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1

High surface area, high permeability carbon monoliths  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The goal of this work is to prepare carbon monoliths having precisely tailored pore size distribution. Prior studies have demonstrated that poly(acrylonitrile) can be processed into a precursor having tailored macropore structure. Since the macropores were preserved during pyrolysis, this synthetic process provided a route to porous carbon having macropores with size =0.1 to 10{mu}m. No micropores of size <2 nm could be detected in the carbon, however, by nitrogen adsorption. In the present work, the authors have processed a different polymer, poly(vinylidene chloride) into a macroporous precursor, Pyrolysis produced carbon monoliths having macropores derived from the polymer precursor as well as extensive microporosity produced during the pyrolysis of the polymer. One of these carbons had BET surface area of 1,050 m{sup 2}/g and about 1.2 cc/g total pore volume, with about 1/3 of the total pore volume in micropores and the remainder in 1{mu}m macropores. No mesopores in the intermediate size range could be detected by nitrogen adsorption. Carbon materials having high surface area as well as micron size pores have potential applications as electrodes for double layer supercapacitors containing liquid electrolyte, or as efficient media for performing chemical separations.

Lagasse, R.R.; Schroeder, J.L. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Organic Materials Processing Dept.

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

2

Synthesis of High Surface Area Foams for Functional and Structural...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

in porous metallic bulk materials for functional applications such as catalysts, hydrogen storage or high-sensitivity sensors. Traditionally, high surface area functional...

3

Hydroetching of high surface area ceramics using moist supercritical fluids  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Aerogels having a high density of hydroxyl groups and a more uniform pore size with fewer bottlenecks are described. The aerogel is exposed to a mixture of a supercritical fluid and water, whereupon the aerogel forms a high density of hydroxyl groups. The process also relaxes the aerogel into a more open uniform internal structure, in a process referred to as hydroetching. The hydroetching process removes bottlenecks from the aerogels, and forms the hydrogels into more standard pore sizes while preserving their high surface area.

Fryxell, Glen; Zemanian, Thomas S.

2004-11-02T23:59:59.000Z

4

Nitridation under ammonia of high surface area vanadium aerogels  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Vanadium pentoxide gels have been obtained from decavanadic acid prepared by ion exchange on a resin from ammonium metavanadate solution. The progressive removal of water by solvent exchange in supercritical conditions led to the formation of high surface area V{sub 2}O{sub 5}, 1.6H{sub 2}O aerogels. Heat treatment under ammonia has been performed on these aerogels in the 450-900 deg. C temperature range. The oxide precursors and oxynitrides have been characterized by XRD, SEM, TGA, BET. Nitridation leads to divided oxynitride powders in which the fibrous structure of the aerogel is maintained. The use of both very low heating rates and high surface area aerogel precursors allows a higher rate and a lower threshold of nitridation than those reported in previous works. By adjusting the nitridation temperature, it has been possible to prepare oxynitrides with various nitrogen enrichment and vanadium valency states. Whatever the V(O,N) composition, the oxidation of the oxynitrides in air starts between 250 and 300 deg. C. This determines their potential use as chemical gas sensors at a maximum working temperature of 250 deg. C.

Merdrignac-Conanec, Odile [Laboratoire Verres et Ceramiques, UMR CNRS 6512, Institut de Chimie de Rennes, Universite de Rennes 1, Campus de Beaulieu, F-35042 Rennes Cedex (France)]. E-mail: odile.merdrignac@univ-rennes1.fr; El Badraoui, Khadija [Laboratoire Verres et Ceramiques, UMR CNRS 6512, Institut de Chimie de Rennes, Universite de Rennes 1, Campus de Beaulieu, F-35042 Rennes Cedex (France); L'Haridon, Paul [Laboratoire Verres et Ceramiques, UMR CNRS 6512, Institut de Chimie de Rennes, Universite de Rennes 1, Campus de Beaulieu, F-35042 Rennes Cedex (France)

2005-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

5

High surface area ThO/sub 2/ catalyst  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A ThO/sub 2/ catalyst having a high surface area of about 80 to 125m/sup 2//g is synthesized. The compound is synthesized by simultaneously mixing an aqueous solution of ThNO/sub 3/(NO/sub 3/)/sub 4/.4H/sub 2/O with an aqueous solution of Na/sub 2/CO/sub 3/.H/sub 2/O, to produce a solution and solid ThOCO/sub 3/. The solid ThOCO/sub 3/ is separated from the solution, and then calcined at a temperature of about 225 to 300/sup 0/C for about 40 to 55 hours to produce ThO/sub 2/. The ThO/sub 2/ catalyst produced includes Na present as a substitutional cation in an amount equal to about 5 to 10 at. %.

Colmenares, C.A.; Somorjai, G.A.; Maj, J.J.

1983-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

6

Method for producing high surface area chromia materials for catalysis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Nanostructured chromium(III)-oxide-based materials using sol-gel processing and a synthetic route for producing such materials are disclosed herein. Monolithic aerogels and xerogels having surface areas between 150 m.sup.2/g and 520 m.sup.2/g have been produced. The synthetic method employs the use of stable and inexpensive hydrated-chromium(III) inorganic salts and common solvents such as water, ethanol, methanol, 1-propanol, t-butanol, 2-ethoxy ethanol, and ethylene glycol, DMSO, and dimethyl formamide. The synthesis involves the dissolution of the metal salt in a solvent followed by an addition of a proton scavenger, such as an epoxide, which induces gel formation in a timely manner. Both critical point (supercritical extraction) and atmospheric (low temperature evaporation) drying may be employed to produce monolithic aerogels and xerogels, respectively.

Gash, Alexander E. (Brentwood, CA); Satcher, Joe (Patterson, CA); Tillotson, Thomas (Tracy, CA); Hrubesh, Lawrence (Pleasanton, CA); Simpson, Randall (Livermore, CA)

2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

7

Mass-Transport-Limited Electrodeposition of High-Surface-Area Coatings for Surface Acoustic Wave Sensor Technology  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The sensitivity of surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensors has been enhanced by increasing the active surface area of these devices. Electrodepositions of Ni, Pd, and Pt in a mass-transport-limited mode with trace foreign metals yield highly dendritic crystal structures of uniform macroscopic thickness. The concentration of metal ions, supporting electrolyte, agitation, and additives greatly impact the crystal morphology of the deposit. This methodology can be used simply and economically to provide high-area films in selective regions.

Ricco, Antonio J.; Staton, Alan W.; Yelton, W. Graham

1999-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

8

Mass-Transport-Limited Electrodeposition of High-Surface-Area Coatings for Surface Acoustic Wave Sensor Technology  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The sensitivity of surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensors has been enhanced by increasing the active surface area of these devices, Electrodepositions of Ni, Pd, and Pt in a mass-transport-limited mode with trace foreign metals yield highly dendritic crystal structures of uniform macroscopic thickness. The concentration of metal ions, supporting electrolyte, agitation, and additives greatly impact the crystal morphology of the deposit. This methodology can be used simply and economically to provide high-area films in selective regions.

Ricco, A.J.; Staton, A.W.; Yelton, W.G.

1999-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

9

Toward New Candidates for Hydrogen Storage: High Surface Area Carbon Aerogels  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We report the hydrogen surface excess sorption saturation value of 5.3 wt% at 30 bar pressure at 77 K, from an activated carbon aerogel with a surface area of 3200 m{sup 2}/g as measured by Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) analysis. This sorption value is one of the highest we have measured in a material of this type, comparable to values obtained in high surface area activated carbons. We also report, for the first time, the surface area dependence of hydrogen surface excess sorption isotherms of carbon aerogels at 77 K. Activated carbon aerogels with surface areas ranging from 1460 to 3200 m{sup 2}/g are evaluated and we find a linear dependence of the saturation of the gravimetric density with BET surface area for carbon aerogels up to 2550 m{sup 2}/g, in agreement with data from other types of carbons reported in the literature. Our measurements show these materials to have a differential enthalpy of adsorption at zero coverage of {approx}5 to 7 kJ/mole. We also show that the introduction of metal nanoparticles of nickel improves the sorption capacity while cobalt additions have no effect.

Kabbour, H; Baumann, T F; Satcher, J H; Saulnier, A; Ahn, C C

2007-02-05T23:59:59.000Z

10

Self assembled molecular monolayers on high surface area materials as molecular getters  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention relates to a gettering material that may be used as a filtration medium to remove pollutants from the environment. The gettering material comprises a high surface area material having a metal surface that chemically bonds n-alkanethiols in an organized manner thereby forming a molecular monolayer over the metal surface. The n-alkanethiols have a free functional group that interacts with the environment thereby binding specific pollutants that may be present. The gettering material may be exposed to streams of air in heating, ventilation, and air conditioning systems or streams of water to remove specific pollutants from either medium. 9 figs.

King, D.E.; Herdt, G.C.; Czanderna, A.W.

1997-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

11

Self assembled molecular monolayers on high surface area materials as molecular getters  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention relates to a gettering material that may be used as a filtration medium to remove pollutants from the environment. The gettering material comprises a high surface area material having a metal surface that chemically bonds n-alkanethiols in an organized manner thereby forming a molecular monolayer over the metal surface. The n-alkanethiols have a free functional group that interacts with the environment thereby binding specific pollutants that may be present. The gettering material may be exposed to streams of air in heating, ventilation, and air conditioning systems or streams of water to remove specific pollutants from either medium.

King, David E. (Lakewood, CO); Herdt, Gregory C. (Denver, CO); Czanderna, Alvin W. (Denver, CO)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

Synthetic process for preparation of high surface area electroactive compounds for battery applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A process is disclosed for the preparation of electroactive cathode compounds useful in lithium-ion batteries, comprising exothermic mixing of low-cost precursors and calcination under appropriate conditions. The exothermic step may be a spontaneous flameless combustion reaction. The disclosed process can be used to prepare any lithium metal phosphate or lithium mixed metal phosphate as a high surface area single phase compound.

Evenson, Carl; Mackay, Richard

2013-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

13

Self-Assembly of Virus-Structured High Surface Area Nanomaterials and Their Application as Battery Electrodes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. In Final Form: October 12, 2007 High area nickel and cobalt surfaces were assembled using modified Tobacco-fold increase in surface area. Electroless deposition of ionic metals onto surface-assembled virus templates produced uniform metal coatings up to 40 nm in thickness. Within a nickel-zinc battery system

Rubloff, Gary W.

14

Synthesis of High Surface Area Alumina Aerogels without the Use of Alkoxide Precursors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Alumina aerogels were prepared through the addition of propylene oxide to aqueous or ethanolic solutions of hydrated aluminum salts, AlCl{sub 3} {center_dot} 6H{sub 2}O or Al(NO{sub 3}){sub 3} {center_dot} 9H{sub 2}O, followed by drying with supercritical CO{sub 2}. This technique affords low-density (60-130 kg/m{sup 3}), high surface area (600-700 m{sup 2}/g) alumina aerogel monoliths without the use of alkoxide precursors. The dried alumina aerogels were characterized using elemental analysis, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, powder X-ray diffraction, solid state NMR, acoustic measurements and nitrogen adsorption/desorption analysis. Powder X-ray diffraction and TEM analysis indicated that the aerogel prepared from hydrated AlCl{sub 3} in water or ethanol possessed microstructures containing highly reticulated networks of pseudoboehmite fibers, 2-5 nm in diameter and of varying lengths, while the aerogels prepared from hydrated Al(NO{sub 3}){sub 3} in ethanol were amorphous with microstructures comprised of interconnected spherical particles with diameters in the 5-15 nm range. The difference in microstructure resulted in each type of aerogel displaying distinct physical and mechanical properties. In particular, the alumina aerogels with the weblike microstructure were far more mechanically robust than those with the colloidal network, based on acoustic measurements. Both types of alumina aerogels can be transformed to {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} through calcination at 800 C without a significant loss in surface area or monolithicity.

Baumann, T F; Gash, A E; Chinn, S C; Sawvel, A M; Maxwell, R S; Satcher Jr., J H

2004-06-25T23:59:59.000Z

15

Surface Water Management Areas (Virginia)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This legislation establishes surface water management areas, geographically defined surface water areas in which the State Water Control Board has deemed the levels or supply of surface water to be...

16

PERGAMON Carbon 39 (2001) 3944 Preparation of conductive carbons with high surface area  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

by Institute of Coal Chemistry, Chinese Academy Producing carbons with both structural order (high con- of Sciences, Taiyuan, P.R. China) and 0.1 mm diameter ductivity) and a porous surface structure is a challenge treatment; (2) All the samples were cleaned by washing them with activating carbon which has not been

Chung, Deborah D.L.

17

High-Surface-Area Architectures for Improved Charge Transfer Kinetics at the Dark Electrode in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ABSTRACT: Dye-sensitized solar cell (DSC) redox shuttles other than triiodide/iodide have exhibited: dark electrode, inverse opal, dye cell, fill factor INTRODUCTION Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCsHigh-Surface-Area Architectures for Improved Charge Transfer Kinetics at the Dark Electrode in Dye-Sensitized

18

Water bathing synthesis of high-surface-area nanocrystal-assembled SnO{sub 2} particles  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Nanocrystal assembled SnO{sub 2} particles were synthesized in aqueous solutions. The particles showed high BET surface area of 276 m{sup 2}/g. It was much higher than that of our previous studies. BJH analyses indicated that the particles had pores of about 2-5 nm. The particles included two kinds of morphologies. The first particles were about 300-1000 nm in diameter, which were assemblies of acicular crystals of 5-10 nm in width and 100-200 nm in length. They contributed high BET surface area. The second particles were about 10,000-3000 nm in diameter, which were assemblies of ellipse crystals of 100-200 in width and 200-400 nm in length. The ellipse crystals consisted of sheet crystals. They connected with a certain angle and arranged their long direction parallel. - Graphical abstract: Acicular crystal assembled SnO{sub 2} particles and ellipse crystal assembled SnO{sub 2} particles were synthesized in the aqueous solutions. They showed high BET surface area of 276 m{sup 2}/g. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Unique SnO{sub 2} nanocrystals were synthesized in an aqueous solution. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer They were acicular crystals and ellipse crystals. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer They had high BET surface area of 276 m{sup 2}/g.

Masuda, Yoshitake, E-mail: masuda-y@aist.go.jp [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 2266-98 Anagahora, Shimoshidami, Moriyama-ku, Nagoya 463-8560 (Japan); Ohji, Tatsuki; Kato, Kazumi [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 2266-98 Anagahora, Shimoshidami, Moriyama-ku, Nagoya 463-8560 (Japan)

2012-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

19

Macrostructure-dependent photocatalytic property of high-surface-area porous titania films  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Porous titania films with different macrostructures were prepared with precise control of condensation degree and density of the oxide frameworks in the presence of spherical aggregates of polystyrene-block-poly(oxyethylene) (PS-b-PEO) diblock copolymer. Following detailed explanation of the formation mechanisms of three (reticular, spherical, and large spherical) macrostructures by the colloidal PS-b-PEO templating, structural variation of the titania frameworks during calcination were investigated by X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Then, photocatalytic performance of the macroporous titania films was evaluated through simple degradation experiments of methylene blue under an UV irradiation. Consequently, absolute surface area of the film and crystallinity of the titania frameworks were important for understanding the photocatalytic performance, but the catalytic performance can be improved further by the macrostructural design that controls diffusivity of the targeted molecules inside the film and their accessibility to active sites.

Kimura, T., E-mail: t-kimura@aist.go.jp [Advanced Manufacturing Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Shimoshidami, Moriyama-ku, Nagoya 463-8560 (Japan)

2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

Structural and electrochemical properties of nanostructured nickel silicides by reduction and silicification of high-surface-area nickel oxide  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Graphical abstract: Nanostructured nickel silicides have been synthesized by reduction and silification of high-surface-area nickel oxide, and exhibited remarkably like-noble metal property, lower electric resistivity, and ferromagnetism at room temperature. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NiSi{sub x} have been prepared by reduction and silification of high-surface-area NiO. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The structure of nickel silicides changed with increasing reaction temperature. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Si doping into nickel changed the magnetic properties of metallic nickel. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NiSi{sub x} have remarkably lower electric resistivity and like-noble metal property. -- Abstract: Nanostructured nickel silicides have been prepared by reduction and silicification of high-surface-area nickel oxide (145 m{sup 2} g{sup -1}) produced via precipitation. The prepared materials were characterized by nitrogen adsorption, X-ray diffraction, thermal analysis, FT-IR spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, magnetic and electrochemical measurements. The nickel silicide formation involves the following sequence: NiO (cubic) {yields} Ni (cubic) {yields} Ni{sub 2}Si (orthorhombic) {yields} NiSi (orthorhombic) {yields} NiSi{sub 2} (cubic), with particles growing from 13.7 to 21.3 nm. The nickel silicides are ferromagnetic at room temperature, and their saturation magnetization values change drastically with the increase of Si content. Nickel silicides have remarkably low electrical resistivity and noble metal-like properties because of a constriction of the Ni d band and an increase of the electronic density of states. The results suggest that such silicides are promising candidates as inexpensive yet functional materials for applications in electrochemistry as well as catalysis.

Chen, Xiao [Laboratory of Advanced Materials and Catalytic Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemicals, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)] [Laboratory of Advanced Materials and Catalytic Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemicals, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Zhang, Bingsen [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Fritz Haber Institute of the Max Planck Society (Germany)] [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Fritz Haber Institute of the Max Planck Society (Germany); Li, Chuang; Shao, Zhengfeng [Laboratory of Advanced Materials and Catalytic Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemicals, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)] [Laboratory of Advanced Materials and Catalytic Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemicals, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Su, Dangsheng [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Fritz Haber Institute of the Max Planck Society (Germany)] [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Fritz Haber Institute of the Max Planck Society (Germany); Williams, Christopher T. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Swearingen Engineering Center, University of South Carolina (United States)] [Department of Chemical Engineering, Swearingen Engineering Center, University of South Carolina (United States); Liang, Changhai, E-mail: changhai@dlut.edu.cn [Laboratory of Advanced Materials and Catalytic Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemicals, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)] [Laboratory of Advanced Materials and Catalytic Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemicals, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)

2012-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high surface area" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Low temperature synthesis of nanocrystalline magnesium aluminate with high surface area by surfactant assisted precipitation method: Effect of preparation conditions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Highlights: ? MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} showed a high surface area and nanocrystalline structure. ? Addition of polymeric surfactant affected the structural properties of MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}. ? MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} prepared with surfactant showed a hollow cylindrical shape. -- Abstract: A surfactant assisted co-precipitation method was employed for the low temperature synthesis of magnesium aluminate spinel with nanocrystalline size and high specific surface area. Pluronic P123 triblock copolymer and ammonia solution were used as surfactant and precipitation agent, respectively. The prepared samples were characterized by thermal gravimetric and differential thermal gravimetric analyses (TG/DTG), X-ray diffraction (XRD), N{sub 2} adsorption (BET) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques. The effects of several process parameters such as refluxing temperature, refluxing time, pH, P123 to metals mole ratio (P123/metals) and calcination temperature on the structural properties of the samples were investigated. The obtained results showed that, among the process parameters pH and refluxing temperature have a significant effect on the structural properties of samples. The results revealed that increase in pH from 9.5 to 11 and refluxing temperature from 40 °C to 80 °C increased the specific surface area of prepared samples in the range of 157–188 m{sup 2} g{sup ?1} and 162–184 m{sup 2} g{sup ?1}, respectively. The XRD analysis showed the single-phase MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} was formed at 700 °C.

Mosayebi, Zeinab [Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, University of Kashan, Kashan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)] [Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, University of Kashan, Kashan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rezaei, Mehran, E-mail: rezaei@kashanu.ac.ir [Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, University of Kashan, Kashan (Iran, Islamic Republic of) [Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, University of Kashan, Kashan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Catalyst and Advanced Materials Research Laboratory, Chemical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, University of Kashan, Kashan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hadian, Narges [Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, University of Kashan, Kashan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)] [Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, University of Kashan, Kashan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Kordshuli, Fazlollah Zareie [Shiraz Petrochemical Co., Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)] [Shiraz Petrochemical Co., Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Meshkani, Fereshteh [Catalyst and Advanced Materials Research Laboratory, Chemical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, University of Kashan, Kashan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)] [Catalyst and Advanced Materials Research Laboratory, Chemical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, University of Kashan, Kashan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2012-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

22

Sweet Surface Area  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLas ConchasPassiveSubmittedStatus TomAbout »LabSustainability Ames Laboratory isSweet Surface

23

Partially graphitic, high-surface-area mesoporous carbons from polyacrylonitrile templated by ordered and disordered  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of mesoporosity. The high-temperature treatment led to a marked enhancement of graphitic ordering, which, and manufacturing of electrochemical dou- ble-layer capacitors and Li-ion batteries. Graphitic carbons exhibit

24

UO{sub 2} corrosion in high surface-area-to-volume batch experiments.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Unsaturated drip tests have been used to investigate the alteration of unirradiated UO{sub 2} and spent UO{sub 2} fuel in an unsaturated environment such as may be expected in the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain. In these tests, simulated groundwater is periodically injected onto a sample at 90 C in a steel vessel. The solids react with the dripping groundwater and water condensed on surfaces to form a suite of U(VI) alteration phases. Solution chemistry is determined from leachate at the bottom of each vessel after the leachate stops interacting with the solids. A more detailed knowledge of the compositional evolution of the leachate is desirable. By providing just enough water to maintain a thin film of water on a small quantity of fuel in batch experiments, we can more closely monitor the compositional changes to the water as it reacts to form alteration phases.

Bates, J. K.; Finch, R. J.; Hanchar, J. M.; Wolf, S. F.

1997-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

25

UO2 CORROSION IN HIGH SURFACE-AREA-TO-VOLUME BATCH EXPERIMENTS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Unsaturated drip tests have been used to investigate the alteration of unirradiated UO{sub 2} and spent UO{sub 2} fuel in an unsaturated environment, such as may be expected in the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain. In these tests, simulated groundwater is periodically injected onto a sample at 90 C in a steel vessel. The solids react with the dripping groundwater and water condensed on surfaces to form a suite of U(VI) alteration phases. Solution chemistry is determined from leachate at the bottom of each vessel after the leachate stops interacting with the solids. A more detailed knowledge of the compositional evolution of the leachate is desirable. By providing just enough water to maintain a thin film of water on a small quantity of fuel in batch experiments, we can more closely monitor the compositional changes to the water as it reacts to form alteration phases.

Finch, Robert J.; Wolf, Stephen F.; Hanchar, John M.; Bates, John K.

1998-05-11T23:59:59.000Z

26

Catalyzed CO.sub.2-transport membrane on high surface area inorganic support  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Disclosed are membranes and methods for making the same, which membranes provide improved permeability, stability, and cost-effective manufacturability, for separating CO.sub.2 from gas streams such as flue gas streams. High CO.sub.2 permeation flux is achieved by immobilizing an ultra-thin, optionally catalyzed fluid layer onto a meso-porous modification layer on a thin, porous inorganic substrate such as a porous metallic substrate. The CO.sub.2-selective liquid fluid blocks non-selective pores, and allows for selective absorption of CO.sub.2 from gas mixtures such as flue gas mixtures and subsequent transport to the permeation side of the membrane. Carbon dioxide permeance levels are in the order of 1.0.times.10.sup.-6 mol/(m.sup.2sPa) or better. Methods for making such membranes allow commercial scale membrane manufacturing at highly cost-effective rates when compared to conventional commercial-scale CO.sub.2 separation processes and equipment for the same and such membranes are operable on an industrial use scale.

Liu, Wei

2014-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

27

Electro-catalytically Active, High Surface Area Cathodes for Low Temperature SOFCs  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This research focused on developing low polarization (area specific resistance, ASR) cathodes for intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cells (IT-SOFCs). In order to accomplish this we focused on two aspects of cathode development: (1) development of novel materials; and (2) developing the relationships between microstructure and electrochemical performance. The materials investigated ranged from Ag-bismuth oxide composites (which had the lowest reported ASR at the beginning of this contract) to a series of pyrochlore structured ruthenates (Bi{sub 2-x}M{sub x}Ru{sub 2}O{sub 7}, where M = Sr, Ca, Ag; Pb{sub 2}Ru{sub 2}O{sub 6.5}; and Y{sub 2-2x}Pr{sub 2x}Ru{sub 2}O{sub 7}), to composites of the pyrochlore ruthenates with bismuth oxide. To understand the role of microstructure on electrochemical performance, we optimized the Ag-bismuth oxide and the ruthenate-bismuth oxide composites in terms of both two-phase composition and particle size/microstructure. We further investigated the role of thickness and current collector on ASR. Finally, we investigated issues of stability and found the materials investigated did not form deleterious phases at the cathode/electrolyte interface. Further, we established the ability through particle size modification to limit microstructural decay, thus, enhancing stability. The resulting Ag-Bi{sub 0.8}Er{sub 0.2}O{sub 1.5} and Bi{sub 2}Ru{sub 2}O{sub 7{sup -}}Bi{sub 0.8}Er{sub 0.2}O{sub 1.5} composite cathodes had ASRs of 1.0 {Omega} cm{sup 2} and 0.73 {Omega}cm{sup 2} at 500 C and 0.048 {Omega}cm{sup 2} and 0.053 {Omega}cm{sup 2} at 650 C, respectively. These ASRs are truly impressive and makes them among the lowest IT-SOFC ASRs reported to date.

Eric D. Wachsman

2006-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

28

Rapid breakdown anodization technique for the synthesis of high aspect ratio and high surface area anatase TiO{sub 2} nanotube powders  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Clusters of high aspect ratio, high surface area anatase-TiO{sub 2} nanotubes with a typical nanotube outer diameter of about 18 nm, wall thickness of approximately 5 nm and length of 5-10 {mu}m were synthesized, in powder form, by breakdown anodization of Ti foils in 0.1 M perchloric acid, at 10 V (299 K) and 20 V ({approx}275 and 299 K). The surface area, morphology, structure and band gap were determined from Brunauer Emmet Teller method, field emmission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Raman, photoluminescence and diffuse reflectance spectroscopic studies. The tubular morphology and anatase phase were found to be stable up to 773 K and above 773 K anatase phase gradually transformed to rutile phase with disintegration of tubular morphology. At 973 K, complete transformation to rutile phase and disintegration of tubular morphology were observed. The band gap of the as prepared and the annealed samples varied from 3.07 to 2.95 eV with increase in annealing temperature as inferred from photoluminescence and diffuse reflectance studies. -- Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Research highlights: {yields} High aspect ratio anatase-titania nanotube powders were synthesized electrochemically. {yields} The surface area of the nanotubes were much higher than those reported. {yields} The annealing temperature limit for maintaining tubular morphology was established. {yields} The photoluminiscence spectroscopy reflected the presence of defects, annealing of defects and phase transformation. {yields} The nanotubes were of {approx}5 nm wall thickness as revealed by TEM studies.

Antony, Rajini P. [Thin Films and Coatings Section, Surface and Nanoscience Division, Materials Science Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603102, Tamil Nadu (India); Mathews, Tom, E-mail: tom@igcar.gov.i [Thin Films and Coatings Section, Surface and Nanoscience Division, Materials Science Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603102, Tamil Nadu (India); Dasgupta, Arup [Physical Metallurgy Division, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603102, Tamil Nadu (India); Dash, S.; Tyagi, A.K. [Thin Films and Coatings Section, Surface and Nanoscience Division, Materials Science Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603102, Tamil Nadu (India); Raj, Baldev [Thin Films and Coatings Section, Surface and Nanoscience Division, Materials Science Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603102, Tamil Nadu (India); Physical Metallurgy Division, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603102, Tamil Nadu (India)

2011-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

29

Packing efficiency and accessible surface area of crumpled graphene  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Graphene holds promise as an ultracapacitor due to its high specific surface area and intrinsic capacitance. To exploit both, a maximum surface area must be accessible while the two-dimensional (2D) graphene is deformed ...

Cranford, Steven Wayne

30

LANL Virtual Center for Chemical Hydrogen Storage: Chemical Hydrogen Storage Using Ultra-high Surface Area Main Group Materials  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The focus of the project was to design and synthesize light element compounds and nanomaterials that will reversibly store molecular hydrogen for hydrogen storage materials. The primary targets investigated during the last year were amine and hydrogen terminated silicon (Si) nanoparticles, Si alloyed with lighter elements (carbon (C) and boron (B)) and boron nanoparticles. The large surface area of nanoparticles should facilitate a favorable weight to volume ratio, while the low molecular weight elements such as B, nitrogen (N), and Si exist in a variety of inexpensive and readily available precursors. Furthermore, small NPs of Si are nontoxic and non-corrosive. Insights gained from these studies will be applied toward the design and synthesis of hydrogen storage materials that meet the DOE 2010 hydrogen storage targets: cost, hydrogen capacity and reversibility. Two primary routes were explored for the production of nanoparticles smaller than 10 nm in diameter. The first was the reduction of the elemental halides to achieve nanomaterials with chloride surface termination that could subsequently be replaced with amine or hydrogen. The second was the reaction of alkali metal Si or Si alloys with ammonium halides to produce hydrogen capped nanomaterials. These materials were characterized via X-ray powder diffraction, TEM, FTIR, TG/DSC, and NMR spectroscopy.

Susan M. Kauzlarich; Phillip P. Power; Doinita Neiner; Alex Pickering; Eric Rivard; Bobby Ellis, T. M.; Atkins, A. Merrill; R. Wolf; Julia Wang

2010-09-05T23:59:59.000Z

31

Oxidative dehydrogenation of propane over vanadia-based catalysts supported on high-surface-area mesoporous MgAl2O4  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The oxidative dehydrogenation of propane to propene was investigated over a series of novel vanadia-based catalysts supported on high-surface-area magnesium spinel. A mesoporous MgAl2O4 support was synthesized via a low-temperature sol gel process involving the heterobimetallic alkoxide precursor, Mg[Al(O iPr)4]2. A high-purity catalyst support was obtained after calcination at 1173 K under O2 atmosphere and active vanadia catalysts were prepared from the thermolysis of OV(O tBu)3 after grafting onto the spinel support. MgAl2O4-supported catalysts prepared in this manner have BET surface areas of 234 245 m2/g. All of the catalysts were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction, and Raman, solid-state NMR, and diffuse-reflectance UV vis spectroscopy. At all vanadium loadings the vanadia supported on MgAl2O4 exist as a combination of isolated monovanadate and tetrahedral polyvanadate species. As the vanadium surface density increases for these catalysts the ratio of polyvanadate species to isolated monovanadate species increases. In addition, as the vanadium surface density increases for these catalysts, the initial rate of propane ODH per V atom increases and reaches a maximum value at 6 VOx/nm2. Increasing the vanadium surface density past this point results in a decrease in the rate of propane ODH owing to the formation of multilayer species in which subsurface vanadium atoms are essentially rendered catalytically inactive. The initial propene selectivity increases with increasing vanadium surface density and reaches a plateau of {approx}95 percent for the V/MgAl catalysts. Rate coefficients for propane ODH (k1), propane combustion (k2), and propene combustion (k3) were calculated for these catalysts. The value of k1 increases with increasing VOx surface density, reaching a maximum at about 5.5 VOx/nm2. On the other hand, the ratio (k2/k1) for V/MgAl decreases with increasing VOx surface density. The ratio (k3/k1) for both sets of catalysts shows no dependence on the vanadia surface density. The observed trends in k1, (k2/k1), and (k3/k1) are discussed in terms of the surface structure of the catalyst.

Evans, Owen R.; Bell, Alexis T.; Tilley, T. Don

2004-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

32

Clustering of metal atoms in organic media. 9. High-activity Ni/MgO catalysts prepared by metal vapor methods. Surface area and particle size effects  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A metal vapor method was employed to prepare highly dispersed Ni metal catalysts (solvated metal atom dispersed = SMAD catalyst) supported on MgO. Compared with conventional Ni/MgO compositions, the SMAD catalysts showed much greater activities for all reactions studied (hydrogenolysis of methylcyclopentane, MCP; hydrogenation/hydrogenolysis of toluene, TOL; methanation of carbon monoxide, CO; dehydration of isopropyl alcohol, IPA). These high activities for the SMAD catalysts are attributed to the high surface area of Ni on MgO and the high percentage of this Ni in a zero-valent state (reduction degree). Conventional methods for preparing Ni/MgO catalysts did not yield nearly such favorable surface areas or reduction degrees. Nickel particle size effects were observed during hydrogenolysis studies of MCP and hydrogenation studies of TOL. These phenomena are explained by assuming the size of an active Ni particle to be largest for hydrogenolysis of MCP > hydrogenation of TOL > methanation of CO approx. = dehydrogenation of IPA. 8 figures, 2 tables.

Matsuo, K.; Klabunde, K.J.

1982-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

tight environment high radiation area  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

#12;Irradiation Studies of Optical Components - II CERN, week of Oct. 24, 2005 1.4 GeV proton beam 4 x· tight environment · high radiation area · non-serviceable area · passive components · optics only, no active electronics · transmit image through flexible fiber bundle Optical Diagnostics 01-13-2006 1 #12

McDonald, Kirk

34

Size dependent specific surface area of nanoporous film assembled...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Size dependent specific surface area of nanoporous film assembled by core-shell iron nanoclusters. Size dependent specific surface area of nanoporous film assembled by core-shell...

35

High-Surface-Area CO2 Sponge: High Performance CO2 Scrubbing Based on Hollow Fiber-Supported Designer Ionic Liquid Sponges  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

IMPACCT Project: The team from ORNL and Georgia Tech is developing a new technology that will act like a sponge, integrating a new, alcohol-based ionic liquid into hollow fibers (magnified image, right) to capture CO2 from the exhaust produced by coal-fired power plants. Ionic liquids, or salts that exist in liquid form, are promising materials for carbon capture and storage, but their tendency to thicken when combined with CO2 limits their efficiency and poses a challenge for their development as a cost-effective alternative to current-generation solutions. Adding alcohol to the mix limits this tendency to thicken in the presence of CO2 but can also make the liquid more likely to evaporate, which would add significantly to the cost of CO2 capture. To solve this problem, ORNL is developing new classes of ionic liquids with high capacity for absorbing CO2. ORNL’s sponge would reduce the cost associated with the energy that would need to be diverted from power plants to capture CO2 and release it for storage.

None

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

36

Large area, surface discharge pumped, vacuum ultraviolet light source  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Large area, surface discharge pumped, vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) light source is disclosed. A contamination-free VUV light source having a 225 cm{sup 2} emission area in the 240-340 nm region of the electromagnetic spectrum with an average output power in this band of about 2 J/cm{sup 2} at a wall-plug efficiency of approximately 5% is described. Only ceramics and metal parts are employed in this surface discharge source. Because of the contamination-free, high photon energy and flux, and short pulse characteristics of the source, it is suitable for semiconductor and flat panel display material processing. 3 figs.

Sze, R.C.; Quigley, G.P.

1996-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

37

Large area, surface discharge pumped, vacuum ultraviolet light source  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Large area, surface discharge pumped, vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) light source. A contamination-free VUV light source having a 225 cm.sup.2 emission area in the 240-340 nm region of the electromagnetic spectrum with an average output power in this band of about 2 J/cm.sup.2 at a wall-plug efficiency of approximately 5% is described. Only ceramics and metal parts are employed in this surface discharge source. Because of the contamination-free, high photon energy and flux, and short pulse characteristics of the source, it is suitable for semiconductor and flat panel display material processing.

Sze, Robert C. (Santa Fe, NM); Quigley, Gerard P. (Los Alamos, NM)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

38

Surface Gas Sampling At Valles Caldera - Sulphur Springs Area...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Surface Gas Sampling At Valles Caldera - Sulphur Springs Area (Goff & Janik, 2002) Exploration Activity Details Location Valles Caldera - Sulphur Springs Area Exploration Technique...

39

Surface Gas Sampling At Valles Caldera - Redondo Area (Goff ...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Surface Gas Sampling At Valles Caldera - Redondo Area (Goff & Janik, 2002) Exploration Activity...

40

Surface Gas Sampling At International Geothermal Area Mexico...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Surface Gas Sampling At International Geothermal Area Mexico (Norman, Et Al., 2002) Exploration...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high surface area" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Surface Gas Sampling At Fenton Hill HDR Geothermal Area (Grigsby...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Surface Gas Sampling At Fenton Hill HDR Geothermal Area (Grigsby, Et Al., 1983) Exploration...

42

Surface Gas Sampling At Fenton Hill HDR Geothermal Area (Goff...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Surface Gas Sampling At Fenton Hill HDR Geothermal Area (Goff & Janik, 2002) Exploration Activity...

43

Surface tension in bilayer membranes with fixed projected area  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We study the elastic response of bilayer membranes with fixed projected area to both stretching and shape deformations. A surface tension is associated to each of these deformations. By using model amphiphilic membranes and computer simulations, we are able to observe both the types of deformation, and thus, both the surface tensions, related to each type of deformation, are measured for the same system. These surface tensions are found to assume different values in the same bilayer membrane: in particular they vanish for different values of the projected area. We introduce a simple theory which relates the two quantities and successfully apply it to the data obtained with computer simulations.

Alberto Imparato

2006-04-05T23:59:59.000Z

44

Conformal coating of highly structured surfaces  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Method of applying a conformal coating to a highly structured substrate and devices made by the disclosed methods are disclosed. An example method includes the deposition of a substantially contiguous layer of a material upon a highly structured surface within a deposition process chamber. The highly structured surface may be associated with a substrate or another layer deposited on a substrate. The method includes depositing a material having an amorphous structure on the highly structured surface at a deposition pressure of equal to or less than about 3 mTorr. The method may also include removing a portion of the amorphous material deposited on selected surfaces and depositing additional amorphous material on the highly structured surface.

Ginley, David S.; Perkins, John; Berry, Joseph; Gennett, Thomas

2012-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

45

Modeling high-genus surfaces  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, with the large number of holes in the casing for heat dissipation. Figure 4 shows some examples of such objects. 5 Fig. 4. Examples of man-made high-genus objects. I.4. High-genus objects from mathematics In the last two decades, fractal geometry has emerged... as one of the major mathemati- cal approaches for designing unusual 3D shapes. Examples of such shapes introduced by fractal geometry include the Sierpinski gasket, the Menger sponge, the Mandelbrot set and Julia sets [27]. Fractal geometry shapes...

Srinivasan, Vinod

2004-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

46

Method for producing highly reflective metal surfaces  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The invention is a novel method for producing mirror surfaces which are extremely smooth and which have high optical reflectivity. The method includes depositing, by electrolysis, an amorphous layer of nickel on an article and then diamond-machining the resulting nickel surface to increase its smoothness and reflectivity. The machined nickel surface then is passivated with respect to the formation of bonds with electrodeposited nickel. Nickel then is electrodeposited on the passivated surface to form a layer of electroplated nickel whose inside surface is a replica of the passivated surface. The mandrel then may be-re-passivated and provided with a layer of electrodeposited nickel, which is then recovered from the mandrel providing a second replica. The mandrel can be so re-used to provide many such replicas. As compared with producing each mirror-finished article by plating and diamond-machining, the new method is faster and less expensive.

Arnold, J.B.; Steger, P.J.; Wright, R.R.

1982-03-04T23:59:59.000Z

47

Surface roughening of superalloys by high pressure pure waterjet  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A high pressure waterjet has been used to study the surface roughening of superalloys as preparation for thermal spraying. Designed experiments for Mar-M 509 and Rene 80 were carried out for the effects of jet pressure and mass of water delivered per unit area. Comparisons were made of several superalloys in terms of erosion, surface roughness and topology. The mechanism of jet erosion of Rene 80 was studied in relation to its metallurgical microstructure. An MCrAlY coating by shrouded plasma spray was made over a waterjet prepared surface with excellent bonding and having an ideally clean interface.

Taylor, T.A. [Praxair Surface Technologies Inc., Indianapolis, IN (United States)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

48

E-Print Network 3.0 - area surface debris Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

canyons Summary: in the study area. Soil-water repellency was measured using the critical surface tension method to determine... area (NCDC, 2003) were used to determine daily...

49

INVESTIGATING THE SURFACE ENERGY BALANCE IN URBAN AREAS RECENT ADVANCES AND FUTURE NEEDS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

INVESTIGATING THE SURFACE ENERGY BALANCE IN URBAN AREAS ­ RECENT ADVANCES AND FUTURE NEEDS M of the surface energy balance of urban areas, based on both experimental investigations and numerical models in urban areas is commonly limited to a few sites, often just at airports. The surface energy balance

Ribes, Aurélien

50

Global estimation of evapotranspiration using a leaf area index-based surface energy and water balance model  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

using Advanced Very High Res- olution Radiometer Lai data, Climate Research Unit climate dataGlobal estimation of evapotranspiration using a leaf area index-based surface energy and water-relative-humidity-based two-source (ARTS) E model that simulates the surface energy balance, soil water balance

Martin, Timothy

51

NREL Team Creates High-Activity, Durable Platinum Extended Surface Catalyst for Fuel Cells (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Researchers with NREL's Fuel Cell team showed that platinum can replace copper nanowires in such a way that high-surface-area and high-specific-activity catalysts are produced, potentially allowing for lower-cost catalysts.

Not Available

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

52

Effective grain surface area in the formation of molecular hydrogen in interstellar clouds  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In the interstellar clouds, molecular hydrogens are formed from atomic hydrogen on grain surfaces. An atomic hydrogen hops around till it finds another one with which it combines. This necessarily implies that the average recombination time, or equivalently, the effective grain surface area depends on the relative numbers of atomic hydrogen influx rate and the number of sites on the grain. Our aim is to discover this dependency. We perform a numerical simulation to study the recombination of hydrogen on grain surfaces in a variety of cloud conditions. We use a square lattice (with a periodic boundary condition) of various sizes on two types of grains, namely, amorphous carbon and olivine. We find that the steady state results of our simulation match very well with those obtained from a simpler analytical consideration provided the `effective' grain surface area is written as $\\sim S^{\\alpha}$, where, $S$ is the actual physical grain area and $\\alpha$ is a function of the flux of atomic hydrogen which is determined from our simulation. We carry out the simulation for various astrophysically relevant accretion rates. For high accretion rates, small grains tend to become partly saturated with $H$ and $H_2$ and the subsequent accretion will be partly inhibited. For very low accretion rates, the number of sites to be swept before a molecular hydrogen can form is too large compared to the actual number of sites on the grain, implying that $\\alpha$ is greater than unity.

Sandip Kumar Chakrabarti; Ankan Das; Kinsuk Acharyya; Sonali Chakrabarti

2008-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

53

GUIDELINES MANUAL FOR SURFACE MONITORING OF GEOTHERMAL AREAS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1976, "Blowout o f a Geothermal Well", California Geology,in Rocks from Two Geothermal Areas'' , -- P1 anetary ScienceMonitoring Ground Movement in Geothermal Areas", Hydraul ic

Til, C. J. Van

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

High temperature low friction surface coating  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A high temperature, low friction, flexible coating for metal surfaces which are subject to rubbing contact includes a mixture of three parts graphite and one part cadmium oxide, ball milled in water for four hours, then mixed with thirty percent by weight of sodium silicate in water solution and a few drops of wetting agent. The mixture is sprayed 12-15 microns thick onto an electro-etched metal surface and air dried for thirty minutes, then baked for two hours at 65.degree. C. to remove the water and wetting agent, and baked for an additional eight hours at about 150.degree. C. to produce the optimum bond with the metal surface. The coating is afterwards burnished to a thickness of about 7-10 microns.

Bhushan, Bharat (Watervliet, NY)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

Solid state reactions of nanocrystalline Ce{sub 0.5}Yb{sub 0.5}O{sub 1.75} mixed oxide with high surface area silica in oxidizing and reducing atmosphere  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The interaction of nanocrystalline Ce{sub 0.5}Yb{sub 0.5}O{sub 1.75} mixed oxide with a high surface amorphous silica support in an oxidizing and reducing atmosphere was studied by XRD, HRTEM, SAED, SEM and BET techniques. The Ce{sub 0.5}Yb{sub 0.5}O{sub 1.75}-SiO{sub 2} system shows very high structural and size stability in the oxidizing atmosphere up to 1000 Degree-Sign C, but in hydrogen spreading of the oxide onto silica occurs at temperatures above 800 Degree-Sign C. In the oxidizing atmosphere stability of the mixed oxide is limited by extraction of ytterbium from the oxide driven by a tendency to form ytterbium silicates. A new polymorph of Yb silicate, isomorphic with y-Y{sub 2}Si{sub 2}O{sub 7} (yttrialite), has been identified in the samples containing the mixed Ce-Yb oxide. The absence of y-Yb{sub 2}Si{sub 2}O{sub 7} silicate in the Yb{sub 2}O{sub 3}-SiO{sub 2} samples treated in similar conditions indicates that Ce{sup 4+} ions are needed to stabilize the structure. - Graphical abstract: Structure evolution of nano-Ce{sub 0.5}Yb{sub 0.5}O{sub 1.75}-SiO{sub 2} in air and in H{sub 2}. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nano-Ce{sub 0.50}Yb{sub 0.50}O{sub 1.75} on SiO{sub 2} is stable in air up to 1000 Degree-Sign C but spreads in hydrogen at 800 Degree-Sign C. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Formation of Yb silicates determines the stability of Ce{sub 0.50}Yb{sub 0.50}O{sub 1.75} at high temperatures. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer New, y-Yb{sub 2}Si{sub 2}O{sub 7} silicate (yttrialite type) forms in Ce{sub 0.5}Yb{sub 0.5}O{sub 1.75}-SiO{sub 2} in H{sub 2} at 1100 Degree-Sign C.

Malecka, Malgorzata A. [Institute of Low Temperature and Structure Research, Polish Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 1410, 50-950 Wroclaw 2 (Poland); Kepinski, Leszek, E-mail: L.Kepinski@int.pan.wroc.pl [Institute of Low Temperature and Structure Research, Polish Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 1410, 50-950 Wroclaw 2 (Poland)

2012-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

56

Impervious Areas: Examining the Undermining Effects on Surface Water Quality  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of the classification. The overall accuracy was 85%, and the kappa coefficient was 0.80. Additionally, field sampling and chemical analysis techniques were used to examine the relationship between impervious surfaces and water quality in a rainfall simulation parking...

Young, De'Etra Jenra

2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

57

GUIDELINES MANUAL FOR SURFACE MONITORING OF GEOTHERMAL AREAS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

subsidence over a s i n g l e coal seam usual l y does n o tt e d seam D : Depth t o coal seam from surface w : Width o

Til, C. J. Van

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

58

How Is the Maximum Entropy of a Quantized Surface Related to Its Area?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The maximum entropy of a quantized surface is demonstrated to be proportional to the surface area in the classical limit. The result is valid in loop quantum gravity, and in a somewhat more general class of approaches to surface quantization. The maximum entropy is calculated explicitly for some specific cases.

I. B. Khriplovich; R. V. Korkin

2001-12-27T23:59:59.000Z

59

Monitoring Molecular Adsorption on High-Area Titanium Dioxide via Modulated Diffraction of Visible Light  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Letters Monitoring Molecular Adsorption on High-Area Titanium Dioxide via Modulated Diffraction and evaluation of organic chemical adsorption on various titanium dioxide surfaces. The strategy is illustrated thin films of titanium dioxide (TiO2), with micrometer-sized features, were prepared on transparent

60

Surface and Structural Stabilities of Carbon Additives in High...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Structural Stabilities of Carbon Additives in High Voltage Lithium Ion Batteries. Surface and Structural Stabilities of Carbon Additives in High Voltage Lithium Ion Batteries....

