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1

Microsoft Word - Poster Abstract_2010_CMU_High Surface Area Materials.docx  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

1th Annual SECA Workshop Poster Abstract 1th Annual SECA Workshop Poster Abstract Topic: High Surface Area, Mesoporous (La, Sr)MnO 3 For Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Cathodes Robin Chao, Graduate Student in Carnegie Mellon University 5700 Bunkerhill St. Apt 705, Pittsburgh, PA 15206 USA, hchao@andrew.cmu.edu, 412-260-5687 Dr. John Kitchin, Professor of Chemical Engineering in Carnegie Mellon University 5000 Forbes Ave, Pittsburgh PA, 15213, jkitchin@andrew.cmu.edu, 412-268-7803 Dr. Paul Salvador, Professor of Material Science and Engineering in Carnegie Mellon University 149 Roberts Eng Hall, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, paul7@andrew.cmu.edu, 412-268-2702 Abstract: The efficiency of the solid oxide fuel cell is limited by the cathode polarizations. One essential approach is to include high-surface-area cathode materials into the fabrication. However, conventional synthesis methods to

2

Synthetic process for preparation of high surface area electroactive compounds for battery applications  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process is disclosed for the preparation of electroactive cathode compounds useful in lithium-ion batteries, comprising exothermic mixing of low-cost precursors and calcination under appropriate conditions. The exothermic step may be a spontaneous flameless combustion reaction. The disclosed process can be used to prepare any lithium metal phosphate or lithium mixed metal phosphate as a high surface area single phase compound.

Evenson, Carl; Mackay, Richard

2013-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

3

Surface Water Management Areas (Virginia)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This legislation establishes surface water management areas, geographically defined surface water areas in which the State Water Control Board has deemed the levels or supply of surface water to be...

4

Water bathing synthesis of high-surface-area nanocrystal-assembled SnO{sub 2} particles  

SciTech Connect

Nanocrystal assembled SnO{sub 2} particles were synthesized in aqueous solutions. The particles showed high BET surface area of 276 m{sup 2}/g. It was much higher than that of our previous studies. BJH analyses indicated that the particles had pores of about 2-5 nm. The particles included two kinds of morphologies. The first particles were about 300-1000 nm in diameter, which were assemblies of acicular crystals of 5-10 nm in width and 100-200 nm in length. They contributed high BET surface area. The second particles were about 10,000-3000 nm in diameter, which were assemblies of ellipse crystals of 100-200 in width and 200-400 nm in length. The ellipse crystals consisted of sheet crystals. They connected with a certain angle and arranged their long direction parallel. - Graphical abstract: Acicular crystal assembled SnO{sub 2} particles and ellipse crystal assembled SnO{sub 2} particles were synthesized in the aqueous solutions. They showed high BET surface area of 276 m{sup 2}/g. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Unique SnO{sub 2} nanocrystals were synthesized in an aqueous solution. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer They were acicular crystals and ellipse crystals. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer They had high BET surface area of 276 m{sup 2}/g.

Masuda, Yoshitake, E-mail: masuda-y@aist.go.jp [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 2266-98 Anagahora, Shimoshidami, Moriyama-ku, Nagoya 463-8560 (Japan); Ohji, Tatsuki; Kato, Kazumi [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 2266-98 Anagahora, Shimoshidami, Moriyama-ku, Nagoya 463-8560 (Japan)

2012-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

5

Self-Assembly of Virus-Structured High Surface Area Nanomaterials and Their Application as Battery Electrodes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Self-Assembly of Virus-Structured High Surface Area Nanomaterials and Their Application as Battery templates produced uniform metal coatings up to 40 nm in thickness. Within a nickel-zinc battery system have uses in an array of applications including electrodes, catalyst supports, thermal barriers, sensor

Rubloff, Gary W.

6

Strong and Tough Cellulose Nanopaper with High Specific Surface Area and Porosity  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

After all NaClO was consumed, the pulp fibers were filtered and washed several times with deionized water until the filtrate solution was neutral. ... 300 mg solid content of cellulose) was diluted to ca. 0.1 wt %, degassed, and filtrated on top of a 0.65 ?m filter membrane (DVPP, Millipore) until a strong hydrogel is formed (see picture of the hydrogel in Figure 1b). ... The results are preliminary but demonstrate the ability of this method to give cellulose aerogels of large surface areas (400-500 m2 g-1) which may be useful as adsorbents, heat/sound insulators, filters, catalyst supports, or carbon aerogel precursors. ...

Houssine Sehaqui; Qi Zhou; Olli Ikkala; Lars A. Berglund

2011-09-02T23:59:59.000Z

7

Structural and electrochemical properties of nanostructured nickel silicides by reduction and silicification of high-surface-area nickel oxide  

SciTech Connect

Graphical abstract: Nanostructured nickel silicides have been synthesized by reduction and silification of high-surface-area nickel oxide, and exhibited remarkably like-noble metal property, lower electric resistivity, and ferromagnetism at room temperature. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NiSi{sub x} have been prepared by reduction and silification of high-surface-area NiO. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The structure of nickel silicides changed with increasing reaction temperature. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Si doping into nickel changed the magnetic properties of metallic nickel. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NiSi{sub x} have remarkably lower electric resistivity and like-noble metal property. -- Abstract: Nanostructured nickel silicides have been prepared by reduction and silicification of high-surface-area nickel oxide (145 m{sup 2} g{sup -1}) produced via precipitation. The prepared materials were characterized by nitrogen adsorption, X-ray diffraction, thermal analysis, FT-IR spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, magnetic and electrochemical measurements. The nickel silicide formation involves the following sequence: NiO (cubic) {yields} Ni (cubic) {yields} Ni{sub 2}Si (orthorhombic) {yields} NiSi (orthorhombic) {yields} NiSi{sub 2} (cubic), with particles growing from 13.7 to 21.3 nm. The nickel silicides are ferromagnetic at room temperature, and their saturation magnetization values change drastically with the increase of Si content. Nickel silicides have remarkably low electrical resistivity and noble metal-like properties because of a constriction of the Ni d band and an increase of the electronic density of states. The results suggest that such silicides are promising candidates as inexpensive yet functional materials for applications in electrochemistry as well as catalysis.

Chen, Xiao [Laboratory of Advanced Materials and Catalytic Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemicals, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)] [Laboratory of Advanced Materials and Catalytic Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemicals, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Zhang, Bingsen [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Fritz Haber Institute of the Max Planck Society (Germany)] [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Fritz Haber Institute of the Max Planck Society (Germany); Li, Chuang; Shao, Zhengfeng [Laboratory of Advanced Materials and Catalytic Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemicals, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)] [Laboratory of Advanced Materials and Catalytic Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemicals, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Su, Dangsheng [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Fritz Haber Institute of the Max Planck Society (Germany)] [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Fritz Haber Institute of the Max Planck Society (Germany); Williams, Christopher T. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Swearingen Engineering Center, University of South Carolina (United States)] [Department of Chemical Engineering, Swearingen Engineering Center, University of South Carolina (United States); Liang, Changhai, E-mail: changhai@dlut.edu.cn [Laboratory of Advanced Materials and Catalytic Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemicals, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)] [Laboratory of Advanced Materials and Catalytic Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemicals, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)

2012-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

8

Nanocrystalline {001} TiO2/carbon aerogel electrode with high surface area and enhanced photoelectrocatalytic oxidation capacity  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Aiming at further developing the application of the highly reactive {001} TiO2 in photoelectrocatalytic oxidation, which is limited by the powder form, micron-size and low surface area, a nanocrystalline {001} TiO2/carbon aerogel (CA) photoelectrode was fabricated via a facile hydrothermal method. Nano-sized (50nm) anatase {001} TiO2 was successfully grown on a CA substrate. The obtained photoelectrode endowed high surface area (537 m2g?1) and enhanced photoelectrocatalytic oxidation performance. Under UV light illumination, the largest photocurrent density is obtained on 50nm {001} TiO2 (5.58mAcm?2), compared to 150nm (4.17mAcm?2), 1?m (2.83mAcm?2) {001} TiO2, indicating that an obvious enhancement in photoelectrocatalytic oxidation activity was achieved when crystalline size reached nanometer scale. A high methylene blue removal of 93% was obtained on 50nm {001} TiO2/CA, and the rate constant reached 8.46נ10?3min?1, which was twice as that of P25/CA and around twenty times that of 50 nm{001} TiO2/FTO.

Ya-nan Zhang; Yefei Jin; Xiaofeng Huang; Huijie Shi; Guohua Zhao; Hongying Zhao

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

9

Low temperature synthesis of nanocrystalline magnesium aluminate with high surface area by surfactant assisted precipitation method: Effect of preparation conditions  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: ? MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} showed a high surface area and nanocrystalline structure. ? Addition of polymeric surfactant affected the structural properties of MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}. ? MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} prepared with surfactant showed a hollow cylindrical shape. -- Abstract: A surfactant assisted co-precipitation method was employed for the low temperature synthesis of magnesium aluminate spinel with nanocrystalline size and high specific surface area. Pluronic P123 triblock copolymer and ammonia solution were used as surfactant and precipitation agent, respectively. The prepared samples were characterized by thermal gravimetric and differential thermal gravimetric analyses (TG/DTG), X-ray diffraction (XRD), N{sub 2} adsorption (BET) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques. The effects of several process parameters such as refluxing temperature, refluxing time, pH, P123 to metals mole ratio (P123/metals) and calcination temperature on the structural properties of the samples were investigated. The obtained results showed that, among the process parameters pH and refluxing temperature have a significant effect on the structural properties of samples. The results revealed that increase in pH from 9.5 to 11 and refluxing temperature from 40 C to 80 C increased the specific surface area of prepared samples in the range of 157188 m{sup 2} g{sup ?1} and 162184 m{sup 2} g{sup ?1}, respectively. The XRD analysis showed the single-phase MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} was formed at 700 C.

Mosayebi, Zeinab [Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, University of Kashan, Kashan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)] [Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, University of Kashan, Kashan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rezaei, Mehran, E-mail: rezaei@kashanu.ac.ir [Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, University of Kashan, Kashan (Iran, Islamic Republic of) [Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, University of Kashan, Kashan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Catalyst and Advanced Materials Research Laboratory, Chemical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, University of Kashan, Kashan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hadian, Narges [Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, University of Kashan, Kashan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)] [Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, University of Kashan, Kashan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Kordshuli, Fazlollah Zareie [Shiraz Petrochemical Co., Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)] [Shiraz Petrochemical Co., Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Meshkani, Fereshteh [Catalyst and Advanced Materials Research Laboratory, Chemical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, University of Kashan, Kashan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)] [Catalyst and Advanced Materials Research Laboratory, Chemical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, University of Kashan, Kashan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2012-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

10

A bifunctional adsorbent with high surface area and cation exchange property for synergistic removal of tetracycline and Cu2+  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract A novel bifunctional adsorbent with high surface area and cation exchange character (HAR-2) was prepared via copolymerization and hydrolysis reactions for the coremoval of tetracycline and Cu2+. HAR-2 possessed large specific surface area of 394m2/g and high weak cation exchange capacity of 1.06meq/g. The adsorption kinetics of TC or Cu2+ fitted both pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second order equations in single-substrate solution, whereas the adsorption kinetics were better described by pseudo-second order model in binary solutions. The adsorption of TC was an exothermic process, while the Cu2+ adsorption process was endothermic. The adsorption isotherms of TC and Cu2+ fitted the Langmuir model, suggesting a monolayer adsorption process. The adsorbed amount of TC was pronouncedly enhanced in the presence of Cu2+ due to the formation of tertiary surface complex HARCu2+TC. Likewise, the adsorption of Cu2+ was significantly improved by forming HARTCCu2+ complex in the presence of TC. The uptake of Cu2+ increased as pH increased, while the adsorbed amount of TC increased as pH rose from 2 to 3 but decreased when pH was further elevated from 3 to 6. The presence of NaCl exerted no significant influence on the adsorption of TC and negatively affected the adsorption of Cu2+. HAR-2 exhibited high stability over 5 repeated uses, only losing 6.3% and 18.4% of the initial adsorption capacity for TC and Cu2+, respectively.

Yan Ma; Qing Zhou; Sicong Zhou; Wei Wang; Jing Jin; Jiawen Xie; Aimin Li; Chendong Shuang

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

11

PERGAMON Carbon 39 (2001) 3944 Preparation of conductive carbons with high surface area  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of graphitization) and Lc adsorption and desorption rates [1­3]. In many applica- (crystallite domain size), as well by Institute of Coal Chemistry, Chinese Academy Producing carbons with both structural order (high con. carbon filaments grown from methane gas using an iron- In this study, two methods were used to prepare

Chung, Deborah D.L.

12

Catalyzed CO.sub.2-transport membrane on high surface area inorganic support  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Disclosed are membranes and methods for making the same, which membranes provide improved permeability, stability, and cost-effective manufacturability, for separating CO.sub.2 from gas streams such as flue gas streams. High CO.sub.2 permeation flux is achieved by immobilizing an ultra-thin, optionally catalyzed fluid layer onto a meso-porous modification layer on a thin, porous inorganic substrate such as a porous metallic substrate. The CO.sub.2-selective liquid fluid blocks non-selective pores, and allows for selective absorption of CO.sub.2 from gas mixtures such as flue gas mixtures and subsequent transport to the permeation side of the membrane. Carbon dioxide permeance levels are in the order of 1.0.times.10.sup.-6 mol/(m.sup.2sPa) or better. Methods for making such membranes allow commercial scale membrane manufacturing at highly cost-effective rates when compared to conventional commercial-scale CO.sub.2 separation processes and equipment for the same and such membranes are operable on an industrial use scale.

Liu, Wei

2014-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

13

Electro-catalytically Active, High Surface Area Cathodes for Low Temperature SOFCs  

SciTech Connect

This research focused on developing low polarization (area specific resistance, ASR) cathodes for intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cells (IT-SOFCs). In order to accomplish this we focused on two aspects of cathode development: (1) development of novel materials; and (2) developing the relationships between microstructure and electrochemical performance. The materials investigated ranged from Ag-bismuth oxide composites (which had the lowest reported ASR at the beginning of this contract) to a series of pyrochlore structured ruthenates (Bi{sub 2-x}M{sub x}Ru{sub 2}O{sub 7}, where M = Sr, Ca, Ag; Pb{sub 2}Ru{sub 2}O{sub 6.5}; and Y{sub 2-2x}Pr{sub 2x}Ru{sub 2}O{sub 7}), to composites of the pyrochlore ruthenates with bismuth oxide. To understand the role of microstructure on electrochemical performance, we optimized the Ag-bismuth oxide and the ruthenate-bismuth oxide composites in terms of both two-phase composition and particle size/microstructure. We further investigated the role of thickness and current collector on ASR. Finally, we investigated issues of stability and found the materials investigated did not form deleterious phases at the cathode/electrolyte interface. Further, we established the ability through particle size modification to limit microstructural decay, thus, enhancing stability. The resulting Ag-Bi{sub 0.8}Er{sub 0.2}O{sub 1.5} and Bi{sub 2}Ru{sub 2}O{sub 7{sup -}}Bi{sub 0.8}Er{sub 0.2}O{sub 1.5} composite cathodes had ASRs of 1.0 {Omega} cm{sup 2} and 0.73 {Omega}cm{sup 2} at 500 C and 0.048 {Omega}cm{sup 2} and 0.053 {Omega}cm{sup 2} at 650 C, respectively. These ASRs are truly impressive and makes them among the lowest IT-SOFC ASRs reported to date.

Eric D. Wachsman

2006-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

14

Rapid breakdown anodization technique for the synthesis of high aspect ratio and high surface area anatase TiO{sub 2} nanotube powders  

SciTech Connect

Clusters of high aspect ratio, high surface area anatase-TiO{sub 2} nanotubes with a typical nanotube outer diameter of about 18 nm, wall thickness of approximately 5 nm and length of 5-10 {mu}m were synthesized, in powder form, by breakdown anodization of Ti foils in 0.1 M perchloric acid, at 10 V (299 K) and 20 V ({approx}275 and 299 K). The surface area, morphology, structure and band gap were determined from Brunauer Emmet Teller method, field emmission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Raman, photoluminescence and diffuse reflectance spectroscopic studies. The tubular morphology and anatase phase were found to be stable up to 773 K and above 773 K anatase phase gradually transformed to rutile phase with disintegration of tubular morphology. At 973 K, complete transformation to rutile phase and disintegration of tubular morphology were observed. The band gap of the as prepared and the annealed samples varied from 3.07 to 2.95 eV with increase in annealing temperature as inferred from photoluminescence and diffuse reflectance studies. -- Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Research highlights: {yields} High aspect ratio anatase-titania nanotube powders were synthesized electrochemically. {yields} The surface area of the nanotubes were much higher than those reported. {yields} The annealing temperature limit for maintaining tubular morphology was established. {yields} The photoluminiscence spectroscopy reflected the presence of defects, annealing of defects and phase transformation. {yields} The nanotubes were of {approx}5 nm wall thickness as revealed by TEM studies.

Antony, Rajini P. [Thin Films and Coatings Section, Surface and Nanoscience Division, Materials Science Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603102, Tamil Nadu (India); Mathews, Tom, E-mail: tom@igcar.gov.i [Thin Films and Coatings Section, Surface and Nanoscience Division, Materials Science Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603102, Tamil Nadu (India); Dasgupta, Arup [Physical Metallurgy Division, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603102, Tamil Nadu (India); Dash, S.; Tyagi, A.K. [Thin Films and Coatings Section, Surface and Nanoscience Division, Materials Science Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603102, Tamil Nadu (India); Raj, Baldev [Thin Films and Coatings Section, Surface and Nanoscience Division, Materials Science Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603102, Tamil Nadu (India); Physical Metallurgy Division, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603102, Tamil Nadu (India)

2011-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

15

Packing efficiency and accessible surface area of crumpled graphene  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Graphene holds promise as an ultracapacitor due to its high specific surface area and intrinsic capacitance. To exploit both, a maximum surface area must be accessible while the two-dimensional (2D) graphene is deformed ...

Cranford, Steven Wayne

16

Mesoporous TiO{sub 2} aggregate photoanode with high specific surface area and strong light scattering for dye-sensitized solar cells  

SciTech Connect

Phase-pure anatase TiO{sub 2} nanocrystallite aggregates synthesized by a continuous supercritical fluid process have been first used for fabricating mesoporous photoanodes of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs). Due to the small size (11 nm) of the TiO{sub 2} nanocrystallites in the aggregates, the mesoporous photoanode provides a high specific surface area, 80 m{sup 2}/g, which ensures high dye loading. At the same time, the submicrometer-sized aggregates endow the mesoporous photoanode with strong light scattering effect. Therefore, the light harvesting efficiency of the photoanode is increased. With an improved short-circuit current density, a high overall power conversion efficiency of 8.65% (100 mW/cm{sup 2}, AM 1.5) is achieved without additional scattering layers, 12% enhanced compared with the DSCs fabricated from commercial Degussa P25 with exactly the same procedures. In addition, this supercritical fluid process is scalable and rapid (less than one minute) for TiO{sub 2} aggregates synthesis, which will push the commercialization of DSCs in the future. - Graphical abstract: Due to the special morphology and structure, the photoanode of DSCs provides high specific surface area and strong light scattering at the same time, which results in high conversion efficiencies of the DSCs. Table of contents: Thanks to the synchronous realization of high specific surface area and strong light scattering, a high efficiency of 8.65% was achieved based on a novel mesoporous TiO{sub 2} aggregates photoanode for DSCs. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The TiO{sub 2} aggregate photoanode provides a possible route for highly efficient DSCs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Photoanode with high dye loading and light scattering is successfully fabricated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TiO{sub 2} synthesized by a supercritical fluid process is first applied to DSCs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The synthesis method and high efficiency will push the commercialization of DSCs.

Li, Chunhui; Luo, Yanhong; Guo, Xiaozhi; Li, Dongmei [Key Laboratory for Renewable Energy, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing Key Laboratory for New Energy Materials and Devices, Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)] [Key Laboratory for Renewable Energy, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing Key Laboratory for New Energy Materials and Devices, Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Mi, Jianli; So, Lasse; Hald, Peter [Center for Materials Crystallography, Department of Chemistry and Interdisciplinary Nanoscience Center, Aarhus University, DK-8000 Aarhus (Denmark)] [Center for Materials Crystallography, Department of Chemistry and Interdisciplinary Nanoscience Center, Aarhus University, DK-8000 Aarhus (Denmark); Meng, Qingbo, E-mail: qbmeng@iphy.ac.cn [Key Laboratory for Renewable Energy, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing Key Laboratory for New Energy Materials and Devices, Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)] [Key Laboratory for Renewable Energy, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing Key Laboratory for New Energy Materials and Devices, Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Iversen, Bo B., E-mail: bo@chem.au.dk [Center for Materials Crystallography, Department of Chemistry and Interdisciplinary Nanoscience Center, Aarhus University, DK-8000 Aarhus (Denmark)

2012-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

17

Clustering of metal atoms in organic media. 9. High-activity Ni/MgO catalysts prepared by metal vapor methods. Surface area and particle size effects  

SciTech Connect

A metal vapor method was employed to prepare highly dispersed Ni metal catalysts (solvated metal atom dispersed = SMAD catalyst) supported on MgO. Compared with conventional Ni/MgO compositions, the SMAD catalysts showed much greater activities for all reactions studied (hydrogenolysis of methylcyclopentane, MCP; hydrogenation/hydrogenolysis of toluene, TOL; methanation of carbon monoxide, CO; dehydration of isopropyl alcohol, IPA). These high activities for the SMAD catalysts are attributed to the high surface area of Ni on MgO and the high percentage of this Ni in a zero-valent state (reduction degree). Conventional methods for preparing Ni/MgO catalysts did not yield nearly such favorable surface areas or reduction degrees. Nickel particle size effects were observed during hydrogenolysis studies of MCP and hydrogenation studies of TOL. These phenomena are explained by assuming the size of an active Ni particle to be largest for hydrogenolysis of MCP > hydrogenation of TOL > methanation of CO approx. = dehydrogenation of IPA. 8 figures, 2 tables.

Matsuo, K.; Klabunde, K.J.

1982-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

18

Measurements of Heats of Adsorption of Organic Vapours on Adsorbents of High Surface Area using a Continuous Flow Calorimeter  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... gel. It has been reported3 that heats of adsorption of this magnitude are obtained on adsorbents of this type when the surface coverage is low. This probably explains the very ...

G. H. BELL; A. J. GROSZEK

1961-09-16T23:59:59.000Z

19

Design and preparation of high-surface-area Cu/ZnO/Al2O3 catalysts using a modified co-precipitation method for the water-gas shift reaction  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Highly dispersed Cu/ZnO/Al2O3 catalysts were prepared by modifying a conventional co-precipitation method. By manipulating the preparation conditions, in this case solvent, precipitating temperature, and pH, a Cu surface area of 45.51.7m2/g was prepared, which was much greater than the surface area of 11.431.7m2/g obtained by the conventional co-precipitation method and seemed to be the largest Cu surface area ever reported in the literature. The preparation of catalysts with a high Cu surface area was attributed to the formation of aurichalcite, a complex containing Cu and Zn. The catalysts prepared by the modified co-precipitation method were used for a water-gas shift reaction, exhibiting higher catalytic activity compared to those prepared by the conventional co-precipitation method.

Adeline Budiman; Muhammad Ridwan; Sung Min Kim; Jae-Wook Choi; Chang Won Yoon; Jeong-Myeong Ha; Dong Jin Suh; Young-Woong Suh

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

MFR PAPER 1170 Water Surface Area Within  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in hectares for each subsubarea within each subarea. Conversion factor Central latllude Stallstlcal hectares the Gulf coa t. especiall y tho e concerning im- pact of energy-related development. METHODS Water surface.-Converslon factors (hectares per planimeter unit) used to convert average planimeter units to area

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high surface area" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Large area, surface discharge pumped, vacuum ultraviolet light source  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Large area, surface discharge pumped, vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) light source is disclosed. A contamination-free VUV light source having a 225 cm{sup 2} emission area in the 240-340 nm region of the electromagnetic spectrum with an average output power in this band of about 2 J/cm{sup 2} at a wall-plug efficiency of approximately 5% is described. Only ceramics and metal parts are employed in this surface discharge source. Because of the contamination-free, high photon energy and flux, and short pulse characteristics of the source, it is suitable for semiconductor and flat panel display material processing. 3 figs.

Sze, R.C.; Quigley, G.P.

1996-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

22

Surface Gas Sampling At Valles Caldera - Sulphur Springs Area...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Surface Gas Sampling At Valles Caldera - Sulphur Springs Area (Goff & Janik, 2002) Exploration Activity Details Location Valles Caldera - Sulphur Springs Area Exploration Technique...

23

Surface Gas Sampling At Valles Caldera - Redondo Area (Goff ...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Surface Gas Sampling At Valles Caldera - Redondo Area (Goff & Janik, 2002) Exploration Activity...

24

Surface Gas Sampling At International Geothermal Area Mexico...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Surface Gas Sampling At International Geothermal Area Mexico (Norman, Et Al., 2002) Exploration...

25

Surface Gas Sampling At Fenton Hill HDR Geothermal Area (Grigsby...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Surface Gas Sampling At Fenton Hill HDR Geothermal Area (Grigsby, Et Al., 1983) Exploration...

26

Surface Gas Sampling At Lightning Dock Area (Norman & Moore,...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Water-Gas Samples At Lightning Dock Area (Norman & Moore, 2004)) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Surface Gas Sampling At...

27

Surface Gas Sampling At Fenton Hill HDR Geothermal Area (Goff...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Surface Gas Sampling At Fenton Hill HDR Geothermal Area (Goff & Janik, 2002) Exploration Activity...

28

MOISTURE AND SURFACE AREA MEASUREMENTS OF PLUTONIUM-BEARING OXIDES  

SciTech Connect

To ensure safe storage, plutonium-bearing oxides are stabilized at 950 C for at least two hours in an oxidizing atmosphere. Stabilization conditions are expected to decompose organic impurities, convert metals to oxides, and result in moisture content below 0.5 wt%. During stabilization, the specific surface area is reduced, which minimizes readsorption of water onto the oxide surface. Plutonium oxides stabilized according to these criteria were sampled and analyzed to determine moisture content and surface area. In addition, samples were leached in water to identify water-soluble chloride impurity content. Results of these analyses for seven samples showed that the stabilization process produced low moisture materials (< 0.2 wt %) with low surface area ({le} 1 m{sup 2}/g). For relatively pure materials, the amount of water per unit surface area corresponded to 1.5 to 3.5 molecular layers of water. For materials with chloride content > 360 ppm, the calculated amount of water per unit surface area increased with chloride content, indicating hydration of hygroscopic salts present in the impure PuO{sub 2}-containing materials. The low moisture, low surface area materials in this study did not generate detectable hydrogen during storage of four or more years.

Crowder, M.; Duffey, J.; Livingston, R.; Scogin, J.; Kessinger, G.; Almond, P.

2009-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

29

Rotating disk electrode measurements on the CO tolerance of a high-surface area Pt/Vulcan carbon fuel cell catalyst  

SciTech Connect

The authors examine the electrocatalytic properties of a Pt/Vulcan carbon catalyst toward the electro-oxidation of CO and CO/H{sub 2} mixtures under proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) relevant conditions (60 to 80 C, continuous reactant flow), employing rotating disk electrode (RDE) measurements. They demonstrate that the recently introduced thin-film RDE technique can be applied to predict the performance of real fuel cell anodes operating on CO-contaminated H{sub 2}. The method involves attaching the catalyst particles to a glassy carbon RDE via a thin Nafion film. The thin-film RDE technique opens the possibility for the mass-transport-free determination of the electrode kinetics at 100% catalyst utilization. At identical mass-specific current densities, the overpotentials for CO/H{sub 2} oxidation measured with the thin-film RDE technique are in excellent agreement with performance data from PEMFC anodes. The kinetics of pure CO oxidation were investigated with CO/N{sub 2} mixtures, revealing that the CO oxidation activity increases with decreasing CO partial pressure (negative reaction order). The observed ignition potential for CO oxidation was the same for both the CO/N{sub 2} and the CO/H{sub 2} mixtures. Two H{sub 2} oxidation mechanisms in the presence of CO can be distinguished: (1) a high Tafel slope region at low overpotentials, where H{sub 2} oxidation occurs in vacancies of the CO adlayer; and (2) a low Tafel slope region at high overpotentials where H{sub 2} and CO oxidation occur simultaneously.

Schmidt, T.J.; Behm, R.J. [Univ. Ulm (Germany). Abteilung Oberflaechenchemie und Katalyse] [Univ. Ulm (Germany). Abteilung Oberflaechenchemie und Katalyse; Gasteiger, H.A. [Adam Opel AG, Ruesselsheim (Germany). Global Alternative Propulsion Center] [Adam Opel AG, Ruesselsheim (Germany). Global Alternative Propulsion Center

1999-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

SAW determination of surface area of thin films  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

N.sub.2 adsorption isotherms are measured from thin films on SAW devices. The isotherms may be used to determine the surface area and pore size distribution of thin films.

Frye, Gregory C. (Albuquerque, NM); Martin, Stephen J. (Albuquerque, NM); Ricco, Antonio J. (Albuquerque, NM)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

Cube and Sphere Surface Area and Relative Size  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Cube and Sphere Surface Area and Relative Size Cube and Sphere Surface Area and Relative Size Name: Andrea Status: student Age: N/A Location: N/A Country: N/A Date: N/A Question: Will a sphere that has the identical surface area as a cube fit inside the cube? Replies: The surface area of a cube is 6L^2 where L is the length of a side. The surface area of a sphere is 4 pi r^2 where r is the radius of the sphere Setting these two terms equal (which we do because the surface areas are equal, [we do not need and exact number, mind you. We just have to know they are equal.]) and doing some algebra we find that the cube has a side 1.414 times as long as the radius of the sphere. BUT WAIT. The radius of the sphere is only half its size (diameter)! To hold the sphere, the cube needs a side of 2r or twice the sphere's radius!! It is only 1.414 times as long so, the sphere will not fit.

32

Impact of active material surface area on thermal stability of LiCoO2 cathode  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Thermal stability of charged LiCoO2 cathodes with various surface areas of active material is investigated in order to quantify the effect of LiCoO2 surface area on thermal stability of cathode. Thermogravimetric analyses and calorimetry have been conducted on charged cathodes with different active material surface areas. Besides reduced thermal stability, high surface area also changes the active material decomposition reaction and induces side reactions with additives. Thermal analyses of LiCoO2 delithiated chemically without any additives or with a single additive have been conducted to elaborate the effect of particle size on side reactions. Stability of cathodeelectrolyte system has been investigated by accelerating rate calorimetry (ARC). Arrhenius activation energy of cathode decomposition has been calculated as function of conversion at different surface area of active material.

Jan Geder; Harry E. Hoster; Andreas Jossen; Jrgen Garche; Denis Y.W. Yu

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

Surface tension in bilayer membranes with fixed projected area  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We study the elastic response of bilayer membranes with fixed projected area to both stretching and shape deformations. A surface tension is associated to each of these deformations. By using model amphiphilic membranes and computer simulations, we are able to observe both the types of deformation, and thus, both the surface tensions, related to each type of deformation, are measured for the same system. These surface tensions are found to assume different values in the same bilayer membrane: in particular they vanish for different values of the projected area. We introduce a simple theory which relates the two quantities and successfully apply it to the data obtained with computer simulations.

Alberto Imparato

2006-04-05T23:59:59.000Z

34

Tensor Product Surfaces Guided by Minimal Surface Area Triangulations John K. Johnstone  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

from contour (cross-section) data. Mini- mal area triangulations are used to guide the surface con and pruning isoparametric curves, for accuracy and economy. A rectangular grid of points is produced data, mini- mum area triangulation, Bezier surface, biomedical visual- ization 1 Introduction

Johnstone, John K.

35

Surface Gas Sampling At International Geothermal Area Mexico (Norman, Et  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

source source History View New Pages Recent Changes All Special Pages Semantic Search/Querying Get Involved Help Apps Datasets Community Login | Sign Up Search Page Edit History Facebook icon Twitter icon » Surface Gas Sampling At International Geothermal Area Mexico (Norman, Et Al., 2002) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Surface Gas Sampling At International Geothermal Area Mexico (Norman, Et Al., 2002) Exploration Activity Details Location International Geothermal Area Mexico Exploration Technique Surface Gas Sampling Activity Date Usefulness useful DOE-funding Unknown Notes Norman (2002) shows that the Cerro Prieto gas analyses collected by Cathy Janik and Alfred Truesdell from1977 to 1998 plot on a C02/N2 condensation

36

'Nano'tubes, Surface Area & NanoSolar Cells  

K-12 Energy Lesson Plans and Activities Web site (EERE)

This unit takes students through several introductory lessons designed to gain a better understanding of the 'nano' scale as it relates to the creation of a (dye-sensitized) solar cell (DSSC). The introductory lessons guide students through activities covering volume, surface area and density and exploration of the relationship between these factors. The unit culminates with students building a Gratzel cell, a solar cell employing a layer of nanospheres of TiO2 as the semiconductor and blackberry juice as the light absorber in a non-Si-based solar cell. Students are able to build a small solar cell and test its efficiency.

37

Conformal coating of highly structured surfaces  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Method of applying a conformal coating to a highly structured substrate and devices made by the disclosed methods are disclosed. An example method includes the deposition of a substantially contiguous layer of a material upon a highly structured surface within a deposition process chamber. The highly structured surface may be associated with a substrate or another layer deposited on a substrate. The method includes depositing a material having an amorphous structure on the highly structured surface at a deposition pressure of equal to or less than about 3 mTorr. The method may also include removing a portion of the amorphous material deposited on selected surfaces and depositing additional amorphous material on the highly structured surface.

Ginley, David S.; Perkins, John; Berry, Joseph; Gennett, Thomas

2012-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

38

Modeling high-genus surfaces  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, with the large number of holes in the casing for heat dissipation. Figure 4 shows some examples of such objects. 5 Fig. 4. Examples of man-made high-genus objects. I.4. High-genus objects from mathematics In the last two decades, fractal geometry has emerged... as one of the major mathemati- cal approaches for designing unusual 3D shapes. Examples of such shapes introduced by fractal geometry include the Sierpinski gasket, the Menger sponge, the Mandelbrot set and Julia sets [27]. Fractal geometry shapes...

Srinivasan, Vinod

2004-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

39

E-Print Network 3.0 - area surface debris Sample Search Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

canyons Summary: in the study area. Soil-water repellency was measured using the critical surface tension method to determine... area (NCDC, 2003) were used to determine daily...

40

Surface roughening of superalloys by high pressure pure waterjet  

SciTech Connect

A high pressure waterjet has been used to study the surface roughening of superalloys as preparation for thermal spraying. Designed experiments for Mar-M 509 and Rene 80 were carried out for the effects of jet pressure and mass of water delivered per unit area. Comparisons were made of several superalloys in terms of erosion, surface roughness and topology. The mechanism of jet erosion of Rene 80 was studied in relation to its metallurgical microstructure. An MCrAlY coating by shrouded plasma spray was made over a waterjet prepared surface with excellent bonding and having an ideally clean interface.

Taylor, T.A. [Praxair Surface Technologies Inc., Indianapolis, IN (United States)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high surface area" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Meandered-line antenna with integrated high-impedance surface.  

SciTech Connect

A reduced-volume antenna composed of a meandered-line dipole antenna over a finite-width, high-impedance surface is presented. The structure is novel in that the high-impedance surface is implemented with four Sievenpiper via-mushroom unit cells, whose area is optimized to match the meandered-line dipole antenna. The result is an antenna similar in performance to patch antenna but one fourth the area that can be deployed directly on the surface of a conductor. Simulations demonstrate a 3.5 cm ({lambda}/4) square antenna with a bandwidth of 4% and a gain of 4.8 dBi at 2.5 GHz.

Forman, Michael A.

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

NREL Team Creates High-Activity, Durable Platinum Extended Surface Catalyst for Fuel Cells (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect

Researchers with NREL's Fuel Cell team showed that platinum can replace copper nanowires in such a way that high-surface-area and high-specific-activity catalysts are produced, potentially allowing for lower-cost catalysts.

Not Available

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

Impervious Areas: Examining the Undermining Effects on Surface Water Quality  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This study explored the relationship between increased proportions of imperviousness in a watershed on surface water quality and examined the effectiveness of using remote sensing to systematically and accurately determine impervious surfaces. A...

Young, De'Etra Jenra

2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

44

Mesoscale Climatic Simulation of Surface Air Temperature Cooling by Highly  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Mesoscale Climatic Simulation of Surface Air Temperature Cooling by Highly Mesoscale Climatic Simulation of Surface Air Temperature Cooling by Highly Reflective Greenhouses in SE Spain Title Mesoscale Climatic Simulation of Surface Air Temperature Cooling by Highly Reflective Greenhouses in SE Spain Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2013 Authors Campra, Pablo, and Dev Millstein Journal Environmental Science & Technology Volume 47 Issue 21 Pagination 12284 - 12290 Date Published 11/2013 ISSN 0013-936X Keywords buildings, Heat Island Group Abstract A long-term local cooling trend in surface air temperature has been monitored at the largest concentration of reflective greenhouses in the world, at the Province of Almeria, SE Spain, associated with a dramatic increase in surface albedo in the area. The availability of reliable long-term climatic field data at this site offers a unique opportunity to test the skill of mesoscale meteorological models describing and predicting the impacts of land use change on local climate. Using the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) mesoscale model, we have run a sensitivity experiment to simulate the impact of the observed surface albedo change on monthly and annual surface air temperatures. The model output showed a mean annual cooling of 0.25 °C associated with a 0.09 albedo increase, and a reduction of 22.8 W m-2 of net incoming solar radiation at surface. Mean reduction of summer daily maximum temperatures was 0.49 °C, with the largest single-day decrease equal to 1.3 °C. WRF output was evaluated and compared with observations. A mean annual warm bias (MBE) of 0.42 °C was estimated. High correlation coefficients (R2 > 0.9) were found between modeled and observed values. This study has particular interest in the assessment of the potential for urban temperature cooling by cool roofs deployment projects, as well as in the evaluation of mesoscale climatic models performance.

45

High temperature low friction surface coating  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A high temperature, low friction, flexible coating for metal surfaces which are subject to rubbing contact includes a mixture of three parts graphite and one part cadmium oxide, ball milled in water for four hours, then mixed with thirty percent by weight of sodium silicate in water solution and a few drops of wetting agent. The mixture is sprayed 12-15 microns thick onto an electro-etched metal surface and air dried for thirty minutes, then baked for two hours at 65.degree. C. to remove the water and wetting agent, and baked for an additional eight hours at about 150.degree. C. to produce the optimum bond with the metal surface. The coating is afterwards burnished to a thickness of about 7-10 microns.

Bhushan, Bharat (Watervliet, NY)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

46

Surface Gas Sampling At Valles Caldera - Sulphur Springs Area (Goff &  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Surface Gas Sampling At Valles Caldera - Sulphur Springs Area (Goff & Surface Gas Sampling At Valles Caldera - Sulphur Springs Area (Goff & Janik, 2002) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Surface Gas Sampling At Valles Caldera - Sulphur Springs Area (Goff & Janik, 2002) Exploration Activity Details Location Valles Caldera - Sulphur Springs Area Exploration Technique Surface Gas Sampling Activity Date Usefulness not indicated DOE-funding Unknown Notes Gas samples from fumaroles, springs, and/or wells. References Fraser Goff, Cathy J. Janik (2002) Gas Geochemistry Of The Valles Caldera Region, New Mexico And Comparisons With Gases At Yellowstone, Long Valley And Other Geothermal Systems Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Surface_Gas_Sampling_At_Valles_Caldera_-_Sulphur_Springs_Area_(Goff_%26_Janik,_2002)&oldid=689392

47

Surface Gas Sampling At Lightning Dock Area (Norman, Et Al., 2002) | Open  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Surface Gas Sampling At Lightning Dock Area (Norman, Et Al., 2002) Surface Gas Sampling At Lightning Dock Area (Norman, Et Al., 2002) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Surface Gas Sampling At Lightning Dock Area (Norman, Et Al., 2002) Exploration Activity Details Location Lightning Dock Area Exploration Technique Surface Gas Sampling Activity Date Usefulness not indicated DOE-funding Unknown Notes The Lightning Dock, Animas Valley, New Mexico geothermal area was discovered when a rancher found boiling water while drilling a shallow stock tank welt (Elston, Deal, et. al, 1983). There are no surface manifestations of present or past geothermal activity in the Animas Valley. Norman and Bernhart (1982) analyzed the gases in the discovery well and 15 stock tank wells nearby (Figure 1).

48

Surface Gas Sampling At Fenton Hill Hdr Geothermal Area (Grigsby, Et Al.,  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Surface Gas Sampling At Fenton Hill Hdr Geothermal Area (Grigsby, Et Al., Surface Gas Sampling At Fenton Hill Hdr Geothermal Area (Grigsby, Et Al., 1983) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Surface Gas Sampling At Fenton Hill Hdr Geothermal Area (Grigsby, Et Al., 1983) Exploration Activity Details Location Fenton Hill Hdr Geothermal Area Exploration Technique Surface Gas Sampling Activity Date Usefulness not indicated DOE-funding Unknown References C. O. Grigsby, J. W. Tester, P. E. Trujillo, D. A. Counce, J. Abbott, C. E. Holley, L. A. Blatz (1983) Rock-Water Interactions In Hot Dry Rock Geothermal Systems- Field Investigations Of In Situ Geochemical Behavior Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Surface_Gas_Sampling_At_Fenton_Hill_Hdr_Geothermal_Area_(Grigsby,_Et_Al.,_1983)&oldid=689258

49

Surface Gas Sampling At Fenton Hill Hdr Geothermal Area (Goff & Janik,  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Surface Gas Sampling At Fenton Hill Hdr Geothermal Area (Goff & Janik, Surface Gas Sampling At Fenton Hill Hdr Geothermal Area (Goff & Janik, 2002) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Surface Gas Sampling At Fenton Hill Hdr Geothermal Area (Goff & Janik, 2002) Exploration Activity Details Location Fenton Hill Hdr Geothermal Area Exploration Technique Surface Gas Sampling Activity Date Usefulness not indicated DOE-funding Unknown Notes Gas samples from HDR well References Fraser Goff, Cathy J. Janik (2002) Gas Geochemistry Of The Valles Caldera Region, New Mexico And Comparisons With Gases At Yellowstone, Long Valley And Other Geothermal Systems Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Surface_Gas_Sampling_At_Fenton_Hill_Hdr_Geothermal_Area_(Goff_%26_Janik,_2002)&oldid=689255"

50

Monitoring Molecular Adsorption on High-Area Titanium Dioxide via Modulated Diffraction of Visible Light  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Letters Monitoring Molecular Adsorption on High-Area Titanium Dioxide via Modulated Diffraction and evaluation of organic chemical adsorption on various titanium dioxide surfaces. The strategy is illustrated thin films of titanium dioxide (TiO2), with micrometer-sized features, were prepared on transparent

51

Categorical Exclusion 4596: High Contamination Area (HCA) Cleanup Project  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Detennination Form Detennination Form PropQsed Action Tit!~: High Contamination Area (HCA) C!e;;Jnup Project (4596) Pro~ram or Field Offif.s: Y-12 Site OffiCe Locmion(s) (City/CountvLState): Oak Ridge, Anderson County, Tennessee Prot?Oscd Action Description: PAGE 02/04 l,:·:~:.s:~.t?)fuiW6v:: ~ 4fB~ir:::8~1 The proposed action is to disposition the materiels and equipment stored in a radiological high contamination area (HCA). This area is paved and fenced with no roof or shelter. Tile HCA was used as an accumulation area for rad contaminated materials and equipment from operations. Categorical Exclusion(s) Avoli!¢l: 81.3- ~outine maintenance For the complete DOE National Environmental Policy Act regulnti011s regaruing categorical exclusions, including the full text of each

52

Surface features of the Stetson Bank area and a non-bank area of comparable depth  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of bathymetric survey tracks from cruise 74-G-10 of the R/V Gyre. 39 10. 12. 13. 14. 15. Fathogram I. Fathogram 2. Fathogram 3. Fathogram 4. Fathogram 5. Fathogram 6. Fathogram 7. Fathogram 8. 42 43 45 46 Bathymetric profiles of Stetson Bank... or secondary disturbances for all sediment cores. 93o 40 3 ~ 2o lo 12 ~ ~ ~ IO 5o NON-BANK AREA 28o20 7 ~ 8o 4 ~ ' ~ STETSON BANK 30 LOU. NIUIICAL III 10 94 00' 25 C3 STUDY, ( 1 && ' ? AREA / / I ( . r 1 1 Fig. 1 ? Location...

Dunphy, Janet Louise

1975-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

53

Historic Surface Faulting and Paleoseismicity in the Area of the 1954  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Historic Surface Faulting and Paleoseismicity in the Area of the 1954 Historic Surface Faulting and Paleoseismicity in the Area of the 1954 Rainbow Mountain-Stillwater Earthquake Sequence, Central Nevada Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal Article: Historic Surface Faulting and Paleoseismicity in the Area of the 1954 Rainbow Mountain-Stillwater Earthquake Sequence, Central Nevada Abstract The Rainbow Mountain area was the site of three surface-rupturing earthquakes on 6 July and 23 August 1954. More than 50 field measurements of surface offsets constrain the distribution of slip along the discontinuous and distributed rupture zone that formed during the earthquake sequence. Vertical offsets reach a maximum of ~0.8 m with the average vertical offset being ~0.2 m. In contrast to original reports, we

54

Surface Gas Sampling At Lassen Volcanic National Park Area (Janik &  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

source source History View New Pages Recent Changes All Special Pages Semantic Search/Querying Get Involved Help Apps Datasets Community Login | Sign Up Search Page Edit History Facebook icon Twitter icon » Surface Gas Sampling At Lassen Volcanic National Park Area (Janik & Mclaren, 2010) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Surface Gas Sampling At Lassen Volcanic National Park Area (Janik & Mclaren, 2010) Exploration Activity Details Location Lassen Volcanic National Park Area Exploration Technique Surface Gas Sampling Activity Date Usefulness not indicated DOE-funding Unknown References Cathy J. Janik, Marcia K. McLaren (2010) Seismicity And Fluid Geochemistry At Lassen Volcanic National Park, California- Evidence For Two

55

Spherical torus plasma interactions with large-area liquid lithium surfaces in CDX-U  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The current drive experiment-upgrade (CDX-U) device at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) is a spherical torus (ST) dedicated to the exploration of liquid lithium as a potential solution to reactor first-wall problems such as heat load and erosion, neutron damage and activation, and tritium inventory and breeding. Initial lithium limiter experiments were conducted with a toroidally-local liquid lithium rail limiter (L3) from the University of California at San Diego (UCSD). Spectroscopic measurements showed a clear reduction of impurities in plasmas with the L3, compared to discharges with a boron carbide limiter. The evidence for a reduction in recycling was less apparent, however. This may be attributable to the relatively small area in contact with the plasma, and the presence of high-recycling surfaces elsewhere in the vacuum chamber. This conclusion was tested in subsequent experiments with a fully toroidal lithium limiter that was installed above the floor of the vacuum vessel. The new limiter covered over ten times the area of the L3 facing the plasma. Experiments with the toroidal lithium limiter have recently begun. This paper describes the conditioning required to prepare the lithium surface for plasma operations, and effect of the toroidal liquid lithium limiter on discharge performance.

