanostructured...

  14. Feasibility and Design Studies for a High Temperature Downhole Tool

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Project objective: Perform feasibility and design studies for a high temperature downhole tool; which uses nuclear techniques for characterization purposes; using measurements and modeling/simulation.

  15. Enhanced High Temperature Performance of NOx Storage/Reduction...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation ace026peden2011o.pdf More Documents & Publications Enhanced High Temperature Performance of NOx StorageReduction (NSR) Materials...

  16. Combining Raman Microprobe and XPS to Study High Temperature...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    spectroscopy. Citation: Windisch CF, Jr, CH Henager, MH Engelhard, and WD Bennett.2011."Combining Raman Microprobe and XPS to Study High Temperature Oxidation of...

  17. Development of a 500 Watt High Temperature Thermoelectric Generator...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Publications Development of a 100-Watt High Temperature Thermoelectric Generator Automotive Waste Heat Conversion to Power Program Automotive Waste Heat Conversion to Power Program...

  18. Metallic substrates for high temperature superconductors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Truchan, Thomas G. (Chicago, IL); Miller, Dean J. (Darien, IL); Goretta, Kenneth C. (Downers Grove, IL); Balachandran, Uthamalingam (Hinsdale, IL); Foley, Robert (Chicago, IL)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A biaxially textured face-centered cubic metal article having grain boundaries with misorientation angles greater than about 8.degree. limited to less than about 1%. A laminate article is also disclosed having a metal substrate first rolled to at least about 95% thickness reduction followed by a first annealing at a temperature less than about 375.degree. C. Then a second rolling operation of not greater than about 6% thickness reduction is provided, followed by a second annealing at a temperature greater than about 400.degree. C. A method of forming the metal and laminate articles is also disclosed.

  19. Effective theory of high-temperature superconductors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Igor F. Herbut

    2005-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

    General field theory of a fluctuating d-wave superconductor is constructed and proposed as an effective description of superconducting cuprates at low energies. The theory is used to resolve a puzzle posed by recent experiments on superfluid density in severely underdoped YBCO. In particular, the overall temperature dependence of the superfluid density at low dopings is argued to be described well by the strongly anisotropic weakly interacting three-dimensional Bose gas, and thus approximately linear in temperature with an almost doping-independent slope.

  20. Quantum gravitational proton decay at high temperature

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ulf H. Danielsson

    2005-12-29T23:59:59.000Z

    One of the most important challenges of contemporary physics is to find experimental signatures of quantum gravity. It is expected that quantum gravitational effects lead to proton decay but on time scales way beyond what is of any relevance to experiments. At non-zero temperatures there are reasons to believe that the situation is much more favourable. We will argue that at the temperatures and densities reached at present and future fusion facilities there is a realistic possibility that proton decay could be detectable.

  1. High temperature ceramic composition for hydrogen retention

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Webb, R.W.

    1974-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A ceramic coating for H retention in fuel elements is described. The coating has relatively low thermal neutron cross section, is not readily reduced by H at 1500 deg F, is adherent to the fuel element base metal, and is stable at reactor operating temperatures. (JRD)

  2. High-Temperature Viscosity of Commercial Glasses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hrma, Pavel R.

    2006-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Arrhenius models were developed for glass viscosity within the processing temperature of six types of commercial glasses: low-expansion-borosilicate glasses, E glasses, fiberglass wool glasses, TV panel glasses, container glasses, and float glasses. Both local models (for each of the six glass types) and a global model (for the composition region of commercial glasses, i.e., the six glass types taken together) are presented. The models are based on viscosity data previously obtained with rotating spindle viscometers within the temperature range between 900 C and 1550 C; the viscosity varied from 1 Pa?s to 750 Pa?s. First-order models were applied to relate Arrhenius coefficients to the mass fractions of 15 components: SiO2, TiO2, ZrO2, Al2O3, Fe2O3, B2O3, MgO, CaO, SrO, BaO, PbO, ZnO, Li2O, Na2O, K2O. The R2 is 0.98 for the global model and ranges from .097 to 0.99 for the six local models. The models are recommended for glasses containing 42 to 84 mass% SiO2 to estimate viscosities or temperatures at a constant viscosity for melts within both the temperature range from 1100 C to 1550 C and viscosity range from 5 to 400 Pa?s.

  3. ANALYSIS OF A HIGH TEMPERATURE GAS-COOLED REACTOR POWERED HIGH TEMPERATURE ELECTROLYSIS HYDROGEN PLANT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M. G. McKellar; E. A. Harvego; A. M. Gandrik

    2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An updated reference design for a commercial-scale high-temperature electrolysis (HTE) plant for hydrogen production has been developed. The HTE plant is powered by a high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) whose configuration and operating conditions are based on the latest design parameters planned for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP). The current HTGR reference design specifies a reactor power of 600 MWt, with a primary system pressure of 7.0 MPa, and reactor inlet and outlet fluid temperatures of 322°C and 750°C, respectively. The reactor heat is used to produce heat and electric power to the HTE plant. A Rankine steam cycle with a power conversion efficiency of 44.4% was used to provide the electric power. The electrolysis unit used to produce hydrogen includes 1.1 million cells with a per-cell active area of 225 cm2. The reference hydrogen production plant operates at a system pressure of 5.0 MPa, and utilizes a steam-sweep system to remove the excess oxygen that is evolved on the anode (oxygen) side of the electrolyzer. The overall system thermal-to-hydrogen production efficiency (based on the higher heating value of the produced hydrogen) is 42.8% at a hydrogen production rate of 1.85 kg/s (66 million SCFD) and an oxygen production rate of 14.6 kg/s (33 million SCFD). An economic analysis of this plant was performed with realistic financial and cost estimating The results of the economic analysis demonstrated that the HTE hydrogen production plant driven by a high-temperature helium-cooled nuclear power plant can deliver hydrogen at a competitive cost. A cost of $3.03/kg of hydrogen was calculated assuming an internal rate of return of 10% and a debt to equity ratio of 80%/20% for a reactor cost of $2000/kWt and $2.41/kg of hydrogen for a reactor cost of $1400/kWt.

  4. Rotational viscometer for high-pressure high-temperature fluids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carr, Kenneth R. (Knoxville, TN)

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention is a novel rotational viscometer which is well adapted for use with fluids at high temperatures and/or pressures. In one embodiment, the viscometer includes a substantially non-magnetic tube having a closed end and having an open end in communication with a fluid whose viscosity is to be determined. An annular drive magnet is mounted for rotation about the tube. The tube encompasses and supports a rotatable shaft assembly which carries a rotor, or bob, for insertion in the fluid. Affixed to the shaft are (a) a second magnet which is magnetically coupled to the drive magnet and (b) a third magnet. In a typical operation, the drive magnet is rotated to turn the shaft assembly while the shaft rotor is immersed in the fluid. The viscous drag on the rotor causes the shaft assembly to lag the rotation of the drive magnet by an amount which is a function of the amount of viscous drag. A first magnetic pickup generates a waveform whose phase is a function of the angular position of the drive magnet. A second magnetic pickup generates a waveform whose phase is a function of the angular position of the third magnet. An output is generated indicative of the phase difference between the two waveforms.

  5. Scaling Studies for High Temperature Test Facility and Modular High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richard R. Schult; Paul D. Bayless; Richard W. Johnson; James R. Wolf; Brian Woods

    2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Oregon State University (OSU) High Temperature Test Facility (HTTF) is an integral experimental facility that will be constructed on the OSU campus in Corvallis, Oregon. The HTTF project was initiated, by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), on September 5, 2008 as Task 4 of the 5-year High Temperature Gas Reactor Cooperative Agreement via NRC Contract 04-08-138. Until August, 2010, when a DOE contract was initiated to fund additional capabilities for the HTTF project, all of the funding support for the HTTF was provided by the NRC via their cooperative agreement. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) began their involvement with the HTTF project in late 2009 via the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) project. Because the NRC's interests in HTTF experiments were only centered on the depressurized conduction cooldown (DCC) scenario, NGNP involvement focused on expanding the experimental envelope of the HTTF to include steady-state operations and also the pressurized conduction cooldown (PCC).

  6. High-Temperature-High-Volume Lifting for Enhanced Geothermal Systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Project objective: Advance the technology for well fluids lifting systems to meet the foreseeable pressure; temperature; and longevity needs of the Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) industry.

  7. Considerations of Alloy N for Fluoride Salt-Cooled High-Temperature Reactor Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ren, Weiju [ORNL; Muralidharan, Govindarajan [ORNL; Wilson, Dane F [ORNL; Holcomb, David Eugene [ORNL

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fluoride Salt-Cooled High-Temperature Reactors (FHRs) are a promising new class of thermal-spectrum nuclear reactors. The reactor structural materials must possess high-temperature strength and chemical compatibility with the liquid fluoride salt as well as with a power cycle fluid such as supercritical water while remaining resistant to residual air within the containment. Alloy N was developed for use with liquid fluoride salts and it possesses adequate strength and chemical compatibility up to about 700 C. A distinctive property of FHRs is that their maximum allowable coolant temperature is restricted by their structural alloy maximum service temperature. As the reactor thermal efficiency directly increases with the maximum coolant temperature, higher temperature resistant alloys are strongly desired. This paper reviews the current status of Alloy N and its relevance to FHRs including its design principles, development history, high temperature strength, environmental resistance, metallurgical stability, component manufacturability, ASME codification status, and reactor service requirements. The review will identify issues and provide guidance for improving the alloy properties or implementing engineering solutions.

  8. High temperature expanding cement composition and use

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nelson, Erik B. (Tulsa County, OK); Eilers, Louis H. (Rogers County, OK)

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A hydratable cement composition useful for preparing a pectolite-containing expanding cement at temperatures above about 150.degree. C. comprising a water soluble sodium salt of a weak acid, a 0.1 molar aqueous solution of which salt has a pH of between about 7.5 and about 11.5, a calcium source, and a silicon source, where the atomic ratio of sodium to calcium to silicon ranges from about 0.3:0.6:1 to about 0.03:1:1; aqueous slurries prepared therefrom and the use of such slurries for plugging subterranean cavities at a temperature of at least about 150.degree. C. The invention composition is useful for preparing a pectolite-containing expansive cement having about 0.2 to about 2 percent expansion, by volume, when cured at at least 150.degree. C.

  9. High Temperature Materials for Aerospace Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Adamczak, Andrea Diane

    2011-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Chair of Advisory Committee: Dr. Jaime C. Grunlan Further crosslinking of the fluorinated polyimide was examined to separate the cure reactions from degradation and to determine the optimum post curing conditions. Glass transition... ranging from 225 ? 362 ?C, with 1.7 - 3.0 wt% absorbed moisture, and the polyimide composite had blister temperatures from 246 ? 294 ?C with 0.5 - 1.5 wt% moisture. iv Weight loss of the fluorinated polyimide and its corresponding polyimide carbon...

  10. High-Temperature Viscosity Of Commercial Glasses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hrma, Pavel R.; See, Clem A.; Lam, Oanh P.; Minister, Kevin B.

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Viscosity was measured for six types of commercial glasses: low-expansion-borosilicate glasses, E glasses, fiberglass wool glasses, TV panel glasses, container glasses, and float glasses. Viscosity data were obtained with rotating spindle viscometers within the temperature range between 900°C and 1550°C; the viscosity varied from 1 Pa?s to 750 Pa?s. Arrhenius coefficients were calculated for individual glasses and linear models were applied to relate them to the mass fractions of 11 major components (SiO2, CaO, Na2O, Al2O3, B2O3, BaO, SrO, K2O, MgO, PbO, and ZrO2) and 12 minor components (Fe2O3, ZnO, Li2O, TiO2, CeO2, F, Sb2O3, Cr2O3, As2O3, MnO2, SO3, and Co3O4). The models are recommended for glasses containing 42 to 84 mass% SiO2 to estimate viscosities or temperatures at a constant viscosity for melts within both the temperature range from 1100°C to 1550°C and viscosity range from 10 to 400 Pa?s.

  11. To Crack or Not to Crack: Strain in High Temperature Superconductors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Godeke, Arno

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in High Temperature Superconductors Arno Godeke August 22,in High Temperature Superconductors Motivation Magneticin High Temperature Superconductors How do Nb 3 Sn magnets

  12. Advanced High-Temperature, High-Pressure Transport Reactor Gasification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael L. Swanson

    2005-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The transport reactor development unit (TRDU) was modified to accommodate oxygen-blown operation in support of a Vision 21-type energy plex that could produce power, chemicals, and fuel. These modifications consisted of changing the loop seal design from a J-leg to an L-valve configuration, thereby increasing the mixing zone length and residence time. In addition, the standpipe, dipleg, and L-valve diameters were increased to reduce slugging caused by bubble formation in the lightly fluidized sections of the solid return legs. A seal pot was added to the bottom of the dipleg so that the level of solids in the standpipe could be operated independently of the dipleg return leg. A separate coal feed nozzle was added that could inject the coal upward into the outlet of the mixing zone, thereby precluding any chance of the fresh coal feed back-mixing into the oxidizing zone of the mixing zone; however, difficulties with this coal feed configuration led to a switch back to the original downward configuration. Instrumentation to measure and control the flow of oxygen and steam to the burner and mix zone ports was added to allow the TRDU to be operated under full oxygen-blown conditions. In total, ten test campaigns have been conducted under enriched-air or full oxygen-blown conditions. During these tests, 1515 hours of coal feed with 660 hours of air-blown gasification and 720 hours of enriched-air or oxygen-blown coal gasification were completed under this particular contract. During these tests, approximately 366 hours of operation with Wyodak, 123 hours with Navajo sub-bituminous coal, 143 hours with Illinois No. 6, 106 hours with SUFCo, 110 hours with Prater Creek, 48 hours with Calumet, and 134 hours with a Pittsburgh No. 8 bituminous coal were completed. In addition, 331 hours of operation on low-rank coals such as North Dakota lignite, Australian brown coal, and a 90:10 wt% mixture of lignite and wood waste were completed. Also included in these test campaigns was 50 hours of gasification on a petroleum coke from the Hunt Oil Refinery and an additional 73 hours of operation on a high-ash coal from India. Data from these tests indicate that while acceptable fuel gas heating value was achieved with these fuels, the transport gasifier performs better on the lower-rank feedstocks because of their higher char reactivity. Comparable carbon conversions have been achieved at similar oxygen/coal ratios for both air-blown and oxygen-blown operation for each fuel; however, carbon conversion was lower for the less reactive feedstocks. While separation of fines from the feed coals is not needed with this technology, some testing has suggested that feedstocks with higher levels of fines have resulted in reduced carbon conversion, presumably due to the inability of the finer carbon particles to be captured by the cyclones. These data show that these low-rank feedstocks provided similar fuel gas heating values; however, even among the high-reactivity low-rank coals, the carbon conversion did appear to be lower for the fuels (brown coal in particular) that contained a significant amount of fines. The fuel gas under oxygen-blown operation has been higher in hydrogen and carbon dioxide concentration since the higher steam injection rate promotes the water-gas shift reaction to produce more CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2} at the expense of the CO and water vapor. However, the high water and CO{sub 2} partial pressures have also significantly reduced the reaction of (Abstract truncated)

  13. High Temperature Evaluation of Tantalum Capacitors - Test 1

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Cieslewski, Grzegorz

    Tantalum capacitors can provide much higher capacitance at high-temperatures than the ceramic capacitors. This study evaluates selected tantalum capacitors at high temperatures to determine their suitability for you in geothermal field. This data set contains results of the first test where three different types of capacitors were evaluated at 260C.

  14. High Temperature Evaluation of Tantalum Capacitors - Test 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cieslewski, Grzegorz

    2014-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Tantalum capacitors can provide much higher capacitance at high-temperatures than the ceramic capacitors. This study evaluates selected tantalum capacitors at high temperatures to determine their suitability for you in geothermal field. This data set contains results of the first test where three different types of capacitors were evaluated at 260C.

  15. ANALYSIS OF FUTURE PRICES AND MARKETS FOR HIGH TEMPERATURE SUPERCONDUCTORS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 ANALYSIS OF FUTURE PRICES AND MARKETS FOR HIGH TEMPERATURE SUPERCONDUCTORS BY JOSEPH MULHOLLAND temperature superconductors (HTS) may impact the national electrical system over the next 25 years dollars. However, the savings from superconductivity are offset somewhat by the high cost of manufacturing

  16. Calculated Phonon Spectra of Plutonium at High Temperatures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Savrasov, Sergej Y.

    Calculated Phonon Spectra of Plutonium at High Temperatures X. Dai,1 S. Y. Savrasov,2 * G. Kotliar dynamical proper- ties of plutonium using an electronic structure method, which incorporates correlation anharmonic and can be stabilized at high temperatures by its phonon entropy. Plutonium (Pu) is a material

  17. High Temperature Electrolysis of Steam and Carbon Dioxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    High Temperature Electrolysis of Steam and Carbon Dioxide Søren Højgaard Jensen+,#, Jens V. T. Høgh + O2 #12;Electrolysis of steam at high temperature Interesting because · Improved thermodynamic of electrolysis of steam Picture taken from E. Erdle, J. Gross, V. Meyringer, "Solar thermal central receiver

  18. Apparatus for monitoring high temperature ultrasonic characterization

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lanagan, M.T.; Kupperman, D.S.; Yaconi, G.A.

    1998-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and an apparatus for nondestructive detecting and evaluating changes in the microstructural properties of a material by employing one or more magnetostrictive transducers linked to the material by means of one or more sonic signal conductors. The magnetostrictive transducer or transducers are connected to a pulser/receiver which in turn is connected to an oscilloscope. The oscilloscope is connected to a computer which employs an algorithm to evaluate changes in the velocity of a signal transmitted to the material sample as function of time and temperature. 6 figs.

  19. Apparatus for monitoring high temperature ultrasonic characterization

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lanagan, Michael T. (Woodridge, IL); Kupperman, David S. (Oak Park, IL); Yaconi, George A. (Berwyn, IL)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and an apparatus for nondestructive detecting and evaluating chas in the microstructural properties of a material by employing one or more magnetostrictive transducers linked to the material by means of one or more sonic signal conductors. The magnetostrictive transducer or transducers are connected to a pulser/receiver which in turn is connected to an oscilloscope. The oscilloscope is connected to a computer which employs an algorithm to evaluate changes in the velocity of a signal transmitted to the material sample as function of time and temperature.

  20. High Temperature Oxidation Resistance and Surface Electrical...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    with Filtered Arc Cr-Al-N Abstract: The requirements for low cost and high-tempurater corrosion resistance for bipolar interconnect plates in solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) stacks...

  1. Semi-insulating crystalline silicon formed by oxygen doping during low-temperature chemical vapor deposition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Semi-insulating crystalline silicon formed by oxygen doping during low-temperature chemical vapor) In this letter we demonstrate the use of oxygen as a dopant in silicon to create semi-insulating, crystalline of the films exhibit classical characteristics of space-charge-limited current associated with insulators

  2. Temperature-dependent leaching of chemical elements from mineral water bottle materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Short, Daniel

    t It is well established that minute amounts of chemical elements will leach from bottle materials (glass leach- ing increases with storage temperature. For glass bottles this is clearly the case for a long, Sb, Se, Sn, Sr, Ti, U, V, W and Zr. However, for glass bottles drinking water maximum admissible

  3. An experimental investigation of high temperature, high pressure paper drying

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Patel, Kamal Raoji

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    % moisture removed oven dried mass of handsheet, g mass of handsheet after drying test, g mass of handsheet before drying test, g relative moisture removed from handsheet moisture removed by drying, % initial moisture (im) initial handsheet sample mass..., and the effects on the paper sheet and drying felt can be detrimental. Elevated temperatures reduce water viscosity which permits reduced resistance to water flow in the sheet. Pressing with a drying temperature of 95 C gives increased drying capacity, reduced...

  4. To the Non-Local Theory of the High Temperature Superconductivity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boris V. Alexeev

    2012-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The possibility of the non local physics application in the theory of superconductivity is investigated. It is shown that by the superconducting conditions the relay ("estafette") motion of the soliton' system ("attice ion - electron") is realizing by the absence of chemical bonds. From the position of the quantum hydrodynamics the problem of creation of the high temperature superconductors leads to finding of materials which lattices could realize the soliton' motion without destruction. These materials should be created using the technology of quantum dots. Key words: Foundations of the theory of transport processes; The theory of solitons; Generalized hydrodynamic equations; Foundations of quantum mechanics; high temperature superconductivity.

  5. High Temperature Interfacial Superconductivity - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cnHigh School football High School football Fancy footwork by C. Kim

  6. High Temperature PEM - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cnHigh School football High School football Fancy footwork by C.

  7. Development of Metal Oxide Nanostructure-based Optical Sensors for Fossil Fuel Derived Gases Measurement at High Temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Kevin

    2014-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This final technical report details research works performed supported by a Department of Energy grant (DE-FE0003859), which was awarded under the University Coal Research Program administrated by National Energy Technology Laboratory. This research program studied high temperature fiber sensor for harsh environment applications. It developed two fiber optical sensor platform technology including regenerative fiber Bragg grating sensors and distributed fiber optical sensing based on Rayleigh backscattering optical frequency domain reflectometry. Through the studies of chemical and thermal regenerative techniques for fiber Bragg grating (FBG) fabrication, high-temperature stable FBG sensors were successfully developed and fabricated in air-hole microstructured fibers, high-attenuation fibers, rare-earth doped fibers, and standard telecommunication fibers. By optimizing the laser processing and thermal annealing procedures, fiber grating sensors with stable performance up to 1100oC have been developed. Using these temperature-stable FBG gratings as sensor platform, fiber optical flow, temperature, pressure, and chemical sensors have been developed to operate at high temperatures up to 800oC. Through the integration of on-fiber functional coating, the use of application-specific air-hole microstructural fiber, and application of active fiber sensing scheme, distributed fiber sensor for temperature, pressure, flow, liquid level, and chemical sensing have been demonstrated with high spatial resolution (1-cm or better) with wide temperature ranges. These include the demonstration of 1) liquid level sensing from 77K to the room temperature, pressure/temperature sensing from the room temperature to 800C and from the 15psi to 2000 psi, and hydrogen concentration measurement from 0.2% to 10% with temperature ranges from the room temperature to 700C. Optical sensors developed by this program has broken several technical records including flow sensors with the highest operation temperature up to 750oC, first distributed chemical measurements at the record high temperature up to 700oC, first distributed pressure measurement at the record high temperature up to 800oC, and the fiber laser sensors with the record high operation temperature up to 700oC. The research performed by this program dramatically expand the functionality, adaptability, and applicability of distributed fiber optical sensors with potential applications in a number of high-temperature energy systems such as fossil-fuel power generation, high-temperature fuel cell applications, and potential for nuclear energy systems.

  8. HIGH TEMPERATURE ELECTROLYZER MATERIALS PROJECT GOAL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mease, Kenneth D.

    a fuel for the SOFC itself, as a fuel for other devices (e.g., fuel cell vehicles), or as a raw material with compatible electrodes to develop reversible solid oxide fuel cells for low-cost, high efficient power fuel cell concept has been proven, no complete reversible fuel cell materials set has yet been

  9. Thermocouples For High Temperature In-Pile Testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. L. Rempe

    2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Many advanced nuclear reactor designs require new fuel, cladding and structural materials. Data are needed to characeterize the performance of these new materials in high temperature, oxidizing and radiation conditions. To obtain this data, robust instrumentation is needed htat can survive proposed test conditions. Traditional methods for measuring temperature in-pile degrade at temperatures above 1080 degrees C. Hence, a project was intiated to develop specialized thermocouples for high temperature in-pile applications (see Rempe and Wilkins, 2005). This paper summarizes efforts to develop, fabricate and evaluate these specialized thermocouples.

  10. Method And Apparatus For Evaluatin Of High Temperature Superconductors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fishman, Ilya M. (Palo Alto, CA); Kino, Gordon S. (Stanford, CA)

    1996-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

    A technique for evaluation of high-T.sub.c superconducting films and single crystals is based on measurement of temperature dependence of differential optical reflectivity of high-T.sub.c materials. In the claimed method, specific parameters of the superconducting transition such as the critical temperature, anisotropy of the differential optical reflectivity response, and the part of the optical losses related to sample quality are measured. The apparatus for performing this technique includes pump and probe sources, cooling means for sweeping sample temperature across the critical temperature and polarization controller for controlling a state of polarization of a probe light beam.

  11. Apparatus and method for enhanced chemical processing in high pressure and atmospheric plasmas produced by high frequency electromagnetic waves

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Efthimion, Philip C. (Bedminister, NJ); Helfritch, Dennis J. (Flemington, NJ)

    1989-11-28T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus and method for creating high temperature plasmas for enhanced chemical processing of gaseous fluids, toxic chemicals, and the like, at a wide range of pressures, especially at atmospheric and high pressures includes an electro-magnetic resonator cavity, preferably a reentrant cavity, and a wave guiding structure which connects an electro-magnetic source to the cavity. The cavity includes an intake port and an exhaust port, each having apertures in the conductive walls of the cavity sufficient for the intake of the gaseous fluids and for the discharge of the processed gaseous fluids. The apertures are sufficiently small to prevent the leakage of the electro-magnetic radiation from the cavity. Gaseous fluid flowing from the direction of the electro-magnetic source through the guiding wave structure and into the cavity acts on the plasma to push it away from the guiding wave structure and the electro-magnetic source. The gaseous fluid flow confines the high temperature plasma inside the cavity and allows complete chemical processing of the gaseous fluids at a wide range of pressures.

  12. High Temperature Calcination - MACT Upgrade Equipment Pilot Plant Test

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richard D. Boardman; B. H. O'Brien; N. R. Soelberg; S. O. Bates; R. A. Wood; C. St. Michel

    2004-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    About one million gallons of acidic, hazardous, and radioactive sodium-bearing waste are stored in stainless steel tanks at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC), which is a major operating facility of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. Calcination at high-temperature conditions (600 C, with alumina nitrate and calcium nitrate chemical addition to the feed) is one of four options currently being considered by the Department of Energy for treatment of the remaining tank wastes. If calcination is selected for future processing of the sodium-bearing waste, it will be necessary to install new off-gas control equipment in the New Waste Calcining Facility (NWCF) to comply with the Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) standards for hazardous waste combustors and incinerators. This will require, as a minimum, installing a carbon bed to reduce mercury emissions from their current level of up to 7,500 to <45 {micro}g/dscm, and a staged combustor to reduce unburned kerosene fuel in the off-gas discharge to <100 ppm CO and <10 ppm hydrocarbons. The staged combustor will also reduce NOx concentrations of about 35,000 ppm by 90-95%. A pilot-plant calcination test was completed in a newly constructed 15-cm diameter calciner vessel. The pilot-plant facility was equipped with a prototype MACT off-gas control system, including a highly efficient cyclone separator and off-gas quench/venturi scrubber for particulate removal, a staged combustor for unburned hydrocarbon and NOx destruction, and a packed activated carbon bed for mercury removal and residual chloride capture. Pilot-plant testing was performed during a 50-hour system operability test January 14-16, followed by a 100-hour high-temperature calcination pilot-plant calcination run January 19-23. Two flowsheet blends were tested: a 50-hour test with an aluminum-to-alkali metal molar ratio (AAR) of 2.25, and a 50-hour test with an AAR of 1.75. Results of the testing indicate that sodium-bearing waste can be successfully calcined at 600 C with an AAR of 1.75. Unburned hydrocarbons are reduced to less than 10 ppm (7% O2, dry basis), with >90% reduction of NOx emissions. Mercury removal by the carbon bed reached 99.99%, surpassing the control efficiency needed to meet MACT emissions standards. No deleterious impacts on the carbon bed were observed during the tests. The test results imply that upgrading the NWCF calciner with a more efficient cyclone separator and the proposed MACT equipment can process the remaining tanks wastes in 3 years or less, and comply with the MACT standards.

  13. Advanced High Temperature Reactor Neutronic Core Design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ilas, Dan [ORNL] [ORNL; Holcomb, David Eugene [ORNL] [ORNL; Varma, Venugopal Koikal [ORNL] [ORNL

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The AHTR is a 3400 MW(t) FHR class reactor design concept intended to serve as a central generating station type power plant. While significant technology development and demonstration remains, the basic design concept appears sound and tolerant of much of the remaining performance uncertainty. No fundamental impediments have been identified that would prevent widespread deployment of the concept. This paper focuses on the preliminary neutronic design studies performed at ORNL during the fiscal year 2011. After a brief presentation of the AHTR design concept, the paper summarizes several neutronic studies performed at ORNL during 2011. An optimization study for the AHTR core is first presented. The temperature and void coefficients of reactivity are then analyzed for a few configurations of interest. A discussion of the limiting factors due to the fast neutron fluence follows. The neutronic studies conclude with a discussion of the control and shutdown options. The studies presented confirm that sound neutronic alternatives exist for the design of the AHTR to maintain full passive safety features and reasonable operation conditions.