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high surface area" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Surface features of the Stetson Bank area and a non-bank area of comparable depth  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of bathymetric survey tracks from cruise 74-G-10 of the R/V Gyre. 39 10. 12. 13. 14. 15. Fathogram I. Fathogram 2. Fathogram 3. Fathogram 4. Fathogram 5. Fathogram 6. Fathogram 7. Fathogram 8. 42 43 45 46 Bathymetric profiles of Stetson Bank... or secondary disturbances for all sediment cores. 93o 40 3 ~ 2o lo 12 ~ ~ ~ IO 5o NON-BANK AREA 28o20 7 ~ 8o 4 ~ ' ~ STETSON BANK 30 LOU. NIUIICAL III 10 94 00' 25 C3 STUDY, ( 1 && ' ? AREA / / I ( . r 1 1 Fig. 1 ? Location...

Dunphy, Janet Louise

1975-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

62

Spherical Torus Plasma Interactions with Large-area Liquid Lithium Surfaces in CDX-U  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Current Drive Experiment-Upgrade (CDX-U) device at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) is a spherical torus (ST) dedicated to the exploration of liquid lithium as a potential solution to reactor first-wall problems such as heat load and erosion, neutron damage and activation, and tritium inventory and breeding. Initial lithium limiter experiments were conducted with a toroidally-local liquid lithium rail limiter (L3) from the University of California at San Diego. Spectroscopic measurements showed a clear reduction of impurities in plasmas with the L3, compared to discharges with a boron carbide limiter. The evidence for a reduction in recycling was less apparent, however. This may be attributable to the relatively small area in contact with the plasma, and the presence of high-recycling surfaces elsewhere in the vacuum chamber. This conclusion was tested in subsequent experiments with a fully toroidal lithium limiter that was installed above the floor of the vacuum vessel. The new limiter covered over ten times the area of the L3 facing the plasma. Experiments with the toroidal lithium limiter have recently begun. This paper describes the conditioning required to prepare the lithium surface for plasma operations, and effect of the toroidal liquid lithium limiter on discharge performance.

R. Kaita; R. Majeski; M. Boaz; P. Efthimion; B. Jones; D. Hoffman; H. Kugel; J. Menard; T. Munsat; A. Post-Zwicker; V. Soukhanovskii; J. Spaleta; G. Taylor; J. Timberlake; R. Woolley; L. Zakharov; M. Finkenthal; D. Stutman; G. Antar; R. Doerner; S. Luckhardt; R. Maingi; M. Maiorano; S. Smith

2002-01-18T23:59:59.000Z

63

Surface Meteorology, Barrow, Alaska, Area A, B, C and D, Ongoing from 2012  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Meteorological data are being collected at several points within four intensive study areas in Barrow. These data assist in the calculation of the energy balance at the land surface and are also useful as inputs into modeling activities.

Hinzman, Larry; Busey, Bob; Cable, William; Romanovsky, Vladimir

2014-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

64

Surface Meteorology, Barrow, Alaska, Area A, B, C and D, Ongoing from 2012  

DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

Meteorological data are being collected at several points within four intensive study areas in Barrow. These data assist in the calculation of the energy balance at the land surface and are also useful as inputs into modeling activities.

Hinzman, Larry; Busey, Bob; Cable, William; Romanovsky, Vladimir

65

High specific surface area aerogel cryoadsorber for vacuum pumping applications  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A cryogenic pumping system is provided, comprising a vacuum environment, an aerogel sorbent formed from a carbon aerogel disposed within the vacuum environment, and cooling means for cooling the aerogel sorbent sufficiently to adsorb molecules from the vacuum environment onto the aerogel sorbent. Embodiments of the invention include a liquid refrigerant cryosorption pump, a compressed helium cryogenic pump, a cryopanel and a Meissner coil, each of which uses carbon aerogel as a sorbent material.

Hill, Randal M. (Livermore, CA); Fought, Eric R. (Brentwood, CA); Biltoft, Peter J. (Livermore, CA)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

High surface area, electrically conductive nanocarbon-supported metal oxide  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A metal oxide-carbon composite includes a carbon aerogel with an oxide overcoat. The metal oxide-carbon composite is made by providing a carbon aerogel, immersing the carbon aerogel in a metal oxide sol under a vacuum, raising the carbon aerogel with the metal oxide sol to atmospheric pressure, curing the carbon aerogel with the metal oxide sol at room temperature, and drying the carbon aerogel with the metal oxide sol to produce the metal oxide-carbon composite. The step of providing a carbon aerogel can provide an activated carbon aerogel or provide a carbon aerogel with carbon nanotubes that make the carbon aerogel mechanically robust.

Worsley, Marcus A; Han, Thomas Yong-Jin; Kuntz, Joshua D; Cervanted, Octavio; Gash, Alexander E; Baumann, Theodore F; Satcher, Jr., Joe H

2014-03-04T23:59:59.000Z

67

High surface area silicon carbide-coated carbon aerogel  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A metal oxide-carbon composite includes a carbon aerogel with an oxide overcoat. The metal oxide-carbon composite is made by providing a carbon aerogel, immersing the carbon aerogel in a metal oxide sol under a vacuum, raising the carbon aerogel with the metal oxide sol to atmospheric pressure, curing the carbon aerogel with the metal oxide sol at room temperature, and drying the carbon aerogel with the metal oxide sol to produce the metal oxide-carbon composite. The step of providing a carbon aerogel can provide an activated carbon aerogel or provide a carbon aerogel with carbon nanotubes that make the carbon aerogel mechanically robust. Carbon aerogels can be coated with sol-gel silica and the silica can be converted to silicone carbide, improved the thermal stability of the carbon aerogel.

Worsley, Marcus A; Kuntz, Joshua D; Baumann, Theodore F; Satcher, Jr, Joe H

2014-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

68

High Specific Surface area Aerogel Cryoadsorber for Vacuum Pumping Applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A cryogenic pumping system is provided, comprising a vacuum environment, an aerogel sorbent formed from a carbon aerogel disposed within the vacuum environment, and cooling means for cooling the aerogel sorbent sufficiently to adsorb molecules from the vacuum environment onto the aerogel sorbent. Embodiments of the invention include a liquid refrigerant cryosorption pump, a compressed helium cryogenic pump, a cryopanel and a Meissner coil, each of which uses carbon aerogel as a sorbent material.

Hill, Randal M.; Fought, Eric R.; Biltoft, Peter J.

1998-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

69

Characterization of the intragranular water regime within subsurface sediments: Pore volume, surface area, and mass transfer limitations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Although 'intragranular' pore space within grain aggregates, grain fractures, and mineral 24 surface coatings may contain a relatively small fraction of the total porosity within a porous 25 medium, it often contains a significant fraction of the reactive surface area, and can thus strongly 26 affect the transport of sorbing solutes. In this work, we demonstrate a batch experiment 27 procedure using tritium and bromide as high-resolution diffusive tracers to characterize the 28 intragranular pore space. The method was tested using uranium-contaminated sediments from 29 the vadose and capillary fringe zones beneath the former 300A process ponds at the Hanford site 30 (Washington State, USA). Sediments were contacted with tracers in artificial groundwater, 31 followed by replacement of bulk solution with tracer-free groundwater and monitoring of tracer 32 release. From these data, intragranular pore volumes were calculated and mass transfer rates 33 were quantified using a multirate first-order mass transfer model. Tritium-hydrogen exchange 34 on surface hydroxyls was accounted for by conducting additional tracer experiments on sediment 35 that was vacuum dried after reaction. The complementary ('wet' and 'dry') techniques allowed 36 for the simultaneous determination of intragranular porosity and surface area using tritium. The 37 Hanford 300A samples exhibited intragranular pore volumes of {approx}1% of the solid volume and 38 intragranular surface areas of {approx}20-30% of the total surface area. Comparison with N2 gas 39 adsorption suggests that this pore space includes both 'micropores' (< 2 nm diameter) and 40 'mesopores' (> 2 nm). Intragranular porosity estimates obtained using bromide were 41 significantly smaller, likely due to anion exclusion of Br- from pores with negatively charged 42 surfaces.

Hay, Michael B.; Stoliker, Deborah L.; Davis, James A.; Zachara, John M.

2011-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

70

State College Area High School From State College, PA Wins DOE...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

State College Area High School From State College, PA Wins DOE's National Science Bowl State College Area High School From State College, PA Wins DOE's National Science Bowl...

71

Tomography and High-Resolution Electron Microscopy Study of Surfaces...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Tomography and High-Resolution Electron Microscopy Study of Surfaces and Porosity in a Plate-Like ?-Al2O3. Tomography and High-Resolution Electron Microscopy Study of...

72

Correlating Humidity-Dependent Ionically Conductive Surface Area with Transport Phenomena in Proton-Exchange Membranes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this effort was to correlate the local surface ionic conductance of a Nafion? 212 proton-exchange membrane with its bulk and interfacial transport properties as a function of water content. Both macroscopic and microscopic proton conductivities were investigated at different relative humidity levels, using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and current-sensing atomic force microscopy (CSAFM). We were able to identify small ion-conducting domains that grew with humidity at the surface of the membrane. Numerical analysis of the surface ionic conductance images recorded at various relative humidity levels helped determine the fractional area of ion-conducting active sites. A simple square-root relationship between the fractional conducting area and observed interfacial mass-transport resistance was established. Furthermore, the relationship between the bulk ionic conductivity and surface ionic conductance pattern of the Nafion? membrane was examined.

He, Qinggang; Kusoglu, Ahmet; Lucas, Ivan T.; Clark, Kyle; Weber, Adam Z.; Kostecki, Robert

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

Surface Area, Volume, Mass, and Density Distributions for Sized Biomass Particles  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This final technical report describes work performed at Morehouse College under DOE Grant No. DE-FC26-04NT42130 during the period July 01, 2004 to June 30, 2007 which covers the entire performance period of the project. 25 individual biomass particles (hardwood sawdust AI14546 in the size range of 100-200 microns) were levitated in an electrodynamic balance (EDB) and their external surface area, volume, and drag coefficient/mass (C{sub d}/m) ratios were characterized applying highly specialized video based and high-speed diode array imaging systems. Analysis methods were employed using shape and drag information to calculate mass and density distributions for these particles. Results of these measurements and analyses were validated by independent mass measurements using a particle weighing and counting technique. Similar information for 28 PSOC 1451D bituminous coal particles was retrieved from a previously published work. Using these two information, density correlations for coal/biomass blends were developed. These correlations can be used to estimate the density of the blend knowing either the volume fraction or the mass fraction of coal in the blend. The density correlations presented here will be useful in predicting the burning rate of coal/biomass blends in cofiring combustors. Finally, a discussion on technological impacts and economic projections of burning biomass with coal in US power plants is presented.

Ramanathan Sampath

2007-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

74

High Temperature Oxidation Resistance and Surface Electrical...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

with Filtered Arc Cr-Al-N Abstract: The requirements for low cost and high-tempurater corrosion resistance for bipolar interconnect plates in solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) stacks...

75

A thermodynamic formalism approach to the Selberg zeta function for Hecke triangle surfaces of infinite area  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We provide an explicit construction of a cross section for the geodesic flow on infinite-area Hecke triangle surfaces which allows us to conduct a transfer operator approach to the Selberg zeta function. Further we construct closely related cross sections for the billiard flow on the associated triangle surfaces and endow the arising discrete dynamical systems and transfer operator families with two weight functions which presumably encode Dirichlet respectively Neumann boundary conditions. The Fredholm determinants of these transfer operator families constitute dynamical zeta functions, which provide a factorization of the Selberg zeta function of the Hecke triangle surfaces.

Anke D. Pohl

2014-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

76

Parcel-Level Land Architecture and Land Surface Temperature in the Phoenix Metropolitan Area  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Parcel-Level Land Architecture and Land Surface Temperature in the Phoenix Metropolitan Area Xiaoxiao Li1, Yun Ouyang1, Billie Turner II1,2, Sharon Harlan3, Anthony Brazel2 1 School of Sustainability system architecture--composition and configuration of different land-cover classes--on LST in the central

Hall, Sharon J.

77

Spherical Torus Plasma Interactions with Large-Area Liquid Lithium Surfaces in CDX-U  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

- 1 - Spherical Torus Plasma Interactions with Large-Area Liquid Lithium Surfaces in CDX-U R. KAITA of this concept, key liquid lithium-plasma interaction questions are being addressed in the CDX-U device[2 (PPPL) is a spherical torus (ST) dedicated to the exploration of liquid lithium as a potential solution

California at Los Angeles, University of

78

Continental insulation, mantle cooling, and the surface area of oceans and continents  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Continental insulation, mantle cooling, and the surface area of oceans and continents A. Lenardica May 2005 Abstract It is generally assumed that continents, acting as thermal insulation above. The theory predicts that parameter regimes exist for which increased continental insulation has no effect

Manga, Michael

79

HYDROLASING OF CONTAMINATED UNDERWATER BASIN SURFACES AT THE HANFORD K-AREA  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper discusses selecting and Implementing hydrolasing technology to reduce radioactive contamination in preparing to dispose of the K Basins; two highly contaminated concrete basins at the Hanford Site. A large collection of spent nuclear fuel stored for many years underwater at the K Basins has been removed to stable, dry, safe storage. Remediation activities have begun for the remaining highly contaminated water, sludge, and concrete basin structures. Hydrolasing will be used to decontaminate and prepare the basin structures for disposal. The U. S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site is considered the world's largest environmental cleanup project. The site covers 1,517 Km{sup 2} (586 square miles) along the Columbia River in an arid region of the northwest United States (U.S.). Hanford is the largest of the US former nuclear defense production sites. From the World War II era of the mid-1940s until the late-1980s when production stopped, Hanford produced 60 percent of the plutonium for nuclear defense and, as a consequence, produced a significant amount of environmental pollution now being addressed. Spent nuclear fuel was among the major challenges for DOE's environmental cleanup mission at Hanford. The end of production left Hanford with about 105,000 irradiated, solid uranium metal fuel assemblies--representing approximately 2,100 metric tons (80 percent of DOE's spent nuclear fuel). The fuel was ultimately stored in the K Basins water-filled, concrete basins attached to Hanford's K East (KE) and K West (KW) reactors. K Basin's fuel accounted for 95 percent of the total radioactivity in Hanford's former reactor production areas. Located about 457 meters (500 yards) from the Columbia River, the K Basins are two indoor, rectangular structures of reinforced concrete; each filled with more than 3.8 million liters (one million gallons) of water that has become highly contaminated with long-lived radionuclides. At the KW Basin, fuel was packaged and sealed in canisters. At the KE Basin, fuel was stored in open canisters that were exposed to water in the basin. The irradiated spent nuclear fuel corroded during long-term, wet storage; resulting in thousands of fuel assemblies becoming severely corroded and/or damaged. Corrosion, especially in the KE Basin, contributed to the formation of a layer of radioactive sludge in the basins. Sludge removal is now progressing and will be followed by dewatering and dispositioning the concrete structures. The DOE Richland Operations Office (RL) has given Fluor Hanford Inc./Fluor Government Group (Fluor) the task of preparing Hanford's K Basins for decontamination and disposal. Prior to dewatering, hydrolasing will be used to decontaminate the basin surfaces to prepare them for disposal. By removing highly contaminated surface layers of concrete, hydrolasing will be used to meet the dose objectives for protecting workers and complying with regulations for transporting demolition debris. Fluor has innovated, tested, and planned the application of the hydrolasing technology to meet the challenge of decontaminating highly radioactive concrete surfaces underwater. Newly existing technology is being adapted to this unique challenge.

CHRONISTER, G.B.

2005-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

80

Indoor and Outdoor in Situ High-Resolution Gamma Radiation Measurements in Urban Areas of Cyprus  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In situ, high-resolution, gamma-ray spectrometry of a total number of 70 outdoor and 20 indoor representative measurements were performed in preselected, common locations of the main urban areas of Cyprus. Specific activities and gamma absorbed dose rates in air due to the naturally occurring radionuclides of Th-232 and U-238 series, and K-40 are determined and discussed. Effective dose rate to the Cyprus population due to terrestrial gamma radiation is derived directly from this work. The results obtained outdoors match very well with those derived previously by high-resolution gamma spectrometry of soil samples, which were collected from the main island bedrock surface. This implies that the construction and building materials in urban areas do not affect the external gamma dose rate; thus they are mostly of local origin. Finally, the indoor/outdoor gamma dose ratio was found to be 1.4 +- 0.5.

Svoukis, E

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high surface area" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Indoor and Outdoor in Situ High-Resolution Gamma Radiation Measurements in Urban Areas of Cyprus  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In situ, high-resolution, gamma-ray spectrometry of a total number of 70 outdoor and 20 indoor representative measurements were performed in preselected, common locations of the main urban areas of Cyprus. Specific activities and gamma absorbed dose rates in air due to the naturally occurring radionuclides of Th-232 and U-238 series, and K-40 are determined and discussed. Effective dose rate to the Cyprus population due to terrestrial gamma radiation is derived directly from this work. The results obtained outdoors match very well with those derived previously by high-resolution gamma spectrometry of soil samples, which were collected from the main island bedrock surface. This implies that the construction and building materials in urban areas do not affect the external gamma dose rate; thus they are mostly of local origin. Finally, the indoor/outdoor gamma dose ratio was found to be 1.4 +- 0.5.

E. Svoukis; H. Tsertos

2006-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

82

active high surface: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 21 Trap Surface Formation in High-Energy Black Holes Collision HEP - Theory (arXiv) Summary: We investigate classical formation...

83

High-performance surface-micromachined inchworm actuator.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This work demonstrates a polycrystalline silicon surface-micromachined inchworm actuator that exhibits high-performance characteristics such as large force ({+-}0.5 millinewtons), large velocity range (0 to {+-}4.4 mm/sec), large displacement range ({+-}100 microns), small step size ({+-}10, {+-}40 or {+-}100 nanometers), low power consumption (nanojoules per cycle), continuous bidirectional operation and relatively small area (600 x 200{micro}m{sup 2}). An in situ load spring calibrated on a logarithmic scale from micronewtons to millinewtons, optical microscopy and Michelson interferometry are used to characterize its performance. The actuator consists of a force-amplifying plate that spans two voltage-controlled clamps, and walking is achieved by appropriately sequencing signals to these three components. In the clamps, normal force is borne by equipotential rubbing counterfaces, enabling friction to be measured against load. Using different monolayer coatings, we show that the static coefficient of friction can be changed from 0.14 to 1.04, and that it is load-independent over a broad range. We further find that the static coefficient of friction does not accurately predict the force generated by the actuator and attribute this to nanometer-scale presliding tangential deflections.

Walraven, Jeremy Allen; Redmond, James Michael; Luck, David L.; Ashurst, William Robert; de Boer, Maarten Pieter; Maboudian, Roya (University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA); Corwin, Alex David

2003-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

84

Specific Effects of Fiber Size and Fiber Swelling on Biomass Substrate Surface Area and Enzymatic Digestibility  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

To clarify the specific effect of biomass substrate surface area on its enzymatic digestibility, factors of fiber size reduction and swelling changes were investigated by using poplar substrates with controlled morphological and chemical properties after modified chemical pulping. Results showed that fiber size changes had insignificant influence on enzymatic hydrolysis, although the external surface area increased up to 41% with the reduction of fiber size. Swelling changes caused by increased biomass fiber porosities after PFI refining showed a significant influence on the efficiency of enzymatic hydrolysis. It is also found that chemical properties such as xylan and lignin content can influence the swelling effect. Xylan is confirmed to facilitate substrate hydrolysability by swelling, while lignin restricts swelling effect and thus minimizes the enzyme accessibility to substrates.

Ju, Xiaohui; Grego, Courtnee; Zhang, Xiao

2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

SURFACE AREA, VOLUME, MASS, AND DENSITY DISTRIBUTIONS FOR SIZED BIOMASS PARTICLES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This semi-annual technical progress report describes work performed at Morehouse College under DOE Grant No. DE-FC26-04NT42130 during the period January 01, 2006 to June 30, 2006 which covers the fourth six months of the project. Presently work is in progress to characterize surface area, volume, mass, and density distributions for sized biomass particles. During this reporting period, Morehouse completed obtaining additional mean mass measurements for biomass particles employing the gravimetric technique measurement system that was set up in a previous reporting period. Simultaneously, REM, our subcontractor, has completed obtaining raw data for surface area, volume, and drag coefficient to mass ratio (Cd/m) information for 9 more biomass particles employing the electrodynamic balance (EDB) measurement system that was calibrated before in this project. Results of the mean mass data obtained to date are reported here, and analysis of the raw data collected by REM is in progress.

Ramanathan Sampath

2006-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

86

SURFACE AREA, VOLUME, MASS, AND DENSITY DISTRIBUTIONS FOR SIZED BIOMASS PARTICLES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This semi-annual technical progress report describes work performed at Morehouse College under DOE Grant No. DE-FC26-04NT42130 during the period July 01, 2005 to December 31, 2005 which covers the third six months of the project. Presently work is in progress to characterize surface area, volume, mass, and density distributions for sized biomass particles. During this reporting period, Morehouse continued to obtain additional mean mass measurements for biomass particles employing the gravimetric technique measurement system that was set up in the last reporting period. Simultaneously, REM, our subcontractor, has obtained raw data for surface area, volume, and drag coefficient to mass ratio (C{sub d}/m) information for several biomass particles employing the electrodynamic balance (EDB) measurement system that was calibrated in the last reporting period. Preliminary results of the mean mass and the shape data obtained are reported here, and more data collection is in progress.

Ramanathan Sampath

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

High-Density Infrared Surface Treatments of Refractories  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Refractory materials play a crucial role in all energy-intensive industries and are truly a crosscutting technology for the Industries of the Future (IOF). One of the major mechanisms for the degradation of refractories and a general decrease in their performance has been the penetration and corrosion by molten metals or glass. Methods and materials that would reduce the penetration, wetting, and corrosive chemistry would significantly improve refractory performance and also maintain the quality of the processed liquid, be it metal or glass. This report presents the results of an R&D project aimed at investigating the use of high-density infrared (HDI) heating to surface treat refractories to improve their performance. The project was a joint effort between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and the University of Missouri-Rolla (UMR). HDI is capable of heating the near-surface region of materials to very high temperatures where sintering, diffusion, and melting can occur. The intended benefits of HDI processing of refractories were to (1) reduce surface porosity (by essentially sealing the surface to prevent liquid penetration), (2) allow surface chemistry changes to be performed by bonding an adherent coating onto the underlying refractory (in order to inhibit wetting and/or improve corrosion resistance), and (3) produce noncontact refractories with high-emissivity surface coatings.

Tiegs, T.N.

2005-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

88

Porosity and surface area evolution during weathering of two igneous rocks  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

During weathering, rocks release nutrients and storewater vital for growth ofmicrobial and plant life. Thus, the growth of porosity as weathering advances into bedrock is a life-sustaining process for terrestrial ecosystems. Here, we use small-angle and ultra small-angle neutron scattering to show how porosity develops during initial weathering under tropical conditions of two igneous rock compositions, basaltic andesite and quartz diorite. The quartz diorite weathers spheroidally while the basaltic andesite does not. The weathering advance rates of the two systems also differ, perhaps due to this difference in mechanism, from 0.24 to 100 mm kyr1, respectively. The scattering data document how surfaces inside the feldspar-dominated rocks change as weathering advances into the protolith. In the unaltered rocks, neutrons scatter fromtwo types of featureswhose dimensions vary from6 nmto 40 lm: pores and bumps on pore grain surfaces. These features result in scattering data for both unaltered rocks that document multi-fractal behavior: scattering is best described by amass fractal dimension (Dm) and a surface fractal dimension (Ds) for features of length scales greater than and less than 1 lm, respectively. In the basaltic andesite, Dm is approximately 2.9 and Ds is approximately 2.7. The mechanism of solute transport during weathering of this rock is diffusion. Porosity and surface area increase from 1.5%to 8.5%and 3 to 23 m2 g1 respectively in a relatively consistent trend across themm-thick plagioclase reaction front. Across this front, both fractal dimensions decrease, consistentwith development of amoremonodisperse pore networkwith smoother pore surfaces. Both changes are consistent largely with increasing connectivity of pores without significant surface roughening, as expected for transport-limited weathering. In contrast, porosity and surface area increase from 1.3% to 9.5% and 1.5 to 13 m2 g1 respectively across a many cm-thick reaction front in the spheroidally weathering quartz diorite. In that rock, Dm is approximately 2.8 andDs is approximately 2.5 prior to weathering. These two fractals transform during weathering to multiple surface fractals as micro-cracking reduces the size of diffusion-limited subzones of thematrix.Across the reaction front of plagioclase in the quartz diorite, the specific surface area and porosity change very little until the pointwhere the rock disaggregates into saprolite. The different patterns in porosity development of the two rocks are attributed to advective infiltration plus diffusion in the rock that spheroidally fractures versus diffusion-only in the rock that does not. Fracturing apparently diminishes the size of the diffusion-limited parts of the spheroidally weathering rock system to promote infiltration of meteoric fluids, thereforeexplaining the faster weathering advance rate into that rock.

Navarre-Sitchler, Alexis [Colorado School of Mines, Golden; Cole, David [Ohio State University; Rother, Gernot [ORNL; Jin, Lixin [University of Texas, El Paso; Buss, Heather [University of Bristol, UK; Brantley, S. L. [Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

FLAME SURFACE DENSITIES IN PREMIXED COMBUSTION AT MEDIUM TO HIGH  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

premixed combustion diagrams. Small-scale transport of heat and species may be more important and chemistryFLAME SURFACE DENSITIES IN PREMIXED COMBUSTION AT MEDIUM TO HIGH TURBULENCE INTENSITIES O¨ MER L in turbulent premixed propane= air flames were determined experimentally. The instantaneous flame fronts were

Gülder, �mer L.

90

Refractory lining system for high wear area of high temperature reaction vessel  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A refractory-lined high temperature reaction vessel comprises a refractory ring lining constructed of refractory brick, a cooler, and a heat transfer medium disposed between the refractory ring lining and the cooler. The refractory brick comprises magnesia (MgO) and graphite. The heat transfer medium contacts the refractory brick and a cooling surface of the cooler, and is composed of a material that accommodates relative movement between the refractory brick and the cooler. The brick is manufactured such that the graphite has an orientation providing a high thermal conductivity in the lengthwise direction through the brick that is higher than the thermal conductivity in directions perpendicular to the lengthwise direction. The graphite preferably is flake graphite, in the range of about 10 to 20 wt %, and has a size distribution selected to provide maximum brick density. The reaction vessel may be used for performing a reaction process including the steps of forming a layer of slag on a melt in the vessel, the slag having a softening point temperature range, and forming a protective frozen layer of slag on the interior-facing surface of the refractory lining in at least a portion of a zone where the surface contacts the layer of slag, the protective frozen layer being maintained at or about the softening point of the slag. 10 figs.

Hubble, D.H.; Ulrich, K.H.

1998-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

91

Refractory lining system for high wear area of high temperature reaction vessel  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A refractory-lined high temperature reaction vessel comprises a refractory ring lining constructed of refractory brick, a cooler, and a heat transfer medium disposed between the refractory ring lining and the cooler. The refractory brick comprises magnesia (MgO) and graphite. The heat transfer medium contacts the refractory brick and a cooling surface of the cooler, and is composed of a material that accommodates relative movement between the refractory brick and the cooler. The brick is manufactured such that the graphite has an orientation providing a high thermal conductivity in the lengthwise direction through the brick that is higher than the thermal conductivity in directions perpendicular to the lengthwise direction. The graphite preferably is flake graphite, in the range of about 10 to 20 wt %, and has a size distribution selected to provide maximum brick density. The reaction vessel may be used for performing a reaction process including the steps of forming a layer of slag on a melt in the vessel, the slag having a softening point temperature range, and forming a protective frozen layer of slag on the interior-facing surface of the refractory lining in at least a portion of a zone where the surface contacts the layer of slag, the protective frozen layer being maintained at or about the softening point of the slag. 10 figs.

Hubble, D.H.; Ulrich, K.H.

1998-09-22T23:59:59.000Z

92

High-frequency shear-horizontal surface acoustic wave sensor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A Love wave sensor uses a single-phase unidirectional interdigital transducer (IDT) on a piezoelectric substrate for leaky surface acoustic wave generation. The IDT design minimizes propagation losses, bulk wave interferences, provides a highly linear phase response, and eliminates the need for impedance matching. As an example, a high frequency (.about.300-400 MHz) surface acoustic wave (SAW) transducer enables efficient excitation of shear-horizontal waves on 36.degree. Y-cut lithium tantalate (LTO) giving a highly linear phase response (2.8.degree. P-P). The sensor has the ability to detect at the pg/mm.sup.2 level and can perform multi-analyte detection in real-time. The sensor can be used for rapid autonomous detection of pathogenic microorganisms and bioagents by field deployable platforms.

Branch, Darren W

2013-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

93

High-frequency shear-horizontal surface acoustic wave sensor  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A Love wave sensor uses a single-phase unidirectional interdigital transducer (IDT) on a piezoelectric substrate for leaky surface acoustic wave generation. The IDT design minimizes propagation losses, bulk wave interferences, provides a highly linear phase response, and eliminates the need for impedance matching. As an example, a high frequency (.about.300-400 MHz) surface acoustic wave (SAW) transducer enables efficient excitation of shear-horizontal waves on 36.degree. Y-cut lithium tantalate (LTO) giving a highly linear phase response (2.8.degree. P-P). The sensor has the ability to detect at the pg/mm.sup.2 level and can perform multi-analyte detection in real-time. The sensor can be used for rapid autonomous detection of pathogenic microorganisms and bioagents by field deployable platforms.

Branch, Darren W

2014-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

94

Areas of Anomalous Surface Temperature in Chaffee County, Colorado, as Identified from ASTER Thermal Data  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Citation Information: Originator: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Publication Date: 2012 Title: Very Warm Modeled Temperature Chaffee Edition: First Publication Information: Publication Place: Earth Science & Observation Center, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Science (CIRES), University of Colorado, Boulder Publisher: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Description: This layer contains areas of anomalous surface temperature in Chaffee County identified from ASTER thermal data and spatial based insolation model. The temperature is calculated using the Emissivity Normalization Algorithm that separate temperature from emissivity. The incoming solar radiation was calculated using spatial based insolation model developed by Fu and Rich (1999). Then the temperature due to solar radiation was calculated using emissivity derived from ASTER data. The residual temperature, i.e. temperature due to solar radiation subtracted from ASTER temperature was used to identify thermally anomalous areas. Areas that had temperature greater than 2? were considered ASTER modeled very warm surface exposures (thermal anomalies) Spatial Domain: Extent: Top: 4333432.368072 m Left: 366907.700763 m Right: 452457.816015 m Bottom: 4208271.566715 m Contact Information: Contact Organization: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Contact Person: Khalid Hussein Address: CIRES, Ekeley Building Earth Science & Observation Center (ESOC) 216 UCB City: Boulder State: CO Postal Code: 80309-0216 Country: USA Contact Telephone: 303-492-6782 Spatial Reference Information: Coordinate System: Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) WGS’1984 Zone 13N False Easting: 500000.00000000 False Northing: 0.00000000 Central Meridian: -105.00000000 Scale Factor: 0.99960000 Latitude of Origin: 0.00000000 Linear Unit: Meter Datum: World Geodetic System ’1984 (WGS ’1984) Prime Meridian: Greenwich Angular Unit: Degree Digital Form: Format Name: Shape file

Hussein, Khalid

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

95

Areas of Anomalous Surface Temperature in Routt County, Colorado, as Identified from ASTER Thermal Data  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Citation Information: Originator: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Publication Date: 2012 Title: Very Warm Modeled Temperature Routt Edition: First Publication Information: Publication Place: Earth Science & Observation Center, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Science (CIRES), University of Colorado, Boulder Publisher: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Description: This layer contains areas of anomalous surface temperature in Routt County identified from ASTER thermal data and spatial based insolation model. The temperature is calculated using the Emissivity Normalization Algorithm that separate temperature from emissivity. The incoming solar radiation was calculated using spatial based insolation model developed by Fu and Rich (1999). Then the temperature due to solar radiation was calculated using emissivity derived from ASTER data. The residual temperature, i.e. temperature due to solar radiation subtracted from ASTER temperature was used to identify thermally anomalous areas. Areas that had temperature greater than 2? were considered ASTER modeled very warm surface exposures (thermal anomalies) Spatial Domain: Extent: Top: 4501071.574000 m Left: 311351.975000 m Right: 359681.975000 m Bottom: 4447251.574000 m Contact Information: Contact Organization: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Contact Person: Khalid Hussein Address: CIRES, Ekeley Building Earth Science & Observation Center (ESOC) 216 UCB City: Boulder State: CO Postal Code: 80309-0216 Country: USA Contact Telephone: 303-492-6782 Spatial Reference Information: Coordinate System: Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) WGS’1984 Zone 13N False Easting: 500000.00000000 False Northing: 0.00000000 Central Meridian: -105.00000000 Scale Factor: 0.99960000 Latitude of Origin: 0.00000000 Linear Unit: Meter Datum: World Geodetic System ’1984 (WGS ’1984) Prime Meridian: Greenwich Angular Unit: Degree Digital Form: Format Name: Shape file

Hussein, Khalid

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

96

Areas of Anomalous Surface Temperature in Garfield County, Colorado, as Identified from ASTER Thermal Data  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Citation Information: Originator: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Publication Date: 2012 Title: Very Warm Modeled Temperature Garfield Edition: First Publication Information: Publication Place: Earth Science & Observation Center, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Science (CIRES), University of Colorado, Boulder Publisher: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Description: This layer contains areas of anomalous surface temperature in Garfield County identified from ASTER thermal data and spatial based insolation model. The temperature is calculated using the Emissivity Normalization Algorithm that separate temperature from emissivity. The incoming solar radiation was calculated using spatial based insolation model developed by Fu and Rich (1999). Then the temperature due to solar radiation was calculated using emissivity derived from ASTER data. The residual temperature, i.e. temperature due to solar radiation subtracted from ASTER temperature was used to identify thermally anomalous areas. Areas that had temperature greater than 2? were considered ASTER modeled very warm surface exposures (thermal anomalies) Spatial Domain: Extent: Top: 4441550.552290 m Left: 271445.053363 m Right: 359825.053363 m Bottom: 4312490.552290 m Contact Information: Contact Organization: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Contact Person: Khalid Hussein Address: CIRES, Ekeley Building Earth Science & Observation Center (ESOC) 216 UCB City: Boulder State: CO Postal Code: 80309-0216 Country: USA Contact Telephone: 303-492-6782 Spatial Reference Information: Coordinate System: Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) WGS’1984 Zone 13N False Easting: 500000.00000000 False Northing: 0.00000000 Central Meridian: -105.00000000 Scale Factor: 0.99960000 Latitude of Origin: 0.00000000 Linear Unit: Meter Datum: World Geodetic System ’1984 (WGS ’1984) Prime Meridian: Greenwich Angular Unit: Degree Digital Form: Format Name: Shape file

Hussein, Khalid

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

Areas of Anomalous Surface Temperature in Archuleta County, Colorado, as Identified from ASTER Thermal Data  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Citation Information: Originator: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Publication Date: 2012 Title: Very Warm Modeled Temperature Archuleta Edition: First Publication Information: Publication Place: Earth Science & Observation Center, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Science (CIRES), University of Colorado, Boulder Publisher: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Description: This layer contains areas of anomalous surface temperature in Archuleta County identified from ASTER thermal data and spatial based insolation model. The temperature is calculated using the Emissivity Normalization Algorithm that separate temperature from emissivity. The incoming solar radiation was calculated using spatial based insolation model developed by Fu and Rich (1999). Then the temperature due to solar radiation was calculated using emissivity derived from ASTER data. The residual temperature, i.e. temperature due to solar radiation subtracted from ASTER temperature was used to identify thermally anomalous areas. Areas that had temperature greater than 2? were considered ASTER modeled very warm surface exposures (thermal anomalies) Spatial Domain: Extent: Top: 4144691.792023 m Left: 285531.662851 m Right: 348694.182686 m Bottom: 4097005.210304 m Contact Information: Contact Organization: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Contact Person: Khalid Hussein Address: CIRES, Ekeley Building Earth Science & Observation Center (ESOC) 216 UCB City: Boulder State: CO Postal Code: 80309-0216 Country: USA Contact Telephone: 303-492-6782 Spatial Reference Information: Coordinate System: Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) WGS’1984 Zone 13N False Easting: 500000.00000000 False Northing: 0.00000000 Central Meridian: -105.00000000 Scale Factor: 0.99960000 Latitude of Origin: 0.00000000 Linear Unit: Meter Datum: World Geodetic System ’1984 (WGS ’1984) Prime Meridian: Greenwich Angular Unit: Degree Digital Form: Format Name: Shape file

Hussein, Khalid

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

98

Areas of Anomalous Surface Temperature in Dolored County, Colorado, as Identified from ASTER Thermal Data  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Citation Information: Originator: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Publication Date: 2012 Title: Very Warm Modeled Temperature Dolores Edition: First Publication Information: Publication Place: Earth Science & Observation Center, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Science (CIRES), University of Colorado, Boulder Publisher: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Description: This layer contains areas of anomalous surface temperature in Dolores County identified from ASTER thermal data and spatial based insolation model. The temperature is calculated using the Emissivity Normalization Algorithm that separate temperature from emissivity. The incoming solar radiation was calculated using spatial based insolation model developed by Fu and Rich (1999). Then the temperature due to solar radiation was calculated using emissivity derived from ASTER data. The residual temperature, i.e. temperature due to solar radiation subtracted from ASTER temperature was used to identify thermally anomalous areas. Areas that had temperature greater than 2? were considered ASTER modeled very warm surface exposures (thermal anomalies) Spatial Domain: Extent: Top: 4186234.213315 m Left: 212558.673056 m Right: 232922.811862 m Bottom: 4176781.467043 m Contact Information: Contact Organization: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Contact Person: Khalid Hussein Address: CIRES, Ekeley Building Earth Science & Observation Center (ESOC) 216 UCB City: Boulder State: CO Postal Code: 80309-0216 Country: USA Contact Telephone: 303-492-6782 Spatial Reference Information: Coordinate System: Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) WGS’1984 Zone 13N False Easting: 500000.00000000 False Northing: 0.00000000 Central Meridian: -105.00000000 Scale Factor: 0.99960000 Latitude of Origin: 0.00000000 Linear Unit: Meter Datum: World Geodetic System ’1984 (WGS ’1984) Prime Meridian: Greenwich Angular Unit: Degree Digital Form: Format Name: Shape file

Hussein, Khalid

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

Integrated Approach to Use Natural Chemical and Isotopic Tracers to Estimate Fracture Spacing and Surface Area in EGS Systems  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

DOE Geothermal Peer Review 2010 - Presentation. This objective of this project is to develop an innovative approach to estimate fracture surface area and spacing through interpretation of signals of natural chemical and isotopic tracers.

100

Computing for Development A New High-Impact Research Area  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

... but can't afford a house In Bangladesh: Poorest devote 7 percent income to communications (Grameen Computing: Design with minimal resources Low-cost high-bandwidth connectivity Appropriate Design

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high surface area" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Method for preparing ultraflat, atomically perfect areas on large regions of a crystal surface by heteroepitaxy deposition  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A novel method of forming large atomically flat areas is described in which a crystalline substrate having a stepped surface is exposed to a vapor of another material to deposit a material onto the substrate, which material under appropriate conditions self arranges to form 3D islands across the substrate surface. These islands are atomically flat at their top surface, and conform to the stepped surface of the substrate below at the island-substrate interface. Thereafter, the deposited materials are etched away, in the etch process the atomically flat surface areas of the islands transferred to the underlying substrate. Thereafter the substrate may be cleaned and annealed to remove any remaining unwanted contaminants, and eliminate any residual defects that may have remained in the substrate surface as a result of pre-existing imperfections of the substrate.

El Gabaly, Farid; Schmid, Andreas K.

2013-03-19T23:59:59.000Z

102

Lithium inclusion in indium metal-organic frameworks showing increased surface area and hydrogen adsorption  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Investigation of counterion exchange in two anionic In-Metal-Organic Frameworks (In-MOFs) showed that partial replacement of disordered ammonium cations was achieved through the pre-synthetic addition of LiOH to the reaction mixture. This resulted in a surface area increase of over 1600% in (Li [In(1,3 ? BDC){sub 2}]){sub n} and enhancement of the H{sub 2} uptake of approximately 275% at 80?000 Pa at 77 K. This method resulted in frameworks with permanent lithium content after repeated solvent exchange as confirmed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Lithium counterion replacement appears to increase porosity after activation through replacement of bulkier, softer counterions and demonstrates tuning of pore size and properties in MOFs.

Bosch, Mathieu; Zhang, Muwei; Feng, Dawei; Yuan, Shuai; Wang, Xuan [Department of Chemistry, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77842 (United States); Chen, Ying-Pin [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77842 (United States); Zhou, Hong-Cai, E-mail: zhou@mail.chem.tamu.edu [Department of Chemistry, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77842 (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77842 (United States)

2014-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

103

AREA  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) "of EnergyEnergy Cooperation |South Valley ResponsibleSubmissionofDepartmentNo.7-052 ofFocusAREA FAQ #

104

High and Far: Biases in the Location of Protected Areas Lucas N. Joppa1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-mail: joppatri@yahoo.com Introduction Initiatives to establish new protected areas (PAs) to conserve naturalHigh and Far: Biases in the Location of Protected Areas Lucas N. Joppa1 *, Alexander Pfaff2 1 areas (hereafter ``PAs''), most created during the 20th century. Natural landscapes are critical

Pfaff, Alex

105

Preparation of high porosity xerogels by chemical surface modification.  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

This invention provides an extremely porous xerogel dried at vacuum-to-below supercritical pressures but having the properties of aerogels which are typically dried at supercritical pressures. This is done by reacting the internal pore surface of the wet gel with organic substances in order to change the contact angle of the fluid meniscus in the pores during drying. Shrinkage of the gel (which is normally prevented by use of high autoclave pressures, such that the pore fluid is at temperature and pressure above its critical values) is avoided even at vacuum or ambient pressures.

Deshpande, Ravindra (51 Michelle Dr. Apt. A 11, Lancaster, PA 17603); Smith, Douglas M. (1412 Marquette Pl. NE., Albuquerque, NM 87122); Brinker, C. Jeffrey (14 Eagle Nest Dr. NE., Albuquerque, NM 87122)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

106

Hydrophobic force field as molecular alternative to surface-area models  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An effective force field for hydrophobic interactions is developed based on a modified potential-of-mean-force (PMF) expansion of the effective many-body interactions between nonpolar molecules in water. For the simplest nonpolar solutes in water, hard particles, the modified PMF expansion is exact in both limiting cases of infinite separation and perfect overlap. The hydrophobic interactions are parametrized by using the information-theory model of hydrophobic hydration. The interactions between nonpolar solutes are short-ranged and can be evaluated efficiently on a computer. The force field is compared with simulation data for alkane conformational equilibria in water as well as a model for the formation of a hydrophobic core of a protein. The modified PMF expansion can be extended to solutes with attractive interactions. The observed accuracy, computational efficiency, and atomic detail of the model suggest that this simple hydrophobic force field can lead to a molecular alternative for phenomenological surface-area models with applications in ligand-binding and protein-folding studies.

Hummer, G.

1999-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

107

LITERATURE REVIEW OF PUO2 CALCINATION TIME AND TEMPERATURE DATA FOR SPECIFIC SURFACE AREA  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The literature has been reviewed in December 2011 for calcination data of plutonium oxide (PuO{sub 2}) from plutonium oxalate Pu(C{sub 2}O{sub 4}){sub 2} precipitation with respect to the PuO{sub 2} specific surface area (SSA). A summary of the literature is presented for what are believed to be the dominant factors influencing SSA, the calcination temperature and time. The PuO{sub 2} from Pu(C{sub 2}O{sub 4}){sub 2} calcination data from this review has been regressed to better understand the influence of calcination temperature and time on SSA. Based on this literature review data set, calcination temperature has a bigger impact on SSA versus time. However, there is still some variance in this data set that may be reflecting differences in the plutonium oxalate preparation or different calcination techniques. It is evident from this review that additional calcination temperature and time data for PuO{sub 2} from Pu(C{sub 2}O{sub 4}){sub 2} needs to be collected and evaluated to better define the relationship. The existing data set has a lot of calcination times that are about 2 hours and therefore may be underestimating the impact of heating time on SSA. SRNL recommends that more calcination temperature and time data for PuO{sub 2} from Pu(C{sub 2}O{sub 4}){sub 2} be collected and this literature review data set be augmented to better refine the relationship between PuO{sub 2} SSA and its calcination parameters.

Daniel, G.

2012-03-06T23:59:59.000Z

108

Cotton Performance Tests in the Texas High Plains and Trans-Pecos Areas of Texas 20081/  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Cotton Performance Tests in the Texas High Plains and Trans-Pecos Areas of Texas 20081/ J.K. Dever; Area Agronomist-Cotton, Extension Entomologist, Texas AgriLife Extension, Lubbock; Research Scientist......................................................................................................................... 6 Table UNIFORM COTTON VARIETY TESTS - IRRIGATED Lubbock 1 Production Information

Mukhtar, Saqib

109

Cotton Performance Tests in the Texas High Plains and Trans-Pecos Areas of Texas 20071/  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Cotton Performance Tests in the Texas High Plains and Trans-Pecos Areas of Texas 20071/ J, Lubbock; Area Agronomist-Cotton, Extension Program Specialist, Texas AgriLife Extension, Lubbock; Research......................................................................................................................... 6 Table COTTON VARIETY TESTS - IRRIGATED Lamesa 1 Production Information

Mukhtar, Saqib

110

SIZE AND SURFACE AREA OF ICY DUST AGGREGATES AFTER A HEATING EVENT AT A PROTOPLANETARY NEBULA  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The activity of a young star rises abruptly during an FU Orionis outburst. This event causes a temporary temperature increase in the protoplanetary nebula. H{sub 2}O icy grains are sublimated by this event, and silicate cores embedded inside the ice are ejected. During the high-temperature phase, the silicate grains coagulate to form silicate core aggregates. After the heating event, the temperature drops, and the ice recondenses onto the aggregates. I determined numerically the size distribution of the ice-covered aggregates. The size of the aggregates exceeds 10 {mu}m around the snow line. Because of the migration of the ice to large aggregates, only a small fraction of the silicate core aggregate is covered with H{sub 2}O ice. After the heating event, the surface of an ice-covered aggregate is totally covered by silicate core aggregates. This might reduce the fragmentation velocity of aggregates when they collide. It is possible that the covering silicate cores shield the UV radiation field which induces photodissociation of H{sub 2}O ice. This effect may cause the shortage of cold H{sub 2}O vapor observed by Herschel.