R Kaita; R Majeski; M Boaz; P Efthimion; B Jones; D Hoffman; H Kugel; J Menard; T Munsat; A Post-Zwicker; V Soukhanovskii; J Spaleta; G Taylor; J Timberlake; R Woolley; L Zakharov; M Finkenthal; D Stutman; G Antar; R Doerner; S Luckhardt; R Maingi; M Maiorano; S Smith

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

Surface and Structural Stabilities of Carbon Additives in High...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Structural Stabilities of Carbon Additives in High Voltage Lithium Ion Batteries. Surface and Structural Stabilities of Carbon Additives in High Voltage Lithium Ion Batteries....

57

Surface Gas Sampling At Lightning Dock Area (Norman & Moore, 2004) | Open  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

source source History View New Pages Recent Changes All Special Pages Semantic Search/Querying Get Involved Help Apps Datasets Community Login | Sign Up Search Page Edit History Facebook icon Twitter icon » Surface Gas Sampling At Lightning Dock Area (Norman & Moore, 2004) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Surface Gas Sampling At Lightning Dock Area (Norman & Moore, 2004) Exploration Activity Details Location Lightning Dock Area Exploration Technique Surface Gas Sampling Activity Date Usefulness useful DOE-funding Unknown References David I. Norman, Joseph Moore (2004) Gas Analysis Of Geothermal Fluid Inclusions- A New Technology For Geothermal Exploration Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Surface_Gas_Sampling_At_Lightning_Dock_Area_(Norman_%26_Moore,_2004)&oldid=689367"

58

Surface Meteorology, Barrow, Alaska, Area A, B, C and D, Ongoing from 2012  

SciTech Connect

Meteorological data are being collected at several points within four intensive study areas in Barrow. These data assist in the calculation of the energy balance at the land surface and are also useful as inputs into modeling activities.

Hinzman, Larry; Busey, Bob; Cable, William; Romanovsky, Vladimir

2014-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

59

Surface Meteorology, Barrow, Alaska, Area A, B, C and D, Ongoing from 2012  

DOE Data Explorer (OSTI)

Meteorological data are being collected at several points within four intensive study areas in Barrow. These data assist in the calculation of the energy balance at the land surface and are also useful as inputs into modeling activities.

Hinzman, Larry; Busey, Bob; Cable, William; Romanovsky, Vladimir

60

Surface Water Sampling At Raft River Geothermal Area (1973) | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Surface Water Sampling At Raft River Geothermal Area (1973) Surface Water Sampling At Raft River Geothermal Area (1973) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Surface Water Sampling At Raft River Geothermal Area (1973) Exploration Activity Details Location Raft River Geothermal Area Exploration Technique Surface Water Sampling Activity Date 1973 Usefulness not indicated DOE-funding Unknown Exploration Basis At least 380 hot springs and wells are known to occur throughout the central and southern parts of Idaho. Notes One hundred twenty-four of 380 hot springs and wells in the central and southern parts of Idaho were inventoried as a part of the study reported on herein. At the spring vents and wells visited, the thermal waters flow from rocks ranging in age from Precambrian to Holocene and from a wide range of

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high surface area" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

High surface area, electrically conductive nanocarbon-supported metal oxide  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A metal oxide-carbon composite includes a carbon aerogel with an oxide overcoat. The metal oxide-carbon composite is made by providing a carbon aerogel, immersing the carbon aerogel in a metal oxide sol under a vacuum, raising the carbon aerogel with the metal oxide sol to atmospheric pressure, curing the carbon aerogel with the metal oxide sol at room temperature, and drying the carbon aerogel with the metal oxide sol to produce the metal oxide-carbon composite. The step of providing a carbon aerogel can provide an activated carbon aerogel or provide a carbon aerogel with carbon nanotubes that make the carbon aerogel mechanically robust.

Worsley, Marcus A; Han, Thomas Yong-Jin; Kuntz, Joshua D; Cervanted, Octavio; Gash, Alexander E; Baumann, Theodore F; Satcher, Jr., Joe H

2014-03-04T23:59:59.000Z

62

High surface area silicon carbide-coated carbon aerogel  

SciTech Connect

A metal oxide-carbon composite includes a carbon aerogel with an oxide overcoat. The metal oxide-carbon composite is made by providing a carbon aerogel, immersing the carbon aerogel in a metal oxide sol under a vacuum, raising the carbon aerogel with the metal oxide sol to atmospheric pressure, curing the carbon aerogel with the metal oxide sol at room temperature, and drying the carbon aerogel with the metal oxide sol to produce the metal oxide-carbon composite. The step of providing a carbon aerogel can provide an activated carbon aerogel or provide a carbon aerogel with carbon nanotubes that make the carbon aerogel mechanically robust. Carbon aerogels can be coated with sol-gel silica and the silica can be converted to silicone carbide, improved the thermal stability of the carbon aerogel.

Worsley, Marcus A; Kuntz, Joshua D; Baumann, Theodore F; Satcher, Jr, Joe H

2014-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

63

High Specific Surface area Aerogel Cryoadsorber for Vacuum Pumping Applications  

SciTech Connect

A cryogenic pumping system is provided, comprising a vacuum environment, an aerogel sorbent formed from a carbon aerogel disposed within the vacuum environment, and cooling means for cooling the aerogel sorbent sufficiently to adsorb molecules from the vacuum environment onto the aerogel sorbent. Embodiments of the invention include a liquid refrigerant cryosorption pump, a compressed helium cryogenic pump, a cryopanel and a Meissner coil, each of which uses carbon aerogel as a sorbent material.

Hill, Randal M.; Fought, Eric R.; Biltoft, Peter J.

1998-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

64

Surface Gas Sampling At Long Valley Caldera Area (Goff & Janik, 2002) |  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

source source History View New Pages Recent Changes All Special Pages Semantic Search/Querying Get Involved Help Apps Datasets Community Login | Sign Up Search Page Edit History Facebook icon Twitter icon » Surface Gas Sampling At Long Valley Caldera Area (Goff & Janik, 2002) (Redirected from Water-Gas Samples At Long Valley Caldera Area (Goff & Janik, 2002)) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Surface Gas Sampling At Long Valley Caldera Area (Goff & Janik, 2002) Exploration Activity Details Location Long Valley Caldera Area Exploration Technique Surface Gas Sampling Activity Date Usefulness not indicated DOE-funding Unknown Notes Gas samples from fumaroles, springs, and/or wells. At shallow depths in the caldera

65

Surface Gas Sampling At Fenton Hill Hdr Geothermal Area (Grigsby, Et Al.,  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

source source History View New Pages Recent Changes All Special Pages Semantic Search/Querying Get Involved Help Apps Datasets Community Login | Sign Up Search Page Edit History Facebook icon Twitter icon » Surface Gas Sampling At Fenton Hill Hdr Geothermal Area (Grigsby, Et Al., 1983) (Redirected from Water-Gas Samples At Fenton Hill Hdr Geothermal Area (Grigsby, Et Al., 1983)) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Surface Gas Sampling At Fenton Hill Hdr Geothermal Area (Grigsby, Et Al., 1983) Exploration Activity Details Location Fenton Hill Hdr Geothermal Area Exploration Technique Surface Gas Sampling Activity Date Usefulness not indicated DOE-funding Unknown References C. O. Grigsby, J. W. Tester, P. E. Trujillo, D. A. Counce, J.

66

Surface Gas Sampling At Valles Caldera - Sulphur Springs Area (Goff &  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

source source History View New Pages Recent Changes All Special Pages Semantic Search/Querying Get Involved Help Apps Datasets Community Login | Sign Up Search Page Edit History Facebook icon Twitter icon » Surface Gas Sampling At Valles Caldera - Sulphur Springs Area (Goff & Janik, 2002) (Redirected from Water-Gas Samples At Valles Caldera - Sulphur Springs Area (Goff & Janik, 2002)) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Surface Gas Sampling At Valles Caldera - Sulphur Springs Area (Goff & Janik, 2002) Exploration Activity Details Location Valles Caldera - Sulphur Springs Area Exploration Technique Surface Gas Sampling Activity Date Usefulness not indicated DOE-funding Unknown Notes Gas samples from fumaroles, springs, and/or wells.

67

Surface Gas Sampling At Fenton Hill Hdr Geothermal Area (Goff & Janik,  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

source source History View New Pages Recent Changes All Special Pages Semantic Search/Querying Get Involved Help Apps Datasets Community Login | Sign Up Search Page Edit History Facebook icon Twitter icon » Surface Gas Sampling At Fenton Hill Hdr Geothermal Area (Goff & Janik, 2002) (Redirected from Water-Gas Samples At Fenton Hill Hdr Geothermal Area (Goff & Janik, 2002)) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Surface Gas Sampling At Fenton Hill Hdr Geothermal Area (Goff & Janik, 2002) Exploration Activity Details Location Fenton Hill Hdr Geothermal Area Exploration Technique Surface Gas Sampling Activity Date Usefulness not indicated DOE-funding Unknown Notes Gas samples from HDR well References Fraser Goff, Cathy J. Janik (2002) Gas Geochemistry Of The Valles

68

Surface Gas Sampling At Jemez Springs Area (Goff & Janik, 2002) | Open  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

source source History View New Pages Recent Changes All Special Pages Semantic Search/Querying Get Involved Help Apps Datasets Community Login | Sign Up Search Page Edit History Facebook icon Twitter icon » Surface Gas Sampling At Jemez Springs Area (Goff & Janik, 2002) (Redirected from Water-Gas Samples At Jemez Springs Area (Goff & Janik, 2002)) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Surface Gas Sampling At Jemez Springs Area (Goff & Janik, 2002) Exploration Activity Details Location Jemez Springs Area Exploration Technique Surface Gas Sampling Activity Date Usefulness not indicated DOE-funding Unknown Notes Gas samples from fumaroles, springs, and/or wells. References Fraser Goff, Cathy J. Janik (2002) Gas Geochemistry Of The Valles

69

Surface Gas Sampling At Lassen Volcanic National Park Area (Janik &  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

source source History View New Pages Recent Changes All Special Pages Semantic Search/Querying Get Involved Help Apps Datasets Community Login | Sign Up Search Page Edit History Facebook icon Twitter icon » Surface Gas Sampling At Lassen Volcanic National Park Area (Janik & Mclaren, 2010) (Redirected from Water-Gas Samples At Lassen Volcanic National Park Area (Janik & Mclaren, 2010)) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Surface Gas Sampling At Lassen Volcanic National Park Area (Janik & Mclaren, 2010) Exploration Activity Details Location Lassen Volcanic National Park Area Exploration Technique Surface Gas Sampling Activity Date Usefulness not indicated DOE-funding Unknown References Cathy J. Janik, Marcia K. McLaren (2010) Seismicity And Fluid

70

Surface Gas Sampling At Valles Caldera - Redondo Area (Goff & Janik, 2002)  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

source source History View New Pages Recent Changes All Special Pages Semantic Search/Querying Get Involved Help Apps Datasets Community Login | Sign Up Search Page Edit History Facebook icon Twitter icon » Surface Gas Sampling At Valles Caldera - Redondo Area (Goff & Janik, 2002) (Redirected from Water-Gas Samples At Valles Caldera - Redondo Area (Goff & Janik, 2002)) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Surface Gas Sampling At Valles Caldera - Redondo Area (Goff & Janik, 2002) Exploration Activity Details Location Valles Caldera - Redondo Area Exploration Technique Surface Gas Sampling Activity Date Usefulness not indicated DOE-funding Unknown Notes Gas samples from fumaroles, springs, and/or wells. References Fraser Goff, Cathy J. Janik (2002) Gas Geochemistry Of The Valles

71

Characterization of the intragranular water regime within subsurface sediments: Pore volume, surface area, and mass transfer limitations  

SciTech Connect

Although 'intragranular' pore space within grain aggregates, grain fractures, and mineral 24 surface coatings may contain a relatively small fraction of the total porosity within a porous 25 medium, it often contains a significant fraction of the reactive surface area, and can thus strongly 26 affect the transport of sorbing solutes. In this work, we demonstrate a batch experiment 27 procedure using tritium and bromide as high-resolution diffusive tracers to characterize the 28 intragranular pore space. The method was tested using uranium-contaminated sediments from 29 the vadose and capillary fringe zones beneath the former 300A process ponds at the Hanford site 30 (Washington State, USA). Sediments were contacted with tracers in artificial groundwater, 31 followed by replacement of bulk solution with tracer-free groundwater and monitoring of tracer 32 release. From these data, intragranular pore volumes were calculated and mass transfer rates 33 were quantified using a multirate first-order mass transfer model. Tritium-hydrogen exchange 34 on surface hydroxyls was accounted for by conducting additional tracer experiments on sediment 35 that was vacuum dried after reaction. The complementary ('wet' and 'dry') techniques allowed 36 for the simultaneous determination of intragranular porosity and surface area using tritium. The 37 Hanford 300A samples exhibited intragranular pore volumes of {approx}1% of the solid volume and 38 intragranular surface areas of {approx}20-30% of the total surface area. Comparison with N2 gas 39 adsorption suggests that this pore space includes both 'micropores' (< 2 nm diameter) and 40 'mesopores' (> 2 nm). Intragranular porosity estimates obtained using bromide were 41 significantly smaller, likely due to anion exclusion of Br- from pores with negatively charged 42 surfaces.

Hay, Michael B.; Stoliker, Deborah L.; Davis, James A.; Zachara, John M.

2011-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

72

State College Area High School From State College, PA Wins DOE...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

State College Area High School From State College, PA Wins DOE's National Science Bowl State College Area High School From State College, PA Wins DOE's National Science Bowl...

73

Surface Gas Sampling At Jemez Springs Area (Goff & Janik, 2002) | Open  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

source source History View New Pages Recent Changes All Special Pages Semantic Search/Querying Get Involved Help Apps Datasets Community Login | Sign Up Search Page Edit History Facebook icon Twitter icon » Surface Gas Sampling At Jemez Springs Area (Goff & Janik, 2002) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Surface Gas Sampling At Jemez Springs Area (Goff & Janik, 2002) Exploration Activity Details Location Jemez Springs Area Exploration Technique Surface Gas Sampling Activity Date Usefulness not indicated DOE-funding Unknown Notes Gas samples from fumaroles, springs, and/or wells. References Fraser Goff, Cathy J. Janik (2002) Gas Geochemistry Of The Valles Caldera Region, New Mexico And Comparisons With Gases At Yellowstone, Long

74

Surface Gas Sampling At Valles Caldera - Redondo Area (Goff & Janik, 2002)  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

source source History View New Pages Recent Changes All Special Pages Semantic Search/Querying Get Involved Help Apps Datasets Community Login | Sign Up Search Page Edit History Facebook icon Twitter icon » Surface Gas Sampling At Valles Caldera - Redondo Area (Goff & Janik, 2002) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Surface Gas Sampling At Valles Caldera - Redondo Area (Goff & Janik, 2002) Exploration Activity Details Location Valles Caldera - Redondo Area Exploration Technique Surface Gas Sampling Activity Date Usefulness not indicated DOE-funding Unknown Notes Gas samples from fumaroles, springs, and/or wells. References Fraser Goff, Cathy J. Janik (2002) Gas Geochemistry Of The Valles Caldera Region, New Mexico And Comparisons With Gases At Yellowstone, Long

75

Surface Gas Sampling At Long Valley Caldera Area (Goff & Janik, 2002) |  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

source source History View New Pages Recent Changes All Special Pages Semantic Search/Querying Get Involved Help Apps Datasets Community Login | Sign Up Search Page Edit History Facebook icon Twitter icon » Surface Gas Sampling At Long Valley Caldera Area (Goff & Janik, 2002) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Surface Gas Sampling At Long Valley Caldera Area (Goff & Janik, 2002) Exploration Activity Details Location Long Valley Caldera Area Exploration Technique Surface Gas Sampling Activity Date Usefulness not indicated DOE-funding Unknown Notes Gas samples from fumaroles, springs, and/or wells. At shallow depths in the caldera References Fraser Goff, Cathy J. Janik (2002) Gas Geochemistry Of The Valles Caldera Region, New Mexico And Comparisons With Gases At Yellowstone, Long

76

Correlating Humidity-Dependent Ionically Conductive Surface Area with Transport Phenomena in Proton-Exchange Membranes  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this effort was to correlate the local surface ionic conductance of a Nafion? 212 proton-exchange membrane with its bulk and interfacial transport properties as a function of water content. Both macroscopic and microscopic proton conductivities were investigated at different relative humidity levels, using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and current-sensing atomic force microscopy (CSAFM). We were able to identify small ion-conducting domains that grew with humidity at the surface of the membrane. Numerical analysis of the surface ionic conductance images recorded at various relative humidity levels helped determine the fractional area of ion-conducting active sites. A simple square-root relationship between the fractional conducting area and observed interfacial mass-transport resistance was established. Furthermore, the relationship between the bulk ionic conductivity and surface ionic conductance pattern of the Nafion? membrane was examined.

He, Qinggang; Kusoglu, Ahmet; Lucas, Ivan T.; Clark, Kyle; Weber, Adam Z.; Kostecki, Robert

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

77

Tomography and High-Resolution Electron Microscopy Study of Surfaces...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Tomography and High-Resolution Electron Microscopy Study of Surfaces and Porosity in a Plate-Like ?-Al2O3. Tomography and High-Resolution Electron Microscopy Study of...

78

A thermodynamic formalism approach to the Selberg zeta function for Hecke triangle surfaces of infinite area  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We provide an explicit construction of a cross section for the geodesic flow on infinite-area Hecke triangle surfaces which allows us to conduct a transfer operator approach to the Selberg zeta function. Further we construct closely related cross sections for the billiard flow on the associated triangle surfaces and endow the arising discrete dynamical systems and transfer operator families with two weight functions which presumably encode Dirichlet respectively Neumann boundary conditions. The Fredholm determinants of these transfer operator families constitute dynamical zeta functions, which provide a factorization of the Selberg zeta function of the Hecke triangle surfaces.

Anke D. Pohl

2014-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

79

High Temperature Oxidation Resistance and Surface Electrical...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

plates with oxidation resistant coatings. Candidate coatings must exhibit chemical and thermal-mechanical stability and high electrical conductivity during long-term...

80

Silicatitania aerogel monoliths with large pore volume and surface area by ambient pressure drying  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Ambient pressure drying has been carried out for the synthesis of silicatitania aerogel monoliths. The prepared aerogels show densities in the range 0.340.38g/cm3. The surface area and pore volume of these mix...

P. R. Aravind; P. Shajesh; P. Mukundan

2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high surface area" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Continental insulation, mantle cooling, and the surface area of oceans and continents  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Continental insulation, mantle cooling, and the surface area of oceans and continents A. Lenardica May 2005 Abstract It is generally assumed that continents, acting as thermal insulation above. The theory predicts that parameter regimes exist for which increased continental insulation has no effect

Manga, Michael

82

Parcel-Level Land Architecture and Land Surface Temperature in the Phoenix Metropolitan Area  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Parcel-Level Land Architecture and Land Surface Temperature in the Phoenix Metropolitan Area Xiaoxiao Li1, Yun Ouyang1, Billie Turner II1,2, Sharon Harlan3, Anthony Brazel2 1 School of Sustainability system architecture--composition and configuration of different land-cover classes--on LST in the central

Hall, Sharon J.

83

Indoor and Outdoor in Situ High-Resolution Gamma Radiation Measurements in Urban Areas of Cyprus  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In situ, high-resolution, gamma-ray spectrometry of a total number of 70 outdoor and 20 indoor representative measurements were performed in preselected, common locations of the main urban areas of Cyprus. Specific activities and gamma absorbed dose rates in air due to the naturally occurring radionuclides of Th-232 and U-238 series, and K-40 are determined and discussed. Effective dose rate to the Cyprus population due to terrestrial gamma radiation is derived directly from this work. The results obtained outdoors match very well with those derived previously by high-resolution gamma spectrometry of soil samples, which were collected from the main island bedrock surface. This implies that the construction and building materials in urban areas do not affect the external gamma dose rate; thus they are mostly of local origin. Finally, the indoor/outdoor gamma dose ratio was found to be 1.4 +- 0.5.

E. Svoukis; H. Tsertos

2006-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

84

I n s i t u thermal oxidation for surface cleaning and mask generation prior to selective area epitaxy  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Dry thermal oxidation of GaAs and AlAs has been carried out in an organometallic chemical vapor deposition system. This i n s i t u process performed either before or after an epitaxialgrowth serves the purposes of surface cleaning and mask generation for selective area epitaxy of various III?V semiconductors.AlAsoxidized immediately after growth and patterned for the next regrowth provides better oxide?semiconductor interfaces and minimizes wafer handling. Pre?epitaxy oxidation at 435?C on a patterned wafer with AlAs/GaAs areas resulted in a selective oxide mask. Since thermal oxides of GaAssublime at temperatures >600?C a 700?C pregrowth annealing thus thermally cleans the oxidizedGaAs areas while the oxides of AlAs remain as a mask for the following regrowth. Photoluminescence results indicate that high quality regrown interfaces have been obtained.

Stephen H. Jones; Kei May Lau

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

Uncertainty Studies of Real Anode Surface Area in Computational Analysis for Molten Salt Electrorefining  

SciTech Connect

This study examines how much cell potential changes with five differently assumed real anode surface area cases. Determining real anode surface area is a significant issue to be resolved for precisely modeling molten salt electrorefining. Based on a three-dimensional electrorefining model, calculated cell potentials compare with an experimental cell potential variation over 80 hours of operation of the Mark-IV electrorefiner with driver fuel from the Experimental Breeder Reactor II. We succeeded to achieve a good agreement with an overall trend of the experimental data with appropriate selection of a mode for real anode surface area, but there are still local inconsistencies between theoretical calculation and experimental observation. In addition, the results were validated and compared with two-dimensional results to identify possible uncertainty factors that had to be further considered in a computational electrorefining analysis. These uncertainty factors include material properties, heterogeneous material distribution, surface roughness, and current efficiency. Zirconium's abundance and complex behavior have more impact on uncertainty towards the latter period of electrorefining at given batch of fuel. The benchmark results found that anode materials would be dissolved from both axial and radial directions at least for low burn-up metallic fuels after active liquid sodium bonding was dissolved.

Sungyeol Choi; Jaeyeong Park; Robert O. Hoover; Supathorn Phongikaroon; Michael F. Simpson; Kwang-Rag Kim; Il Soon Hwang

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

Multi-nozzle array spray cooling for large area high power devices in a closed loop system  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract A prototype of a closed loop system was built to study multi-nozzle array spray cooling on high-power, large-area electronic devices. Fifty-four nozzles with an in-lined array of 9 6 were applied to spray cool a simulated 6U electronic card using R134a. Simple drainage concepts were introduced to assist the drainage of both liquid and vapour on the heated surface. The results indicated a promising prospect of using a multi-nozzle array on large-area power electronics cooling. 16kW heat was removed from the 6U card area by maintaining the mean surface temperature below 26.5 C . Heat transfer coefficient up to 2.8 10 4 W / m 2 K was obtained, and liquid usage fraction as high as 0.88 was achieved before CHF occurred. It was found that increasing nozzle pressure drop or flow rate enhanced heat transfer and gave better surface temperature uniformity. Chamber pressure significantly influenced mean surface temperature, but had no observable effects on surface temperature uniformity. The control of chamber pressure can maintain a constant temperature on the heated surface when heat load varied largely. The results also showed that the spray-to-spray interactions had inconspicuous effects on local surface temperatures but rather the distance from a location relative to the drainage outlets.

J.L. Xie; Y.B. Tan; T.N. Wong; F. Duan; K.C. Toh; K.F. Choo; P.K. Chan; Y.S. Chua

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

Highly Stable Silver Nanoplates for Surface Plasmon Resonance Biosensing  

SciTech Connect

An SPR biosensor was developed by employing highly stable Au-protected Ag nanoplates (NP) as enhancers (see picture). Superior performance was achieved by depositing a thin and uniform coating of Au on the Ag surface while minimizing disruptive galvanic replacement and retaining the strong surface plasmon resonance (SPR) of the silver nanoplates.

Gao, Chuanbo [University of California, Riverside; Lu, Zhenda [University of California, Riverside; Chi, Miaofang [ORNL; Liu, ying [University of California, Riverside; Cheng, Quan [University of California, Riverside; Yin, Yadong [University of California, Riverside

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

88

High-Order Surface Reconstruction and its Applications | Argonne Leadership  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

High-Order Surface Reconstruction and its Applications High-Order Surface Reconstruction and its Applications Event Sponsor: Mathematics and Computing Science Seminar Start Date: Dec 12 2013 - 10:30am Building/Room: Building 240/Room 4301 Location: Argonne National Laboratory Speaker(s): Navamita Ray Speaker(s) Title: Postdoc Interviewee - MCS Host: Tim Tautges Surface meshes are widely used by many numerical methods for solving partial differential equations. They not only represent computational grids for various discretization methods, but also are numerical objects in themselves. The accuracy of numerical methods, especially high-order methods, are highly dependent on the geometrical accuracy of the mesh as well as on that of differential or integral quantities defined over them. The situation is further complicated if the surface mesh does not have an

89

INFLUENCE OF GIBBSITE SURFACE AREA AND CITRATE ON Ni SORPTION MECHANISMS AT pH 7.5  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

INFLUENCE OF GIBBSITE SURFACE AREA AND CITRATE ON Ni SORPTION MECHANISMS AT pH 7.5 NORIKO U the sorption of Ni to gibbsite of two different surface areas at pH 7.5, in the presence and absence of citrate to elucidate the sorption mechanisms at the molecular level. In agreement with former results, Ni-Al layered

Sparks, Donald L.

90

Eigenvalues of Laplacian with constant magnetic field on non-compact hyperbolic surfaces with finite area  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We consider a magnetic Laplacian $-\\Delta_A=(id+A)^\\star (id+A)$ on a noncompact hyperbolic surface $\\mM $ with finite area. $A$ is a real one-form and the magnetic field $dA$ is constant in each cusp. When the harmonic component of $A$ satifies some quantified condition, the spectrum of $-\\Delta_A$ is discrete. In this case we prove that the counting function of the eigenvalues of $-\\Delta_{A}$ satisfies the classical Weyl formula, even when $dA=0. $

Morame, Abderemane

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

91

Eigenvalues of Laplacian with constant magnetic field on non-compact hyperbolic surfaces with finite area  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We consider a magnetic Laplacian $-\\Delta_A=(id+A)^\\star (id+A)$ on a noncompact hyperbolic surface $\\mM $ with finite area. $A$ is a real one-form and the magnetic field $dA$ is constant in each cusp. When the harmonic component of $A$ satifies some quantified condition, the spectrum of $-\\Delta_A$ is discrete. In this case we prove that the counting function of the eigenvalues of $-\\Delta_{A}$ satisfies the classical Weyl formula, even when $dA=0. $

Abderemane Morame; Francoise Truc

2010-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

92

Refractory lining system for high wear area of high temperature reaction vessel  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A refractory-lined high temperature reaction vessel comprises a refractory ring lining constructed of refractory brick, a cooler, and a heat transfer medium disposed between the refractory ring lining and the cooler. The refractory brick comprises magnesia (MgO) and graphite. The heat transfer medium contacts the refractory brick and a cooling surface of the cooler, and is composed of a material that accommodates relative movement between the refractory brick and the cooler. The brick is manufactured such that the graphite has an orientation providing a high thermal conductivity in the lengthwise direction through the brick that is higher than the thermal conductivity in directions perpendicular to the lengthwise direction. The graphite preferably is flake graphite, in the range of about 10 to 20 wt %, and has a size distribution selected to provide maximum brick density. The reaction vessel may be used for performing a reaction process including the steps of forming a layer of slag on a melt in the vessel, the slag having a softening point temperature range, and forming a protective frozen layer of slag on the interior-facing surface of the refractory lining in at least a portion of a zone where the surface contacts the layer of slag, the protective frozen layer being maintained at or about the softening point of the slag. 10 figs.

Hubble, D.H.; Ulrich, K.H.

1998-09-22T23:59:59.000Z

93

Effect of treatment technology for the surface of multicomponent oxide compounds with sillenite structure on the electron-transition kinetics in surface areas  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The regularities in variation of the photocurrent kinetic curve for sillenite crystals are clarified for pulse photoactivation depending on the technological features of formation of their surface areas. A the...

A. N. Chaplygin; E. A. Spirin; A. S. Sizov

2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

94

AREA  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

AREA AREA FAQ # Question Response 316 vs DCAA FAQ 1 An inquiry from CH about an SBIR recipient asking if a DCAA audit is sufficient to comply with the regulation or if they need to add this to their audit they have performed yearly by a public accounting firm. 316 audits are essentially A-133 audits for for-profit entities. They DO NOT replace DCAA or other audits requested by DOE to look at indirect rates or incurred costs or closeouts. DCAA would never agree to perform A-133 or our 316 audits. They don't do A-133 audits for DOD awardees. The purpose of the audits are different, look at different things and in the few instances of overlap, from different perspectives. 316

95

High-Frequency Radar Mapping of Surface Currents Using WERA  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A dual-station high-frequency Wellen Radar (WERA), transmitting at 16.045 MHz, was deployed along the west Florida shelf in phased array mode during the summer of 2003. A 33-day, continuous time series of radial and vector surface current fields ...

Lynn K. Shay; Jorge Martinez-Pedraja; Thomas M. Cook; Brian K. Haus; Robert H. Weisberg

2007-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

96

Computing for Development A New High-Impact Research Area  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

... but can't afford a house In Bangladesh: Poorest devote 7 percent income to communications (Grameen Computing: Design with minimal resources Low-cost high-bandwidth connectivity Appropriate Design

97

Area G Perimeter Surface-Soil Sampling Environmental Surveillance for Fiscal Year 1998 Hazardous and Solid Waste Group (ESH-19)  

SciTech Connect

Material Disposal Area G (Area G) is at Technical Area 54 at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Area G has been the principal facility for the disposal of low-level, solid-mixed, and transuranic waste since 1957. It is currently LANL's primary facility for radioactive solid waste burial and storage. As part of the annual environmental surveillance effort at Area G, surface soil samples are collected around the facility's perimeter to characterize possible radionuclide movement off the site through surface water runoff During 1998, 39 soil samples were collected and analyzed for percent moisture, tritium, plutonium-238 and 239, cesium-137 and americium-241. To assess radionuclide concentrations, the results from these samples are compared with baseline or background soil samples collected in an undisturbed area west of the active portion Area G. The 1998 results are also compared to the results from analogous samples collected during 1996 and 1997 to assess changes over this time in radionuclide activity concentrations in surface soils around the perimeter of Area G. The results indicate elevated levels of all the radionuclides assessed (except cesium-137) exist in Area G perimeter surface soils vs the baseline soils. The comparison of 1998 soil data to previous years (1996 and 1997) indicates no significant increase or decrease in radionuclide concentrations; an upward or downward trend in concentrations is not detectable at this time. These results are consistent with data comparisons done in previous years. Continued annual soil sampling will be necessary to realize a trend if one exists. The radionuclide levels found in the perimeter surface soils are above background but still considered relatively low. This perimeter surface soil data will be used for planning purposes at Area G, techniques to prevent sediment tm.nsport off-site are implemented in the areas where the highest radionuclide concentrations are indicated.

Marquis Childs

1999-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

98

Effect of specific surface area on oxygen storage capacity (OSC) and methane steam reforming reactivity of CeO2  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

It was found from the work that the specific surface area of ceria presents an important role on the oxygen storage capacity (OSC), the reactivity toward methane steam reforming, and the resistance toward carbon ...

W. Sutthisripok; S. Sattayanurak; L. Sikong

2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

Integrated Approach to Use Natural Chemical and Isotopic Tracers to Estimate Fracture Spacing and Surface Area in EGS Systems  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

DOE Geothermal Peer Review 2010 - Presentation. This objective of this project is to develop an innovative approach to estimate fracture surface area and spacing through interpretation of signals of natural chemical and isotopic tracers.

100

Woody vegetation and succession on the Fonde surface mine demonstration area, Bell County, Kentucky  

SciTech Connect

The long term impact of surface mining on vegetation and plant succession has always been of concern to environmentalists and residents of Appalachia. The Fonde Surface Mine Demonstration Area is a 7.3-ha, NE-NW-aspect contour coal mine at an elevation of 562 m. It was reclaimed in 1965 to show state-of-the-art surface mine reclamation techniques consistent with then-current law and regulations after coal mining in 1959 and 1963. The mine spoils were lightly graded to control erosion and crates a bench with water control and two sediment ponds. Soil pH ranged from 2.8 to 5.9. About 80 percent of the mine was planted with 18 tree and shrub species including plantations of mixed pine, mixed hardwoods, black locust, and shrubs for wildlife. In a complete floristic inventory conducted 25 years later, the authors found the woody flora consisted of 34 families, 53 genera, and 70 species including 7 exotics. This inventory of the Fonde mine shows that a diverse forest vegetation can be reestablished after extreme disturbances in Appalachia. Black locust, yellow poplar, and Virginia pine reproduction varied significantly among plantation types. Canopy tree species significantly affected ground layer cover, total species richness, number of tree seedling species, and total number of tree seedlings present. Mine soil type affected ground layer percent cover and total species richness. Pre-SMCRA (Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977) reclaimed and inventoried mines can be used to evaluate biodiversity on post-SMCRA mines.

Wade, G.L.; Thompson, R.L.

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high surface area" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

High-frequency shear-horizontal surface acoustic wave sensor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A Love wave sensor uses a single-phase unidirectional interdigital transducer (IDT) on a piezoelectric substrate for leaky surface acoustic wave generation. The IDT design minimizes propagation losses, bulk wave interferences, provides a highly linear phase response, and eliminates the need for impedance matching. As an example, a high frequency (.about.300-400 MHz) surface acoustic wave (SAW) transducer enables efficient excitation of shear-horizontal waves on 36.degree. Y-cut lithium tantalate (LTO) giving a highly linear phase response (2.8.degree. P-P). The sensor has the ability to detect at the pg/mm.sup.2 level and can perform multi-analyte detection in real-time. The sensor can be used for rapid autonomous detection of pathogenic microorganisms and bioagents by field deployable platforms.

Branch, Darren W

2014-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

102

Lithium inclusion in indium metal-organic frameworks showing increased surface area and hydrogen adsorption  

SciTech Connect

Investigation of counterion exchange in two anionic In-Metal-Organic Frameworks (In-MOFs) showed that partial replacement of disordered ammonium cations was achieved through the pre-synthetic addition of LiOH to the reaction mixture. This resulted in a surface area increase of over 1600% in (Li [In(1,3 ? BDC){sub 2}]){sub n} and enhancement of the H{sub 2} uptake of approximately 275% at 80?000 Pa at 77 K. This method resulted in frameworks with permanent lithium content after repeated solvent exchange as confirmed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Lithium counterion replacement appears to increase porosity after activation through replacement of bulkier, softer counterions and demonstrates tuning of pore size and properties in MOFs.

Bosch, Mathieu; Zhang, Muwei; Feng, Dawei; Yuan, Shuai; Wang, Xuan [Department of Chemistry, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77842 (United States); Chen, Ying-Pin [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77842 (United States); Zhou, Hong-Cai, E-mail: zhou@mail.chem.tamu.edu [Department of Chemistry, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77842 (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77842 (United States)

2014-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

103

Single-Step Process for the Deposition of High Water Contact Angle and High Water Sliding Angle Surfaces by Atmospheric Pressure Dielectric Barrier Discharge  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Single-Step Process for the Deposition of High Water Contact Angle and High Water Sliding Angle Surfaces by Atmospheric Pressure Dielectric Barrier Discharge ... The process used a high voltage alternating current (10?000 or 22?500 Hz) with a constant dissipated power of 100 W (1.1 W cm2) generated by a Corona generator 7010R from SOFTAL electronic GmbH. ... high adhesion, presumably by generating large van der Waals' forces from the large surface area in very close contact with water. ...

Nicolas D. Boscher; David Duday; Stphane Verdier; Patrick Choquet

2013-01-22T23:59:59.000Z

104

An Innovative Approach for the Calculation of Exposure Point Concentrations for Large Areas of Surface Radionuclide Contamination  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy Rocky Flats site was designated as a wildlife refuge by the Rocky Flats National Wildlife Refuge Act of 2001. Rocky Flats was considered to be one of the most highly contaminated radiological sites in the country. Some portions of the site have low-level radionuclide contamination in surface soils. A site-wide risk and dose assessment to evaluate threats to human health and the environment were performed, so that the site could be released for this land use. The aggressive accelerated action program combined with defensible and innovative risk assessment methods resulted in there being no radionuclides of concern in the final comprehensive risk assessment (DOE 2006). An innovative approach for delineating functional exposure areas and area-weighted exposure point concentration-activities (EPCs) was negotiated with the regulatory agencies in Colorado. This procedure leads to realistic estimates of risk and dose to workers and visitors. This innovative approach to the calculation of EPCs was negotiated with both State and Federal regulators. The value of developing and maintaining good working relationships with regulators responsible for a site can not be overestimated. The building of trust and confidence among responsible parties and regulators is essential for the development and implementation of innovative methods and technologies.

Winchester Chromec, F.; Myers, Jeffrey C. [7800 E. Union Avenue, Denver, Colorado, 801237 (United States)

2008-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

105

Exact high-frequency theory of surface plasmas  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

New frequency-moment sum rules are formulated for the purpose of assessing the behavior of two-dimensional classical electron liquids at high frequencies [???p(k)]. For nonzero coupling strength (characterized by ?), the convergence of our new fifth-frequency-moment rule ??5? is guaranteed at short range. However, in the Vlasov (?=0) limit, ??5? exhibits marked 1? and ln? divergences. The ensuing breakdown in the high-frequency structure of the dielectric response function leads to the conclusion that the Vlasov limit is unphysical for two-dimensional classical electron liquids in the high-frequency domain. Our theory complements the current low-frequency [???p(k)] theories, all of which reinforce the notion that the reduced dimensionality of surface plasmas considerably enhances short-range correlation and dynamic collisional effects.

De-xin Lu and Kenneth I. Golden

1983-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

106

Hydrophobic force field as molecular alternative to surface-area models  

SciTech Connect

An effective force field for hydrophobic interactions is developed based on a modified potential-of-mean-force (PMF) expansion of the effective many-body interactions between nonpolar molecules in water. For the simplest nonpolar solutes in water, hard particles, the modified PMF expansion is exact in both limiting cases of infinite separation and perfect overlap. The hydrophobic interactions are parametrized by using the information-theory model of hydrophobic hydration. The interactions between nonpolar solutes are short-ranged and can be evaluated efficiently on a computer. The force field is compared with simulation data for alkane conformational equilibria in water as well as a model for the formation of a hydrophobic core of a protein. The modified PMF expansion can be extended to solutes with attractive interactions. The observed accuracy, computational efficiency, and atomic detail of the model suggest that this simple hydrophobic force field can lead to a molecular alternative for phenomenological surface-area models with applications in ligand-binding and protein-folding studies.

Hummer, G.

1999-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

107

Disproportionation in Li-O{sub 2} Batteries Based on a Large Surface Area Carbon Cathode  

SciTech Connect

In this paper we report on a kinetics study of the discharge process and its relationship to the charge overpotential in a Li-O{sub 2} cell for large surface area cathode material. The kinetics study reveals evidence for a first-order disproportionation reaction during discharge from an oxygen-rich Li{sub 2}O{sub 2} component with superoxide-like character to a Li{sub 2}O{sub 2} component. The oxygen-rich superoxide-like component has a much smaller potential during charge (3.2-3.5 V) than the Li{sub 2}O{sub 2} component (similar to 4.2 V). The formation of the superoxide-like component is likely due to the porosity of the activated carbon used in the Li-O{sub 2} cell cathode that provides a good environment for growth during discharge. The discharge product containing these two components is characterized by toroids, which are assemblies of nanoparticles. The morphologic growth and decomposition process of the toroids during the reversible discharge/charge process was observed by scanning electron microscopy and is consistent with the presence of the two components in the discharge product. The results of this study provide new insight into how growth conditions control the nature of discharge product, which can be used to achieve improved performance in Li-O{sub 2} cell.

Zhai, D.; Wang, H.-H.; Yang, J.; Lau, K. C.; Li, K.; Curtiss, L. A.; Amine, K. (Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division) [Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division

2013-10-16T23:59:59.000Z

108

Towards Development of a Synthesized Database of Spatial and Temporal Surface Spectral Reflectivity Over the ARM SGP CART Area  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Towards Development of a Synthesized Database of Towards Development of a Synthesized Database of Spatial and Temporal Surface Spectral Reflectivity Over the ARM SGP CART Area A. P. Trishchenko, Y. Luo, R. Latifovic, W. Park, J. Cihlar, and B. Hwang Canada Centre for Remote Sensing Ottawa, Ontario, Canada Z. Li and M. C. Cribb University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland Introduction Surface albedo is a key variable determining the disposition of solar radiation between the surface and the atmosphere. Reliable mapping of surface albedo and improved understanding of radiation interactions at the surface are required for advancing weather forecasting and climate studies. The ground-based observations are limited to a handful of locations sparsely distributed in the South Great Plains (SGP). Frequently, they represent only small-scale features of surface reflective properties and

109

Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 417: Central Nevada Test Area Surface, Nevada Appendix D - Corrective Action Investigation Report, Central Nevada Test Area, CAU 417  

SciTech Connect

This Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) identifies and rationalizes the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office's selection of a recommended corrective action alternative (CAA) appropriate to facilitate the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 417: Central Nevada Test Area Surface, Nevada, under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Located in Hot Creek Valley in Nye County, Nevada, and consisting of three separate land withdrawal areas (UC-1, UC-3, and UC-4), CAU 417 is comprised of 34 corrective action sites (CASs) including 2 underground storage tanks, 5 septic systems, 8 shaker pad/cuttings disposal areas, 1 decontamination facility pit, 1 burn area, 1 scrap/trash dump, 1 outlier area, 8 housekeeping sites, and 16 mud pits. Four field events were conducted between September 1996 and June 1998 to complete a corrective action investigation indicating that the only contaminant of concern was total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) which was found in 18 of the CASs. A total of 1,028 samples were analyzed. During this investigation, a statistical approach was used to determine which depth intervals or layers inside individual mud pits and shaker pad areas were above the State action levels for the TPH. Other related field sampling activities (i.e., expedited site characterization methods, surface geophysical surveys, direct-push geophysical surveys, direct-push soil sampling, and rotosonic drilling located septic leachfields) were conducted in this four-phase investigation; however, no further contaminants of concern (COCs) were identified. During and after the investigation activities, several of the sites which had surface debris but no COCs were cleaned up as housekeeping sites, two septic tanks were closed in place, and two underground storage tanks were removed. The focus of this CADD was to identify CAAs which would promote the prevention or mitigation of human exposure to surface and subsurface soils with contaminant concentrations above preliminary action levels. Based on the potential exposure pathways, several risk-based CAAs were developed and evaluated against the individual CAS requirements. It was determined that a combination of the CAAs would be recommended to meet all applicable state and federal regulations for closure of these sites and to eliminate potential future exposure pathways to the TPH-contaminated soils.

U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations office

1999-04-02T23:59:59.000Z

110

Cotton Performance Tests in the Texas High Plains and Trans-Pecos Areas of Texas 20081/  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Cotton Performance Tests in the Texas High Plains and Trans-Pecos Areas of Texas 20081/ J.K. Dever; Area Agronomist-Cotton, Extension Entomologist, Texas AgriLife Extension, Lubbock; Research Scientist......................................................................................................................... 6 Table UNIFORM COTTON VARIETY TESTS - IRRIGATED Lubbock 1 Production Information

Mukhtar, Saqib

111

Cotton Performance Tests in the Texas High Plains and Trans-Pecos Areas of Texas 20071/  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Cotton Performance Tests in the Texas High Plains and Trans-Pecos Areas of Texas 20071/ J, Lubbock; Area Agronomist-Cotton, Extension Program Specialist, Texas AgriLife Extension, Lubbock; Research......................................................................................................................... 6 Table COTTON VARIETY TESTS - IRRIGATED Lamesa 1 Production Information

Mukhtar, Saqib

112

State College Area High School From State College, PA Wins DOE's National  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

College Area High School From State College, PA Wins DOE's College Area High School From State College, PA Wins DOE's National Science Bowl® State College Area High School From State College, PA Wins DOE's National Science Bowl® May 1, 2006 - 10:34am Addthis WASHINGTON , DC - State College Area High School from State College, Pennsylvania, today won the Department of Energy's (DOE) National Science Bowl®. Teams representing 65 schools from across the United States competed in this "Science Jeopardy" competition, which concluded this afternoon. Members of the winning team include Jason Ma, Ylaine Gerardin, Barry Liu, Galen Lynch, Francois Greer and coach, Julie Gittings. This team won a research trip to France and $1,000 for their school's science department. The answer that clinched the championship was in response to an earth

113

LITERATURE REVIEW OF PUO2 CALCINATION TIME AND TEMPERATURE DATA FOR SPECIFIC SURFACE AREA  

SciTech Connect

The literature has been reviewed in December 2011 for calcination data of plutonium oxide (PuO{sub 2}) from plutonium oxalate Pu(C{sub 2}O{sub 4}){sub 2} precipitation with respect to the PuO{sub 2} specific surface area (SSA). A summary of the literature is presented for what are believed to be the dominant factors influencing SSA, the calcination temperature and time. The PuO{sub 2} from Pu(C{sub 2}O{sub 4}){sub 2} calcination data from this review has been regressed to better understand the influence of calcination temperature and time on SSA. Based on this literature review data set, calcination temperature has a bigger impact on SSA versus time. However, there is still some variance in this data set that may be reflecting differences in the plutonium oxalate preparation or different calcination techniques. It is evident from this review that additional calcination temperature and time data for PuO{sub 2} from Pu(C{sub 2}O{sub 4}){sub 2} needs to be collected and evaluated to better define the relationship. The existing data set has a lot of calcination times that are about 2 hours and therefore may be underestimating the impact of heating time on SSA. SRNL recommends that more calcination temperature and time data for PuO{sub 2} from Pu(C{sub 2}O{sub 4}){sub 2} be collected and this literature review data set be augmented to better refine the relationship between PuO{sub 2} SSA and its calcination parameters.