  14. High Temperature Superconductivity in Cuprates: a model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. R. Silva

    2010-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A model is proposed such that quasi-particles (electrons or holes) residing in the CuO2 planes of cuprates may interact leading to metallic or superconducting behaviors. The metallic phase is obtained when the quasi-particles are treated as having classical kinetic energies and the superconducting phase occurs when the quasi-particles are taken as extremely relativistic objects. The interaction between both kinds of particles is provided by a force dependent-on-velocity. In the case of the superconducting behavior, the motion of apical oxygen ions provides the glue to establish the Cooper pair. The model furnishes explicit relations for the Fermi velocity, the perpendicular and the in-plane coherence lengths, the zero-temperature energy gap, the critical current density, the critical parallel and perpendicular magnetic fields. All these mentioned quantities are expressed in terms of fundamental physical constants as: charge and mass of the electron, light velocity in vacuum, Planck constant, electric permittivity of the vacuum. Numerical evaluation of these quantities show that their values are close those found for the superconducting YBaCuO, leading to think the model as being a possible scenario to explain superconductivity in cuprates.

  15. Method for synthesizing extremely high-temperature melting materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Saboungi, Marie-Louise (Chicago, IL); Glorieux, Benoit (Perpignan, FR)

    2007-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention relates to a method of synthesizing high-temperature melting materials. More specifically the invention relates to a containerless method of synthesizing very high temperature melting materials such as carbides and transition-metal, lanthanide and actinide oxides, using an aerodynamic levitator and a laser. The object of the invention is to provide a method for synthesizing extremely high-temperature melting materials that are otherwise difficult to produce, without the use of containers, allowing the manipulation of the phase (amorphous/crystalline/metastable) and permitting changes of the environment such as different gaseous compositions.

  16. Method For Synthesizing Extremely High-Temperature Melting Materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Saboungi, Marie-Louise (Chicago, IL); Glorieux, Benoit (Perpignan, FR)

    2005-11-22T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention relates to a method of synthesizing high-temperature melting materials. More specifically the invention relates to a containerless method of synthesizing very high temperature melting materials such as borides, carbides and transition-metal, lanthanide and actinide oxides, using an Aerodynamic Levitator and a laser. The object of the invention is to provide a method for synthesizing extremely high-temperature melting materials that are otherwise difficult to produce, without the use of containers, allowing the manipulation of the phase (amorphous/crystalline/metastable) and permitting changes of the environment such as different gaseous compositions.

  17. Method for Synthesizing Extremeley High Temperature Melting Materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Saboungi, Marie-Louise and Glorieux, Benoit

    2005-11-22T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention relates to a method of synthesizing high-temperature melting materials. More specifically the invention relates to a containerless method of synthesizing very high temperature melting materials such as borides, carbides and transition-metal, lanthanide and actinide oxides, using an Aerodynamic Levitator and a laser. The object of the invention is to provide a method for synthesizing extremely high-temperature melting materials that are otherwise difficult to produce, without the use of containers, allowing the manipulation of the phase (amorphous/crystalline/metastable) and permitting changes of the environment such as different gaseous compositions.

  18. Recent Developments in High Temperature Superconductivity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hor, P. H.

    -Ca-Ba-Cu-O (TCBCO) [5] have been found to be superconducting at as high at 125K in TCBCO. Superconductivity up to - 30K has also been found in the Ba-K-Bi-O type perovskite system [6,7]. Without a copper-oxygen planar structure involved, this system offers a...Can-1 Cu n 04+2n where A =Bi or Tl and B =Ba or Sr and n is the number of CU-O layers stacked consecutively in the unit cell. For the BCSCO and TCBCO compound series, they all have layers of perovskite-like structures (with n =1, 2, or 3...

  19. High Temperature Cements | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are8COaBulkTransmissionSitingProcess.pdfGetecGtel Jump to: navigation, search Name:Hidralia EnergiaFalls,High

  20. High Temperature Materials Laboratory (HTML) - PSD Directorate

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOnItem NotEnergy, science,SpeedingWu,IntelligenceYou are here ‹FIRST CenterAboutHigh Flux

  1. Low-temperature chemical vapor deposition of tungsten from tungsten hexacarbonyl

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vogt, G.J.

    1982-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of tungsten from W(CO)/sub 6/ has been investigated below 670 K as an alternate process to WF/sub 6/ CVD for coating glass microspheres. The major advantages of W(CO)/sub 6/ CVD are the elimination of the HF damage to the glass microspheres and potentially a lower deposition temperature for coating DT-filled microspheres. W(CO)/sub 6/ CVD can be utilized, in principle, to coat the microspheres with 1 to 5 ..mu..m of tungsten or to flash coat the microspheres for further coating by WF/sub 6/ CVD. Test coatings were deposited in a fluidized-bed reactor with a hydrogen carrier gas. The coatings were found to contain nearly equal portions of carbon and oxygen, ranging from 16 to 25 at.% for each element. The high carbon and oxygen concentrations are believed to result principally from the physical entrapment of chemisorbed CO molecules at the surface of the growing deposit. The general quality and adhesion of the W(CO)/sub 6/-derived coatings are unsatisfactory at this time for ICF applications.

  2. Liquid Fuel Production from Biomass via High Temperature Steam Electrolysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grant L. Hawkes; Michael G. McKellar

    2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process model of syngas production using high temperature electrolysis and biomass gasification is presented. Process heat from the biomass gasifier is used to heat steam for the hydrogen production via the high temperature steam electrolysis process. Hydrogen from electrolysis allows a high utilization of the biomass carbon for syngas production. Oxygen produced form the electrolysis process is used to control the oxidation rate in the oxygen-fed biomass gasifier. Based on the gasifier temperature, 94% to 95% of the carbon in the biomass becomes carbon monoxide in the syngas (carbon monoxide and hydrogen). Assuming the thermal efficiency of the power cycle for electricity generation is 50%, (as expected from GEN IV nuclear reactors), the syngas production efficiency ranges from 70% to 73% as the gasifier temperature decreases from 1900 K to 1500 K. Parametric studies of system pressure, biomass moisture content and low temperature alkaline electrolysis are also presented.

  3. High Temperature Irradiation Resistant Thermocouple (HTIR-TC)

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2013-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

    INL researchers have created a new thermocouple that can resist high temperature and radiation. This device will improve safety and reduce costs associated with unit failures. Learn more about INL research at http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory

  4. Enabling high-temperature nanophotonics for energy applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yeng, YiXiang

    The nascent field of high-temperature nanophotonics could potentially enable many important solid-state energy conversion applications, such as thermophotovoltaic energy generation, selective solar absorption, and selective ...

  5. Low Temperature Combustion Demonstrator for High Efficiency Clean...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Merit Review Low Temperature Combustion Demonstrator for High Efficiency Clean Combustion DE-FC26-05NT42413 William de Ojeda International Truck and Engine Company 26 Feb 2008 This...

  6. Electronic properties of doped Mott insulators and high temperature superconductors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ribeiro, Tiago Castro

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    High-temperature superconducting cuprates, which are the quintessential example of a strongly correlated system and the most extensively studied materials after semiconductors, spurred the development in the fields of ...

  7. Copper Aluminate as a potential material for high temperature...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Copper Aluminate as a potential material for high temperature thermoelectric power generation Home Author: D. T. Morelli, E. D. Case, B. D. Hall, S. Wang Year: 2008 Abstract: URL:...

  8. High-Temperature Thermal Array for Next Generation Solar Thermal...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    3 Q1 High-Temperature Thermal Array for Next Generation Solar Thermal Power Production - FY13 Q1 This document summarizes the progress of this Los Alamos National Laboratory...

  9. Project Profile: High Operating Temperature Liquid Metal Heat...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    A freezing point below 100C Stable at temperatures greater than 800C Low corrosion of stainless steel and high-nickel content alloys A heat capacity greater than 2...

  10. Fabrication and Characterization of Uranium-based High Temperature...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Fabrication and Characterization of Uranium-based High Temperature Reactor Fuel June 01, 2013 The Uranium Fuel Development Laboratory is a modern R&D scale lab for the fabrication...

  11. Stability and quench protection of high-temperature superconductors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ang, Ing Chea

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the design and operation of a superconducting magnet, stability and protection are two key issues that determine the magnet's reliability and safe operation. Although the high-temperature superconductor (HTS) is considered ...

  12. High Temperature Fuel Cell (Phosphoric Acid) Manufacturing R...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fuel Cell (Phosphoric Acid) Manufacturing R&D High Temperature Fuel Cell (Phosphoric Acid) Manufacturing R&D Presented at the NREL Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Manufacturing R&D Workshop...

  13. Assessment of Moderate- and High-Temperature Geothermal Resources...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Moderate- and High-Temperature Geothermal Resources of the United States Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Report: Assessment of Moderate- and...

  14. Low Temperature Combustion Demonstrator for High Efficiency Clean...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Laboratory Department of Energy Project ID ace37deojeda 2 Low Temperature Combustion Demonstrator for High Efficiency Clean Combustion DE-FC26-05NT42413 Project Overview...

  15. Diamond anvil cell for spectroscopic investigation of materials at high temperature, high pressure and shear

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Westerfield, C.L.; Morris, J.S.; Agnew, S.F.

    1997-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Diamond anvil cell is described for spectroscopic investigation of materials at high temperature, high pressure and shear. A cell is described which, in combination with Fourier transform IR spectroscopy, permits the spectroscopic investigation of boundary layers under conditions of high temperature, high pressure and shear. 4 figs.

  16. Diamond anvil cell for spectroscopic investigation of materials at high temperature, high pressure and shear

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Westerfield, Curtis L. (Espanola, NM); Morris, John S. (Los Alamos, NM); Agnew, Stephen F. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Diamond anvil cell for spectroscopic investigation of materials at high temperature, high pressure and shear. A cell is described which, in combination with Fourier transform IR spectroscopy, permits the spectroscopic investigation of boundary layers under conditions of high temperature, high pressure and shear.

  17. An experimental investigation of high-temperature interactions between seawater and rhyolite, andesite, basalt and peridotite

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chandler, Gary Wayne

    1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for by seawater interaction with the cooling rock. Geothermal energy production could benefit from experimental investigations of hot water/rock systems by development of chemical, temperature, and pressure control systems to maximize the lifetime...-OH-silicate formation and therefore varies with Mg and Si concentra- tion of the system. Other reactions which involve Mg (such as Mg-Ca + exchange) or which produce free H, cause major differences in fluid chemistry between different seawater/rock systems. High...

  18. Microwave characterization of high-temperature superconductors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cooke, D.W.; Gray, E.R.; Arendt, P.N.; Beery, J.G.; Bennett, B.L.; Brown, D.R.; Houlton, R.J.; Jahan, M.S.; Klapetzky, A.J.; Maez, M.A.; Raistrick, I.D.; Reeves, G.A.; Rusnak, B.

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Thick (10-15 {mu}m) Tl-Ba-Ca-Cu-O films have been deposited onto yttria-stabilized zirconia and Ag substrates by d.c. magnetron sputtering techniques. Direct deposition onto 1'' diameter yttria-stabilized zirconia yields films with typical 22 GHz surface resistance (R{sub s}) values of 5.2 {plus minus} 2 m{Omega} and 52 {plus minus} 2 m{Omega} at 10 K and 77 K, respectively. For comparison, R{sub s} of Cu at this same frequency is 10 m{Omega} at 4 K and 22 m{Omega} at 77 K. Tl-Ba-Ca-Cu-O films have also been deposited onto 1'' diameter Ag substrates using Au/Cu, Cu, and BaF{sub 2} buffer layers. The lowest R{sub s} values were obtained on films with a BaF{sub 2} buffer layer, typical values being 7.8 {plus minus} 2 m{Omega} and 30.6 {plus minus} 2 m{Omega} (measured at 22 GHz) at 10 K and 77 K, respectively. Larger films (1.5'' diameter) with similar R{sub s} values were prepared using this same technique, demonstrating that the fabrication process can be scaled to larger surface areas. These films are promising for radiofrequency cavity applications because they are thick (50-75 times the London penetration depth), have relatively large surface areas, are fabricated on metallic substrates, and have R{sub s} values that are competitive with Cu at 77 K and are lower than Cu at 4 K. Because they are polycrystalline and unoriented, it is anticipated that their R{sub s} values can be lowered by improving the processing technique. High-quality films of YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7} have been electron-beam deposited onto 1'' LaGaO{sub 3} and 1.5'' LaAlO{sub 3} substrates. The 1'' sample is characterized by R{sub s} values of 0.2 {plus minus} 0.1 m{Omega} at 4 K and 18.6 {plus minus} 2 m{Omega} at 77 K. The 4-K value is only 2-4 times higher than Nb. The 1.5'' sample has R{sub s} values (measured at 18 GHz) of 0.93 {plus minus} 2 m{Omega} and 71 {plus minus} 3 m{Omega} at 10 K and 77 K, respectively. 18 refs., 8 figs.

  19. A process for the chemical preparation of high-field ZnO varistors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brooks, R.A.; Dosch, R.G.; Tuttle, B.A.

    1986-02-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Chemical preparation techniques involving co-precipitation of metals are used to provide microstructural characteristics necessary in order to produce ZnO varistors and their precursors for high field applications. The varistors produced have homogeneous and/or uniform dopant distributions and a submicron average grain size with a narrow size distribution. Precursor powders are prepared via chemical precipitation techniques and varistors made by sintering uniaxially and/or isostatically pressed pellets. Using these methods, varistors were made which were suitable for high-power applications, having values of breakdown field, E/sub B/, in the 10 to 100 kV/cm range, ..cap alpha.. > 30 and densities in the range of 65 to 99% of theoretical, depending on both composition and sintering temperature.

  20. Porous nuclear fuel element for high-temperature gas-cooled nuclear reactors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Youchison, Dennis L. (Albuquerque, NM); Williams, Brian E. (Pacoima, CA); Benander, Robert E. (Pacoima, CA)

    2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Porous nuclear fuel elements for use in advanced high temperature gas-cooled nuclear reactors (HTGR's), and to processes for fabricating them. Advanced uranium bi-carbide, uranium tri-carbide and uranium carbonitride nuclear fuels can be used. These fuels have high melting temperatures, high thermal conductivity, and high resistance to erosion by hot hydrogen gas. Tri-carbide fuels, such as (U,Zr,Nb)C, can be fabricated using chemical vapor infiltration (CVI) to simultaneously deposit each of the three separate carbides, e.g., UC, ZrC, and NbC in a single CVI step. By using CVI, the nuclear fuel may be deposited inside of a highly porous skeletal structure made of, for example, reticulated vitreous carbon foam.

  1. Methods for manufacturing porous nuclear fuel elements for high-temperature gas-cooled nuclear reactors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Youchison, Dennis L. (Albuquerque, NM); Williams, Brian E. (Pocoima, CA); Benander, Robert E. (Pacoima, CA)

    2010-02-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods for manufacturing porous nuclear fuel elements for use in advanced high temperature gas-cooled nuclear reactors (HTGR's). Advanced uranium bi-carbide, uranium tri-carbide and uranium carbonitride nuclear fuels can be used. These fuels have high melting temperatures, high thermal conductivity, and high resistance to erosion by hot hydrogen gas. Tri-carbide fuels, such as (U,Zr,Nb)C, can be fabricated using chemical vapor infiltration (CVI) to simultaneously deposit each of the three separate carbides, e.g., UC, ZrC, and NbC in a single CVI step. By using CVI, a thin coating of nuclear fuel may be deposited inside of a highly porous skeletal structure made, for example, of reticulated vitreous carbon foam.

  2. Porous nuclear fuel element with internal skeleton for high-temperature gas-cooled nuclear reactors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Youchison, Dennis L.; Williams, Brian E.; Benander, Robert E.

    2013-09-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Porous nuclear fuel elements for use in advanced high temperature gas-cooled nuclear reactors (HTGR's), and to processes for fabricating them. Advanced uranium bi-carbide, uranium tri-carbide and uranium carbonitride nuclear fuels can be used. These fuels have high melting temperatures, high thermal conductivity, and high resistance to erosion by hot hydrogen gas. Tri-carbide fuels, such as (U,Zr,Nb)C, can be fabricated using chemical vapor infiltration (CVI) to simultaneously deposit each of the three separate carbides, e.g., UC, ZrC, and NbC in a single CVI step. By using CVI, the nuclear fuel may be deposited inside of a highly porous skeletal structure made of, for example, reticulated vitreous carbon foam.

  3. Viscosities of natural gases at high pressures and high temperatures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Viswanathan, Anup

    2007-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Estimation of viscosities of naturally occurring petroleum gases provides the information needed to accurately work out reservoir-engineering problems. Existing models for viscosity prediction are limited by data, especially at high pressures...

  4. Ultra-narrow ferromagnetic resonance in organic-based thin films grown via low temperature chemical vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu, H.; Harberts, M.; Adur, R.; Hammel, P. Chris; Johnston-Halperin, E., E-mail: ejh@physics.osu.edu, E-mail: epstein@physics.osu.edu [Department of Physics, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210-1117 (United States); Lu, Y. [Department of Chemistry, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210-1173 (United States); Epstein, A. J., E-mail: ejh@physics.osu.edu, E-mail: epstein@physics.osu.edu [Department of Physics, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210-1117 (United States); Department of Chemistry, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210-1173 (United States)

    2014-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

    We present the growth of thin films of the organic-based ferrimagnetic semiconductor V[TCNE]{sub x} (x???2, TCNE: tetracyanoethylene) via chemical vapor deposition. Under optimized growth conditions, we observe a significant increase in magnetic homogeneity, as evidenced by a Curie temperature above 600?K and sharp magnetization switching. Further, ferromagnetic resonance studies reveal a single resonance with full width at half maximum linewidth of 1.4?G, comparable to the narrowest lines measured in inorganic magnetic materials and in contrast to previous studies that showed multiple resonance features. These characteristics are promising for the development of high frequency electronic devices that take advantage of the unique properties of this organic-based material, such as the potential for low cost synthesis combined with low temperature and conformal deposition on a wide variety of substrates.

  5. Development of High Temperature Capacitor Technology and Manufacturing Capability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2011-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The goal of the Development of High Temperature Capacitor Technology and Manufacturing Capability program was to mature a production-ready supply chain for reliable 250°C FPE (fluorinated polyester) film capacitors by 2011. These high-temperature film capacitors enable both the down hole drilling and aerospace industries by enabling a variety of benefits including: ? Deeper oil exploration in higher temperature and pressure environments ? Enabling power electronic and control equipment to operate in higher temperature environments ? Enabling reduced cooling requirements of electronics ? Increasing reliability and life of capacitors operating below rated temperature ? Enabling capacitors to handle higher electrical losses without overheating. The key challenges to bringing the FPE film capacitors to market have been manufacturing challenges including: ? FPE Film is difficult to handle and wind, resulting in poor yields ? Voltage breakdown strength decreases when the film is wound into capacitors (~70% decrease) ? Encapsulation technologies must be improved to enable higher temperature operation ? Manufacturing and test cycle time is very long As a direct result of this program most of the manufacturing challenges have been met. The FPE film production metalization and winding yield has increased to over 82% from 70%, and the voltage breakdown strength of the wound capacitors has increased 270% to 189 V/?m. The high temperature packaging concepts are showing significant progress including promising results for lead attachments and hermetic packages at 200°C and non-hermetic packages at 250°C. Manufacturing and test cycle time will decrease as the market for FPE capacitors develops.

  6. Electrostatic Interchange Instabilities of a Rotating, High-Temperature Plasma

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mauel, Michael E.

    Electrostatic Interchange Instabilities of a Rotating, High-Temperature Plasma Confined by a Dipole #2 Mach Probe #1 Mach Probe #2 High-field, 0.2 MA-turn Water-cooled Magnet #12;Interchange Modes-sized/global... Fast hot electron interchange instability: drift-resonant transport; Gryokinetics; phase-space holes

  7. Synthesis of Aliphatic-Aromatic Copolyesters by a High Temperature

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Khan, Saad A.

    -aromatic polyesters. #12;Full Paper: Reverse-selective polymer membranes exhibiting high CO2 affinity can be used for purification of H2 in industrial gasification processes. In this work, the phy- sical properties of CO2Synthesis of Aliphatic-Aromatic Copolyesters by a High Temperature Bulk Reaction Between Poly

  8. Method for high temperature mercury capture from gas streams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Granite, E.J.; Pennline, H.W.

    2006-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

    A process to facilitate mercury extraction from high temperature flue/fuel gas via the use of metal sorbents which capture mercury at ambient and high temperatures. The spent sorbents can be regenerated after exposure to mercury. The metal sorbents can be used as pure metals (or combinations of metals) or dispersed on an inert support to increase surface area per gram of metal sorbent. Iridium and ruthenium are effective for mercury removal from flue and smelter gases. Palladium and platinum are effective for mercury removal from fuel gas (syngas). An iridium-platinum alloy is suitable for metal capture in many industrial effluent gas streams including highly corrosive gas streams.

  9. High-Temperature Nuclear Reactors for In-Situ Recovery of Oil from Oil Shale

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Forsberg, Charles W. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P.O. Box 2008, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6165 (United States)

    2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The world is exhausting its supply of crude oil for the production of liquid fuels (gasoline, jet fuel, and diesel). However, the United States has sufficient oil shale deposits to meet our current oil demands for {approx}100 years. Shell Oil Corporation is developing a new potentially cost-effective in-situ process for oil recovery that involves drilling wells into oil shale, using electric heaters to raise the bulk temperature of the oil shale deposit to {approx}370 deg C to initiate chemical reactions that produce light crude oil, and then pumping the oil to the surface. The primary production cost is the cost of high-temperature electrical heating. Because of the low thermal conductivity of oil shale, high-temperature heat is required at the heater wells to obtain the required medium temperatures in the bulk oil shale within an economically practical two to three years. It is proposed to use high-temperature nuclear reactors to provide high-temperature heat to replace the electricity and avoid the factor-of-2 loss in converting high-temperature heat to electricity that is then used to heat oil shale. Nuclear heat is potentially viable because many oil shale deposits are thick (200 to 700 m) and can yield up to 2.5 million barrels of oil per acre, or about 125 million dollars/acre of oil at $50/barrel. The concentrated characteristics of oil-shale deposits make it practical to transfer high-temperature heat over limited distances from a reactor to the oil shale deposits. (author)

  10. Evolution of sputtered tungsten coatings at high temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stelmakh, Veronika; Rinnerbauer, Veronika; Joannopoulos, John D.; Solja?i?, Marin; Celanovic, Ivan; Senkevich, Jay J. [Institute for Soldier Nanotechnologies, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)] [Institute for Soldier Nanotechnologies, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Tucker, Charles; Ives, Thomas; Shrader, Ronney [Materion Corporation, Buellton, California 93427 (United States)] [Materion Corporation, Buellton, California 93427 (United States)

    2013-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Sputtered tungsten (W) coatings were investigated as potential high temperature nanophotonic material to replace bulk refractory metal substrates. Of particular interest are materials and coatings for thermophotovoltaic high-temperature energy conversion applications. For such applications, high reflectance of the substrate in the infrared wavelength range is critical in order to reduce losses due to waste heat. Therefore, the reflectance of the sputtered W coatings was characterized and compared at different temperatures. In addition, the microstructural evolution of sputtered W coatings (1 and 5 ?m thick) was investigated as a function of anneal temperature from room temperature to 1000 °C. Using in situ x-ray diffraction analysis, the microstrain in the two samples was quantified, ranging from 0.33% to 0.18% for the 1 ?m sample and 0.26% to 0.20% for the 5 ?m sample, decreasing as the temperature increased. The grain growth could not be as clearly quantified due to the dominating presence of microstrain in both samples but was in the order of 20 to 80 nm for the 1 ?m sample and 50 to 100 nm for the 5 ?m sample, as deposited. Finally, the 5 ?m thick layer was found to be rougher than the 1 ?m thick layer, with a lower reflectance at all wavelengths. However, after annealing the 5 ?m sample at 900 °C for 1 h, its reflectance exceeded that of the 1 ?m sample and approached that of bulk W found in literature. Overall, the results of this study suggest that thick coatings are a promising alternative to bulk substrates as a low cost, easily integrated platform for nanostructured devices for high-temperature applications, if the problem of delamination at high temperature can be overcome.

  11. Optical Fiber High Temperature Sensor Instrumentation for Energy Intensive Industries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cooper, Kristie L.; Wang, Anbo; Pickrell, Gary R.

    2006-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes technical progress during the program “Optical Fiber High Temperature Sensor Instrumentation for Energy Intensive Industries”, performed by the Center for Photonics Technology of the Bradley Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Virginia Tech. The objective of this program was to use technology recently invented at Virginia Tech to develop and demonstrate the application of self-calibrating optical fiber temperature and pressure sensors to several key energy-intensive industries where conventional, commercially available sensors exhibit greatly abbreviated lifetimes due primarily to environmental degradation. A number of significant technologies were developed under this program, including • a laser bonded silica high temperature fiber sensor with a high temperature capability up to 700°C and a frequency response up to 150 kHz, • the world’s smallest fiber Fabry-Perot high temperature pressure sensor (125 x 20 ?m) with 700°C capability, • UV-induced intrinsic Fabry-Perot interferometric sensors for distributed measurement, • a single crystal sapphire fiber-based sensor with a temperature capability up to 1600°C. These technologies have been well demonstrated and laboratory tested. Our work plan included conducting major field tests of these technologies at EPRI, Corning, Pratt & Whitney, and Global Energy; field validation of the technology is critical to ensuring its usefulness to U.S. industries. Unfortunately, due to budget cuts, DOE was unable to follow through with its funding commitment to support Energy Efficiency Science Initiative projects and this final phase was eliminated.

  12. Nanofluid-based receivers for high-temperature, high-flux direct solar collectors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lenert, Andrej

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Solar power plants with surface receivers have low overall energy conversion efficiencies due to large emissive losses at high temperatures. Alternatively, volumetric receivers promise increased performance because solar ...

  13. High Temperature Thermocouples For In-pile Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. L. Rempe; S. C. Wilkins

    2005-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Traditional methods for measuring temperature in-pile degrade at temperatures above 1080 degrees C. Hence, a project has been initiated to explore the use of specialized thermocouples that are composed of materials that are able to withstand higher temperature, in-pile test conditions. Results from efforts to develop, fabricate and evaluate the performance of these specialized thermocouples are reported in this paper. Candidate materials were evaluated for their ability to withstand irradiation, to resit material interactions and to remain ductile at high temperatures. In addition, candidate thermocouples were evaluated based on their resolution over the temperature ranges of interest. Results from these evaluations are reported, and additional on-going development activities are summarized.

  14. High-Temperature Heat Treatment Study on a Large-Grain Nb Cavity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G. Ciovati, P. Dhakal, R. Myneni, P. Maheshwari, F.A. Stevie

    2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Improvement of the cavity performance by a high-temperature heat-treatment without subsequent chemical etching have been reported for large-grain Nb cavities treated by buffered chemical polishing, as well as for a fine-grain cavity treated by vertical electropolishing. Changes in the quality factor, Q{sub 0}, and maximum peak surface magnetic field achieved in a large-grain Nb single-cell cavity have been determined as a function of the heat treatment temperature, between 600 °C and 1200 °C. The highest Q{sub 0} improvement of about 30% was obtained after heat-treatment at 800 °C-1000 °C. Measurements by secondary ion mass spectrometry on large-grain samples heat-treated with the cavity showed large reduction of hydrogen concentration after heat treatment.

  15. High Reliability, High TemperatureThermoelectric Power Generation Materials

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(Fact Sheet), GeothermalGridHYDROGEN TOTechnologyHighLouisianaDepartmentHighand

  16. Sealed glass coating of high temperature ceramic superconductors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wu, Weite (Tainan, TW); Chu, Cha Y. (Garnerville, NY); Goretta, Kenneth C. (Downers Grove, IL); Routbort, Jules L. (Darien, IL)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and article of manufacture of a lead oxide based glass coating on a high temperature superconductor. The method includes preparing a dispersion of glass powders in a solution, applying the dispersion to the superconductor, drying the dispersion before applying another coating and heating the glass powder dispersion at temperatures below oxygen diffusion onset and above the glass melting point to form a continuous glass coating on the superconductor to establish compressive stresses which enhance the fracture strength of the superconductor.

  17. Design of a high temperature hot water central heating system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beaumont, E.L.; Johnson, R.C.; Weaver, J.M.

    1981-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The paper reviews the conceptual design of a central heating system at Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory. The resource considered for this heating system design was hot dry rock geothermal energy. Design criteria were developed to ensure reliability of energy supply, to provide flexibility for adaptation to multiple energy resources, to make optimum use of existing equipment and to minimize reinvestment cost. A variable temperature peaking high temperature water system was selected for this purpose.

  18. Furnace Controls Using High Temperature Preheated Combustion Air

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gonzales, J. M.; Rebello, W. J.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    FURNACE CONTROLS USING HIGH TEMPERATURE PREHEATED COMBUSTION AIR Jeffrey M. Gonzalez Wilfred J. Rebello GTE Products Corporation PAR Enterprises, Inc. Towanda, Pennsylvania Fairfax, Virginia ABSTRACT GTE Products Corporation (Towanda... available ratio control apparatus. Various control sys (I) was the development of a different way of looking at combustion. As preheated combustion air temperatures increase, excess air Industrial furnaces generally utilize air as the basic source...

  19. Cryocooler applications for high-temperature superconductor magnetic bearings.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Niemann, R. C.

    1998-05-22T23:59:59.000Z

    The efficiency and stability of rotational magnetic suspension systems are enhanced by the use of high-temperature superconductor (HTS) magnetic bearings. Fundamental aspects of the HTS magnetic bearings and rotational magnetic suspension are presented. HTS cooling can be by liquid cryogen bath immersion or by direct conduction, and thus there are various applications and integration issues for cryocoolers. Among the numerous cryocooler aspects to be considered are installation; operating temperature; losses; and vacuum pumping.