Sirono, Sin-iti [Earth and Environmental Sciences, Graduate School of Environmental Studies, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8601 (Japan)] [Earth and Environmental Sciences, Graduate School of Environmental Studies, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8601 (Japan)

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

Development of High Resolution Land Surface Parameters for the Community Land Model  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

There is a growing need for high-resolution land surface parameters as land surface models are being applied at increasingly higher spatial resolution offline as well as in regional and global models. The default land surface parameters for the most recent version of the Community Land Model (i.e. CLM 4.0) are at 0.5° or coarser resolutions, released with the Community Earth System Model (CESM). Plant Functional Types (PFTs), vegetation properties such as Leaf Area Index (LAI), Stem Area Index (SAI), and non-vegetated land covers were developed using remotely sensed datasets retrieved in late 1990’s and the beginning of this century. In this study, we developed new land surface parameters for CLM 4.0, specifically PFTs, LAI, SAI and non-vegetated land cover composition, at 0.05° resolution globally based on the most recent MODIS land cover and improved MODIS LAI products. Compared to the current CLM 4.0 parameters, the new parameters produced a decreased coverage by bare soil and trees, but an increased coverage by shrub, grass, and cropland. The new parameters result in a decrease in global seasonal LAI, with the biggest decrease in boreal forests; however, the new parameters also show a large increase in LAI in tropical forest. Differences between the new and the current parameters are mainly caused by changes in the sources of remotely sensed data and the representation of land cover in the source data. Advantages and disadvantages of each dataset were discussed in order to provide guidance on the use of the data. The new high-resolution land surface parameters have been used in a coupled land-atmosphere model (WRF-CLM) applied to the western U.S. to demonstrate their use in high-resolution modeling. A remapping method from the latitude/longitude grid of the CLM data to the WRF grids with map projection was also demonstrated. Future work will include global offline CLM simulations to examine the impacts of source data resolution and subsequent land parameter changes on simulated land surface processes.

Ke, Yinghai; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Huang, Maoyi; Coleman, Andre M.; Li, Hongyi; Wigmosta, Mark S.

2012-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

112

XPS analysis of 440C steel surfaces lubricated with perfluoropolyethers under sliding conditions in high vacuum  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This work presents the results of the X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) analysis of AISI 440C ball surfaces lubricated with perfluoropolyether (PFPE) oils after friction experiments under sliding conditions at high load in air and vacuum environments. The PFPE lubricants tested were Demnum S100, Fomblin Z-25, and Krytox 143AB. It was found that all the PFPE lubricants were degraded by sliding contact causing the formation of inorganic fluorides on the metallic surfaces and a layer of organic decomposition products. KRYTOX 143AB was the least reactive of the three lubricants tested. It was also found that metal fluoride formed at off-scar areas. This suggests the formation of reactive species, such as COF2 or R[sub f]COF, during sliding experiments, which can diffuse through the lubricant film and react with the metallic surfaces away from the contact region. Comparison of reference specimens before sliding with those that had undergone the sliding tests showed that the amount of non-degraded PFPE remaining on the surface of the balls after the sliding experiments was greater than that of the balls without sliding.

Herrera-Fierro, P.; Masuko, M.; Jones, W.R. Jr.; Pepper, S.V.

1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

113

Technique for the Estimation of Surface Temperatures from Embedded Temperature Sensing for Rapid, High Energy Surface Deposition  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Temperature histories on the surface of a body that has been subjected to a rapid, high-energy surface deposition process can be di#14;fficult to determine, especially if it is impossible to directly observe the surface or attach a temperature sensor to it. In this report, we explore two methods for estimating the temperature history of the surface through the use of a sensor embedded within the body very near to the surface. First, the maximum sensor temperature is directly correlated with the peak surface temperature. However, it is observed that the sensor data is both delayed in time and greatly attenuated in magnitude, making this approach unfeasible. Secondly, we propose an algorithm that involves fitting the solution to a one-dimensional instantaneous energy solution problem to both the sensor data and to the results of a one-dimensional CVFEM code. This algorithm is shown to be able to estimate the surface temperature {+-}~20#14;{degrees}C.

Watkins, Tyson R.; Schunk, Peter Randall; Roberts, Scott A.

2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

114

EVIDENCE OF INTERACTION BETWEEN SYNOPTIC AND LOCAL SCALES IN THE SURFACE LAYER OVER THE PARIS AREA  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, Column modelling, Urban area. 1. Introduction As in many big cities throughout the world, pollution recently, no comprehensive dedicated study of the processes leading to the severe pollution episodes urban areas such as Athens, Mexico or Los Angeles, for example. Moreover, Paris is located sufficiently

Menut, Laurent

115

RRR Degradation and Gas Absorption in the Electron Beam Welding Area of High Purity  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 RRR Degradation and Gas Absorption in the Electron Beam Welding Area of High Purity Niobium W degradation and gas absorption of high purity niobium welded at different electron beam (EB) facilities are summarized. The oxygen and nitrogen content is increased as a rule at the welding seam. The absorption

116

Predicting the surface tension of aqueous 1-1 electrolyte solutions at high salinity  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Predicting the surface tension of aqueous 1-1 electrolyte solutions at high salinity Philippe Leroy 74, 19 (2010) p. 5427-5442" DOI : 10.1016/j.gca.2010.06.012 #12;2 ABSTRACT The surface tension to predict, under isothermal and isobaric conditions, the surface tension of 1:1 electrolytes at high

Boyer, Edmond

117

High-Throughput Mode Liquid Microjunction Surface Sampling Probe  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A simple and automated spot sampling operation mode for a liquid microjunction surface sampling probe/electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (LMJ-SSP/ESI-MS) system is reported. Prior manual and automated spot sampling methods with this probe relied on a careful, relatively slow alignment of the probe and surface distance (<20 m spacing) to form the probe-to-surface liquid microjunction critical to successful surface sampling. Moreover, sampling multiple spots required retraction of the surface from the probe and a repeat of this careful probe-to-surface distance alignment at the next sampling position. With the method described here, the probe was not positioned as close to the surface, the exact probeto-surface positioning was found to be less critical (spanning distances from about 100-300 m), and this distance was not altered during the sampling of an entire array of sample spots. With the probe positioned within the appropriate distance from the surface, the liquid microjunction was formed by letting the liquid from the sampling end of the probe extend out from the probe to the surface. This was accomplished by reducing the selfaspiration liquid flow rate of the probe to a value less than the volume flow rate pumped into the probe. When the self-aspiration rate of the probe was subsequently increased, analytes on the surface that dissolved at the liquid microjunction were aspirated back into the probe with the liquid that created the liquid microjunction and electrosprayed. Presented here are the basics of this new sampling mode, as well as data that illustrate the potential analytical capabilities of the device to conduct highthroughput quantitative analysis.

Van Berkel, Gary J [ORNL; Kertesz, Vilmos [ORNL; King, Richard C. [PharmaCadence

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

Information Basic to Farm Adjustments in the High Plains Cotton Area of Texas.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

by the Texas Agricultural Experiment Station. A limited number of these machines were manufactured for distribution in 1943 and more will be available in 1944. Two men using a two-row ma- chine of this type will harvest as much cotton per day as 14 to 16... duced tion : the o. was I result Study Area earnil the n en t~ri these 'I opera 2:-. 11i-e r recorc ductic Seven --- motor the S. to ch: metho F the st area, FOK~VIATION BASIC TO FARM ADJUSTMENTS IN THE HIGH PLAINS COTTON AREA...

Thibodeaux, B. H. (Ben Hur); Bonnen, C. A. (Clarence Alfred); Magee, A. C. (Aden Combs)

1944-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

119

Hydrogen Reactivity on Highly-hydroxylated TiO2(110) Surfaces...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

TiO2(110) Surfaces Prepared via Carboxylic Acid Adsorption and Photolysis. Hydrogen Reactivity on Highly-hydroxylated TiO2(110) Surfaces Prepared via Carboxylic Acid...

120

Lagrangian study of surface transport in the Kuroshio Extension area based on simulation of propagation of Fukushima-derived radionuclides  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Lagrangian approach is applied to study near-surface large-scale transport in the Kuroshio Extension area using a simulation with synthetic particles advected by AVISO altimetric velocity field. A material line technique is applied to find the origin of water masses in cold-core cyclonic rings pinched off from the jet in summer 2011. Tracking and Lagrangian maps provide the evidence of cross-jet transport. Fukushima derived caesium isotopes are used as Lagrangian tracers to study transport and mixing in the area a few months after the March of 2011 tsunami that caused a heavy damage of the Fukushima nuclear power plant (FNPP). Tracking maps are computed to trace the origin of water parcels with measured levels of Cs-134 and Cs-137 concentrations collected in two R/V cruises in June and July 2011 in the large area of the Northwest Pacific. It is shown that Lagrangian simulation is useful to finding the surface areas that are potentially dangerous due to the risk of radioactive contamination. The results of sim...

Prants, S V; Uleysky, M Yu

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high surface area" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Cotton hedging strategies using prices for Texas High Plains and Rio Grande Valley areas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

COTTON REDGINC STRATEGIES USING PRICES FO=". TEXAS HIGH PLAINS AND RIO GRANDE VALLEY AREAS A Thesis by JOHN VERNON HOWARD, III Subm tted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M Universi'ty in partial fulfiiiment cf the requirement for the de...-ree o MASTER OP SC'ENCE August 1979 Major Subject: Agricultural Economics COTTON HEDGING STRATEGIES USING PRICES FOR TEXAS HIGH PLAINS AND RIO GRANDE VALLEY AREAS A Thesis JOHN VERNON HOWARD, III Approved as to style and content by: (C irman...

Howard, John V

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

122

Economics of Mechanical Cotton Harvesting in the High Plains Cotton Area of Texas.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in the High Plains cotton area of Texas is highly mechanized except for some hand hoeing and much of the harvesting. Some growers rely on mechanical strippers to harvest their entire crop. Others use hand labor to harvest cotton that matures before frost... and harvest the remainder with strippers. An estimated 40 percent of the 1949 record crop, or about 575,000 bales, was machine harvested in the 10 counties in type-of-farming area No. 3, Figure 1. During the 4 years of study, 1947-50, costs of hand harvest...

Rogers, Ralph H.; Morgan, Quevedo Martin; Williamson, M. N. (Marion Newton)

1951-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

Pool boiling studies on nanotextured surfaces under highly subcooled conditions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Subcooled pool boiling on nanotextured surfaces is explored in this study. The experiments are performed in an enclosed viewing chamber. Two silicon wafers are coated with Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes (MWCNT), 9 microns (Type-A) and 25 microns (Type...

Sathyamurthi, Vijaykumar

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

124

Planar fuel cell utilizing nail current collectors for increased active surface area  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A plurality of nail current collector members are useful in the gas flow passages of an electrochemical device to optimize the active surfaces of the device and to provide structural support. In addition, the thicknesses of cathode and anode layers within the electrochemical device are varied according to current flow through the device to reduce resistance and increase operating efficiency.

George, Thomas J. (Star City, WV); Meacham, G. B. Kirby (Shaker Heights, OH)

2002-03-26T23:59:59.000Z

125

Fermi-surface reconstruction and the origin of high-temperature superconductivity.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In crystalline lattices, the conduction electrons form waves, known as Bloch states, characterized by a momentum vector k. The defining characteristic of metals is the surface in momentum space that separates occupied from unoccupied states. This 'Fermi' surface may seem like an abstract concept, but it can be measured and its shape can have profound consequences for the thermal, electronic, and magnetic properties of a material. In the presence of an external magnetic field B, electrons in a metal spiral around the field direction, and within a semiclassical momentum-space picture, orbit around the Fermi surface. Physical properties, such as the magnetization, involve a sum over these orbits, with extremal orbits on the Fermi surface, i.e., orbits with minimal or maximal area, dominating the sum [Fig. 1(a)]. Upon quantization, the resulting electron energy spectrum consists of Landau levels separated by the cyclotron energy, which is proportional to the magnetic field. As the magnetic field causes subsequent Landau levels to cross through the Fermi energy, physical quantities, such as the magnetization or resistivity, oscillate in response. It turns out that the period of these oscillations, when plotted as a function of 1/B, is proportional to the area of the extremal orbit in a plane perpendicular to the applied field [Fig. 1(b)]. The power of the quantum oscillation technique is obvious: By changing the field direction, one can map out the Fermi surface, much like a blind man feeling an elephant. The nature and topology of the Fermi surface in high-T{sub c} cuprates has been debated for many years. Soon after the materials were discovered by Bednorz and Mueller, it was realized that superconductivity was obtained by doping carriers into a parent insulating state. This insulating state appears to be due to strong electronic correlations, and is known as a Mott insulator. In the case of cuprates, the electronic interactions force the electrons on the copper ion lattice into a d{sup 9} configuration, with one localized hole in the 3d shell per copper site. Given the localized nature of this state, it was questioned whether a momentum-space picture was an appropriate description of the physics of the cuprates. In fact, this question relates to a long-standing debate in the physics community: Since the parent state is also an antiferromagnet, one can, in principle, map the Mott insulator to a band insulator with magnetic order. In this 'Slater' picture, Mott physics is less relevant than the magnetism itself. It is therefore unclear which of the two, magnetism or Mott physics, is more fundamentally tied to superconductivity in the cuprates. After twenty years of effort, definitive quantum oscillations that could be used to map the Fermi surface were finally observed in a high-temperature cuprate superconductor in 2007. This and subsequent studies reveal a profound rearrangement of the Fermi surface in underdoped cuprates. The cause of the reconstruction, and its implication for the origin of high-temperature superconductivity, is a subject of active debate.

Norman, M. R.; Materials Science Division

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

126

Surface Analysis by Highly Charged Ion Based Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Surface Analysis by Highly Charged Ion Based Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry T. Schenkel,1 A high vacuum (10^8 torr). In posi- tive polarity, HCI can be decelerated to an impact energy of $1 ke in the interaction of slow (u highly charged ions (e.g., Au69+ ) with solid surfaces increases secondary

127

Forming high efficiency silicon solar cells using density-graded anti-reflection surfaces  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method (50) is provided for processing a graded-density AR silicon surface (14) to provide effective surface passivation. The method (50) includes positioning a substrate or wafer (12) with a silicon surface (14) in a reaction or processing chamber (42). The silicon surface (14) has been processed (52) to be an AR surface with a density gradient or region of black silicon. The method (50) continues with heating (54) the chamber (42) to a high temperature for both doping and surface passivation. The method (50) includes forming (58), with a dopant-containing precursor in contact with the silicon surface (14) of the substrate (12), an emitter junction (16) proximate to the silicon surface (14) by doping the substrate (12). The method (50) further includes, while the chamber is maintained at the high or raised temperature, forming (62) a passivation layer (19) on the graded-density silicon anti-reflection surface (14).

Yuan, Hao-Chih; Branz, Howard M.; Page, Matthew R.

2014-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

128

Surface--micromachined rotatable member having a low-contact-area hub  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A surface-micromachined rotatable member formed on a substrate and a method for manufacturing thereof are disclosed. The surface-micromachined rotatable member, which can be a gear or a rotary stage, has a central hub, and an annulus connected to the central hub by an overarching bridge. The hub includes a stationary axle support attached to the substrate and surrounding an axle. The axle is retained within the axle support with an air-gap spacing therebetween of generally 0.3 .mu.m or less. The rotatable member can be formed by alternately depositing and patterning layers of a semiconductor (e.g. polysilicon or a silicon-germanium alloy) and a sacrificial material and then removing the sacrificial material, at least in part. The present invention has applications for forming micromechanical or microelectromechanical devices requiring lower actuation forces, and providing improved reliability.

Rodgers, M. Steven (Albuquerque, NM); Sniegowski, Jeffry J. (Edgewood, NM)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

129

Surface-micromachined rotatable member having a low-contact-area hub  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A surface-micromachined rotatable member formed on a substrate and a method for manufacturing thereof are disclosed. The surface-micromachined rotatable member, which can be a gear or a rotary stage, has a central hub, and an annulus connected to the central hub by an overarching bridge. The hub includes a stationary axle support attached to the substrate and surrounding an axle. The axle is retained within the axle support with an air-gap spacing therebetween of generally 0.3 .mu.m or less. The rotatable member can be formed by alternately depositing and patterning layers of a semiconductor (e.g. polysilicon or a silicon-germanium alloy) and a sacrificial material and then removing the sacrificial material, at least in part. The present invention has applications for forming micromechanical or microelectromechanical devices requiring lower actuation forces, and providing improved reliability.

Rodgers, M. Steven; Sniegowski, Jeffry J.; Krygowski, Thomas W.

2003-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

130

The Evolution Towards Grids: Ten Years of High-Speed, Wide Area, Data Intensive Computing  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

systems (e.g., multi-component turbomachine simulation); · Management of very large parameter space / Boeing Remote Help Desk that will provide aircraft field maintenance personnel use of coupled video1 The Evolution Towards Grids: Ten Years of High-Speed, Wide Area, Data Intensive Computing William

131

Hydrogeological model of a high energy geothermal field (Bouillante area, Guadeloupe, French West Indies)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Hydrogeological model of a high energy geothermal field (Bouillante area, Guadeloupe, French West, France 3. BRGM, Department of Geothermal Energy 3, Av. Claude Guillemin - 45060 Orléans Cedex 2, France Abstract The Bouillante geothermal field presently provides about 8% of the annual electricity needs

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

132

An Area Efficien Low Power High Speed S-Box Implementation Using Power-Gated PLA  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

An Area Efficien Low Power High Speed S-Box Implementation Using Power-Gated PLA Ho Joon Lee- sign of Rijndael S-Box for the SubByte transformation using power-gating and PLA design techniques arrays,VLSI General Terms Cryptography, Power Gate, Low Power Keywords AES, PLA, Power Gate, S-Box 1

Ayers, Joseph

133

Benefits of Green Energy and Proportionality in High Speed Wide Area Networks Connecting Data Centers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Benefits of Green Energy and Proportionality in High Speed Wide Area Networks Connecting Data Network ModelBackbone Network Model Green EnergyGreen Energy SPR vs. GEARSPR vs. GEAR All vs. Necessary (MuSyC), National Science Foundation (NSF) Project GreenLight, Energy Sciences Network (ESnet), NSF

Simunic, Tajana

134

Areas of Weakly Anomalous to Anomalous Surface Temperature in Alamosa and Saguache Counties, Colorado, as Identified from ASTER Thermal Data  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Citation Information: Originator: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Publication Date: 2012 Title: Very Warm Modeled Temperature Alamosa Saguache Edition: First Note: This “Weakly Anomalous to Anomalous Surface Temperature” dataset differs from the “Anomalous Surface Temperature” dataset for this county (another remotely sensed CIRES product) by showing areas of modeled temperatures between 1? and 2? above the mean, as opposed to the greater than 2? temperatures contained in the “Anomalous Surface Temperature” dataset. Publication Information: Publication Place: Earth Science & Observation Center, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Science (CIRES), University of Colorado, Boulder Publisher: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Description: This layer contains areas of anomalous surface temperature in Alamosa and Saguache Counties identified from ASTER thermal data and spatial based insolation model. The temperature is calculated using the Emissivity Normalization Algorithm that separate temperature from emissivity. The incoming solar radiation was calculated using spatial based insolation model developed by Fu and Rich (1999). Then the temperature due to solar radiation was calculated using emissivity derived from ASTER data. The residual temperature, i.e. temperature due to solar radiation subtracted from ASTER temperature was used to identify thermally anomalous areas. Areas that had temperature greater than 2? were considered ASTER modeled very warm surface exposures (thermal anomalies) Spatial Domain: Extent: Top: 4217727.601630 m Left: 394390.400264 m Right: 460179.841813 m Bottom: 4156258.036086 m Contact Information: Contact Organization: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Contact Person: Khalid Hussein Address: CIRES, Ekeley Building Earth Science & Observation Center (ESOC) 216 UCB City: Boulder State: CO Postal Code: 80309-0216 Country: USA Contact Telephone: 303-492-6782 Spatial Reference Information: Coordinate System: Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) WGS’1984 Zone 13N False Easting: 500000.00000000 False Northing: 0.00000000 Central Meridian: -105.00000000 Scale Factor: 0.99960000 Latitude of Origin: 0.00000000 Linear Unit: Meter Datum: World Geodetic System ’1984 (WGS ’1984) Prime Meridian: Greenwich Angular Unit: Degree Digital Form: Format Name: Shape file

Hussein, Khalid

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

Areas of Weakly Anomalous to Anomalous Surface Temperature in Archuleta County, Colorado, as Identified from ASTER Thermal Data  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Citation Information: Originator: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Publication Date: 2012 Title: Warm Modeled Temperature Archuleta Note: This “Weakly Anomalous to Anomalous Surface Temperature” dataset differs from the “Anomalous Surface Temperature” dataset for this county (another remotely sensed CIRES product) by showing areas of modeled temperatures between 1? and 2? above the mean, as opposed to the greater than 2? temperatures contained in the “Anomalous Surface Temperature” dataset. Edition: First Publication Information: Publication Place: Earth Science & Observation Center, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Science (CIRES), University of Colorado, Boulder Publisher: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Description: This layer contains areas of anomalous surface temperature in Archuleta County identified from ASTER thermal data and spatial based insolation model. The temperature is calculated using the Emissivity Normalization Algorithm that separate temperature from emissivity. The incoming solar radiation was calculated using spatial based insolation model developed by Fu and Rich (1999). Then the temperature due to solar radiation was calculated using emissivity derived from ASTER data. The residual temperature, i.e. temperature due to solar radiation subtracted from ASTER temperature was used to identify thermally anomalous areas. Areas that had temperature between 1? and 2? were considered ASTER modeled warm surface exposures (thermal anomalies). Spatial Domain: Extent: Top: 4144825.235807 m Left: 285446.256851 m Right: 350577.338852 m Bottom: 4096962.250137 m Contact Information: Contact Organization: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Contact Person: Khalid Hussein Address: CIRES, Ekeley Building Earth Science & Observation Center (ESOC) 216 UCB City: Boulder State: CO Postal Code: 80309-0216 Country: USA Contact Telephone: 303-492-6782 Spatial Reference Information: Coordinate System: Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) WGS’1984 Zone 13N False Easting: 500000.00000000 False Northing: 0.00000000 Central Meridian: -105.00000000 Scale Factor: 0.99960000 Latitude of Origin: 0.00000000 Linear Unit: Meter Datum: World Geodetic System ’1984 (WGS ’1984) Prime Meridian: Greenwich Angular Unit: Degree Digital Form: Format Name: Shape file

Hussein, Khalid

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

136

Areas of Weakly Anomalous to Anomalous Surface Temperature in Garfield County, Colorado, as Identified from ASTER Thermal Data  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Citation Information: Originator: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Publication Date: 2012 Title: Warm Modeled Temperature Garfield Edition: First Note: This “Weakly Anomalous to Anomalous Surface Temperature” dataset differs from the “Anomalous Surface Temperature” dataset for this county (another remotely sensed CIRES product) by showing areas of modeled temperatures between 1? and 2? above the mean, as opposed to the greater than 2? temperatures contained in the “Anomalous Surface Temperature” dataset. Publication Information: Publication Place: Earth Science & Observation Center, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Science (CIRES), University of Colorado, Boulder Publisher: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Description: This layer contains areas of anomalous surface temperature in Garfield County identified from ASTER thermal data and spatial based insolation model. The temperature is calculated using the Emissivity Normalization Algorithm that separate temperature from emissivity. The incoming solar radiation was calculated using spatial based insolation model developed by Fu and Rich (1999). Then the temperature due to solar radiation was calculated using emissivity derived from ASTER data. The residual temperature, i.e. temperature due to solar radiation subtracted from ASTER temperature was used to identify thermally anomalous areas. Areas that had temperature between 1? and 2? were considered ASTER modeled warm surface exposures (thermal anomalies) Spatial Domain: Extent: Top: 4442180.552290 m Left: 268655.053363 m Right: 359915.053363 m Bottom: 4312490.552290 m Contact Information: Contact Organization: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Contact Person: Khalid Hussein Address: CIRES, Ekeley Building Earth Science & Observation Center (ESOC) 216 UCB City: Boulder State: CO Postal Code: 80309-0216 Country: USA Contact Telephone: 303-492-6782 Spatial Reference Information: Coordinate System: Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) WGS’1984 Zone 13N False Easting: 500000.00000000 False Northing: 0.00000000 Central Meridian: -105.00000000 Scale Factor: 0.99960000 Latitude of Origin: 0.00000000 Linear Unit: Meter Datum: World Geodetic System ’1984 (WGS ’1984) Prime Meridian: Greenwich Angular Unit: Degree Digital Form: Format Name: Shape file

Hussein, Khalid

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

137

Areas of Weakly Anomalous to Anomalous Surface Temperature in Dolores County, Colorado, as Identified from ASTER Thermal Data  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Citation Information: Originator: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Publication Date: 2012 Title: Very Warm Modeled Temperature Dolores Edition: First Note: This “Weakly Anomalous to Anomalous Surface Temperature” dataset differs from the “Anomalous Surface Temperature” dataset for this county (another remotely sensed CIRES product) by showing areas of modeled temperatures between 1? and 2? above the mean, as opposed to the greater than 2? temperatures contained in the “Anomalous Surface Temperature” dataset. Publication Information: Publication Place: Earth Science & Observation Center, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Science (CIRES), University of Colorado, Boulder Publisher: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Description: This layer contains areas of anomalous surface temperature in Dolores County identified from ASTER thermal data and spatial based insolation model. The temperature is calculated using the Emissivity Normalization Algorithm that separate temperature from emissivity. The incoming solar radiation was calculated using spatial based insolation model developed by Fu and Rich (1999). Then the temperature due to solar radiation was calculated using emissivity derived from ASTER data. The residual temperature, i.e. temperature due to solar radiation subtracted from ASTER temperature was used to identify thermally anomalous areas. Areas that had temperature greater than 2? were considered ASTER modeled very warm surface exposures (thermal anomalies) Spatial Domain: Extent: Top: 4186234.213315 m Left: 212558.673056 m Right: 232922.811862 m Bottom: 4176781.467043 m Contact Information: Contact Organization: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Contact Person: Khalid Hussein Address: CIRES, Ekeley Building Earth Science & Observation Center (ESOC) 216 UCB City: Boulder State: CO Postal Code: 80309-0216 Country: USA Contact Telephone: 303-492-6782 Spatial Reference Information: Coordinate System: Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) WGS’1984 Zone 13N False Easting: 500000.00000000 False Northing: 0.00000000 Central Meridian: -105.00000000 Scale Factor: 0.99960000 Latitude of Origin: 0.00000000 Linear Unit: Meter Datum: World Geodetic System ’1984 (WGS ’1984) Prime Meridian: Greenwich Angular Unit: Degree Digital Form: Format Name: Shape file

Hussein, Khalid

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

Areas of Weakly Anomalous to Anomalous Surface Temperature in Chaffee County, Colorado, as Identified from ASTER Thermal Data  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Citation Information: Originator: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Publication Date: 2012 Title: Very Warm Modeled Temperature Chaffee Edition: First Note: This “Weakly Anomalous to Anomalous Surface Temperature” dataset differs from the “Anomalous Surface Temperature” dataset for this county (another remotely sensed CIRES product) by showing areas of modeled temperatures between 1? and 2? above the mean, as opposed to the greater than 2? temperatures contained in the “Anomalous Surface Temperature” dataset. Publication Information: Publication Place: Earth Science & Observation Center, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Science (CIRES), University of Colorado, Boulder Publisher: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Description: This layer contains areas of anomalous surface temperature in Chaffee County identified from ASTER thermal data and spatial based insolation model. The temperature is calculated using the Emissivity Normalization Algorithm that separate temperature from emissivity. The incoming solar radiation was calculated using spatial based insolation model developed by Fu and Rich (1999). Then the temperature due to solar radiation was calculated using emissivity derived from ASTER data. The residual temperature, i.e. temperature due to solar radiation subtracted from ASTER temperature was used to identify thermally anomalous areas. Areas that had temperature greater than 2? were considered ASTER modeled very warm surface exposures (thermal anomalies) Spatial Domain: Extent: Top: 4333432.368072 m Left: 366907.700763 m Right: 452457.816015 m Bottom: 4208271.566715 m Contact Information: Contact Organization: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Contact Person: Khalid Hussein Address: CIRES, Ekeley Building Earth Science & Observation Center (ESOC) 216 UCB City: Boulder State: CO Postal Code: 80309-0216 Country: USA Contact Telephone: 303-492-6782 Spatial Reference Information: Coordinate System: Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) WGS’1984 Zone 13N False Easting: 500000.00000000 False Northing: 0.00000000 Central Meridian: -105.00000000 Scale Factor: 0.99960000 Latitude of Origin: 0.00000000 Linear Unit: Meter Datum: World Geodetic System ’1984 (WGS ’1984) Prime Meridian: Greenwich Angular Unit: Degree Digital Form: Format Name: Shape file

Hussein, Khalid

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

Areas of Weakly Anomalous to Anomalous Surface Temperature in Routt County, Colorado, as Identified from ASTER Thermal Data  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Citation Information: Originator: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Publication Date: 2012 Title: Warm Modeled Temperature Routt Edition: First Note: This “Weakly Anomalous to Anomalous Surface Temperature” dataset differs from the “Anomalous Surface Temperature” dataset for this county (another remotely sensed CIRES product) by showing areas of modeled temperatures between 1? and 2? above the mean, as opposed to the greater than 2? temperatures contained in the “Anomalous Surface Temperature” dataset. Publication Information: Publication Place: Earth Science & Observation Center, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Science (CIRES), University of Colorado, Boulder Publisher: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Description: This layer contains areas of anomalous surface temperature in Routt County identified from ASTER thermal data and spatial based insolation model. The temperature is calculated using the Emissivity Normalization Algorithm that separate temperature from emissivity. The incoming solar radiation was calculated using spatial based insolation model developed by Fu and Rich (1999). Then the temperature due to solar radiation was calculated using emissivity derived from ASTER data. The residual temperature, i.e. temperature due to solar radiation subtracted from ASTER temperature was used to identify thermally anomalous areas. Areas that had temperature between 1? and 2? were considered ASTER modeled warm surface exposures (thermal anomalies) Spatial Domain: Extent: Top: 4501071.574000 m Left: 311351.975000 m Right: 359411.975000 m Bottom: 4447521.574000 m Contact Information: Contact Organization: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Contact Person: Khalid Hussein Address: CIRES, Ekeley Building Earth Science & Observation Center (ESOC) 216 UCB City: Boulder State: CO Postal Code: 80309-0216 Country: USA Contact Telephone: 303-492-6782 Spatial Reference Information: Coordinate System: Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) WGS’1984 Zone 13N False Easting: 500000.00000000 False Northing: 0.00000000 Central Meridian: -105.00000000 Scale Factor: 0.99960000 Latitude of Origin: 0.00000000 Linear Unit: Meter Datum: World Geodetic System ’1984 (WGS ’1984) Prime Meridian: Greenwich Angular Unit: Degree Digital Form: Format Name: Shape file

Hussein, Khalid

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

Nanoparticle manipulation in the near-substrate areas of low-temperature, high-density rf plasmas  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Manipulation of a single nanoparticle in the near-substrate areas of high-density plasmas of low-temperature glow discharges is studied. It is shown that the nanoparticles can be efficiently manipulated by the thermophoretic force controlled by external heating of the substrate stage. Particle deposition onto or repulsion from nanostructured carbon surfaces critically depends on the values of the neutral gas temperature gradient in the near-substrate areas, which is directly measured in situ in different heating regimes by originally developed temperature gradient probe. The measured values of the near-surface temperature gradient are used in the numerical model of nanoparticle dynamics in a variable-length presheath. Specific conditions enabling the nanoparticle to overcome the repulsive potential and deposit on the substrate during the discharge operation are investigated. The results are relevant to fabrication of various nanostructured films employing structural incorporation of the plasma-grown nanoparticles, in particular, to nanoparticle deposition in the plasma-enhanced chemical-vapor deposition of carbon nanostructures in hydrocarbon-based plasmas.

Rutkevych, P.P.; Ostrikov, K.; Xu, S. [Plasma Sources and Applications Center, National Institute of Education (NIE), Nanyang Technological University, 1 Nanyang Walk, Singapore 637616 (Singapore); School of Physics, The University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales 2006 (Australia); Plasma Sources and Applications Center, National Institute of Education (NIE), Nanyang Technological University, 1 Nanyang Walk, Singapore 637616 (Singapore)

2005-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high surface area" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

High-frequency surface wave pumped He-Ne laser  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A new electrodeless He-Ne laser using a plasma produced by an electromagnetic surface wave as the active medium is described. Gain measurements are reported as a function of the pump wave frequency from 200 to 915 MHz. The dependence of laser performance on the gas mixture and pressure is also presented.

Moutoulas, C.; Moisan, M.; Bertrand, L.; Hubert, J.; Lachambre, J.L.; Ricard, A.

1985-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

142

Enhanced Field Emission Studies on Niobium Surfaces Relevant to High Field Superconducting Radio-Frequency Devices  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Enhanced field emission (EFE) presents the main impediment to higher acceleration gradients in superconducting niobium (Nb) radiofrequency cavities for particle accelerators. The strength, number and sources of EFE sites strongly depend on surface preparation and handling. The main objective of this thesis project is to systematically investigate the sources of EFE from Nb, to evaluate the best available surface preparation techniques with respect to resulting field emission, and to establish an optimized process to minimize or eliminate EFE. To achieve these goals, a scanning field emission microscope (SFEM) was designed and built as an extension to an existing commercial scanning electron microscope (SEM). In the SFEM chamber of ultra high vacuum, a sample is moved laterally in a raster pattern under a high voltage anode tip for EFE detection and localization. The sample is then transferred under vacuum to the SEM chamber equipped with an energy-dispersive x-ray spectrometer for individual emitting site characterization. Compared to other systems built for similar purposes, this apparatus has low cost and maintenance, high operational flexibility, considerably bigger scan area, as well as reliable performance. EFE sources from planar Nb have been studied after various surface preparation, including chemical etching and electropolishing, combined with ultrasonic or high-pressure water rinse. Emitters have been identified, analyzed and the preparation process has been examined and improved based on EFE results. As a result, field-emission-free or near field-emission-free surfaces at ~140 MV/m have been consistently achieved with the above techniques. Characterization on the remaining emitters leads to the conclusion that no evidence of intrinsic emitters, i.e., no fundamental electric field limit induced by EFE, has been observed up to ~140 MV/m. Chemically etched and electropolished Nb are compared and no significant difference is observed up to ~140 MV/m. To address concerns on the effect of natural air drying process on EFE, a comparative study was conducted on Nb and the results showed insignificant difference under the experimental conditions. Nb thin films deposited on Cu present a possible alternative to bulk Nb in superconducting cavities. The EFE performance of a preliminary energetically deposited Nb thin film sample are presented.

Tong Wang

2002-09-18T23:59:59.000Z

143

Radiative heat transfer at nanoscale mediated by surface plasmons for highly doped Emmanuel Rousseau  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Radiative heat transfer at nanoscale mediated by surface plasmons for highly doped silicon the role of surface plasmons for nanoscale radiative heat transfer between doped silicon surfaces. We derive a new accurate and closed-form expression of the radiative near- field heat transfer. We also

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

144

Fermi Surface of Uranium at Ambient Pressure Gregory S. Boebinger, National High Magnetic Field Laboratory  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Fermi Surface of ­Uranium at Ambient Pressure Gregory S. Boebinger, National High Magnetic Field Laboratory DMR-Award 0654118 DC Field Facility User Program The fermi surface of ­Uranium has been measured surface of alpha-uranium at ambient pressure, Phys. Rev. B Rapid Commun., 80, 241101 (2009). B//c-axis B

Weston, Ken

145

Literature and data review for the surface-water pathway: Columbia River and adjacent coastal areas  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

As part of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project, Pacific Northwest Laboratory reviewed literature and data on radionuclide concentrations and distribution in the water, sediment, and biota of the Columbia River and adjacent coastal areas. Over 600 documents were reviewed including Hanford reports, reports by offsite agencies, journal articles, and graduate theses. Certain radionuclide concentration data were used in preliminary estimates of individual dose for the 1964--1966 time period. This report summarizes the literature and database review and the results of the preliminary dose estimates.

Walters, W.H.; Dirkes, R.L.; Napier, B.A.

1992-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

Surface Chemistry of 2-Propanol on TiO2(110): Low and High Temperature...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Chemistry of 2-Propanol on TiO2(110): Low and High Temperature Dehydration, Isotope Effects, and Influence of Local Surface Chemistry of 2-Propanol on TiO2(110): Low and High...

147

Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 417: Central Nevada Test Area Surface, Nevada  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This Corrective Action Plan provides methods for implementing the approved corrective action alternative as provided in the Corrective Action Decision Document for the Central Nevada Test Area (CNTA), Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 417 (DOE/NV, 1999). The CNTA is located in the Hot Creek Valley in Nye County, Nevada, approximately 137 kilometers (85 miles) northeast of Tonopah, Nevada. The CNTA consists of three separate land withdrawal areas commonly referred to as UC-1, UC-3, and UC-4, all of which are accessible to the public. CAU 417 consists of 34 Corrective Action Sites (CASs). Results of the investigation activities completed in 1998 are presented in Appendix D of the Corrective Action Decision Document (DOE/NV, 1999). According to the results, the only Constituent of Concern at the CNTA is total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH). Of the 34 CASs, corrective action was proposed for 16 sites in 13 CASs. In fiscal year 1999, a Phase I Work Plan was prepared for the construction of a cover on the UC-4 Mud Pit C to gather information on cover constructibility and to perform site management activities. With Nevada Division of Environmental Protection concurrence, the Phase I field activities began in August 1999. A multi-layered cover using a Geosynthetic Clay Liner as an infiltration barrier was constructed over the UC-4 Mud Pit. Some TPH impacted material was relocated, concrete monuments were installed at nine sites, signs warning of site conditions were posted at seven sites, and subsidence markers were installed on the UC-4 Mud Pit C cover. Results from the field activities indicated that the UC-4 Mud Pit C cover design was constructable and could be used at the UC-1 Central Mud Pit (CMP). However, because of the size of the UC-1 CMP this design would be extremely costly. An alternative cover design, a vegetated cover, is proposed for the UC-1 CMP.

K. Campbell

2000-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

Surfaces  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Surfaces is a collection of four individual essays which focus on the characteristics and tactile qualities of surfaces within a variety of perceived landscapes. Each essay concentrates on a unique surface theme and purpose; ...

DeMaio, Ernest Vincent, 1964-

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

Seismic Technology Adapted to Analyzing and Developing Geothermal Systems Below Surface-Exposed High-Velocity Rocks Final Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of our research was to develop and demonstrate seismic data-acquisition and data-processing technologies that allow geothermal prospects below high-velocity rock outcrops to be evaluated. To do this, we acquired a 3-component seismic test line across an area of exposed high-velocity rocks in Brewster County, Texas, where there is high heat flow and surface conditions mimic those found at numerous geothermal prospects. Seismic contractors have not succeeded in creating good-quality seismic data in this area for companies who have acquired data for oil and gas exploitation purposes. Our test profile traversed an area where high-velocity rocks and low-velocity sediment were exposed on the surface in alternating patterns that repeated along the test line. We verified that these surface conditions cause non-ending reverberations of Love waves, Rayleigh waves, and shallow critical refractions to travel across the earth surface between the boundaries of the fast-velocity and slow-velocity material exposed on the surface. These reverberating surface waves form the high level of noise in this area that does not allow reflections from deep interfaces to be seen and utilized. Our data-acquisition method of deploying a box array of closely spaced geophones allowed us to recognize and evaluate these surface-wave noise modes regardless of the azimuth direction to the surface anomaly that backscattered the waves and caused them to return to the test-line profile. With this knowledge of the surface-wave noise, we were able to process these test-line data to create P-P and SH-SH images that were superior to those produced by a skilled seismic data-processing contractor. Compared to the P-P data acquired along the test line, the SH-SH data provided a better detection of faults and could be used to trace these faults upward to the boundaries of exposed surface rocks. We expanded our comparison of the relative value of S-wave and P-wave seismic data for geothermal applications by inserting into this report a small part of the interpretation we have done with 3C3D data across Wister geothermal field in the Imperial Valley of California. This interpretation shows that P-SV data reveal faults (and by inference, also fractures) that cannot be easily, or confidently, seen with P-P data, and that the combination of P-P and P-SV data allows VP/VS velocity ratios to be estimated across a targeted reservoir interval to show where an interval has more sandstone (the preferred reservoir facies). The conclusion reached from this investigation is that S-wave seismic technology can be invaluable to geothermal operators. Thus we developed a strong interest in understanding the direct-S modes produced by vertical-force sources, particularly vertical vibrators, because if it can be demonstrated that direct-S modes produced by vertical-force sources can be used as effectively as the direct-S modes produced by horizontal-force sources, geothermal operators can acquire direct-S data across many more prospect areas than can be done with horizontal-force sources, which presently are limited to horizontal vibrators. We include some of our preliminary work in evaluating direct-S modes produced by vertical-force sources.

Hardage, Bob A; DeAngelo, Michael V; Ermolaeva, Elena; Hardage, Bob A; Remington, Randy; Sava, Diana; Wagner, Donald; Wei, Shuijion

2013-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

150

Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 100-B-1 Surface Chemical and Solid Waste Dumping Area, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2006-003  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The 100-B-1 waste site was a dumping site that was divided into two areas. One area was used as a laydown area for construction materials, and the other area was used as a chemical dumping area. The 100-B-1 Surface Chemical and Solid Waste Dumping Area site meets the remedial action objectives specified in the Remaining Sites ROD. The results demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations support future unrestricted land uses that can be represented by a rural-residential scenario. The results also demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

R. A. Carlson

2006-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

151

Large area, high spatial resolution tracker for new generation of high luminosity experiments in Hall A at Jefferson Lab  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In 2014 the CEBAF electron accelerator at Jefferson Lab (JLab) will deliver a longitudinally polarized (up to 85%), high intensity (up to 100 ?A) beam with maximum energy of 12 GeV, twice the present value. To exploit the new opportunities that the energy upgrade will offer, a new spectrometer (Super BigBite - SBS) is under development, featuring very forward angle, large acceptance and ability to operate in high luminosity environment. The tracking system of SBS will consist of large area (40×150 cm2 and 50×200 cm2), high spatial resolution (better than 100 ?m) chambers based on the GEM technology and 2 small (10×20 cm) Silicon Strip Detector planes. The design of the GEM chambers and its sub-components such as the readout electronics is resented here.

Bellini, V; Castelluccio, D; Colilli, S; Cisbani, E; De Leo, R; Fratoni, R; Frullani, S; Garibaldi, F; Guiliani, F; Guisa, A; Gricia, M; Lucentini, M; Meddi, F; Minutoli, S; Musico, P; Noto, F; De Oliveira, R; Santavenere, F; Sutera, M C

2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

152

Areas of Anomalous Surface Temperature in Alamosa and Saguache Counties, Colorado, as Identified from ASTER Thermal Data  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Citation Information: Originator: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Publication Date: 2012 Title: Very Warm Modeled Temperature Alamosa Saguache Edition: First Publication Information: Publication Place: Earth Science & Observation Center, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Science (CIRES), University of Colorado, Boulder Publisher: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Description: This layer contains areas of anomalous surface temperature in Alamosa and Saguache Counties identified from ASTER thermal data and spatial based insolation model. The temperature is calculated using the Emissivity Normalization Algorithm that separate temperature from emissivity. The incoming solar radiation was calculated using spatial based insolation model developed by Fu and Rich (1999). Then the temperature due to solar radiation was calculated using emissivity derived from ASTER data. The residual temperature, i.e. temperature due to solar radiation subtracted from ASTER temperature was used to identify thermally anomalous areas. Areas that had temperature greater than 2? were considered ASTER modeled very warm surface exposures (thermal anomalies) Spatial Domain: Extent: Top: 4217727.601630 m Left: 394390.400264 m Right: 460179.841813 m Bottom: 4156258.036086 m Contact Information: Contact Organization: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Contact Person: Khalid Hussein Address: CIRES, Ekeley Building Earth Science & Observation Center (ESOC) 216 UCB City: Boulder State: CO Postal Code: 80309-0216 Country: USA Contact Telephone: 303-492-6782 Spatial Reference Information: Coordinate System: Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) WGS’1984 Zone 13N False Easting: 500000.00000000 False Northing: 0.00000000 Central Meridian: -105.00000000 Scale Factor: 0.99960000 Latitude of Origin: 0.00000000 Linear Unit: Meter Datum: World Geodetic System ’1984 (WGS ’1984) Prime Meridian: Greenwich Angular Unit: Degree Digital Form: Format Name: Shape file

Hussein, Khalid

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

153

INDEPENDENT VERIFICATION SURVEY OF THE HIGH FLUX BEAM REACTOR DECOMMISSIONING PROJECT OUTSIDE AREAS BROOKHAVEN NATIONAL LABORATORY UPTON, NEW YORK  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

5098-SR-03-0 FINAL REPORT- INDEPENDENT VERIFICATION SURVEY OF THE HIGH FLUX BEAM REACTOR DECOMMISSIONING PROJECT OUTSIDE AREAS, BROOKHAVEN NATIONAL LABORATORY

P.C. Weaver

2010-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

154

Finding Large Aperture Fractures in Geothermal Resource Areas Using A Three-Component Long-Offset Surface Seismic Survey, PSInSAR, and Kinematic Analysis  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Fining Large Aperture Fractures in Geothermal Resource Areas Using A Three-Component Long-Offset Surface Seismic Survey, PSInSAR, and Kinematic Analysis presentation at the April 2013 peer review meeting held in Denver, Colorado.

155

Using Thermally-Degrading, Partitioning, and Nonreactive Tracers to Determine Temperature Distribution and Fracture/Heat Transfer Surface Area in Geothermal Reservoirs  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

DOE Geothermal Peer Review 2010 - Project Summary. The goal of this project is to provide integrated tracer and tracer interpretation tools to facilitate quantitative characterization of temperature distributions and surface area available for heat transfer in EGS.

156

Remedial investigation of the High-Explosives (HE) Process Area, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Site 300  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report presents the results of a Remedial Investigation (RI) to define the extent of high explosives (HE) compounds and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) found in the soil, rocks, and ground water of the HE Process Area of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's (LLNL) Site 300 Facility. The report evaluates potential public health environmental risks associated with these compounds. Hydrogeologic information available before February 15, 1990, is included; however, chemical analyses and water-level data are reported through March 1990. This report is intended to assist the California Regional Water Quality Control Board (RWQCB)--Central Valley Region and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in evaluating the extent of environmental contamination of the LLNL HE Process Area and ultimately in designing remedial actions. 90 refs., 20 figs., 7 tabs.

Crow, N.B.; Lamarre, A.L.

1990-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

157

Design of a high speed planing hull with a cambered step and surface piercing hydrofoils  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Design of a high speed planing hull is analyzed by implementing a cambered step and stem, surface piercing hydrofoils, commonly known as a Dynaplane hull. This configuration combines the drag reduction benefits of a stepped ...

Faison, Leon Alexander

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

Coupling the High Complexity Land Surface Model ACASA to the Mesoscale Model WRF  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this study, the Weather Research and Forecasting Model (WRF) is coupled with the Advanced Canopy-Atmosphere-Soil Algorithm (ACASA), a high complexity land surface model. Although WRF is a state-of-the-art regional ...