Daniel, G.

2012-03-06T23:59:59.000Z

114

Break-up of Pt catalyst surfaces by high CO coverage  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and atomic arrangement of catalyst surface under reactionof reactant molecules on the catalyst surfaces are the norm.Break-up of Pt catalyst surfaces by high CO coverage Feng

Tao, Feng

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

Mesoscale Ocean Surface Current Structure Detected by High-Frequency Radar  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The quality and vertical correlation scales of high-frequency (HF) radar-derived ocean surface current measurements from an ocean surface current radar (OSCR) are assessed by comparing surface to subsurface current observations from 11 June to 8 ...

Lynn K. Shay; Hans C. Graber; Duncan B. Ross; Rickey D. Chapman

1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

The effects of gaps between bridge foils and PETN as a function of PETN density and specific surface area  

SciTech Connect

X-ray computer tomography scans of artificially aged PETN seem to indicate shrinkage of material and, by extension, an increased high explosive density, resulting in potential separation of the HE from the header/bridge foil. We have investigated these phenomena by mimicking this shrinkage of material (load density). Thus, we have evaluated various induced gaps between the exploding bridge foil and the PETN in our custom detonators by changing both specific surface area - recognizing crystal morphology changes - and load density. Analyses for these data include absolute function time relative to bridge burst and careful evaluation of the detonation wave breakout curvature, using an electronic streak camera for wave capture, in cases where the bridge foil (exploding bridge wire - EBW style) initiation successfully traverses the gap (a 'go' condition). In addition, a fireset with subnanosecond trigger jitter was used for these tests allowing easy comparison of relative 'go' function times. Using the same test matrix and fine-tuning the induced gap, a second, smaller subset of these experiments were performed to provide additional insight as to what conditions we might expect detonator anomalies/failure.

Phillips, D; Roeske, F; Burnham, A

2007-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

117

Surface Di-directional Reflectance Properties Over the ARM SGP Area from Satellite Multi-Platform Observations  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Bi-Directional Reflectance Properties Bi-Directional Reflectance Properties Over the ARM SGP Area from Satellite Multi-Platform Observations Y. Luo, A. P. Trishchenko, and R. Latifovic Canada Centre for Remote Sensing Natural Resources Canada Ottawa, Ontario, Canada Z. Li Earth System Science Interdisciplinary Center University of Maryland College Park, Maryland Introduction Surface albedo is an important parameter in atmospheric radiation research. Good knowledge of surface bi-directional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) is essential in order to obtain the hemispheric reflectance (albedo) using data from satellite systems, which only view the ground at particular angles. Linear kernel-driven BRDF models have been commonly used for simple operational implementation of

118

XPS analysis of 440C steel surfaces lubricated with perfluoropolyethers under sliding conditions in high vacuum  

SciTech Connect

This work presents the results of the X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) analysis of AISI 440C ball surfaces lubricated with perfluoropolyether (PFPE) oils after friction experiments under sliding conditions at high load in air and vacuum environments. The PFPE lubricants tested were Demnum S100, Fomblin Z-25, and Krytox 143AB. It was found that all the PFPE lubricants were degraded by sliding contact causing the formation of inorganic fluorides on the metallic surfaces and a layer of organic decomposition products. KRYTOX 143AB was the least reactive of the three lubricants tested. It was also found that metal fluoride formed at off-scar areas. This suggests the formation of reactive species, such as COF2 or R[sub f]COF, during sliding experiments, which can diffuse through the lubricant film and react with the metallic surfaces away from the contact region. Comparison of reference specimens before sliding with those that had undergone the sliding tests showed that the amount of non-degraded PFPE remaining on the surface of the balls after the sliding experiments was greater than that of the balls without sliding.

Herrera-Fierro, P.; Masuko, M.; Jones, W.R. Jr.; Pepper, S.V.

1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

119

Technique for the Estimation of Surface Temperatures from Embedded Temperature Sensing for Rapid, High Energy Surface Deposition  

SciTech Connect

Temperature histories on the surface of a body that has been subjected to a rapid, high-energy surface deposition process can be di#14;fficult to determine, especially if it is impossible to directly observe the surface or attach a temperature sensor to it. In this report, we explore two methods for estimating the temperature history of the surface through the use of a sensor embedded within the body very near to the surface. First, the maximum sensor temperature is directly correlated with the peak surface temperature. However, it is observed that the sensor data is both delayed in time and greatly attenuated in magnitude, making this approach unfeasible. Secondly, we propose an algorithm that involves fitting the solution to a one-dimensional instantaneous energy solution problem to both the sensor data and to the results of a one-dimensional CVFEM code. This algorithm is shown to be able to estimate the surface temperature {+-}~20#14;{degrees}C.

Watkins, Tyson R.; Schunk, Peter Randall; Roberts, Scott A.

2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

120

Surface Area and Microporosity of a Pillared Interlayered Clay (PILC) from a Hybrid Density Functional Theory (DFT) Method  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Surface Area and Microporosity of a Pillared Interlayered Clay (PILC) from a Hybrid Density Functional Theory (DFT) Method ... Using these models and the experimental isotherm data, the integral equation of adsorption was inverted by a regularization method to yield the micropore and mesopore size distribution of a pillared interlayered clay (PILC). ... In this paper we show how such a deconvolution method can be used for estimating the pore size distribution of a pillared interlayered clay (PILC). ...

James P. Olivier; Mario L. Occelli

2000-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high surface area" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Predicting the surface tension of aqueous 1-1 electrolyte solutions at high salinity  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Predicting the surface tension of aqueous 1-1 electrolyte solutions at high salinity Philippe Leroy 74, 19 (2010) p. 5427-5442" DOI : 10.1016/j.gca.2010.06.012 #12;2 ABSTRACT The surface tension to predict, under isothermal and isobaric conditions, the surface tension of 1:1 electrolytes at high

Boyer, Edmond

122

High-Throughput Mode Liquid Microjunction Surface Sampling Probe  

SciTech Connect

A simple and automated spot sampling operation mode for a liquid microjunction surface sampling probe/electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (LMJ-SSP/ESI-MS) system is reported. Prior manual and automated spot sampling methods with this probe relied on a careful, relatively slow alignment of the probe and surface distance (<20 m spacing) to form the probe-to-surface liquid microjunction critical to successful surface sampling. Moreover, sampling multiple spots required retraction of the surface from the probe and a repeat of this careful probe-to-surface distance alignment at the next sampling position. With the method described here, the probe was not positioned as close to the surface, the exact probeto-surface positioning was found to be less critical (spanning distances from about 100-300 m), and this distance was not altered during the sampling of an entire array of sample spots. With the probe positioned within the appropriate distance from the surface, the liquid microjunction was formed by letting the liquid from the sampling end of the probe extend out from the probe to the surface. This was accomplished by reducing the selfaspiration liquid flow rate of the probe to a value less than the volume flow rate pumped into the probe. When the self-aspiration rate of the probe was subsequently increased, analytes on the surface that dissolved at the liquid microjunction were aspirated back into the probe with the liquid that created the liquid microjunction and electrosprayed. Presented here are the basics of this new sampling mode, as well as data that illustrate the potential analytical capabilities of the device to conduct highthroughput quantitative analysis.

Van Berkel, Gary J [ORNL; Kertesz, Vilmos [ORNL; King, Richard C. [PharmaCadence

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

Hydrogeological model of a high energy geothermal field (Bouillante area, Guadeloupe, French West Indies)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 Hydrogeological model of a high energy geothermal field (Bouillante area, Guadeloupe, French West, France 3. BRGM, Department of Geothermal Energy 3, Av. Claude Guillemin - 45060 Orléans Cedex 2, France Abstract The Bouillante geothermal field presently provides about 8% of the annual electricity needs

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

124

Benefits of Green Energy and Proportionality in High Speed Wide Area Networks Connecting Data Centers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Benefits of Green Energy and Proportionality in High Speed Wide Area Networks Connecting Data Network ModelBackbone Network Model Green EnergyGreen Energy SPR vs. GEARSPR vs. GEAR All vs. Necessary (MuSyC), National Science Foundation (NSF) Project GreenLight, Energy Sciences Network (ESnet), NSF

Simunic, Tajana

125

Studies of heterogeneity properties of selected high-temperature superconductor surfaces  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Nitrogen adsorption measured at 77 K was used to characterize the surface heterogeneity of high-temperature superconductor surfaces. Properties relating to adsorption and porosity ... microscopy (AFM) for a serie...

P. Staszczuk; D. Sternik; G. W. Ch?dzy?ski

2006-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

126

Surface Wind Regionalization over Complex Terrain: Evaluation and Analysis of a High-Resolution WRF Simulation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This study analyzes the daily-mean surface wind variability over an area characterized by complex topography through comparing observations and a 2-km-spatial-resolution simulation performed with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model ...

Pedro A. Jimnez; J. Fidel Gonzlez-Rouco; Elena Garca-Bustamante; Jorge Navarro; Juan P. Montvez; Jordi Vil-Guerau de Arellano; Jimy Dudhia; Antonio Muoz-Roldan

2010-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

127

Surface--micromachined rotatable member having a low-contact-area hub  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A surface-micromachined rotatable member formed on a substrate and a method for manufacturing thereof are disclosed. The surface-micromachined rotatable member, which can be a gear or a rotary stage, has a central hub, and an annulus connected to the central hub by an overarching bridge. The hub includes a stationary axle support attached to the substrate and surrounding an axle. The axle is retained within the axle support with an air-gap spacing therebetween of generally 0.3 .mu.m or less. The rotatable member can be formed by alternately depositing and patterning layers of a semiconductor (e.g. polysilicon or a silicon-germanium alloy) and a sacrificial material and then removing the sacrificial material, at least in part. The present invention has applications for forming micromechanical or microelectromechanical devices requiring lower actuation forces, and providing improved reliability.

Rodgers, M. Steven (Albuquerque, NM); Sniegowski, Jeffry J. (Edgewood, NM)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

from Savannah River Nuclear Solutions, LLC NEWS Area High School Teams Compete during DOE's National Science  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

High School Teams Compete during DOE's National Science High School Teams Compete during DOE's National Science Bowl® Regional Championship: Lakeside and Evans High School Finish Second and Third - Dorman Wins AIKEN, S.C. - Feb. 25, 2013 - Using a format similar to the television show "Jeopardy," America's next generation of scientists and engineers put their knowledge to the test at the University of South Carolina Aiken during the DOE National Science Bowl regional compe- tition this past weekend. High School teams from across South Carolina and the greater Augusta, Ga. area relied on their collective knowledge as they participated in one of the coun- try's largest science tournaments. This regional competition, managed by Savannah River Nuclear Solutions, LLC (SRNS), hosted 120 high school students from 12 high schools. It is the only educational event

129

Fermi-surface reconstruction and the origin of high-temperature superconductivity.  

SciTech Connect

In crystalline lattices, the conduction electrons form waves, known as Bloch states, characterized by a momentum vector k. The defining characteristic of metals is the surface in momentum space that separates occupied from unoccupied states. This 'Fermi' surface may seem like an abstract concept, but it can be measured and its shape can have profound consequences for the thermal, electronic, and magnetic properties of a material. In the presence of an external magnetic field B, electrons in a metal spiral around the field direction, and within a semiclassical momentum-space picture, orbit around the Fermi surface. Physical properties, such as the magnetization, involve a sum over these orbits, with extremal orbits on the Fermi surface, i.e., orbits with minimal or maximal area, dominating the sum [Fig. 1(a)]. Upon quantization, the resulting electron energy spectrum consists of Landau levels separated by the cyclotron energy, which is proportional to the magnetic field. As the magnetic field causes subsequent Landau levels to cross through the Fermi energy, physical quantities, such as the magnetization or resistivity, oscillate in response. It turns out that the period of these oscillations, when plotted as a function of 1/B, is proportional to the area of the extremal orbit in a plane perpendicular to the applied field [Fig. 1(b)]. The power of the quantum oscillation technique is obvious: By changing the field direction, one can map out the Fermi surface, much like a blind man feeling an elephant. The nature and topology of the Fermi surface in high-T{sub c} cuprates has been debated for many years. Soon after the materials were discovered by Bednorz and Mueller, it was realized that superconductivity was obtained by doping carriers into a parent insulating state. This insulating state appears to be due to strong electronic correlations, and is known as a Mott insulator. In the case of cuprates, the electronic interactions force the electrons on the copper ion lattice into a d{sup 9} configuration, with one localized hole in the 3d shell per copper site. Given the localized nature of this state, it was questioned whether a momentum-space picture was an appropriate description of the physics of the cuprates. In fact, this question relates to a long-standing debate in the physics community: Since the parent state is also an antiferromagnet, one can, in principle, map the Mott insulator to a band insulator with magnetic order. In this 'Slater' picture, Mott physics is less relevant than the magnetism itself. It is therefore unclear which of the two, magnetism or Mott physics, is more fundamentally tied to superconductivity in the cuprates. After twenty years of effort, definitive quantum oscillations that could be used to map the Fermi surface were finally observed in a high-temperature cuprate superconductor in 2007. This and subsequent studies reveal a profound rearrangement of the Fermi surface in underdoped cuprates. The cause of the reconstruction, and its implication for the origin of high-temperature superconductivity, is a subject of active debate.

Norman, M. R.; Materials Science Division

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

130

Literature and data review for the surface-water pathway: Columbia River and adjacent coastal areas  

SciTech Connect

As part of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project, Pacific Northwest Laboratory reviewed literature and data on radionuclide concentrations and distribution in the water, sediment, and biota of the Columbia River and adjacent coastal areas. Over 600 documents were reviewed including Hanford reports, reports by offsite agencies, journal articles, and graduate theses. Certain radionuclide concentration data were used in preliminary estimates of individual dose for the 1964--1966 time period. This report summarizes the literature and database review and the results of the preliminary dose estimates.

Walters, W.H.; Dirkes, R.L.; Napier, B.A.

1992-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

131

Forming high efficiency silicon solar cells using density-graded anti-reflection surfaces  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method (50) is provided for processing a graded-density AR silicon surface (14) to provide effective surface passivation. The method (50) includes positioning a substrate or wafer (12) with a silicon surface (14) in a reaction or processing chamber (42). The silicon surface (14) has been processed (52) to be an AR surface with a density gradient or region of black silicon. The method (50) continues with heating (54) the chamber (42) to a high temperature for both doping and surface passivation. The method (50) includes forming (58), with a dopant-containing precursor in contact with the silicon surface (14) of the substrate (12), an emitter junction (16) proximate to the silicon surface (14) by doping the substrate (12). The method (50) further includes, while the chamber is maintained at the high or raised temperature, forming (62) a passivation layer (19) on the graded-density silicon anti-reflection surface (14).

Yuan, Hao-Chih; Branz, Howard M.; Page, Matthew R.

2014-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

132

Effect of Pyrolysis and CO2 Gasification Pressure on the Surface Area and Pore Size Distribution of Petroleum Coke  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Normalization of the reaction rate by the surface area indicated that the effect of the pressure on the physical characteristics of the petcoke was the main but not sole factor in the change of the reaction rate with the gasification pressure. ... As refiners are pushed toward producing cleaner transportation fuels from poorer quality crudes, the production of petroleum coke (petcoke) is increasing as a byproduct of heavy oil upgrading units. ... (1, 2) The majority of petcoke produced in Canada is currently stockpiled on the site of the plant. ...

Maryam Malekshahian; Josephine M. Hill

2011-10-03T23:59:59.000Z

133

Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 417: Central Nevada Test Area Surface, Nevada  

SciTech Connect

This Corrective Action Plan provides methods for implementing the approved corrective action alternative as provided in the Corrective Action Decision Document for the Central Nevada Test Area (CNTA), Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 417 (DOE/NV, 1999). The CNTA is located in the Hot Creek Valley in Nye County, Nevada, approximately 137 kilometers (85 miles) northeast of Tonopah, Nevada. The CNTA consists of three separate land withdrawal areas commonly referred to as UC-1, UC-3, and UC-4, all of which are accessible to the public. CAU 417 consists of 34 Corrective Action Sites (CASs). Results of the investigation activities completed in 1998 are presented in Appendix D of the Corrective Action Decision Document (DOE/NV, 1999). According to the results, the only Constituent of Concern at the CNTA is total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH). Of the 34 CASs, corrective action was proposed for 16 sites in 13 CASs. In fiscal year 1999, a Phase I Work Plan was prepared for the construction of a cover on the UC-4 Mud Pit C to gather information on cover constructibility and to perform site management activities. With Nevada Division of Environmental Protection concurrence, the Phase I field activities began in August 1999. A multi-layered cover using a Geosynthetic Clay Liner as an infiltration barrier was constructed over the UC-4 Mud Pit. Some TPH impacted material was relocated, concrete monuments were installed at nine sites, signs warning of site conditions were posted at seven sites, and subsidence markers were installed on the UC-4 Mud Pit C cover. Results from the field activities indicated that the UC-4 Mud Pit C cover design was constructable and could be used at the UC-1 Central Mud Pit (CMP). However, because of the size of the UC-1 CMP this design would be extremely costly. An alternative cover design, a vegetated cover, is proposed for the UC-1 CMP.

K. Campbell

2000-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

134

MAPPING HIGH-RESOLUTION LAND SURFACE RADIATIVE FLUXES FROM MODIS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

important to life and to the use of clean renewable solar energy to improve the quality of the environment and biogeophysical mod- eling, solar energy applications, and agriculture. The Earth's surface radiation budget (SRB) is the key quantity that determines global climate and climate change from elevated greenhouse gases, air

Liang, Shunlin

135

Radiative heat transfer at nanoscale mediated by surface plasmons for highly doped Emmanuel Rousseau  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Radiative heat transfer at nanoscale mediated by surface plasmons for highly doped silicon the role of surface plasmons for nanoscale radiative heat transfer between doped silicon surfaces. We derive a new accurate and closed-form expression of the radiative near- field heat transfer. We also

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

136

INDEPENDENT VERIFICATION SURVEY OF THE HIGH FLUX BEAM REACTOR DECOMMISSIONING PROJECT OUTSIDE AREAS BROOKHAVEN NATIONAL LABORATORY UPTON, NEW YORK  

SciTech Connect

5098-SR-03-0 FINAL REPORT- INDEPENDENT VERIFICATION SURVEY OF THE HIGH FLUX BEAM REACTOR DECOMMISSIONING PROJECT OUTSIDE AREAS, BROOKHAVEN NATIONAL LABORATORY

P.C. Weaver

2010-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

137

Surface Chemistry of 2-Propanol on TiO2(110): Low and High Temperature...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Chemistry of 2-Propanol on TiO2(110): Low and High Temperature Dehydration, Isotope Effects, and Influence of Local Surface Chemistry of 2-Propanol on TiO2(110): Low and High...

138

Self-consistent electrodynamics of large-area high-frequency capacitive plasma discharge  

SciTech Connect

Capacitively coupled plasmas (CCPs) generated using high frequency (3-30 MHz) and very high frequency (30-300 MHz) radio-frequency (rf) sources are used for many plasma processing applications including thin film etching and deposition. When chamber dimensions become commensurate with the effective rf wavelength in the plasma, electromagnetic wave effects impose a significant influence on plasma behavior. Because the effective rf wavelength in plasma depends upon both rf and plasma process conditions (e.g., rf power and gas pressure), a self-consistent model including both the rf power delivery system and the plasma discharge is highly desirable to capture a more complete physical picture of the plasma behavior. A three-dimensional model for self-consistently studying both electrodynamic and plasma dynamic behavior of large-area (Gen 10, >8 m{sup 2}) CCP is described in this paper. This model includes Maxwell's equations and transport equations for charged and neutral species, which are coupled and solved in the time domain. The complete rf plasma discharge chamber including the rf power delivery subsystem, rf feed, electrodes, and the plasma domain is modeled as an integrated system. Based on this full-wave solution model, important limitations for processing uniformity imposed by electromagnetic wave propagation effects in a large-area CCP (3.05x2.85 m{sup 2} electrode size) are studied. The behavior of H{sub 2} plasmas in such a reactor is examined from 13.56 to 200 MHz. It is shown that various rectangular harmonics of electromagnetic fields can be excited in a large-area rectangular reactor as the rf or power is increased. The rectangular harmonics can create not only center-high plasma distribution but also high plasma density at the corners and along the edges of the reactor.

Chen Zhigang; Rauf, Shahid; Collins, Ken [Applied Materials, Inc., 974 E. Arques Avenue, Sunnyvale, California 94085 (United States)

2010-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

139

Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 100-B-1 Surface Chemical and Solid Waste Dumping Area, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2006-003  

SciTech Connect

The 100-B-1 waste site was a dumping site that was divided into two areas. One area was used as a laydown area for construction materials, and the other area was used as a chemical dumping area. The 100-B-1 Surface Chemical and Solid Waste Dumping Area site meets the remedial action objectives specified in the Remaining Sites ROD. The results demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations support future unrestricted land uses that can be represented by a rural-residential scenario. The results also demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

R. A. Carlson

2006-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

140

Generation of high-resolution surface temperature distributions Anton A. Darhuber and Sandra M. Troiana)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Generation of high-resolution surface temperature distributions Anton A. Darhuber and Sandra M have performed numerical calculations to study the generation of arbitrary temperature profiles with high spatial resolution on the surface of a solid. The characteristics of steady-state distributions

Troian, Sandra M.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high surface area" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Using Thermally-Degrading, Partitioning, and Nonreactive Tracers to Determine Temperature Distribution and Fracture/Heat Transfer Surface Area in Geothermal Reservoirs  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

DOE Geothermal Peer Review 2010 - Project Summary. The goal of this project is to provide integrated tracer and tracer interpretation tools to facilitate quantitative characterization of temperature distributions and surface area available for heat transfer in EGS.

142

Finding Large Aperture Fractures in Geothermal Resource Areas Using A Three-Component Long-Offset Surface Seismic Survey, PSInSAR, and Kinematic Analysis  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Fining Large Aperture Fractures in Geothermal Resource Areas Using A Three-Component Long-Offset Surface Seismic Survey, PSInSAR, and Kinematic Analysis presentation at the April 2013 peer review meeting held in Denver, Colorado.

143

Reconstruction of drought variability in North China and its association with sea surface temperature in the joining area of Asia and IndianPacific Ocean  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Using tree-ring data from the northernmost marginal area of the East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) in North China, MayJuly mean Palmer drought severity index (PDSI) was reconstructed back to 1767AD. The reconstruction captured 52.8% of the variance over the calibration period from 1945 to 2005AD and showed pronounced pluvial periods during 18501905, 18031811 and 19401961 and dry periods during 18141844, 19161932 and 19842012. These anomalous periods have previously been reported in other parts of North China. Spatial correlation analyses and comparisons with other hydroclimatic indices in North China indicated that our new PDSI reconstruction could represent spatial and temporal drought variability in this region well. Our work also suggested that the drying tendency currently observed in the northern part of North China (including the study area) is consistent with the weakening of the EASM. Meanwhile the drying trend was seemingly restrained at present in the southern part of North China. Spatial correlation patterns with global sea surface temperature (SST) indicated that the regional hydroclimatic variability in North China was tightly linked to SST over the joining area of Asia and IndianPacific Ocean (AIPO), especially over the tropical western Pacific. When SST from prior November to current July (NJ-SST) in the AIPO area was anomalously high (low), the thermal contrast between Asian land and ocean was weakened (strengthened), and the EASM was correspondingly weakened (strengthened), thereby causing droughts (pluvials) in North China. The results of this study do not only provide useful information for assessing the long-term climate change in North China, but also suggest that abnormal variability in NJ-SST over the AIPO area could be used to forecast hydroclimatic conditions in North China.

Qiufang Cai; Yu Liu; Han Liu; Junli Ren

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

144

coherence area  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

1....In an electromagnetic wave, such as a lightwave or a radio wave, the area of a surface (a) every point on which the surface is perpendicular to the direction of propagation, (b) over which the e...

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

145

An Economic Study of Farm Organization and Operation in the High Plains Cotton Area of Texas.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

LIBRARY, A & M COLLEGE, C A Rf P U S *A78-1138-7M-L180 TEXAS AGRICULTWIAW--=TUN -- A. B. CONNER, DIRECTOR I COLLEGE STATION, BRAZOS COUNTY, TEXAS BULLETIN NO. 568 JANUARY 1939 DIVISION OF FARM AND RANCH ECONOMICS IN COOPERATION... WITH THE BUREAU OF AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS, UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE An Economic Study of Farm Organization and Operation in the High Plains Cotton Area of Texas AGRICULTURAL AND MECHANICAL COLLEGE OF TEXAS T. 0. WALTON, President [Blank Page...

Bonnen, C.A.; Thibodeaux, B. H.; Magee, A.C.

1939-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

Modeling of dimmable High Power LED illumination distribution using ANFIS on the isolated area  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

High power light emitting diodes (HP-LEDs) are more suitable for energy saving applications and have becoming replacing traditional fluorescent and incandescent bulbs for its energy efficient. Therefore, HP-LED lighting has been regarded in the next-generation lighting. In this study, illumination distribution of white color HP-LED is modeled by adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) approach on the isolated area while LED head is fixed. Subtractive clustering with hybrid learning approach is used to train the realized ANFIS architectures. End of the numerous experiment we finally concluded that, ANFIS could be used to modeling the illumination distribution applications perfectly.

?smail Kiyak; Vedat Topuz; Blent Oral

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

Carbon-Based Materials, High-Surface-Area Sorbents, and New Materials and Concepts  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This category of materials-based storage technologies includes a range of carbon-based materials such as carbon nanotubes, aerogels, nanofibers (including metal-doped hybrids), as well as metal...

148

Partially graphitic, high-surface-area mesoporous carbons from polyacrylonitrile templated by ordered and disordered  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, and manufacturing of electrochemical dou- ble-layer capacitors and Li-ion batteries. Graphitic carbons exhibit structures with an appreciable degree of ordering of graphene sheets typi- cally form as a result of a heat

149

In situ doping control of the surface of high-temperature superconductors  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

LETTERS In situ doping control of the surface of high-temperature superconductors M. A. HOSSAIN1 to systematic studies of high- temperature superconductors, such as creating new electron- doped superconductors.1038/nphys998 Central to the understanding of high-temperature superconductivity is the evolution

Michelson, David G.

150

Influences of chip serration on micro-topography of machined surface in high-speed cutting  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Saw-tooth chip changes from macroscopically continuous ribbon to separated segments with the increase of cutting speed. The aim of this study is to find the correlations between chip morphology and machined surface micro-topography at different chip serration stages encountered in high speed cutting. High strength alloy steel AerMet100 was employed in orthogonal cutting experiments to obtain chips at different serration stages and corresponding machined surfaces. The chips and machined surfaces obtained were then examined with optical microscope (OM), scanning electron microscope (SEM), and white light interferometer (WLI). The result shows that chip serration causes micro-waves on machined surface, which increases machined surface roughness. However, wave amplitudes (surface roughness) at different serration stages are different. The principal factor influencing wave amplitude is the thickness of the sawed segment (tooth) of saw-tooth chip. With cutting parameters in this study, surface roughness contributed by chip serration ranges from 0.39?m to 1.85?m. This may bring on serious problems in the case of trying to replace grinding with high-speed cutting in rough machining. Some suggestions have been proposed to control the chip serration-caused surface roughness in high-speed cutting based on the results of the current study.

Guosheng Su; Zhanqiang Liu; Liang Li; Bing Wang

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

151

Acid precipitation and surface-water vulnerability on the western slope of the high colorado rockies  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Precipitation and surface waters in a high-elevation watershed on the western slope of the Colorado Rockies were studied over a three-year...?1 in the former and 100 to 900 ?eq L?1 in the latter.

John Harts; Greg P. Lockett; Richard A. Schneider

1985-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

152

Design of a high speed planing hull with a cambered step and surface piercing hydrofoils  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Design of a high speed planing hull is analyzed by implementing a cambered step and stem, surface piercing hydrofoils, commonly known as a Dynaplane hull. This configuration combines the drag reduction benefits of a stepped ...

Faison, Leon Alexander

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

153

High-Frequency X-ray Beam Chopper Based on Diffraction by Surface Acoustic Waves  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The main characteristics of a new type of X-ray beam are presented. Diffraction of X-rays by a pulsed surface acoustic wave is used to perform a flexible high-frequency selection of synchrotron radiation pulses.

Tucoulou, R.

1998-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

High-frequency approximations for edge scatter from surfaces of revolution  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We consider the radar backscatter from a truncated surface of revolution viewed at axial incidence and derive a closed-form high-frequency (HF) approximation for the physical-optics...

Gordon, William B; Bilow, Henry J

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

High-Energy Electrospark Surface Strengthening of Steels with Composite Ceramics  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The surface and cross-sectional structure, composition, and microhardness of composite coatings on ShKh15 and R6M5 steels have been studied under high-energy electrospark deposition with electrode materials based...

I. A. Podchernyaeva; A. D. Panasyuk; D. V. Yurechko

2014-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

Coupling the High Complexity Land Surface Model ACASA to the Mesoscale Model WRF  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this study, the Weather Research and Forecasting Model (WRF) is coupled with the Advanced Canopy-Atmosphere-Soil Algorithm (ACASA), a high complexity land surface model. Although WRF is a state-of-the-art regional ...

Xu, L.

157

Placental malaria among HIV-infected and uninfected women receiving anti-folates in a high transmission area of Uganda  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in a high transmission area of Uganda Patrick M Newman 1 ,PO Box 7475, Kampala, Uganda, 3 Department of MolecularPO Box 7062, Kampala, Uganda, 4 Department of Pediatrics,

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

A sensitivity study of the WRF model in wind simulation for an area of high wind energy  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The performance of the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) model in wind simulation was evaluated under different numerical and physical options for an area of Portugal, located in complex terrain and characterized by its significant wind energy resource. The grid nudging and integration time of the simulations were the tested numerical options. Since the goal is to simulate the near-surface wind, the physical parameterization schemes regarding the boundary layer were the ones under evaluation. Also, the influences of the local terrain complexity and simulation domain resolution on the model results were also studied. Data from three wind measuring stations located within the chosen area were compared with the model results, in terms of Root Mean Square Error, Standard Deviation Error and Bias. Wind speed histograms, occurrences and energy wind roses were also used for model evaluation. Globally, the model accurately reproduced the local wind regime, despite a significant underestimation of the wind speed. The wind direction is reasonably simulated by the model especially in wind regimes where there is a clear dominant sector, but in the presence of low wind speeds the characterization of the wind direction (observed and simulated) is very subjective and led to higher deviations between simulations and observations. Within the tested options, results show that the use of grid nudging in simulations that should not exceed an integration time of 2 days is the best numerical configuration, and the parameterization set composed by the physical schemes MM5Yonsei UniversityNoah are the most suitable for this site. Results were poorer in sites with higher terrain complexity, mainly due to limitations of the terrain data supplied to the model. The increase of the simulation domain resolution alone is not enough to significantly improve the model performance. Results suggest that error minimization in the wind simulation can be achieved by testing and choosing a suitable numerical and physical configuration for the region of interest together with the use of high resolution terrain data, if available.

David Carvalho; Alfredo Rocha; Moncho Gmez-Gesteira; Carlos Santos

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

159

High-resolution seismic stratigraphic analysis of the Late Quaternary upper slope and shelf edge: Main Pass-Viosca Knoll area, Gulf of Mexico  

SciTech Connect

High-resolution (800 Hz) sparker data from the Main Pass-Viosca Knoll area, offshore Louisiana, show shelf-edge deltas with oblique progradational clinoforms, parallel, and channel-fill reflections in the near-surface, latest Quaternary section of the upper slope. Sequence boundaries are indicated by onlap of slope facies onto older outershelf deltas and shelf margins, erosional truncation, and minor channel erosion on the top of progradational units and on the slope. The authors tentatively identify these sequence boundaries as Type I. Each depositional sequence consists of two seismic units: (1) a lower unit consisting of parallel, seaward-dipping reflections; (2) an upper unit consisting of parallel reflections and progradational clinoforms that converge or downlap downslope on top of the lower parallel unit. Precise correlation to absolute time and sea level awaits analysis and integration of shallow cores taken in the area by an industry consortium. Facies and isochron mapping of each sequence indicates an overall back-stepping of the shelf-edge deltas and shelf margins during the latest Quaternary. The Quaternary shelf edges are an area of isochron thicks and thins resulting from erosion and redeposition. Major channels commonly cross salt diapirs and may occupy the same site during successive lowstands. Comparison with multichannel seismic profiles shows that each shelf-edge delta seen on the high resolution profiles is represented by a single reflection on multichannel data. Steep clinoforms, downlap surfaces, and individual sequences are not seen on the multichannel data.

McMillen, K.J. (Marathon Oil Co., Houston, TX (United States)); Winn, R.D. Jr. (Marathon Oil Co., Littleton, CO (United States)); Damuth, J.E. (Mobile Oil Co., Dallas, TX (United States)); Weimer, P. (Univ. of Colorado, Boulder (United States))

1991-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

Advanced Manufacture of Second-Surface, Silvered Glass Reflectors for High-Performance, Low-Cost CSP Collector Systems  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Advanced Manufacture of Second-Surface, Silvered Glass Reflectors for High-Performance, Low-Cost CSP Collector Systems

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high surface area" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

A calculation of the temperature of contact surfaces in a high-power discharge of electric current of commercial frequency  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Thermal processes occuring at the surface of disconnected electric contacts subjected to a high-power electric arc are considered.

I. L. Shleifman

1970-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

162

Focused feasibility study for surface soil at the main pits and pushout area, J-field toxic burning pits area, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland  

SciTech Connect

The Environmental Management Division of Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG), Maryland, is conducting a remedial investigation and feasibility study of the J-Field area at APG pursuant to the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act, as amended (CERCLA). J-Field is located within the Edgewood Area of APG in Harford County, Maryland. Since World War II, activities in the Edgewood Area have included the development, manufacture, testing, and destruction of chemical agents and munitions. These materials were destroyed at J-Field by open burning/open detonation. Portions of J-Field continue to be used for the detonation and disposal of unexploded ordnance (UXO) by open burning/open detonation under authority of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act.

Patton, T.; Benioff, P.; Biang, C.; Butler, J. [and others

1996-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

163

Monitoring peak power and cooling energy savings of shade trees and white surfaces in the Sacramento Municipal Utility District (SMUD) service area: Project design and preliminary results  

SciTech Connect

Urban areas in warm climates create summer heat islands of daily average intensity of 3--5{degrees}C, adding to discomfort and increasing air-conditioning loads. Two important factors contributing to urban heat islands are reductions in albedo (lower overall city reflectance) and loss of vegetation (less evapotranspiration). Reducing summer heat islands by planting vegetation (shade trees) and increasing surface albedos, saves cooling energy, allows down-sizing of air conditioners, lowers air-conditioning peak demand, and reduces the emission of CO{sub 2} and other pollutants from electric power plants. The focus of this multi-year project, jointly sponsored by SMUD and the California Institute for Energy Efficiency (CIEE), was to measure the direct cooling effects of trees and white surfaces (mainly roofs) in a few buildings in Sacramento. The first-year project was to design the experiment and obtain base case data. We also obtained limited post retrofit data for some sites. This report provides an overview of the project activities during the first year at six sites. The measurement period for some of the sites was limited to September and October, which are transitional cooling months in Sacramento and hence the interpretation of results only apply to this period. In one house, recoating the dark roof with a high-albedo coating rendered air conditioning unnecessary for the month of September (possible savings of up to 10 kWh per day and 2 kW of non-coincidental peak power). Savings of 50% relative to an identical base case bungalow were achieved when a school bungalow`s roof and southeast wall were coated with a high-albedo coating during the same period. Our measured data for the vegetation sites do not indicate conclusive results because shade trees were small and the cooling period was almost over. We need to collect more data over a longer cooling season in order to demonstrate savings conclusively.

Akbari, H.; Bretz, S.; Hanford, J.; Rosenfeld, A.; Sailor, D.; Taha, H. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Bos, W. [Sacramento Municipal Utility District, CA (United States)

1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

Combining Laser Ablation/Liquid Phase Collection Surface Sampling and High-Performance Liquid Chromatography Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the coupling of ambient pressure transmission geometry laser ablation with a liquid phase sample collection method for surface sampling and ionization with subsequent mass spectral analysis. A commercially available autosampler was adapted to produce a liquid droplet at the end of the syringe injection needle while in close proximity to the surface to collect the sample plume produced by laser ablation. The sample collection was followed by either flow injection or a high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) separation of the extracted components and detection with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). To illustrate the analytical utility of this coupling, thin films of a commercial ink sample containing rhodamine 6G and of mixed isobaric rhodamine B and 6G dyes on glass microscope slides were analyzed. The flow injection and HPLC/ESI-MS analysis revealed successful laser ablation, capture and, with HPLC, the separation of the two compounds. The ablated circular area was about 70 m in diameter for these experiments. The spatial sampling resolution afforded by the laser ablation, as well as the ability to use sample processing methods like HPLC between the sample collection and ionization steps, makes this combined surface sampling/ionization technique a highly versatile analytical tool.

Ovchinnikova, Olga S [ORNL; Kertesz, Vilmos [ORNL; Van Berkel, Gary J [ORNL

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

165

A highly stable zirconium-based metal-organic framework material with high surface area and gas storage capacities  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

published for Zr-based MOFs. CH4/CO2/H2 adsorption isotherms were measured over a broad range of pressures and temperatures and are in excellent agreement with the computational predictions. The total hydrogen adsorption at 65 bar and 77 K is 0.092 g/g which...

Gutov, Oleksii V.; Bury, Wojciech; Gomez-Gualdron, Diego A.; Krungleviciute, Vaiva; Fairen-Jimenez, David; Sarjeant, Amy A.; Snurr, Randall Q.; Hupp, Joseph T.; Yildirim, Taner; Farha, Omar K.

2014-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

166

Under Contract No. DE-AC36-83CH10093 LARGE-AREA, HIGH-INTENSITY PV ARRAYS FOR SYSTEMS USING DISH CONCENTRATING OPTICS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ABSTRACT: In this paper, we report on our efforts to fabricate monolithic interconnected modules (MIMs) using III-V semiconductors with bandgaps appropriate for the terrestrial solar spectrum. The small size of the component cells comprising the MIM allows for operation at extremely high flux densities and relaxes the requirement for a small spot-size to be generated by the optics. This makes possible a PV option for the large dish concentrator systems that have been developed by the solar thermal community for use with Stirling engines. Additionally, the highly effective back-surface reflector integrated into the MIM design is an effective tool for thermal management of the array. Development of this technology would radically alter the projections for PV manufacturing capacity because of the potential for extremely high power generation per unit area of semiconductor material.

J. S. Ward; A. Duda; K. Zweibel; T. J. Coutts; J. S. Ward; A. Duda; K. Zweibel; T. J. Coutts

167

High-Temperature Galling Characteristics of Ti-6Al-4V with and without Surface Treatments  

SciTech Connect

Galling is a severe form of surface damage in metals and alloys that typically arises under relatively high normal force, low-sliding speed, and in the absence of effective lubrication. It can lead to macroscopic surface roughening and seizure. The occurrence of galling can be especially problematic in high-temperature applications like diesel engine exhaust gas recirculation system components and adjustable turbocharger vanes, because suitable lubricants may not be available, moisture desorption promotes increased adhesion, and the yield strength of metals decreases with temperature. Oxidation can counteract these effects to some extent by forming lubricative oxide films. Two methods to improve the galling resistance of titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V were investigated: (a) applying an oxygen diffusion treatment, and (b) creating a metal-matrix composite with TiB2 using a high-intensity infrared heating source. A new, oscillating three-pin-on-flat, high-temperature test method was developed and used to characterize galling behavior relative to a cobalt-based alloy (Stellite 6B ). The magnitude of the oscillating torque, the surface roughness, and observations of surface damage were used as measures of galling resistance. Owing to the formation of lubricative oxide films, the galling resistance of the Ti-alloy at 485o C, even non-treated, was considerably better than it was at room temperature. The IR-formed composite displayed reduced surface damage and lower torque than the substrate titanium alloy.

Blau, Peter Julian [ORNL; ERDMAN III, DONALD L [ORNL; Ohriner, Evan Keith [ORNL; Jolly, Brian C [ORNL

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

Detection of surface impurity phases in high T.sub.C superconductors using thermally stimulated luminescence  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Detection of surface impurity phases in high-temperature superconducting materials. Thermally stimulated luminescence has been found to occur in insulating impurity phases which commonly exist in high-temperature superconducting materials. The present invention is sensitive to impurity phases occurring at a level of less than 1% with a probe depth of about 1 .mu.m which is the region of interest for many superconductivity applications. Spectroscopic and spatial resolution of the emitted light from a sample permits identification and location of the impurity species. Absence of luminescence, and thus of insulating phases, can be correlated with low values of rf surface resistance.

Cooke, D. Wayne (Los Alamos, NM); Jahan, Muhammad S. (Bartlett, TN)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

169

The effects of atomic oxygen on the thermal emittance of high temperature radiator surfaces  

SciTech Connect

Radiator surfaces on high temperature space power systems such as the SP-100 space nuclear power system must maintain a high emittance level in order to reject waste heat effectively. one of the primary materials under consideration for the radiators is carbon-carbon composite. Since carbon is susceptible to attack by atomic oxygen in the low Earth orbital environment, it is important to determine the durability of carbon composites in this environment as well as the effect atomic oxygen has on the thermal emittance of the surface if it is to be considered for use as a radiator. Results indicate that the thermal emittance of carbon-carbon composite (as low as 0.42) can be enhanced by exposure to a directed beam of atomic oxygen to levels above 0.85 at 800 K. This emittance enhancement is due to a change in the surface morphology as a result of oxidation. High aspect ratio cones are formed on the surface which allow more efficient trapping of incident radiation. Erosion of the surface due to oxidation is similar to that for carbon; so that at altitudes less than {approximately}600 km, thickness loss of the radiator could be significant (as much as 0.1 cm/year). A protective coating or oxidation barrier forming additive may be needed to prevent atomic oxygen attack after the initial high emittance surface is formed. Textured surfaces can be formed in ground based facilities or possibly in space if emittance is not sensitive to the orientation of the atomic oxygen arrival that forms the texture.

Rutledge, S.K. [Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, OH (United States); Hotes, D.L.; Paulsen, P.E. [Cleveland State Univ., OH (United States)

1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

Surface preparation for high purity alumina ceramics enabling direct brazing in hydrogen atmospheres  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention relates to a method for preparing the surface of a high purity alumina ceramic or sapphire specimen that enables direct brazing in a hydrogen atmosphere using an active braze alloy. The present invention also relates to a method for directly brazing a high purity alumina ceramic or sapphire specimen to a ceramic or metal member using this method of surface preparation, and to articles produced by this brazing method. The presence of silicon, in the form of a SiO.sub.2 -containing surface layer, can more than double the tensile bond strength in alumina ceramic joints brazed in a hydrogen atmosphere using an active Au-16Ni-0.75 Mo-1.75V filler metal. A thin silicon coating applied by PVD processing can, after air firing, produce a semi-continuous coverage of the alumina surface with a SiO.sub.2 film. Room temperature tensile strength was found to be proportional to the fraction of air fired surface covered by silicon-containing films. Similarly, the ratio of substrate fracture versus interface separation was also related to the amount of surface silicon present prior to brazing. This process can replace the need to perform a "moly-manganese" metallization step.

Cadden, Charles H. (Danville, CA); Yang, Nancy Yuan Chi (Lafayette, CA); Hosking, Floyd M. (Albuquerque, NM)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

Springback Simulation of High Strength Steel Sheet using Local Interpolation for Tool Surfaces  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents the effect of tool modelling accuracy on the simulation accuracy of springback in high strength steels. Simulations of a two-dimensional draw-bending process are carried out by using a polyhedral tool model whose surface is approximated by a polyhedron, and a model whose surface is smoothed by quadratic parametric surfaces proposed by Nagata [Nagata, Comput. Aided Geom. D, 22(2005), 55-59] (Nagata patch model). It is found that not only the shape accuracy but also the normal vector accuracy of tool models are of importance for accurate springback predictions. The use of the Nagata patch model is an efficient approach not only to improve the simulation accuracy but also to make the simulation be hardly influenced by the tool mesh, even for simulations of a high strength steel in which large amount of springback is involved.

Hama, Takayuki; Fujimoto, Hitoshi; Takuda, Hirohiko [Department of Energy Science and Technology, Kyoto University, Yoshida-Honmachi, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan); Teodosiu, Cristian [Volume-CAD System Research Program, The Institute of Physical and Chemical Research, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako-shi, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); LPMTM-CNRS, University Paris 13, 93430 Villetaneuse (France); Makinouchi, Akitake [Volume-CAD System Research Program, The Institute of Physical and Chemical Research, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako-shi, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan)

2007-05-17T23:59:59.000Z

172

Effective surface dilatational viscosity of highly concentrated particle-laden interfaces  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The effective surface dilatational viscosity is calculated of a flat interface separating two immiscible fluids laden with half-immersed monodisperse rigid spherical non-Brownian particles in the limit of high particle concentration. The derivation is based upon the facts that (i) highly-concentrated particle arrays in a plane form hexagonal structure, and (ii) the dominant contribution to the viscous dissipation rate arises in the thin gaps between neighboring particles.

Lishchuk, S V

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

173

Rendering glints on high-resolution normal-mapped specular surfaces  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Complex specular surfaces under sharp point lighting show a fascinating glinty appearance, but rendering it is an unsolved problem. Using Monte Carlo pixel sampling for this purpose is impractical: the energy is concentrated in tiny highlights that take ... Keywords: glints, high-resolution normal maps, normal distribution functions, specular highlights

Ling-Qi Yan; Milo Haan; Wenzel Jakob; Jason Lawrence; Steve Marschner; Ravi Ramamoorthi

2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

174

Oxidation of carbon fiber surfaces for use as reinforcement in high-temperature cementitious material systems  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The interfacial bond characteristics between carbon fiber and a cement matrix, in high temperature fiber-reinforced cementitious composite systems, can be improved by the oxidative treatment of the fiber surfaces. Compositions and the process for producing the compositions are disclosed. 2 figs.