  20. Deposition method for producing silicon carbide high-temperature semiconductors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hsu, George C. (La Crescenta, CA); Rohatgi, Naresh K. (W. Corine, CA)

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved deposition method for producing silicon carbide high-temperature semiconductor material comprising placing a semiconductor substrate composed of silicon carbide in a fluidized bed silicon carbide deposition reactor, fluidizing the bed particles by hydrogen gas in a mildly bubbling mode through a gas distributor and heating the substrate at temperatures around 1200.degree.-1500.degree. C. thereby depositing a layer of silicon carbide on the semiconductor substrate.

  1. Final Scientific Report - "Novel Steels for High Temperature Carburizing"

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McKimpson, Marvin G.; Liu, Tianjun; Maniruzzaman, Md

    2012-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

    This program was undertaken to develop a microalloy-modified grade of standard carburizing steel that can successfully exploit the high temperature carburizing capabilities of current commercial low pressure (i.e. 'vacuum') carburizing systems. Such steels can lower the amount of energy required for commercial carburizing operations by reducing the time required for deep-case carburizing operations. The specific technical objective of the work was to demonstrate a carburizing steel composition capable of maintaining a prior austenite grain size no larger than ASTM grain size number 5 after exposure to simulated carburizing conditions of 1050 C for 8 hr. Such thermal exposure should be adequate for producing carburized case depths up to about 2 mm. Such carburizing steels are expected to be attractive for use across a wide range of industries, including the petroleum, chemical, forest products, automotive, mining and industrial equipment industries. They have potential for reducing energy usage during low pressure carburizing by more than 25%, as well as reducing cycle times and process costs substantially. They also have potential for reducing greenhouse gas emissions from existing low pressure carburizing furnaces by more than 25%. High temperature carburizing can be done in most modern low pressure carburizing systems with no additional capital investment. Accordingly, implementing this technology on carburizing furnaces will provide a return on investment significantly greater than 10%. If disseminated throughout the domestic carburizing community, the technology has potential for saving on the order of 23 to 34 trillion BTU/year in industrial energy usage. Under the program, two compositions of microalloyed, coarsening-resistant low alloy carburizing steels were developed, produced and evaluated. After vacuum annealing at 1050oC for 8 hrs and high pressure gas quenching, both steels exhibited a prior austenite ASTM grain size number of 5.0 or finer. For comparison, a control alloy of similar composition but without the microalloy additions exhibited a duplex prior austenite grain size with grains ranging from ASTM grain size 3 down to ASTM grain size 1 after similar processing and thermal exposure. These results confirm the potential for using microalloy additions of Ti, B, Nb, Al, rare earths and/or N for austenite grain size control in Cr-Mo (i.e. 4000-series) low alloy carburizing steels. They also demonstrate that these microalloy additions will not compromise the processability of the steel; all three materials produced under the program could be hot worked readily using normal steel processing protocols. To fully realize the technical and commercial potential of these steels, there is a need to continue development work using larger-scale heats. These larger-scale heats are needed to provide adequate material for fatigue testing of quenched and tempered alloys, to conduct more complete investigations of potential alloy chemistries and to provide additional material for processing studies. It will also be beneficial to carefully review intellectual property issues associated with this family of steels, since existing Japanese patent literature suggests that significant microstructural and/or process characterization work may be needed on new materials to confirm that these materials fall outside existing patent claims.

  2. Nearly Perfect Fluidity in a High Temperature Superconductor

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Rameau, J. D. [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Reber, T. J. [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Yang, H. -B. [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Akhanjee, S. [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Gu, G. D. [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Johnson, P. D. [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Campbell, S. [Iowa State University, Ames, IA (United States)

    2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Perfect fluids are characterized as having the smallest ratio of shear viscosity to entropy density, ?/s, consistent with quantum uncertainty and causality. So far, nearly perfect fluids have only been observed in the quark-gluon plasma and in unitary atomic Fermi gases, exotic systems that are amongst the hottest and coldest objects in the known universe, respectively. We use angle resolved photoemission spectroscopy to measure the temperature dependence of an electronic analog of ?/s in an optimally doped cuprate high-temperature superconductor, finding it too is a nearly perfect fluid around, and above, its superconducting transition temperature Tc.

  3. High- and low-temperature-stable thermite composition for producing high-pressure, high-velocity gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Halcomb, Danny L. (Camden, OH); Mohler, Jonathan H. (Spring Valley, OH)

    1990-10-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A high- and low-temperature-stable thermite composition for producing high-pressure and high-velocity gases comprises an oxidizable metal, an oxidizing reagent, and a high-temperature-stable gas-producing additive selected from the group consisting of metal carbides and metal nitrides.

  4. Visbreaking-enhanced thermal recovery method utilizing high temperature steam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shu, W.R.

    1984-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

    The displacement efficiency of a steam drive process is improved and steam override reduced by rapidly injecting a predetermined amount of high temperature steam via an injection well into the formation to visbreak a portion of the oil in the formation prior to a steam drive wherein steam is injected into the formation via the injection well to displace oil to a spaced-apart production well through which oil is recovered. The visbroken oil provides a more favorable transition of mobility ratio between the phases in the formation thereby reducing viscous fingering and increasing the displacement efficiency of the steam drive. In addition, after a predetermined amount of high temperature steam has been injected into the formation, the formation may be allowed to undergo a soak period prior to the steam drive. The high temperature steam injection and soaking steps may be sequentially repeated for a plurality of cycles.

  5. High-temperature corrosion control of lagged piping system components

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parks, R. (Dept. of the Navy, Naval Sea Systems Command, Code 05M11, Washington, DC (US)); Kogler, R.A. (Advanced Technology Inc., Arlington, VA (US))

    1990-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Over the past several years, the U.S. Navy has stepped up efforts to eliminate corrosion aboard its ships. One of the most effective techniques the Navy has employed is the application of sprayed aluminum for high-temperature corrosion protection. This sacrificial coating has performed well in the corrosion protection of high-temperature lagged steam valves and associated piping systems. Because of the superiority of the sprayed aluminum system over the conventional methods of protection for these piping systems, the Navy has realized considerable cost savings. These savings are the direct result of major reductions in routine maintenance associated with the application of sprayed aluminum coatings for corrosion protection purposes. This article discusses specific U.S. Navy experience with the use of sprayed aluminum coatings for high-temperature applications as well as current Navy practice regarding the use of this corrosion control coating.

  6. High temperature mechanical performance of a hot isostatically pressed silicon nitride

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wereszczak, A.A.; Ferber, M.K.; Jenkins, M.G.; Lin, C.K.J. [and others] [and others

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Silicon nitride ceramics are an attractive material of choice for designers and manufacturers of advanced gas turbine engine components for many reasons. These materials typically have potentially high temperatures of usefulness (up to 1400{degrees}C), are chemically inert, have a relatively low specific gravity (important for inertial effects), and are good thermal conductors (i.e., resistant to thermal shock). In order for manufacturers to take advantage of these inherent properties of silicon nitride, the high-temperature mechanical performance of the material must first be characterized. The mechanical response of silicon nitride to static, dynamic, and cyclic conditions at elevated temperatures, along with reliable and representative data, is critical information that gas turbine engine designers and manufacturers require for the confident insertion of silicon nitride components into gas turbine engines. This final report describes the high-temperature mechanical characterization and analyses that were conducted on a candidate structural silicon nitride ceramic. The high-temperature strength, static fatigue (creep rupture), and dynamic and cyclic fatigue performance were characterized. The efforts put forth were part of Work Breakdown Structure Subelement 3.2.1, {open_quotes}Rotor Data Base Generation.{close_quotes} PY6 is comparable to other hot isostatically pressed (HIPed) silicon nitrides currently being considered for advanced gas turbine engine applications.

  7. Which Chiral Symmetry is Restored in High Temperature QCD?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Claude Bernard; Tom Blum; Carleton DeTar; Steven Gottlieb; Urs M. Heller; James E. Hetrick; K. Rummukainen; R. Sugar; D. Toussaint; Matthew Wingate

    1996-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Sigma models for the high temperature phase transition in quantum chromodynamics (QCD) suggest that at high temperature the SU(N_f) x SU(N_f) chiral symmetry becomes exact, but the anomalous axial U(1) symmetry need not be restored. In numerical lattice simulations, traditional methods for detecting symmetry restoration have sought multiplets in the screening mass spectrum. However, these methods were imprecise and the results, so far, incomplete. With improved statistics and methodology, we are now able to offer evidence for a restoration of the SU(2) x SU(2) chiral symmetry just above the crossover, but not of the axial U(1) chiral symmetry.

  8. Margins in high temperature leak-before-break assessments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Budden, P.J.; Hooton, D.G.

    1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Developments in the defect assessment procedure R6 to include high-temperature mechanisms in Leak-before-Break arguments are described. In particular, the effect of creep on the time available to detect a leak and on the crack opening area, and hence leak rate, is discussed. The competing influence of these two effects is emphasized by an example. The application to Leak-before-Break of the time-dependent failure assessment diagram approach for high temperature defect assessment is then outlined. The approach is shown to be of use in assessing the erosion of margins by creep.

  9. Optimum high temperature strength of two-dimensional nanocomposites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Monclús, M. A.; Molina-Aldareguía, J. M., E-mail: jon.molina@imdea.org [IMDEA Materials Institute, C/Eric Kandel 2, 28906 Getafe, Madrid (Spain); Zheng, S. J.; Mayeur, J. R.; Beyerlein, I. J.; Mara, N. A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Polcar, T. [Czech Technical University in Prague, Technická 2, Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Llorca, J. [IMDEA Materials Institute, C/Eric Kandel 2, 28906 Getafe, Madrid (Spain); Department of Materials Science, Polytechnic University of Madrid, E. T. S. de Ingenieros de Caminos, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    High-temperature nanoindentation was used to reveal nano-layer size effects on the hardness of two-dimensional metallic nanocomposites. We report the existence of a critical layer thickness at which strength achieves optimal thermal stability. Transmission electron microscopy and theoretical bicrystal calculations show that this optimum arises due to a transition from thermally activated glide within the layers to dislocation transmission across the layers. We demonstrate experimentally that the atomic-scale properties of the interfaces profoundly affect this critical transition. The strong implications are that interfaces can be tuned to achieve an optimum in high temperature strength in layered nanocomposite structures.

  10. Experimental Investigation on High-pressure, High-temperature Viscosity of Gas Mixtures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Davani, Ehsan

    2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Modeling the performance of high-pressure, high-temperature (HPHT) natural gas reservoirs requires the understanding of gas behavior at such conditions. In particular, gas viscosity is an important fluid property that directly affects fluid flow...

  11. Numerical Modeling of Cased-hole Instability in High Pressure and High Temperature Wells 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shen, Zheng 1983-

    2012-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

    of cemented sections in High Pressure High Temperature (HPHT) wells. The existing analysis shows that, in the perforation zones, casing/cement is subject to instability, particularly in the presence of cavities. This dissertation focuses on the instability...

  12. Ultra-High Temperature Sensors Based on Optical Property

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nabeel Riza

    2008-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    In this program, Nuonics, Inc. has studied the fundamentals of a new Silicon Carbide (SiC) materials-based optical sensor technology suited for extreme environments of coal-fired engines in power production. The program explored how SiC could be used for sensing temperature, pressure, and potential gas species in a gas turbine environment. The program successfully demonstrated the optical designs, signal processing and experimental data for enabling both temperature and pressure sensing using SiC materials. The program via its sub-contractors also explored gas species sensing using SiC, in this case, no clear commercially deployable method was proven. Extensive temperature and pressure measurement data using the proposed SiC sensors was acquired to 1000 deg-C and 40 atms, respectively. Importantly, a first time packaged all-SiC probe design was successfully operated in a Siemens industrial turbine rig facility with the probe surviving the harsh chemical, pressure, and temperature environment during 28 days of test operations. The probe also survived a 1600 deg-C thermal shock test using an industrial flame.

  13. Computational and Experimental Development of Novel High Temperature Alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kramer, M.J.; Ray, P.K.; and Akinc, M.

    2010-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The work done in this paper is based on our earlier work on developing an extended Miedema model and then using it to downselect potential alloy systems. Our approach is to closely couple the semi-empirical methodologies to more accurate ab initio methods to dentify the best candidates for ternary alloying additions. The architectural framework for our material's design is a refractory base metal with a high temperature intermetallic which provides both high temperature creep strength and a source of oxidatively stable elements. Potential refractory base metals are groups IIIA, IVA and VA. For Fossil applications, Ni-Al appears to be the best choice to provide the source of oxidatively stable elements but this system requires a 'boost' in melting temperatures to be a viable candidate in the ultra-high temperature regime (> 1200C). Some late transition metals and noble elements are known to increase the melting temperature of Ni-Al phases. Such an approach suggested that a Mo-Ni-Al system would be a good base alloy system that could be further improved upon by dding Platinum group metals (PGMs). In this paper, we demonstrate the variety of microstructures that can be synthesized for the base alloy system, its oxidation behavior as well as the oxidation behavior of the PGM substituted oxidation resistant B2 NiAl phase.

  14. Improved Materials for High-Temperature Black Liquor Gasification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keiser, J.R.; Hemrick, J.G.; Gorog, J.P.; Leary, R.

    2006-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The laboratory immersion test system built and operated at ORNL was found to successfully screen samples from numerous refractory suppliers, including both commercially available and experimental materials. This system was found to provide an accurate prediction of how these materials would perform in the actual gasifier environment. Test materials included mullites, alumino-silicate bricks, fusion-cast aluminas, alumina-based and chrome-containing mortars, phosphate-bonded mortars, coated samples provided under an MPLUS-funded project, bonded spinels, different fusion-cast magnesia-alumina spinels with magnesia content ranging from 2.5% to about 60%, high-MgO castable and brick materials, spinel castables, and alkali-aluminate materials. This testing identified several candidate material systems that perform well in the New Bern gasifier. Fusion-cast aluminas were found to survive for nearly one year, and magnesia-alumina spinels have operated successfully for 18 months and are expected to survive for two years. Alkali-aluminates and high-MgO-content materials have also been identified for backup lining applications. No other material with a similar structure and chemical composition to that of the fusion-cast magnesium-aluminum spinel brick currently being used for the hot-face lining is commercially available. Other materials used for this application have been found to have inferior service lives, as previously discussed. Further, over 100 laboratory immersion tests have been performed on other materials (both commercial and experimental), but none to date has performed as well as the material currently being used for the hot-face lining. Operating experience accumulated with the high-temperature gasifier at New Bern, North Carolina, has confirmed that the molten alkali salts degrade many types of refractories. Fusion-cast alumina materials were shown to provide a great improvement in lifetime over materials used previously. Further improvement was realized with fusion-cast magnesia-alumina spinel refractory, which appears to be the most resistant to degradation found to date, exhibiting over a year of service life and expected to be capable of over two years of service life. Regarding the use of refractory mortar, it was found that expansion of the current chrome-alumina mortar when subjected to black liquor smelt is likely contributing to the strains seen on the vessel shell. Additionally, the candidate high-alumina mortar that was originally proposed as a replacement for the current chrome-alumina mortar also showed a large amount of expansion when subjected to molten smelt. A UMR experimental mortar, composed of a phosphate bonded system specifically designed for use with fusion-cast magnesium-aluminum spinel, was found to perform well in the molten smelt environment. Strain gauges installed on the gasifier vessel shell provided valuable information about the expansion of the refractory, and a new set of strain gauges and thermocouples has been installed in order to monitor the loading caused by the currently installed spinel refractory. These results provide information for a direct comparison of the expansion of the two refractories. Measurements to date suggest that the fusion-cast magnesia-alumina spinel is expanding less than the fusion-cast {alpha}/{beta}-alumina used previously. A modified liquor nozzle was designed and constructed to test a number of materials that should be more resistant to erosion and corrosion than the material currently used. Inserts made of three erosion-resistant metallic materials were fabricated, along with inserts made of three ceramic materials. The assembled system was sent to the New Bern mill for installation in the gasifer in 2005. Following operation of the gasifier using the modified nozzle, inserts should be removed and analyzed for wear by erosion/corrosion. Although no materials have been directly identified for sensor/thermocouple protection tubes, several of the refractory material systems identified for lining material applications may be applicable for use in this

  15. High-Temperature Quantum Coherence from Dissipative Environments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    George E. Cragg

    2014-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The Feynman-Vernon path integral formalism is used to derive the density matrix of a quantum oscillator that is linearly coupled to an environmental reservoir. Although low-temperature reservoirs thermalize the oscillator to the usual Boltzmann distribution, reservoirs at intermediate temperatures reduce this distribution to a single, coherent ground state. Associated with this state is an imaginary frequency indicating an environment which absorbs energy from the oscillator through the suppression of all excited modes. Further increase of the environmental temperature results again in the thermalization of the quantum oscillator to the expected Boltzmann distribution. Qualitatively, this result could account for high-temperature quantum effects including the superconducting properties of graphite grains as well as the quantum coherence observed in photosynthetic systems.

  16. High Temperature Materials Interim Data Qualification Report FY 2011

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nancy Lybeck

    2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Projects for the very high temperature reactor (VHTR) Technology Development Office provide data in support of Nuclear Regulatory Commission licensing of the VHTR. Fuel and materials to be used in the reactor are tested and characterized to quantify performance in high temperature and high fluence environments. The VHTR program has established the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Data Management and Analysis System (NDMAS) to ensure that VHTR data are qualified for use, stored in a readily accessible electronic form, and analyzed to extract useful results. This document focuses on the first NDMAS objective. It describes the High Temperature Materials characterization data stream, the processing of these data within NDMAS, and reports the interim fiscal year (FY) 2011 qualification status of the data. Data qualification activities within NDMAS for specific types of data are determined by the data qualification category assigned by the data generator. The High Temperature Materials data are being collected under the Nuclear Quality Assurance (NQA)-1 guidelines and will be qualified data. For NQA-1 qualified data, the qualification activities include: (1) capture testing to confirm that the data stored within NDMAS are identical to the raw data supplied, (2) accuracy testing to confirm that the data are an accurate representation of the system or object being measured, and (3) documenting that the data were collected under an NQA-1 or equivalent Quality Assurance program. Currently, data from seven test series within the High Temperature Materials data stream have been entered into the NDMAS vault, including tensile tests, creep tests, and cyclic tests. Of the 5,603,682 records currently in the vault, 4,480,444 have been capture passed, and capture testing is in process for the remaining 1,123,238.

  17. Materials for the scavanging of hydrogen at high temperatures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shepodd, Timothy J. (Livermore, CA); Phillip, Bradley L. (Shaker Heights, OH)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A hydrogen getter composition comprising a double or triple bonded hydrocarbon with a high melting point useful for removing hydrogen gas, to partial pressures below 0.01 torr, from enclosed spaces and particularly from vessels used for transporting or containing fluids at elevated temperatures. The hydrogen getter compositions disclosed herein and their reaction products will neither melt nor char at temperatures in excess of 100.degree. C. They possess significant advantages over conventional hydrogen getters, namely low risk of fire or explosion, no requirement for high temperature activation or operation, the ability to absorb hydrogen even in the presence of contaminants such as water, water vapor, common atmospheric gases and oil mists and are designed to be disposed within the confines of the apparatus. These getter materials can be mixed with binders, such as fluropolymers, which permit the getter material to be fabricated into useful shapes and/or impart desirable properties such as water repellency or impermeability to various gases.

  18. Materials for the scavanging of hydrogen at high temperatures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shepodd, Timothy J. (330 Thrasher Ave., Livermore, Alameda County, CA 94550); Phillip, Bradley L. (20976 Fairmount Blvd., Shaker Heights, Cuyahoga County, OH 44120)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A hydrogen getter composition comprising a double or triple bonded hydrocarbon with a high melting point useful for removing hydrogen gas, to partial pressures below 0.01 torr, from enclosed spaces and particularly from vessels used for transporting or containing fluids at elevated temperatures. The hydrogen getter compostions disclosed herein and their reaction products will neither melt nor char at temperatures in excess of 100C. They possess significant advantages over conventional hydrogen getters, namely low risk of fire or explosion, no requirement for high temperature activation or operation, the ability to absorb hydrogen even in the presence of contaminants such as water, water vapor, common atmospheric gases and oil mists and are designed to be disposed within the confines of the apparatus. These getter materials can be mixed with binders, such as fluropolymers, which permit the getter material to be fabricated into useful shapes and/or impart desirable properties such as water repellency or impermeability to various gases.

  19. Preparation of high porosity xerogels by chemical surface modification.

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Deshpande, Ravindra (51 Michelle Dr. Apt. A 11, Lancaster, PA 17603); Smith, Douglas M. (1412 Marquette Pl. NE., Albuquerque, NM 87122); Brinker, C. Jeffrey (14 Eagle Nest Dr. NE., Albuquerque, NM 87122)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention provides an extremely porous xerogel dried at vacuum-to-below supercritical pressures but having the properties of aerogels which are typically dried at supercritical pressures. This is done by reacting the internal pore surface of the wet gel with organic substances in order to change the contact angle of the fluid meniscus in the pores during drying. Shrinkage of the gel (which is normally prevented by use of high autoclave pressures, such that the pore fluid is at temperature and pressure above its critical values) is avoided even at vacuum or ambient pressures.

  20. PSO project: 4760 High Temperature PEM Fuel Cell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    PSO project: 4760 High Temperature PEM Fuel Cell Final report - Public part - #12;Project, Technical University of Denmark Partners: IRD Fuel Cells A/S Danish Power Systems Aps DONG Energy Authors, and a steady reduction of production cost is also desired (as in general for fuel cells). However, during

  1. High-temperature pressure-coupled ultrasonic waveguide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Caines, M.J.

    1981-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

    A pressure coupled ultrasonic waveguide is provided to which one end may be attached a transducer and at the other end a high temperature material for continuous ultrasonic testing of the material. The ultrasonic signal is coupled from the waveguide into the material through a thin, dry copper foil.

  2. A high temperature furnace The Sample Environment Group

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ). It is designed to accommodate large samples, and use low quality cooling water. The furnace uses a tantalum heat also minimizing mass at the furnace centre. Tantalum and alumina were specified for these items723 A high temperature furnace The Sample Environment Group Neutron Division, Rutherford Appleton

  3. High Temperature Gas Reactors Andrew C. Kadak, Ph.D.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ­ fewer problems in accident · Utilizes gas turbine technology · Lower Power Density ­ no meltdownHigh Temperature Gas Reactors Andrew C. Kadak, Ph.D. Professor of the Practice Massachusetts Institute of Technology #12;#12;#12;#12;Presentation Overview · Introduction to Gas Reactors · Pebble Bed

  4. Free energy of Lorentz-violating QED at high temperature

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Gomes; T. Mariz; J. R. Nascimento; A. Yu. Petrov; A. F. Santos; A. J. da Silva

    2010-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper we study the one- and two-loop contribution to the free energy in QED with the Lorentz symmetry breaking introduced via constant CPT-even Lorentz-breaking parameters at the high temperature limit. We find the impact of the Lorentz-violating term for the free energy and carry out a numerical estimation for the Lorentz-breaking parameter.

  5. High Operating Temperature Liquid Metal Heat Transfer Fluids (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The University of California, Los Angeles, the University of California, Berkeley, and Yale University is one of the 2012 SunShot CSP R&D awardees for their Multidisciplinary University Research Initiative (MURI): High Operating Temperature (HOT) Fluids. This fact sheet explains the motivation, description, and impact of the project.

  6. Reducing PM Concentrations in Simulated High Temperature Gas Streams

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Luehrs, Daniel R

    2014-08-07T23:59:59.000Z

    the reaction temperatures and capture the energy in the biomass. CGT has an approximant 16,300 kJ/kg (7,000 Btu/lb) of energy. The resulting synthetic gas (syngas) can have an energy content as high as 7,450 kJ/m^(3) (200 Btu/dscf) and can be fed directly...

  7. High-temperature quenching of electrical resistance in graphene interconnects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    assuming a current density j=3.9 MA/cm2 and a resistivity =2.2 cm. The self- heating problem is aggravated scale structures.3,4 One of the approaches to mitigate the self-heating prob- lem is to incorporateHigh-temperature quenching of electrical resistance in graphene interconnects Q. Shao, G. Liu, D

  8. POWER-TO-GAS PROCESS WITH HIGH TEMPERATURE ELECTROLYSIS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    · Transportation of energy from production areas to consumption areas Substitute Natural Gas (methane) Myriam DeP · Use of existing natural gas network · Mid or long term storage · Transportation · Production. Energy background 2. Power-to-Substitute Natural Gas process with high temperature steam electrolysis

  9. High Temperature coatings based on {beta}-NiAI

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Severs, Kevin

    2012-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

    High temperature alloys are reviewed, focusing on current superalloys and their coatings. The synthesis, characerization, and oxidation performance of a NiAl–TiB{sub 2} composite are explained. A novel coating process for Mo–Ni–Al alloys for improved oxidation performance is examined. The cyclic oxidation performance of coated and uncoated Mo–Ni–Al alloys is discussed.

  10. Author's Accepted Manuscript High-temperature-oxidation-induced ordered struc-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laughlin, David E.

    and turbine power generation system, turbine alloys are exposed to high temperature and an atmosphere comprised of steam, CO2 and O2. While surface and internal oxidation of the alloy takes place-fuel combustion turbine power generation systems are being developed, materials performance of candidate

  11. The ReactorSTM: Atomically resolved scanning tunneling microscopy under high-pressure, high-temperature catalytic reaction conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Herbschleb, C. T.; Tuijn, P. C. van der; Roobol, S. B.; Navarro, V.; Bakker, J. W.; Liu, Q.; Stoltz, D.; Cañas-Ventura, M. E.; Verdoes, G.; Spronsen, M. A. van; Bergman, M.; Crama, L.; Taminiau, I.; Frenken, J. W. M., E-mail: frenken@physics.leidenuniv.nl [Huygens-Kamerlingh Onnes Laboratory, Leiden University, P.O. box 9504, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Ofitserov, A.; Baarle, G. J. C. van [Leiden Probe Microscopy B.V., J.H. Oortweg 21, 2333 CH Leiden (Netherlands)

    2014-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    To enable atomic-scale observations of model catalysts under conditions approaching those used by the chemical industry, we have developed a second generation, high-pressure, high-temperature scanning tunneling microscope (STM): the ReactorSTM. It consists of a compact STM scanner, of which the tip extends into a 0.5 ml reactor flow-cell, that is housed in a ultra-high vacuum (UHV) system. The STM can be operated from UHV to 6 bars and from room temperature up to 600 K. A gas mixing and analysis system optimized for fast response times allows us to directly correlate the surface structure observed by STM with reactivity measurements from a mass spectrometer. The in situ STM experiments can be combined with ex situ UHV sample preparation and analysis techniques, including ion bombardment, thin film deposition, low-energy electron diffraction and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The performance of the instrument is demonstrated by atomically resolved images of Au(111) and atom-row resolution on Pt(110), both under high-pressure and high-temperature conditions.

  12. Understanding Fundamental Material Degradation Processes in High Temperature Aggressive Chemomechanical Environments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stubbins, James; Gewirth, Andrew; Sehitoglu, Huseyin; Sofronis, Petros; Robertson, Ian

    2014-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project is to develop a fundamental understanding of the mechanisms that limit materials durability for very high-temperature applications. Current design limitations are based on material strength and corrosion resistance. This project will characterize the interactions of high-temperature creep, fatigue, and environmental attack in structural metallic alloys of interest for the very high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (VHTR) or Next–Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) and for the associated thermo-chemical processing systems for hydrogen generation. Each of these degradation processes presents a major materials design challenge on its own, but in combination, they can act synergistically to rapidly degrade materials and limit component lives. This research and development effort will provide experimental results to characterize creep-fatigue-environment interactions and develop predictive models to define operation limits for high-temperature structural material applications. Researchers will study individually and in combination creep-fatigue-environmental attack processes in Alloys 617, 230, and 800H, as well as in an advanced Ni-Cr oxide dispersion strengthened steel (ODS) system. For comparison, the study will also examine basic degradation processes in nichrome (Ni-20Cr), which is a basis for most high-temperature structural materials, as well as many of the superalloys. These materials are selected to represent primary candidate alloys, one advanced developmental alloy that may have superior high-temperature durability, and one model system on which basic performance and modeling efforts can be based. The research program is presented in four parts, which all complement each other. The first three are primarily experimental in nature, and the last will tie the work together in a coordinated modeling effort. The sections are 1) dynamic creep-fatigue-environment process, 2) subcritical crack processes, 3) dynamic corrosion – crack initiation processes, and 4) modeling.