Xu, L.

159

ULTRA-HIGH SURFACE AREA SINGLE AND MULTI-WALLED CARBON NANOTUBE 3-DIMENSIONAL HYBRID STRUCTURE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for many potential applications, including improved charge density on super-capacitors. #12;This material

Mellor-Crummey, John

160

Carbon-Based Materials, High-Surface-Area Sorbents, and New Materials...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

technologies includes a range of carbon-based materials such as carbon nanotubes, aerogels, nanofibers (including metal-doped hybrids), as well as metal-organic frameworks,...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high surface area" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Carbon-Based Materials, High-Surface-Area Sorbents, and New Materials and  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-Up fromDepartmentTie Ltd:June 20154:04-21-2014 (866) 448 -Illinois Basin |

162

Electrochemical Synthesis of Pd Nanorods and Nanowires on High Surface Area  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation ProposedUsing Zirconia Nanoparticles as Selective Sorbents . | EMSL forInnovationAgents.C

163

Graphene as a high impedance surface for ultra-wideband electromagnetic waves  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The metals are regularly used as reflectors of electromagnetic fields emitted by antennas ranging from microwaves up to THz. To enhance the reflection and thus the gain of the antenna, metallic high impedance surfaces (HIS) are used. HIS is a planar array of continuous metallic periodic cell surfaces able to suppress surface waves, which cause multipath interference and backward radiation in a narrow bandwidth near the cell resonance. Also, the image currents are reduced, and therefore the antenna can be placed near the HIS. We demonstrate that graphene is acting as a HIS surface in a very large bandwidth, from microwave to THz, suppressing the radiation leakages better than a metal.

Aldrigo, Martino; Costanzo, Alessandra [Department of Electrical, Electronic, and Information Engineering “Guglielmo Marconi” – DEI, University of Bologna, Viale del Risorgimento, 2, 40132 Bologna (Italy); Dragoman, Mircea [National Institute for Research and Development in Microtechnology (IMT), P.O. Box 38-160, 023573 Bucharest (Romania); Dragoman, Daniela [Department of Physics, University of Bucharest, P.O. Box MG-11, 077125 Bucharest (Romania)

2013-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

164

Advanced Manufacture of Second-Surface, Silvered Glass Reflectors for High-Performance, Low-Cost CSP Collector Systems  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Advanced Manufacture of Second-Surface, Silvered Glass Reflectors for High-Performance, Low-Cost CSP Collector Systems

165

Surface blistering and flaking of sintered uranium dioxide samples under high dose gas implantation and annealing  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Surface blistering and flaking of sintered uranium dioxide samples under high dose gas implantation-sur-Yvette, France. a guillaume.martin@cea.fr Keywords: uranium dioxide, helium, hydrogen, implantation, blistering, flaking Abstract. High helium contents will be generated within minor actinide doped uranium dioxide

Boyer, Edmond

166

In situ doping control of the surface of high-temperature superconductors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

LETTERS In situ doping control of the surface of high-temperature superconductors M. A. HOSSAIN1.1038/nphys998 Central to the understanding of high-temperature superconductivity is the evolution of the electronic structure as doping alters the density of charge carriers in the CuO2 planes. Superconductivity

Michelson, David G.

167

Measurement of the specific surface area of snow using infrared reflectance in an integrating sphere at 1310 and 1550 nm  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Reflection of solar radiation by the Antarctic snow surface at ultraviolet, visible, and near-infrared

Gallet, J.-C.; Domine, F.; Zender, C. S; Picard, G.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

THE HIGH BACKGROUND RADIATION AREA IN RAMSAR IRAN: GEOLOGY, NORM, BIOLOGY, LNT, AND POSSIBLE REGULATORY FUN  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The city of Ramsar Iran hosts some of the highest natural radiation levels on earth, and over 2000 people are exposed to radiation doses ranging from 1 to 26 rem per year. Curiously, inhabitants of this region seem to have no greater incidence of cancer than those in neighboring areas of normal background radiation levels, and preliminary studies suggest their blood cells experience fewer induced chromosomal abnormalities when exposed to 150 rem ''challenge'' doses of radiation than do the blood cells of their neighbors. This paper will briefly describe the unique geology that gives Ramsar its extraordinarily high background radiation levels. It will then summarize the studies performed to date and will conclude by suggesting ways to incorporate these findings (if they are borne out by further testing) into future radiation protection standards.

Karam, P. A.

2002-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

169

Lubricant-infused micro/nano-structured surfaces with tunable dynamic omniphobicity at high temperatures  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Omniphobic surfaces that can repel fluids at temperatures higher than 100 #2;°C are rare. Most stateof- the-art liquid-repellent materials are based on the lotus effect, where a thin air layer is maintained throughout micro/nanotextures leading to high mobility of liquids. However, such behavior eventually fails at elevated temperatures when the surface tension of test liquids decreases significantly. Here, we demonstrate a class of lubricant-infused structured surfaces that can maintain a robust omniphobic state even for low-surface-tension liquids at temperatures up to at least 200 °#2;C. We also demonstrate how liquid mobility on such surfaces can be tuned by a factor of 1000.

Daniel, Daniel; Max, Mankin N.; Belisle, Rebecca A.; Wong, Tak-Sing; Aizenberg, Joanna

2013-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

170

Monitoring peak power and cooling energy savings of shade trees and white surfaces in the Sacramento Municipal Utility District (SMUD) service area: Project design and preliminary results  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Urban areas in warm climates create summer heat islands of daily average intensity of 3--5{degrees}C, adding to discomfort and increasing air-conditioning loads. Two important factors contributing to urban heat islands are reductions in albedo (lower overall city reflectance) and loss of vegetation (less evapotranspiration). Reducing summer heat islands by planting vegetation (shade trees) and increasing surface albedos, saves cooling energy, allows down-sizing of air conditioners, lowers air-conditioning peak demand, and reduces the emission of CO{sub 2} and other pollutants from electric power plants. The focus of this multi-year project, jointly sponsored by SMUD and the California Institute for Energy Efficiency (CIEE), was to measure the direct cooling effects of trees and white surfaces (mainly roofs) in a few buildings in Sacramento. The first-year project was to design the experiment and obtain base case data. We also obtained limited post retrofit data for some sites. This report provides an overview of the project activities during the first year at six sites. The measurement period for some of the sites was limited to September and October, which are transitional cooling months in Sacramento and hence the interpretation of results only apply to this period. In one house, recoating the dark roof with a high-albedo coating rendered air conditioning unnecessary for the month of September (possible savings of up to 10 kWh per day and 2 kW of non-coincidental peak power). Savings of 50% relative to an identical base case bungalow were achieved when a school bungalow`s roof and southeast wall were coated with a high-albedo coating during the same period. Our measured data for the vegetation sites do not indicate conclusive results because shade trees were small and the cooling period was almost over. We need to collect more data over a longer cooling season in order to demonstrate savings conclusively.

Akbari, H.; Bretz, S.; Hanford, J.; Rosenfeld, A.; Sailor, D.; Taha, H. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Bos, W. [Sacramento Municipal Utility District, CA (United States)

1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

Placental malaria among HIV-infected and uninfected women receiving anti-folates in a high transmission area of Uganda  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in a high transmission area of Uganda Patrick M Newman 1 ,PO Box 7475, Kampala, Uganda, 3 Department of MolecularPO Box 7062, Kampala, Uganda, 4 Department of Pediatrics,

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

172

Formation of surface nano-structures by plasma expansion induced by highly charged ions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Slow highly charged ions (HCIs) create surface nano-structures (nano-hillocks) on the quartz surface. The formation of hillocks was only possible by surpassing a potential energy threshold. By using the plasma expansion approach with suitable hydrodynamic equations, the creation mechanism of the nano-hillocks induced by HCIs is explained. Numerical analysis reveal that within the nanoscale created plasma region, the increase of the temperature causes an increase of the self-similar solution validity domain, and consequently the surface nano-hillocks become taller. Furthermore, the presence of the negative (positive) nano-dust particles would lead to increase (decrease) the nano-hillocks height.

Moslem, W. M. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Port Said University, Port Said (Egypt); Centre for Theoretical Physics, The British University in Egypt (BUE), El-Shorouk City, Cairo (Egypt) and International Centre for Advanced Studies in Physical Sciences, Faculty of Physics and Astronomy, Ruhr University Bochum, D-44780 Bochum (Germany); El-Said, A. S. [Physics Department, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia); Nuclear and Radiation Physics Laboratory, Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Mansoura University, 35516 Mansoura (Egypt) and Institute of Ion Beam Physics and Materials Research, Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR), Bautzner Landstr. 128, 01328 Dresden (Germany)

2012-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

173

Combining Laser Ablation/Liquid Phase Collection Surface Sampling and High-Performance Liquid Chromatography Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper describes the coupling of ambient pressure transmission geometry laser ablation with a liquid phase sample collection method for surface sampling and ionization with subsequent mass spectral analysis. A commercially available autosampler was adapted to produce a liquid droplet at the end of the syringe injection needle while in close proximity to the surface to collect the sample plume produced by laser ablation. The sample collection was followed by either flow injection or a high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) separation of the extracted components and detection with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). To illustrate the analytical utility of this coupling, thin films of a commercial ink sample containing rhodamine 6G and of mixed isobaric rhodamine B and 6G dyes on glass microscope slides were analyzed. The flow injection and HPLC/ESI-MS analysis revealed successful laser ablation, capture and, with HPLC, the separation of the two compounds. The ablated circular area was about 70 m in diameter for these experiments. The spatial sampling resolution afforded by the laser ablation, as well as the ability to use sample processing methods like HPLC between the sample collection and ionization steps, makes this combined surface sampling/ionization technique a highly versatile analytical tool.

Ovchinnikova, Olga S [ORNL; Kertesz, Vilmos [ORNL; Van Berkel, Gary J [ORNL

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

174

Advanced Production Surface Preparation Technology Development for Ultra-High Pressure Diesel Injection  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In 2007, An Ultra High Injection Pressure (UHIP) fueling method has been demonstrated by Caterpillar Fuel Systems - Product Development, demonstrating ability to deliver U.S. Environment Protection Agency (EPA) Tier 4 Final diesel engine emission performance with greatly reduced emissions handling components on the engine, such as without NOx reduction after-treatment and with only a through-flow 50% effective diesel particulate trap (DPT). They have shown this capability using multiple multi-cylinder engine tests of an Ultra High Pressure Common Rail (UHPCR) fuel system with higher than traditional levels of CEGR and an advanced injector nozzle design. The system delivered better atomization of the fuel, for more complete burn, to greatly reduce diesel particulates, while CEGR or high efficiency NOx reduction after-treatment handles the NOx. With the reduced back pressure of a traditional DPT, and with the more complete fuel burn, the system reduced levels of fuel consumption by 2.4% for similar delivery of torque and horsepower over the best Tier 4 Interim levels of fuel consumption in the diesel power industry. The challenge is to manufacture the components in high-volume production that can withstand the required higher pressure injection. Production processes must be developed to increase the toughness of the injector steel to withstand the UHIP pulsations and generate near perfect form and finish in the sub-millimeter size geometries within the injector. This project resulted in two developments in 2011. The first development was a process and a machine specification by which a high target of compressive residual stress (CRS) can be consistently imparted to key surfaces of the fuel system to increase the toughness of the steel, and a demonstration of the feasibility of further refinement of the process for use in volume production. The second development was the demonstration of the feasibility of a process for imparting near perfect, durable geometry to these same feature surfaces to withstand the pulsating UHIP diesel injection without fatigue failure, through the expected life of the fuel system's components (10,000 hours for the pump and common rail, 5000 hours for the injector). The potential to Caterpillar of this fueling approach and the overall emissions reduction system is the cost savings of the fuel, the cost savings of not requiring a full emissions module and other emissions hardware, and the enabling of the use of biodiesel fuel due to the reduced dependency on after-treatment. A proprietary production CRS generating process was developed to treat the interior of the sac-type injector nozzle tip region (particularly for the sac region). Ninety-five tips passed ultra high pulsed pressure fatigue testing with no failures assignable to treated surfaces or materials. It was determined that the CRS impartation method does not weaken the tip internal seat area. Caterpillar Fuel Systems - Product Development accepts that the CRS method initial production technical readiness level has been established. A method to gage CRS levels in production was not yet accomplished, but it is believed that monitoring process parameters call be used to guarantee quality. A precision profiling process for injector seat and sac regions has been shown to be promising but not yet fully confirmed. It was demonstrated that this precision profiling process can achieve form and geometry to well under an aggressively small micron peak-to-valley and that there are no surface flaws that approach an even tighter micron peak-to-valley tolerance. It is planned to purchase machines to further develop and move the process towards production. The system is targeted towards the high-power diesel electric power generators and high-power diesel marine power generators, with displacement from 20 liters to 80 liters and with power from 800 brake horsepower (BHP) to 3200BHP (0.6 megawatts to 2.4 megawatts). However, with market adoption, this system has the potential to meet EPA exhaust standards for all diesel engines nine liters and up, or 300B

Grant, Marion B.

2012-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

175

Surface preparation for high purity alumina ceramics enabling direct brazing in hydrogen atmospheres  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention relates to a method for preparing the surface of a high purity alumina ceramic or sapphire specimen that enables direct brazing in a hydrogen atmosphere using an active braze alloy. The present invention also relates to a method for directly brazing a high purity alumina ceramic or sapphire specimen to a ceramic or metal member using this method of surface preparation, and to articles produced by this brazing method. The presence of silicon, in the form of a SiO.sub.2 -containing surface layer, can more than double the tensile bond strength in alumina ceramic joints brazed in a hydrogen atmosphere using an active Au-16Ni-0.75 Mo-1.75V filler metal. A thin silicon coating applied by PVD processing can, after air firing, produce a semi-continuous coverage of the alumina surface with a SiO.sub.2 film. Room temperature tensile strength was found to be proportional to the fraction of air fired surface covered by silicon-containing films. Similarly, the ratio of substrate fracture versus interface separation was also related to the amount of surface silicon present prior to brazing. This process can replace the need to perform a "moly-manganese" metallization step.

Cadden, Charles H. (Danville, CA); Yang, Nancy Yuan Chi (Lafayette, CA); Hosking, Floyd M. (Albuquerque, NM)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

176

A highly stable zirconium-based metal-organic framework material with high surface area and gas storage capacities  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, MOFs have attracted much interest for on-board hydrogen or methane storage in vehicles. Both methane and hydrogen are promising candidates as replacements for gasoline (petrol). However, their compact storage in molecular form, especially...

Gutov, Oleksii V.; Bury, Wojciech; Gomez-Gualdron, Diego A.; Krungleviciute, Vaiva; Fairen-Jimenez, David; Sarjeant, Amy A.; Snurr, Randall Q.; Hupp, Joseph T.; Yildirim, Taner; Farha, Omar K.

2014-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

177

Novel Large Area High Resolution Neutron Detector for the Spallation Neutron Source  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Neutron scattering is a powerful technique that is critically important for materials science and structural biology applications. The knowledge gained from past developments has resulted in far-reaching advances in engineering, pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries, to name a few. New facilities for neutron generation at much higher flux, such as the SNS at Oak Ridge, TN, will greatly enhance the capabilities of neutron scattering, with benefits that extend to many fields and include, for example, development of improved drug therapies and materials that are stronger, longer-lasting, and more impact-resistant. In order to fully realize this enhanced potential, however, higher neutron rates must be met with improved detection capabilities, particularly higher count rate capability in large size detectors, while maintaining practicality. We have developed a neutron detector with the technical and economic advantages to accomplish this goal. This new detector has a large sensitive area, offers 3D spatial resolution, high sensitivity and high count rate capability, and it is economical and practical to produce. The proposed detector technology is based on B-10 thin film conversion of neutrons in long straw-like gas detectors. A stack of many such detectors, each 1 meter in length, and 4 mm in diameter, has a stopping power that exceeds that of He-3 gas, contained at practical pressures within an area detector. With simple electronic readout methods, straw detector arrays can provide spatial resolution of 4 mm FWHM or better, and since an array detector of such form consists of several thousand individual elements per square meter, count rates in a 1 m^2 detector can reach 2?10^7 cps. Moreover, each individual event can be timetagged with a time resolution of less than 0.1 ?sec, allowing accurate identification of neutron energy by time of flight. Considering basic elemental cost, this novel neutron imaging detector can be commercially produced economically, probably at a small fraction of the cost of He-3 detectors. In addition to neutron scattering science, the fully developed base technology can be used as a rugged, low-cost neutron detector in area monitoring and surveying. Radiation monitors are used in a number of other settings for occupational and environmental radiation safety. Such a detector can also be used in environmental monitoring and remote nuclear power plant monitoring. For example, the Department of Energy could use it to characterize nuclear waste dumps, coordinate clean-up efforts, and assess the radioactive contaminants in the air and water. Radiation monitors can be used to monitor the age and component breakdown of nuclear warheads and to distinguish between weapons and reactor grade plutonium. The UN's International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) uses radiation monitors for treaty verification, remote monitoring, and enforcing the non-proliferation of nuclear weapons. As part of treaty verification, monitors can be used to certify the contents of containers during inspections. They could be used for portal monitoring to secure border checkpoints, sea ports, air cargo centers, public parks, sporting venues, and key government buildings. Currently, only 2% of all sea cargo shipped is inspected for radiation sources. In addition, merely the presence of radiation is detected and nothing is known about the radioactive source until further testing. The utilization of radiation monitors with neutron sensitivity and capability of operation in hostile port environments would increase the capacity and effectiveness of the radioactive scanning processes.

Lacy, Jeffrey L

2009-05-22T23:59:59.000Z

178

Oxidation of carbon fiber surfaces for use as reinforcement in high-temperature cementitious material systems  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The interfacial bond characteristics between carbon fiber and a cement matrix, in high temperature fiber-reinforced cementitious composite systems, can be improved by the oxidative treatment of the fiber surfaces. Compositions and the process for producing the compositions are disclosed. 2 figs.

Sugama, Toshifumi.

1990-05-22T23:59:59.000Z

179

Detection of Heavy Metal Ions in Water by High-Resolution Surface Plasmon Resonance  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Detection of Heavy Metal Ions in Water by High-Resolution Surface Plasmon Resonance Spectroscopy voltammetry (ASV) capability has been demonstrated for detecting heavy metal ions in water. Metal ions in water from part-per-million to sub-part-per-billion levels with good linearity. Heavy metal poisoning

Zhang, Yanchao

180

High variability of Greenland surface temperature over the past 4000 years estimated from trapped air  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

High variability of Greenland surface temperature over the past 4000 years estimated from trapped 10 October 2011; accepted 11 October 2011; published 10 November 2011. [1] Greenland recently is impacting the Greenland ice sheet and in turn accelerating global sealevel rise. Yet, it remains imprecisely

Severinghaus, Jeffrey P.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high surface area" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Solar Cells, 3 (1981) 337 -340 337 HIGH EFFICIENCY BIFACIAL BACK SURFACE FIELD SOLAR CELLS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. CUEVAS, A. LUQUE, J. EGUREN and J. DEL ALAMO Instituto de Energia Solar, Escuela Tdcnica Superior deSolar Cells, 3 (1981) 337 - 340 337 HIGH EFFICIENCY BIFACIAL BACK SURFACE FIELD SOLAR CELLS A solar cells are presented. Effi- ciencies of 15.7% and 13.6% were measured under front and back air mass

del Alamo, Jesús A.

182

Oxidation of carbon fiber surfaces for use as reinforcement in high-temperature cementitious material systems  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The interfacial bond characteristics between carbon fiber and a cement matrix, in high temperature fiber-reinforced cementitious composite systems, can be improved by the oxidative treatment of the fiber surfaces. Compositions and the process for producing the compositions are disclosed.

Sugama, Toshifumi (Mastic Beach, NY)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

183

VERTICALAND HORIZONTAL PARALLEL MOUNTING OF MICRO COMPONENTS ON A SUBSTRATE WITH HIGH SURFACE COVERAGE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

parts with dimensions of 790µm�790µm�330µm are used for proof-of-concept demonstrations. Each part has of components, even with same dimensions; (6) high surface coverage on a substrate achieved by multi plate Flat plate Water droplets Spacer 1 Spacer 2 Part (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) Flipping over Adhesive

184

Under Contract No. DE-AC36-83CH10093 LARGE-AREA, HIGH-INTENSITY PV ARRAYS FOR SYSTEMS USING DISH CONCENTRATING OPTICS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ABSTRACT: In this paper, we report on our efforts to fabricate monolithic interconnected modules (MIMs) using III-V semiconductors with bandgaps appropriate for the terrestrial solar spectrum. The small size of the component cells comprising the MIM allows for operation at extremely high flux densities and relaxes the requirement for a small spot-size to be generated by the optics. This makes possible a PV option for the large dish concentrator systems that have been developed by the solar thermal community for use with Stirling engines. Additionally, the highly effective back-surface reflector integrated into the MIM design is an effective tool for thermal management of the array. Development of this technology would radically alter the projections for PV manufacturing capacity because of the potential for extremely high power generation per unit area of semiconductor material.

J. S. Ward; A. Duda; K. Zweibel; T. J. Coutts; J. S. Ward; A. Duda; K. Zweibel; T. J. Coutts

185

High Temperature Oxidation Resistance and Surface Electrical Conductivity of Stainless Steels with Filtered Arc Cr-Al-N Multilayer and/or Superlattice Coatings  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The requirements for low cost and high-tempurater corrosion resistance for bipolar interconnect plates in solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) stacks has directed attention to the use of metal plates with oxidation resistant coatings. Candidate coatings must exhibit chemical and thermal-mechanical stability and high electrical conductivity during long-term (>400,000 hrs) exposure to SOFC operatong conditions. The high temperature oxidation resistance and surface electrical donductivity of 304, 440A,a dn Crofer-22 APU steel coupons, with and without multilayer and/or superlattice coatings from a Cr-Al-N system were investigated as a function of exposure in an oxidization atmosphere at high temperatures. The coatins were deposited using large area filtered arc depsition (LAFAD) technology [1], and subsequently annealed in air at 800 degrees C for varying times. Area specific resistance and activation energy for electrical conductivity of oxidized coupons were measured using a 4-point technique with Pt paste for electrical contact between facing oxidized coupon surfaces. The surface compositon, structure and morphology of the coupons were characterized using RBS, nuclear reaction analysis, XPS, SEM, and AFM techniques. The structure of the CRN/CrAlN multilayered superlattice coatings was characterized by TEM. By altering the architecture of the coating layers, both surface electrical conductivity and oxidation resistance [2] improved signigicantly for some of the coated samples tested up to ~100hrs.

Gannon, Paul E.; Tripp, C.; Knospe, Anders; Ramana, C. V.; Deibert, Max; Smith, Richard J.; Gorokhovsky, Vladimir I.; Shutthanandan, V.; Gelles, David S.

2004-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

186

Wintertime high-altitude surface energy balance of a Bolivian glacier, Illimani, 6340 m above sea level  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Wintertime high-altitude surface energy balance of a Bolivian glacier, Illimani, 6340 m above sea] The objective of this study is to evaluate the surface energy balance (SEB) of a cold, high-altitude tropical, high altitude, sublimation, turbulent fluxes, net all-wave radiation, energy balance Citation: Wagnon

Berthier, Etienne

187

Large-area fabrication of high aspect ratio tantalum photonic crystals for high-temperature selective emitters  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The authors present highly selective emitters based on two-dimensional tantalum (Ta) photonic crystals, fabricated on 2 in. polycrystalline Ta substrates, for high-temperature applications, e.g., thermophotovoltaic energy ...

Rinnerbauer, Veronika

188

Growth of Large-Area Single- and Bi-Layer Graphene by Controlled Carbon Precipitation on Polycrystalline Ni Surfaces  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We report graphene films composed mostly of one or two layers of graphene grown by controlled carbon precipitation on the surface of polycrystalline Ni thin films during atmospheric chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Controlling ...

Reina, Alfonso

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

189

Improvement in surface fatigue life of hardened gears by high-intensity shot peening  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Two groups of carburized, hardened, and ground spur gears that were manufactured from the same heat vacuum induction melted vacuum arc melted (VIM VAR) AISI 9310 steel were endurance tested for surface fatigue. Both groups were manufactured with a standard ground 16 rms surface finish. One group was subjected to a shot peening (SP) intensity of 7 to 9A, and the second group was subjected to a SP intensity of 15 to 17A. All gears were honed after SP to a surface finish of 16 rms. The gear pitch diameter was 8.89 cm. Test conditions were a maximum Hertz stress of 1.71 GPa, a gear temperature of 350 K, and a speed of 10000 rpm. The lubricant used for the tests was a synthetic paraffinic oil with an additive package. The following results were obtained: The 10 pct. surface fatigue (pitting) life of the high intensity (15 to 17A) SPed gears was 2.15 times that of the medium intensity (7 to 9A) SPed gears, the same as that calculated from measured residual stress at a depth of 127 microns. The measured residual stress for the high intensity SPed gears was 57 pct. higher than that for the medium intensity SPed gears at a depth of 127 microns and 540 pct. higher at a depth of 51 microns.

Townsend, D.P.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

190

Sequestration of Sr-90 Subsurface Contamination in the Hanford 100-N Area by Surface Infiltration of a Ca-Citrate-Phosphate Solution  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this project is to develop a method to emplace apatite precipitate in the 100N vadose zone, which results in sorption and ultimately incorporation of Sr-90 into the apatite structure. The Ca-citrate-PO4 solution can be infiltrated into unsaturated sediments to result in apatite precipitate to provide effective treatment of Sr-90 contamination. Microbial redistribution during solution infiltration and a high rate of citrate biodegradation for river water microbes (water used for solution infiltration) results in a relatively even spatial distribution of the citrate biodegradation rate and ultimately apatite precipitate in the sediment. Manipulation of the Ca-citrate-PO4 solution infiltration strategy can be used to result in apatite precipitate in the lower half of the vadose zone (where most of the Sr-90 is located) and within low-K layers (which are hypothesized to have higher Sr-90 concentrations). The most effective infiltration strategy to precipitate apatite at depth (and with sufficient lateral spread) was to infiltrate a high concentration solution (6 mM Ca, 15 mM citrate, 60 mM PO4) at a rapid rate (near ponded conditions), followed by rapid, then slow water infiltration. Repeated infiltration events, with sufficient time between events to allow water drainage in the sediment profile can be used to buildup the mass of apatite precipitate at greater depth. Low-K heterogeneities were effectively treated, as the higher residual water content maintained in these zones resulted in higher apatite precipitate concentration. High-K zones did not receive sufficient treatment by infiltration, although an alternative strategy of air/surfactant (foam) was demonstrated effective for targeting high-K zones. The flow rate manipulation used in this study to treat specific depths and heterogeneities are not as easy to implement at field scale due to the lack of characterization of heterogeneities and difficulty tracking the wetting front over a large subsurface area. However, the use of real-time surface and cross-borehole geophysics can be used to track the infiltrating Ca-citrate-PO4 front so some adjustments can be made in the infiltration rate to precipitate apatite in desired zones. In addition, the reactive transport code used in this study with field scale physical parameters for sediments can be used to evaluate infiltration strategies along with preliminary water infiltration tests at field scale.

Szecsody, James E.; Rockhold, Mark L.; Oostrom, Martinus; Moore, R. C.; Burns, Carolyn A.; Williams, Mark D.; Zhong, Lirong; Fruchter, Jonathan S.; McKinley, James P.; Vermeul, Vincent R.; Covert, Matthew A.; Wietsma, Thomas W.; Breshears, Andrew T.; Garcia, Ben J.

2009-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

Pb nanowire formation on Al/lead zirconate titanate surfaces in high-pressure hydrogen  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Thin films of Al on lead zirconate titanate (PZT) annealed in high-pressure hydrogen at 100C exhibit surface Pb nanowire growth. Wire diameter is approximately 80 nm and length can exceed 100 microns. Based on microstructural analysis using electron microscopy and ion scattering, a vapor-solid scheme with hydrogen as a carrier gas was proposed as a growth mechanism. We expect that these observations may lead to controlled Pb nanowires growth through pattering of the Al film.

Alvine, Kyle J.; Shutthanandan, V.; Arey, Bruce W.; Wang, Chong M.; Bennett, Wendy D.; Pitman, Stan G.

2012-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

192

The significance of organic carbon and sediment surface area to the benthic biogeochemistry of the slope and deep water environments of the northern Gulf of Mexico  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

at the Geochemical & Environmental Research Group for map construction. I thank Dr. Andreas Luttge and Dr. Rolf Arvidson at Rice University for use of the surface area analyzer. Dr. Luis Cifuentes and Brian Jones at Texas A&M University provided equipment.... ______________ This thesis follows the style and format of Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta. 2 As the detritus sinks through the water it is subject to break down, or remineralization, by bacterial activity releasing dissolved nutrients to the water...

Beazley, Melanie J.

2004-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

193

The seismic monitoring of buildings is particularly important in high-population urban areas like Greater Boston. While  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

PROBLEM The seismic monitoring of buildings is particularly important in high-population urban areas like Greater Boston. While Massachusetts' seismic building codes are adapted from Cali- fornia to damage from earthquakes of small magnitude, particularly if the fundamen- tal frequency of the seismic

Polz, Martin

194

Free-Space Optical High-Speed Link in the Urban Area of Southern Rome: Preliminary Experimental  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Free-Space Optical High-Speed Link in the Urban Area of Southern Rome: Preliminary Experimental Set is placed on water particle effects (fog and rain). A semi-empirical model evaluation of these atmospheric, Piazza Pakistan, height 50 m), and the headquarters of the Department of Foreign Trade (point C, Viale

Marzano, Frank Silvio

195

NANO EXPRESS Open Access Selective area epitaxy of ultra-high density InGaN  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

annealing and GaN spacer layer growth for improving the PL intensity of the SiNx-treated GaN surface in three dimensions for QD nanostructures so that the non-radiative recom- bination centers and defects can

Gilchrist, James F.

196

C-H surface diamond field effect transistors for high temperature (400?°C) and high voltage (500?V) operation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

By forming a highly stable Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} gate oxide on a C-H bonded channel of diamond, high-temperature, and high-voltage metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) has been realized. From room temperature to 400?°C (673?K), the variation of maximum drain-current is within 30% at a given gate bias. The maximum breakdown voltage (V{sub B}) of the MOSFET without a field plate is 600?V at a gate-drain distance (L{sub GD}) of 7 ?m. We fabricated some MOSFETs for which V{sub B}/L{sub GD}?>?100?V/?m. These values are comparable to those of lateral SiC or GaN FETs. The Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} was deposited on the C-H surface by atomic layer deposition (ALD) at 450?°C using H{sub 2}O as an oxidant. The ALD at relatively high temperature results in stable p-type conduction and FET operation at 400?°C in vacuum. The drain current density and transconductance normalized by the gate width are almost constant from room temperature to 400?°C in vacuum and are about 10 times higher than those of boron-doped diamond FETs.

Kawarada, H., E-mail: kawarada@waseda.jp [Faculty of Science and Engineering, Waseda University, Shinjuku, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan); Institute of Nano-Science and Nano-Engineering, Waseda University, Shinjuku, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan); Kagami Memorial Laboratory for Material Science and Technology, Waseda University, Shinjuku, Tokyo 169-0051 (Japan); Tsuboi, H.; Naruo, T.; Yamada, T.; Xu, D.; Daicho, A.; Saito, T. [Faculty of Science and Engineering, Waseda University, Shinjuku, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan); Hiraiwa, A. [Institute of Nano-Science and Nano-Engineering, Waseda University, Shinjuku, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan)

2014-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

197

Surface studies and implanted helium measurements following NOVA high-yield DT experiments  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper presents the results of three March 6, 1996 direct-drive high-yield DT NOVA experiments and provides `proof-of-principal` results for the quantitative measurement of energetic He ions. Semiconductor quality Si wafers and an amorphous carbon wafer were exposed to NOVA high-yield implosions. Surface damage was sub-micron in general, although the surface ablation was slightly greater for the carbon wafer than for the Si wafers. Melting of a thin ({approx} 0.1{mu}) layer of Si was evident from microscopic investigation. Electron microscopy indicated melted blobs of many different metals (e.g. Al, Au, Ta, Fe alloys, Cu and even Cd) on the surfaces. The yield measured by determining the numbers of atoms of implanted {sup 4}He and {sup 3}He indicate the number of DT fusions to be 9.1({plus_minus}2.3) X 10{sup 12} and DD fusions to be 4.8({plus_minus}1.0) x 10{sup 10}, respectively. The helium DT fusion yield is slightly lower than that of the Cu activation measurement, which was 1.3({plus_minus}0.l) x 10{sup 13} DT fusions.

Stoyer, M.A.; Hudson, G.B.

1997-02-18T23:59:59.000Z

198

High-peak-power surface high-harmonic generation at extreme ultra-violet wavelengths from a tape  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Solid-based surface high-harmonic generation from a tape is experimentally studied. By operating at mildly relativistic normalized laser strengths a{sub 0}?0.2, harmonics up to the 17th order are efficiently produced in the coherent wake emission (CWE) regime. CWE pulse properties, such as divergence, energy, conversion efficiency, and spectrum, are investigated for various tape materials and drive laser conditions. A clear correlation between surface roughness and harmonic beam divergence is found. At the measured pulse properties for the 15th harmonic (conversion efficiency ?6.5×10{sup ?7}, divergence ?7?15 mrad), the 100-mJ-level drive laser produces several MWs of extreme ultra-violet pulses. The spooling tape configuration enables multi-Hz operation over thousands of shots, making this source attractive as a seed to the few-Hz laser-plasma-accelerator-driven free-electron laser (FEL). Models indicate that these CWE pulses with MW level powers are sufficient for seed-induced bunching and FEL gain.

Shaw, B. H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States) [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Applied Science and Technology, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Tilborg, J. van; Sokollik, T.; Schroeder, C. B.; McKinney, W. R.; Artemiev, N. A.; Yashchuk, V. V.; Gullikson, E. M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)] [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Leemans, W. P. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States) [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Physics Department, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

2013-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

199

Parallel hydrogen injection into constant-area, high-enthalpy, supersonic airflow  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Although the mixing and burning of hydrogen injected into the combustion chamber are essential to the operation of a scramjet, experimental investigations of this process have been limited to speeds of less than 2.2 km/sec. The present experiment is an attempt to extend this limit to flight speeds of about 5 km/sec, whose corresponding stagnation enthalpies range up to MJ/kg. Mach-Zehnder interferograms were taken with a light source of 583 nm and 5 sec duration, while surface pressures were obtained with PCB quartz pressure transducers.

Stalker, R.J. (Queensland, University, Brisbane, Australia); Morgan, R.G.

1982-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

200

High Energy Large Area Surveys: optically obscured AGN and the history of accretion  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Hard X-ray, large area surveys are a fundamental complement of ultra-deep, pencil beam surveys in obtaining a more complete coverage of the L-z plane, allowing to find luminous QSO in wide z ranges. Furthermore, results from these surveys can be used to make reliable predictions about the luminosity (and hence the redshift) of the sources in the deep surveys which have optical counterparts too faint to be observed with the present generation of optical telescopes. This allows us to obtain accurate luminosity functions on wide luminosity and redshift intervals.

F. Fiore; the HELLAS2XMM collaboration

2004-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high surface area" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Area detector corrections for high quality synchrotron X-ray structure factor measurements  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Correction procedures for obtaining accurate X-ray structure factors from large area detectors are considered, including subpanel effects, over excited pixels and careful intensity corrections. Problems associated with data normalization, the use of a pixel response correction from a glass standard and minimization of systematic errors are also discussed. Data from glassy GeSe{sub 2} and liquid water measured with a Perkin Elmer amorphous-Silicon detector are used to demonstrate the effectiveness of these correction procedures. This requires reduction of systematic errors in the measured intensity to around the 0.1% level.

Skinner L. B.; Parise J.; Benmore, C.

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

The geology and geophysics of the High Island South Area, Gulf of Mexico  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Ch 9 San Rides Aels ele 29$ ~ CE TRAL t S ALT ~ RIDGES l l l. E' ro qual c I PI3, ULT 320 \\ ~ ~ ~ ~ Q 'l~ ~ no AI+p I ~ ~ ~&IJLTS ~ ~ RIP ~1320 ~ ~ ~ tjhee Major Faults at ANG 8 ~ 290 ~ ~ LN~ ss O Wells in C 4 Cross... Soutien 28'00 w ~rs ses 393 Line 0 Lrne C Line 2 INDEX MAP OF MAJOR FEATURES Figure 8- Index map of major features in the study area. Salt is contoured at 2 seconds, salt ridges axes are at 3. 5 seconds, major faults follow the Angrd23gerina B...

Silver, Kenneth Edward

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

203

An Economic Study of Farm Organization and Operation in the High Plains Cotton Area of Texas.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

credit and to agricultural adjustments in the area. The number of farms studied each year ranged from 127 to 141, or an average of 137. The average operator's earnings per farm amounted to $223 in 1931, $124 in 1932, $1,808 in 1933, $254 in 1934... of individual farms during 1931 and 1932 showed that six factors accounted for 63 per cent of the varia- tion during those years. These factors listed in order of their importance were (1) yield of cotton per acre; (2) per- centage of farm land in cotton; (3...

Bonnen, C.A.; Thibodeaux, B. H.; Magee, A.C.

1939-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

The geology, ground water, and surface subsidence of the Baytown-La Porte area, Harris County, Texas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

intezbedded in them. The sand layers have thin laminae of clay interbedded in them also The alternating sands snd cIaps of the Lkssie formation can be diuided into two units, the upper one containing more claP snd the lover one mox'e sand. The uyyer unit...?Calif'ornia. The theory is that the bottom of the casing, vhich is set in sand, remains stationary, and as the strata betveer the aquifer and the surface ccmpsct, i;he vali head is left suspended in six, supported only by ?he casing. This phcncmenon has occurred at...

Gray, Eddie Vaughn

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

205

Microfluidic pumping through miniaturized channels driven by ultra-high frequency surface acoustic waves  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Surface acoustic waves (SAWs) are an effective means to pump fluids through microchannel arrays within fully portable systems. The SAW-driven acoustic counterflow pumping process relies on a cascade phenomenon consisting of SAW transmission through the microchannel, SAW-driven fluid atomization, and subsequent coalescence. Here, we investigate miniaturization of device design, and study both SAW transmission through microchannels and the onset of SAW-driven atomization up to the ultra-high-frequency regime. Within the frequency range from 47.8 MHz to 754?MHz, we show that the acoustic power required to initiate SAW atomization remains constant, while transmission through microchannels is most effective when the channel widths w???10??, where ? is the SAW wavelength. By exploiting the enhanced SAW transmission through narrower channels at ultra-high frequencies, we discuss the relevant frequency-dependent length scales and demonstrate the scaling down of internal flow patterns and discuss their impact on device miniaturization strategies.

Shilton, Richie J., E-mail: richard.shilton@iit.it [Center for Nanotechnology Innovation @ NEST, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Piazza San Silvestro 12, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Travagliati, Marco [Center for Nanotechnology Innovation @ NEST, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Piazza San Silvestro 12, 56127 Pisa (Italy); NEST, Scuola Normale Superiore and Istituto Nanoscienze-CNR, Piazza San Silvestro 12, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Beltram, Fabio [NEST, Scuola Normale Superiore and Istituto Nanoscienze-CNR, Piazza San Silvestro 12, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Center for Nanotechnology Innovation @ NEST, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Piazza San Silvestro 12, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Cecchini, Marco, E-mail: marco.cecchini@nano.cnr.it [NEST, Scuola Normale Superiore and Istituto Nanoscienze-CNR, Piazza San Silvestro 12, 56127 Pisa (Italy)

2014-08-18T23:59:59.000Z

206

A High Order Sliding Mode Control with PID Sliding Surface: Simulation on a Torpedo  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Position and speed control of the torpedo present a real problem for the actuators because of the high level of the system non linearity and because of the external disturbances. The non linear systems control is based on several different approaches, among it the sliding mode control. The sliding mode control has proved its effectiveness through the different studies. The advantage that makes such an important approach is its robustness versus the disturbances and the model uncertainties. However, this approach implies a disadvantage which is the chattering phenomenon caused by the discontinuous part of this control and which can have a harmful effect on the actuators. This paper deals with the basic concepts, mathematics, and design aspects of a control for nonlinear systems that make the chattering effect lower. As solution to this problem we will adopt as a starting point the high order sliding mode approaches then the PID sliding surface. Simulation results show that this control strategy can attain exce...

Rhif, Ahmed

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

High-Latitude Ocean and Sea Ice Surface Fluxes: Challenges for Climate Research1 Mark A. Bourassa1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

), and in 2008, the Wilkins Ice Shelf51 collapsed equally quickly (Scambos et al. 2009). Ocean heat content1 High-Latitude Ocean and Sea Ice Surface Fluxes: Challenges for Climate Research1 2 Mark A-latitude surface fluxes will require close collaboration among meteorologists,33 oceanographers, ice physicists

Gille, Sarah T.

208

Mountain lion use of an area of high recreational development in Big Bend National Park, Texas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

/Site Restrictions and Closures Habitat/Site Alterations. . . . . . . . . . . . Protocol for Incidents of Attack or Depredation. 113 113 120 128 135 141 147 150 Recommendations f or Management. . . . . . . . . Education of Visitors and Residents... subadults should be considered high risk. Alternative management actions for reducing risk to visitors were identified and evaluated. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS This study was cooperatively funded by Big Bend National Park (BIBE), Texas; The National Park Service...

Ruth, Toni Karen

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

209

Seismic Technology Adapted to Analyzing and Developing Geothermal Systems Below Surface-Exposed High-Velocity Rocks  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Improved seismic imaging of geology across high-velocity Earth surfaces will allow more rigorous evaluation of geothermal prospects beneath volcanic outcrops. Seismic-based quantification of fracture orientation and intensity will result in optimal positioning of geothermal wells.

210

Fast Response and High Sensitivity ZnO/glass Surface Acoustic Wave Humidity Sensors Using Graphene Oxide Sensing Layer  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We report ZnO/glass surface acoustic wave (SAW) humidity sensors with high sensitivity and fast response using graphene oxide sensing layer. The frequency shift of the sensors is exponentially correlated to the humidity change, induced mainly...

Xuan, Weipeng; He, Mei; Meng, Nan; He, Xingli; Wang, Wenbo; Chen, Jinkai; Shi, Tianjin; Hasan, Tawfique; Xu, Zhen; Xu, Yang; Luo, J. K.

2014-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

211

Investigation of the delay time distribution of high power microwave surface flashover  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Characterizing and modeling the statistics associated with the initiation of gas breakdown has proven to be difficult due to a variety of rather unexplored phenomena involved. Experimental conditions for high power microwave window breakdown for pressures on the order of 100 to several 100 torr are complex: there are little to no naturally occurring free electrons in the breakdown region. The initial electron generation rate, from an external source, for example, is time dependent and so is the charge carrier amplification in the increasing radio frequency (RF) field amplitude with a rise time of 50 ns, which can be on the same order as the breakdown delay time. The probability of reaching a critical electron density within a given time period is composed of the statistical waiting time for the appearance of initiating electrons in the high-field region and the build-up of an avalanche with an inherent statistical distribution of the electron number. High power microwave breakdown and its delay time is of critical importance, since it limits the transmission through necessary windows, especially for high power, high altitude, low pressure applications. The delay time distribution of pulsed high power microwave surface flashover has been examined for nitrogen and argon as test gases for pressures ranging from 60 to 400 torr, with and without external UV illumination. A model has been developed for predicting the discharge delay time for these conditions. The results provide indications that field induced electron generation, other than standard field emission, plays a dominant role, which might be valid for other gas discharge types as well.

Foster, J.; Krompholz, H.; Neuber, A. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Center for Pulsed Power and Power Electronics, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas 79409-3102 (United States)

2011-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

212

Surface Area and Microporosity of Carbon Aerogels from Gas Adsorption and Small- and Wide-Angle X-ray Scattering Measurements  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A carbon aerogel was obtained by carbonization of an organic aerogel prepared by sol-gel polymerization of resorcinol and formaldehyde in water. The carbon aerogel was then CO2 activated at 800 °C to increase its surface area and widen its microporosity. Evolution of these parameters was followed by gas adsorption and small- and wide-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS and WAXS, respectively) with contrast variation by using dry and wet (immersion in benzene and m-xylene) samples. For the original carbon aerogel, the surface area, SSAXS, obtained by SAXS, is larger than that obtained by gas adsorption (Sads). The values become nearly the same as the degree of activation of the carbon aerogel increases. This feature is due to the widening of the narrow microporosity in the carbon aerogel as the degree of activation is increased. In addition, WAXS results show that the short-range spatial correlations into the assemblies of hydrocarbon molecules confined inside the micropores are different from those existing in the liquid phase. 1.

David Fairén-jiménez; Francisco Carrasco-marín; David Djurado; Françoise Bley; Françoise Ehrburger-dolle; Carlos Moreno-castilla

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

Nanoporous, Metal Carbide, Surface Diffusion Membranes for High Temperature Hydrogen Separations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Colorado School of Mines (CSM) developed high temperature, hydrogen permeable membranes that contain no platinum group metals with the goal of separating hydrogen from gas mixtures representative of gasification of carbon feedstocks such as coal or biomass in order to meet DOE NETL 2015 hydrogen membrane performance targets. We employed a dual synthesis strategy centered on transition metal carbides. In the first approach, novel, high temperature, surface diffusion membranes based on nanoporous Mo{sub 2}C were fabricated on ceramic supports. These were produced in a two step process that consisted of molybdenum oxide deposition followed by thermal carburization. Our best Mo{sub 2}C surface diffusion membrane achieved a pure hydrogen flux of 367 SCFH/ft{sup 2} at a feed pressure of only 20 psig. The highest H{sub 2}/N{sub 2} selectivity obtained with this approach was 4.9. A transport model using “dusty gas” theory was derived to describe the hydrogen transport in the Mo{sub 2}C coated, surface diffusion membranes. The second class of membranes developed were dense metal foils of BCC metals such as vanadium coated with thin (< 60 nm) Mo{sub 2}C catalyst layers. We have fabricated a Mo{sub 2}C/V composite membrane that in pure gas testing delivered a H{sub 2} flux of 238 SCFH/ft{sup 2} at 600 °C and 100 psig, with no detectable He permeance. This exceeds the 2010 DOE Target flux. This flux is 2.8 times that of pure Pd at the same membrane thickness and test conditions and over 79% of the 2015 flux target. In mixed gas testing we achieved a permeate purity of ?99.99%, satisfying the permeate purity milestone, but the hydrogen permeance was low, ~0.2 SCFH/ft{sup 2}.psi. However, during testing of a Mo{sub 2}C coated Pd alloy membrane with DOE 1 feed gas mixture a hydrogen permeance of >2 SCFH/ft{sup 2}.psi was obtained which was stable during the entire test, meeting the permeance associated with the 2010 DOE target flux. Lastly, the Mo{sub 2}C/V composite membranes were shown to be stable for at least 168 hours = one week, including cycling at high temperature and alternating He/H{sub 2} exposure.