Sugama, Toshifumi.

1990-05-22T23:59:59.000Z

175

Oxidation of carbon fiber surfaces for use as reinforcement in high-temperature cementitious material systems  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The interfacial bond characteristics between carbon fiber and a cement matrix, in high temperature fiber-reinforced cementitious composite systems, can be improved by the oxidative treatment of the fiber surfaces. Compositions and the process for producing the compositions are disclosed.

Sugama, Toshifumi (Mastic Beach, NY)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

176

The production of high surface carbons from coal using pre-swelling in solvents to disperse coking catalysts  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Carbons have been produced from Amaga coal using ZnCl2 as a catalyst to increase carbon yields during pyrolysis. It was found that the surface area and micropore volume could be increased by swelling the coal ...

F MONDRAGON; G QUINTERO; A JARAMILLO; J FERNANDEZ

177

Economics of Mechanical Cotton Harvesting in the High Plains Cotton Area of Texas.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

over large areas. Tractor- drawn dusters also were used extensively. Recently, grades of lint cotton have been affected in numer- ous cases by stains resulting from angular leaf spot or bacterial blight. Work is in progress in an attempt to develop... is accounted for. Although tabulated in areas other than No. 3, cotton is produced under similar conditions in these three counties. DEVELOPMENTS AFFECTING HARVESTING METHODS With the advent of well irrigation and multiple-row tractor equipment, including...

Rogers, Ralph H.; Morgan, Quevedo Martin; Williamson, M. N. (Marion Newton)

1951-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

Large-area fabrication of high aspect ratio tantalum photonic crystals for high-temperature selective emitters  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The authors present highly selective emitters based on two-dimensional tantalum (Ta) photonic crystals, fabricated on 2 in. polycrystalline Ta substrates, for high-temperature applications, e.g., thermophotovoltaic energy ...

Rinnerbauer, Veronika

179

Validation of Surface Current Measurements in the Northern Adriatic Sea from High-Frequency Radars  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The performances of a shore-based high-frequency (HF) radar network deployed along the coast of the Venice lagoon (northern Adriatic Sea) are discussed based on a comparison with a single bottom-mounted ADCP deployed in the shallow-water area ...

Simone Cosoli; Andrea Mazzoldi; Miroslav Ga?i?

2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

180

Enabling Access and Opportunities to STEM and College for High-Achieving Chicago-Area High School Students  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

change and continue to develop as leaders. 2011-2012 Program Profile Learn more at: http in urbanized areas. These numbers are still growing, and climate change is further expected to speed up Students Founded in 2011, and generously supported by a grant from the Boeing Company, the IIT Boeing

Saniie, Jafar

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high surface area" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Interaction of Organic Surfaces with Active Species in the High-Vacuum Environment  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Using single-crystal organic field-effect transistors with the conduction channel exposed to environmental agents we have observed generation of electronic defects at the organic surface in the high-vacuum environment. Rapid decrease of the source-drain current of an operating device is observed upon exposure of the channel to the species generated by high-vacuum gauges. We attribute this effect to interaction of the organic surface with electrically neutral free radicals produced in the process of hydrocarbon cracking on hot filaments with a relatively low activation energy Ea ~ 2.5 eV (240 kJ/mol). The reported results might be important for optimizing the high-vacuum processes of fabrication and characterization of a wide range of organic and molecular electronic devices.

V. Podzorov; E. Menard; S. Pereversev; B. Yakshinsky; T. Madey; J. A. Rogers; M. E. Gershenson

2005-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

182

Growth of Large-Area Single- and Bi-Layer Graphene by Controlled Carbon Precipitation on Polycrystalline Ni Surfaces  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We report graphene films composed mostly of one or two layers of graphene grown by controlled carbon precipitation on the surface of polycrystalline Ni thin films during atmospheric chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Controlling ...

Reina, Alfonso

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

183

Red Flag Warnings are in effect for much of Colorado today, including the area of the High Park Fire.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

: This daily wildfire update is provided by the Colorado State Forest Service to keep you informed of current not cover all wildfires currently burning in Colorado, including smaller fires and those burning onlyPage 1 Red Flag Warnings are in effect for much of Colorado today, including the area of the High

Stephens, Graeme L.

184

SIGNIFICANT LINKAGE DISEQUILIBRIUM AND HIGH GENETIC DIVERSITY IN A POPULATION OF PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM FROM AN AREA (REPUBLIC OF  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

FALCIPARUM FROM AN AREA (REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO) HIGHLY ENDEMIC FOR MALARIA P. DURAND, Y. MICHALAKIS, S of the Congo) and compared with a cosmopolitan sample of 21 isolates collected from different countries living in Pointe Noire, Republic of the Congo and characterized P. falciparum isolates at 28 micro

185

Free-Space Optical High-Speed Link in the Urban Area of Southern Rome: Preliminary Experimental  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Free-Space Optical High-Speed Link in the Urban Area of Southern Rome: Preliminary Experimental Set is placed on water particle effects (fog and rain). A semi-empirical model evaluation of these atmospheric, Piazza Pakistan, height 50 m), and the headquarters of the Department of Foreign Trade (point C, Viale

Marzano, Frank Silvio

186

Large Area and High Efficiency a-Si:H Solar Cell  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A conversion efficiency of 5.4% for a-Si:H solar cell on 10x10 cm2...stainless steel substrate has been obtained. Large area a-Si:H solar cells were fabricated by the C-coupled...2...parallel plates) glow dischar...

Y. Higaki; M. Kato; M. Aiga

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

Anomalous Fermi-Surface Dependent Pairing in a Self-Doped High-T(c) Superconductor  

SciTech Connect

We report the discovery of a self-doped multilayer high T{sub c} superconductor Ba{sub 2}Ca{sub 3}Cu{sub 4}O{sub 8}F{sub 2} (F0234) which contains distinctly different superconducting gap magnitudes along its two Fermi-surface sheets. While formal valence counting would imply this material to be an undoped insulator, it is a self-doped superconductor with a T{sub c} of 60 K, possessing simultaneously both electron- and hole-doped Fermi-surface sheets. Intriguingly, the Fermi-surface sheet characterized by the much larger gap is the electron-doped one, which has a shape disfavoring two electronic features considered to be important for the pairing mechanism: the van Hove singularity and the antiferromagnetic ({pi}/{alpha}, {pi}/{alpha}) scattering.

Chen, Yulin; Iyo, Akira; Yang, Wanli; Zhou, Xingjiang; Lu, Donghui; Eisaki, Hiroshi; Devereaux, Thomas P.; Hussain, Zahid; Shen, Z.-X.; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SLAC,

2007-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

188

Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 100-B-23, 100-B/C Area Surface Debris, Waste Site, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2008-027  

SciTech Connect

The 100-B-23, 100-B/C Surface Debris, waste consisted of multiple locations of surface debris and chemical stains that were identified during an Orphan Site Evaluation of the 100-B/C Area. Evaluation of the collected information for the surface debris features yielded four generic waste groupings: asbestos-containing material, lead debris, oil and oil filters, and treated wood. Focused verification sampling was performed concurrently with remediation. Site remediation was accomplished by selective removal of the suspect hazardous items and potentially impacted soils. In accordance with this evaluation, the verification sampling results support a reclassification of this site to Interim Closed Out. The results of verification sampling show that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

J. M. Capron

2008-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

189

Improvement in surface fatigue life of hardened gears by high-intensity shot peening  

SciTech Connect

Two groups of carburized, hardened, and ground spur gears that were manufactured from the same heat vacuum induction melted vacuum arc melted (VIM VAR) AISI 9310 steel were endurance tested for surface fatigue. Both groups were manufactured with a standard ground 16 rms surface finish. One group was subjected to a shot peening (SP) intensity of 7 to 9A, and the second group was subjected to a SP intensity of 15 to 17A. All gears were honed after SP to a surface finish of 16 rms. The gear pitch diameter was 8.89 cm. Test conditions were a maximum Hertz stress of 1.71 GPa, a gear temperature of 350 K, and a speed of 10000 rpm. The lubricant used for the tests was a synthetic paraffinic oil with an additive package. The following results were obtained: The 10 pct. surface fatigue (pitting) life of the high intensity (15 to 17A) SPed gears was 2.15 times that of the medium intensity (7 to 9A) SPed gears, the same as that calculated from measured residual stress at a depth of 127 microns. The measured residual stress for the high intensity SPed gears was 57 pct. higher than that for the medium intensity SPed gears at a depth of 127 microns and 540 pct. higher at a depth of 51 microns.

Townsend, D.P.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

190

Modeling of dimmable High Power LED illumination distribution using ANFIS on the isolated area  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

High power light emitting diodes (HP-LEDs) are more suitable for energy saving applications and have becoming replacing traditional fluorescent and incandescent bulbs for its energy efficient. Therefore, HP-LED lighting has been regarded in the next-generation ... Keywords: ANFIS, High Power LED, Illumination distribution

?smail Kiyak; Vedat Topuz; Blent Oral

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

Dropouts and a Dropout Recovery Program at a Suburban High-poverty High School Near a Large Urban Area  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The decision to drop out of high school is a serious problem for the individual making the decision to drop out, but it also has dramatic implications for their families, their communities, and the economic health of the greater community. As a...

Butler, Pamela W

2013-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

192

Parallel hydrogen injection into constant-area, high-enthalpy, supersonic airflow  

SciTech Connect

Although the mixing and burning of hydrogen injected into the combustion chamber are essential to the operation of a scramjet, experimental investigations of this process have been limited to speeds of less than 2.2 km/sec. The present experiment is an attempt to extend this limit to flight speeds of about 5 km/sec, whose corresponding stagnation enthalpies range up to MJ/kg. Mach-Zehnder interferograms were taken with a light source of 583 nm and 5 sec duration, while surface pressures were obtained with PCB quartz pressure transducers.

Stalker, R.J. (Queensland, University, Brisbane, Australia); Morgan, R.G.

1982-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

193

High Energy Large Area Surveys: optically obscured AGN and the history of accretion  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Hard X-ray, large area surveys are a fundamental complement of ultra-deep, pencil beam surveys in obtaining a more complete coverage of the L-z plane, allowing to find luminous QSO in wide z ranges. Furthermore, results from these surveys can be used to make reliable predictions about the luminosity (and hence the redshift) of the sources in the deep surveys which have optical counterparts too faint to be observed with the present generation of optical telescopes. This allows us to obtain accurate luminosity functions on wide luminosity and redshift intervals.

F. Fiore; the HELLAS2XMM collaboration

2004-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

194

Integration of Miniaturized Patch Antennas with High Dielectric-Constant Multilayer Packages and Soft-and-Hard Surfaces (SHS)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Integration of Miniaturized Patch Antennas with High Dielectric-Constant Multilayer Packages) is employed to suppress the surface wave generated by a patch antenna integrated with high dielectric capability of the SHS in surface-wave suppression. The first is a stacked patch antenna on a large

Tentzeris, Manos

195

An investigation into the knowledge and attitudes towards radon testing among residents in a high radon area  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The aim of this study was to investigate the knowledge and attitudes of residents in the Castleisland area to radon. Castleisland in Co. Kerry was described as a high radon area following the discovery of a house in the area with radon levels 245 times that of the national reference level. Residents in this area were then asked to measure their homes for radon in the Castleisland radon survey. The uptake of this measurement was 17%. In order to investigate this response rate further, a questionnaire was designed and distributed to residents in the Castleisland area. This questionnaire measured the testing history of the participants, the reasons for testing/not testing, the factors important to them when considering having their home tested, radon knowledge and finally intentions to measure their home for radon. It was found that the main reason people do not test their home for radon is that they believe their home does not have a problem. Optimistic bias was thought to play a role here. The subjective norm component of the theory of planned behaviour was found to have a significant independent contribution in the variation in intentions to measure one's home for radon and this in turn could be targeted to increase uptake of radon measurement in the future.

Susan Clifford; David Hevey; Gerard Menezes

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

196

Industrial high performance crystalline silicon solar cells and modules based on rear surface passivation technology  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Stimulated by the extreme market conditions, the increase in performance and the reduction of manufacturing costs of standard crystalline silicon solar cells and modules have been quite significant in the last years. This progress was achieved mainly by process and material improvements avoiding additional process complexity. As todays cells are predominantly limited by optical and recombination losses at the rear surface, dielectric rear surface passivation represents an obvious approach to overcome the limitations. In recent years several concepts have been developed to implement dielectric rear side passivation into industrial-scale mass production. In this paper a short review is given about the evolution of dielectric rear side passivation technologies as well as on state-of-the-art cell and module results. Simple and cost effective cell and module designs utilizing standard as well as innovative manufacturing technologies are presented. Furthermore, it is shown that for all major steps multiple process options are available to further reduce the manufacturing costs. Using an optimized emitter and screen-printed metallization on commercially available 156mm156mm p-type Czochralski-grown crystalline silicon wafers best cell efficiencies of 19.9% without dielectric rear surface passivation and 21.0% with dielectric rear surface passivation are demonstrated. Replacing the screen-printed front contacts by electroplated nickelcopper contacts record efficiencies of up to 21.3% are reached. By optimizing the module design and materials to reduce the resistive and optical losses, a peak module power of up to 306W and 19.5% aperture area efficiency are achieved.

Axel Metz; Dennis Adler; Stefan Bagus; Henry Blanke; Michael Bothar; Eva Brouwer; Stefan Dauwe; Katharina Dressler; Raimund Droessler; Tobias Droste; Markus Fiedler; Yvonne Gassenbauer; Thorsten Grahl; Norman Hermert; Wojtek Kuzminski; Agata Lachowicz; Thomas Lauinger; Norbert Lenck; Mihail Manole; Marcel Martini; Rudi Messmer; Christine Meyer; Jens Moschner; Klaus Ramspeck; Peter Roth; Ruben Schnfelder; Berthold Schum; Jrg Sticksel; Knut Vaas; Michael Volk; Klaus Wangemann

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

197

Changes in Root Surface Area, Nutrient Absorption Activity, and Root Carbohydrate Concentration during Crop Cycles of Rosa hybrida  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Shields Ave., Davis, CA 95616, USA 2 Protected Horticulture Experiment Station National Horticulture over such crop cycles under conditions of high or low light. A sequential harvest experiment. Plant RSA did not change significantly during the high light crop cycle and averaged 14400 cm2 plant-1

Lieth, J. Heinrich

198

The variability of high-frequency acoustic backscatter from the region near the sea surface  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The temporal variability of acoustic backscattering from the region near the sea surface is examined for frequencies in the 3070 kHz range. A variance spectrum of the scattering strength exhibits effects associated with three different processes. Below about 0.1 Hz the spectrum contains a large contribution associated with temporal variations in the advection of bubble clouds through the measurement volume by large-scale processes. At high frequencies the spectrum asymptotes to a level characteristic of a Gaussian backscatteredpressure field from randomly moving bubbles within the scattering volume. The overall variability is treated as a slow modulation of this Gaussian process by larger-scale processes and a probability density function is derived for the scattering strength using Bayes theorem. Finally in some cases the spectrum exhibits a peak at the frequency of the dominant surface waves. Attempts to compute coherence functions between the backscattered acoustic power and surface wave orbital velocities measured by a microwave system observing the same spot as the acoustic system resulted in very low values. This leads to the belief that the wave-induced peak in the acoustic backscatter variance spectrum is caused by highly nonlinear processes. A time series of acoustic backscatter from a vertically pointing system confirms the existence of this modulation at the dominant wave frequency and also suggests its nonlinear character.

Peter H. Dahl; William J. Plant

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

The geology, ground water, and surface subsidence of the Baytown-La Porte area, Harris County, Texas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

intezbedded in them. The sand layers have thin laminae of clay interbedded in them also The alternating sands snd cIaps of the Lkssie formation can be diuided into two units, the upper one containing more claP snd the lover one mox'e sand. The uyyer unit...?Calif'ornia. The theory is that the bottom of the casing, vhich is set in sand, remains stationary, and as the strata betveer the aquifer and the surface ccmpsct, i;he vali head is left suspended in six, supported only by ?he casing. This phcncmenon has occurred at...

Gray, Eddie Vaughn

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

200

Hydrophobic Modification on Surface of Chitin Sponges for Highly Effective Separation of Oil  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The MTCS-coated chitin sponge had interconnected open-cell structures with the average pore size from 20 to 50 ?m, and the MTCS nanofilaments immobilized on the chitin matrix, leading to the high hydrophobicity, as a result of the existence of a solid/air composite rough surface. ... With the development of industry and society, more environmental problems such as the water pollution resulting from oil spillage, industrial discharge of organic solvents, and heavy metal ions have emerged as a critical worldwide issue, imposing severe environmental and ecological damage. ... The MTCS-coated chitin sponge not only rapidly (within 5 min) efficiently absorbed a wide range of oils and nonpolar organic solvents from the surface and bottom of the polluted water, but also exhibited excellent recyclability with at least 10 times. ...

Bo Duan; Huimin Gao; Meng He; Lina Zhang

2014-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high surface area" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Plan for Corrective Action Unit 484: Surface Debris, Waste Sites, and Burn Area, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada  

SciTech Connect

This Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration plan details the activities necessary to close Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 484: Surface Debris, Waste Sites, and Burn Area (Tonopah Test Range). CAU 484 consists of sites located at the Tonopah Test Range, Nevada, and is currently listed in Appendix III of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. CAU 484 consists of the following six Corrective Action Sites: (1) CAS RG-52-007-TAML, Davis Gun Penetrator Test; (2) CAS TA-52-001-TANL, NEDS Detonation Area; (3) CAS TA-52-004-TAAL, Metal Particle Dispersion Test; (4) CAS TA-52-005-TAAL, Joint Test Assembly DU Sites; (5) CAS TA-52-006-TAPL, Depleted Uranium Site; and (6) CAS TA-54-001-TANL, Containment Tank and Steel Structure

Bechel Nevada

2004-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

Facile synthesis of five 2D surface modifiers by highly selective photocyclic aromatization and efficient enhancement of oxygen permselectivities of three polymer membranes by surface modification using a small amount of the 2D surface modifiers  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract A facile synthesis of novel five 2D (planar) surface modifiers having a triphenylbenzene derivatives as a 2D structure has been achieved by the highly selective photocyclic aromatization reaction. Efficient enhancement of oxygen permselectivities through the three polymer membranes has been achieved by adding a small amount (<5.0wt%) of the 2D surface modifiers. Among the five 2D surface modifiers, a modifier compound having oligoethylene oxide groups showed the best performance for the enhancement. These improvements were thought to be caused mainly by improvement of the solution selectivity on the membrane surface where the 2D surface modifiers were accumulated. In some of the surface-modified blend membranes, their plots in the P O 2 -? graph were over or close to the upper boundary line by Robeson in 1991. Since all the membranes containing the 2D surface modifiers showed better permselectivities than the corresponding substrate membranes, it is very promising for the future.

Jianjun Wang; Yu Zang; Guanwu Yin; Toshiki Aoki; Hiroyuki Urita; Ken Taguwa; Lijia Liu; Takeshi Namikoshi; Masahiro Teraguchi; Takashi Kaneko; Liqun Ma; Hongge Jia

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

203

Surface characterization of ordered intermetallic PtBi(001) surfaces by ultra-high vacuumelectrochemistry (UHVEC)  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Surface preparation and characterization of an ordered intermetallic PtBi(001) single crystal was performed by a combination of surface-sensitive electron spectroscopic techniques under ultra-high vacuum (UHV) conditions and conventional electrochemistry (EC). The atomic concentration of the clean surface was estimated (quantitative Auger analysis) as 54at% Pt and 46at% Bi; the LEED pattern exhibited a (1נ1) structure. These results are in good agreement with expectations for a Pt-terminated PtBi(001) crystal surface. The electrochemical studies of the clean, well-ordered and smooth PtBi(001) single crystal were carried out in an H2SO4 supporting electrolyte and indicated that the electrode surface is Pt-terminated with a behavior similar to that of a pure Pt electrode. However, the intermetallic phase was found to be more prone to surface oxidation in the studied potential window (?0.30V to +1.25V vs. Ag/AgCl (satd NaCl)). Chemisorption of SO 4 2 - / HSO 4 - species was observed at potentials positive of the open circuit potential (OCP). Cycling in a supporting electrolyte gave rise to roughening of the electrode surface. This change is due to the presence of the chemisorbed species on the electrode surface.

Jean Sanabria-Chinchilla; Hideki Abe; Francis J. DiSalvo; Hctor D. Abrua

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

Large-area, low-noise, high-speed, photodiode-based fluorescence detectors with fast overdrive recovery  

SciTech Connect

Two large-area, low-noise, high-speed fluorescence detectors have been built. One detector consists of a photodiode with an area of 28 mmx28 mm and a low-noise transimpedance amplifier. This detector has a input light-equivalent spectral noise density of less than 3 pW/{radical}(Hz), can recover from a large scattered light pulse within 10 {mu}s, and has a bandwidth of at least 900 kHz. The second detector consists of a 16-mm-diam avalanche photodiode and a low-noise transimpedance amplifier. This detector has an input light-equivalent spectral noise density of 0.08 pW/{radical}(Hz), also can recover from a large scattered light pulse within 10 {mu}s, and has a bandwidth of 1 MHz.

Bickman, S.; DeMille, D. [Physics Department, Yale University, P.O. Box 208120, SPL 23, New Haven, Connecticut 06520 (United States)

2005-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

205

Finding Large Aperture Fractures in Geothermal Resource Areas Using a Three-Component Long-Offset Surface Seismic Survey  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

DOE Geothermal Peer Review 2010 - Presentation. Project summary: Drilling into large aperture open fractures (LAFs) typically yield production wells with high productivity and low pressure drawdown. Developing geophysical and geologic techniques for identifying and precisely mapping LAFsin 3-D will greatly reduce dry hole risk and the overall number of wells required for reaching a particular geothermal field power capacity.

206

Surface damage on 6HSiC by highly-charged Xeq+ ions irradiation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Surface damage on 6HSiC irradiated by highly-charged Xeq+ (q=18, 26) ions to different fluences in two geometries was studied by means of AFM, Raman scattering spectroscopy and FTIR spectrometry. The FTIR spectra analysis shows that for Xe26+ ions irradiation at normal incidence, a deep reflection dip appears at about 930cm?1. Moreover, the reflectance on top of reststrahlen band decreases as the ion fluence increases, and the reflectance at tilted incidence is larger than that at normal incidence. The Raman scattering spectra reveal that for Xe26+ ions at normal incidence, surface reconstruction occurs and amorphous stoichiometric SiC and SiSi and CC bonds are generated and original SiC vibrational mode disappears. And the intensity of scattering peaks decreases with increasing dose. The AFM measurement shows that the surface swells after irradiation. With increasing ion fluence, the step height between the irradiated and the unirradiated region increases for Xe18+ ions irradiation; while for Xe26+ ions irradiation, the step height first increases and then decreases with increasing ion fluence. Moreover, the step height at normal incidence is higher than that at tilted incidence by the irradiation with Xe18+ to the same ion fluence. A good agreement between the results from the three methods is found.

L.Q. Zhang; C.H. Zhang; L.H. Han; C.L. Xu; J.J. Li; Y.T. Yang; Y. Song; J. Gou; J.Y. Li; Y.Z. Ma

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

Research Areas  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Areas Areas Research Areas Print Scientists from a wide variety of fields come to the ALS to perform experiements. Listed below are some of the most common research areas covered by ALS beamlines. Below each heading are a few examples of the specific types of topics included in that category. Click on a heading to learn more about that research area at the ALS. Energy Science Photovoltaics, photosynthesis, biofuels, energy storage, combustion, catalysis, carbon capture/sequestration. Bioscience General biology, structural biology. Materials/Condensed Matter Correlated materials, nanomaterials, magnetism, polymers, semiconductors, water, advanced materials. Physics Atomic, molecular, and optical (AMO) physics; accelerator physics. Chemistry Surfaces/interfaces, catalysts, chemical dynamics (gas-phase chemistry), crystallography, physical chemistry.

208

Detection of high-energy adsorbate vibrational modes by atom-surface scattering Yarong Tang and J. R. Manson  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Detection of high-energy adsorbate vibrational modes by atom-surface scattering Yarong Tang and J modes of surface adsorbates can produce very characteristic signature features in the observable the substrate and other low-energy adsorbate modes. Calculations for the scattering of rare gases from several

Manson, Joseph R.

209

High-Latitude Ocean and Sea Ice Surface Fluxes: Challenges for Climate Research1 Mark A. Bourassa1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

), and in 2008, the Wilkins Ice Shelf51 collapsed equally quickly (Scambos et al. 2009). Ocean heat content1 High-Latitude Ocean and Sea Ice Surface Fluxes: Challenges for Climate Research1 2 Mark A-latitude surface fluxes will require close collaboration among meteorologists,33 oceanographers, ice physicists

Gille, Sarah T.

210

Seismic Technology Adapted to Analyzing and Developing Geothermal Systems Below Surface-Exposed High-Velocity Rocks  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Improved seismic imaging of geology across high-velocity Earth surfaces will allow more rigorous evaluation of geothermal prospects beneath volcanic outcrops. Seismic-based quantification of fracture orientation and intensity will result in optimal positioning of geothermal wells.

211

Optimization of nonbinary slanted surface-relief gratings as high-efficiency broadband couplers for light guides  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We propose and investigate the use of slanted surface-relief gratings with nonbinary profiles as high-efficiency broadband couplers for light guides. First, a Chandezon-method-based...

Bai, Benfeng; Laukkanen, Janne; Kuittinen, Markku; Siitonen, Samuli

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

Investigation of the delay time distribution of high power microwave surface flashover  

SciTech Connect

Characterizing and modeling the statistics associated with the initiation of gas breakdown has proven to be difficult due to a variety of rather unexplored phenomena involved. Experimental conditions for high power microwave window breakdown for pressures on the order of 100 to several 100 torr are complex: there are little to no naturally occurring free electrons in the breakdown region. The initial electron generation rate, from an external source, for example, is time dependent and so is the charge carrier amplification in the increasing radio frequency (RF) field amplitude with a rise time of 50 ns, which can be on the same order as the breakdown delay time. The probability of reaching a critical electron density within a given time period is composed of the statistical waiting time for the appearance of initiating electrons in the high-field region and the build-up of an avalanche with an inherent statistical distribution of the electron number. High power microwave breakdown and its delay time is of critical importance, since it limits the transmission through necessary windows, especially for high power, high altitude, low pressure applications. The delay time distribution of pulsed high power microwave surface flashover has been examined for nitrogen and argon as test gases for pressures ranging from 60 to 400 torr, with and without external UV illumination. A model has been developed for predicting the discharge delay time for these conditions. The results provide indications that field induced electron generation, other than standard field emission, plays a dominant role, which might be valid for other gas discharge types as well.

Foster, J.; Krompholz, H.; Neuber, A. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Center for Pulsed Power and Power Electronics, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas 79409-3102 (United States)

2011-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

213

Nanoporous, Metal Carbide, Surface Diffusion Membranes for High Temperature Hydrogen Separations  

SciTech Connect

Colorado School of Mines (CSM) developed high temperature, hydrogen permeable membranes that contain no platinum group metals with the goal of separating hydrogen from gas mixtures representative of gasification of carbon feedstocks such as coal or biomass in order to meet DOE NETL 2015 hydrogen membrane performance targets. We employed a dual synthesis strategy centered on transition metal carbides. In the first approach, novel, high temperature, surface diffusion membranes based on nanoporous Mo{sub 2}C were fabricated on ceramic supports. These were produced in a two step process that consisted of molybdenum oxide deposition followed by thermal carburization. Our best Mo{sub 2}C surface diffusion membrane achieved a pure hydrogen flux of 367 SCFH/ft{sup 2} at a feed pressure of only 20 psig. The highest H{sub 2}/N{sub 2} selectivity obtained with this approach was 4.9. A transport model using dusty gas theory was derived to describe the hydrogen transport in the Mo{sub 2}C coated, surface diffusion membranes. The second class of membranes developed were dense metal foils of BCC metals such as vanadium coated with thin (< 60 nm) Mo{sub 2}C catalyst layers. We have fabricated a Mo{sub 2}C/V composite membrane that in pure gas testing delivered a H{sub 2} flux of 238 SCFH/ft{sup 2} at 600 C and 100 psig, with no detectable He permeance. This exceeds the 2010 DOE Target flux. This flux is 2.8 times that of pure Pd at the same membrane thickness and test conditions and over 79% of the 2015 flux target. In mixed gas testing we achieved a permeate purity of ?99.99%, satisfying the permeate purity milestone, but the hydrogen permeance was low, ~0.2 SCFH/ft{sup 2}.psi. However, during testing of a Mo{sub 2}C coated Pd alloy membrane with DOE 1 feed gas mixture a hydrogen permeance of >2 SCFH/ft{sup 2}.psi was obtained which was stable during the entire test, meeting the permeance associated with the 2010 DOE target flux. Lastly, the Mo{sub 2}C/V composite membranes were shown to be stable for at least 168 hours = one week, including cycling at high temperature and alternating He/H{sub 2} exposure.

Way, J.; Wolden, Colin

2013-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

214

Post-Closure Inspection and Monitoring Report for Corrective Action Unit 417: Central Nevada Test Area Surface, Hot Creek Valley, Nevada For Calendar Year 2006  

SciTech Connect

Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 417, Central Nevada Test Area - Surface, is located in Hot Creek Valley in northern Nye County, Nevada, and consists of three areas commonly referred to as UC-1, UC-3, and UC-4. CAU 417 consists of 34 Corrective Action Sites (CASs) which were closed in 2000 (U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office, 2001). Three CASs at UC-1 were closed in place with administrative controls. At CAS 58-09-01, Central Mud Pit (CMP), a vegetated soil cover was constructed over the mud pit. At the remaining two sites, CAS 58-09-02, Mud Pit, and CAS 58-09-05, Mud Pits (3), aboveground monuments and warning signs were installed to mark the CAS boundaries. Three CASs at UC-3 were closed in place with administrative controls. Aboveground monuments and warning signs were installed to mark the site boundaries at CAS 58-09-06, Mud Pits (5), CAS 58-25-01, Spill, and CAS 58-10-01, Shaker Pad Area. Two CASs that consist of five sites at UC-4 were closed in place with administrative controls. At CAS 58-09-03, Mud Pits (5), an engineered soil cover was constructed over Mud Pit C. At the remaining three sites in CAS 58-09-03 and at CAS 58-10-05, Shaker Pad Area, aboveground monuments and warning signs were installed to mark the site boundaries. The remaining 26 CASs at CAU 417 were either clean-closed or closed by taking no further action.

None

2007-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

215

Research Areas  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Research Areas Print Research Areas Print Scientists from a wide variety of fields come to the ALS to perform experiements. Listed below are some of the most common research areas covered by ALS beamlines. Below each heading are a few examples of the specific types of topics included in that category. Click on a heading to learn more about that research area at the ALS. Energy Science Photovoltaics, photosynthesis, biofuels, energy storage, combustion, catalysis, carbon capture/sequestration. Bioscience General biology, structural biology. Materials/Condensed Matter Correlated materials, nanomaterials, magnetism, polymers, semiconductors, water, advanced materials. Physics Atomic, molecular, and optical (AMO) physics; accelerator physics. Chemistry Surfaces/interfaces, catalysts, chemical dynamics (gas-phase chemistry), crystallography, physical chemistry.

216

Surface Science 150 (1985) 351-357 North-Holland, Amsterdam  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

with this reaction compare favorably with the corresponding values found for high-area, supported nickel catalysts and coworkers have 12-43 mod- eled nickel and ruthenium high-surface-area catalysts with Ni and Ru single chosen for study is carbon monoxide methanation CO+3H,+CH4+H,0. (1) Studies of this reaction over high-surface-area

Goodman, Wayne

217

Anomalous Fermi-Surface Dependent Pairing in a Self-Doped High-Tc Superconductor  

SciTech Connect

We report the discovery of a self-doped multi-layer high T{sub c} superconductor Ba{sub 2}Ca{sub 3}Cu{sub 4}O{sub 8}F{sub 2} (F0234) which contains distinctly different superconducting gap magnitudes along its two Fermi surface(FS) sheets. While formal valence counting would imply this material to be an undoped insulator, it is a self-doped superconductor with a T{sub c} of 60K, possessing simultaneously both electron- and hole-doped FS sheets. Intriguingly, the FS sheet characterized by the much larger gap is the electron-doped one, which has a shape disfavoring two electronic features considered to be important for the pairing mechanism: the van Hove singularity and the antiferromagnetic ({pi}/a, {pi}/a) scattering.

Chen, Y.

2010-05-03T23:59:59.000Z

218

High frequency atmospheric cold plasma treatment system for materials surface processing  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The paper presents a new laboratory-made plasma treatment system. The power source which generates the plasma is based on a modern half-bridge type inverter circuit working at a frequency of 4 MHz and giving an output power of about 200 W. The inverter is fed directly from the mains voltage and features high speed protection circuits for both over voltage and over current protection making the system light and easy to operate. The output of the inverter is connected to the resonant circuit formed by a Tesla coil and the dielectric barrier discharge plasma chamber. The plasma is generated at atmospheric pressure in argon helium or mixtures of helium and small quantities of argon. It is a cold discharge (Tgas plasma generates chemically active species especially O and OH which could be important in various applications such as the treatment and processing of materials surfaces.

Cristian D. Tudoran; Vasile Surducan; Sorin D. Anghel

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

219

POST CLOSURE INSPECTION AND MONITORING REPORT FOR CORRECTIVE ACTION UNIT 417: CENTRAL NEVADA TEST AREA - SURFACE, HOT CREEK VALLEY, NEVADA, FOR CALENDAR YEAR 2004  

SciTech Connect

This post-closure inspection and monitoring report has been prepared according to the stipulations laid out in the Closure Report (CR) for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 417, Central Nevada Test Area (CNTA)--Surface (U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office [NNSA/NV], 2001), and the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO, 1996). This report provides an analysis and summary of site inspections, subsidence surveys, meteorological information, and soil moisture monitoring data for CAU 417, which is located in Hot Creek Valley, Nye County, Nevada. This report covers Calendar Year 2004. Inspections at CAU 417 are conducted quarterly to document the physical condition of the UC-1, UC-3, and UC-4 soil covers, monuments, signs, fencing, and use restricted areas. The physical condition of fencing, monuments, and signs is noted, and any unusual conditions that could impact the integrity of the covers are reported. The objective of the soil moisture monitoring program is to monitor the stability of soil moisture conditions within the upper 1.2 meters (m) (4 feet [ft]) of the UC-1 Central Mud Pit (CMP) cover and detect changes that may be indicative of moisture movement exceeding the cover design performance expectations.

BECHTEL NEVADA; NNSA NEVADA SITE OFFICE

2005-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

Method and apparatus for fabrication of high gradient insulators with parallel surface conductors spaced less than one millimeter apart  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Optical patterns and lithographic techniques are used as part of a process to embed parallel and evenly spaced conductors in the non-planar surfaces of an insulator to produce high gradient insulators. The approach extends the size that high gradient insulating structures can be fabricated as well as improves the performance of those insulators by reducing the scale of the alternating parallel lines of insulator and conductor along the surface. This fabrication approach also substantially decreases the cost required to produce high gradient insulators.

Sanders, David M. (Livermore, CA); Decker, Derek E. (Livermore, CA)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high surface area" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Site characterization summary report for dry weather surface water sampling upper East Fork Poplar Creek characterization area Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

This report describes activities associated with conducting dry weather surface water sampling of Upper East Fork Poplar Creek (UEFPC) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. This activity is a portion of the work to be performed at UEFPC Operable Unit (OU) 1 [now known as the UEFPC Characterization Area (CA)], as described in the RCRA Facility Investigation Plan for Group 4 at the Oak- Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee and in the Response to Comments and Recommendations on RCRA Facility Investigation Plan for Group 4 at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, Volume 1, Operable Unit 1. Because these documents contained sensitive information, they were labeled as unclassified controlled nuclear information and as such are not readily available for public review. To address this issue the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) published an unclassified, nonsensitive version of the initial plan, text and appendixes, of this Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Facility Investigation (RFI) Plan in early 1994. These documents describe a program for collecting four rounds of wet weather and dry weather surface water samples and one round of sediment samples from UEFPC. They provide the strategy for the overall sample collection program including dry weather sampling, wet weather sampling, and sediment sampling. Figure 1.1 is a schematic flowchart of the overall sampling strategy and other associated activities. A Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPJP) was prepared to specifically address four rounds of dry weather surface water sampling and one round of sediment sampling. For a variety of reasons, sediment sampling has not been conducted and has been deferred to the UEFPC CA Remedial Investigation (RI), as has wet weather sampling.

NONE

1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

222

Antibody-functionalized nanoporous surfaces enable high throughput specific cell capture  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Adhesion-based cell capture on surfaces in microfluidic devices forms the basis of numerous biomedical diagnostics and in vitro assays. Solid surface microfluidic platforms have been widely explored for biomedical diagnostics ...

Mittal, Sukant

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

Global surface currents: a high-resolution product for investigating ocean dynamics  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A global 1/4 resolution product of surface currents has been developed by the Centre de ... Ocans et de lHydrosphre. The surface current is calculated from a combination of Ekman currents derived from wind es...

Joel Sudre; Rosemary A. Morrow

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

224

Spectroscopy of H3+ based on a new high-accuracy global potential energy surface  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...of various potential energy surfaces of In order to fully appreciate the quality of the PES presented...Molecular potential energy functions. Chichester...Csaszar 2012 Calibration-quality adiabatic potential energy surfaces for H and its...

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

A high-order accurate accelerated direct solver for acoustic scattering from surfaces  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We describe an accelerated direct solver for the integral equations which model low-frequency acoustic scattering from curved surfaces. Surfaces are specified via a collection of smooth parameterizations given...

James Bremer; Adrianna Gillman; Per-Gunnar Martinsson

2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

226

Large Surface Area Ordered Porous Carbons via Nanocasting Zeolite 10X and High Performance for Hydrogen Storage Application  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Qingdao Institute of Bioenergy and Bioprocess Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266101, Peoples Republic of China ... Zeolites with well-defined nanopores are good candidates for preparing ordered carbons, and some excellent reviews available in literatures have fully reviewed the fields of template method for preparing ordered micro- or mesoporous carbons. ... It should be noted that this is not a comprehensive review article as such reviews are available in the literature. ...

Jinjun Cai; Liangjun Li; Xiaoxia Lv; Chunpeng Yang; Xuebo Zhao

2013-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

227

GaAs Clusters in the Quantum Size Regime: Growth on High Surface Area Silica by Molecular Beam Epitaxy  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...cathodoluminescence ex-periments. Many useful comments on our manu-script were made by K. Kash, J. M. Worlock, and M. Saifi. We are especially gratefill to D. E. Aspnes for making concrete suggestions for the improvement ofour report. 8 May 1989...

C. J. SANDROFF; J. P. HARBISON; R. RAMESH; M. J. ANDREJCO; M. S. HEGDE; C. C. CHANG; E. M. VOGEL; D. M. HWANG

1989-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

228

Method Development to Evaluate the Oxygen Reduction Activity of High-Surface-Area Catalysts for Li-Air Batteries  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This study presents a new method to quantitatively determine the electrocatalytic activity of Vulcan carbon and Vulcan-supported Au nanoparticles, dispersed as catalyst thin films on glass carbon, for oxygen reduction in ...

Lu, Yi-Chun

229

Proceedings of 1999 U.S./Japan Workshop (99FT-05) On High Heat Flux Components and Plasma Surface Interactions for Next Fusion Devices  

SciTech Connect

The 1999 US-Japan Workshop on High Heat Flux Components and Plasma Surface Interactions in Next Step Fusion Devices was held at the St. Francis Hotel in Santa Fe, New Mexico, on November 1-4, 1999. There were 42 presentations as well as discussion on technical issues and planning for future collaborations. The participants included 22 researchers from Japan and the United States as well as seven researchers from Europe and Russia. There have been important changes in the programs in both the US and Japan in the areas of plasma surface interactions and plasma facing components. The US has moved away from a strong focus on the ITER Project and has introduced new programs on use of liquid surfaces for plasma facing components, and operation of NSTX has begun. In Japan, the Large Helical Device began operation. This is the first large world-class confinement device operating in a magnetic configuration different than a tokamak. In selecting the presentations for this workshop, the organizers sought a balance between research in laboratory facilities or confinement devices related to plasma surface interactions and experimental research in the development of plasma facing components. In discussions about the workshop itself, the participants affirmed their preference for a setting where ''work-in-progress'' could be informally presented and discussed.

NYGREN,RICHARD E.; STAVROS,DIANA T.

2000-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

230

Large Area Divertor Temperature Measurements Using A High-speed Camera With Near-infrared FiIters in NSTX  

SciTech Connect

Fast cameras already installed on the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) have be equipped with near-infrared (NIR) filters in order to measure the surface temperature in the lower divertor region. Such a system provides a unique combination of high speed (> 50 kHz) and wide fi eld-of-view (> 50% of the divertor). Benchtop calibrations demonstrated the system's ability to measure thermal emission down to 330 oC. There is also, however, signi cant plasma light background in NSTX. Without improvements in background reduction, the current system is incapable of measuring signals below the background equivalent temperature (600 - 700 oC). Thermal signatures have been detected in cases of extreme divertor heating. It is observed that the divertor can reach temperatures around 800 oC when high harmonic fast wave (HHFW) heating is used. These temperature profiles were fi t using a simple heat diffusion code, providing a measurement of the heat flux to the divertor. Comparisons to other infrared thermography systems on NSTX are made.

Lyons, B C; Zweben, S J; Gray, T K; Hosea, J; Kaita, R; Kugel, H W; Maqueda, R J; McLean, A G; Roquemore, A L; Soukhanovskii, V A

2011-04-05T23:59:59.000Z

231

High-resolution shear-wave reflection profiling to image offset in unconsolidated near-surface sediments  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

High-resolution shear-wave reflection profiling to image offset in unconsolidated near-surface sediments By Copyright 2014 Bevin L. Bailey Submitted to the Department of Geology and the Graduate Faculty of the University of Kansas... offset in unconsolidated near-surface sediments ________________________________ Chairperson Richard D. Miller Date approved: April 4th, 2014 iii Abstract S-wave reflection profiling has many theoretical...

Bailey, Bevin

2014-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

232

Generation of uniform large-area very high frequency plasmas by launching two specific standing waves simultaneously  

SciTech Connect

With the characteristics of higher electron density and lower ion bombardment energy, large-area VHF (very high frequency) plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition has become an essential manufacturing equipment to improve the production throughput and efficiency of thin film silicon solar cell. However, the combination of high frequency and large electrodes leads to the so-called standing wave effect causing a serious problem for the deposition uniformity of silicon thin film. In order to address this issue, a technique based on the idea of simultaneously launching two standing waves that possess similar amplitudes and are out of phase by 90 in time and space is proposed in this study. A linear plasma reactor with discharge length of 54?cm is tested with two different frequencies including 60 and 80 MHz. The experimental results show that the proposed technique could effectively improve the non-uniformity of VHF plasmas from >60% when only one standing wave is applied to <10% once two specific standing waves are launched at the same time. Moreover, in terms of the reactor configuration adopted in this study, in which the standing wave effect along the much shorter dimension can be ignored, the proposed technique is applicable to different frequencies without the need to alter the number and arrangement of power feeding points.

Chen, Hsin-Liang, E-mail: hlchen@iner.gov.tw; Tu, Yen-Cheng; Hsieh, Cheng-Chang; Lin, Deng-Lain [Physics Division, Institute of Nuclear Energy Research (INER), Longtan, Taoyuan County 32546, Taiwan (China); Leou, Keh-Chyang [Department of Engineering and System Science, National Tsing Hua University, 101, Section 2, Kuang-Fu Road, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China)

2014-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

233

Post-Closure Inspection and Monitoring Report for Corrective Action Unit 417: Central Nevada Test Area Surface, Hot Creek Valley, Nevada, for Calendar Year 2007  

SciTech Connect

This report presents data collected during the annual post-closure site inspection conducted at the Central Nevada Test Area Surface Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 417 in May 2007. The annual post-closure site inspection included inspections of the UC-1, UC-3, and UC-4 sites in accordance with the Post-Closure Monitoring Plan provided in the CAU 417 Closure Report (NNSA/NV 2001). The annual inspection conducted at the UC-1 Central Mud Pit (CMP) indicated the site and soil cover were in good condition. No new cracks or fractures were observed in the soil cover during the annual inspection. A crack on the west portion of the cover was observed during the last quarterly inspection in December 2006. This crack was filled with bentonite as part of the maintenance activities conducted in February 2007 and will be monitored during subsequent annual inspections. The vegetation on the soil cover was adequate but showing signs of the area's ongoing drought. No issues were identified with the CMP fence, gate, or subsidence monuments. New DOE Office of Legacy Management signs with updated emergency phone numbers were installed as part of this annual inspection, no issues were identified with the warning signs and monuments at the other two UC-1 locations. The annual subsidence survey was conducted at UC-1 CMP and UC-4 Mud Pit C as part of the maintenance activities conducted in February 2007. The results of the subsidence surveys indicate that the covers are performing as expected, and no unusual subsidence was observed. A vegetation survey of the UC-1 CMP cover and adjacent areas was conducted as part of the annual inspection in May 2007. The vegetation survey indicated that revegetation continues to be successful, although stressed due to the area's prevailing drought conditions. The vegetation should continue to be monitored to document any changes in the plant community and to identify conditions that could potentially require remedial action to maintain a viable vegetation cover on the site. It is suggested that future vegetation surveys be conducted once every 2 years or as needed to help monitor the health of the vegetation.