  13. Femtosecond Chemically Activated Reactions: Concept of Nonstatistical Activation at High Thermal Energies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Sang Kyu

    Femtosecond chemical activation of reactions at very high thermal energies, much above the bond energyFemtosecond Chemically Activated Reactions: Concept of Nonstatistical Activation at High Thermal Energies Sang Kyu Kim, Ju Guo, J. Spencer Baskin, and Ahmed H. Zewail* Arthur Amos Noyes Chemical Physics

  14. Enhancements to High Temperature In-Pile Thermocouple Performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J.C. Crepeau; J.L. Rempe; J.E. Daw; D.L. Knudson: K.G. Condie; S.C. Wilkins

    2008-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A joint University of Idaho (UI) and Idaho National Laboratory (INL) University Nuclear Research Initiative (UNERI) was to initiated to extend initial INL efforts to develop doped molybdenum/niobium alloy High Temperature Irradiation Resistant Thermocouples (HTIR-TCs). The overall objective of this UNERI was to develop recommendations for an optimized thermocouple design for high temperature, long duration, in-pile testing by expanding upon results from initial INL efforts. Tasks to quantify the impact of candidate enhancements, such as alternate alloys, alternate geometries, and alternate thermocouple fabrication techniques, on thermocouple performance were completed at INL's High Temperature Test Laboratory (HTTL), a state of the art facility equipped with specialized equipment and trained staff in the area of high temperature instrumentation development and evaluation. Key results of these evaluations, which are documented in this report, are as follows. The doped molybdenum and Nb-1%Zr, which were proposed in the initial INL HTIR-TC design, were found to retain ductility better than the developmental molybdenum-low niobium alloys and the niobium-low molybdenum alloys evaluated. Hence, the performance and lower cost of the commercially available KW-Mo makes a thermocouple containing KW-Mo and Nb-1%Zr the best option at this time. HTIR-TCs containing larger diameter wires offer the potential to increase HTIR-TC stability and reliability at higher temperatures. HTIR-TC heat treatment temperatures and times should be limited to not more than 100 C above the proposed operating temperatures and to durations of at least 4 to 5 hours. Preliminary investigations suggest that the performance of swaged and loose assembly HTIR-TC designs is similar. However, the swaged designs are less expensive and easier to construct. In addition to optimizing HTIR-TC performance, This UNERI project provided unique opportunities to several University of Idaho students, allowing them to become familiar with the techniques and equipment used for specialized high temperature instrumentation fabrication and evaluation and to author/coauthor several key conference papers and journal articles.

  15. Enhancements to High Temperature In-Pile Thermocouple Performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. C. Crepeau; J. L. Rempe; J. E. Daw; D. L. Knudson; K. G. Condie; S. C. Wilkins

    2008-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A joint University of Idaho (UI) and Idaho National Laboratory (INL) University Nuclear Research Initiative (UNERI) was to initiated to extend initial INL efforts to develop doped lybdenum/niobium alloy High Temperature Irradiation Resistant Thermocouples (HTIR-TCs). The overall objective of this UNERI was to develop recommendations for an optimized thermocouple design for high temperature, long duration, in-pile testing by expanding upon results from initial INL efforts. Tasks to quantify the impact of candidate enhancements, such as alternate alloys, alternate geometries, and alternate thermocouple fabrication techniques, on thermocouple performance were completed at INL's High Temperature Test Laboratory (HTTL), a state of the art facility equipped with specialized equipment and trained staff in the area of high temperature instrumentation development and evaluation. Key results of these evaluations, which are documented in this report, are as follows. The doped molybdenum and Nb-1%Zr, which were proposed in the initial INL HTIR-TC design, were found to retain ductility better than the developmental molybdenum-low niobium alloys and the niobium-low molybdenum alloys evaluated. Hence, the performance and lower cost of the commercially available KW-Mo makes a thermocouple containing KW-Mo and Nb-1%Zr the best option at this time. HTIR-TCs containing larger diameter wires offer the potential to increase HTIR-TC stability and reliability at higher temperatures. HTIR-TC heat treatment temperatures and times should be limited to not more than 100 °C above the proposed operating temperatures and to durations of at least 4 to 5 hours. Preliminary investigations suggest that the performance of swaged and loose assembly HTIR-TC designs is similar. However, the swaged designs are less expensive and easier to construct. In addition to optimizing HTIR-TC performance, This UNERI project provided unique opportunities to several University of Idaho students, allowing them to become familiar with the techniques and equipment used for specialized high temperature instrumentation fabrication and evaluation and to author/coauthor several key conference papers and journal articles.

  16. Direct Utilization of Coal Syngas in High Temperature Fuel Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Celik, Ismail B.

    2014-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This EPSCoR project had two primary goals: (i) to build infrastructure and work force at WVU to support long-term research in the area of fuel cells and related sciences; (ii) study effects of various impurities found in coal-syngas on performance of Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC). As detailed in this report the WVU research team has made significant accomplishments in both of these areas. What follows is a brief summary of these accomplishments: State-of-the-art test facilities and diagnostic tools have been built and put into use. These include cell manufacturing, half-cell and full-cell test benches, XPS, XRD, TEM, Raman, EDAX, SEM, EIS, and ESEM equipment, unique in-situ measurement techniques and test benches (Environmental EM, Transient Mass-Spectrometer-MS, and IR Optical Temperature measurements). In addition, computational capabilities have been developed culminating in a multi-scale multi-physics fuel cell simulation code, DREAM-SOFC, as well as a Beowulf cluster with 64 CPU units. We have trained 16 graduate students, 10 postdoctoral fellows, and recruited 4 new young faculty members who have actively participated in the EPSCoR project. All four of these faculty members have already been promoted to the tenured associate professor level. With the help of these faculty and students, we were able to secure 14 research awards/contracts amounting to a total of circa $5.0 Million external funding in closely related areas of research. Using the facilities mentioned above, the effects of PH3, HCl, Cl2, and H2S on cell performance have been studied in detail, mechanisms have been identified, and also remedies have been proposed and demonstrated in the laboratory. For example, it has been determined that PH3 reacts rapidly with Ni to from secondary compounds which may become softer or even melt at high temperature and then induce Ni migration to the surface of the cell changing the material and micro-structural properties of the cell drastically. It is found that the extent of steam and current load accelerate the degradation caused by PH3. A unique filtering technique has been proposed to reduce the effect of PH3. In addition, various cell materials have been proposed to reduce the rate of degradation caused by H2S. Furthermore, a three-dimensional, transient multi-physics model has been formulated to describe primary transport processes and electro-chemical reactions occurring within the cell. This model has been validated using data gathered from accelerated tests. The validated model then has been used to study the degradation rates under a range of operating conditions and impurity levels. This has resulted in a procedure that uses both experiments and simulations to predict the life-time of a cell operating with syngas with known concentration of trace impurities. Finally all the experience and knowledge gained has been disseminated via 39 journal papers and 43 presentations/posters/conference papers.

  17. Toluene pyrolysis studies and high temperature reactions of propargyl chloride

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kern, R.D.; Chen, H.; Qin, Z. [Univ. of New Orleans, LA (United States)

    1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The main focus of this program is to investigate the thermal decompositions of fuels that play an important role in the pre-particle soot formation process. It has been demonstrated that the condition of maximum soot yield is established when the reaction conditions of temperature and pressure are sufficient to establish a radical pool to support the production of polyaromatic hydrocarbon species and the subsequent formation of soot particles. However, elevated temperatures result in lower soot yields which are attributed to thermolyses of aromatic ring structures and result in the bell-shaped dependence of soot yield on temperature. The authors have selected several acyclic hydrocarbons to evaluate the chemical thermodynamic and kinetic effects attendant to benzene formation. To assess the thermal stability of the aromatic ring, the authors have studied the pyrolyses of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, chlorobenzene and pyridine. Time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOF) is employed to analyze the reaction zone behind reflected shock waves. Reaction time histories of the reactants, products, and intermediates are constructed and mechanisms are formulated to model the experimental data. The TOF work is often performed with use of laser schlieren densitometry (LS) to measure density gradients resulting from the heats of various reactions involved in a particular pyrolytic system. The two techniques, TOF and LS, provide independent and complementary information about ring formation and ring rupture reactions.

  18. Universal Membrane Classification Scheme: Maximizing the Return on High Temperature PEM Membrane Research

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This presentation on maximizing the return of high temperature PEM membrane research was given at the High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting in May 2007.

  19. CARISMA: A Networking Project for High Temperature PEMFC MEA Activities in Europe

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This presentation on high temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cells was given at the High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting in May 2007.

  20. High-Temperature Thermoelectric Characterization of III–V Semiconductor Thin Films by Oxide Bonding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    High-Temperature Thermoelectric Characterization of III–Vfor high-temperature thermoelectric charac- terization ofdiffusion barrier. A thermoelectric material, thin-?lm ErAs:

  1. High-Temperature Zirconia Oxygen Sensor with Sealed Metal/Metal...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High-Temperature Zirconia Oxygen Sensor with Sealed MetalMetal Oxide Internal Reference High-Temperature Zirconia Oxygen Sensor with Sealed MetalMetal Oxide Internal Reference...

  2. High-Temperature Components for Rankine-Cycle-Based Waste Heat...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High-Temperature Components for Rankine-Cycle-Based Waste Heat Recovery Systems on Combustion Engines High-Temperature Components for Rankine-Cycle-Based Waste Heat Recovery...

  3. A Discussion of Conductivity Testing in High Temperature Membranes (lessons learned in assessing transport)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation on conductivity testing in high temperature membranes given by Jim Boncella of Los Alamos National Laboratory at the High Temperature Membrane Working Group meeting in October 2005.

  4. Thermal Conductivity Enhancement of High Temperature Phase Change Materials for Concentrating Solar Power Plant Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roshandell, Melina

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    that can operate with Stirling engines at 42% efficiency andfor high temperature Stirling engines which operates at 42%turbines such as Stirling engines, while high-temperature (>

  5. Optimum Reactor Outlet Temperatures for High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactors Integrated with Industrial Processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee O. Nelson

    2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes the results of a temperature sensitivity study conducted to identify the optimum reactor operating temperatures for producing the heat and hydrogen required for industrial processes associated with the proposed new high temperature gas-cooled reactor. This study assumed that primary steam outputs of the reactor were delivered at 17 MPa and 540°C and the helium coolant was delivered at 7 MPa at 625–925°C. The secondary outputs of were electricity and hydrogen. For the power generation analysis, it was assumed that the power cycle efficiency was 66% of the maximum theoretical efficiency of the Carnot thermodynamic cycle. Hydrogen was generated via the hightemperature steam electrolysis or the steam methane reforming process. The study indicates that optimum or a range of reactor outlet temperatures could be identified to further refine the process evaluations that were developed for high temperature gas-cooled reactor-integrated production of synthetic transportation fuels, ammonia, and ammonia derivatives, oil from unconventional sources, and substitute natural gas from coal.

  6. High Temperature Mechanical Properties of Molybdenum Solid Solution Alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Charit, I.; Murty, K.L. [College of Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695, (United States)

    2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Demanding material requirements for space nuclear power systems have called for the use of refractory alloys. Molybdenum alloys are such candidate materials because of their good mechanical properties at fairly high temperatures, low neutron capture cross-section, and superior resistance to the attack of liquid metals. However, conventional Mo alloys have low ductility at lower temperatures. Hence, there have been several attempts to improve their viability. One of those approaches has been to alloy Mo with various alloying additions in solid solution, most notably with rhenium (Re). In this study the high temperature deformation behavior of various Mo-X (X Re, W, Nb, Hf) alloys is reviewed. High temperature deformation data for these solid solution alloys are analyzed in the light of existing deformation theories. Alloys with both Class-M and -A type behavior are identified and thus, various mechanisms are found to operate. Sometimes data interpretation becomes difficult due to the presence of second phase particles. Results are compared with unalloyed Mo to bring out the importance of solid solution alloying. (authors)

  7. Polymer nanocomposites for high-temperature composite repair

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sheng, Xia

    2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A novel repair agent for resin-injection repair of advanced high temperature composites was developed and characterized. The repair agent was based on bisphenol E cyanate ester (BECy) and reinforced with alumina nanoparticles. To ensure good dispersion and compatibility with the BECy matrix in nanocomposites, the alumina nanoparticles were functionalized with silanes. The BECy nanocomposites, containing bare and functionalized alumina nanoparticles, were prepared and evaluated for their thermal, mechanical, rheological, and viscoelastic properties. The monomer of BECy has an extremely low viscosity at ambient temperature, which is good for processability. The cured BECy polymer is a highly cross-linked network with excellent thermal mechanical properties, with a high glass transition temperature (T{sub g}) of 270 C and decomposition temperature above 350 C. The incorporation of alumina nanoparticles enhances the mechanical and rheological properties of the BECy nanocomposites. Additionally, the alumina nanoparticles are shown to catalyze the cure of BECy. Characterization of the nanocomposites included dynamic mechanical analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetric analysis, rheological and rheokinetic evaluation, and transmission electron microscopy. The experimental results show that the BECy nanocomposite is a good candidate as repair agent for resin-injection repair applications.

  8. Note: Zeeman splitting measurements in a high-temperature plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Golingo, R. P.; Shumlak, U.; Den Hartog, D. J. [Aerospace and Energetics Research Program, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195-2250 (United States)

    2010-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The Zeeman effect has been used for measurement of magnetic fields in low-temperature plasma, but the diagnostic technique is difficult to implement in a high-temperature plasma. This paper describes new instrumentation and methodology for simultaneous measurement of the entire Doppler-broadened left and right circularly polarized Zeeman spectra in high-temperature plasmas. Measurements are made using spectra emitted parallel to the magnetic field by carbon impurities in high-temperature plasma. The Doppler-broadened width is much larger than the magnitude of the Zeeman splitting, thus simultaneous recording of the two circularly polarized Zeeman line profiles is key to accurate measurement of the magnetic field in the ZaP Z-pinch plasma device. Spectral data are collected along multiple chords on both sides of the symmetry axis of the plasma. This enables determination of the location of the current axis of the Z-pinch and of lower-bound estimates of the local magnetic field at specific radial locations in the plasma.

  9. Sealed glass coating of high temperature ceramic superconductors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wu, W.; Chu, C.Y.; Goretta, K.C.; Routbort, J.L.

    1995-05-02T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and article of manufacture of a lead oxide based glass coating on a high temperature superconductor is disclosed. The method includes preparing a dispersion of glass powders in a solution, applying the dispersion to the superconductor, drying the dispersion before applying another coating and heating the glass powder dispersion at temperatures below oxygen diffusion onset and above the glass melting point to form a continuous glass coating on the superconductor to establish compressive stresses which enhance the fracture strength of the superconductor. 8 figs.

  10. High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor Projected Markets and Preliminary Economics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Larry Demick

    2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper summarizes the potential market for process heat produced by a high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR), the environmental benefits reduced CO2 emissions will have on these markets, and the typical economics of projects using these applications. It gives examples of HTGR technological applications to industrial processes in the typical co-generation supply of process heat and electricity, the conversion of coal to transportation fuels and chemical process feedstock, and the production of ammonia as a feedstock for the production of ammonia derivatives, including fertilizer. It also demonstrates how uncertainties in capital costs and financial factors affect the economics of HTGR technology by analyzing the use of HTGR technology in the application of HTGR and high temperature steam electrolysis processes to produce hydrogen.

  11. Temperature dependent photoluminescence of lateral polarity junctions of metal organic chemical vapor deposition grown GaN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nabben, Reinhard

    implantation of Cu, Li and Ag into silicon doped GaN films grown by Metalorganic Chemical Vapor Deposition temperature (700-900°C) annealing. Low temperature (6K) photoluminescence (PL) for Cu-implanted GaN showed recovery of standard crystalline GaN features. Additional donor-acceptor pair features are observed below 3

  12. LX-17 Deflagration at High Pressures and Temperatures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koerner, J; Maienschein, J; Black, K; DeHaven, M; Wardell, J

    2006-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

    We measure the laminar deflagration rate of LX-17 (92.5 wt% TATB, 7.5 wt% Kel-F 800) at high pressure and temperature in a strand burner, thereby obtaining reaction rate data for prediction of thermal explosion violence. Simultaneous measurements of flame front time-of-arrival and temporal pressure history allow for the direct calculation of deflagration rate as a function of pressure. Additionally, deflagrating surface areas are calculated in order to provide quantitative insight into the dynamic surface structure during deflagration and its relationship to explosion violence. Deflagration rate data show that LX-17 burns in a smooth fashion at ambient temperature and is represented by the burn rate equation B = 0.2P{sup 0.9}. At 225 C, deflagration is more rapid and erratic. Dynamic deflagrating surface area calculations show that ambient temperature LX-17 deflagrating surface areas remain near unity over the pressure range studied.

  13. 9 Cr-- 1 Mo steel material for high temperature application

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jablonski, Paul D; Alman, David; Dogan, Omer; Holcomb, Gordon; Cowen, Christopher

    2012-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

    One or more embodiments relates to a high-temperature, titanium alloyed, 9 Cr-1 Mo steel exhibiting improved creep strength and oxidation resistance at service temperatures up to 650.degree. C. The 9 Cr-1 Mo steel has a tempered martensite microstructure and is comprised of both large (0.5-3 .mu.m) primary titanium carbides and small (5-50 nm) secondary titanium carbides in a ratio of. from about 1:1.5 to about 1.5:1. The 9 Cr-1 Mo steel may be fabricated using exemplary austenizing, rapid cooling, and tempering steps without subsequent hot working requirements. The 9 Cr-1 Mo steel exhibits improvements in total mass gain, yield strength, and time-to-rupture over ASTM P91 and ASTM P92 at the temperature and time conditions examined.

  14. Dual Phase Membrane for High Temperature CO2 Separation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jerry Y.S. Lin; Matthew Anderson

    2006-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Dual-phase membranes consisting of stainless steel supports infiltrated with molten carbonate have been shown to be selective to CO{sub 2} at high temperatures (400-650 C). However, over time at high temperatures, the formation of iron oxides on the surface of the stainless steel supports render the membranes ineffective. This report details synthesis and characteristics of dual-phase carbonate membrane with an oxidation resistant perovskite type ceramic (lanthanum-strontium-cobaltite-iron; LSCF) support. Porous LSCF supports were prepared from its powder synthesized by the citrate method. Both steady state permeation and mercury porosimetry confirmed that the LSCF membrane sintered at 900 C has pores large enough to absorb molten carbonate, yet small enough to retain the molten carbonate under high pressure conditions. Results of XRD analysis have shown that LSCF and the molten carbonate mixture do not react with each other at temperatures below 700 C. Four-point method conductivity tests indicate that the support material has sufficiently high electronic conductivity for this application. Li-Na-K carbonate was coated to the porous LSCF support by a liquid infiltration method. Helium permeance of the support before and after infiltration of molten carbonate are on the order of 10{sup -6} and 10{sup -10} moles/m{sup 2} {center_dot} Pa {center_dot} s respectively, indicating that the molten carbonate is able to sufficiently infiltrate the membrane. Preliminary high temperature permeation experiments indicate that the membrane does separate CO{sub 2} in the presence of O{sub 2}, with a maximum flux of 0.623 ml/cm{sup 2} {center_dot} min obtained at 850 C.

  15. High Temperature Irradiation-Resistant Thermocouple Performance Improvements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joshua Daw; Joy Rempe; Darrell Knudson; John Crepeau; S. Curtis Wilkins

    2009-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Traditional methods for measuring temperature in-pile degrade at temperatures above 1100 ºC. To address this instrumentation need, the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) developed and evaluated the performance of a high temperature irradiation-resistant thermocouple (HTIR-TC) that contains alloys of molybdenum and niobium. Data from high temperature (up to 1500 ºC) long duration (up to 4000 hours) tests and on-going irradiations at INL’s Advanced Test Reactor demonstrate the superiority of these sensors to commercially-available thermocouples. However, several options have been identified that could further enhance their reliability, reduce their production costs, and allow their use in a wider range of operating conditions. This paper presents results from on-going Idaho National Laboratory (INL)/University of Idaho (UI) efforts to investigate options to improve HTIR-TC ductility, reliability, and resolution by investigating specially-formulated alloys of molybdenum and niobium and alternate diameter thermoelements (wires). In addition, on-going efforts to evaluate alternate fabrication approaches, such as drawn and loose assembly techniques will be discussed. Efforts to reduce HTIR-TC fabrication costs, such as the use of less expensive extension cable will also be presented. Finally, customized HTIR-TC designs developed for specific customer needs will be summarized to emphasize the varied conditions under which these sensors may be used.

  16. Simulations of magnetic hysteresis loops at high temperatures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Plumer, M. L.; Whitehead, J. P.; Fal, T. J. [Department of Physics and Physical Oceanography, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John's, Newfoundland and Labrador A1B 3X7 (Canada); Ek, J. van [Western Digital Corporation, San Jose, California 94588 (United States); Mercer, J. I. [Department of Computer Science, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John's, Newfoundland and Labrador A1B 3X7 (Canada)

    2014-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The kinetic Monte-Carlo algorithm as well as standard micromagnetics are used to simulate MH loops of high anisotropy magnetic recording media at both short and long time scales over a wide range of temperatures relevant to heat-assisted magnetic recording. Microscopic parameters, common to both methods, were determined by fitting to experimental data on single-layer FePt-based media that uses the Magneto-Optic Kerr effect with a slow sweep rate of 700 Oe/s. Saturation moment, uniaxial anisotropy, and exchange constants are given an intrinsic temperature dependence based on published atomistic simulations of FePt grains with an effective Curie temperature of 680 K. Our results show good agreement between micromagnetics and kinetic Monte Carlo results over a wide range of sweep rates. Loops at the slow experimental sweep rates are found to become more square-shaped, with an increasing slope, as temperature increases from 300 K. These effects also occur at higher sweep rates, typical of recording speeds, but are much less pronounced. These results demonstrate the need for accurate determination of intrinsic thermal properties of future recording media as input to micromagnetic models as well as the sensitivity of the switching behavior of thin magnetic films to applied field sweep rates at higher temperatures.

  17. A chemical approach toward low temperature alloying of immiscible iron and molybdenum metals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nazir, Rabia [Department of Chemistry, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad 45320 (Pakistan); Applied Chemistry Research Centre, Pakistan Council of Scientific and Industrial Research Laboratories Complex, Lahore 54600 (Pakistan); Ahmed, Sohail [Department of Chemistry, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad 45320 (Pakistan); Mazhar, Muhammad, E-mail: mazhar42pk@yahoo.com [Department of Chemistry, University of Malaya, Lembah Pantai, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Akhtar, Muhammad Javed; Siddique, Muhammad [Physics Division, PINSTECH, P.O. Nilore, Islamabad (Pakistan); Khan, Nawazish Ali [Material Science Laboratory, Department of Physics, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad 45320 (Pakistan); Shah, Muhammad Raza [HEJ Research Institute of Chemistry, University of Karachi, Karachi 75270 (Pakistan); Nadeem, Muhammad [Physics Division, PINSTECH, P.O. Nilore, Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2013-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Low temperature pyrolysis of [Fe(bipy){sub 3}]Cl{sub 2} and [Mo(bipy)Cl{sub 4}] homogeneous powder. • Easy low temperature alloying of immiscible metals like Fe and Mo. • Uniform sized Fe–Mo nanoalloy with particle size of 48–68 nm. • Characterization by EDXRF, AFM, XRPD, magnetometery, {sup 57}Fe Mössbauer and impedance. • Alloy behaves as almost superparamagnetic obeying simple –R(CPE)– circuit. - Abstract: The present research is based on a low temperature operated feasible method for the synthesis of immiscible iron and molybdenum metals’ nanoalloy for technological applications. The nanoalloy has been synthesized by pyrolysis of homogeneous powder precipitated, from a common solvent, of the two complexes, trisbipyridineiron(II)chloride, [Fe(bipy){sub 3}]Cl{sub 2}, and bipyridinemolybedenum(IV) chloride, [Mo(bipy)Cl{sub 4}], followed by heating at 500 °C in an inert atmosphere of flowing argon gas. The resulting nanoalloy has been characterized by using EDXRF, AFM, XRD, magnetometery, {sup 57}Fe Mössbauer and impedance spectroscopies. These results showed that under provided experimental conditions iron and molybdenum metals, with known miscibility barrier, alloy together to give (1:1) single phase material having particle size in the range of 48–66 nm. The magnetism of iron is considerably reduced after alloy formation and shows its trend toward superparamagnetism. The designed chemical synthetic procedure is equally feasible for the fabrication of other immiscible metals.

  18. Suppressed gross erosion of high-temperature lithium films under high-flux deuterium bombardment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory

    P1-030 Suppressed gross erosion of high-temperature lithium films under high-flux deuterium) and thick (~500 m) lithium films under high-flux deuterium and neon plasma bombardment were studied. For Ne plasmas, Li erosion rates inferred from measurements of Li-I radiation are consistent

  19. Theory of intertwined orders in high temperature superconductors

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Fradkin, Eduardo; Tranquada, John M.; Kivelson, Steven A.

    2015-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The electronic phase diagrams of many highly correlated systems, and in particular the cuprate high temperature superconductors, are complex, with many different phases appearing with similar—sometimes identical—ordering temperatures even as material properties, such as a dopant concentration, are varied over wide ranges. This complexity is sometimes referred to as “competing orders.” However, since the relation is intimate, and can even lead to the existence of new phases of matter such as the putative “pair-density-wave,” the general relation is better thought of in terms of “intertwined orders.” We selectively analyze some of the experiments in the cuprates which suggest that essentialmore »aspects of the physics are reflected in the intertwining of multiple orders—not just in the nature of each order by itself. We also summarize and critique several theoretical ideas concerning the origin and implications of this complexity.« less

  20. Theory of intertwined orders in high temperature superconductors

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Fradkin, Eduardo [Univ. of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL (United States); Tranquada, John M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Kivelson, Steven A. [Stanford Univ., Stanford, CA (United States)

    2015-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The electronic phase diagrams of many highly correlated systems, and in particular the cuprate high temperature superconductors, are complex, with many different phases appearing with similar—sometimes identical—ordering temperatures even as material properties, such as a dopant concentration, are varied over wide ranges. This complexity is sometimes referred to as “competing orders.” However, since the relation is intimate, and can even lead to the existence of new phases of matter such as the putative “pair-density-wave,” the general relation is better thought of in terms of “intertwined orders.” We selectively analyze some of the experiments in the cuprates which suggest that essential aspects of the physics are reflected in the intertwining of multiple orders—not just in the nature of each order by itself. We also summarize and critique several theoretical ideas concerning the origin and implications of this complexity.

  1. Iron aluminide alloys with improved properties for high temperature applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McKamey, Claudette G. (Knoxville, TN); Liu, Chain T. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved iron aluminide alloy of the DO.sub.3 type that has increased room temperature ductility and improved high elevated temperature strength. The alloy system further is resistant to corrosive attack in the environments of advanced energy corrosion systems such as those using fossil fuels. The resultant alloy is relatively inexpensive as contrasted to nickel based and high nickel steels currently utilized for structural components. The alloy system consists essentially of 26-30 at. % aluminum, 0.5-10 at. % chromium, 0.02-0.3 at. % boron plus carbon, up to 2 at. % molybdenum, up to 1 at. % niobium, up to 0.5 at. % zirconium, up to 0.1 at. % yttrium, up to 0.5 at. % vanadium and the balance iron.

  2. Iron aluminide alloys with improved properties for high temperature applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McKamey, C.G.; Liu, C.T.

    1990-10-09T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved iron aluminide alloy of the DO[sub 3] type is described that has increased room temperature ductility and improved high elevated temperature strength. The alloy system further is resistant to corrosive attack in the environments of advanced energy conversion systems such as those using fossil fuels. The resultant alloy is relatively inexpensive as contrasted to nickel based and high nickel steels currently utilized for structural components. The alloy system consists essentially of 26--30 at. % aluminum, 0.5--10 at. % chromium, 0.02--0.3 at. % boron plus carbon, up to 2 at. % molybdenum, up to 1 at. % niobium, up to 0.5 at. % zirconium, up to 0.1 at. % yttrium, up to 0.5 at. % vanadium and the balance iron. 3 figs.

  3. High temperature solar thermal technology: The North Africa Market

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    High temperature solar thermal (HTST) technology offers an attractive option for both industrialized and non-industrialized countries to generate electricity and industrial process steam. The purpose of this report is to assess the potential market for solar thermal applications in the North African countries of Algeria, Egypt, Morocco and Tunisia. North Africa was selected because of its outstanding solar resource base and the variety of applications to be found there. Diminishing oil and gas resources, coupled with expanding energy needs, opens a large potential market for the US industry. The US high temperature solar trough industry has little competition globally and could build a large market in these areas. The US is already familiar with certain solar markets in North Africa due to the supplying of substantial quantities of US-manufactured flat plate collectors to this region.

  4. RF properties of high temperature superconductors: Cavity methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Portis, A.M. (California Univ., Berkeley, CA (USA)); Cooke, D.W.; Gray, E.R. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA))

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A description of cavities used in the study of the microwave properties of the high-temperature superconductors is followed by a lumped-circuit analysis of the coupling of transmission lines and resonators. The frequency dependence of the reflected and transmitted microwave power and the character of transient cavity response are analyzed. Techniques are discussed for the introduction of samples of the high-temperature superconductors into microwave cavities. Following a discussion of sample surface impedance and sample geometry factor, the connection between surface resistance and cavity Q is examined as well as the connection between cavity frequency shift and surface reactance. Measurement techniques that utilize reflected or transmitted power or transient response are described. 35 refs., 1 fig.

  5. Design manual for high temperature hot water and steam systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cofield, R.E. Jr.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The author presents aspects of high temperature hot water and steam generating systems. It covers all the calculations that must be made for sizing and then selecting the equipment that will make up an energy system. The author provides essential information on loan analysis, types of fuel, storage requirements, handling facilities, waste disposal, HVAC needs, and back-up systems. Also included are the calculations needed for determining the size of compressors, air pollution devices, fans, filters, and other supplementary equipment.