Way, J.; Wolden, Colin

2013-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

214

Large-area, low-noise, high-speed, photodiode-based fluorescence detectors with fast overdrive recovery  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Two large-area, low-noise, high-speed fluorescence detectors have been built. One detector consists of a photodiode with an area of 28 mmx28 mm and a low-noise transimpedance amplifier. This detector has a input light-equivalent spectral noise density of less than 3 pW/{radical}(Hz), can recover from a large scattered light pulse within 10 {mu}s, and has a bandwidth of at least 900 kHz. The second detector consists of a 16-mm-diam avalanche photodiode and a low-noise transimpedance amplifier. This detector has an input light-equivalent spectral noise density of 0.08 pW/{radical}(Hz), also can recover from a large scattered light pulse within 10 {mu}s, and has a bandwidth of 1 MHz.

Bickman, S.; DeMille, D. [Physics Department, Yale University, P.O. Box 208120, SPL 23, New Haven, Connecticut 06520 (United States)

2005-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

215

ANALYSIS OF HIGH FIELD NON-LINEAR LOSSES ON SRF SURFACES DUE TO SPECIFIC TOPOGRAPHIC ROUGHNESS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The high-field performance of SRF cavities will eventually be limited by the realization of fundamental material limits, whether it is Hc1 or Hsh, or some derivative thereof, at which the superconductivity is lost. Before reaching this fundamental field limit at the macro level, it must be encountered at localized, perhaps microscopic, sites of field enhancement due to local topography. If such sites are small enough, they may produce thermally stabilized normal-conducting regions which contribute non-linear losses when viewed from the macro resonant field perspective, and thus produce degradation in Q0. We have undertaken a calculation of local surface magnetic field enhancement from specific fine topographic structure by conformal mapping method and numerically. A solution of the resulting normal conducting volume has been derived and the corresponding RF Ohmic loss simulated.

Chen Xu,Charles Reece,Michael Kelley

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

216

Surface Science 150 (1985) 351-357 North-Holland, Amsterdam  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

with this reaction compare favorably with the corresponding values found for high-area, supported nickel catalysts and coworkers have 12-43 mod- eled nickel and ruthenium high-surface-area catalysts with Ni and Ru single chosen for study is carbon monoxide methanation CO+3H,+CH4+H,0. (1) Studies of this reaction over high-surface-area

Goodman, Wayne

217

A LARGE-AREA SURVEY FOR RADIO PULSARS AT HIGH GALACTIC LATITUDES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have completed a survey for pulsars at high Galactic latitudes with the 64 m Parkes radio telescope. Observing with the 13 beam multibeam receiver at a frequency of 1374 MHz, we covered {approx}4150 square degrees in the region -100 deg. {<=} l {<=} 50 deg., 15 deg. {<=} |b| {<=} 30 deg. with 7232 pointings of 265 s each, thus extending the Swinburne Intermediate Latitude Pulsar Survey a further 15 deg. on either side of the Galactic plane. The signal from each beam was processed by a 96 channel x 3 MHz x 2 polarization filterbank, with the detected power in the two polarizations of each frequency channel summed and digitized with 1 bit sampling every 125 {mu}s, giving good sensitivity to millisecond pulsars with low or moderate dispersion measure. The resulting 2.4 TB data set was processed using standard pulsar search techniques with the workstation cluster at the Swinburne Centre for Astrophysics and Supercomputing. This survey resulted in the discovery of 26 new pulsars including seven binary and/or millisecond pulsars, and redetected 36 previously known pulsars. We describe the survey methodology and results, and present timing solutions for the 19 newly discovered slow pulsars, as well as for nine slow pulsars discovered the Swinburne Intermediate Latitude Pulsar Survey that had no previous timing solutions. Even with a small sampling interval, 1374 MHz center frequency, and a large mid-latitude survey volume we failed to detect any very rapidly spinning pulsars. Evidently, such 'submillisecond' pulsars are rare.

Jacoby, B. A.; Kulkarni, S. R. [Department of Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, MS 249-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Bailes, M.; Ord, S. M. [Centre for Astrophysics and Supercomputing, Swinburne University of Technology, P.O. Box 218, Hawthorn, VIC 31122 (Australia); Edwards, R. T. [Australia Telescope National Facility, CSIRO, P.O. Box 76, Epping, NSW 1710 (Australia)], E-mail: baj@astro.caltech.edu, E-mail: srk@astro.caltech.edu, E-mail: mbailes@swin.edu.au, E-mail: ord@physics.usyd.edu.au, E-mail: Russell.Edwards@csiro.au

2009-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

218

Post-Closure Inspection and Monitoring Report for Corrective Action Unit 417: Central Nevada Test Area Surface, Hot Creek Valley, Nevada For Calendar Year 2006  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 417, Central Nevada Test Area - Surface, is located in Hot Creek Valley in northern Nye County, Nevada, and consists of three areas commonly referred to as UC-1, UC-3, and UC-4. CAU 417 consists of 34 Corrective Action Sites (CASs) which were closed in 2000 (U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office, 2001). Three CASs at UC-1 were closed in place with administrative controls. At CAS 58-09-01, Central Mud Pit (CMP), a vegetated soil cover was constructed over the mud pit. At the remaining two sites, CAS 58-09-02, Mud Pit, and CAS 58-09-05, Mud Pits (3), aboveground monuments and warning signs were installed to mark the CAS boundaries. Three CASs at UC-3 were closed in place with administrative controls. Aboveground monuments and warning signs were installed to mark the site boundaries at CAS 58-09-06, Mud Pits (5), CAS 58-25-01, Spill, and CAS 58-10-01, Shaker Pad Area. Two CASs that consist of five sites at UC-4 were closed in place with administrative controls. At CAS 58-09-03, Mud Pits (5), an engineered soil cover was constructed over Mud Pit C. At the remaining three sites in CAS 58-09-03 and at CAS 58-10-05, Shaker Pad Area, aboveground monuments and warning signs were installed to mark the site boundaries. The remaining 26 CASs at CAU 417 were either clean-closed or closed by taking no further action.

None

2007-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

219

324 Building radiochemical engineering cells, high-level vault, low-level vault, and associated areas closure plan  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Hanford Site, located adjacent to and north of Richland, Washington, is operated by the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (RL). The 324 Building is located in the 300 Area of the Hanford Site. The 324 Building was constructed in the 1960s to support materials and chemical process research and development activities ranging from laboratory/bench-scale studies to full engineering-scale pilot plant demonstrations. In the mid-1990s, it was determined that dangerous waste and waste residues were being stored for greater than 90 days in the 324 Building Radiochemical Engineering Cells (REC) and in the High-Level Vault/Low-Level Vault (HLV/LLV) tanks. [These areas are not Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) permitted portions of the 324 Building.] Through the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) Milestone M-89, agreement was reached to close the nonpermitted RCRA unit in the 324 Building. This closure plan, managed under TPA Milestone M-20-55, addresses the identified building areas targeted by the Tri-Party Agreement and provides commitments to achieve the highest degree of compliance practicable, given the special technical difficulties of managing mixed waste that contains high-activity radioactive materials, and the physical limitations of working remotely in the areas within the subject closure unit. This closure plan is divided into nine chapters. Chapter 1.0 provides the introduction, historical perspective, 324 Building history and current mission, and the regulatory basis and strategy for managing the closure unit. Chapters 2.0, 3.0, 4.0, and 5.0 discuss the detailed facility description, process information, waste characteristics, and groundwater monitoring respectively. Chapter 6.0 deals with the closure strategy and performance standard, including the closure activities for the B-Cell, D-Cell, HLV, LLV; piping and miscellaneous associated building areas. Chapter 7.0 addresses the closure activities identified in Chapter 6.0, and also adds information on closure activities for the soil directly beneath the unit, regulated material removed during closure, and the schedule for closure. Chapter 8.0 provides Surveillance, monitoring and post-closure information and Chapter 9.0 provides a list of references used throughout the document.

Barnett, J.M.

1998-03-25T23:59:59.000Z

220

Modeling the Near-Surface Using High-Resolution Seismic Data  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In the Arabian Peninsula, the near-surface represents a major challenge in seismic exploration. For accurate deep subsurface reservoir imaging, an accurate near-surface velocity model is required. In this dissertation, I ...

Al-Zayer, Ramzy Mohammed

2010-01-26T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high surface area" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Antibody-functionalized nanoporous surfaces enable high throughput specific cell capture  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Adhesion-based cell capture on surfaces in microfluidic devices forms the basis of numerous biomedical diagnostics and in vitro assays. Solid surface microfluidic platforms have been widely explored for biomedical diagnostics ...

Mittal, Sukant

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

222

Molecular Characterization of Organosulfates in Organic Aerosols from Shanghai and Los Angeles Urban Areas by Nanospray-Desorption Electrospray Ionization High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Aerosol samples collected in the urban areas of Shanghai and Los Angeles were analyzed by nanospray-desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (nano-DESI MS) with high mass resolution (m/?m=100,000). Solvent mixtures of acetonitrile/water and acetonitrile/toluene were used to extract and ionize polar and non-polar compounds, respectively. A diverse mixture of oxygenated hydrocarbons, organosulfates, organonitrates, and organics with reduced nitrogen were detected in the Los Angeles sample. Majority of the organics in the Shanghai sample were detected as organosulfates. The dominant organosulfates in the two samples have distinctly different molecular characteristics. Specifically, organosulfates in the Los Angeles sample were dominated by isoprene- or monoterpene-derived products, while organosulfates of yet unknown origin in the Shanghai sample had distinctive characteristics of long aliphatic carbon chains and low degree of oxidation and unsaturation. The use of acetonitrile/toluene solvent facilitated identification of this type of organosulfates, suggesting they could be missed in previous studies relying on sample extraction using common polar solvents. The high molecular weight and low degree of unsaturation and oxidization of the organosulfates detected in the Shanghai sample suggest that they may act as surfactants, and plausibly affect the surface tension and hygroscopicity of the atmospheric particulate matter. We propose that direct esterification of carbonyl or hydroxyl compounds by sulfates or sulfuric acid in liquid phase could be the formation pathway of these special organosulfates. Long-chain alkanes from vehicle emissions might be their precursors.

Tao, Shikang; Lu, Xiaohui; Levac, Nicole A.; Bateman, Adam P.; Nguyen, Tran B.; Bones, David L.; Nizkorodov, Sergey; Laskin, Julia; Laskin, Alexander; Yang, Xin

2014-08-21T23:59:59.000Z

223

Proceedings of 1999 U.S./Japan Workshop (99FT-05) On High Heat Flux Components and Plasma Surface Interactions for Next Fusion Devices  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The 1999 US-Japan Workshop on High Heat Flux Components and Plasma Surface Interactions in Next Step Fusion Devices was held at the St. Francis Hotel in Santa Fe, New Mexico, on November 1-4, 1999. There were 42 presentations as well as discussion on technical issues and planning for future collaborations. The participants included 22 researchers from Japan and the United States as well as seven researchers from Europe and Russia. There have been important changes in the programs in both the US and Japan in the areas of plasma surface interactions and plasma facing components. The US has moved away from a strong focus on the ITER Project and has introduced new programs on use of liquid surfaces for plasma facing components, and operation of NSTX has begun. In Japan, the Large Helical Device began operation. This is the first large world-class confinement device operating in a magnetic configuration different than a tokamak. In selecting the presentations for this workshop, the organizers sought a balance between research in laboratory facilities or confinement devices related to plasma surface interactions and experimental research in the development of plasma facing components. In discussions about the workshop itself, the participants affirmed their preference for a setting where ''work-in-progress'' could be informally presented and discussed.

NYGREN,RICHARD E.; STAVROS,DIANA T.

2000-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

224

Experimental study on GaP surface damage threshold induced by a high repetition rate femtosecond laser  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The surface damage threshold of undoped bulk <110> GaP induced by a high repetition rate femtosecond pulse at 1040 nm with a duration of 61 fs was studied. The threshold value was obtained by a linear fit of the incident single pulse fluence and was confirmed with a breakdown test around the threshold level. The result will be useful in high intensity, high repetition rate laser applications and ultrafast processes.

Li Yi; Liu Feng; Li Yanfeng; Chai Lu; Xing Qirong; Hu Minglie; Wang Chingyue

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

POST CLOSURE INSPECTION AND MONITORING REPORT FOR CORRECTIVE ACTION UNIT 417: CENTRAL NEVADA TEST AREA - SURFACE, HOT CREEK VALLEY, NEVADA, FOR CALENDAR YEAR 2004  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This post-closure inspection and monitoring report has been prepared according to the stipulations laid out in the Closure Report (CR) for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 417, Central Nevada Test Area (CNTA)--Surface (U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office [NNSA/NV], 2001), and the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO, 1996). This report provides an analysis and summary of site inspections, subsidence surveys, meteorological information, and soil moisture monitoring data for CAU 417, which is located in Hot Creek Valley, Nye County, Nevada. This report covers Calendar Year 2004. Inspections at CAU 417 are conducted quarterly to document the physical condition of the UC-1, UC-3, and UC-4 soil covers, monuments, signs, fencing, and use restricted areas. The physical condition of fencing, monuments, and signs is noted, and any unusual conditions that could impact the integrity of the covers are reported. The objective of the soil moisture monitoring program is to monitor the stability of soil moisture conditions within the upper 1.2 meters (m) (4 feet [ft]) of the UC-1 Central Mud Pit (CMP) cover and detect changes that may be indicative of moisture movement exceeding the cover design performance expectations.

BECHTEL NEVADA; NNSA NEVADA SITE OFFICE

2005-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

226

Site characterization summary report for dry weather surface water sampling upper East Fork Poplar Creek characterization area Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report describes activities associated with conducting dry weather surface water sampling of Upper East Fork Poplar Creek (UEFPC) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. This activity is a portion of the work to be performed at UEFPC Operable Unit (OU) 1 [now known as the UEFPC Characterization Area (CA)], as described in the RCRA Facility Investigation Plan for Group 4 at the Oak- Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee and in the Response to Comments and Recommendations on RCRA Facility Investigation Plan for Group 4 at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, Volume 1, Operable Unit 1. Because these documents contained sensitive information, they were labeled as unclassified controlled nuclear information and as such are not readily available for public review. To address this issue the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) published an unclassified, nonsensitive version of the initial plan, text and appendixes, of this Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Facility Investigation (RFI) Plan in early 1994. These documents describe a program for collecting four rounds of wet weather and dry weather surface water samples and one round of sediment samples from UEFPC. They provide the strategy for the overall sample collection program including dry weather sampling, wet weather sampling, and sediment sampling. Figure 1.1 is a schematic flowchart of the overall sampling strategy and other associated activities. A Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPJP) was prepared to specifically address four rounds of dry weather surface water sampling and one round of sediment sampling. For a variety of reasons, sediment sampling has not been conducted and has been deferred to the UEFPC CA Remedial Investigation (RI), as has wet weather sampling.

NONE

1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

227

Mechanistic Studies of Methanol Oxidation to Formaldehyde on Isolated Vanadate Sites Supported on High Surface Area Anatase  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

with in-situ infrared spectroscopy. Infrared and Raman spectroscopy, along with XANES, show that the V/Ti-OH pairs, and (3) across V-O-Ti bonds to form V-OCH3/Ti-OH pairs. Upon heating, two desorption

Bell, Alexis T.

228

Aging Studies of Large Area Proportional Chambers under High-Rate Irradiation with $CF_4$-based Mixtures (PART 1)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Experimental conditions at the HERA-B experiment impose very strong requirements for gaseous detectors. The charged particle fluxes through the HERA-B tracking system, varying with the radial distance $R$ from the beam line, are about $2 \\times 10^{7}/R^{2}$ particles per second, and comparable to those that will be encountered by LHC experiments. The severe radiation environment of the HERA-B experiment leads to a maximum charge deposit on a wire, within the muon detector, of 200 mC/cm per year. We report recent results of aging studies performed by irradiating proportional wire chambers filled with $Ar/CF_4/CH_4$ (74:20:6), $Ar/CF_4/CH_4$ (67:30:3), $Ar/CF_4/CO_2$ (65:30:5), $Ar/CF_4$ (70:30), $CF_4/CH_4$ (90:10), $CF_4/CH_4$ (80:20) mixtures in a three different experimental setups. The size of the irradiation zone varied in the tests from 1 cm up to 500 cm. Our experience shows that the aging rate depends not only on the total collected charge, but, in addition, on the mode of operation and area of irradiation. The possible application of these results to the construction of a large area gaseous detectors for operation in high rate environments is presented.

M. Danilov; Yu. Gilitsky; T. Kvaratschellia; L. Laptin; I. Tichomirov; M. Titov; Yu. Zaitsev

2001-11-23T23:59:59.000Z

229

Aging Studies of Large Area Proportional Chambers under High-Rate Irradiation with $CF_4$-based Mixtures (Part 2)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Experimental conditions at the HERA-B experiment impose very strong requirements for gaseous detectors. The charged particle fluxes through the HERA-B tracking system, varying with the radial distance R from the beam line, are about $2 \\times 10^{7}/R^{2}$ particles per second, and comparable to those that will be encountered by LHC experiments. The severe radiation environment of the HERA-B experiment leads to a maximum charge deposit on a wire, within the muon detector, of 200 mC/cm per year. We report recent results of aging studies performed by irradiating proportional wire chambers filled with $Ar/CF_4/CH_4$ (74:20:6), $Ar/CF_4/CH_4$ (67:30:3), $Ar/CF_4/CO_2$ (65:30:5), $Ar/CF_4$ (70:30), $CF_4/CH_4$ (90:10), $CF_4/CH_4$ (80:20) mixtures in a three different experimental setups. The size of the irradiation zone varied in the tests from 1 cm up to 500 cm. Our experience shows that the aging rate depends not only on the total collected charge, but, in addition, on the mode of operation and area of irradiation. The possible application of these results to the construction of a large area gaseous detectors for operation in high rate environments is presented.

M. Danilov; Yu. Gilitsky; T. Kvaratschellia; L. Laptin; I. Tichomirov; M. Titov; Yu. Zaitsev

2001-11-23T23:59:59.000Z

230

Large Area Divertor Temperature Measurements Using A High-speed Camera With Near-infrared FiIters in NSTX  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Fast cameras already installed on the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) have be equipped with near-infrared (NIR) filters in order to measure the surface temperature in the lower divertor region. Such a system provides a unique combination of high speed (> 50 kHz) and wide fi eld-of-view (> 50% of the divertor). Benchtop calibrations demonstrated the system's ability to measure thermal emission down to 330 oC. There is also, however, signi cant plasma light background in NSTX. Without improvements in background reduction, the current system is incapable of measuring signals below the background equivalent temperature (600 - 700 oC). Thermal signatures have been detected in cases of extreme divertor heating. It is observed that the divertor can reach temperatures around 800 oC when high harmonic fast wave (HHFW) heating is used. These temperature profiles were fi t using a simple heat diffusion code, providing a measurement of the heat flux to the divertor. Comparisons to other infrared thermography systems on NSTX are made.

Lyons, B C; Zweben, S J; Gray, T K; Hosea, J; Kaita, R; Kugel, H W; Maqueda, R J; McLean, A G; Roquemore, A L; Soukhanovskii, V A

2011-04-05T23:59:59.000Z

231

Multifunctional ultra-high vacuum apparatus for studies of the interactions of chemical warfare agents on complex surfaces  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A fundamental understanding of the surface chemistry of chemical warfare agents is needed to fully predict the interaction of these toxic molecules with militarily relevant materials, catalysts, and environmental surfaces. For example, rules for predicting the surface chemistry of agents can be applied to the creation of next generation decontaminants, reactive coatings, and protective materials for the warfighter. Here, we describe a multifunctional ultra-high vacuum instrument for conducting comprehensive studies of the adsorption, desorption, and surface chemistry of chemical warfare agents on model and militarily relevant surfaces. The system applies reflection-absorption infrared spectroscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and mass spectrometry to study adsorption and surface reactions of chemical warfare agents. Several novel components have been developed to address the unique safety and sample exposure challenges that accompany the research of these toxic, often very low vapor pressure, compounds. While results of vacuum-based surface science techniques may not necessarily translate directly to environmental processes, learning about the fundamental chemistry will begin to inform scientists about the critical aspects that impact real-world applications.

Wilmsmeyer, Amanda R.; Morris, John R. [Department of Chemistry, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061 (United States)] [Department of Chemistry, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061 (United States); Gordon, Wesley O.; Mantooth, Brent A.; Lalain, Teri A. [Research and Technology Directorate, U.S. Army Edgewood Chemical Biological Center, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland 21010 (United States)] [Research and Technology Directorate, U.S. Army Edgewood Chemical Biological Center, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland 21010 (United States); Davis, Erin Durke [OptiMetrics, Inc., Abingdon, Maryland 21009 (United States)] [OptiMetrics, Inc., Abingdon, Maryland 21009 (United States)

2014-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

232

Direct first-principles simulation of a high-performance electron emitter: Lithium-oxide-coated diamond surface  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We examined the field emission properties of lithium(Li)/oxygen(O)-co-terminated diamond (001) surface [C(001)-LiO] through real-time electron dynamics simulation under an applied field. The current emitted from this surface was found to be more than four-fold that emitted by an H-terminated (001) surface, the latter being a typical negative electron affinity system. This high performance is attributed to the Li layer, which bends the potential wall of O-induced electron pockets down in the direction of vacuum, thus facilitating electron emission. Detailed analysis of the emitted electrons and the profile of the self-consistent potential elucidated that the role of O atoms changes from an electron barrier on OH-terminated diamond surfaces to an outlet for electron emission on C(001)-LiO.

Miyamoto, Yoshiyuki, E-mail: yoshi-miyamoto@aist.go.jp; Miyazaki, Takehide [Nanosystem Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Central 2, 1-1-1 Umezono, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan); Takeuchi, Daisuke; Yamasaki, Satoshi [Energy Technology Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Central 2, 1-1-1 Umezono, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan); JST, ALCA, 4-1-8 Honcho, Kawaguchi, Saitama 332-0012 (Japan)

2014-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

233

Generation of uniform large-area very high frequency plasmas by launching two specific standing waves simultaneously  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

With the characteristics of higher electron density and lower ion bombardment energy, large-area VHF (very high frequency) plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition has become an essential manufacturing equipment to improve the production throughput and efficiency of thin film silicon solar cell. However, the combination of high frequency and large electrodes leads to the so-called standing wave effect causing a serious problem for the deposition uniformity of silicon thin film. In order to address this issue, a technique based on the idea of simultaneously launching two standing waves that possess similar amplitudes and are out of phase by 90° in time and space is proposed in this study. A linear plasma reactor with discharge length of 54?cm is tested with two different frequencies including 60 and 80 MHz. The experimental results show that the proposed technique could effectively improve the non-uniformity of VHF plasmas from >±60% when only one standing wave is applied to <±10% once two specific standing waves are launched at the same time. Moreover, in terms of the reactor configuration adopted in this study, in which the standing wave effect along the much shorter dimension can be ignored, the proposed technique is applicable to different frequencies without the need to alter the number and arrangement of power feeding points.

Chen, Hsin-Liang, E-mail: hlchen@iner.gov.tw; Tu, Yen-Cheng; Hsieh, Cheng-Chang; Lin, Deng-Lain [Physics Division, Institute of Nuclear Energy Research (INER), Longtan, Taoyuan County 32546, Taiwan (China); Leou, Keh-Chyang [Department of Engineering and System Science, National Tsing Hua University, 101, Section 2, Kuang-Fu Road, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China)

2014-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

234

Turbine vanes experience high convective surface heat transfer as a consequence of the turbulent flow exiting the combustor. Before im-  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Abstract Turbine vanes experience high convective surface heat transfer as a consequence region of the passage reacts as it passes between two adjacent turbine vanes. In this study, a scaled-up turbine vane geometry was used in a low-speed wind tunnel simulation. The test section included a cen

Thole, Karen A.

235

High-Latitude Ocean and Sea Ice Surface Fluxes: Challenges for Climate Research Mark A. Bourassa1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, the Wilkins Ice Shelf collapsed equally quickly (Scambos et al. 2009). Ocean heat content is rising rapidlyHigh-Latitude Ocean and Sea Ice Surface Fluxes: Challenges for Climate Research Mark A. Bourassa1 conditions for the measurement and estimation of air­sea and ice fluxes, limiting understanding of related

Gille, Sarah T.

236

High-Latitude Ocean and Sea Ice Surface Fluxes: Challenges for Climate Research1 Mark A. Bourassa1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

), and in 2008, the Wilkins Ice Shelf51 collapsed equally quickly (Scambos et al. 2009). Ocean heat content1 High-Latitude Ocean and Sea Ice Surface Fluxes: Challenges for Climate Research1 2 Mark A conditions for the measurement and estimation of air­27 sea and ice fluxes, limiting understanding of related

Gille, Sarah T.

237

High-Latitude Ocean and Sea Ice Surface Fluxes: Requirements and Challenges for Climate Mark Bourassa1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

temperatures, seasonal sea ice, and the remoteness of the regions all conspire to make observations difficult latitudes - the vertical exchanges of heat, momentum and material between the ocean, atmosphere and ice1 High-Latitude Ocean and Sea Ice Surface Fluxes: Requirements and Challenges for Climate Research

Gille, Sarah T.

238

ATOMIC-LAYER-DEPOSITED ALUMINUM OXIDE FOR THE SURFACE PASSIVATION OF HIGH-EFFICIENCY SILICON SOLAR CELLS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ATOMIC-LAYER-DEPOSITED ALUMINUM OXIDE FOR THE SURFACE PASSIVATION OF HIGH-EFFICIENCY SILICON SOLAR to those measured on reference cells passivated by an aluminum-annealed thermal SiO2, while those of the Al of aluminum ox- ide (Al2O3) grown by atomic layer deposition (ALD) pro- vide an excellent level of sur

239

Experimental hydrodynamics of spherical projectiles impacting on a free surface using high speed imaging techniques  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This thesis looks at the hydrodynamics of spherical projectiles impacting the free surface using a unique experimental WebLab facility. Experiments were performed to determine the force impact coefficients of spheres and ...

Laverty, Stephen Michael

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

High Resolution Study of Micro-Meter Particle Detachment and Resuspension on Different Surfaces  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In an effort to understand the resuspension phenomena, interactions of spherical micro-meter particles (glass beads (GB) and Stainless steel (SS)) were investigated experimentally on different surfaces (glass, ceramic, hardwood, metal and chemical...

Kassab, Asmaa 1983-

2012-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high surface area" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Imaging the high-speed impact of microdrop on solid surface Ho-Young Kim  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and optical imaging system can be used to study the fuel spray behavior in internal combustion engines2 D/ and Re UD/ . Here , , and denote the drop density, the surface tension, and the viscosity

Kim, Ho-Young

242

Post-Closure Inspection and Monitoring Report for Corrective Action Unit 417: Central Nevada Test Area Surface, Hot Creek Valley, Nevada  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report presents results of data collected during the annual post-closure site inspections conducted at the Central Nevada Test Area surface Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 417 in May 2011 and July 2012. The annual post-closure site inspections included inspections of the UC-1, UC-3, and UC-4 sites in accordance with the Post-Closure Monitoring Plan provided in the CAU 417 Closure Report (NNSA/NV 2001). The annual inspections conducted at the UC-1 Central Mud Pit (CMP) indicated that the site and soil cover were in good condition. No new fractures or extension of existing fractures were observed and no issues with the fence or gate were identified. The vegetation on the cover continues to look healthy, but the biennial vegetation survey conducted during the 2012 inspection indicated that the total foliar cover was slightly higher in 2009 than in 2012. This may be indicative of a decrease in precipitation observed during the 2-year monitoring period. The precipitation totaled 9.9 inches from July 1, 2010, through June 30, 2011, and 5 inches from July 1, 2011, through June 30, 2012. This decrease in precipitation is also evident in the soil moisture data obtained from the time domain reflectometry sensors. Soil moisture content data show that the UC-1 cover is performing as designed, and evapotranspiration is effectively removing water from the cover.

None

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

243

High ethanol sensitivity of Palladium/TiO2 nanobelt surface heterostructures dominated by enlarged surface area and nano-Schottky junctions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

by selective acid corrosion and functionalized with Pd catalyst particles. Three nanobelt samples (TiO2 [1­3], lithium-ion batteries [4,5], chemical and bio-sensors [6,7], hydrogen production and storage

Cao, Guozhong

244

Method for formation of high quality back contact with screen-printed local back surface field  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A thin silicon solar cell having a back dielectric passivation and rear contact with local back surface field is described. Specifically, the solar cell may be fabricated from a crystalline silicon wafer having a thickness from 50 to 500 micrometers. A barrier layer and a dielectric layer are applied at least to the back surface of the silicon wafer to protect the silicon wafer from deformation when the rear contact is formed. At least one opening is made to the dielectric layer. An aluminum contact that provides a back surface field is formed in the opening and on the dielectric layer. The aluminum contact may be applied by screen printing an aluminum paste having from one to 12 atomic percent silicon and then applying a heat treatment at 750 degrees Celsius.

Rohatgi, Ajeet (Marietta, GA); Meemongkolkiat, Vichai (Atlanta, GA)

2010-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

245

Surface circulation in the Iroise Sea (W. Brittany) from high resolution HF radar mapping  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-induced surface currents and the vari- ational interpolation on a regular grid. Combining these processing is characterized by two distinct zones approximately separated by the 100 m isobath: in the offshore zone permanent anticyclonic eddies: north of the western extremity of the Sein archipelago, and north the Ushant

246

Methods and apparatus for delivering high power laser energy to a surface  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

There is provided a system, apparatus and methods for providing a laser beam to borehole surface in a predetermined and energy deposition profile. The predetermined energy deposition profiles may be uniform or tailored to specific downhole applications. Optic assemblies for obtaining these predetermined energy deposition profiles are further provided.

Faircloth, Brian O; Zediker, Mark S; Rinzler, Charles C; Koblick, Yeshaya; Moxley, Joel F

2013-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

247

Modal Bin Hybrid Model: A Surface Area Consistent, Triple Moment Sectional Method for Use in Process-oriented Modeling of Atmospheric Aerosols  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A triple moment sectional method, Modal Bin Hybrid Model (MBHM), has been developed. In addition to number and mass (volume), surface area is predicted (and preserved), which is important for gas-to-particle mass transfer and light extinction cross section. The performance of MBHM was evaluated against double moment sectional (DMS) methods with various size resolutions up to BIN256 (BINx: x is number of sections over three orders of magnitude in size, ?logD = 3/x) for simulating evolution of particles under simultaneously occurring nucleation, condensation and coagulation processes. Because MBHM gives a physically consistent form of the intra-sectional distributions, errors and biases of MBHM at BIN4-8 resolution were almost equivalent to those of DMS at BIN16-32 resolution for various important variables such as the moments Mk (k: 0, 2, 3), dMk/dt, and the number and volume of particles larger than a certain diameter. Another important feature of MBHM is that only a single bin is adequate to simulate full aerosol dynamics for particles whose size distribution can be approximated by a single lognormal mode. This flexibility is useful for process-oriented (multi category and/or mixing state) modeling: primary aerosols whose size parameters would not differ substantially in time and space can be expressed by a single or a small number of modes, whereas secondary aerosols whose size changes drastically from one to several hundred nanometers can be expressed by a number of modes. Added dimensions can be applied to MBHM to represent mixing state or photo-chemical age for aerosol mixing state studies.

Kajino, Mizuo; Easter, Richard C.; Ghan, Steven J.

2013-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

248

Solid-phase synthesis of high-alumina cements by high-temperature treatment on the surface of molten cast iron  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The use of block and monolithic concreting technology in the construction of thermal power plants together with the technical and economic advantages arising from the use of high-alumina cements in the production of refractory concretes have made the development of new methods for the production of high-alumina cement clinkers mandatory. To this end the authors of this paper study the kinetics of synthesis of such clinkers obtained by their firing on the surface of molten cast iron as the heat transfer agent. Among the results presented are a structural and quantitative analysis of the clinker along with phase and activation energy studies.

Fedorov, N.F.; Gavrilov, A.P.; Ivanov, N.I.; Khalina, O.M.

1986-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

249

Ozone production rate and hydrocarbon reactivity in 5 urban areas: A cause of high ozone concentration in Houston  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

petrochemical complexes in the world. As a consequence the concentration of O3 in the Houston metropolitan area are ubiquitous in urban areas, the major source categories being on and off-road vehicles, power plants from nearby petrochemical facili- ties. A comparison between Houston and 4 other cities (Nashville, TN

250

Characterization of SynCAM surface trafficking using a SynCAM derived ligand with high homophilic binding affinity  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In order to better probe SynCAM function in neurons, we produced a fusion protein between the extracellular domain of SynCAM1 and the constant fragment of human IgG (SynCAM-Fc). Whether in soluble form or immobilized on latex microspheres, the chimera bound specifically to the surface of hippocampal neurons and recruited endogenous SynCAM molecules. SynCAM-Fc was also used in combination with Quantum Dots to follow the mobility of transfected SynCAM receptors at the neuronal surface. Both immobile and highly mobile SynCAM were found. Thus, SynCAM-Fc behaves as a high affinity ligand that can be used to study the function of SynCAM at the neuronal membrane.

Breillat, Christelle [UMR CNRS 5091, Institut Francois Magendie, Universite Bordeaux 2, 33077 Bordeaux (France); Thoumine, Olivier [UMR CNRS 5091, Institut Francois Magendie, Universite Bordeaux 2, 33077 Bordeaux (France); Choquet, Daniel [UMR CNRS 5091, Institut Francois Magendie, Universite Bordeaux 2, 33077 Bordeaux (France)]. E-mail: Daniel.Choquet@pcs.u-bordeaux2.fr

2007-08-03T23:59:59.000Z

251

Surface and bulk modified high capacity layered oxide cathodes with low irreversible capacity loss  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention includes compositions, surface and bulk modifications, and methods of making of (1-x)Li[Li.sub.1/3Mn.sub.2/3]O.sub.2.xLi[Mn.sub.0.5-yNi.sub.0.5-yCo.sub.2- y]O.sub.2 cathode materials having an O3 crystal structure with a x value between 0 and 1 and y value between 0 and 0.5, reducing the irreversible capacity loss in the first cycle by surface modification with oxides and bulk modification with cationic and anionic substitutions, and increasing the reversible capacity to close to the theoretical value of insertion/extraction of one lithium per transition metal ion (250-300 mAh/g).

Manthiram, Arumugam (Austin, TX); Wu, Yan (Austin, TX)

2010-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

252

Dosimetric characterization and output verification for conical brachytherapy surface applicators. Part II. High dose rate {sup 192}Ir sources  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose: Historically, treatment of malignant surface lesions has been achieved with linear accelerator based electron beams or superficial x-ray beams. Recent developments in the field of brachytherapy now allow for the treatment of surface lesions with specialized conical applicators placed directly on the lesion. Applicators are available for use with high dose rate (HDR){sup 192}Ir sources, as well as electronic brachytherapy sources. Part I of this paper discussed the applicators used with electronic brachytherapy sources. Part II will discuss those used with HDR {sup 192}Ir sources. Although the use of these applicators has gained in popularity, the dosimetric characteristics have not been independently verified. Additionally, there is no recognized method of output verification for quality assurance procedures with applicators like these. Methods: This work aims to create a cohesive method of output verification that can be used to determine the dose at the treatment surface as part of a quality assurance/commissioning process for surface applicators used with HDR electronic brachytherapy sources (Part I) and{sup 192}Ir sources (Part II). Air-kerma rate measurements for the {sup 192}Ir sources were completed with several models of small-volume ionization chambers to obtain an air-kerma rate at the treatment surface for each applicator. Correction factors were calculated using MCNP5 and EGSnrc Monte Carlo codes in order to determine an applicator-specific absorbed dose to water at the treatment surface from the measured air-kerma rate. Additionally, relative dose measurements of the surface dose distributions and characteristic depth dose curves were completed in-phantom. Results: Theoretical dose distributions and depth dose curves were generated for each applicator and agreed well with the measured values. A method of output verification was created that allows users to determine the applicator-specific dose to water at the treatment surface based on a measured air-kerma rate. Conclusions: The novel output verification methods described in this work will reduce uncertainties in dose delivery for treatments with these kinds of surface applicators, ultimately improving patient care.

Fulkerson, Regina K., E-mail: rmkenned@gmail.com; Micka, John A.; DeWerd, Larry A. [Department of Medical Physics, University of Wisconsin–Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53705 (United States)] [Department of Medical Physics, University of Wisconsin–Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53705 (United States)

2014-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

253

SIGNIFICANT LINKAGE DISEQUILIBRIUM AND HIGH GENETIC DIVERSITY IN A POPULATION OF PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM FROM AN AREA (REPUBLIC OF  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

structure is essential for understanding analyses of epidemiologic surveys (i.e., target choices for disease] and MSP- 2, circumsporozoite surface protein [CSP], and glutamate-rich protein [GLURP]),8 which

254

POST CLOSURE INSPECTION AND MONITORING REPORT FOR CORRECTIVE ACTION UNIT 417: CENTRAL NEVADA TEST AREA - SURFACE, HOT CREEK VALLEY, NEVADA; FOR CALENDAR YEAR 2005  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 417, Central Nevada Test Area - Surface, is located in Hot Creek Valley in northern Nye County, Nevada, and consists of three areas commonly referred to as UC-1, UC-3, and UC-4. CAU 417 consists of 34 Corrective Action Sites (CASs) which were closed in 2000 (U. S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office, 2001). Three CASs at UC-1 were closed in place with administrative controls. At CAS 58-09-01, Central Mud Pit (CMP), a vegetated soil cover was constructed over the mud pit. At the remaining two sites CAS 58-09-02, Mud Pit and 58-09-05, Mud Pits (3), aboveground monuments and warning signs were installed to mark the CAS boundaries. Three CASs at UC-3 were closed in place with administrative controls. Aboveground monuments and warning signs were installed to mark the site boundaries at CAS 58-09-06, Mud Pits (5), CAS 58-25-01, Spill and CAS 58-10-01, Shaker Pad Area. Two CASs that consist of five sites at UC-4 were closed in place with administrative controls. At CAS 58-09-03, Mud Pits 9, an engineered soil cover was constructed over Mud Pit C. At the remaining three sites in CAS 58-09-03 and at CAS 58-10-05, Shaker Pad Area, aboveground monuments and warning signs were installed to mark the site boundaries. The remaining 26 CASs at CAU 417 were either clean-closed or closed by taking no further action. Quarterly post-closure inspections are performed at the CASs that were closed in place at UC-I, UC-3, and UC-4. During calendar year 2005, site inspections were performed on March 15, June 16, September 22, and December 7. The inspections conducted at the UC-1 CMP documented that the site was in good condition and continued to show integrity of the cover unit. No new cracks or fractures were observed until the December inspection. A crack on the west portion of the cover showed evidence of lateral expansion; however, it is not at an actionable level. The crack will be sealed by filling with bentonite during the first quarter of 2006 and monitored during subsequent inspections. The cover vegetation was healthy and well established. No issues were identified with the CMP fence, gate, or subsidence monuments. No issues were identified with the warning signs and monuments at the other two UC-1 locations. The inspections at UC-3 indicated that the sites are in excellent condition. All monuments and signs showed no displacement, damage, or removal. A small erosion gully from spring rain runoff was observed during the June inspection, but it did not grow to an actionable level during 2005. No other issues or concerns were identified. Inspections performed at UC-4 Mud Pit C cover revealed that erosion rills were formed during March and September exposing the geosynthetic clay liner. Both erosion rills were repaired within 90 days of reporting. Sparse vegetation is present on the cover. The overall condition of the monuments, fence, and gate are in good condition. No issues were identified with the warning signs and monuments at the other four UC-4 locations. Subsidence surveys were conducted at UC-1 CMP and UC-4 Mud Pit C in March and September of 2005. The results of the subsidence surveys indicate that the covers are performing as expected, and no unusual subsidence was observed. The June vegetation survey of the UC-1 CMP cover and adjacent areas indicated that the revegetation has been very successful. The vegetation should continue to be monitored to document any changes in the plant community and identify conditions that could potentially require remedial action in order to maintain a viable vegetative cover on the site. Vegetation surveys should be conducted only as required. Precipitation during 2005 was above average, with an annual rainfall total of 21.79 centimeters (8.58 inches). Soil moisture content data show that the UC-1 CMP cover is performing as designed, with evapotranspiration effectively removing water from the cover. It is recommended to continue quarterly site inspections and the collection of soil moisture data for the UC-1 CMP cove

NONE

2006-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

255

Comparison of benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages associated with salt marshes in low and high salinity areas of Galveston Bay  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Two study areas in Galveston Bay, Texas were chosen to assess the species composition and abundance of benthic macroinvertebrates in salt marshes that are utilized by juvenile brown shrimp. The objectives of the study were to compare the benthic...

Pool, Suzan Samantha

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

256

Implementation of low-energy surface-induced dissociation (eV SID) and high-energy collision-induced dissociation (keV CID)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Implementation of low-energy surface-induced dissociation (eV SID) and high-energy collision is that the instrument implements both high-energy collision-induced dissociation (keV CID) and low-energy surface energy expression, E mv2 /2. As pointed out in the foreword to Cotter's book on TOF mass spectrometry [1

Wysocki, Vicki H.

257

High-Rate Fabrication of a-Si-Based Thin-Film Solar Cells Using Large-Area VHF PECVD Processes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The University of Toledo (UT), working in concert with it’s a-Si-based PV industry partner Xunlight Corporation (Xunlight), has conducted a comprehensive study to develop a large-area (3ft x 3ft) VHF PECVD system for high rate uniform fabrication of silicon absorber layers, and the large-area VHF PECVD processes to achieve high performance a-Si/a-SiGe or a-Si/nc-Si tandem junction solar cells during the period of July 1, 2008 to Dec. 31, 2011, under DOE Award No. DE-FG36-08GO18073. The project had two primary goals: (i) to develop and improve a large area (3 ft × 3 ft) VHF PECVD system for high rate fabrication of > = 8 Å/s a-Si and >= 20 Å/s nc-Si or 4 Å/s a-SiGe absorber layers with high uniformity in film thicknesses and in material structures. (ii) to develop and optimize the large-area VHF PECVD processes to achieve high-performance a-Si/nc-Si or a-Si/a-SiGe tandem-junction solar cells with >= 10% stable efficiency. Our work has met the goals and is summarized in “Accomplishments versus goals and objectives”.

Deng, Xunming [University of Toledo] [University of Toledo; Fan, Qi Hua

2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

258

Thin optic surface analysis for high resolution X-ray telescopes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The art of glass developed throughout the years has covered artifacts ranging from crude ornaments to high precision optics used in flat panel displays, hard disk drives, and x-ray telescopes. Methods for manufacturing ...

Akilian, Mireille

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

259

Shear-horizontal surface acoustic wave phononic device with high density filling material for ultra-low power sensing applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Finite element simulations of a phononic shear-horizontal surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensor based on ST 90°-X Quartz reveal a dramatic reduction in power consumption. The phononic sensor is realized by artificially structuring the delay path to form an acoustic meta-material comprised of a periodic microcavity array incorporating high-density materials such as tantalum or tungsten. Constructive interference of the scattered and secondary reflected waves at every microcavity interface leads to acoustic energy confinement in the high-density regions translating into reduced power loss. Tantalum filled cavities show the best performance while tungsten inclusions create a phononic bandgap. Based on our simulation results, SAW devices with tantalum filled microcavities were fabricated and shown to significantly decrease insertion loss. Our findings offer encouraging prospects for designing low power, highly sensitive portable biosensors.

Richardson, M.; Bhethanabotla, V. R., E-mail: bhethana@usf.edu [Department of Chemical and Biomedical Engineering, University of South Florida, Tampa, Florida 33620 (United States); Sankaranarayanan, S. K. R. S. [Center for Nanoscale Materials, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States)

2014-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

260

Neptunium (V) Adsorption to a Halophilic Bacterium Under High Ionic Strength Conditions: A Surface Complexation Modeling Approach  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Rationale for experimental design: Np(V) -- important as analog for Pu(V) and for HLW scenarios; High ionic strength -- relevant to salt-based repositories such as the WIPP; Halophilic microorganisms -- representative of high ionic strength environments. For the first time showed: Significant adsorbant to halophilic microorganisms over entire pH range under high ionic strength conditions; Strong influence of ionic strength with increasing adsorption with increasing ionic strength (in contrast to trends of previous low ionic strength studies); Effect of aqueous Np(V) and bacterial surface site speciation on adsorption; and Developed thermodynamic models that can be incorporated into geochemical speciation models to aid in the prediction of the fate and transport of Np(V) in more complex systems.

Ams, David A [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high surface area" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Response surfaces of vulnerability to climate change: the Colorado River Basin, the High Plains, and California  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the vulnerability of water supply to shortage for the Colorado River Basin and basins of the High Plains, it becomes ever more important to assess the vulnerability of current and future water supplies to shortage more likely to experience water shortages (Barnett et al. 2004; Barnett and Pierce 2008, 2009; Cayan et

262

Assessment of Geothermal Resource Potential at a High-Priority Area on the Utah Testing and Training Range–South (UTTR–S)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Field investigations conducted during 2011 support and expand the conclusion of the original Preliminary Report that discovery of a viable geothermal system is possible in the northwestern part of the Utah Testing and Training Range-South (UTTR-S), referred to henceforth as Focus Area 1. The investigations defined the southward extent of the Wendover graben into and near Focus Area 1, enhanced the understanding of subsurface conditions, and focused further geothermal exploration efforts towards the northwestern-most part of Focus Area 1. Specifically, the detailed gravity survey shows that the Wendover graben, first defined by Cook et al. (1964) for areas north of Interstate Highway 80, extends and deepens southwest-ward to the northwest corner of Focus Area 1. At its deepest point, the intersection with a northwest-trending graben there is favorable for enhanced permeability associated with intersecting faults. Processing and modeling of the gravity data collected during 2011 provide a good understanding of graben depth and distribution of faults bounding the graben and has focused the interest area of the study. Down-hole logging of temperatures in wells made available near the Intrepid, Inc., evaporation ponds, just north of Focus Area 1, provide a good understanding of the variability of thermal gradients in that area and corroborate the more extensive temperature data reported by Turk (1973) for the depth range of 300-500 m. Moderate temperature gradients in the northern part of the Intrepid area increase to much higher gradients and bottom-hole temperatures southeastward, towards graben-bounding faults, suggesting upwelling geothermal waters along those faults. Water sampling, analysis, and temperature measurements of Blue Lakes and Mosquito Willey's springs, on the western boundary of Focus Area 1, also show elevated temperatures along the graben-bounding fault system. In addition, water chemistry suggests origin of those waters in limestone rocks beneath the graben in areas with temperatures as high as 140 C (284 F). In conclusion, all of the field data collected during 2011 and documented in the Appendices of this report indicate that there is reasonable potential for a viable geothermal resource along faults that bound the Wendover graben. Prospects for a system capable of binary electrical generation are especially good, and the possibility of a flash steam system is also within reason. The next steps should focus on securing the necessary funding for detailed geophysical surveys and for drilling a set of temperature gradient wells to further evaluate the resource, and to focus deep exploration efforts in the most promising areas.

Richard P. Smith, PhD., PG; Robert P. Breckenridge, PhD.; Thomas R. Wood, PhD.