None

2008-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

234

Chemical Environment at Waste Package Surfaces in a High-Level Radioactive Waste Repository  

SciTech Connect

We have conducted a series of deliquescence, boiling point, chemical transformation, and evaporation experiments to determine the composition of waters likely to contact waste package surfaces over the thermal history of the repository as it heats up and cools back down to ambient conditions. In the above-boiling period, brines will be characterized by high nitrate to chloride ratios that are stable to higher temperatures than previously predicted. This is clearly shown for the NaCl-KNO{sub 3} salt system in the deliquescence and boiling point experiments in this report. Our results show that additional thermodynamic data are needed in nitrate systems to accurately predict brine stability and composition due to salt deliquescence in dust deposited on waste package surfaces. Current YMP models capture dry-out conditions but not composition for NaCl-KNO{sub 3} brines, and they fail to predict dry-out conditions for NaCl-KNO{sub 3}-NaNO{sub 3} brines. Boiling point and deliquescence experiments are needed in NaCl-KNO{sub 3}-NaNO{sub 3} and NaCl-KNO{sub 3}-NaNO{sub 3}-Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} systems to directly determine dry-out conditions and composition, because these salt mixtures are also predicted to control brine composition in the above-boiling period. Corrosion experiments are needed in high temperature and high NO{sub 3}:Cl brines to determine if nitrate inhibits corrosion in these concentrated brines at temperatures above 160 C. Chemical transformations appear to be important for pure calcium- and magnesium-chloride brines at temperatures greater than 120 C. This stems from a lack of acid gas volatility in NaCl/KNO{sub 3} based brines and by slow CO{sub 2}(g) diffusion in alkaline brines. This suggests that YMP corrosion models based on bulk solution experiments over the appropriate composition, temperature, and relative humidity range can be used to predict corrosion in thin brine films formed by salt deliquescence. In contrast to the above-boiling period, the below-boiling period is characterized predominately by NaCl based brines with minor amounts of K, NO{sub 3}, Ca, Mg, F, and Br at less than 70% relative humidity. These brines are identified as sulfate and bicarbonate brines by the chemical divide theory. Nitrate to chloride ratios are strongly tied to relative humidity and halite solubility. Once the relative humidity is low enough to produce brines saturated with respect to halite, then NO{sub 3}:Cl increases to levels and may inhibit corrosion. In addition to the more abundant NaCl-based brines some measured pore waters will evaporate towards acid NaCl-CaCl{sub 2} brines. Acid volatility also occurs with this brine type indicating that chemical transformations may be important in thin films. In contrast to the above-boiling period, comparison of our experimental data with calculated data suggest that current YMP geochemical models adequately predict in-drift chemistry in the below-boiling period.

Carroll, S; Alai, M; Craig, L; Gdowski, G; Hailey, P; Nguyen, Q A; Rard, J; Staggs, K; Sutton, M; Wolery, T

2005-05-26T23:59:59.000Z

235

Thermogravimetric and Microgravimetric Studies of the Surface Properties of a High-temperature Superconductor  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper presents possible applications of thermal analysis, sorptomatic and microgravimetric methods for the study of surface adsorption and porosity properties via the programmed thermodesorption of liquid fr...

P. Staszczuk; G. W. Ch?dzy?ski; D. Sternik

236

Assessment of fission product content of high-level liquid waste supernate on E-Area vault package criteria  

SciTech Connect

This report assesses the tank farm`s high level waste supernate to determine any potential impacts on waste certification for the E-Area vaults (EAV). The Waste Acceptance Criteria procedure (i.e., WAC 3.10 of the 1S manual) imposes administrative controls on radioactive material in waste packages sent to the EAV, specifically on six fission products. Waste tank supernates contain various fission products, so any waste package containing material contaminated with supernate will contain these radioactive isotopes. This report develops the process knowledge basis for characterizing the supernate composition for these isotopes, so that appropriate controls can be implemented to ensure that the EAV WAC is met. Six fission products are listed in the SRS 1S Manual WAC 3.10: Se-79, which decays to bromine; Sr-90, which decays to niobium; Tc-99, which decays to ruthenium; Sn-126, which decays to tellurium; I-129, which decays to xenon; and Cs-137, which decays to barium.

Brown, D.F.

1994-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

237

Experimental investigation of highly effective plate-fin heat exchanger surfaces  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Results are presented of an experimental investigation of a new convective rational heat transfer augmentation law in plate-fin heat exchanger surfaces. This law is characterized by Nu/Nusm ? ?/?sm by comparing channels (heat transfer surfaces) with vortex promoters with similar smooth channels at equal Reynolds numbers. For experimental confirmation and investigation of this law, heat exchanger cores having three different plate-fin surfaces were developed and manufactured. Two surfaces are formed by short offset channels (interrupted surfaces) of equilateral triangular and rectangular cross sections. The third surface has channels of isosceles triangular cross sections, with transverse projections and grooves along the channel length direction. The experimental results and correlations are reported for the three surfaces. The experiments were conducted in a wind tunnel with specially developed precise instrumentation that ensured experimental uncertainties of ?? = 2.3% and ?Re = 1.7% at a 0.997 confidence level. Analysis of the results indicated that the fundamental character and causes limiting rational heat transfer augmentation to Nu/Nusm ? ?/?sm depend upon the heat transfer surface configuration. This paper consolidates the author's research on the subject reported in the Russian language over the last 25 years.

E.V. Dubrovsky

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

Post-Closure Inspection and Monitoring Report for Corrective Action Unit 417: Central Nevada Test Area Surface, Hot Creek Valley, Nevada  

SciTech Connect

This report presents results of data collected during the annual post-closure site inspections conducted at the Central Nevada Test Area surface Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 417 in May 2011 and July 2012. The annual post-closure site inspections included inspections of the UC-1, UC-3, and UC-4 sites in accordance with the Post-Closure Monitoring Plan provided in the CAU 417 Closure Report (NNSA/NV 2001). The annual inspections conducted at the UC-1 Central Mud Pit (CMP) indicated that the site and soil cover were in good condition. No new fractures or extension of existing fractures were observed and no issues with the fence or gate were identified. The vegetation on the cover continues to look healthy, but the biennial vegetation survey conducted during the 2012 inspection indicated that the total foliar cover was slightly higher in 2009 than in 2012. This may be indicative of a decrease in precipitation observed during the 2-year monitoring period. The precipitation totaled 9.9 inches from July 1, 2010, through June 30, 2011, and 5 inches from July 1, 2011, through June 30, 2012. This decrease in precipitation is also evident in the soil moisture data obtained from the time domain reflectometry sensors. Soil moisture content data show that the UC-1 cover is performing as designed, and evapotranspiration is effectively removing water from the cover.

None

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

239

Preparation of surface modified zinc oxide nanoparticle with high capacity dye removal ability  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: ? Amine-functionalized zinc oxide nanoparticle (AFZON) was synthesized. ? Isotherm and kinetics data followed Langmuir isotherm and pseudo-second order kinetic model, respectively. ? Q{sub 0} of ZON for AB25, DR23 and DR31 was 20, 12 and 15 mg/g, respectively. ? Q{sub 0} of AFZON for AB25, DR23 and DR31 was 1250, 1000 and 1429 mg/g, respectively. ? AFZON was regenerated at pH 12. -- Abstract: In this paper, the surface modification of zinc oxide nanoparticle (ZON) by amine functionalization was studied to prepare high capacity adsorbent. Dye removal ability of amine-functionalized zinc oxide nanoparticle (AFZON) and zinc oxide nanoparticle (ZON) was also investigated. The physical characteristics of AFZON were studied using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Acid Blue 25 (AB25), Direct Red 23 (DR23) and Direct Red 31 (DR31) were used as model compounds. The effect of operational parameters such as dye concentration, adsorbent dosage, pH and salt on dye removal was evaluated. The isotherm and kinetic of dye adsorption were studied. The maximum dye adsorption capacity (Q{sub 0}) was 20 mg/g AB25, 12 mg/g DR23 and 15 mg/g DR31 for ZON and 1250 mg/g AB25, 1000 mg/g DR23 and 1429 mg/g DR31 for AFZON. It was found that dye adsorption followed Langmuir isotherm. Adsorption kinetic of dyes was found to conform to pseudo-second order kinetics. Dye desorption tests (adsorbent regeneration) showed that the maximum dye release of 90% AB25, 86% for DR23 and 90% for DR31 were achieved in aqueous solution at pH 12. Based on the data of the present investigation, it can be concluded that the AFZON being an adsorbent with high dye adsorption capacity might be a suitable alternative to remove dyes from colored aqueous solutions.

Mahmoodi, Niyaz Mohammad, E-mail: nm_mahmoodi@yahoo.com [Department of Environmental Research, Institute for Color Science and Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Najafi, Farhood [Department of Resin and Additives, Institute for Color Science and Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)] [Department of Resin and Additives, Institute for Color Science and Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2012-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

240

Turbine vanes experience high convective surface heat transfer as a consequence of the turbulent flow exiting the combustor. Before im-  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 Abstract Turbine vanes experience high convective surface heat transfer as a consequence region of the passage reacts as it passes between two adjacent turbine vanes. In this study, a scaled-up turbine vane geometry was used in a low-speed wind tunnel simulation. The test section included a cen

Thole, Karen A.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high surface area" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Highly Ordered Ga Nanodroplets on a GaAs Surface Formed by a Focused Ion Beam Qiangmin Wei,1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Highly Ordered Ga Nanodroplets on a GaAs Surface Formed by a Focused Ion Beam Qiangmin Wei,1 Jie Lian,2,3 Wei Lu,4 and Lumin Wang1,5,* 1 Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University Arbor, Michigan 48109, USA 3 Department of Mechanical, Aerospace and Nuclear Engineering, Rensselaer

Lu, Wei

242

High-Latitude Ocean and Sea Ice Surface Fluxes: Challenges for Climate Research Mark A. Bourassa1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, the Wilkins Ice Shelf collapsed equally quickly (Scambos et al. 2009). Ocean heat content is rising rapidlyHigh-Latitude Ocean and Sea Ice Surface Fluxes: Challenges for Climate Research Mark A. Bourassa1 conditions for the measurement and estimation of air­sea and ice fluxes, limiting understanding of related

Gille, Sarah T.

243

High-Latitude Ocean and Sea Ice Surface Fluxes: Challenges for Climate Research1 Mark A. Bourassa1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

), and in 2008, the Wilkins Ice Shelf51 collapsed equally quickly (Scambos et al. 2009). Ocean heat content1 High-Latitude Ocean and Sea Ice Surface Fluxes: Challenges for Climate Research1 2 Mark A conditions for the measurement and estimation of air­27 sea and ice fluxes, limiting understanding of related

Gille, Sarah T.

244

High-Latitude Ocean and Sea Ice Surface Fluxes: Requirements and Challenges for Climate Mark Bourassa1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

temperatures, seasonal sea ice, and the remoteness of the regions all conspire to make observations difficult latitudes - the vertical exchanges of heat, momentum and material between the ocean, atmosphere and ice1 High-Latitude Ocean and Sea Ice Surface Fluxes: Requirements and Challenges for Climate Research

Gille, Sarah T.

245

ATOMIC-LAYER-DEPOSITED ALUMINUM OXIDE FOR THE SURFACE PASSIVATION OF HIGH-EFFICIENCY SILICON SOLAR CELLS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ATOMIC-LAYER-DEPOSITED ALUMINUM OXIDE FOR THE SURFACE PASSIVATION OF HIGH-EFFICIENCY SILICON SOLAR to those measured on reference cells passivated by an aluminum-annealed thermal SiO2, while those of the Al of aluminum ox- ide (Al2O3) grown by atomic layer deposition (ALD) pro- vide an excellent level of sur

246

Cation sorption on the muscovite (001) surface in chloride solutions using high-resolution X-ray reflectivity  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Cation sorption on the muscovite (001) surface in chloride solutions using high-resolution X of cation sorption at the (001) muscovite-water interface were investigated in 0.01 and 0.5 m KCl, Cs negative charge arising from structural heteroionic substitutions. This charge is balanced by the sorption

Jacobsen, Steven D.

247

Atomic structure of the high-temperature O/W(001)-(21) surface  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The surface reconstruction of the W(001) surface in the presence of oxygen has been studied by scanning tunneling microscopy. A two-domain (21) structure with domain size ?30 was observed after the oxygen-covered surface was annealed at >1000 C for <1 min. Tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy results support the missing-row model for the (21) structure; the preferred location for adsorbed oxygen is either the threefold-hollow site or a site on top of a W atom in the second layer.

J. A. Meyer; Y. Kuk; P. J. Estrup; P. J. Silverman

1991-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

248

Boiling during high-velocity impact of water droplets on a hot stainless steel surface  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...rho, V and p 0 are water density, impact velocity and atmospheric pressure, respectively. Assuming water vapour is a perfect...droplet-on-demand generator. Exp. Fluids. 34...of hot surfaces with water sprays. J. Heat Treating...

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

249

Experimental hydrodynamics of spherical projectiles impacting on a free surface using high speed imaging techniques  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis looks at the hydrodynamics of spherical projectiles impacting the free surface using a unique experimental WebLab facility. Experiments were performed to determine the force impact coefficients of spheres and ...

Laverty, Stephen Michael

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

250

High Resolution Study of Micro-Meter Particle Detachment and Resuspension on Different Surfaces  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In an effort to understand the resuspension phenomena, interactions of spherical micro-meter particles (glass beads (GB) and Stainless steel (SS)) were investigated experimentally on different surfaces (glass, ceramic, hardwood, metal and chemical...

Kassab, Asmaa 1983-

2012-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

251

Imaging the high-speed impact of microdrop on solid surface Ho-Young Kim  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and optical imaging system can be used to study the fuel spray behavior in internal combustion engines2 D/ and Re UD/ . Here , , and denote the drop density, the surface tension, and the viscosity

Kim, Ho-Young

252

High-Resolution Estimation of Near-Subsurface Water Content using Surface GPR Ground Wave Information  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-scarce agricultural areas. Conventional measurements of water content (such as from time domain reflectometry [TDR], neutron probe or gravimetric techniques) are intrusive and provide information at a 'point' scale, which

Rubin, Yoram

253

Optical and Thermal Characterization of High Reflective Surface with Applications in Thermal-Solar Technology  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Selective solar absorbing coating consists of a high thermal reflectance layer and high solar absorbance layer deposited over a substrate. In this work optical and thermal properties...

Macias, Juan Daniel; Ramirez Rincon, Jorge Andres; Lizama Tzec, Francisco Ivan; Ares Muzio, Oscar Eduardo; Oskam, Gerko; De Coss Gomez, Romeo; Alvarado Gil, Juan Jos

254

Optical and Thermal Characterization of High Reflection Surfaces with Applcations in Thermal-Solar Technology  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Selective solar absorbing coating consists of a high thermal reflectance layer and a high solar absorbance layer deposited over a substrate. In this work optical and thermal properties...

Macias, Juan Daniel; Ramirez Rincon, Jorge Andres; Lizama Tzec, Francisco Ivan; Ares Muzio, Oscar Eduardo; Oskam, Gerko; De Coss Gomez, Romeo; Alvarado Gil, Juan Jos

255

Modal Bin Hybrid Model: A Surface Area Consistent, Triple Moment Sectional Method for Use in Process-oriented Modeling of Atmospheric Aerosols  

SciTech Connect

A triple moment sectional method, Modal Bin Hybrid Model (MBHM), has been developed. In addition to number and mass (volume), surface area is predicted (and preserved), which is important for gas-to-particle mass transfer and light extinction cross section. The performance of MBHM was evaluated against double moment sectional (DMS) methods with various size resolutions up to BIN256 (BINx: x is number of sections over three orders of magnitude in size, ?logD = 3/x) for simulating evolution of particles under simultaneously occurring nucleation, condensation and coagulation processes. Because MBHM gives a physically consistent form of the intra-sectional distributions, errors and biases of MBHM at BIN4-8 resolution were almost equivalent to those of DMS at BIN16-32 resolution for various important variables such as the moments Mk (k: 0, 2, 3), dMk/dt, and the number and volume of particles larger than a certain diameter. Another important feature of MBHM is that only a single bin is adequate to simulate full aerosol dynamics for particles whose size distribution can be approximated by a single lognormal mode. This flexibility is useful for process-oriented (multi category and/or mixing state) modeling: primary aerosols whose size parameters would not differ substantially in time and space can be expressed by a single or a small number of modes, whereas secondary aerosols whose size changes drastically from one to several hundred nanometers can be expressed by a number of modes. Added dimensions can be applied to MBHM to represent mixing state or photo-chemical age for aerosol mixing state studies.

Kajino, Mizuo; Easter, Richard C.; Ghan, Steven J.

2013-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

256

Difference in Particle Transport Between Two Coastal Areas in the Baltic Sea Investigated with High-Resolution Trajectory  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

between the areas. Keywords Sediment Á Particle transport Á Particle-tracking model Á Resuspension Á and resuspension is, there- fore, of great interest. The use of Lagrangian particle tracking for modeling sediment

Döös, Kristofer

257

Oil vulnerability in the greater Toronto area: impacts of high fuel prices on urban form and environment  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The rising cost of fossil fuel is a recognized phenomenon, but its impact ... . Understanding how the socioeconomic impacts of rising fuel prices might be distributed across urban areas is...2007...)] by incorpor...

S. Akbari; K. Nurul Habib

2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

POST CLOSURE INSPECTION AND MONITORING REPORT FOR CORRECTIVE ACTION UNIT 417: CENTRAL NEVADA TEST AREA - SURFACE, HOT CREEK VALLEY, NEVADA; FOR CALENDAR YEAR 2005  

SciTech Connect

Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 417, Central Nevada Test Area - Surface, is located in Hot Creek Valley in northern Nye County, Nevada, and consists of three areas commonly referred to as UC-1, UC-3, and UC-4. CAU 417 consists of 34 Corrective Action Sites (CASs) which were closed in 2000 (U. S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office, 2001). Three CASs at UC-1 were closed in place with administrative controls. At CAS 58-09-01, Central Mud Pit (CMP), a vegetated soil cover was constructed over the mud pit. At the remaining two sites CAS 58-09-02, Mud Pit and 58-09-05, Mud Pits (3), aboveground monuments and warning signs were installed to mark the CAS boundaries. Three CASs at UC-3 were closed in place with administrative controls. Aboveground monuments and warning signs were installed to mark the site boundaries at CAS 58-09-06, Mud Pits (5), CAS 58-25-01, Spill and CAS 58-10-01, Shaker Pad Area. Two CASs that consist of five sites at UC-4 were closed in place with administrative controls. At CAS 58-09-03, Mud Pits 9, an engineered soil cover was constructed over Mud Pit C. At the remaining three sites in CAS 58-09-03 and at CAS 58-10-05, Shaker Pad Area, aboveground monuments and warning signs were installed to mark the site boundaries. The remaining 26 CASs at CAU 417 were either clean-closed or closed by taking no further action. Quarterly post-closure inspections are performed at the CASs that were closed in place at UC-I, UC-3, and UC-4. During calendar year 2005, site inspections were performed on March 15, June 16, September 22, and December 7. The inspections conducted at the UC-1 CMP documented that the site was in good condition and continued to show integrity of the cover unit. No new cracks or fractures were observed until the December inspection. A crack on the west portion of the cover showed evidence of lateral expansion; however, it is not at an actionable level. The crack will be sealed by filling with bentonite during the first quarter of 2006 and monitored during subsequent inspections. The cover vegetation was healthy and well established. No issues were identified with the CMP fence, gate, or subsidence monuments. No issues were identified with the warning signs and monuments at the other two UC-1 locations. The inspections at UC-3 indicated that the sites are in excellent condition. All monuments and signs showed no displacement, damage, or removal. A small erosion gully from spring rain runoff was observed during the June inspection, but it did not grow to an actionable level during 2005. No other issues or concerns were identified. Inspections performed at UC-4 Mud Pit C cover revealed that erosion rills were formed during March and September exposing the geosynthetic clay liner. Both erosion rills were repaired within 90 days of reporting. Sparse vegetation is present on the cover. The overall condition of the monuments, fence, and gate are in good condition. No issues were identified with the warning signs and monuments at the other four UC-4 locations. Subsidence surveys were conducted at UC-1 CMP and UC-4 Mud Pit C in March and September of 2005. The results of the subsidence surveys indicate that the covers are performing as expected, and no unusual subsidence was observed. The June vegetation survey of the UC-1 CMP cover and adjacent areas indicated that the revegetation has been very successful. The vegetation should continue to be monitored to document any changes in the plant community and identify conditions that could potentially require remedial action in order to maintain a viable vegetative cover on the site. Vegetation surveys should be conducted only as required. Precipitation during 2005 was above average, with an annual rainfall total of 21.79 centimeters (8.58 inches). Soil moisture content data show that the UC-1 CMP cover is performing as designed, with evapotranspiration effectively removing water from the cover. It is recommended to continue quarterly site inspections and the collection of soil moisture data for the UC-1 CMP cove

NONE

2006-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

259

Solid-phase synthesis of high-alumina cements by high-temperature treatment on the surface of molten cast iron  

SciTech Connect

The use of block and monolithic concreting technology in the construction of thermal power plants together with the technical and economic advantages arising from the use of high-alumina cements in the production of refractory concretes have made the development of new methods for the production of high-alumina cement clinkers mandatory. To this end the authors of this paper study the kinetics of synthesis of such clinkers obtained by their firing on the surface of molten cast iron as the heat transfer agent. Among the results presented are a structural and quantitative analysis of the clinker along with phase and activation energy studies.

Fedorov, N.F.; Gavrilov, A.P.; Ivanov, N.I.; Khalina, O.M.

1986-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

260

Surface preparation for ALD of High-k dielectrics on InGaAs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of ultra high-vacuum (UHV) system chamber. The scanninga) topology and (b) CPD of UHV cleaved InAs(110). (c) LineCurrent TMA Trimethyl Aluminum UHV Ultra High Vacuum xi V

Melitz, Wilhelm

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high surface area" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Fracture behavior of surface cracked wide plates of high strength steel containing overmatched repair welds  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents the experimental results of tests conducted using surface cracked wide plates containing overmatched repair weld joints. The deformation and fracture characteristics of the repair welded wideplates notched at the original weld deposit, repair weld and HAZ regions are discussed. The aim of this work was to investigate the effects of strength mis-match and notch position on the fracture performance of such complex weldments. Furthermore, the predictions of crack driving force using the Engineering Treatment Model for mis-matched welds (ETM-MM) procedure was compared with the results of the wide plates containing semielliptical surface cracks. For this study, 1/2K weld joints were prepared on 30 nm thick pipeline steel X65 plates by using a SAW process, resulting in 50% overmatching. Repair was performed at the cap side of the original joint up to half depth of plate thickness with a GMA welding process under hyperbaric conditions, leading to 41% yield strength overmatching. In order to assess the fracture behavior of these welds, surface cracked (semielliptic defects) wide plates containing original and repair welds were tested in tension at {minus}10 C. The surface cracked wide plate tests results have confirmed that overmatched repair weld metal can exert a significant effect on the deformation and fracture behavior of the wide plates. Wide plates containing root cracks clearly showed a shielding effect of the overmatched repair weld since it prevented development of through thickness ligament yielding.

Junghans, E.; Kocak, M.; Schwalbe, K.H. [GKSS Research Center, Geesthacht (Germany). Inst. of Materials Research

1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

Surface circulation in the Iroise Sea (W. Brittany) from high resolution HF radar mapping  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-induced surface currents and the vari- ational interpolation on a regular grid. Combining these processing is characterized by two distinct zones approximately separated by the 100 m isobath: in the offshore zone permanent anticyclonic eddies: north of the western extremity of the Sein archipelago, and north the Ushant

263

Near-ground cooling efficacies of trees and high-albedo surfaces  

SciTech Connect

Daytime summer urban heat islands arise when the prevalence of dark-colored surfaces and lack of vegetation make a city warmer than neighboring countryside. Two frequently-proposed summer heat island mitigation measures are to plant trees and to increase the albedo (solar reflectivity) of ground surfaces. This dissertation examines the effects of these measures on the surface temperature of an object near the ground, and on solar heating of air near the ground. Near-ground objects include people, vehicles, and buildings. The variation of the surface temperature of a near-ground object with ground albedo indicates that a rise in ground albedo will cool a near-ground object only if the object`s albedo exceeds a critical value. This critical value of object albedo depends on wind speed, object geometry, and the height of the atmospheric thermal boundary layer. It ranges from 0.15 to 0.37 for a person. If an object has typical albedo of 0.3, increasing the ground albedo by.

Levinson, R.M. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)

1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

264

Malignant Neoplasms among Residents of a Blackfoot Disease-endemic Area in Taiwan: High-Arsenic Artesian Well Water and Cancers  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...of this area also has a high salinity. For this reason, some residents...There was a decreasing gradient of BFD prevalence rate following...Ichu following a declining gradient of BFD prevalence rate. The...township. However, the declining gradient of SMRs was not in the order...

Chien-Jen Chen; Ya-Chien Chuang; Tong-Ming Lin; and Hsin-Yin Wu

1985-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

High resolution UHV-AFM surface analysis on polymeric materials: Baltic Amber  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this paper we present, for the first time, the results from Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) surface studies from freshly fractured Baltic Amber samples, carried out under ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) conditions from micrometer to nanometer resolution. The micrometric AFM images provide a structural clue to the birefringent behavior occasionally observed with amber samples. Two-dimensional pair-distance distributions of the nanometric AFM images prove the completely amorphous structure of the material. This, together with the detection of individual motifs such as aromatic rings, supports the notion of amber being an amorphous polymeric organic network, consistent with the accompanying X-Ray Photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) data. No nanocrystalline inclusions could be found. The results also show that it is possible to obtain atomically resolved AFM images from amorphous dielectric surfaces.

E. Barletta; K. Wandelt

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

266

Synthesis of graphene with both high nitrogen content and high surface area by annealing composite of graphene oxide and g-C3N4  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this paper, we propose a facile, catalyst-free thermal annealing approach for synthesis of N-doping graphene (NG) using graphitic carbon nitride (g...3N4) as the nitrogen source. Graphene with nitrogen content...

Yurong Deng; Kewei Liu; Hongmei Cao

2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

267

Cancer Mortality in the High Background Radiation Areas of Yangjiang, China during the Period between 1979 and 1995  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......In 1979, we established the Health Household Registry (HHR) in every village of...19871995, which was obtained by the China- Japan collaborative study. As shown in Table...conducted in our study area, we selected 30 households from each of the three dose groups in......

Zufan Tao; Yongru Zha; Suminori Akiba; Quanfu Sun; Jianming Zou; Jia Li; Yusheng Liu; Hiroo Kato; Tsutomu Sugahara; Luxin Wei

2000-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

268

HIGH AMPLITUDE VIBRATIONS DETECTION ON ROUGH SURFACES USING A PHOTOREFRACTIVE VELOCIMETER  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of a vibrating target. It is particularly adapted to the measurement of high amplitude (as high as some mm) low to be measured with common photorefractive semiconductors and CW lasers. Keywords : vibration measurement,3]. This sensor allows to make sensitive ultrasound vibration measurements on scattering objects. Nevertheless

269

Local antiferromagnetic exchange and collaborative Fermi surface as key ingredients of high temperature superconductors  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and ferrochalcogenides are three classes of unconventional high- temperature superconductors, who share similar phase interactions. Our result offers a principle guide to search for new high temperature superconductors. 1 ar temperature superconductors Jiangping Hu1, 2, and Hong Ding1, 1 Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed

Hu, Jiangping

270

Assessment of Geothermal Resource Potential at a High-Priority Area on the Utah Testing and Training RangeSouth (UTTRS)  

SciTech Connect

Field investigations conducted during 2011 support and expand the conclusion of the original Preliminary Report that discovery of a viable geothermal system is possible in the northwestern part of the Utah Testing and Training Range-South (UTTR-S), referred to henceforth as Focus Area 1. The investigations defined the southward extent of the Wendover graben into and near Focus Area 1, enhanced the understanding of subsurface conditions, and focused further geothermal exploration efforts towards the northwestern-most part of Focus Area 1. Specifically, the detailed gravity survey shows that the Wendover graben, first defined by Cook et al. (1964) for areas north of Interstate Highway 80, extends and deepens southwest-ward to the northwest corner of Focus Area 1. At its deepest point, the intersection with a northwest-trending graben there is favorable for enhanced permeability associated with intersecting faults. Processing and modeling of the gravity data collected during 2011 provide a good understanding of graben depth and distribution of faults bounding the graben and has focused the interest area of the study. Down-hole logging of temperatures in wells made available near the Intrepid, Inc., evaporation ponds, just north of Focus Area 1, provide a good understanding of the variability of thermal gradients in that area and corroborate the more extensive temperature data reported by Turk (1973) for the depth range of 300-500 m. Moderate temperature gradients in the northern part of the Intrepid area increase to much higher gradients and bottom-hole temperatures southeastward, towards graben-bounding faults, suggesting upwelling geothermal waters along those faults. Water sampling, analysis, and temperature measurements of Blue Lakes and Mosquito Willey's springs, on the western boundary of Focus Area 1, also show elevated temperatures along the graben-bounding fault system. In addition, water chemistry suggests origin of those waters in limestone rocks beneath the graben in areas with temperatures as high as 140 C (284 F). In conclusion, all of the field data collected during 2011 and documented in the Appendices of this report indicate that there is reasonable potential for a viable geothermal resource along faults that bound the Wendover graben. Prospects for a system capable of binary electrical generation are especially good, and the possibility of a flash steam system is also within reason. The next steps should focus on securing the necessary funding for detailed geophysical surveys and for drilling a set of temperature gradient wells to further evaluate the resource, and to focus deep exploration efforts in the most promising areas.

Richard P. Smith, PhD., PG; Robert P. Breckenridge, PhD.; Thomas R. Wood, PhD.

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

271

GIS-based pre-mining land damage assessment for underground coal mines in high groundwater area  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Coal mining cause different degrees of damage to both land and ecosystems. Evaluation of disturbed land is a fundamental and prerequisite work for land reclamation and rehabilitation. However, most of those evaluations were carried out when mining was under process or after it cease. This paper proposes an innovative assessment model for pre-evaluation which could be implemented before mining activity begins. A geographic information system (GIS) was constructed to evaluate land damage. Three natural condition factors and three geological condition factors were chosen for evaluation. The results show that: land damage was categorised as five degrees, which are negligible, slight, moderate, severe, and very severe. Furthermore, very severely damaged areas are mainly concentrated in the northwest part of the coal mine, whereas slight damaged areas are mainly concentrated in the southwest. The developed coupling technique was used to forecast land damage, and provide reference for reclamation work.

Wu Xiao; Zhenqi Hu

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

272

Modeling the Near-Surface Using High-Resolution Seismic Data  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

700-km East-West cross section from the Arabian Shield, to the North Field, a giant gas field offshore of Qatar Peninsula (Konert et al., 2001). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 vii 2.3 A regional depth map of the crystalline basement. The areas... major wadi sys- tems in the central part of the Arabian Peninsula). Generalized after U.S. Geol. Survey and Arabian American Oil Company. Numbers in the legend are for (1) metamorphic rocks, (2) gran- ite, (3) sandstones, (4) sandstones and gypsiferous...

Al-Zayer, Ramzy Mohammed

2010-01-26T23:59:59.000Z

273

Research Areas | National Nuclear Security Administration  

National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

High Energy Density Laboratory Plasmas Research Areas Research Areas High Energy Density Laboratory Plasmas (HEDLP) Research Areas During open solicitations proposals are sought...

274

Thin optic surface analysis for high resolution X-ray telescopes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The art of glass developed throughout the years has covered artifacts ranging from crude ornaments to high precision optics used in flat panel displays, hard disk drives, and x-ray telescopes. Methods for manufacturing ...

Akilian, Mireille

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

275

Full Fermi Surface of a High Temperature Superconductor Revealed by Angular Magnetoresistance Oscillations  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We report the first observation of polar angular magnetoresistance oscillations in the high-T c cuprate Tl2Ba2CuO6. These measurements establish the existence of a coherent three-dimensional Fermi s...

N. E. Hussey; M. Abdel-Jawad; A. Carrington

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

276

Surface Studies by Low-Energy Electron Diffraction and Reflection High-Energy-Electron Diffraction  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this chapter, we present the basic concepts of the low-energy electron diffraction (LEED) and reflection high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED) experiments. The main goal is to provide an overview of the ...

P. Laukkanen; J. Sadowski; M. Guina

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

277

Cryogenic Intracavity Laser Cooling Using High Power Vertical External Cavity Surface Emitting Lasers (VECSELs)  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A Yb:YLF crystal is laser cooled to 150 K from room temperature in an intracavity geometry using a high power InGaAs/GaAs MQW VECSEL operating at 1020 nm with <0.5 nm linewidth.

Ghasemkhani, Mohammadreza; Albrecht, Alexander R; Melgaard, Seth; Seletskiy, Denis V; Cederberg, Jeffrey G; Sheik-Bahae, Mansoor

278

Break-up of Pt catalyst surfaces by high CO coverage  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

a) in ultra-high vacuum UHV with a background pressure of 1images of the Pt(557) under UHV conditions (base pressure 1in a pressure range from UHV to atmospheric and even higher

Tao, Feng

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

279

A high-energy, low-threshold tunable intracavity terahertz-wave parametric oscillator with surface-emitted configuration  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A high-energy, low-threshold THz-wave output has been experimentally demonstrated with an intracavity terahertz-wave parametric oscillator based on a surface-emitted configuration, which was pumped by a diode-side-pumped Q-switched Nd:YAG laser. Different beam sizes and repetition rates of the pump light have been investigated for high-energy and high-efficiency THz-wave generation. The maximum THz-wave output energy of 283nJ/pulse was obtained at 1.54THz under an intracavity 1064nm pump energy of 59mJ. The conversion efficiency was 4.8?10?6, corresponding to a photon conversion efficiency of 0.088%. The pump threshold was 12.9mJ/pulse. A continuously tunable range from 0.75 to 2.75THz was realized.

Y Y Wang; D G Xu; H Jiang; K Zhong; J Q Yao

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

280

A Systematic Search for High Surface Brightness Giant Arcs in a Sloan Digital Sky Survey Cluster Sample  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present the results of a search for gravitationally-lensed giant arcs conducted on a sample of 825 SDSS galaxy clusters. Both a visual inspection of the images and an automated search were performed and no arcs were found. This result is used to set an upper limit on the arc probability per cluster. We present selection functions for our survey, in the form of arc detection efficiency curves plotted as functions of arc parameters, both for the visual inspection and the automated search. The selection function is such that we are sensitive only to long, high surface brightness arcs with g-band surface brightness mu_g 10. Our upper limits on the arc probability are compatible with previous arc searches. Lastly, we report on a serendipitous discovery of a giant arc in the SDSS data, known inside the SDSS Collaboration as Hall's arc.

J. Estrada; J. Annis; H. T. Diehl; P. B. Hall; T. Las; H. Lin; M. Makler; K. W. Merritt; V. Scarpine; S. Allam; D. Tucker

2007-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high surface area" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Z .Marine Chemistry 67 1999 116 A high resolution study of surface layer hydrographic and  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

contemporaneously at high spatial density during a w xtransit from Chesapeake Bay, across the Middle Atlantic Bight basin at a rate ;3­31=1012 g C yeary1 , depending on the amount of water advected off the shelf. q 1999; Middle Atlantic Bight; Gulf Stream; Sargasso Sea 1. Introduction In the last decade, several

Hansell, Dennis

282

High-speed photography and stress gauge studies of jet impact upon surfaces  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...source barrel QCA5 power supply nitrogen...impact using a low power microscope...flat-ended projectile fired from a single stage gas gun onto a PMMA...However, the generation of the high-speed...results from the generation of the release...

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

283

Doping dependence of Fermi surface in high-Tc cuprates studied by model Hartree-Fock calculations  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We have investigated doping dependence of Fermi surface, band dispersion, and magnetic structure in high-Tc cuprates by using Hartree-Fock calculation on a Cu 3dO 2p tight-binding model. In the slightly electron-doped regime, electron pockets emerge around (?,0), which agrees with the photoemission study of Nd2-xCexCuO4. In the slightly hole-doped regime, hole pockets emerge around (?/2,?/2), which might explain the recent photoemission result of Ca2-xNaxCuO2Cl2.

D. Asakura and T. Mizokawa

2003-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

284

Photoelectron spectroscopic study of the surface reactivity of the high T[c] material YBa?Cu?O?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

states and segregation of the sample when heated in vacuum and oxygen, and when reacted with water vapor. In addition, the effect of plasma treatment on the surface was investigated. The surface chemistry of this material is very complex..., with the surface composition varying substantially with treatment conditions. The equilibrium surface composition of the material is determined by surface energy and reaction driven surface changes. Contamination and selective surface segregation operate...

Liu, Hong-Xia

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

285

Lectin-functionalized poly(glycidyl methacrylate)-block-poly(vinyldimethyl azlactone) surface supports for high avidity microbial capture  

SciTech Connect

Microbial exopolysaccharides (EPS) play a critical and dynamic role in shaping the interactions between microbial community members and their local environment. The capture of targeted microbes using surface immobilized lectins that recognize specific extracellular oligosaccharide moieties offers a non-destructive method for functional characterization based on EPS content. In this report, we evaluate the use of the block co-polymer, poly(glycidyl methacrylate)-block-4,4-dimethyl-2-vinylazlactone (PGMA-b-PVDMA), as a surface support for lectin-specific microbial capture. Arrays of circular polymer supports ten micron in diameter were generated on silicon substrates to provide discrete, covalent coupling sites for Triticum vulgare and Lens culinaris lectins. These supports promoted microbe adhesion and colony formation in a lectin-specific manner. Silicon posts with similar topography containing only physisorbed lectins showed significantly less activity. These results demonstrate that micropatterned PGMA-b-PVDMA supports provide a unique platform for microbial capture and screening based on EPS content by combining high avidity lectin surfaces with three-dimensional topography.

Hansen, Ryan R [ORNL] [ORNL; Hinestrosa Salazar, Juan P [ORNL] [ORNL; Shubert, Katherine R [ORNL] [ORNL; Morrell, Jennifer L. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)] [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Pelletier, Dale A [ORNL] [ORNL; Messman, Jamie M [ORNL] [ORNL; Kilbey, II, S Michael [ORNL; Lokitz, Bradley S [ORNL] [ORNL; Retterer, Scott T [ORNL] [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

286

OPERATIONAL LIMITATIONS FOR DEMOLITION OF A HIGHLY ALPHA CONTAMINATED BUILDING MODLES VERSUS MEASURED AIR & SURFACE ACTIVITY CONCENTRATIONS  

SciTech Connect

The demolition of a facility historically used for processing and handling transuranic materials is considered. Residual alpha emitting radionuclide contamination poses an exposure hazard if released to the local environment during the demolition. The process of planning for the demolition of this highly alpha contaminated building, 232-Z, included a predemolition modeling analysis of potential exposures. Estimated emission rates were used as input to an air dispersion model to estimate frequencies of occurrence of peak air and surface exposures. Postdemolition modeling was also conducted, based on the actual demolition schedule and conditions. The modeling results indicated that downwind deposition is the main operational limitation for demolition of a highly alpha-contaminated building. During the demolition of 232-Z, airborne radiation and surface contamination were monitored. The resultant non-detect monitoring results indicate a significant level of conservatism in the modeled results. This comparison supports the use of more realistic assumption in the estimating emission rates. The resultant reduction in modeled levels of potential exposures has significant implications in terms of the projected costs of demolition of such structures.

LLOYD, E.R.

2006-11-02T23:59:59.000Z

287

Effects of urban land cover modifications in a mesoscale meteorological model on surface temperature and heat fluxes in the Phoenix metropolitan area.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and latent heat fluxes and therefore the ground temperature, Tg. Evaporation, E, for each grid cell temperature and heat fluxes in the Phoenix metropolitan area. S. Grossman-Clarke1, J.A. Zehnder2, and W) satellite images [2]. The data were upscaled to a 30-second grid and used to augment and correct

Hall, Sharon J.

288

High-Frequency Radar Mapping of Surface Currents Using WERA LYNN K. SHAY, JORGE MARTINEZ-PEDRAJA, THOMAS M. COOK,* AND BRIAN K. HAUS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

sample interval, WERA mapped coastal ocean currents over an 40 km 80 km footprint with a 1.2-km Ocean surface current measurements have been one of the more elusive challenges to confront ocean scien ocean observatories, the acquisition of high quality surface current data is required to provide spatial

Miami, University of

289

High-frequency absorption of the dynamic mixed state in the surface superconductivity region  

SciTech Connect

We analyze the absorption of a high-frequency electromagnetic field in the type II superconductor Pb{sub 0.8}In{sub 0.2} in magnetic fields H{sub c2} < H < H{sub c3}. The absorption component proportional to the rate of variation of the external magnetic field is detected. We assume that this absorption component is associated with the dynamic mixed state of the superconducting shell containing 2D magnetic flux vortices (Kulik vortices). The motion of these vortices under the action of the critical current ensures the required difference between the external and internal magnetic inductions of the superconducting shell upon a change in the external magnetic field. This model correctly describes the observed behavior of absorption of rf electromagnetic radiation.

Berezin, V. A., E-mail: berezin@iptm.ru; Tulin, V. A., E-mail: tulin@iptm.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Microelectronics Technology and High-Purity Materials (Russian Federation)

2013-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

290

A mean field approach for computing solid-liquid surface tension for nanoscale interfaces  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A mean field approach for computing solid-liquid surface tension for nanoscale interfaces Chi are largely determined by the solid-liquid surface tension. This is especially true for nanoscale systems with high surface area to volume ratios. While experimental techniques can only measure surface tension

Nielsen, Steven O.

291

Wafer-scale surface roughening for enhanced light extraction of high power AlGaInP-based light-emitting diodes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A new approach to surface roughening was established and optimized in this paper for enhancing the light extraction of high power AlGaInP-based LEDs, by combining ultraviolet (UV)...

Park, Hyeong-Ho; Zhang, Xin; Cho, Yunae; Kim, Dong-Wook; Kim, Joondong; Lee, Keun Woo; Choi, Jehyuk; Lee, Hee Kwan; Jung, Sang Hyun; Her, Eun Jin; Kim, Chang Hwan; Moon, A-Young; Shin, Chan-Soo; Shin, Hyun-Beom; Sung, Ho Kun; Park, Kyung Ho; Park, Hyung-Ho; Kim, Hi-Jung; Kang, Ho Kwan

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

292

Influence of a constant magnetic field on the dispersion of surface magnetostatic waves in a structure consisting of ferrite and granular high-temperature superconductor  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The dispersional properties of a surface magnetostatic wave (MSW) in a laminar structure consisting of ferrite film and a high-temperature superconducting (HTSC) layer are studied in detail. The propagation of...

V. A. Krakovskii; E. S. Kovalenko

1996-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

293

Surface Anchoring of Nematic Phase on Carbon Nanotubes: Nanostructure of Ultra-High Temperature Materials  

SciTech Connect

Nuclear energy is a dependable and economical source of electricity. Because fuel supply sources are available domestically, nuclear energy can be a strong domestic industry that can reduce dependence on foreign energy sources. Commercial nuclear power plants have extensive security measures to protect the facility from intruders [1]. However, additional research efforts are needed to increase the inherent process safety of nuclear energy plants to protect the public in the event of a reactor malfunction. The next generation nuclear plant (NGNP) is envisioned to utilize a very high temperature reactor (VHTR) design with an operating temperature of 650-1000?°C [2]. One of the most important safety design requirements for this reactor is that it must be inherently safe, i.e., the reactor must shut down safely in the event that the coolant flow is interrupted [2]. This next-generation Gen IV reactor must operate in an inherently safe mode where the off-normal temperatures may reach 1500?°C due to coolant-flow interruption. Metallic alloys used currently in reactor internals will melt at such temperatures. Structural materials that will not melt at such ultra-high temperatures are carbon/graphtic fibers and carbon-matrix composites. Graphite does not have a measurable melting point; it is known to sublime starting about 3300?°C. However, neutron radiation-damage effects on carbon fibers are poorly understood. Therefore, the goal of this project is to obtain a fundamental understanding of the role of nanotexture on the properties of resulting carbon fibers and their neutron-damage characteristics. Although polygranular graphite has been used in nuclear environment for almost fifty years, it is not suitable for structural applications because it do not possess adequate strength, stiffness, or toughness that is required of structural components such as reaction control-rods, upper plenum shroud, and lower core-support plate [2,3]. For structural purposes, composites consisting of strong carbon fibers embedded in a carbon matrix are needed. Such carbon/carbon (C/C) composites have been used in aerospace industry to produce missile nose cones, space shuttle leading edge, and aircraft brake-pads. However, radiation-tolerance of such materials is not adequately known because only limited radiation studies have been performed on C/C composites, which suggest that pitch-based carbon fibers have better dimensional stability than that of polyacrylonitrile (PAN) based fibers [4]. The thermodynamically-stable state of graphitic crystalline packing of carbon atoms derived from mesophase pitch leads to a greater stability during neutron irradiation [5]. The specific objectives of this project were: (i) to generating novel carbonaceous nanostructures, (ii) measure extent of graphitic crystallinity and the extent of anisotropy, and (iii) collaborate with the Carbon Materials group at Oak Ridge National Lab to have neutron irradiation studies and post-irradiation examinations conducted on the carbon fibers produced in this research project.

Ogale, Amod A

2012-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

294

Addendum to the Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 484: Surface Debris, Waste Sites, and Burn Area, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada (Revision 0)  

SciTech Connect

Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 484 Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) activities called for the identification and remediation of surface hot spot depleted uranium (DU) with some excavation to determine the vertical extent of contamination (NNSA/NSO, 2004). During the CAU 484 SAFER investigation (conducted November 2003 through August 2007), approximately 50 locations containing DU were identified on Antelope Lake. All but four locations (CA-1, SA-5-9, SA-12-15, and SA-4) were remediated. Figure 1-1 shows locations of the four use restriction (UR) sites. The four locations were determined to have failed the SAFER conceptual site model assumption of a small volume hot spot. Two of the locations (CA-1 and SA-5-9) were excavated to depths of 3.5 to 7 feet (ft) below ground surface (bgs), and a third location (SA-12-15) with a footprint of 30 by 60 ft was excavated to a depth of 0.5 ft. At the fourth site (SA-4), the discovery of unexploded ordnance (UXO) halted the excavation due to potential safety concerns. Remediation activities on Antelope Lake resulted in the removal of approximately 246 cubic yards (yd3) of DU-impacted soil from the four UR sites; however, Kiwi surveys confirmed that residual DU contamination remained at each of the four sites. (The Kiwi was a Remote Sensing Laboratory [RSL] vehicle equipped with a data-acquisition system and four sodium iodide gamma detectors. Surveys were conducted with the vehicle moving at a rate of approximately 10 miles per hour with the gamma detectors positioned 14 to 28 inches [in.] above the ground surface [NNSA/NSO, 2004]).