  6. High temperature superconductivity in metallic region near Mott transition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tian De Cao

    2009-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

    The spin-singlet superconductivity without phonons is examined in consideration of correlations on an extended Hubbard model. It is shown that the superconductivity requires not only the total correlation should be strong enough but also the density of state around Fermi energy should be large enough, which shows that the high temperature superconductivity could only be found in the metallic region near the Mott metal insulator transition (MIT). Other properties of superconductors are also discussed on these conclusions.

  7. High Temperature Heat Recovery Systems Using Ceramic Recuperators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Young, S. B.; Bjerklie, J. W.; York, W. A.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    HIGH TEMPERATURE HEAT RECOVERY SYSTEMS USING CERAMIC RECUPERATORS S. B. Young, J. W. Bjerklie, W. A. York Hague International South Portland, Maine ABSTRACT i Ceramic shell and tube recuperators capable of providing up to 1800 0 F (980... !HAGUE INTERNATIONAL ? 3 ADAMS STREET , SOUTH PORTLAND, MAINE 04106 2011111-1510 2011199-1341 FIGURE 1 ..__ .._.~_._---_._~ -- _._.- ._-----_._--_._-----_.__.._--- _._--~~~-~~~-~--_._._---~---~-~ .".;,,":;' ESL-IE-80-04-50 Proceedings from...

  8. High Temperature Fuel Cell Performance High Temperature Fuel Cell Performance of of Sulfonated Sulfonated Poly(phenylene Poly(phenylene) Proton) Proton Conducting Conducting Polymers

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation by Sandia National Laboratories to the High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting held in Honolulu, Hawaii October 8, 2004.

  9. High Temperature, High Frequency Micro-Inductors for Low Power DC-DC Converters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    due to self-heating or higher ambient temperature represents a risk for system operation components size depends on the switching frequency of the electrical waveforms. Sufficiently high switching

  10. Corrosion of ceramics in high temperature steam environments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keiser, J.R.; Howell, M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Gondolfe, J.M.; Arnold, D.T. [Stone & Webster Engineering Corp., Houston, TX (United States)

    1997-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ethylene is one of the principal building blocks in the petrochemical industry, and world-wide production and consumption have been steadily increasing. Production of ethylene is accomplished primarily by the pyrolytic stripping of hydrogen from ethane or a higher molecular weight hydrocarbon. This cracking process, sometimes referred to as steam cracking, is currently accomplished in metallic tubes in high temperature furnaces with a conversion efficiency, for ethane of 60-65%. Operation at significantly higher temperature could increase the efficiency as much as 20%, but materials with better high temperature strength would be required. To help identify suitable materials, tests have been conducted to determine the behavior of selected ceramic materials in environments similar to those anticipated for a high-efficiency, advanced steam cracking system. The effects of exposure on weight change, mechanical strength, and microstructure have been determined in a series of 100 hour tests. In addition, 500 hour tests have been conducted to determine the effect of time on material behavior. From these tests, several strong candidates have been identified.

  11. High temperature gas-cooled reactor: gas turbine application study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The high-temperature capability of the High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTGR) is a distinguishing characteristic which has long been recognized as significant both within the US and within foreign nuclear energy programs. This high-temperature capability of the HTGR concept leads to increased efficiency in conventional applications and, in addition, makes possible a number of unique applications in both electrical generation and industrial process heat. In particular, coupling the HTGR nuclear heat source to the Brayton (gas turbine) Cycle offers significant potential benefits to operating utilities. This HTGR-GT Application Study documents the effort to evaluate the appropriateness of the HTGR-GT as an HTGR Lead Project. The scope of this effort included evaluation of the HTGR-GT technology, evaluation of potential HTGR-GT markets, assessment of the economics of commercial HTGR-GT plants, and evaluation of the program and expenditures necessary to establish HTGR-GT technology through the completion of the Lead Project.

  12. Sourcebook on high-temperature electronics and instrumentation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Veneruso, A.F. (ed.)

    1981-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This sourcebook summarizes the high-temperature characteristics of a number of commercially available electronic components and materials required in geothermal well-logging instruments that must operate to 275/sup 0/C. The sourcebook is written to provide a starting place for instrument designers, who need to know the high-temperature electronic products that are available and the design and performance limitations of these products. The electronic component information given includes the standard repertoire of passive devices such as resistors, capacitors, and magnetics; the active devices and integrated circuits sections emphasize silicon semiconductor JFETs and CMOS circuits; and, to complete the electronics, interconnections and packaging of hybrid microelectronics are described. Thermal insulation and refrigeration alternatives are also presented in the sourcebook. Finally, instrument housing materials and high-temperature cables and cablehead connectors are listed. This information was compiled as part of the Geothermal Logging Instrumentation Development Program that Sandia National Laboratories conducted for the US Department of Energy's Divison of Geothermal Energy from 1976 to 1981.

  13. Microstructure, Processing, Performance Relationships for High Temperature Coatings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas M. Lillo

    2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This work evaluates the suitability of iron aluminide coatings for use in high temperature fossil fuel combustion environments, such as boiler applications. The coatings are applied using High Velocity Oxy-Fuel (HVOF) thermal spray techniques. Iron aluminide coatings, with the nominal composition of Fe3Al, were applied to various high temperature structural materials (316 Stainless Steel, 9Cr-1Mo steel and Inconel 600) that typically lack inherent resistance to environmental degradation found in fossil fuel combustion atmospheres. Coating/substrate combinations were subjected to thermal cycling to evaluate the effect of HVOF parameters, coating thickness, substrate material and substrate surface roughness on the resistance to coating delamination and cracking. It was found that substrate surface roughness had a profound influence on the performance of a given substrate/coating system and that surface preparation techniques will need to be tailored to the specific substrate material. Also, higher particle velocity during HVOF thermal spray deposition of the iron aluminide coatings tended to result in better-performing coating/substrate systems with less delamination at the coating/substrate interface. Some combinations of HVOF parameters, coating thickness and substrate materials were found to perform extremely well even at temperatures up to 900oC. However, in some cases, substantial reactions at the interface were observed.

  14. A High Temperature Liquid Plasma Model of the Sun

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pierre-Marie Robitaille

    2004-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

    In this work, a liquid model of the Sun is presented wherein the entire solar mass is viewed as a high density/high energy plasma. This model challenges our current understanding of the densities associated with the internal layers of the Sun, advocating a relatively constant density, almost independent of radial position. The incompressible nature of liquids is advanced to prevent solar collapse from gravitational forces. The liquid plasma model of the Sun is a non-equilibrium approach, where nuclear reactions are free to occur throughout the solar mass. The primary means of addressing internal heat transfer are convection and conduction. As a result of the convective processes on the solar surface, the liquid model brings into question the established temperature of the solar photosphere by highlighting a violation of Kirchhoff's law of thermal emission. Along these lines, the model emphasizes that radiative emission is a surface phenomenon. Strong evidence is provided that the Sun is a high density/high energy liquid plasma. This evidence is based on our knowledge of Planckian thermal emission and condensed matter, including the existence of pressure ionization and liquid metallic hydrogen at high temperatures and pressures. The equations of magnetohydrodynamics are invoked as the proper vehicle for the understanding od stellar convection and structure. Prior to introducing the liquid plasma model, the historic and scientific justifications for the gaseous model of the Sun are reviewed and the gaseous equations of state are also discussed.

  15. NREL Particle Receiver Will Enable High-Temperature CSP (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Near-blackbody enclosed particle receiver can support high-temperature thermal energy storage and high-efficiency power cycles.

  16. Electrochromic Devices Deposited on Low-Temperature Plastics by Plasma-Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robbins, Joshua; Seman, Michael

    2005-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Electrochromic windows have been identified by the Basic energy Sciences Advisory committee as an important technology for the reduction of energy spent on heating and cooling in residential and commercial buildings. Electrochromic devices have the ability to reversibly alter their optical properties in response to a small electric field. By blocking ultraviolet and infrared radiation, while modulating the incoming visible radiation, electrochromics could reduce energy consumption by several Quads per year. This amounts to several percent of the total annual national energy expenditures. The purpose of this project was to demonstrate proof of concept for using plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) for depositing all five layers necessary for full electrochromic devices, as an alternative to sputtering techniques. The overall goal is to produce electrochromic devices on flexible polymer substrates using PECVD to significantly reduce the cost of the final product. We have successfully deposited all of the films necessary for a complete electrochromic devices using PECVD. The electrochromic layer, WO3, displayed excellent change in visible transmission with good switching times. The storage layer, V2O5, exhibited a high storage capacity and good clear state transmission. The electrolyte, Ta2O5, was shown to functional with good electrical resistivity to go along with the ability to transfer Li ions. There were issues with leakage over larger areas, which can be address with further process development. We developed a process to deposit ZnO:Ga with a sheet resistance of < 50 W/sq. with > 90% transmission. Although we were not able to deposit on polymers due to the temperatures required in combination with the inverted position of our substrates. Two types of full devices were produced. Devices with Ta2O5 were shown to be functional using small aluminum dots as the top contact. The polymer electrolyte devices were shown to have a clear state transmission of 69% and a darkened state transmission 11%. These un-optimized devices compared well with commercially available products, which have a stated clear transmission of 59% and dark transmission of 4%. The PECVD oxides have displayed advantages over films produced by sputtering. The first advantage is that deposition rates were significantly higher than typical sputtering rates. Rates of 100 nm/min were achieved for WO3, and rates of 50 nm/min produced quality V2O5 and Ta2O5 films. Faster rates will produce a significant reduction in cost due to higher throughput. Another advantage was that films were less dense than those produced by sputtering as reported in the literature. This leads to high diffusion coefficients and fast switching times. Also less dense films have been shown to produce larger contrast ratios in WO3 and larger storage capacity in V2O5. From the data collected in this category 1 project we have shown that PECVD is feasible and beneficial for the deposition of working layers for electrochromic devices. These results and the lessons learned can be applied toward deposition on polymers and equipment scale-up in future work.

  17. High-temperature corrosion in advanced combustion systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Natesan, K.; Yanez-Herrero, M.; Fornasieri, C.

    1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Conceptual designs of advanced combustion systems that utilize coal as a feedstock require high temperature furnaces and heat transfer surfaces capable of operation at much elevated temperatures than those prevalent in current coal-fired power plants. The combination of elevated temperatures and hostile combustion environments necessitate development/application of advanced ceramic materials in these designs. The present paper characterizes the chemistry of coal-fired combustion environments over a wide temperature range of interest in these systems and discusses preliminary experimental results on several materials with potential for application in these systems. An experimental program has been initiated to evaluate materials for advanced combustion systems. Several candidate materials have been identified for evaluation. The candidates included advanced metallic alloys, monolithic ceramics, ceramic particulate/ceramic matrix composites, ceramic fiber/ceramic matrix composites, and ceramic whisker/ceramic matrix composites. The materials examined so far included nickel-base superalloys, alumina, stabilized zirconia, different types of silicon carbide, and silicon nitride. Coupon specimens of several of the materials have been tested in an air environment at 1000, 1200, and 1400{degree}C for 168 h. In addition, specimens were exposed to sodium-sulfate-containing salts at temperatures of 1000 and 1200{degree}C for 168 h. Extensive microstructural analyses were conducted on the exposed specimens to evaluate the corrosion performance of the materials for service in air and fireside environments of advanced coal-fired boilers. Additional tests are underway with several of the materials to evaluate their corrosion performance as a function of salt chemistry, alkali vapor concentration, gas chemistry, exposure temperature, and exposure time.

  18. Plasma etching of cavities into diamond anvils for experiments at high pressures and high temperatures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weir, S.T.; Cynn, H.; Falabella, S.; Evans, W.J.; Aracne-Ruddle, C.; Farber, D.; Vohra, Y.K. (LLNL); (UAB)

    2012-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

    We describe a method for precisely etching small cavities into the culets of diamond anvils for the purpose of providing thermal insulation for samples in experiments at high pressures and high temperatures. The cavities were fabricated using highly directional oxygen plasma to reactively etch into the diamond surface. The lateral extent of the etch was precisely controlled to micron accuracy by etching the diamond through a lithographically fabricated tungsten mask. The performance of the etched cavities in high-temperature experiments in which the samples were either laser heated or electrically heated is discussed.

  19. Minutes of the October 2008 Meeting of the High Temperature Membrane Working Group

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Meeting minutes of the High Temperature Membrane Working Group from October 16, 2008, in Honolulu, Hawaii.

  20. 11th Topical conference high-temperature plasma diagnostics. Book of abstracts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report contains abstracts from the 11th topical conference on high-temperature plasma diagnostics.

  1. Numerical Analysis of Non-Uniformities and Anisotropy in High-Temperature Superconducting Coils

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hu, Di; Ainslie, Mark D.; Zou, Jin; Cardwell, David A.

    2014-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

    , critical current density (superconductivity), high-temperature superconductors, numerical analysis, superconducting coils, transport ac loss....

  2. Thermal Hydraulics of the Very High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang Oh; Eung Kim; Richard Schultz; Mike Patterson; Davie Petti

    2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S Department of Energy (DOE) is conducting research on the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) design concept for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project. The reactor design will be a graphite moderated, thermal neutron spectrum reactor that will produce electricity and hydrogen in a highly efficient manner. The NGNP reactor core will be either a prismatic graphite block type core or a pebble bed core. The NGNP will use very high-burnup, low-enriched uranium, TRISO-coated fuel, and have a projected plant design service life of 60 years. The VHTR concept is considered to be the nearest-term reactor design that has the capability to efficiently produce hydrogen. The plant size, reactor thermal power, and core configuration will ensure passive decay heat removal without fuel damage or radioactive material releases during reactor core-accidents. The objectives of the NGNP Project are to: Demonstrate a full-scale prototype VHTR that is commercially licensed by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, and Demonstrate safe and economical nuclear-assisted production of hydrogen and electricity. The DOE laboratories, led by the INL, perform research and development (R&D) that will be critical to the success of the NGNP, primarily in the areas of: • High temperature gas reactor fuels behavior • High temperature materials qualification • Design methods development and validation • Hydrogen production technologies • Energy conversion. This paper presents current R&D work that addresses fundamental thermal hydraulics issues that are relevant to a variety of possible NGNP designs.

  3. High temperature measurement using very high shutter speed to avoid image saturation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ma, Zhen; Zhang, Yang [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Sir Frederick Mappin Building, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, S1 3JD (United Kingdom)

    2014-04-11T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper explores the adaptation of the two-colour principle to develop a high-speed colour temperature correlation system, which is able to cover a range of temperature that is challenging to achieve before. A colour digital camera has built in RGB filters. It is possible to measure the temperature from the ratio of intensity of the green and red pixels using the two-colour principle based on the expansion of the Plank’s radiation law. In this study, experiments were carried out using a temperature calibrated tungsten ribbon lamp which can be tuned to vary from 1300 to 2200°C. Using very high shutter speed and small aperture, the high-speed camera successfully captured the tungsten ribbon without image saturation at the full temperature scale. Tests have been carried out at different temperature and camera settings. The sensitivity and errors have been analysed, and experiment results demonstrate the potential of using very high shutter speed is available for measuring the temperature even beyond 2200°C.

  4. INNOVATIVE INSTRUMENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF THE TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT FOR HIGH TEMPERATURE GASIFICATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seong W. Lee

    2004-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The systematic tests of the gasifier simulator on the clean thermocouple were completed in this reporting period. Within the systematic tests on the clean thermocouple, five (5) factors were considered as the experimental parameters including air flow rate, water flow rate, fine dust particle amount, ammonia addition and high/low frequency device (electric motor). The fractional factorial design method was used in the experiment design with sixteen (16) data sets of readings. Analysis of Variances (ANOVA) was applied to the results from systematic tests. The ANOVA results show that the un-balanced motor vibration frequency did not have the significant impact on the temperature changes in the gasifier simulator. For the fine dust particles testing, the amount of fine dust particles has significant impact to the temperature measurements in the gasifier simulator. The effects of the air and water on the temperature measurements show the same results as reported in the previous report. The ammonia concentration was included as an experimental parameter for the reducing environment in this reporting period. The ammonia concentration does not seem to be a significant factor on the temperature changes. The linear regression analysis was applied to the temperature reading with five (5) factors. The accuracy of the linear regression is relatively low, which is less than 10% accuracy. Nonlinear regression was also conducted to the temperature reading with the same factors. Since the experiments were designed in two (2) levels, the nonlinear regression is not very effective with the dataset (16 readings). An extra central point test was conducted. With the data of the center point testing, the accuracy of the nonlinear regression is much better than the linear regression.

  5. Radial convection of finite ion temperature, high amplitude plasma blobs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wiesenberger, M., E-mail: Matthias.Wiesenberger@uibk.ac.at; Kendl, A. [Institute for Ion Physics and Applied Physics, Association EURATOM-ÖAW, University of Innsbruck, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Madsen, J. [Association EURATOM-DTU, Department of Physics, Technical University of Denmark, 2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)

    2014-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We present results from simulations of seeded blob convection in the scrape-off-layer of magnetically confined fusion plasmas. We consistently incorporate high fluctuation amplitude levels and finite Larmor radius (FLR) effects using a fully nonlinear global gyrofluid model. This is in line with conditions found in tokamak scrape-off-layers (SOL) regions. Varying the ion temperature, the initial blob width, and the initial amplitude, we found an FLR dominated regime where the blob behavior is significantly different from what is predicted by cold-ion models. The transition to this regime is very well described by the ratio of the ion gyroradius to the characteristic gradient scale length of the blob. We compare the global gyrofluid model with a partly linearized local model. For low ion temperatures, we find that simulations of the global model show more coherent blobs with an increased cross-field transport compared to blobs simulated with the local model. The maximal blob amplitude is significantly higher in the global simulations than in the local ones. When the ion temperature is comparable to the electron temperature, global blob simulations show a reduced blob coherence and a decreased cross-field transport in comparison with local blob simulations.

  6. Microstructure, Processing, Performance Relationships for High Temperature Coatings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas M. Lillo; Richard N. Wright; W. David Swank; D.C Haggard; Dennis C. Kunerth; Denis E. Clark

    2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    HVOF coating have shown high resistance to corrosion in fossil energy applications and it is generally accepted that mechanical failure, e.g. cracking or spalling, ultimately will determine coating lifetime. The high velocity oxygen-fuel method (HVOF) of applying coatings is one of the most commercially viable and allows the control of various parameters including powder particle velocity and temperature which influence coating properties, such as residual stress, bond coat strength and microstructure. Methods of assessing the mechanical durability of coatings are being developed in order to explore the relationship between HVOF spraying parameters and the mechanical properties of the coating and coating bond strength. The room temperature mechanical strength, as well as the resistance of the coating to cracking/spalling during thermal transients, is of considerable importance. Eddy current, acoustic emission and thermal imaging methods are being developed to detect coating failure during thermal cycling tests and room temperature tensile tests. Preliminary results on coating failure of HVOF FeAl coatings on carbon steel, as detected by eddy current measurements during thermal cycling, are presented. The influence of HVOF coating parameters of iron aluminides - applied to more relevant structural steels, like 316 SS and Grade 91 steel, - on coating durability will be explored once reliable methods for identification of coating failure have been developed.

  7. Materials for the scavenging of hydrogen at high temperatures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shepodd, T.J.; Phillip, B.L.

    1997-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A hydrogen getter composition is described comprising a double or triple bonded hydrocarbon with a high melting point useful for removing hydrogen gas, to partial pressures below 0.01 torr, from enclosed spaces and particularly from vessels used for transporting or containing fluids at elevated temperatures. The hydrogen getter compositions disclosed herein and their reaction products will neither melt nor char at temperatures in excess of 100 C. They possess significant advantages over conventional hydrogen getters, namely low risk of fire or explosion, no requirement for high temperature activation or operation, the ability to absorb hydrogen even in the presence of contaminants such as water, water vapor, common atmospheric gases and oil mists and are designed to be disposed within the confines of the apparatus. These getter materials can be mixed with binders, such as fluoropolymers, which permit the getter material to be fabricated into useful shapes and/or impart desirable properties such as water repellency or impermeability to various gases. 7 figs.

  8. Materials for the scavenging of hydrogen at high temperatures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shepodd, T.J.; Phillip, B.L.

    1997-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A hydrogen getter composition is described comprising a double or triple bonded hydrocarbon with a high melting point useful for removing hydrogen gas, to partial pressures below 0.01 torr, from enclosed spaces and particularly from vessels used for transporting or containing fluids at elevated temperatures. The hydrogen getter compositions disclosed herein and their reaction products will neither melt nor char at temperatures in excess of 100C. They possess significant advantages over conventional hydrogen getters, namely low risk of fire or explosion, no requirement for high temperature activation or operation, the ability to absorb hydrogen even in the presence of contaminants such as water, water vapor, common atmospheric gases and oil mists and are designed to be disposed within the confines of the apparatus. These getter materials can be mixed with binders, such as fluoropolymers, which permit the getter material to be fabricated into useful shapes and/or impart desirable properties such as water repellency or impermeability to various gases. 7 figs.

  9. Oxygen Handling and Cooling Options in High Temperature Electrolysis Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Manohar S. Sohal; J. Stephen Herring

    2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Idaho National Laboratory is working on a project to generate hydrogen by high temperature electrolysis (HTE). In such an HTE system, safety precautions need to be taken to handle high temperature oxygen at ~830°C. This report is aimed at addressing oxygen handling in a HTE plant.. Though oxygen itself is not flammable, most engineering material, including many gases and liquids, will burn in the presence of oxygen under some favorable physicochemical conditions. At present, an absolute set of rules does not exist that can cover all aspects of oxygen system design, material selection, and operating practices to avoid subtle hazards related to oxygen. Because most materials, including metals, will burn in an oxygen-enriched environment, hazards are always present when using oxygen. Most materials will ignite in an oxygen-enriched environment at a temperature lower than that in air, and once ignited, combustion rates are greater in the oxygen-enriched environment. Even many metals, if ignited, burn violently in an oxygen-enriched environment. However, these hazards do not preclude the operations and systems involving oxygen. Oxygen can be safely handled and used if all the materials in a system are not flammable in the end-use environment or if ignition sources are identified and controlled. In fact, the incidence of oxygen system fires is reported to be low with a probability of about one in a million. This report is a practical guideline and tutorial for the safe operation and handling of gaseous oxygen in high temperature electrolysis system. The intent is to provide safe, practical guidance that permits the accomplishment of experimental operations at INL, while being restrictive enough to prevent personnel endangerment and to provide reasonable facility protection. Adequate guidelines are provided to govern various aspects of oxygen handling associated with high temperature electrolysis system to generate hydrogen. The intent here is to present acceptable oxygen standards and practices for minimum safety requirements. A summary of operational hazards, along with oxygen safety and emergency procedures, are provided.

  10. High operating temperature interband cascade focal plane arrays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tian, Z.-B.; Godoy, S. E.; Kim, H. S.; Schuler-Sandy, T.; Montoya, J. A.; Krishna, S. [Center for High Technology Materials, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87106 (United States)

    2014-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, we report the initial demonstration of mid-infrared interband cascade (IC) photodetector focal plane arrays with multiple-stage/junction design. The merits of IC photodetectors include low noise and efficient photocarrier extraction, even for zero-bias operation. By adopting enhanced electron barrier design and a total absorber thickness of 0.7??m, the 5-stage IC detectors show very low dark current (1.10?×?10{sup ?7} A/cm{sup 2} at ?5?mV and 150?K). Even with un-optimized fabrication and standard commercial (mis-matched) read-out circuit technology, infrared images are obtained by the 320?×?256 IC focal plane array up to 180?K with f/2.3 optics. The minimum noise equivalent temperature difference of 28 mK is obtained at 120?K. These initial results indicate great potential of IC photodetectors, particularly for high operating temperature applications.

  11. Remote high-temperature insulatorless heat-flux gauge

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Noel, B.W.

    1993-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

    A remote optical heat-flux gauge for use in extremely high temperature environments is described. This application is possible because of the use of thermographic phosphors as the sensing media, and the omission of the need for an intervening layer of insulator between phosphor layers. The gauge has no electrical leads, but is interrogated with ultraviolet or laser light. The luminescence emitted by the two phosphor layers, which is indicative of the temperature of the layers, is collected and analyzed in order to determine the heat flux incident on the surface being investigated. The two layers of thermographic phosphor must be of different materials to assure that the spectral lines collected will be distinguishable. Spatial heat-flux measurements can be made by scanning the light across the surface of the gauge. 3 figures.

  12. Remote high-temperature insulatorless heat-flux gauge

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Noel, Bruce W. (Espanola, NM)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A remote optical heat-flux gauge for use in extremely high temperature environments is described. This application is possible because of the use of thermographic phosphors as the sensing media, and the omission of the need for an intervening layer of insulator between phosphor layers. The gauge has no electrical leads, but is interrogated with ultraviolet or laser light. The luminescence emitted by the two phosphor layers, which is indicative of the temperature of the layers, is collected and analyzed in order to determine the heat flux incident on the surface being investigated. The two layers of thermographic phosphor must be of different materials to assure that the spectral lines collected will be distinguishable. Spatial heat-flux measurements can be made by scanning the light across the surface of the gauge.

  13. Solar High Temperature Water-Splitting Cycle with Quantum Boost

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taylor, Robin [SAIC] [SAIC; Davenport, Roger [SAIC] [SAIC; Talbot, Jan [UCSD] [UCSD; Herz, Richard [UCSD] [UCSD; Genders, David [Electrosynthesis Co.] [Electrosynthesis Co.; Symons, Peter [Electrosynthesis Co.] [Electrosynthesis Co.; Brown, Lloyd [TChemE] [TChemE

    2014-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

    A sulfur family chemical cycle having ammonia as the working fluid and reagent was developed as a cost-effective and efficient hydrogen production technology based on a solar thermochemical water-splitting cycle. The sulfur ammonia (SA) cycle is a renewable and sustainable process that is unique in that it is an all-fluid cycle (i.e., with no solids handling). It uses a moderate temperature solar plant with the solar receiver operating at 800°C. All electricity needed is generated internally from recovered heat. The plant would operate continuously with low cost storage and it is a good potential solar thermochemical hydrogen production cycle for reaching the DOE cost goals. Two approaches were considered for the hydrogen production step of the SA cycle: (1) photocatalytic, and (2) electrolytic oxidation of ammonium sulfite to ammonium sulfate in aqueous solutions. Also, two sub-cycles were evaluated for the oxygen evolution side of the SA cycle: (1) zinc sulfate/zinc oxide, and (2) potassium sulfate/potassium pyrosulfate. The laboratory testing and optimization of all the process steps for each version of the SA cycle were proven in the laboratory or have been fully demonstrated by others, but further optimization is still possible and needed. The solar configuration evolved to a 50 MW(thermal) central receiver system with a North heliostat field, a cavity receiver, and NaCl molten salt storage to allow continuous operation. The H2A economic model was used to optimize and trade-off SA cycle configurations. Parametric studies of chemical plant performance have indicated process efficiencies of ~20%. Although the current process efficiency is technically acceptable, an increased efficiency is needed if the DOE cost targets are to be reached. There are two interrelated areas in which there is the potential for significant efficiency improvements: electrolysis cell voltage and excessive water vaporization. Methods to significantly reduce water evaporation are proposed for future activities. Electrolysis membranes that permit higher temperatures and lower voltages are attainable. The oxygen half cycle will need further development and improvement.

  14. Comparison of diesel spray combustion in different high-temperature, high-pressure facilities.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Christiansen, Caspar (Technical University of Denmark); Hermant, Laurent (IFP); Malbec, Louis-Marie (IFP); Bruneaux, Gilles (IFP); Genzale, Caroline L.; Pickett, Lyle M.; Schramm, Jesper (Technical University of Denmark)

    2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Diesel spray experiments at controlled high-temperature and high-pressure conditions offer the potential for an improved understanding of diesel combustion, and for the development of more accurate CFD models that will ultimately be used to improve engine design. Several spray chamber facilities capable of high-temperature, high-pressure conditions typical of engine combustion have been developed, but uncertainties about their operation exist because of the uniqueness of each facility. For the IMEM meeting, we describe results from comparative studies using constant-volume vessels at Sandia National Laboratories and IFP. Targeting the same ambient gas conditions (900 K, 60 bar, 22.8 kg/m{sup 3}, 15% oxygen) and sharing the same injector (common rail, 1500 bar, KS1.5/86 nozzle, 0.090 mm orifice diameter, n-dodecane, 363 K), we describe detailed measurements of the temperature and pressure boundary conditions at each facility, followed by observations of spray penetration, ignition, and combustion using high-speed imaging. Performing experiments at the same high-temperature, high-pressure operating conditions is an objective of the Engine Combustion Network (http://www.ca.sandia.gov/ECN/), which seeks to leverage the research capabilities and advanced diagnostics of all participants in the ECN. We expect that this effort will generate a high-quality dataset to be used for advanced computational model development at engine conditions.

  15. Power efficiency for very high temperature solar thermal cavity receivers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McDougal, Allan R. (LaCanada-Flintridge, CA); Hale, Robert R. (Upland, CA)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention is an improved solar energy cavity receiver for exposing materials and components to high temperatures. The receiver includes a housing having an internal reflective surface defining a cavity and having an inlet for admitting solar radiation thereto. A photothermal absorber is positioned in the cavity to receive radiation from the inlet. A reflective baffle is positioned between the absorber and the inlet to severely restrict the re-radiation of energy through the inlet. The front surface of the baffle defines a narrow annulus with the internal reflective surface of the housing. The front surface of the baffle is contoured to reflect incoming radiation onto the internal surface of the housing, from which it is reflected through the annulus and onto the front surface of the absorber. The back surface of the baffle intercepts infrared radiation from the front of the absorber. With this arrangement, a high percentage of the solar power input is retained in the cavity; thus, high internal temperatures are attained.