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

263

New York state high-speed surface transportation study: Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In 1990, New York State Governor Mario M. Cuomo created an interagency task force under the leadership of Lt. Governor Stan Lundine to investigate the potential of high speed ground transportation (HSGT) systems. Building on information from previous agency activities, including consultant efforts contracted by the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA), the New York State Thruway Authority (NYSTA), and in-house analyses performed by New York State Department of Transportation (NYSDOT), the task force focused on the corridor between New York City and the Niagara Frontier. In December 1991, NYSERDA issued a contract for a study of high speed ground transportation options for New York State. The study`s objective was to assess potential rights-of-way, ridership, energy and environmental impacts, economic benefits, capital, operating, and maintenance costs, and financial viability of HSGT systems. This study builds upon and supplements previous and on-going HSGT activities conducted by the members of the interagency task force. These activities include: Maglev Technical and Economic Feasibility Study (NYSERDA); Maglev Demonstration Site Investigation (NYSTA); and New York/Massachusetts High Speed Ground Transportation Study (NYSDOT). This study is intended to verify and refine previous information and analyses and provide supplemental information and insights to be used in determining if additional investigation and activities involving HSGT are desirable for New York State. This study evaluates HSGT technologies capable of speeds significantly higher than those achieved with the present rail system. Three HSGT categories are used in this study: incremental rail improvement, very high-speed rail, and Maglev.

Not Available

1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

264

Lectin-functionalized poly(glycidyl methacrylate)-block-poly(vinyldimethyl azlactone) surface supports for high avidity microbial capture  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Microbial exopolysaccharides (EPS) play a critical and dynamic role in shaping the interactions between microbial community members and their local environment. The capture of targeted microbes using surface immobilized lectins that recognize specific extracellular oligosaccharide moieties offers a non-destructive method for functional characterization based on EPS content. In this report, we evaluate the use of the block co-polymer, poly(glycidyl methacrylate)-block-4,4-dimethyl-2-vinylazlactone (PGMA-b-PVDMA), as a surface support for lectin-specific microbial capture. Arrays of circular polymer supports ten micron in diameter were generated on silicon substrates to provide discrete, covalent coupling sites for Triticum vulgare and Lens culinaris lectins. These supports promoted microbe adhesion and colony formation in a lectin-specific manner. Silicon posts with similar topography containing only physisorbed lectins showed significantly less activity. These results demonstrate that micropatterned PGMA-b-PVDMA supports provide a unique platform for microbial capture and screening based on EPS content by combining high avidity lectin surfaces with three-dimensional topography.

Hansen, Ryan R [ORNL] [ORNL; Hinestrosa Salazar, Juan P [ORNL] [ORNL; Shubert, Katherine R [ORNL] [ORNL; Morrell, Jennifer L. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)] [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Pelletier, Dale A [ORNL] [ORNL; Messman, Jamie M [ORNL] [ORNL; Kilbey, II, S Michael [ORNL; Lokitz, Bradley S [ORNL] [ORNL; Retterer, Scott T [ORNL] [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

Research Areas | National Nuclear Security Administration  

National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

High Energy Density Laboratory Plasmas Research Areas Research Areas High Energy Density Laboratory Plasmas (HEDLP) Research Areas During open solicitations proposals are sought...

266

High-frequency absorption of the dynamic mixed state in the surface superconductivity region  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We analyze the absorption of a high-frequency electromagnetic field in the type II superconductor Pb{sub 0.8}In{sub 0.2} in magnetic fields H{sub c2} < H < H{sub c3}. The absorption component proportional to the rate of variation of the external magnetic field is detected. We assume that this absorption component is associated with the dynamic mixed state of the superconducting shell containing 2D magnetic flux vortices (Kulik vortices). The motion of these vortices under the action of the critical current ensures the required difference between the external and internal magnetic inductions of the superconducting shell upon a change in the external magnetic field. This model correctly describes the observed behavior of absorption of rf electromagnetic radiation.

Berezin, V. A., E-mail: berezin@iptm.ru; Tulin, V. A., E-mail: tulin@iptm.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Microelectronics Technology and High-Purity Materials (Russian Federation)

2013-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

267

High-power, low-lateral divergence broad area quantum cascade lasers with a tilted front facet  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We introduce a simple technique to improve the beam quality of broad area quantum cascade lasers. Moderately tilted front facets of the laser provide suppression of higher order lateral waveguide modes. A device with a width of 60??m and a front facet angle of 17° shows a nearly diffraction limited beam profile. In addition, the peak output power and the slope efficiency of the device are increased since most of the light inside the cavity is emitted through the tilted front facet by an asymmetric light intensity distribution along the cavity.

Ahn, Sangil, E-mail: sangil.ahn@tuwien.ac.at; Schwarzer, Clemens; Zederbauer, Tobias; MacFarland, Donald C.; Detz, Hermann; Andrews, Aaron M.; Schrenk, Werner; Strasser, Gottfried [Institute for Solid State Electronics, Vienna University of Technology, 1040 Vienna (Austria)

2014-02-03T23:59:59.000Z

268

A mean field approach for computing solid-liquid surface tension for nanoscale interfaces  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A mean field approach for computing solid-liquid surface tension for nanoscale interfaces Chi are largely determined by the solid-liquid surface tension. This is especially true for nanoscale systems with high surface area to volume ratios. While experimental techniques can only measure surface tension

Nielsen, Steven O.

269

High Efficiency Optical MEMS by the Integration of Photonic Lattices with Surface MEMS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report outlines our work on the integration of high efficiency photonic lattice structures with MEMS (MicroElectroMechanical Systems). The simplest of these structures were based on 1-D mirror structures. These were integrated into a variety of devices, movable mirrors, switchable cavities and finally into Bragg fiber structures which enable the control of light in at least 2 dimensions. Of these devices, the most complex were the Bragg fibers. Bragg fibers consist of hollow tubes in which light is guided in a low index media (air) and confined by surrounding Bragg mirror stacks. In this work, structures with internal diameters from 5 to 30 microns have been fabricated and much larger structures should also be possible. We have demonstrated the fabrication of these structures with short wavelength band edges ranging from 400 to 1600nm. There may be potential applications for such structures in the fields of integrated optics and BioMEMS. We have also looked at the possibility of waveguiding in 3 dimensions by integrating defects into 3-dimensional photonic lattice structures. Eventually it may be possible to tune such structures by mechanically modulating the defects.

FLEMING, JAMES G.; LIN, SHAWN-YU; MANI, SEETHAMBAL S.; RODGERS, M. STEVEN; DAGEL, DARYL J.

2002-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

270

High rate resistive plate chambers: An inexpensive, fast, large area detector of energetic charged particles for accelerator and non-accelerator applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Resistive Plate Chambers, or RPCs, have been used until recently as large detectors of cosmic ray muons. They are now finding use as fast large-area trigger and muon detection systems for different high energy physics detectors such the L3 Detector at LEP and future detectors to be built at the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) and at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. RPC systems at these accelerators must operate with high efficiency, providing nanosecond timing resolution in particle fluences up to a few tens of kHz/cm{sup 2} -- with thousands of square meters of active area. RPCs are simple and cheap to construct. The authors report here recent work on RPCs using new materials that exhibit a combination of desirable RPC features such as low bulk resistivity, high dielectric strength, low mass, and low cost. These new materials were originally developed for use in electronics assembly areas and other applications, where static electric charge buildup can damage sensitive electrical systems.

Wuest, C.R.; Ables, E.; Bionta, R.M.; Clamp, O.; Haro, M.; Mauger, G.J.; Miller, K.; Olson, H.; Ramsey, P.

1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

271

Surface Anchoring of Nematic Phase on Carbon Nanotubes: Nanostructure of Ultra-High Temperature Materials  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Nuclear energy is a dependable and economical source of electricity. Because fuel supply sources are available domestically, nuclear energy can be a strong domestic industry that can reduce dependence on foreign energy sources. Commercial nuclear power plants have extensive security measures to protect the facility from intruders [1]. However, additional research efforts are needed to increase the inherent process safety of nuclear energy plants to protect the public in the event of a reactor malfunction. The next generation nuclear plant (NGNP) is envisioned to utilize a very high temperature reactor (VHTR) design with an operating temperature of 650-1000�°C [2]. One of the most important safety design requirements for this reactor is that it must be inherently safe, i.e., the reactor must shut down safely in the event that the coolant flow is interrupted [2]. This next-generation Gen IV reactor must operate in an inherently safe mode where the off-normal temperatures may reach 1500�°C due to coolant-flow interruption. Metallic alloys used currently in reactor internals will melt at such temperatures. Structural materials that will not melt at such ultra-high temperatures are carbon/graphtic fibers and carbon-matrix composites. Graphite does not have a measurable melting point; it is known to sublime starting about 3300�°C. However, neutron radiation-damage effects on carbon fibers are poorly understood. Therefore, the goal of this project is to obtain a fundamental understanding of the role of nanotexture on the properties of resulting carbon fibers and their neutron-damage characteristics. Although polygranular graphite has been used in nuclear environment for almost fifty years, it is not suitable for structural applications because it do not possess adequate strength, stiffness, or toughness that is required of structural components such as reaction control-rods, upper plenum shroud, and lower core-support plate [2,3]. For structural purposes, composites consisting of strong carbon fibers embedded in a carbon matrix are needed. Such carbon/carbon (C/C) composites have been used in aerospace industry to produce missile nose cones, space shuttle leading edge, and aircraft brake-pads. However, radiation-tolerance of such materials is not adequately known because only limited radiation studies have been performed on C/C composites, which suggest that pitch-based carbon fibers have better dimensional stability than that of polyacrylonitrile (PAN) based fibers [4]. The thermodynamically-stable state of graphitic crystalline packing of carbon atoms derived from mesophase pitch leads to a greater stability during neutron irradiation [5]. The specific objectives of this project were: (i) to generating novel carbonaceous nanostructures, (ii) measure extent of graphitic crystallinity and the extent of anisotropy, and (iii) collaborate with the Carbon Materials group at Oak Ridge National Lab to have neutron irradiation studies and post-irradiation examinations conducted on the carbon fibers produced in this research project.

Ogale, Amod A

2012-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

272

Effects of urban land cover modifications in a mesoscale meteorological model on surface temperature and heat fluxes in the Phoenix metropolitan area.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and latent heat fluxes and therefore the ground temperature, Tg. Evaporation, E, for each grid cell temperature and heat fluxes in the Phoenix metropolitan area. S. Grossman-Clarke1, J.A. Zehnder2, and W) satellite images [2]. The data were upscaled to a 30-second grid and used to augment and correct

Hall, Sharon J.

273

Growth of Large-Area Aligned Molybdenum Nanowires by High Temperature Chemical Vapor Deposition: Synthesis, Growth Mechanism, and Device Application  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, thermogravimetry, and differential scanning calorimetry analysis, as well as structure analysis by electron on the decomposition of MoO2 vapors through condensation of its vapor at high substrate temperatures. The aligned nanowires with H2 gas.6d-f However, the reduction process degrades the crystal- linity of the nanowires

Wang, Zhong L.

274

Aging Studies of Large Area Proportional Chambers under High-Rate Irradiation with $CF_4$-based Mixtures (PART 1)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Experimental conditions at the HERA-B experiment impose very strong requirements for gaseous detectors. The charged particle fluxes through the HERA-B tracking system, varying with the radial distance $R$ from the beam line, are about $2 \\times 10^{7}/R^{2}$ particles per second, and comparable to those that will be encountered by LHC experiments. The severe radiation environment of the HERA-B experiment leads to a maximum charge deposit on a wire, within the muon detector, of 200 mC/cm per year. We report recent results of aging studies performed by irradiating proportional wire chambers filled with $Ar/CF_4/CH_4$ (74:20:6), $Ar/CF_4/CH_4$ (67:30:3), $Ar/CF_4/CO_2$ (65:30:5), $Ar/CF_4$ (70:30), $CF_4/CH_4$ (90:10), $CF_4/CH_4$ (80:20) mixtures in a three different experimental setups. The size of the irradiation zone varied in the tests from 1 cm up to 500 cm. Our experience shows that the aging rate depends not only on the total collected charge, but, in addition, on the mode of operation and area of irradi...

Danilov, M; Kvaratskheliia, T; Laptin, L; Tichomirov, I; Titov, M L; Zaitsev, Yu; Gilitsky, Yu.; Zaitsev, Yu.

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

275

Aging Studies of Large Area Proportional Chambers under High-Rate Irradiation with $CF_4$-based Mixtures (Part 2)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Experimental conditions at the HERA-B experiment impose very strong requirements for gaseous detectors. The charged particle fluxes through the HERA-B tracking system, varying with the radial distance R from the beam line, are about $2 \\times 10^{7}/R^{2}$ particles per second, and comparable to those that will be encountered by LHC experiments. The severe radiation environment of the HERA-B experiment leads to a maximum charge deposit on a wire, within the muon detector, of 200 mC/cm per year. We report recent results of aging studies performed by irradiating proportional wire chambers filled with $Ar/CF_4/CH_4$ (74:20:6), $Ar/CF_4/CH_4$ (67:30:3), $Ar/CF_4/CO_2$ (65:30:5), $Ar/CF_4$ (70:30), $CF_4/CH_4$ (90:10), $CF_4/CH_4$ (80:20) mixtures in a three different experimental setups. The size of the irradiation zone varied in the tests from 1 cm up to 500 cm. Our experience shows that the aging rate depends not only on the total collected charge, but, in addition, on the mode of operation and area of irradiat...

Danilov, M; Kvaratskheliia, T; Laptin, L; Tichomirov, I; Titov, M L; Zaitsev, Yu; Gilitsky, Yu.; Zaitsev, Yu.

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

276

Magnetic fusion energy plasma interactive and high heat flux components. Volume I. Technical assessment of the critical issues and problem areas in the plasma materials interaction field  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A technical assessment of the critical issues and problem areas in the field of plasma materials interactions (PMI) in magnetic fusion devices shows these problems to be central for near-term experiments, for intermediate-range reactor devices including D-T burning physics experiments, and for long-term reactor machines. Critical technical issues are ones central to understanding and successful operation of existing and near-term experiments/reactors or devices of great importance for the long run, i.e., ones which will require an extensive, long-term development effort and thus should receive attention now. Four subgroups were formed to assess the critical PMI issues along four major lines: (1) PMI and plasma confinement physics experiments; (2) plasma-edge modelling and theory; (3) surface physics; and (4) materials technology for in-vessel components and the first wall. The report which follows is divided into four major sections, one for each of these topics.

Conn, R.W.; Gauster, W.B.; Heifetz, D.; Marmar, E.; Wilson, K.L. (eds.)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

277

Literature and data review for the surface-water pathway: Columbia River and adjacent coastal areas. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

As part of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project, Pacific Northwest Laboratory reviewed literature and data on radionuclide concentrations and distribution in the water, sediment, and biota of the Columbia River and adjacent coastal areas. Over 600 documents were reviewed including Hanford reports, reports by offsite agencies, journal articles, and graduate theses. Certain radionuclide concentration data were used in preliminary estimates of individual dose for the 1964--1966 time period. This report summarizes the literature and database review and the results of the preliminary dose estimates.

Walters, W.H.; Dirkes, R.L.; Napier, B.A.

1992-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

278

Proceedings of US/Japan workshop, Q219 on high heat flux components and plasma surface interactions for next fusion devices  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report contains the viewgraphs from the proceedings of US/Japan Workshop on High Heat Flux Components and Plasma Surface Interactions for Next Fusion Devices. Some of the general topics covered by this report are: PFC/PSI in tokamak and helical devices; development of high heat flux components; PSIS and plasma facing materials;tritium; and material damage.

Ulrickson, M.A.; Stevens, P.L.; Hino, T.; Hirohata, Y. [eds.] [eds.

1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

279

Land-atmosphere interactions in an high resolution atmospheric simulation coupled with a surface data assimilation scheme  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A valid tool for the retrieving of the turbulent fluxes that characterize the surface energy budget is constituted by the remote sensing of land surface states. In this study sequences of satellite-derived observations ...

Entekhabi, Dara

280

Surface water processes in the Indonesian Throughflow as documented by a high-resolution coral (Delta)14C record  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

To explore the seasonal to decadal variability in surface water masses that contribute to the Indonesian Throughflow we have generated a 115-year bi-monthly coral-based radiocarbon time-series from a coral in the Makassar Straits. In the pre-bomb (pre-1955) era from 1890 to 1954, the radiocarbon time series occasionally displays a small seasonal signal (10-15{per_thousand}). After 1954 the radiocarbon record increases rapidly, in response to the increased atmospheric {sup 14}C content caused by nuclear weapons testing. From 1957 to 1986 the record displays clear seasonal variability from 15 to 60{per_thousand} and the post-bomb peak (163 per mil) occurred in 1974. The seasonal cycle of radiocarbon can be attributed to variations of surface waters passing through South Makassar Strait. Southern Makassar is under the influence of the Northwest Monsoon, which is responsible for the high Austral summer radiocarbon (North Pacific waters) and the Southeast Monsoon that flushes back a mixture of low (South Pacific and upwelling altered) radiocarbon water from the Banda Sea. The coral record also shows a significant {sup 14}C peak in 1955 due to bomb {sup 14}C water advected into this region in the form of CaCO{sub 3} particles (this implies that the particles were advected intact and then become entrapped in the coral skeleton--is this what we really mean? Wouldn't even fine particles settle out over the inferred transit time from Bikini to MAK?) or water particles with dissolved labeled CO{sub 2} produced during fallout from the Castle tests in 1954.

Fallon, S J; Guilderson, T P

2008-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high surface area" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Method of particle trajectory recognition in particle flows of high particle concentration using a candidate trajectory tree process with variable search areas  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The application relates to particle trajectory recognition from a Centroid Population comprised of Centroids having an (x, y, t) or (x, y, f) coordinate. The method is applicable to visualization and measurement of particle flow fields of high particle. In one embodiment, the centroids are generated from particle images recorded on camera frames. The application encompasses digital computer systems and distribution mediums implementing the method disclosed and is particularly applicable to recognizing trajectories of particles in particle flows of high particle concentration. The method accomplishes trajectory recognition by forming Candidate Trajectory Trees and repeated searches at varying Search Velocities, such that initial search areas are set to a minimum size in order to recognize only the slowest, least accelerating particles which produce higher local concentrations. When a trajectory is recognized, the centroids in that trajectory are removed from consideration in future searches.

Shaffer, Franklin D.

2013-03-12T23:59:59.000Z

282

Impact of surface roughness on the electrical parameters of industrial high efficiency NaOH-NaOCl textured multicrystalline silicon solar cell  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) solution (1:1 ratio by volume) based texturization process at 80-82 C is an easy, low cost and comparatively new and convenient option for fabrication of any multicrystalline silicon (mC-Si) solar cell. In the present study atomic force microscope is used to observe the intragrain surface in a miniscule area (3 {mu}m x 3 {mu}m) of NaOH-NaOCl textured surface by two and three dimensional analysis, roughness analysis and section analysis. The r.m.s value of the surface parameter of 7.0 nm ascertains the smoothness of the textured surface and further the surface reflectivity is minimized to 4-6% in the 500-1000 nm wavelength range by a proper silicon nitride anti-reflection coating. Comparing with the standard HF-HNO{sub 3}-CH{sub 3}COOH acid textured cell, the NaOH-NaOCl textured cell shows a comparatively lower value of series resistance of 7.17 m{omega}, higher value of shunt resistance of 18.4 {omega} to yield a fill factor of 0.766 leading to more than 15% cell efficiency in the industrial cell processing line. This AFM study yields different surface roughness parameters for the NaOH-NaOCl textured wafers which can be used as a reference standard for optimized texturing. (author)

Basu, P.K. [Department of Physics, Echelon Institute of Technology, Faridabad 121002, Haryana (India); Pujahari, R.M. [Department of Physics, Echelon Institute of Technology, Faridabad 121002, Haryana (India); Department of Physics, Manav Rachna International University, Faridabad 121001, Haryana (India); Kaur, Harpreet [Department of Physics, Manav Rachna International University, Faridabad 121001, Haryana (India); Department of Physics, Advanced Institute of Technology and Management, Palwal 121105, Haryana (India); Singh, Devi [Department of Physics, Manav Rachna International University, Faridabad 121001, Haryana (India); Varandani, D.; Mehta, B.R. [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology, New Delhi 110016 (India)

2010-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

283

Coupled Orbit-Attitude Dynamics of High Area-to-Mass Ratio (HAMR) Objects: Influence of Solar Radiation Pressure, Earth's Shadow and the Visibility in Light Curves  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The orbital and attitude dynamics of uncontrolled Earth orbiting objects are perturbed by a variety of sources. In research, emphasis has been put on operational space vehicles. Operational satellites typically have a relatively compact shape, and hence, a low area-to-mass ratio (AMR), and are in most cases actively or passively attitude stabilized. This enables one to treat the orbit and attitude propagation as decoupled problems, and in many cases the attitude dynamics can be neglected completely. The situation is different for space debris objects, which are in an uncontrolled attitude state. Furthermore, the assumption that a steady-state attitude motion can be averaged over data reduction intervals may no longer be valid. Additionally, a subset of the debris objects have significantly high area-to-mass ratio values, resulting in highly perturbed orbits, e.g. by solar radiation pressure, even if a stable AMR value is assumed. This assumption implies a steady-state attitude such that the average cross-sect...

Frueh, Carolin; Kelecy, Thomas

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

284

High Dispersion Spectroscopy of Solar-type Superflare Stars. I. Temperature, Surface Gravity, Metallicity, and $v \\sin i$  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We conducted high dispersion spectroscopic observations of 50 superflare stars with Subaru/HDS, and measured the stellar parameters of them. These 50 targets were selected from the solar-type (G-type main sequence) superflare stars that we had discovered from the Kepler photometric data. As a result of these spectroscopic observations, we found that more than half (34 stars) of our 50 targets have no evidence of binary system. We then estimated effective temperature ($T_{\\rm{eff}}$), surface gravity ($\\log g$), metallicity ([Fe/H]), and projected rotational velocity ($v\\sin i$) of these 34 superflare stars on the basis of our spectroscopic data. The accuracy of our estimations is higher than that of Kepler Input Catalog (KIC) values, and the differences between our values and KIC values ($(\\Delta T_{\\rm{eff}})_{\\rm{rms}} \\sim 219$K, $(\\Delta \\log g)_{\\rm{rms}} \\sim 0.37$ dex, and $(\\Delta\\rm{[Fe/H]})_{\\rm{rms}} \\sim 0.46$ dex) are comparable to the large uncertainties and systematic differences of KIC values ...

Notsu, Yuta; Maehara, Hiroyuki; Notsu, Shota; Shibayama, Takuya; Nogami, Daisaku; Shibata, Kazunari

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

Automated fit of high-dimensional potential energy surfaces using cluster analysis and interpolation over descriptors of chemical environment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present a method for fitting high-dimensional potential energy surfaces that is almost fully automated, can be applied to systems with various chemical compositions, and involves no particular choice of function form. We tested it on four systems: Ag{sub 20}, Sn{sub 6}Pb{sub 6}, Si{sub 10}, and Li{sub 8}. The cost for energy evaluation is smaller than the cost of a density functional theory (DFT) energy evaluation by a factor of 1500 for Li{sub 8}, and 60 000 for Ag{sub 20}. We achieved intermediate accuracy (errors of 0.4 to 0.8 eV on atomization energies, or, 1% to 3% on cohesive energies) with rather small datasets (between 240 and 1400 configurations). We demonstrate that this accuracy is sufficient to correctly screen the configurations with lowest DFT energy, making this function potentially very useful in a hybrid global optimization strategy. We show that, as expected, the accuracy of the function improves with an increase in the size of the fitting dataset.

Fournier, René, E-mail: renef@yorku.ca; Orel, Slava [Department of Chemistry, York University, Toronto, Ontario M3J 1P3 (Canada)] [Department of Chemistry, York University, Toronto, Ontario M3J 1P3 (Canada)

2013-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

286

Terahertz emission from (100) InAs surfaces at high excitation fluences M. Reid and R. Fedosejevsa)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ultrafast laser sources to excite photoconductive switches,1 semiconductor surfaces,2 and nonlinear using a polarization bridge ( /4 plate and Wollaston prism), with the differential photodiode signal

Reid, Matthew

287

High-reliability passivation of hydrogen-terminated diamond surface by atomic layer deposition of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Although the two-dimensional hole gas (2DHG) of a hydrogen-terminated diamond surface provides a unique p-type conducting layer for high-performance transistors, the conductivity is highly sensitive to its environment. Therefore, the surface must be passivated to preserve the 2DHG, especially at high temperature. We passivated the surface at high temperature (450?°C) without the loss of C-H surface bonds by atomic layer deposition (ALD) and investigated the thermal reliability of the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} film. As a result, C-H bonds were preserved, and the hole accumulation effect appeared after the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} deposition by ALD with H{sub 2}O as an oxidant. The sheet resistivity and hole density were almost constant between room temperature and 500?°C by the passivation with thick Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} film thicker than 38?nm deposited by ALD at 450?°C. After the annealing at 550?°C in air The sheet resistivity and hole density were preserved. These results indicate the possibility of high-temperature application of the C-H surface diamond device in air. In the case of lower deposition temperatures, the sheet resistivity increased after air annealing, suggesting an insufficient protection capability of these films. Given the result of sheet resistivity after annealing, the increase in the sheet resistivity of these samples was not greatly significant. However, bubble like patterns were observed in the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films formed from 200 to 400?°C by air annealing at 550?°C for 1 h. On the other hand, the patterns were no longer observed at 450?°C deposition. Thus, this 450?°C deposition is the sole solution to enabling power device application, which requires high reliability at high temperatures.

Daicho, Akira, E-mail: notevayas-tales@ruri.waseda.jp; Saito, Tatsuya; Kurihara, Shinichiro; Kawarada, Hiroshi, E-mail: kawarada@waseda.jp [School of Science and Engineering, Waseda University, 3-4-1 Okubo, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan); Hiraiwa, Atsushi [Institute for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Waseda University, 513 Waseda-tsurumaki, Shinjuku, Tokyo 162-0041 (Japan)

2014-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

288

tight environment high radiation area  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

mask 1 µs/frame #12;Irradiation Studies of Optical Components - II total fiber counts ~30,000 in 0, no active electronics · transmit image through flexible fiber bundle Optical Diagnostics #12;Optical-hard Sumitomo 30,000 fibers image ?? image quality comparison #12;Optical Diagnostics An optical chopper

McDonald, Kirk

289

Intrinsic Surface Stability in LiMn2-xNix04-s (x = 0.45, 0.5) High Voltage Spinel Materials for Lithium Ion Batteries  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This work reports the surface stability of the high vollage Li ion cathode LiMn2_,Ni,Ooh\\ (x = 0.5, 0.45) by comparing thin fi lm and powder composite electrodes after cycling using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The thin film electrodes offer the abili ty to probe the surface of the material without the need of a conductive agent and polymer binder typically used in composite electrodes. The resulls suggest that neither oxidation of PP6 to POF3 nor the decomposition of ethylene carbonate or dimethylene carbonate occurs on the surface of the spinel material. These resulls confirm the enhanced cycling stability and rate capability associated with the high vollage spinel material and suggests that the SE!IIayer fonns due to the reaction of electrochemically inactive components in composite electrodes with the electrolyte.

Carroll, Kyler J [University of California, San Diego; Yang, Ming-Che [University of Florida, Gainesville; Veith, Gabriel M [ORNL; Dudney, Nancy J [ORNL; Meng, Ying Shirley [University of California, San Diego

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

Large area bulk superconductors  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A bulk superconductor having a thickness of not less than about 100 microns is carried by a polycrystalline textured substrate having misorientation angles at the surface thereof not greater than about 15.degree.; the bulk superconductor may have a thickness of not less than about 100 microns and a surface area of not less than about 50 cm.sup.2. The textured substrate may have a thickness not less than about 10 microns and misorientation angles at the surface thereof not greater than about 15.degree.. Also disclosed is a process of manufacturing the bulk superconductor and the polycrystalline biaxially textured substrate material.

Miller, Dean J. (Darien, IL); Field, Michael B. (Jersey City, NJ)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

Monte Carlo radiative transfer simulation for the near-ocean-surface high-resolution downwelling irradiance statistics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present a numerical study of the near-surface underwater solar light statistics using the state-of-the-art Monte Carlo radiative transfer (RT) simulations in the coupled atmosphere-ocean system. Advanced variance-reduction ...

Xu, Zao

292

Effect of flux addition on the microstructure and hardness of TiC-reinforced ferrous surface composite layers fabricated by high-energy electron beam irradiation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Surface composites reinforced with TiC particulates were fabricated by high-energy electron-beam irradiation. In order to investigate the effects of flux addition on the TiC dispersion in surface composite layers, four kinds of powder mixtures were made by mixing TiC with 5, 10, 20, and 40 wt% of the flux components (MgO-CaO). To fabricate TiC-reinforced surface composites, the TiC-flux mixtures were deposited evenly on a plain carbon steel substrate, which was subjected to electron-beam irradiation. Microstructural analysis was conducted using X-ray diffraction and Moessbauer spectroscopy as well as optical and scanning electron microscopy. The microstructure of the surface composites was composed of a melted region, an interfacial region, a coarse-grained heat-affected zone (HAZ), a fine-grained HAZ, and an unaltered original substrate region. TiC agglomerates and residual pores were found in the melted region of materials processed without flux, but the number of agglomerates and pores are significantly decreased in materials processed with a considerable amount of flux. As a result of irradiation, TiC particles were homogeneously distributed throughout the melted region of 2.5 mm in thickness, whose hardness was greatly increased. The optimum flux amount, which resulted in surface composites containing homogeneously dispersed TiC particles, was found to be in the range of 10 to 20% to obtain excellent surface composites.

Choo, S.H.; Lee, S.; Kwon, S.J.

1999-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

293

Assessment of water resources in lead-zinc mined areas in Cherokee County, Kansas, and adjacent areas  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A study was conducted to evaluate water-resources problems related to abandoned lead and zinc mines in Cherokee County, Kansas, and adjacent areas in Missouri and Oklahoma. Past mining activities have caused changes in the hydrogeology of the area. Lead and zinc mining has caused discontinuities and perforations in the confining shale west of the Pennsylvanian-Mississippian geologic contact (referred to as the western area), which have created artificial ground-water recharge and discharge areas. Recharge to the shallow aquifer (rocks of Mississippian age) through collapses, shafts, and drill holes in the shale has caused the formation of a groundwater ''mound'' in the vicinity of the Picher Field in Kansas and Oklahoma. Discharge of mine-contaminated ground water to Tar Creek occurs in Oklahoma from drill holes and shafts where the potentiometric surface of the shallow aquifer is above the land surface. Mining of ore in the shallow aquifer has resulted in extensive fracturing and removal of material, which has created highly transmissive zones and voids and increased ground-water storage properties of the aquifer. In the area east of the Pennsylvanian-Mississippian geologic contact (referred to as the eastern area), fractured rock and tailings on the land surface increased the amount of water available for infiltration to the shallow aquifer; in the western area, tailings on the impermeable shale created artificial, perched aquifer systems that slowly drain to surface streams. 45 refs., 23 figs., 21 tabs.

Spruill, T.B.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

294

Simulation of the influence high-frequency (2 MHz) capacitive gas discharge and magnetic field on the plasma sheath near a surface in hypersonic gas flow  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The plasma sheath near the surface of a hypersonic aircraft formed under associative ionization behind the shock front shields the transmission and reception of radio signals. Using two-dimensional kinetic particle-in-cell simulations, we consider the change in plasma-sheath parameters near a flat surface in a hypersonic flow under the action of electrical and magnetic fields. The combined action of a high-frequency 2-MHz capacitive discharge, a constant voltage, and a magnetic field on the plasma sheath allows the local electron density to be reduced manyfold.

Schweigert, I. V., E-mail: ischweig@itam.nsc.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Khristianovich Institute of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics, Siberian Branch (Russian Federation)

2012-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

295

Reliability of AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors on low dislocation density bulk GaN substrate: Implications of surface step edges  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

To enable gaining insight into degradation mechanisms of AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors, devices grown on a low-dislocation-density bulk-GaN substrate were studied. Gate leakage current and electroluminescence (EL) monitoring revealed a progressive appearance of EL spots during off-state stress which signify the generation of gate current leakage paths. Atomic force microscopy evidenced the formation of semiconductor surface pits at the failure location, which corresponds to the interaction region of the gate contact edge and the edges of surface steps.

Killat, N., E-mail: Nicole.Killat@bristol.ac.uk, E-mail: Martin.Kuball@bristol.ac.uk; Montes Bajo, M.; Kuball, M., E-mail: Nicole.Killat@bristol.ac.uk, E-mail: Martin.Kuball@bristol.ac.uk [Center for Device Thermography and Reliability (CDTR), H.H. Wills Physics Laboratory, Tyndall Avenue, Bristol BS8 1TL (United Kingdom); Paskova, T. [Kyma Technologies, Inc., Raleigh, North Carolina 27617 (United States) [Kyma Technologies, Inc., Raleigh, North Carolina 27617 (United States); Materials Science and Engineering Department, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695 (United States); Evans, K. R. [Kyma Technologies, Inc., Raleigh, North Carolina 27617 (United States)] [Kyma Technologies, Inc., Raleigh, North Carolina 27617 (United States); Leach, J. [Kyma Technologies, Inc., Raleigh, North Carolina 27617 (United States) [Kyma Technologies, Inc., Raleigh, North Carolina 27617 (United States); Electrical and Computer Engineering Department, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia 23284 (United States); Li, X.; Özgür, Ü.; Morkoç, H. [Electrical and Computer Engineering Department, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia 23284 (United States)] [Electrical and Computer Engineering Department, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia 23284 (United States); Chabak, K. D.; Crespo, A.; Gillespie, J. K.; Fitch, R.; Kossler, M.; Walker, D. E.; Trejo, M.; Via, G. D.; Blevins, J. D. [Air Force Research Laboratory, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Dayton, Ohio 45433 (United States)] [Air Force Research Laboratory, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Dayton, Ohio 45433 (United States)

2013-11-04T23:59:59.000Z

296

MAGNITUDE OF IMPERVIOUS SURFACES IN URBAN AREAS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

/ac-yr Cubic Feet per Acres-Year iv #12;GIS Geographical Information System ha Hectares I Total Quality Database NURP Nationwide Urban Runoff Program P Phosphorus PLSS Public Land Survey System QA/QC Quality Assurance and Quality Control Rv Volumetric Runoff Coefficient GIS Geographical Information System

Pitt, Robert E.

297

Wellhead Protection Area Act (Nebraska)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This section regulates activities which can occur on or below the land surface of the area surrounding a wellhead. The purpose of these regulations is to limit well contamination and preserve...

298

The surface structure of SrTiO{sub 3} at high temperatures under influence of oxygen  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We use low energy electron microscopy to investigate the structure of the SrTiO{sub 3} (001) surface at elevated temperatures and different oxygen pressures. Upon varying the temperature between 500?°C and 900?°C in oxygen pressures ranging from 10{sup ?9} millibar to 10{sup ?4} millibar, two surface transitions are found to be present. The lower temperature (1 × 1) ? (2 × 1) transition that is known to occur in ultrahigh vacuum can be reversed by increasing the oxygen pressure. At higher temperatures, we observe a (2 × 1) ? disordered (1 × 1) transition which is irreversible in the experimental parameter range. The observations are expected to have a strong bearing on the growth of interface structures.

Hesselberth, M. B. S.; Molen, S. J. van der; Aarts, J. [Kamerlingh Onnes Laboratory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9504, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands)

2014-02-03T23:59:59.000Z

299

Photoelectron spectroscopic study of the surface reactivity of the high T[c] material YBa?Cu?O?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. II. EXPERIMENTAL. 2. 1. Sample preparation and cleaning. 2. 2. Plasma treatments. 2. 3. XPS and Auger spectroscopy. 2. 4. Experimental procedures. III. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS. 3. 1. Effect of surface contamination. . 3. 2. Effect of thermal..., Johnson et al 1987 and Onellion et al 1987), and a valence-band which is composed of hybridized Cu 3d and 0 2p levels located below the E~ (Kurtz et al 1987). Some XPS and Auger spectra have been taken by several groups. Temperature-dependent changes...

Liu, Hong-Xia

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

300

High-resolution shear-wave reflection profiling to image offset in unconsolidated near-surface sediments  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

S-wave reflection profiling has many theoretical advantages, when compared to P-wave profiling, such as high-resolution potential, greater sensitivities to lithologic changes and insensitivity to the water table and pore ...

Bailey, Bevin

2014-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high surface area" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

High-resolution shear-wave reflection profiling to image offset in unconsolidated near-surface sediments.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??S-wave reflection profiling has many theoretical advantages, when compared to P-wave profiling, such as high-resolution potential, greater sensitivities to lithologic changes and insensitivity to the… (more)

Bailey, Bevin

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

302

An Evaluation of the Impact of Surface Coatings on the Heat Transfer in High Temperature Ceramic Recuperators  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

COATINGS Engineering ceramics, particular ly SiC, are being investigated for use as high temperature heat exchanger materials. ORNL has conducted exposure test in real and simulated high tempera ture corrosive flue gases and these have... indicated that SiC ceramics are sucepti ble to flue gases containing sodium and potassium, compounds such as sulfates, carbonates and halides. ORNL is current ly investigating whether commercially available ceramic coatings could be from 1500 0...

Guerrero, P. S.; Rebello, W. J.; Federer, J. I.

303

A high resolution geophysical investigation of spatial sedimentary processes in a paraglacial turbid outwash fjord: Simpson Bay, Prince William Sound, Alaska  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Simpson Bay is a turbid, outwash fjord located in northeastern Prince William Sound, Alaska. A high ratio of watershead:basin surface area combined with high precipitation and an easily erodable catchment create high sediment inputs. Fresh water...

Noll, Christian John, IV

2006-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

304

High Througput Combinatorial Techniques in Hydrogen Storage Materials...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

and surface area measurements (high-throughput techniques need development). 5. Aerogels Page 2 of 5 Synthesis is based on standard sol-gel processes and should be similar to...

305

The digestive adaptation of flying vertebrates: High intestinal paracellular absorption  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The digestive adaptation of flying vertebrates: High intestinal paracellular absorption compensates analysis. Significantly greater amplification of digestive surface area by villi in small birds, also in actively flying vertebrates. digestion gut morphometrics nutrient absorption paracellular uptake Birds have

Mladenoff, David

306

High-Q operation of SRF cavities: The potential impact of thermocurrents on the RF surface resistance  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

For many new accelerator applications, superconducting radio frequency (SRF) systems are the enabling technology. In particular for CW applications, much effort is being expended to minimize the power dissipation (surface resistance) of niobium cavities. Starting in 2009, we suggested a means of reducing the residual resistance by performing a thermal cycle [1], a procedure of warming up a cavity after initial cooldown to about 20K and cooling it down again. In subsequent studies [2], this technique was used to manipulate the residual resistance by more than a factor of 2. It was postulated that thermocurrents during cooldown generate additional trapped magnetic flux that impacts the cavity quality factor. Here, we present a more extensive study that includes measurements of two additional passband modes and that confirms the effect. In this paper, we also discuss simulations that support the claim. While the layout of the cavity LHe tank system is cylindrically symmetric, we show that the temperature depende...

Vogt, J -M; Knobloch, J

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

Summary Leaf area index (LAI) is a key biophysical vari-able in most process-based forest-ecosystem models. How-  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the Ad- vanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) satel- lite-borne sensor of surface greenness). Because of the strong influence of leaf area on rates of canopy gas ex- change and energy balance, efforts

Minnesota, University of

308

Z .Surface and Coatings Technology 130 2000 164 172 Production of high-density Ni-bonded tungsten carbide  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

carbide coatings using an axially fed DC-plasmatron S. Sharafata,U , A. Kobayashib , S. Chena , N spraying; Nickel; Tungsten carbide 1. Introduction 1.1. General Since the mid-1990s, the market share of cemented Z .carbides has surpassed that of high-speed steels HSS , Z .with tungsten carbide WC having 50

Ghoniem, Nasr M.

309

US-Japan workshop Q-181 on high heat flux components and plasma-surface interactions for next devices: Proceedings  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report contain viewgraphs of papers from the following sessions: plasma facing components issues for future machines; recent PMI results from several tokamaks; high heat flux technology; plasma facing components design and applications; plasma facing component materials and irradiation damage; boundary layer plasma; plasma disruptions; conditioning and tritium; and erosion/redeposition.

McGrath, R.T. [ed.] [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)] [ed.; Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Yamashina, T. [ed.] [Hokkadio Univ. (Japan)] [ed.; Hokkadio Univ. (Japan)

1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

310

Study of Dispersion of Mass Distribution of Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Rays using a Surface Array of Muon and Electromagnetic Detectors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We consider a hypothetical observatory of ultra-high energy cosmic rays consisting of two surface detector arrays that measure independently electromagnetic and muon signals induced by air showers. Using the constant intensity cut method, sets of events ordered according to each of both signal sizes are compared giving the number of matched events. Based on its dependence on the zenith angle, a parameter sensitive to the dispersion of the distribution of the logarithmic mass of cosmic rays is introduced. The results obtained using two post-LHC models of hadronic interactions are very similar and indicate a weak dependence on details of these interactions.

Vícha, Jakub; Nosek, Dalibor; Ebr, Jan

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

311

Research Areas  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary)morphinanInformation Desert Southwest RegionatSearch Welcome toResearch Areas Our Vision National User Facilities

312

Research Areas  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary)morphinanInformation Desert Southwest RegionatSearch Welcome toResearch Areas Our Vision National User

313

de Sitter Extremal Surfaces  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We study extremal surfaces in de Sitter space in the Poincare slicing in the upper patch, anchored on spatial subregions at the future boundary ${\\cal I}^+$, restricted to constant boundary Euclidean time slices (focussing on strip subregions). We find real extremal surfaces of minimal area as the boundaries of past lightcone wedges of the subregions in question: these are null surfaces with vanishing area. We find also complex extremal surfaces as complex extrema of the area functional, and the area is not always real-valued. In $dS_4$ the area is real and has some structural resemblance with entanglement entropy in a dual $CFT_3$. There are parallels with analytic continuation from the Ryu-Takayanagi expressions for holographic entanglement entropy in $AdS$. We also discuss extremal surfaces in the $dS$ black brane and the de Sitter "bluewall" studied previously. The $dS_4$ black brane complex surfaces exhibit a real finite cutoff-independent extensive piece. In the bluewall geometry, there are real surface...

Narayan, K

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

314

Microstructure of TiB{sub 2}/carbon steel surface-alloyed materials fabricated by high-energy electron beam irradiation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The processing and the microstructural analysis of TiB{sub 2}/carbon steel surface-alloyed materials using the irradiation of a high-energy electron beam were investigated in this study. The mixtures of TiB{sub 2} powders and flux were deposited on a plain carbon steel substrate, and then electron beam was irradiated on these mixtures using an electron beam accelerator. The microstructure of the irradiated surface layer was composed of a melted region, an interfacial region, a coarse-grained heat-affected zone (HAZ), and a fine-grained HAZ. A few residual micropores were found in the melted region of the specimen processed without flux because of irregular thermal transfer, but their number was decreased in the specimens processed with a considerable amount of flux. As a result of irradiation, the Ti content was homogeneously maintained throughout the melted region, whose hardness was greatly improved. This was associated with the microstructural modification including the segregation of Ti and B along solidification cell boundaries and the formation of fine Ti(C, N) particles. The proper flux mix ratio was 15 to 30% to obtain excellent surface alloying and a homogeneous microstructure.

Euh, K. Lee, S.; Shin, K.

1999-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

Inner surface flash-over of insulator of low-inductance high-voltage self-breakdown gas switch and its application  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this paper, the inner surface flash-over of high-voltage self-breakdown switch, which is used as a main switch of pulse modulator, is analyzed in theory by employing the method of distributed element equivalent circuit. Moreover, the field distortion of the switch is simulated by using software. The results of theoretical analysis and simulation by software show that the inner surface flash-over usually starts at the junction points among the stainless steel, insulator, and insulation gas in the switch. A switch with improved structure is designed and fabricated according to the theoretical analysis and simulation results. Several methods to avoid inner surface flash-over are used to improve the structure of switch. In experiment, the inductance of the switch is no more than 100 nH, the working voltage of the switch is about 600 kV, and the output voltage and current of the accelerator is about 500 kV and 50 kA, respectively. And the zero-to-peak rise time of output voltage at matched load is less than 30 ns due to the small inductance of switch. The original switch was broken-down after dozens of experiments, and the improved switch has been worked more than 200 times stably.

Zhang, Hong-bo, E-mail: walkman67@163.com; Liu, Jin-liang [College of Opto-electronic Science and Engineering, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha, Hunan 410073 (China)] [College of Opto-electronic Science and Engineering, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha, Hunan 410073 (China)

2014-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

316

Surface cleanliness measurement procedure  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A procedure and tools for quantifying surface cleanliness are described. Cleanliness of a target surface is quantified by wiping a prescribed area of the surface with a flexible, bright white cloth swatch, preferably mounted on a special tool. The cloth picks up a substantial amount of any particulate surface contamination. The amount of contamination is determined by measuring the reflectivity loss of the cloth before and after wiping on the contaminated system and comparing that loss to a previous calibration with similar contamination. In the alternative, a visual comparison of the contaminated cloth to a contamination key provides an indication of the surface cleanliness.

Schroder, Mark Stewart (Hendersonville, NC); Woodmansee, Donald Ernest (Simpsonville, SC); Beadie, Douglas Frank (Greenville, SC)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

317

Surface rheology and interface stability.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have developed a mature laboratory at Sandia to measure interfacial rheology, using a combination of home-built, commercially available, and customized commercial tools. An Interfacial Shear Rheometer (KSV ISR-400) was modified and the software improved to increase sensitivity and reliability. Another shear rheometer, a TA Instruments AR-G2, was equipped with a du Nouey ring, bicone geometry, and a double wall ring. These interfacial attachments were compared to each other and to the ISR. The best results with the AR-G2 were obtained with the du Nouey ring. A Micro-Interfacial Rheometer (MIR) was developed in house to obtain the much higher sensitivity given by a smaller probe. However, it was found to be difficult to apply this technique for highly elastic surfaces. Interfaces also exhibit dilatational rheology when the interface changes area, such as occurs when bubbles grow or shrink. To measure this rheological response we developed a Surface Dilatational Rheometer (SDR), in which changes in surface tension with surface area are measured during the oscillation of the volume of a pendant drop or bubble. All instruments were tested with various surfactant solutions to determine the limitations of each. In addition, foaming capability and foam stability were tested and compared with the rheology data. It was found that there was no clear correlation of surface rheology with foaming/defoaming with different types of surfactants, but, within a family of surfactants, rheology could predict the foam stability. Diffusion of surfactants to the interface and the behavior of polyelectrolytes were two subjects studied with the new equipment. Finally, surface rheological terms were added to a finite element Navier-Stokes solver and preliminary testing of the code completed. Recommendations for improved implementation were given. When completed we plan to use the computations to better interpret the experimental data and account for the effects of the underlying bulk fluid.