Mark Burmeister

2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

295

Pb-210 irradiation dose estimation for inhabitants living in high natural background areas on Pernambuco/Brazil  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This work was designed to: (a) determine 210Pb concentration in human urine samples of inhabitants of two regions with high natural radiation in the state of Pernambuco - Brazil; (b) estimate radiation dose in bones as a result of this radionuclide incorporation. For this, urine samples of healthy and non-smoker subjects were studied. Pb-210 was separated by ion-exchange resin technique followed by beta counting, which were conducted in a Canberra Tennelec S5E detector. Concentrations of 210Pb in the urine samples of inhabitants from one region varied from 65 to 267 mBq.l?1, while the other ranged from 62 to 440 mBq.l?1. The maximum annual dose estimated in bones for individuals from the first region was about 0.81 nSv and about 1.33 nSv for inhabitants of the second one. In this report, the methodology employed, the results and the radiation-induced health effects are presented as well as discussed.

C.E.O. Costa Júnior; E.B. Silva; A. Amaral; C.M. Silva; J.A. Santos Júnior

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

296

Geologic and hydrologic records of observation wells, test holes, test wells, supply wells, springs, and surface water stations in the Los Alamos area  

SciTech Connect

Hundreds of holes have been drilled into the Pajarito Plateau and surrounding test areas of the Los Alamos National Laboratory since the end of World War II. They range in depth from a few feet to more than 14,000 ft. The holes were drilled to provide geologic, hydrologic, and engineering information related to development of a water supply, to provide data on the likelihood or presence of subsurface contamination from hazardous and nuclear materials, and for engineering design for construction. The data contained in this report provide a basis for further investigations into the consequences of our past, present, and future interactions with the environment.

Purtymun, W.D.

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

297

Literature and data review for the surface-water pathway: Columbia River and adjacent coastal areas. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project  

SciTech Connect

As part of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project, Pacific Northwest Laboratory reviewed literature and data on radionuclide concentrations and distribution in the water, sediment, and biota of the Columbia River and adjacent coastal areas. Over 600 documents were reviewed including Hanford reports, reports by offsite agencies, journal articles, and graduate theses. Certain radionuclide concentration data were used in preliminary estimates of individual dose for the 1964--1966 time period. This report summarizes the literature and database review and the results of the preliminary dose estimates.

Walters, W.H.; Dirkes, R.L.; Napier, B.A.

1992-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

298

Effective Panchromatic Sensitization of Electrochemical Solar Cells: Strategy and Organizational Rules for Spatial Separation of Complementary Light Harvesters on High-Area Photoelectrodes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Effective Panchromatic Sensitization of Electrochemical Solar Cells: Strategy and Organizational Rules for Spatial Separation of Complementary Light Harvesters on High-Area Photoelectrodes ... Leff is the average distance an injected electron travels through the photoanode before recombining;(12-15) electrons injected at distances greater than Leff from the current collector will be collected with only low probability and, therefore, will seldom contribute to the photocurrent. ... The horizontal bar (green) is the bottom layer in the overlapping region and is selectively coated with ZP. ...

Nak Cheon Jeong; Ho-Jin Son; Chaiya Prasittichai; Chang Yeon Lee; Rebecca A. Jensen; Omar K. Farha; Joseph T. Hupp

2012-11-07T23:59:59.000Z

299

A Novel Technique Enabling the Realisation of 60 GHz Body Area Networks  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper presents a novel technique to enable over-body propagation at 60 GHz. A flexible material has been created that enables the propagation of surface waves around the body without the need of repeaters, high powers or high gain antennas. The ... Keywords: Surface wave, metamaterial, propagation, Zenneck wave, on-body propagation, personal area network, body area network, wireless technologies, mHealth, mobile health, 60 GHz

Janice E. Turner; Michael S. Jessup; Kin-Fai Tong

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

300

Method of particle trajectory recognition in particle flows of high particle concentration using a candidate trajectory tree process with variable search areas  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The application relates to particle trajectory recognition from a Centroid Population comprised of Centroids having an (x, y, t) or (x, y, f) coordinate. The method is applicable to visualization and measurement of particle flow fields of high particle. In one embodiment, the centroids are generated from particle images recorded on camera frames. The application encompasses digital computer systems and distribution mediums implementing the method disclosed and is particularly applicable to recognizing trajectories of particles in particle flows of high particle concentration. The method accomplishes trajectory recognition by forming Candidate Trajectory Trees and repeated searches at varying Search Velocities, such that initial search areas are set to a minimum size in order to recognize only the slowest, least accelerating particles which produce higher local concentrations. When a trajectory is recognized, the centroids in that trajectory are removed from consideration in future searches.

Shaffer, Franklin D.

2013-03-12T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high surface area" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Proceedings of US/Japan workshop, Q219 on high heat flux components and plasma surface interactions for next fusion devices  

SciTech Connect

This report contains the viewgraphs from the proceedings of US/Japan Workshop on High Heat Flux Components and Plasma Surface Interactions for Next Fusion Devices. Some of the general topics covered by this report are: PFC/PSI in tokamak and helical devices; development of high heat flux components; PSIS and plasma facing materials;tritium; and material damage.

Ulrickson, M.A.; Stevens, P.L.; Hino, T.; Hirohata, Y. [eds.] [eds.

1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

302

Highly uniform and reproducible visible to near-infrared vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers grown by MOVPE  

SciTech Connect

The authors present the growth and characterization of vertical-cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs) from visible to near-infrared wavelength grown by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy. Discussions on the growth issue of VCSEL materials include the control on growth rate and composition using an in situ normal-incidence reflectometer, optimization of ultra-high material uniformity, and comprehensive p- and n-type doping study in AlGaAs by CCl{sub 4} and Si{sub 2}H{sub 6} over the entire Al composition range. They will also demonstrate the recent achievements of selectively-oxidized VCSELs which include the first room-temperature continuous-wave demonstration of all-AlGaAs 700-nm red VCSELs, high-performance n-side up 850-nm VCSELs, and low threshold current and low-threshold voltage 1.06 {micro}m VCSELs using InGaAs/GaAsP strain-compensated quantum wells.

Hou, H.Q.; Choquette, K.D.; Hammons, B.E.; Breiland, W.G.; Crawford, M.H.; Lear, K.L. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Center for Compound Semiconductors Technology

1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

303

Material Disposal Areas  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Material Disposal Areas Material Disposal Areas Material Disposal Areas Material Disposal Areas, also known as MDAs, are sites where material was disposed of below the ground surface in excavated pits, trenches, or shafts. Contact Environmental Communication & Public Involvement P.O. Box 1663 MS M996 Los Alamos, NM 87545 (505) 667-0216 Email Material Disposal Areas at LANL The following are descriptions and status updates of each MDA at LANL. To view a current fact sheet on the MDAs, click on LA-UR-13-25837 (pdf). MDA A MDA A is a Hazard Category 2 nuclear facility comprised of a 1.25-acre, fenced, and radiologically controlled area situated on the eastern end of Delta Prime Mesa. Delta Prime Mesa is bounded by Delta Prime Canyon to the north and Los Alamos Canyon to the south.

304

Land-atmosphere interactions in an high resolution atmospheric simulation coupled with a surface data assimilation scheme  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A valid tool for the retrieving of the turbulent fluxes that characterize the surface energy budget is constituted by the remote sensing of land surface states. In this study sequences of satellite-derived observations ...

Entekhabi, Dara

305

Surface water processes in the Indonesian Throughflow as documented by a high-resolution coral (Delta)14C record  

SciTech Connect

To explore the seasonal to decadal variability in surface water masses that contribute to the Indonesian Throughflow we have generated a 115-year bi-monthly coral-based radiocarbon time-series from a coral in the Makassar Straits. In the pre-bomb (pre-1955) era from 1890 to 1954, the radiocarbon time series occasionally displays a small seasonal signal (10-15{per_thousand}). After 1954 the radiocarbon record increases rapidly, in response to the increased atmospheric {sup 14}C content caused by nuclear weapons testing. From 1957 to 1986 the record displays clear seasonal variability from 15 to 60{per_thousand} and the post-bomb peak (163 per mil) occurred in 1974. The seasonal cycle of radiocarbon can be attributed to variations of surface waters passing through South Makassar Strait. Southern Makassar is under the influence of the Northwest Monsoon, which is responsible for the high Austral summer radiocarbon (North Pacific waters) and the Southeast Monsoon that flushes back a mixture of low (South Pacific and upwelling altered) radiocarbon water from the Banda Sea. The coral record also shows a significant {sup 14}C peak in 1955 due to bomb {sup 14}C water advected into this region in the form of CaCO{sub 3} particles (this implies that the particles were advected intact and then become entrapped in the coral skeleton--is this what we really mean? Wouldn't even fine particles settle out over the inferred transit time from Bikini to MAK?) or water particles with dissolved labeled CO{sub 2} produced during fallout from the Castle tests in 1954.

Fallon, S J; Guilderson, T P

2008-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

306

High-resolution photoemission spectroscopy study of clean and Au-nanowire-decorated Si(5 5 12) surfaces  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We have examined the Si 2p photoemission line shape of the clean Si(5 5 12)21 surface in detail and have investigated the evolution of the Au-induced nanowires on this surface at different temperatures with low-energy-electron diffraction and photoemission spectroscopy. The Si 2p spectra from the clean 21 surface exhibit very complex line shapes composed at least of five different surface-related components. Possible origins of the most distinct surface component with a surface core-level shift of -0.62 eV are discussed within the three different structure models proposed so far. Upon Au deposition, the intensity of that particular surface component was largely reduced indicating that the Au adsorbates interact dominantly with the specific Si surface atoms related. With an annealing above 500C after Au deposition of 0.2 ML, the surface drastically changes into a metallic phase, as shown clearly in the valence band photoemission spectra, along with the gradual formation of the (337)2 facets observed in LEED. In this transition, a new Au 4f component appears while the Si 2p core-level spectra keep alike. This indicates that the surface metallization involves the rearrangement of Au adsorbates, possibly the formation of new Au chains on the surface.

J. R. Ahn; W. H. Choi; Y. K. Kim; H. S. Lee; H. W. Yeom

2003-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

307

NMR SPECTROSCOPY OF NATURALLY OCCURRING SURFACE-ADSORBED FLUORIDE ON GEORGIA KAOLINITE  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...high concentration, large fluoride concentrations...measured surface area of the 2 mum fraction...reaction vessel and N2 atmosphere to exclude CO2...direct-coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry...BET-measured surface area of the particles...operating at 470.18 MHz for 19F and 130...

Stacey G. Cochiara; Brian L. Phillips

308

Automated fit of high-dimensional potential energy surfaces using cluster analysis and interpolation over descriptors of chemical environment  

SciTech Connect

We present a method for fitting high-dimensional potential energy surfaces that is almost fully automated, can be applied to systems with various chemical compositions, and involves no particular choice of function form. We tested it on four systems: Ag{sub 20}, Sn{sub 6}Pb{sub 6}, Si{sub 10}, and Li{sub 8}. The cost for energy evaluation is smaller than the cost of a density functional theory (DFT) energy evaluation by a factor of 1500 for Li{sub 8}, and 60000 for Ag{sub 20}. We achieved intermediate accuracy (errors of 0.4 to 0.8 eV on atomization energies, or, 1% to 3% on cohesive energies) with rather small datasets (between 240 and 1400 configurations). We demonstrate that this accuracy is sufficient to correctly screen the configurations with lowest DFT energy, making this function potentially very useful in a hybrid global optimization strategy. We show that, as expected, the accuracy of the function improves with an increase in the size of the fitting dataset.

Fournier, Ren, E-mail: renef@yorku.ca; Orel, Slava [Department of Chemistry, York University, Toronto, Ontario M3J 1P3 (Canada)] [Department of Chemistry, York University, Toronto, Ontario M3J 1P3 (Canada)

2013-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

309

Heat Flow, Heat Transfer And Lithosphere Rheology In Geothermal Areas-  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Flow, Heat Transfer And Lithosphere Rheology In Geothermal Areas- Flow, Heat Transfer And Lithosphere Rheology In Geothermal Areas- Features And Examples Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Journal Article: Heat Flow, Heat Transfer And Lithosphere Rheology In Geothermal Areas- Features And Examples Details Activities (5) Areas (5) Regions (0) Abstract: Surface heat flow measurements over active geothermal systems indicate strongly positive thermal anomalies. Whereas in "normal" geothermal settings, the surface heat flow is usually below 100-120 mW m- 2, in active geothermal areas heat flow values as high as several watts per meter squared can be found. Systematic interpretation of heat flow patterns sheds light on heat transfer mechanisms at depth on different lateral, depth and time scales. Borehole temperature profiles in active geothermal

310

Assessment of water resources in lead-zinc mined areas in Cherokee County, Kansas, and adjacent areas  

SciTech Connect

A study was conducted to evaluate water-resources problems related to abandoned lead and zinc mines in Cherokee County, Kansas, and adjacent areas in Missouri and Oklahoma. Past mining activities have caused changes in the hydrogeology of the area. Lead and zinc mining has caused discontinuities and perforations in the confining shale west of the Pennsylvanian-Mississippian geologic contact (referred to as the western area), which have created artificial ground-water recharge and discharge areas. Recharge to the shallow aquifer (rocks of Mississippian age) through collapses, shafts, and drill holes in the shale has caused the formation of a groundwater ''mound'' in the vicinity of the Picher Field in Kansas and Oklahoma. Discharge of mine-contaminated ground water to Tar Creek occurs in Oklahoma from drill holes and shafts where the potentiometric surface of the shallow aquifer is above the land surface. Mining of ore in the shallow aquifer has resulted in extensive fracturing and removal of material, which has created highly transmissive zones and voids and increased ground-water storage properties of the aquifer. In the area east of the Pennsylvanian-Mississippian geologic contact (referred to as the eastern area), fractured rock and tailings on the land surface increased the amount of water available for infiltration to the shallow aquifer; in the western area, tailings on the impermeable shale created artificial, perched aquifer systems that slowly drain to surface streams. 45 refs., 23 figs., 21 tabs.

Spruill, T.B.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

311

Intrinsic Surface Stability in LiMn2-xNix04-s (x = 0.45, 0.5) High Voltage Spinel Materials for Lithium Ion Batteries  

SciTech Connect

This work reports the surface stability of the high vollage Li ion cathode LiMn2_,Ni,Ooh\\ (x = 0.5, 0.45) by comparing thin fi lm and powder composite electrodes after cycling using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The thin film electrodes offer the abili ty to probe the surface of the material without the need of a conductive agent and polymer binder typically used in composite electrodes. The resulls suggest that neither oxidation of PP6 to POF3 nor the decomposition of ethylene carbonate or dimethylene carbonate occurs on the surface of the spinel material. These resulls confirm the enhanced cycling stability and rate capability associated with the high vollage spinel material and suggests that the SE!IIayer fonns due to the reaction of electrochemically inactive components in composite electrodes with the electrolyte.

Carroll, Kyler J [University of California, San Diego; Yang, Ming-Che [University of Florida, Gainesville; Veith, Gabriel M [ORNL; Dudney, Nancy J [ORNL; Meng, Ying Shirley [University of California, San Diego

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

area | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

area area Dataset Summary Description These estimates are derived from a composite of high resolution wind resource datasets modeled for specific countries with low resolution data originating from the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (United States) and the National Center for Atmospheric Research (United States) as processed for use in the IMAGE model. The high resolution datasets were produced by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (United States), Risø DTU National Laboratory (Denmark), the National Institute for Space Research (Brazil), and the Canadian Wind Energy Association. The data repr Source National Renewable Energy Laboratory Date Released Unknown Date Updated Unknown Keywords area capacity clean energy international National Renewable Energy Laboratory

313

The pass through of oil prices into euro area consumer liquid fuel prices in an environment of high and volatile oil prices  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Crude and refined oil prices have been relatively high and volatile on a sustained basis since 1999. This paper considers the pass through of oil prices into consumer liquid (i.e. petrol, diesel and heating) fuel prices in such an environment. The pass through of oil prices into consumer liquid fuel prices has already been addressed extensively in the literature. Nonetheless much of this literature has either focused on the United States or on a time period when oil prices were relatively stable, or has used monthly data. The main contribution of this paper is a comprehensive combination of many features that have been considered before but rarely jointly. These features include: (1) the analysis of the euro area as an aggregate and a large number of countries (the initial 12 member states); (2) the consideration of different time periods; (3) the modelling of the data in raw levels rather than in log levels. This turns out to have important implications for our findings; (4) the use of high frequency (weekly) data, which, as results will suggest, are the lowest frequency one should consider; (5) the investigation of the different stages of the production chain from crude oil prices to retail distribution refining costs and margins, distribution and retailing costs and margins; (6) the examination of prices including and excluding taxes excise and value-added; (7) the modelling of prices for three fuel types passenger car petrol and diesel separately and home heating fuel oil; (8) lastly we also address the issue of possible asymmetries, allowing for the pass through to vary according to (a) whether price are increasing or decreasing and (b) whether price levels are above or below their equilibrium level. The main findings are as follows: First, as distribution and retailing costs and margins have been broadly stable on average, the modelling of the relationship between consumer prices excluding taxes and upstream prices in raw levels rather than in logarithms has important implications for the stability of estimates of pass through when oil price levels rise significantly. Second, considering spot prices for refined prices improves significantly the fit of the estimated models relative to using crude oil prices. It also results in more economically meaningful results concerning the extent of pass through. Third, oil price pass through occurs quickly, with 90% occurring within three to five weeks. Fourth, using a relatively broad specification allowing for asymmetry in the pass through from upstream to downstream prices, there is little evidence of statistically significant asymmetries. Furthermore, even where asymmetry is found to be statistically significant, it is generally not economically significant. Lastly, these results generally hold across most euro area countries with few exceptions.

Aidan Meyler

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

314

High-frequency beam steering in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers: optical gain and waveguiding effects  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Static and dynamic characteristics of weakly index-guided vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers in a multi-transverse-mode regime are analyzed by use of a model that takes into...

Valle, A; Rees, P; Pesquera, L; Shore, K A

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

Evaluation of Immobilized Enzyme in a High-Surface-Area Biofuel Cell Electrode Made of Redox-Polymer-Grafted Carbon Black  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In recent years, nanocarbon materials like carbon black, carbon nanotubes, and carbon aerogel particles have been used by several groups to form three-dimensional electrodes. ... The TEM micrograph of the GOD-coated electrode was shown in Figure 2A. Figure 2B shows magnified image of the dotted frame in Figure 2A. The location of GOD and carbon black in Figure 2B was indicated in Figure 2C. A few tens of stained GOD, which were small black spots with a diameter of about 5 nm, were dispersed on each carbon black particle, which was a gray spot with a diameter of about 30 nm. ...

Takanori Tamaki; Atsushi Hiraide; Faizly B. Asmat; Hidenori Ohashi; Taichi Ito; Takeo Yamaguchi

2010-06-17T23:59:59.000Z

316

Immobilization of Hydroquinone through a Spacer to Polymer Grafted on Carbon Black for a High-Surface-Area Biofuel Cell Electrode  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Evaluation of three different spacer arms tethering hydroquinone to linear polymers revealed that only the hydrophilic and flexible di(ethylene oxide) spacer made it possible for immobilized hydroquinone to transfer electrons from glucose oxidase (GOD) to an electrode; direct immobilization and an alkyl spacer did not. ... The carbon black used was Ketjen black (Ketjen Black International Co. Ltd, Japan) with a particle diameter of about 30 nm. ... FDH adsorbs strongly and stably on Ketjen black (KB) particles that were modified on carbon papers (CP) and produces the catalytic current with the max. ...

Takanori Tamaki; Taichi Ito; Takeo Yamaguchi

2007-08-09T23:59:59.000Z

317

Co-located high-resolution specific surface area and snow-micropenetrometry profiling in a mid-altitude alpine snowpack  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

measurements Snow penetration resistance profiles were obtained using the Snow Micro Pen, (developed at SLF: - We thank M. Schneebeli and H. Loewe (SLF, Davos) for useful discussions and for providing the SMP

Ribes, Aurélien

318

Recent development and application of several high-efficiency surface heat exchangers for energy conversion and utilization  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract In the present study, the recent research of three kinds of surface heat exchangers, i.e., shell-and-tube heat exchangers with helical baffles, air-cooled heat exchangers used in large air-cooled systems, and primary surface heat exchangers are reviewed. They are used in the energy conversion and utilization for liquid to liquid, gas to gas and liquid to gas heat exchange, respectively. It can be concluded that the helical baffled shell-and-tube heat exchangers (STHXs) should be used to replace the conventional segmental baffled \\{STHXs\\} in industries, despite there are a lot of research work have to be done, especially on the novel combined helical baffles. The primary surface gas to gas heat exchangers are developing towards to the more complex 3D CC primary surfaces, such as the double-wave CC primary surface, offset-bubble primary surface and 3D anti-phase secondary corrugation. The whole performance for the air-cooled heat exchangers in the air cooling system and the multi-objectives optimization for air-cooled heat exchangers should be paid more attention, considering the heat transfer, pumper power, space usage and other economic influence factors.

Qiuwang Wang; Min Zeng; Ting Ma; Xueping Du; Jianfeng Yang

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

319

Microearthquake moment tensors from the Coso Geothermal area | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Microearthquake moment tensors from the Coso Geothermal area Microearthquake moment tensors from the Coso Geothermal area Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Conference Proceedings: Microearthquake moment tensors from the Coso Geothermal area Details Activities (1) Areas (1) Regions (0) Abstract: The Coso geothermal area, California, has produced hot water and steam for electricity generation for more than 20 years, during which time there has been a substantial amount of microearthquake activity in the area. Seismicity is monitored by a high-quality permanent network of 16 three-component digital borehole seismometers operated by the US Navy and supplemented by a ~ 14-station portable array of surface three-component digital instruments. The portable stations improve focal sphere coverage, providing seismic-wave polarity and amplitude data sets sufficient for

320

Simulation of the influence high-frequency (2 MHz) capacitive gas discharge and magnetic field on the plasma sheath near a surface in hypersonic gas flow  

SciTech Connect

The plasma sheath near the surface of a hypersonic aircraft formed under associative ionization behind the shock front shields the transmission and reception of radio signals. Using two-dimensional kinetic particle-in-cell simulations, we consider the change in plasma-sheath parameters near a flat surface in a hypersonic flow under the action of electrical and magnetic fields. The combined action of a high-frequency 2-MHz capacitive discharge, a constant voltage, and a magnetic field on the plasma sheath allows the local electron density to be reduced manyfold.

Schweigert, I. V., E-mail: ischweig@itam.nsc.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Khristianovich Institute of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics, Siberian Branch (Russian Federation)

2012-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high surface area" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Reliability of AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors on low dislocation density bulk GaN substrate: Implications of surface step edges  

SciTech Connect

To enable gaining insight into degradation mechanisms of AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors, devices grown on a low-dislocation-density bulk-GaN substrate were studied. Gate leakage current and electroluminescence (EL) monitoring revealed a progressive appearance of EL spots during off-state stress which signify the generation of gate current leakage paths. Atomic force microscopy evidenced the formation of semiconductor surface pits at the failure location, which corresponds to the interaction region of the gate contact edge and the edges of surface steps.

Killat, N., E-mail: Nicole.Killat@bristol.ac.uk, E-mail: Martin.Kuball@bristol.ac.uk; Montes Bajo, M.; Kuball, M., E-mail: Nicole.Killat@bristol.ac.uk, E-mail: Martin.Kuball@bristol.ac.uk [Center for Device Thermography and Reliability (CDTR), H.H. Wills Physics Laboratory, Tyndall Avenue, Bristol BS8 1TL (United Kingdom); Paskova, T. [Kyma Technologies, Inc., Raleigh, North Carolina 27617 (United States) [Kyma Technologies, Inc., Raleigh, North Carolina 27617 (United States); Materials Science and Engineering Department, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695 (United States); Evans, K. R. [Kyma Technologies, Inc., Raleigh, North Carolina 27617 (United States)] [Kyma Technologies, Inc., Raleigh, North Carolina 27617 (United States); Leach, J. [Kyma Technologies, Inc., Raleigh, North Carolina 27617 (United States) [Kyma Technologies, Inc., Raleigh, North Carolina 27617 (United States); Electrical and Computer Engineering Department, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia 23284 (United States); Li, X.; zgr, .; Morko, H. [Electrical and Computer Engineering Department, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia 23284 (United States)] [Electrical and Computer Engineering Department, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia 23284 (United States); Chabak, K. D.; Crespo, A.; Gillespie, J. K.; Fitch, R.; Kossler, M.; Walker, D. E.; Trejo, M.; Via, G. D.; Blevins, J. D. [Air Force Research Laboratory, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Dayton, Ohio 45433 (United States)] [Air Force Research Laboratory, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Dayton, Ohio 45433 (United States)

2013-11-04T23:59:59.000Z

322

Identifying surface structural changes in layered Li-excess nickel manganese oxides in high voltage lithium ion batteries: A joint experimental and theoretical study  

SciTech Connect

High voltage cathode materials Li-excess layered oxide compounds Li[Ni{sub x}Li{sub 1/3-2x/3}Mn{sub 2/3-x/3}]O{sub 2} (0 < x < 1/2) are investigated in a joint study combining both computational and experimental methods. The bulk and surface structures of pristine and cycled samples of Li[Ni{sub 1/5}Li{sub 1/5}Mn{sub 3/5}]O{sub 2} are characterized by synchrotron X-Ray diffraction together with aberration corrected Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy (a-S/TEM). Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy (EELS) is carried out to investigate the surface changes of the samples before/after electrochemical cycling. Combining first principles computational investigation with our experimental observations, a detailed lithium de-intercalation mechanism is proposed for this family of Li-excess layered oxides. The most striking characteristics in these high voltage high energy density cathode materials are (1) formation of tetrahedral lithium ions at voltage less than 4.45 V and (2) the transition metal (TM) ions migration leading to phase transformation on the surface of the materials. We show clear evidence of a new spinel-like solid phase formed on the surface of the electrode materials after high-voltage cycling. It is proposed that such surface phase transformation is one of the factors contributing to the first cycle irreversible capacity and the main reason for the intrinsic poor rate capability of these materials.

Xu, Bo; Fell, Christopher R.; Chi, Miaofang; Meng, Ying Shirley (ORNL); (Florida); (UCSD)

2011-09-06T23:59:59.000Z

323

Use of surface Brillouin scattering to examine a structural phase transition in carbon-ion-bombarded silicon during high-temperature annealing  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Surface Brillouin scattering (SBS) has been used to monitor a structural transition during high-temperature annealing of silicon previously bombarded at ambient temperature with 100 keV carbon ions with a fluence of 51017 ions/cm2. It was observed that a significant change of the Rayleigh surface wave peak frequency occurred during annealing at 600 C; thereafter the frequency remained essentially constant to 900 C. Raman and SBS measurements of the sample after annealing and recooling to ambient temperature show that the significant change in the Rayleigh mode frequency results from recrystallization of the amorphous silicon layer near the sample surface produced by the ion bombardment. The work demonstrates the potential of SBS to study in situ the structural phase transitions of opaque materials.

X. Zhang; J. D. Comins; A. G. Every; T. E. Derry

2001-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

324

High-resolution electron-energy-loss spectroscopy and photoelectron-diffraction studies of the geometric structure of adsorbates on single-crystal metal surfaces  

SciTech Connect

Two techniques which have made important contributions to the understanding of surface phenomena are high resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) and photoelectron diffraction (PD). EELS is capable of directly measuring the vibrational modes of clean and adsorbate covered metal surfaces. In this work, the design, construction, and performance of a new EELS spectrometer are described. These results are discussed in terms of possible structures of the O-Cu(001) system. Recommendations for improvements in this EELS spectrometer and guidelines for future spectrometers are given. PD experiments provide accurate quantitative information about the geometry of atoms and molecules adsorbed on metal surfaces. The technique has advantages when used to study disordered overlayers, molecular overlayers, multiple site systems, and adsorbates which are weak electron scatterers. Four experiments were carried out which exploit these advantages.

Rosenblatt, D.H.

1982-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

325

Vibrational spectroscopic studies of surface chemical interactions in chemisorption and catalysis  

SciTech Connect

Various methods of vibrational spectroscopy are being employed to study the interaction and behavior of catalytically important species on both single crystal and high area catalytic surfaces. A number of interrelated themes are being investigated as shown below.

Yates, J.T. Jr.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

326

Chimeric human parainfluenza virus bearing the Ebola virus glycoprotein as the sole surface protein is immunogenic and highly protective against Ebola virus challenge  

SciTech Connect

We generated a new live-attenuated vaccine against Ebola virus (EBOV) based on a chimeric virus HPIV3/{delta}F-HN/EboGP that contains the EBOV glycoprotein (GP) as the sole transmembrane envelope protein combined with the internal proteins of human parainfluenza virus type 3 (HPIV3). Electron microscopy analysis of the virus particles showed that they have an envelope and surface spikes resembling those of EBOV and a particle size and shape resembling those of HPIV3. When HPIV3/{delta}F-HN/EboGP was inoculated via apical surface of an in vitro model of human ciliated airway epithelium, the virus was released from the apical surface; when applied to basolateral surface, the virus infected basolateral cells but did not spread through the tissue. Following intranasal (IN) inoculation of guinea pigs, scattered infected cells were detected in the lungs by immunohistochemistry, but infectious HPIV3/{delta}F-HN/EboGP could not be recovered from the lungs, blood, or other tissues. Despite the attenuation, the virus was highly immunogenic, and a single IN dose completely protected the animals against a highly lethal intraperitoneal challenge of guinea pig-adapted EBOV.

Bukreyev, Alexander [National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Building 50, Room 6505, NIAID, National Institutes of Health, 50 South Dr. MSC 8007, Bethesda, MD 20892-8007 (United States)], E-mail: abukreyev@nih.gov; Marzi, Andrea; Feldmann, Friederike [Special Pathogens Program, National Microbiology Laboratory, Canadian Science Centre for Human and Animal Health, Winnipeg (Canada); Zhang Liqun [Cystic Fibrosis/Pulmonary Research and Treatment Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina (United States); Yang Lijuan; Ward, Jerrold M. [National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Building 50, Room 6505, NIAID, National Institutes of Health, 50 South Dr. MSC 8007, Bethesda, MD 20892-8007 (United States); Dorward, David W. [Rocky Mountain Laboratories, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Hamilton, Montana (United States); Pickles, Raymond J. [Cystic Fibrosis/Pulmonary Research and Treatment Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina (United States); Murphy, Brian R. [National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Building 50, Room 6505, NIAID, National Institutes of Health, 50 South Dr. MSC 8007, Bethesda, MD 20892-8007 (United States); Feldmann, Heinz [Special Pathogens Program, National Microbiology Laboratory, Canadian Science Centre for Human and Animal Health, Winnipeg (Canada); Department of Medical Microbiology, University of Manitoba (Canada); Collins, Peter L. [National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Building 50, Room 6505, NIAID, National Institutes of Health, 50 South Dr. MSC 8007, Bethesda, MD 20892-8007 (United States)

2009-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

327

Radiological Areas  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Revision to Clearance Policy Associated with Recycle of Scrap Metals Originating from Revision to Clearance Policy Associated with Recycle of Scrap Metals Originating from Radiological Areas On July 13, 2000, the Secretary of Energy imposed an agency-wide suspension on the unrestricted release of scrap metal originating from radiological areas at Department of Energy (DOE) facilities for the purpose of recycling. The suspension was imposed in response to concerns from the general public and industry groups about the potential effects of radioactivity in or on material released in accordance with requirements established in DOE Order 5400.5, Radiation Protection of the Public and Environment. The suspension was to remain in force until DOE developed and implemented improvements in, and better informed the public about, its release process. In addition, in 2001 the DOE announced its intention to prepare a

328

Cysteine Modified Small Ligament Au Nanoporous Film: An Easy Fabricating and Highly Efficient Surface-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Substrate  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Cysteine Modified Small Ligament Au Nanoporous Film: An Easy Fabricating and Highly Efficient Surface-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Substrate ... Another plausible reason is that OH may also compete for the binding sites with TX-114 and result in Au NWs sedimentation, but unlike Cl the replacement of TX-114 by OH caused no NW fusion. ... H2O2-metal-HF etching as a versatile platform for studying the effects of morphol. ...

Rui Liu; Jing-fu Liu; Xiao-xia Zhou; Gui-bin Jiang

2011-04-04T23:59:59.000Z

329

Micro-Earthquake At Newberry Caldera Geothermal Area (2011) | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Area (2011) Area (2011) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Micro-Earthquake At Newberry Caldera Geothermal Area (2011) Exploration Activity Details Location Newberry Caldera Geothermal Area Exploration Technique Micro-Earthquake Activity Date 2011 Usefulness not indicated DOE-funding Unknown Exploration Basis Determine seismicity before and after reservoir stimulation for EGS Notes The overall goal is to gather high resolution seismicity data before, during and after stimulation activities at the EGS projects. This will include both surface and borehole deployments (as necessary in available boreholes) to provide high quality seismic data for improved processing and interpretation methodologies. This will allow the development and testing

330

The surface structure of SrTiO{sub 3} at high temperatures under influence of oxygen  

SciTech Connect

We use low energy electron microscopy to investigate the structure of the SrTiO{sub 3} (001) surface at elevated temperatures and different oxygen pressures. Upon varying the temperature between 500?C and 900?C in oxygen pressures ranging from 10{sup ?9} millibar to 10{sup ?4} millibar, two surface transitions are found to be present. The lower temperature (1 1) ? (2 1) transition that is known to occur in ultrahigh vacuum can be reversed by increasing the oxygen pressure. At higher temperatures, we observe a (2 1) ? disordered (1 1) transition which is irreversible in the experimental parameter range. The observations are expected to have a strong bearing on the growth of interface structures.

Hesselberth, M. B. S.; Molen, S. J. van der; Aarts, J. [Kamerlingh Onnes Laboratory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9504, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands)

2014-02-03T23:59:59.000Z

331

Studies on the effects of heat and high pressure treatmeants on fat globule surface layers in recombined milk.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The present study examined the effects of heat treatment, high pressure (HP) treatment or combined heat and HP treatments, either before or after homogenization, on (more)

Anantawat, Visaka

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

332

Surface-Driven Sodium Ion Energy Storage in Nanocellular Carbon Foams  

SciTech Connect

Sodium ion (Na+) batteries have attracted increased attention for energy storage due to the natural abundance of sodium, but their development is hindered by the poor intercalation property of Na+ in electrodes. This paper reports a detailed study of high capacity, high rate sodium ion energy storage in high-surface-area nanocellular carbon foams (NCCF). The energy storage mechanism is surface-driven reactions between Na+ and oxygen-containing functional groups on the surface of NCCF. The surface reaction, rather than a Na+ bulk intercalation reaction, leads to high rate performance and cycling stability due to the enhanced reaction kinetics and the absence of electrode structure change. The NCCF makes more surface area and surface functional groups available for the Na+ reaction. It delivers 152 mAh/g capacity at the rate of 0.1 A/g and a capacity retention of 90% for over 1600 cycles.

Shao, Yuyan; Xiao, Jie; Wang, Wei; Engelhard, Mark H.; Chen, Xilin; Nie, Zimin; Gu, Meng; Saraf, Laxmikant V.; Exarhos, Gregory J.; Zhang, Jiguang; Liu, Jun

2013-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

333

Acetylene adsorption on the Si(111)-(77) surface: Ultraviolet photoemission and high-resolution electron-energy-loss spectroscopies  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The room temperature adsorption and the thermal reaction of acetylene on the Si(111)-(77) surface has been investigated by means of ultraviolet-photoemission spectroscopy and high-resolution electron-energy-loss spectroscopy (HREELS). In the first stage of the adsorption process, the evolution of the restatom- and adatom-related electronic states as a function of acetylene exposure is well described by a modified di-?-bonding model, in which the metallic character of the (77) surface plays a fundamental role. For higher exposure, all the restatom dangling bonds are saturated and the adsorption process continues through saturation of the remaining adatoms. In this phase, a molecular tilting is observed, possibly accompanied by a surface atom rearrangement. Upon annealing to 600 C, acetylene dehydrogenation and partial desorption occur, as demonstrated by the disappearance of the C-H modes in HREELS and the reappearance of the adatom and restatom dangling-bond states in valence-band spectra. At 700 C the formation of a Si-C compound is observed. Atomic-force-microscopy topographic images taken ex situ after annealing to 800 C show that the Si-C interface is constituted by islands with lateral dimension of ?300?, while the overall surface roughness is 1020?.

V. De Renzi; R. Biagi; U. del Pennino

2001-09-18T23:59:59.000Z

334

Film cooling performance and heat transfer over an inclined film-cooled surface at different divergent angles with respect to highly turbulent mainstream  

SciTech Connect

Experiments have been performed to study and obtain the adiabatic wall film cooling effectiveness and the heat transfer over a film-cooled surface that is made inclined at various angles with respect to a highly turbulent flow. The vertical temperature distribution was measured to infer the flow structure and the rate of mixing of film jet with the freestream. The freestream turbulence intensity is controlled to range from 1.0% to 26.4%, the inclination or the divergent angle of the film-cooled surface ranges from 0 to 20 , the blowing parameter from 0.5 to 2.0. It is found that the mixing of the film jet with the freestream is significantly enhanced by both the freestream turbulence intensity and the divergent angle of the film-cooled surface, which leads to the decrease in the film cooling effectiveness and the increase in the heat transfer. However, the inclination angle has more effect on the film cooling performance while the turbulence intensity has more effect on the heat transfer under the film. More detailed discussion is presented. Correlations for both the film cooling effectiveness and the heat transfer under the film-cooled surface have been very successful and are provided. (author)

Yang, Chih-Sheng [Department of Computer Science and Information Engineering Far East University (China); Lin, C.L.; Gau, C. [Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Center for Micro/Nano Science and Technology, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101 (China)

2008-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

335

Thermal impact of waste emplacement and surface cooling associated with geologic disposal of high-level nuclear waste  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This article is a study of the thermal effects associated with the emplacement of aged radioactive high-level wastes in a geologic repository, with emphasis on the following subjects: waste characteristics, re...

J. S. Y. Wang; D. C. Mangold; C. F. Tsang

1988-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

336

High-resolution shear-wave reflection profiling to image offset in unconsolidated near-surface sediments.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??S-wave reflection profiling has many theoretical advantages, when compared to P-wave profiling, such as high-resolution potential, greater sensitivities to lithologic changes and insensitivity to the (more)

Bailey, Bevin

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

337

An Evaluation of the Impact of Surface Coatings on the Heat Transfer in High Temperature Ceramic Recuperators  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

COATINGS Engineering ceramics, particular ly SiC, are being investigated for use as high temperature heat exchanger materials. ORNL has conducted exposure test in real and simulated high tempera ture corrosive flue gases and these have... indicated that SiC ceramics are sucepti ble to flue gases containing sodium and potassium, compounds such as sulfates, carbonates and halides. ORNL is current ly investigating whether commercially available ceramic coatings could be from 1500 0...

Guerrero, P. S.; Rebello, W. J.; Federer, J. I.

338

Numerical simulations for high efficiency HIT solar cells using microcrystalline silicon as emitter and back surface field (BSF) layers  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract In present article the influence of thickness and band gap of microcrystalline silicon emitter layer, amorphous silicon front and back intrinsic layers and p-type crystalline silicon (c-Si) wafer thickness on the performance of TCO/?c-Si:H(n)/a-Si:H(i)/c-Si(p)/a-Si:H(i)/?c-Si:H(p+)/Ag Heterojunction with thin intrinsic layer (HIT) solar cell along with other structural possibilities were investigated through computer simulations using AFORS-HET software. These simulations revealed the importance of inclusion of intrinsic a-Si:H thin layer in improving the performance of solar cell with the help of interface passivation. Also microcrystalline BSF can raise the conversion efficiency more than 4% compared to HIT solar cell having no BSF layer. Highest stable efficiency of 24.12% for p-type substrate based HITBSF (HIT with back surface field) solar cells was observed. Furthermore the effect of textured transparent conductive oxide (TCO) on solar cells was investigated where the enhanced light trapping was observed with the use of textured TCO surface which raised the performance of solar cells. These optimizations may help in fabricating ?c-Si emitter and BSF based HIT solar cells with stable efficiencies compared to possibly degraded efficiencies as in case of a-Si:H based HIT solar cell structures studied so far.

Arti Rawat; Mansi Sharma; Deepika Chaudhary; S. Sudhakar; Sushil Kumar

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

339

Zwitterionic Sulfobetaine-Grafted Poly(vinylidene fluoride) Membrane with Highly Effective Blood Compatibility via Atmospheric Plasma-Induced Surface Copolymerization  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

(21) In addition, the formation of the bounded water layer on a highly hydrated surface was also demonstrated as a crucial issue to repel plasma proteins and made the antithrombogenic surface generated. ... After the SBMA-coated PVDF membrane was dried at 25 C for 24 h, the membrane coated with the SBMA monomer layer of ?2.0 mg/cm2 was then followed by atmospheric plasma treatment with an argon flow rate of 10 slm and input power of 150 W controlled by a 13.56 MHz RF generator. ... First, the virgin PVDF membrane was pretreated by low-pressure plasma with argon and followed by the incubation of DI water at 60 C to generate the hydroxyl groups, resulting in a decrease in the water contact angle from 120 to 105 and an increase in the chemical compatibility between SBMA and PVDF. ...

Yung Chang; Wan-Ju Chang; Yu-Ju Shih; Ta-Chin Wei; Ging-Ho Hsiue

2011-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

340

Dose-effect Relationship of Dicentric and Ring Chromosomes in Lymphocytes of Individuals Living in the High Background Radiation Areas in China  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......Inage-ku, Chiba 2638555, Japan 3 Health Research Foundation...Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 6068225, Japan 4 Labor Hygiene Institute...two members were from 8 households living in HBRA, and 17 members were from 5 households in the control area (CA......

Tao Jiang; Isamu Hayata; Chunyan Wang; Sayaka Nakai; Suyan Yao; Yongling Yuan; Lianlian Dai; Qingjie Liu; Deqing Chen; Luxin Wei; Tsutomu Sugahara

2000-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high surface area" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Exploration In A Blind Geothermal Area Near Marysville, Montana, Usa | Open  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

In A Blind Geothermal Area Near Marysville, Montana, Usa In A Blind Geothermal Area Near Marysville, Montana, Usa Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Journal Article: Exploration In A Blind Geothermal Area Near Marysville, Montana, Usa Details Activities (7) Areas (1) Regions (0) Abstract: Extensive geological and geophysical studies were carried out during the summer of 1973 in a blind geothermal area near Marysville, Montana. Earlier studies of regional heat flow resulted in the discovery of the area (BLACKWELL 1969; BLACKWELL, BAAG 1973). The area is blind in the sense that there are no surface manifestations of high heat flow (recent volcanics, hot springs, etc.) within the area. The country rocks are Precambrian sedimentary rocks and Mesozoic and Tertiary intrusive rocks. The most recent Tertiary igneous event took place approximately 37 M.Y.

342

Z .Surface and Coatings Technology 130 2000 164 172 Production of high-density Ni-bonded tungsten carbide  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

carbide coatings using an axially fed DC-plasmatron S. Sharafata,U , A. Kobayashib , S. Chena , N spraying; Nickel; Tungsten carbide 1. Introduction 1.1. General Since the mid-1990s, the market share of cemented Z .carbides has surpassed that of high-speed steels HSS , Z .with tungsten carbide WC having 50

Ghoniem, Nasr M.

343

III-V Nanowire Array Growth by Selective Area Epitaxy  

SciTech Connect

III-V semiconductor nanowires are unique material phase due to their high aspect ratio, large surface area, and strong quantum confinement. This affords the opportunity to control charge transport and optical properties for electrical and photonic applications. Nanoscale selective area metalorganic chemical vapor deposition growth (NS-SAG) is a promising technique to maximize control of nanowire diameter and position, which are essential for device application. In this work, InP and GaAs nanowire arrays are grown by NS-SAG. We observe enhanced sidewall growth and array uniformity disorder in high growth rate condition. Disorder in surface morphology and array uniformity of InP nanowire array is explained by enhanced growth on the sidewall and stacking faults. We also find that AsH{sub 3} decomposition on the sidewall affects the growth behavior of GaAs nanowire arrays.

Chu, Hyung-Joon; Stewart, Lawrence [Ming Hsieh Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Southern California (United States); Yeh, Tingwei [Mork Family Department of Chemical Engineering and Material Science, University of Southern California 3651 Watt Way, VHE-314, Los Angeles, CA90089 (United States); Dapkus, P. Daniel [Ming Hsieh Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Southern California (United States); Mork Family Department of Chemical Engineering and Material Science, University of Southern California 3651 Watt Way, VHE-314, Los Angeles, CA90089 (United States)

2011-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

344

Southeast Idaho Area Links  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Area Attractions and Events Area Geography Area History Area Links Driving Directions Idaho Falls Attractions and Events INL History INL Today Research Park Sagebrush Steppe...

345

de Sitter Extremal Surfaces  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We study extremal surfaces in de Sitter space in the Poincare slicing in the upper patch, anchored on spatial subregions at the future boundary ${\\cal I}^+$, restricted to constant boundary Euclidean time slices (focussing on strip subregions). We find real extremal surfaces of minimal area as the boundaries of past lightcone wedges of the subregions in question: these are null surfaces with vanishing area. We find also complex extremal surfaces as complex extrema of the area functional, and the area is not always real-valued. In $dS_4$ the area is real and has some structural resemblance with entanglement entropy in a dual $CFT_3$. There are parallels with analytic continuation from the Ryu-Takayanagi expressions for holographic entanglement entropy in $AdS$. We also discuss extremal surfaces in the $dS$ black brane and the de Sitter "bluewall" studied previously. The $dS_4$ black brane complex surfaces exhibit a real finite cutoff-independent extensive piece. In the bluewall geometry, there are real surface...

Narayan, K

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

346

Surface cleanliness measurement procedure  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A procedure and tools for quantifying surface cleanliness are described. Cleanliness of a target surface is quantified by wiping a prescribed area of the surface with a flexible, bright white cloth swatch, preferably mounted on a special tool. The cloth picks up a substantial amount of any particulate surface contamination. The amount of contamination is determined by measuring the reflectivity loss of the cloth before and after wiping on the contaminated system and comparing that loss to a previous calibration with similar contamination. In the alternative, a visual comparison of the contaminated cloth to a contamination key provides an indication of the surface cleanliness.