  16. The Fuel Accident Condition Simulator (FACS) furnace system for high temperature performance testing of VHTR fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul A. Demkowicz; David V. Laug; Dawn M. Scates; Edward L. Reber; Lyle G. Roybal; John B. Walter; Jason M. Harp; Robert N. Morris

    2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The AGR-1 irradiation of TRISO-coated particle fuel specimens was recently completed and represents the most successful such irradiation in US history, reaching peak burnups of greater than 19% FIMA with zero failures out of 300,000 particles. An extensive post-irradiation examination (PIE) campaign will be conducted on the AGR-1 fuel in order to characterize the irradiated fuel properties, assess the in-pile fuel performance in terms of coating integrity and fission metals release, and determine the fission product retention behavior during high temperature safety testing. A new furnace system has been designed, built, and tested to perform high temperature accident tests. The Fuel Accident Condition Simulator furnace system is designed to heat fuel specimens at temperatures up to 2000 degrees C in helium while monitoring the release of volatile fission metals (e.g. Cs, Ag, Sr, and Eu), iodine, and fission gases (Kr, Xe). Fission gases released from the fuel to the sweep gas are monitored in real time using dual cryogenic traps fitted with high purity germanium detectors. Condensable fission products are collected on a plate attached to a water-cooled cold finger that can be exchanged periodically without interrupting the test. Analysis of fission products on the condensation plates involves dry gamma counting followed by chemical analysis of selected isotopes. This paper will describe design and operational details of the Fuel Accident Condition Simulator furnace system and the associated fission gas monitoring system, as well as preliminary system calibration results.

  17. Reliability implications of defects in high temperature annealed Si/SiO{sub 2}/Si structures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Warren, W.L.; Fleetwood, D.M.; Shaneyfelt, M.R.; Winokur, P.S. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Devine, R.A.B.; Mathiot, D. [France Telecom/CNET, Meylan (France); Wilson, I.H.; Xu, J.B. [Chinese Univ. of Hong Kong (Hong Kong)

    1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    High-temperature post-oxidation annealing of poly-Si/SiO{sub 2}/Si structures such as metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitors and metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistors is known to result in enhanced radiation sensitivity, increased 1/f noise, and low field breakdown. The authors have studied the origins of these effects from a spectroscopic standpoint using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and atomic force microscopy. One result of high temperature annealing is the generation of three types of paramagnetic defect centers, two of which are associated with the oxide close to the Si/SiO{sub 2} interface (oxygen-vacancy centers) and the third with the bulk Si substrate (oxygen-related donors). In all three cases, the origin of the defects may be attributed to out-diffusion of O from the SiO{sub 2} network into the Si substrate with associated reduction of the oxide. The authors present a straightforward model for the interfacial region which assumes the driving force for O out-diffusion is the chemical potential difference of the O in the two phases (SiO{sub 2} and the Si substrate). Experimental evidence is provided to show that enhanced hole trapping and interface-trap and border-trap generation in irradiated high-temperature annealed Si/SiO{sub 2}/Si systems are all related either directly, or indirectly, to the presence of oxygen vacancies.

  18. An In-Cylinder Imaging Survey of Low-Temperature, High-Efficiency...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    An In-Cylinder Imaging Survey of Low-Temperature, High-Efficiency Combustion Strategies An In-Cylinder Imaging Survey of Low-Temperature, High-Efficiency Combustion Strategies High...

  19. Conductor requirements for high-temperature superconducting utility power transformers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pleva, E. F. [Waukesha Electric Systems, Waukesha, WI; Mehrotra, V. [Waukesha Electric Systems, Waukesha, WI; Schwenterly, S W [ORNL

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    High-temperature superconducting (HTS) coated conductors in utility power transformers must satisfy a set of operating requirements that are driven by two major considerations-HTS transformers must be economically competitive with conventional units, and the conductor must be robust enough to be used in a commercial manufacturing environment. The transformer design and manufacturing process will be described in order to highlight the various requirements that it imposes on the HTS conductor. Spreadsheet estimates of HTS transformer costs allow estimates of the conductor cost required for an HTS transformer to be competitive with a similarly performing conventional unit.

  20. Langevin dynamics and decoherence of heavy quarks at high temperatures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Akamatsu, Yukinao

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Langevin equation of heavy quarks in high-temperature quark-gluon plasma is derived. The dynamics of heavy quark color is coupled with the phase space dynamics and causes a macroscopic superposition state of heavy quark momentum. Decoherence of the superposition state allows us classical description. The time scale of decoherence gives an appropriate discretization time scale $\\Delta t \\sim \\sqrt{M/\\gamma}$ for the classical Langevin equation, where $M$ is heavy quark mass and $\\gamma$ is heavy quark momentum diffusion constant.

  1. Narrowband high temperature superconducting receiver for low frequency radio waves

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reagor, David W. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An underground communicating device has a low-noise SQUID using high temperature superconductor components connected to detect a modulated external magnetic flux for outputting a voltage signal spectrum that is related to the varying magnetic flux. A narrow bandwidth filter may be used to select a portion of the voltage signal spectrum that is relatively free of power line noise to output a relatively low noise output signal when operating in a portion of the electromagnetic spectra where such power line noise exists. A demodulator outputs a communication signal, which may be an FM signal, indicative of a modulation on the modulated external magnetic flux.

  2. Spectroscopy and kinetics of combustion gases at high temperatures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hanson, R.K.; Bowman, C.T. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

    1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This program involves two complementary activities: (1) development and application of cw ring dye laser absorption methods for sensitive detection of radical species and measurement of fundamental spectroscopic parameters at high temperatures; and (2) shock tube studies of reaction kinetics relevant to combustion. Species currently under investigation in the spectroscopic portion of the research include NO and CH{sub 3}; this has necessitated the continued operated at wavelengths in the range 210-230 nm. Shock tube studies of reaction kinetics currently are focussed on reactions involving CH{sub 3} radicals.

  3. Design manual. [High temperature heat pump for heat recovery system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burch, T.E.; Chancellor, P.D.; Dyer, D.F.; Maples, G.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The design and performance of a waste heat recovery system which utilizes a high temperature heat pump and which is intended for use in those industries incorporating indirect drying processes are described. It is estimated that use of this heat recovery system in the paper, pulp, and textile industries in the US could save 3.9 x 10/sup 14/ Btu/yr. Information is included on over all and component design for the heat pump system, comparison of prime movers for powering the compressor, control equipment, and system economics. (LCL)

  4. Development of twisted high-temperature superconductor composite conductors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Christopherson, C.J.; Riley, G.N. Jr. [American Superconductor Corporation, Westborough, Massachusetts 01581 (United States)] [American Superconductor Corporation, Westborough, Massachusetts 01581 (United States)

    1995-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Multifilamentary high-temperature superconductor (HTS) composite conductors have been developed for alternating current (ac) applications. A twisted HTS conductor containing the Bi-2223 phase fabricated using a modified powder-in-tube technique is reported. Transport critical current densities of 13 800 and 10 900 A/cm {sup 2} (77 K, self-field, 1 {mu}V/cm) have been achieved for twisted tape and wire conductors with twist pitches of 3.7 and 3.6 mm, respectively. These conductors are strongly linked and are thus suitable for use in ac applications.

  5. High temperature performance of scrap tire rubber modified asphalt concrete

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coomarasamy, A. [Ministry of Transportation, Downsview, Ontario (Canada); Manolis, S.; Hesp, S. [Queen`s Univ., Kingston, Ontario (Canada)

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Wheel track rutting tests on mixes modified with 30 mesh, 80 mesh, and very fine colloidal crumb rubber particles show that a very significant improvement in performance occurs with a reduction in the rubber particle size. The SHRP binder test for rutting, which was originally developed for homogeneous systems only, does not predict the performance improvement for smaller rubber particles. If these new scrap rubber binder systems are to be used in pavements then rutting tests on the asphalt-aggregate mixture should be conducted in order to accurately predict high temperature performance.

  6. Autoignition of toluene reference fuels at high pressures modeled with detailed chemical kinetics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andrae, J.C.G. [Department of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Royal Institute of Technology, SE-100 44 Stockholm (Sweden); Shell Global Solutions, P.O. Box 1, Chester CH1 3SH (United Kingdom); Bjoernbom, P. [Department of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Royal Institute of Technology, SE-100 44 Stockholm (Sweden); Cracknell, R.F.; Kalghatgi, G.T. [Shell Global Solutions, P.O. Box 1, Chester CH1 3SH (United Kingdom)

    2007-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A detailed chemical kinetic model for the autoignition of toluene reference fuels (TRF) is presented. The toluene submechanism added to the Lawrence Livermore Primary Reference Fuel (PRF) mechanism was developed using recent shock tube autoignition delay time data under conditions relevant to HCCI combustion. For two-component fuels the model was validated against recent high-pressure shock tube autoignition delay time data for a mixture consisting of 35% n-heptane and 65% toluene by liquid volume. Important features of the autoignition of the mixture proved to be cross-acceleration effects, where hydroperoxy radicals produced during n-heptane oxidation dramatically increased the oxidation rate of toluene compared to the case when toluene alone was oxidized. Rate constants for the reaction of benzyl and hydroperoxyl radicals previously used in the modeling of the oxidation of toluene alone were untenably high for modeling of the mixture. To model both systems it was found necessary to use a lower rate and introduce an additional branching route in the reaction between benzyl radicals and O{sub 2}. Good agreement between experiments and predictions was found when the model was validated against shock tube autoignition delay data for gasoline surrogate fuels consisting of mixtures of 63-69% isooctane, 14-20% toluene, and 17% n-heptane by liquid volume. Cross reactions such as hydrogen abstractions between toluene and alkyl and alkylperoxy radicals and between the PRF were introduced for completion of chemical description. They were only of small importance for modeling autoignition delays from shock tube experiments, even at low temperatures. A single-zone engine model was used to evaluate how well the validated mechanism could capture autoignition behavior of toluene reference fuels in a homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engine. The model could qualitatively predict the experiments, except in the case with boosted intake pressure, where the initial temperature had to be increased significantly in order to predict the point of autoignition. (author)

  7. Exploring high temperature phenomena related to post-detonation using an electric arc

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dai, Z. R., E-mail: dai1@llnl.gov; Crowhurst, J. C.; Grant, C. D.; Knight, K. B.; Tang, V.; Chernov, A. A.; Cook, E. G.; Lotscher, J. P.; Hutcheon, I. D. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94551-0808 (United States)

    2013-11-28T23:59:59.000Z

    We report a study of materials recovered from a uranium-containing plasma generated by an electric arc. The device used to generate the arc is capable of sustaining temperatures of an eV or higher for up to 100??s. Samples took the form of a 4??m-thick film deposited onto 8 pairs of 17??m-thick Cu electrodes supported on a 25??m-thick Kapton backing and sandwiched between glass plates. Materials recovered from the glass plates and around the electrode tips after passage of an arc were characterized using scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Recovered materials included a variety of crystalline compounds (e.g., UO{sub 2}, UC{sub 2}, UCu{sub 5},) as well as mixtures of uranium and amorphous glass. Most of the materials collected on the glass plates took the form of spherules having a wide range of diameters from tens of nanometers to tens of micrometers. The composition and size of the spherules depended on location, indicating different chemical and physical environments. A theoretical analysis we have carried out suggests that the submicron spherules presumably formed by deposition during the arc discharge, while at the same time the glass plates were strongly heated due to absorption of plasma radiation mainly by islands of deposited metals (Cu, U). The surface temperature of the glass plates is expected to have risen to ?2300?K thus producing a liquefied glass layer, likely diffusions of the deposited metals on the hot glass surface and into this layer were accompanied by chemical reactions that gave rise to the observed materials. These results, together with the compact scale and relatively low cost, suggest that the experimental technique provides a practical approach to investigate the complex physical and chemical processes that occur when actinide-containing material interacts with the environment at high temperature, for example, during fallout formation following a nuclear detonation.

  8. Ultra high temperature diffusion apparatus and operating procedures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wyrick, S.B.

    1985-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    It is the purpose of this paper to present an experimental apparatus which is capable of measuring diffusion coefficients of interdiffusing gases in the temperature range 300K to 2500K. Because of the high temperatures which will be encountered, a special alloy of tantalum (T-111) is used to house the diffusion process. This T-111 diffusion cell is heated via radiation heat from a tungsten heating element powered by a Saban saturable reactor power supply. The diffusion cell heating element are encased in a nickel-plated copper cooling can. This entire assembly is enclosed in an Ultek vacuum chamber to prevent oxidation of the diffusion cell. This report covers the construction and calibration of the diffusion cell, details of the gas loading and sampling system, and complete information on the components required to operate the vacuum furnace. Thus far, several experiments have been run in the temperature range 600K to 800K and the resulting diffusion coefficients agree fairly well with previously published values. 21 refs., 9 figs., 4 tabs.

  9. Gallium phosphide high-temperature bipolar junction transistor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zipperian, T.E.; Dawson, L.R.; Caffin, R.J.

    1981-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Preliminary results are reported on the development of a high-temperature (> 350/sup 0/C) gallium phosphide bipolar junction transistor (BJT) for goethermal and other energy applications. This four-layer p/sup +/n/sup -/pp/sup +/ structure was fromed by liquid phase epitaxy using a supercooling technique to insure uniform nucleation of the thin layers. Magnesium was used as the p-type dopant to avoid excessive out-diffusion into the lightly doped base. By appropriate choice of electrodes, the device may also be driven as an n-channel junction field-effect transistor. The gallium phosphide BJT is observed to have a common-emitter current gain peaking in the range of 6 to 10 (for temperatures from 20/sup 0/C to 400/sup 0/C) and a room-temperature, punchthrough-limited, collector-emitter breakdown voltage of approximately -6V. Other parameters of interest include an f/sub/ = 400 KHz (at 20/sup 0/C) and a collector base leakage current = 200 ..mu..A (at 350/sup 0/C).

  10. HIGH TEMPERATURE IRRADIATION RESISTANT THERMOCOUPLES – A LOW COST SENSOR FOR IN-PILE TESTING AT HIGH TEMPERATURES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joy L. Rempe; Darrell L. Knudson; Keith G. Condie; S. Curtis Wilkins; Joshua E. Daw

    2008-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Several options have been identified to improve recently-developed Idaho National Laboratory (INL) High Temperature Irradiation Resistant ThermoCouples (HTIR-TCs) for in-pile testing. These options have the potential to reduce fabrication costs and allow HTIR-TC use in higher temperature applications (up to at least 1800 °C). The INL and the University of Idaho (UI) investigated these options with the ultimate objective of providing recommendations for alternate thermocouple designs that are optimized for various applications. This paper summarizes results from these INL/UI investigations. Specifically, results are reported about several options found to enhance HTIR-TC performance, such as improved heat treatments, alternate geometries, alternate fabrication techniques, and the use of copper/nickel alloys as soft extension cable.

  11. Novel High Temperature Materials for In-Situ Sensing Devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Florian Solzbacher; Anil Virkar; Loren Rieth; Srinivasan Kannan; Xiaoxin Chen; Hannwelm Steinebach

    2009-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The overriding goal of this project was to develop gas sensor materials and systems compatible with operation at temperatures from 500 to 700 C. Gas sensors operating at these temperatures would be compatible with placement in fossil-energy exhaust streams close to the combustion chamber, and therefore have advantages for process regulation, and feedback for emissions controls. The three thrusts of our work included investigating thin film gas sensor materials based on metal oxide materials and electroceramic materials, and also development of microhotplate devices to support the gas sensing films. The metal oxide materials NiO, In{sub 2}O{sub 3}, and Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} were investigated for their sensitivity to H{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, and CO{sub 2}, respectively, at high temperatures (T > 500 C), where the sensing properties of these materials have received little attention. New ground was broken in achieving excellent gas sensor responses (>10) for temperatures up to 600 C for NiO and In{sub 2}O{sub 3} materials. The gas sensitivity of these materials was decreasing as temperatures increased above 500 C, which indicates that achieving strong sensitivities with these materials at very high temperatures (T {ge} 650 C) will be a further challenge. The sensitivity, selectivity, stability, and reliability of these materials were investigated across a wide range of deposition conditions, temperatures, film thickness, as using surface active promoter materials. We also proposed to study the electroceramic materials BaZr{sub (1-x)}Y{sub x}O{sub (3-x/2)} and BaCe{sub (2-x)}Ca{sub x}S{sub (4-x/2)} for their ability to detect H{sub 2}O and H{sub 2}S, respectively. This report focuses on the properties and gas sensing characteristics of BaZr{sub (1-x)}Y{sub x}O{sub (3-x/2)} (Y-doped BaZrO{sub 3}), as significant difficulties were encounter in generating BaCe{sub (2-x)}Ca{sub x}S{sub (4-x/2)} sensors. Significant new results were achieved for Y-doped BaZrO{sub 3}, including sensitivities of more than 60 atm{sup -1} for H{sub 2}O vapor at 400 C. These results were achieved despite significant difficulties with a strong Ba deficiency in the deposited films, and difficulties with stress in the targets and films. Ultimately, these films achieved good sensitivity, selectivity, and reliability in our gas sensing tests. The final thrust of our project was to develop microhotpates. We proposed the use of SiC thin films for the heater of the microhotplate, but despite extensive efforts we were not able to secure a reliable source of SiC. An alternative microhotplate architecture using SiO{sub 2} and Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} suspended membrane structures, and a polysilicon heater were developed, which could be fabricate at commercial MEMs foundries. These microhotplates were fabricated at Microtechnology Services Frankfurt (MSF) in Germany. The fabricated heaters were able to achieve temperatures > 600 C using {approx} 0.25 W, and when combined with In{sub 2}O{sub 3} films demonstrated sensor systems with sensor responses up to 50 for 25 ppm NO{sub x}, and time constants of less than 10 s.

  12. Medium-size high-temperature gas-cooled reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peinado, C.O.; Koutz, S.L.

    1980-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) experience for the 40-MW(e) Peach Bottom Nuclear Generating Station of Philadelphia Electric Company and the 330-MW(e) Fort St. Vrain Nuclear Generating Station of the Public Service Company of Colorado. Both reactors are graphite moderated and helium cooled, operating at approx. 760/sup 0/C (1400/sup 0/F) and using the uranium/thorium fuel cycle. The plants have demonstrated the inherent safety characteristics, the low activation of components, and the high efficiency associated with the HTGR concept. This experience has been translated into the conceptual design of a medium-sized 1170-MW(t) HTGR for generation of 450 MW of electric power. The concept incorporates inherent HTGR safety characteristics (a multiply redundant prestressed concrete reactor vessel (PCRV), a graphite core, and an inert single-phase coolant) and engineered safety features (core auxiliary cooling, relief valve, and steam generator dump systems).

  13. Damping in high-temperature superconducting levitation systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hull, John R. (Sammamish, WA)

    2009-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods and apparatuses for improved damping in high-temperature superconducting levitation systems are disclosed. A superconducting element (e.g., a stator) generating a magnetic field and a magnet (e.g. a rotor) supported by the magnetic field are provided such that the superconducting element is supported relative to a ground state with damped motion substantially perpendicular to the support of the magnetic field on the magnet. Applying this, a cryostat housing the superconducting bearing may be coupled to the ground state with high damping but low radial stiffness, such that its resonant frequency is less than that of the superconducting bearing. The damping of the cryostat may be substantially transferred to the levitated magnetic rotor, thus, providing damping without affecting the rotational loss, as can be derived applying coupled harmonic oscillator theory in rotor dynamics. Thus, damping can be provided to a levitated object, without substantially affecting the rotational loss.

  14. Fabrication of Tungsten-Rhenium Cladding materials via Spark Plasma Sintering for Ultra High Temperature Reactor Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Charit, Indrajit; Butt, Darryl; Frary, Megan; Carroll, Mark

    2012-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

    This research will develop an optimized, cost-effective method for producing high-purity tungsten-rhenium alloyed fuel clad forms that are crucial for the development of a very high-temperature nuclear reactor. The study will provide critical insight into the fundamental behavior (processing-microstructure- property correlations) of W-Re alloys made using this new fabrication process comprising high-energy ball milling (HEBM) and spark plasma sintering (SPS). A broader goal is to re-establish the U.S. lead in the research field of refractory alloys, such as W-Re systems, with potential applications in very high-temperature nuclear reactors. An essential long-term goal for nuclear power is to develop the capability of operating nuclear reactors at temperatures in excess of 1,000K. This capability has applications in space exploration and some special terrestrial uses where high temperatures are needed in certain chemical or reforming processes. Refractory alloys have been identified as being capable of withstanding temperatures in excess of 1,000K and are considered critical for the development of ultra hightemperature reactors. Tungsten alloys are known to possess extraordinary properties, such as excellent high-temperature capability, including the ability to resist leakage of fissile materials when used as a fuel clad. However, there are difficulties with the development of refractory alloys: 1) lack of basic experimental data on thermodynamics and mechanical and physical properties, and 2) challenges associated with processing these alloys.

  15. Studies of nonlinear electrodynamics of high-temperature superconductors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lam, Quan-Chiu H.

    1991-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Nonlinear electrodynamics of high-{Tc} superconductors are studied both theoretically and experimentally. For powdered samples, a novel model is presented in which the metallographically observed superconducting grains in the powder are modeled as superconducting current loops of various areas with weak links. Surprising harmonic generation behavior in an arc field, H{sub 1} cos({omega}t), is predicted by the model; the power at high harmonics show sharp dips almost periodic in a superposing dc magnetic field, revealing flux quantization in the prototype loops in the model. Such oscillation of the harmonic power in dc magnetic field P{sub nf}(H{sub dc}), is indeed experimentally observed in powdered YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7}. Other experimental aspects also agree with model predictions. For bulk sintered cylindrical samples, a generalized critical state model is presented. In this model, the nonlinear electrodynamics are due to flux-pinning, somewhat similar to low-temperature type-II superconductors, but with a more generalized critical current densities' dependence on magnetic field -- J{sub c}(H){approximately}H{sub local}{sup -{beta}}, with {beta} being an adjustable parameter. Experiments in ac and dc magnetic fields on a sintered cylindrical rod of YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7} yield unambiguous evidence of independent inter- and intragranular contributions to the complex harmonic permeability {tilde {mu}}{sub n} = {mu}{prime}{sub n} -i{mu}{double prime}{sub n}. Temperature- dependence measurements reveal that, while the intragranular supercurrents disappear at {Tc}{ge}91.2 K, the intergranular supercurrents disappear at T{ge}86.6 K. This result is, to our knowledge, the first clear measurement of the phase-locking temperature of the 3-D matrix formed by YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7} grains, which are in electrical contact with one another through weak links.

  16. Studies of nonlinear electrodynamics of high-temperature superconductors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lam, Quan-Chiu H.

    1991-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Nonlinear electrodynamics of high-{Tc} superconductors are studied both theoretically and experimentally. For powdered samples, a novel model is presented in which the metallographically observed superconducting grains in the powder are modeled as superconducting current loops of various areas with weak links. Surprising harmonic generation behavior in an arc field, H{sub 1} cos({omega}t), is predicted by the model; the power at high harmonics show sharp dips almost periodic in a superposing dc magnetic field, revealing flux quantization in the prototype loops in the model. Such oscillation of the harmonic power in dc magnetic field P{sub nf}(H{sub dc}), is indeed experimentally observed in powdered YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7}. Other experimental aspects also agree with model predictions. For bulk sintered cylindrical samples, a generalized critical state model is presented. In this model, the nonlinear electrodynamics are due to flux-pinning, somewhat similar to low-temperature type-II superconductors, but with a more generalized critical current densities` dependence on magnetic field -- J{sub c}(H){approximately}H{sub local}{sup -{beta}}, with {beta} being an adjustable parameter. Experiments in ac and dc magnetic fields on a sintered cylindrical rod of YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7} yield unambiguous evidence of independent inter- and intragranular contributions to the complex harmonic permeability {tilde {mu}}{sub n} = {mu}{prime}{sub n} -i{mu}{double_prime}{sub n}. Temperature- dependence measurements reveal that, while the intragranular supercurrents disappear at {Tc}{ge}91.2 K, the intergranular supercurrents disappear at T{ge}86.6 K. This result is, to our knowledge, the first clear measurement of the phase-locking temperature of the 3-D matrix formed by YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7} grains, which are in electrical contact with one another through weak links.

  17. Chemical Solution Derived Planarization Layers for Highly Aligned IBAD MgO Templates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans [ORNL] [ORNL; Aytug, Tolga [ORNL] [ORNL; Stan, Liliana [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL)] [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Jia, Quanxi [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL)] [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Cantoni, Claudia [ORNL] [ORNL; Wee, Sung Hun [ORNL] [ORNL

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The main goal of this research is to develop a chemical solution derived planarization layer to fabricate highly aligned IBAD-MgO templates for the development of high temperature superconductor (HTS) based coated conductors. The standard IBAD-MgO template needs an additional electrochemical polishing step of the mechanically polished 50- m-thick Hastelloy C-276 substrates to ensure a flat and smooth surface for subsequent growth of multi-layer buffer architectures, which include: sputtered 80-nm Al2O3; sputtered 7-nm Y2O3; IBAD 10-nm MgO; sputtered 30-nm homo-epi MgO; and sputtered 30-nm LaMnO3 (LMO) layers. We have successfully developed a solution planarization layer that removes the electrochemical polishing step and also acts as a barrier layer. Crack-free, smooth Al2O3 layers were prepared on mechanically polished Hastelloy substrates using a chemical solution process. A nearly 10-15-nm thick Al2O3 layer was formed with each coating and the coating was repeated several times to achieve the desired film thickness with intermediate heat-treatments after each coating. The Al2O3 planarization layer significantly reduced the surface roughness of the substrate. The average surface roughness value, Ra for a starting substrate was 9-10 nm. After 8 coatings of Al2O3 layer, the Ra was reduced to 2 nm. Highly aligned IBAD-MgO layers with out-of-plane and in-plane textures comparable to the standard IBAD-MgO layers were successfully deposited on top of the solution planarization Al2O3 layers with an Y2O3 nucleation layer using a reel-to-reel ion-beam sputtering system. Both homo-epi MgO and LMO layers were subsequently deposited on the IBAD-MgO layers using rf sputtering to complete the buffer stack required for the growth of HTS films. YBa2Cu3O7- (YBCO) films with a thickness of 0.8 m deposited on these IBAD-MgO templates by pulsed laser deposition showed a high self-field critical current density, Jc of 3.04 MA/cm2 at 77 K and 6.05 MA/cm2 at 65 K. These results demonstrate that a low-cost chemical-solution-based, high-throughput Al2O3 planarization layer can remove the electro-polishing step and replace sputtered Al2O3 layers for the production of high Jc YBCO-coated conductors.

  18. Boron nitrides synthesized directly from the elements at high pressures and temperatures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nicol, M.; Yoo, C.S.; Akella, J.; Cynn, H.

    1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We use angle-resolved synchrotron x-ray diffraction, laser sample heating, and diamond-anvil cells to follow in-situ chemical reactions directly between elemental boron and nitrogen. The structures of the solid reaction products vary with pressure. Below 10 GPa, hexagonal BN is the product; cubic or wurzite BN form at higher pressures. Under nitrogen-rich conditions, another hexagonal allotrope occurs which seems to be a new highly transparent, low density h`-BN. No direct reactions occur at ambient temperature even at pressures as high as 50 GPa, implying that a large activation barrier limits the kinetics of these exothermic processes. Laser heating overcomes the large kinetic activation barrier and initiates spontaneous, self-sustaining exothermic reactions even at moderate pressures.

  19. GFOC Project results: High Temperature / High Pressure, Hydrogen Tolerant Optical Fiber

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    E. Burov; A. Pastouret; E. Aldea; B. Overton; F. Gooijer; A. Bergonzo

    2012-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Tests results are given for exposure of multimode optical fiber to high temperatures (300 deg. C) and high partial pressure (15 bar) hydrogen. These results demonstrate that fluorine down doped optical fibers are much more hydrogen tolerant than traditional germanium doped multimode optical fibers. Also demonstrated is the similar hydrogen tolerance of carbon coated and non-carbon coated fibers. Model for reversible H2 impact in fiber versus T{sup o}C and H2 pressure is given. These results have significant impact for the longevity of use for distributed temperature sensing applications in harsh environments such as geothermal wells.

  20. Reactor User Interface Technology Development Roadmaps for a High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor Outlet Temperature of 750 degrees C

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ian Mckirdy

    2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report evaluates the technology readiness of the interface components that are required to transfer high-temperature heat from a High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTGR) to selected industrial applications. This report assumes that the HTGR operates at a reactor outlet temperature of 750°C and provides electricity and/or process heat at 700°C to conventional process applications, including the production of hydrogen.