Yaklin, Melissa A.; Cote, Raymond O.; Moffat, Harry K.; Grillet, Anne Mary; Walker, Lynn; Koehler, Timothy P.; Reichert, Matthew D. (Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA); Castaneda, Jaime N.; Mondy, Lisa Ann; Brooks, Carlton, F.

2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

Southeast Idaho Area Links  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Area Attractions and Events Area Geography Area History Area Links Driving Directions Idaho Falls Attractions and Events INL History INL Today Research Park Sagebrush Steppe...

319

Why not only electric discharge but even a minimum charge on the surface of highly sensitive explosives can catalyze their gradual exothermic decomposition and how a cloud of unipolar charged explosive particles turns into ball lightning  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Even a single excess electron or ion migrating on the surface of sensitive explosives can catalyze their gradual exothermic decomposition. Mechanisms underlying such a charge-induced gradual thermal decomposition of highly sensitive explosives can be different. If sensitive explosive is a polar liquid, intense charge-dipole attraction between excess surface charges and surrounding explosive molecules can result in repetitive attempts of solvation of these charges by polar explosive molecules. Every attempt of such uncompleted nonequilibrium solvation causes local exothermic decomposition of thermolabile polar molecules accompanied by further thermal jumping unsolvated excess charges to new surface sites. Thus, ionized mobile hot spots emerge on charged explosive surface. Stochastic migration of ionized hot spots on explosive surface causes gradual exothermic decomposition of the whole mass of the polar explosive. The similar gradual charge-catalyzed exothermic decomposition of both polar and nonpolar highly s...

Meshcheryakov, Oleg

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

320

Geologyy of the Yucca Mountain Site Area, Southwestern Nevada, Chapter in Stuckless, J.S., ED., Yucca Mountain, Nevada - A Proposed Geologic Repository for High-Level Radioactive Waste (Volume 1)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Yucca Mountain in southwestern Nevada is a prominent, irregularly shaped upland formed by a thick apron of Miocene pyroclastic-flow and fallout tephra deposits, with minor lava flows, that was segmented by through-going, large-displacement normal faults into a series of north-trending, eastwardly tilted structural blocks. The principal volcanic-rock units are the Tiva Canyon and Topopah Spring Tuffs of the Paintbrush Group, which consist of volumetrically large eruptive sequences derived from compositionally distinct magma bodies in the nearby southwestern Nevada volcanic field, and are classic examples of a magmatic zonation characterized by an upper crystal-rich (> 10% crystal fragments) member, a more voluminous lower crystal-poor (< 5% crystal fragments) member, and an intervening thin transition zone. Rocks within the crystal-poor member of the Topopah Spring Tuff, lying some 280 m below the crest of Yucca Mountain, constitute the proposed host rock to be excavated for the storage of high-level radioactive wastes. Separation of the tuffaceous rock formations into subunits that allow for detailed mapping and structural interpretations is based on macroscopic features, most importantly the relative abundance of lithophysae and the degree of welding. The latter feature, varying from nonwelded through partly and moderately welded to densely welded, exerts a strong control on matrix porosities and other rock properties that provide essential criteria for distinguishing hydrogeologic and thermal-mechanical units, which are of major interest in evaluating the suitability of Yucca Mountain to host a safe and permanent geologic repository for waste storage. A thick and varied sequence of surficial deposits mantle large parts of the Yucca Mountain site area. Mapping of these deposits and associated soils in exposures and in the walls of trenches excavated across buried faults provides evidence for multiple surface-rupturing events along all of the major faults during Pleistocene and Holocene times; these paleoseismic studies form the basis for evaluating the potential for future earthquakes and fault displacements. Thermoluminescence and U-series analyses were used to date the surficial materials involved in the Quaternary faulting events. The rate of erosional downcutting of bedrock on the ridge crests and hillslopes of Yucca Mountain, being of particular concern with respect to the potential for breaching of the proposed underground storage facility, was studied by using rock varnish cation-ratio and {sup 10}Be and {sup 36}Cl cosmogenic dating methods to determine the length of time bedrock outcrops and hillslope boulder deposits were exposed to cosmic rays, which then served as a basis for calculating long-term erosion rates. The results indicate rates ranging from 0.04 to 0.27 cm/k.y., which represent the maximum downcutting along the summit of Yucca Mountain under all climatic conditions that existed there during most of Quaternary time. Associated studies include the stratigraphy of surficial deposits in Fortymile Wash, the major drainage course in the area, which record a complex history of four to five cut-and-fill cycles within the channel during middle to late Quaternary time. The last 2 to 4 m of incision probably occurred during the last pluvial climatic period, 22 to 18 ka, followed by aggradation to the present time.

W.R. Keefer; J.W. Whitney; D.C. Buesch

2006-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high surface area" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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321

Please cite this article in press as: Nga D.T, et al. Assessing nutrient fluxes in a Vietnamese rural area despite limited and highly uncertain data. Resour Conserv Recy (2011), doi:10.1016/j.resconrec.2011.04.008  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

fertilizers. In addition, the sanitation system was also a critical source of nutrients that enter the surface sanitation systems (such as latrines and septic tanks) and were directly discharged to surface water every in a small and low-income area including two neighbouring communes in rural northern Vietnam, where

Richner, Heinz

322

Method and Case Study for Estimating the Ramping Capability of a Control Area or Balancing Authority and Implications for Moderate or High Wind Penetration: Preprint  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In several regions of the United States there has been a significant increase in wind generation capability over the past several years. As the penetration rate of wind capacity increases, grid operators and planners are increasingly concerned about accommodating the increased variability that wind contributes to the system. In this paper we examine the distinction between regulation, load following, hourly energy, and energy imbalance to understand how restructured power systems accommodate and value inter-hour ramps. We use data from two restructured markets, California and PJM, and from Western Area Power Administration's (WAPA's) Rocky Mountain control area to determine expected load-following capability in each region. Our approach is to examine the load-following capability that currently exists using data from existing generators in the region. We then examine the levels of wind penetration that can be accommodated with this capability using recently collected wind farm data. We discuss how load-following costs are captured in restructured markets, what resources are available to meet these requirements, why there are no explicit load-following tariffs, and the societal importance of being able to access generator ramping capability. Finally, the implications for wind plants and wind integration costs are examined.

Kirby, B.; Milligan, M.

2005-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

323

Research on high efficiency, large-area CuInSe{sub 2}-based thin-film modules. Annual subcontract report, 1 May 1991--30 April 1992  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Objective was to demonstrate 12.5% aperture efficient, large area (3900 cm{sup 2}) encapsulated thin thin CuInSe{sub 2} (CIS) modules. The module design consists of 53 series-connected ZnO/CdS/CIS/Mo/glass cells fabricated on a glass substrate. A baseline characterization of the CIS modules was established during Phase 1. Maps of open circuit voltage provide information on junction quality uniformity. Maps of cell voltages at fixed forward bias show variations in resistance losses due to interconnects. Individual cell I-V curves can be evaluated. Physical nature of defects is correlated using OBIC, EBIC, SEM, tape adhesion, etc. A new world record of 37.7 W and 9.7% aperture efficiency was attained for an encapsulated module; an unencapsulated CIS module plate achieved 40.8 W and 10.5% aperture efficiency.

Mitchell, K.W.; Eberspacher, C. [Siemens Solar Industries, Camarillo, CA (United States)

1993-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

324

Integrating Structure Control over Multiple Length Scales in Porous High  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

temperature catalytic applications for their high surface area and low flow resistance in combination with thermal and chemical stability. We have developed a bottom-up approach to functional, porous, high results in three-dimensionally interconnected, high-temperature ceramic materials functionalized with well

Gruner, Sol M.

325

Why not only electric discharge but even a minimum charge on the surface of highly sensitive explosives can catalyze their gradual exothermic decomposition and how a cloud of unipolar charged explosive particles turns into ball lightning  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Even a single excess electron or ion migrating on the surface of sensitive explosives can catalyze their gradual exothermic decomposition. Mechanisms underlying such a charge-induced gradual thermal decomposition of highly sensitive explosives can be different. If sensitive explosive is a polar liquid, intense charge-dipole attraction between excess surface charges and surrounding explosive molecules can result in repetitive attempts of solvation of these charges by polar explosive molecules. Every attempt of such uncompleted nonequilibrium solvation causes local exothermic decomposition of thermolabile polar molecules accompanied by further thermal jumping unsolvated excess charges to new surface sites. Thus, ionized mobile hot spots emerge on charged explosive surface. Stochastic migration of ionized hot spots on explosive surface causes gradual exothermic decomposition of the whole mass of the polar explosive. The similar gradual charge-catalyzed exothermic decomposition of both polar and nonpolar highly sensitive explosives can be also caused by intense charge-dipole attacks of surrounding water vapor molecules electrostatically attracted from ambient humid air and strongly accelerated towards charged sites on explosive surfaces. Emission of electrons, photons and heat from ionized hot spots randomly migrating on charged surface of highly sensitive explosive aerosol nanoparticles converts such particles into the form of short-circuited thermionic nanobatteries.

Oleg Meshcheryakov

2013-07-17T23:59:59.000Z

326

Compact electro-absorption modulator integrated with vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser for highly efficient millimeter-wave modulation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We demonstrate a compact electro-absorption slow-light modulator laterally-integrated with an 850?nm vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL), which enables highly efficient millimeter-wave modulation. We found a strong leaky travelling wave in the lateral direction between the two cavities via widening the waveguide width with a taper shape. The small signal response of the fabricated device shows a large enhancement of over 55?dB in the modulation amplitude at frequencies beyond 35 GHz; thanks to the photon-photon resonance. A large group index of over 150 in a Bragg reflector waveguide enables the resonance at millimeter wave frequencies for 25 ?m long compact modulator. Based on the modeling, we expect a resonant modulation at a higher frequency of 70 GHz. The resonant modulation in a compact slow-light modulator plays a significant key role for high efficient narrow-band modulation in the millimeter wave range far beyond the intrinsic modulation bandwidth of VCSELs.

Dalir, Hamed, E-mail: dalir.h.ac@m.titech.ac.jp [Precision and Intelligence Laboratory, Photonics Integration System Research Center, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259-R2-22 Nagatsuta-cho, Midori-ku, Yokohama, 226-8503 (Japan); Ahmed, Moustafa; Bakry, Ahmed [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, 80203 Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia); Koyama, Fumio [Precision and Intelligence Laboratory, Photonics Integration System Research Center, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259-R2-22 Nagatsuta-cho, Midori-ku, Yokohama, 226-8503 (Japan); Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, 80203 Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia)

2014-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

327

Comparative analysis of the high-order harmonic generation in the laser ablation plasmas prepared on the surfaces of complex and atomic targets  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We analyzed high-order harmonic generation from the plasma plumes prepared on the surfaces of complex targets. The studies of In-Ag targets showed that the characteristics of the high-order harmonics from the double-target plume were the same as those from the single-target plasmas. For the chromium-tellurium plasma, the enhancements of the 29th and 27th harmonics were obtained, thus indicating the appearance of the enhancement properties from both components of the double-target plasma. These comparative studies also showed higher enhancement of a single harmonic in the case of atomic plasma (Sb) with regard to the molecular one (InSb). The additional component can only decrease the enhancement factor of the medium, due to the change of the oscillator strength and spectral distribution of the transitions involved in the resonance enhancement of the specific harmonic order. The theoretical calculations have shown the enhancement of specific harmonics for the Sb, Te, and Cr plasmas in the double-target configurations.

Ganeev, R. A. [Scientific Association Akadempribor, Academy of Sciences of Uzbekistan, Akademgorodok, Tashkent 100125 (Uzbekistan); Institute for Solid State Physics, University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8581 (Japan); Milosevic, D. B. [Faculty of Science, University of Sarajevo, Zmaja od Bosne 35, 71000 Sarajevo (Bosnia and Herzegowina); Max-Born-Institut, Max-Born-Strasse 2a, 12489 Berlin (Germany)

2008-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

328

Green (In,Ga,Al)P-GaP light-emitting diodes grown on high-index GaAs surfaces  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We report on green (550–560?nm) electroluminescence (EL) from (Al{sub 0.5}Ga{sub 0.5}){sub 0.5}In{sub 0.5}P-(Al{sub 0.8}Ga{sub 0.2}){sub 0.5}In{sub 0.5}P double p-i-n heterostructures with monolayer-scale GaP insertions in the cladding layers and light-emitting diodes based thereupon. The structures are grown side-by-side on high-index and (100) GaAs substrates by molecular beam epitaxy. At moderate current densities (?500?A/cm{sup 2}), the EL intensity of the structures is comparable for all substrate orientations. Opposite to the (100)-grown strictures, the EL spectra of (211) and (311)-grown devices are shifted towards shorter wavelengths (?550?nm at room temperature). At high current densities (>1?kA/cm{sup 2}), a much higher EL intensity is achieved for the devices grown on high-index substrates. The integrated intensity of (311)-grown structures gradually saturates at current densities above 4?kA/cm{sup 2}, whereas no saturation is revealed for (211)-grown structures up to the current densities above 14?kA/cm{sup 2}. We attribute the effect to the surface orientation-dependent engineering of the GaP band structure, which prevents the escape of the nonequilibrium electrons into the indirect conduction band minima of the p-doped (Al{sub 0.8}Ga{sub 0.2}){sub 0.5}In{sub 0.5}P cladding layers.

Ledentsov, N. N., E-mail: nikolay.ledentsov@v-i-systems.com; Shchukin, V. A. [VI Systems GmbH, Hardenbergstr. 7, Berlin D-10623 (Germany); Lyytikäinen, J.; Okhotnikov, O. [Optoelectronics Research Centre, Tampere University of Technology, Tampere FI-33720 (Finland); Shernyakov, Yu. M.; Payusov, A. S.; Gordeev, N. Yu.; Maximov, M. V. [A. F. Ioffe Physical Technical Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Politekhnicheskaya 26, St. Petersburg 194021 (Russian Federation); Schlichting, S.; Nippert, F.; Hoffmann, A. [Institut für Festkörperphysik, Technische Universität Berlin, Hardenbergstrasse 36, Berlin D-10623 (Germany)

2014-11-03T23:59:59.000Z

329

Surface Soil  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Surface Soil Surface Soil We compare local soil samples with samples collected from northern New Mexico locations that are beyond the range of potential influence from normal...

330

Electrohydrodynamically driven large-area liquid ion sources  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A large-area liquid ion source comprises means for generating, over a large area of the surface of a liquid, an electric field of a strength sufficient to induce emission of ions from a large area of said liquid. Large areas in this context are those distinct from emitting areas in unidimensional emitters.

Pregenzer, Arian L. (Corrales, NM)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

331

Surface texture and specific adsorption sites of sol-gel synthesized anatase TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The surface properties of sol-gel synthesized anatase titania (TiO{sub 2}) nanoparticles are probed by sorptiometry, infrared absorption spectroscopy, UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and high resolution transmission electron microscopy. The results reveal strong correlations of the surface area, porosity, pyridine adsorption capacity and strength, and catalytic methylbutynol decomposition activity.

Zaki, Mohamed I., E-mail: mizaki@link.net [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Minia University, El-Minia, 61519 (Egypt); Mekhemer, Gamal A.H.; Fouad, Nasr E. [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Minia University, El-Minia, 61519 (Egypt)] [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Minia University, El-Minia, 61519 (Egypt); Jagadale, Tushar C. [Physical and Materials Chemistry Division, National Chemical Laboratory, Dr. Homi Bhabha Road, Pashan, Pune 411008 (India)] [Physical and Materials Chemistry Division, National Chemical Laboratory, Dr. Homi Bhabha Road, Pashan, Pune 411008 (India); Ogale, Satishchandra B., E-mail: sb.ogale@ncl.res.in [Physical and Materials Chemistry Division, National Chemical Laboratory, Dr. Homi Bhabha Road, Pashan, Pune 411008 (India)

2010-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

332

Site Monitoring Area Maps  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

to the Site Monitoring Area (SMA) The Site Monitoring Area sampler Control measures (best management practices) installed at the Site Monitoring Area Structures such as...

333

Wildlife Management Areas (Minnesota)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Certain areas of the State are designated as wildlife protection areas and refuges; new construction and development is restricted in these areas.

334

Smart, passive sun facing surfaces  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An article adapted for selectively utilizing solar radiation comprises an absorptive surface and a reflective surface, the absorptive surface and the reflective surface oriented to absorb solar radiation when the sun is in a relatively low position, and to reflect solar radiation when the sun is in a relatively high position. 17 figs.

Hively, L.M.

1996-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

335

Smart, passive sun facing surfaces  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An article adapted for selectively utilizing solar radiation comprises an absorptive surface and a reflective surface, the absorptive surface and the reflective surface oriented to absorb solar radiation when the sun is in a relatively low position, and to reflect solar radiation when the sun is in a relatively high position.

Hively, Lee M. (Knoxville, TN)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

336

Design, Construction, and Initial Test of High Spatial Resolution Thermometry Arrays for Detection of Surface Temperature Profiles on SRF Cavities in Super Fluid Helium  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We designed and built two high resolution (0.6-0.55mm special resolution [1.1-1.2mm separation]) thermometry arrays prototypes out of the Allen Bradley 90-120 ohm 1/8 watt resistor to measure surface temperature profiles on SRF cavities. One array was designed to be physically flexible and conform to any location on a SRF cavity; the other was modeled after the common G-10/stycast 2850 thermometer and designed to fit on the equator of an ILC (Tesla 1.3GHz) SRF cavity. We will discuss the advantages and disadvantages of each array and their construction. In addition we will present a case study of the arrays performance on a real SRF cavity TB9NR001. TB9NR001 presented a unique opportunity to test the performance of each array as it contained a dual (4mm separation) cat eye defect which conventional methods such as OST (Oscillating Superleak second-sound Transducers) and full coverage thermometry mapping were unable to distinguish between. We will discuss the new arrays ability to distinguish between the two defects and their preheating performance.

Ari Palczewski, Rongli Geng, Grigory Eremeev

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

337

Oxidation and Volatilization from Tungsten Brush High Heat Flux Armor During High Temperature Steam Exposure  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Tungsten brush accommodates thermal stresses and high heat flux in fusion reactor components such as plasma facing surfaces or armor. However, inherently higher surface areas are introduced with the brush design. We have tested a specific design of tungsten brush in steam between 500 and 1100°C. Hydrogen generation and tungsten volatilization rates were determined to address fusion safety issues. The brush prepared from 3.2-mm diameter welding rods had a packing density of 85 percent. We found that both hydrogen generation and tungsten volatilization from brush, fixtured to represent a unit within a larger component, were less than projections based upon the total integrated surface area (TSA). Steam access and the escape of hydrogen and volatile oxide from void spaces within the brush are restricted compared to specimens with more direct diffusion pathways to the test environment. Hydrogen generation rates from restrained specimens based on normal surface area (NSA) remain about five times higher than rates based on total surface areas from specimens with direct steam access. Volatilization rates from restrained specimens based upon normal surface area (NSA) were only 50 percent higher than our historic cumulative maximum flux plot (CMFP) for tungsten. This study has shown that hydrogen generation and tungsten volatilization from brush do not scale according to predictions with previously determined rates, but in fact, with higher packing density could approach those from flat surfaces.

Smolik, Galen Richard; Pawelko, Robert James; Anderl, Robert Andrew; Petti, David Andrew

2000-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

338

Wildlife Management Areas (Florida)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Certain sites in Florida are designated as wildlife management areas, and construction and development is heavily restricted in these areas.

339

Exploring the nature of surface barriers on MOF Zn(tbip) by applying IR microscopy in high temporal and spatial resolution  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

(propane) profiles in nanoporous materials (MOF Zn(tbip)) during transient sorption experiments, are found to exhibit notably reduced surface resistances while, with increasing time of storage under

Li, Jing

340

A High shear stress segment along the San Andreas Fault: Inferences based on near-field stress direction and stress magnitude observations in the Carrizo Plain Area  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Nearly 200 new in-situ determinations of stress directions and stress magnitudes near the Carrizo plain segment of the San Andreas fault indicate a marked change in stress state occurring within 20 km of this principal transform plate boundary. A natural consequence of this stress transition is that if the observed near-field ``fault-oblique`` stress directions are representative of the fault stress state, the Mohr-Coulomb shear stresses resolved on San Andreas sub-parallel planes are substantially greater than previously inferred based on fault-normal compression. Although the directional stress data and near-hydrostatic pore pressures, which exist within 15 km of the fault, support a high shear stress environment near the fault, appealing to elevated pore pressures in the fault zone (Byerlee-Rice Model) merely enhances the likelihood of shear failure. These near-field stress observations raise important questions regarding what previous stress observations have actually been measuring. The ``fault-normal`` stress direction measured out to 70 km from the fault can be interpreted as representing a comparable depth average shear strength of the principal plate boundary. Stress measurements closer to the fault reflect a shallower depth-average representation of the fault zone shear strength. If this is true, only stress observations at fault distances comparable to the seismogenic depth will be representative of the fault zone shear strength. This is consistent with results from dislocation monitoring where there is pronounced shear stress accumulation out to 20 km of the fault as a result of aseismic slip within the lower crust loading the upper locked section. Beyond about 20 km, the shear stress resolved on San Andreas fault-parallel planes becomes negligible. 65 refs., 15 figs.

Castillo, D. A., [Department of Geology and Geophysics, University of Adelaide (Australia); Younker, L.W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

1997-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high surface area" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Structured surfaces for hemocompatibility  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The rise of micro- and nano-technologies has brought to light intriguing examples of scale-driven performance in a diverse array of fields. The quest to create highly hydrophobic surfaces is one such field. The application ...

Schrauth, Anthony J

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

342

Coal surface structure and thermodynamics. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Coals surfaces were studied using static surface adsorption measurements, low angle x-ray scattering (LAXS), inverse gas chromatography (IGC) and a new {sup 13}C NMR relaxation technique. A comparison of surface areas determined by hydrocarbon gas adsorption and LAXS led to the twin conclusions that the hydrocarbons had to diffuse through the solid to reach isolated pores and that the coal pores do not form interconnected networks, but are largely isolated. This conclusion was confirmed when IGC data for small hydrocarbons showed no discontinuities in their size dependence as usually observed with porous solids. IGC is capable of providing adsorption thermodynamics of gases on coal surfaces. The interactions of non-polar molecules and coal surfaces are directly proportioned to the gas molecular polarizability. For bases, the adsorption enthalpy is equal to the polarizability interaction plus the heat of hydrogen bond formation with phenol. Amphoteric molecules have more complex interactions. Mineral matter can have highly specific effects on surface interactions, but with most of the molecules studied is not an important factor.

Larsen, J.W.; Wernett, P.C.; Glass, A.S.; Quay, D.; Roberts, J.

1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

343

Dropwise Condensation on Micro- and Nanostructured Surfaces  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this review we cover recent developments in the area of surface- enhanced dropwise condensation against the background of earlier work. The development of fabrication techniques to create surface structures at the micro- ...

Miljkovic, Nenad

344

Structural, chemical, and electronic state on La[subscript 0.7]Sr[subscript 0.3]MnO[subscript 3] dense thin-film surfaces at high temperature - Surface segregation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The evolution of the surface topographic and electronic structure and chemical state of the La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 (LSMO) thin films were probed using Scanning Tunneling microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy to identify ...

Jalili, Helia

345

Variable area light reflecting assembly  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Device for tracking daylight and projecting it into a building. The device tracks the sun and automatically adjusts both the orientation and area of the reflecting surface. The device may be mounted in either a wall or roof of a building. Additionally, multiple devices may be employed in a light shaft in a building, providing daylight to several different floors. The preferred embodiment employs a thin reflective film as the reflecting device. One edge of the reflective film is fixed, and the opposite end is attached to a spring-loaded take-up roller. As the sun moves across the sky, the take-up roller automatically adjusts the angle and surface area of the film. Additionally, louvers may be mounted at the light entrance to the device to reflect incoming daylight in an angle perpendicular to the device to provide maximum reflective capability when daylight enters the device at non-perpendicular angles.

Howard, Thomas C. (Raleigh, NC)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

346

Variable area light reflecting assembly  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Device is described for tracking daylight and projecting it into a building. The device tracks the sun and automatically adjusts both the orientation and area of the reflecting surface. The device may be mounted in either a wall or roof of a building. Additionally, multiple devices may be employed in a light shaft in a building, providing daylight to several different floors. The preferred embodiment employs a thin reflective film as the reflecting device. One edge of the reflective film is fixed, and the opposite end is attached to a spring-loaded take-up roller. As the sun moves across the sky, the take-up roller automatically adjusts the angle and surface area of the film. Additionally, louvers may be mounted at the light entrance to the device to reflect incoming daylight in an angle perpendicular to the device to provide maximum reflective capability when daylight enters the device at non-perpendicular angles. 9 figs.

Howard, T.C.

1986-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

347

The structures of CO, NO and benzene on various transition metal surfaces: Overview of LEED (low-energy electron diffraction) and HREELS (high-resolution electron energy loss) results  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Recent results are summarized concerning the adsorption structures of carbon monoxide (CO) and nitric oxide (NO) chemisorbed on various transition metal surfaces, and of benzene (C6H6) on Pd, Rh and Pt(111). These results were for the most part obtained with intensity analysis of low-energy electron diffraction (LEED) and high-resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy (HREELS).

Ohtani, H.; Van Hove, M.A.; Somorjai, G.A.

1987-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

348

area northern territory: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

LOGAN, C.A. 1987. Fluctuations in fall and winter territory Lougheed, Stephen 52 Evaluation of Land Surface Models in Reproducing Satellite Derived Leaf Area Index over the...

349

Tools for measuring surface cleanliness  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A procedure and tools for quantifying surface cleanliness are described. Cleanliness of a target surface is quantified by wiping a prescribed area of the surface with a flexible, bright white cloth swatch, preferably mounted on a special tool. The cloth picks up a substantial amount of any particulate surface contamination. The amount of contamination is determined by measuring the reflectivity loss of the cloth before and after wiping on the contaminated system and comparing that loss to a previous calibration with similar contamination. In the alternative, a visual comparison of the contaminated cloth to a contamination key provides an indication of the surface cleanliness.

Schroder, Mark Stewart (Hendersonville, NC); Woodmansee, Donald Ernest (Simpsonville, SC); Beadie, Douglas Frank (Greenville, SC)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

350

AFM CHARACTERIZATION OF LASER INDUCED DAMAGE ON CDZNTE CRYSTAL SURFACES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Semi-conducting CdZnTe (or CZT) crystals can be used in a variety of detector-type applications. CZT shows great promise for use as a gamma radiation spectrometer. However, its performance is adversely affected by point defects, structural and compositional heterogeneities within the crystals, such as twinning, pipes, grain boundaries (polycrystallinity), secondary phases and in some cases, damage caused by external forces. One example is damage that occurs during characterization of the surface by a laser during Raman spectroscopy. Even minimal laser power can cause Te enriched areas on the surface to appear. The Raman spectra resulting from measurements at moderate intensity laser power show large increases in peak intensity that is attributed to Te. Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) was used to characterize the extent of damage to the CZT crystal surface following exposure to the Raman laser. AFM data reveal localized surface damage in the areas exposed to the Raman laser beam. The degree of surface damage to the crystal is dependent on the laser power, with the most observable damage occurring at high laser power. Moreover, intensity increases in the Te peaks of the Raman spectra are observed even at low laser power with little to no visible damage observed by AFM. AFM results also suggest that exposure to the same amount of laser power yields different amounts of surface damage depending on whether the exposed surface is the Te terminating face or the Cd terminating face of CZT.

Hawkins, S; Lucile Teague, L; Martine Duff, M; Eliel Villa-Aleman, E

2008-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

351

Closeout of Advanced Boron and Metal Loaded High Porosity Carbons.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Penn State effort explored the development of new high-surface-area materials for hydrogen storage, materials that could offer enhancement in the hydrogen binding energy through a direct chemical modification of the framework in high specific-surface-area platforms. The team chemically substituted boron into the hexagonal sp2 carbon framework, dispersed metal atoms bound to the boro-carbon structure, and generated the theory of novel nanoscale geometries that can enhance storage through chemical frustration, sheet curvature, electron deficiency, large local fields and mixed hybridization states. New boro-carbon materials were synthesized by high temperature plasma, pyrolysis of boron-carbon precursor molecules, and post-synthesis modification of carbons. Hydrogen uptake has been assessed, and several promising leads have been identified, with the requirement to simultaneously optimize total surface area while maintaining the enhanced hydrogen binding energies already demonstrated.

Peter C. Eklund (deceased); T. C. Mike Chung; Henry C. Foley; Vincent H. Crespi

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

352

area mercantour massif: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

image through flexible fiber bundle One set of optics per viewport 11 12; tight environment high radiation area non-serviceable area passive components...

353

Designing liquid repellent surfaces for fabrics, feathers and fog  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Omniphobicity refers to a property of surfaces which are not wetted by water, oils, alcohols and other low surface tension liquids. Robust omniphobic surfaces can be applied in many areas including fabrics with chemical / ...

Chhatre, Shreerang S. (Shreerang Sharad)

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

354

Hydrologically Sensitive Areas: Variable Source Area Hydrology  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Hydrologically Sensitive Areas: Variable Source Area Hydrology Implications for Water Quality Risk hydrology was developed and applied to the New York City (NYC) water supply watersheds. According and are therefore hydrologically sensitive with respect to their potential to transport contaminants to perennial

Walter, M.Todd

355

AREA COORDINATOR RESIDENTIAL EDUCATION  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

AREA COORDINATOR RESIDENTIAL EDUCATION VANDERBILT UNIVERSITY, NASHVILLE, TENNESSEE The Office of Housing and Residential Education at Vanderbilt University is seeking applicants for an Area Coordinator. The Area Coordinator is responsible for assisting in the management and operation of a residential area

Bordenstein, Seth

356

Electron tunneling characteristics on La[subscript 0.7]Sr[subscript 0.3]MnO[subscript 3] thin-film surfaces at high temperature  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We report on the electron tunneling characteristics on La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 (LSM) thin-film surfaces up to 580?°C in 10[superscript ?3]?mbar oxygen pressure, using scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy (STM/STS). A thresholdlike ...

Katsiev, Khabiboulakh

357

[27] Lorensen WE, Cline HE (1987) Marching cubes: A high resolution 3D surface construction algorithm. Computer Graphics 21:163--169  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

algorithm. Computer Graphics 21:163--169 [28] Meyers D, Skinner S, Sloan K (1992) Surfaces from contours. ACM Trans. on Graphics 11:228-- 258 [29] Nielson GM, Hamann B (1991) The asymptotic decider: Resolving for branching contour­defined objects. Computer Graphics 15:242--270 [33] Sloan KR, Painter J (1988) Pessimal

Tal, Ayellet

358

Surface Characterization of Stainless Steel Part by Eddy Current  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has nearly a 40 year history of research and development in the field of nondestructive evaluation (NDE). One area of NDE expertise at PNNL is electromagnetic testing which includes a field of eddy current testing (ET). One benefit is that ET can typically be performed at high speeds, and as a result has found many applications in process monitoring and poduction lines. ET has been used in the nuclear, aerospace, and automotive industries for many years. Et technology lends itself well to the detection of near-surface or surface breaking defects such as surface scratches. This paper provides an overview of theory regarding the usage of ET, selected application studies performed by PNNL, a safety analysis, and a wrtie up pertaining to the operations of ET to detect surface scratches.

Andersen, Eric S.; Hockey, Ronald L.; Prince, James M.; Good, Morris S.

2003-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

359

Method for lubricating contacting surfaces  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method is provided for tribological lubrication of sliding contact surfaces, where two surfaces are in contact and in motion relative to each other, operating in a vapor-phase environment containing at least one alcohol compound at a concentration sufficiently high to provide one monolayer of coverage on at least one of the surfaces, where the alcohol compound continuously reacts at the surface to provide lubrication.

Dugger, Michael T. (Tijeras, NM); Ohlhausen, James A. (Albuquerque, NM); Asay, David B. (Boalsburg, PA); Kim, Seong H. (State College, PA)

2011-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

360

Eects of convection instability due to incompatibility between ocean dynamics and surface forcings  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

- bility between a surface temperature climatology and a given ocean model, into which the climatology by thermal and wind forcing only. Initially, the temperature climatology is forcefully assimilated climatology. In areas characterized by sharp oceanic fronts and high convective activity, the OGCM, due

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high surface area" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Surface Science Prospectives Weakly bound buffer layers: A versatile template for metallic nano-clusters  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

at sub-micron width, millimeter long, were obtained experimentally, with line width determined are often used as convenient model systems for industrial supported catalysts that could be studied under- tal particles supported on high surface area materials, e.g. silica, alumina, titania or carbon, under

Asscher, Micha

362

Geothermal br Resource br Area Geothermal br Resource br Area...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Basalt K Eburru Geothermal Area Eburru Geothermal Area East African Rift System Kenya Rift Basalt Fukushima Geothermal Area Fukushima Geothermal Area Northeast Honshu Arc...

363

Fate of Brine Applied to Unpaved Roads at a Radioactive Waste Subsurface Disposal Area  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Between 1984 and 1993, MgCl2 brine was used to suppress dust on unpaved roads at a radioactive waste subsurface disposal area. Because Cl– might enhance corrosion of buried metals in the waste, we investigated the distribution and fate of Cl– in the vadose zone using pore water samples collected from suction lysimeters and soluble salt concentrations extracted from sediment samples. The Cl/Br mass ratio and the total dissolved Cl– concentration of pore water show that brine contamination occurs primarily within 13 m of treated roads, but can extend as much as 30 m laterally in near-surface sedimentary deposits. Within the deep vadose zone, which consists of interlayered basalt lava flows and sedimentary interbeds, brine has moved up to 110 m laterally. This lateral migration suggests formation of perched water and horizontal transport during periods of high recharge. In a few locations, brine migrated to depths of 67 m within 3 to 5 yr. Elevated Cl– concentrations were found to depths of 2 m in roadbed material. In drainage ditches along roads, where runoff accumulates and recharge of surface water is high, Cl– was flushed from the sediments in 3 to 4 yr. In areas of lower recharge, Cl– remained in the sediments after 5 yr. Vertical brine movement is directly related to surface recharge through sediments. The distribution of Cl– in pore water and sediments is consistent with estimates of vadose zone residence times and spatial distribution of surface water recharge from other investigations at the subsurface disposal area.

Larry C. Hull; Carolyn W. Bishop

2004-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

364

Programmable surfaces  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Robotic vehicles walk on legs, roll on wheels, are pulled by tracks, pushed by propellers, lifted by wings, and steered by rudders. All of these systems share the common character of momentum transport across their surfaces. ...

Sun, Amy (Amy Teh-Yu)

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

365

Field studies of the potential for wind transport of plutonium- contaminated soils at sites in Areas 6 and 11, Nevada Test Site  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report describes and documents a series of field experiments carried out in Areas 6 and 11 of the Nevada Test Site in June and July 1994 to determine parameters of boundary layer winds, surface characteristics, and vegetation cover that can be used to predict dust emissions from the affected sites. Aerodynamic roughness of natural sites is determined largely by the lateral cover of the larger and more permanent roughness elements (shrubs). These provide a complete protection of the surface from wind erosion. Studies using a field-portable wind tunnel demonstrated that natural surfaces in the investigated areas of the Nevada Test Site are stable except at very high wind speeds (probably higher than normally occur, except perhaps in dust devils). However, disturbance of silty-clay surfaces by excavation devices and vehicles reduces the entrainment threshold by approximately 50% and makes these areas potentially very susceptible to wind erosion and transport of sediments.

Lancaster, N.; Bamford, R.; Metzger, S. [University and Community Coll. System of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States). Quaternary Sciences Center, Desert Research Institute

1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

366

METROPOLITAN STATISTICAL AREA  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

METROPOLITAN STATISTICAL AREA OUTLOOK MORGANTOWN COLLEGE OF BUSINESS AND ECONOMICS Bureau to be repeated over the next five years. The Morgantown Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) had an average annual

Mohaghegh, Shahab

367

Wetland Preservation Areas (Minnesota)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

A wetland owner can apply to the host county for designation of a wetland preservation area. Once designated, the area remains designated until the owner initiates expiration, except where a state...

368

Wildlife Management Areas (Maryland)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Wildlife Management Areas exist in the State of Maryland as wildlife sanctuaries, and vehicles, tree removal, and construction are severely restricted in these areas. Some of these species are also...

369

Comparisons between Nimbus 6 satellite and rawinsonde soundings for several geographical areas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

geographical areas considered in this study (Area I ? central United States; Area II Caribbean Sea; Area III ? central Canada; and Area IV ? western United States) Surface map covering Areas I, II and III at 1800 GET on 25 August 1975 (contours... in the layers surface to 500 mb, 500 to 300 mb, and 300 to 100 mb for Area III (Canada) 34 19 Cumulative frequency distributions of discrepancies in temperature in the layers surface to 500 mb, 500 to 300 mb, and 300 to 100 mb for Area IV (western United...

Chou, Nine-Min

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

370

Protected Areas Stacy Philpott  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

· Convention of Biological Diversity, 1992 #12;IUCN Protected Area Management Categories Ia. Strict Nature. Protected Landscape/ Seascape VI. Managed Resource Protected Area #12;Ia. Strict Nature Preserves and Ib. Wilderness Areas · Natural preservation · Research · No · No #12;II. National Parks · Ecosystem protection

Gottgens, Hans

371

High-energy detector  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The preferred embodiments are directed to a high-energy detector that is electrically shielded using an anode, a cathode, and a conducting shield to substantially reduce or eliminate electrically unshielded area. The anode and the cathode are disposed at opposite ends of the detector and the conducting shield substantially surrounds at least a portion of the longitudinal surface of the detector. The conducting shield extends longitudinally to the anode end of the detector and substantially surrounds at least a portion of the detector. Signals read from one or more of the anode, cathode, and conducting shield can be used to determine the number of electrons that are liberated as a result of high-energy particles impinge on the detector. A correction technique can be implemented to correct for liberated electron that become trapped to improve the energy resolution of the high-energy detectors disclosed herein.

Bolotnikov, Aleksey E. (South Setauket, NY); Camarda, Giuseppe (Farmingville, NY); Cui, Yonggang (Upton, NY); James, Ralph B. (Ridge, NY)

2011-11-22T23:59:59.000Z

372

Lecture Ch. 5a Surface tension (Kelvin effect)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Lecture Ch. 5a · Surface tension (Kelvin effect) ­ Hygroscopic growth (subsaturated humidity Surface Tension · By definition · By 1st Law (modified for surface area change) Kelvin Effect · Force: What happens to condensed H2O? ­ Precipitation processes Surface Thermodynamics · Surfaces require

Russell, Lynn

373

Fermi LARGE AREA TELESCOPE DETECTION OF TWO VERY-HIGH-ENERGY (E > 100 GeV) ?-RAY PHOTONS FROM THE z = 1.1 BLAZAR PKS 0426–380  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We report the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) detection of two very-high-energy (VHE, E > 100 GeV) ?-ray photons from the directional vicinity of the distant (redshift, z = 1.1) blazar PKS 0426–380. The null hypothesis that both the 134 and 122 GeV photons originate from unrelated sources can be rejected at the 5.5? confidence level. We therefore claim that at least one of the two VHE photons is securely associated with PKS 0426–380, making it the most distant VHE emitter known to date. The results are in agreement with recent Fermi-LAT constraints on the extragalactic background light (EBL) intensity, which imply a z ? 1 horizon for ? 100 GeV photons. The LAT detection of the two VHE ?-rays coincided roughly with flaring states of the source, although we did not find an exact correspondence between the VHE photon arrival times and the flux maxima at lower ?-ray energies. Modeling the ?-ray continuum of PKS 0426–380 with daily bins revealed a significant spectral hardening around the time of the first VHE event detection (LAT photon index ? ? 1.4) but on the other hand no pronounced spectral changes near the detection time of the second one. This combination implies a rather complex variability pattern of the source in ?-rays during the flaring epochs. An additional flat component is possibly present above several tens of GeV in the EBL-corrected Fermi-LAT spectrum accumulated over the ?8 month high state.

Tanaka, Y. T.; Mizuno, T. [Hiroshima Astrophysical Science Center, Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8526 (Japan)] [Hiroshima Astrophysical Science Center, Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8526 (Japan); Cheung, C. C.; Dermer, C. D. [Space Science Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375-5352 (United States)] [Space Science Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375-5352 (United States); Inoue, Y. [W. W. Hansen Experimental Physics Laboratory, Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Department of Physics and SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States)] [W. W. Hansen Experimental Physics Laboratory, Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Department of Physics and SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Stawarz, ?. [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, JAXA, 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, Chuo-ku, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan)] [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, JAXA, 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, Chuo-ku, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan); Ajello, M. [Space Sciences Laboratory, 7 Gauss Way, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-7450 (United States)] [Space Sciences Laboratory, 7 Gauss Way, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-7450 (United States); Wood, D. L. [Praxis Inc., Alexandria, VA 22303 (United States)] [Praxis Inc., Alexandria, VA 22303 (United States); Chekhtman, A. [Center for Earth Observing and Space Research, College of Science, George Mason University, Fairfax, VA 22030 (United States)] [Center for Earth Observing and Space Research, College of Science, George Mason University, Fairfax, VA 22030 (United States); Fukazawa, Y.; Ohno, M. [Department of Physical Sciences, Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8526 (Japan)] [Department of Physical Sciences, Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8526 (Japan); Paneque, D. [Max-Planck-Institut für Physik, D-80805 München (Germany)] [Max-Planck-Institut für Physik, D-80805 München (Germany); Thompson, D. J., E-mail: ytanaka@hep01.hepl.hiroshima-u.ac.jp [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

374

Liquid Microjunction Surface Sampling Coupled with High-Pressure Liquid Chromatography-Electrospray Ionization-Mass Spectrometry for Analysis of Drugs and Metabolites in Whole-Body Thin Tissue Sections  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this work, a commercially available autosampler was adapted to perform direct liquid microjunction (LMJ) surface sampling followed by a high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) separation of the extract components and detection with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). To illustrate the utility of coupling a separation with this direct liquid extraction based surface sampling approach, four different organs (brain, lung, kidney, and liver) from whole-body thin tissue sections of propranolol dosed and control mice were examined. The parent drug was observed in the chromatograms of the surface sampling extracts from all the organs of the dosed mouse examined. In addition, two isomeric phase II metabolites of propranolol (an aliphatic and an aromatic hydroxypropranolol glucuronide) were observed in the chromatograms of the extracts from lung, kidney, and liver. Confirming the presence of one or the other or both of these glucuronides in the extract from the various organs was not possible without the separation. These drug and metabolite data obtained using the LMJ surface sampling/HPLC-MS method and the results achieved by analyzing similar samples by conventional extraction of the tissues and subsequent HPLC-MS analysis were consistent.

Kertesz, Vilmos [ORNL; Van Berkel, Gary J [ORNL

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

375

Application of surface energy measurements to evaluate moisture susceptibility of asphalt and aggregates  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

is assessed using surface energy measurements and dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA). Surface energy is defined as the energy needed to create a new unit surface area of material in vacuum condition. Surface energy measurements are used to compute the adhesive...

Zollinger, Corey James

2005-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

376

E-Print Network 3.0 - area plymouth massachusetts Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Seacoast area high schools & Coe Brown... .862.2881 NH North Country, Sullivan County (Lebanon, Claremont, etc), Concord area high schools Elisabeth... Williams...

377

GUIDELINES MANUAL FOR SURFACE MONITORING OF GEOTHERMAL AREAS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and Otte, C. (eds. ), Geothermal Energy: Stanford Universityfor the Development of Geothermal Energy Resources , JetPotential Use of Geothermal Energy f o r Power Generation

Til, C. J. Van

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

378

accessible surface area: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

INFORMATION supervisor, UCPD and the issuing department's Access Controller. A UC police report reference number or card key to anyone, unless told to do so by the issuing...

379

accessible surface areas: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

INFORMATION supervisor, UCPD and the issuing department's Access Controller. A UC police report reference number or card key to anyone, unless told to do so by the issuing...

380

Surface Gas Sampling At Lassen Volcanic National Park Area (Janik...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Date Usefulness not indicated DOE-funding Unknown References Cathy J. Janik, Marcia K. McLaren (2010) Seismicity And Fluid Geochemistry At Lassen Volcanic National Park,...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high surface area" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Surface Gas Sampling At International Geothermal Area Mexico (Norman, Et  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia:FAQ < RAPID Jump to:Seadov Pty LtdSteen, Minnesota:36052°,Sunfield,FarmsSupport Resources, Inc1983) |

382

Size dependent specific surface area of nanoporous film assembled by  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administrationcontroller systemsBi (2)SharingTiO2(110). | EMSL Imagingiron-iron oxidecore-shell

383

Characterization of surface and layered films with cluster secondary ion mass spectrometry  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

chamber is made of stainless steel tube, with most of the surface area (80%) replaced with a 0.01-inch diameter tungsten wire grid. Another tungsten wire (electron ionization filament) is wrapped around the electrode with ~ 5 mm distance from... sparking between the high voltage components and the insulators, which ultimately leads to unstable performance of the ion source. The thermal electron emission tungsten filament deteriorates with usage as well. Signs of an aged filament include: high...

Li, Zhen

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

384

Surface Science Laboratory for Studying the Surfaces of Superconducting Radio Frequency Cavities  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A Surface Science Laboratory (SSL) has been established at JLab to study surfaces relevant to superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities. Current operational facilities include a scanning electron microscope equipped with energy dispersive x-ray analysis, a secondary ion mass spectrometry, a metallographic optical microscope, a transmission electron microscope, a high precision and large scan area 3-D profilometer, a scanning field emission microscope, and a fully equipped sample preparation room. A scanning Auger microscope is being commissioned, and will be available for routine usage soon. Results from typical examples of the R&D projects on SRF cavities that were supported in the past through the use of the facilities in the SSL will be briefly reported.

Andy Wu

2003-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

385

AREA 5 RWMS CLOSURE  

National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

TRU material in the trench because there is no groundwater pathway under foreseeable climate conditions. The Area 5 RWMS probabilistic PA model can be modified and used to...

386

Groundwater Management Areas (Texas)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This legislation authorizes the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality and the Texas Water Development Board to establish Groundwater Management Areas to provide for the conservation,...

387

Protecting Our Water: Tracking Sources of Bacterial Contamination Numerous surface waterbodies in Texas are classified as having high levels of fecal coliform bacteria, an indicator of fecal pollution.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in Texas are classified as having high levels of fecal coliform bacteria, an indicator of fecal pollution. coli and other fecal coliform bacteria do not provide information on whether the source of pollution of pollution need to be identified to implement effective pollution control strategies to improve water quality

388

Computing hypersurfaces which minimize surface energy plus bulk energy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the energy of an interface surface, where the energy might be just area, or could have a density dependent curvature associated to the energy density ; if 1 so that the surface energy is just area[Page 17] Computing hypersurfaces which minimize surface energy plus bulk energy John M. Sullivan

Sullivan, John M.