Schroder, Mark Stewart (Hendersonville, NC); Woodmansee, Donald Ernest (Simpsonville, SC); Beadie, Douglas Frank (Greenville, SC)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

347

High-resolution multiproxy records of sedimentological changes induced by dams in the Sept-les area (Gulf of St. Lawrence, Canada)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-?les area (Gulf of St. Lawrence, Canada) Ursule Boyer-Villemaire a,b, , Guillaume St-Onge a , Pascal Rimouski, 310, Allée des Ursulines, Rimouski, Québec, Canada G5L 3A1 b Chaire de recherche du Québec en Québec à Rimouski, 300, Allée des Ursulines, Rimouski, Québec, Canada G5L 3A1 c Centre d'études nordiques

Long, Bernard

348

DOE hearing on the draft area recommendation report for the Crystalline Repository Project, Liberty High School, Bedford, Virginia: Session 2, March 24, 1986: Transcript of proceedings  

SciTech Connect

This document contains a transcript of the comments of 10 witnesses. These meetings were held to hear public comments regarding the selection of a site for a second high-level nuclear waste repository. (TEM)

Not Available

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

349

DOE hearing on the Draft Area Recommendation Report for the Crystalline Repository Project, Liberty High School, Bedford, Virginia, Session 1: Transcript of proceedings  

SciTech Connect

This document contains a transcript of the comments of 52 witnesses. These meetings were held to hear public comments regarding the selection of a site for a second high-level nuclear waste repository. (TEM)

Not Available

1986-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

350

Characterizing Ultrafine Particle Exposures in Two Types of Indoor Environments: San Francisco Bay Area Classrooms and Beijing High-Rise Apartments  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Particle loading rates for HVAC filters, heat exchanger, andFor these reasons, the HVAC filters in classrooms should bemaintain high-efficiency HVAC filters in each classrooms is

Mullen, Nasim Ayoubzadeh

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

351

Please cite this article in press as: Nga D.T, et al. Assessing nutrient fluxes in a Vietnamese rural area despite limited and highly uncertain data. Resour Conserv Recy (2011), doi:10.1016/j.resconrec.2011.04.008  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

fertilizers. In addition, the sanitation system was also a critical source of nutrients that enter the surface sanitation systems (such as latrines and septic tanks) and were directly discharged to surface water every in a small and low-income area including two neighbouring communes in rural northern Vietnam, where

Richner, Heinz

352

Micro-Earthquake At Geysers Geothermal Area (2011) | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Geothermal Area (2011) Geothermal Area (2011) Exploration Activity Details Location Geysers Geothermal Area Exploration Technique Micro-Earthquake Activity Date 2011 Usefulness not indicated DOE-funding Unknown Exploration Basis Determine seismicity before and after reservoir stimulation for EGS Notes The overall goal is to gather high resolution seismicity data before, during and after stimulation activities at the EGS projects. This will include both surface and borehole deployments (as necessary in available boreholes) to provide high quality seismic data for improved processing and interpretation methodologies. This will allow the development and testing of seismic methods for understanding the performance of the EGS systems, as well as aid in developing induced seismicity mitigation techniques that can

353

The effect of mechanical elasticity on the surface impedance of a organic/inorganic composite aerogel  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Previous reports on the acoustical properties of monolithic silica aerogels have indicated that although the material's high porosity pore tortuosity and surface area contribute to a low soundvelocity in the material the rigid matrix of the aerogel exhibit a high reflection coefficient. Work by Forest et al. and others have shown that using granules instead of silica aerogel monoliths the acoustical properties can be significantly enhanced. We report the acoustic properties of a polydimethylsilicate (PDMS)/silica composite aerogel that has both high surface area and a mechanically elastic matrix. Both monoliths and granules are studied. The surface impedance (at normal incidence) as a function of open porosity pore size distribution surface area elasticity and granule size will be reported.

Winny Dong; Wayland Dong; Tanya Faltens; Elizabeth Scott; Travis Thompson

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

354

Why not only electric discharge but even a minimum charge on the surface of highly sensitive explosives can catalyze their gradual exothermic decomposition and how a cloud of unipolar charged explosive particles turns into ball lightning  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Even a single excess electron or ion migrating on the surface of sensitive explosives can catalyze their gradual exothermic decomposition. Mechanisms underlying such a charge-induced gradual thermal decomposition of highly sensitive explosives can be different. If sensitive explosive is a polar liquid, intense charge-dipole attraction between excess surface charges and surrounding explosive molecules can result in repetitive attempts of solvation of these charges by polar explosive molecules. Every attempt of such uncompleted nonequilibrium solvation causes local exothermic decomposition of thermolabile polar molecules accompanied by further thermal jumping unsolvated excess charges to new surface sites. Thus, ionized mobile hot spots emerge on charged explosive surface. Stochastic migration of ionized hot spots on explosive surface causes gradual exothermic decomposition of the whole mass of the polar explosive. The similar gradual charge-catalyzed exothermic decomposition of both polar and nonpolar highly s...

Meshcheryakov, Oleg

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

355

High-resolution calculation of the solar global convection with the reduced speed of sound technique: II. Near surface shear layer with the rotation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present a high-resolution, highly stratified numerical simulation of rotating thermal convection in a spherical shell. Our aim is to study in detail the processes that can maintain a near surface shear layer (NSSL) as inferred from helioseismology. Using the reduced speed of sound technique we can extend our global convection simulation to $0.99\\,R_{\\odot}$ and include near the top of our domain small-scale convection with short time scales that is only weakly influenced by rotation. We find the formation of a NSSL preferentially in high latitudes in the depth range $r=0.95-0.975R_\\odot$. The maintenance mechanisms are summarized as follows. Convection under weak influence of rotation leads to Reynolds stresses that transport angular momentum radially inward in all latitudes. This leads to the formation of a strong poleward directed meridional flow and a NSSL, which is balanced in the meridional plane by forces resulting from the $\\langle v'_r v'_\\theta\\rangle$ correlation of turbulent velocities. The orig...

Hotta, H; Yokoyama, T

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

356

high  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

0 0 Summary Our short-term outlook for a wide array of energy prices has been adjusted upward as international and domestic energy supply conditions have tightened. We think that crude oil prices are as likely as not to end the year $2 to $3 per barrel higher than our previous projections. Thus, we think that the probability of West Texas Intermediate costing an average of $30 per barrel or more at midwinter is about 50 percent. On their current track, heating oil prices are likely to be about 30 percent above year-ago levels in the fourth quarter. Prices for Q1 2001 seem more likely now to match or exceed the high level seen in Q1 2000. Tight oil markets this year and an inherent propensity for high gas utilization in incremental power supply have resulted in rising North American natural gas

357

Nodal Lines of Normal Components of Scattered Fields on Surfaces of Boiler Pipelines with Arbitrary Positions of Flawed Areas with Respect to External Magnetic Field Perpendicular to Their Axes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The paper reports on an investigation of the effect of a awed area configuration with respect to an applied weak magnetic field perpendicular to the pipe axis on the pattern of nodal lines of the resulting normal...

V. G. Kuleev; A. A. Dubov; V. V. Lopatin

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

358

Integrating Structure Control over Multiple Length Scales in Porous High  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

temperature catalytic applications for their high surface area and low flow resistance in combination with thermal and chemical stability. We have developed a bottom-up approach to functional, porous, high results in three-dimensionally interconnected, high-temperature ceramic materials functionalized with well

Gruner, Sol M.

359

Site Monitoring Area Maps  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

to the Site Monitoring Area (SMA) The Site Monitoring Area sampler Control measures (best management practices) installed at the Site Monitoring Area Structures such as...

360

high  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

0 0 Highlights International Oil Markets Prices. We have raised our world oil price projection by about $2 per barrel for this month because of assumed greater compliance by OPEC to targeted cuts, especially for the second quarter of 2000 (Figure 1). The expected decline in world petroleum inventories continues (Figure 2), and, given the generally stiff resolve of OPEC members to maintain production cuts, any sign of a turnaround in stocks may be postponed until later this year than previously assumed (Q3 instead of Q2). Our current estimate for the average import cost this past January is now $25 per barrel, a nearly $15-per-barrel increase from January 1999. Crude oil prices are expected to remain at relatively high levels for the first half of 2000, but

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high surface area" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Why not only electric discharge but even a minimum charge on the surface of highly sensitive explosives can catalyze their gradual exothermic decomposition and how a cloud of unipolar charged explosive particles turns into ball lightning  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Even a single excess electron or ion migrating on the surface of sensitive explosives can catalyze their gradual exothermic decomposition. Mechanisms underlying such a charge-induced gradual thermal decomposition of highly sensitive explosives can be different. If sensitive explosive is a polar liquid, intense charge-dipole attraction between excess surface charges and surrounding explosive molecules can result in repetitive attempts of solvation of these charges by polar explosive molecules. Every attempt of such uncompleted nonequilibrium solvation causes local exothermic decomposition of thermolabile polar molecules accompanied by further thermal jumping unsolvated excess charges to new surface sites. Thus, ionized mobile hot spots emerge on charged explosive surface. Stochastic migration of ionized hot spots on explosive surface causes gradual exothermic decomposition of the whole mass of the polar explosive. The similar gradual charge-catalyzed exothermic decomposition of both polar and nonpolar highly sensitive explosives can be also caused by intense charge-dipole attacks of surrounding water vapor molecules electrostatically attracted from ambient humid air and strongly accelerated towards charged sites on explosive surfaces. Emission of electrons, photons and heat from ionized hot spots randomly migrating on charged surface of highly sensitive explosive aerosol nanoparticles converts such particles into the form of short-circuited thermionic nanobatteries.

Oleg Meshcheryakov

2013-07-17T23:59:59.000Z

362

High resolution, high speed ultrahigh vacuum microscopy  

SciTech Connect

The history and future of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is discussed as it refers to the eventual development of instruments and techniques applicable to the real time in situ investigation of surface processes with high resolution. To reach this objective, it was necessary to transform conventional high resolution instruments so that an ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) environment at the sample site was created, that access to the sample by various in situ sample modification procedures was provided, and that in situ sample exchanges with other integrated surface analytical systems became possible. Furthermore, high resolution image acquisition systems had to be developed to take advantage of the high speed imaging capabilities of projection imaging microscopes. These changes to conventional electron microscopy and its uses were slowly realized in a few international laboratories over a period of almost 40 years by a relatively small number of researchers crucially interested in advancing the state of the art of electron microscopy and its applications to diverse areas of interest; often concentrating on the nucleation, growth, and properties of thin films on well defined material surfaces. A part of this review is dedicated to the recognition of the major contributions to surface and thin film science by these pioneers. Finally, some of the important current developments in aberration corrected electron optics and eventual adaptations to in situ UHV microscopy are discussed. As a result of all the path breaking developments that have led to today's highly sophisticated UHV-TEM systems, integrated fundamental studies are now possible that combine many traditional surface science approaches. Combined investigations to date have involved in situ and ex situ surface microscopies such as scanning tunneling microscopy/atomic force microscopy, scanning Auger microscopy, and photoemission electron microscopy, and area-integrating techniques such as x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy, Auger electron spectroscopy, low-energy electron diffraction, temperature programmed desorption, high-resolution electron energy-loss and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopies, and others. Material systems ranging from atomic layers of metals and semiconductors to biology related depositions are being investigated. In the case of biological materials, however, strict limitations to high-resolution applications are imposed by electron radiation damage considerations.

Poppa, Helmut [National Center for Electron Microscopy, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

2004-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

363

Self Potential At Kilauea Summit Area (Keller, Et Al., 1979) | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

1979) 1979) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Self Potential At Kilauea Summit Area (Keller, Et Al., 1979) Exploration Activity Details Location Kilauea Summit Area Exploration Technique Self Potential Activity Date Usefulness useful DOE-funding Unknown Notes More recently, Zablocki (1976) has reported the results of an extensive self-potential survey of the summit area of Kilauea. Unusually large positive potential differences (1000--2000 mV) are present over known fumarolic areas and recent eruptive fissures, as well as in areas without surface expression K539of high heat flow but where subsurface intrusions are probably present. A large negative anomaly (Fig. 1) in self-potential (-2000 mV) is coincident with the area of inflation, low resistivity, and

364

A High shear stress segment along the San Andreas Fault: Inferences based on near-field stress direction and stress magnitude observations in the Carrizo Plain Area  

SciTech Connect

Nearly 200 new in-situ determinations of stress directions and stress magnitudes near the Carrizo plain segment of the San Andreas fault indicate a marked change in stress state occurring within 20 km of this principal transform plate boundary. A natural consequence of this stress transition is that if the observed near-field ``fault-oblique`` stress directions are representative of the fault stress state, the Mohr-Coulomb shear stresses resolved on San Andreas sub-parallel planes are substantially greater than previously inferred based on fault-normal compression. Although the directional stress data and near-hydrostatic pore pressures, which exist within 15 km of the fault, support a high shear stress environment near the fault, appealing to elevated pore pressures in the fault zone (Byerlee-Rice Model) merely enhances the likelihood of shear failure. These near-field stress observations raise important questions regarding what previous stress observations have actually been measuring. The ``fault-normal`` stress direction measured out to 70 km from the fault can be interpreted as representing a comparable depth average shear strength of the principal plate boundary. Stress measurements closer to the fault reflect a shallower depth-average representation of the fault zone shear strength. If this is true, only stress observations at fault distances comparable to the seismogenic depth will be representative of the fault zone shear strength. This is consistent with results from dislocation monitoring where there is pronounced shear stress accumulation out to 20 km of the fault as a result of aseismic slip within the lower crust loading the upper locked section. Beyond about 20 km, the shear stress resolved on San Andreas fault-parallel planes becomes negligible. 65 refs., 15 figs.

Castillo, D. A., [Department of Geology and Geophysics, University of Adelaide (Australia); Younker, L.W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

1997-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

365

Aeromagnetic Survey At Dixie Valley Geothermal Field Area (Blackwell, Et  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Aeromagnetic Survey At Dixie Valley Geothermal Field Aeromagnetic Survey At Dixie Valley Geothermal Field Area (Blackwell, Et Al., 2009) Exploration Activity Details Location Dixie Valley Geothermal Field Area Exploration Technique Aeromagnetic Survey Activity Date Usefulness useful DOE-funding Unknown Notes In 2002 a high-resolution aeromagnetic survey was conducted over a 940 km2 area extending from Dixie Meadows northeastward to the Sou Hills, and from the eastern front of the Stillwater Range to the western edge of the Clan Alpine Range (Grauch, 2002). The resulting aeromagnetic map is described and discussed by Smith et al. (2002). Many of the shallow faults revealed by the aeromagnetic data (Figure 3) coincide with faults mapped based on surface expression on aerial photographs (Smith et al., 2001). However, in

366

Ground Gravity Survey At Under Steamboat Springs Area (Warpinski, Et Al.,  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Ground Gravity Survey At Under Steamboat Springs Area (Warpinski, Et Al., Ground Gravity Survey At Under Steamboat Springs Area (Warpinski, Et Al., 2002) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Ground Gravity Survey At Under Steamboat Springs Area (Warpinski, Et Al., 2002) Exploration Activity Details Location Under Steamboat Springs Area Exploration Technique Ground Gravity Survey Activity Date Usefulness useful DOE-funding Unknown Notes This project consisted of (1) a 3-D surface seismic survey conducted in the fall of 2000, (2) a micro-seismic survey run from November 2000 to April 200 1, and (3) a gravity survey conducted in April and May 2001. The 3-D surface seismic data are still being processed at this time, but initial results indicate that there are two major lineations of high velocity

367

Micro-Earthquake At Under Steamboat Springs Area (Warpinski, Et Al., 2002)  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Under Steamboat Springs Area (Warpinski, Et Al., 2002) Under Steamboat Springs Area (Warpinski, Et Al., 2002) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Micro-Earthquake At Under Steamboat Springs Area (Warpinski, Et Al., 2002) Exploration Activity Details Location Under Steamboat Springs Area Exploration Technique Micro-Earthquake Activity Date Usefulness useful DOE-funding Unknown Notes This project consisted of (1) a 3-D surface seismic survey conducted in the fall of 2000, (2) a micro-seismic survey run from November 2000 to April 200 1, and (3) a gravity survey conducted in April and May 2001. The 3-D surface seismic data are still being processed at this time, but initial results indicate that there are two major lineations of high velocity running orthogonal to each other which are presumably related to the fault

368

Oxidation and Volatilization from Tungsten Brush High Heat Flux Armor During High Temperature Steam Exposure  

SciTech Connect

Tungsten brush accommodates thermal stresses and high heat flux in fusion reactor components such as plasma facing surfaces or armor. However, inherently higher surface areas are introduced with the brush design. We have tested a specific design of tungsten brush in steam between 500 and 1100C. Hydrogen generation and tungsten volatilization rates were determined to address fusion safety issues. The brush prepared from 3.2-mm diameter welding rods had a packing density of 85 percent. We found that both hydrogen generation and tungsten volatilization from brush, fixtured to represent a unit within a larger component, were less than projections based upon the total integrated surface area (TSA). Steam access and the escape of hydrogen and volatile oxide from void spaces within the brush are restricted compared to specimens with more direct diffusion pathways to the test environment. Hydrogen generation rates from restrained specimens based on normal surface area (NSA) remain about five times higher than rates based on total surface areas from specimens with direct steam access. Volatilization rates from restrained specimens based upon normal surface area (NSA) were only 50 percent higher than our historic cumulative maximum flux plot (CMFP) for tungsten. This study has shown that hydrogen generation and tungsten volatilization from brush do not scale according to predictions with previously determined rates, but in fact, with higher packing density could approach those from flat surfaces.

Smolik, Galen Richard; Pawelko, Robert James; Anderl, Robert Andrew; Petti, David Andrew

2000-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

369

Variable area light reflecting assembly  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Device is described for tracking daylight and projecting it into a building. The device tracks the sun and automatically adjusts both the orientation and area of the reflecting surface. The device may be mounted in either a wall or roof of a building. Additionally, multiple devices may be employed in a light shaft in a building, providing daylight to several different floors. The preferred embodiment employs a thin reflective film as the reflecting device. One edge of the reflective film is fixed, and the opposite end is attached to a spring-loaded take-up roller. As the sun moves across the sky, the take-up roller automatically adjusts the angle and surface area of the film. Additionally, louvers may be mounted at the light entrance to the device to reflect incoming daylight in an angle perpendicular to the device to provide maximum reflective capability when daylight enters the device at non-perpendicular angles. 9 figs.

Howard, T.C.

1986-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

370

Smart, passive sun facing surfaces  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An article adapted for selectively utilizing solar radiation comprises an absorptive surface and a reflective surface, the absorptive surface and the reflective surface oriented to absorb solar radiation when the sun is in a relatively low position, and to reflect solar radiation when the sun is in a relatively high position. 17 figs.

Hively, L.M.

1996-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

371

Smart, passive sun facing surfaces  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An article adapted for selectively utilizing solar radiation comprises an absorptive surface and a reflective surface, the absorptive surface and the reflective surface oriented to absorb solar radiation when the sun is in a relatively low position, and to reflect solar radiation when the sun is in a relatively high position.

Hively, Lee M. (Knoxville, TN)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

372

Structure, Mobility, and Composition of Transition Metal Catalyst Surfaces: High-Pressure Scanning Tunneling Microscopy and Ambient-Pressure X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy Studies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

bimetallic nanoparticle catalysts is studied in Chapter 8.and Pt-based bimetallic nanoparticle catalysts, in order toseek the influence of catalyst surface structure on

Zhu, Zhongwei

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

373

(Dehumidification system for high humidity areas)  

SciTech Connect

The indoor swimming pool at Glen Cove YMCA, Glen Cove, New York, installed a dehumidification and water heating system. This report is the specifications of the new system, which includes dehumidifier/air handler, condenser/water heater, and outdoor condenser. (JF)

Stark, W.

1990-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

374

Structured surfaces for hemocompatibility  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The rise of micro- and nano-technologies has brought to light intriguing examples of scale-driven performance in a diverse array of fields. The quest to create highly hydrophobic surfaces is one such field. The application ...

Schrauth, Anthony J

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

375

Intrinsic Surface Stability in LiMn2-xNixO4-d (x=0.45, 0.5) High Volt-age Spinel Materials for Lithium Ion Batteries  

SciTech Connect

This work reports the surface stability of the high voltage Li ion cathode LiMn2-xNixO4- (x= 0.5, 0.45) by comparing thin film and powder composite electrodes after cycling using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The thin film electrodes offer the ability to probe the surface of the material without the need of a conductive agent and polymer binder typically used in composite electrodes. The results suggest that neither oxidation of PF6 to POF5 nor the decomposition of ethylene carbonate or dimethylene carbonate occurs on the surface of the spinel material. These results confirm the enhanced cycling stability and rate capability associated with the high voltage spinel material and suggests that the SEI layer forms due to the reaction of electrochemically inactive components in composite electrodes with the electrolyte.

Carroll, Kyler J [University of California, San Diego; Yang, Ming-Che [University of Florida, Gainesville; Veith, Gabriel M [ORNL; Dudney, Nancy J [ORNL; Meng, Ying Shirley [University of California, San Diego

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

376

Surface premelting  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The most important results obtained in the theory of surface premelting of crystals are briefly discussed on the basis of the vibration-positional model, the quasiliquid layer model, the surface roughness model, and in the case of ice, the model of the oriented dipoles at the surface. A review of the existing experimental results on surface premelting is presented, these results being obtained by investigating the crystal morphology, the polar diagram of the specific surface energy, the surface self-diffusion, the thermal emissivity, as well as upon application of LEED, NMR, Rutherford backscattering at proton channeling and ellipsometry. The agreement between theoretical and experimental data is discussed.

D. Nenow

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

377

Experimental Aspects of Surface Roughening  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The roughening of surfaces has been an active area ... years. Although the theoretical groundwork for the roughening transition was formulated by Burton...et al. in 1951 [14.1], direct experimental evidence for s...

Thomas Engel

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

378

Dropwise Condensation on Micro- and Nanostructured Surfaces  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this review we cover recent developments in the area of surface- enhanced dropwise condensation against the background of earlier work. The development of fabrication techniques to create surface structures at the micro- ...

Miljkovic, Nenad

379

The structures of CO, NO and benzene on various transition metal surfaces: Overview of LEED (low-energy electron diffraction) and HREELS (high-resolution electron energy loss) results  

SciTech Connect

Recent results are summarized concerning the adsorption structures of carbon monoxide (CO) and nitric oxide (NO) chemisorbed on various transition metal surfaces, and of benzene (C6H6) on Pd, Rh and Pt(111). These results were for the most part obtained with intensity analysis of low-energy electron diffraction (LEED) and high-resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy (HREELS).

Ohtani, H.; Van Hove, M.A.; Somorjai, G.A.

1987-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

380

Structural, chemical, and electronic state on La[subscript 0.7]Sr[subscript 0.3]MnO[subscript 3] dense thin-film surfaces at high temperature - Surface segregation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The evolution of the surface topographic and electronic structure and chemical state of the La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 (LSMO) thin films were probed using Scanning Tunneling microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy to identify ...

Jalili, Helia

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high surface area" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Micro-Earthquake At New York Canyon Geothermal Area (2011) | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

York Canyon Geothermal Area (2011) York Canyon Geothermal Area (2011) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Micro-Earthquake At New York Canyon Geothermal Area (2011) Exploration Activity Details Location New York Canyon Geothermal Area Exploration Technique Micro-Earthquake Activity Date 2011 Usefulness not indicated DOE-funding Unknown Exploration Basis Determine seismicity before and after reservoir stimulation for EGS Notes The overall goal is to gather high resolution seismicity data before, during and after stimulation activities at the EGS projects. This will include both surface and borehole deployments (as necessary in available boreholes) to provide high quality seismic data for improved processing and interpretation methodologies. This will allow the development and testing

382

NMR investigations of surfaces and interfaces using spin-polarized xenon  

SciTech Connect

{sup 129}Xe NMR is potentially useful for the investigation of material surfaces, but has been limited to high surface area samples in which sufficient xenon can be loaded to achieve acceptable signal to noise ratios. In Chapter 2 conventional {sup 129}Xe NMR is used to study a high surface area polymer, a catalyst, and a confined liquid crystal to determine the topology of these systems. Further information about the spatial proximity of different sites of the catalyst and liquid crystal systems is determined through two dimensional exchange NMR in Chapter 3. Lower surface area systems may be investigated with spin-polarized xenon, which may be achieved through optical pumping and spin exchange. Optically polarized xenon can be up to 10{sup 5} times more sensitive than thermally polarized xenon. In Chapter 4 highly polarized xenon is used to examine the surface of poly(acrylonitrile) and the formation of xenon clathrate hydrates. An attractive use of polarized xenon is as a magnetization source in cross polarization experiments. Cross polarization from adsorbed polarized xenon may allow detection of surface nuclei with drastic enhancements. A non-selective low field thermal mixing technique is used to enhance the {sup 13}C signal of CO{sub 2} of xenon occluded in solid CO{sub 2} by a factor of 200. High-field cross polarization from xenon to proton on the surface of high surface area polymers has enabled signal enhancements of {approximately}1,000. These studies, together with investigations of the efficiency of the cross polarization process from polarized xenon, are discussed in Chapter 5. Another use of polarized xenon is as an imaging contrast agent in systems that are not compatible with traditional contrast agents. The resolution attainable with this method is determined through images of structured phantoms in Chapter 6.

Gaede, H.C. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry]|[Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States). Materials Science Div.

1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

383

Simulation of the influence high-frequency (2 MHz) capacitive gas discharge and magnetic field on the plasma sheath near a surface in hypersonic gas flow  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The plasma sheath near the surface of a hypersonic aircraft formed under associative ionization behind the shock front shields the transmission and reception of radio signals. Using two-dimensional kinetic partic...

I. V. Schweigert

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

384

Chemical, Electronic and Nanostructure Dynamics on Sr(Ti[subscript 1 - x]FE[subscript x])O[subscript 3] Thin-Film Surfaces at High Temperatures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The surface structure, chemical composition and electronic structure of Sr(Ti1-xFex)O3 under different temperatures and oxygen pressures were studied by Scanning Tunneling Microscopy / Spectroscopy (STM/S) and X-ray ...

Chen, Yan

385

AFM CHARACTERIZATION OF LASER INDUCED DAMAGE ON CDZNTE CRYSTAL SURFACES  

SciTech Connect

Semi-conducting CdZnTe (or CZT) crystals can be used in a variety of detector-type applications. CZT shows great promise for use as a gamma radiation spectrometer. However, its performance is adversely affected by point defects, structural and compositional heterogeneities within the crystals, such as twinning, pipes, grain boundaries (polycrystallinity), secondary phases and in some cases, damage caused by external forces. One example is damage that occurs during characterization of the surface by a laser during Raman spectroscopy. Even minimal laser power can cause Te enriched areas on the surface to appear. The Raman spectra resulting from measurements at moderate intensity laser power show large increases in peak intensity that is attributed to Te. Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) was used to characterize the extent of damage to the CZT crystal surface following exposure to the Raman laser. AFM data reveal localized surface damage in the areas exposed to the Raman laser beam. The degree of surface damage to the crystal is dependent on the laser power, with the most observable damage occurring at high laser power. Moreover, intensity increases in the Te peaks of the Raman spectra are observed even at low laser power with little to no visible damage observed by AFM. AFM results also suggest that exposure to the same amount of laser power yields different amounts of surface damage depending on whether the exposed surface is the Te terminating face or the Cd terminating face of CZT.

Hawkins, S; Lucile Teague, L; Martine Duff, M; Eliel Villa-Aleman, E

2008-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

386

Tools for measuring surface cleanliness  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A procedure and tools for quantifying surface cleanliness are described. Cleanliness of a target surface is quantified by wiping a prescribed area of the surface with a flexible, bright white cloth swatch, preferably mounted on a special tool. The cloth picks up a substantial amount of any particulate surface contamination. The amount of contamination is determined by measuring the reflectivity loss of the cloth before and after wiping on the contaminated system and comparing that loss to a previous calibration with similar contamination. In the alternative, a visual comparison of the contaminated cloth to a contamination key provides an indication of the surface cleanliness.

Schroder, Mark Stewart (Hendersonville, NC); Woodmansee, Donald Ernest (Simpsonville, SC); Beadie, Douglas Frank (Greenville, SC)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

387

Teleseismic-Seismic Monitoring At Coso Geothermal Area (1988) | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Coso Geothermal Coso Geothermal Area (1988) Exploration Activity Details Location Coso Geothermal Area Exploration Technique Teleseismic-Seismic Monitoring Activity Date 1988 Usefulness useful DOE-funding Unknown Exploration Basis To analyze three-dimensional Vp/Vs variation Notes A tomographic inversion for the 3D variations of the Vp/V s, the ratio of compressional to shear velocity, was performed. Iterative back projection of 2966 shear and compressional wave travel time residuals from local earthquakes recorded on vertical instruments reveals that Vp/Vs is generally high at the surface and decreases systematically to 10 km depth. Near Devil's Kitchen in the Coso Geothermal Area, Vp/Vs values are very low near the surface, consistent with measured values for steam-dominated

388

Wide Area Ocean Networks: Architecture and System Design Considerations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

static with power tether: these will either reside on the sea-bed or float on the ocean surface (surfaceWide Area Ocean Networks: Architecture and System Design Considerations Sumit Roy University 98105-6698 {payman,rouseff,warren}@apl.washington.edu ABSTRACT Wide area ocean networks for monitoring

Arabshahi, Payman

389

Designing liquid repellent surfaces for fabrics, feathers and fog  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Omniphobicity refers to a property of surfaces which are not wetted by water, oils, alcohols and other low surface tension liquids. Robust omniphobic surfaces can be applied in many areas including fabrics with chemical / ...

Chhatre, Shreerang S. (Shreerang Sharad)

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

390

Capillary adhesion between elastic solids with randomly rough surfaces  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

I study how the contact area and the work of adhesion, between two elastic solids with randomly rough surfaces, depend on the relative humidity. The surfaces are assumed to be hydrophilic, and capillary bridges form at the interface between the solids. For elastically hard solids with relative smooth surfaces, the area of real contact and therefore also the sliding friction, are maximal when there is just enough liquid to fill out the interfacial space between the solids, which typically occurs for $d_{\\rm K} \\approx 3 h_{\\rm rms}$, where $d_{\\rm K}$ is the height of the capillary bridge and $h_{\\rm rms}$ the root-mean-square roughness of the (combined) surface roughness profile. For elastically soft solids, the area of real contact is maximal for very low humidity (i.e., small $d_{\\rm K}$), where the capillary bridges are able to pull the solids into nearly complete contact. In both case, the work of adhesion is maximal (and equal to $2\\gamma {\\rm cos}\\theta$, where $\\gamma$ is the liquid surface tension and $\\theta$ the liquid-solid contact angle) when $d_{\\rm K} >> h_{\\rm rms}$, corresponding to high relative humidity.

B. N. J. Persson

2008-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

391

Combinatorial Materials Research Applied to the Development of New Surface Coatings I:? A Multiwell Plate Screening Method for the High-Throughput Assessment of Bacterial Biofilm Retention on Surfaces  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The screening process involves (1) multiwell plate modifications for coating deposition, (2) deposition of combinatorial coating libraries via an automated liquid dispensing robot, (3) coating thickness measurements of cured coatings, (4) preconditioning of coatings via immersion in deionized water, (5) bacterial incubation, (6) plate processing, and (7) data analysis for identification of promising candidates. ... This clearly perceptible increase recorded since 1982, may be attributable to the growing use of copper paints subsequent to the antifouling paint regulations adopted in 1982. ... that can be applied with both lethal and sublethal effect criteria for the detn. of toxic stress from leaches of painted surfaces. ...

Shane J. Stafslien; James A. Bahr; Jason M. Feser; Jonathan C. Weisz; Bret J. Chisholm; Thomas E. Ready; Philip Boudjouk

2005-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

392

Aeromagnetic Survey At Coso Geothermal Area (1977) | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

77) 77) Exploration Activity Details Location Coso Geothermal Area Exploration Technique Aeromagnetic Survey Activity Date 1977 Usefulness useful regional reconnaissance DOE-funding Unknown Notes A detailed low-altitude aeromagnetic survey of 576 line-mi (927 line-km) was completed over a portion of the Coso Hot Springs KGRA. This survey defined a pronounced magnetic low that could help delineate the geothermal system that has an areal extent of approximately 10 sq mi (26 sq km) partially due to magnetite destruction by hydrothermal solutions associated with the geothermal system. The anomoly coincides with two other geophysical anomalies: 1) a bedrock electrical resistivity low and 2) an area of relatively high near-surface temperatures. References Fox, R. C. (1 May 1978) Low-altitude aeromagnetic survey of a

393

Time-Domain Electromagnetics At Haleakala Volcano Area (Thomas, 1986) |  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Time-Domain Electromagnetics At Haleakala Volcano Time-Domain Electromagnetics At Haleakala Volcano Area (Thomas, 1986) Exploration Activity Details Location Haleakala Volcano Area Exploration Technique Time-Domain Electromagnetics Activity Date Usefulness useful DOE-funding Unknown Notes Controlled-source electromagnetic soundings were found to be substantially more successful in the southwest rift than either the Schlumberger or the self-potential studies. This was largely due to the ability of time-domain methods to penetrate high-resistivity surface layers and thus to define lower-resistivity sections at depth. The results of this sounding study, which was conducted at elevations ranging from 75 to 497 m a.s.l., generally indicated moderate- to lowresistivity (6 - 7 ohm.m) sections to depths of 1 km on the lower rift zone and higher resistivities (12-16

394

Surface Soil  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Surface Soil Surface Soil Surface Soil We compare local soil samples with samples collected from northern New Mexico locations that are beyond the range of potential influence from normal Laboratory operations. April 12, 2012 Farm soil sampling Two LANL environmental field team members take soil samples from a farm. Contact Environmental Communication & Public Involvement P.O. Box 1663 MS M996 Los Alamos, NM 87545 (505) 667-0216 Email Measurements are compared to samples from the regional sites and compared to averages over time to see if there are changes in concentrations. Monitoring surface soil LANL has monitored surface soils since the early 1970s. Institutional surface soil samples are collected from 17 on-site, 11 perimeter, and six regional (background) locations every three years.

395

500V/200A fault current limiter modules made of large-area MOD-YBa2Cu3O7 thin films with high-resistivity AuAg alloy shunt layers  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We developed 500Vrms/ 200Arms superconducting thin-film fault current limiter (FCL) modules that can withstand high electric fields (E>30Vrmscm?1) by using large-area YBa2Cu3O7 (YBCO) thin films with high-resistivity AuAg alloy shunt layers. AuAg alloy films about 60nm thick were sputter-deposited on YBCO/CeO2/sapphire films (2.7cm ? 20cm) prepared using a fluorine-free MOD method. Each 20cm long AuAg/YBCO film was then divided into three segments (each ~5.7cm long) by four Ag electrodes deposited on the AuAg layer, resulting in an effective length of 17cm. The 500V/200A FCL modules were then fabricated by first connecting two of the segmented films in parallel using Ag-sheathed Bi-2223 superconducting tapes and then connecting in parallel an external resistor and a capacitor for each segment to protect the AuAg/YBCO film from hot spots. Switching tests using a short-circuit generator revealed that all the modules carried a superconducting ac current of ?237Arms and that modules prepared with YBCO films having a relatively homogeneous critical current Ic distribution successfully withstood ?515Vrms for five cycles without any damage. These results demonstrate that (a)the FCL modules fabricated here successfully achieved the rated current of 200Arms and rated voltage of 500Vrms and (b)total area of the YBCO films on sapphire substrates required for the 500V/200A (100kVA) module was less than one-third that for conventional thin-film FCL modules that use gold shunt layers, leading to the significantly reduced cost of thin-film FCLs. Film damage due to hot spots depended on the difference in Ic between the two parallel-connected films and on the inhomogeneity of the Ic distribution in the film, and is most probably due to nonlinear current flows at the moment of quenching that cause local overheating.

H Yamasaki; K Arai; K Kaiho; Y Nakagawa; M Sohma; W Kondo; I Yamaguchi; H Matsui; T Kumagai; N Natori; N Higuchi

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

396

Fate of Brine Applied to Unpaved Roads at a Radioactive Waste Subsurface Disposal Area  

SciTech Connect

Between 1984 and 1993, MgCl2 brine was used to suppress dust on unpaved roads at a radioactive waste subsurface disposal area. Because Cl might enhance corrosion of buried metals in the waste, we investigated the distribution and fate of Cl in the vadose zone using pore water samples collected from suction lysimeters and soluble salt concentrations extracted from sediment samples. The Cl/Br mass ratio and the total dissolved Cl concentration of pore water show that brine contamination occurs primarily within 13 m of treated roads, but can extend as much as 30 m laterally in near-surface sedimentary deposits. Within the deep vadose zone, which consists of interlayered basalt lava flows and sedimentary interbeds, brine has moved up to 110 m laterally. This lateral migration suggests formation of perched water and horizontal transport during periods of high recharge. In a few locations, brine migrated to depths of 67 m within 3 to 5 yr. Elevated Cl concentrations were found to depths of 2 m in roadbed material. In drainage ditches along roads, where runoff accumulates and recharge of surface water is high, Cl was flushed from the sediments in 3 to 4 yr. In areas of lower recharge, Cl remained in the sediments after 5 yr. Vertical brine movement is directly related to surface recharge through sediments. The distribution of Cl in pore water and sediments is consistent with estimates of vadose zone residence times and spatial distribution of surface water recharge from other investigations at the subsurface disposal area.

Larry C. Hull; Carolyn W. Bishop

2004-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

397

Research Highlights Sorted by Research Area  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Research Area Research Area Radiation Processes | Cloud Distributions/Characterizations | Surface Properties | General Circulation and Single Column Models/Parameterizations | Aerosol Properties | Atmospheric Thermodynamics and Vertical Structures | Clouds with Low Optical [Water] Depths (CLOWD) | Vertical Velocity | Broadband Heating Rate Profile (BBHRP) | Cloud-Aerosol-Precipitation Interactions | Cloud Processes | Aerosol Processes Radiation Processes Alexandrov, M. D. Optical Depth Measurements by Shadowband Radiometers and Their Uncertainties ARM Berg, L. Surface Summertime Radiative Forcing by Shallow Cumuli at the ARM SGP ARM Bergmann, D. The Influence of Regional Anthropogenic Emission Reductions on Aerosol Direct Radiative Forcing ASR Bhattacharya, A. Burning on the Prairies ARM

398

Electron tunneling characteristics on La[subscript 0.7]Sr[subscript 0.3]MnO[subscript 3] thin-film surfaces at high temperature  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We report on the electron tunneling characteristics on La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 (LSM) thin-film surfaces up to 580?C in 10[superscript ?3]?mbar oxygen pressure, using scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy (STM/STS). A thresholdlike ...

Katsiev, Khabiboulakh

399

Field studies of the potential for wind transport of plutonium- contaminated soils at sites in Areas 6 and 11, Nevada Test Site  

SciTech Connect

This report describes and documents a series of field experiments carried out in Areas 6 and 11 of the Nevada Test Site in June and July 1994 to determine parameters of boundary layer winds, surface characteristics, and vegetation cover that can be used to predict dust emissions from the affected sites. Aerodynamic roughness of natural sites is determined largely by the lateral cover of the larger and more permanent roughness elements (shrubs). These provide a complete protection of the surface from wind erosion. Studies using a field-portable wind tunnel demonstrated that natural surfaces in the investigated areas of the Nevada Test Site are stable except at very high wind speeds (probably higher than normally occur, except perhaps in dust devils). However, disturbance of silty-clay surfaces by excavation devices and vehicles reduces the entrainment threshold by approximately 50% and makes these areas potentially very susceptible to wind erosion and transport of sediments.

Lancaster, N.; Bamford, R.; Metzger, S. [University and Community Coll. System of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States). Quaternary Sciences Center, Desert Research Institute

1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

400

Eects of convection instability due to incompatibility between ocean dynamics and surface forcings  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

- bility between a surface temperature climatology and a given ocean model, into which the climatology by thermal and wind forcing only. Initially, the temperature climatology is forcefully assimilated climatology. In areas characterized by sharp oceanic fronts and high convective activity, the OGCM, due

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high surface area" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
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401

Surface Science Prospectives Weakly bound buffer layers: A versatile template for metallic nano-clusters  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

at sub-micron width, millimeter long, were obtained experimentally, with line width determined are often used as convenient model systems for industrial supported catalysts that could be studied under- tal particles supported on high surface area materials, e.g. silica, alumina, titania or carbon, under

Asscher, Micha

402

Study of cavity type antenna structure of large-area 915 MHz ultra-high frequency wave plasma device based on three-dimensional finite difference time-domain analysis  

SciTech Connect

A large-area planar plasma source with a resonant cavity type launcher driven by a 915 MHz ultra-high frequency wave was developed. Theoretical analysis with the three-dimensional finite difference time-domain simulation was carried out to determine the optimized launcher structure by analyzing the resonant transverse magnetic mode in the resonant cavity. Numerical result expects that the resonant electric field distribution inside the cavity dominantly consists of the TM{sub 410} mode. The resonant cavity type launcher having 8 holes in an octagonal geometry was designed to fit the resonant transverse magnetic mode. Adjusting 8 hole positions of the launcher to the field pattern of the resonant TM{sub 410} mode, we found that the plasma density increased about 40%?50% from 1.0?1.1 10{sup 11} cm{sup ?3} to ?1.5 10{sup 11} cm{sup ?3} at the same incident power of 2.5 kW, compared with the previous results with the launcher having 6 holes in the hexagonal geometry. It is also noted that the electron density changes almost linearly with the incident wave power without any mode jumps.

Chang, Xijiang [Department of Light Sources and Illuminating Engineering, Fudan University, 220 Handan Road, Shanghai 200433 (China) [Department of Light Sources and Illuminating Engineering, Fudan University, 220 Handan Road, Shanghai 200433 (China); Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Shizuoka University, 3-5-1 Johoku, Hamamatsu 432-8561 (Japan); Kunii, Kazuki [Graduate School of Engineering, Shizuoka University,3-5-1 Johoku, Hamamatsu 432-8561 (Japan)] [Graduate School of Engineering, Shizuoka University,3-5-1 Johoku, Hamamatsu 432-8561 (Japan); Liang, Rongqing [Department of Light Sources and Illuminating Engineering, Fudan University, 220 Handan Road, Shanghai 200433 (China)] [Department of Light Sources and Illuminating Engineering, Fudan University, 220 Handan Road, Shanghai 200433 (China); Nagatsu, Masaaki [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Shizuoka University, 3-5-1 Johoku, Hamamatsu 432-8561 (Japan) [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Shizuoka University, 3-5-1 Johoku, Hamamatsu 432-8561 (Japan); Graduate School of Engineering, Shizuoka University,3-5-1 Johoku, Hamamatsu 432-8561 (Japan)

2013-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

403

Thermal radiation from magnetic neutron star surfaces  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We investigate the thermal emission from magnetic neutron star surfaces in which the cohesive effects of the magnetic field have produced the condensation of the atmosphere and the external layers. This may happen for sufficiently cool atmospheres with moderately intense magnetic fields. The thermal emission from an isothermal bare surface of a neutron star shows no remarkable spectral features, but it is significantly depressed at energies below some threshold energy. However, since the thermal conductivity is very different in the normal and parallel directions to the magnetic field lines, the presence of the magnetic field is expected to produce a highly anisotropic temperature distribution, depending on the magnetic field geometry. In this case, the observed flux of such an object looks very similar to a BB spectrum, but depressed in a nearly constant factor at all energies. This results in a systematic underestimation of the area of the emitter (and therefore its size) by a factor 5-10 (2-3).

J. F. Perez--Azorin; J. A. Miralles; J. A. Pons

2004-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

404

Bespoke Materials Surfaces  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Bespoke Materials Surfaces Bespoke Materials Surfaces Background The Department of Energy (DOE) has established performance and efficiency goals for power generation systems which will improve the ability of the U.S. energy sector to produce electricity efficiently with less impact to the environment. Power systems showing the most promise for reaching these goals require corrosion resistance alloys able to perform at very high pressures and temperatures. Increasing both the

405

Modeling-Computer Simulations At Coso Geothermal Area (1980) | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Modeling-Computer Simulations At Coso Geothermal Area (1980) Modeling-Computer Simulations At Coso Geothermal Area (1980) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Modeling-Computer Simulations At Coso Geothermal Area (1980) Exploration Activity Details Location Coso Geothermal Area Exploration Technique Modeling-Computer Simulations Activity Date 1980 Usefulness useful DOE-funding Unknown Exploration Basis Estimate thermal regime and potential of the system Notes A three-dimensional generalized linear inversion of the delta t* observations was performed using a three-layer model. A shallow zone of high attenuation exists within the upper 5 km in a region bounded by Coso Hot Springs, Devils Kitchen, and Sugarloaf Mountain probably corresponding to a shallow vapor liquid mixture or "lossy" near surface lithology.

406

Teleseismic-Seismic Monitoring At Coso Geothermal Area (1980) | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Teleseismic-Seismic Monitoring At Coso Geothermal Teleseismic-Seismic Monitoring At Coso Geothermal Area (1980) Exploration Activity Details Location Coso Geothermal Area Exploration Technique Teleseismic-Seismic Monitoring Activity Date 1980 Usefulness useful DOE-funding Unknown Exploration Basis Determine extent of low velocity body Notes An area showing approximately 0.2-s excess travel time that migrates with changing source azimuth, suggesting that the area is the 'delay shadow' produced by a deep, low-velocity body. Inversion of the relative residual data for three-dimensional velocity structure determines the lateral variations in velocity to a depth of 22.5 km beneath the array. An intense low-velocity body, which coincides with the surface expressions of late Pleistocene rhyolitic volcanism, high heat flow, and hydrothermal activity,

407

Refraction Survey At Rye Patch Area (Feighner, Et Al., 1999) | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Rye Patch Area (Feighner, Et Al., 1999) Rye Patch Area (Feighner, Et Al., 1999) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Refraction Survey At Rye Patch Area (Feighner, Et Al., 1999) Exploration Activity Details Location Rye Patch Area Exploration Technique Refraction Survey Activity Date Usefulness not indicated DOE-funding Unknown Notes Because the results of the VSP indicated apparent reflections, TGI proceeded with the collection of 3.0 square miles of 3-D surface seismic data over the Rye Patch reservoir. The data acquisition (which included the use of LBNL's three-component high temperature borehole geophone in well 44-28) was accomplished in August 1998. Initial processed results provided by the subcontractor Subsurface Exploration Co. (SECO) were delivered to

408

Hanford 300 Area ROD  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

stable autunite. Does not dissolve. * Dissolve phosphate in water, apply at ground surface, inject into the ground, inject into the deep part of the vadose zone that is...