  1. Preliminary Chemical Aging and Lifetime Assessment for High Density S5370

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maxwell, R S; Chinn, S

    2003-11-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A preliminary lifetime assessment of S5370 stress cushions has been performed. Data from three sources were obtained and reviewed to perform this assessment. The sources were the following: (1) the Los Alamos National Laboratory and Honeywell FM&T Kansas City Plant's 2-year and 9-year accelerated aging studies; (2) a large selection of weapon surveillance return data; (3) laboratory experiments at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and Honeywell FM&T Kansas City Plant on artificially aged material. The general conclusions of this study are as follows: (1) There is an inherently large degree of structural and chemical heterogeneity in S5370 cushions that complicates lifetime assessments; (2) Current surveillance testing procedures are inadequate for providing insight into aging trends; (3) LANL PMAP data suggests a 60 year load retention of greater than 40%; however, this is for low density versions and extrapolation to high density must be performed with caution and a new set of testing is recommended; (4) Results of chemical aging assessments suggest that radiation damage is minimal at stockpile relevant doses, thermal degradation leads to compression set due to disentanglement of the network structure over time and a negligible amount of chain scissioning at relevant temperatures. The compression set is accelerated by exposure to radiation; (5) In the absence of further testing, a 60-year load retention of greater than 40% is estimated.

  2. Bio-Fuel Production Assisted with High Temperature Steam Electrolysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grant Hawkes; James O'Brien; Michael McKellar

    2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Two hybrid energy processes that enable production of synthetic liquid fuels that are compatible with the existing conventional liquid transportation fuels infrastructure are presented. Using biomass as a renewable carbon source, and supplemental hydrogen from high-temperature steam electrolysis (HTSE), these two hybrid energy processes have the potential to provide a significant alternative petroleum source that could reduce dependence on imported oil. The first process discusses a hydropyrolysis unit with hydrogen addition from HTSE. Non-food biomass is pyrolyzed and converted to pyrolysis oil. The pyrolysis oil is upgraded with hydrogen addition from HTSE. This addition of hydrogen deoxygenates the pyrolysis oil and increases the pH to a tolerable level for transportation. The final product is synthetic crude that could then be transported to a refinery and input into the already used transportation fuel infrastructure. The second process discusses a process named Bio-Syntrolysis. The Bio-Syntrolysis process combines hydrogen from HTSE with CO from an oxygen-blown biomass gasifier that yields syngas to be used as a feedstock for synthesis of liquid synthetic crude. Conversion of syngas to liquid synthetic crude, using a biomass-based carbon source, expands the application of renewable energy beyond the grid to include transportation fuels. It can also contribute to grid stability associated with non-dispatchable power generation. The use of supplemental hydrogen from HTSE enables greater than 90% utilization of the biomass carbon content which is about 2.5 times higher than carbon utilization associated with traditional cellulosic ethanol production. If the electrical power source needed for HTSE is based on nuclear or renewable energy, the process is carbon neutral. INL has demonstrated improved biomass processing prior to gasification. Recyclable biomass in the form of crop residue or energy crops would serve as the feedstock for this process. A process model of syngas production using high temperature electrolysis and biomass gasification is presented. Process heat from the biomass gasifier is used to heat steam for the hydrogen production via the high temperature steam electrolysis process. Oxygen produced form the electrolysis process is used to control the oxidation rate in the oxygen-blown biomass gasifier.

  3. Dual Phase Membrane for High Temperature CO2 Separation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jerry Lin

    2007-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This project aimed at synthesis of a new inorganic dual-phase carbonate membrane for high temperature CO{sub 2} separation. Metal-carbonate dual-phase membranes were prepared by the direct infiltration method and the synthesis conditions were optimized. Permeation tests for CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2} from 450-750 C showed very low permeances of those two gases through the dual-phase membrane, which was expected due to the lack of ionization of those two particular gases. Permeance of the CO{sub 2} and O{sub 2} mixture was much higher, indicating that the gases do form an ionic species, CO{sub 3}{sup 2-}, enhancing transport through the membrane. However, at temperatures in excess of 650 C, the permeance of CO{sub 3}{sup 2-} decreased rapidly, while predictions showed that permeance should have continued to increase with temperature. XRD data obtained from used membrane indicated that lithium iron oxides formed on the support surface. This lithium iron oxide layer has a very low conductivity, which drastically reduces the flow of electrons to the CO{sub 2}/O{sub 2} gas mixture; thus limiting the formation of the ionic species required for transport through the membrane. These results indicated that the use of stainless steel supports in a high temperature oxidative environment can lead to decreased performance of the membranes. This revelation created the need for an oxidation resistant support, which could be gained by the use of a ceramic-type membrane. Work was extended to synthesize a new inorganic dual-phase carbonate membrane for high temperature CO{sub 2} separation. Helium permeance of the support before and after infiltration of molten carbonate are on the order of 10{sup -6} and 10{sup -10} moles/m{sup 2} {center_dot} Pa {center_dot} s respectively, indicating that the molten carbonate is able to sufficiently infiltrate the membrane. It was found that La{sub 0.6}Sr{sub 0.4}Co{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 0.2}O{sub 3-{delta}} (LSCF) was a suitable candidate for the support material. This support material proved to separate CO{sub 2} when combined with O{sub 2} at a flux of 0.194 ml/min {center_dot} cm{sup 2} at 850 C. It was also observed that, because LSCF is a mixed conductor (conductor of both electrons and oxygen ions), the support was able to provide its own oxygen to facilitate separation of CO{sub 2}. Without feeding O{sub 2}, the LSCF dual phase membrane produced a maximum CO{sub 2} flux of 0.246 ml/min {center_dot} cm{sup 2} at 900 C.

  4. High sensitivity imaging Thomson scattering for low temperature plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meiden, H. J. van der; Al, R. S.; Barth, C. J.; Donne, A. J. H.; Goedheer, W. J.; Groot, B. de; Koppers, W. R.; Pol, M. J. van de; Prins, P. R.; Shumack, A. E.; Smeets, P. H. M.; Vijvers, W. A. J.; Westerhout, J.; Wright, G. M.; Rooij, G. J. van [FOM-Institute for Plasma Physics Rijnhuizen, Association EURATOM-FOM, partner in the Trilateral Euregio Cluster, P.O. Box 1207, 3430 BE Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Engeln, R. [Eindhoven University of Technology, 5612AZ Eindhoven (Netherlands); Kleyn, A. W. [FOM-Institute for Plasma Physics Rijnhuizen, Association EURATOM-FOM, partner in the Trilateral Euregio Cluster, P.O. Box 1207, 3430 BE Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Leiden Institute of Chemistry, Leiden University, Leiden (Netherlands); Lopes Cardozo, N. J.; Schram, D. C. [FOM-Institute for Plasma Physics Rijnhuizen, Association EURATOM-FOM, partner in the Trilateral Euregio Cluster, P.O. Box 1207, 3430 BE Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Eindhoven University of Technology, 5612AZ Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2008-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A highly sensitive imaging Thomson scattering system was developed for low temperature (0.1-10 eV) plasma applications at the Pilot-PSI linear plasma generator. The essential parts of the diagnostic are a neodymium doped yttrium aluminum garnet laser operating at the second harmonic (532 nm), a laser beam line with a unique stray light suppression system and a detection branch consisting of a Littrow spectrometer equipped with an efficient detector based on a ''Generation III'' image intensifier combined with an intensified charged coupled device camera. The system is capable of measuring electron density and temperature profiles of a plasma column of 30 mm in diameter with a spatial resolution of 0.6 mm and an observational error of 3% in the electron density (n{sub e}) and 6% in the electron temperature (T{sub e}) at n{sub e}=4x10{sup 19} m{sup -3}. This is achievable at an accumulated laser input energy of 11 J (from 30 laser pulses at 10 Hz repetition frequency). The stray light contribution is below 9x10{sup 17} m{sup -3} in electron density equivalents by the application of a unique stray light suppression system. The amount of laser energy that is required for a n{sub e} and T{sub e} measurement is 7x10{sup 20}/n{sub e} J, which means that single shot measurements are possible for n{sub e}>2x10{sup 21} m{sup -3}.

  5. Air Cooling for High Temperature Power Electronics (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Waye, S.; Musselman, M.; King, C.

    2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Current emphasis on developing high-temperature power electronics, including wide-bandgap materials such as silicon carbide and gallium nitride, increases the opportunity for a completely air-cooled inverter at higher powers. This removes the liquid cooling system for the inverter, saving weight and volume on the liquid-to-air heat exchanger, coolant lines, pumps, and coolant, replacing them with just a fan and air supply ducting. We investigate the potential for an air-cooled heat exchanger from a component and systems-level approach to meet specific power and power density targets. A proposed baseline air-cooled heat exchanger design that does not meet those targets was optimized using a parametric computational fluid dynamics analysis, examining the effects of heat exchanger geometry and device location, fixing the device heat dissipation and maximum junction temperature. The CFD results were extrapolated to a full inverter, including casing, capacitor, bus bar, gate driver, and control board component weights and volumes. Surrogate ducting was tested to understand the pressure drop and subsequent system parasitic load. Geometries that met targets with acceptable loads on the system were down-selected for experimentation. Nine baseline configuration modules dissipated the target heat dissipation, but fell below specific power and power density targets. Six optimized configuration modules dissipated the target heat load, exceeding the specific power and power density targets. By maintaining the same 175 degrees C maximum junction temperature, an optimized heat exchanger design and higher device heat fluxes allowed a reduction in the number of modules required, increasing specific power and power density while still maintaining the inverter power.

  6. Are tropical forests near a high temperature threshold?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Doughty, Christopher E.; Goulden, Michael L.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    occurs at a relatively modest temper- ature (many temperatestrongly sensitive to modest increases in bulk temperature.

  7. High-temperature zirconia insulation and method for making same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wrenn, Jr., George E. (Clinton, TN); Holcombe, Jr., Cressie E. (Knoxville, TN); Lewis, Jr., John (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is directed to a highly pure, partially stabilized, fibrous zirconia composite for use as thermal insulation in environments where temperatures up to about 2000.degree. C. are utilized. The composite of the present invention is fabricated into any suitable configuration such as a cone, cylinder, dome or the like by vacuum molding an aqueous slurry of partially stabilized zirconia fibers into a desired configuration on a suitably shaped mandrel. The molded fibers are infiltrated with zirconyl nitrate and the resulting structure is then dried to form a rigid structure which may be removed and placed in a furnace. The structure is then heated in air to a temperature of about 600.degree. C. for driving off the nitrate from the structure and for oxidizing the zirconyl ion to zirconia. Thereafter, the structure is heated to about 950.degree. to 1,250.degree. C. to fuse the zirconia fibers at their nexi in a matrix of zirconia. The composite produced by the present invention is self-supporting and can be readily machined to desired final dimensions. Additional heating to about 1800.degree. to 2000.degree. C. further improves structural rigidity.

  8. High-temperature zirconia insulation and method for making same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wrenn, G.E. Jr.; Holcombe, C.E. Jr.; Lewis, J. Jr.

    1988-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is directed to a highly pure, partially stabilized, fibrous zirconia composite for use as thermal insulation in environments where temperatures up to about 2,000 C are utilized. The composite of the present invention is fabricated into any suitable configuration such as a cone, cylinder, dome or the like by vacuum molding an aqueous slurry of partially stabilized zirconia fibers into a desired configuration on a suitably shaped mandrel. The molded fibers are infiltrated with zirconyl nitrate and the resulting structure is then dried to form a rigid structure which may be removed and placed in a furnace. The structure is then heated in air to a temperature of about 600 C for driving off the nitrate from the structure and for oxidizing the zirconyl ion to zirconia. Thereafter, the structure is heated to about 950 to 1,250 C to fuse the zirconia fibers at their nexi in a matrix of zirconia. The composite produced by the present invention is self-supporting and can be readily machined to desired final dimensions. Additional heating to about 1,800 to 2,000 C further improves structural rigidity.

  9. Segmented lasing tube for high temperature laser assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sawicki, Richard H. (Danville, CA); Alger, Terry W. (Tracy, CA); Finucane, Raymond G. (Pleasanton, CA); Hall, Jerome P. (Livermore, CA)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A high temperature laser assembly capable of withstanding operating temperatures in excess of 1500.degree. C. is described comprising a segmented cylindrical ceramic lasing tube having a plurality of cylindrical ceramic lasing tube segments of the same inner and outer diameters non-rigidly joined together in axial alignment; insulation of uniform thickness surround the walls of the ceramic lasing tube; a ceramic casing, preferably of quartz, surrounding the insulation; and a fluid cooled metal jacket surrounds the ceramic casing. In a preferred embodiment, the inner surface of each of the ceramic lasing tube segments are provided with a pair of oppositely spaced grooves in the wall thereof parallel to the center axis of the segmented cylindrical ceramic lasing tube, and both of the grooves and the center axis of the segmented cylindrical ceramic lasing tube lie in a common plane, with the grooves in each ceramic lasing tube segment in circumferential alignment with the grooves in the adjoining ceramic lasing tube segments; and one or more ceramic plates, all lying in a common plane to one another and with the central axis of the segmented ceramic lasing tube, are received in the grooves to provide additional wall area in the segmented ceramic lasing tube for collision and return to ground state of metastable metal atoms within the segmented ceramic lasing tube.

  10. High thermal power density heat transfer apparatus providing electrical isolation at high temperature using heat pipes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morris, J. F.

    1985-03-19T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention is directed to transferring heat from an extremely high temperature source to an electrically isolated lower temperature receiver. The invention is particularly concerned with supplying thermal power to a thermionic converter from a nuclear reactor with electric isolation. Heat from a high temperature heat pipe is transferred through a vacuum or a gap filled with electrically nonconducting gas to a cooler heat pipe. The heat pipe is used to cool the nuclear reactor while the heat pipe is connected thermally and electrically to a thermionic converter. If the receiver requires greater thermal power density, geometries are used with larger heat pipe areas for transmitting and receiving energy than the area for conducting the heat to the thermionic converter. In this way the heat pipe capability for increasing thermal power densities compensates for the comparatively low thermal power densities through the electrically nonconducting gap between the two heat pipes.

  11. Flexible high-temperature pH probe

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bielawski, John C. (Scotia, NY); Outwater, John O. (Cambridge, MA); Halbfinger, George P. (Schenectady, NY)

    2003-04-22T23:59:59.000Z

    A flexible pH probe device is provided for use in hot water and other high temperature environments up to about 590.degree. F. The pH probe includes a flexible, inert tubular probe member, an oxygen anion conducting, solid state electrolyte plug located at the distal end of the tubular member, oxide powder disposed at the distal end of the tubular member; a metal wire extending along the tubular member and having a distal end in contact with the oxide powder so as to form therewith an internal reference electrode; and a compression fitting forming a pressure boundary seal around a portion of the tubular member remote from the distal end thereof. Preferably, the tubular member is made of polytetrafluoroethylene, and the solid state electrolyte plug is made of stabilized zirconia. The flexibility of the probe member enables placement of the electrode into the area of interest, including around corners, into confined areas and the like.

  12. Overview of High-Temperature Electrolysis for Hydrogen Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Herring, J. S.; O'Brien, J. E.; Stoots, C. M.; Hartvigsen, J. J.; Petri, M. C.; Carter, J. D.; Bischoff, B. L.

    2007-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Over the last five years there has been a growing interest in the use of hydrogen as an energy carrier, particularly to augment transportation fuels and thus reduce our dependence on imported petroleum. Hydrogen is now produced primarily via steam reforming of methane. However, in the long term, methane reforming is not a viable process for the large-scale hydrogen production since such fossil fuel conversion processes consume non-renewable resources and emit greenhouse gases. Nuclear energy can be used to produce hydrogen without consuming fossil fuels and without emitting greenhouse gases through the splitting of water into hydrogen and oxygen. The Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative of the DOE Office of Nuclear Energy is developing three general categories of high temperature processes for hydrogen production: thermochemical, electrolytic and hybrid thermo-electrolytic. This paper introduces the work being done in the development of high temperature electrolysis of steam. High Temperature Electrolysis (HTE) is built on the technology of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), which were invented over a century ago, but which have been most vigorously developed during the last twenty years. SOFCs consume hydrogen and oxygen and produce steam and electricity. Solid Oxide Electrolytic Cells (SOECs) consume electricity and steam and produce hydrogen and oxygen. The purpose of the HTE research is to solve those problems unique to the electrolytic mode of operation, while building further on continuing fuel cell development. ORGANIZATION Experiments have been conducted for the last three years at the Idaho National Laboratory and at Ceramatec, Inc. on the operation of button cells and of progressively larger stacks of planar cells. In addition, the INL has been performing analyses of the cell-scale fluid dynamics and plant-scale flowsheets in order to determine optimum operating conditions and plant configurations. Argonne National Laboratory has been performing experiments for the development of new electrode materials, as well as modeling of the fluid dynamics and flowsheets for comparison with the work being done at the INL. ANL has also been performing diagnostic measures on components form long-duration tests at the INL and Ceramatec to determine the causes for the slow degradation in cell performance. Oak Ridge National Laboratory has been developing high temperature porous membranes for the separation of hydrogen from the residual steam, thus avoiding the need to condense and reheat the steam. The University of Nevada at Las Vegas has been collaborating with ANL on the development of electrode and electrolyte materials and will soon begin to investigate the causes of cell degradation. HTE research also includes NERI projects at the Virginia Polytechnic Institute on the development of toughened SOEC composite seals and at the Georgia Institute of Technology on the microstructural design of SOEC materials. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS The most recent large-scale test of HTE was performed from June 28 through Sept 22, 2006 at the Ceramatec plant in Salt Lake City. The test apparatus consists of two stacks of 60 cells each in a configuration that will be used in the Integrated Laboratory Scale (ILS) experiment during FY-07. The ILS will contain three modules of four stacks each. The “Half-Module” initially produced 1.2 normal m3of H2/hour and 0.65 Nm3/hr at the end of the 2040-hour continuous test.

  13. High temperature concrete composites containing organosiloxane crosslinked copolymers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zeldin, Arkady (Rego Park, NY); Carciello, Neal (Patchogue, NY); Kukacka, Lawrence (Port Jefferson, NY); Fontana, Jack (Shoreham, NY)

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention relates to high temperature polymer concrete composites comprising about 10-30% by weight of a liquid monomer mixture consisting essentially of an organosiloxane polymer crosslinked with an olefinically unsaturated monomer selected from the group consisting of styrene, methyl methacrylate, trimethylolpropane trimethacrylate, triallyl cyanurate, n-phenylmalimide, divinyl benzene and mixtures theroef; and about 70-90% by weight of an inert inorganic filler system containing silica sand and preferably a member selected from the group consisting of portland cement, Fe.sub.2 O.sub.3, carbon black and mixtures thereof; and optionally a free radical initiator such as di-tert-butyl peroxide, azobisisobutyronitrile, benzoyl peroxide, lauryl peroxide and other organic peroxides to initiate crosspolymerization of the monomer mixture in the presence of the inorganic filler.

  14. The development and operational testing of an experimental reactor for gas-liquid-solid reaction systems at high temperatures and pressures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hess, Richard Kenneth

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    THE DEVELOPMENT AND OPERATIONAL TESTING OF AN EXPERIMENTAL REACTOR FOR GAS-LIQUID-SOLID REACTION SYSTEMS AT HIGH TEMPERATURES AND PRESSURES A Thesis by RICHARD KENNETH HESS Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial... fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1985 Major Subject: Chemical Engineering THE DEVELOPMENT AND OPERATIONAL TESTING OF AN EXPERIMENTAL REACTOR FOR GAS-LIQUID-SOLID REACTION SYSTEMS AT HIGH TEMPERATURES...

  15. AOI [3] High-Temperature Nano-Derived Micro-H2 and - H2S Sensors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Perepezko, John; Lu-Steffes, Otto

    2014-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The emissions from coal-fired power plants remain a significant concern for air quality. This environmental challenge must be overcome by controlling the emission of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) throughout the entire coal combustion process. One of the processes which could specifically benefit from robust, low cost, and high temperature compatible gas sensors is the coal gasification process which converts coal and/or biomass into syngas. Hydrogen (H2), carbon monoxide (CO) and sulfur compounds make up 33%, 43% and 2% of syngas, respectively. Therefore, development of a high temperature (>500°C) chemical sensor for in-situ monitoring of H2, H2S and SO2 levels during coal gasification is strongly desired. The selective detection of SO2/H2S in the presence of H2, is a formidable task for a sensor designer. In order to ensure effective operation of these chemical sensors, the sensor system must inexpensively function within harsh temperature and chemical environment. Currently available sensing approaches, which are based on gas chromatography, electrochemistry, and IR-spectroscopy, do not satisfy the required cost and performance targets. This work focused on the development microsensors that can be applied to this application. In order to develop the high- temperature compatible microsensor, this work addressed various issues related to sensor stability, selectivity, and miniaturization. In the research project entitled “High-Temperature Nano-Derived Micro-H2 and -H2S Sensors”, the team worked to develop micro-scale, chemical sensors and sensor arrays composed of nano-derived, metal-oxide composite materials to detect gases like H2, SO2, and H2S within high-temperature environments (>500?C). The research was completed in collaboration with NexTech Materials, Ltd. (Lewis Center, Ohio). NexTech assisted in the testing of the sensors in syngas with contaminate levels of H2S. The idea of including nanomaterials as the sensing material within resistive-type chemical sensor platforms was to increase the sensitivity (as shown for room temperature applications). Unfortunately, nanomaterials are not stable at high temperatures due to sintering and coarsening processes that are driven by their high surface to volume ratio. Therefore, new hydrogen and sulfur selective nanomaterial systems with high selectivity and stability properties in the proposed harsh environment were investigated. Different nano-morphologies of zirconate, molybdate, and tungstate compounds were investigated. The fabrication of the microsensors consisted of the deposition of the selective nanomaterial systems over metal based interconnects on an inert substrate. This work utilized the chemi-resistive (resistive- type) microsensor architecture where the chemically and structurally stable, high temperature compatible electrodes were sputtered onto a ceramic substrate. The nanomaterial sensing systems were deposited over the electrodes using a lost mold method patterned by conventional optical lithography. The microsensor configuration with optimized nanomaterial system was tested and compared to a millimeter-size sensor e outcomes of this research will contribute to the economical application of sensor arrays for simultaneous sensing of H2, H2S, and SO2.

  16. Low-Temperature Combustion for High-Efficiency, Ultra-Low Emission...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Low-Temperature Combustion for High-Efficiency, Ultra-Low Emission Engines Low-Temperature Combustion for High-Efficiency, Ultra-Low Emission Engines Presentation given at DEER...

  17. The Ultra-High Vacuum, Low-Temperature Scanning Probe Microscope...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The Ultra-High Vacuum, Low-Temperature Scanning Probe Microscope in EMSL's Quiet Wing The Ultra-High Vacuum, Low-Temperature Scanning Probe Microscope in EMSL's Quiet Wing This is...

  18. Corrosion in Very High-Temperature Molten Salt for Next Generation...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Corrosion in Very High-Temperature Molten Salt for Next Generation CSP Systems Corrosion in Very High-Temperature Molten Salt for Next Generation CSP Systems This presentation was...

  19. Lithium Diffusion in Li4Ti5O12 at High Temperatures. | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lithium Diffusion in Li4Ti5O12 at High Temperatures. Lithium Diffusion in Li4Ti5O12 at High Temperatures. Abstract: Synthesis of the spinel lithium titanate Li4Ti5O12 by an...

  20. New Polymeric Proton Conductors for Water-free and High-temperature...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    New Polymeric Proton Conductors for Water-free and High-temperature Fuel Cells New Polymeric Proton Conductors for Water-free and High-temperature Fuel Cells Presentation on New...

  1. Development of high-temperature ferromagnetism in SnO2 and paramagneti...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    high-temperature ferromagnetism in SnO2 and paramagnetism in SnO by Fe doping. Development of high-temperature ferromagnetism in SnO2 and paramagnetism in SnO by Fe doping....

  2. Enhanced high temperature performance of MgAl2O4-supported Pt...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    high temperature performance of MgAl2O4-supported Pt-BaO lean NOx trap catalysts. Enhanced high temperature performance of MgAl2O4-supported Pt-BaO lean NOx trap catalysts....

  3. Development of High-Temperature Ferromagnetism in SnO and Paramagnetis...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    High-Temperature Ferromagnetism in SnO and Paramagnetism in SnO by Fe Doping. Development of High-Temperature Ferromagnetism in SnO and Paramagnetism in SnO by Fe Doping. Abstract:...

  4. CF8C PLus: A New Cast Stainless Steel for High-Temperature Diesel...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    CF8C PLus: A New Cast Stainless Steel for High-Temperature Diesel Exhaust Components CF8C PLus: A New Cast Stainless Steel for High-Temperature Diesel Exhaust Components...

  5. High Temperature/Low Humidity Polymer Electrolytes Derived from Ionic Liquids

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation on High Temperature/Low Humidity Polymer Electrolytes Derived from Ionic Liquids to the High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting held in Arlington, Virginia, May 26,2005.

  6. SUPERCONDUCTIVITY PROGRAM RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT High Temperature Superconductivity (HTS) is a technology with the potential

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    #12;SUPERCONDUCTIVITY PROGRAM RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT High Temperature Superconductivity (HTS-of-way. The Department of Energy's efforts to advance High Temperature Superconductivity combine major national strengths: the Superconductivity Partnership Initiative (SPI), the 2nd Generation Wire Initiative

  7. New Polymeric Proton Conductors for Water-free and High-temperature Fuel Cells

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation on New Polymeric Proton Conductors for Water-free and High-temperature Fuel Cells to the High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting held in Arlington, Virginia, May 26,2005.

  8. DUAL PHASE MEMBRANE FOR HIGH TEMPERATURE CO2 SEPARATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jerry Y.S. Lin; Seungjoon Chung; Matthew Anderson

    2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This project is intended to expand upon the previous year's research en route to the development of a sustainable dual phase membrane for CO{sub 2} separation. It was found that the pores within the supports had to be less than 9 {micro}m in order to maintain the stability of the dual phase membrane. Pores larger than 9 {micro}m would be unable to hold the molten carbonate phase in place, rendering the membrane ineffective. Calculations show that 80% of the pore volume of the 0.5 media grade metal support was filled with the molten carbonate. Information obtained from EDS and SEM confirmed that the molten carbonate completely infiltrated the pores on both the contact and non-contact size of the metal support. Permeation tests for CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2} at 450-750 C show very low permeance of those two gases through the dual phase membrane, which was expected due to the lack of ionization of those two gases. Permeance of the CO{sub 2} and O{sub 2} mixture was much higher, indicating that the gases do form an ionic species, CO{sub 3}{sup 2-}, enhancing transport through the membrane. However, at temperatures in excess of 650 C, the permeance of CO{sub 3}{sup 2-} decreased quite rapidly, while predictions showed that permeance should have continued to increase. XRD data obtained form the surface of the membrane indicated the formation of lithium iron oxides on the support. This layer has a very low conductivity, which drastically reduces the flow of electrons to the CO{sub 2}/O{sub 2} gas mixture, limiting the formation of the ionic species. These results indicate that the use of stainless steel supports in a high temperature oxidative environment can lead to decreased performance of the membranes. This revelation has created the need for an oxidation resistant support, which can be gained by the use of a ceramic-type membrane. Future research efforts will be directed towards preparation of a new ceramic-carbonate dual phase membrane. The membrane will based on an oxide ceramic support that has an oxidation resistance better than the metal support and high electronic conductivity (1200-1500 S/cm) in the interested temperature range (400-600 C).

  9. NETL - Chemical Looping Reactor

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2014-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

    NETL's Chemical Looping Reactor unit is a high-temperature integrated CLC process with extensive instrumentation to improve computational simulations. A non-reacting test unit is also used to study solids flow at ambient temperature. The CLR unit circulates approximately 1,000 pounds per hour at temperatures around 1,800 degrees Fahrenheit.

  10. NETL - Chemical Looping Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2013-07-24T23:59:59.000Z

    NETL's Chemical Looping Reactor unit is a high-temperature integrated CLC process with extensive instrumentation to improve computational simulations. A non-reacting test unit is also used to study solids flow at ambient temperature. The CLR unit circulates approximately 1,000 pounds per hour at temperatures around 1,800 degrees Fahrenheit.

  11. High-Temperature Circuit Boards for Use in Geothermal Well Monitoring Applications

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Project objective: Develop and demonstrate high-temperature; multilayer electronic circuits capable of sustained operation at 300? C.

  12. Performance and Reliability of Bonded Interfaces for High-Temperature Packaging (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Devoto, D.

    2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This presentation reviews the status of the performance and reliability of bonded interfaces for high-temperature packaging.

  13. Membrane Development for Medium and High Temperature PEMFC in Europe (Presentation)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presented at the High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting (HTMWG) held October 10, 2007 in Washington, D.C.

  14. High-Temperature Air-Cooled Power Electronics Thermal Design (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Waye, S.

    2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This presentation discusses the status of research at NREL on high temperature air-cooled power electronics thermal design.

  15. High-Temperature High-Power Packaging Techniques for HEV Traction Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barlow, F.D.; Elshabini, A.