389

AiR surface: AiR surface 1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

AiR surface: 1 PDA AiR surface 1 1: AiR surface () () 2 [1] [2] 3 AiR surface AiR surface surface surface surface 3.1 surface [3]( 3 ) surface 3.2 surface surface AiR surface 4 AiR surface surface AiR surface: Virtual Touch Panel

Tanaka, Jiro

390

Synthesis of Highly Porous Catalytic Layers for Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cell Based on Carbon Aerogels  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Aerogels J. Mariea , S. Berthon-Fabrya , P. Acharda , M. Chatenetb , E. Chainetb , R. Pirardc , N. Cornetd and characterized carbon aerogels which exhibit high surface area, high porous volume and adjustable pore carbon aerogels with 2 different Nafion loadings. Finally, we characterized the structure

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

391

Electrochimica Acta 52 (2007) 49424946 High-performance microfluidic vanadium redox fuel cell  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

vanadium redox fuel cell Erik Kjeanga,c, Brenton T. Proctora,c, Alexandre G. Brolob,c, David A. Harringtonb a new microfluidic fuel cell design with high-surface area porous carbon electrodes and high aspect ratio channel, using soluble vanadium redox species as fuel and oxidant. The device exhibits a peak

Brolo, Alexandre G.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

392

Heavy-metal contamination on training ranges at the Grafenwoehr Training Area, Germany  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Large quantities of lead and other heavy metals are deposited in the environment of weapons ranges during training exercises. This study was conducted to determine the type, degree, and extent of heavy-metal contamination on selected handgun, rifle, and hand-grenade ranges at Grafenwoehr Training Area, Germany. Soil, vegetation, and surface-water samples were collected and analyzed using the inductively-coupled plasma atomic-emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) method and the toxic characterization leaching procedure (TCLP). The ICP-AES results show that above-normal levels of lead and copper are in the surface soil at the handgun range, high concentrations of lead and copper are in the berm and soil surface at the rifle range, and elevated levels of cadmium and above-normal concentrations of arsenic, copper, and zinc are present in the surface soil at the hand-grenade range. The TCLP results show that surface soils can be considered hazardous waste because of lead content at the rifle range and because of cadmium concentration at the hand-grenade range. Vegetation at the handgun and rifle ranges has above-normal concentrations of lead. At the hand-grenade range, both vegetation and surface water have high levels of cadmium. A hand-held X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrum analyzer was used to measure lead concentrations in soils in a field test of the method. Comparison of XRF readings with ICP-AES results for lead indicate that the accuracy and precision of the hand-held XRF unit must improve before the unit can be used as more than a screening tool. Results of this study show that heavy-metal contamination at all three ranges is limited to the surface soil; heavy metals are not being leached into the soil profile or transported into adjacent areas.

Zellmer, S.D.; Schneider, J.F.

1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

393

Surface compression *  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

89-0455), and the Army High Performance Computing Research Center. Correspondence to: RA. DeVore, Department of Mathematics, University of South

394

The production of acid mine drainage (AMD) from sur-face and underground coal mines in northern West Virginia  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

West Virginia is a major environmental problem and continues to receive much attention in affected (Figure 1) has produced some of the worst AMD problems in West Virginia surface mines due to low pH, high was successfully completed by Nobes and McCahon (1999). Data were collected over a mine spoil area in northern West

Wilson, Thomas H.

395

Observation of dynamic water microadsorption on Au surface  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Experimental and theoretical research on water wettability, adsorption, and condensation on solid surfaces has been ongoing for many decades because of the availability of new materials, new detection and measurement techniques, novel applications, and different scales of dimensions. Au is a metal of special interest because it is chemically inert, has a high surface energy, is highly conductive, and has a relatively high melting point. It has wide applications in semiconductor integrated circuitry, microelectromechanical systems, microfluidics, biochips, jewelry, coinage, and even dental restoration. Therefore, its surface condition, wettability, wear resistance, lubrication, and friction attract a lot of attention from both scientists and engineers. In this paper, the authors experimentally investigated Au{sub 2}O{sub 3} growth, wettability, roughness, and adsorption utilizing atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, reflectance spectrometry, and contact angle measurement. Samples were made using a GaAs substrate. Utilizing a super-hydrophilic Au surface and the proper surface conditions of the surrounding GaAs, dynamic microadsorption of water on the Au surface was observed in a clean room environment. The Au surface area can be as small as 12??m{sup 2}. The adsorbed water was collected by the GaAs groove structure and then redistributed around the structure. A model was developed to qualitatively describe the dynamic microadsorption process. The effective adsorption rate was estimated by modeling and experimental data. Devices for moisture collection and a liquid channel can be made by properly arranging the wettabilities or contact angles of different materials. These novel devices will be very useful in microfluid applications or biochips.

Huang, Xiaokang, E-mail: xiaokang.huang@tqs.com; Gupta, Gaurav; Gao, Weixiang; Tran, Van; Nguyen, Bang; McCormick, Eric; Cui, Yongjie; Yang, Yinbao; Hall, Craig; Isom, Harold [TriQuint Semiconductor, Inc., 500 W Renner Road, Richardson, Texas 75080 (United States)

2014-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

396

Enhanced oxygen evolution activity of IrO2 and RuO2 (100) surfaces  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The activities of the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) on IrO2 and RuO2 catalysts are among the highest known to date. However, the intrinsic OER activities of surfaces with defined crystallographic orientations are not well established experimentally. Here we report that the (100) surface of IrO2 and RuO2 is more active than the (110) surface that has been traditionally explored by density functional theory studies. The relation between the OER activity and density of coordinatively undersaturated metal sites exposed on each rutile crystallographic facet is discussed. The surface-orientation dependent activities can guide the design of high-surface-area catalysts with increased activity for electrolyzers, metal-air batteries, and photoelectrochemical water splitting applications.

Stoerzinger, Kelsey [Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)] [Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT); Qiao, Liang [ORNL] [ORNL; Biegalski, Michael D [ORNL] [ORNL; Christen, Hans M [ORNL] [ORNL; Shao-Horn, Yang [Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)] [Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

397

Rapid infrared heating of a surface  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

High energy flux infrared heaters are used to treat an object having a surface section and a base section such that a desired characteristic of the surface section is physically, chemically, or phasically changed while the base section remains unchanged.

Sikka, Vinod K.; Blue, Craig A.; Ohriner, Evan Keith

2003-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

398

Rapid infrared heating of a surface  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

High energy flux infrared heaters are used to treat an object having a surface section and a base section such that a desired characteristic of the surface section is physically, chemically, or phasically changed while the base section remains unchanged.

Sikka, Vinod K. (Oak Ridge, TN); Blue, Craig A. (Concord, TN); Ohriner, Evan Keith (Knoxville, TN)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

399

Rapid infrared heating of a surface  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

High energy flux infrared heaters are used to treat an object having a surface section and a base section such that a desired characteristic of the surface section is physically, chemically, or phasically changed while the base section remains unchanged.

Sikka, Vinod K. (Oak Ridge, TN); Blue, Craig A. (Concord, TN); Ohriner, Evan Keith (Knoxville, TN)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

400

Trial Demonstration of Area Lighting Retrofit  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

LED Area Lighting Retrofit: Yuma Border Patrol Along the Yuma Sector Border Patrol Area in Yuma, Arizona, the GATEWAY program conducted a trial demonstration in which the incumbent quartz metal halide area lighting was replaced with LED at three pole locations. The LED system was found to equal or better the incumbent system in terms of both illuminance and uniformity, and an advanced optical system and lower pole height improved the illuminance uniformity, reduced stray light, and increased projected energy and maintenance cost savings. This high luminous flux and high temperature application is not unique and similar applications can benefit from the findings of this installation.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high surface area" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Decontamination & decommissioning focus area  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In January 1994, the US Department of Energy Office of Environmental Management (DOE EM) formally introduced its new approach to managing DOE`s environmental research and technology development activities. The goal of the new approach is to conduct research and development in critical areas of interest to DOE, utilizing the best talent in the Department and in the national science community. To facilitate this solutions-oriented approach, the Office of Science and Technology (EM-50, formerly the Office of Technology Development) formed five Focus AReas to stimulate the required basic research, development, and demonstration efforts to seek new, innovative cleanup methods. In February 1995, EM-50 selected the DOE Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) to lead implementation of one of these Focus Areas: the Decontamination and Decommissioning (D & D) Focus Area.

NONE

1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

402

Geographic Area Month  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Fuels by PAD District and State (Cents per Gallon Excluding Taxes) - Continued Geographic Area Month No. 1 Distillate No. 2 Distillate a No. 4 Fuel b Sales to End Users Sales for...

403

Leaf Area Distribution of Tomato Plants as Influenced by Polyethylene Mulch  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Leaf Area Distribution of Tomato Plants as Influenced by Polyethylene Mulch Surface Color Dennis R of polyethylene (plastic) mulch surface color (white versus black) on leaf area distribution of tomato and soil temperatures. These results suggest that the polyethylene mulch surface color can induce changes

Decoteau, Dennis R.

404

Parametrization-independent elliptic surface grid generation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The generation of computational grids on surfaces of three-dimensional configurations is an important component of many areas of computational research, both as a boundary grid for volume grid generation or to perform ...

Rasmussen, Britt Bille

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

405

An experimental study of nanobubbles on hydrophobic surfaces  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

With the recent development of microfluidic systems, miniaturization of flow devices has become a real challenge. Microchannels, however, are characterized by a large surface area-to-volume ratio so that surface properties ...

Agarwal, Abhinandan

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

406

300 Area Disturbance Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this study was to define areas of previous disturbance in the 300 Area of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site to eliminate these areas from the cultural resource review process, reduce cultural resource monitoring costs, and allow cultural resource specialists to focus on areas where subsurface disturbance is minimal or nonexistent. Research into available sources suggests that impacts from excavations have been significant wherever the following construction activities have occurred: building basements and pits, waste ponds, burial grounds, trenches, installation of subsurface pipelines, power poles, water hydrants, and well construction. Beyond the areas just mentioned, substrates in the' 300 Area consist of a complex, multidimen- sional mosaic composed of undisturbed stratigraphy, backfill, and disturbed sediments; Four Geographic Information System (GIS) maps were created to display known areas of disturbance in the 300 Area. These maps contain information gleaned from a variety of sources, but the primary sources include the Hanford GIS database system, engineer drawings, and historic maps. In addition to these maps, several assumptions can be made about areas of disturbance in the 300 Area as a result of this study: o o Buried pipelines are not always located where they are mapped. As a result, cultural resource monitors or specialists should not depend on maps depicting subsurface pipelines for accurate locations of previous disturbance. Temporary roads built in the early 1940s were placed on layers of sand and gravel 8 to 12 in. thick. Given this information, it is likely that substrates beneath these early roads are only minimally disturbed. Building foundations ranged from concrete slabs no more than 6 to 8 in. thick to deeply excavated pits and basements. Buildings constructed with slab foundations are more numerous than may be expected, and minimally disturbed substrates may be expected in these locations. Historic black and white photographs provide a partial record of some excavations, including trenches, building basements, and material lay-down yards. Estimates of excavation depth and width can be made, but these estimates are not accurate enough to pinpoint the exact location where the disturbedhmdisturbed interface is located (e.g., camera angles were such that depths and/or widths of excavations could not be accurately determined or estimated). In spite of these limitations, these photographs provide essential information. Aerial and historic low-level photographs have captured what appears to be backfill throughout much of the eastern portion of the 300 Area-near the Columbia River shoreline. This layer of fill has likely afforded some protection for the natural landscape buried beneath the fill. This assumption fits nicely with the intermittent and inadvertent discoveries of hearths and stone tools documented through the years in this part of the 300 Area. Conversely, leveling of sand dunes appears to be substantial in the northwestern portion of the 300 Area during the early stages of development. o Project files and engineer drawings do not contain information on any impromptu but necessary adjustments made on the ground during project implementation-after the design phase. Further, many projects are planned and mapped but never implemented-this information is also not often placed in project files. Specific recommendations for a 300 Area cultural resource monitoring strategy are contained in the final section of this document. In general, it is recommended that monitoring continue for all projects located within 400 m of the Columbia River. The 400-m zone is culturally sensitive and likely retains some of the most intact buried substrates in the 300 Area.

LL Hale; MK Wright; NA Cadoret

1999-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

407

areas texas gulf: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

the greatest potential of the Gulf to 2000 ft), which effectively traps most of the air pollution emitted from the surface1 Air Chemistry in the Gulf of Mexico Oil Spill Area...

408

Finding Large Aperture Fractures in Geothermal Resource Areas...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

A Three-Component Long-Offset Surface Seismic Survey, PSInSAR, and Kinematic Analysis Finding Large Aperture Fractures in Geothermal Resource Areas Using A Three-Component...

409

Central Facilities Area Sewage Lagoon Evaluation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Central Facilities Area (CFA), located in Butte County, Idaho, at the Idaho National Laboratory has an existing wastewater system to collect and treat sanitary wastewater and non-contact cooling water from the facility. The existing treatment facility consists of three cells: Cell #1 has a surface area of 1.7 acres, Cell #2 has a surface area of 10.3 acres, and Cell #3 has a surface area of 0.5 acres. If flows exceed the evaporative capacity of the cells, wastewater is discharged to a 73.5-acre land application site that uses a center-pivot irrigation sprinkler system. As flows at CFA have decreased in recent years, the amount of wastewater discharged to the land application site has decreased from 13.64 million gallons in 2004 to no discharge in 2012 and 2013. In addition to the decreasing need for land application, approximately 7.7 MG of supplemental water was added to the system in 2013 to maintain a water level and prevent the clay soil liners in the cells from drying out and “cracking.” The Idaho National Laboratory is concerned that the sewage lagoons and land application site may be oversized for current and future flows. A further concern is the sustainability of the large volumes of supplemental water that are added to the system according to current operational practices. Therefore, this study was initiated to evaluate the system capacity, operational practices, and potential improvement alternatives, as warranted.

Mark R. Cole

2013-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

410

Simultaneous P and B diffusion, in-situ surface passivation, impurity filtering and gettering for high-efficiency silicon solar cells  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A technique is presented to simultaneously diffuse boron and phosphorus in silicon, and grow an in-situ passivating oxide in a single furnace step. It is shown that limited solid doping sources made from P and B Spin-On Dopant (SOD) films can produce optimal n{sup +} and p{sup +} profiles simultaneously without the deleterious effects of cross doping. A high quality passivating oxide is grown in-situ beneath the thin ({approximately} 60 {angstrom}) diffusion glass, resulting in low J{sub o} values below 100 fA/cm{sup 2} for transparent ({approximately} 100 {Omega}/{open_square}) phosphorus and boron diffusions. For the first time it is shown that impurities present in the boron SOD film can be effectively filtered out by employing separate source wafers, resulting in bulk lifetimes in excess of 1 ms for the sample wafers. The degree of lifetime degradation in the sources is related to the gettering efficiency of boron in silicon. This novel simultaneous diffusion, in-situ oxidation, impurity filtering and gettering technique was successfully used to produce 20.3% Fz, and 19.1% Cz solar cells, in one furnace step.

Krygowski, T.; Rohatgi, A. [Georgia Inst. of Tech., Atlanta, GA (United States); Ruby, D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1997-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

411

Interfacial temperature measurements, high-speed visualization and finite-element simulations of droplet impact and evaporation on a solid surface  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The objective of this work is to investigate the coupling of fluid dynamics, heat transfer and mass transfer during the impact and evaporation of droplets on a heated solid substrate. A laser-based thermoreflectance method is used to measure the temperature at the solid-liquid interface, with a time and space resolution of 100 {\\mu}s and 20 {\\mu}m, respectively. Isopropanol droplets with micro- and nanoliter volumes are considered. A finite-element model is used to simulate the transient fluid dynamics and heat transfer during the droplet deposition process, considering the dynamics of wetting as well as Laplace and Marangoni stresses on the liquid-gas boundary. For cases involving evaporation, the diffusion of vapor in the atmosphere is solved numerically, providing an exact boundary condition for the evaporative flux at the droplet-air interface. High-speed visualizations are performed to provide matching parameters for the wetting model used in the simulations. Numerical and experimental results are compar...

Bhardwaj, Rajneesh; Attinger, Daniel

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

412

Weibull Effective Area for Hertzian Ring Crack Initiation Stress  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Spherical or Hertzian indentation is used to characterize and guide the development of engineered ceramics under consideration for diverse applications involving contact, wear, rolling fatigue, and impact. Ring crack initiation can be one important damage mechanism of Hertzian indentation. It is caused by sufficiently-high, surface-located, radial tensile stresses in an annular ring located adjacent to and outside of the Hertzian contact circle. While the maximum radial tensile stress is known to be dependent on the elastic properties of the sphere and target, the diameter of the sphere, the applied compressive force, and the coefficient of friction, the Weibull effective area too will be affected by those parameters. However, the estimations of a maximum radial tensile stress and Weibull effective area are difficult to obtain because the coefficient of friction during Hertzian indentation is complex, likely intractable, and not known a priori. Circumventing this, the Weibull effective area expressions are derived here for the two extremes that bracket all coefficients of friction; namely, (1) the classical, frictionless, Hertzian case where only complete slip occurs, and (2) the case where no slip occurs or where the coefficient of friction is infinite.

Jadaan, Osama M. [University of Wisconsin, Platteville; Wereszczak, Andrew A [ORNL; Johanns, Kurt E [ORNL

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

413

Gold, Copper, and Platinum Nanoparticles Dispersed on CeOx/TiO2(110) Surfaces: High Water-Gas Shift Activity and the Nature of the Mixed-Metal Oxide at the Nanometer Level  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

At small coverages of ceria on TiO{sub 2}(110), the CeO{sub x} nanoparticles have an unusual coordination mode. Scanning tunneling microscopy and density-functional calculations point to the presence of Ce{sub 2}O{sub 3} dimers, which form diagonal arrays that have specific orientations of 0, 24, and 42{sup o} with respect to the [1 -1 0] direction of the titania substrate. At high coverages of ceria on TiO{sub 2}(110), the surface exhibits two types of terraces. In one type, the morphology is not very different from that observed at low ceria coverage. However, in the second type of terrace, there is a compact array of ceria particles with structures that do not match the structures of CeO{sub 2}(111) or CeO{sub 2}(110). The titania substrate imposes on the ceria nanoparticles nontypical coordination modes, enhancing their chemical reactivity. This phenomenon leads to a larger dispersion of supported metal nanoparticles (M = Au, Cu, Pt) and makes possible the direct participation of the oxide in catalytic reactions. The M/CeO{sub x}/TiO{sub 2}(110) surfaces display an extremely high catalytic activity for the water-gas shift reaction that follows the sequence Au/CeO{sub x}/TiO{sub 2}(110) < Cu/CeO{sub x}/TiO{sub 2}(110) < Pt/CeO{sub x}/TiO{sub 2}(110). For low coverages of Cu and CeO{sub x}, Cu/CeO{sub x}/TiO{sub 2}(110) is 8-12 times more active than Cu(111) or Cu/ZnO industrial catalysts. In the M/CeO{sub x}/TiO{sub 2}(110) systems, there is a strong coupling of the chemical properties of the admetal and the mixed-metal oxide: The adsorption and dissociation of water probably take place on the oxide, CO adsorbs on the admetal nanoparticles, and all subsequent reaction steps occur at the oxide-admetal interface. The high catalytic activity of the M/CeO{sub x}/TiO{sub 2}(110) surfaces reflects the unique properties of the mixed-metal oxide at the nanometer level.

Park, J.; Graciani, J; Evans, J; Stacchiola, D; Senanayake, S; Barrio, L; Liu, P; Fdez. Sanz, J; Hrbek, J; Rodriguez, J

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

414

Gold, Copper and Platinum Nanoparticles Dispersed on CeOx/TiO2(110) Surfaces: High Water-Gas Shift Activity and the Nature of the Mixed-Metal Oxide at the Nanometer Level  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

At small coverages of ceria on TiO{sub 2}(110), the CeO{sub x} nanoparticles have an unusual coordination mode. Scanning tunneling microscopy and density-functional calculations point to the presence of Ce{sub 2}O{sub 3} dimers, which form diagonal arrays that have specific orientations of 0, 24, and 42{sup o} with respect to the [1 -1 0] direction of the titania substrate. At high coverages of ceria on TiO{sub 2}(110), the surface exhibits two types of terraces. In one type, the morphology is not very different from that observed at low ceria coverage. However, in the second type of terrace, there is a compact array of ceria particles with structures that do not match the structures of CeO{sub 2}(111) or CeO{sub 2}(110). The titania substrate imposes on the ceria nanoparticles nontypical coordination modes, enhancing their chemical reactivity. This phenomenon leads to a larger dispersion of supported metal nanoparticles (M = Au, Cu, Pt) and makes possible the direct participation of the oxide in catalytic reactions. The M/CeO{sub x}/TiO{sub 2}(110) surfaces display an extremely high catalytic activity for the water-gas shift reaction that follows the sequence Au/CeO{sub x}/TiO{sub 2}(110) < Cu/CeO{sub x}/TiO{sub 2}(110) < Pt/CeO{sub x}/TiO{sub 2}(110). For low coverages of Cu and CeO{sub x}, Cu/CeO{sub x}/TiO{sub 2}(110) is 8-12 times more active than Cu(111) or Cu/ZnO industrial catalysts. In the M/CeO{sub x}/TiO{sub 2}(110) systems, there is a strong coupling of the chemical properties of the admetal and the mixed-metal oxide: The adsorption and dissociation of water probably take place on the oxide, CO adsorbs on the admetal nanoparticles, and all subsequent reaction steps occur at the oxide-admetal interface. The high catalytic activity of the M/CeO{sub x}/TiO{sub 2}(110) surfaces reflects the unique properties of the mixed-metal oxide at the nanometer level.

Rodriguez, J.A.; Park, J.B.; Graciani, J.; Evans, J.; Stacchiola, D.; Senanayake, S.D.; Barrio, L.; Liu, P.; Sanz, J.F.; Hrbek, J.

2010-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

415

area index lai: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Derived Leaf Area Index over the High-Latitude Northern Hemisphere. Part II: Earth System Models CiteSeer Summary: Abstract: Leaf Area Index (LAI) is a key parameter in the...

416

area part ii: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Derived Leaf Area Index over the High-Latitude Northern Hemisphere. Part II: Earth System Models CiteSeer Summary: Abstract: Leaf Area Index (LAI) is a key parameter in the...

417

OLED area illumination source  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention relates to an area illumination light source comprising a plurality of individual OLED panels. The individual OLED panels are configured in a physically modular fashion. Each OLED panel comprising a plurality of OLED devices. Each OLED panel comprises a first electrode and a second electrode such that the power being supplied to each individual OLED panel may be varied independently. A power supply unit capable of delivering varying levels of voltage simultaneously to the first and second electrodes of each of the individual OLED panels is also provided. The area illumination light source also comprises a mount within which the OLED panels are arrayed.

Foust, Donald Franklin (Scotia, NY); Duggal, Anil Raj (Niskayuna, NY); Shiang, Joseph John (Niskayuna, NY); Nealon, William Francis (Gloversville, NY); Bortscheller, Jacob Charles (Clifton Park, NY)

2008-03-25T23:59:59.000Z

418

Mapping the energy and diffusion landscapes of membrane proteins at the cell surface using high-density single-molecule imaging and Bayesian inference: application to the multi-scale dynamics of glycine receptors in the neuronal membrane  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Protein mobility is conventionally analyzed in terms of an effective diffusion. Yet, this description often fails to properly distinguish and evaluate the physical parameters (such as the membrane friction) and the biochemical interactions governing the motion. Here, we present a method combining high-density single-molecule imaging and statistical inference to separately map the diffusion and energy landscapes of membrane proteins across the cell surface at ~100 nm resolution (with acquisition of a few minutes). When applying these analytical tools to glycine neurotransmitter receptors (GlyRs) at inhibitory synapses, we find that gephyrin scaffolds act as shallow energy traps (~3 kBT) for GlyRs, with a depth modulated by the biochemical properties of the receptor-gephyrin interaction loop. In turn, the inferred maps can be used to simulate the dynamics of proteins in the membrane, from the level of individual receptors to that of the population, and thereby, to model the stochastic fluctuations of physiologi...

Masson, Jean-Baptiste; Salvatico, Charlotte; Renner, Marianne; Specht, Christian G; Triller, Antoine; Dahan, Maxime

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

419

Mechanical and tribological properties of ion beam-processed surfaces  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The intent of this work was to broaden the applications of well-established surface modification techniques and to elucidate the various wear mechanisms that occur in sliding contact of ion-beam processed surfaces. The investigation included characterization and evaluation of coatings and modified surfaces synthesized by three surface engineering methods; namely, beam-line ion implantation, plasma-source ion implantation, and DC magnetron sputtering. Correlation among measured properties such as surface hardness, fracture toughness, and wear behavior was also examined. This dissertation focused on the following areas of research: (1) investigating the mechanical and tribological properties of mixed implantation of carbon and nitrogen into single crystal silicon by beam-line implantation; (2) characterizing the mechanical and tribological properties of diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings processed by plasma source ion implantation; and (3) developing and evaluating metastable boron-carbon-nitrogen (BCN) compound coatings for mechanical and tribological properties. The surface hardness of a mixed carbon-nitrogen implant sample improved significantly compared to the unimplanted sample. However, the enhancement in the wear factor of this sample was found to be less significant than carbon-implanted samples. The presence of nitrogen might be responsible for the degraded wear behavior since nitrogen-implantation alone resulted in no improvement in the wear factor. DLC coatings have low friction, low wear factor, and high hardness. The fracture toughness of DLC coatings has been estimated for the first time. The wear mechanism in DLC coatings investigated with a ruby slider under a contact stress of 1 GPa was determined to be plastic deformation. The preliminary data on metastable BCN compound coatings indicated high friction, low wear factor, and high hardness.

Kodali, P.

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

420

MEASUREMENT OF BUILDING AREAS MEASUREMENT OF BUILDING AREAS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

) Common Use Areas All floored areas in the building for circulation and standard facilities provided and the like. These are extracts of NWPC standard method of measurement of building areas with an addition fromSection S ANNEXURE 4 MEASUREMENT OF BUILDING AREAS MEASUREMENT OF BUILDING AREAS 1. GROSS BUILDING

Wang, Yan

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high surface area" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Subsurface contaminants focus area  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The US Department of Enregy (DOE) Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area is developing technologies to address environmental problems associated with hazardous and radioactive contaminants in soil and groundwater that exist throughout the DOE complex, including radionuclides, heavy metals; and dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs). More than 5,700 known DOE groundwater plumes have contaminated over 600 billion gallons of water and 200 million cubic meters of soil. Migration of these plumes threatens local and regional water sources, and in some cases has already adversely impacted off-site rsources. In addition, the Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area is responsible for supplying technologies for the remediation of numerous landfills at DOE facilities. These landfills are estimated to contain over 3 million cubic meters of radioactive and hazardous buried Technology developed within this specialty area will provide efective methods to contain contaminant plumes and new or alternative technologies for development of in situ technologies to minimize waste disposal costs and potential worker exposure by treating plumes in place. While addressing contaminant plumes emanating from DOE landfills, the Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area is also working to develop new or alternative technologies for the in situ stabilization, and nonintrusive characterization of these disposal sites.

NONE

1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

422

MSL ENTERANCE REFERENCE AREA  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

MSL ENTERANCE LOBBY ELEV STAIRS SSL-019 REFERENCE AREA SSL-021 GROUP STUDY SSL-018 STUDY ROOM SSL-029 SSL-020 COPY ROOM SSL-022 GROUP STUDY SSL-026 STACKS SSL-023 GROUP STUDY SSL-024 GROUP STUDY SSL TBL-014 TBL-014A STAIRS SSL-007 GIS/ WORKROOM SSL-011 SSL-008 SSL-009 SSL-010 SSL-014 SSL-017 STAIRS

Aalberts, Daniel P.

423

Plutonium focus area  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

To ensure research and development programs focus on the most pressing environmental restoration and waste management problems at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the Assistant Secretary for the Office of Environmental Management (EM) established a working group in August 1993 to implement a new approach to research and technology development. As part of this new approach, EM developed a management structure and principles that led to the creation of specific Focus Areas. These organizations were designed to focus the scientific and technical talent throughout DOE and the national scientific community on the major environmental restoration and waste management problems facing DOE. The Focus Area approach provides the framework for intersite cooperation and leveraging of resources on common problems. After the original establishment of five major Focus Areas within the Office of Technology Development (EM-50, now called the Office of Science and Technology), the Nuclear Materials Stabilization Task Group (EM-66) followed the structure already in place in EM-50 and chartered the Plutonium Focus Area (PFA). The following information outlines the scope and mission of the EM, EM-60, and EM-66 organizations as related to the PFA organizational structure.

NONE

1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

424

Enhanced heat transfer surface for cast-in-bump-covered cooling surfaces and methods of enhancing heat transfer  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An annular turbine shroud separates a hot gas path from a cooling plenum containing a cooling medium. Bumps are cast in the surface on the cooling side of the shroud. A surface coating overlies the cooling side surface of the shroud, including the bumps, and contains cooling enhancement material. The surface area ratio of the cooling side of the shroud with the bumps and coating is in excess of a surface area ratio of the cooling side surface with bumps without the coating to afford increased heat transfer across the element relative to the heat transfer across the element without the coating.

Chiu, Rong-Shi Paul (Glenmont, NY); Hasz, Wayne Charles (Pownal, VT); Johnson, Robert Alan (Simpsonville, SC); Lee, Ching-Pang (Cincinnati, OH); Abuaf, Nesim (Lincoln City, OR)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

425

DOE Designates Southwest Area and Mid-Atlantic Area National...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Interest Electric Transmission Corridors DOE Designates Southwest Area and Mid-Atlantic Area National Interest Electric Transmission Corridors October 2, 2007 - 11:12am Addthis...

426

Polymer surface treatment with particle beams  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A polymer surface and near surface treatment process produced by irradiation with high energy particle beams. The process is preferably implemented with pulsed ion beams. The process alters the chemical and mechanical properties of the polymer surface in a manner useful for a wide range of commercial applications.

Stinnett, Regan W. (1033 Tramway La. NE., Albuquerque, NM 87122); VanDevender, J. Pace (7604 Lamplighter NE., Albuquerque, NM 87109)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

427

Polymer surface treatment with particle beams  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A polymer surface and near surface treatment process produced by irradiation with high energy particle beams is disclosed. The process is preferably implemented with pulsed ion beams. The process alters the chemical and mechanical properties of the polymer surface in a manner useful for a wide range of commercial applications. 16 figs.

Stinnett, R.W.; VanDevender, J.P.

1999-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

428

Options for Affordable Fission Surface Power Systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Fission surface power systems could provide abundant power anywhere on the surface of the moon or Mars. Locations could include permanently shaded regions on the moon and high latitudes on Mars. To be fully utilized, however, fission surface power systems must be safe, have adequate performance, and be affordable. This paper discusses options for the design and development of such systems. (authors)

Houts, Mike; Gaddis, Steve; Porter, Ron; Van Dyke, Melissa; Martin, Jim; Godfroy, Tom; Bragg-Sitton, Shannon; Garber, Anne; Pearson, Boise [NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, VP31, MSFC, AL 35812 (United States)

2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

429

agricultural area central: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Carbon sequestration 1. Introduction Management of agricultural soils affects many inventories of potential non-point pollution source areas and regions with high carbon...

430

areas lixiviacion estatica: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

populations. It is part of a network of AHEC organiza- tions Collins, Gary S. 25 tight environment high radiation area Physics Websites Summary: , no active electronics ...

431

areas sob influencia: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

populations. It is part of a network of AHEC organiza- tions Collins, Gary S. 45 tight environment high radiation area Physics Websites Summary: , no active electronics ...

432

area sila massif: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

populations. It is part of a network of AHEC organiza- tions Collins, Gary S. 92 tight environment high radiation area Physics Websites Summary: , no active electronics ...

433

area iwate prefecture: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

populations. It is part of a network of AHEC organiza- tions Collins, Gary S. 33 tight environment high radiation area Physics Websites Summary: , no active electronics ...

434

adultos mayores area: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

populations. It is part of a network of AHEC organiza- tions Collins, Gary S. 68 tight environment high radiation area Physics Websites Summary: , no active electronics ...

435

area otsenka dinamiki: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

populations. It is part of a network of AHEC organiza- tions Collins, Gary S. 25 tight environment high radiation area Physics Websites Summary: , no active electronics ...

436

area induces hyperactivity: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

populations. It is part of a network of AHEC organiza- tions Collins, Gary S. 149 tight environment high radiation area Physics Websites Summary: , no active electronics ...

437

area valles caldera: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

populations. It is part of a network of AHEC organiza- tions Collins, Gary S. 148 tight environment high radiation area Physics Websites Summary: , no active electronics ...

438

area sob influencia: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

populations. It is part of a network of AHEC organiza- tions Collins, Gary S. 45 tight environment high radiation area Physics Websites Summary: , no active electronics ...

439

area sebaran logam: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

populations. It is part of a network of AHEC organiza- tions Collins, Gary S. 25 tight environment high radiation area Physics Websites Summary: , no active electronics ...

440

area gifu prefecture: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

populations. It is part of a network of AHEC organiza- tions Collins, Gary S. 33 tight environment high radiation area Physics Websites Summary: , no active electronics ...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high surface area" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

area degradada pela: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

populations. It is part of a network of AHEC organiza- tions Collins, Gary S. 38 tight environment high radiation area Physics Websites Summary: , no active electronics ...

442

Acoustic microscope surface inspection system and method  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An acoustic microscope surface inspection system and method are described in which pulses of high frequency electrical energy are applied to a transducer which forms and focuses acoustic energy onto a selected location on the surface of an object and receives energy from the location and generates electrical pulses. The phase of the high frequency electrical signal pulses are stepped with respect to the phase of a reference signal at said location. An output signal is generated which is indicative of the surface of said selected location. The object is scanned to provide output signals representative of the surface at a plurality of surface locations. 7 figures.

Khuri-Yakub, B.T.; Parent, P.; Reinholdtsen, P.A.

1991-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

443

Sliding contact at plastically graded surfaces and applications to surface design  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Tailored gradation in elastic-plastic properties is known to offer avenues for suppressing surface damage during normal indentation and sliding contact. These graded materials have potential applications in diverse areas ...

Prasad, Anamika, 1979-

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

444

Onset of surface superconductivity  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We examine the onset of superconductivity in the surface region of a metal. Surface effects are particularly important in systems with a short bulk coherence length {xi}{sub 0}. We show that, to the accuracy of the calculation, the surface transition temperature {ital T}{sub {ital c}{ital S}} equals the bulk transition temperature {ital T}{sub {ital c}{ital B}} if the electron-electron interaction is of the standard BCS form, i.e., a single attractive square well, extending up to some critical energy {omega}{sub 0} much smaller than the Fermi energy {var epsilon}{sub {ital F}}. If one takes into account, in addition, the repulsive part of the interaction extending beyond {omega}{sub 0} up to energies of order {var epsilon}{sub {ital F}}, then one may have {ital T}{sub {ital c}{ital S}}{gt}{ital T}{sub {ital c}{ital B}} in certain cases, although, due to restrictions imposed on the parameter values by various physical conditions, the relative increase of {ital T}{sub {ital c}} is very small, typically 10{sup {minus}3}, at least in the weak coupling limit. However, we also find a considerable gap enhancement, of order 20%, near the surface which could be of interest for critical-current measurements. Therefore we suggest an experimental reexamination of systems with short {xi}{sub 0}, i.e., superconducting degenerate semiconductors and the new high-{ital T}{sub {ital c}} oxides in confined geometries where the surface-to-volume ratio is non-negligible.

Giamarchi, T.; Beal-Monod, M.T. (Laboratoire de Physique des Solides, Universite Paris-Sud 91405 Orsay, (France)); Valls, O.T. (Laboratoire de Physique des Solides, Universite Paris-Sud, 91405 Orsay, (France) Center for the Science and Application of Superconductivity, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455 (USA))

1990-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

445

E-Print Network 3.0 - amazonian endemic area Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

endemic area Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 Amazonian biodiversity: assessing conservation priorities with taxonomic data Summary: analyzed with GIS to identify areas of high...

446

Surface Energy,Surface Energy, Surface Tension & Shape of CrystalsSurface Tension & Shape of Crystals  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Surface Energy,Surface Energy, Surface Tension & Shape of CrystalsSurface Tension & Shape of shapes of crystals are important: (i) growth shape and (ii) equilibrium shape Surface/interface energy surfaces. The joining of two phases creates an interface. (Two orientations of the same crystalline phase

Subramaniam, Anandh

447

Scientific and Natural Areas (Minnesota)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Certain scientific and natural areas are established throughout the state for the purpose of preservation and protection. Construction and new development is prohibited in these areas.

448

Surface Power Radiative Cooling Tests  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Terrestrial nuclear power plants typically maintain their temperature through convective cooling, such as water and forced air. However, the space environment is a vacuum environment, typically 10-8 Torr pressure, therefore in proposed missions to the lunar surface, power plants would have to rely on radiative cooling to remove waste heat. Also, the Martian surface has a very tenuous atmosphere (e.g. {approx}5 Torr CO2), therefore, the main heat transfer method on the Martian surface is also radiative. Because of the lack of atmosphere on the Moon and the tenuous atmosphere on Mars, surface power systems on both the Lunar and Martian surface must rely heavily on radiative heat transfer. Because of the large temperature swings on both the lunar and the Martian surfaces, trying to radiate heat is inefficient. In order to increase power system efficiency, an effort is underway to test various combinations of materials with high emissivities to demonstrate their ability to survive these degrading atmospheres to maintain a constant radiator temperature improving surface power plant efficiency. An important part of this effort is the development of a unique capability that would allow the determination of a materials emissivity at high temperatures. A description of the test capability as well as initial data is presented.

Vaughn, Jason; Schneider, Todd [Environmental Effects Branch, EM50, NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, AL 35812 (United States)

2006-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

449

Factors affecting phytoplankton distribution and production in the Elephant Island area, Antarctica  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

During the austral summer of four years, 1990 to 1993, studies on phytoplankton were performed in the Elephant Island area as one component of the US Antarctica Marine Living Resources program. In addition to continuous measurements (temperature, salinity, chlorophyll-a, beam attenuation) made on ship's intake water, a profiling CTD-rosette unit was used to obtain water column characteristics (temperature, salinity, chlorophyll-a, attenuation of solar radiation, beam attenuation) from the surface to 750m depth and also water samples from at least 10 depths for chemical and biological analyses. The sampling grid consisted of an average of 70 stations, all of which were occupied two times each year. The Elephant Island area is a transition zone between the rich coastal areas, where phytoplankton can develop dense blooms, and pelagic waters where the phytoplankton biomass is in general very low. A frontal zone was usually found to the north of Elephant Island and over the continental slope, and high phytoplankton biomass was in general associated with this frontal region. Although the location of this frontal system showed seasonal movement in a north-south direction, it seems to be a consistent feature from year to year. There seems to be considerable year-to-year variability in physical (water temperatures and salinity) and phytoplankton characteristics within the study area, in regard to both distributional patterns in surface waters and to profile characteristics in the upper 100m of the water column. With shallow upper mixed layer depths of less than 50 m, phytoplankton can attain relatively high concentrations. Optimum light conditions for growth occurred when the mixed layer was less than 55% of the euphotic zone. As the area around Elephant Island is characterized by relatively strong and frequent winds, the depth of the upper mixed layer at many stations approached the depth of the euphotic zone, with the result that growth of phytoplankton was light limited.

Helbling, E.W.

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

450

WESTERN AREA POWER ADMINISTRATION  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear SecurityTensile Strain Switched Ferromagnetism inS-4500IIVasudhaSurface.Laboratory in Golden, Colorado |NewReview,SNR

451

Inner Area Principles  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation ProposedUsingFunInfrared Land Surface Emissivity in the

452

Material Disposal Areas  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: VegetationEquipment Surfaces andMapping the Nanoscale LandscapeImports 5.90 4.86 4.77

453

ELECTRICAL AREA CONTROLLED ACCESS PROCEDURE SP-18 Revision 01  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ELECTRICAL AREA CONTROLLED ACCESS PROCEDURE SP-18 Page 1 Revision 01 April 17, 2007 NATIONAL HIGH ______________________________________________________ ASSOCIATE DIRECTOR for MANAGEMENT & ADMINISTRATION Brian Fairhurst #12;ELECTRICAL AREA CONTROLLED ACCESS TITLE: ELECTRICAL AREA CONTROLLED ACCESS PROCEDURE 1.0 PURPOSE 1.1 This document establishes policy

Weston, Ken

454

Market Implications of Synergism Between Low Drag Area and Electric  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

compared, Drag Area per unit vehicle mass dropped consistently from the EPRI 2001 base case vs. 3 HEVs the UDDS, Highway, and US06 Cycles. The 2001 EPRI Base Case Had a High Drag Area. Prius/Volt-like Drag Areas (EPRI Low Load & MIT) Improved 48 MPH "per Mile" Results Significantly 7 #12;Absolute Savings per

455

DETERMINATION OF IMPORTANCE EVALUATION FOR THE SURFACE EXPLORATORY STUDIES FACILITY  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This DIE applies to the surface facilities component of the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (W) ESF. The ESF complex-including surface and subsurface accommodations--encompasses an area that is approximately six miles wide and nine miles long (approximately 30,000 acres total) (United States Department of Energy [DOE] 1997, p. 9.04). It is located on federally withdrawn lands, near the southwest border of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) in southern Nevada (DOE 1997, p. 9.04). Site characterization activities are conducted within the subsurface ESF to obtain the information necessary to determine whether the Yucca Mountain Site is suitable as a geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. Most ESF surface facilities are located within the Conceptual Controlled Area Boundary (CCAB) (DOE 1997, p. 9.04), with the exception of the southeastern most portions of the H-Road and the Water Supply System. Various SBT activities are also conducted throughout the Yucca Mountain region as a part of the overall site-characterization effort. In general, the DIE for SBT Activities (Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System [CRWMS] Management and Operating Contractor [M&O] 1998a) evaluates activities associated with SBT. Potential test-to-test interference and waste isolation impacts associated with SBT activities are also evaluated in CRWMS M&O (1998a).

C.J. Byrne

2000-07-25T23:59:59.000Z

456

Western Area Power Administration  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear SecurityTensile Strain Switched FerromagnetismWaste and MaterialsWenjun Deng Associate ResearchWestern Area Power

457

700 Area - Hanford Site  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary)morphinanInformation Desert SouthwestTechnologies |November 2011 Mon, Next2025Steps to MakingImportance of700 Area

458

CEES - Focus Areas  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary)morphinanInformation InInformationCenterResearchCASL Symposium: Celebrating the Past - VisualizingFocus Areas

459

100 Area - Hanford Site  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary)morphinanInformation Desert SouthwestTechnologies | BlandinePrincetonOPT Optics MetrologyDepartment of00 Area

460

In the Target Area  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

5 22 | Next | Last Back to Index NIF Target Chamber This view from the bottom of the chamber shows the target positioner being inserted. Pulses from NIF's high-powered lasers...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high surface area" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Polyaniline modified graphene and carbon nanotube composite electrode for asymmetric supercapacitors of high energy density  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The excellent performance of the assembled super- capacitors is also discussed and it is attributed to (i) effective utilization of the large surface area vehicles (HEV), there have been increasing demands of high-performance energy storage devices. Super

Qin, Lu-Chang

462

Strategies for Detecting Hidden Geothermal Systems by Near-Surface Gas Monitoring  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

''Hidden'' geothermal systems are those systems above which hydrothermal surface features (e.g., hot springs, fumaroles, elevated ground temperatures, hydrothermal alteration) are lacking. Emissions of moderate to low solubility gases (e.g., CO2, CH4, He) may be one of the primary near-surface signals from these systems. Detection of anomalous gas emissions related to hidden geothermal systems may therefore be an important tool to discover new geothermal resources. This study investigates the potential for CO2 detection and monitoring in the subsurface and above ground in the near-surface environment to serve as a tool to discover hidden geothermal systems. We focus the investigation on CO2 due to (1) its abundance in geothermal systems, (2) its moderate solubility in water, and (3) the wide range of technologies available to monitor CO2 in the near-surface environment. However, monitoring in the near-surface environment for CO2 derived from hidden geothermal reservoirs is complicated by the large variation in CO2 fluxes and concentrations arising from natural biological and hydrologic processes. In the near-surface environment, the flow and transport of CO2 at high concentrations will be controlled by its high density, low viscosity, and high solubility in water relative to air. Numerical simulations of CO2 migration show that CO2 concentrations can reach very high levels in the shallow subsurface even for relatively low geothermal source CO2 fluxes. However, once CO2 seeps out of the ground into the atmospheric surface layer, surface winds are effective at dispersing CO2 seepage. In natural ecological systems in the absence of geothermal gas emissions, near-surface CO2 fluxes and concentrations are primarily controlled by CO2 uptake by photosynthesis, production by root respiration, and microbial decomposition of soil/subsoil organic matter, groundwater degassing, and exchange with the atmosphere. Available technologies for monitoring CO2 in the near-surface environment include (1) the infrared gas analyzer (IRGA) for measurement of concentrations at point locations, (2) the accumulation chamber (AC) method for measuring soil CO2 fluxes at point locations, (3) the eddy covariance (EC) method for measuring net CO2 flux over a given area, (4) hyperspectral imaging of vegetative stress resulting from elevated CO2 concentrations, and (5) light detection and ranging (LIDAR) that can measure CO2 concentrations over an integrated path. Technologies currently in developmental stages that have the potential to be used for CO2 monitoring include tunable lasers for long distance integrated concentration measurements and micro-electronic mechanical systems (MEMS) that can make widespread point measurements. To address the challenge of detecting potentially small-magnitude geothermal CO2 emissions within the natural background variability of CO2, we propose an approach that integrates available detection and monitoring methodologies with statistical analysis and modeling strategies. Within the area targeted for geothermal exploration, point measurements of soil CO2 fluxes and concentrations using the AC method and a portable IRGA, respectively, and measurements of net surface flux using EC should be made. Also, the natural spatial and temporal variability of surface CO2 fluxes and subsurface CO2 concentrations should be quantified within a background area with similar geologic, climatic, and ecosystem characteristics to the area targeted for geothermal exploration. Statistical analyses of data collected from both areas should be used to guide sampling strategy, discern spatial patterns that may be indicative of geothermal CO2 emissions, and assess the presence (or absence) of geothermal CO2 within the natural background variability with a desired confidence level. Once measured CO2 concentrations and fluxes have been determined to be of anomalous geothermal origin with high confidence, more expensive vertical subsurface gas sampling and chemical and isotopic analyses can be undertaken. Integrated analysis of all measurements will d

Lewicki, Jennifer L.; Oldenburg, Curtis M.

2004-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

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Fate of Magnesium Chloride Brine Applied to Suppress Dust from Unpaved Roads at the INEEL Subsurface Disposal Area  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Between 1984 and 1993, MgCl2 brine was used to suppress dust on unpaved roads at a radioactive waste subsurface disposal area. Because Cl– might enhance corrosion of buried metals in the waste, we investigated the distribution and fate of Cl– in the vadose zone using pore water samples collected from suction lysimeters and soluble salt concentrations extracted from sediment samples. The Cl/Br mass ratio and the total dissolved Cl– concentration of pore water show that brine contamination occurs primarily within 13 m of treated roads, but can extend as much as 30 m laterally in near-