409

E-Print Network 3.0 - area plymouth massachusetts Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Seacoast area high schools & Coe Brown... .862.2881 NH North Country, Sullivan County (Lebanon, Claremont, etc), Concord area high schools Elisabeth... Williams...

410

Micro-Earthquake At Desert Peak Geothermal Area (2011) | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Desert Peak Geothermal Area Desert Peak Geothermal Area (2011) Exploration Activity Details Location Desert Peak Geothermal Area Exploration Technique Micro-Earthquake Activity Date 2011 Usefulness not indicated DOE-funding Unknown Exploration Basis Determine seismicity before and after reservoir stimulation for EGS Notes The overall goal is to gather high resolution seismicity data before, during and after stimulation activities at the EGS projects. This will include both surface and borehole deployments (as necessary in available boreholes) to provide high quality seismic data for improved processing and interpretation methodologies. This will allow the development and testing of seismic methods for understanding the performance of the EGS systems, as well as aid in developing induced seismicity mitigation techniques that can

411

Micro-Earthquake At Brady Hot Springs Geothermal Area (2011) | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Geothermal Area Geothermal Area (2011) Exploration Activity Details Location Brady Hot Springs Geothermal Area Exploration Technique Micro-Earthquake Activity Date 2011 Usefulness not indicated DOE-funding Unknown Exploration Basis Determine seismicity before and after reservoir stimulation for EGS Notes The overall goal is to gather high resolution seismicity data before, during and after stimulation activities at the EGS projects. This will include both surface and borehole deployments (as necessary in available boreholes) to provide high quality seismic data for improved processing and interpretation methodologies. This will allow the development and testing of seismic methods for understanding the performance of the EGS systems, as well as aid in developing induced seismicity mitigation techniques that can

412

Micro-Earthquake At Raft River Geothermal Area (2011) | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Micro-Earthquake At Raft River Geothermal Area (2011) Micro-Earthquake At Raft River Geothermal Area (2011) Exploration Activity Details Location Raft River Geothermal Area Exploration Technique Micro-Earthquake Activity Date 2011 Usefulness not indicated DOE-funding Unknown Exploration Basis Determine seismicity before and after reservoir stimulation for EGS Notes The overall goal is to gather high resolution seismicity data before, during and after stimulation activities at the EGS projects. This will include both surface and borehole deployments to provide high quality seismic data for improved processing and interpretation methodologies. This will allow the development and testing of seismic methods for understanding the performance of the EGS systems, as well as aid in developing induced seismicity mitigation techniques that can be used for a variety of EGS

413

Surface and Porosity of Adsorbents  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The validity of adsorption methods of measuring specific surface areas of solids (and, in particular, of adsorbents) is limited by the characteristics of the porosity. Methods based on the concept of multilayer adsorption, like the BET method and de Boer's t-method, are applicable only to non-porous or coarsely porous (including mesoporous) adsorbents. There is no general method of calculating the surface area of microporous adsorbents from adsorption data. For the "crack" model of the micropores in carbon adsorbents we can calculate the size and the geometrical area of the micropores from the parameters of the adsorption equation given by the theory of the volume filling of micropores, using a standard vapour (benzene). Almost identical results are obtained by using the adsorption of water vapour, which forms continuous monolayers in the micropores because of the dominant role of the hydrogen bond in adsorption. The geometric surface of micropores in carbon adsorbents is not a measure of the adsorption capacity of the sample, which is determined by dispersion forces, but it is relevant in kinetics and catalysis. The presence of micropores in non-porous or coarsely porous adsorbents makes the measurement of surface area by the BET or the de Boer method physically meaningless. In this case we can use the t/F method of Dubinin and Kadlets, which gives a measure of the volume of micropores and of the specific surface of mesopores. Kistler and Kiselev's capillary condensation method gives similar values for the specific area of the mesopores. 23 references.

M M Dubinin

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

414

Atmospheric Plasma Jet Machining of Optical Surfaces  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Deterministic surface machining with high spatial resolution and nanometric depth accuracy is urgently required in the fabrication of high-end optics. Thus, plasma jet tools with...

Bhm, Georg; Eichentopf, Inga-Maria; Arnold, Thomas

415

Programmable surfaces  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Robotic vehicles walk on legs, roll on wheels, are pulled by tracks, pushed by propellers, lifted by wings, and steered by rudders. All of these systems share the common character of momentum transport across their surfaces. ...

Sun, Amy (Amy Teh-Yu)

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

416

Aerosol synthesis of macroporous silica adsorbents with high performance in paclitaxel purification from plant cell cultures  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Macroporous spherical silica particles having high performance for the purification of paclitaxel were synthesized by spray pyrolysis using polystyrene nanoparticles as a template. In terms of increasing the purity and yield of paclitaxel, the synthesized macroporous silica showed the better performance than mesoporous silica of high surface area as well as commercial sylopute. The generation of macroporous with the sacrifice of losing surface area was proved to be helpful for enhancing the performance of adsorbents for paclitaxel purification. As a result, the high purity (67.3%) and yield (80.0%) of paclitaxel was achieved by using macroporous silica prepared by spray pyrolysis.

Hye Ran Jang; Jin-Hyun Kim; Kyeong Youl Jung

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

417

Liquid Microjunction Surface Sampling Coupled with High-Pressure Liquid Chromatography-Electrospray Ionization-Mass Spectrometry for Analysis of Drugs and Metabolites in Whole-Body Thin Tissue Sections  

SciTech Connect

In this work, a commercially available autosampler was adapted to perform direct liquid microjunction (LMJ) surface sampling followed by a high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) separation of the extract components and detection with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). To illustrate the utility of coupling a separation with this direct liquid extraction based surface sampling approach, four different organs (brain, lung, kidney, and liver) from whole-body thin tissue sections of propranolol dosed and control mice were examined. The parent drug was observed in the chromatograms of the surface sampling extracts from all the organs of the dosed mouse examined. In addition, two isomeric phase II metabolites of propranolol (an aliphatic and an aromatic hydroxypropranolol glucuronide) were observed in the chromatograms of the extracts from lung, kidney, and liver. Confirming the presence of one or the other or both of these glucuronides in the extract from the various organs was not possible without the separation. These drug and metabolite data obtained using the LMJ surface sampling/HPLC-MS method and the results achieved by analyzing similar samples by conventional extraction of the tissues and subsequent HPLC-MS analysis were consistent.

Kertesz, Vilmos [ORNL; Van Berkel, Gary J [ORNL

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

418

Lecture Ch. 5a Surface tension (Kelvin effect)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 Lecture Ch. 5a · Surface tension (Kelvin effect) ­ Hygroscopic growth (subsaturated humidity Surface Tension · By definition · By 1st Law (modified for surface area change) Kelvin Effect · Force: What happens to condensed H2O? ­ Precipitation processes Surface Thermodynamics · Surfaces require

Russell, Lynn

419

Application of surface energy measurements to evaluate moisture susceptibility of asphalt and aggregates  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

is assessed using surface energy measurements and dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA). Surface energy is defined as the energy needed to create a new unit surface area of material in vacuum condition. Surface energy measurements are used to compute the adhesive...

Zollinger, Corey James

2005-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

420

Solvent-mediated repair and patterning of surfaces by AFM  

SciTech Connect

A tip-based approach to shaping surfaces of soluble materials with nanometer-scale control is reported. The proposed method can be used, for example, to eliminate defects and inhomogeneities in surface shape, repair mechanical or laser-induced damage to surfaces, or perform 3D lithography on the length scale of an AFM tip. The phenomenon that enables smoothing and repair of surfaces is based on the transport of material from regions of high- to low-curvature within the solution meniscus formed in a solvent-containing atmosphere between the surface in question and an AFM tip scanned over the surface. Using in situ AFM measurements of the kinetics of surface remodeling on KDP (KH{sub 2}PO{sub 4}) crystals in humid air, we show that redistribution of solute material during relaxation of grooves and mounds is driven by a reduction in surface free energy as described by the Gibbs-Thomson law. We find that the perturbation from a flat interface evolves according to the diffusion equation where the effective diffusivity is determined by the product of the surface stiffness and the step kinetic coefficient. We also show that, surprisingly, if the tip is instead scanned over or kept stationary above an atomically flat area of the surface, a convex structure is formed with a diameter that is controlled by the dimensions of the meniscus, indicating that the presence of the tip and meniscus reduces the substrate chemical potential beneath that of the free surface. This allows one to create nanometer-scale 3D structures of arbitrary shape without the removal of substrate material or the use of extrinsic masks or chemical compounds. Potential applications of these tip-based phenomena are discussed.

Elhadj, S; Chernov, A; De Yoreo, J

2007-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high surface area" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

WHAT IS THE SURFACE AREA OF A HEDGEHOG? BARRY MAZUR  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of the power of analogy, and thought-experiment as already practiced in ancient mathematics.2 . It also gives on a grid with the mesh given by 1 foot by 1 foot squares, you might count the number of 1-square-foot) and count the number of 1-square- foot patches that the figure covers completely (in the above case it is 39

Mazur, Barry

422

Applications: Dispersions, Coatings, and Other Large Surface Area Structures  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In the future, coatings will have improved properties due to nanoparticle incorporations and the methodology of incorporation. Coatings will also be ordered or patterned at the micro- and nano-levels. Similarl...

P. Wiltzius; K. Klabunde

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

423

GUIDELINES MANUAL FOR SURFACE MONITORING OF GEOTHERMAL AREAS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and Otte, C. (eds. ), Geothermal Energy: Stanford Universityfor the Development of Geothermal Energy Resources , JetPotential Use of Geothermal Energy f o r Power Generation

Til, C. J. Van

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

424

Effect of Acid Treatment on the High-Temperature Surface Oxidation Behavior of FeCrAlloy Foil Used for Methane Combustion Catalyst Support  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The catalytic flameless combustion of low alkans improves the efficiency of energy production and reduces NOx emission. ... (3-5) Fe?Cr?Al alloy (FeCrAlloy) has superior stability to other iron-based alloys at high temperatures and has been used in the fabrication of gas burners, industrial heaters, and other high-temperature devices. ... The heating rate was 10 C/min. ...

Dong Zhang; Lihong Zhang; Bin Liang; Yongdan Li

2009-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

425

LANSCE | Lujan Center | Science Thrust Areas  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Science Thrust Areas Science Thrust Areas User research at the Lujan Center is focused in four science thrust areas. Each has a contact person who is available to discuss proposed experiments and to provide advice on the appropriate instrument and instrument scientist, available sample environments, and other details for planned experiments. Lujan Center instrument scientists welcome questions and discussions about new experiments and are happy to provide guidance for proposal development. New users are encouraged to contact the appropriate instrument scientist before submitting a proposal. Primary Instruments and Contacts: Surfaces and Interfaces Rex Hjelm - Principal Contact Neutron reflectivity and small angle scattering probe interfaces, surfaces, defects, and their influence on material properties and functionality.

426

Hyperbolic distributions and fractal character of fracture surfaces  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The fractal character of fracture surfaces of thick-walled pressure vessels produced in the final fast fracture that terminates low-cycle-fatigue tests is compared with that of fracture surfaces produced in Charpy impact tests in samples of the same high-strength and -toughness steel (ASTM A723) alloy. Slit island analysis yielded fractal dimensions near 1.25 for the Charpy specimens, which is typical of high-strength steel alloys previously studied; however, extremely high fractal dimensions near 1.40 were determined for the low-cycle-fatigue specimens. The distributions of island and lake areas and of island and lake perimeters on random sections exhibit hyperbolic distributions analogous to those found for geographic islands and lakes.

Peter McAnulty; L. V. Meisel; P. J. Cote

1992-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

427

NSTB Summarizes Vulnerable Areas  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

NSTB Summarizes Vulnerable Areas NSTB Summarizes Vulnerable Areas Commonly Found in Energy Control Systems Experts at the National SCADA Test Bed (NSTB) discovered some common areas of vulnerability in the energy control systems assessed between late 2004 and early 2006. These vulnerabilities ranged from conventional IT security issues to specific weaknesses in control system protocols. The paper "Lessons Learned from Cyber Security Assessments of SCADA and Energy Management Systems" describes the vulnerabilities and recommended strategies for mitigating them. It should be of use to asset owners and operators, control system vendors, system integrators, and third-party vendors interested in enhancing the security characteristics of current and future products.

428

Neutron Science Research Areas | ORNL  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Home | Science & Discovery | Neutron Science | Research Areas SHARE Research Areas Neutron scattering research at ORNL covers four broad research areas: biology and soft...

429

Characterization of surface and layered films with cluster secondary ion mass spectrometry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

chamber is made of stainless steel tube, with most of the surface area (80%) replaced with a 0.01-inch diameter tungsten wire grid. Another tungsten wire (electron ionization filament) is wrapped around the electrode with ~ 5 mm distance from... sparking between the high voltage components and the insulators, which ultimately leads to unstable performance of the ion source. The thermal electron emission tungsten filament deteriorates with usage as well. Signs of an aged filament include: high...

Li, Zhen

2008-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

430

Characterization of surface and layered films with cluster secondary ion mass spectrometry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

chamber is made of stainless steel tube, with most of the surface area (80%) replaced with a 0.01-inch diameter tungsten wire grid. Another tungsten wire (electron ionization filament) is wrapped around the electrode with ~ 5 mm distance from... sparking between the high voltage components and the insulators, which ultimately leads to unstable performance of the ion source. The thermal electron emission tungsten filament deteriorates with usage as well. Signs of an aged filament include: high...

Li, Zhen

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

431

Physisorption and Chemisorption Methods for Evaluating the Total Surface Area and Active Surface Area of Two Types of Carbon Materials  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

TSA is a gross indicator of soot reactivity and does not always correlate well with the real reactivity. This research shows that a more relevant reactivity index is soot ASA.

432

Estimation of Probe Cell Locations in High-density Synthetic-oligonucleotide DNA Microarrays  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Estimation of Probe Cell Locations in High-density Synthetic-oligonucleotide DNA Microarrays Harry Institute, Durham, NC 27710 1 #12;High-density synthetic-oligonucliotide DNA microarrays (HSDMs), which area required to hybridise an RNA sample to DNA probes. On an HSDM surface, hundreds of thousands

West, Mike

433

Western Area Power Administration  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Loveland Area Projects November 29-30, 2011 2 Agenda * Overview of Western Area Power Administration * Post-1989 Loveland Area Projects (LAP) Marketing Plan * Energy Planning and Management Program * Development of the 2025 PMI Proposal * 2025 PMI Proposal * 2025 PMI Comment Period & Proposal Information * Questions 3 Overview of Western Area Power Administration (Western) * One of four power marketing administrations within the Department of Energy * Mission: Market and deliver reliable, renewable, cost-based Federal hydroelectric power and related services within a 15-state region of the central and western U.S. * Vision: Provide premier power marketing and transmission services Rocky Mountain Region (RMR) is one of five regional offices 4 Rocky Mountain Region

434

Decontamination & decommissioning focus area  

SciTech Connect

In January 1994, the US Department of Energy Office of Environmental Management (DOE EM) formally introduced its new approach to managing DOE`s environmental research and technology development activities. The goal of the new approach is to conduct research and development in critical areas of interest to DOE, utilizing the best talent in the Department and in the national science community. To facilitate this solutions-oriented approach, the Office of Science and Technology (EM-50, formerly the Office of Technology Development) formed five Focus AReas to stimulate the required basic research, development, and demonstration efforts to seek new, innovative cleanup methods. In February 1995, EM-50 selected the DOE Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) to lead implementation of one of these Focus Areas: the Decontamination and Decommissioning (D & D) Focus Area.

NONE

1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

435

Honey Lake Geothermal Area  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The Honey Lake geothermal area is located in Lassen County, California and Washoe County, Nevada. There are three geothermal projects actively producing electrical power. They are located at Wendel...

436

AREA 5 RWMS CLOSURE  

National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

153 CLOSURE STRATEGY NEVADA TEST SITE AREA 5 RADIOACTIVE WASTE MANAGEMENT SITE Revision 0 Prepared by Under Contract No. DE-AC52-06NA25946 March 2007 DISCLAIMER Reference herein to...

437

Geographic Area Month  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Fuels by PAD District and State (Cents per Gallon Excluding Taxes) - Continued Geographic Area Month No. 1 Distillate No. 2 Distillate a No. 4 Fuel b Sales to End Users Sales for...

438

Geothermometry At Coso Geothermal Area (1978) | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Geothermometry At Coso Geothermal Area (1978) Geothermometry At Coso Geothermal Area (1978) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Geothermometry At Coso Geothermal Area (1978) Exploration Activity Details Location Coso Geothermal Area Exploration Technique Geothermometry Activity Date 1978 Usefulness useful DOE-funding Unknown Exploration Basis Determine fluid origin in two exploratory wells Notes Collected water from original coso hot springs well (1967) and CGEH No. 1. and completed chemical analysis to determine fluid origin. The surface expression of fumarole and acid sulfate pools and shallow steam wells gives a false indication of an extensive vapor dominated system because upward convecting, boiling alkaline-chloride waters do not reach the surface.

439

Trace Element Analysis At Roosevelt Hot Springs Area (Christensen, Et Al.,  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Christensen, Et Al., Christensen, Et Al., 1983) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Trace Element Analysis At Roosevelt Hot Springs Area (Christensen, Et Al., 1983) Exploration Activity Details Location Roosevelt Hot Springs Area Exploration Technique Trace Element Analysis Activity Date Usefulness useful DOE-funding Unknown Notes Three of the recognized trace-element suites are characteristic of the surface and near-surface environment. These are: (1) concentrations of As, Sb, Be and Hg associated with siliceous material at the location of liquid discharge, fluid mixing, or at boiling interfaces; (2) deposits of Mn and Fe oxides containing concentrations of Ba, W, Be, Co, Cu, As, Sb and Hg formed by the oxidation of cooled brines; and (3) high concentrations of Hg

440

Reflection Survey At Under Steamboat Springs Area (Warpinski, Et Al., 2002)  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

2) 2) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Reflection Survey At Under Steamboat Springs Area (Warpinski, Et Al., 2002) Exploration Activity Details Location Under Steamboat Springs Area Exploration Technique Reflection Survey Activity Date Usefulness not indicated DOE-funding Unknown Notes This project consisted of (1) a 3-D surface seismic survey conducted in the fall of 2000, (2) a micro-seismic survey run from November 2000 to April 200 1, and (3) a gravity survey conducted in April and May 2001. The 3-D surface seismic data are still being processed at this time, but initial results indicate that there are two major lineations of high velocity running orthogonal to each other which are presumably related to the fault

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high surface area" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Trial Demonstration of Area Lighting Retrofit  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

LED Area Lighting Retrofit: Yuma Border Patrol Along the Yuma Sector Border Patrol Area in Yuma, Arizona, the GATEWAY program conducted a trial demonstration in which the incumbent quartz metal halide area lighting was replaced with LED at three pole locations. The LED system was found to equal or better the incumbent system in terms of both illuminance and uniformity, and an advanced optical system and lower pole height improved the illuminance uniformity, reduced stray light, and increased projected energy and maintenance cost savings. This high luminous flux and high temperature application is not unique and similar applications can benefit from the findings of this installation.

442

A high-resolution characteristics-based implicit dual time-stepping VOF method for free surface flow simulation on unstructured grids  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this paper, a new unstructured-grid/finite volume incompressible Navier-Stokes solver, based on a high-order characteristics-based method, the artificial compressibility method, and a matrix-free implicit dual time-stepping scheme, has been developed ...

Yong Zhao; Hsiang Hui Tan; Baili Zhang

2002-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

443

Surface Water Sampling | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Surface Water Sampling Surface Water Sampling Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Technique: Surface Water Sampling Details Activities (1) Areas (1) Regions (0) NEPA(0) Exploration Technique Information Exploration Group: Field Techniques Exploration Sub Group: Field Sampling Parent Exploration Technique: Water Sampling Information Provided by Technique Lithology: Stratigraphic/Structural: Hydrological: Water composition and source of fluids Thermal: Water temperature Dictionary.png Surface Water Sampling: Water sampling is done to characterize the chemical, thermal, or hydrological properties of a surface or subsurface aqueous system. Other definitions:Wikipedia Reegle Introduction Surface water sampling of hot and cold spring discharges has traditionally

444

Surface and Soil Cleanup at Brookhaven National Laboratory  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Surface and Soil Projects Surface and Soil Projects placeholder Aerial view of capped landfills A major part of the overall site cleanup involved addressing contaminated soils, underground tanks, and waste storage areas. All of the major soil projects have now been completed, with the exception of some soils that will need to be cleaned up during the decommissioning of the Brookhaven Graphite Research Reactor and High Flux Beam Reactor. Following are a list of major surface and soil cleanup projects that have been completed since 1994: Three out-of-service 100,000 gallon aboveground waste tanks were removed and disposed of at a licensed off-site disposal facility. Sixteen underground storage tanks (USTs) were removed between 1988 and 2005 under the cleanup program. The project included the removal, transportation, and disposal of the tanks and approximately 4,000 cubic yards of soil and debris.

445

NETL: Combined Pressure, Temperature Contrast, and Surface-Enhanced  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

IEP – Post-Combustion CO2 Emissions Control Combined Pressure, Temperature Contrast, and Surface-Enhanced Separation of Carbon Dioxide (CO2) for Post-Combustion Carbon Capture Project No.: DE-FE0007531 Rice University is investigating CO2-capture cost-reduction opportunities by developing a novel gas absorption process. Specific project research topics include the following: Combining the absorber and stripper columns into a single, integrated unit. The use of vacuum stripping in combination with waste heatfor regeneration of carbon dioxide (CO2) absorbent. The use of a very high surface area ceramic foam gas-liquid contactor for enhanced mass transfer. Preparing surfaces of the ceramic foam gas-liquid contactor with basic and acidic functional groups to enhance mass transfer during gas absorption and stripping, respectively.

446

Leaf Area Distribution of Tomato Plants as Influenced by Polyethylene Mulch  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Leaf Area Distribution of Tomato Plants as Influenced by Polyethylene Mulch Surface Color Dennis R of polyethylene (plastic) mulch surface color (white versus black) on leaf area distribution of tomato and soil temperatures. These results suggest that the polyethylene mulch surface color can induce changes

Decoteau, Dennis R.

447

Reduction of Glass Surface Reflectance by Ion Beam Surface Modification  

SciTech Connect

This is the final report for DOE contract DE-EE0000590. The purpose of this work was to determine the feasibility of the reduction of the reflection from the front of solar photovoltaic modules. Reflection accounts for a power loss of approximately 4%. A solar module having an area of one square meter with an energy conversion efficiency of 18% generates approximately 180 watts. If reflection loss can be eliminated, the power output can be increased to 187 watts. Since conventional thin-film anti-reflection coatings do not have sufficient environmental stability, we investigated the feasibility of ion beam modification of the glass surface to obtain reduction of reflectance. Our findings are generally applicable to all solar modules that use glass encapsulation, as well as commercial float glass used in windows and other applications. Ion implantation of argon, fluorine, and xenon into commercial low-iron soda lime float glass, standard float glass, and borosilicate glass was studied by implantation, annealing, and measurement of reflectance. The three ions all affected reflectance. The most significant change was obtained by argon implantation into both low-iron and standard soda-lime glass. In this way samples were formed with reflectance lower than can be obtained with a single-layer coatings of magnesium fluoride. Integrated reflectance was reduced from 4% to 1% in low-iron soda lime glass typical of the glass used in solar modules. The reduction of reflectance of borosilicate glass was not as large; however borosilicate glass is not typically used in flat plate solar modules. Unlike conventional semiconductor ion implantation doping, glass reflectance reduction was found to be tolerant to large variations in implant dose, meaning that the process does not require high dopant uniformity. Additionally, glass implantation does not require mass analysis. Simple, high current ion implantation equipment can be developed for this process; however, before the process can be employed on full scale solar modules, equipment must be developed for ion implanting large sheets of glass. A cost analysis shows that the process can be economical. Our finding is that the reduction of reflectance by ion beam surface modification is technically and economically feasible. The public will benefit directly from this work by the improvement of photovoltaic module efficiency, and indirectly by the greater understanding of the modification of glass surfaces by ion beams.

Mark Spitzer

2011-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

448

Weibull Effective Area for Hertzian Ring Crack Initiation Stress  

SciTech Connect

Spherical or Hertzian indentation is used to characterize and guide the development of engineered ceramics under consideration for diverse applications involving contact, wear, rolling fatigue, and impact. Ring crack initiation can be one important damage mechanism of Hertzian indentation. It is caused by sufficiently-high, surface-located, radial tensile stresses in an annular ring located adjacent to and outside of the Hertzian contact circle. While the maximum radial tensile stress is known to be dependent on the elastic properties of the sphere and target, the diameter of the sphere, the applied compressive force, and the coefficient of friction, the Weibull effective area too will be affected by those parameters. However, the estimations of a maximum radial tensile stress and Weibull effective area are difficult to obtain because the coefficient of friction during Hertzian indentation is complex, likely intractable, and not known a priori. Circumventing this, the Weibull effective area expressions are derived here for the two extremes that bracket all coefficients of friction; namely, (1) the classical, frictionless, Hertzian case where only complete slip occurs, and (2) the case where no slip occurs or where the coefficient of friction is infinite.

Jadaan, Osama M. [University of Wisconsin, Platteville; Wereszczak, Andrew A [ORNL; Johanns, Kurt E [ORNL

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

449

Operational Area Monitoring Plan  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

' ' SECTION 11.7B Operational Area Monitoring Plan for the Long -Term H yd rol og ical M o n i to ri ng - Program Off The Nevada Test Site S . C. Black Reynolds Electrical & Engineering, Co. and W. G. Phillips, G. G. Martin, D. J. Chaloud, C. A. Fontana, and 0. G. Easterly Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory U. S. Environmental Protection Agency October 23, 1991 FOREWORD This is one of a series of Operational Area Monitoring Plans that comprise the overall Environmental Monitoring Plan for the DOE Field Office, Nevada (DOEINV) nuclear and non- nuclear testing activities associated with the Nevada Test Site (NTS). These Operational Area Monitoring Plans are prepared by various DOE support contractors, NTS user organizations, and federal or state agencies supporting DOE NTS operations. These plans and the parent

450

Bay Area | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Bay Area Bay Area Jump to: navigation, search Contents 1 Clean Energy Clusters in the Bay Area 1.1 Products and Services in the Bay Area 1.2 Research and Development Institutions in the Bay Area 1.3 Networking Organizations in the Bay Area 1.4 Investors and Financial Organizations in the Bay Area 1.5 Policy Organizations in the Bay Area Clean Energy Clusters in the Bay Area Products and Services in the Bay Area Loading map... {"format":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"limit":500,"offset":0,"link":"all","sort":[""],"order":[],"headers":"show","mainlabel":"","intro":"","outro":"","searchlabel":"\u2026

451

Texas Area | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Area Area Jump to: navigation, search Contents 1 Clean Energy Clusters in the Texas Area 1.1 Products and Services in the Texas Area 1.2 Research and Development Institutions in the Texas Area 1.3 Networking Organizations in the Texas Area 1.4 Investors and Financial Organizations in the Texas Area 1.5 Policy Organizations in the Texas Area Clean Energy Clusters in the Texas Area Products and Services in the Texas Area Loading map... {"format":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"limit":500,"offset":0,"link":"all","sort":[""],"order":[],"headers":"show","mainlabel":"","intro":"","outro":"","searchlabel":"\u2026

452

Rockies Area | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Rockies Area Rockies Area Jump to: navigation, search Contents 1 Clean Energy Clusters in the Rockies Area 1.1 Products and Services in the Rockies Area 1.2 Research and Development Institutions in the Rockies Area 1.3 Networking Organizations in the Rockies Area 1.4 Investors and Financial Organizations in the Rockies Area 1.5 Policy Organizations in the Rockies Area Clean Energy Clusters in the Rockies Area Products and Services in the Rockies Area Loading map... {"format":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"limit":500,"offset":0,"link":"all","sort":[""],"order":[],"headers":"show","mainlabel":"","intro":"","outro":"","searchlabel":"\u2026

453

OLED area illumination source  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention relates to an area illumination light source comprising a plurality of individual OLED panels. The individual OLED panels are configured in a physically modular fashion. Each OLED panel comprising a plurality of OLED devices. Each OLED panel comprises a first electrode and a second electrode such that the power being supplied to each individual OLED panel may be varied independently. A power supply unit capable of delivering varying levels of voltage simultaneously to the first and second electrodes of each of the individual OLED panels is also provided. The area illumination light source also comprises a mount within which the OLED panels are arrayed.

Foust, Donald Franklin (Scotia, NY); Duggal, Anil Raj (Niskayuna, NY); Shiang, Joseph John (Niskayuna, NY); Nealon, William Francis (Gloversville, NY); Bortscheller, Jacob Charles (Clifton Park, NY)

2008-03-25T23:59:59.000Z

454

Enhanced oxygen evolution activity of IrO2 and RuO2 (100) surfaces  

SciTech Connect

The activities of the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) on IrO2 and RuO2 catalysts are among the highest known to date. However, the intrinsic OER activities of surfaces with defined crystallographic orientations are not well established experimentally. Here we report that the (100) surface of IrO2 and RuO2 is more active than the (110) surface that has been traditionally explored by density functional theory studies. The relation between the OER activity and density of coordinatively undersaturated metal sites exposed on each rutile crystallographic facet is discussed. The surface-orientation dependent activities can guide the design of high-surface-area catalysts with increased activity for electrolyzers, metal-air batteries, and photoelectrochemical water splitting applications.

Stoerzinger, Kelsey [Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)] [Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT); Qiao, Liang [ORNL] [ORNL; Biegalski, Michael D [ORNL] [ORNL; Christen, Hans M [ORNL] [ORNL; Shao-Horn, Yang [Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)] [Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

455

Observation of dynamic water microadsorption on Au surface  

SciTech Connect

Experimental and theoretical research on water wettability, adsorption, and condensation on solid surfaces has been ongoing for many decades because of the availability of new materials, new detection and measurement techniques, novel applications, and different scales of dimensions. Au is a metal of special interest because it is chemically inert, has a high surface energy, is highly conductive, and has a relatively high melting point. It has wide applications in semiconductor integrated circuitry, microelectromechanical systems, microfluidics, biochips, jewelry, coinage, and even dental restoration. Therefore, its surface condition, wettability, wear resistance, lubrication, and friction attract a lot of attention from both scientists and engineers. In this paper, the authors experimentally investigated Au{sub 2}O{sub 3} growth, wettability, roughness, and adsorption utilizing atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, reflectance spectrometry, and contact angle measurement. Samples were made using a GaAs substrate. Utilizing a super-hydrophilic Au surface and the proper surface conditions of the surrounding GaAs, dynamic microadsorption of water on the Au surface was observed in a clean room environment. The Au surface area can be as small as 12??m{sup 2}. The adsorbed water was collected by the GaAs groove structure and then redistributed around the structure. A model was developed to qualitatively describe the dynamic microadsorption process. The effective adsorption rate was estimated by modeling and experimental data. Devices for moisture collection and a liquid channel can be made by properly arranging the wettabilities or contact angles of different materials. These novel devices will be very useful in microfluid applications or biochips.

Huang, Xiaokang, E-mail: xiaokang.huang@tqs.com; Gupta, Gaurav; Gao, Weixiang; Tran, Van; Nguyen, Bang; McCormick, Eric; Cui, Yongjie; Yang, Yinbao; Hall, Craig; Isom, Harold [TriQuint Semiconductor, Inc., 500 W Renner Road, Richardson, Texas 75080 (United States)

2014-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

456

Direct-Current Resistivity Survey At Mokapu Penninsula Area (Thomas, 1986)  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Direct-Current Resistivity Survey At Mokapu Direct-Current Resistivity Survey At Mokapu Penninsula Area (Thomas, 1986) Exploration Activity Details Location Mokapu Penninsula Area Exploration Technique Direct-Current Resistivity Survey Activity Date Usefulness not indicated DOE-funding Unknown Notes Geophysical surveys on Mokapu were restricted to three Schlumberger soundings (Fig. 17). The results of these soundings appeared to indicate a highly resistive surface section underlain by one or more layers of intermediate to low resistivity (Fig. 18). Basement resistivities in all cases were less than 3 ohm.m and were interpreted to correspond to alluvial layers saturated with cold seawater (Lienert, 1982). --- A separate geophysical analysis performed on the Koolau caldera area (Kauahikaua, 1981 a) synthesized existing self-potential, gravity, seismic and aeromagnetic

457

Large area, low capacitance, GaAs nanowire photodetector with a transparent Schottky collecting junction  

SciTech Connect

We present experimental results on a GaAs/Indium-Tin-Oxide Schottky-like heterojunction photodetector based on a nanowire device geometry. By distributing the active detecting area over an array of nanowires, it is possible to achieve large area detection with low capacitance. Devices with bare GaAs and passivated AlGaAs/GaAs nanowires are fabricated to compare the responsivity with and without surface passivation. We are able to achieve responsivity of >0.5A/W and Signal-Noise-Ratio in excess of 7?dB for 2?V applied reverse bias with passivated nanowire devices. Capacitance-voltage measurement yields <5?nF/cm{sup 2}, which shows a strong possibility for high-speed applications with a broad area device.

Seyedi, M. A., E-mail: seyedi@usc.edu; Yao, M.; O'Brien, J.; Dapkus, P. D. [Center for Energy Nanoscience, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90089 (United States)] [Center for Energy Nanoscience, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90089 (United States); Wang, S. Y. [Center for Energy Nanoscience, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90089 (United States) [Center for Energy Nanoscience, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90089 (United States); Nanostructured Energy Conversion Technology and Research (NECTAR), Advanced Studies Laboratories, University of California, Santa Cruz, California 95064, USA and NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, California 94035 (United States)

2013-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

458

MEASUREMENT OF BUILDING AREAS MEASUREMENT OF BUILDING AREAS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

) Common Use Areas All floored areas in the building for circulation and standard facilities provided and the like. These are extracts of NWPC standard method of measurement of building areas with an addition fromSection S ANNEXURE 4 MEASUREMENT OF BUILDING AREAS MEASUREMENT OF BUILDING AREAS 1. GROSS BUILDING

Wang, Yan

459

Subsurface contaminants focus area  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Enregy (DOE) Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area is developing technologies to address environmental problems associated with hazardous and radioactive contaminants in soil and groundwater that exist throughout the DOE complex, including radionuclides, heavy metals; and dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs). More than 5,700 known DOE groundwater plumes have contaminated over 600 billion gallons of water and 200 million cubic meters of soil. Migration of these plumes threatens local and regional water sources, and in some cases has already adversely impacted off-site rsources. In addition, the Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area is responsible for supplying technologies for the remediation of numerous landfills at DOE facilities. These landfills are estimated to contain over 3 million cubic meters of radioactive and hazardous buried Technology developed within this specialty area will provide efective methods to contain contaminant plumes and new or alternative technologies for development of in situ technologies to minimize waste disposal costs and potential worker exposure by treating plumes in place. While addressing contaminant plumes emanating from DOE landfills, the Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area is also working to develop new or alternative technologies for the in situ stabilization, and nonintrusive characterization of these disposal sites.

NONE

1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

460

Functional Area Dean's Office  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Functional Area Dean's Office 1101 Ag & Resource Economics 1172 Animal Sciences 1171 Bio Ag Science and Pest Mgmt 1177 Hort & Landscape Architecture 1173 Soil & Crop Science 1170 Ag Colo Res Ctr 3046 Fiscal Officers Jessi Fuentes 1 1931 Val Parker 1 6953 Linda Moller 1 1441 Paula

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high surface area" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Plutonium focus area  

SciTech Connect

To ensure research and development programs focus on the most pressing environmental restoration and waste management problems at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the Assistant Secretary for the Office of Environmental Management (EM) established a working group in August 1993 to implement a new approach to research and technology development. As part of this new approach, EM developed a management structure and principles that led to the creation of specific Focus Areas. These organizations were designed to focus the scientific and technical talent throughout DOE and the national scientific community on the major environmental restoration and waste management problems facing DOE. The Focus Area approach provides the framework for intersite cooperation and leveraging of resources on common problems. After the original establishment of five major Focus Areas within the Office of Technology Development (EM-50, now called the Office of Science and Technology), the Nuclear Materials Stabilization Task Group (EM-66) followed the structure already in place in EM-50 and chartered the Plutonium Focus Area (PFA). The following information outlines the scope and mission of the EM, EM-60, and EM-66 organizations as related to the PFA organizational structure.

NONE

1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

462

Parametrization-independent elliptic surface grid generation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The generation of computational grids on surfaces of three-dimensional configurations is an important component of many areas of computational research, both as a boundary grid for volume grid generation or to perform ...

Rasmussen, Britt Bille

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

463

Laser surface roughening of PTFE for increased bonding strength  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Treatment of pure Teflon (PTFE) with UV laser pulses (193nm) produces area-selective rough surfaces. These irradiated areas are bondable with ordinary adhesives. The stability of the bonds is about one order ...

M. Rauh; J. Ihlemann; A. Koch

2007-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

464

EA-1177: Salvage/Demolition of 200 West Area, 200 East Area, and 300 Area  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

7: Salvage/Demolition of 200 West Area, 200 East Area, and 7: Salvage/Demolition of 200 West Area, 200 East Area, and 300 Area Steam Plants, Richland, Washington EA-1177: Salvage/Demolition of 200 West Area, 200 East Area, and 300 Area Steam Plants, Richland, Washington SUMMARY This EA evaluates the environmental impacts for the proposal to salvage and demolish the 200 West Area, 200 East Area, and 300 Area steam plants and their associated steam distribution piping equipment, and ancillary facilities at the U.S. Department of Energy Hanford Site in Richland, Washington. PUBLIC COMMENT OPPORTUNITIES None available at this time. DOCUMENTS AVAILABLE FOR DOWNLOAD October 21, 1996 EA-1177: Finding of No Significant Impact Salvage/Demolition of 200 West Area, 200 East Area, and 300 Area Steam Plants October 21, 1996 EA-1177: Final Environmental Assessment

465

IMPACT OF BOUNDARY-LAYER CUTTING ON FREE-SURFACE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

issue into air at atmospheric pressure Working fluids: water and ethanol #12;11 Surface Breakup Efficiency Factor · Radial droplet velocity relative to jet surface · Surface breakup efficiency factor Gives area of liquid surface · Efficiency factor correlation (valid for Wed = 235­270,000) L mass flux

California at San Diego, University of

466

Simultaneous P and B diffusion, in-situ surface passivation, impurity filtering and gettering for high-efficiency silicon solar cells  

SciTech Connect

A technique is presented to simultaneously diffuse boron and phosphorus in silicon, and grow an in-situ passivating oxide in a single furnace step. It is shown that limited solid doping sources made from P and B Spin-On Dopant (SOD) films can produce optimal n{sup +} and p{sup +} profiles simultaneously without the deleterious effects of cross doping. A high quality passivating oxide is grown in-situ beneath the thin ({approximately} 60 {angstrom}) diffusion glass, resulting in low J{sub o} values below 100 fA/cm{sup 2} for transparent ({approximately} 100 {Omega}/{open_square}) phosphorus and boron diffusions. For the first time it is shown that impurities present in the boron SOD film can be effectively filtered out by employing separate source wafers, resulting in bulk lifetimes in excess of 1 ms for the sample wafers. The degree of lifetime degradation in the sources is related to the gettering efficiency of boron in silicon. This novel simultaneous diffusion, in-situ oxidation, impurity filtering and gettering technique was successfully used to produce 20.3% Fz, and 19.1% Cz solar cells, in one furnace step.

Krygowski, T.; Rohatgi, A. [Georgia Inst. of Tech., Atlanta, GA (United States); Ruby, D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1997-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

467

Surface Mercury Geochemistry As A Guide To Volcanic Vent Structure And  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

source source History View New Pages Recent Changes All Special Pages Semantic Search/Querying Get Involved Help Apps Datasets Community Login | Sign Up Search Page Edit History Facebook icon Twitter icon » Surface Mercury Geochemistry As A Guide To Volcanic Vent Structure And Zones Of High Heat Flow In The Valley Of Ten Thousand Smokes, Katmai National Park, Alaska Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Journal Article: Surface Mercury Geochemistry As A Guide To Volcanic Vent Structure And Zones Of High Heat Flow In The Valley Of Ten Thousand Smokes, Katmai National Park, Alaska Details Activities (2) Areas (1) Regions (0) Abstract: A reconnaissance survey of Hg° was designed to model the 1912 Novarupta vent structure and delineate zones of near-surface high heat

468

Focus Area Summary  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

information provided was consolidated from the original five focus areas for the EM information provided was consolidated from the original five focus areas for the EM Corporate QA Board. The status of QAP/QIP approvals etc. was accurate at the time of posting; however, additional approvals may have been achieved since that time. If you have any questions about the information provided, please contact Bob Murray at robert.murray@em.doe.gov Task # Task Description Status 1.1 Develop a brief questionnaire to send out to both commercial and EM contractors to describe their current approach for identifying the applicable QA requirements for subcontractors, tailoring the requirements based upon risk, process for working with procurement to ensure QA requirements are incorporated into subcontracts, and implementing verification of requirement flow-down by their

469

Focus Area 3 Deliverables  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

3 - Commercial Grade item and Services 3 - Commercial Grade item and Services Dedication Implementation and Nuclear Services Office of Environmental Management And Energy Facility Contractors Group Quality Assurance Improvement Project Plan Project Focus Area Task # and Description Deliverable Project Area 3-Commercial Grade Item and Services Dedication 3.1-Complete a survey of selected EM contractors to identify the process and basis for their CGI dedication program including safety classification of items being dedicated for nuclear applications within their facilities Completed Survey Approvals: Yes/No/NA Project Managers: S. Waisley, D. Tuttel Yes Executive Committee: D. Chung, J. Yanek, N. Barker, D. Amerine No EM QA Corporate Board: No Energy Facility Contractors Group

470

Argonne area restaurants  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

area restaurants area restaurants Amber Cafe 13 N. Cass Ave. Westmont, IL 60559 630-515-8080 www.ambercafe.net Argonne Guest House Building 460 Argonne, IL 60439 630-739-6000 www.anlgh.org Ballydoyle Irish Pub & Restaurant 5157 Main Street Downers Grove, IL 60515 630-969-0600 www.ballydoylepub.com Bd's Mongolian Grill The Promenade Shopping Center Boughton Rd. & I-355 Bolingbrook, IL 60440 630-972-0450 www.gomongo.com Branmor's American Grill 300 Veterans Parkway Bolingbrook, IL 60440 630-226-9926 www.branmors.com Buca di Beppo 90 Yorktown Convenience Center Lombard, IL 60148 630-932-7673 www.bucadibeppo.com California Pizza Kitchen 551 Oakbrook Center Oak Brook, IL 60523 630-571-7800 www.cpk.com Capri Ristorante 5101 Main Street Downers Grove, IL 60516 630-241-0695 www.capriristorante.com Carrabba's Italian Grill

471

borrow_area.cdr  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

information information at Weldon Spring, Missouri. This site is managed by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management. developed by the former WSSRAP Community Relations Department to provide comprehensive descriptions of key activities that took place throughout the cleanup process The Missouri Department of Conservation (MDC) approved a plan on June 9, 1995, allowing the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) at the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project (WSSRAP) to excavate nearly 2 million cubic yards of clay material from land in the Weldon Spring Conservation Area. Clay soil from a borrow area was used to construct the permanent disposal facility at the Weldon Spring site. Clay soil was chosen to construct the disposal facility because it has low permeability when

472

Gold, Copper, and Platinum Nanoparticles Dispersed on CeOx/TiO2(110) Surfaces: High Water-Gas Shift Activity and the Nature of the Mixed-Metal Oxide at the Nanometer Level  

SciTech Connect

At small coverages of ceria on TiO{sub 2}(110), the CeO{sub x} nanoparticles have an unusual coordination mode. Scanning tunneling microscopy and density-functional calculations point to the presence of Ce{sub 2}O{sub 3} dimers, which form diagonal arrays that have specific orientations of 0, 24, and 42{sup o} with respect to the [1 -1 0] direction of the titania substrate. At high coverages of ceria on TiO{sub 2}(110), the surface exhibits two types of terraces. In one type, the morphology is not very different from that observed at low ceria coverage. However, in the second type of terrace, there is a compact array of ceria particles with structures that do not match the structures of CeO{sub 2}(111) or CeO{sub 2}(110). The titania substrate imposes on the ceria nanoparticles nontypical coordination modes, enhancing their chemical reactivity. This phenomenon leads to a larger dispersion of supported metal nanoparticles (M = Au, Cu, Pt) and makes possible the direct participation of the oxide in catalytic reactions. The M/CeO{sub x}/TiO{sub 2}(110) surfaces display an extremely high catalytic activity for the water-gas shift reaction that follows the sequence Au/CeO{sub x}/TiO{sub 2}(110) < Cu/CeO{sub x}/TiO{sub 2}(110) < Pt/CeO{sub x}/TiO{sub 2}(110). For low coverages of Cu and CeO{sub x}, Cu/CeO{sub x}/TiO{sub 2}(110) is 8-12 times more active than Cu(111) or Cu/ZnO industrial catalysts. In the M/CeO{sub x}/TiO{sub 2}(110) systems, there is a strong coupling of the chemical properties of the admetal and the mixed-metal oxide: The adsorption and dissociation of water probably take place on the oxide, CO adsorbs on the admetal nanoparticles, and all subsequent reaction steps occur at the oxide-admetal interface. The high catalytic activity of the M/CeO{sub x}/TiO{sub 2}(110) surfaces reflects the unique properties of the mixed-metal oxide at the nanometer level.

Park, J.; Graciani, J; Evans, J; Stacchiola, D; Senanayake, S; Barrio, L; Liu, P; Fdez. Sanz, J; Hrbek, J; Rodriguez, J

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

473

Gold, Copper and Platinum Nanoparticles Dispersed on CeOx/TiO2(110) Surfaces: High Water-Gas Shift Activity and the Nature of the Mixed-Metal Oxide at the Nanometer Level  

SciTech Connect

At small coverages of ceria on TiO{sub 2}(110), the CeO{sub x} nanoparticles have an unusual coordination mode. Scanning tunneling microscopy and density-functional calculations point to the presence of Ce{sub 2}O{sub 3} dimers, which form diagonal arrays that have specific orientations of 0, 24, and 42{sup o} with respect to the [1 -1 0] direction of the titani