    2006-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A key issue associated with the wider adoption of hybrid-electric vehicles (HEV) and plug in hybrid-electric vehicles (PHEV) is the implementation of the power electronic systems that are required in these products [1]. To date, many consumers find the adoption of these technologies problematic based on a financial analysis of the initial cost versus the savings available from reduced fuel consumption. Therefore, one of the primary industry goals is the reduction in the price of these vehicles relative to the cost of traditional gasoline powered vehicles. Part of this cost reduction must come through optimization of the power electronics required by these vehicles. In addition, the efficiency of the systems must be optimized in order to provide the greatest range possible. For some drivers, any reduction in the range associated with a potential HEV or PHEV solution in comparison to a gasoline powered vehicle represents a significant barrier to adoption and the efficiency of the power electronics plays an important role in this range. Likewise, high efficiencies are also important since lost power further complicates the thermal management of these systems. Reliability is also an important concern since most drivers have a high level of comfort with gasoline powered vehicles and are somewhat reluctant to switch to a less proven technology. Reliability problems in the power electronics or associated components could not only cause a high warranty cost to the manufacturer, but may also taint these technologies in the consumer's eyes. A larger vehicle offering in HEVs is another important consideration from a power electronics point of view. A larger vehicle will need more horsepower, or a larger rated drive. In some ways this will be more difficult to implement from a cost and size point of view. Both the packaging of these modules and the thermal management of these systems at competitive price points create significant challenges. One way in which significant cost reduction of these systems could be achieved is through the use of a single coolant loop for both the power electronics as well as the internal combustion engine (ICE) [2]. This change would reduce the complexity of the cooling system which currently relies on two loops to a single loop [3]. However, the current nominal coolant temperature entering these inverters is 65 C [3], whereas a normal ICE coolant temperature would be much higher at approximately 100 C. This change in coolant temperature significantly increases the junction temperatures of the devices and creates a number of challenges for both device fabrication and the assembly of these devices into inverters and converters for HEV and PHEV applications. With this change in mind, significant progress has been made on the use of SiC devices for inverters that can withstand much higher junction temperatures than traditional Si based inverters [4,5,6]. However, a key problem which the single coolant loop and high temperature devices is the effective packaging of these devices and related components into a high temperature inverter. The elevated junction temperatures that exist in these modules are not compatible with reliable inverters based on existing packaging technology. This report seeks to provide a literature survey of high temperature packaging and to highlight the issues related to the implementation of high temperature power electronic modules for HEV and PHEV applications. For purposes of discussion, it will be assumed in this report that 200 C is the targeted maximum junction temperature.

  16. Corrosion assessment of refractory materials for high temperature waste vitrification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marra, J.C.; Congdon, J.W.; Kielpinski, A.L. [and others

    1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A variety of vitrification technologies are being evaluated to immobilize radioactive and hazardous wastes following years of nuclear materials production throughout the Department of Energy (DOE) complex. The compositions and physical forms of these wastes are diverse ranging from inorganic sludges to organic liquids to heterogeneous debris. Melt and off-gas products can be very corrosive at the high temperatures required to melt many of these waste streams. Ensuring material durability is required to develop viable treatment processes. Corrosion testing of materials in some of the anticipated severe environments is an important aspect of the materials identification and selection process. Corrosion coupon tests on typical materials used in Joule heated melters were completed using glass compositions with high salt contents. The presence of chloride in the melts caused the most severe attack. In the metal alloys, oxidation was the predominant corrosion mechanism, while in the tested refractory material enhanced dissolution of the refractory into the glass was observed. Corrosion testing of numerous different refractory materials was performed in a plasma vitrification system using a surrogate heterogeneous debris waste. Extensive corrosion was observed in all tested materials.

  17. Systems Engineering Provides Successful High Temperature Steam Electrolysis Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Charles V. Park; Emmanuel Ohene Opare, Jr.

    2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes two Systems Engineering Studies completed at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to support development of the High Temperature Stream Electrolysis (HTSE) process. HTSE produces hydrogen from water using nuclear power and was selected by the Department of Energy (DOE) for integration with the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP). The first study was a reliability, availability and maintainability (RAM) analysis to identify critical areas for technology development based on available information regarding expected component performance. An HTSE process baseline flowsheet at commercial scale was used as a basis. The NGNP project also established a process and capability to perform future RAM analyses. The analysis identified which components had the greatest impact on HTSE process availability and indicated that the HTSE process could achieve over 90% availability. The second study developed a series of life-cycle cost estimates for the various scale-ups required to demonstrate the HTSE process. Both studies were useful in identifying near- and long-term efforts necessary for successful HTSE process deployment. The size of demonstrations to support scale-up was refined, which is essential to estimate near- and long-term cost and schedule. The life-cycle funding profile, with high-level allocations, was identified as the program transitions from experiment scale R&D to engineering scale demonstration.

  18. Development of high temperature superconductors for magnetic field applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Larbalestier, D.C.

    1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The key requirement for magnetic field applications of high temperature superconductor (HTS) materials is to have conductors with high transport critical current density available for magnet builders. After 3 or 4 years of being without any such object, conductor makers have had recent success in producing simple conductor prototypes. These have permitted the construction of simple HTS magnets having self fields exceeding 1 tesla at 4K. Thus the scientific feasibility of making powerful HTS magnets has been demonstrated. Attention to the technological aspects of making HTS conductors for magnets with strong flux pinning and reduced superconducting granularity is now sensible and attractive. However, extrinsic defects such as filament sausaging, cracking, misaligned grains and other perturbation to long range current flow must be controlled at a low level if the benefit of intrinsic improvements to the critical current density is to be maintained in the conductor form. Due to the great complexity of the HTS materials, there is sometimes confusion as to whether a given sample has an intrinsically or extrinsically limited critical current density. Systematic microstructure variation experiments and resistive transition analysis are shown to be particularly helpful in this phase of conductor development.

  19. Highly-Efficient Selective Metamaterial Absorber for High-Temperature Solar Thermal Energy Harvesting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Hao; Mitchell, Arnan; Rosengarten, Gary; Phelan, Patrick; Wang, Liping

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this work, a metamaterial selective solar absorber made of nanostructured titanium gratings deposited on an ultrathin MgF2 spacer and a tungsten ground film is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. Normal absorptance of the fabricated solar absorber is characterized to be higher than 90% in the UV, visible and, near infrared (IR) regime, while the mid-IR emittance is around 20%. The high broadband absorption in the solar spectrum is realized by the excitation of surface plasmon and magnetic polariton resonances, while the low mid-IR emittance is due to the highly reflective nature of the metallic components. Further directional and polarized reflectance measurements show wide-angle and polarization-insensitive high absorption within solar spectrum. Temperature-dependent spectroscopic characterization indicates that the optical properties barely change at elevated temperatures up to 350{\\deg}C. The solar-to-heat conversion efficiency with the fabricated metamaterial solar absorber is predicted to be 78%...

  20. Fundamentals of High Pressure Combustion Chapter in High Pressure Processes in Chemical Engineering, Edited by Maximillian Lackner,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miller, Richard S.

    [2]. Furthermore, gas turbine combustion pres- sures have been increasing at a near linear rateFundamentals of High Pressure Combustion Chapter in High Pressure Processes in Chemical Engineering of the following chapter is to present an overview of the fundamentals of combustion processes in high pressure

  1. Characterization of Composite Cores for High Temperature-Low Sag (HTLS)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Characterization of Composite Cores for High Temperature-Low Sag (HTLS) Conductors Final Project project T-33 titled "Characterization of Composite Cores for High Temperature-Low Sag (HTLS) Conductors/University Cooperative Research Center since 1996 PSERC #12;Characterization of Composite Cores for High Temperature-Low

  2. Infrared emission spectroscopy of CO2 at high temperature. Part I: Experimental setup and source

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Infrared emission spectroscopy of CO2 at high temperature. Part I: Experimental setup and source measurement, tube effects, CO2 infrared radiation 1. Introduction The knowledge of very high temperature for instance that the IR emission of the CO2 molecule remains predominant at temperatures as high as 4000 K [1

  3. Method of manufacturing a high temperature superconductor with improved transport properties

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Balachandran, Uthamalingam (Hinsdale, IL); Siegel, Richard W. (Hinsdale, IL); Askew, Thomas R. (Kalamazoo, MI)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of preparing a high temperature superconductor. A method of preparing a superconductor includes providing a powdered high temperature superconductor and a nanophase paramagnetic material. These components are combined to form a solid compacted mass with the paramagnetic material disposed on the grain boundaries of the polycrystaline high temperature superconductor.

  4. Burning Velocities in Catalytically Assisted Self-Propagating High-Temperature Combustion Synthesis Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wooldridge, Margaret S.

    Burning Velocities in Catalytically Assisted Self-Propagating High-Temperature Combustion Synthesis of catalytically assisted self-propagating high-temperature synthesis (SHS) of the tantalum/carbon material system. © 2001 by The Combustion Institute INTRODUCTION Self-propagating high-temperature combustion synthesis

  5. High-field magnets using high-critical-temperature superconducting thin films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mitlitsky, Fred (Livermore, CA); Hoard, Ronald W. (Livermore, CA)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    High-field magnets fabricated from high-critical-temperature superconducting ceramic (HTSC) thin films which can generate fields greater than 4 Tesla. The high-field magnets are made of stackable disk-shaped substrates coated with HTSC thin films, and involves maximizing the critical current density, superconducting film thickness, number of superconducting layers per substrate, substrate diameter, and number of substrates while minimizing substrate thickness. The HTSC thin films are deposited on one or both sides of the substrates in a spiral configuration with variable line widths to increase the field.

  6. High-field magnets using high-critical-temperature superconducting thin films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mitlitsky, F.; Hoard, R.W.

    1994-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

    High-field magnets fabricated from high-critical-temperature superconducting ceramic (HTSC) thin films which can generate fields greater than 4 Tesla are disclosed. The high-field magnets are made of stackable disk-shaped substrates coated with HTSC thin films, and involves maximizing the critical current density, superconducting film thickness, number of superconducting layers per substrate, substrate diameter, and number of substrates while minimizing substrate thickness. The HTSC thin films are deposited on one or both sides of the substrates in a spiral configuration with variable line widths to increase the field. 4 figures.

  7. Fabrication of Chemically Doped, High Upper Critical Field Magnesium Diboride Superconducting Wires

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marzik, James, V.

    2005-10-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Controlled chemical doping of magnesium diboride (MgB2) has been shown to substantially improve its superconducting properties to the levels required for high field magnets, but the doping is difficult to accomplish through the usual route of solid state reaction and diffusion. Further, superconducting cables of MgB2 are difficult to fabricate because of the friable nature of the material. In this Phase I STTR project, doped and undoped boron fibers were made by chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Several >100m long batches of doped and undoped fiber were made by CVD codeposition of boron plus dopants. Bundles of these fibers infiltrated with liquid magnesium and subsequently converted to MgB2 to form Mg-MgB2 metal matrix composites. In a parallel path, doped boron nano-sized powder was produced by a plasma synthesis technique, reacted with magnesium to produce doped MgB2 superconducting ceramic bodies. The doped powder was also fabricated into superconducting wires several meters long. The doped boron fibers and powders made in this program were fabricated into fiber-metal composites and powder-metal composites by a liquid metal infiltration technique. The kinetics of the reaction between boron fiber and magnesium metal was investigated in fiber-metal composites. It was found that the presence of dopants had significantly slowed the reaction between magnesium and boron. The superconducting properties were measured for MgB2 fibers and MgB2 powders made by liquid metal infiltration. Properties of MgB2 products (Jc, Hc2) from Phase I are among the highest reported to date for MgB2 bulk superconductors. Chemically doped MgB2 superconducting magnets can perform at least as well as NbTi and NbSn3 in high magnetic fields and still offer an improvement over the latter two in terms of operating temperature. These characteristics make doped MgB2 an effective material for high magnetic field applications, such as magnetic confined fusion, and medical MRI devices. Developing fusion as an energy source will dramatically reduce energy costs, global warming, and radioactive waste. Cheaper and more efficient medical MRI devices could lower examination costs, find potential health problems earlier, and thus also benefit society as a whole. Other potential commercial applications for this material are devices for the generation and storage of electrical power, thus lowering the cost of delivered electricity.

  8. Inorganic origin of carbon dioxide during low temperature thermal recovery of bitumen: Chemical and isotopic evidence

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hutcheon, I.; Abercrombia, H.J.; Krouse, H.R. (Univ. of Calgary, Alberta (Canada))

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Carbon dioxide, produced at low temperatures, is the dominant gaseous species evolved during steam-assisted thermal recovery of bitumen at the Tucker Lake pilot, Cold Lake, Alberta. Two possible sources for the produced CO{sub 2} are considered: pyrolysis of bitumen and dissolution of carbonate minerals. Data from natural systems and experiments by other authors suggest that clay-carbonate reactions are the dominant source of CO{sub 2}. Bitumen pyrolysis may contribute small amounts of CO{sub 2}, probably by decarboxylation, early in the production cycle but cannot contribute significant volumes. The recognition of production of CO{sub 2} by reactive calcite destruction at temperatures between 70 and 220{degree}C suggests that this process may be responsible for the production of large quantities of CO{sub 2} in natural systems, particularly in lithofeldspathic sands and shales with high carbonate content and abundant clays. Organic acids have been suggested to be the source of CO{sub 2} in diagenetic fluids, but the results presented here suggest that this hypothesis requires more complete investigation.

  9. STABLE HIGH CONDUCTIVITY BILAYERED ELECTROLYTES FOR LOW TEMPERATURE SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eric D. Wachsman; Keith L. Duncan

    2002-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are the future of energy production in America. They offer great promise as a clean and efficient process for directly converting chemical energy to electricity while providing significant environmental benefits (they produce negligible hydrocarbons, CO, or NO{sub x} and, as a result of their high efficiency, produce about one-third less CO{sub 2} per kilowatt hour than internal combustion engines). Unfortunately, the current SOFC technology, based on a stabilized zirconia electrolyte, must operate in the region of 1000 C to avoid unacceptably high ohmic losses. These high temperatures demand (a) specialized (expensive) materials for the fuel cell interconnects and insulation, (b) time to heat up to the operating temperature and (c) energy input to arrive at the operating temperature. Therefore, if fuel cells could be designed to give a reasonable power output at low to intermediate temperatures tremendous benefits may be accrued. At low temperatures, in particular, it becomes feasible to use ferritic steel for interconnects instead of expensive and brittle ceramic materials such as those based on LaCrO{sub 3}. In addition, sealing the fuel cell becomes easier and more reliable; rapid startup is facilitated; thermal stresses (e.g., those caused by thermal expansion mismatches) are reduced; radiative losses ({approx}T{sup 4}) become minimal; electrode sintering becomes negligible and (due to a smaller thermodynamic penalty) the SOFC operating cycle (heating from ambient) would be more efficient. Combined, all these improvements further result in reduced initial and operating costs. The problem is, at lower temperatures the conductivity of the conventional stabilized zirconia electrolyte decreases to the point where it cannot supply electrical current efficiently to an external load. The primary objectives of the proposed research is to develop a stable high conductivity (> 0.05 S cm{sup -1} at {le} 550 C) electrolyte for lower temperature SOFCs. This objective is specifically directed toward meeting the lowest (and most difficult) temperature criteria for the 21st Century Fuel Cell Program. Meeting this objective provides a potential for future transportation applications of SOFCs, where their ability to directly use hydrocarbon fuels could permit refueling within the existing transportation infrastructure. In order to meet this objective we are developing a functionally gradient bilayer electrolyte comprised of a layer of erbia-stabilized bismuth oxide (ESB) on the oxidizing side and a layer of SDC or GDC on the reducing side, see Fig. 1. Bismuth oxide and doped ceria are among the highest ionic conducting electrolytes and in fact bismuth oxide based electrolytes are the only known solid oxide electrolytes to have an ionic conductivity that meets the program conductivity goal. In this arrangement, the ceria layer protects the bismuth oxide layer from decomposing by shielding it from very low P{sub O{sub 2}}'s and the ESB layer serves to block electronic flux through the electrolyte. This arrangement has two significant advantages over the YSZ/SDC bilayers investigated by others [1, 2]. The first advantage is that SDC is conductive enough to serve as an intermediate temperature SOFC electrolyte. Moreover, ESB is conductive enough to serve as a low temperature electrolyte. Consequently, at worst an SDC/ESB bilayered SOFC should have the conductivity of SDC but with improved efficiency due to the electronic flux barrier provided by ESB. The second advantage is that small (dopant) concentrations of SDC in ESB or ESB in SDC, have been found to have conductivities comparable to the host lattice [3, 4]. Therefore, if solid solutioning occurs at the SDC-ESB interface, it should not be detrimental to the performance of the bilayer. In contrast, solid solutions of SDC and YSZ have been found to be significantly less conductive than SDC or YSZ. Thus, it bears emphasizing that, at this time, only SDC/ESB electrolytes have potential in low temperature SOFC applications.

  10. Amorphous Alloy Membranes for High Temperature Hydrogen Separation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coulter, K

    2013-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    At the beginning of this project, thin film amorphous alloy membranes were considered a nascent but promising new technology for industrial-scale hydrogen gas separations from coal- derived syngas. This project used a combination of theoretical modeling, advanced physical vapor deposition fabricating, and laboratory and gasifier testing to develop amorphous alloy membranes that had the potential to meet Department of Energy (DOE) targets in the testing strategies outlined in the NETL Membrane Test Protocol. The project is complete with Southwest Research Institute® (SwRI®), Georgia Institute of Technology (GT), and Western Research Institute (WRI) having all operated independently and concurrently. GT studied the hydrogen transport properties of several amorphous alloys and found that ZrCu and ZrCuTi were the most promising candidates. GT also evaluated the hydrogen transport properties of V, Nb and Ta membranes coated with different transition-metal carbides (TMCs) (TM = Ti, Hf, Zr) catalytic layers by employing first-principles calculations together with statistical mechanics methods and determined that TiC was the most promising material to provide catalytic hydrogen dissociation. SwRI developed magnetron coating techniques to deposit a range of amorphous alloys onto both porous discs and tubular substrates. Unfortunately none of the amorphous alloys could be deposited without pinhole defects that undermined the selectivity of the membranes. WRI tested the thermal properties of the ZrCu and ZrNi alloys and found that under reducing environments the upper temperature limit of operation without recrystallization is ~250 °C. There were four publications generated from this project with two additional manuscripts in progress and six presentations were made at national and international technical conferences. The combination of the pinhole defects and the lack of high temperature stability make the theoretically identified most promising candidate amorphous alloys unsuitable for application as hydrogen separation membranes in coal fire systems.

  11. Multiyear Program Plan for the High Temperature Materials Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arvid E. Pasto

    2000-03-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Recently, the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies (OHVT) prepared a Technology Roadmap describing the challenges facing development of higher fuel efficiency, less polluting sport utility vehicles, vans, and commercial trucks. Based on this roadmap, a multiyear program plan (MYPP) was also developed, in which approaches to solving the numerous challenges are enumerated. Additional planning has been performed by DOE and national laboratory staff, on approaches to solving the numerous challenges faced by heavy vehicle system improvements. Workshops and planning documents have been developed concerning advanced aerodynamics, frictional and other parasitic losses, and thermal management. Similarly, the Heavy Vehicle Propulsion Materials Program has developed its own multiyear program plan. The High Temperature Materials Laboratory, a major user facility sponsored by OHVT, has now developed its program plan, described herein. Information was gathered via participation in the development of OHVT's overall Technology Roadmap and MYPP, through personal contacts within the materials-user community, and from attendance at conferences and expositions. Major materials issues for the heavy vehicle industry currently center on trying to increase efficiency of (diesel) engines while at the same time reducing emissions (particularly NO{sub x} and particulates). These requirements dictate the use of increasingly stronger, higher-temperature capable and more corrosion-resistant materials of construction, as well as advanced catalysts, particulate traps, and other pollution-control devices. Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) is a technique which will certainly be applied to diesel engines in the near future, and its use represents a formidable challenge, as will be described later. Energy-efficient, low cost materials processing methods and surface treatments to improve wear, fracture, and corrosion resistance are also required.

  12. Method for preparing high cure temperature rare earth iron compound magnetic material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Huang, Yuhong (West Hills, CA); Wei, Qiang (West Hills, CA); Zheng, Haixing (Oak Park, CA)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Insertion of light elements such as H,C, or N in the R.sub.2 Fe.sub.17 (R=rare earth metal) series has been found to modify the magnetic properties of these compounds, which thus become prospective candidates for high performance permanent magnets. The most spectacular changes are increases of the Curie temperature, T.sub.c, of the magnetization, M.sub.s, and of coercivity, H.sub.c, upon interstitial insertion. A preliminary product having a component R--Fe--C,N phase is produced by a chemical route. Rare earth metal and iron amides are synthesized followed by pyrolysis and sintering in an inert or reduced atmosphere, as a result of which, the R--Fe--C,N phases are formed. Fabrication of sintered rare earth iron nitride and carbonitride bulk magnet is impossible via conventional process due to the limitation of nitridation method.

  13. Advancement of High Temperature Black Liquor Gasification Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Craig Brown; Ingvar Landalv; Ragnar Stare; Jerry Yuan; Nikolai DeMartini; Nasser Ashgriz

    2008-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Weyerhaeuser operates the world's only commercial high-temperature black liquor gasifier at its pulp mill in New Bern, NC. The unit was started-up in December 1996 and currently processes about 15% of the mill's black liquor. Weyerhaeuser, Chemrec AB (the gasifier technology developer), and the U.S. Department of Energy recognized that the long-term, continuous operation of the New Bern gasifier offered a unique opportunity to advance the state of high temperature black liquor gasification toward the commercial-scale pressurized O2-blown gasification technology needed as a foundation for the Forest Products Bio-Refinery of the future. Weyerhaeuser along with its subcontracting partners submitted a proposal in response to the 2004 joint USDOE and USDA solicitation - 'Biomass Research and Development Initiative'. The Weyerhaeuser project 'Advancement of High Temperature Black Liquor Gasification' was awarded USDOE Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-04NT42259 in November 2004. The overall goal of the DOE sponsored project was to utilize the Chemrec{trademark} black liquor gasification facility at New Bern as a test bed for advancing the development status of molten phase black liquor gasification. In particular, project tasks were directed at improvements to process performance and reliability. The effort featured the development and validation of advanced CFD modeling tools and the application of these tools to direct burner technology modifications. The project also focused on gaining a fundamental understanding and developing practical solutions to address condensate and green liquor scaling issues, and process integration issues related to gasifier dregs and product gas scrubbing. The Project was conducted in two phases with a review point between the phases. Weyerhaeuser pulled together a team of collaborators to undertake these tasks. Chemrec AB, the technology supplier, was intimately involved in most tasks, and focused primarily on the design, specification and procurement of facility upgrades. Chemrec AB is also operating a pressurized, O2-blown gasifier pilot facility in Piteaa, Sweden. There was an exchange of knowledge with the pressurized projects including utilization of the experimental results from facilities in Piteaa, Sweden. Resources at the Georgia Tech Research Corporation (GTRC, a.k.a., the Institute of Paper Science and Technology) were employed primarily to conduct the fundamental investigations on scaling and plugging mechanisms and characterization of green liquor dregs. The project also tapped GTRC expertise in the development of the critical underlying black liquor gasification rate subroutines employed in the CFD code. The actual CFD code development and application was undertaken by Process Simulation, Ltd (PSL) and Simulent, Ltd. PSL focused on the overall integrated gasifier CFD code, while Simulent focused on modeling the black liquor nozzle and description of the black liquor spray. For nozzle development and testing Chemrec collaborated with ETC (Energy Technology Centre) in Piteae utilizing their test facility for nozzle spray investigation. GTI (Gas Technology Institute), Des Plains, IL supported the team with advanced gas analysis equipment during the gasifier test period in June 2005.

  14. Characterization of high-current, high-temperature superconductor current lead elements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Niemann, R.C.; Evans, D.J.; Fisher, B.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Brockenborough, W.E.; Roberts, P.R.; Rodenbush, A.J. [American Superconductor Corp., Westborough, MA (United States)

    1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The refrigeration loads of current leads for superconducting magnets can be significantly reduced by using high-temperature superconductor (HTS) leads. An HTS conductor type that is well suited for this application is a laminated sintered stack of HTS powder-in-tube (PIT) tapes. The superconducting elements are normally characterized by their manufacturer by measuring critical currents at 77 K in self field. Additional characterization, which correlates electrical performance at 77 K and at lower temperatures with applied magnetic fields, provides the current lead designer and conductor element manufacturer with critical information. For HTS conductor elements comprising a laminated and sintered stack of Bi-2223 PIT tapes having an alloyed Ag sheath, this characterization uses variable applied fields and operating temperatures.

  15. Modular high voltage power supply for chemical analysis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stamps, James F. (Livermore, CA); Yee, Daniel D. (Dublin, CA)

    2010-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

    A high voltage power supply for use in a system such as a microfluidics system, uses a DC-DC converter in parallel with a voltage-controlled resistor. A feedback circuit provides a control signal for the DC-DC converter and voltage-controlled resistor so as to regulate the output voltage of the high voltage power supply, as well as, to sink or source current from the high voltage supply.

  16. Modular high voltage power supply for chemical analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stamps, James F. (Livermore, CA); Yee, Daniel D. (Dublin, CA)

    2007-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A high voltage power supply for use in a system such as a microfluidics system, uses a DC--DC converter in parallel with a voltage-controlled resistor. A feedback circuit provides a control signal for the DC--DC converter and voltage-controlled resistor so as to regulate the output voltage of the high voltage power supply, as well as, to sink or source current from the high voltage supply.

  17. Modular high voltage power supply for chemical analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stamps, James F. (Livermore, CA); Yee, Daniel D. (Dublin, CA)

    2008-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A high voltage power supply for use in a system such as a microfluidics system, uses a DC-DC converter in parallel with a voltage-controlled resistor. A feedback circuit provides a control signal for the DC-DC converter and voltage-controlled resistor so as to regulate the output voltage of the high voltage power supply, as well as, to sink or source current from the high voltage supply.

  18. Equations of state of ice VI and ice VII at high pressure and high temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bezacier, Lucile; Hanfland, Michael [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, 6 rue Jules Horowitz, 38000 Grenoble (France); Journaux, Baptiste; Perrillat, Jean-Philippe; Cardon, Hervé; Daniel, Isabelle [Laboratoire de Géologie de Lyon, UMR 5276 CNRS, Ecole Normale Supérieure de Lyon – Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1, 2 rue Raphael Dubois, 69622 Villeurbanne Cedex (France)

    2014-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

    High-pressure H{sub 2}O polymorphs among which ice VI and ice VII are abundant in the interiors of large icy satellites and exo-planets. Knowledge of the elastic properties of these pure H{sub 2}O ices at high-temperature and high-pressure is thus crucial to decipher the internal structure of icy bodies. In this study we assess for the first time the pressure-volume-temperature (PVT) relations of both polycrystalline pure ice VI and ice VII at high pressures and temperatures from 1 to 9 GPa and 300 to 450 K, respectively, by using in situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction. The PVT data are adjusted to a second-order Birch-Murnaghan equation of state and give V{sub 0} = 14.17(2) cm{sup 3}?mol{sup ?1}, K{sub 0} = 14.05(23) GPa, and ?{sub 0} = 14.6(14) × 10{sup ?5} K{sup ?1} for ice VI and V{sub 0} = 12.49(1) cm{sup 3}?mol{sup ?1}, K{sub 0} = 20.15(16) GPa, and ?{sub 0} = 11.6(5) × 10{sup ?5} K{sup ?1} for ice VII.

  19. High-Resolution Desorption Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry for Chemical Characterization of Organic Aerosols

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laskin, Julia; Laskin, Alexander; Roach, Patrick J.; Slysz, Gordon W.; Anderson, Gordon A.; Nizkorodov, Serguei; Bones, David L.; Nguyen, Lucas

    2010-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Characterization of the chemical composition and chemical transformations of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) is both a major challenge and the area of greatest uncertainty in current aerosol research. This study presents the first application of desorption electrospray ionization combined with high-resolution mass spectrometry (DESI-MS) for detailed chemical characterization and studies of chemical aging of OA collected on Teflon substrates. DESI-MS offers unique advantages both for detailed characterization of chemically labile components in OA that cannot be detected using more traditional electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) and for studying chemical aging of OA. DESI-MS enables rapid characterization of OA samples collected on substrates by eliminating the sample preparation stage. In addition, it enables detection and structural characterization of chemically labile molecules in OA samples by minimizing the residence time of analyte in the solvent. SOA produced by the ozonolysis of limonene (LSOA) was allowed to react with gaseous ammonia. Chemical aging resulted in measurable changes in the optical properties of LSOA observed using UV- visible spectroscopy. DESI-MS combined with tandem mass spectrometry experiments (MS/MS) enabled identification of species in aged LSOA responsible for absorption of the visible light. Detailed analysis of the experimental data allowed us to identify chemical changes induced by reactions of LSOA constituents with ammonia and distinguish between different mechanisms of chemical aging.

  20. Crystalline SiGe films grown on Si substrates using laser-assisted plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition at low temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, C.-T.; Cheng, J.-H.; Lee, H.-Y. [Institute of Microelectronics, Department of Electrical Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan 701 (China) and Center for Micro/Nano Science and Technology, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan 701 (China); Department of Electro-Optical Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan 701 (China)

    2007-08-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Compared with conventional plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition, laser-assisted plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (LAPECVD) can be used to deposit crystalline SiGe films on Si substrates at low temperature. In the LAPECVD system, a CO{sub 2} laser with a wavelength of 10.6 {mu}m was utilized to assist the pyrolytical decomposition of SiH{sub 4} and GeH{sub 4} reactant gases. The resultant Si{sub 0.78}Ge{sub 0.22} films were obtained and verified through the use of the Auger electron spectroscopy measurement. As the diffraction pattern of a glancing incident angle X-ray diffraction measurement had indicated, several significant diffraction peaks corresponding to a diamond-cubic structure at (111) (220), and (311) were clearly observed. Crystalline SiGe films were also identified by the electron diffraction pattern of high-resolution transmission electron microscopy images.